Carcinoma, Bronchogenic: Malignant neoplasm arising from the epithelium of the BRONCHI. It represents a large group of epithelial lung malignancies which can be divided into two clinical groups: SMALL CELL LUNG CANCER and NON-SMALL-CELL LUNG CARCINOMA.Carcinoma: A malignant neoplasm made up of epithelial cells tending to infiltrate the surrounding tissues and give rise to metastases. It is a histological type of neoplasm but is often wrongly used as a synonym for "cancer." (From Dorland, 27th ed)Mediastinal Cyst: Cysts of one of the parts of the mediastinum: the superior part, containing the trachea, esophagus, thoracic duct and thymus organs; the inferior middle part, containing the pericardium; the inferior anterior part containing some lymph nodes; and the inferior posterior part, containing the thoracic duct and esophagus.Lung Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the LUNG.Carcinoma, Squamous Cell: A carcinoma derived from stratified SQUAMOUS EPITHELIAL CELLS. It may also occur in sites where glandular or columnar epithelium is normally present. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Esophageal Cyst: Any fluid-filled closed cavity or sac (CYSTS) that is lined by an EPITHELIUM and found in the ESOPHAGUS region.Carcinoma, Hepatocellular: A primary malignant neoplasm of epithelial liver cells. It ranges from a well-differentiated tumor with EPITHELIAL CELLS indistinguishable from normal HEPATOCYTES to a poorly differentiated neoplasm. The cells may be uniform or markedly pleomorphic, or form GIANT CELLS. Several classification schemes have been suggested.Bronchial Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the BRONCHI.Carcinoma, Small Cell: An anaplastic, highly malignant, and usually bronchogenic carcinoma composed of small ovoid cells with scanty neoplasm. It is characterized by a dominant, deeply basophilic nucleus, and absent or indistinct nucleoli. (From Stedman, 25th ed; Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1286-7)Bronchopulmonary Sequestration: A developmental anomaly in which a mass of nonfunctioning lung tissue lacks normal connection with the tracheobroncheal tree and receives an anomalous blood supply originating from the descending thoracic or abdominal aorta. The mass may be extralobar, i.e., completely separated from normally connected lung, or intralobar, i.e., partly surrounded by normal lung.Pneumonectomy: The excision of lung tissue including partial or total lung lobectomy.Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Radiography, Thoracic: X-ray visualization of the chest and organs of the thoracic cavity. It is not restricted to visualization of the lungs.Bronchoscopy: Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the bronchi.Diverticulum, Esophageal: Saccular protrusion beyond the wall of the ESOPHAGUS.Hormones, Ectopic: Hormones released from neoplasms or from other cells that are not the usual sources of hormones.Carcinoma in Situ: A lesion with cytological characteristics associated with invasive carcinoma but the tumor cells are confined to the epithelium of origin, without invasion of the basement membrane.Adenocarcinoma: A malignant epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.Thoracoscopy: Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the pleural cavity.Thoracotomy: Surgical incision into the chest wall.Mediastinoscopy: Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the anterior superior mediastinum of the thorax.Osteoarthropathy, Secondary Hypertrophic: Symmetrical osteitis of the four limbs, chiefly localized to the phalanges and the terminal epiphyses of the long bones of the forearm and leg, sometimes extending to the proximal ends of the limbs and the flat bones, and accompanied by dorsal kyphosis and joint involvement. It is often secondary to chronic conditions of the lungs and heart. (Dorland, 27th ed)Carcinoma, Papillary: A malignant neoplasm characterized by the formation of numerous, irregular, finger-like projections of fibrous stroma that is covered with a surface layer of neoplastic epithelial cells. (Stedman, 25th ed)Carcinoma, Large Cell: A tumor of undifferentiated (anaplastic) cells of large size. It is usually bronchogenic. