Substances that increase the risk of NEOPLASMS in humans or animals. Both genotoxic chemicals, which affect DNA directly, and nongenotoxic chemicals, which induce neoplasms by other mechanism, are included.
A class of compounds that contain a -NH2 and a -NO radical. Many members of this group have carcinogenic and mutagenic properties.
A hepatic carcinogen whose mechanism of activation involves N-hydroxylation to the aryl hydroxamic acid followed by enzymatic sulfonation to sulfoxyfluorenylacetamide. It is used to study the carcinogenicity and mutagenicity of aromatic amines.
A potent mutagen and carcinogen. It is a public health concern because of its possible effects on industrial workers, as an environmental pollutant, an as a component of tobacco smoke.
Chemical agents that increase the rate of genetic mutation by interfering with the function of nucleic acids. A clastogen is a specific mutagen that causes breaks in chromosomes.
A class of chemicals that contain an anthracene ring with a naphthalene ring attached to it.
The products of chemical reactions that result in the addition of extraneous chemical groups to DNA.
Tests to experimentally measure the tumor-producing/cancer cell-producing potency of an agent by administering the agent (e.g., benzanthracenes) and observing the quantity of tumors or the cell transformation developed over a given period of time. The carcinogenicity value is usually measured as milligrams of agent administered per tumor developed. Though this test differs from the DNA-repair and bacterial microsome MUTAGENICITY TESTS, researchers often attempt to correlate the finding of carcinogenicity values and mutagenicity values.
An alkylating agent that forms DNA ADDUCTS at the C-8 position in GUANINE, resulting in single strand breaks. It has demonstrated carcinogenic action.
7,12-Dimethylbenzanthracene. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon found in tobacco smoke that is a potent carcinogen.
Tests of chemical substances and physical agents for mutagenic potential. They include microbial, insect, mammalian cell, and whole animal tests.
A nitrosourea compound with alkylating, carcinogenic, and mutagenic properties.
The combination of two or more different factors in the production of cancer.
Biphenyl compounds substituted in any position by one or more amino groups. Permitted are any substituents except fused rings.
A potent mutagen and carcinogen. This compound and its metabolite 4-HYDROXYAMINOQUINOLINE-1-OXIDE bind to nucleic acids. It inactivates bacteria but not bacteriophage.
7,8,8a,9a-Tetrahydrobenzo(10,11)chryseno (3,4-b)oxirene-7,8-diol. A benzopyrene derivative with carcinogenic and mutagenic activity.
The chemical alteration of an exogenous substance by or in a biological system. The alteration may inactivate the compound or it may result in the production of an active metabolite of an inactive parent compound. The alterations may be divided into METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE I and METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE II.
Four fused benzyl rings with three linear and one angular, that can be viewed as a benzyl-phenanthrenes. Compare with NAPHTHACENES which are four linear rings.
A nitrosoguanidine derivative with potent mutagenic and carcinogenic properties.
Experimentally induced new abnormal growth of TISSUES in animals to provide models for studying human neoplasms.
Compounds consisting of two or more fused ring structures.
A nitrosamine derivative with alkylating, carcinogenic, and mutagenic properties. It causes serious liver damage and is a hepatocarcinogen in rodents.
A very potent liver carcinogen.
A reagent used mainly to induce experimental liver cancer. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, p. 89) published in 1985, this compound "may reasonably be anticipated to be a carcinogen." (Merck, 11th ed)
A family of diphenylenemethane derivatives.
Experimentally induced tumors of the LIVER.
A potent hepatotoxic and hepatocarcinogenic mycotoxin produced by the Aspergillus flavus group of fungi. It is also mutagenic, teratogenic, and causes immunosuppression in animals. It is found as a contaminant in peanuts, cottonseed meal, corn, and other grains. The mycotoxin requires epoxidation to aflatoxin B1 2,3-oxide for activation. Microsomal monooxygenases biotransform the toxin to the less toxic metabolites aflatoxin M1 and Q1.
A N-hydroxylated derivative of 2-ACETYLAMINOFLUORENE that has demonstrated carcinogenic action.
1,2-Benzphenanthrenes. POLYCYCLIC COMPOUNDS obtained from coal tar.
Quinolines substituted in any position by one or more nitro groups.
A nitrosamine derivative with alkylating, carcinogenic, and mutagenic properties.
A carcinogen that is often used in experimental cancer studies.
Hydrazines substituted with two methyl groups in any position.
Cell changes manifested by escape from control mechanisms, increased growth potential, alterations in the cell surface, karyotypic abnormalities, morphological and biochemical deviations from the norm, and other attributes conferring the ability to invade, metastasize, and kill.
A transferase that catalyzes the addition of aliphatic, aromatic, or heterocyclic FREE RADICALS as well as EPOXIDES and arene oxides to GLUTATHIONE. Addition takes place at the SULFUR. It also catalyzes the reduction of polyol nitrate by glutathione to polyol and nitrite.
Agents that reduce the frequency or rate of spontaneous or induced tumors independently of the mechanism involved.
Pathological processes that tend eventually to become malignant. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
Benzopyrenes saturated in any two adjacent positions and substituted with two hydroxyl groups in any position. The majority of these compounds have carcinogenic or mutagenic activity.
Furano-furano-benzopyrans that are produced by ASPERGILLUS from STERIGMATOCYSTIN. They are structurally related to COUMARINS and easily oxidized to an epoxide form to become ALKYLATING AGENTS. Members of the group include AFLATOXIN B1; aflatoxin B2, aflatoxin G1, aflatoxin G2; AFLATOXIN M1; and aflatoxin M2.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
Antineoplastic agent that is also used as a veterinary anesthetic. It has also been used as an intermediate in organic synthesis. Urethane is suspected to be a carcinogen.
A major group of unsaturated cyclic hydrocarbons containing two or more rings. The vast number of compounds of this important group, derived chiefly from petroleum and coal tar, are rather highly reactive and chemically versatile. The name is due to the strong and not unpleasant odor characteristic of most substances of this nature. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed, p96)
Tumors or cancer of the LUNG.
A DNA alkylating agent that has been shown to be a potent carcinogen and is widely used to induce colon tumors in experimental animals.
A potent carcinogen and neurotoxic compound. It is particularly effective in inducing colon carcinomas.
An enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of acetyl groups from ACETYL-COA to arylamines. It can also catalyze acetyl transfer between arylamines without COENZYME A and has a wide specificity for aromatic amines, including SEROTONIN. However, arylamine N-acetyltransferase should not be confused with the enzyme ARYLALKYLAMINE N-ACETYLTRANSFERASE which is also referred to as SEROTONIN ACETYLTRANSFERASE.
Very toxic industrial chemicals. They are absorbed through the skin, causing lethal blood, bladder, liver, and kidney damage and are potent, broad-spectrum carcinogens in most species.
A liver microsomal cytochrome P-450 monooxygenase capable of biotransforming xenobiotics such as polycyclic hydrocarbons and halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons into carcinogenic or mutagenic compounds. They have been found in mammals and fish. This enzyme, encoded by CYP1A1 gene, can be measured by using ethoxyresorufin as a substrate for the ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase activity.
Injuries to DNA that introduce deviations from its normal, intact structure and which may, if left unrepaired, result in a MUTATION or a block of DNA REPLICATION. These deviations may be caused by physical or chemical agents and occur by natural or unnatural, introduced circumstances. They include the introduction of illegitimate bases during replication or by deamination or other modification of bases; the loss of a base from the DNA backbone leaving an abasic site; single-strand breaks; double strand breaks; and intrastrand (PYRIMIDINE DIMERS) or interstrand crosslinking. Damage can often be repaired (DNA REPAIR). If the damage is extensive, it can induce APOPTOSIS.
Reduction of pharmacologic activity or toxicity of a drug or other foreign substance by a living system, usually by enzymatic action. It includes those metabolic transformations that make the substance more soluble for faster renal excretion.
New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.
A member of the BENZODIOXOLES that is a constituent of several VOLATILE OILS, notably SASSAFRAS oil. It is a precursor in the synthesis of the insecticide PIPERONYL BUTOXIDE and the drug N-methyl-3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDMA).
An effective soil fumigant, insecticide, and nematocide. In humans, it causes severe burning of skin and irritation of the eyes and respiratory tract. Prolonged inhalation may cause liver necrosis. It is also used in gasoline. Members of this group have caused liver and lung cancers in rodents. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985), 1,2-dibromoethane may reasonably be anticipated to be a carcinogen.
Experimentally induced mammary neoplasms in animals to provide a model for studying human BREAST NEOPLASMS.
Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.
The aglycone of CYCASIN. It acts as a potent carcinogen and neurotoxin and inhibits hepatic DNA, RNA, and protein synthesis.
Hydrazines substituted by one or more methyl groups in any position.
A cytochrome P450 enzyme subtype that has specificity for relatively planar heteroaromatic small molecules, such as CAFFEINE and ACETAMINOPHEN.
