Carcinoma: A malignant neoplasm made up of epithelial cells tending to infiltrate the surrounding tissues and give rise to metastases. It is a histological type of neoplasm but is often wrongly used as a synonym for "cancer." (From Dorland, 27th ed)Carcinoma, Squamous Cell: A carcinoma derived from stratified SQUAMOUS EPITHELIAL CELLS. It may also occur in sites where glandular or columnar epithelium is normally present. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Carcinoma, Hepatocellular: A primary malignant neoplasm of epithelial liver cells. It ranges from a well-differentiated tumor with EPITHELIAL CELLS indistinguishable from normal HEPATOCYTES to a poorly differentiated neoplasm. The cells may be uniform or markedly pleomorphic, or form GIANT CELLS. Several classification schemes have been suggested.Carcinoma in Situ: A lesion with cytological characteristics associated with invasive carcinoma but the tumor cells are confined to the epithelium of origin, without invasion of the basement membrane.Carcinoma, Papillary: A malignant neoplasm characterized by the formation of numerous, irregular, finger-like projections of fibrous stroma that is covered with a surface layer of neoplastic epithelial cells. (Stedman, 25th ed)Liver Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the LIVER.Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast: An invasive (infiltrating) CARCINOMA of the mammary ductal system (MAMMARY GLANDS) in the human BREAST.Carcinoma, Basal Cell: A malignant skin neoplasm that seldom metastasizes but has potentialities for local invasion and destruction. Clinically it is divided into types: nodular, cicatricial, morphaic, and erythematoid (pagetoid). They develop on hair-bearing skin, most commonly on sun-exposed areas. Approximately 85% are found on the head and neck area and the remaining 15% on the trunk and limbs. (From DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1471)Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Carcinoma, Transitional Cell: A malignant neoplasm derived from TRANSITIONAL EPITHELIAL CELLS, occurring chiefly in the URINARY BLADDER; URETERS; or RENAL PELVIS.Carcinoma, Bronchogenic: Malignant neoplasm arising from the epithelium of the BRONCHI. It represents a large group of epithelial lung malignancies which can be divided into two clinical groups: SMALL CELL LUNG CANCER and NON-SMALL-CELL LUNG CARCINOMA.Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating: A noninvasive (noninfiltrating) carcinoma of the breast characterized by a proliferation of malignant epithelial cells confined to the mammary ducts or lobules, without light-microscopy evidence of invasion through the basement membrane into the surrounding stroma.Carcinoma, Adenoid Cystic: Carcinoma characterized by bands or cylinders of hyalinized or mucinous stroma separating or surrounded by nests or cords of small epithelial cells. When the cylinders occur within masses of epithelial cells, they give the tissue a perforated, sievelike, or cribriform appearance. Such tumors occur in the mammary glands, the mucous glands of the upper and lower respiratory tract, and the salivary glands. They are malignant but slow-growing, and tend to spread locally via the nerves. (Dorland, 27th ed)Carcinoma, Small Cell: An anaplastic, highly malignant, and usually bronchogenic carcinoma composed of small ovoid cells with scanty neoplasm. It is characterized by a dominant, deeply basophilic nucleus, and absent or indistinct nucleoli. (From Stedman, 25th ed; Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1286-7)Tumor Markers, Biological: Molecular products metabolized and secreted by neoplastic tissue and characterized biochemically in cells or body fluids. They are indicators of tumor stage and grade as well as useful for monitoring responses to treatment and predicting recurrence. Many chemical groups are represented including hormones, antigens, amino and nucleic acids, enzymes, polyamines, and specific cell membrane proteins and lipids.Carcinoma, Medullary: A carcinoma composed mainly of epithelial elements with little or no stroma. Medullary carcinomas of the breast constitute 5%-7% of all mammary carcinomas; medullary carcinomas of the thyroid comprise 3%-10% of all thyroid malignancies. (From Dorland, 27th ed; DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1141; Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Adenocarcinoma: A malignant epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.Carcinoma, Lobular: A infiltrating (invasive) breast cancer, relatively uncommon, accounting for only 5%-10% of breast tumors in most series. It is often an area of ill-defined thickening in the breast, in contrast to the dominant lump characteristic of ductal carcinoma. It is typically composed of small cells in a linear arrangement with a tendency to grow around ducts and lobules. There is likelihood of axillary nodal involvement with metastasis to meningeal and serosal surfaces. (DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1205)Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine: A group of carcinomas which share a characteristic morphology, often being composed of clusters and trabecular sheets of round "blue cells", granular chromatin, and an attenuated rim of poorly demarcated cytoplasm. Neuroendocrine tumors include carcinoids, small ("oat") cell carcinomas, medullary carcinoma of the thyroid, Merkel cell tumor, cutaneous neuroendocrine carcinoma, pancreatic islet cell tumors, and pheochromocytoma. Neurosecretory granules are found within the tumor cells. (Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Neoplasm Invasiveness: Ability of neoplasms to infiltrate and actively destroy surrounding tissue.Nasopharyngeal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the NASOPHARYNX.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Prognosis: A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.Thyroid Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the THYROID GLAND.Breast Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.Neoplasm Staging: Methods which attempt to express in replicable terms the extent of the neoplasm in the patient.Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Lung Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the LUNG.Carcinoma, Mucoepidermoid: A tumor of both low- and high-grade malignancy. The low-grade grow slowly, appear in any age group, and are readily cured by excision. The high-grade behave aggressively, widely infiltrate the salivary gland and produce lymph node and distant metastases. Mucoepidermoid carcinomas account for about 21% of the malignant tumors of the parotid gland and 10% of the sublingual gland. They are the most common malignant tumor of the parotid. (From DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p575; Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1240)Carcinoma, Adenosquamous: A mixed adenocarcinoma and squamous cell or epidermoid carcinoma.Carcinoma, Endometrioid: An adenocarcinoma characterized by the presence of cells resembling the glandular cells of the ENDOMETRIUM. It is a common histological type of ovarian CARCINOMA and ENDOMETRIAL CARCINOMA. There is a high frequency of co-occurrence of this form of adenocarcinoma in both tissues.Head and Neck Neoplasms: Soft tissue tumors or cancer arising from the mucosal surfaces of the LIP; oral cavity; PHARYNX; LARYNX; and cervical esophagus. Other sites included are the NOSE and PARANASAL SINUSES; SALIVARY GLANDS; THYROID GLAND and PARATHYROID GLANDS; and MELANOMA and non-melanoma skin cancers of the head and neck. (from Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 4th ed, p1651)Carcinoma, Embryonal: A highly malignant, primitive form of carcinoma, probably of germinal cell or teratomatous derivation, usually arising in a gonad and rarely in other sites. It is rare in the female ovary, but in the male it accounts for 20% of all testicular tumors. (From Dorland, 27th ed & Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1595)Esophageal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the ESOPHAGUS.Mouth Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the MOUTH.Carcinoma, Merkel Cell: A carcinoma arising from MERKEL CELLS located in the basal layer of the epidermis and occurring most commonly as a primary neuroendocrine carcinoma of the skin. Merkel cells are tactile cells of neuroectodermal origin and histologically show neurosecretory granules. The skin of the head and neck are a common site of Merkel cell carcinoma, occurring generally in elderly patients. (Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1245)Carcinoma, Ductal: Malignant neoplasms involving the ductal systems of any of a number of organs, such as the MAMMARY GLANDS, the PANCREAS, the PROSTATE, or the LACRIMAL GLAND.Lymphatic Metastasis: Transfer of a neoplasm from its primary site to lymph nodes or to distant parts of the body by way of the lymphatic system.Ovarian Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the OVARY. These neoplasms can be benign or malignant. They are classified according to the tissue of origin, such as the surface EPITHELIUM, the stromal endocrine cells, and the totipotent GERM CELLS.Adrenocortical Carcinoma: A malignant neoplasm of the ADRENAL CORTEX. Adrenocortical carcinomas are unencapsulated anaplastic (ANAPLASIA) masses sometimes exceeding 20 cm or 200 g. They are more likely to be functional than nonfunctional, and produce ADRENAL CORTEX HORMONES that may result in hypercortisolism (CUSHING SYNDROME); HYPERALDOSTERONISM; and/or VIRILISM.Colonic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the COLON.Carcinoma, Verrucous: A variant of well-differentiated epidermoid carcinoma that is most common in the oral cavity, but also occurs in the larynx, nasal cavity, esophagus, penis, anorectal region, vulva, vagina, uterine cervix, and skin, especially on the sole of the foot. Most intraoral cases occur in elderly male abusers of smokeless tobacco. The treatment is surgical resection. Radiotherapy is not indicated, as up to 30% treated with radiation become highly aggressive within six months. (Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Carcinoma, Signet Ring Cell: A poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma in which the nucleus is pressed to one side by a cytoplasmic droplet of mucus. It usually arises in the gastrointestinal system.Neoplasm Metastasis: The transfer of a neoplasm from one organ or part of the body to another remote from the primary site.Urinary Bladder Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the URINARY BLADDER.Stomach Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the STOMACH.Neoplasm Proteins: Proteins whose abnormal expression (gain or loss) are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS. Some neoplasm proteins are tumor antigens (ANTIGENS, NEOPLASM), i.e. they induce an immune reaction to their tumor. Many neoplasm proteins have been characterized and are used as tumor markers (BIOMARKERS, TUMOR) when they are detectable in cells and body fluids as monitors for the presence or growth of tumors. Abnormal expression of ONCOGENE PROTEINS is involved in neoplastic transformation, whereas the loss of expression of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEINS is involved with the loss of growth control and progression of the neoplasm.Skin Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the SKIN.Neoplasm Recurrence, Local: The local recurrence of a neoplasm following treatment. It arises from microscopic cells of the original neoplasm that have escaped therapeutic intervention and later become clinically visible at the original site.Mice, Nude: Mutant mice homozygous for the recessive gene "nude" which fail to develop a thymus. They are useful in tumor studies and studies on immune responses.Carcinoma, Large Cell: A tumor of undifferentiated (anaplastic) cells of large size. It is usually bronchogenic. (From Dorland, 27th ed)DNA, Neoplasm: DNA present in neoplastic tissue.Laryngeal Neoplasms: Cancers or tumors of the LARYNX or any of its parts: the GLOTTIS; EPIGLOTTIS; LARYNGEAL CARTILAGES; LARYNGEAL MUSCLES; and VOCAL CORDS.Antineoplastic Agents: Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Uterine Cervical Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the UTERINE CERVIX.Immunoenzyme Techniques: Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Neoplasm Transplantation: Experimental transplantation of neoplasms in laboratory animals for research purposes.Neoplasms, Multiple Primary: Two or more abnormal growths of tissue occurring simultaneously and presumed to be of separate origin. The neoplasms may be histologically the same or different, and may be found in the same or different sites.Survival Rate: The proportion of survivors in a group, e.g., of patients, studied and followed over a period, or the proportion of persons in a specified group alive at the beginning of a time interval who survive to the end of the interval. It is often studied using life table methods.Adenocarcinoma, Follicular: An adenocarcinoma of the thyroid gland, in which the cells are arranged in the form of follicles. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Survival Analysis: A class of statistical procedures for estimating the survival function (function of time, starting with a population 100% well at a given time and providing the percentage of the population still well at later times). The survival analysis is then used for making inferences about the effects of treatments, prognostic factors, exposures, and other covariates on the function.Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous: An adenocarcinoma producing mucin in significant amounts. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Antigens, Neoplasm: Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.Embryonal Carcinoma Stem Cells: The malignant stem cells of TERATOCARCINOMAS, which resemble pluripotent stem cells of the BLASTOCYST INNER CELL MASS. The EC cells can be grown in vitro, and experimentally induced to differentiate. They are used as a model system for studying early embryonic cell differentiation.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Precancerous Conditions: Pathological processes that tend eventually to become malignant. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Carcinoma, Papillary, Follicular: A thyroid neoplasm of mixed papillary and follicular arrangement. Its biological behavior and prognosis is the same as that of a papillary adenocarcinoma of the thyroid. (From DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1271)Gallbladder Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the gallbladder.Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung: A heterogeneous aggregate of at least three distinct histological types of lung cancer, including SQUAMOUS CELL CARCINOMA; ADENOCARCINOMA; and LARGE CELL CARCINOMA. They are dealt with collectively because of their shared treatment strategy.Tumor Suppressor Protein p53: Nuclear phosphoprotein encoded by the p53 gene (GENES, P53) whose normal function is to control CELL PROLIFERATION and APOPTOSIS. A mutant or absent p53 protein has been found in LEUKEMIA; OSTEOSARCOMA; LUNG CANCER; and COLORECTAL CANCER.Endometrial Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of ENDOMETRIUM, the mucous lining of the UTERUS. These neoplasms can be benign or malignant. Their classification and grading are based on the various cell types and the percent of undifferentiated cells.Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell: An adenocarcinoma characterized by the presence of varying combinations of clear and hobnail-shaped tumor cells. There are three predominant patterns described as tubulocystic, solid, and papillary. These tumors, usually located in the female reproductive organs, have been seen more frequently in young women since 1970 as a result of the association with intrauterine exposure to diethylstilbestrol. (From Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed)Disease Progression: The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.Colorectal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the COLON or the RECTUM or both. Risk factors for colorectal cancer include chronic ULCERATIVE COLITIS; FAMILIAL POLYPOSIS COLI; exposure to ASBESTOS; and irradiation of the CERVIX UTERI.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.alpha-Fetoproteins: The first alpha-globulins to appear in mammalian sera during FETAL DEVELOPMENT and the dominant serum proteins in early embryonic life.Tongue Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the TONGUE.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Pancreatic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the PANCREAS. Depending on the types of ISLET CELLS present in the tumors, various hormones can be secreted: GLUCAGON from PANCREATIC ALPHA CELLS; INSULIN from PANCREATIC BETA CELLS; and SOMATOSTATIN from the SOMATOSTATIN-SECRETING CELLS. Most are malignant except the insulin-producing tumors (INSULINOMA).Cystadenocarcinoma, Serous: A malignant cystic or semicystic neoplasm. It often occurs in the ovary and usually bilaterally. The external surface is usually covered with papillary excrescences. Microscopically, the papillary patterns are predominantly epithelial overgrowths with differentiated and undifferentiated papillary serous cystadenocarcinoma cells. Psammoma bodies may be present. The tumor generally adheres to surrounding structures and produces ascites. (From Hughes, Obstetric-Gynecologic Terminology, 1972, p185)Carcinoma, Lewis Lung: A carcinoma discovered by Dr. Margaret R. Lewis of the Wistar Institute in 1951. This tumor originated spontaneously as a carcinoma of the lung of a C57BL mouse. The tumor does not appear to be grossly hemorrhagic and the majority of the tumor tissue is a semifirm homogeneous mass. (From Cancer Chemother Rep 2 1972 Nov;(3)1:325) It is also called 3LL and LLC and is used as a transplantable malignancy.Combined Modality Therapy: The treatment of a disease or condition by several different means simultaneously or sequentially. Chemoimmunotherapy, RADIOIMMUNOTHERAPY, chemoradiotherapy, cryochemotherapy, and SALVAGE THERAPY are seen most frequently, but their combinations with each other and surgery are also used.Bronchial Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the BRONCHI.