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Bronchi: The larger air passages of the lungs arising from the terminal bifurcation of the TRACHEA. They include the largest two primary bronchi which branch out into secondary bronchi, and tertiary bronchi which extend into BRONCHIOLES and PULMONARY ALVEOLI.Pulmonary Surgical Procedures: Surgery performed on the lung.Atrial Septum: The thin membrane-like muscular structure separating the right and the left upper chambers (HEART ATRIA) of a heart.Empyema: Presence of pus in a hollow organ or body cavity.Tracheal NeoplasmsInappropriate ADH Syndrome: A condition of HYPONATREMIA and renal salt loss attributed to overexpansion of BODY FLUIDS resulting from sustained release of ANTIDIURETIC HORMONES which stimulates renal resorption of water. It is characterized by normal KIDNEY function, high urine OSMOLALITY, low serum osmolality, and neurological dysfunction. Etiologies include ADH-producing neoplasms, injuries or diseases involving the HYPOTHALAMUS, the PITUITARY GLAND, and the LUNG. This syndrome can also be drug-induced.Liver Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the LIVER.Diagnostic Techniques, Surgical: Methods and procedures for the diagnosis of disease or dysfunction by examination of the pathological site or operative field during surgical intervention.Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast: An invasive (infiltrating) CARCINOMA of the mammary ductal system (MAMMARY GLANDS) in the human BREAST.Carcinoma, Basal Cell: A malignant skin neoplasm that seldom metastasizes but has potentialities for local invasion and destruction. Clinically it is divided into types: nodular, cicatricial, morphaic, and erythematoid (pagetoid). They develop on hair-bearing skin, most commonly on sun-exposed areas. Approximately 85% are found on the head and neck area and the remaining 15% on the trunk and limbs. (From DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1471)Paraneoplastic Endocrine Syndromes: Syndromes resulting from inappropriate production of HORMONES or hormone-like materials by NEOPLASMS in non-endocrine tissues or not by the usual ENDOCRINE GLANDS. Such hormone outputs are called ectopic hormone (HORMONES, ECTOPIC) secretion.Fatal Outcome: Death resulting from the presence of a disease in an individual, as shown by a single case report or a limited number of patients. This should be differentiated from DEATH, the physiological cessation of life and from MORTALITY, an epidemiological or statistical concept.Neoplasm Staging: Methods which attempt to express in replicable terms the extent of the neoplasm in the patient.Lung Diseases: Pathological processes involving any part of the LUNG.Retroperitoneal Space: An area occupying the most posterior aspect of the ABDOMINAL CAVITY. It is bounded laterally by the borders of the quadratus lumborum muscles and extends from the DIAPHRAGM to the brim of the true PELVIS, where it continues as the pelvic extraperitoneal space.Immunoradiometric Assay: Form of radioimmunoassay in which excess specific labeled antibody is added directly to the test antigen being measured.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Prognosis: A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.Carcinoma, Transitional Cell: A malignant neoplasm derived from TRANSITIONAL EPITHELIAL CELLS, occurring chiefly in the URINARY BLADDER; URETERS; or RENAL PELVIS.Bronchogenic Cyst: A usually spherical cyst, arising as an embryonic out-pouching of the foregut or trachea. It is generally found in the mediastinum or lung and is usually asymptomatic unless it becomes infected.Thoracic Surgery, Video-Assisted: Endoscopic surgery of the pleural cavity performed with visualization via video transmission.Mediastinum: A membrane in the midline of the THORAX of mammals. It separates the lungs between the STERNUM in front and the VERTEBRAL COLUMN behind. It also surrounds the HEART, TRACHEA, ESOPHAGUS, THYMUS, and LYMPH NODES.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating: A noninvasive (noninfiltrating) carcinoma of the breast characterized by a proliferation of malignant epithelial cells confined to the mammary ducts or lobules, without light-microscopy evidence of invasion through the basement membrane into the surrounding stroma.Carcinoma, Adenoid Cystic: Carcinoma characterized by bands or cylinders of hyalinized or mucinous stroma separating or surrounded by nests or cords of small epithelial cells. When the cylinders occur within masses of epithelial cells, they give the tissue a perforated, sievelike, or cribriform appearance. Such tumors occur in the mammary glands, the mucous glands of the upper and lower respiratory tract, and the salivary glands. They are malignant but slow-growing, and tend to spread locally via the nerves. (Dorland, 27th ed)Receptors, Progesterone: Specific proteins found in or on cells of progesterone target tissues that specifically combine with progesterone. The cytosol progesterone-receptor complex then associates with the nucleic acids to initiate protein synthesis. There are two kinds of progesterone receptors, A and B. Both are induced by estrogen and have short half-lives.Receptors, Estrogen: Cytoplasmic proteins that bind estrogens and migrate to the nucleus where they regulate DNA transcription. Evaluation of the state of estrogen receptors in breast cancer patients has become clinically important.Cytosol: Intracellular fluid from the cytoplasm after removal of ORGANELLES and other insoluble cytoplasmic components.