A superfamily of hundreds of closely related HEMEPROTEINS found throughout the phylogenetic spectrum, from animals, plants, fungi, to bacteria. They include numerous complex monooxygenases (MIXED FUNCTION OXYGENASES). In animals, these P-450 enzymes serve two major functions: (1) biosynthesis of steroids, fatty acids, and bile acids; (2) metabolism of endogenous and a wide variety of exogenous substrates, such as toxins and drugs (BIOTRANSFORMATION). They are classified, according to their sequence similarities rather than functions, into CYP gene families (>40% homology) and subfamilies (>59% homology). For example, enzymes from the CYP1, CYP2, and CYP3 gene families are responsible for most drug metabolism.
A circumscribed benign epithelial tumor projecting from the surrounding surface; more precisely, a benign epithelial neoplasm consisting of villous or arborescent outgrowths of fibrovascular stroma covered by neoplastic cells. (Stedman, 25th ed)
A highly poisonous compound used widely in the manufacture of plastics, adhesives and synthetic rubber.
A large group of cytochrome P-450 (heme-thiolate) monooxygenases that complex with NAD(P)H-FLAVIN OXIDOREDUCTASE in numerous mixed-function oxidations of aromatic compounds. They catalyze hydroxylation of a broad spectrum of substrates and are important in the metabolism of steroids, drugs, and toxins such as PHENOBARBITAL, carcinogens, and insecticides.
The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents that occurs as a result of one's occupation.
The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals.
A genus of the family Muridae having three species. The present domesticated strains were developed from individuals brought from Syria. They are widely used in biomedical research.
Organic compounds with the general formula R-NCS.
A group of compounds derived from ammonia by substituting organic radicals for the hydrogens. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Highly reactive chemicals that introduce alkyl radicals into biologically active molecules and thereby prevent their proper functioning. Many are used as antineoplastic agents, but most are very toxic, with carcinogenic, mutagenic, teratogenic, and immunosuppressant actions. They have also been used as components in poison gases.
A gas that has been used as an aerosol propellant and is the starting material for polyvinyl resins. Toxicity studies have shown various adverse effects, particularly the occurrence of liver neoplasms.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
A trace element that plays a role in glucose metabolism. It has the atomic symbol Cr, atomic number 24, and atomic weight 52. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP85-002,1985), chromium and some of its compounds have been listed as known carcinogens.
Derivatives of GLUCURONIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that include the 6-carboxy glucose structure.
Tumors or cancer of the URINARY BLADDER.
A nucleoside consisting of the base guanine and the sugar deoxyribose.
Salts of chromic acid containing the CrO(2-)4 radical.
Disinfectant used in vapor form to sterilize vaccines, grafts, etc. The vapor is very irritating and the liquid form is carcinogenic.
A plant genus of the family SOLANACEAE. Members contain NICOTINE and other biologically active chemicals; its dried leaves are used for SMOKING.
Family of retrovirus-associated DNA sequences (ras) originally isolated from Harvey (H-ras, Ha-ras, rasH) and Kirsten (K-ras, Ki-ras, rasK) murine sarcoma viruses. Ras genes are widely conserved among animal species and sequences corresponding to both H-ras and K-ras genes have been detected in human, avian, murine, and non-vertebrate genomes. The closely related N-ras gene has been detected in human neuroblastoma and sarcoma cell lines. All genes of the family have a similar exon-intron structure and each encodes a p21 protein.
A naphthalene derivative with carcinogenic action.
The art or practice of preparing food. It includes the preparation of special foods for diets in various diseases.
Tumors or cancer of the COLON.
The reconstruction of a continuous two-stranded DNA molecule without mismatch from a molecule which contained damaged regions. The major repair mechanisms are excision repair, in which defective regions in one strand are excised and resynthesized using the complementary base pairing information in the intact strand; photoreactivation repair, in which the lethal and mutagenic effects of ultraviolet light are eliminated; and post-replication repair, in which the primary lesions are not repaired, but the gaps in one daughter duplex are filled in by incorporation of portions of the other (undamaged) daughter duplex. Excision repair and post-replication repair are sometimes referred to as "dark repair" because they do not require light.
Tumors or cancer of the SKIN.
Toxic, volatile, flammable liquid hydrocarbon byproduct of coal distillation. It is used as an industrial solvent in paints, varnishes, lacquer thinners, gasoline, etc. Benzene causes central nervous system damage acutely and bone marrow damage chronically and is carcinogenic. It was formerly used as parasiticide.
An ethanol-inducible cytochrome P450 enzyme that metabolizes several precarcinogens, drugs, and solvents to reactive metabolites. Substrates include ETHANOL; INHALATION ANESTHETICS; BENZENE; ACETAMINOPHEN and other low molecular weight compounds. CYP2E1 has been used as an enzyme marker in the study of alcohol abuse.
Mixture of 2- and 3-tert-butyl-4-methoxyphenols that is used as an antioxidant in foods, cosmetics, and pharmaceuticals.
The covalent bonding of an alkyl group to an organic compound. It can occur by a simple addition reaction or by substitution of another functional group.
Used in the form of its salts as a dye and as an intermediate in manufacture of Acid Yellow, diazo dyes, and indulines.
A barbituric acid derivative that acts as a nonselective central nervous system depressant. It potentiates GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID action on GABA-A RECEPTORS, and modulates chloride currents through receptor channels. It also inhibits glutamate induced depolarizations.
A colorless and flammable gas at room temperature and pressure. Ethylene oxide is a bactericidal, fungicidal, and sporicidal disinfectant. It is effective against most micro-organisms, including viruses. It is used as a fumigant for foodstuffs and textiles and as an agent for the gaseous sterilization of heat-labile pharmaceutical and surgical materials. (From Reynolds, Martindale The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p794)
Inorganic salts or organic esters of arsenious acid.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
Organic compounds that include a cyclic ether with three ring atoms in their structure. They are commonly used as precursors for POLYMERS such as EPOXY RESINS.
The N-glucuronide conjugate of cotinine is a major urinary metabolite of NICOTINE. It thus serves as a biomarker of exposure to tobacco SMOKING. It has CNS stimulating properties.
A shiny gray element with atomic symbol As, atomic number 33, and atomic weight 75. It occurs throughout the universe, mostly in the form of metallic arsenides. Most forms are toxic. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985), arsenic and certain arsenic compounds have been listed as known carcinogens. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
Compounds containing 1,3-diazole, a five membered aromatic ring containing two nitrogen atoms separated by one of the carbons. Chemically reduced ones include IMIDAZOLINES and IMIDAZOLIDINES. Distinguish from 1,2-diazole (PYRAZOLES).
A nitrosourea compound with alkylating, carcinogenic, and mutagenic properties.
Closed vesicles of fragmented endoplasmic reticulum created when liver cells or tissue are disrupted by homogenization. They may be smooth or rough.
A colorless, odorless, highly water soluble vinyl monomer formed from the hydration of acrylonitrile. It is primarily used in research laboratories for electrophoresis, chromatography, and electron microscopy and in the sewage and wastewater treatment industries.
An acid-base indicator which is colorless in acid solution, but turns pink to red as the solution becomes alkaline. It is used medicinally as a cathartic.
Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.
Tumor suppressor genes located on the short arm of human chromosome 17 and coding for the phosphoprotein p53.
A method of measuring the effects of a biologically active substance using an intermediate in vivo or in vitro tissue or cell model under controlled conditions. It includes virulence studies in animal fetuses in utero, mouse convulsion bioassay of insulin, quantitation of tumor-initiator systems in mouse skin, calculation of potentiating effects of a hormonal factor in an isolated strip of contracting stomach muscle, etc.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
Tumors or cancer of the LIVER.
A derivative of acetic acid, N(CH2COOH)3. It is a complexing (sequestering) agent that forms stable complexes with Zn2+. (From Miall's Dictionary of Chemistry, 5th ed.)
A flavoprotein that reversibly catalyzes the oxidation of NADH or NADPH by various quinones and oxidation-reduction dyes. The enzyme is inhibited by dicoumarol, capsaicin, and caffeine.
A potent nitrofuran derivative tumor initiator. It causes bladder tumors in all animals studied and is mutagenic to many bacteria.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Carcinogenic nitrosamine that may be formed from preservatives in meats during their preparation or in the liver during metabolism.
Diseases caused by factors involved in one's employment.
Induction and quantitative measurement of chromosomal damage leading to the formation of micronuclei (MICRONUCLEI, CHROMOSOME-DEFECTIVE) in cells which have been exposed to genotoxic agents or IONIZING RADIATION.
An increase in the rate of synthesis of an enzyme due to the presence of an inducer which acts to derepress the gene responsible for enzyme synthesis.