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Salivary Gland Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the SALIVARY GLANDS.Tissue Array Analysis: The simultaneous analysis of multiple samples of TISSUES or CELLS from BIOPSY or in vitro culture that have been arranged in an array format on slides or microchips.Disease-Free Survival: Period after successful treatment in which there is no appearance of the symptoms or effects of the disease.Keratins: A class of fibrous proteins or scleroproteins that represents the principal constituent of EPIDERMIS; HAIR; NAILS; horny tissues, and the organic matrix of tooth ENAMEL. Two major conformational groups have been characterized, alpha-keratin, whose peptide backbone forms a coiled-coil alpha helical structure consisting of TYPE I KERATIN and a TYPE II KERATIN, and beta-keratin, whose backbone forms a zigzag or pleated sheet structure. alpha-Keratins have been classified into at least 20 subtypes. In addition multiple isoforms of subtypes have been found which may be due to GENE DUPLICATION.Cisplatin: An inorganic and water-soluble platinum complex. After undergoing hydrolysis, it reacts with DNA to produce both intra and interstrand crosslinks. These crosslinks appear to impair replication and transcription of DNA. The cytotoxicity of cisplatin correlates with cellular arrest in the G2 phase of the cell cycle.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.RNA, Neoplasm: RNA present in neoplastic tissue.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Cell Transformation, Neoplastic: Cell changes manifested by escape from control mechanisms, increased growth potential, alterations in the cell surface, karyotypic abnormalities, morphological and biochemical deviations from the norm, and other attributes conferring the ability to invade, metastasize, and kill.Transplantation, Heterologous: Transplantation between animals of different species.Biopsy: Removal and pathologic examination of specimens in the form of small pieces of tissue from the living body.Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Ki-67 Antigen: A CELL CYCLE and tumor growth marker which can be readily detected using IMMUNOCYTOCHEMISTRY methods. Ki-67 is a nuclear antigen present only in the nuclei of cycling cells.Genes, p53: Tumor suppressor genes located on the short arm of human chromosome 17 and coding for the phosphoprotein p53.Adenocarcinoma, Papillary: An adenocarcinoma containing finger-like processes of vascular connective tissue covered by neoplastic epithelium, projecting into cysts or the cavity of glands or follicles. It occurs most frequently in the ovary and thyroid gland. (Stedman, 25th ed)Chemoembolization, Therapeutic: Administration of antineoplastic agents together with an embolizing vehicle. This allows slow release of the agent as well as obstruction of the blood supply to the neoplasm.Fatal Outcome: Death resulting from the presence of a disease in an individual, as shown by a single case report or a limited number of patients. This should be differentiated from DEATH, the physiological cessation of life and from MORTALITY, an epidemiological or statistical concept.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Loss of Heterozygosity: The loss of one allele at a specific locus, caused by a deletion mutation; or loss of a chromosome from a chromosome pair, resulting in abnormal HEMIZYGOSITY. It is detected when heterozygous markers for a locus appear monomorphic because one of the ALLELES was deleted.Mammary Neoplasms, Experimental: Experimentally induced mammary neoplasms in animals to provide a model for studying human BREAST NEOPLASMS.Kaplan-Meier Estimate: A nonparametric method of compiling LIFE TABLES or survival tables. It combines calculated probabilities of survival and estimates to allow for observations occurring beyond a measurement threshold, which are assumed to occur randomly. Time intervals are defined as ending each time an event occurs and are therefore unequal. (From Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1995)Neovascularization, Pathologic: A pathologic process consisting of the proliferation of blood vessels in abnormal tissues or in abnormal positions.Carcinoma, Basosquamous: A skin carcinoma that histologically exhibits both basal and squamous elements. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Receptor, erbB-2: A cell surface protein-tyrosine kinase receptor that is overexpressed in a variety of ADENOCARCINOMAS. It has extensive homology to and heterodimerizes with the EGF RECEPTOR, the ERBB-3 RECEPTOR, and the ERBB-4 RECEPTOR. Activation of the erbB-2 receptor occurs through heterodimer formation with a ligand-bound erbB receptor family member.Thyroidectomy: Surgical removal of the thyroid gland. (Dorland, 28th ed)Carcinoembryonic Antigen: A glycoprotein that is secreted into the luminal surface of the epithelia in the gastrointestinal tract. It is found in the feces and pancreaticobiliary secretions and is used to monitor the response to colon cancer treatment.Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols: The use of two or more chemicals simultaneously or sequentially in the drug therapy of neoplasms. The drugs need not be in the same dosage form.Genes, Tumor Suppressor: Genes that inhibit expression of the tumorigenic phenotype. They are normally involved in holding cellular growth in check. When tumor suppressor genes are inactivated or lost, a barrier to normal proliferation is removed and unregulated growth is possible.Neoplasms, Experimental: Experimentally induced new abnormal growth of TISSUES in animals to provide models for studying human neoplasms.Breast: In humans, one of the paired regions in the anterior portion of the THORAX. The breasts consist of the MAMMARY GLANDS, the SKIN, the MUSCLES, the ADIPOSE TISSUE, and the CONNECTIVE TISSUES.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Cadherins: Calcium-dependent cell adhesion proteins. They are important in the formation of ADHERENS JUNCTIONS between cells. Cadherins are classified by their distinct immunological and tissue specificities, either by letters (E- for epithelial, N- for neural, and P- for placental cadherins) or by numbers (cadherin-12 or N-cadherin 2 for brain-cadherin). Cadherins promote cell adhesion via a homophilic mechanism as in the construction of tissues and of the whole animal body.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Papillomaviridae: A family of small, non-enveloped DNA viruses infecting birds and most mammals, especially humans. They are grouped into multiple genera, but the viruses are highly host-species specific and tissue-restricted. They are commonly divided into hundreds of papillomavirus "types", each with specific gene function and gene control regions, despite sequence homology. Human papillomaviruses are found in the genera ALPHAPAPILLOMAVIRUS; BETAPAPILLOMAVIRUS; GAMMAPAPILLOMAVIRUS; and MUPAPILLOMAVIRUS.Rectal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the RECTUM.Adenocarcinoma, Bronchiolo-Alveolar: A carcinoma thought to be derived from epithelium of terminal bronchioles, in which the neoplastic tissue extends along the alveolar walls and grows in small masses within the alveoli. Involvement may be uniformly diffuse and massive, or nodular, or lobular. The neoplastic cells are cuboidal or columnar and form papillary structures. Mucin may be demonstrated in some of the cells and in the material in the alveoli, which also includes denuded cells. Metastases in regional lymph nodes, and in even more distant sites, are known to occur, but are infrequent. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Tumor Suppressor Proteins: Proteins that are normally involved in holding cellular growth in check. Deficiencies or abnormalities in these proteins may lead to unregulated cell growth and tumor development.Liver Neoplasms, Experimental: Experimentally induced tumors of the LIVER.Carcinoma, Pancreatic Ductal: Carcinoma that arises from the PANCREATIC DUCTS. It accounts for the majority of cancers derived from the PANCREAS.Liver Cirrhosis: Liver disease in which the normal microcirculation, the gross vascular anatomy, and the hepatic architecture have been variably destroyed and altered with fibrous septa surrounding regenerated or regenerating parenchymal nodules.Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms: Tumors or cancers of the ADRENAL CORTEX.Urothelium: The epithelial lining of the URINARY TRACT.Vulvar Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the VULVA.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Oropharyngeal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the OROPHARYNX.Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor: A cell surface receptor involved in regulation of cell growth and differentiation. It is specific for EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR and EGF-related peptides including TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR ALPHA; AMPHIREGULIN; and HEPARIN-BINDING EGF-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR. The binding of ligand to the receptor causes activation of its intrinsic tyrosine kinase activity and rapid internalization of the receptor-ligand complex into the cell.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Tumor Burden: The total amount (cell number, weight, size or volume) of tumor cells or tissue in the body.Fluorouracil: A pyrimidine analog that is an antineoplastic antimetabolite. It interferes with DNA synthesis by blocking the THYMIDYLATE SYNTHETASE conversion of deoxyuridylic acid to thymidylic acid.Down-Regulation: A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Hyperplasia: An increase in the number of cells in a tissue or organ without tumor formation. It differs from HYPERTROPHY, which is an increase in bulk without an increase in the number of cells.Receptors, Estrogen: Cytoplasmic proteins that bind estrogens and migrate to the nucleus where they regulate DNA transcription. Evaluation of the state of estrogen receptors in breast cancer patients has become clinically important.Phenylurea Compounds: Compounds that include the amino-N-phenylamide structure.Xenograft Model Antitumor Assays: In vivo methods of screening investigative anticancer drugs, biologic response modifiers or radiotherapies. Human tumor tissue or cells are transplanted into mice or rats followed by tumor treatment regimens. A variety of outcomes are monitored to assess antitumor effectiveness.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Neoplasm Grading: Methods which attempt to express in replicable terms the level of CELL DIFFERENTIATION in neoplasms as increasing ANAPLASIA correlates with the aggressiveness of the neoplasm.Bile Duct Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the BILE DUCTS.Carcinoma, Giant Cell: An epithelial neoplasm characterized by unusually large anaplastic cells. It is highly malignant with fulminant clinical course, bizarre histologic appearance and poor prognosis. It is most common in the lung and thyroid. (From Stedman, 25th ed & Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Urologic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the URINARY TRACT in either the male or the female.Niacinamide: An important compound functioning as a component of the coenzyme NAD. Its primary significance is in the prevention and/or cure of blacktongue and PELLAGRA. Most animals cannot manufacture this compound in amounts sufficient to prevent nutritional deficiency and it therefore must be supplemented through dietary intake.Gene Amplification: A selective increase in the number of copies of a gene coding for a specific protein without a proportional increase in other genes. It occurs naturally via the excision of a copy of the repeating sequence from the chromosome and its extrachromosomal replication in a plasmid, or via the production of an RNA transcript of the entire repeating sequence of ribosomal RNA followed by the reverse transcription of the molecule to produce an additional copy of the original DNA sequence. Laboratory techniques have been introduced for inducing disproportional replication by unequal crossing over, uptake of DNA from lysed cells, or generation of extrachromosomal sequences from rolling circle replication.Papilloma: A circumscribed benign epithelial tumor projecting from the surrounding surface; more precisely, a benign epithelial neoplasm consisting of villous or arborescent outgrowths of fibrovascular stroma covered by neoplastic cells. (Stedman, 25th ed)Keratin-7: A type II keratin found associated with KERATIN-19 in ductal epithelia and gastrointestinal epithelia.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence: A type of IN SITU HYBRIDIZATION in which target sequences are stained with fluorescent dye so their location and size can be determined using fluorescence microscopy. This staining is sufficiently distinct that the hybridization signal can be seen both in metaphase spreads and in interphase nuclei.Benzenesulfonates: Organic salts and esters of benzenesulfonic acid.Ureteral Neoplasms: Cancer or tumors of the URETER which may cause obstruction leading to hydroureter, HYDRONEPHROSIS, and PYELONEPHRITIS. HEMATURIA is a common symptom.Lymph Nodes: They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.DNA Mutational Analysis: Biochemical identification of mutational changes in a nucleotide sequence.Hepatectomy: Excision of all or part of the liver. (Dorland, 28th ed)Mice, Inbred BALB CUp-Regulation: A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Cell Survival: The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.Nephrectomy: Excision of kidney.Predictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.Proto-Oncogene Proteins: Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Adenoma, Oxyphilic: A usually benign glandular tumor composed of oxyphil cells, large cells with small irregular nuclei and dense acidophilic granules due to the presence of abundant MITOCHONDRIA. Oxyphil cells, also known as oncocytes, are found in oncocytomas of the kidney, salivary glands, and endocrine glands. In the thyroid gland, oxyphil cells are known as Hurthle cells and Askanazy cells.Carcinosarcoma: A malignant neoplasm that contains elements of carcinoma and sarcoma so extensively intermixed as to indicate neoplasia of epithelial and mesenchymal tissue. (Stedman, 25th ed)Neoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.Microsatellite Repeats: A variety of simple repeat sequences that are distributed throughout the GENOME. They are characterized by a short repeat unit of 2-8 basepairs that is repeated up to 100 times. They are also known as short tandem repeats (STRs).Adenocarcinoma, Scirrhous: An adenocarcinoma with a hard (Greek skirrhos, hard) structure owing to the formation of dense connective tissue in the stroma. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Eyelid Neoplasms: Tumors of cancer of the EYELIDS.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 3: A specific pair of human chromosomes in group A (CHROMOSOMES, HUMAN, 1-3) of the human chromosome classification.Papillomavirus Infections: Neoplasms of the skin and mucous membranes caused by papillomaviruses. They are usually benign but some have a high risk for malignant progression.Multivariate Analysis: A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.Carcinoma, Ehrlich Tumor: A transplantable, poorly differentiated malignant tumor which appeared originally as a spontaneous breast carcinoma in a mouse. It grows in both solid and ascitic forms.Mucin-1: Carbohydrate antigen elevated in patients with tumors of the breast, ovary, lung, and prostate as well as other disorders. The mucin is expressed normally by most glandular epithelia but shows particularly increased expression in the breast at lactation and in malignancy. It is thus an established serum marker for breast cancer.Cell Movement: The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.In Situ Hybridization: A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Teratoma: A true neoplasm composed of a number of different types of tissue, none of which is native to the area in which it occurs. It is composed of tissues that are derived from three germinal layers, the endoderm, mesoderm, and ectoderm. They are classified histologically as mature (benign) or immature (malignant). (From DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1642)Cystadenocarcinoma, Papillary: An adenocarcinoma in which the tumor elements are arranged as finger-like processes or as a solid spherical nodule projecting from an epithelial surface.Ampulla of Vater: A dilation of the duodenal papilla that is the opening of the juncture of the COMMON BILE DUCT and the MAIN PANCREATIC DUCT, also known as the hepatopancreatic ampulla.Nuclear Proteins: Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis: Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.Neoplasms, Squamous Cell: Neoplasms of the SQUAMOUS EPITHELIAL CELLS. The concept does not refer to neoplasms located in tissue composed of squamous elements.Carcinoma, Skin Appendage: A malignant tumor of the skin appendages, which include the hair, nails, sebaceous glands, sweat glands, and the mammary glands. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Common Bile Duct Neoplasms: Tumor or cancer of the COMMON BILE DUCT including the AMPULLA OF VATER and the SPHINCTER OF ODDI.Mammary Neoplasms, Animal: Tumors or cancer of the MAMMARY GLAND in animals (MAMMARY GLANDS, ANIMAL).RNA, Small Interfering: Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.Polymorphism, Single-Stranded Conformational: Variation in a population's DNA sequence that is detected by determining alterations in the conformation of denatured DNA fragments. Denatured DNA fragments are allowed to renature under conditions that prevent the formation of double-stranded DNA and allow secondary structure to form in single stranded fragments. These fragments are then run through polyacrylamide gels to detect variations in the secondary structure that is manifested as an alteration in migration through the gels.Pharyngeal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the PHARYNX.Iodine Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of iodine that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. I atoms with atomic weights 117-139, except I 127, are radioactive iodine isotopes.Hypopharyngeal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the HYPOPHARYNX.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.

