Malignant neoplasm arising from the epithelium of the BRONCHI. It represents a large group of epithelial lung malignancies which can be divided into two clinical groups: SMALL CELL LUNG CANCER and NON-SMALL-CELL LUNG CARCINOMA.
A malignant neoplasm made up of epithelial cells tending to infiltrate the surrounding tissues and give rise to metastases. It is a histological type of neoplasm but is often wrongly used as a synonym for "cancer." (From Dorland, 27th ed)
Cysts of one of the parts of the mediastinum: the superior part, containing the trachea, esophagus, thoracic duct and thymus organs; the inferior middle part, containing the pericardium; the inferior anterior part containing some lymph nodes; and the inferior posterior part, containing the thoracic duct and esophagus.
Tumors or cancer of the LUNG.
A carcinoma derived from stratified SQUAMOUS EPITHELIAL CELLS. It may also occur in sites where glandular or columnar epithelium is normally present. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
Any fluid-filled closed cavity or sac (CYSTS) that is lined by an EPITHELIUM and found in the ESOPHAGUS region.
A primary malignant neoplasm of epithelial liver cells. It ranges from a well-differentiated tumor with EPITHELIAL CELLS indistinguishable from normal HEPATOCYTES to a poorly differentiated neoplasm. The cells may be uniform or markedly pleomorphic, or form GIANT CELLS. Several classification schemes have been suggested.
Tumors or cancer of the BRONCHI.
An anaplastic, highly malignant, and usually bronchogenic carcinoma composed of small ovoid cells with scanty neoplasm. It is characterized by a dominant, deeply basophilic nucleus, and absent or indistinct nucleoli. (From Stedman, 25th ed; Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1286-7)
A developmental anomaly in which a mass of nonfunctioning lung tissue lacks normal connection with the tracheobroncheal tree and receives an anomalous blood supply originating from the descending thoracic or abdominal aorta. The mass may be extralobar, i.e., completely separated from normally connected lung, or intralobar, i.e., partly surrounded by normal lung.
The excision of lung tissue including partial or total lung lobectomy.
Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.
X-ray visualization of the chest and organs of the thoracic cavity. It is not restricted to visualization of the lungs.
Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the bronchi.
Saccular protrusion beyond the wall of the ESOPHAGUS.
Hormones released from neoplasms or from other cells that are not the usual sources of hormones.
A lesion with cytological characteristics associated with invasive carcinoma but the tumor cells are confined to the epithelium of origin, without invasion of the basement membrane.
A malignant epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.
Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the pleural cavity.
Surgical incision into the chest wall.
Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the anterior superior mediastinum of the thorax.
Symmetrical osteitis of the four limbs, chiefly localized to the phalanges and the terminal epiphyses of the long bones of the forearm and leg, sometimes extending to the proximal ends of the limbs and the flat bones, and accompanied by dorsal kyphosis and joint involvement. It is often secondary to chronic conditions of the lungs and heart. (Dorland, 27th ed)
A malignant neoplasm characterized by the formation of numerous, irregular, finger-like projections of fibrous stroma that is covered with a surface layer of neoplastic epithelial cells. (Stedman, 25th ed)
A tumor of undifferentiated (anaplastic) cells of large size. It is usually bronchogenic. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
The larger air passages of the lungs arising from the terminal bifurcation of the TRACHEA. They include the largest two primary bronchi which branch out into secondary bronchi, and tertiary bronchi which extend into BRONCHIOLES and PULMONARY ALVEOLI.
Surgery performed on the lung.
The thin membrane-like muscular structure separating the right and the left upper chambers (HEART ATRIA) of a heart.
Presence of pus in a hollow organ or body cavity.
Tracheal neoplasms are abnormal growths or tumors that develop within the trachea, which can be benign or malignant, and have the potential to obstruct the airway and impair respiratory function.
A condition of HYPONATREMIA and renal salt loss attributed to overexpansion of BODY FLUIDS resulting from sustained release of ANTIDIURETIC HORMONES which stimulates renal resorption of water. It is characterized by normal KIDNEY function, high urine OSMOLALITY, low serum osmolality, and neurological dysfunction. Etiologies include ADH-producing neoplasms, injuries or diseases involving the HYPOTHALAMUS, the PITUITARY GLAND, and the LUNG. This syndrome can also be drug-induced.
Tumors or cancer of the LIVER.
Methods and procedures for the diagnosis of disease or dysfunction by examination of the pathological site or operative field during surgical intervention.
An invasive (infiltrating) CARCINOMA of the mammary ductal system (MAMMARY GLANDS) in the human BREAST.
A malignant skin neoplasm that seldom metastasizes but has potentialities for local invasion and destruction. Clinically it is divided into types: nodular, cicatricial, morphaic, and erythematoid (pagetoid). They develop on hair-bearing skin, most commonly on sun-exposed areas. Approximately 85% are found on the head and neck area and the remaining 15% on the trunk and limbs. (From DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1471)
Syndromes resulting from inappropriate production of HORMONES or hormone-like materials by NEOPLASMS in non-endocrine tissues or not by the usual ENDOCRINE GLANDS. Such hormone outputs are called ectopic hormone (HORMONES, ECTOPIC) secretion.
Death resulting from the presence of a disease in an individual, as shown by a single case report or a limited number of patients. This should be differentiated from DEATH, the physiological cessation of life and from MORTALITY, an epidemiological or statistical concept.
Methods which attempt to express in replicable terms the extent of the neoplasm in the patient.
Pathological processes involving any part of the LUNG.
An area occupying the most posterior aspect of the ABDOMINAL CAVITY. It is bounded laterally by the borders of the quadratus lumborum muscles and extends from the DIAPHRAGM to the brim of the true PELVIS, where it continues as the pelvic extraperitoneal space.
Form of radioimmunoassay in which excess specific labeled antibody is added directly to the test antigen being measured.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.
A malignant neoplasm derived from TRANSITIONAL EPITHELIAL CELLS, occurring chiefly in the URINARY BLADDER; URETERS; or RENAL PELVIS.
A usually spherical cyst, arising as an embryonic out-pouching of the foregut or trachea. It is generally found in the mediastinum or lung and is usually asymptomatic unless it becomes infected.
Endoscopic surgery of the pleural cavity performed with visualization via video transmission.
A membrane in the midline of the THORAX of mammals. It separates the lungs between the STERNUM in front and the VERTEBRAL COLUMN behind. It also surrounds the HEART, TRACHEA, ESOPHAGUS, THYMUS, and LYMPH NODES.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
A noninvasive (noninfiltrating) carcinoma of the breast characterized by a proliferation of malignant epithelial cells confined to the mammary ducts or lobules, without light-microscopy evidence of invasion through the basement membrane into the surrounding stroma.
Carcinoma characterized by bands or cylinders of hyalinized or mucinous stroma separating or surrounded by nests or cords of small epithelial cells. When the cylinders occur within masses of epithelial cells, they give the tissue a perforated, sievelike, or cribriform appearance. Such tumors occur in the mammary glands, the mucous glands of the upper and lower respiratory tract, and the salivary glands. They are malignant but slow-growing, and tend to spread locally via the nerves. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Tumors of bone tissue or synovial or other soft tissue characterized by the presence of giant cells. The most common are giant cell tumor of tendon sheath and GIANT CELL TUMOR OF BONE.
A bone tumor composed of cellular spindle-cell stroma containing scattered multinucleated giant cells resembling osteoclasts. The tumors range from benign to frankly malignant lesions. The tumor occurs most frequently in an end of a long tubular bone in young adults. (From Dorland, 27th ed; Stedman, 25th ed)
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
A heterogeneous aggregate of at least three distinct histological types of lung cancer, including SQUAMOUS CELL CARCINOMA; ADENOCARCINOMA; and LARGE CELL CARCINOMA. They are dealt with collectively because of their shared treatment strategy.
A systemic autoimmune disorder that typically affects medium and large ARTERIES, usually leading to occlusive granulomatous vasculitis with transmural infiltrate containing multinucleated GIANT CELLS. The TEMPORAL ARTERY is commonly involved. This disorder appears primarily in people over the age of 50. Symptoms include FEVER; FATIGUE; HEADACHE; visual impairment; pain in the jaw and tongue; and aggravation of pain by cold temperatures. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed)

Bronchial carcinoma in patients with pre-existing unilateral lung disease. (1/348)

Forty-six cases of primary bronchogenic carcinoma occurring in patients with other unilateral pleuropulmonary diseases were studied. In 37 cases (80-4%) carcinoma developed in the previously healthy lung. All but one squamous-cell carcinoma and all of five undifferentiated small-cell carcinomas developed in the previously healthy lung while 7 of 15 adenocarcinomas were in the lung with impaired ventilation. It is suggested that the bronchial epithelium of the healthy lung is more exposed to exogenous carcinogens than that of the diseased, underventilated lung, resulting in a higher risk of development of squamous-cell and undifferentiated small-cell carcinoma.  (+info)

Genetic alterations in bronchial lavage as a potential marker for individuals with a high risk of developing lung cancer. (2/348)

Using 12 microsatellite markers, we have studied DNAs from the bronchial lavage of 90 individuals who were referred to an early-lung-cancer clinic in the Northwest of England with suspected lung cancer. Genetic alterations were detected in 15 (35%) of 43 patients with lung cancer but also in 11 (23%) of 47 patients with no cytological or radiological evidence of bronchial neoplasia. No significant differences were found between the referring symptoms in any of the second group of individuals with and without genetic alterations. No correlation was found between smoking exposure and loss of heterozygosity (LOH)/microsatellite alterations (MAs) in the microsatellite markers. On comparing LOH with MAs based on cytology review, we found that the prevalent type of alteration in specimens with cytological evidence of malignancy was LOH; in contrast, the individuals with no cytological evidence of malignancy showed a preponderance of MAs (P = 0.01). Our results indicate that a substantial proportion of cells in the bronchial lavage from suspected lung cancer patients carry identifiable genetic alterations. However, the presence of genetic alterations in the bronchial lavage of individuals with no clinical evidence of lung cancer raises the question whether instability is a phenomenon solely associated with cancer or represents a feature of nonneoplastic diseases. Our results suggest that microsatellite PCR-based assays can be developed as tools for the earlier identification of genetic changes in cells exfoliating in the bronchus.  (+info)

Pulmonary malignancies in the immunocompromised patient. (3/348)