Nitro-phenanthrenes occurring in ARISTOLOCHIACEAE and other plants. They derive from stephanine (APORPHINES) by oxidative ring cleavage. The nitro group is a reactive alkylator (ALKYLATING AGENTS) that binds to biological macromolecules. Ingestion by humans is associated with nephropathy (NEPHRITIS). There is no relationship to the similar named aristolochene (SESQUITERPENES).
Nicotine is highly toxic alkaloid. It is the prototypical agonist at nicotinic cholinergic receptors where it dramatically stimulates neurons and ultimately blocks synaptic transmission. Nicotine is also important medically because of its presence in tobacco smoke.
The regular and simultaneous occurrence in a single interbreeding population of two or more discontinuous genotypes. The concept includes differences in genotypes ranging in size from a single nucleotide site (POLYMORPHISM, SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE) to large nucleotide sequences visible at a chromosomal level.
The presence in food of harmful, unpalatable, or otherwise objectionable foreign substances, e.g. chemicals, microorganisms or diluents, before, during, or after processing or storage.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
A group of compounds that are derivatives of methoxybenzene and contain the general formula R-C7H7O.
A di-tert-butyl PHENOL with antioxidant properties.
A benign epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.
Agents that reduce the frequency or rate of spontaneous or induced mutations independently of the mechanism involved.
Substances or energies, for example heat or light, which when introduced into the air, water, or land threaten life or health of individuals or ECOSYSTEMS.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
An increase in the number of cells in a tissue or organ without tumor formation. It differs from HYPERTROPHY, which is an increase in bulk without an increase in the number of cells.
A 4-hydroxylated metabolite of AFLATOXIN B1, one of the MYCOTOXINS from ASPERGILLUS tainted food. It is associated with LIVER damage and cancer resulting from its P450 activation to the epoxide which alkylates DNA. Toxicity depends on the balance of liver enzymes that activate it (CYTOCHROME P-450) and others that detoxify it (GLUTATHIONE S TRANSFERASE) (Pharmac Ther 50.443 1991). Primates & rat are sensitive while mouse and hamster are tolerant (Canc Res 29.236 1969).
A group of condensed ring hydrocarbons.
Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.
Contamination of the air by tobacco smoke.
Aromatic diamine used in the plastics industry as curing agent for epoxy resins and urethane rubbers. It causes bladder, liver, lung, and other neoplasms.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
Plants or plant parts which are harmful to man or other animals.
Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.
A family of enzymes accepting a wide range of substrates, including phenols, alcohols, amines, and fatty acids. They function as drug-metabolizing enzymes that catalyze the conjugation of UDPglucuronic acid to a variety of endogenous and exogenous compounds. EC
That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum immediately below the visible range and extending into the x-ray frequencies. The longer wavelengths (near-UV or biotic or vital rays) are necessary for the endogenous synthesis of vitamin D and are also called antirachitic rays; the shorter, ionizing wavelengths (far-UV or abiotic or extravital rays) are viricidal, bactericidal, mutagenic, and carcinogenic and are used as disinfectants.
Tumors, cancer or other neoplasms produced by exposure to ionizing or non-ionizing radiation.
Negative ions or salts derived from bromic acid, HBrO3.
A malignant epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.
Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.
Asbestos. Fibrous incombustible mineral composed of magnesium and calcium silicates with or without other elements. It is relatively inert chemically and used in thermal insulation and fireproofing. Inhalation of dust causes asbestosis and later lung and gastrointestinal neoplasms.
Inorganic compounds that contain sodium as an integral part of the molecule.
Preclinical testing of drugs in experimental animals or in vitro for their biological and toxic effects and potential clinical applications.
Enzymes that catalyze reversibly the formation of an epoxide or arene oxide from a glycol or aromatic diol, respectively.
Products of the hydrolysis of chlorophylls in which the phytic acid side chain has been removed and the carboxylic acids saponified.
A carcinoma derived from stratified SQUAMOUS EPITHELIAL CELLS. It may also occur in sites where glandular or columnar epithelium is normally present. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.
A chemical by-product that results from burning or incinerating chlorinated industrial chemicals and other hydrocarbons. This compound is considered an environmental toxin, and may pose reproductive, as well as, other health risks for animals and humans.
A latent susceptibility to disease at the genetic level, which may be activated under certain conditions.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
An enzyme, sometimes called GGT, with a key role in the synthesis and degradation of GLUTATHIONE; (GSH, a tripeptide that protects cells from many toxins). It catalyzes the transfer of the gamma-glutamyl moiety to an acceptor amino acid.
Organic derivatives of thiocyanic acid which contain the general formula R-SCN.
Air pollutants found in the work area. They are usually produced by the specific nature of the occupation.
Procedures, such as TISSUE CULTURE TECHNIQUES; mathematical models; etc., when used or advocated for use in place of the use of animals in research or diagnostic laboratories.
Isocoumarins found in ASPERGILLUS OCHRACEUS and other FUNGI. Ochratoxin contaminated FOOD has been responsible for cases of FOODBORNE DISEASES.
A musculomembranous sac along the URINARY TRACT. URINE flows from the KIDNEYS into the bladder via the ureters (URETER), and is held there until URINATION.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A constitution or condition of the body which makes the tissues react in special ways to certain extrinsic stimuli and thus tends to make the individual more than usually susceptible to certain diseases.
Tumors or cancer of the INTESTINES.
Tumors or cancer of the NOSE.
Artifactual vesicles formed from the endoplasmic reticulum when cells are disrupted. They are isolated by differential centrifugation and are composed of three structural features: rough vesicles, smooth vesicles, and ribosomes. Numerous enzyme activities are associated with the microsomal fraction. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990; from Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents by inhaling them.
The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)
An exchange of segments between the sister chromatids of a chromosome, either between the sister chromatids of a meiotic tetrad or between the sister chromatids of a duplicated somatic chromosome. Its frequency is increased by ultraviolet and ionizing radiation and other mutagenic agents and is particularly high in BLOOM SYNDROME.
MAMMARY GLANDS in the non-human MAMMALS.
Exchange of substances between the maternal blood and the fetal blood at the PLACENTA via PLACENTAL CIRCULATION. The placental barrier excludes microbial or viral transmission.
The science concerned with the detection, chemical composition, and biological action of toxic substances or poisons and the treatment and prevention of toxic manifestations.
The use of chemical compounds to prevent the development of a specific disease.
An arsenical that has been used as a dermatologic agent and as an herbicide.
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
Defective nuclei produced during the TELOPHASE of MITOSIS or MEIOSIS by lagging CHROMOSOMES or chromosome fragments derived from spontaneous or experimentally induced chromosomal structural changes.
Hydrazine substituted by one methyl group.
A genotoxicological technique for measuring DNA damage in an individual cell using single-cell gel electrophoresis. Cell DNA fragments assume a "comet with tail" formation on electrophoresis and are detected with an image analysis system. Alkaline assay conditions facilitate sensitive detection of single-strand damage.
Viscous materials composed of complex, high-molecular-weight compounds derived from the distillation of petroleum or the destructive distillation of wood or coal. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Ring compounds having atoms other than carbon in their nuclei. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Tumors or cancer of the MOUTH.
The maximum exposure to a biologically active physical or chemical agent that is allowed during an 8-hour period (a workday) in a population of workers, or during a 24-hour period in the general population, which does not appear to cause appreciable harm, whether immediate or delayed for any period, in the target population. (From Lewis Dictionary of Toxicology, 1st ed)
Chemical compounds which pollute the water of rivers, streams, lakes, the sea, reservoirs, or other bodies of water.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
A group of pyrido-indole compounds. Included are any points of fusion of pyridine with the five-membered ring of indole and any derivatives of these compounds. These are similar to CARBAZOLES which are benzo-indoles.
A serotype of Salmonella enterica that is a frequent agent of Salmonella gastroenteritis in humans. It also causes PARATYPHOID FEVER.
A benzodiazepine used in the treatment of anxiety, alcohol withdrawal, and insomnia.
2-Amino-4-(ethylthio)butyric acid. An antimetabolite and methionine antagonist that interferes with amino acid incorporation into proteins and with cellular ATP utilization. It also produces liver neoplasms.
Elements, compounds, mixtures, or solutions that are considered severely harmful to human health and the environment. They include substances that are toxic, corrosive, flammable, or explosive.