Immune responses to all ErbB family receptors detectable in serum of cancer patients. (1/8912)

Employing NIH3T3 transfectants with individual human ErbB receptor coding sequences as recombinant antigen sources, we detected by immunoblot analysis specific immunoreactivity against all four ErbB receptors among 13 of 41 sera obtained from patients with different types of epithelial malignancies. Overall, serum positivity was most frequently directed against ErbB2 followed by EGFR, ErbB3 and ErbB4. Specificity patterns comprised tumor patients with unique serum reactivity against ErbB2 or ErbB4. Moreover, approximately half of the positive sera exhibited concomitant reactivity with multiple ErbB receptors including EGFR and ErbB2, EGFR and ErbB4, ErbB2 and ErbB3 or EGFR, ErbB2 and ErbB3. Serum reactivity was confirmed for the respective ErbB receptors expressed by human tumor cells and corroborated on receptor-specific immunoprecipitates. Positive sera contained ErbB-specific antibodies of the IgG isotype. Representative immunohistochemical analysis of tumor tissues suggested overexpression of ErbB receptors for which serum antibodies were detectable in five of six patients. These findings implicate multiple ErbB receptors including ErbB3 and ErbB4 in addition to EGFR and ErbB2 in primary human cancer. Heterogeneity of natural ErbB-specific responses in cancer patients warrants their evaluation in light of immunotherapeutic approaches targeting these receptors.  (+info)

Development of a sensitive, specific reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction-based assay for epithelial tumour cells in effusions. (2/8912)

We developed a sensitive and specific method for the detection of epithelial cancer cells in effusions with a two-stage molecular-based assay which combined enrichment for cancer cells by immunomagnetic bead selection and reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) detection of epithelial glycoprotein 2 (EGP-2) RNA. Preliminary experiments indicated that immunobead selection was essential to avoid occasional false-positive RT-PCR results, and this method detected ten breast cancer cells electively added to 10(7) cytologically negative effusion cells. We studied 110 cases of pleural (n = 68) and peritoneal (n = 42) effusions (30 from patients with known carcinoma and 80 from those without known carcinoma), and the results were compared with cytological findings. Of 18 effusions that were cytologically positive or suspicious for malignant cells, 17 (94%) were positive for EGP-2 RNA (the one negative sample was from a patient who recently received combination chemotherapy). Of 92 cytologically negative samples, 11 (12%) were positive for EGP-2, including six patients with a history of previous or current carcinoma. Our method appears to be highly specific and increases the sensitivity of detection of malignant cells; it may be a useful adjunct to routine cytopathological examination.  (+info)

Genomic structure and alterations of homeobox gene CDX2 in colorectal carcinomas. (3/8912)

Expression of CDX2, a caudal-related homeobox gene, was found to be decreased in colorectal carcinomas. Heterozygous null mutant mice as to Cdx2 develop multiple intestinal adenomatous polyps. To clarify the role of CDX2 in colorectal carcinogenesis, we determined its genomic structure, and searched for mutations of CDX2 in 49 sporadic colorectal carcinomas and ten hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancers (HNPCC) without microsatellite instability. None of them exhibited a mutation. We further examined 19 HNPCC carcinomas with microsatellite instability for mutations in a (G)7 repeat site within CDX2. One of them (5.3%) exhibited one G insertion. Loss of heterozygosity was observed in 2 of the 20 (10%) informative sporadic carcinomas, and in one of the three (33.3%) informative HNPCC cancers. These data indicate that CDX2 may play only a minor role in colorectal carcinogenesis.  (+info)

Analysis of TSG101 tumour susceptibility gene transcripts in cervical and endometrial cancers. (4/8912)

Carcinoma of the uterine cervix is a common malignancy among women that has been found to show loss of heterozygosity in the chromosome 11p. Recent studies have localized the TSG101 gene in this region, and also demonstrated a high frequency of abnormalities of this gene in human breast cancer. To determine the role of the TSG101 gene in the carcinogenesis of cervical and uterine carcinoma, 19 cases of cervical carcinoma and five cases of endometrial carcinoma, as well as nearby non-cancerous tissue from the same patients, and 16 blood samples from healthy persons as normal control were analysed by Southern blot analysis of genomic DNA, reverse transcription of the TSG101 mRNA followed by PCR amplification and sequencing of the products. We found that abnormal transcripts of the TSG101 gene were common both in cancerous or non-cancerous tissues of the uterus and cervix and in normal peripheral mononuclear cells. There was no genomic deletion or rearrangement in spite of the presence of abnormal transcripts, and no definite relationship between the abnormal transcripts and HPV infection was found. Although the frequency of abnormal transcripts was higher in cancerous than in non-cancerous tissue, normal peripheral mononuclear cells also had abnormal transcripts. Given these findings, the role of the TSG101 gene as a tumour-suppressor gene should be re-evaluated. Because some aberrant transcripts could be found at the first PCR reaction, we suggest that the aberrant transcripts might be the result of imperfect minor splicesome products.  (+info)

Intensive weekly chemotherapy is not effective in advanced pancreatic cancer patients: a report from the Italian Group for the Study of Digestive Tract Cancer (GISCAD). (5/8912)

Twenty-two patients, with locally advanced unresectable and/or metastatic pancreatic carcinoma, received weekly administration of cisplatin 40 mg m(-2), 5-fluorouracil 500 mg m(-2), epidoxorubicin 35 mg m(-2), 6S stereoisomer of leucovorin 250 mg m(-2) and glutathione 1.5 mg m(-2), supported by a daily administration of lenograstim at a dose of 5 microg kg(-1). Nineteen patients were men and three were women. Median age was 63 years (range 47-70). At study entry, pain was present in 15 out of 22 patients (68%) with a mean value of Scott-Huskisson scale of 27.6+/-23.8, whereas a weight loss >10% was present in 15 patients. After eight weekly treatments, three partial responses were achieved for a response rate of 13% (95% CI 0-26%), five patients had stable disease and 14 progressed on therapy. Pain was present in 9 out of 22 patients (40%) with a mean value of Scott-Huskisson scale of 12.3+/-18.4. Eight patients (36%) (three partial response and five stable disease) had a positive weight change. Toxicity was mild: WHO grade III or IV toxicity was recorded in terms of anaemia in 7 out of 188 cycles (3.7%), of neutropenia in 9 out of 188 cycles (4.7%) and of thrombocytopenia in 3 out of 188 cycles (1.5%). Median survival of all patients was 6 months. The outcome of this intensive chemotherapy regimen does not support its use in pancreatic cancer.  (+info)

Peritoneal cytology in the surgical evaluation of gastric carcinoma. (6/8912)

Many patients undergoing surgery for gastric carcinoma will develop peritoneal metastases. A method to identify those patients at risk of peritoneal recurrence would help in the selection of patients for adjuvant therapy. Peritoneal cytology has received little attention in the West, but may prove a useful additional means of evaluating patients with gastric cancer. The aims of this study were to evaluate sampling techniques for peritoneal cytology in patients with gastric cancer, to assess the prognostic significance of free peritoneal malignant cells and to discover the effect of the operative procedure on dissemination of malignant cells. The study is based on 85 consecutive patients undergoing surgical treatment of gastric cancer and followed up for 2 years or until death. Peritoneal cytology samples were collected at laparoscopy, and at operation prior to resection by intraperitoneal lavage and serosal brushings. After resection, samples were taken by peritoneal lavage, imprint cytology of the resected specimen and post-operatively by peritoneal irrigation via a percutaneous catheter. Malignant cells were diagnosed by two independent microscopists. Preoperative peritoneal lavage yielded malignant cells in 16 out of 85 cases (19%). The yield of free malignant cells was increased by using serosal brushings (by four cases) and imprint cytology (by two cases); all of the cases had evidence of serosal penetration. One serosa-negative case exhibited positive cytology in the post-resection peritoneal specimen in which the preresection cytology specimen was negative. Survival was worse in the cytology-positive group (chi2 = 25.1; P< 0.0001). Among serosa-positive patients, survival was significantly reduced if cytology was positive, if cases yielded by brushings and imprint cytology were included (log-rank test = 8.44; 1 df, P = 0.004). In conclusion, free peritoneal malignant cells can be identified in patients with gastric cancer who have a poor prognosis; the yield can be increased with brushings and imprint cytology in addition to conventional peritoneal lavage. Evaluation of peritoneal cytology by these methods may have a role in the selection of patients with the poorest prognosis who may benefit most from adjuvant therapy.  (+info)

Loss of heterozygosity (LOH), malignancy grade and clonality in microdissected prostate cancer. (7/8912)

The aim of the present study was to find out whether increasing malignancy of prostate carcinoma correlates with an overall increase of loss of heterozygosity (LOH), and whether LOH typing of microdissected tumour areas can help to distinguish between multifocal or clonal tumour development. In 47 carcinomas analysed at 25 chromosomal loci, the overall LOH rate was found to be significantly lower in grade 1 areas (2.2%) compared with grade 2 (9.4%) and grade 3 areas (8.3%, P = 0.007). A similar tendency was found for the mean fractional allele loss (FAL, 0.043 for grade 1, 0.2 for grade 2 and 0.23 for grade 3, P = 0.0004). Of 20 tumours (65%) with LOH in several microdissected areas, 13 had identical losses at 1-4 loci within two or three areas, suggesting clonal development of these areas. Markers near RB, DCC, BBC1, TP53 and at D13S325 (13q21-22) showed higher loss rates in grades 2 and 3 (between 25% and 44.4%) compared with grade 1 (0-6.6%). Tumour-suppressor genes (TSGs) near these loci might, thus, be important for tumour progression. TP53 mutations were detected in 27%, but BBC1 mutations in only 7%, of samples with LOH. Evaluation of all 25 loci in every tumour made evident that each prostate cancer has its own pattern of allelic losses.  (+info)

Expression of pyrimidine nucleoside phosphorylase mRNA plays an important role in the prognosis of patients with oesophageal cancer. (8/8912)

To clarify the significance of the expression of pyrimidine nucleoside phosphorylase (PyNPase) mRNA as a predictive factor for the prognosis of patients with oesophageal carcinoma, the PyNPase mRNA in the tumours and normal tissues from 55 resected cases of oesophageal carcinoma was examined by a reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). As a result, a positive correlation was observed between the tumour/normal (T/N) ratio of the expression of PyNPase mRNA by RT-PCR and that of the enzyme activity of PyNPase based on the findings of an enzyme linked immunosolvent assay (r = 0.594, P = 0.009). The T/N ratio of the expression of PyNPase mRNA was significantly higher in the cases with lymph vessel invasion (P = 0.013), lymph node metastasis (P = 0.0016), and an advanced stage of the disease (P = 0.021) than those without these factors. The patients with a higher T/N ratio of PyNPase mRNA showed significantly worse prognosis than those with a lower T/N ratio (P = 0.023 with log-rank tests). A multivariate analysis for the cumulative survival rates revealed that a high T/N ratio of the expression of PyNPase mRNA was independently related to a poor prognosis. These findings suggested that the determination of PyNPase mRNA by RT-PCR thus appears to be a new useful parameter for identifying both a poor prognosis and a highly malignant potential of oesophageal carcinoma.  (+info)

*Carcinoma

In some types of carcinomas, Stage 0 carcinoma has been used to describe carcinoma in situ, and occult carcinomas detectable ... Some carcinomas are named for their or the putative cell of origin, (e.g.hepatocellular carcinoma, renal cell carcinoma). ... and sarcomatoid carcinoma (mixtures of spindle and giant cell carcinoma). Pleomorphic carcinoma contains spindle cell and/or ... Hepatocellular carcinoma, NOS (M8200/3) Adenoid cystic carcinoma (M8312/3) Renal cell carcinoma (M8312/3) Grawitz tumor (8390- ...

*Sebaceous carcinoma

Histology may mimic basal cell carcinoma. This type of carcinoma is commonly managed by local resection, cryotherapy, topical ... Sebaceous carcinoma is an uncommon and aggressive malignant cutaneous tumor. Most are typically about 10 mm in size at ... Sebaceous gland carcinoma clearly resembles normal sebaceous glands and is thought to arise from them. Well-differentiated and ... Shields JA, Demirci H, Marr BP, Eagle RC, Shields CL (2005). "Sebaceous carcinoma of the ocular region: a review". Surv ...

*Hepatocellular carcinoma

... transform into the more dangerous hepatocellular carcinoma. Hepatocellular carcinoma, like any other cancer, develops when ... Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common type of primary liver cancer in adults, and is the most common cause of death ... Since hepatitis B or C is one of the main causes of hepatocellular carcinoma, prevention of this infection is key to then ... Treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma varies by the stage of disease, a person's likelihood to tolerate surgery, and ...

*Verrucous carcinoma

... (VC) is an uncommon variant of squamous cell carcinoma. This form of cancer is often seen in those who chew ... Patients with oral verrucous carcinoma may be at greater risk of a second oral squamous cell carcinoma, for which the prognosis ... Verrucous carcinoma may occur in various head and neck locations, as well as in the genitalia. The oral cavity is the most ... Oral verrucous carcinoma. Int J Oral Surg 1985;14:485-92 Koch BB, Trask DK, Hoffman HT, Karnell LH, Robinson RA, Zhen W, Menck ...

*Serous carcinoma

Ovarian serous carcinoma, a type of ovarian cancer. Uterine serous carcinoma, also known as uterine papillary serous carcinoma ... In pathology, serous carcinoma is an epithelial malignancy (carcinoma) that arises from the lining of a cavity that produces a ... Fallopian tube serous carcinoma, a type of uterine tube cancer. Cervical serous carcinoma, a rare type of cervical cancer. ... "Serous Carcinoma: A Detailed Guide". The CG Law Firm. Retrieved 26 October 2014. Dubeau, L. (Dec 2008). "The cell of origin of ...

*Adrenocortical carcinoma

Oncocytic adrenal cortical carcinoma Myxoid adrenal cortical carcinoma Carcinosarcoma Adenosquamous adrenocortical carcinoma ... Adrenocortical carcinoma is a rare tumor, with incidence of 1-2 per million population annually. Adrenocortical carcinoma has a ... Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC, adrenal cortical carcinoma, adrenal cortical cancer, adrenal cortex cancer, etc.) is an ... Adrenocortical adenoma Renal cell carcinoma Adrenal medullary tumors Hepatocellular carcinoma The only curative treatment is ...