Clinicians should be familiar with immunodeficiency-related malignancies, as their incidence is expected to increase further with the rise in the number and survival of immunocompromised patients. The most common malignancies affecting the lungs in those patients are Kaposi's sarcoma, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and, to a far less extent, Hodgkin's disease and bronchogenic carcinoma. However, their relative frequency depends on the types of immune deficiency, including those due to congenital disorders, AIDS and drug treatments. This review will summarize epidemiological data on the frequency of immmunodeficiency-related malignancies, recent advances on their pathogenesis and current approaches to their diagnosis and treatment in the various immunosuppressed groups.  (+info)

Influence of age on operative mortality and long-term survival after lung resection for bronchogenic carcinoma. (4/348)

The proportion of elderly patients presenting with bronchogenic carcinoma is increasing. To study the impact of age on clinical presentation, management and outcome of patients, the authors have reviewed their clinical experience over the last 20 yrs. Between 1977 and 1996, 1,079 patients underwent thoracotomy for primary lung carcinoma in the authors' institution. Patients were grouped by age at the time of surgery as <60 yrs, 60-69 yrs and > or =70 yrs. Although the mode of clinical presentation was similar between all age groups, patients <60 yrs were more prone to have advanced stage carcinoma at the time of diagnosis. The rates of exploratory thoracotomy and pneumonectomy were higher in patients <70 yrs, whereas lobectomies and lesser resections largely predominated in patients > or =70 yrs. The mortality rate following lobectomy and lesser resection increased from 1.3% in patients <60 yrs to 5.5% in patients > or =60 yrs (p=0.04) and the mortality rate following pneumonectomy increased from 6.5% in patients <60 yrs to 13.7% in patients > or =70 yrs (p=0.24). The specific long-term survival, which included only the patients who died from primary lung carcinoma, was similar in all age groups. Operative mortality and survival rates are acceptable in patients > or =70 yrs. Therefore, age in itself should not constitute a contraindication to surgical lung resection for primary lung carcinoma as long as a careful preoperative assessment is performed to appropriately select surgical candidates.  (+info)

Clinical correlation of hepatic flow studies. (5/348)

In 100 consecutive hepatic flow studies, 84 were read as negative. Of these, 73 (87%) also had negative static images. Knowing the nature of the primary tumor did not definitively aid in predicting whether hepatic meastases would have detectable early flow. Five cases showed early flow without defects seen in the static images. Three of these were probably related to lymphomas or allied disorders with altered flow. Two cases were in individuals with gastric carcinoma who had abdoninal radiation. One extrahepatic tumor was detected in the series.  (+info)

Psoriatic arthritis complicating lung cancer. (6/348)

Psoriatic arthritis is an inflammatory arthritis associated with psoriasis. While an elevated incidence of lung cancer has been observed in patients with RA or psoriasis, there has been no report of psoriatic arthritis associated with lung cancer. We here report the first case of psoriatic arthritis which developed lung cancer. In this case, it was suspected that a combination of cigarette smoking, pulmonary fibrosis, and low-dose methotrexate therapy might have promoted the development of lung cancer.  (+info)

Normal bronchial epithelial cell expression of glutathione transferase P1, glutathione transferase M3, and glutathione peroxidase is low in subjects with bronchogenic carcinoma. (7/348)

Normal bronchial epithelial cells (NBECs) are at risk for damage from inhaled and endogenous oxidative species and from epoxide metabolites of inhaled polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Epidemiological and in vitro data suggest that interindividual variation in this risk may result from variation in NBEC expression of enzymes that inactivate reactive species by conjugating them to glutathione. Quantitative competitive reverse transcription-PCR was used to measure mRNA levels of glutathione transferases (GSTs) and glutathione peroxidases (GSHPxs) in primary NBECs from subjects with or without bronchogenic carcinoma. Mean expression levels (mRNA/10(3) beta-actin mRNA) in NBECs from 23 subjects without bronchogenic carcinoma compared to those from 11 subjects with bronchogenic carcinoma respectively (in parentheses) were: mGST (26.0, 6.11), GSTM3 (0.29, 0.09), combined GSTM1,2,4,5 (0.98, 0.60), GSTT1 (0.84, 0.76), GSTP1 (287, 110), GSHPx (140, 62.1), and GSHPxA (0.43, 0.34). Levels of GSTP1, GSTM3, and GSHPx were significantly (P < 0.05) lower in NBECs from subjects with bronchogenic carcinoma. Further, the gene expression index formed by multiplying the values for mGST x GSTM3 x GSHPx x GSHPxA x GSTP1 had a sensitivity (90%) and specificity (76%) for detecting NBECs from bronchogenic carcinoma subjects that was better than any individual gene. In cultured NBECs derived from eight individuals without bronchogenic carcinoma and incubated under identical conditions such that environmental effects were minimized, the mean level of expression and degree of interindividual variation for each gene evaluated was less than that observed in primary NBECs. Data from these studies support the hypotheses that (a) interindividual variation in risk for bronchogenic carcinoma results in part from interindividual variation in NBEC expression of antioxidant genes; (b) gene expression indices will better identify individuals at risk for bronchogenic carcinoma than individual gene expression values; and (c) both hereditary and environmental exposures contribute to the level of and interindividual variation in gene expression observed in primary NBECs. Many epidemiological studies have been designed to evaluate risk associated with polymorphisms or gene expression levels of putative susceptibility genes based on measurements in surrogate tissues, such as peripheral blood lymphocytes. Based on data presented here, it will be important to include the assessment of NBECs in future studies. Measurement of antioxidant gene expression in NBECs may identify the 5-10% of individuals at risk for bronchogenic carcinoma. Bronchoscopic sampling of NBECs from smokers and ex-smokers then will allow susceptible individuals to be entered into surveillance and/or chemoprevention studies.  (+info)

Four decades of surgery for bronchogenic carcinoma in one centre. (8/348)

Since the authors' initial experience in the surgical management of bronchogenic carcinoma in 1956, more than 40 years have passed. The purpose of this report was to review the authors' data and compare the results by decade (1956-1966; 1967-1976; 1977-1986; and 1987-1996) in order to assess the changing patterns in bronchogenic carcinoma. A total of 1,597 thoracotomies have been performed. Between the first and last decades of the study, patients' mean age increased from 57 to 63 yrs, the ratio of males to females decreased from 19:1 to 3:1 and the proportion of adenocarcinoma cases increased from 10 to 34%. The operative mortality decreased from 10% in 1967- 1976 to 4% in 1987-1996 and the overall 5-yr survival improved from 27 to 36% during the same period. The rate of lobectomy progressively increased from 32% in 1956-1966 to 61% in 1987-1996, whereas that of pneumonectomy and exploratory thoracotomy decreased from 42 to 28% and from 20 to 4%, respectively. Changing patterns of patient characteristics, histology and type of surgery were associated with a constant improvement in the overall 5-yr survival. This improvement was particularly evident among patients with advanced-stage carcinoma.  (+info)

Carcinoma, bronchogenic is a medical term that refers to a type of lung cancer that originates in the bronchi, which are the branching tubes that carry air into the lungs. It is the most common form of lung cancer and can be further classified into different types based on the specific cell type involved, such as squamous cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma, or large cell carcinoma.

Bronchogenic carcinomas are often associated with smoking and exposure to environmental pollutants, although they can also occur in non-smokers. Symptoms may include coughing, chest pain, shortness of breath, wheezing, hoarseness, or unexplained weight loss. Treatment options depend on the stage and location of the cancer, as well as the patient's overall health and may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, targeted therapy, or a combination of these approaches.

Carcinoma is a type of cancer that develops from epithelial cells, which are the cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body. These cells cover organs, glands, and other structures within the body. Carcinomas can occur in various parts of the body, including the skin, lungs, breasts, prostate, colon, and pancreas. They are often characterized by the uncontrolled growth and division of abnormal cells that can invade surrounding tissues and spread to other parts of the body through a process called metastasis. Carcinomas can be further classified based on their appearance under a microscope, such as adenocarcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and basal cell carcinoma.

A mediastinal cyst is a rare, abnormal fluid-filled sac located in the mediastinum, which is the central part of the chest cavity that separates the lungs and contains various organs such as the heart, esophagus, trachea, thymus gland, and lymph nodes. Mediastinal cysts can be congenital (present at birth) or acquired (develop later in life). They are usually asymptomatic but can cause symptoms depending on their size and location. Symptoms may include chest pain, cough, difficulty breathing, or swallowing. Treatment typically involves surgical removal of the cyst to prevent complications such as infection, bleeding, or pressure on surrounding structures.

Lung neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors in the lung tissue. These tumors can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Malignant lung neoplasms are further classified into two main types: small cell lung carcinoma and non-small cell lung carcinoma. Lung neoplasms can cause symptoms such as cough, chest pain, shortness of breath, and weight loss. They are often caused by smoking or exposure to secondhand smoke, but can also occur due to genetic factors, radiation exposure, and other environmental carcinogens. Early detection and treatment of lung neoplasms is crucial for improving outcomes and survival rates.

Squamous cell carcinoma is a type of skin cancer that begins in the squamous cells, which are flat, thin cells that form the outer layer of the skin (epidermis). It commonly occurs on sun-exposed areas such as the face, ears, lips, and backs of the hands. Squamous cell carcinoma can also develop in other areas of the body including the mouth, lungs, and cervix.

This type of cancer usually develops slowly and may appear as a rough or scaly patch of skin, a red, firm nodule, or a sore or ulcer that doesn't heal. While squamous cell carcinoma is not as aggressive as some other types of cancer, it can metastasize (spread) to other parts of the body if left untreated, making early detection and treatment important.

Risk factors for developing squamous cell carcinoma include prolonged exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation from the sun or tanning beds, fair skin, a history of sunburns, a weakened immune system, and older age. Prevention measures include protecting your skin from the sun by wearing protective clothing, using a broad-spectrum sunscreen with an SPF of at least 30, avoiding tanning beds, and getting regular skin examinations.

An esophageal cyst is a rare, abnormal growth that forms in the wall of the esophagus, which is the muscular tube that connects the throat to the stomach. These cysts are typically filled with fluid and can vary in size. They are usually congenital, meaning they are present at birth and develop as a result of abnormal embryonic development.

Esophageal cysts are typically asymptomatic and may not cause any problems until they become large enough to compress nearby structures, such as the trachea or other parts of the digestive system. In some cases, esophageal cysts may cause difficulty swallowing, coughing, or breathing.