Environmental factors as regulators and effectors of multistep carcinogenesis. (1/593)

This review highlights current knowledge of environmental factors in carcinogenesis and their cellular targets. The hypothesis that environmental factors influence carcinogenesis is widely supported by both epidemiological and experimental studies. The fact that only a small fraction of cancers can be attributed to germline mutations in cancer-related genes further buttresses the importance of environmental factors in carcinogenesis. Furthermore, penetrance of germline mutations may be modified by either environmental or other genetic factors. Examples of environmental factors that have been associated with increased cancer risk in the human population include chemical and physical mutagens (e.g. cigarette smoke, heterocyclic amines, asbestos and UV irradiation), infection by certain viral or bacterial pathogens, and dietary non-genotoxic constituents (e.g. macro- and micronutrients). Among molecular targets of environmental influences on carcinogenesis are somatic mutation (genetic change) and aberrant DNA methylation (epigenetic change) at the genomic level and post-translational modifications at the protein level. At both levels, changes elicited affect either the stability or the activity of key regulatory proteins, including oncoproteins and tumor suppressor proteins. Together, via multiple genetic and epigenetic lesions, environmental factors modulate important changes in the pathway of cellular carcinogenesis.  (+info)

Heterocyclic aromatic amines induce DNA strand breaks and cell transformation. (2/593)

Heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAAs), formed during the cooking of foods, are known to induce tumours in rodent bioassays and may thus contribute to human cancer risk. We tested six HAAs in a morphological transformation assay and in three in vitro genotoxicity assays. The morphological transforming abilities of HAAs were tested, in the presence of rat-liver S9, in the C3H/M2 fibroblast cell line. Concentration levels of 50 microM 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (8-MeIQx), 100 microM 2-amino-3,4,8-trimethylimidazo-[4,5-f]quinoxaline (4,8-DiMeIQx), 50 microM 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (IQ), 100 microM 2-amino-9H-pyrido[2,3-b]indole (AalphaC), 100 microM 2-amino-3-methyl-9H-pyrido[2,3-b]indole (MeAalphaC) and 15 microM 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) induced maximum transformation potencies of 5.5, 6.6, 6.3, 5.2, 7.3 and 9.2 transformed foci per 10(4) surviving cells, respectively. Bacterial mutagenic activity was determined in the presence of rat-liver S9 using the Salmonella typhimurium reverse-mutation assay employing strain YG1019. Mutagenic potencies of 3800 revertants (revs)/ng with 8-MeIQx, 2900 revs/ng with 4,8-DiMeIQx, 3480 revs/ng with IQ, 1.6 revs/ng with AalphaC, 2.9 revs/ng with MeAalphaC and 5 revs/ng with PhIP were observed. Clastogenic activity in vitro was analysed by the micronucleus assay in metabolically competent MCL-5 cells. Dose-dependent induction of micronuclei was observed for all HAAs tested with 1-5.4% of cells containing micronuclei at 10 ng/ml. Micronucleus induction was in the order 4,8-DiMeIQx > 8-MeIQx > IQ > MeAalphaC > PhIP > AalphaC. DNA strand-breaking activity in MCL-5 cells was measured by the alkaline single cell-gel (comet) assay. The lowest effect doses for significant increases (P < or = 0.0007, Mann-Whitney test) in comet tail length (microm) were 45.5 microg/ml (200 microM) for PhIP, 90.9 microg/ml (410-510 microM) for 4,8-DiMeIQx, IQ, MeAalphaC and AalphaC, and 454.5 microg/ml (2130 microM) for 8-MeIQx. It is not yet clear which of these assays most accurately reflects the genotoxic potential to humans of compounds of this class of environmental carcinogens.  (+info)

Decreased expression of glutathione S-transferase M1 in HPV16-transfected human cervical keratinocytes in culture. (3/593)

Glutathione S-transferase (GST) M1 is a member of the GST mu family of cytosolic enzymes that have been hypothesized to catalyze the conjugation of glutathione to a large number of hydrophobic substances, including carcinogens such as polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons present in tobacco smoke, leading to their excretion. Epidemiologic and experimental evidence suggests that the risk of cervical cancer is related to both human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and cigarette smoking. We compared the enzymatic activities and mRNA levels of GSTs in GSTM1-positive human cervical keratinocytes (HCKs) that had been transfected with HPV16 with those in the parental cells. The GSTM1 activity toward the substrate trans-stilbene oxide was 5- to 7-fold lower than in the parental cells. The relative mRNA level in HCK transfected with HPV16 E6/E7, as quantified by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) with normalization against endogenous glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) expression, was 6% that of the parental cells. It was 16 and 82%, respectively, in cells that were transfected with HPV16 E6 alone or HPV16 E7 alone. When quantified by competitive RT-PCR using an exogenous nuclease-resistant synthetic cyclophilin RNA transcript as control, the mRNA level in HCK transfected with HPV16 E6 was approximately 10-fold lower that that in the parental cells. It was approximately 5- to 7-fold lower in the HPV16 E7 or HPV16 E6/E7 cells. Our results suggest that viral infections, through the modulation of cellular xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes, may play a role in the ability of cells to handle environmental carcinogens.  (+info)

Histopathology and gene expression changes in rat liver during feeding of fumonisin B1, a carcinogenic mycotoxin produced by Fusarium moniliforme. (4/593)

Fumonisin B1 (FB1) is a carcinogenic mycotoxin produced by the fungus Fusarium moniliforme in corn. Feeding of FB1 to rats causes acute liver injury, chronic liver injury progressing to cirrhosis, and sometimes terminates in hepatocellular carcinoma or cholangiocarcinoma. This study describes the histolopathology and changes in gene expression in the rat liver during short-term feeding of FB1. Male Fischer rats were fed either FB1 250 mg/kg or control diet, and were killed weekly for 5 weeks. FB1 caused a predominantly zone 3 'toxic' liver injury, with hepatocyte death due to necrosis and apoptosis. Hepatocyte injury and death were mirrored by hepatic stellate cell proliferation and marked fibrosis, with progressive disturbance of architecture and formation of regenerative nodules. Despite ongoing hepatocyte mitotic activity, oval cell proliferation was noted from week 2, glutathione S-transferase pi-positive hepatic foci and nodules developed and, at later time points, oval cells were noted inside some of the 'atypical' nodules. Northern blot (mRNA) analysis of liver specimens from weeks 3 to 5 showed a progressive increase in gene expression for alpha-fetoprotein, hepatocyte growth factor, transforming growth factor alpha (TGF-alpha) and especially TGF-beta1 and c-myc. Immunostaining with LC(1-30) antibody demonstrated a progressive increase in expression of mature TGF-beta1 protein by hepatocytes over the 5 week feeding period. The overexpression of TGF-beta1 may be causally related to the prominent apoptosis and fibrosis seen with FB1-induced liver injury. Increased expression of c-myc may be involved in the cancer promoting effects of FB1.  (+info)