*Parathyroid carcinoma

... is a rare malignant neoplasm resulting in parathyroid adenoma to carcinoma progression. It forms in ... Parathyroid carcinoma is sometimes diagnosed during surgery for primary hyperparathyroidism. If the surgeon suspects carcinoma ... Lee JE (July 2005). "Predicting the presence of parathyroid carcinoma". Ann. Surg. Oncol. 12 (7): 513-4. doi:10.1245/ASO. ... Parathyroid cancer entry in the public domain NCI Dictionary of Cancer Terms Parathyroid Carcinoma (Medscape eMedicine) Cancer ...

*Eccrine carcinoma

... (also known as a syringoid carcinoma) is a rare cutaneous condition characterized by a plaque or nodule on ... Microcystic adnexal carcinoma Skin lesion James, William D.; Berger, Timothy G.; et al. (2006). Andrews' Diseases of the Skin: ...

*Ameloblastic carcinoma

... is a rare form of odontogenic tumor, one that develops in the jawbones from the epithelial cells that ... "Ameloblastic Carcinoma - NORD (National Organization for Rare Disorders)". Retrieved 2015-09-22. ...

*Lobular carcinoma

Examples include: Lobular carcinoma in situ Invasive lobular carcinoma "lobular carcinoma" at Dorland's Medical Dictionary. ... Lobular carcinoma is a form of tumor which primarily affects the lobules of a gland. It is sometimes considered equivalent to " ... "terminal duct carcinoma". If not otherwise specified, it generally refers to breast cancer. ...

*Metastatic carcinoma

... is able to grow at sites distant from the primary site of origin; thus, dissemination to the skin may ... The most common malignancy found in bone is metastatic carcinoma. Skin lesion Metastasis James, William; Berger, Timothy; ...

*Thymic carcinoma

JRC:3079 Thymic carcinoma (NOS) JRC:3191 Thymic carcinoma (NOS) JRC:19002 Thymic carcinoma (NOS) JRC:14579 Thymic carcinoma ... Thymic carcinoma is a rare type of thymus gland cancer. It usually spreads, has a high risk of recurrence, and has a poor ... Thymic carcinoma is divided into subtypes, depending on the types of cells in which the cancer began. Also called type C ... Dedicated to Helping Patients with Thymic Cancers Thymic carcinoma entry in the public domain NCI Dictionary of Cancer Terms ...

*Tonsil carcinoma

Carcinoma of the tonsil is a type of squamous cell carcinoma. The tonsil is the most common site of squamous cell carcinoma in ... A study that analyzed the survival rate in HPV-related oropharynx carcinoma to that in HPV-unrelated oropharynx carcinoma. The ... Factors determining the prognosis of tonsillar carcinoma are as follows: Tonsillar carcinoma can be either HPV related or HPV ... "Throat cancer (Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Tonsil)". MyVMC.com. Retrieved 2016-07-16. "Tonsillar carcinoma- a review" (PDF ...

*Mucinous carcinoma

Eccrine carcinoma Microcystic adnexal carcinoma Primary cutaneous adenoid cystic carcinoma List of cutaneous conditions ... Mucinous carcinoma is a type of cancer that arises from epithelial cells; these line certain internal organs and skin, and ... Mucinous carcinoma entry in the public domain NCI Dictionary of Cancer Terms. ... produce mucin (the main component of mucus).[citation needed] When found within the skin, mucinous carcinoma is commonly a ...

*Embryonal carcinoma

Males with embryonal carcinoma tend to have a normal range serum AFP. The finding of elevated AFP is more suggestive of a mixed ... Embryonal carcinoma is a relatively uncommon type of germ cell tumour that occurs in the ovaries and testes. In the ovary, ... In the testis pure embryonal carcinoma is also uncommon, and accounts for approximately ten percent of testicular germ cell ... One fifth to two thirds of patients with tumours composed predominantly of embryonal carcinoma have metastases at diagnosis. ...

*Medullary carcinoma

... most commonly refers to: Medullary thyroid cancer Medullary carcinoma of the breast Medullary carcinoma may ... Medullary carcinoma may refer to one of several different tumors of epithelial origin. As the term "medulla" is a generic ... also refer to tumors of: Pancreas Ampulla of Vater Gallbladder Stomach Large intestine Kidney - Renal medullary carcinoma. ...

*Trichilemmal carcinoma

... (also known as "tricholemmal carcinoma") is a cutaneous condition reported to arise on sun-exposed areas ... carcinoma/rashid.html Onycholemmal carcinoma. Rashid RM, Cutlan JE. Dermatol Online J. 2010 Mar 15;16(3):12.. ...

*Ductal carcinoma

Types include: Mammary Ductal carcinoma in situ Invasive ductal carcinoma Pancreatic ductal carcinoma. ... Ductal carcinoma is a type of tumor that primarily presents in the ducts of a gland. ...

*Mucoepidermoid carcinoma

... is the most common type of minor salivary gland malignancy in adults. Mucoepidermoid carcinoma can ... Primary Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma and Sclerosing Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma with Eosinophilia of the Thyroid Gland: A Report of ... Mucoepidermoid carcinomas of the salivary and bronchial glands are characterized by a recurrent t(11;19)(q21;p13) chromosomal ... H & E stain Histopathologic image of mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the major salivary gland. The same lesion as shown in a ...

*Metaplastic carcinoma

... is cancer that begins in cells that have changed into another cell type (for example, a squamous cell of ... Metaplastic carcinoma is a relatively uncommon type of cancer with treatment generally similar to that of invasive ductal ... Metaplastic carcinoma entry in the public domain NCI Dictionary of Cancer Terms This article incorporates public domain ... carcinoma of no special type. "Metaplastic Breast Cancer". Johns Hopkins Medicine. Johns Hopkins University. 2015-04-22. ...

*Adenosquamous carcinoma

... is a type of cancer that contains two types of cells: squamous cells (thin, flat cells that line ... Adenosquamous carcinoma entry in the public domain NCI Dictionary of Cancer Terms This article incorporates public domain ... Di Como, Joseph A. (October 2015). "Adenosquamous carcinoma of the colon and rectum: a population based clinical outcomes study ... Mahendraraj, Krishnara; Di Como, Joseph A. (October 2014). "Adenosquamous carcinoma of the pancreas: a population based ...

*Sarcomatoid carcinoma

Histological variants of lung cancer classified as sarcomatoid carcinoma include pleomorphic carcinoma, giant cell carcinoma, ... Sarcomatoid carcinoma is a relatively uncommon form of cancer whose malignant cells have histological, cytological, or ... molecular properties of both epithelial tumors ("carcinoma") and mesenchymal tumors ("sarcoma"). ... spindle cell carcinoma, carcinosarcoma, and pulmonary blastoma.. ...

*Anaplastic carcinoma

... is a general term for a malignant neoplasm arising from the uncontrolled proliferation of transformed ... such as the glandular formation or special cellular junctions that are typical of adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma, ...

*Choroid plexus carcinoma

"Choroid plexus carcinoma". Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med. 132 (8): 1350-4. PMID 18684041. Stanislavsky, A. "Choroid plexus carcinoma ... A choroid plexus carcinoma (WHO grade III) is a type of choroid plexus tumor that affects the choroid plexus of the brain. It ... Although choroid plexus carcinomas are significantly more aggressive and have half the survival rate as choroid plexus ... Choroid plexus carcinomas can induce hydrocephalus through a variety of mechanisms, including blockage of normal cerebrospinal ...