Diagnosis of an esophageal cyst is typically made through imaging tests, such as a CT scan or MRI, which can help to visualize the cyst and determine its size and location. Treatment usually involves surgical removal of the cyst, which is typically performed using minimally invasive techniques such as endoscopy or thoracoscopy.

It's important to note that while I strive to provide accurate information, my responses should not be used as a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis or treatment. If you have any concerns about your health, it is always best to consult with a healthcare provider.

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common type of primary liver cancer in adults. It originates from the hepatocytes, which are the main functional cells of the liver. This type of cancer is often associated with chronic liver diseases such as cirrhosis caused by hepatitis B or C virus infection, alcohol abuse, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), and aflatoxin exposure.

The symptoms of HCC can vary but may include unexplained weight loss, lack of appetite, abdominal pain or swelling, jaundice, and fatigue. The diagnosis of HCC typically involves imaging tests such as ultrasound, CT scan, or MRI, as well as blood tests to measure alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) levels. Treatment options for Hepatocellular carcinoma depend on the stage and extent of the cancer, as well as the patient's overall health and liver function. Treatment options may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, targeted therapy, or liver transplantation.

Bronchial neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors in the bronchi, which are the large airways that lead into the lungs. These neoplasms can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Malignant bronchial neoplasms are often referred to as lung cancer and can be further classified into small cell lung cancer and non-small cell lung cancer, depending on the type of cells involved.

Benign bronchial neoplasms are less common than malignant ones and may include growths such as papillomas, hamartomas, or chondromas. While benign neoplasms are not cancerous, they can still cause symptoms and complications if they grow large enough to obstruct the airways or if they become infected.

Treatment for bronchial neoplasms depends on several factors, including the type, size, location, and stage of the tumor, as well as the patient's overall health and medical history. Treatment options may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or a combination of these approaches.

Carcinoma, small cell is a type of lung cancer that typically starts in the bronchi (the airways that lead to the lungs). It is called "small cell" because the cancer cells are small and appear round or oval in shape. This type of lung cancer is also sometimes referred to as "oat cell carcinoma" due to the distinctive appearance of the cells, which can resemble oats when viewed under a microscope.

Small cell carcinoma is a particularly aggressive form of lung cancer that tends to spread quickly to other parts of the body. It is strongly associated with smoking and is less common than non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), which accounts for about 85% of all lung cancers.

Like other types of lung cancer, small cell carcinoma may not cause any symptoms in its early stages. However, as the tumor grows and spreads, it can cause a variety of symptoms, including coughing, chest pain, shortness of breath, hoarseness, and weight loss. Treatment for small cell carcinoma typically involves a combination of chemotherapy, radiation therapy, and sometimes surgery.

Bronchopulmonary sequestration is a rare birth defect of the lungs, in which a mass of abnormal lung tissue develops that doesn't function and isn't connected to the tracheobronchial tree (the airways that lead to the lungs). This means that the abnormal tissue receives its blood supply from an anomalous systemic artery instead of the normal pulmonary circulation. The mass may be located within the lung (intralobar sequestration) or outside the lung (extralobar sequestration), and it can occur on either side of the chest.

Intralobar sequestrations are more common than extralobar sequestrations, accounting for about 75% of cases. They are usually found in adults and are located within a normal lung tissue. Extralobar sequestrations, on the other hand, are typically detected earlier in life (often as an incidental finding during prenatal ultrasound) and are surrounded by their own pleural lining, which can make them appear separate from the normal lung tissue.

Symptoms of bronchopulmonary sequestration may include recurrent respiratory infections, coughing up blood (hemoptysis), shortness of breath, or chest pain. Treatment usually involves surgical removal of the abnormal tissue to prevent complications such as infection, bleeding, or the development of malignancy.

A pneumonectomy is a surgical procedure in which an entire lung is removed. This type of surgery is typically performed as a treatment for certain types of lung cancer, although it may also be used to treat other conditions such as severe damage or infection in the lung that does not respond to other treatments. The surgery requires general anesthesia and can be quite complex, with potential risks including bleeding, infection, pneumonia, and air leaks. Recovery from a pneumonectomy can take several weeks, and patients may require ongoing rehabilitation to regain strength and mobility.

X-ray computed tomography (CT or CAT scan) is a medical imaging method that uses computer-processed combinations of many X-ray images taken from different angles to produce cross-sectional (tomographic) images (virtual "slices") of the body. These cross-sectional images can then be used to display detailed internal views of organs, bones, and soft tissues in the body.

The term "computed tomography" is used instead of "CT scan" or "CAT scan" because the machines take a series of X-ray measurements from different angles around the body and then use a computer to process these data to create detailed images of internal structures within the body.

CT scanning is a noninvasive, painless medical test that helps physicians diagnose and treat medical conditions. CT imaging provides detailed information about many types of tissue including lung, bone, soft tissue and blood vessels. CT examinations can be performed on every part of the body for a variety of reasons including diagnosis, surgical planning, and monitoring of therapeutic responses.

In computed tomography (CT), an X-ray source and detector rotate around the patient, measuring the X-ray attenuation at many different angles. A computer uses this data to construct a cross-sectional image by the process of reconstruction. This technique is called "tomography". The term "computed" refers to the use of a computer to reconstruct the images.

CT has become an important tool in medical imaging and diagnosis, allowing radiologists and other physicians to view detailed internal images of the body. It can help identify many different medical conditions including cancer, heart disease, lung nodules, liver tumors, and internal injuries from trauma. CT is also commonly used for guiding biopsies and other minimally invasive procedures.

In summary, X-ray computed tomography (CT or CAT scan) is a medical imaging technique that uses computer-processed combinations of many X-ray images taken from different angles to produce cross-sectional images of the body. It provides detailed internal views of organs, bones, and soft tissues in the body, allowing physicians to diagnose and treat medical conditions.

Thoracic radiography is a type of diagnostic imaging that involves using X-rays to produce images of the chest, including the lungs, heart, bronchi, great vessels, and the bones of the spine and chest wall. It is a commonly used tool in the diagnosis and management of various respiratory, cardiovascular, and thoracic disorders such as pneumonia, lung cancer, heart failure, and rib fractures.

During the procedure, the patient is positioned between an X-ray machine and a cassette containing a film or digital detector. The X-ray beam is directed at the chest, and the resulting image is captured on the film or detector. The images produced can help identify any abnormalities in the structure or function of the organs within the chest.

Thoracic radiography may be performed as a routine screening test for certain conditions, such as lung cancer, or it may be ordered when a patient presents with symptoms suggestive of a respiratory or cardiovascular disorder. It is a safe and non-invasive procedure that can provide valuable information to help guide clinical decision making and improve patient outcomes.

Bronchoscopy is a medical procedure that involves the examination of the inside of the airways and lungs with a flexible or rigid tube called a bronchoscope. This procedure allows healthcare professionals to directly visualize the airways, take tissue samples for biopsy, and remove foreign objects or secretions. Bronchoscopy can be used to diagnose and manage various respiratory conditions such as lung infections, inflammation, cancer, and bleeding. It is usually performed under local or general anesthesia to minimize discomfort and risks associated with the procedure.

An esophageal diverticulum is a small pouch or sac that forms as a result of a protrusion or herniation of the inner lining (mucosa) of the esophagus through the outer layer of muscle in the wall of the esophagus. Esophageal diverticula can occur in any part of the esophagus, but they are most commonly found in the lower third of the esophagus, near the junction with the stomach.

Esophageal diverticula may be congenital (present at birth) or acquired (develop later in life). Acquired esophageal diverticula are often associated with underlying conditions such as esophageal motility disorders, strictures, or tumors that increase the pressure inside the esophagus and cause the mucosa to bulge out through weakened areas of the esophageal wall.

Symptoms of esophageal diverticula may include difficulty swallowing (dysphagia), regurgitation of undigested food, chest pain, heartburn, and recurrent respiratory infections due to aspiration of food or saliva into the lungs. Treatment options for esophageal diverticula depend on the size and location of the diverticulum, as well as the presence of any underlying conditions. Small asymptomatic diverticula may not require treatment, while larger symptomatic diverticula may be treated with surgical removal or endoscopic repair.

Ectopic hormone production refers to the situation when a hormone is produced in an unusual location or by a type of cell that does not typically produce it. This can occur due to various reasons such as genetic mutations, cancer, or other medical conditions. The ectopic hormone production can lead to hormonal imbalances and related symptoms, as the regulation of hormones in the body becomes disrupted.

For example, in some cases of lung cancer, the tumor cells may produce adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), which is typically produced by the pituitary gland. This ectopic ACTH production can result in Cushing's syndrome, a condition characterized by symptoms such as weight gain, muscle weakness, and high blood pressure.

It's important to note that ectopic hormone production is relatively rare and usually occurs in the context of specific medical conditions. If you suspect that you or someone else may have ectopic hormone production, it's important to seek medical attention from a healthcare professional who can provide appropriate evaluation and treatment.

Carcinoma in situ is a medical term used to describe the earliest stage of cancer, specifically a type of cancer that begins in the epithelial tissue, which is the tissue that lines the outer surfaces of organs and body structures. In this stage, the cancer cells are confined to the layer of cells where they first developed and have not spread beyond that layer into the surrounding tissues or organs.

Carcinoma in situ can occur in various parts of the body, including the skin, cervix, breast, lung, prostate, bladder, and other areas. It is often detected through routine screening tests, such as Pap smears for cervical cancer or mammograms for breast cancer.

While carcinoma in situ is not invasive, it can still be a serious condition because it has the potential to develop into an invasive cancer if left untreated. Treatment options for carcinoma in situ may include surgery, radiation therapy, or other forms of treatment, depending on the location and type of cancer. It is important to consult with a healthcare provider to determine the best course of action for each individual case.

Adenocarcinoma is a type of cancer that arises from glandular epithelial cells. These cells line the inside of many internal organs, including the breasts, prostate, colon, and lungs. Adenocarcinomas can occur in any of these organs, as well as in other locations where glands are present.

The term "adenocarcinoma" is used to describe a cancer that has features of glandular tissue, such as mucus-secreting cells or cells that produce hormones. These cancers often form glandular structures within the tumor mass and may produce mucus or other substances.

Adenocarcinomas are typically slow-growing and tend to spread (metastasize) to other parts of the body through the lymphatic system or bloodstream. They can be treated with surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, targeted therapy, or a combination of these treatments. The prognosis for adenocarcinoma depends on several factors, including the location and stage of the cancer, as well as the patient's overall health and age.

