A usually small, slow-growing neoplasm composed of islands of rounded, oxyphilic, or spindle-shaped cells of medium size, with moderately small vesicular nuclei, and covered by intact mucosa with a yellow cut surface. The tumor can occur anywhere in the gastrointestinal tract (and in the lungs and other sites); approximately 90% arise in the appendix. It is now established that these tumors are of neuroendocrine origin and derive from a primitive stem cell. (From Stedman, 25th ed & Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1182)
A symptom complex associated with CARCINOID TUMOR and characterized by attacks of severe flushing of the skin, diarrheal watery stools, bronchoconstriction, sudden drops in blood pressure, edema, and ascites. The carcinoid tumors are usually located in the gastrointestinal tract and metastasize to the liver. Symptoms are caused by tumor secretion of serotonin, prostaglandins, and other biologically active substances. Cardiac manifestations constitute CARCINOID HEART DISEASE. (Dorland, 27th ed; Stedman, 25th ed)
Cardiac manifestation of gastrointestinal CARCINOID TUMOR that metastasizes to the liver. Substances secreted by the tumor cells, including SEROTONIN, promote fibrous plaque formation in ENDOCARDIUM and its underlying layers. These deposits cause distortion of the TRICUSPID VALVE and the PULMONARY VALVE eventually leading to STENOSIS and valve regurgitation.
Tumors or cancer in the ILEUM region of the small intestine (INTESTINE, SMALL).
Tumors or cancer of the BRONCHI.
Tumors or cancer of the APPENDIX.
Tumors or cancer of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT, from the MOUTH to the ANAL CANAL.
Hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5HIAA) is a major metabolite of serotonin, a neurotransmitter, formed by the action of monoamine oxidase and aldehyde dehydrogenase, and its measurement in urine is often used as a biomarker for serotonin synthesis in clinical and research settings.
Tumors or cancer of the INTESTINES.
A group of acidic proteins that are major components of SECRETORY GRANULES in the endocrine and neuroendocrine cells. They play important roles in the aggregation, packaging, sorting, and processing of secretory protein prior to secretion. They are cleaved to release biologically active peptides. There are various types of granins, usually classified by their sources.
A potent, long-acting synthetic SOMATOSTATIN octapeptide analog that inhibits secretion of GROWTH HORMONE and is used to treat hormone-secreting tumors; DIABETES MELLITUS; HYPOTENSION, ORTHOSTATIC; HYPERINSULINISM; hypergastrinemia; and small bowel fistula.
Tumors whose cells possess secretory granules and originate from the neuroectoderm, i.e., the cells of the ectoblast or epiblast that program the neuroendocrine system. Common properties across most neuroendocrine tumors include ectopic hormone production (often via APUD CELLS), the presence of tumor-associated antigens, and isozyme composition.
A type of chromogranin which was first isolated from CHROMAFFIN CELLS of the ADRENAL MEDULLA but is also found in other tissues and in many species including human, bovine, rat, mouse, and others. It is an acidic protein with 431 to 445 amino acid residues. It contains fragments that inhibit vasoconstriction or release of hormones and neurotransmitter, while other fragments exert antimicrobial actions.
Symptom complex due to ACTH production by non-pituitary neoplasms.
Tumors or cancer of the DUODENUM.
Tumors or cancer of the THYMUS GLAND.
Molecular products metabolized and secreted by neoplastic tissue and characterized biochemically in cells or body fluids. They are indicators of tumor stage and grade as well as useful for monitoring responses to treatment and predicting recurrence. Many chemical groups are represented including hormones, antigens, amino and nucleic acids, enzymes, polyamines, and specific cell membrane proteins and lipids.
Syndromes resulting from inappropriate production of HORMONES or hormone-like materials by NEOPLASMS in non-endocrine tissues or not by the usual ENDOCRINE GLANDS. Such hormone outputs are called ectopic hormone (HORMONES, ECTOPIC) secretion.
Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the rectum.
A group of carcinomas which share a characteristic morphology, often being composed of clusters and trabecular sheets of round "blue cells", granular chromatin, and an attenuated rim of poorly demarcated cytoplasm. Neuroendocrine tumors include carcinoids, small ("oat") cell carcinomas, medullary carcinoma of the thyroid, Merkel cell tumor, cutaneous neuroendocrine carcinoma, pancreatic islet cell tumors, and pheochromocytoma. Neurosecretory granules are found within the tumor cells. (Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
Tumor or cancer of the COMMON BILE DUCT including the AMPULLA OF VATER and the SPHINCTER OF ODDI.
A subtype of enteroendocrine cells found in the gastrointestinal MUCOSA, particularly in the glands of PYLORIC ANTRUM; DUODENUM; and ILEUM. These cells secrete mainly SEROTONIN and some neuropeptides. Their secretory granules stain readily with silver (argentaffin stain).
Tumors or cancer of the LIVER.
A guanidine analog with specific affinity for tissues of the sympathetic nervous system and related tumors. The radiolabeled forms are used as antineoplastic agents and radioactive imaging agents. (Merck Index, 12th ed) MIBG serves as a neuron-blocking agent which has a strong affinity for, and retention in, the adrenal medulla and also inhibits ADP-ribosyltransferase.
A dilation of the duodenal papilla that is the opening of the juncture of the COMMON BILE DUCT and the MAIN PANCREATIC DUCT, also known as the hepatopancreatic ampulla.
Tumors or cancer of the ENDOCRINE GLANDS.
Tumors or cancer of the LUNG.
Cell surface proteins that bind somatostatin and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. Somatostatin is a hypothalamic hormone, a pancreatic hormone, and a central and peripheral neurotransmitter. Activated somatostatin receptors on pituitary cells inhibit the release of growth hormone; those on endocrine and gastrointestinal cells regulate the absorption and utilization of nutrients; and those on neurons mediate somatostatin's role as a neurotransmitter.
A 14-amino acid peptide named for its ability to inhibit pituitary GROWTH HORMONE release, also called somatotropin release-inhibiting factor. It is expressed in the central and peripheral nervous systems, the gut, and other organs. SRIF can also inhibit the release of THYROID-STIMULATING HORMONE; PROLACTIN; INSULIN; and GLUCAGON besides acting as a neurotransmitter and neuromodulator. In a number of species including humans, there is an additional form of somatostatin, SRIF-28 with a 14-amino acid extension at the N-terminal.
Unstable isotopes of indium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. In atoms with atomic weights 106-112, 113m, 114, and 116-124 are radioactive indium isotopes.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
A worm-like blind tube extension from the CECUM.
Tumors or cancer in the JEJUNUM region of the small intestine (INTESTINE, SMALL).
A condition caused by prolonged exposure to excess levels of cortisol (HYDROCORTISONE) or other GLUCOCORTICOIDS from endogenous or exogenous sources. It is characterized by upper body OBESITY; OSTEOPOROSIS; HYPERTENSION; DIABETES MELLITUS; HIRSUTISM; AMENORRHEA; and excess body fluid. Endogenous Cushing syndrome or spontaneous hypercortisolism is divided into two groups, those due to an excess of ADRENOCORTICOTROPIN and those that are ACTH-independent.
The total amount (cell number, weight, size or volume) of tumor cells or tissue in the body.
A family of gastrointestinal peptide hormones that excite the secretion of GASTRIC JUICE. They may also occur in the central nervous system where they are presumed to be neurotransmitters.
Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the luminal surface of the duodenum.
Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.
Tumors or cancer of the STOMACH.
Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.
A relatively rare, usually benign neoplasm originating in the chemoreceptor tissue of the CAROTID BODY; GLOMUS JUGULARE; GLOMUS TYMPANICUM; AORTIC BODIES; and the female genital tract. It consists histologically of rounded or ovoid hyperchromatic cells that tend to be grouped in an alveolus-like pattern within a scant to moderate amount of fibrous stroma and a few large thin-walled vascular channels. (From Stedman, 27th ed)
The transfer of a neoplasm from one organ or part of the body to another remote from the primary site.
Discrete abnormal tissue masses that protrude into the lumen of the DIGESTIVE TRACT or the RESPIRATORY TRACT. Polyps can be spheroidal, hemispheroidal, or irregular mound-shaped structures attached to the MUCOUS MEMBRANE of the lumen wall either by a stalk, pedunculus, or by a broad base.
Two or more abnormal growths of tissue occurring simultaneously and presumed to be of separate origin. The neoplasms may be histologically the same or different, and may be found in the same or different sites.
Tumors or cancer of any part of the hearing and equilibrium system of the body (the EXTERNAL EAR, the MIDDLE EAR, and the INNER EAR).
Surgical removal of the vermiform appendix. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Tumors or cancer of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.
A transient reddening of the face that may be due to fever, certain drugs, exertion, stress, or a disease process.
Tumors or cancer of the PANCREAS. Depending on the types of ISLET CELLS present in the tumors, various hormones can be secreted: GLUCAGON from PANCREATIC ALPHA CELLS; INSULIN from PANCREATIC BETA CELLS; and SOMATOSTATIN from the SOMATOSTATIN-SECRETING CELLS. Most are malignant except the insulin-producing tumors (INSULINOMA).
A MARVEL domain-containing protein found in the presynaptic vesicles of NEURONS and NEUROENDOCRINE CELLS. It is commonly used as an immunocytochemical marker for neuroendocrine differentiation.
Neuroendocrine cells in the glands of the GASTRIC MUCOSA. They produce HISTAMINE and peptides such as CHROMOGRANINS. ECL cells respond to GASTRIN by releasing histamine which acts as a paracrine stimulator of the release of HYDROCHLORIC ACID from the GASTRIC PARIETAL CELLS.
A hydro-lyase that catalyzes the dehydration of 2-phosphoglycerate to form PHOSPHOENOLPYRUVATE. Several different isoforms of this enzyme exist, each with its own tissue specificity.
Tumors or cancer of the RECTUM.
'Iodobenzenes' are aromatic organic compounds consisting of a benzene ring substituted with an iodine atom (I), typically represented by the chemical formula C6H5I.
A malignant epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.
A form of multiple endocrine neoplasia that is characterized by the combined occurrence of tumors in the PARATHYROID GLANDS, the PITUITARY GLAND, and the PANCREATIC ISLETS. The resulting clinical signs include HYPERPARATHYROIDISM; HYPERCALCEMIA; HYPERPROLACTINEMIA; CUSHING DISEASE; GASTRINOMA; and ZOLLINGER-ELLISON SYNDROME. This disease is due to loss-of-function of the MEN1 gene, a tumor suppressor gene (GENES, TUMOR SUPPRESSOR) on CHROMOSOME 11 (Locus: 11q13).
A biochemical messenger and regulator, synthesized from the essential amino acid L-TRYPTOPHAN. In humans it is found primarily in the central nervous system, gastrointestinal tract, and blood platelets. Serotonin mediates several important physiological functions including neurotransmission, gastrointestinal motility, hemostasis, and cardiovascular integrity. Multiple receptor families (RECEPTORS, SEROTONIN) explain the broad physiological actions and distribution of this biochemical mediator.
A general term collectively applied to tumors associated with the APUD CELLS series, irrespective of their specific identification.
A congenital abnormality characterized by the outpouching or sac formation in the ILEUM. It is a remnant of the embryonic YOLK SAC in which the VITELLINE DUCT failed to close.
A benign tumor of the pancreatic ISLET CELLS. Usually it involves the INSULIN-producing PANCREATIC BETA CELLS, as in INSULINOMA, resulting in HYPERINSULINISM.
A malignant kidney tumor, caused by the uncontrolled multiplication of renal stem (blastemal), stromal (STROMAL CELLS), and epithelial (EPITHELIAL CELLS) elements. However, not all three are present in every case. Several genes or chromosomal areas have been associated with Wilms tumor which is usually found in childhood as a firm lump in a child's side or ABDOMEN.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
A blue-red, extremely painful vascular neoplasm involving a glomeriform arteriovenous anastomosis (glomus body), which may be found anywhere in the skin, most often in the distal portion of the fingers and toes, especially beneath the nail. It is composed of specialized pericytes (sometimes termed glomus cells), usually in single encapsulated nodular masses which may be several millimeters in diameter (From Stedman, 27th ed). CHEMODECTOMA, a tumor of NEURAL CREST origin, is also sometimes called a glomus tumor.
A family of the order Rodentia containing 250 genera including the two genera Mus (MICE) and Rattus (RATS), from which the laboratory inbred strains are developed. The fifteen subfamilies are SIGMODONTINAE (New World mice and rats), CRICETINAE, Spalacinae, Myospalacinae, Lophiomyinae, ARVICOLINAE, Platacanthomyinae, Nesomyinae, Otomyinae, Rhizomyinae, GERBILLINAE, Dendromurinae, Cricetomyinae, MURINAE (Old World mice and rats), and Hydromyinae.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.

Mutations and allelic deletions of the MEN1 gene are associated with a subset of sporadic endocrine pancreatic and neuroendocrine tumors and not restricted to foregut neoplasms. (1/854)

Endocrine pancreatic tumors (EPT) and neuroendocrine tumors (NET) occur sporadically and rarely in association with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1). We analyzed the frequency of allelic deletions and mutations of the recently identified MEN1 gene in 53 sporadic tumors including 30 EPT and 23 NET (carcinoids) of different locations and types. Allelic deletion of the MEN1 locus was identified in 18/49 (36.7%) tumors (13/30, 43.3% in EPT and 5/19, 26.3% in NET) and mutations of the MEN1 gene were present in 8/52 (15.3%) tumors (4/30 (13.3%) EPT and 4/22 (18.1%) NET). The somatic mutations were clustered in the 5' region of the coding sequence and most frequently encompassed missense mutations. All tumors with mutations exhibited a loss of the other allele and a wild-type sequence of the MEN1 gene in nontumorous DNA. In one additional patient with a NET of the lung and no clinical signs or history of MEN1, a 5178-9G-->A splice donor site mutation in intron 4 was identified in both the tumor and blood DNA, indicating the presence of a thus far unknown MEN1 syndrome. In most tumor groups the frequency of allelic deletions at 11q13 was 2 to 3 times higher than the frequency of identified MEN1 gene mutations. Some tumor types, including rare forms of EPT and NET of the duodenum and small intestine, exhibited mutations more frequently than other types. Furthermore, somatic mutations were not restricted to foregut tumors but were also detectable in a midgut tumor (15.2% versus 16.6%). Our data indicate that somatic MEN1 gene mutations contribute to a subset of sporadic EPT and NET, including midgut tumors. Because the frequency of mutations varies significantly among the investigated tumor subgroups and allelic deletions are 2 to 3 times more frequently observed, factors other than MEN1 gene inactivation, including other tumor-suppressor genes on 11q13, may also be involved in the tumorigenesis of these neoplasms.  (+info)

Carcinoids of the common bile duct: a case report and literature review. (2/854)

Carcinoids of the extrahepatic bile ducts and particularly the common bile duct are extremely rare. A 65-year-old woman presented with obstructive jaundice. Laboratory and imaging studies gave results that were consistent with an obstructing lesion in the common bile duct. In this case, a stent was inserted initially to decompress the bile ducts. Subsequently a laparotomy and pancreaticoduodenectomy were performed and a tissue diagnosis of carcinoid of the common bile duct was made. The patient was well with no evidence of recurrence 17 months postoperatively. The authors believe this is the 19th reported case of an extrahepatic bile duct carcinoid.  (+info)

Primary hepatic carcinoid in a renal transplant patient. (3/854)

There seems to be a world-wide increase in the incidence of tumors among immunosuppressed patients. Of 1350 renal allografts transplanted in the past 23 years at the Department of Transplantation and Surgery, 56 cases were malignant tumors. The case of a 58-year-old female patient is reported, with disseminated primary carcinoid in the liver detected 86 days after renal transplantation. According to the literature only 39 patients with primary liver carcinoids have been reported until 1997, but this is the first where the carcinoid developed in an immunosuppressed patient. The rapid progression of the carcinoid could be associated with the immunosuppression.  (+info)

Octreotide acetate long-acting formulation versus open-label subcutaneous octreotide acetate in malignant carcinoid syndrome. (4/854)

PURPOSE: Subcutaneous (SC) octreotide acetate effectively relieves the diarrhea and flushing associated with carcinoid syndrome but requires long-term multiple injections daily. A microencapsulated long-acting formulation (LAR) of octreotide acetate has been developed for once-monthly intramuscular dosing. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A randomized trial compared double-blinded octreotide LAR at 10, 20, and 30 mg every 4 weeks with open-label SC octreotide every 8 hours for the treatment of carcinoid syndrome. Seventy-nine patients controlled with treatment of SC octreotide 0.3 to 0.9 mg/d whose symptoms returned during a washout period and who returned for at least the week 20 evaluation constituted the efficacy-assessable population. RESULTS: Complete or partial treatment success was comparable in each of the four arms of the study (SC, 58.3%; 10 mg, 66.7%; 20 mg, 71.4%; 30 mg, 61.9%; P> or =.72 for all pairwise comparisons). Control of stool frequency was similar in all treatment groups. Flushing episodes were best controlled in the 20-mg LAR and SC groups; the 10-mg LAR treatment was least effective in the control of flushing. Treatment was well tolerated by patients in all four groups. CONCLUSION: Once octreotide steady-state concentrations are achieved, octreotide LAR controls the symptoms of carcinoid syndrome at least as well as SC octreotide. A starting dose of 20 mg of octreotide LAR is recommended. Supplemental SC octreotide is needed for approximately 2 weeks after initiation of octreotide LAR treatment. Occasional rescue SC injections may be required for possibly 2 to 3 months until steady-state octreotide levels from the LAR formulation are achieved.  (+info)