*Renal medullary carcinoma

... is a rare type of cancer that affects the kidney. It tends to be aggressive, difficult to treat, and ... Renal medullary carcinoma is extremely rare and it is not currently possible to predict those individuals with sickle cell ... Renal medullary carcinoma has been termed "the seventh sickle cell nephropathy" because it is found almost exclusively in ... Renal medullary carcinoma was first described as a clinicopathologic entity in 1995. Davis, Charles J.; Mostofi, F. K.; ...
Lymphoepithelioma-like carcinoma (LELC) is a medical term referring to a histological variant of malignant tumor arising from the uncontrolled mitosis of transformed cells originating in epithelial tissue (or in cells that display epithelial characteristics) that bear microscopic resemblance to lymphoepithelioma (nasopharyngeal carcinoma). There is considerable variation in the classification of LELC-while it is perhaps most commonly considered a subtype of squamous cell carcinoma, it can also be classified as a form of large cell carcinoma (i.e. when occurring in the lung), and can be considered as a separate, unique entity. In most anatomical sites, many cases are associated with the Epstein-Barr virus. In the breast, the macroscopic, microscopic, epidemiologic, and prognostic features of LELC are very similar to medullary carcinoma; EBV status is one differentiator. Nasopharyngeal carcinoma Lymphoepithelioma Travis, William D; Brambilla, Elisabeth; Muller-Hermelink, H Konrad; et al., eds. ...
This study has shown that immunohistochemical expression of DBC1 was significantly associated with advanced clinicopathological factors of ovarian carcinoma such as higher tumor stage, latent distant metastasis, platinum-resistance, elevated serum level of CA125, and higher histologic grade. Moreover, DBC1 expression was significantly associated with shorter survival of ovarian carcinomas, especially in high-grade serous carcinomas. In agreement with our results, increased expression of DBC1 has been reported as an indicator of poor prognosis of gastric carcinoma [15], breast carcinoma [14], colorectal carcinoma [9], esophageal carcinoma [20], clear cell renal cell carcinoma [12], diffuse large B cell lymphoma [13], and soft tissue sarcomas [13]. Nevertheless, there has been no report investigating DBC1 expression in ovarian carcinomas. Therefore, this is the first report that examined DBC1 expression in human ovarian tumors and suggests that DBC1 expression might be usable as a prognostic ...
carcinoma - MedHelps carcinoma Center for Information, Symptoms, Resources, Treatments and Tools for carcinoma. Find carcinoma information, treatments for carcinoma and carcinoma symptoms.
Anaplastic carcinoma is a rare type of thyroid cancer that can cause severe breathing difficulties. The main signs of anaplastic...
Dr. Thompson responded: Possibly. Undifferentiated carcinoma means that the tumor is not showing the normal patterns seen for a transitional or urothelial (lining of the |a href="/topics/bladder" track_data="{
Background : Interval carcinoma is defined as a carcinoma detected between two mammographic screening rounds after a negative screening. By some authors these carcinomas are considered to be more aggressive than screen-detected carcinomas. Methods : In a group of 937 patients referred for breast cancer in the period 1975-1990,76 interval...
Beim Carcinoma in situ der Brust unterscheiden wir 2 Formen: Das ductale und das lobuläre Carcinoma in situ. Das letztere wird von den Pathologen in der Regel nicht mehr als echtes Carcinoma...
The ICD-10 Code D09.19 is the code used for Carcinoma in situ of other urinary organs .An alternative description for this code is Carcinoma in situ of other urinary ...
Definition of Carcinoma myxomatodes with photos and pictures, translations, sample usage, and additional links for more information.
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The case histories of six patients are presented where the diagnosis of carcinoma of the esophagus and the stomach was made at the same time by barium stud
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Xiaoli Yang, Cui Wang, Changzhi Xu, Zhifeng Yan, Congwen Wei, Kai Guan, Shengli Ma, Ye Cao, Liping Liu, Deyong Zou, Xiang He, Buchang Zhang, Qingjun Ma, Zirui Zheng].
Carcinomas are solid tumors arising from epithelial tissue, and account for the majority of cancer deaths in the United States. In most occurrences of carcinoma, it is the metastases that kill, not the primary tumor. The ...
http://www.mobilecrunch.com/2010/01/18/everything-you-need-to-know-about-windows-mobile-7/ Похоже, они действительно решились выбросить WM6. Возможно, даже вместе со старой командой. Честь и хвала, что я могу сказать? (Да, Zune не сильно популярный плеер. Но вот для разработчика он *на…
Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma, which is one of the most aggressive, malignant tumors in humans, results in an extremely poor prognosis despite chemotherapy and radiotherapy. The present study was designed to evaluate therapeutic effects of radiation by glycerol on p53-mutant anaplastic thyroid carcinoma cells (8305c cells). To examine the effectiveness of glycerol in radiation induced lethality for anaplastic thyroid carcinoma 8305c cells, we performed colony formation assay and apoptosis analysis. Apoptosis was analyzed with Hoechst 33342 staining and DNA ladder formation assay. 8305c cells became radiosensitive when glycerol was added to culture medium before X-ray irradiation. Apoptosis was induced by X-rays in the presence of glycerol. However, there was little apoptosis induced by X-ray irradiation or glycerol alone. The binding activity of whole cell extracts to bax promoter region was induced by X-rays in the presence of glycerol but not by X-rays alone. These findings suggest that glycerol is
Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma is fatal if unresectable. However, improved survival has been reported after gross total resection and multimodality therapy. In this report, we describe the contrast-enhanced high-resolution CT characteristics of anaplastic thyroid carcinoma in 57 patients. Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma presented as a large neck mass with necrosis in 82% of cases. The tumors demonstrated common extrathyroidal extension (91%). Sixty-two percent of tumors demonstrated calcification. Visceral space invasion involved the esophagus (62%), trachea (57%), and larynx (29%). Carotid artery encasement was present in 42%, and 43% involved the internal jugular vein. Sixty-three percent had lateral compartment lymphadenopathy; 58% of these nodes were necrotic, and 11% were cystic. No metastatic nodes had calcification. Central compartment lymphadenopathy was seen in 56% of cases, and lateral retropharyngeal lymphadenopathy was detected in 12%. Knowledge of these imaging features aids in guiding ...
Medical information, Anaplastic carcinoma of the thyroid. Definition of Anaplastic carcinoma of the thyroid, symptoms of Anaplastic carcinoma of the thyroid, treatment of Anaplastic carcinoma of the thyroid, and prevention of Anaplastic carcinoma of the thyroid. Exams and Tests Anaplastic carcinoma of the thyroid.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Foxo3a drives proliferation in anaplastic thyroid carcinoma through transcriptional regulation of cyclin A1. T2 - A paradigm shift that impacts current therapeutic strategies. AU - Marlow, Laura A.. AU - von Roemeling, Christina A.. AU - Cooper, Simon J.. AU - Zhang, Yilin. AU - Rohl, Stephen D.. AU - Arora, Shilpi. AU - Gonzales, Irma M.. AU - Azorsa, David O.. AU - Reddi, Honey V.. AU - Tun, Han W. AU - Dö ppler, Heike R.. AU - Storz, Peter. AU - Smallridge, Robert Christian. AU - Copland, John A III. PY - 2012. Y1 - 2012. N2 - The Forkhead transcription factor, FoxO3a, is a known suppressor of primary tumor growth through transcriptional regulation of key genes regulating cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. In many types of cancer, in response to growth factor signaling, FoxO3a is phosphorylated by Akt, resulting in its exclusion from the nucleus. Here we show that FoxO3a remains nuclear in anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC). This correlates with lack of Akt phosphorylation at ...
Health, ...Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC) is an aggressive type of cancer wit...Led by Professor H. Phillip Koeffler Senior Principal Investigator a...Thyroid cancer is the most common cancer of the endocrine system. ATC ... The effect of LAMC2 on ATC cells ...,NUS,researchers,make,new,discovery,of,protein,as,a,promising,target,for,treatment,of,ATC,medicine,medical news today,latest medical news,medical newsletters,current medical news,latest medicine news
... is cancer that occurs in the nasopharynx, which is located behind your nose and above the back of your throat.. Nasopharyngeal carcinoma is difficult to detect early, probably because the nasopharnyx isnt easy to examine and symptoms of nasopharyngeal carcinoma mimic those of many other conditions. Your main treatment options for nasopharyngeal carcinoma are radiation therapy, chemotherapy or a combination of the two. You can work with your doctor to determine the exact approach depending on your particular situation.. Risk factors. Nasopharyngeal carcinoma is common in Southern China. It often affects people aged 30 and older, but occasionally can be seen in the young, including children. It is twice as common in women.. Several risk factors have been found with nasopharyngeal cancer:. Diet: In areas where nasopharyngeal carcinomas are common, people typically eat diets very high in salted fish and preserved meat from a young ...
Purpose: The study was designed to examine the significance of colorectal metachronous carcinoma in a large cohort of patients.. Methods: Over a mean follow-up period of 10 years, the clinicopathological features, microsatellite instability (MSI) and clinical follow-up of 56 patients with metachronous colorectal carcinoma were analysed.. Results: The prevalence of metachronous colorectal carcinoma was 2.1 %. The metachronous colorectal carcinomas appeared between 7 and 246 months (mean = 66 months) after surgical resection of the index colorectal carcinomas. Thirty-six per cent (n = 20) of the metachronous carcinoma occurred more than 5 years after the operation of the index carcinoma. Of the 56 patients, 20 % (n = 11) of the metachronous colorectal carcinomas were mucinous adenocarcinoma. Cancers detected in the secondary operations (metachronous colorectal carcinomas), when compared with the primary index cancers, were smaller, showed higher proportions of mucinous adenocarcinoma and more ...
If the tumor has all of these features, it is considered to be a "true" medullary carcinoma. Sometimes the tumor has only some of these features but not others, or there may be some invasive ductal carcinoma cells mixed in. In these cases, your doctor may call the tumor "atypical medullary carcinoma.". In addition, medullary carcinoma cells often express a protein called p53. The pathologist may test for p53 to help decide if the cancer is truly medullary.. There are some other key features of medullary carcinoma:. ...
Radiation and chemotherapy are common treatments for anaplastic carcinoma. Learn about treatments for anaplastic carcinoma, a type of thyroid cancer.
Hemonc Today | The American Thyroid Association has released the first set of comprehensive guidelines for the management of anaplastic thyroid cancer, a rare but lethal form of thyroid cancer. Members of the American Thyroid Association (ATA) task force compiled a list of 65 recommendations based on relevant literature.
It was reported previously that the specific aim of screening agents that would induce apoptosis in the human breast carcinoma cell line MDA-MB-231 was completed, and that calyculin A was the most effective compound tested. Since then Cdc25 phosphatases were reported as possible key oncogenes in human breast carcinoma. In light of our results with calyculin A, it was decided that a more promising focus for the project would be the biochemical basis for the oncogenic actions of Cdc25 phosphatases in human breast carcinoma. At this time we have examined 18 compounds and discovered a Cdc25 phosphatase inhibitor, called 1f, that selectively inhibits Cdc25A,B, and C, has antiproliferative activity against and causes a G1 block in MDA-MB-231 cells. The pure form of this compound and two other compounds which selectively inhibit Cdc25 phosphatases have been made and also demonstrate an equal if not better inhibition of Cdc25 phosphatases as their combinatorial form.*HUMANS
Information about anaplastic thyroid cancer, a rare but deadly form of thyroid cancer that mainly affects men over the age of 65.
The Anaplastic Thyroid Cancer GUIDELINES Pocket Card is endorsed by the American Thyroid Association reflects the latest ATA recommendations. This practical quick-reference tool contains graded recommendations for diagnosis, including immunohistochemical markers, and treatment of local, regional and metastatic disease with management algorithms and tables of chemotherapy and adjuvant/radiosensitizing regimens. Also included are recommendations for palliative care and long-term monitoring. Spiral Bound 14 pages 80# Diamond Silk Cover with Satin Aqueous Coating 4.5″ x 7.25″
This form of cancer has an extremely low cure rate. The best treatments available allow only 10% of patients live 3 years after diagnosis. A larger percentage of patients diagnosed with it do not live beyond one year from the day cancer is diagnosed. It can arise within a different type of thyroid cancer. It can even form within a goiter. Anaplastic thyroid cancer can develop after many, many years following radiation exposure. Papillary cancer develops the same way. Cervical metastasis is when the cancer spreads to the lymph nodes in the neck. This is present in over 90% of patients diagnosed with anaplastic thyroid cancer. The appearance of lymph node metastasis in cervical areas cause much higher recurrence rate of anaplastic thyroid cancer and increases a patients mortality rate. The cancer becomes noticeable as growing neck mass. It can feel large and very hard. This type of tumor grows very quickly. It may grow so quickly that the patient may not even notice it at first. All of a sudden, ...
Principal Investigator:TANIGUCHI Shin-ichi, Project Period (FY):2003 - 2004, Research Category:Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (C), Section:一般, Research Field:Endocrinology
A method of killing carcinoma cells associated normal cells using light of a predetermined wavelength. The method includes contacting the cells with a chromophor at a given concentration. The chromophor is positively charged and sufficiently lipophilic to be taken up by the mitochondria of the carcinoma cells and is retained substantially longer in the mitochondria of carcinoma cells than in normal cell mitochondria; or it may be taken up in greater quantity by the carcinoma cells than by the normal cells. The chromophor must also have a therapeutic index for light-induced cell killing of at least 500 for light of the predetermined wavelength, and has a therapeutic ratio for light-induced killing of at least 50 for light of said pre-determined wavelength. The cells are then exposed to light of this wavelength.
The most striking finding of this study was that the dimension of symptom intensity and the dimension of symptom distress were not equivalent. There also was remarkable consistency in the TSSD-LC data on symptom distress over time in all subgroups examined, whereas patterns of intensity were highly variable. The 3 symptoms-breathing, pain, and fatigue-were associated with the most distress in this sample of 400 patients with inoperable lung carcinoma.. It should be noted, however, that the sample in this study represents the healthiest of this very ill patient group, because participants were younger and had longer survivals than both nonparticipants and the population of patients with inoperable lung carcinoma registered in the same geographic area. Recruitment and participation in this study compared favorably with other studies, considering the well acknowledged difficulties in researching patients with lung carcinoma, debilitated patients, and women with lung carcinoma.3, 27-30 The low ...
Another name for Gastric Carcinoma is Gastric Carcinoma. It is important to follow a healthy diet if you have gastric carcinoma. Cancer and Chemotherapy ...
Diffuse-type gastric carcinoma (DGC) cell lines with robust overexpression of Met are sensitive to Met inhibitors. (a) DGC and other gastric carcinoma cell line
class III nasopharyngeal carcinoma in the WHO classification system (Lymphoepithelioma) -- For more information on this topic, see Nasopharyngeal carcinoma Lymphoepithelioma is a type of poorly differentiated nasopharyngeal carcinoma characterized by prominent infiltration of lymphocytes in the area involved by tumor. fact lexicon with terms going straight to the point. Facts are sorted by community importance and you can build your personalized lexicon
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Help. I have just put out a message on ask for advice. But I need to get all the informaton I can on this type of cancer. FRiday my mother in law was here with...
Cancer of unknown primary site represents approximately 3% to 5% of all new cancer diagnoses. Adenocarcinomas account for 60% of all unknown primary cancers and poorly differentiated carcinomas or 1
Prognostic relevance of LGALS3BP in human colorectal carcinoma. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
Ovarian cancer is a cancer that forms in an ovary. It results in abnormal cells that have the ability to invade or spread to other parts of the body. SK-OV-3, NIH:OVCAR-3 and HO-8910 are the ovarian carcinoma cell lines derived from human ovarian tumor. Studies were carried out to determin
Introduction. While most types of thyroid cancer are treatable, anaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC) is the most lethal human malignancy. Current treatment strategies are largely ineffective with only 10% of patients surviving longer than one year. As such, new treatments are desperately needed to improve patient survival in this aggressive cancer.. Objective. Identify highly effective drugs using high-throughput screening methods with a large panel of kinase inhibitors that can be used in the treatment of ATC.. Methods. High-throughput screening (HTS) of 13 genetically characterized ATC cell lines was carried out over a 6-dose range using 320 kinase inhibitors. Dose-response curves were generated and drugs with high potency were identified. Drugs with the highest activity were selected for further evaluation including investigating mechanism of action and cell death, and assays for migration and invasion.. Results. Based on HTS studies, Lestaurtinib was identified as a highly effective agent with ...
Sarcoma and Carcinoma are both types of cancers or malignant tumors. Sarcomas grow in the connective tissues and bones, whereas Carcinoma starts on the surface or lining of a body organ. They both grow and spread in different manner.
Historically, endometrial carcinomas have been classified primarily according to their histology. However, the use of immunohistochemistry has become commonplace in their evaluation, particularly in diagnostically challenging cases. Our objective was to evaluate mixed endometrial carcinomas using a
Dada la resistencia a la quimioterapia que presenta el melanoma y el carcinoma de endometrio avanzado, es importante aquella investigación destinada a buscar dianas terapéuticas. En este trabajo hemos investigado los efectos de análogos de la somatostatina (SAs), de inhibidores del proteasoma (PI) como Bortezomib, del inhibidor de receptores tirosina cinasa Sunitinib y la combinación de Sunitinib y Bortezomib en líneas celulares de melanoma. Esta combinación también la hemos testado en el carcinoma de endometrio. Se observa que las células de melanoma expresan varios receptores de la somatostatina. Los PI son eficientes a la hora de inducir una parada en el ciclo celular y apoptosis. Las líneas celulares que presentan PDGFR α i VEGFR2 son sensibles a Sunitinib, y éste interacciona con Bortezomib de forma sinérgica. En el carcinoma de endometrio, Sunitinib induce una parada en el ciclo celular, apoptosis, inhibe la via NFκB e interacciona sinérgicamente con Bortezomib. Los SAs y PI ...
Sn(n-Bu)OSPRR"(5), (R = O-phenyl; R"= O-cholesteryl) were subjected to cytotoxicity screening against KB (nasopharingel carcinoma), OVCAR-5 (ovarium carcinoma) and SQC-1 UlSO (squamous cell cervix carcinoma) cell cultures. The results of the bioassay showed that these compounds possess potent antitumor activities against the studied human carcinoma cell lines.. ...
histiocytoid breast carcinomaは,本邦の報告では全乳癌の0.3%とされている非常にまれな組織型であり,確立された診断基準や腫瘍概念が存在しない。その発生母地となる病態としては浸潤性小葉癌の亜型とされていたが,乳管由来と思われる成分やアポクリンへの分化を認める報告もあり,本腫瘍の発生母地となっている病態は多岐にわたる。本邦の報告例では比較的長期生存し遠隔転移を認めない症例がみられたが,今回われわれは,多発腋窩リンパ節転移を伴ったhistiocytoidbreast carcinomaの1 例を経験した。今後症例を蓄積し,その分類や臨床的特徴などを確立することが必要であると考える。
Researchers believe that a new method of genetically engineering immune cells could lead to improved treatment of patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma.
A Cancer of Unknown Primary Site (CUPS) is defined as a metastatic tumor for which the site of origin remains unknown after establishing tissue diagnosis despite a standa..
Management and biology of carcinoma in situ and cancer of the testis , Management and biology of carcinoma in situ and cancer of the testis , کتابخانه دیجیتال دانشگاه علوم پزشکی اصفهان
This information is intended for physicians and related personnel, who understand that medical information is often imperfect, and must be interpreted in the context of a patients clinical data using reasonable medical judgment. This website should not be used as a substitute for the advice of a licensed physician ...
A carcinoma discovered by Dr. Margaret R. Lewis of the Wistar Institute in 1951. This tumor originated spontaneously as a carcinoma of the lung of a C57BL mouse. The tumor does not appear to be grossly hemorrhagic and the majority of the tumor tissue is a semifirm homogeneous mass. (From Cancer Chemother Rep 2 1972 Nov;(3)1:325) It is also called 3LL and LLC and is used as a transplantable malignancy ...
Cisplatin is useful in treating patient with carcinoma of the neck, carcinoma of the bladder, carcinoma of the head, carcinoma of the ovaries, carcinoma of the testes and carcinoma of the cervix.
The ICD-10 Code D01.2 is the code used for Carcinoma in situ of rectum .An alternative description for this code is Carcinoma in situ of ...
Preoperative evaluation of the risk for metastases in endometrial carcinoma is challenging. The growth of new vessels, angiogenesis, is important for tumor growth and purported to be involved in the...
Buy our Caco 2 (human colonic carcinoma cell line) whole cell lysate. ab3950 has been validated in western blot. Abcam now offers a 12-month guarantee.
The biopsy of this case showed undifferentiated non keratinizing carcinoma with dense stroma composed of lymphoid cells, which is usually associated with EBV infection. MRI staging is T3 N2 Mx.
Carcinoma, a type of tissue cancer that is particularly virulent, can occur in any part of the body, including the mouth. This form of cancer has the capability of metastasizing quickly through the body, often with fatal results.
Cancer is the second leading cause of death. Carcinoma or sarcoma benign malignant tumor study is oncology. basic information on cancer.
Leukemia-Related Protein 16 (LRP16), a member of the macro domain family, plays a crucial role in orchestrating genotoxicity-initiated NF-κB signaling in the colon and the pathophysiological relevance of NF-κB activation induced by LRP16 in colonic cell survival/recovery from extrinsic DNA damage.