Thoracoscopy is a surgical procedure in which a thoracoscope, a type of endoscope, is inserted through a small incision between the ribs to examine the lungs and pleural space (the space surrounding the lungs). It allows the surgeon to directly view the chest cavity, take biopsies, and perform various operations. This procedure is often used in the diagnosis and treatment of pleural effusions, lung cancer, and other chest conditions.

Thoracotomy is a surgical procedure that involves making an incision on the chest wall to gain access to the thoracic cavity, which contains the lungs, heart, esophagus, trachea, and other vital organs. The incision can be made on the side (lateral thoracotomy), back (posterolateral thoracotomy), or front (median sternotomy) of the chest wall, depending on the specific surgical indication.

Thoracotomy is performed for various indications, including lung biopsy, lung resection, esophagectomy, heart surgery, and mediastinal mass removal. The procedure allows the surgeon to directly visualize and access the organs within the thoracic cavity, perform necessary procedures, and control bleeding if needed.

After the procedure, the incision is typically closed with sutures or staples, and a chest tube may be placed to drain any accumulated fluid or air from the pleural space around the lungs. The patient will require postoperative care and monitoring in a hospital setting until their condition stabilizes.

Mediastinoscopy is a surgical procedure in which a tubular instrument called mediastinoscope is inserted through a small incision made at the base of the neck, typically in the suprasternal notch. This procedure allows the medical professional to examine the mediastinum, which is the area within the chest between the lungs, containing the heart, trachea, esophagus, and other vital structures. The examination can help identify any abnormalities, such as tumors or inflammation, and in some cases, biopsies of suspicious tissues may be taken for further analysis. Mediastinoscopy is typically performed under general anesthesia in a hospital setting.

Secondary hyertrophic osteoarthropathy, also known as secondary musculoskeletal hypertrophy or Pierre Marie-Bamberger syndrome, is a condition characterized by the proliferation of new bone formation (osteophytes) and thickening of the bones (hyertrophy) in the joints, typically affecting the hands and feet. This condition is a reactive process that occurs as a secondary response to an underlying medical disorder, most commonly chronic hypoxia or ischemia due to conditions such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), cyanotic congenital heart disease, or malignancy.

The exact pathophysiology of this condition is not fully understood, but it is thought to be related to the release of growth factors and cytokines in response to the underlying medical disorder. The clinical manifestations of secondary hyertrophic osteoarthropathy include joint pain, swelling, stiffness, and limited range of motion, as well as characteristic radiographic findings such as periostitis, bone resorption, and new bone formation.

Treatment of this condition involves addressing the underlying medical disorder and providing supportive care for the musculoskeletal symptoms. This may include pain management, physical therapy, and orthopedic interventions as needed.

Carcinoma, papillary is a type of cancer that begins in the cells that line the glandular structures or the lining of organs. In a papillary carcinoma, the cancerous cells grow and form small finger-like projections, called papillae, within the tumor. This type of cancer most commonly occurs in the thyroid gland, but can also be found in other organs such as the lung, breast, and kidney. Papillary carcinoma of the thyroid gland is usually slow-growing and has a good prognosis, especially when it is diagnosed at an early stage.

Carcinoma, large cell is a type of lung cancer that is characterized by the presence of large, abnormal-looking cells when viewed under a microscope. These cells have a large nucleus and a significant amount of cytoplasm. This type of lung cancer can be further divided into subtypes based on the appearance of the cells and the presence or absence of specific genetic mutations.

Large cell carcinoma is often aggressive and tends to grow and spread quickly. It is typically treated with a combination of surgery, chemotherapy, and/or radiation therapy. The prognosis for large cell carcinoma varies depending on the stage at diagnosis and the individual's overall health.

"Bronchi" are a pair of airways in the respiratory system that branch off from the trachea (windpipe) and lead to the lungs. They are responsible for delivering oxygen-rich air to the lungs and removing carbon dioxide during exhalation. The right bronchus is slightly larger and more vertical than the left, and they further divide into smaller branches called bronchioles within the lungs. Any abnormalities or diseases affecting the bronchi can impact lung function and overall respiratory health.

Pulmonary surgical procedures refer to the operations that are performed on the lungs and the surrounding structures, typically to treat or diagnose various respiratory conditions. These procedures can range from minimally invasive techniques to more complex surgeries, depending on the nature and severity of the condition. Here are some examples of pulmonary surgical procedures:

1. Thoracotomy: This is an open surgical procedure where a surgeon makes a large incision in the chest wall to access the lungs. It's typically used to remove lung tumors, repair damaged lung tissue, or perform a lobectomy (removal of a lobe of the lung).
2. Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS): This is a minimally invasive procedure where a surgeon makes several small incisions in the chest wall and uses a camera and special instruments to perform the operation. VATS can be used for lung biopsies, lobectomies, and other procedures.
3. Lung biopsy: This is a procedure where a small piece of lung tissue is removed and examined under a microscope to diagnose various conditions such as infections, interstitial lung diseases, or cancer. A biopsy can be performed through a thoracotomy, VATS, or bronchoscopy (a procedure that involves inserting a thin tube with a camera into the airways).
4. Bullectomy: This is a procedure where a surgeon removes large air-filled sacs in the lungs called bullae, which can cause shortness of breath and other symptoms.
5. Lung transplant: This is a complex surgical procedure where a diseased lung is removed and replaced with a healthy one from a donor. It's typically performed on patients with end-stage lung disease such as cystic fibrosis or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).
6. Pleurodesis: This is a procedure where the space between the lungs and chest wall is irritated to prevent fluid from accumulating in that space, which can cause shortness of breath and other symptoms. It's typically performed on patients with recurrent pleural effusions (fluid buildup in the pleural space).

These are just a few examples of the many procedures that can be performed to treat various lung conditions.

The atrial septum is the wall of tissue that divides the right and left atria, which are the upper chambers of the heart. This septum ensures that oxygen-rich blood in the left atrium is kept separate from oxygen-poor blood in the right atrium. Defects or abnormalities in the atrial septum, such as a hole or a gap, can result in various heart conditions, including septal defects and congenital heart diseases.

Empyema is a medical condition characterized by the accumulation of pus in a body cavity, most commonly in the pleural space surrounding the lungs. It is usually caused by a bacterial infection that spreads from the lung tissue to the pleural space. The buildup of pus can cause chest pain, cough, fever, and difficulty breathing. Empyema can be a complication of pneumonia or other respiratory infections, and it may require treatment with antibiotics, drainage of the pus, and sometimes surgery.

Tracheal neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors in the trachea, which is the windpipe that carries air from the nose and throat to the lungs. These growths can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Malignant tracheal neoplasms are relatively rare and can be primary (originating in the trachea) or secondary (spreading from another part of the body, such as lung cancer). Primary tracheal cancers can be squamous cell carcinoma, adenoid cystic carcinoma, mucoepidermoid carcinoma, or sarcomas. Symptoms may include cough, difficulty breathing, wheezing, or chest pain. Treatment options depend on the type, size, and location of the neoplasm and can include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or a combination of these approaches.

Inappropriate Antidiuretic Hormone (ADH) Syndrome, also known as the Syndrome of Inappropriate Antidiuresis (SIAD), is a condition characterized by the excessive release or action of antidiuretic hormone (ADH) leading to an imbalance of water and electrolytes in the body.

ADH is a hormone produced by the pituitary gland that helps regulate water balance in the body by controlling the amount of urine produced by the kidneys. In normal conditions, ADH levels increase in response to dehydration or decreased blood volume, causing the kidneys to retain water and decrease urine output.

However, in Inappropriate ADH Syndrome, there is an overproduction or inappropriate release of ADH, even when the body does not need it. This can lead to a condition called hyponatremia, which is low sodium levels in the blood. Hyponatremia can cause symptoms such as headache, confusion, seizures, and in severe cases, coma or death.

Inappropriate ADH Syndrome can be caused by various factors, including certain medications, brain tumors, lung diseases, and other medical conditions that affect the production or release of ADH. It is important to diagnose and treat Inappropriate ADH Syndrome promptly to prevent serious complications from hyponatremia. Treatment typically involves addressing the underlying cause and adjusting fluid intake and electrolyte levels as needed.

Liver neoplasms refer to abnormal growths in the liver that can be benign or malignant. Benign liver neoplasms are non-cancerous tumors that do not spread to other parts of the body, while malignant liver neoplasms are cancerous tumors that can invade and destroy surrounding tissue and spread to other organs.

Liver neoplasms can be primary, meaning they originate in the liver, or secondary, meaning they have metastasized (spread) to the liver from another part of the body. Primary liver neoplasms can be further classified into different types based on their cell of origin and behavior, including hepatocellular carcinoma, cholangiocarcinoma, and hepatic hemangioma.

The diagnosis of liver neoplasms typically involves a combination of imaging studies, such as ultrasound, CT scan, or MRI, and biopsy to confirm the type and stage of the tumor. Treatment options depend on the type and extent of the neoplasm and may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or liver transplantation.

Diagnostic techniques, surgical refers to the use of surgical procedures or methods to diagnose and evaluate various medical conditions. These techniques are often used when non-invasive tests are inconclusive or when more detailed information is required. Here are some examples:

1. Biopsy: A small sample of tissue is removed from the body for examination under a microscope. This can help to confirm a diagnosis of cancer, infection, or other diseases.
2. Endoscopy: A flexible tube with a light and camera on the end is inserted into the body through a natural opening (such as the mouth or anus) or a small incision. This allows the doctor to visualize internal organs and tissues, and may also involve taking biopsy samples.
3. Imaging studies: Various imaging techniques such as X-rays, CT scans, MRI scans, and ultrasound can be used to produce detailed images of internal structures. These can help to diagnose a wide range of medical conditions, from broken bones to tumors.
4. Exploratory surgery: In some cases, a surgical incision may be made to directly visualize and examine an organ or tissue. This can help to diagnose conditions that are difficult to detect with non-invasive tests.
5. Functional testing: Some surgical techniques involve stimulating or measuring the function of an organ or system. For example, a cardiac stress test may be performed during surgery to assess heart function.

Overall, diagnostic techniques, surgical play an important role in the diagnosis and management of many medical conditions. They can provide valuable information that helps doctors to make informed decisions about treatment options and improve patient outcomes.