Primary carcinoid tumor of the testis: immunohistochemical, ultrastructural and DNA flow cytometric study of two cases. (5/854)

Primary testicular carcinoid tumor, occupying 0.23% of testicular neoplasm, is a rare and indolent neoplasm with the potential for distant metastasis. We present two cases of primary pure carcinoid tumor of the testis. Both patients were 36 years old. Physical examination revealed testicular mass with and without tenderness. The preoperative serum levels of beta-human chorionic gonadotropin and alpha-fetoprotein were normal and neither patient had carcinoid syndrome. The tumors measured 7.5x6x4 cm and 5.5x5x4 cm in size. Histologically, immunohistochemically and ultrastructurally, the tumors showed typical features of the carcinoid tumor. Case 1 showed extensive tumor necrosis and vascular invasion. DNA flow cytometric analysis showed aneuploidy with DNA index of 1.47 and S+G2M of 14.0% in case 1 and tetraploidy with DNA index of 1.96 and S+G2M of 22.1% in case 2. Both patients have been well without any signs of metastasis after operation for 24 months in case 1 and for 16 months in case 2.  (+info)

Library of sequence-specific radioimmunoassays for human chromogranin A. (6/854)

BACKGROUND: Human chromogranin A (CgA) is an acidic protein widely expressed in neuroendocrine tissue and tumors. The extensive tissue- and tumor-specific cleavages of CgA at basic cleavage sites produce multiple peptides. METHODS: We have developed a library of RIAs specific for different epitopes, including the NH2 and COOH termini and three sequences adjacent to dibasic sites in the remaining part of CgA. RESULTS: The antisera raised against CgA(210-222) and CgA(340-348) required a free NH2 terminus for binding. All antisera displayed high titers, high indexes of heterogeneity ( approximately 1.0), and high binding affinities (Keff0 approximately 0.1 x 10(12) to 1.0 x 10(12) L/mol), implying that the RIAs were monospecific and sensitive. The concentration of CgA in different tissues varied with the assay used. Hence, in a carcinoid tumor the concentration varied from 0.5 to 34.0 nmol/g tissue depending on the specificity of the CgA assay. The lowest concentration in all tumors was measured with the assay specific for the NH2 terminus of CgA. This is consistent with the relatively low concentrations measured in plasma from carcinoid tumor patients by the N-terminal assay, whereas the assays using antisera raised against CgA(210-222) and CgA(340-348) measured increased concentrations. CONCLUSION: Only some CgA assays appear useful for diagnosis of neuroendocrine tumors, but the entire library is valuable for studies of the expression and processing of human CgA.  (+info)

Review article: current status of gastrointestinal carcinoids. (7/854)

Carcinoid tumours are enigmatic, slow growing malignancies which occur most frequently (74%) in the gastrointestinal tract. In recent years, it has become apparent that the term 'carcinoid' represents a wide spectrum of different neoplasms originating from a variety of different neuroendocrine cell types. Carcinoid lesions are usually identified histologically by their affinity for silver salts, by general neuroendocrine markers, or more specifically by immunocytochemistry using antibodies against their specific cellular products. Within the gut, the most frequent sites are the small bowel (29%), the appendix (19%) and rectum (13%). Clinical manifestations are often vague or absent. Nevertheless, in approximately 10% of patients the tumours secrete bioactive mediators which may engender various elements of characteristic carcinoid syndrome. In many instances the neoplasms are detected incidentally at the time of surgery for other gastrointestinal disorders. The tendency for metastatic spread correlates with tumour size, and is substantially higher in lesions larger than 2.0 cm. An association with noncarcinoid neoplasms is ascribed in 8-17% of lesions. Treatment consists of radical surgical excision of the tumour, although gastric (type I and II) and rectal carcinoids may be managed with local excision. Overall 5-year survival is excellent for carcinoids of the appendix (86%) and rectum (72%), whereas small intestinal (55%), gastric (49%) and colonic carcinoids (42%) exhibit a far worse prognosis.  (+info)

Clinical symptoms, hormone profiles, treatment, and prognosis in patients with gastric carcinoids. (8/854)

BACKGROUND: Type 1 gastric carcinoids are associated with hypergastrinaemia and chronic atrophic gastritis, type 2 occur in patients with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 combined with Zollinger-Ellison syndrome, and type 3 lack any relation to hypergastrinaemia. Type 1 tumours are usually benign whereas type 3 are highly malignant. AIMS: To identify possible tumour markers in patients with gastric carcinoids. PATIENTS/METHOD: Nine patients with type 1, one with type 2, and five with type 3 were evaluated with regard to symptoms, hormone profile, and prognosis. RESULTS: Plasma chromogranin A was increased in all patients but was higher (p < 0.01) in those with type 3 than those with type 1 carcinoids. All patients with type 3 carcinoids died from metastatic disease, but none of the type 1 patients died as a result of their tumours. One type 1 patient with a solitary liver metastasis received interferon alpha and octreotide treatment. Nine months later, the metastasis was no longer detectable. She is still alive eight years after diagnosis, without recurrent disease. This represents the only reported case of foregut carcinoid with an unresectable liver metastasis that seems to be have been cured by biotherapy. CONCLUSIONS: Plasma chromogranin A appears to be a valuable tumour marker for all types of gastric carcinoid. Combination therapy with interferon alpha and octreotide may be beneficial in patients with metastasising type 1 gastric carcinoids.  (+info)

A carcinoid tumor is a type of slow-growing neuroendocrine tumor that usually originates in the digestive tract, particularly in the small intestine. These tumors can also arise in other areas such as the lungs, appendix, and rarely in other organs. Carcinoid tumors develop from cells of the diffuse endocrine system (also known as the neuroendocrine system) that are capable of producing hormones or biologically active amines.

Carcinoid tumors can produce and release various hormones and bioactive substances, such as serotonin, histamine, bradykinins, prostaglandins, and tachykinins, which can lead to a variety of symptoms. The most common syndrome associated with carcinoid tumors is the carcinoid syndrome, characterized by flushing, diarrhea, abdominal cramping, and wheezing or difficulty breathing.

Carcinoid tumors are typically classified as functional or nonfunctional based on whether they produce and secrete hormones that cause symptoms. Functional carcinoid tumors account for approximately 30% of cases and can lead to the development of carcinoid syndrome, while nonfunctional tumors do not produce significant amounts of hormones and are often asymptomatic until they grow large enough to cause local or distant complications.

Treatment options for carcinoid tumors depend on the location, size, and extent of the tumor, as well as whether it is functional or nonfunctional. Treatment may include surgery, medications (such as somatostatin analogs, chemotherapy, or targeted therapies), and radiation therapy. Regular follow-up with imaging studies and biochemical tests is essential to monitor for recurrence and assess treatment response.

Malignant carcinoid syndrome is a complex of symptoms that occur in some people with malignant tumors (carcinoids) that secrete large amounts of hormone-like substances, particularly serotonin. These symptoms can include flushing of the face and upper body, diarrhea, rapid heartbeat, difficulty breathing, and abdominal pain and distention. In addition, these individuals may have chronic inflammation of the heart valves (endocarditis) leading to heart failure. It is important to note that not all people with carcinoid tumors will develop malignant carcinoid syndrome, but those who do require specific treatment for their symptoms and hormonal imbalances.

Carcinoid heart disease is a rare complication that occurs in some people with carcinoid tumors, which are slow-growing tumors that typically originate in the digestive tract. These tumors can release hormones and other substances into the bloodstream, which can cause various symptoms. In carcinoid heart disease, these substances cause fibrous plaques to form on the heart valves, leading to thickening and stiffening of the valve leaflets. This can result in leakage or obstruction of the heart valves, causing symptoms such as shortness of breath, fatigue, and fluid retention. Carcinoid heart disease is most commonly affects the tricuspid and pulmonary valves, which are located on the right side of the heart. If left untreated, carcinoid heart disease can lead to serious complications, including heart failure. Treatment typically involves a combination of medications to manage symptoms and control the growth of the tumor, as well as surgery to repair or replace damaged heart valves.

Ileal neoplasms refer to abnormal growths in the ileum, which is the final portion of the small intestine. These growths can be benign or malignant (cancerous). Common types of ileal neoplasms include:

1. Adenomas: These are benign tumors that can develop in the ileum and have the potential to become cancerous over time if not removed.
2. Carcinoids: These are slow-growing neuroendocrine tumors that typically start in the ileum. They can produce hormones that cause symptoms such as diarrhea, flushing, and heart problems.
3. Adenocarcinomas: These are malignant tumors that develop from the glandular cells lining the ileum. They are relatively rare but can be aggressive and require prompt treatment.
4. Lymphomas: These are cancers that start in the immune system cells found in the ileum's lining. They can cause symptoms such as abdominal pain, diarrhea, and weight loss.
5. Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs): These are rare tumors that develop from the connective tissue of the ileum's wall. While most GISTs are benign, some can be malignant and require treatment.

It is important to note that early detection and treatment of ileal neoplasms can significantly improve outcomes and prognosis. Regular screenings and check-ups with a healthcare provider are recommended for individuals at higher risk for developing these growths.

Bronchial neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors in the bronchi, which are the large airways that lead into the lungs. These neoplasms can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Malignant bronchial neoplasms are often referred to as lung cancer and can be further classified into small cell lung cancer and non-small cell lung cancer, depending on the type of cells involved.

Benign bronchial neoplasms are less common than malignant ones and may include growths such as papillomas, hamartomas, or chondromas. While benign neoplasms are not cancerous, they can still cause symptoms and complications if they grow large enough to obstruct the airways or if they become infected.

Treatment for bronchial neoplasms depends on several factors, including the type, size, location, and stage of the tumor, as well as the patient's overall health and medical history. Treatment options may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or a combination of these approaches.

Appendiceal neoplasms refer to various types of tumors that can develop in the appendix, a small tube-like structure attached to the large intestine. These neoplasms can be benign or malignant and can include:

1. Adenomas: These are benign tumors that arise from the glandular cells lining the appendix. They are usually slow-growing and may not cause any symptoms.
2. Carcinoids: These are neuroendocrine tumors that arise from the hormone-producing cells in the appendix. They are typically small and slow-growing, but some can be aggressive and spread to other parts of the body.
3. Mucinous neoplasms: These are tumors that produce mucin, a slippery substance that can cause the appendix to become distended and filled with mucus. They can be low-grade (less aggressive) or high-grade (more aggressive) and may spread to other parts of the abdomen.
4. Adenocarcinomas: These are malignant tumors that arise from the glandular cells lining the appendix. They are relatively rare but can be aggressive and spread to other parts of the body.
5. Pseudomyxoma peritonei: This is a condition in which mucin produced by an appendiceal neoplasm leaks into the abdominal cavity, causing a jelly-like accumulation of fluid and tissue. It can be caused by both benign and malignant tumors.

Treatment for appendiceal neoplasms depends on the type and stage of the tumor, as well as the patient's overall health. Treatment options may include surgery, chemotherapy, or radiation therapy.

Gastrointestinal (GI) neoplasms refer to abnormal growths in the gastrointestinal tract, which can be benign or malignant. The gastrointestinal tract includes the mouth, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, rectum, and anus.

Benign neoplasms are non-cancerous growths that do not invade nearby tissues or spread to other parts of the body. They can sometimes be removed completely and may not cause any further health problems.

Malignant neoplasms, on the other hand, are cancerous growths that can invade nearby tissues and organs and spread to other parts of the body through the bloodstream or lymphatic system. These types of neoplasms can be life-threatening if not diagnosed and treated promptly.

GI neoplasms can cause various symptoms, including abdominal pain, bloating, changes in bowel habits, nausea, vomiting, weight loss, and anemia. The specific symptoms may depend on the location and size of the neoplasm.

There are many types of GI neoplasms, including adenocarcinomas, gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs), lymphomas, and neuroendocrine tumors. The diagnosis of GI neoplasms typically involves a combination of medical history, physical examination, imaging studies, and biopsy. Treatment options may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, targeted therapy, or immunotherapy.

Hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5HIAA) is a major metabolite of the neurotransmitter serotonin, formed in the body through the enzymatic degradation of serotonin by monoamine oxidase and aldehyde dehydrogenase. 5HIAA is primarily excreted in the urine and its measurement can be used as a biomarker for serotonin synthesis and metabolism in the body.

Increased levels of 5HIAA in the cerebrospinal fluid or urine may indicate conditions associated with excessive serotonin production, such as carcinoid syndrome, while decreased levels may be seen in certain neurodegenerative disorders, such as Parkinson's disease. Therefore, measuring 5HIAA levels can have diagnostic and therapeutic implications for these conditions.

Intestinal neoplasms refer to abnormal growths in the tissues of the intestines, which can be benign or malignant. These growths are called neoplasms and they result from uncontrolled cell division. In the case of intestinal neoplasms, these growths occur in the small intestine, large intestine (colon), rectum, or appendix.

Benign intestinal neoplasms are not cancerous and often do not invade surrounding tissues or spread to other parts of the body. However, they can still cause problems if they grow large enough to obstruct the intestines or cause bleeding. Common types of benign intestinal neoplasms include polyps, leiomyomas, and lipomas.

Malignant intestinal neoplasms, on the other hand, are cancerous and can invade surrounding tissues and spread to other parts of the body. The most common type of malignant intestinal neoplasm is adenocarcinoma, which arises from the glandular cells lining the inside of the intestines. Other types of malignant intestinal neoplasms include lymphomas, sarcomas, and carcinoid tumors.

Symptoms of intestinal neoplasms can vary depending on their size, location, and type. Common symptoms include abdominal pain, bloating, changes in bowel habits, rectal bleeding, weight loss, and fatigue. If you experience any of these symptoms, it is important to seek medical attention promptly.

Chromogranins are a group of proteins that are stored in the secretory vesicles of neuroendocrine cells, including neurons and endocrine cells. These proteins are co-released with neurotransmitters and hormones upon stimulation of the cells. Chromogranin A is the most abundant and best studied member of this protein family.

Chromogranins have several functions in the body. They play a role in the biogenesis, processing, and storage of neuropeptides and neurotransmitters within secretory vesicles. Additionally, chromogranins can be cleaved into smaller peptides, some of which have hormonal or regulatory activities. For example, vasostatin-1, a peptide derived from chromogranin A, has been shown to have vasodilatory and cardioprotective effects.

Measurement of chromogranin levels in blood can be used as a biomarker for the diagnosis and monitoring of neuroendocrine tumors, which are characterized by excessive secretion of chromogranins and other neuroendocrine markers.

Octreotide is a synthetic analogue of the natural hormone somatostatin, which is used in medical treatment. It is a octapeptide with similar effects to somatostatin, but with a longer duration of action. Octreotide is primarily used in the management of acromegaly, gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (GEP-NETs), and diarrhea and flushing associated with carcinoid syndrome.

It works by inhibiting the release of several hormones, including growth hormone, insulin, glucagon, and gastrin. This results in a decrease in symptoms caused by excessive hormone secretion, such as reduced growth hormone levels in acromegaly, decreased tumor size in some GEP-NETs, and improved diarrhea and flushing in carcinoid syndrome.

Octreotide is available in several forms, including short-acting subcutaneous injections (Sandostatin®), long-acting depot intramuscular injections (Sandostatin LAR®), and a slow-release formulation for the treatment of diarrhea associated with AIDS (Mycapssa™).

The medical definition of Octreotide is:

A synthetic octapeptide analogue of somatostatin, used in the management of acromegaly, gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (GEP-NETs), and diarrhea and flushing associated with carcinoid syndrome. Octreotide inhibits the release of several hormones, including growth hormone, insulin, glucagon, and gastrin, leading to symptomatic improvement in these conditions. It is available as short-acting subcutaneous injections, long-acting depot intramuscular injections, and a slow-release formulation for diarrhea associated with AIDS.

Neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) are a diverse group of neoplasms that arise from cells of the neuroendocrine system, which is composed of dispersed neuroendocrine cells throughout the body, often in close association with nerves and blood vessels. These cells have the ability to produce and secrete hormones or hormone-like substances in response to various stimuli. NETs can occur in a variety of organs, including the lungs, pancreas, small intestine, colon, rectum, stomach, and thyroid gland, as well as in some less common sites such as the thymus, adrenal glands, and nervous system.