Differential protection against benzo[a]pyrene-7,8-dihydrodiol-9,10-epoxide-induced DNA damage in HepG2 cells stably transfected with allelic variants of pi class human glutathione S-transferase. (5/593)

The pi class glutathione S-transferase (GSTP1-1), which is polymorphic in human populations, is believed to play an important role in detoxification of the ultimate carcinogen of widespread environmental pollutant benzo[a]pyrene [(+)-anti-benzo[a]pyrene-7,8-dihydrodiol-9,10-epoxide [(+)-anti-BPDE]]. The allelic variants of human GSTP1-1 (hGSTP1-1) differ in their structures by the amino acids in positions 104 (isoleucine or valine) and/or 113 (valine or alanine). Here, we have determined the protective effect of overexpression of allelic variants of hGSTP1-1, through stable transfection in HepG2 cells, against (+)-anti-BPDE-induced DNA modification. Clonal transfectants of HepG2 cells corresponding to the three allelic variants of hGSTP1-1 [(I104,A113), (V104,A113), and (V104,V113), denoted hGSTP1(IA), hGSTP1(VA), and hGSTP1(VV), respectively] with similar levels of hGSTP1 protein were identified and characterized for their GST activity and (+)-anti-BPDE-induced DNA modification. The glutathione S-transferase activity toward (+)-anti-BPDE was significantly higher (approximately 3.0-3.6-fold) in cells transfected with hGSTP1(VA) [HepG2(VA)] and hGSTP1(VV) [HepG2(VV)] compared with hGSTP1(IA) transfectant [HepG2(IA)]. The formation of (+)-anti-BPDE-DNA adducts was significantly reduced in HepG2(VA) and HepG2(VV) cells compared with cells transfected with insert-free vector (HepG2-vect). Maximum protection against (+)-anti-BPDE-induced DNA damage was afforded by the hGSTP1(VV) isoform. The results of this study indicate that the allelic variants of hGSTP1-1 significantly differ in their ability to provide protection against (+)-anti-BPDE-induced DNA damage. Thus, hGSTP1-1 polymorphism may be an important factor in differential susceptibility of individuals to tumorigenesis induced by benzo[a]pyrene.  (+info)

Metabolic proficiency and benzo[a]pyrene DNA adduct formation in APCMin mouse adenomas and uninvolved mucosa. (6/593)

Tumour formation may involve interactions between genetic factors and environmental carcinogens. Adenoma formation in APCMin/+ mice is associated homozygous adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) gene mutation, but the effects on carcinogen susceptibility are unknown. This study tests the hypothesis that APCMin/+ adenoma formation is accompanied by changes in metabolic proficiency and carcinogen susceptibility. Cytochrome P450 (CYP)1A1/1A2, glutathione S-transferase (GST)alpha, mu and pi classes and DNA adduct formation were assayed in adenomas and uninvolved mucosa from APCMin/+ mice, before and after benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) treatment. In untreated adenomas and mucosa, CYP1A1/1A2 and B[a]P-DNA adducts were undetected but GSTalpha, mu and pi class enzymes were constitutively expressed. In adenomas, B[a]P only induced CYP1A1/1A2 to low level while GSTalpha and pi class enzymes were unaffected. A GST mu band which was absent from mucosa, was induced in adenomas. In mucosa, B[a]P induced CYP1A1/1A2 and GSTalpha and pi, to high levels. B[a]P-DNA adduct levels were 56 +/- 15/10(8) nucleotides (median +/- SE) in adenomas versus 89 +/- 19/10(8) nucleotides in mucosa (P < 0.0001). APCMin adenomas show reduced bioactivation capacity and sustain less DNA damage from B[a]P exposure, than APCMin uninvolved mucosa. These properties could influence mutagenesis and subsequent neoplastic transformation of adenomas.  (+info)

Cytosine methylation in a CpG sequence leads to enhanced reactivity with Benzo[a]pyrene diol epoxide that correlates with a conformational change. (7/593)

Benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) is a widespread environmental carcinogen that must be activated by cellular metabolism to a diol epoxide form (BPDE) before it reacts with DNA. It has recently been shown that BPDE preferentially modifies the guanine in methylated 5'-CpG-3' sequences in the human p53 gene, providing one explanation for why these sites are mutational hot spots. Using purified duplex oligonucleotides containing identical methylated and unmethylated CpG sequences, we show here that BPDE preferentially modified the guanine in hemimethylated or fully methylated CpG sequences, producing between 3- and 8-fold more modification at this site. Analysis of this reaction using shorter duplex oligonucleotides indicated that it was the level of the (+)-trans isomer that was specifically increased. To determine if there were conformational differences between the methylated and unmethylated B[a]P-modified DNA sequences that may be responsible for this enhanced reactivity, a native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis was carried out using DNA containing isomerically pure B[a]P-DNA adducts. These experiments showed that each adduct resulted in an altered gel mobility in duplex DNA but that only the presence of a (+)-trans isomer and a methylated C 5' to the adduct resulted in a significant gel mobility shift compared with the unmethylated case.  (+info)

Mutagenic activation of environmental carcinogens by microsomes of gastric mucosa with intestinal metaplasia. (8/593)

Coexpression of cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (CYPs) and reductase was found in human gastric mucosa with intestinal metaplasia. Immunohistochemistry showed reactivity to P450 reductase in metaplastic epithelial cells and in pyloric gland cells in glands showing intestinal metaplasia. These cells exhibit NADPH-diaphorase activity. Reverse transcription-PCR analysis and Western blotting showed that CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 were expressed in specimens with intestinal metaplasia. Tissue distribution of CYP1A1 coincided with that of P450 reductase. However, immunoreactivity to CYP1A2 protein was localized only in the pyloric gland cells near the intestinal metaplastic gland. Salmonella typhimurium mutagen assay definitively revealed that microsomes prepared from gastric mucosa with intestinal metaplasia, in particular in the pyloric gland, functionally activated benzo(a)pyrene and 2-amino-3-methylimidazo [4,5-f]quinoline. These results indicate that carcinogen activation by CYP enzymes expressed in the gastric mucosa may contribute to carcinogenesis of the stomach.  (+info)