Carcinoma, ductal, breast is a type of breast cancer that begins in the milk ducts (the tubes that carry milk from the lobules of the breast to the nipple). It is called "ductal" because it starts in the cells that line the milk ducts. Ductal carcinoma can be further classified as either non-invasive or invasive, based on whether the cancer cells are confined to the ducts or have spread beyond them into the surrounding breast tissue.

Non-invasive ductal carcinoma (also known as intraductal carcinoma or ductal carcinoma in situ) is a condition where abnormal cells have been found in the lining of the milk ducts, but they have not spread outside of the ducts. These cells have the potential to become invasive and spread to other parts of the breast or body if left untreated.

Invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) is a type of breast cancer that starts in a milk duct and then grows into the surrounding breast tissue. From there, it can spread to other parts of the body through the bloodstream and lymphatic system. IDC is the most common form of breast cancer, accounting for about 80% of all cases.

Symptoms of ductal carcinoma may include a lump or thickening in the breast, changes in the size or shape of the breast, dimpling or puckering of the skin on the breast, nipple discharge (especially if it is clear or bloody), and/or redness or scaling of the nipple or breast skin. However, many cases of ductal carcinoma are detected through mammography before any symptoms develop.

Treatment for ductal carcinoma depends on several factors, including the stage and grade of the cancer, as well as the patient's overall health and personal preferences. Treatment options may include surgery (such as a lumpectomy or mastectomy), radiation therapy, chemotherapy, hormone therapy, and/or targeted therapies.

Carcinoma, basal cell is a type of skin cancer that arises from the basal cells, which are located in the lower part of the epidermis (the outermost layer of the skin). It is also known as basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and is the most common form of skin cancer.

BCC typically appears as a small, shiny, pearly bump or nodule on the skin, often in sun-exposed areas such as the face, ears, neck, hands, and arms. It may also appear as a scar-like area that is white, yellow, or waxy. BCCs are usually slow growing and rarely spread (metastasize) to other parts of the body. However, they can be locally invasive and destroy surrounding tissue if left untreated.

The exact cause of BCC is not known, but it is thought to be related to a combination of genetic and environmental factors, including exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation from the sun or tanning beds. People with fair skin, light hair, and blue or green eyes are at increased risk of developing BCC.

Treatment for BCC typically involves surgical removal of the tumor, along with a margin of healthy tissue. Other treatment options may include radiation therapy, topical chemotherapy, or photodynamic therapy. Prevention measures include protecting your skin from UV radiation by wearing protective clothing, using sunscreen, and avoiding tanning beds.

Paraneoplastic endocrine syndromes refer to a group of hormonal and related disorders that occur as remote effects of cancer. They are caused by substances (like hormones, peptides, or antibodies) produced by the tumor, which may be benign or malignant, and can affect various organs and systems in the body. These syndromes can occur before the cancer is diagnosed, making them an important consideration for early detection and treatment of the underlying malignancy.

Examples of paraneoplastic endocrine syndromes include:

1. Syndrome of Inappropriate Antidiuretic Hormone (SIADH): This occurs when a tumor, often small cell lung cancer, produces antidiuretic hormone (ADH), leading to excessive water retention and low sodium levels in the blood.
2. Cushing's Syndrome: Excessive production of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) by a tumor, often a small cell lung cancer or pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor, can lead to increased cortisol levels and symptoms such as weight gain, muscle weakness, and mood changes.
3. Ectopic Production of Parathyroid Hormone-Related Peptide (PTHrP): This occurs when a tumor, often a squamous cell carcinoma, produces PTHrP, leading to increased calcium levels in the blood and symptoms such as bone pain, kidney stones, and confusion.
4. Hypercalcemia of Malignancy: Excessive production of calcitriol (active vitamin D) by a tumor, often a lymphoma or myeloma, can lead to increased calcium levels in the blood and symptoms such as bone pain, kidney stones, and confusion.
5. Carcinoid Syndrome: This occurs when a neuroendocrine tumor, often in the gastrointestinal tract, produces serotonin and other substances, leading to symptoms such as flushing, diarrhea, and heart problems.

It is important to note that these syndromes can also be caused by non-cancerous conditions, so a thorough evaluation is necessary to make an accurate diagnosis.

A fatal outcome is a term used in medical context to describe a situation where a disease, injury, or illness results in the death of an individual. It is the most severe and unfortunate possible outcome of any medical condition, and is often used as a measure of the severity and prognosis of various diseases and injuries. In clinical trials and research, fatal outcome may be used as an endpoint to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of different treatments or interventions.

Neoplasm staging is a systematic process used in medicine to describe the extent of spread of a cancer, including the size and location of the original (primary) tumor and whether it has metastasized (spread) to other parts of the body. The most widely accepted system for this purpose is the TNM classification system developed by the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) and the Union for International Cancer Control (UICC).

In this system, T stands for tumor, and it describes the size and extent of the primary tumor. N stands for nodes, and it indicates whether the cancer has spread to nearby lymph nodes. M stands for metastasis, and it shows whether the cancer has spread to distant parts of the body.

Each letter is followed by a number that provides more details about the extent of the disease. For example, a T1N0M0 cancer means that the primary tumor is small and has not spread to nearby lymph nodes or distant sites. The higher the numbers, the more advanced the cancer.

Staging helps doctors determine the most appropriate treatment for each patient and estimate the patient's prognosis. It is an essential tool for communication among members of the healthcare team and for comparing outcomes of treatments in clinical trials.

Lung diseases refer to a broad category of disorders that affect the lungs and other structures within the respiratory system. These diseases can impair lung function, leading to symptoms such as coughing, shortness of breath, chest pain, and wheezing. They can be categorized into several types based on the underlying cause and nature of the disease process. Some common examples include:

1. Obstructive lung diseases: These are characterized by narrowing or blockage of the airways, making it difficult to breathe out. Examples include chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), asthma, bronchiectasis, and cystic fibrosis.
2. Restrictive lung diseases: These involve stiffening or scarring of the lungs, which reduces their ability to expand and take in air. Examples include idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, sarcoidosis, and asbestosis.
3. Infectious lung diseases: These are caused by bacteria, viruses, fungi, or parasites that infect the lungs. Examples include pneumonia, tuberculosis, and influenza.
4. Vascular lung diseases: These affect the blood vessels in the lungs, impairing oxygen exchange. Examples include pulmonary embolism, pulmonary hypertension, and chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH).
5. Neoplastic lung diseases: These involve abnormal growth of cells within the lungs, leading to cancer. Examples include small cell lung cancer, non-small cell lung cancer, and mesothelioma.
6. Other lung diseases: These include interstitial lung diseases, pleural effusions, and rare disorders such as pulmonary alveolar proteinosis and lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM).

It is important to note that this list is not exhaustive, and there are many other conditions that can affect the lungs. Proper diagnosis and treatment of lung diseases require consultation with a healthcare professional, such as a pulmonologist or respiratory therapist.

The retroperitoneal space refers to the area within the abdominal cavity that is located behind (retro) the peritoneum, which is the smooth serous membrane that lines the inner wall of the abdomen and covers the abdominal organs. This space is divided into several compartments and contains vital structures such as the kidneys, adrenal glands, pancreas, duodenum, aorta, and vena cava.

The retroperitoneal space can be further categorized into two regions:

1. The posterior pararenal space, which is lateral to the psoas muscle and contains fat tissue.
2. The perirenal space, which surrounds the kidneys and adrenal glands and is filled with fatty connective tissue.

Disorders or conditions affecting the retroperitoneal space may include infections, tumors, hematomas, or inflammation, which can lead to various symptoms depending on the specific structures involved. Imaging techniques such as CT scans or MRI are commonly used to diagnose and assess retroperitoneal pathologies.

An Immunoradiometric Assay (IRMA) is a type of radioimmunoassay (RIA), which is a technique used in clinical laboratories to measure the concentration of specific analytes, such as hormones, drugs, or vitamins, in biological samples. In an IRMA, the sample containing the unknown amount of the analyte is incubated with a known quantity of a labeled antibody that specifically binds to the analyte.

The labeled antibody is usually radiolabeled with a radioisotope such as iodine-125 (^125^I) or tritium (^3^H). During the incubation, the labeled antibody binds to the analyte in the sample, forming an immune complex. The unbound labeled antibody is then separated from the immune complex by a variety of methods such as precipitation, centrifugation, or chromatography.

The amount of radioactivity in the pellet (immune complex) is measured using a gamma counter (for ^125^I) or liquid scintillation counter (for ^3^H). The amount of radioactivity is directly proportional to the amount of analyte present in the sample. By comparing the radioactivity in the sample to a standard curve prepared with known concentrations of the analyte, the concentration of the analyte in the sample can be determined.

IRMAs are highly sensitive and specific assays that can detect very low levels of analytes in biological samples. However, they require specialized equipment and handling procedures due to the use of radioisotopes.

Immunohistochemistry (IHC) is a technique used in pathology and laboratory medicine to identify specific proteins or antigens in tissue sections. It combines the principles of immunology and histology to detect the presence and location of these target molecules within cells and tissues. This technique utilizes antibodies that are specific to the protein or antigen of interest, which are then tagged with a detection system such as a chromogen or fluorophore. The stained tissue sections can be examined under a microscope, allowing for the visualization and analysis of the distribution and expression patterns of the target molecule in the context of the tissue architecture. Immunohistochemistry is widely used in diagnostic pathology to help identify various diseases, including cancer, infectious diseases, and immune-mediated disorders.

Prognosis is a medical term that refers to the prediction of the likely outcome or course of a disease, including the chances of recovery or recurrence, based on the patient's symptoms, medical history, physical examination, and diagnostic tests. It is an important aspect of clinical decision-making and patient communication, as it helps doctors and patients make informed decisions about treatment options, set realistic expectations, and plan for future care.

Prognosis can be expressed in various ways, such as percentages, categories (e.g., good, fair, poor), or survival rates, depending on the nature of the disease and the available evidence. However, it is important to note that prognosis is not an exact science and may vary depending on individual factors, such as age, overall health status, and response to treatment. Therefore, it should be used as a guide rather than a definitive forecast.

Transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) is a type of cancer that develops in the transitional epithelium, which is the tissue that lines the inner surface of the urinary tract. This includes the renal pelvis, ureters, bladder, and urethra. Transitional cell carcinoma is the most common type of bladder cancer and can also occur in other parts of the urinary system.