NETs can be functional or nonfunctional, depending on whether they produce and secrete hormones or hormone-like substances that cause specific symptoms related to hormonal excess. Functional NETs may give rise to a variety of clinical syndromes, such as carcinoid syndrome, Zollinger-Ellison syndrome, pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor syndrome (also known as Verner-Morrison or WDHA syndrome), and others. Nonfunctional NETs are more likely to present with symptoms related to the size and location of the tumor, such as abdominal pain, intestinal obstruction, or bleeding.

The diagnosis of NETs typically involves a combination of imaging studies, biochemical tests (e.g., measurement of serum hormone levels), and histopathological examination of tissue samples obtained through biopsy or surgical resection. Treatment options depend on the type, location, stage, and grade of the tumor, as well as the presence or absence of functional symptoms. They may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, targeted therapy, and/or peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT).

Chromogranin A is a protein that is widely used as a marker for neuroendocrine tumors. These are tumors that arise from cells of the neuroendocrine system, which is a network of cells throughout the body that produce hormones and help to regulate various bodily functions. Chromogranin A is stored in secretory granules within these cells and is released into the bloodstream when the cells are stimulated to release their hormones.

Chromogranin A is measured in the blood as a way to help diagnose neuroendocrine tumors, monitor the effectiveness of treatment, and track the progression of the disease. Elevated levels of chromogranin A in the blood may indicate the presence of a neuroendocrine tumor, although other factors can also cause an increase in this protein.

It's important to note that while chromogranin A is a useful marker for neuroendocrine tumors, it is not specific to any one type of tumor and should be used in conjunction with other diagnostic tests and clinical evaluation.

Ectopic ACTH syndrome is a medical condition characterized by the excessive production of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) from a source outside of the pituitary gland, typically from a tumor in another part of the body. The most common sources of ectopic ACTH are small-cell lung carcinomas, but it can also occur with other types of tumors such as thymic carcinoids, pancreatic islet cell tumors, and bronchial carcinoids.

The excessive production of ACTH leads to an overproduction of cortisol from the adrenal glands, resulting in a constellation of symptoms known as Cushing's syndrome. These symptoms can include weight gain, muscle weakness, thinning of the skin, easy bruising, mood changes, and high blood pressure, among others.

Ectopic ACTH syndrome is typically more severe than pituitary-dependent Cushing's syndrome, and it may be more difficult to diagnose and treat due to the underlying tumor causing the excessive ACTH production. Treatment usually involves removing the tumor or controlling its growth, as well as managing the symptoms of Cushing's syndrome with medications that block cortisol production or action.

Duodenal neoplasms refer to abnormal growths in the duodenum, which is the first part of the small intestine that receives digestive secretions from the pancreas and bile duct. These growths can be benign or malignant (cancerous).

Benign neoplasms include adenomas, leiomyomas, lipomas, and hamartomas. They are usually slow-growing and do not spread to other parts of the body. However, they may cause symptoms such as abdominal pain, bleeding, or obstruction of the intestine.

Malignant neoplasms include adenocarcinomas, neuroendocrine tumors (carcinoids), lymphomas, and sarcomas. They are more aggressive and can invade surrounding tissues and spread to other parts of the body. Symptoms may include abdominal pain, weight loss, jaundice, anemia, or bowel obstruction.

The diagnosis of duodenal neoplasms is usually made through imaging tests such as CT scans, MRI, or endoscopy with biopsy. Treatment depends on the type and stage of the tumor and may include surgery, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or a combination of these modalities.

Thymus neoplasms are abnormal growths in the thymus gland that result from uncontrolled cell division. The term "neoplasm" refers to any new and abnormal growth of tissue, also known as a tumor. Thymus neoplasms can be benign or malignant (cancerous).

Malignant thymus neoplasms are called thymomas or thymic carcinomas. Thymomas are the most common type and tend to grow slowly, invading nearby tissues and organs. They can also spread (metastasize) to other parts of the body. Thymic carcinomas are rarer and more aggressive, growing and spreading more quickly than thymomas.

Symptoms of thymus neoplasms may include coughing, chest pain, difficulty breathing, or swelling in the neck or upper chest. Treatment options for thymus neoplasms depend on the type, size, location, and stage of the tumor, as well as the patient's overall health. Treatment may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or a combination of these approaches.

Tumor markers are substances that can be found in the body and their presence can indicate the presence of certain types of cancer or other conditions. Biological tumor markers refer to those substances that are produced by cancer cells or by other cells in response to cancer or certain benign (non-cancerous) conditions. These markers can be found in various bodily fluids such as blood, urine, or tissue samples.

Examples of biological tumor markers include:

1. Proteins: Some tumor markers are proteins that are produced by cancer cells or by other cells in response to the presence of cancer. For example, prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is a protein produced by normal prostate cells and in higher amounts by prostate cancer cells.
2. Genetic material: Tumor markers can also include genetic material such as DNA, RNA, or microRNA that are shed by cancer cells into bodily fluids. For example, circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) is genetic material from cancer cells that can be found in the bloodstream.
3. Metabolites: Tumor markers can also include metabolic products produced by cancer cells or by other cells in response to cancer. For example, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) is an enzyme that is released into the bloodstream when cancer cells break down glucose for energy.

It's important to note that tumor markers are not specific to cancer and can be elevated in non-cancerous conditions as well. Therefore, they should not be used alone to diagnose cancer but rather as a tool in conjunction with other diagnostic tests and clinical evaluations.

Paraneoplastic endocrine syndromes refer to a group of hormonal and related disorders that occur as remote effects of cancer. They are caused by substances (like hormones, peptides, or antibodies) produced by the tumor, which may be benign or malignant, and can affect various organs and systems in the body. These syndromes can occur before the cancer is diagnosed, making them an important consideration for early detection and treatment of the underlying malignancy.

Examples of paraneoplastic endocrine syndromes include:

1. Syndrome of Inappropriate Antidiuretic Hormone (SIADH): This occurs when a tumor, often small cell lung cancer, produces antidiuretic hormone (ADH), leading to excessive water retention and low sodium levels in the blood.
2. Cushing's Syndrome: Excessive production of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) by a tumor, often a small cell lung cancer or pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor, can lead to increased cortisol levels and symptoms such as weight gain, muscle weakness, and mood changes.
3. Ectopic Production of Parathyroid Hormone-Related Peptide (PTHrP): This occurs when a tumor, often a squamous cell carcinoma, produces PTHrP, leading to increased calcium levels in the blood and symptoms such as bone pain, kidney stones, and confusion.
4. Hypercalcemia of Malignancy: Excessive production of calcitriol (active vitamin D) by a tumor, often a lymphoma or myeloma, can lead to increased calcium levels in the blood and symptoms such as bone pain, kidney stones, and confusion.
5. Carcinoid Syndrome: This occurs when a neuroendocrine tumor, often in the gastrointestinal tract, produces serotonin and other substances, leading to symptoms such as flushing, diarrhea, and heart problems.

It is important to note that these syndromes can also be caused by non-cancerous conditions, so a thorough evaluation is necessary to make an accurate diagnosis.

Proctoscopy is a medical procedure that involves the insertion of a proctoscope, which is a short, rigid telescope with a light, into the rectum for the purpose of examining the interior walls of the rectum and anus. This procedure can help diagnose various anal and rectal conditions such as hemorrhoids, fissures, inflammation, tumors, or other abnormalities.

The proctoscope is usually about 25 cm long and has a diameter of around 2 cm. It allows the medical professional to directly visualize the interior of the lower rectum and anus, and may also include a channel for the introduction of air or water to aid in the examination, as well as tools for taking biopsies or removing polyps if necessary.

Proctoscopy is typically performed on an outpatient basis and does not usually require any special preparation, although it may be recommended to avoid food and drink for a few hours before the procedure to minimize the risk of discomfort or complications. The procedure itself is generally quick and relatively painless, though patients may experience some mild discomfort, bloating, or cramping during or after the examination.

Carcinoma, neuroendocrine is a type of cancer that arises from the neuroendocrine cells, which are specialized cells that have both nerve and hormone-producing functions. These cells are found throughout the body, but neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) most commonly occur in the lungs, gastrointestinal tract, pancreas, and thyroid gland.

Neuroendocrine carcinomas can be classified as well-differentiated or poorly differentiated based on how closely they resemble normal neuroendocrine cells under a microscope. Well-differentiated tumors tend to grow more slowly and are less aggressive than poorly differentiated tumors.

Neuroendocrine carcinomas can produce and release hormones and other substances that can cause a variety of symptoms, such as flushing, diarrhea, wheezing, and heart palpitations. Treatment for neuroendocrine carcinoma depends on the location and extent of the tumor, as well as the patient's overall health. Treatment options may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, targeted therapy, or a combination of these approaches.

Common bile duct neoplasms refer to abnormal growths that can occur in the common bile duct, which is a tube that carries bile from the liver and gallbladder into the small intestine. These growths can be benign or malignant (cancerous).

Benign neoplasms of the common bile duct include papillomas, adenomas, and leiomyomas. Malignant neoplasms are typically adenocarcinomas, which arise from the glandular cells lining the duct. Other types of malignancies that can affect the common bile duct include cholangiocarcinoma, gallbladder carcinoma, and metastatic cancer from other sites.

Symptoms of common bile duct neoplasms may include jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes), abdominal pain, dark urine, and light-colored stools. Diagnosis may involve imaging tests such as CT scans or MRCP (magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography) and biopsy to confirm the type of neoplasm. Treatment options depend on the type and stage of the neoplasm and may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or a combination of these approaches.

Enterochromaffin cells, also known as Kulchitsky cells or enteroendocrine cells, are a type of neuroendocrine cell found in the epithelial lining of the gastrointestinal tract. These cells are responsible for producing and secreting a variety of hormones and neuropeptides that play important roles in regulating gastrointestinal motility, secretion, and sensation.

Enterochromaffin cells are named for their ability to take up chromaffin stains, which contain silver salts and oxidizing agents that react with the catecholamines stored within the cells. These cells can be further classified based on their morphology, location within the gastrointestinal tract, and the types of hormones they produce.

Some examples of hormones produced by enterochromaffin cells include serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine), histamine, gastrin, somatostatin, and cholecystokinin. Serotonin is one of the most well-known hormones produced by these cells, and it plays a critical role in regulating gastrointestinal motility and secretion, as well as mood and cognition.

Abnormalities in enterochromaffin cell function have been implicated in a number of gastrointestinal disorders, including irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), functional dyspepsia, and gastroparesis. Additionally, mutations in genes associated with enterochromaffin cells have been linked to several inherited cancer syndromes, such as multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) and neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1).

Liver neoplasms refer to abnormal growths in the liver that can be benign or malignant. Benign liver neoplasms are non-cancerous tumors that do not spread to other parts of the body, while malignant liver neoplasms are cancerous tumors that can invade and destroy surrounding tissue and spread to other organs.

Liver neoplasms can be primary, meaning they originate in the liver, or secondary, meaning they have metastasized (spread) to the liver from another part of the body. Primary liver neoplasms can be further classified into different types based on their cell of origin and behavior, including hepatocellular carcinoma, cholangiocarcinoma, and hepatic hemangioma.

The diagnosis of liver neoplasms typically involves a combination of imaging studies, such as ultrasound, CT scan, or MRI, and biopsy to confirm the type and stage of the tumor. Treatment options depend on the type and extent of the neoplasm and may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or liver transplantation.

3-Iodobenzylguanidine (3-IBG) is a radioactive tracer drug that is used in nuclear medicine to help diagnose and evaluate pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas, which are rare tumors of the adrenal glands or nearby nerve tissue. It works by accumulating in the cells of these tumors, allowing them to be detected through imaging techniques such as single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) scans.

The drug contains a radioactive isotope of iodine (I-123 or I-131) that emits gamma rays, which can be detected by a gamma camera during the imaging procedure. The 3-IBG molecule also includes a guanidine group, which selectively binds to the norepinephrine transporter (NET) on the surface of the tumor cells, allowing the drug to accumulate within the tumor tissue.

It is important to note that the use of 3-IBG should be under the supervision of a qualified healthcare professional, as it involves exposure to radiation and may have potential side effects.

The ampulla of Vater, also known as hepatopancreatic ampulla, is a dilated portion of the common bile duct where it joins the main pancreatic duct and empties into the second part of the duodenum. It serves as a conduit for both bile from the liver and digestive enzymes from the pancreas to reach the small intestine, facilitating the digestion and absorption of nutrients. The ampulla of Vater is surrounded by a muscular sphincter, the sphincter of Oddi, which controls the flow of these secretions into the duodenum.

Endocrine gland neoplasms refer to abnormal growths (tumors) that develop in the endocrine glands. These glands are responsible for producing hormones, which are chemical messengers that regulate various functions and processes in the body. Neoplasms can be benign or malignant (cancerous). Benign neoplasms tend to grow slowly and do not spread to other parts of the body. Malignant neoplasms, on the other hand, can invade nearby tissues and organs and may also metastasize (spread) to distant sites.

Endocrine gland neoplasms can occur in any of the endocrine glands, including:

1. Pituitary gland: located at the base of the brain, it produces several hormones that regulate growth and development, as well as other bodily functions.
2. Thyroid gland: located in the neck, it produces thyroid hormones that regulate metabolism and calcium balance.
3. Parathyroid glands: located near the thyroid gland, they produce parathyroid hormone that regulates calcium levels in the blood.
4. Adrenal glands: located on top of each kidney, they produce hormones such as adrenaline, cortisol, and aldosterone that regulate stress response, metabolism, and blood pressure.
5. Pancreas: located behind the stomach, it produces insulin and glucagon, which regulate blood sugar levels, and digestive enzymes that help break down food.
6. Pineal gland: located in the brain, it produces melatonin, a hormone that regulates sleep-wake cycles.
7. Gonads (ovaries and testicles): located in the pelvis (ovaries) and scrotum (testicles), they produce sex hormones such as estrogen, progesterone, and testosterone that regulate reproductive function and secondary sexual characteristics.

Endocrine gland neoplasms can cause various symptoms depending on the type and location of the tumor. For example, a pituitary gland neoplasm may cause headaches, vision problems, or hormonal imbalances, while an adrenal gland neoplasm may cause high blood pressure, weight gain, or mood changes.

Diagnosis of endocrine gland neoplasms typically involves a combination of medical history, physical examination, imaging studies such as CT or MRI scans, and laboratory tests to measure hormone levels. Treatment options may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or hormonal therapy, depending on the type and stage of the tumor.

Lung neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors in the lung tissue. These tumors can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Malignant lung neoplasms are further classified into two main types: small cell lung carcinoma and non-small cell lung carcinoma. Lung neoplasms can cause symptoms such as cough, chest pain, shortness of breath, and weight loss. They are often caused by smoking or exposure to secondhand smoke, but can also occur due to genetic factors, radiation exposure, and other environmental carcinogens. Early detection and treatment of lung neoplasms is crucial for improving outcomes and survival rates.

Somatostatin receptors (SSTRs) are a group of G protein-coupled receptors that bind to the neuropeptide hormone somatostatin. There are five subtypes of SSTRs, named SSTR1 through SSTR5, each with distinct physiological roles and tissue distributions.

Somatostatin is a small peptide that is widely distributed throughout the body, including in the central nervous system, gastrointestinal tract, pancreas, and other endocrine organs. It has multiple functions, including inhibition of hormone release, regulation of cell proliferation, and modulation of neurotransmission.

SSTRs are expressed on the surface of many different types of cells, including neurons, endocrine cells, and immune cells. They play important roles in regulating various physiological processes, such as inhibiting the release of hormones like insulin, glucagon, and growth hormone. SSTRs have also been implicated in a number of pathophysiological conditions, including cancer, neurodegenerative diseases, and inflammatory disorders.

In recent years, SSTRs have become an important target for the development of new therapeutic strategies, particularly in the treatment of neuroendocrine tumors (NETs). Several radiolabeled somatostatin analogues have been developed that can selectively bind to SSTRs on NET cells and deliver targeted radiation therapy. These agents have shown promising results in clinical trials and are now being used as standard of care for patients with advanced NETs.

Somatostatin is a hormone that inhibits the release of several hormones and also has a role in slowing down digestion. It is produced by the body in various parts of the body, including the hypothalamus (a part of the brain), the pancreas, and the gastrointestinal tract.

Somatostatin exists in two forms: somatostatin-14 and somatostatin-28, which differ in their length. Somatostatin-14 is the predominant form found in the brain, while somatostatin-28 is the major form found in the gastrointestinal tract.

Somatostatin has a wide range of effects on various physiological processes, including:

* Inhibiting the release of several hormones such as growth hormone, insulin, glucagon, and gastrin
* Slowing down digestion by inhibiting the release of digestive enzymes from the pancreas and reducing blood flow to the gastrointestinal tract
* Regulating neurotransmission in the brain

Somatostatin is used clinically as a diagnostic tool for detecting certain types of tumors that overproduce growth hormone or other hormones, and it is also used as a treatment for some conditions such as acromegaly (a condition characterized by excessive growth hormone production) and gastrointestinal disorders.