Bronchial carcinoma in patients with pre-existing unilateral lung disease. (1/348)

Forty-six cases of primary bronchogenic carcinoma occurring in patients with other unilateral pleuropulmonary diseases were studied. In 37 cases (80-4%) carcinoma developed in the previously healthy lung. All but one squamous-cell carcinoma and all of five undifferentiated small-cell carcinomas developed in the previously healthy lung while 7 of 15 adenocarcinomas were in the lung with impaired ventilation. It is suggested that the bronchial epithelium of the healthy lung is more exposed to exogenous carcinogens than that of the diseased, underventilated lung, resulting in a higher risk of development of squamous-cell and undifferentiated small-cell carcinoma.  (+info)

Genetic alterations in bronchial lavage as a potential marker for individuals with a high risk of developing lung cancer. (2/348)

Using 12 microsatellite markers, we have studied DNAs from the bronchial lavage of 90 individuals who were referred to an early-lung-cancer clinic in the Northwest of England with suspected lung cancer. Genetic alterations were detected in 15 (35%) of 43 patients with lung cancer but also in 11 (23%) of 47 patients with no cytological or radiological evidence of bronchial neoplasia. No significant differences were found between the referring symptoms in any of the second group of individuals with and without genetic alterations. No correlation was found between smoking exposure and loss of heterozygosity (LOH)/microsatellite alterations (MAs) in the microsatellite markers. On comparing LOH with MAs based on cytology review, we found that the prevalent type of alteration in specimens with cytological evidence of malignancy was LOH; in contrast, the individuals with no cytological evidence of malignancy showed a preponderance of MAs (P = 0.01). Our results indicate that a substantial proportion of cells in the bronchial lavage from suspected lung cancer patients carry identifiable genetic alterations. However, the presence of genetic alterations in the bronchial lavage of individuals with no clinical evidence of lung cancer raises the question whether instability is a phenomenon solely associated with cancer or represents a feature of nonneoplastic diseases. Our results suggest that microsatellite PCR-based assays can be developed as tools for the earlier identification of genetic changes in cells exfoliating in the bronchus.  (+info)

Pulmonary malignancies in the immunocompromised patient. (3/348)

Clinicians should be familiar with immunodeficiency-related malignancies, as their incidence is expected to increase further with the rise in the number and survival of immunocompromised patients. The most common malignancies affecting the lungs in those patients are Kaposi's sarcoma, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and, to a far less extent, Hodgkin's disease and bronchogenic carcinoma. However, their relative frequency depends on the types of immune deficiency, including those due to congenital disorders, AIDS and drug treatments. This review will summarize epidemiological data on the frequency of immmunodeficiency-related malignancies, recent advances on their pathogenesis and current approaches to their diagnosis and treatment in the various immunosuppressed groups.  (+info)

Influence of age on operative mortality and long-term survival after lung resection for bronchogenic carcinoma. (4/348)

The proportion of elderly patients presenting with bronchogenic carcinoma is increasing. To study the impact of age on clinical presentation, management and outcome of patients, the authors have reviewed their clinical experience over the last 20 yrs. Between 1977 and 1996, 1,079 patients underwent thoracotomy for primary lung carcinoma in the authors' institution. Patients were grouped by age at the time of surgery as <60 yrs, 60-69 yrs and > or =70 yrs. Although the mode of clinical presentation was similar between all age groups, patients <60 yrs were more prone to have advanced stage carcinoma at the time of diagnosis. The rates of exploratory thoracotomy and pneumonectomy were higher in patients <70 yrs, whereas lobectomies and lesser resections largely predominated in patients > or =70 yrs. The mortality rate following lobectomy and lesser resection increased from 1.3% in patients <60 yrs to 5.5% in patients > or =60 yrs (p=0.04) and the mortality rate following pneumonectomy increased from 6.5% in patients <60 yrs to 13.7% in patients > or =70 yrs (p=0.24). The specific long-term survival, which included only the patients who died from primary lung carcinoma, was similar in all age groups. Operative mortality and survival rates are acceptable in patients > or =70 yrs. Therefore, age in itself should not constitute a contraindication to surgical lung resection for primary lung carcinoma as long as a careful preoperative assessment is performed to appropriately select surgical candidates.  (+info)

Clinical correlation of hepatic flow studies. (5/348)

In 100 consecutive hepatic flow studies, 84 were read as negative. Of these, 73 (87%) also had negative static images. Knowing the nature of the primary tumor did not definitively aid in predicting whether hepatic meastases would have detectable early flow. Five cases showed early flow without defects seen in the static images. Three of these were probably related to lymphomas or allied disorders with altered flow. Two cases were in individuals with gastric carcinoma who had abdoninal radiation. One extrahepatic tumor was detected in the series.  (+info)

Psoriatic arthritis complicating lung cancer. (6/348)

Psoriatic arthritis is an inflammatory arthritis associated with psoriasis. While an elevated incidence of lung cancer has been observed in patients with RA or psoriasis, there has been no report of psoriatic arthritis associated with lung cancer. We here report the first case of psoriatic arthritis which developed lung cancer. In this case, it was suspected that a combination of cigarette smoking, pulmonary fibrosis, and low-dose methotrexate therapy might have promoted the development of lung cancer.  (+info)

Normal bronchial epithelial cell expression of glutathione transferase P1, glutathione transferase M3, and glutathione peroxidase is low in subjects with bronchogenic carcinoma. (7/348)