Transitional cells are specialized epithelial cells that can stretch and change shape as the organs they line expand or contract. These cells normally have a flat, squamous appearance when at rest but become more cuboidal and columnar when the organ is full. Transitional cell carcinomas typically start in the urothelium, which is the innermost lining of the urinary tract.

Transitional cell carcinoma can be classified as non-invasive (also called papillary or superficial), invasive, or both. Non-invasive TCCs are confined to the urothelium and have not grown into the underlying connective tissue. Invasive TCCs have grown through the urothelium and invaded the lamina propria (a layer of connective tissue beneath the urothelium) or the muscle wall of the bladder.

Transitional cell carcinoma can also be categorized as low-grade or high-grade, depending on how abnormal the cancer cells look under a microscope and how likely they are to grow and spread. Low-grade TCCs tend to have a better prognosis than high-grade TCCs.

Treatment for transitional cell carcinoma depends on the stage and grade of the cancer, as well as other factors such as the patient's overall health. Treatment options may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or immunotherapy.

A bronchogenic cyst is a type of congenital cyst that develops from abnormal budding or development of the bronchial tree during fetal growth. These cysts are typically filled with mucus or fluid and can be found in the mediastinum (the area between the lungs) or within the lung tissue itself.

Bronchogenic cysts are usually asymptomatic, but they can cause symptoms if they become infected, rupture, or compress nearby structures such as airways or blood vessels. Symptoms may include cough, chest pain, difficulty breathing, and recurrent respiratory infections.

Diagnosis of bronchogenic cysts is typically made through imaging tests such as chest X-rays, CT scans, or MRI scans. Treatment usually involves surgical removal of the cyst to prevent complications.

Thoracic surgery, video-assisted (VATS) is a minimally invasive surgical technique used to diagnose and treat various conditions related to the chest cavity, including the lungs, pleura, mediastinum, esophagus, and diaphragm. In VATS, a thoracoscope, a type of endoscope with a camera and light source, is inserted through small incisions in the chest wall to provide visualization of the internal structures. The surgeon then uses specialized instruments to perform the necessary surgical procedures, such as biopsies, lung resections, or esophageal repairs. Compared to traditional open thoracic surgery, VATS typically results in less postoperative pain, shorter hospital stays, and quicker recoveries for patients.

The mediastinum is the medical term for the area in the middle of the chest that separates the two lungs. It contains various vital organs and structures, including:

* The heart and its blood vessels
* The trachea (windpipe) and esophagus (tube connecting the throat to the stomach)
* The thymus gland
* Lymph nodes
* Nerves, including the vagus nerve and phrenic nerves
* Connective tissue and fat

The mediastinum is enclosed by the breastbone in front, the spine in back, and the lungs on either side. Abnormalities in the structures contained within the mediastinum can lead to various medical conditions, such as tumors or infections.

Treatment outcome is a term used to describe the result or effect of medical treatment on a patient's health status. It can be measured in various ways, such as through symptoms improvement, disease remission, reduced disability, improved quality of life, or survival rates. The treatment outcome helps healthcare providers evaluate the effectiveness of a particular treatment plan and make informed decisions about future care. It is also used in clinical research to compare the efficacy of different treatments and improve patient care.

Intraductal carcinoma, noninfiltrating is a medical term used to describe a type of breast cancer that is confined to the milk ducts of the breast. It is also sometimes referred to as ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS). Noninfiltrating means that the cancer cells have not spread beyond the ducts into the surrounding breast tissue or elsewhere in the body.

In this type of cancer, abnormal cells line the milk ducts and fill the inside of the ducts. These abnormal cells may look like cancer cells under a microscope, but they have not grown through the walls of the ducts into the surrounding breast tissue. However, if left untreated, noninfiltrating intraductal carcinoma can progress to an invasive form of breast cancer where the cancer cells spread beyond the milk ducts and invade the surrounding breast tissue.

It is important to note that while noninfiltrating intraductal carcinoma is considered a precancerous condition, it still requires medical treatment to prevent the development of invasive breast cancer. Treatment options may include surgery, radiation therapy, or hormone therapy, depending on the size and location of the tumor and other individual factors.

Adenoid cystic carcinoma (AdCC) is a rare type of cancer that can occur in various glands and tissues of the body, most commonly in the salivary glands. AdCC is characterized by its slow growth and tendency to spread along nerves. It typically forms solid, cystic, or mixed tumors with distinct histological features, including epithelial cells arranged in tubular, cribriform, or solid patterns.

The term "carcinoma" refers to a malignant tumor originating from the epithelial cells lining various organs and glands. In this case, adenoid cystic carcinoma is a specific type of carcinoma that arises in the salivary glands or other glandular tissues.

The primary treatment options for AdCC include surgical resection, radiation therapy, and sometimes chemotherapy. Despite its slow growth, adenoid cystic carcinoma has a propensity to recur locally and metastasize to distant sites such as the lungs, bones, and liver. Long-term follow-up is essential due to the risk of late recurrences.

Giant cell tumors (GCTs) are a type of benign or rarely malignant bone tumor that is characterized by the presence of multinucleated giant cells. These tumors typically affect adults between the ages of 20 and 40, and they can occur in any bone, but they most commonly involve the long bones near the knee joint.

GCTs are composed of three types of cells: mononuclear stromal cells, which produce the matrix of the tumor; multinucleated osteoclast-like giant cells, which resemble the bone-resorbing cells found in normal bone; and macrophages, which are part of the body's immune system.

The mononuclear stromal cells produce a variety of growth factors that stimulate the formation and activity of the osteoclast-like giant cells, leading to localized bone destruction. The tumor may cause pain, swelling, and limited mobility in the affected area.

While GCTs are typically benign, they can be aggressive and locally destructive, with a tendency to recur after surgical removal. In some cases, GCTs may undergo malignant transformation, leading to the development of sarcomas. Treatment options for GCTs include curettage (scraping out) of the tumor, followed by bone grafting or the use of a cement spacer to fill the defect, and/or adjuvant therapy with radiation or chemotherapy.

A Giant Cell Tumor (GCT) of bone is a relatively uncommon, locally aggressive tumor that can sometimes become malignant. It is characterized by the presence of multinucleated giant cells which are distributed throughout the tumor tissue. These giant cells are thought to be derived from osteoclasts, which are specialized cells responsible for bone resorption.

GCTs typically affect adults in their 20s and 30s, with a slight female predominance. The most common sites of involvement include the long bones near the knee (distal femur and proximal tibia), as well as the distal radius, sacrum, and spine.

The tumor usually presents as pain and swelling in the affected area, sometimes accompanied by restricted mobility or pathological fractures due to bone weakening. The diagnosis is typically made based on imaging studies (such as X-rays, CT scans, or MRI) and confirmed through a biopsy.

Treatment options for GCTs of bone may include intralesional curettage with or without the use of adjuvant therapies (like phenol, liquid nitrogen, or cement), radiation therapy, or surgical resection. In some cases, systemic treatments like denosumab, a monoclonal antibody targeting RANKL, may be used to control the growth and spread of the tumor. Regular follow-ups are essential to monitor for potential recurrence, which can occur in up to 50% of cases within five years after treatment.

An encyclopedia is a comprehensive reference work containing articles on various topics, usually arranged in alphabetical order. In the context of medicine, a medical encyclopedia is a collection of articles that provide information about a wide range of medical topics, including diseases and conditions, treatments, tests, procedures, and anatomy and physiology. Medical encyclopedias may be published in print or electronic formats and are often used as a starting point for researching medical topics. They can provide reliable and accurate information on medical subjects, making them useful resources for healthcare professionals, students, and patients alike. Some well-known examples of medical encyclopedias include the Merck Manual and the Stedman's Medical Dictionary.

Carcinoma, non-small-cell lung (NSCLC) is a type of lung cancer that includes several subtypes of malignant tumors arising from the epithelial cells of the lung. These subtypes are classified based on the appearance of the cancer cells under a microscope and include adenocarcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and large cell carcinoma. NSCLC accounts for about 85% of all lung cancers and tends to grow and spread more slowly than small-cell lung cancer (SCLC).

NSCLC is often asymptomatic in its early stages, but as the tumor grows, symptoms such as coughing, chest pain, shortness of breath, hoarseness, and weight loss may develop. Treatment options for NSCLC depend on the stage and location of the cancer, as well as the patient's overall health and lung function. Common treatments include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, targeted therapy, or a combination of these approaches.

Giant Cell Arteritis (GCA), also known as Temporal Arteritis, is a chronic inflammatory disease affecting large and medium-sized arteries, most commonly the temporal artery. It primarily occurs in people over 50 years old. The condition is characterized by the infiltration of the artery walls with immune cells, leading to inflammation, swelling, and damage. This can restrict blood flow, causing various symptoms.

The key feature of GCA is the presence of multinucleated giant cells, which are large collections of fused immune cells, in the affected artery walls. These cells are a hallmark of this condition when viewed under a microscope.

Common symptoms include new onset of severe headaches, scalp tenderness, jaw pain while chewing (called jaw claudication), vision problems, and systemic symptoms such as fever, fatigue, and weight loss. If left untreated, GCA can lead to serious complications like blindness or stroke. Treatment typically involves high-dose corticosteroids to reduce inflammation and prevent further damage.