Indium radioisotopes refer to specific types of radioactive indium atoms, which are unstable and emit radiation as they decay. Indium is a chemical element with the symbol In and atomic number 49. Its radioisotopes are often used in medical imaging and therapy due to their unique properties.

For instance, one commonly used indium radioisotope is Indium-111 (^111In), which has a half-life of approximately 2.8 days. It emits gamma rays, making it useful for diagnostic imaging techniques such as single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). In clinical applications, indium-111 is often attached to specific molecules or antibodies that target particular cells or tissues in the body, allowing medical professionals to monitor biological processes and identify diseases like cancer.

Another example is Indium-113m (^113mIn), which has a half-life of about 99 minutes. It emits low-energy gamma rays and is used as a source for in vivo counting, typically in the form of indium chloride (InCl3) solution. This radioisotope can be used to measure blood flow, ventilation, and other physiological parameters.

It's important to note that handling and using radioisotopes require proper training and safety measures due to their ionizing radiation properties.

A cell line that is derived from tumor cells and has been adapted to grow in culture. These cell lines are often used in research to study the characteristics of cancer cells, including their growth patterns, genetic changes, and responses to various treatments. They can be established from many different types of tumors, such as carcinomas, sarcomas, and leukemias. Once established, these cell lines can be grown and maintained indefinitely in the laboratory, allowing researchers to conduct experiments and studies that would not be feasible using primary tumor cells. It is important to note that tumor cell lines may not always accurately represent the behavior of the original tumor, as they can undergo genetic changes during their time in culture.

The appendix is a small, tube-like structure that projects from the large intestine, located in the lower right quadrant of the abdomen. Its function in humans is not well understood and is often considered vestigial, meaning it no longer serves a necessary purpose. However, in some animals, the appendix plays a role in the immune system. Inflammation of the appendix, known as appendicitis, can cause severe abdominal pain and requires medical attention, often leading to surgical removal of the appendix (appendectomy).

Jejunal neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors in the jejunum, which is the middle section of the small intestine. These neoplasms can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Malignant jejunal neoplasms are often aggressive and can spread to other parts of the body, making them potentially life-threatening.

There are several types of jejunal neoplasms, including:

1. Adenocarcinomas: These are cancerous tumors that develop from the glandular cells lining the jejunum. They are the most common type of jejunal neoplasm.
2. Carcinoid tumors: These are slow-growing neuroendocrine tumors that arise from the hormone-producing cells in the jejunum. While they are usually benign, some can become malignant and spread to other parts of the body.
3. Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs): These are rare tumors that develop from the connective tissue cells in the jejunum. They can be benign or malignant.
4. Lymphomas: These are cancerous tumors that develop from the immune system cells in the jejunum. They are less common than adenocarcinomas but can be aggressive and spread to other parts of the body.
5. Sarcomas: These are rare cancerous tumors that develop from the connective tissue cells in the jejunum. They can be aggressive and spread to other parts of the body.

Symptoms of jejunal neoplasms may include abdominal pain, bloating, diarrhea, weight loss, and bleeding in the stool. Treatment options depend on the type and stage of the neoplasm but may include surgery, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or a combination of these approaches.

Cushing syndrome is a hormonal disorder that occurs when your body is exposed to high levels of the hormone cortisol for a long time. This can happen due to various reasons such as taking high doses of corticosteroid medications or tumors that produce cortisol or adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH).

The symptoms of Cushing syndrome may include:

* Obesity, particularly around the trunk and upper body
* Thinning of the skin, easy bruising, and purple or red stretch marks on the abdomen, thighs, breasts, and arms
* Weakened bones, leading to fractures
* High blood pressure
* High blood sugar
* Mental changes such as depression, anxiety, and irritability
* Increased fatigue and weakness
* Menstrual irregularities in women
* Decreased fertility in men

Cushing syndrome can be diagnosed through various tests, including urine and blood tests to measure cortisol levels, saliva tests, and imaging tests to locate any tumors. Treatment depends on the cause of the condition but may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or adjusting medication dosages.

Tumor burden is a term used to describe the total amount of cancer in the body. It can refer to the number of tumors, the size of the tumors, or the amount of cancer cells in the body. In research and clinical trials, tumor burden is often measured to assess the effectiveness of treatments or to monitor disease progression. High tumor burden can cause various symptoms and complications, depending on the type and location of the cancer. It can also affect a person's prognosis and treatment options.

Gastrins are a group of hormones that are produced by G cells in the stomach lining. These hormones play an essential role in regulating gastric acid secretion and motor functions of the gastrointestinal tract. The most well-known gastrin is known as "gastrin-17," which is released into the bloodstream and stimulates the release of hydrochloric acid from parietal cells in the stomach lining.

Gastrins are stored in secretory granules within G cells, and their release is triggered by several factors, including the presence of food in the stomach, gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP), and vagus nerve stimulation. Once released, gastrins bind to specific receptors on parietal cells, leading to an increase in intracellular calcium levels and the activation of enzymes that promote hydrochloric acid secretion.

Abnormalities in gastrin production can lead to several gastrointestinal disorders, including gastrinomas (tumors that produce excessive amounts of gastrin), which can cause severe gastric acid hypersecretion and ulcers. Conversely, a deficiency in gastrin production can result in hypochlorhydria (low stomach acid levels) and impaired digestion.

Duodenoscopy is a medical procedure that involves the insertion of a duodenoscope, which is a flexible, lighted tube with a camera and tiny tools on the end, through the mouth and down the throat to examine the upper part of the small intestine (duodenum) and the opening of the bile and pancreatic ducts.

During the procedure, the doctor can take tissue samples for biopsy, remove polyps or other abnormal growths, or perform other interventions as needed. Duodenoscopy is commonly used to diagnose and treat conditions such as gastrointestinal bleeding, inflammation, infection, and cancer.

It's important to note that duodenoscopes have been associated with the spread of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in some cases, so healthcare providers must follow strict cleaning and disinfection protocols to minimize this risk.

Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha (TNF-α) is a cytokine, a type of small signaling protein involved in immune response and inflammation. It is primarily produced by activated macrophages, although other cell types such as T-cells, natural killer cells, and mast cells can also produce it.

TNF-α plays a crucial role in the body's defense against infection and tissue injury by mediating inflammatory responses, activating immune cells, and inducing apoptosis (programmed cell death) in certain types of cells. It does this by binding to its receptors, TNFR1 and TNFR2, which are found on the surface of many cell types.

In addition to its role in the immune response, TNF-α has been implicated in the pathogenesis of several diseases, including autoimmune disorders such as rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, and psoriasis, as well as cancer, where it can promote tumor growth and metastasis.

Therapeutic agents that target TNF-α, such as infliximab, adalimumab, and etanercept, have been developed to treat these conditions. However, these drugs can also increase the risk of infections and other side effects, so their use must be carefully monitored.

Stomach neoplasms refer to abnormal growths in the stomach that can be benign or malignant. They include a wide range of conditions such as:

1. Gastric adenomas: These are benign tumors that develop from glandular cells in the stomach lining.
2. Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs): These are rare tumors that can be found in the stomach and other parts of the digestive tract. They originate from the stem cells in the wall of the digestive tract.
3. Leiomyomas: These are benign tumors that develop from smooth muscle cells in the stomach wall.
4. Lipomas: These are benign tumors that develop from fat cells in the stomach wall.
5. Neuroendocrine tumors (NETs): These are tumors that develop from the neuroendocrine cells in the stomach lining. They can be benign or malignant.
6. Gastric carcinomas: These are malignant tumors that develop from the glandular cells in the stomach lining. They are the most common type of stomach neoplasm and include adenocarcinomas, signet ring cell carcinomas, and others.
7. Lymphomas: These are malignant tumors that develop from the immune cells in the stomach wall.

Stomach neoplasms can cause various symptoms such as abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, weight loss, and difficulty swallowing. The diagnosis of stomach neoplasms usually involves a combination of imaging tests, endoscopy, and biopsy. Treatment options depend on the type and stage of the neoplasm and may include surgery, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or targeted therapy.

X-ray computed tomography (CT or CAT scan) is a medical imaging method that uses computer-processed combinations of many X-ray images taken from different angles to produce cross-sectional (tomographic) images (virtual "slices") of the body. These cross-sectional images can then be used to display detailed internal views of organs, bones, and soft tissues in the body.

The term "computed tomography" is used instead of "CT scan" or "CAT scan" because the machines take a series of X-ray measurements from different angles around the body and then use a computer to process these data to create detailed images of internal structures within the body.

CT scanning is a noninvasive, painless medical test that helps physicians diagnose and treat medical conditions. CT imaging provides detailed information about many types of tissue including lung, bone, soft tissue and blood vessels. CT examinations can be performed on every part of the body for a variety of reasons including diagnosis, surgical planning, and monitoring of therapeutic responses.

In computed tomography (CT), an X-ray source and detector rotate around the patient, measuring the X-ray attenuation at many different angles. A computer uses this data to construct a cross-sectional image by the process of reconstruction. This technique is called "tomography". The term "computed" refers to the use of a computer to reconstruct the images.

CT has become an important tool in medical imaging and diagnosis, allowing radiologists and other physicians to view detailed internal images of the body. It can help identify many different medical conditions including cancer, heart disease, lung nodules, liver tumors, and internal injuries from trauma. CT is also commonly used for guiding biopsies and other minimally invasive procedures.

In summary, X-ray computed tomography (CT or CAT scan) is a medical imaging technique that uses computer-processed combinations of many X-ray images taken from different angles to produce cross-sectional images of the body. It provides detailed internal views of organs, bones, and soft tissues in the body, allowing physicians to diagnose and treat medical conditions.

Paraganglioma, extra-adrenal, is a type of rare tumor that develops in the nervous system's paraganglia, which are groups of specialized cells that are responsible for regulating blood pressure and other bodily functions. Unlike adrenal paragangliomas, which form in the adrenal glands located on top of the kidneys, extra-adrenal paragangliomas develop outside of the adrenal glands, in various locations along the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems. These tumors can be functional or nonfunctional, meaning they may or may not produce hormones such as catecholamines (epinephrine, norepinephrine, and dopamine). Functional extra-adrenal paragangliomas can cause symptoms related to excessive hormone production, including hypertension, sweating, headaches, and rapid heartbeat. Treatment typically involves surgical removal of the tumor, along with preoperative preparation to manage potential hormonal imbalances.

Neoplasm metastasis is the spread of cancer cells from the primary site (where the original or primary tumor formed) to other places in the body. This happens when cancer cells break away from the original (primary) tumor and enter the bloodstream or lymphatic system. The cancer cells can then travel to other parts of the body and form new tumors, called secondary tumors or metastases.

Metastasis is a key feature of malignant neoplasms (cancers), and it is one of the main ways that cancer can cause harm in the body. The metastatic tumors may continue to grow and may cause damage to the organs and tissues where they are located. They can also release additional cancer cells into the bloodstream or lymphatic system, leading to further spread of the cancer.

The metastatic tumors are named based on the location where they are found, as well as the type of primary cancer. For example, if a patient has a primary lung cancer that has metastasized to the liver, the metastatic tumor would be called a liver metastasis from lung cancer.

It is important to note that the presence of metastases can significantly affect a person's prognosis and treatment options. In general, metastatic cancer is more difficult to treat than cancer that has not spread beyond its original site. However, there are many factors that can influence a person's prognosis and response to treatment, so it is important for each individual to discuss their specific situation with their healthcare team.

A polyp is a general term for a small growth that protrudes from a mucous membrane, such as the lining of the nose or the digestive tract. Polyps can vary in size and shape, but they are usually cherry-sized or smaller and have a stalk or a broad base. They are often benign (noncancerous), but some types of polyps, especially those in the colon, can become cancerous over time.

In the digestive tract, polyps can form in the colon, rectum, stomach, or small intestine. Colorectal polyps are the most common type and are usually found during routine colonoscopies. There are several types of colorectal polyps, including:

* Adenomatous polyps (adenomas): These polyps can become cancerous over time and are the most likely to turn into cancer.
* Hyperplastic polyps: These polyps are usually small and benign, but some types may have a higher risk of becoming cancerous.
* Inflammatory polyps: These polyps are caused by chronic inflammation in the digestive tract, such as from inflammatory bowel disease (IBD).

Polyps can also form in other parts of the body, including the nose, sinuses, ears, and uterus. In most cases, polyps are benign and do not cause any symptoms. However, if they become large enough, they may cause problems such as bleeding, obstruction, or discomfort. Treatment typically involves removing the polyp through a surgical procedure.

Multiple primary neoplasms refer to the occurrence of more than one primary malignant tumor in an individual, where each tumor is unrelated to the other and originates from separate cells or organs. This differs from metastatic cancer, where a single malignancy spreads to multiple sites in the body. Multiple primary neoplasms can be synchronous (occurring at the same time) or metachronous (occurring at different times). The risk of developing multiple primary neoplasms increases with age and is associated with certain genetic predispositions, environmental factors, and lifestyle choices such as smoking and alcohol consumption.

Ear neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors that occur in the ear. These growths can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous) and can affect any part of the ear, including the outer ear, middle ear, inner ear, and the ear canal.

Benign ear neoplasms are typically slow-growing and do not spread to other parts of the body. Examples include exostoses, osteomas, and ceruminous adenomas. These types of growths are usually removed surgically for cosmetic reasons or if they cause discomfort or hearing problems.

Malignant ear neoplasms, on the other hand, can be aggressive and may spread to other parts of the body. Examples include squamous cell carcinoma, basal cell carcinoma, and adenoid cystic carcinoma. These types of tumors often require more extensive treatment, such as surgery, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy.

It is important to note that any new growth or change in the ear should be evaluated by a healthcare professional to determine the nature of the growth and develop an appropriate treatment plan.

An appendectomy is a surgical procedure in which the vermiform appendix is removed. This procedure is performed when a patient has appendicitis, which is an inflammation of the appendix that can lead to serious complications such as peritonitis or sepsis if not treated promptly. The surgery can be done as an open procedure, in which a single incision is made in the lower right abdomen, or as a laparoscopic procedure, in which several small incisions are made and specialized instruments are used to remove the appendix. In some cases, if the appendix has burst, a more extensive surgery may be required to clean out the abdominal cavity.

Immunohistochemistry (IHC) is a technique used in pathology and laboratory medicine to identify specific proteins or antigens in tissue sections. It combines the principles of immunology and histology to detect the presence and location of these target molecules within cells and tissues. This technique utilizes antibodies that are specific to the protein or antigen of interest, which are then tagged with a detection system such as a chromogen or fluorophore. The stained tissue sections can be examined under a microscope, allowing for the visualization and analysis of the distribution and expression patterns of the target molecule in the context of the tissue architecture. Immunohistochemistry is widely used in diagnostic pathology to help identify various diseases, including cancer, infectious diseases, and immune-mediated disorders.

'Digestive System Neoplasms' refer to new and abnormal growths of tissue in the digestive system that can be benign or malignant. These growths are also known as tumors, and they can occur in any part of the digestive system, including the esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine (colon and rectum), liver, bile ducts, pancreas, and gallbladder. Neoplasms in the digestive system can interfere with normal digestion and absorption of nutrients, cause bleeding, obstruct the digestive tract, and spread to other parts of the body (metastasis) if they are malignant.

Benign neoplasms are not cancerous and do not usually spread to other parts of the body. They can often be removed surgically and may not require further treatment. Malignant neoplasms, on the other hand, are cancerous and can invade nearby tissues and organs and spread to other parts of the body. Treatment for malignant neoplasms in the digestive system typically involves a combination of surgery, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy.

The causes of digestive system neoplasms are varied and include genetic factors, environmental exposures, lifestyle factors (such as diet and smoking), and infectious agents. Prevention strategies may include maintaining a healthy diet, avoiding tobacco and excessive alcohol consumption, practicing safe sex, getting vaccinated against certain viral infections, and undergoing regular screenings for certain types of neoplasms (such as colonoscopies for colorectal cancer).

"Flushing" is a medical term that refers to a sudden, temporary reddening of the skin, often accompanied by feelings of warmth. This occurs when the blood vessels beneath the skin dilate or expand, allowing more blood to flow through them. Flushing can be caused by various factors such as emotional stress, alcohol consumption, spicy foods, certain medications, or medical conditions like carcinoid syndrome or menopause. It is generally harmless but can sometimes indicate an underlying issue that requires medical attention.

Pancreatic neoplasms refer to abnormal growths in the pancreas that can be benign or malignant. The pancreas is a gland located behind the stomach that produces hormones and digestive enzymes. Pancreatic neoplasms can interfere with the normal functioning of the pancreas, leading to various health complications.

Benign pancreatic neoplasms are non-cancerous growths that do not spread to other parts of the body. They are usually removed through surgery to prevent any potential complications, such as blocking the bile duct or causing pain.

Malignant pancreatic neoplasms, also known as pancreatic cancer, are cancerous growths that can invade and destroy surrounding tissues and organs. They can also spread (metastasize) to other parts of the body, such as the liver, lungs, or bones. Pancreatic cancer is often aggressive and difficult to treat, with a poor prognosis.