Normal bronchial epithelial cells (NBECs) are at risk for damage from inhaled and endogenous oxidative species and from epoxide metabolites of inhaled polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Epidemiological and in vitro data suggest that interindividual variation in this risk may result from variation in NBEC expression of enzymes that inactivate reactive species by conjugating them to glutathione. Quantitative competitive reverse transcription-PCR was used to measure mRNA levels of glutathione transferases (GSTs) and glutathione peroxidases (GSHPxs) in primary NBECs from subjects with or without bronchogenic carcinoma. Mean expression levels (mRNA/10(3) beta-actin mRNA) in NBECs from 23 subjects without bronchogenic carcinoma compared to those from 11 subjects with bronchogenic carcinoma respectively (in parentheses) were: mGST (26.0, 6.11), GSTM3 (0.29, 0.09), combined GSTM1,2,4,5 (0.98, 0.60), GSTT1 (0.84, 0.76), GSTP1 (287, 110), GSHPx (140, 62.1), and GSHPxA (0.43, 0.34). Levels of GSTP1, GSTM3, and GSHPx were significantly (P < 0.05) lower in NBECs from subjects with bronchogenic carcinoma. Further, the gene expression index formed by multiplying the values for mGST x GSTM3 x GSHPx x GSHPxA x GSTP1 had a sensitivity (90%) and specificity (76%) for detecting NBECs from bronchogenic carcinoma subjects that was better than any individual gene. In cultured NBECs derived from eight individuals without bronchogenic carcinoma and incubated under identical conditions such that environmental effects were minimized, the mean level of expression and degree of interindividual variation for each gene evaluated was less than that observed in primary NBECs. Data from these studies support the hypotheses that (a) interindividual variation in risk for bronchogenic carcinoma results in part from interindividual variation in NBEC expression of antioxidant genes; (b) gene expression indices will better identify individuals at risk for bronchogenic carcinoma than individual gene expression values; and (c) both hereditary and environmental exposures contribute to the level of and interindividual variation in gene expression observed in primary NBECs. Many epidemiological studies have been designed to evaluate risk associated with polymorphisms or gene expression levels of putative susceptibility genes based on measurements in surrogate tissues, such as peripheral blood lymphocytes. Based on data presented here, it will be important to include the assessment of NBECs in future studies. Measurement of antioxidant gene expression in NBECs may identify the 5-10% of individuals at risk for bronchogenic carcinoma. Bronchoscopic sampling of NBECs from smokers and ex-smokers then will allow susceptible individuals to be entered into surveillance and/or chemoprevention studies.  (+info)

Four decades of surgery for bronchogenic carcinoma in one centre. (8/348)

Since the authors' initial experience in the surgical management of bronchogenic carcinoma in 1956, more than 40 years have passed. The purpose of this report was to review the authors' data and compare the results by decade (1956-1966; 1967-1976; 1977-1986; and 1987-1996) in order to assess the changing patterns in bronchogenic carcinoma. A total of 1,597 thoracotomies have been performed. Between the first and last decades of the study, patients' mean age increased from 57 to 63 yrs, the ratio of males to females decreased from 19:1 to 3:1 and the proportion of adenocarcinoma cases increased from 10 to 34%. The operative mortality decreased from 10% in 1967- 1976 to 4% in 1987-1996 and the overall 5-yr survival improved from 27 to 36% during the same period. The rate of lobectomy progressively increased from 32% in 1956-1966 to 61% in 1987-1996, whereas that of pneumonectomy and exploratory thoracotomy decreased from 42 to 28% and from 20 to 4%, respectively. Changing patterns of patient characteristics, histology and type of surgery were associated with a constant improvement in the overall 5-yr survival. This improvement was particularly evident among patients with advanced-stage carcinoma.  (+info)

  • Despite extensive research, the role of the commonly employed tumour markers in the diagnosis of lung carcinoma is yet to be clarified. (ersjournals.com)
  • During a 12-year period, bilobectomy was performed on 166 patients for the treatment of primary lung carcinoma: 108 patients (65%) underwent right upper and middle lobectomy, while 58 patients (35%) underwent right middle and lower lobectomy. (elsevier.com)
  • Right lung upper lobe apical segment bronchogenic cancer with pleural invasion as well as malignant mediastinal and right hilar metastatic lymphadenopathy and right pleural effusion . (radiopaedia.org)
  • The utility of a new marker, CYFRA 21-1, in the preoperative evaluation of patients with bronchogenic carcinoma was investigated. (ersjournals.com)
  • We present a case of cisplatin and etoposide-induced myocardial infarction (MI) during the second cycle of chemotherapy for bronchogenic carcinoma of the left lung (small cell carcinoma). (elsevier.com)
  • This is the reason why lung cancers are sometimes called bronchogenic cancers or bronchogenic carcinomas. (medigence.com)
  • pmid: On effects predaj viagra side a compatible clinical picture in a hypoxic environment, a carcinoma, germ cell tumors. (goodbelly.com)