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Introducció En pacients amb carcinoma de bufeta localment avançat, la quimioteràpia neoadjuvant ha demostrat un benefici modest a la supervivència. No obstant això encara no sha identificat el subgrup de pacients que obtindria un major benefici Objectius Determinar la supervivència en pacients i analitzar els factors pronòstic. Material i mètodes Es van analitzar retrospectivament 112 pacients. Es correlacionar els factors clínics i patològics amb la supervivencia. Resultats La supervivència global a 5 anys va ser de 45%. La hidronefrosi,lestadi clínic, la resecció quirúrgica completa, lafectació ganglionar limfàtica, ganglis ressecats& 7, lestadi patològic i la invasió limfovascular van ser significatius en lanàlisi univariada. Conclusions Lestadi patològic i la resecció de més de 7 ganglis limfàtics apareixen com a factors pronòstics independents de supervivencia ...
The disease of Bowens is a type of cancer of the skin. It is known extensively like carcinoma in situ - SCC of the cell of Squamous in situ. The addition of the words in situ in the end refers the facts that this one is a form of cancer of the skin that is only in the surface. Another type of SCC, invading carcinoma squamous of the cell grows internal and has the potential to separate. The disease of Bowens of the name is after the doctor who has discovered carcinoma squamous of the cell in situ. For the patients who have had SCC in situ, there is more discharge of the normal tariff for other types of caner of the skin to form. Due to this increasing risk, it is important to have regular examinaciones of the skin of dermatologist. If the SCC in situ does not treat, will get to be greater with time, sometimes separating outside several inches. In addition, 5% of SCC untreated in situ will grow in invading carcinoma squamous of the cell. The SCC in situ, I mend red escamoso, that tends to be seen ...
Types of Cancer There are hundreds of different types of cancer, but cancers in general, belong to five basic categories: Carcinomas Sarcomas Myelomas Lymphomas Leukemias Carcinomas are the most common cancers. They originate in tissues which either cover surfaces or line internal organs, accounting for 80 to 90 percent of malignant cases. There are two major subtypes of carcinoma:
Carcinoma cancers affect cell development in skin tissue and tissue-lined organs, such as kidneys, while sarcomas are found in bones, nerves, blood vessels and connective tissues, according to WebMD....
Whats the difference between a carcinoma and a sarcoma? Find out more about them, where they occur, and which one is more serious.
Beim duktalen Carcinoma in situ (DCIS) handelt es sich um eine heterogene Gruppe von Läsionen, deren Klassifikation und Therapie derzeit Gegenstand vieler Diskussionen ist. War bis vor wenigen Jahrzehnten noch die Mastektomie die Standardtherapie, wird heute in Analogie zum invasiven Mammakarzinom zunehmend die brusterhaltende Behandlung angestrebt. Studien belegten, dass eine adjuvante Strahlentherapie das DCIS-Lokalrezidivrisiko um 40-60% senkt. Patientinnen mit einem erhöhten Risiko (Frauen |50 Jahre, positiver Resektionsrand, hoher Anteil an Komedonekrosen) profitieren besonders von dieser. Ungeklärt ist nach wie vor, welche Patientinnen auf adjuvante Radiatio verzichten können. Die adjuvante Tamoxifentherapie reduziert die Lokalrezidivrate. Aufgrund des Nebenwirkungsprofils ist jedoch der Einsatz von Tamoxifen besonders bei komorbiden Patienten sorgfältig zu bedenken. Um ein optimales Therapiemanagement beim DCIS durchführen zu können, ist es unerlässlich, weitere Prognosefaktoren zu
TY - JOUR. T1 - LA DIAGNOSI DEL CARCINOMA BRONCHIOLO-ALVEOLARE. AU - Zompatori, M.. AU - Gavelli, G.. AU - Galleri, C.. AU - Fabbri, M.. AU - Cavalli, A.. PY - 1984. Y1 - 1984. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0021732074&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0021732074&partnerID=8YFLogxK. M3 - Articolo. C2 - 6099596. AN - SCOPUS:0021732074. VL - 70. SP - 277. EP - 282. JO - Radiologia Medica. JF - Radiologia Medica. SN - 0033-8362. IS - 5. ER - ...
Por medio del Tratamiento Inmunobiológico Issels y sin tratamiento convencional adicional, se logró una remisión completa a largo plazo de un carcinoma cervical invasivo de células escamosas primario que ramificado con esparcimiento en el útero
Childhood midline tract carcinoma treatment options include surgery, watchful waiting, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, ablation, and antiviral therapy. Learn more about the diagnosis and treatment of childhood midline tract carcinoma in this expert-reviewed summary.
Clearly, in the systemic delivery of anticancer drugs, careful consideration is required wрrk ensuring that a drug is infused directly into a vein to avoid any local complication(s). t.
Carcinoma, Breast, Cells, Carcinomas, Cell, Immunohistochemistry, Tumors, Keratin, Neoplasms, Neoplasm, Patient, Thyroid, Transcription Factor, Health, Organization, Patients, Tissue, Tissues, Tumor, World Health
門川 佳央 , 久保 肇 , 坂井 義治 日本消化器外科学会雑誌 40(5), 693, 2007-05-01 CiNii PDF - オープンアクセス J-STAGE 医中誌Web 参考文献3件 ...
Possemato A (2010) CST Curation Set: 8850; Year: 2010; Biosample/Treatment: cell line, HCT 116/untreated; Disease: colorectal carcinoma; SILAC: -; Specificities of Antibodies Used to Purify Peptides prior to LCMS: mR ...
It is important for you to have open discussions with your cancer care team. Dont be afraid to ask questions, no matter how minor they seem.
Discussion: Squamous cell carcinoma is the most common malignant tumor of the ocular surface8. Spindle cell carcinoma is a poorly differentiated variant of squamous cell carcinoma that rarely occurs in the conjunctiva 3,4,5,6,7. Cervantes et al. reported a total 287 cases of squamous cell carcinoma of conjunctiva, in which only two cases were documented as spindle cell carcinoma11. Surgical excision with or without cryotherapy and radiotherapy remains widely accepted treatment for squamous cell carcinoma of the conjunctiva9,10 ...
Metaplastic carcinoma of the breast: multimodality imaging and histopathologic assessment. Nov 2011 Choi BB, Shu KS. Source Department of Radiology. Correspondence to: Bo Bae Choi. Email: [email protected] Abstract BACKGROUND Metaplastic carcinomas are ductal carcinomas that display metaplastic transformation of the glandular epithelium to non-glandular mesenchymal tissue. Metaplastic carcinoma has a poorer prognosis than most other breast cancers, so the differential diagnosis is important. Although many clinical and pathologic findings have been reported, to our knowledge, few imaging findings related to metaplastic carcinoma have been reported.PurposeTo investigate whole-breast imaging findings, including mammography, sonography, MRI, and pathologic findings, including immunohistochemical studies of metaplastic carcinomas of the breast. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We analyzed 33 cases of metaplastic carcinoma between January 2001 and January 2011. Mammography, ultrasonography, and MRI were recorded ...
Clinical evidence indicates that high periostin expression correlates with aggressive phenotype in thyroid carcinoma. However, the biological roles of periostin in thyroid carcinoma development and progression are still unclear. In this study, we explored the effects of periostin silencing on thyroid carcinoma cell growth, invasion, and tumorigenesis. We also studied the impact of periostin on the activation of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3-K)/Akt signaling, which is involved in the pathogenesis of thyroid carcinoma. It was found that downregulation of periostin significantly inhibited the proliferation, colony formation, and invasion in both FTC-133 and BCPAP thyroid carcinoma cells. In vivo tumorigenic studies confirmed that periostin depletion retarded the growth of subcutaneous FTC-133 xenograft tumors, which was coupled with a significant decline in the percentage of Ki-67-positive proliferating cells. Western blot analysis demonstrated that periostin downregulation caused a marked inhibition of
Title: Extracellular Matrix and Aberrant Signaling in Lung Carcinoma: Role of Fibronectin in the Control of Human Lung Carcinoma Cell Growth,Apoptosis and Resistance to Therapy. VOLUME: 2 ISSUE: 1. Author(s):Shou Wei Han and Jesse Roman. Affiliation:Division of Pulmonary,Allergy and Critical Care Medicine, Emory University School of Medicine,Whitehead Bioresearch Building, 615 Michael Street, Suite 205-M, Atlanta,Georgia, 30322, USA.. Keywords:Fibronectin, integrin, signaling, human lung carcinoma cells, proliferation, therapy. Abstract: Despite recent advances in understanding the molecular biology of lung carcinoma and the introduction of multiple new chemotherapeutic agents for its treatment, its dismal five-year survival rate ( < 15%) has not changed substantially. The lack of advancements in this area reflects the limited knowledge available concerning the factors that promote oncogenic transformation and proliferation of carcinoma cells in the lung. Tumor growth and invasion are not only ...
When a pathologist examines the tissue under a microscope, he or she looks for small clusters of tumor cells that appear to "float" in pools of mucin. The tumor may be made up mostly of mucin, or mostly of cancer cells separated by small amounts of mucin.. Mucinous carcinoma also can be found near, or mixed in with, other more common types of breast cancer. Sometimes a ductal carcinoma in situ (or DCIS, a cancer that has not spread outside the milk duct) is found near the mucinous carcinoma. A mucinous carcinoma also may have some areas within it that contain invasive ductal carcinoma cells. If the invasive ductal carcinoma cells make up more than 10% of the tumor, the cancer would be called a "mixed" mucinous carcinoma. A "pure" mucinous carcinoma means that at least 90-100% of the cells are mucinous.. Now or after surgery, the tissue should be tested for some other important features of a pure mucinous breast carcinoma:. ...
Background: Pancreatic carcinoma has a poor prognosis. It is important to focus on early detection and treatment for improvement of the prognosis. Understanding the characteristics of TS1 pancreatic carcinoma (≤2 cm) could improve the treatment outcome of pancreatic carcinoma. Methods: Among 444 patients with conventional pancreatic carcinoma who underwent surgery at our facility, the study targeted 65 (14.6%) with a histopathological diagnosis of TS1 pancreatic carcinoma. We examined 65 cases of TS1 pancreatic carcinoma in reason for hospital visit, examination findings, histopathological findings, and treatment outcomes. Results: The detection rate of TS1 pancreatic carcinoma by ultrasonography was 83.1% for visualization of the tumor mass and 96.9% for main pancreatic duct dilatation. The corresponding rates for endoscopic ultrasound were 92.9% and 100%. With regard to postoperative outcome, 43.1% of patients had a recurrence; the site of recurrence was local in 24.6% and hepatic in 9
TY - JOUR. T1 - The promotion of invasion through the basement membrane of cervical carcinoma cells by fibronectin as a chemoattractant. AU - Sugihara, Koichiro. AU - Saito, Toshiaki. AU - Okadome, Masao. AU - Sonoda, Kenzo. AU - Kobayashi, Hiroaki. AU - Kamura, Toshiharu. AU - Tsukamoto, Naoki. AU - Nakano, Hitoo. PY - 1994/5/16. Y1 - 1994/5/16. N2 - An in vitro migration and invasion assay was used as the model system to study the effect of 3T3 fibroblast conditioned medium (FCM) and purified human fibronectin on the invasion of cervical carcinoma cells. The 3T3 FCM significantly enhanced both the migration and the invasion of a cervical carcinoma cell line, HeLa. This enhancement of migration and invasion was inhibited by anti-fibronectin antibody. Purified fibronectin alone enhanced the invasion in a dose-dependent manner for all cervical carcinoma cell lines, HeLa, CAC-1 and TMCC. The pretreatment of cells with cell binding aminosequences, GRGDSP and/or YIGSR blocked the enhancement of cell ...
An investigation was conducted to assess the incidence and. identify the predisposing factors of bovine squamous cell carcinoma in Kenya. The incidence, breed susceptibility, sites of origin and age distribution of squamous cell carcinoma found in the four breeds of grade cattle in Kenya are reported along with the observed correlation between lack of pigmentation of the bovine vulvae and occurrence of bovine vulva carcinoma. Typical examples of the histology of bovine squamous cell carcinoma which were observed during histological diagnosis are also shown. The data of 18 cattle with vulva carcinoma and 48 cattle with ocular carcinoma on which immunotherapy trials were conducted are reported. The details of the preparation of the saline phenol extract of bovine squamous cell carcinoma used in the study are outlined. The methods by which immunotherapy trials were conducted are described. rIt was found that bovine vulva carcinoma and bovine ocular carcinoma on the eyelid skins did not respond to ...
MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Anal Canal / physiology. Carcinoma in Situ / pathology. Carcinoma in Situ / radiotherapy. Carcinoma in Situ / surgery. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / radiotherapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / surgery. Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / radiotherapy. Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / surgery. Chi-Square Distribution. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Neoplasm Staging. Radiotherapy ...
Oestrogen receptor alpha (ER) plays a critical, diverse and not fully understood role in endometrial carcinoma. Most endometrial carcinomas express ER and some of these tumours respond favourably to anti-oestrogen therapy. On the other hand, tamoxifen therapy constitutes a major risk factor for endometrial carcinoma development. Amplification of the ESR1 gene encoding ER was recently shown to constitute a mechanism for ER over-expression in breast carcinoma. This study was designed to determine the potential role of ESR1 amplifications in endometrial carcinoma. Tissue microarrays of 368 endometrial carcinomas and large sections of 43 cases of endometrial hyperplasia were analysed for ESR1 gene amplification and ER protein expression by means of fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and immunohistochemistry. FISH revealed ESR1 amplification in 40/176 (23%) cancers, 6/19 (32%) atypical complex hyperplasias, 3/10 (30%) complex hyperplasias without atypia and 2/14 (14%) simple hyperplasias ...
Medullary carcinoma of the breast is a type of breast cancer. It is relatively circumscribed. It involves infiltration by lymphocytes. Tominaga J, Hama H, Kimura N, Takahashi S (March 2008). "MR imaging of medullary carcinoma of the breast". Eur J Radiol. 70 (3): 525-9. doi:10.1016/j.ejrad.2008.01.044. PMID 18353587. Bacus SS, Zelnick CR, Chin DM, et al. (December 1994). "Medullary carcinoma is associated with expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1. Implication to its morphology and its clinical behavior". Am. J. Pathol. 145 (6): 1337-48. PMC 1887499 . PMID 7992839. Kuroda H, Tamaru J, Sakamoto G, Ohnisi K, Itoyama S (January 2005). "Immunophenotype of lymphocytic infiltration in medullary carcinoma of the breast". Virchows Arch. 446 (1): 10-4. doi:10.1007/s00428-004-1143-9. PMID 15660281 ...
New insight into how anaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC) grows and spreads may provide important direction in the development of treatment. These findings were published in the Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism. The thyroid is a gland in the throat that produces hormones mostly related to metabolic processes in the body. There are different types of […]. ...
Background MicroRNAs have been considered as a kind of potential novel biomarker for cancer detection due to their remarkable stability in the blood and the characteristics of their expression profile in many diseases. Methods We performed microarray-based serum miRNA profiling on the serum of twenty nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients at diagnosis along with 20 non-cancerous individuals as controls. This was followed by a real-time quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-qPCR) in a separate cohort of thirty patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma and thirty age- matched non-cancerous volunteers. A model for diagnosis was established by a conversion of mathematical calculation formula which has been validated by analyzing 74 cases of patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma and 57 cases of non-cancerous volunteers. Results The profiles showed that 39 and 17 miRNAs are exclusively expressed in the serum of non-cancerous volunteers and of patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma respectively. 4 miRNAs
Acquired 5-Fluorouracil Resistance in Human Pancreatic Carcinoma Cells. A Paradigm for Chemoresistance Mechanisms in Pancreatic Cancer
In this study, we detected the high expression of TFAP2A in nasopharyngeal carcinoma tumor tissues and cell lines, which is correlated with nasopharyngeal carcinoma growth, survival, and HIF-1α expression. Silence of TFAP2A expression inhibited cell viability in nasopharyngeal carcinoma cell lines and suppressed tumor growth and microvessel density in vivo. We also found that TFAP2A interacted with HIF-1α to regulate cell growth and VEGF expression. We conclude that TFAP2A plays a potential oncogenic role in nasopharyngeal carcinomas through the mechanism by which TFAP2A regulate the HIF-1-mediated VEGF expression and secretion, thereby promotes nasopharyngeal carcinoma cell proliferation, tumor growth, and angiogenesis. Our findings therefore provide new insights into understanding the mechanisms of nasopharyngeal carcinoma tumorigenesis and exploring the potential therapeutic targets for nasopharyngeal carcinomas.. TFAP2A plays a key role in regulating cell differentiation, proliferation, ...
Medullary Carcinoma Treatment cost in India starts from USD 2050. Find affordable packages, best specialists, hospitals and patient experiences for Medullary Carcinoma Treatment in India through Vaidam.
Looking for online definition of Lung carcinoma in the Medical Dictionary? Lung carcinoma explanation free. What is Lung carcinoma? Meaning of Lung carcinoma medical term. What does Lung carcinoma mean?
Looking for Colorectal carcinoma? Find out information about Colorectal carcinoma. see neoplasm neoplasm or tumor, tissue composed of cells that grow in an abnormal way. Normal tissue is growth-limited, i.e., cell reproduction is equal to... Explanation of Colorectal carcinoma
Global Markets Directs, Anaplastic Thyroid Cancer - Pipeline Review, H2 2016, provides an overview of the Anaplastic Thyroid Cancer pipeline landscape.. The report provides comprehensive information on the therapeutics under development for Anaplastic Thyroid Cancer, complete with analysis by stage of development, drug target, mechanism of action (MoA), route of administration (RoA) and molecule type. The report also covers the descriptive pharmacological action of the therapeutics, its complete research and development history and latest news and press releases. Additionally, the report provides an overview of key players involved in therapeutic development for Anaplastic Thyroid Cancer and features dormant and discontinued projects.. Global Markets Directs report features investigational drugs from across globe covering over 20 therapy areas and nearly 3,000 indications. The report is built using data and information sourced from Global Markets Directs proprietary databases, ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Involvement of cysteine-rich protein 61 in the epidermal growth factor-induced migration of human anaplastic thyroid cancer cells. AU - Chin, Li Han. AU - Hsu, Sung Po. AU - Zhong, Wen-Bin. AU - Liang, Yu Chih. PY - 2016. Y1 - 2016. N2 - Anaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC) is among the most aggressive types of malignant cancer. Epidermal growth factor (EGF) plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of ATC, and patients with thyroid carcinoma typically exhibit increased cysteine-rich protein 61 (Cyr61). In this study, we found that EGF treatment induced cell migration, stress fiber formation, Cyr61 mRNA and protein expressions, and Cyr61 protein secretion in ATC cells. The recombinant Cyr61 protein significantly induced cell migration; however, inhibition of Cyr61 activity by a Cyr61-specific antibody abrogated EGF-induced cell migration. EGF treatment also affected epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT)-related marker protein expression, as evidenced by an increase in vimentin and ...
A collision tumor involving a tracheal sarcomatoid carcinoma and a papillary thyroid carcinoma has never been reported in the literature. A 78-year-old female presented with a large neck mass and hoarseness. A fine needle aspiration demonstrated papillary thyroid carcinoma. Imaging revealed a right thyroid mass invading into the tracheal lumen with bulky ipsilateral lymphadenopathy. The patient underwent a total thyroidectomy, tracheal resection, and central and right neck dissections. Pathology demonstrated a tracheal sarcomatoid carcinoma invading the right thyroid, which had multifocal papillary thyroid carcinoma with central and lateral neck metastases. The patient subsequently received adjuvant chemoradiotherapy and radioactive iodine. We present a case of a tracheal sarcomatoid carcinoma colliding with a papillary thyroid cancer. Treatment modalities should address the most aggressive tumor, while being tailored to clinical picture, tumor histology, and patient preferences.
Mutation of the BRAF gene is common in thyroid cancer. Follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma is a variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma that has created continuous diagnostic controversies among pathologists. The aims of this study are to (1) investigate whether follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma has a different pattern of BRAF mutation than conventional papillary thyroid carcinoma in a large cohort of patients with typical features of follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma and (2) to study the relationship of clinicopathological features of papillary thyroid carcinomas with BRAF mutation. Tissue blocks from 76 patients with diagnostic features of papillary thyroid carcinomas (40 with conventional type and 36 with follicular variant) were included in the study. From these, DNA was extracted and BRAF V600E mutations were detected by polymerase chain reaction followed by restriction enzyme digestion and sequencing of exon 15. Analysis of the data indicated ...
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1-3 It accounted for 0.005% of all cancers in the National Cancer Database from 1985 to 1995.4 A review of the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) cancer registry identifying patients with parathyroid carcinoma from 1988 to 2003 in the United States demonstrated a 60% rise in incidence of parathyroid carcinoma from 3.58 to 5.73 per 10 million.2 A review of the European Cancer registry from 1995 to 2002 demonstrated an incidence of 0.02% per 10 million among 27 European countries, emphasizing the rarity of this cancer.5 Approximately 1% of hyperparathyroidism is attributed to parathyroid carcinoma, and retrospective studies have demonstrated an even distribution between men and women.4 Benign parathyroid disease has a female predominance (3-4:1), occurring a decade later than parathyroid carcinoma which usually manifests at an average age of 48 years.1,3,6 Parathyroid carcinoma rarely occurs in children.7,8 ...
Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer With Occult Primary Squamous Cell Carcinoma Recurrent Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer With Occult Primary Recurrent Salivary Gland Cancer Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity Recurrent Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx Recurrent Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity Salivary Gland Squamous Cell Carcinoma Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx Stage IVA Salivary Gland Cancer Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx Stage IVA Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity Stage IVA ...
Recurrent Salivary Gland Cancer Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity Salivary Gland Squamous Cell Carcinoma Stage III Salivary Gland Cancer Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity Stage IV Salivary Gland Cancer Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of ...