There are several types of pancreatic neoplasms, including adenocarcinomas, neuroendocrine tumors, solid pseudopapillary neoplasms, and cystic neoplasms. The specific type of neoplasm is determined through various diagnostic tests, such as imaging studies, biopsies, and blood tests. Treatment options depend on the type, stage, and location of the neoplasm, as well as the patient's overall health and preferences.

Synaptophysin is a protein found in the presynaptic vesicles of neurons, which are involved in the release of neurotransmitters during synaptic transmission. It is often used as a marker for neuronal differentiation and is widely expressed in neuroendocrine cells and tumors. Synaptophysin plays a role in the regulation of neurotransmitter release and has been implicated in various neurological disorders, including Alzheimer's disease and synaptic dysfunction-related conditions.

Enterochromaffin-like (ECL) cells are a type of neuroendocrine cell found in the stomach lining. They are located in the mucosa of the gastric glands and are responsible for producing and secreting hormones, such as histamine, that regulate gastric acid secretion. ECL cells are stimulated by the hormone gastrin, which is released by G cells in response to food intake or other stimuli. The histamine produced by ECL cells then acts on H2 receptors located on parietal cells, leading to the release of hydrochloric acid into the stomach.

ECL cells are named for their ability to take up and decarboxylate certain amines, such as serotonin and dopamine, which results in the formation of chromaffin granules that can be stained with chromium salts. These cells play an important role in regulating gastric acid secretion and are also involved in the development of some stomach disorders, such as gastrinomas and atrophic gastritis.

Phosphopyruvate Hydratase is an enzyme also known as Enolase. It plays a crucial role in the glycolytic pathway, which is a series of reactions that occur in the cell to break down glucose into pyruvate, producing ATP and NADH as energy-rich intermediates.

Specifically, Phosphopyruvate Hydratase catalyzes the conversion of 2-phospho-D-glycerate (2-PG) to phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP), which is the second to last step in the glycolytic pathway. This reaction includes the removal of a water molecule from 2-PG, resulting in the formation of PEP and the release of a molecule of water.

The enzyme requires magnesium ions as a cofactor for its activity, and it is inhibited by fluoride ions. Deficiency or dysfunction of Phosphopyruvate Hydratase can lead to various metabolic disorders, including some forms of muscular dystrophy and neurodegenerative diseases.

Rectal neoplasms refer to abnormal growths in the tissues of the rectum, which can be benign or malignant. They are characterized by uncontrolled cell division and can invade nearby tissues or spread to other parts of the body (metastasis). The most common type of rectal neoplasm is rectal cancer, which often begins as a small polyp or growth in the lining of the rectum. Other types of rectal neoplasms include adenomas, carcinoids, and gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs). Regular screenings are recommended for early detection and treatment of rectal neoplasms.

Iodobenzenes are organic compounds that contain a iodine atom (I) attached to a benzene ring. The general formula for iodobenzenes is C6H5I. They can be considered as aryl halides and can undergo various chemical reactions such as nucleophilic substitution, electrophilic aromatic substitution, and reduction. Iodobenzenes are less reactive than other aryl halides due to the larger size and lower electronegativity of iodine compared to other halogens. They are used in organic synthesis as building blocks or reagents for various chemical transformations.

Adenocarcinoma is a type of cancer that arises from glandular epithelial cells. These cells line the inside of many internal organs, including the breasts, prostate, colon, and lungs. Adenocarcinomas can occur in any of these organs, as well as in other locations where glands are present.

The term "adenocarcinoma" is used to describe a cancer that has features of glandular tissue, such as mucus-secreting cells or cells that produce hormones. These cancers often form glandular structures within the tumor mass and may produce mucus or other substances.

Adenocarcinomas are typically slow-growing and tend to spread (metastasize) to other parts of the body through the lymphatic system or bloodstream. They can be treated with surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, targeted therapy, or a combination of these treatments. The prognosis for adenocarcinoma depends on several factors, including the location and stage of the cancer, as well as the patient's overall health and age.

Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 1 (MEN1) is a rare inherited disorder characterized by the development of tumors in various endocrine glands. These tumors can be benign or malignant and may lead to overproduction of hormones, causing a variety of symptoms. The three main endocrine glands affected in MEN1 are:

1. Parathyroid glands: Over 90% of individuals with MEN1 develop multiple parathyroid tumors (parathyroid hyperplasia), leading to primary hyperparathyroidism, which results in high levels of calcium in the blood.
2. Pancreas: Up to 80% of individuals with MEN1 develop pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PNETs). These tumors can produce and release various hormones, such as gastrin, insulin, glucagon, and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), leading to specific clinical syndromes like Zollinger-Ellison syndrome, hypoglycemia, or watery diarrhea.
3. Pituitary gland: Approximately 30-40% of individuals with MEN1 develop pituitary tumors, most commonly prolactinomas, which can cause menstrual irregularities, galactorrhea (milk production), and visual field defects.

MEN1 is caused by mutations in the MEN1 gene, located on chromosome 11, and it is inherited in an autosomal dominant manner. This means that a person has a 50% chance of inheriting the disease-causing mutation from an affected parent. The diagnosis of MEN1 typically requires meeting specific clinical criteria or having a positive genetic test for a pathogenic MEN1 gene variant. Regular monitoring and early intervention are crucial in managing this condition to prevent complications and improve outcomes.

Serotonin, also known as 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), is a monoamine neurotransmitter that is found primarily in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, blood platelets, and the central nervous system (CNS) of humans and other animals. It is produced by the conversion of the amino acid tryptophan to 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP), and then to serotonin.

In the CNS, serotonin plays a role in regulating mood, appetite, sleep, memory, learning, and behavior, among other functions. It also acts as a vasoconstrictor, helping to regulate blood flow and blood pressure. In the GI tract, it is involved in peristalsis, the contraction and relaxation of muscles that moves food through the digestive system.

Serotonin is synthesized and stored in serotonergic neurons, which are nerve cells that use serotonin as their primary neurotransmitter. These neurons are found throughout the brain and spinal cord, and they communicate with other neurons by releasing serotonin into the synapse, the small gap between two neurons.

Abnormal levels of serotonin have been linked to a variety of disorders, including depression, anxiety, schizophrenia, and migraines. Medications that affect serotonin levels, such as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), are commonly used to treat these conditions.

An "apudoma" is a term that refers to a type of neuroendocrine tumor that originates from cells known as "APUD (Amine Precursor Uptake and Decarboxylation) cells." These cells are capable of taking up and decarboxylating amine precursors, which are substances that can be converted into neurotransmitters or hormones.

Apudomas can occur in various organs throughout the body, including the pancreas, lung, thyroid, and gastrointestinal tract. Some examples of apudomas include:

* Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PNETs) or islet cell tumors
* Small cell lung cancer
* Medullary thyroid carcinoma
* Merkel cell carcinoma
* Carcinoid tumors

These tumors can produce and secrete a variety of hormones and neurotransmitters, leading to a range of clinical symptoms. Treatment options for apudomas may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or targeted therapies that are designed to specifically target the abnormal cells.

Meckel's diverticulum is a congenital condition in which a small pouch-like structure protrudes from the wall of the intestine, typically located on the lower portion of the small intestine, near the junction with the large intestine. It is a remnant of the omphalomesenteric duct, which is a vestigial structure that connects the fetal gut to the yolk sac during embryonic development.

Meckel's diverticulum is usually asymptomatic and goes unnoticed. However, in some cases, it can become inflamed or infected, leading to symptoms such as abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, and blood in the stool. This condition is more common in males than females and is typically diagnosed in children under the age of 2. If left untreated, Meckel's diverticulum can lead to complications such as intestinal obstruction, perforation, or bleeding, which may require surgical intervention.

An islet cell adenoma is a rare, typically benign tumor that develops in the islets of Langerhans, which are clusters of hormone-producing cells in the pancreas. The islets of Langerhans contain several types of cells, including beta cells that produce insulin, alpha cells that produce glucagon, and delta cells that produce somatostatin.

Islet cell adenomas can cause various endocrine disorders depending on the type of hormone-producing cells involved. For example, if the tumor consists mainly of beta cells, it may secrete excessive amounts of insulin, leading to hypoglycemia (low blood sugar). Conversely, if the tumor is composed primarily of alpha cells, it may produce too much glucagon, resulting in hyperglycemia (high blood sugar) and a condition known as glucagonoma.

Islet cell adenomas are usually slow-growing and small but can become quite large in some cases. They are typically diagnosed through imaging tests such as CT scans or MRI, and hormone levels may be measured to determine the type of cells involved. Treatment options include surgical removal of the tumor, medication to manage hormonal imbalances, and, in rare cases, radiofrequency ablation or embolization.

Wilms tumor, also known as nephroblastoma, is a type of kidney cancer that primarily affects children. It occurs in the cells of the developing kidneys and is named after Dr. Max Wilms, who first described this type of tumor in 1899. Wilms tumor typically develops before the age of 5, with most cases occurring in children under the age of 3.

The medical definition of Wilms tumor is:

A malignant, embryonal kidney tumor originating from the metanephric blastema, which is a mass of undifferentiated cells in the developing kidney. Wilms tumor is characterized by its rapid growth and potential for spread (metastasis) to other parts of the body, particularly the lungs and liver. The tumor usually presents as a large, firm, and irregular mass in the abdomen, and it may be associated with various symptoms such as abdominal pain, swelling, or blood in the urine.

Wilms tumor is typically treated with a combination of surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy. The prognosis for children with Wilms tumor has improved significantly over the past few decades due to advances in treatment methods and early detection.

Retrospective studies, also known as retrospective research or looking back studies, are a type of observational study that examines data from the past to draw conclusions about possible causal relationships between risk factors and outcomes. In these studies, researchers analyze existing records, medical charts, or previously collected data to test a hypothesis or answer a specific research question.

Retrospective studies can be useful for generating hypotheses and identifying trends, but they have limitations compared to prospective studies, which follow participants forward in time from exposure to outcome. Retrospective studies are subject to biases such as recall bias, selection bias, and information bias, which can affect the validity of the results. Therefore, retrospective studies should be interpreted with caution and used primarily to generate hypotheses for further testing in prospective studies.

A Glomus tumor is a rare, benign (non-cancerous) neoplasm that arises from the glomus body, a specialized form of blood vessel found in the skin, particularly in the fingers and toes. These tumors are highly vascular and usually appear as small, blue or red nodules just beneath the nail bed or on the fingertips. They can also occur in other parts of the body such as the stomach, lung, and kidney, but these locations are much less common.

Glomus tumors typically present with symptoms like severe pain, especially when exposed to cold temperatures or pressure. The pain is often described as sharp, stabbing, or throbbing, and it can be debilitating for some individuals. Diagnosis of glomus tumors usually involves a physical examination, imaging studies such as MRI or CT scans, and sometimes biopsy. Treatment options include surgical excision, which is often curative, and in some cases, embolization or sclerotherapy may be used to reduce the blood flow to the tumor before surgery.

I apologize for any confusion, but "Muridae" is not a medical term. It is a taxonomic category in biology, specifically it is a family of rodents that includes mice, rats, hamsters, gerbils, and many other species. If you have any questions about medical terminology or concepts, I would be happy to help with those.

Treatment outcome is a term used to describe the result or effect of medical treatment on a patient's health status. It can be measured in various ways, such as through symptoms improvement, disease remission, reduced disability, improved quality of life, or survival rates. The treatment outcome helps healthcare providers evaluate the effectiveness of a particular treatment plan and make informed decisions about future care. It is also used in clinical research to compare the efficacy of different treatments and improve patient care.