Patton MM, McDonald JR, Moersch HJ (1951). "Bronchogenic large cell carcinoma". J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 22 (1): 88-93. PMID ... Small-cell carcinoma Squamous cell carcinoma Adenocarcinoma Large-cell carcinoma Adenosquamous carcinoma Sarcomatoid carcinoma ... Giant-cell carcinoma of the lung (GCCL) is a rare histological form of large-cell lung carcinoma, a subtype of undifferentiated ... Comparison with other large-cell anaplastic bronchogenic carcinomas". Scand J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 13 (3): 343-6. doi: ...
"Results of bronchoplastic procedures for bronchogenic carcinoma". Ann. Surg. 151 (5): 729-40. doi:10.1097/00000658-196005000- ... CT scan showing a Pancoast tumor (labeled as P, non-small cell lung carcinoma, left lung), from a 47-year-old female smoker ...
PMF can be mistaken for bronchogenic carcinoma and vice versa. PMF lesions tend to grow very slowly, so any rapid changes in ...
Ruffini, E (2002). "The significance of intraoperative pleural effusion during surgery for bronchogenic carcinoma". European ... Ovarian carcinomas are common. Fluid produced by the cells can produce ascites which is typical in carcinomatosis, but less ... Fluid can be serous as seen in primary peritoneal carcinoma or mucinous such as found in pseudomyxoma peritonei which is ...
Other causes include chronic kidney failure, hypothyroidism, bronchogenic carcinoma and sarcoidosis. Some women with polycystic ...
"Fatal overdose of zopiclone in an elderly woman with bronchogenic carcinoma". Journal of Forensic Sciences. 46 (5): 1247-1249. ...
In 1947, the Division began investigating bronchogenic carcinoma in the chromate industry. The Division also performed a major ...
June 1996). "p53 and MDM2 immunostaining in pulmonary blastomas and bronchogenic carcinomas". Hum. Pathol. 27 (6): 542-6. doi: ... A case of combined small cell lung carcinoma featuring components of FA and cells resembling those from carcinoid tumor has ... November 2008). "[Clinicopathologic study of pulmonary adenocarcinoma with features of bronchioloalveolar carcinoma]". Zhonghua ... prognosis of patients with FA as a whole is considered to be better than that of most other forms of non-small cell carcinoma, ...
5 Wynder EL, Graham EA: Tobacco smoking as a possible etiologic factor in bronchogenic carcinoma: a study of 684 proven cases. ... Announcement of the award of the Lister Medal - Nature 148, 500-500 (25 October 1941). Some Aspects of Bronchogenic Carcinoma, ... Some Aspects of Bronchogenic Carcinoma'. His other awards included the gold medal of the Radiological Society of North America ... and William Adams on the first successful removal of a lung for the treatment of bronchogenic carcinoma in 1933. The patient ...
Tumors that invade adjacent lung tissue may cause pulmonary symptoms that mimic bronchogenic carcinoma. The tumor may break ...
Isselbacher, KJ; Klaus, H; Hardy, HL (November 1955). "Asbestosis and Bronchogenic Carcinoma, Report of One Autopsied Case and ...
December 1982). "The clinical behavior of "mixed" small cell/large cell bronchogenic carcinoma compared to "pure" small cell ... Squamous cell carcinoma Small cell carcinoma Adenocarcinoma Large cell carcinoma Adenosquamous carcinoma Sarcomatoid carcinoma ... combined small cell carcinoma of the lung has been long classified as a subset of small cell carcinoma, and not as a subset of ... and giant cell carcinoma. Giant cell carcinoma components are seen much more commonly in patients who have undergone radiation ...
Louis in 1935, aged 43 years, from bronchogenic carcinoma, a form of lung cancer. The Library of Congress holds a small ...
The Use of the Nitrogen Mustards in the Palliative Treatment of Carcinoma - with Particular Reference to Bronchogenic Carcinoma ...
The Use of the Nitrogen Mustards in the Palliative Treatment of Carcinoma - with Particular Reference to Bronchogenic Carcinoma ...
Bayliss was awarded his MD in 1946, his thesis being on the subject of cardiac metastases from bronchogenic carcinoma. He ...
However, studies have demonstrated that pleural plaques are an independent risk factor for developing bronchogenic carcinoma ...
Thus, researchers concluded that smoking is responsible for the onset of bronchogenic carcinoma, but did not establish a causal ... This study was a retrospective, case-control study that compared smoking habits of 684 individuals with bronchogenic carcinoma ... of men with bronchogenic carcinoma were heavy to chain smokers, compared to 73.7% of the general population. Statistically, it ... those with bronchogenic carcinoma, and controls, those without the condition. There were 605 microscopic confirmations of the ...
A phase II trial on the effect of Edelfosine on advanced non-small-cell bronchogenic carcinoma had a "remarkable" "high ... in Advanced Non-Small-Cell Bronchogenic Carcinoma". Onkologie. 15 (5): 375-382. doi:10.1159/000217391. Houlihan, WJ; Lohmeyer M ... Among them a phase I trials with solid tumors or leukemias and phase II with non-small-cell lung carcinomas (NSCLC). In a Phase ... Shafer, SH; Williams CL (2003). "Non-small and small cell lung carcinoma cell lines exhibit cell type-specific sensitivity to ...
... with antioxidant and DNA repair genes in normal bronchial epithelial cells but not in individuals with bronchogenic carcinoma ...
... in advanced bronchogenic carcinoma". Cancer Letters. 1 (2): 97-102. doi:10.1016/S0304-3835(75)95630-X. PMID 65213. Guo Y, Lu JJ ... and epidermoid carcinoma of the lung. It has however not shown desired results as an antineoplastic drug and thus has never ...
... a search for signs of bronchogenic carcinoma (or other causes of clubbing) might still be indicated. A congenital form has also ...
On chest X-ray, hilar enlargement can be due to lymphadenopathy and tumours (tuberculosis, bronchogenic carcinoma, lymphoma, ...
... although tuberculosis and bronchogenic carcinoma may spread from one segment to another. Visualising the interior of the ...
... and bronchogenic carcinoma Mechlorethamine is often administered intravenously, but when compounded into a topical formulation ...
... syndromes Muscular dystrophy disorders Myasthenia gravis Osteogenesis imperfecta Paget's disease Asthma Bronchogenic carcinoma ... Carcinoma and sites of primary lesions Blood Leukemia Lymphoma Breast Colon Kidney Lung Genital organs Ovary or cervix Testis ...
... carcinoma, bronchogenic MeSH C08.381.540.145 - carcinoma, non-small-cell lung MeSH C08.381.540.147 - carcinoma, small cell MeSH ... carcinoma, bronchogenic MeSH C08.785.520.145 - carcinoma, non-small-cell lung MeSH C08.785.520.147 - carcinoma, small cell MeSH ...
1967 - Jack Ruby died of a pulmonary embolism, secondary to bronchogenic carcinoma (lung cancer), on January 3, 1967 at ...
"Tobacco Smoking as a Possible Etiological Factor in Bronchogenic Carcinoma: A Study of Six Hundred and Eighty-Four Proved Cases ...
... with diseases such as Bronchiectasis Tuberculosis Aspergillosis Bronchial carcinoid Bronchogenic squamous cell carcinoma There ...
Click on sagittal image to select slice. Click on thin tickmark to change timepoint, or thick tickmark for overlay. ...
Bronchogenic carcinoma associated with asbestos exposure. Appearances of bronchogenic carcinoma are those of non-asbestos- ... Risk of bronchogenic carcinoma from asbestos exposure is dose dependent and multiplies patient risk attributable to tobacco ... The most important differential diagnosis of round atelectasis is bronchogenic carcinoma. Biopsy may be necessary. Round ... has been suggested to aid in the differentiation of round atelectasis from bronchogenic carcinoma. To date, limited studies ...
Patton MM, McDonald JR, Moersch HJ (1951). "Bronchogenic large cell carcinoma". J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 22 (1): 88-93. PMID ... Small-cell carcinoma Squamous cell carcinoma Adenocarcinoma Large-cell carcinoma Adenosquamous carcinoma Sarcomatoid carcinoma ... Giant-cell carcinoma of the lung (GCCL) is a rare histological form of large-cell lung carcinoma, a subtype of undifferentiated ... Comparison with other large-cell anaplastic bronchogenic carcinomas". Scand J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 13 (3): 343-6. doi: ...
When an underlying bronchogenic carcinoma is suspected or if any abnormalities are not consistent with the diagnosis of ...
Bronchogenic carcinoma.. *Mesothelioma.. *Pleural-based lung cancer or metastasis to the pleura. ...
Bronchogenic Carcinoma see Lung Cancer * Cancer * Cancer Alternative Therapies * Cancer and Pregnancy see Tumors and Pregnancy ...
Primary bronchogenic carcinoma by inhalation recognised as an occupational disease. Several tables of occupational diseases ... compensate primary bronchogenic carcinoma. Smoking is no obstacle for recognition and compensation. Bookmark ... ...
CT and MR imaging in staging non-small cell bronchogenic carcinoma: report of the Radiology Diagnostic Oncology Group. ... Transbronchial needle aspiration staging of bronchogenic carcinoma. Am Rev Respir Dis. 1986;134:146-148. ...
The differential diagnosis for a fungal ball in the lung is limited: echinoccocal cyst, necrotizing bronchogenic carcinoma, or ... cavitary bronchogenic carcinoma, and infection by NTM (21,26-30). In many countries, pulmonary TB is the most common disorder ... Cavitating bronchogenic carcinoma may invade the chest wall causing bone destruction or may cause diffuse pleural involvement; ... Cavitary bronchogenic carcinoma is usually associated with adenopathy and often pleural effusion. ...
Rosado-de-Christenson, M L; Templeton, P A; Moran, C A (1994). "Bronchogenic carcinoma: radiologic-pathologic correlation". ... Cairns, Paul; Srivastava, Sudhir; Grizzle, William E. (2011). "Renal cell carcinoma". Cancer Biomarkers. 9 (1-6): 461-473. doi: ... Small-cell lung cancer, carcinoid tumor, thymoma, medullary carcinoma of the thyroid and other cancers ... Carter, Brett W.; Glisson, Bonnie S.; Truong, Mylene T.; Erasmus, Jeremy J. (2014). "Small Cell Lung Carcinoma: Staging, ...
Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung. Lung Neoplasms. Carcinoma, Bronchogenic. Bronchial Neoplasms. Respiratory Tract Neoplasms. ... squamous cell carcinoma of the skin, superficial bladder cancer, or carcinoma in situ (excluding carcinoma-in situ-of the ... Lung Neoplasms Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung Biological: Pembrolizumab Drug: Olaparib Drug: Placebo for olaparib Drug: ... that is progressing or has required active treatment within the past 5 years with the exception of basal cell carcinoma of the ...
Melioidosis: recrudescence associated with bronchogenic carcinoma twenty-six years following initial geographic exposure. Chest ...