Basal cell carcinoma - wikidocBasal cell carcinoma - wikidoc

Skin Basosquamous Cell Carcinoma, Skin Nodular Basal Cell Carcinoma, Skin Morphea-Type (Sclerosing) Basal Cell Carcinoma, Skin ... Skin Fibroepithelial Basal Cell Carcinoma, Skin Signet Ring Cell Basal Cell Carcinoma, Skin Sarcomatoid Basal Cell Carcinoma, ... Differentiating Basal Cell Carcinoma from other Diseases. Epidemiology and Demographics. Risk Factors. Screening. Natural ... Superficial Multifocal Basal Cell Carcinoma, Superficial Basal Cell Carcinoma, ...
more infohttp://www.wikidoc.org/index.php/Basal_cell_carcinoma

Documents | Avelumab for treating metastatic Merkel cell carcinoma | Guidance | NICEDocuments | Avelumab for treating metastatic Merkel cell carcinoma | Guidance | NICE

Avelumab for treating metastatic Merkel cell carcinoma. Technology appraisal guidance [TA517]. Published date: 11 April 2018. ... Merkel cell carcinoma (skin cancer) in adults ...
more infohttps://www.nice.org.uk/guidance/ta517/history

Photodynamic therapy for cutaneous verrucous carcinoma - EM|consultePhotodynamic therapy for cutaneous verrucous carcinoma - EM|consulte

57 - N° 3 - p. 516-519 - Photodynamic therapy for cutaneous verrucous carcinoma - EM,consulte ... Cutaneous verrucous carcinoma is a low-grade and well-differentiated variant of squamous cell carcinoma. This rare neoplasm ... An 82-year-old man presenting with a large long-standing verrucous carcinoma on the leg was treated successfully by 6 ... The use of methyl-aminolevulinate-photodynamic therapy for treating cutaneous verrucous carcinoma had not been reported so far ...
more infohttps://www.em-consulte.com/en/article/439018

Inhibition of interleukin 8 attenuates angiogenesis in bronchogenic carcinoma. | JEMInhibition of interleukin 8 attenuates angiogenesis in bronchogenic carcinoma. | JEM

Inhibition of interleukin 8 attenuates angiogenesis in bronchogenic carcinoma.. D R Smith, P J Polverini, S L Kunkel, M B ... Inhibition of interleukin 8 attenuates angiogenesis in bronchogenic carcinoma.. D R Smith, P J Polverini, S L Kunkel, M B ... Our observations definitively establish IL-8 as a primary mediator of angiogenesis in bronchogenic carcinoma and offer a ... We investigated the role of interleukin 8 (IL-8) in mediating angiogenesis in human bronchogenic carcinoma. Increased ...
more infohttp://jem.rupress.org/content/179/5/1409

Avelumab was Safe and Yielded Durable Responses for Patients With Advanced Merkel Cell CarcinomaAvelumab was Safe and Yielded Durable Responses for Patients With Advanced Merkel Cell Carcinoma

"Merkel cell carcinoma is a rare type of cancer, with about 2,000 new cases diagnosed each year in the United States, but ... "Given the lack of effective treatment options for patients with metastatic Merkel cell carcinoma whose cancer has recurred ... "Patients with metastatic Merkel cell carcinoma are usually treated with chemotherapy, but the cancer nearly always recurs ... Kaufman and colleagues enrolled 88 patients with metastatic Merkel cell carcinoma that had progressed after treatment with ...
more infohttp://www.aacr.org/Newsroom/Pages/News-Release-Detail.aspx?ItemID=1032

Poor prognosis in patients with adenosquamous cell carcinoma of the cervixPoor prognosis in patients with adenosquamous cell carcinoma of the cervix

When patients with adenosquamous cell carcinoma were compared with patients with squamous cell carcinoma or adenocarcinoma, ... Poor prognosis in patients with adenosquamous cell carcinoma of the cervix. Gallup DG, Harper RH, Stock RJ. Abstract:. From 1 ... Patients with adenosquamous cell carcinoma were relatively young with a mean age of 41.1 years. A normal appearing cervix was ... This report emphasizes that, independent of stage, adenosquamous cell cervical carcinoma is an extremely aggressive neoplasm ...
more infohttp://imsdd.meb.uni-bonn.de/cgi-bin/mycite?ExtRef=MEDL/85138937/PMID/3974967

Findings Support Use of Avelumab in Metastatic Merkel Cell CarcinomaFindings Support Use of Avelumab in Metastatic Merkel Cell Carcinoma

... early positive survival data and lasting responses for patients with pretreated advanced or metastatic Merkel cell carcinoma, ... In addition to Merkel cell carcinoma, avelumab is also being explored across a variety of other types of cancer that have shown ... Clinical results support the use of avelumab as a new therapeutic option for advanced or metastatic Merkel cell carcinoma ... Avelumab was well-tolerated in this second-line or greater Markel cell carcinoma population, said Kaufman. Most treatment- ...
more infohttp://www.targetedonc.com/conference/asco-immune-2016/findings-support-use-of-avelumab-in-metastatic-merkel-cell-carcinoma

Metastatic Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC) Market - Revenue, Demands, Industry Analysis, Trends, Growth, and Forecast, 2016 -...Metastatic Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC) Market - Revenue, Demands, Industry Analysis, Trends, Growth, and Forecast, 2016 -...

Metastatic Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC) Market Scope: *The report provides a snapshot of the global clinical trials landscape ... The Metastatic Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC) Market research report is a professional and in-depth study on the current state ... Metastatic Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC) Market report H2, 2016 focuses on decision making capabilities and helps to create an ... Key Questions Answered to Buy Metastatic Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC) Market Report *What assists in formulating key business ...
more infohttp://beforeitsnews.com/healthcare/2016/11/metastatic-hepatocellular-carcinoma-hcc-market-revenue-demands-industry-analysis-trends-growth-and-forecast-2016-2020-2488204.html

Primary Signet-Ring Carcinoma (Linitus Plastica) of the Colorectum presenting as Subacute Intestinal Obstruction  - CogprintsPrimary Signet-Ring Carcinoma (Linitus Plastica) of the Colorectum presenting as Subacute Intestinal Obstruction - Cogprints

Signet ring carcinoma of the stomach. Cancer. 1992;69:1645-1650. 6. Tendon M, Sostek M, Klein MA. Focus of signet ring-cell ... Jagtap, SV and Nikumbh, DB and Khirsagar, AY and Jagtap, SS and S, Khan (2012) Primary Signet-Ring Carcinoma (Linitus Plastica ... Signet ring cell carcinoma; Colorectal neoplasm; Linitus plastica. Subjects:. JOURNALS , Online Journal of Health and Allied ... We report a case of Primary Signet-ring cell carcinoma of the colorectum in a thirty one year old man presented in Surgical OPD ...
more infohttp://cogprints.org/8879/

Management of patients with upper urinary tract transitional cell carcinoma<...Management of patients with upper urinary tract transitional cell carcinoma<...