... is a neuroendocrine tumour of the lung. There are two types: Typical pulmonary carcinoid tumour ... Atypical pulmonary carcinoid tumour Limaiem, Faten; Tariq, Muhammad Ali; Ismail, Uzma; Wallen, Jason M. (2023), "Lung Carcinoid ... Tumors", StatPearls, Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing, PMID 30725765, retrieved 2023-09-19 Lung carcinoids (cancer. ... Pulmonary tumour, All stub articles, Respiratory disease stubs, Neoplasm stubs). ...
... is a subtype of pulmonary carcinoid tumor. It is an uncommon low-grade malignant lung mass ... Typical pulmonary carcinoid tumor Typical pulmonary carcinoid lacks comedo-like necrosis, and has < 0.2 mitotic figures/HPF. ... It is also known as "atypical lung carcinoid tumour", " atypical lung carcinoid" or "moderately differentiated neuroendocrine ... 5%. The 5 year survival is 49-69%. Atypical carcinoid tumors have increased mitotic activity (2-10 per 10 HPF), nuclear ...
... is a subtype of pulmonary carcinoid tumour. It is an uncommon low-grade malignant lung mass ... Pulmonary tumor Lung cancer Atypical pulmonary carcinoid tumour Pulmonary neuroendocrine tumor Meisinger QC, Klein JS, Butnor ... The differential diagnosis of typical pulmonary carcinoid tumour includes: atypical pulmonary carcinoid tumour, pulmonary ... Gungor S, Damadoglu E, Aybatli A, Yilmaz A, Kir A, Akkaya E (July 2006). "Typical pulmonary carcinoid tumors: presentation and ...
The five-year survival rate with the latter procedure is above 70%.: 580 A gastrointestinal carcinoid tumor is a rare, slow- ... "Gastrointestinal Carcinoid Tumor". National Cancer Institute at the National Institutes of Health. 1980-01-01. Retrieved 15 ... The treatment depends on the location of the tumor, as well as the type of cancer cell and whether it has invaded other tissues ... Early pancreatic cancer does not tend to result in any symptom, but when a tumor is advanced, a patient may experience severe ...
Parathyroid tumors Thymus and mediastinal carcinoid tumors Pulmonary neuroendocrine tumors bronchus pulmonary carcinoid tumors ... "Carcinoid Tumors and the Carcinoid Syndrome: What's New in the Therapeutic Pipeline". Carcinoid Symposium 2002. The Carcinoid ... Small intestinal neuroendocrine tumors were first distinguished from other tumors in 1907. They were named carcinoid tumors ... In malignant carcinoid tumors with carcinoid syndrome, the median survival has improved from two years to more than eight years ...
Genetic testing should be considered with adrenocortical carcinoma; carcinoid tumors; diffuse gastric cancer; fallopian tube/ ... Other tumors increased in frequency include; osteomas, adrenal adenomas and carcinomas, thyroid tumors and desmoid tumors. The ... Hepatic tumors and squamous cell carcinomas of the esophagus, oropharynx and uvula are solid tumors commonly linked to FA. ... but also the development of multiple independent primary tumors. Many of these syndromes are caused by mutations in tumor ...
Zavala‐Pompa, Angel; Ro, Jae Y.; El‐Naggar, Adel; OrdóNtez, Nelson G. (1993). "Primary carcinoid tumor of testis. ... Finally, it has been shown that half of the tumor cells express progastrin. Ovarian, liver and pancreatic cancers present the ... In pathological situations, progastrin is secreted by tumor cells into the bloodstream and is referred to as hPG80. The ... Rehfeld, Jens F.; Goetze, Jens Peter (2005). "2 The Post-Translational Phase of Gene Expression in Tumor Diagnosis". Handbook ...
... a neuroendocrine tumour (carcinoid). Struma ovarii Teratoma Gorin I, Sastre-Garau X (June 2008). "Strumal carcinoid tumor of ... The strumal carcinoid is a type of monodermal teratoma with histomorphologic features of (1) the thyroid gland and (2) ... Tamsen A, Mazur MT (February 1992). "Ovarian strumal carcinoid in association with multiple endocrine neoplasia, type IIA". ...
... tumors are also found in the lungs. Metastasis of carcinoid can lead to carcinoid syndrome. This is due to the over- ... A carcinoid (also carcinoid tumor) is a slow-growing type of neuroendocrine tumor originating in the cells of the ... carcinoid tumors are the most common malignancy of the appendix. Carcinoid tumors may rarely arise from the ovary or thymus. ... Carcinoid tumors are the most common malignant tumor of the appendix, but they are most commonly associated with the small ...
The carcinoid syndrome occurs secondary to neuroendocrine tumors. These tumors occur mostly in the gut and less commonly in the ... Carcinoid Neuroendocrine tumor Small intestine neuroendocrine tumor Kulchitsky cells Apudoma Pandit, Sudha; Annamaraju, Pavan; ... formerly known as carcinoid tumors). The syndrome is caused by neuroendocrine tumors most often found in the gut releasing ... "Diagnosis of Carcinoid Syndrome and Tumor Localization". Uptodate. Ito, T.; Lee, L.; Jensen, R. T. (2018). "Carcinoid-syndrome ...
"Carcinoid Tumors and Syndrome". The Lecturio Medical Concept Library. Retrieved 5 July 2021. "Acromegaly". NIDDK. April 2012. ... is a medication used in the management of acromegaly and symptoms caused by neuroendocrine tumors, most notably carcinoid ... It is indicated for symptomatic treatment of carcinoid syndrome and acromegaly. It is also finding increased use in polycystic ...
CPN1 Carcinoid tumors, intestinal; 114900; SDHD Cardiac arrhythmia, ankyrin-B-related; 600919; ANK2 Cardiac conduction defect, ... tumor 2; 194071; H19 Wilms' tumor; 194070; BRCA2 Wilms' tumor, somatic; 194070; GPC3 Wilms' tumor, type 1; 194070; WT1 Wilson's ... PIK3CA Gastrointestinal stromal tumor, somatic; 606764; KIT Gastrointestinal stromal tumor, somatic; 606764; PDGFRA Gaucher ... SLC34A2 Testicular tumor, sporadic; 273300; STK11 Tetra-amelia, autosomal recessive; 273395; WNT3 Tetralogy of Fallot; 187500; ...
"Carcinoid Tumors and Syndrome". The Lecturio Medical Concept Library. Retrieved 5 July 2021. Sandhu S, Jialal I. "ViPoma". ... The best chance for a cure is surgery to remove the tumor. If the tumor has not spread to other organs, surgery can often cure ... However, in one-third to one-half of patients, the tumor has spread by the time of diagnosis and cannot be cured.[citation ... Endocrine tumors of the pancreas and gastrointestinal tract. In: Feldman M, Friedman LS, Brandt LJ, eds. Sleisenger and ...
The Carcinoid Cancer Foundation: Carcinoid Symposium 2002)http://www.carcinoid.org/content/carcinoid-tumors-and-carcinoid- ... www.carcinoid.org/content/role-surgery-and-chemoembolization-management-carcinoid Kvols LK. 2002. Carcinoid Tumors and the ... or by decreasing the tumor's impact, for example by decreasing the tumor's production of hormones. Primary liver tumors, ... Neuroendocrine tumor Carcinoid syndrome Del Prete, Michela; Fiore, Francesco; Modica, Roberta; Marotta, Vincenzo; Marciello, ...
Colby TV, Koss MN, Travis WD (1995). "Carcinoid and other neuroendocrine tumors". In Travis WD (ed.). Tumors of Lower ... Beckwith JB, Palmer NF (May 1978). "Histopathology and prognosis of Wilms tumors: results from the First National Wilms' Tumor ... aggressive tumor type. One report described a very early stage patient whose tumor recurred 6 years after initial treatment. ... The particulars of this process are poorly understood, but depend in part on the origin of the tumor and stochastic genomic ...
VIPoma Carcinoid tumor Welbourn RB (1977). "Current status of the apudomas". Ann. Surg. 185 (1): 1-12. doi:10.1097/00000658- ... In pathology, an apudoma is an endocrine tumour that arises from an APUD cell from structures such as the ampulla of Vater. ... see neuroendocrine tumor).The term dates back to at least 1975. Because the label "apudoma" is very general, it is preferred to ...
Chia, J.; Chia, A.; El-Habbal, R. (2011). "Carcinoid tumour associated with enterovirus infection". Journal of Clinical ... Söderberg-Nauclér, Cecilia (2015). "Cytomegalovirus in human brain tumors: Role in pathogenesis and potential treatment options ... and Association with Human Tumors". Polyomaviruses and Human Diseases. Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology. Vol. 577 ...
Carcinoid and stromal tumors may occur.[citation needed] Poor to moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma of the stomach. H&E ... Dysphagia suggests a tumour in the cardia or extension of the gastric tumour into the esophagus.[citation needed] These can be ... In EMR, the tumor, together with the inner lining of stomach (mucosa), is removed from the wall of the stomach using an ... Most stomach tumors are malignant with evidence of spread to lymph nodes or liver, making treatment difficult. Except for ...
Kvols LK (December 1986). "Metastatic carcinoid tumors and the carcinoid syndrome. A selective review of chemotherapy and ... It has been used experimentally to treat carcinoid syndrome, but the side effects, mostly hypersensitivity reactions and ...
A carcinoid is a neuroendocrine tumor (NET) of the intestines. Incidence rates among carcinoids occur at about .15 per 100,000 ... Carcinoid tumors are the most common tumors of the appendix. Other common forms are mucinous adenocarcinomas, adenocarcinoma ... Gastrointestinal stromal tumors are rare tumors with malignant potential. Primary lymphomas can occur in the appendix. Breast ... Almost 3 out of 4 of these tumors are associated with the region at the end of the appendix, and tend to be diagnosed in the ...
Pulmonary neuroendocrine tumors include a spectrum of tumors from the low-grade typical pulmonary carcinoid tumor and ... Atypical pulmonary carcinoid tumour (AC; intermediate-grade) High-grade pulmonary neuroendocrine tumor Small cell lung cancer ( ... Typical pulmonary carcinoid tumour (TC; low-grade); Intermediate-grade pulmonary neuroendocrine tumor: ... Multiple endocrine neoplasia type I (MEN1)can be found in carcinoid tumor patients, but not those with LCNEC and SCLC. Genetic ...
... an embryonic tumor that is the most common type of kidney cancer in children Carcinoid tumor of the renal pelvis Carcinosarcoma ... The majority of kidney cancers reported in children are Wilms' tumors. These tumors can begin to grow when a fetus is still ... "Wilms Tumor and Other Childhood Kidney Tumors Treatment". National Cancer Institute. 2019. Retrieved 8 June 2019. "Cancer of ... In both male and female children, renal tumors represent 2% to 6% of kidney cancer, with Wilms' tumor being the most common. ...
... is overexpressed in neuroendocrine/carcinoids tumors. PAK3 has been shown to be important for synapse formation and ... "p21-activated kinase 3 is overexpressed in thymic neuroendocrine tumors (carcinoids) with ectopic ACTH syndrome and ...
A cecal carcinoid tumor is a carcinoid tumor of the cecum. An appendiceal carcinoid tumor (a carcinoid tumor of the appendix) ... is sometimes found next to a cecal carcinoid.[citation needed] Neutropenic enterocolitis (typhlitis) is the condition of ...
2007). "Anatomic and functional imaging of metastatic carcinoid tumors". Radiographics. 27 (2): 455-77. doi:10.1148/rg. ... The MIBG scan detects adrenergic tissue and thus can be used to identify the location of tumors such as pheochromocytomas and ... a tumor, or another cause. It can also diagnose gallbladder diseases, e.g. bile leaks of biliary fistulas. In cholescintigraphy ...
Urethral carcinoid tumors have been reported at the verumontanum. The structure tends to migrate caudally, or downward, in ... Maxwell Smith, M Scott Lucia, Priya N Werahera and Francisco G La Rosa Carcinoid tumor of the verumontanum (colliculus ...
2007). "Anatomic and functional imaging of metastatic carcinoid tumors". Radiographics. 27 (2): 455-77. doi:10.1148/rg. ... carcinoid tumors, neuroblastomas, and medullary thyroid cancer. Thyroid blockade with (nonradioactive) potassium iodide is ... With iodine-131 it can also be used to treat tumor cells that take up and metabolize norepinephrine. MIBG is absorbed by and ... It localizes to adrenergic tissue and thus can be used to identify the location of tumors such as pheochromocytomas and ...
The safety and effectiveness of everolimus in carcinoid tumors have not been established. sunitinib (Sutent) is labeled for ... Some PanNETs are more responsive to chemotherapy than are gastroenteric carcinoid tumors. Several agents have shown activity. ... Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors (Islet Cell Tumors) Treatment (PDQ®) Incidence and Mortality [3] Öberg K, Knigge U, Kwekkeboom ... Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors (Islet Cell Tumors) Treatment (PDQ®) National Cancer Institute [2] Jensen RT, Berna MJ, ...
"A novel type of human alpha-amylase produced in lung carcinoid tumor". Gene. 76 (1): 11-8. doi:10.1016/0378-1119(89)90003-6. ...
Rare and slow growing carcinoid and non-carcinoid tumors develop from these cells. When a tumor arises it has the capacity to ... Warner RR (May 2005). "Enteroendocrine tumors other than carcinoid: a review of clinically significant advances". ... APUD cells Neuroendocrine tumors List of human cell types derived from the germ layers Rehfeld JF (October 1998). "The new ...
Furthermore, this increase can be a precursor of pulmonary carcinoid tumors. To diagnose neuroendocrine hyperplasia after a ...
Carcinoid tumors can happen in the lungs or digestive tract. Learn about risk factors, tests, treatment, and more. ... What Are Lung Carcinoid Tumors? (American Cancer Society) * What Is a Gastrointestinal Carcinoid Tumor? (American Cancer ... Can Gastrointestinal Carcinoid Tumors Be Found Early? (American Cancer Society) * Lung Carcinoid Tumor Stages (American Cancer ... Tests for Gastrointestinal Carcinoid Tumors (American Cancer Society) * Tests for Lung Carcinoid Tumors (American Cancer ...
Pulmonary carcinoid tumour is a neuroendocrine tumour of the lung. There are two types: Typical pulmonary carcinoid tumour ... Atypical pulmonary carcinoid tumour Limaiem, Faten; Tariq, Muhammad Ali; Ismail, Uzma; Wallen, Jason M. (2023), "Lung Carcinoid ... Tumors", StatPearls, Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing, PMID 30725765, retrieved 2023-09-19 Lung carcinoids (cancer. ... Pulmonary tumour, All stub articles, Respiratory disease stubs, Neoplasm stubs). ...
In children, most tumors occur in the appendix and are benign and asymptomatic. ... Origin and general involvement and presentation Carcinoid tumors are derived from primitive stem cells in the gut wall but can ... encoded search term (Carcinoid Tumor) and Carcinoid Tumor What to Read Next on Medscape ... and TTF-1 can help distinguish gastrointestinal carcinoid tumors from pancreatic endocrine and pulmonary carcinoid tumors. Am J ...
... Online. Our carcinoid and neuroendocrine tumor patient support group ... 15-week online support group for people diagnosed with a carcinoid or malignant neuroendocrine tumors who are currently ... provides a safe space to connect with others coping with carcinoid or neuroendocrine tumor and is led by an oncology social ...
A cumulative analysis of all types of carcinoid tumors in the SEER group indicates that in 4 … ... Carcinoids appear to have increased in incidence in the past 20 years. In part, this may be due to different surgical rules of ... An analysis of 8305 cases of carcinoid tumors Cancer. 1997 Feb 15;79(4):813-29. doi: 10.1002/(sici)1097-0142(19970215)79:4,813 ... Background: Carcinoid tumors are unusual and most reports are anecdotal or limited in number. A series of 2837 cases was ...
Treatment of carcinoid tumors varies based on the stage of the disease. When the tumor is diagnosed at an early stage, surgery ... This painless test to locate the site of tumors is the most advanced detection technique worldwide for carcinoid tumors. ... Carcinoid tumors are slow growing cancers that typically start in the digestive tract or the lungs, but can develop throughout ... Carcinoid tumors can also occur in the appendix. They rarely spread, and, often, an appendectomy (removing the appendix) is ...
... oncologist insights on carcinoid cancer. Read more about cancer at CURE. ... The carcinoid cancer condition center is a comprehensive resource for cancer news & ... CUREs carcinoid cancer page features the latest cancer news and updates on carcinoid cancer Through articles, videos, podcasts ... Carcinoid Cancer Foundation: Spreading the Word About an Often Overlooked Disease. By Gale Scott ...
The location of origin of carcinoid tumors is divided into three categories:. *Foregut Carcinoid Tumors - These tumors ... most people diagnosed with a carcinoid tumor are in their 50s.. Carcinoid tumors are slow-growing tumors and most do not cause ... and can cause carcinoid syndrome. Most carcinoid tumors are now known to be slow growing malignant tumors that have their own ... However, carcinoid tumor cells are distinguished from most other types of tumors in that they secrete various hormone-like ...
Carcinoid Tumors. Carcinoid tumors are a type of neuroendocrine tumor that typically originates in the digestive tract. Some ... Treatments for Carcinoid and Related Neuroendocrine Tumors. At present, the only cure for a carcinoid tumor or any other ... Diagnosis of Carcinoid and Related Neuroendocrine Tumors. Carcinoid and related neuroendocrine tumors are diagnosed based on ... Carcinoid tumors also have the potential to cause bowel obstructions or metastasize to other parts of the body. ...
Neuroendocrine tumors (NETs; syn. carcinoid tumors) are highly or moderately differentiated neoplasms. They comprise a large ... Neuroendocrine Tumors of the Bronchopulmonary System (Typical and Atypical Carcinoid Tumors): Current Strategies in Diagnosis ... Neuroendocrine Tumors of the Bronchopulmonary System (Typical and Atypical Carcinoid Tumors): Current Strategies in Diagnosis ... Cardillo G, Sera F, Di Martino M, Graziano P, Giunti R, Carbone L, Facciolo F, Martelli M: Bronchial carcinoid tumors: nodal ...
The clinical and pathological features of four cases of duodenal carcinoid tumour are presented. All four tumours showed a ... The importance of these unusual features is discussed, and it is suggested that these glandular carcinoids are a specific ... In three tumours somatostatin was identified by immunocytochemistry in most tumour cells. In two cases the duodenal tumours ...
Pulmonary neuroendocrine (carcinoid) tumors: European Neuroendocrine Tumor Society expert consensus and recommendations for ... uses only mitotic count for bronchial and thymic tumors for determining tumor grade, as follows [8] :. * Low-grade tumors: , 10 ... Gastric tumors. For gastric tumors, the NCCN recommendations are as follows [1] :. * With hypergastrinemia/Type 1: Endoscopic ... Jejunum and ileum tumors [18] * Curative resection of the primary tumor and dissection of the locoregional lymph node ...
2014: The effectiveness of endoscopic submucosal resection with a ligation device for small rectal carcinoid tumors: focused on ... Endoscopic resection of rectal carcinoid tumors: classical and submucosal resection with band-snare method Revista de ... 2012: Endoscopic resection for rectal carcinoid tumors: comparison of polypectomy and endoscopic submucosal resection with band ... Retraction notice to endoscopic resection for rectal carcinoid tumors: comparision of polypectomy and endoscopic submucosal ...
Tumors can be benign (not cancerous), or malignant (cancerous). Tumors are also called neoplasm. ... Tumor (neoplasm). October 17, 2015. An abnormal mass of tissue that results when the growth of cells exceeds,and is ... Carcinoid Cancer Foundation. 118 N. Bedford Road, Suite 100. Mt. Kisco, New York 10549-2555. ...