This proposal is to renew Environmental Carcinogenesis and Mutagenesis (T32 ES-09250-20). It is a fairly large training program due to an NIEHS-directed merger...
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Wild rose up the IARC ranks, becoming head of its Unit of Environmental Carcinogenesis when he was just 34. His only career foray out of Lyon, other than a years fellowship at the Netherlands Cancer Institute in the mid-1980s, came two years later, when he was offered the opportunity to become the first Chair of Molecular Epidemiology at the University of Leeds, in the UK. He stayed there between 1996 and 2008 - setting up the Leeds Institute of Genetics, Health and Therapeutics, and seeing his three children through their schooling. The academic setting was another world he says, but when the IARC directors job came up, he took stock. I suddenly realised my computer wallpaper was Lyon. The pictures on my wall were Lyon. It was clear where he wanted to be, and his wife, a neuroscientist, gave up a job in NHS clinical trials to come and share the new challenge with him.. Today, he highlights two priorities for IARC. The first is to improve cancer registries. People dont get very excited ...
Dr. Ornella Selmin Ph.D., is a Research Associate Professor of Nutritional Sciences, Associate of the Arizona Center for Toxicology. She also holds joint appointments as Member of the Center for Toxicology, The Southwest Environmental Health Sciences Center (SWEHSC), and The Sarver Heart Center at the University of Arizona. She received her B.S. and Ph.D. from the University of Padua, Italy, and has developed a successful research program that has been continuously funded by grants from the National Institute of Health, the US Department of Defense, and the Arizona Biomedical Research Commission. Dr. Selmins research program focuses on mechanisms of environmental carcinogenesis and toxicity; specifically including mechanisms of regulation of expression of proinflammatory and tumor suppressor genes by environmental xenobiotics, mechanisms of epigenetic regulation in breast and colon cancer, and role of diet-nuclear receptor interactions in differentiation and development. Dr. Selmin has served ...
An extensive literature survey on correlation of biomarkers resulted in the following preliminary conclusions: • No significant correlation between individual pairs of DNA adducts was found in a number of the 32P-postlabelling and immunoassay studies, indicating limited overlapping of the substrate specificity of the different DNA adduct methods. • Attempts to show correlations between a group of related DNA adduct structures and a chemically specific single DNA adduct structure by using the same type of methodology gave controversial results. These suggest the co-existence of both closely linked and independent metabolic activation pathways for complex mixtures of xenobiotics, and may also reflect differences in the kinetics of DNA adduct formation and elimination. • A larger number of studies revealed a positive correlation between DNA adduct levels in target and surrogate tissues than did not find a correlation. Correlation may depend on exposure dose and the metabolic capacity of the ...
On a daily basis we are surrounded by environmental toxins found in drinking water, pesticides, and plastics that can trigger the onset of cancer.
National Committee on Environmental and Occupational Exposures, a tripartite and multi stakeholder sub-committee of the Primary Action Group of the Canadian Strategy for Cancer ...
On the next Your Call, well talk to Dr. Sandra Steingraber, a cancer survivor and author of Living Downstream: An Ecologists Personal Investigation of Cancer and the Environment, which is now adapted into a feature-length documentary film. The Presidents Cancer Panel published their report about environmental cancer this year. How have chemicals from industry and agriculture affected public health? Join us live at 11 or send us an email at [email protected] How can we protect ourselves from environmental carcinogens? Its Your Call, with Rose Aguilar and you ...
The [email protected] Centre provides a platform for research students to deposit their Ph.D. theses and make it available to the entire scholarly community in open access ...
A. (1990) The relationship between fibrosis and cancer in experimental animals exposed to asbestos and other fibers. Environ. , Thevenaz, P. & Anderson, R. (1993) Chronic inhalation toxicity of size-separated glass fibers in Fischer 344 rats. Fundam. appl. , Lewis, S. & Britton, J. (1999) Lung cancer and cryptogenic fibrosing: A population based cohort study. Am. J. respir. crit. , 161, 5-8 IARC (1987) IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, Suppl. 7, Overall Evaluations of Carcinogenicity: An Updating of IARC Monographs Volumes 1 to 42, Lyon, IARCPress, pp. 5. Some Mycotoxins (IARC Scientific Publications No. 44). Edited by L. Stoloff, M. Castegnaro, P. K. ONeill & H. qxd 06/12/02 30 15:35 Page 30 IARC MONOGRAPHS VOLUME 81 Vol. 6. N-Nitroso Compounds (IARC Scientific Publications No. 45). Edited by R. K. ONeill, G. Eisenbrand, B. Spiegelhalder & H. Bartsch (1983) Vol. 7. Some Volatile Halogenated Hydrocarbons (IARC Scientific Publications No. 68). Edited by L. K. ...
The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) is pleased to announce that the IARC Monographs volume on some industrial chemical intermediates and solvents is now available online.. This volume contains monographs on five chemicals with a high production volume and a wide range of uses in industry: glycidyl methacrylate, 1-butyl glycidyl ether, 1-bromo-3-chloropropane, 4-chlorobenzotrifluoride, and allyl chloride. Exposure by dermal absorption or inhalation may occur in various occupational and consumer settings.. Visit the Volume 125 webpage. ...
The IARC Monographs on the Identification of Carcinogenic Hazards to Humans identify environmental factors that can increase the risk of human cancer. Interdisciplinary Working Groups of expert scientists review the published studies and evaluate the weight of the evidence. Since 1971, more than 1000 agents have been evaluated. ...
An editorial from the Journal of the American Medical Association discussing the role that exposure to chemicals or other substances can play in causing cancer among workers.
COLUMBUS, Ohio -- Pierluigi Porcu, M.D., an associate professor of hematology and oncology with the Ohio State University Medical Center, will speak on Environmental Carcinogens and Risk of Lymphoma from 3:30-4:30 p.m. Thursday (2/17). Its part of a free winter seminar series by Ohio States School of Environment and Natural Resources. Lymphoma is a cancer of the lymph system.. Attend in 103 Kottman Hall, 2021 Coffey Rd., on Ohio States main campus in Columbus or by video link in 123 Williams Hall at the universitys Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center (OARDC), 1680 Madison Ave., in Wooster.. Porcu has clinical and research interests in hematological malignancies (of the blood and blood-producing organs) and lymphomas, especially T-cell and cutaneous (skin) lymphomas.. He is a graduate of the University of Torino Medical School, Italy, and completed his residency at the University of Indiana.. For more information, call 614-292-2265 or go to SENR and ...
Two presidential cancer advisers serving on a panel issued a report last week urging the federal government to do far more to protect Americans from various environmental cancer risks.. Available at the following link, the report concludes that the true burden of environmentally induced cancer has been grossly underestimated. One major area of concern cited was the tens of thousands of chemicals on the market in the United States that are carcinogenic. As an example, the report highlighted bisphenol A (BPA), which is found in many consumer products and remains unregulated in the United States, despite the growing link between BPA and various cancers. Other common environmental carcinogens mentioned include naturally occurring radon, and manufacturing and combustion by-products such as formaldehyde and benzene. Also cited as an increasing source of cancer-causing radiation was medical imaging, which now contributes 36 percent of the total radiation exposure of Americans.. ...
Web Portal for International Cancer Research: Cancer Epidemiology and Genetic Databases, Research Programmes, Electronic Publications, Scientific Papers, IARC Press Releases, IARC Training Courses, IARC Fellowships for Cancer Research, IARC Meetings, etc
Web Portal for International Cancer Research: Cancer Epidemiology and Genetic Databases, Research Programmes, Electronic Publications, Scientific Papers, IARC Press Releases, IARC Training Courses, IARC Fellowships for Cancer Research, IARC Meetings, etc
The qualitative relationship between carcinogenicity and mutagenicity (DNA-damaging activity), based on chemicals which are known to be or suspected of being carcinogenic to man and/or to experimental animals, is analyzed using 532 chemicals evaluate
Smoking is an important risk factor for many cancers, yet the relationship between smoking and prostate cancer remains uncertain. We investigated whether smoking affected the risk of prostate cancers within a large prospective cohort study of dietary and environmental cancer risk factors among men a … Combined Estrogen-Progestogen Contraceptives and Combined Estrogen-Progestogen Menopausal Therapy (IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of the Carcinogenic Risks to Humans) (9789283212911) by The International Agency for Research on Cancer and a great selection of similar New, Used and Collectible Books available now at great prices.
Limited daily exposure to toxins is tough in a pretty toxic world, but its a reasonable expectation that we all want to kick known carcinogens out of our homes. To that end, we asked Cara Bondi, a green scientists at Seventh Generation,
What Carcinogens Are You Avoiding? - posted in Cancer: Are there any substances besides the obvious (smoking, being overweight, excess alcohol, exhaust fumes) that you are avoiding to prevent cancer? Are there any substances that are legally in the global food supply (preservatives, colorings and the like) that you are fairly convinced increase the probability of cancer and are therefore avoiding?