Bronchogenic carcinoma, idiopathic. FIX concentrates, APCC, FVIII concentrates, rFVIIa, fibrin glue, tranexamic acid ... Autoimmune diseases, prostate carcinoma, chronic lymphocytic leukemia, chlorpromazine. FFP, FXI concentrates, rFVIIa, ... Amyloidosis, carcinoma, acute nonlymphocytic leukemia, acute respiratory infections, fungicide exposure, idiopathic. APCC, ... Autoimmune diseases, prostate carcinoma, chronic lymphocytic leukemia, chlorpromazine. FFP, FXI concentrates, rFVIIa, ...
Alveolar infiltrates, mass lesions that mimic bronchogenic carcinoma, and fibronodular interstitial infiltrates are the most ...
Bronchogenic carcinomas were the primary type of lung cancer among the gold miners. Analysis of airborne particles in the mine ...
... therapy of small cell bronchogenic carcinoma. Clinico-immunologic evaluation of the results of a randomized trial]. G Ital ... dendritic cell clustering and serum p15E-like trans-membrane factors in operable head and neck squamous cell carcinoma patients ... Immunological and patho-clinical observations of a patient with rectal carcinoma after long term administration of thymic ... Controlled trial of thymostimulin treatment of patients with primary carcinoma of the larynx resected surgically. Immunological ...
... oral tutes a risk factor for bronchogenic carcinoma. Although no crystal ball is ideal, it seems secure to Water must be ... carcinoma of small bowel C179 Code to carcinoma of small bowel (C179), the reason for the surgical procedure. One promising ...
Differentiation of bronchogenic carcinoma from secondary changes, obstructive pneumonitis and/or collapse by I-123 IMP lung ...
Influence of delays on survival in the surgical treatment of bronchogenic carcinoma. Lung Cancer. 2002;36(1):59-63. ... Time delay and its effect on survival in malaysian patients with non-small cell lung carcinoma. Malays J Med Sci. 2006;13(1):37 ... Impact of timing of lobectomy on survival for clinical stage IA lung squamous cell carcinoma. Chest. 2017;152(6):1239-1250. ...
For example, the survival time in dogs with bronchogenic carcinoma of the lung is markedly decreased for patients with lymph ...
3 small cell carcinomas, 1 typical carcinoid, and 1 bronchogenic carcinoma. Twenty-eight of 42 (66.7%) lung cancers were ... Of the 42 screen-detected cancers, there were 25 adenocarcinomas, 12 squamous cell carcinomas, ...
... or bronchogenic carcinomas. All of these tumors require surgical excision. ... immobile masses should be considered breast carcinoma until proven otherwise. Similarly, masses associated with skin changes, ...
... bronchogenic carcinoma, and diffuse malignant mesothelioma." He wrote that these cases of asbestos related disease are expected ...
Patients in this study had primary cancers that included colorectal, renal cell, bronchogenic, squamous cell, adrenal cortical ... ovarian and thyroid carcinomas, paragangliomas (tumors that arise within the sympathetic nervous system), melanoma and desmoid ...
View other providers who treat Bronchioalveolar Carcinoma Bronchogenic Carcinoma * View other providers who treat Bronchogenic ... View other providers who treat Squamous Cell Carcinoma of Head and Neck ... Squamous Cell Carcinoma of Head and Neck * ... Carcinoma in Situ * View other providers who treat Carcinoma in ...
Nagendran T, Patel MN, Gaillard WE, Imm F, Walker M: Metastatic bronchogenic carcinoma to the bones of the hand. Cancer. 1980, ...
anaplastic carcinoma. *leiomyosarcoma. *adenocarcinoma. Differential diagnosis. General imaging differential considerations for ... cyst • Bronchogenic cyst - Ganzer Fall bei Radiopaedia El-Feky, M. Bronchogenic cyst. Case study, (accessed on ... cyst • Bronchogenic cyst - Ganzer Fall bei Radiopaedia Ashraf, A. Bronchogenic cyst. Case study, (accessed on ... cyst • Bronchogenic cyst - Ganzer Fall bei Radiopaedia Salam, H. Bronchogenic cyst. Case study, (accessed on ...
Bronchogenic Carcinoma. *Bronchial Asthma. Liver. *Liver Function test. *Jaundice. *Neonatal Jaundice. *Viral Hepatitis ...
Carcinoma, Bronchogenic; Head and Neck Neoplasms; Neoplasms; Soft Tissue Neoplasms; Breast Neoplasms; Contrast agents; Lymphoma ... Neoplasms; Carcinoma, Pancreatic Ductal. Details (68)Ga-RGD. Phase 1 Clinical. Peking Union Medical College Hospital. Keloid. ... Carcinoma, Squamous Cell; Gallbladder Neoplasms; Laryngeal Neoplasms; Mouth Neoplasms; Appendiceal Neoplasms; Carcinoma, ... Esophageal Neoplasms; Stomach Neoplasms; Glioblastoma; Carcinoma, Pancreatic Ductal. Details Alfatide[18F]. 18F-AlF-NOTA-PRGD2 ...
  • Eight major taxa of lung carcinomas are recognized within the WHO-2004 classification: Small-cell carcinoma Squamous cell carcinoma Adenocarcinoma Large-cell carcinoma Adenosquamous carcinoma Sarcomatoid carcinoma Carcinoid Salivary gland-like carcinoma The subclassification of GCCL among these major taxa has undergone significant changes in recent decades. (
  • Impact of timing of lobectomy on survival for clinical stage IA lung squamous cell carcinoma. (
  • Although it is common in the lung cancer literature to refer to histologically mixed tumors containing significant numbers of malignant giant cells as "giant-cell carcinomas", technically a diagnosis of "giant-cell carcinoma" should be limited strictly to neoplasms containing only malignant giant cells (i.e. "pure" giant-cell carcinoma). (
  • About 1% of lung cancers are sarcomas, germ cell tumors, and hematopoietic tumors, while 99% of lung cancers are carcinoma. (
  • Carcinomas are tumors composed of transformed, abnormal cells with epithelial tissue architecture and/or molecular characteristics, and which derive from embryonic endoderm. (
  • Although it is fairly common for mixed tumors that are seen to contain malignant giant cells to be called "giant-cell carcinomas", accurate classification of a pulmonary tumor as a GCCL requires that the entire tumor consists only of malignant giant cells. (
  • Patients in this study had primary cancers that included colorectal, renal cell, bronchogenic, squamous cell, adrenal cortical, ovarian and thyroid carcinomas, paragangliomas (tumors that arise within the sympathetic nervous system), melanoma and desmoid tumors (tumors of tissue that surrounds muscles). (
  • Giant-cell carcinoma of the lung (GCCL) is a rare histological form of large-cell lung carcinoma, a subtype of undifferentiated lung cancer, traditionally classified within the non-small-cell lung carcinomas (NSCLC). (
  • Under the 2nd revision (1981) of the WHO classification, it was considered a subtype of large-cell carcinoma. (
  • In the 3rd (1999) revision, it was placed within a taxon called "Carcinomas with Pleomorphic, Sarcomatoid, or Sarcomatous Elements", along with pleomorphic carcinoma, spindle cell carcinoma, carcinosarcoma, and pulmonary blastoma, which are (arguably) related variants. (
  • Bronchogenic carcinomas were the primary type of lung cancer among the gold miners. (
  • An anaplastic, highly malignant, and usually bronchogenic carcinoma composed of small ovoid cells with scanty neoplasm. (
  • Bronchogenic cysts are congenital malformations of the bronchial tree (a type of bronchopulmonary foregut malformation ). (
  • CT with contrast of the chest shows the mass to not enhance and to be located anterior to the aorta and to the left of the inferior vena cava.The diagnosis was bronchogenic cyst. (
  • For several decades, primary lung cancers were consistently dichotomously classified for treatment and research purposes into small-cell lung carcinomas (SCLCs) and non-small-cell lung carcinomas (NSCLCs), based on an oversimplified approach that is now clearly outmoded. (
  • Several tables of occupational diseases compensate primary bronchogenic carcinoma. (
  • Mixed lesions-pulmonary sequestration and bronchogenic cyst in a 38-year-old male who presented with dyspnea. (
  • Bronchial mucoepidermoid carcinoma: A case report. (
  • Pan Z, Yang G, Qu L, Yuan T, Du Z, Dong L. Bone marrow metastasis in primary bronchial mucoepidermoid carcinoma: a case report. (
  • 2. [The place of computed tomography in the staging of bronchial carcinoma. (
  • 10. [Bronchial carcinoma in subjects under 40]. (
  • Computed tomography (CT) was used to evaluate nine patients with bronchial adenomas: five carcinoid tumors and four adenoid-cystic carcinomas. (
  • Predictive CT features for the diagnosis of primary pulmonary mucoepidermoid carcinoma: comparison with squamous cell carcinomas and adenocarcinomas. (
  • Other types include squamous cell carcinoma, anaplastic and undifferentiated carcinoma, and rarely a sarcoma. (
  • NSCLC can be further classified into three main subtypes, namely adenocarcinoma, squamous-cell carcinoma and large-cell carcinoma (Longo & Harrison, 2012). (
  • Primary Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma of the Peripheral Lungs. (
  • Adenoid cystic carcinoma of the tracheobronchial tree: clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical studies of 21 cases. (
  • Wang H. Case report of apatinib mesylate treatment in rare advanced tracheal adenoid cystic carcinoma. (
  • Adenoid cystic carcinoma and other primary salivery gland-type tumors of the lung. (
  • The cases of adenoid-cystic carcinoma of the bronchi demonstrated extraluminal spread in a pattern indistinguishable from bronchogenic carcinoma. (
  • However, it is sometimes hard to distinguish oncocytoma and renal cell carcinoma (RCC) just from image like computer tomography or magnetic resonance imaging. (
  • It represents a large group of epithelial lung malignancies which can be divided into two clinical groups: SMALL CELL LUNG CANCER and NON-SMALL-CELL LUNG CARCINOMA. (
  • 12. Frequency of extrathoracic metastases from bronchogenic carcinoma in patients with normal-sized hilar and mediastinal lymph nodes on CT. (
  • However, it has proven to be useful in assessment of cervical lymph nodes in patients with various head and neck carcinomas ( 6 - 8 ). (
  • Bronchogenic carcinoma may rarely present as peribronchial cuffing and thickening. (
  • Lung transplant has been the preferred treatment for several end-stage pulmonary diseases for more than 40 years, since the first human lung transplant was performed by James Hardy at the University of Mississippi in 1963 [2], for a patient with bronchogenic carcinoma. (
  • 7. The changing radiographic presentation of bronchogenic carcinoma with reference to cell types. (
  • and three were large cell undifferentiated carcinomas. (
  • They are used to puncture the tracheobronchial wall and to aspirate sufficient tissue and/or cell specimens to stage bronchogenic carcinoma. (
  • included the micropapillary subtype8,9 and replaced the term "mucinous bronchioloalveolar carcinoma(BAC)" with invasive mucinous adenocarcinoma. (
  • Conditions mentioned include: cough with sputum, haemoptysis and bronchogenic carcinoma. (