Neuroendocrine Tumors will be featured in the February 2016 issue of Hematology/Oncology Clinics. Dr. Jennifer Chan and Dr. ... Tag: pathology of neuroendocrine tumors. Dr. C. Christofer Juhlin to Be Featured Guest for CCFs Luncheon with the Experts. May ... Carcinoid Cancer Foundation. 118 N. Bedford Road, Suite 100. Mt. Kisco, New York 10549-2555. ... Neuroendocrine Tumors Focus of Upcoming Issue of Hematology/Oncology Clinics. November 27, 2015 ...
"Carcinoid tumor of the trachea in a pediatric patient." Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg, vol. 114, no. 6, June 1996, pp. 822-25. ... Hulka, G. F., Rothschild, M. A., Warner, B. W., & Bove, K. E. (1996). Carcinoid tumor of the trachea in a pediatric patient. ... Carcinoid tumor of the trachea in a pediatric patient.. Publication , Journal Article ... Carcinoid tumor of the trachea in a pediatric patient. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 1996 Jun;114(6):822-5. ...
Gastric_Carcinoid_TumorIncidental_Finding_on_Endoscopy_Prior_to_Bariatric_Surgery.pdf. 71,21 kB. Adobe PDF. Abrir. Exibir. ...
... resulting in the carcinoid syndrome. Carcinoid syndrome is a group of specific symptoms that occur as a result of these ... Carcinoid tumors are noncancerous (benign) or cancerous (malignant) growths that sometimes produce excessive amounts of hormone ...
In children, most tumors occur in the appendix and are benign and asymptomatic. ... Origin and general involvement and presentation Carcinoid tumors are derived from primitive stem cells in the gut wall but can ... carcinoid tumors can cause various symptoms, including carcinoid syndrome. Carcinoid tumors of the ileum and jejunum, ... Carcinoid tumors commonly affect the tip of the appendix. Most carcinoid tumors invade the wall of the appendix, and lymphatic ...
Carcinoid syndrome is seen in individuals who have an underlying carcinoid tumour with spread to the liver. Carcinoid tumors ... Carcinoid tumor treatment options may include:. *Surgery. When detected early, a carcinoid tumor may be removed completely ... Doctors dont know what causes the mutations that can lead to carcinoid tumors. But they know that carcinoid tumors develop in ... The tumor cells can also migrate (metastasize) to the liver.. Carcinoid tumors most commonly occur in the small intestine and ...
Carcinoid tumors can occur throughout the body including in the intestine, lungs, stomach or pancreas. They are treated by the ... Carcinoid and Neuroendocrine Tumors. Carcinoid tumors are a subgroup of neuroendocrine tumors. Nowadays they will be most often ... Treatment of abdominal carcinoid tumors.. Carcinoid tumors of the abdomen often involve sections of the intestine and/or the ... There is a very wide spectrum of carcinoid tumors and the prognosis for patients is dependent on how early the tumor is treated ...
Study Keyword: Carcinoid Tumor. Study of Pembrolizumab in Participants With Advanced Solid Tumors. March 7, 2022. By Support_ ... Carcinoid Tumor. In this study, participants with multiple types of advanced (unresectable and/or metastatic) solid tumors who ... In this study, participants with multiple types of advanced (unresectable and/or metastatic) solid tumors who have progressed ...
A Gastrointestinal Carcinoid Tumor is cancer that forms in the lining of the gastrointestinal tract. Click to read more. ... Treatment Options for Gastrointestinal Carcinoid Tumors. *Carcinoid Tumors in the Stomach. *Carcinoid Tumors in the Small ... The metastatic tumor is the same type of tumor as the primary tumor. For example, if a gastrointestinal (GI) carcinoid tumor ... the tumor cells in the liver are actually GI carcinoid tumor cells. The disease is metastatic GI carcinoid tumor, not liver ...
How are carcinoid tumours treated?. by Dr Ashwathy Susan Mathew November 25, 2021. ... Ashwathy Susan Mathew, Consultant Radiation Oncologist, Apollo Proton Cancer Centre, Chennai, explains how carcinoid tumours ...
... Educational Material:. -Neuroendocrine tumors of the lung: an update. ... Pulmonary Neuroendocrine Tumors: Part I. Spectrum and Characteristics of Tumors. Dincer HE et al. J Bronchology Interv Pulmonol ...
title = "Gastrointestinal Carcinoid Tumors: Factors that Predict Outcome",. abstract = "Gastrointestinal (GI) carcinoids are ... Gastrointestinal Carcinoid Tumors: Factors that Predict Outcome. / Van Gompel, Jamie J.; Sippel, Rebecca S.; Warner, Tom F. et ... Gastrointestinal Carcinoid Tumors: Factors that Predict Outcome. Jamie J. Van Gompel, Rebecca S. Sippel, Tom F. Warner, Herbert ... Gastrointestinal Carcinoid Tumors : Factors that Predict Outcome. In: World Journal of Surgery. 2004 ; Vol. 28, No. 4. pp. 387- ...
I was diagnosed in April 2016 with a Typical Carcinoid Tumor in my right lower lobe, approx. 3 cms. It has remained stable, per ... I appreciate your sharing about your lung carcinoid. While carcinoids are rather rare, lung carcinoids are even more rare. I ... I was diagnosed in April 2016 with a Typical Carcinoid Tumor in my right lower lobe, approx. 3 cms. It has remained stable, per ... Typical Carcinoid Tumor in Lungs. Posted by dzerfas @dzerfas, Jan 17, 2017 ...
Carcinoid Tumors Article, Carcinoid Tumors Podcast, Carcinoid Tumors Video, Videos. If you or your loved one has been diagnosed ...
A carcinoid tumor that shows atypical characteristics and has borderline malignant potential. ... Carcinoid Tumor of Uncertain Malignant Potential Carcinoid Tumor of Uncertain Malignant Potential. ... Pulmonary neuroendocrine (carcinoid) tumors: European Neuroendocrine Tumor Society expert consensus and recommendations for ... Carcinoid tumors.. Pinchot SN, Holen K, Sippel RS, Chen H. Oncologist 2008 Dec;13(12):1255-69. Epub 2008 Dec 17 doi: 10.1634/ ...
... of all lung primary tumors, are classified into typical carcinoid, atypical carcinoid, small cell lung carcinoma, and large ... BRONCHIAL CARCINOID TUMOR OF THE RIGHT INFERIOR BRONCHUS * CLAUDIU EDUARD NISTOR UMF CAROL DAVILA, CENTRAL EMERGENCY UNIVERSITY ... NISTOR, C. E., CUCU, A. P., & CIRSTOIU, C. (2023). BRONCHIAL CARCINOID TUMOR OF THE RIGHT INFERIOR BRONCHUS. Medical Image ... The patient was discharged on day 8. The pathology report confirmed a typical lung carcinoid tumor. The patient was referred to ...
  • Soga J, Yakuwa Y, Osaka M. Evaluation of 342 cases of mediastinal/thymic carcinoids collected from literature: a comparative study between typical carcinoids and atypical varieties. (medscape.com)
  • Neuroendocrine Tumors of the Bronchopulmonary System (Typical and Atypical Carcinoid Tumors): Current Strategies in Diagnosis and Treatment. (karger.com)
  • Can Typical Carcinoids become Atypical? (mayoclinic.org)
  • A carcinoid tumor that shows atypical characteristics and has borderline malignant potential. (nih.gov)
  • According to the latest WHO classification of thoracic tumors (5th edition, 2021), lung neuroendocrine neoplasms, which account for nearly 20% of all lung primary tumors, are classified into typical carcinoid, atypical carcinoid, small cell lung carcinoma, and large cell lung carcinoma. (medicalimage.ro)
  • Neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) can occur throughout the body including in the intestine, lungs, stomach or pancreas. (rogelcancercenter.org)
  • They are distributed throughout the body, but the most common places for tumors to develop from them are in the lungs, small intestines and pancreas. (mdanderson.org)
  • The tumors begin in neuroendocrine cells - which have characteristics of nerve and hormone-producing cells - and can arise in multiple sites in the body, most often in the gastrointestinal tract, lungs, and pancreas. (dana-farber.org)
  • The study enrolled 197 patients with advanced extra-pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (which arise outside the pancreas) and 93 patients with pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors. (dana-farber.org)
  • In later stages the tumors sometimes produce hormones that can cause carcinoid syndrome. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The most serious complications of carcinoid tumors are carcinoid syndrome /crisis and metastasis, which is often observed in patients who have foregut tumors and high levels of 5-HIAA. (medscape.com)
  • The PAN Foundation today opened a new patient assistance program for people living with carcinoid syndrome. (curetoday.com)
  • Over the years it became clear that carcinoid tumors can be quite aggressive, can metastasize, and can cause carcinoid syndrome . (medifocus.com)
  • Symptoms are often associated with the site of tumor origin and reflect the tumor obstructing organs involved in normal body function but may be less specific if related to carcinoid syndrome. (medifocus.com)
  • Carcinoid syndrome describes a combination of symptoms that result from hormones or hormone-like substances, (e.g., serotonin, gastrin, ACTH) that are produced by some carcinoid tumors. (medifocus.com)
  • Findings range from no tumor-related symptoms (most carcinoid tumors) to full symptoms of carcinoid syndrome (primarily in adults). (medscape.com)
  • Carcinoid syndrome is a disease consisting of a combination of symptoms, physical manifestations, and abnormal laboratory findings. (brainandnervecenter.com)
  • Carcinoid syndrome is seen in individuals who have an underlying carcinoid tumour with spread to the liver. (brainandnervecenter.com)
  • Only about 10% of the people with a carcinoid tumor will develop carcinoid syndrome. (brainandnervecenter.com)
  • Carcinoid syndrome occurs when the tumor produces excessive amounts of serotonin in an individual with liver metastases. (brainandnervecenter.com)
  • thus, carcinoid syndrome does not occur. (brainandnervecenter.com)
  • Using medications to block hormones secreted by the tumor may reduce the signs and symptoms of carcinoid syndrome and slow tumor growth. (brainandnervecenter.com)
  • Telotristat (Xermelo) is a pill that is sometimes used in combination with octreotide or lanreotide to further try to improve the symptoms of carcinoid syndrome. (brainandnervecenter.com)
  • Carcinoid syndrome may occur if the tumor spreads to the liver or other parts of the body. (myacare.com)
  • If the tumor has spread to the liver and the liver enzymes cannot destroy the extra hormones made by the tumor, high amounts of these hormones may remain in the body and cause carcinoid syndrome. (myacare.com)
  • Carcinoid-syndrome: recent advances, current status and controversies. (nih.gov)
  • Treatment focuses on control of the underlying carcinoid syndrome, targeting subsequent valvular heart disease and managing consequent heart failure. (karger.com)
  • Malignant Carcinoid Syndrome" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (harvard.edu)
  • This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Malignant Carcinoid Syndrome" by people in Harvard Catalyst Profiles by year, and whether "Malignant Carcinoid Syndrome" was a major or minor topic of these publication. (harvard.edu)
  • Below are the most recent publications written about "Malignant Carcinoid Syndrome" by people in Profiles. (harvard.edu)
  • Assessment of change in quality of life, carcinoid syndrome symptoms and healthcare resource utilization in patients with carcinoid syndrome. (harvard.edu)
  • Impact of carcinoid syndrome symptoms and long-term use of somatostatin analogs on quality of life in patients with carcinoid syndrome: A survey study. (harvard.edu)
  • Changes in Weight Associated With Telotristat Ethyl in the Treatment of Carcinoid Syndrome. (harvard.edu)
  • Telotristat ethyl in carcinoid syndrome: safety and efficacy in the TELECAST phase 3 trial. (harvard.edu)
  • Understanding the Patient Experience with Carcinoid Syndrome: Exit Interviews from a Randomized, Placebo-controlled Study of Telotristat Ethyl. (harvard.edu)
  • Cost reduction from resolution/improvement of carcinoid syndrome symptoms following treatment with above-standard dose of octreotide LAR. (harvard.edu)
  • Advances in the management of patients with carcinoid syndrome. (harvard.edu)
  • Retrospective review of serotonergic medication tolerability in patients with neuroendocrine tumors with biochemically proven carcinoid syndrome. (harvard.edu)
  • Malignant carcinoid syndrome occurs in fewer than 10% of patients with a carcinoid tumor. (medscape.com)
  • Carcinoids do not produce the malignant carcinoid syndrome until they are no longer confined to the small bowel or mesentery, perhaps because the liver breaks down the secretory products of tumors restricted to those locations. (medscape.com)
  • If a patient is thought to have carcinoid syndrome, blood and urine tests must be performed to determine levels of bioactive substances secreted by carcinoid tumors. (medscape.com)
  • Overall, localized carcinoid tumor which is completely resected has an excellent prognosis, the outcome for patients with metastasis, however, remains poor. (medscape.com)
  • The prognosis (outlook or chance of recovery) for patients with carcinoid tumors is based primarily on size of the tumor and the degree to which it has spread and invaded other tissues in the body. (medifocus.com)
  • There is a very wide spectrum of carcinoid tumors and the prognosis for patients is dependent on how early the tumor is treated. (rogelcancercenter.org)
  • The prognosis for patients with GI carcinoid tumors is diverse. (elsevierpure.com)
  • Despite the larger tumor size and the higher incidence of liver metastases, patients with foregut carcinoids appear to have the same prognosis as those with midgut carcinoids. (elsevierpure.com)
  • Characterization, Prognosis, and Treatment of Patients With Metastatic Lung Carcinoid Tumors. (nih.gov)
  • Tokuhashi Y, Matsuzaki H, Oda H, Oshima M, Ryu J. A revised scoring system for preoperative evaluation of metastatic spine tumor prognosis. (medscape.com)
  • Therapeutic options in patients with progressive and disseminated metastatic neuroendocrine gastroenteropancreatic (GEP) tumors are often limited, and prognosis is often poor ( 1 , 2 ). (snmjournals.org)
  • Jennifer Chan, MD, MPH , director of the Program in Carcinoid and Neuroendocrine Tumors at Dana-Farber , will present the findings of the CABINET trial at the annual European Society for Medical Oncology (ESMO) Congress on October 22, 2023, in Madrid, Spain. (dana-farber.org)
  • Albany, USA) DelveInsight's ' Neuroendocrine Tumors Pipeline Insight 2023 ' report provides comprehensive global coverage of pipeline Neuroendocrine Tumors therapies in various stages of clinical development, major pharmaceutical companies are working to advance the pipeline space and future growth potential of the Neuroendocrine Tumors pipeline domain. (medgadget.com)
  • In March 2023 , RayzeBio, Inc., a targeted radiopharmaceutical company developing an innovative pipeline against validated solid tumor targets, announced the completion of enrollment in the Phase 1b portion of the ACTION-1 Phase 1b/3 trial of RYZ101 in patients with SSTR+ gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (GEP-NETs) who have progressed on Lutetium-177 labeled somatostatin analog therapy. (medgadget.com)
  • In March 2023 , NUCLIDIUM announced that the Neuroendocrine Tumors Research Foundation ("NETRF") has selected the company and its collaboration partner the University Hospital Basel (Universitätsspital Basel, "USB") as recipients of its Investigator Award. (medgadget.com)
  • In this study, participants with multiple types of advanced (unresectable and/or metastatic) solid tumors who have progressed on standard of care therapy will be treated with pembrolizumab (MK-3475). (msdoncologyclinicaltrials.com)
  • We undertook a more thorough investigation to rule out the possibility that the liver tumor was a metastatic carcinoid. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Imaging studies also must be performed to detect the sites of either primary tumors or metastases. (medscape.com)
  • Approximately 8,000 new cases of carcinoid tumors are diagnosed each year in the United States and the incidence seems to be rising. (holyname.org)
  • A cumulative analysis of all types of carcinoid tumors in the SEER group indicates that in 45.3% metastases are already evident at the time of diagnosis. (nih.gov)
  • Carcinoid tumors are rare, slow-growing cancers. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Carcinoid tumors are slow growing cancers that typically start in the digestive tract or the lungs, but can develop throughout the body. (holyname.org)
  • Neuroendocrine tumors have been called "cancers in slow motion" due to their slow rate of growth. (mountsinai.org)
  • Intramedullary spinal cord metastases from any cancer are rare, and bronchial carcinoids account for only a small fraction of lung cancers. (elsevierpure.com)
  • Basically, neuroendocrine tumors are cancers that can develop anywhere endocrine cells are present. (mdanderson.org)
  • Carcinoid tumors are the most common appendix cancers, making up about half of those diagnosed. (mskcc.org)
  • [ 125 ] In patients with carcinoid tumors located in the appendix, age, primary tumor size, histologic features, lymph node involvement, and distant metastasis are significant factors in predicting survival. (medscape.com)
  • Carcinoid tumors have high potential for metastasis. (medscape.com)
  • We report an intramedullary spinal cord metastasis from a bronchial carcinoid, and discuss its mechanisms and management. (elsevierpure.com)
  • To our knowledge, an intramedullary spinal cord metastasis from a bronchial carcinoid has been described only once previously. (elsevierpure.com)
  • Shin, John H. / Intramedullary spinal metastasis of a carcinoid tumor . (elsevierpure.com)
  • The presentation and management, of a patient with liver metastasis from a 0.6 cm carcinoid tumor of the appendix is presented. (usuhs.edu)
  • This is the first documented case of distant metastasis from a carcinoid of the appendix less than 1 cm in size. (usuhs.edu)
  • We reviewed the literature and found 414 previously reported cases that provided complete information regarding tumor size, mesoappendiceal invasion, and presence of metastasis. (usuhs.edu)
  • It blocks the receptor for VEGF, a protein used to tap into the body's blood supply, as well as other receptors including c-MET, AXL, and RET that are key to tumor cell survival and metastasis. (dana-farber.org)
  • A section of a rare lymph node metastasis from adenocarcinoid tumor (250 X). Image courtesy of Professor Pantaleo Bufo, University of Foggia, Italy. (medscape.com)
  • Tumors are also called neoplasm. (carcinoid.org)
  • However, the tumor biopsy revealed a malignant neoplasm that originating from neuroendocrine cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Carcinoid tumors are neuroendocrine origin neoplasm and may produce serotonin or other functional peptide hormones. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Histopathologic, immunohistochemical, and electron microscopic studies support the appendiceal carcinoid as being the primary neoplasm. (usuhs.edu)
  • A neuroendocrine cancer, also known as a neuroendocrine tumor (NET) or neuroendocrine neoplasm, starts in the body's neuroendocrine system's specialized cells. (medgadget.com)
  • The optimal management of patients with carcinoid tumors involves a multidisciplinary team of health care providers including an oncologist, gastroenterologist, surgeon, radiologist and nuclear medicine specialist. (medifocus.com)
  • Ominoe G, Kodish E, Herman R. Neuroendocrine tumors of the appendix in adolescents and young adults. (medscape.com)