This week, the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) Monograph Working Group classified UV-emitting tanning devices as carcinogenic to humans. The agency is the cancer arm of the World Health Organization.
January 2017. DCM has been re-classified by IARC (IARC website) from Group 2B (Possibly carcinogenic to humans) to the next higher Group 2A (Probably carcinogenic to humans). This reclassification from 2014 has been published recently (Dichloromethane).In the opinion of ECSA the reclassification is not scientifically justified. IARC Monograph classifications are also questioned by other associations such as the American Chemical Council (ACC). However the IARC classification is of no regulatory relevance in EU as European legislation is triggered by classification according to the CLP (GHS) regulation (EC 1272/2008). ...
January 2017. DCM has been re-classified by IARC (IARC website) from Group 2B (Possibly carcinogenic to humans) to the next higher Group 2A (Probably carcinogenic to humans). This reclassification from 2014 has been published recently (Dichloromethane).In the opinion of ECSA the reclassification is not scientifically justified. IARC Monograph classifications are also questioned by other associations such as the American Chemical Council (ACC). However the IARC classification is of no regulatory relevance in EU as European legislation is triggered by classification according to the CLP (GHS) regulation (EC 1272/2008). ...
Species, Scientific Experts, Genomes and Genes, Research Grants, Publications, Research Topics about International Agency for Research on Cancer
40 Although 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) was one of the most potent environmental carcinogen, mechanisms of action of TCDD at the molecular level are poorly understood. To enhance our understanding of carcinogenicity by TCDD, we investigated which genes are involved in TCDD-induced chemical carcinogenesis using two human liver cells, hepatoma HepG2 and non-tumorigenic fetal hepatic WRL68 cells. We found that TCDD (1nM) decreased HepG2 cell growth over 50%, but had no effect on WRL68 cell growth. We used DNA microarray to identify genes whose expression are changed at 24 hours after treatment with TCDD (0.1nM) in both of cell lines. We found that TCDD commonly down-regulated P21, sod1 genes and up-regulated hsp27, hsp90 genes, two fold or more. Moreover, TCDD (0.1nM) increased the levels of 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), typical biomarker of oxidative stress, with time dependency in HepG2 cell, but just transiently increased the levels of 8-OHdG after 2 hours in WRL68 cell. ...
More than 85% of breast cancers are sporadic and attributable to long-term exposure to environmental carcinogens, such as those in the diet, through a multistep disease process progressing from non-cancerous to pre-cancerous to malignant stages. How can we interrupt....... ...
Carcinogens in the News, a digest of media articles, government reports, and academic literature related to occupational and environmental carcinogens
People, especially in this country, mistakenly believe that if an ingredient is in a food product, it must be safe and even healthy to eat it.. That is far far from the truth.. Sure, they say some of these things are safe in small amounts, but they never address the accumulative effects of eating all these otherwise toxic ingredients, day in and day out, a little bit at a time.. Does this even remotely sound like a good thing to feed your kids?. ...
PHYSICAL DEMANDS AND WORKING CONDITIONS:. The physical demands and work environment characteristics described here are representative of those an employee encounters while performing the essential functions of this job. Reasonable accommodations may be made to enable individuals with disabilities to perform the essential functions.. Employees are required to take the Ishiharas Color Blindness test as a condition of employment. Note that: Failing the Ishihara Test Blindness does not preclude employment. The Company will consider whether reasonable accommodations can be made.. Day to day work includes desk and personal computer work and interaction with patients, facility staff and physicians. The position requires travel between assigned facilities and various locations within the community. Travel to regional, Business Unit and Corporate meetings may be required.. The work environment is characteristic of a health care facility with air temperature control and moderate noise levels. May be ...
The results of the recent IARC Monographs evaluation of the carcinogenicity of opium consumption have now been published in The Lancet Oncology. This summary article presents the conclusions of IARC Monographs Meeting 126.. Opium, an addictive narcotic drug, is produced from the poppy plant, Papaver somniferum, and can be consumed as a variety of preparations, either by smoking or by ingestion. Opium derivatives (e.g. opiates such as morphine and heroin) and opioids (e.g. fentanyl) were not considered by the Working Group.. The Working Group evaluated opium consumption as carcinogenic to humans (Group 1) on the basis of sufficient evidence in humans. Opium causes cancers of the larynx, lung, and urinary bladder.. The full scientific assessment will be published as Volume 126 of the IARC Monographs.. IARC Monographs Volume 126 Working ...
Free Online Library: Hexavalent chromium Cr(VI) up-regulates COX-2 expression through an NF[kappa]B/c-Jun/AP-1-dependent pathway.(Research, cyclooxygenase-2, nuclear factor, Report) by Environmental Health Perspectives; Health, general Environmental issues Cancer Care and treatment Risk factors Cancer treatment Chromium compounds Health aspects Cyclooxygenases Physiological aspects Genes Luciferase Transcription factors
Update of the scientific evidence on asbestos and cancer Kurt Straif, MD MPH PhD International Agency for Research on Cancer Lyon, France World Health Organisation Asturias, 17 March 2011 The IARC Monographs
The carcinogenic effects of individual polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are well established. However, their potency within an environmental complex mixture is uncertain. We evaluated the influence of diesel exhaust particulate matter on PAH-induced cytochrome P450 (CYP) activity, PAH-DNA adduct formation, expression of certain candidate genes and the frequency of tumor initiation in the two-stage Sencar mouse model. To this end, we monitored the effects of treatment of mice with diesel exhaust, benzo[a]pyrene (BP), dibenzo[a,l]pyrene (DBP), or a combination of diesel exhaust with either carcinogenic PAH. The applied diesel particulate matter (SRM(1975)) altered the tumor initiating potency of DBP: a statistically significant decrease in overall tumor and carcinoma burden was observed following 25 weeks of promotion with 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA), compared with DBP exposure alone. From those mice that were treated at the beginning of the observation period with 2 nmol DBP ...
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Combined Effects of ICAM-1 Single-Nucleotide Polymorphisms and Environmental Carcinogens on Oral Cancer Susceptibility and Clinicopathologic Development. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
In the past few years, Hexavalent Chromium Cr(VI), a genotoxic carcinogen, has come under increased scrutiny as it is the most toxic form of chromium found
When present in soil, the oxidized forms of certain metallic contaminants (e.g., hexavalent chromium) are quite mobile and can be easily carried by waters percolating through the unsaturated zone. To avoid the excessive costs and risks associated with excavation, transportation, and disposal of the chromium contamination at locations such as Pantex, Hanford, and the Sandia National Laboratory, the Department of Energy (DOE) is testing the In-Situ Gaseous Reduction System (IGRS). In IGRS, the oxidized metals are reduced and immobilized. For chromium-contaminated sites, the primary chemical reaction involves the reduction of hexavalent chromium [Cr (VI)] to trivalent chromium [Cr (III)], with subsequent precipitation as a nontoxic, insoluble solid ...
Nickel is an occupational and environmental toxicant associated with a number of diseases in humans including pulmonary fibrosis, bronchitis and lung and nasal cancers. Our earlier studies showed that the nickel-exposure-induced genome-wide transcriptional changes, which persist even after the termination of exposure may underlie nickel pathogenesis. However, the mechanisms that drive nickel-induced persistent changes to the transcriptome remain elusive. To elucidate the mechanisms that underlie nickel-induced long-term transcriptional changes, in this study, we examined the transcriptome and the epigenome of human lung epithelial cells during nickel exposure and after the termination of exposure. We identified two categories of persistently differentially expressed genes: (i) the genes that were differentially expressed during nickel exposure; and (ii) the genes that were differentially expressed only after the termination of exposure. Interestingly, | 85% of the nickel-induced gene expression changes
This volume presents an evaluation of the carcinogenicity of benzene, updating with new data the most recent evaluation provided in Volume 100F of the IARC Monographs. Benzene, a simple aromatic hydrocarbon, occurs naturally and as a result of human activity, notably as a result of combustion, and it is a high-volume chemical now used mostly as a chemical intermediate. Human exposure to benzene is widespread through the air, in consumer products, and in industry. An IARC Monographs Working Group reviewed epidemiological studies, animal cancer bioassays, and mechanistic data to assess the carcinogenicity of benzene and conducted quantitative analyses of data on genotoxicity and human cancer risks.. ...