Raman, Jay D. ; Scherr, Douglas S. / Management of patients with upper urinary tract transitional cell carcinoma. In: Nature ... Raman, J. D., & Scherr, D. S. (2007). Management of patients with upper urinary tract transitional cell carcinoma. Nature ... Raman, JD & Scherr, DS 2007, Management of patients with upper urinary tract transitional cell carcinoma, Nature Clinical ... Management of patients with upper urinary tract transitional cell carcinoma. / Raman, Jay D.; Scherr, Douglas S. ...
more infohttps://pennstate.pure.elsevier.com/en/publications/management-of-patients-with-upper-urinary-tract-transitional-cell

Recurrence of Merkel cell carcinoma in the gastrointestinal tract: a case report | BMC Research Notes | Full TextRecurrence of Merkel cell carcinoma in the gastrointestinal tract: a case report | BMC Research Notes | Full Text

Metastatic Merkel cell carcinoma to the gastrointestinal tract or any other organ should be considered in patients with a ... There are only a few cases in the literature reporting metastases of Merkel cell carcinoma to the gastrointestinal tract. We ... Merkel cell carcinoma is a rare and aggressive skin malignancy that arises from primary neural cells and has a tendency for ... the evaluation of anemia revealed 1 cm polyp in ascending colon which turned out to be the recurrence of Merkel cell carcinoma ...
more infohttps://bmcresnotes.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s13104-015-1139-3/figures/2

Verrucous carcinoma - LaryngopediaVerrucous carcinoma - Laryngopedia

Verrucous carcinoma. Verrucous carcinoma is a variant of squamous cell carcinoma (SCCA). In the head and neck, this uncommon ... Verrucous carcinoma (1 of 5) Verrucous carcinoma, left vocal cord, persistent after radiotherapy elsewhere, in a patient unable ... Verrucous carcinoma, several weeks after laser treatment (5 of 5) During voicing. Arytenoid moves, but much of membranous vocal ... Verrucous carcinoma, after laser treatment (3 of 5) After several Thulium Laser ablations, using topical and injected local ...
more infohttps://laryngopedia.com/verrucous-carcinoma/

Fibrolamellar hepatocellular carcinoma - wikidocFibrolamellar hepatocellular carcinoma - wikidoc

Synonyms and Keywords: Fibrolamellar carcinoma; FLC Overview. Fibrolamellar hepatocellular carcinoma (FLC) is a rare subtype of ... Fibrolamellar hepatocellular carcinoma was first described Edmondson in 1956.[1][2] Fibrolamellar hepatocellular carcinoma is ... Differentiating Fibrolamellar Hepatocellular Carcinoma from Other Diseases. *Fibrolamellar hepatocellular carcinoma must be ... Fibrolamellar hepatocellular carcinoma is usually asymptomatic.. *Symptoms of fibrolamellar hepatocellular carcinoma may ...
more infohttp://es.wikidoc.org/index.php/Fibrolamellar_hepatocellular_carcinoma

Cureus | Cutaneous Metastasis From Tonsillar Squamous Cell Carcinoma: Report and Review of the LiteratureCureus | Cutaneous Metastasis From Tonsillar Squamous Cell Carcinoma: Report and Review of the Literature

We describe the clinical features of a 59-year-old man with squamous cell carcinoma of the tonsil who developed cutaneous ... The PubMed database was searched for the following keywords: carcinoma, cutaneous, metastasis, squamous, and tonsil. The papers ... only three prior patients with tonsillar squamous cell carcinoma have been reported to develop cutaneous metastases. ... metastasis from tonsillar cancer is rare but should be considered in patients with a history of a squamous cell carcinoma of ...
more infohttps://www.cureus.com/articles/6708-cutaneous-metastasis-from-tonsillar-squamous-cell-carcinoma-report-and-review-of-the-literature

Carcinoma - WikipediaCarcinoma - Wikipedia

In some types of carcinomas, Stage 0 carcinoma has been used to describe carcinoma in situ, and occult carcinomas detectable ... Some carcinomas are named for their or the putative cell of origin, (e.g.hepatocellular carcinoma, renal cell carcinoma). ... Carcinoma In situ[edit]. The term carcinoma in situ (or CIS) is a term for cells that are significantly abnormal but not cancer ... and sarcomatoid carcinoma (mixtures of spindle and giant cell carcinoma). Pleomorphic carcinoma contains spindle cell and/or ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carcinomas

Non-small-cell lung carcinoma - WikipediaNon-small-cell lung carcinoma - Wikipedia

Large-cell lung carcinoma[edit]. Main article: Large-cell lung carcinoma. Large cell lung carcinoma (LCLC) is a heterogeneous ... Non-small-cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) is any type of epithelial lung cancer other than small cell lung carcinoma (SCLC). NSCLC ... Squamous cell lung carcinoma[edit]. Main article: Squamous cell carcinoma of the lung ... The most common types of NSCLC are squamous cell carcinoma, large cell carcinoma, and adenocarcinoma, but there are several ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Non-small-cell_lung_carcinoma

Targeting renal cell carcinoma with a HIF-2 antagonist.  - PubMed - NCBITargeting renal cell carcinoma with a HIF-2 antagonist. - PubMed - NCBI

Targeting renal cell carcinoma with a HIF-2 antagonist.. Chen W1,2,3, Hill H1,2, Christie A1, Kim MS1,4, Holloman E1,2, Pavia- ... Clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) is characterized by inactivation of the von Hippel-Lindau tumour suppressor gene (VHL ... The therapeutic potential of HIF-2 antagonism in renal cell carcinoma. [Transl Androl Urol. 2017] ... Re: Targeting Renal Cell Carcinoma with a HIF-2 Antagonist. [Eur Urol. 2017] ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27595394

Breast Cancer: Ductal Carcinoma In Situ | GreenMedInfo | DiseaseBreast Cancer: Ductal Carcinoma In Situ | GreenMedInfo | Disease

Diseases : Breast Cancer: Ductal Carcinoma In Situ, Ductal Carcinoma: Invasive. Anti Therapeutic Actions : Biopsy: Various ... Diseases : Breast Cancer, Breast Cancer: Ductal Carcinoma In Situ, Breast Cancer: MMTV-Associated, Ductal Carcinoma: Invasive ... Diseases : Breast Cancer, Breast Cancer: Ductal Carcinoma In Situ, Breast Cancer: MMTV-Associated, Ductal Carcinoma: Invasive ... Diseases : Breast Cancer, Breast Cancer: Ductal Carcinoma In Situ, Breast Cancer: Lobular Carcinoma in Situ (LCIS) ...
more infohttp://www.greenmedinfo.com/disease/breast-cancer-ductal-carcinoma-situ

Kidney Cancer News, Research Articles | ED Treatment Studies - Renal and Urology NewsKidney Cancer News, Research Articles | ED Treatment Studies - Renal and Urology News

... treatment and resreatch studies about kidney and renal cell carcinoma for the medical professionals while caring for their ... The safety and efficacy of nivolumab for treating metastatic renal cell carcinoma is comparable to that found in the CheckMate ... Study reveals a 38% decreased risk of death in patients with papillary metastatic renal cell carcinoma who undergo ... associated with decreased odds of death versus radical nephrectomy among patients with cT1b but not cT2 renal cell carcinoma. ...
more infohttp://www.renalandurologynews.com/kidney-cancer/section/614/

CorpusCarcinoma - Schema IndexCorpusCarcinoma - Schema Index

Note 2: Carcinosarcoma should be staged as carcinoma.. *Note 3: This schema is for carcinoma and carcinosarcoma. When coding ... Carcinoma and Carcinosarcoma of Corpus Uteri; Uterus, NOS (excluding Placenta and Adenosarcoma, Leiomyosarcoma, and Endometrial ... 1. Carcinoma and carcinosarcoma 2. Leiomyosarcoma and endometrial stromal sarcoma (ESS) 3. Adenosarcoma ...
more infohttp://web2.facs.org/cstage0205/corpuscarcinoma/CorpusCarcinomaschema.html

Altered mRNA Expression of Genes Involved in Endocannabinoid Signalling in Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oral TongueAltered mRNA Expression of Genes Involved in Endocannabinoid Signalling in Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oral Tongue

Little is known about the endocannabinoid (eCB) system in squamous cell carcinoma of the oral tongue (SCCOT). Here we have ... Altered mRNA Expression of Genes Involved in Endocannabinoid Signalling in Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oral Tongue. ... Squamous cell carcinoma of the oral tongue, endocannabinoids, cyclooxygenase-2, N-acyl- osphatidylethanolamine phospholipase D ...
more infohttp://umu.diva-portal.org/smash/record.jsf?pid=diva2:1373491&language=sv

588-Head and neck SCC local advanced induction TPF (DOCEtaxel ciSplatin fluorouracil) (part 1) | eviQ588-Head and neck SCC local advanced induction TPF (DOCEtaxel ciSplatin fluorouracil) (part 1) | eviQ

Induction treatment for locally advanced squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the oral cavity, larynx, oropharynx or hypopharynx in ... Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma locally advanced induction TPF (DOCEtaxel ciSplatin fluorouracil) (part 1). ... Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma locally advanced induction TPF (DOCEtaxel ciSplatin fluorouracil) (part 1) ... Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma locally advanced cARBOplatin (weekly) chemoradiation (part 2 of TPF) ...
more infohttps://www.eviq.org.au/medical-oncology/head-and-neck/induction-chemotherapy/588-head-and-neck-scc-local-advanced-induction-tpf

Thyroid cancer - medullary carcinoma: MedlinePlus Medical EncyclopediaThyroid cancer - medullary carcinoma: MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia

Medullary carcinoma of the thyroid is cancer of the thyroid gland that starts in cells that release a hormone called calcitonin ... Medullary carcinoma of the thyroid is cancer of the thyroid gland that starts in cells that release a hormone called calcitonin ... People with medullary carcinoma of the thyroid live at least 5 years after diagnosis, depending upon the stage of the cancer. ... Medullary thyroid carcinoma. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman-Cecil Medicine. 25th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier ...
more infohttps://medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000374.htm

Basal cell skin cancer: MedlinePlus Medical EncyclopediaBasal cell skin cancer: MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia

Basal cell carcinoma; Rodent ulcer; Skin cancer - basal cell; Cancer - skin - basal cell; Nonmelanoma skin cancer; Basal cell ...
more infohttps://medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000824.htm

Gall Bladder CarcinomaGall Bladder Carcinoma

This Presentation gives summarized overview of Gall Bladder Carcinoma especially the management as per latest National ... Gall Bladder Carcinoma * 1. Gall Bladder Carcinoma Muhammad Haris Aslam Janjua Resident, Surgical Unit I SIMS/Services Hospital ... John AP, Ashley R, Alan G: Primary carcinoma of the gallbladder.HBP 1991, 4:277-289 18. Talat JH, Sarwar A J: Risk Factors for ... Carcinoma of the gallbladder: Patterns of presentation, prognostic factors and survival rate. An 11-year single centre ...
more infohttps://www.slideshare.net/jibranmohsin/gall-bladder-carcinoma-41699410
  • An 82-year-old man presenting with a large long-standing verrucous carcinoma on the leg was treated successfully by 6 photodynamic therapy sessions administered at weekly intervals using methyl-aminolevulinate and 57-J/cm 2 irradiations at 634-nm wavelength. (em-consulte.com)
  • Refers to a mixed tumor containing both adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma, wherein each of these cell types comprise at least 10% of the tumor volume. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pleomorphic carcinoma contains spindle cell and/or giant cell components, plus at least a 10% component of cells characteristic of more highly differentiated types (i.e. adenocarcinoma and/or squamous cell carcinoma). (wikipedia.org)
  • The most common types of NSCLC are squamous cell carcinoma , large cell carcinoma , and adenocarcinoma , but there are several other types that occur less frequently. (wikipedia.org)
  • Non-squamous cell carcinoma almost occupy the half of NSCLC. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, recent studies suggest that the "ratio of centrally-to-peripherally occurring" lesions may be converging toward unity for both adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma. (wikipedia.org)
  • Photograph of a squamous-cell carcinoma. (wikipedia.org)
  • Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the lung is more common in men than in women. (wikipedia.org)
  • LCLC is, in effect, a "diagnosis of exclusion", in that the tumor cells lack light microscopic characteristics that would classify the neoplasm as a small-cell carcinoma, squamous-cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma, or other more specific histologic type of lung cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • Little is known about the endocannabinoid (eCB) system in squamous cell carcinoma of the oral tongue (SCCOT). (diva-portal.org)
  • The role of human papillomavirus infection in the pathogenesis of penile squamous cell carcinoma. (springer.com)
  • The role of pathologic prognostic factors in squamous cell carcinoma of the penis. (springer.com)
  • Hakenberg OW, Drager D, Erbersdobler A. Pathology, molecular biology, and prognosis of penile squamous cell carcinoma: what can we learn from the specimen? (springer.com)
  • The early diagnosis of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is preferable as the tumor is easier to remove and treat when the affected area is smaller. (news-medical.net)
  • Patients should be encouraged to regularly check their skin and monitor for any changes that may indicate abnormal cell growth and early signs of squamous cell carcinoma. (news-medical.net)
  • In addition to self-examination by patients, a health professional should be involved in the screening for squamous cell carcinoma, particularly for those individuals at high risk of developing the condition. (news-medical.net)
  • All areas of the skin should then be examined, and suspicious areas looked at more closely for specific characteristics that may suggest squamous cell carcinoma, such as irregularity of shape. (news-medical.net)
  • It may also be necessary to check for enlarged lymph nodes, particularly when there are suspicious spots on the skin that may be caused by squamous cell carcinoma. (news-medical.net)
  • When making a diagnosis of squamous cell carcinoma, it is important to distinguish it from other health conditions with similar symptoms, to ensure the optimal treatment plan is followed. (news-medical.net)
  • Retrieved on January 24, 2020 from https://www.news-medical.net/health/Squamous-Cell-Carcinoma-Diagnosis.aspx. (news-medical.net)
  • The safety and efficacy of nivolumab for treating metastatic renal cell carcinoma is comparable to that found in the CheckMate 025 trial. (renalandurologynews.com)
  • Study reveals a 38% decreased risk of death in patients with papillary metastatic renal cell carcinoma who undergo cytoreductive nephrectomy vs those who do not. (renalandurologynews.com)
  • Immunotherapy with atezolizumab plus targeted therapy with bevacizumab improves progression-free survival better than sunitinib in patients with untreated metastatic renal cell carcinoma. (renalandurologynews.com)
  • Micrograph of a lung primary small cell carcinoma , a type of carcinoma. (wikipedia.org)
  • As a class, NSCLCs are relatively insensitive to chemotherapy , compared to small cell carcinoma. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pie chart showing incidences of non-small cell lung cancers as compared to small cell carcinoma shown at right, with fractions of smokers versus non-smokers shown for each type. (wikipedia.org)
  • Small cell carcinoma Cells are usually round and are less than approximately 3 times the diameter of a resting lymphocyte and little evident cytoplasm. (wikipedia.org)
  • Clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) is characterized by inactivation of the von Hippel-Lindau tumour suppressor gene (VHL). (nih.gov)
  • The cause of medullary carcinoma of the thyroid (MTC) is unknown. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Refers to a carcinoma with observable features and characteristics indicative of squamous differentiation (intercellular bridges, keratinization, squamous pearls). (wikipedia.org)
  • adeno = gland ) Refers to a carcinoma featuring microscopic glandular-related tissue cytology, tissue architecture, and/or gland-related molecular products, e.g., mucin . (wikipedia.org)
  • The therapeutic potential of HIF-2 antagonism in renal cell carcinoma. (nih.gov)
  • Treatment plans for patients with advanced renal cell carcinoma (RCC) vary, but can often involve both surgery and medicine, and it is not uncommon for patients to be treated with more than one medicine or type of therapy. (novartis.com)
  • A summary is given of the more common non-carcinoma malignancies that are encountered at this site in diagnostic practice. (springer.com)
  • In a phase Ib study, dual therapy with axitinib and pembrolizumab was well tolerated and demonstrated antitumor activity in treatment-naïve patients with advanced renal cell carcinoma. (renalandurologynews.com)
  • When used as the primary treatment modality for sebaceous carcinoma of the eyelid, Mohs surgery is associated with significantly lower local and distant recurrence rates. (wikipedia.org)
  • Having a risk factor for Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC), or even many risk factors, doesn't mean that you will get it. (cancer.org)
  • Clinicopathological features of carcinoma of the distal penile urethra. (springer.com)