  • de Lambert G, Lardy H, Martelli H, Orbach D, Gauthier F, Guérin F. Surgical Management of Neuroendocrine Tumors of the Appendix in Children and Adolescents: A Retrospective French Multicenter Study of 114 Cases. (medscape.com)
  • Scott A, Upadhyay V. Carcinoid tumours of the appendix in children in Auckland, New Zealand: 1965-2008. (medscape.com)
  • Vandevelde A, Gera P. Carcinoid tumours of the appendix in children having appendicectomies at Princess Margaret Hospital since 1995. (medscape.com)
  • Carcinoid tumors can also occur in the appendix. (holyname.org)
  • They rarely spread, and, often, an appendectomy (removing the appendix) is sufficient to treat this type of tumor. (holyname.org)
  • Carcinoid tumors most commonly occur in the small intestine and appendix, but 10% originate in the lung. (brainandnervecenter.com)
  • Some tumors, especially tumors of the stomach or appendix, may not cause signs or symptoms. (myacare.com)
  • Small bowel, appendix and large bowel were checked during operation and no tumor was found. (biomedcentral.com)
  • There are several kinds of appendix tumors, some of which are cancerous and some of which are not. (mskcc.org)
  • The two main types of appendix cancer are called carcinoid tumors and carcinomas. (mskcc.org)
  • Because there are no symptoms, these tumors are often detected after the appendix has been removed. (mskcc.org)
  • These tumors are usually found near the bottom or base of the appendix. (mskcc.org)
  • Typically, 90% of carcinoid tumors originate from the distal ileum or appendix (the embryologic midgut. (medscape.com)
  • At present, the only cure for a carcinoid tumor or any other neuroendocrine tumor is the surgical removal of the tumor. (mountsinai.org)
  • Depending on the location of the tumor and whether the tumor has spread throughout the body, treatment options can include medication treatment and/or surgical removal of the tumor. (rogelcancercenter.org)
  • Surgical removal of the tumor often requires resection of intestine. (rogelcancercenter.org)
  • Neuroendocrine tumors can cause symptoms-which may include abdominal pain, diarrhea, heartburn, and weight changes-either by secreting chemicals or by growing so large they intrude on healthy tissues. (mountsinai.org)
  • Some people may not notice symptoms of carcinoid tumors, while others could experience abdominal pain, diarrhea, nausea and vomiting, flushing skin, rectal pain, or rectal bleeding. (mountsinai.org)
  • Patients with carcinoids may also develop diarrhea, heart valve problems and abdominal pain or intestinal obstruction. (rogelcancercenter.org)
  • Treatment of abdominal carcinoid tumors. (rogelcancercenter.org)
  • However, carcinoid tumor cells are distinguished from most other types of tumors in that they secrete various hormone-like substances (e.g., serotonin, noradrenalin, histamines) which may cause symptoms throughout the body rather than symptoms localized to the organ where the tumor originates. (medifocus.com)
  • Carcinoid tumors are well-differentiated neuroendocrine tumours with secretory properties, releasing serotonin, along with a number of other active peptides. (brainandnervecenter.com)
  • Neuroendocrine tumors can are related to endocrine, hormone-producing cells and can produce different hormones, including serotonin. (rogelcancercenter.org)
  • The pathophysiology of CHD is related to vasoactive substances secreted by the tumor, of which serotonin is most prominent in the pathophysiology of CHD. (karger.com)
  • Symptoms are caused by tumor secretion of serotonin, prostaglandins, and other biologically active substances. (harvard.edu)
  • The name was chosen to separate these tumors from ordinary malignancies (carcinomas), but by the 1950s, the fact that carcinoids could be malignant was obvious, thanks to Erspamer and Asero (1952), who identified serotonin production by carcinoid tumors. (medscape.com)
  • The results suggest cabozantinib, which has been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for some patients with renal cell carcinoma, hepatocellular carcinoma, or thyroid cancer, can benefit patients with neuroendocrine tumors that continue to grow and spread after previous treatment, researchers say. (dana-farber.org)
  • Analysis of Real-World Treatment Patterns, Healthcare Resource Utilization, and Costs Between Octreotide and Lanreotide Among Patients With Neuroendocrine Tumors. (harvard.edu)
  • The patients were grouped into three categories based on the origin of the carcinoid tumor: foregut, midgut, hindgut. (elsevierpure.com)
  • Patients with foregut or midgut lesions had lower 5-year disease-free survivals than those with hindgut tumors. (elsevierpure.com)
  • Neuroendocrine Tumors will be featured in the February 2016 issue of Hematology/Oncology Clinics . (carcinoid.org)
  • I was diagnosed in April 2016 with a Typical Carcinoid Tumor in my right lower lobe, approx. (mayoclinic.org)
  • Carcinoid tumors are slow-growing tumors and most do not cause symptoms until they interfere with daily function or metastasize. (medifocus.com)
  • Carcinoid crisis - when all of the above symptoms occur at the same time. (medifocus.com)
  • Carcinoid and related neuroendocrine tumors are diagnosed based on symptoms, blood work, and radiology tests that may include x-ray, CT scans, MRI, ultrasound, and isotope. (mountsinai.org)
  • If removing the entire tumor isn't an option, it's often possible to remove critically situated tumor tissue in order to relieve symptoms. (mountsinai.org)
  • Signs and symptoms of carcinoid tumors vary greatly and depend on the tumor location and size as well as on the presence of metastases. (medscape.com)
  • Due to their vague and intermittent symptoms, diagnosis of carcinoid tumors may be delayed, especially in children, in whom the tumor is rare and the diagnosis is unexpected. (medscape.com)
  • What are the symptoms for endocrine tumors, carcinoid type? (brainandnervecenter.com)
  • In some situations, surgeons may try to remove as much of the tumor as possible, to help control signs and symptoms. (brainandnervecenter.com)
  • In patients where the tumor which has spread to the liver, surgical resection of part of the liver or other treatments to destroy these tumors may help to decrease the amount of hormone produced and thus improve symptoms. (rogelcancercenter.org)
  • In very small, early tumors the cure rates are excellent, while in more advanced cases control of symptoms can be obtained with a combination of medical and surgical treatments. (rogelcancercenter.org)
  • Some gastrointestinal carcinoid tumors have no signs or symptoms in the early stages. (myacare.com)
  • Signs and symptoms may be caused by the growth of the tumor and/or the hormones the tumor makes. (myacare.com)
  • Carcinoid tumors in the small intestine (duodenum, jejunum, and ileum), colon, and rectum sometimes cause signs or symptoms as they grow or because of the hormones they make. (myacare.com)
  • These data therefore suggest that the outcomes of patients with carcinoid tumors are highly dependent on the presence of symptoms and the site of origin. (elsevierpure.com)
  • What are the most common symptoms of neuroendocrine tumors? (mdanderson.org)
  • These symptoms occur because the tumor is physically pushing on another structure. (mdanderson.org)
  • Other patients in this group will exhibit hormonal symptoms, which point doctors in the direction of a tumor as the source. (mdanderson.org)
  • Yet, when a purely histopathologic definition of DIPNECH was applied, 40% of isolated carcinoids also met the diagnostic criteria for DIPNECH, even in the absence of symptoms and/or radiologic abnormalities. (unipr.it)
  • The intent was to treat all patients because of uncontrolled tumor disease ( n = 21), contraindication to chemotherapy or surgery ( n = 7), or uncontrolled and badly tolerated clinical symptoms ( n = 4). (snmjournals.org)
  • Pejorative events were defined as side effects due to therapy, relapse in clinical symptoms, tumor progression, tumor laboratory marker increase, and death. (snmjournals.org)
  • Even though these tumors have the potential to be fatal, those afflicted with NETs typically live for many years and sometimes for a normal lifetime. (mountsinai.org)
  • The World Health Organization (WHO) and the European Neuroendocrine Tumor Society (ENETS) both incorporate mitotic count and Ki-67 proliferation for the classification of gastroenteropancreatic NETs (GEP-NETs). (medscape.com)
  • Go to the Neuroendocrine Tumors (NETs) Support Group. (mayoclinic.org)
  • These are less common tumors, which, despite the name, are not carcinoid tumors or NETs. (mskcc.org)
  • Moreover, the size of the primary tumor and the presence of liver metastases were not independent predictors of survival. (elsevierpure.com)
  • Approximately 74% of all carcinoid tumors arise from the gastrointestinal (GI) tract and the liver is a common site for metastases [ 1 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • and asthma attacks-caused by vasoactive hormones secreted by metastases from carcinoid tumors. (medscape.com)
  • Therapeutic options in patients with advanced-stage gastroenteropancreatic (GEP) neuroendocrine tumors are limited. (snmjournals.org)
  • Intraoperative bronchoscopy for bronchial carcinoid parenchymal-sparing resection: a pediatric case report. (medscape.com)
  • Between 1992 and 2000 a total of 70 patients with GI carcinoid tumors underwent surgical resection at our institution. (elsevierpure.com)
  • There was no tumor embolus in the vessels and the resection line was free from tumor invasion. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Laboratory diagnosis of carcinoid tumors depends on the identification of the characteristic biomarkers of the disease. (medscape.com)
  • A rare type of tumor, they can be either benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). (mountsinai.org)
  • The North American Neuroendocrine Tumor Society Consensus Guidelines for Surveillance and Medical Management of Midgut Neuroendocrine Tumors. (nih.gov)
  • Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors (Islet Cell Tumors) Treatment. (myacare.com)
  • Cabozantinib significantly improved outcomes in patients with previously treated extra-pancreatic and pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors and may become a new treatment option for patients. (dana-farber.org)
  • Due to the evolution of imaging techniques, the incidence of carcinoid tumors has slightly increased over the last decades, currently representing 2% of primary lung tumors, with a predominance of typical carcinoid. (medicalimage.ro)
  • Pulmonary carcinoid tumour is a neuroendocrine tumour of the lung. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pediatric pulmonary carcinoid: a case report and review of the literature. (medscape.com)
  • [ 6 ] In its 2015 consensus statement on best practices for pulmonary neuroendocrine tumors, the ENETS noted that tumor grading based on a combination of KI-67, mitotic rate, and necrosis may be of clinical importance but lacks validation. (medscape.com)
  • Pulmonary Neuroendocrine Tumors. (nih.gov)
  • The diagnostic criteria of diffuse idiopathic pulmonary neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia (DIPNECH) are not well defined, and DIPNECH can be mistaken for carcinoids associated with neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia (NECH). (unipr.it)
  • Integrative and comparative genomic analyses identify clinically relevant pulmonary carcinoid groups and unveil the supra-carcinoids. (who.int)
  • The next most common site for the development of carcinoid tumors is in the lungs. (medifocus.com)
  • Neuroendocrine tumors (carcinoid and neuroendocrine carcinoma) presenting at extra-appendiceal sites in childhood and adolescence. (medscape.com)
  • Carcinoid tumors were initially identified in 1888 and were thought to clinically and histologically (cellular appearance under a microscope) resemble carcinoma cells (highly malignant cancer cells) but behave in a more benign fashion than true cancer cells. (medifocus.com)
  • A small rectal carcinoid - .4 cm - had been discovered during my first colonoscopy. (mayoclinic.org)
  • I was diagnosed with a .4c rectal carcinoid in 2000 and a recurrence in 2010. (mayoclinic.org)
  • Distal Rectal Carcinoid Tumor: A Case Report" by Richard Kalu MD, Hassan Hashmi MD et al. (lvhn.org)
  • The authors evaluated 5468 cases identified by the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) program of the National Cancer Institute (NCI) from 1973 to 1991 together with 2837 carcinoid cases previously registered by 2 earlier NCI programs. (nih.gov)
  • The Patricia Lynch Cancer Center (PLCC) at Holy Name is a national leader in the treatment and care of carcinoid tumors, including proficiency in the use of Gallium- 68 Scanning. (holyname.org)
  • CURE's carcinoid cancer page features the latest cancer news and updates on carcinoid cancer Through articles, videos, podcasts, and more, CURE brings readers the insights of experts, cancer survivors, patients, and advocates to ensure everyone is up to date in carcinoid cancer. (curetoday.com)
  • Carcinoid tumors share some properties with other cancer cells such as uncontrolled, overproduction of the cells that results in tumor formation and malignant potential. (medifocus.com)
  • Treatment for a carcinoid tumor depends on the tumor's location, whether cancer has spread to other areas of the body, the types of hormones the tumor secretes, your overall health and your own preferences. (brainandnervecenter.com)
  • A gastrointestinal carcinoid tumor is cancer that forms in the lining of the gastrointestinal tract. (myacare.com)
  • Dr. Ashwathy Susan Mathew, Consultant Radiation Oncologist, Apollo Proton Cancer Centre, Chennai, explains how carcinoid tumours are identified and treated. (onco.com)
  • This is the place where, in 2000, three doctors told me a carcinoid was not really cancer and I had nothing to worry about. (mayoclinic.org)
  • In the meantime, here is a link to an American Cancer Society website that discusses lung carcinoids, https://www.cancer.org/cancer/lung-carcinoid-tumor.html . (mayoclinic.org)
  • A drug that simultaneously strikes cancer cells' growth circuits and pipeline to the bloodstream produced encouraging results in a clinical trial involving patients with advanced neuroendocrine tumors, according to a study led by Dana-Farber Cancer Institute investigators. (dana-farber.org)
  • Although advances have been made in recent years, there remains a critical need for new and effective therapies for patients with advanced neuroendocrine tumors, particularly patients whose cancer has progressed on currently available options," said Chan. (dana-farber.org)
  • The PLCC has a multi-disciplinary team of experienced and skilled medical oncologists , surgical oncologists , radiologists, nurses and support staff to treat carcinoid tumors. (holyname.org)
  • If feasible, the treatment of choice for carcinoid tumors is surgical excision. (medscape.com)
  • The surgical technique may vary according to the type or location of the tumor. (medscape.com)
  • Complete surgical removal of all tumor tissues, when feasible, is the best treatment. (medscape.com)
  • Hindgut Carcinoid Tumors - These tumors originate in the large intestines, specifically in the transverse colon, descending colon, and rectum. (medifocus.com)
  • Tumors can be benign (not cancerous), or malignant (cancerous). (carcinoid.org)
  • In some of the older systems for classifying neuroendocrine tumors, pathologists would describe them as either "benign" (non-cancerous) or "malignant" (cancerous), based on the appearance of the tumor cells under a microscope. (mdanderson.org)
  • Syringomas are small benign tumors. (healthline.com)
  • These benign tumors also tend to be more common in women than men. (healthline.com)
  • Soft tissuefibrohistiocytic tumors - Benign fibrous histiocytoma (superficial). (healthline.com)
  • [ 4 ] but Oberndorfer called a group of small, benign-appearing tumors karzinoide tumoren (carcinoid) for the first time in 1907. (medscape.com)
  • Angioedema in a patient with neuroendocrine tumour. (harvard.edu)
  • But what exactly are these tumors, where are they typically found and are they cancerous? (mdanderson.org)
  • Are all neuroendocrine tumors cancerous? (mdanderson.org)
  • Carcinoid tumors are a type of neuroendocrine tumor that typically originates in the digestive tract. (mountsinai.org)
  • The hormones produced can vary depending on the place in the body where the tumor originates. (mdanderson.org)
  • The information in this article contains billing, coding or other guidelines that complement the Local Coverage Determination (LCD) for MolDX: Next Generation Sequencing for Solid Tumors L38045. (cms.gov)
  • Glandular duodenal carcinoid--a somatostatin rich tumour with neuroendocrine associations. (bmj.com)
  • The importance of these unusual features is discussed, and it is suggested that these glandular carcinoids are a specific subgroup of endocrine cell tumours which appear to have potentially important clinical and pathological associations. (bmj.com)
  • Some carcinoid tumors display predominantly glandular architecture and have been referred to as adenocarcinoids . (webpathology.com)
  • The diagnosis of a carcinoid tumor requires blood and urine tests as well as imaging studies which often include a CT scan. (rogelcancercenter.org)
  • Chemotherapy is typically not very effective in treating carcinoid tumors. (holyname.org)
  • Chemotherapy uses strong drugs to kill tumor cells. (brainandnervecenter.com)
  • Chemotherapy is sometimes recommended for treating advanced carcinoid tumors that can't be removed with surgery. (brainandnervecenter.com)
  • Targeted drug therapy is usually combined with chemotherapy for advanced carcinoid tumors. (brainandnervecenter.com)
  • What are the treatments for endocrine tumors, carcinoid type? (brainandnervecenter.com)
  • Targeted drug treatments focus on specific abnormalities present within tumor cells. (brainandnervecenter.com)
  • By blocking these abnormalities, targeted drug treatments can cause tumor cells to die. (brainandnervecenter.com)
  • Carcinoid tumors are often found during tests or treatments for other conditions. (myacare.com)
  • The first is local treatments , such as surgery , which focus on the tumor itself. (mdanderson.org)
  • As a result, the average age of people diagnosed with digestive or lung carcinoids is about 60. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Connect with others in our free, 15-week online support group for people diagnosed with a carcinoid or malignant neuroendocrine tumors who are currently receiving treatment. (cancercare.org)
  • The age at diagnosis varies somewhat among specific tumor locations but typically, most people diagnosed with a carcinoid tumor are in their 50s. (medifocus.com)
  • A GI carcinoid tumor may also make hormones and release them into the body. (myacare.com)
  • The hormones made by gastrointestinal carcinoid tumors are usually destroyed by liver enzymes in the blood. (myacare.com)
  • While the name "neuroendocrine" implies that these tumors involve both nerve cells and hormones, they are mainly thought to come from endocrine cells. (mdanderson.org)
  • however, tumors can originate from any cell of the amine precursor uptake and decarboxylation system and, therefore, produce several intestinal hormones. (medscape.com)