The International Tinnitus Seminar held in Freemantle in 2001 saw three hundred tinnitus researchers from around the world exchanging results and discussing the latest theories on dealing with this baffling condition. (ringing in the ears.) The conference passed the resolution that never again should a person be told by their doctor that nothing can be done for tinnitus. Sound Therapy International is still working to attain this aim.. Dr. Norman Doidges latest book The Brains Way of Healing gives an excellent overview of Dr. Tomatiss remarkable work.. The Ebook by Rafaele Joudry, Triumph Over Tinnitus, outlines many treatment options and gives a detailed account of the remarkable discoveries of the French ear doctor, Alfred Tomatis. This article is based on excerpts from the book.. Dr. Tomatis was one of the remarkable pioneers of our time. An inventor, innovator and researcher, he gave us the practical application of Sound Therapy, a unique and valuable tool for healing and ...
Many human carcinogens are environmental carcinogens, for example, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from transformers. Other known carcinogens are tobacco smoke, aflatoxins (produced by moldy peanuts), sunlight (increase in malignant melanoma and squamous cell carcinoma), radiation, chemicals, dioxin, and benzene. Most authorities believe that the herpes viruses and papillomaviruses have a potential for producing cancerous changes. Patients with a history of certain diseases, such as hepatitis, have a higher incidence of liver cancer than patients without such history.. Normal cells have a mechanism to turn off cell growth with certain signals. In cancer, however, a change in the cells occurs so that they continue to grow. With a lack of control (switch does not turn off), the abnormal neoplastic cells continue to grow. The cell-surface antigens appear similar to the normal fetal types, so the body does not mount an immune response. The tumor stem cells have chromosomal abnormalities, ...
A recent article (1) attempted to estimate the false-positive rate for cancer epidemiology studies based on agents in International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) category 3 (agent not classifiable as to its carcinogenicity to humans) in the IARC Monographs Program. The estimation method used was based on the assumption that the IARC classification of agents about their carcinogenic potential (or any similar human endeavor at reaching consensus) provides a scientifically sound basis for assessing the false-positive rate in cancer epidemiology studies. Any such consensus effort uses classification criteria, and we critique the proposed false-positive rate estimation method because of potential biases induced by its reliance on the IARC criteria for assessing carcinogenic potential. The IARC criteria give epidemiologic studies epistemic priority in working group deliberations, and accordingly, the IARC category to which an agent is assigned will depend strongly on the percentage of positive ...
Particulate hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) is a potent respiratory carcinogen with widespread human exposure. The particulate form, for example lead chromate, has been determined to be the most toxic and carcinogenic form. These particles impact at bifurcation sites of the lung and persist in the respiratory tract. Chromosome instability (CIN) is a hallmark of lung cancer with cells exhibiting both translocations and severe aneuploidy. However, the ability of Cr(VI) to induce translocations is unknown. We exposed human lung cells to lead chromate for three sequential 24 h periods, each separated by about a month. After each treatment, cells were seeded at colony forming density, cloned, expanded and retreated. Each generation of clones were tested for their chromium sensitivity, chromosome complement and DNA repair capacity. We found that after the first treatment, lead chromate-treated cells exhibited a normal chromosome complement though a few clones showed an increase in relative survival. ...
Find hexavalent chromium requirement articles on Environmental XPRT, the worlds largest environmental industry marketplace and information resource.
By David StauthResearchers at Oregon State University have discovered novel compounds produced by certain types of chemical reactions-such as those found in vehicle exhaust or grilling meat-that are hundreds of times more mutagenic than their parent compounds which are known carcinogens. These compo...
Substances, mixtures and exposure circumstances in this list have been classified by the IARC as Group 2A: The agent (mixture) is probably carcinogenic to humans. The exposure circumstance entails exposures that are probably carcinogenic to humans. This category is used when there is limited evidence of carcinogenicity in humans and sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity in experimental animals. In some cases, an agent (mixture) may be classified in this category when there is inadequate evidence of carcinogenicity in humans and sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity in experimental animals and strong evidence that the carcinogenesis is mediated by a mechanism that also operates in humans. Exceptionally, an agent, mixture or exposure circumstance may be classified in this category solely on the basis of limited evidence of carcinogenicity in humans. Further details can be found in the IARC Monographs. ...
Jennifer Sass Senior Scientist Washington, D.C. NRDC November 4, 2009 I wont bury the lead: last week the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), the most prestigious international body for cancer assessment in the world, determined that sufficient evidence exists to link formaldehyde with leukemia, a cancer of the blood or bone marrow. The link…
Literature References: Azo dye. Prepn: E. Nölting, O. Kohn, Ber. 19, 137 (1886). Metabolism: J. L. Radomski, T. J. Mellinger, J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 136, 259 (1962). Toxicity studies: F. C. Lu, A. Lavalle, Can. Pharm. J. 97, 30 (1964); K. J. Davis et al., Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 8, 306 (1966). Determn in maraschino cherries: R. E. Draper, J. Assoc. Off. Anal. Chem. 56, 703 (1973); HPLC determn in lipstick: L. Gagliardi et al., J. Chromatogr. 394, 345 (1987). Review: IARC Monographs 8, 207-214 (1975). See also: Colour Index vol. 4 (3rd ed., 1971) p 4068. ...
A blood test can accurately detect biomolecular markers of bladder cancer resulting from environmental carcinogens, according to a study.
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December 26, 2017. NIKON CORPORATION. Taking this opportunity, we wish to thank you for your continued patronage of Nikon products.. Our in-house inspection has reported that certain parts of the main bodies and accessories of our biological, stereo, measuring and industrial microscopes contain lead and hexavalent chromium which exceed the standard value specified in the RoHS Directive*. We regret any inconvenience this matter may cause and report the facts as follows.. ...
The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) Governing Council elected Dr. Elisabete Weiderpass as the new Director of the Agency. Dr. Weiderpass will take office on 1 January 2019. IARC. Elisabete Weiderpass, MD, MSc, PhD, is an expert in cancer epidemiology and cancer prevention. She currently serves as the leader of the Department of Research at the Cancer…. Read More+. ...
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Oral and pancreatic cancer combined among men in Europe Incidence ASR (W) , new cases per 100,000 males Source: WHO/IARC, 2008 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 E PT FI MA NO AU IR UK CH DE DK IT LU NL FR LK GR P BU RO LO LA CZ LI BE T PL HU Lung cancer among men in Europe Incidence ASR (W) , new cases per 100,000 males Source: WHO/IARC, 2008 ...
Formaldehyde is a known carcinogen so in my perspective it ought to be banned from use in all the above mentioned outlined items, all offered for use in our homes. Our households exactly where we expect were Risk-free, cosy and warm within an insulated box which doesnt enable these gasses to receive out. A toxic soup ...
Formalin and Formaldehyde: Accepted but unacceptable: Exposing clinicians to known carcinogens, the risk associated with biopsies
When carcinogens are involved at the workplace, employers have to do everything in their power to prevent workers coming into contact with these substances.
This is from 2009 (though it should be from 1995), but I just came across it: In July, the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), a working group of the World Health Organization, added ultraviolet (UV) radiation-emitting tanning devices - tanning beds and lamps - to the list of the most dangerous forms of…
Youll think twice before flushing when you see this bizarre list - where plumbers reveal things theyve found clogging drains. If you thought ...
The United States Environmental Protection Agency classifies dioxane as a probable human carcinogen (having observed an ... It is also classified by the IARC as a Group 2B carcinogen: possibly carcinogenic to humans because it is a known carcinogen in ... The Environmental Working Group (EWG) found that 97% of hair relaxers, 57% of baby soaps and 22 percent of all products in Skin ... Tenth Report on Carcinogens Archived 1 November 2004 at the Wayback Machine. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, ...
1,3-Butadiene has been designated a Group 1 carcinogen ('carcinogenic to humans') by IARC, and has also been listed as a ... US Environmental Protection Agency US EPA. Retrieved 2 September 2014. Caventou, E. (1863). "Ueber eine mit dem zweifach- ... Some researchers have concluded it is the most potent carcinogen in cigarette smoke, twice as potent as the runner up ... 106-99-0" (PDF). Report on Carcinogens (11th ed.). Archived from the original (PDF) on 8 May 2009. Melnick, Ronald L.; Kohn, ...
Additionally, arsenite containing compounds have also been labeled carcinogens. The carcinogenicity of potassium arsenite ... Environmental Health Perspectives. 95: 205-210. doi:10.2307/3431125. JSTOR 3431125. PMC 1568403. PMID 1821373. Doyle, Derek ( ... Report on Carcinogens, Thirteenth Edition. Caspari, Charles (1901). A Treatise on Pharmacy for Students and Pharmacists (2nd ed ...
National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences. National Toxicology Program. Report on carcinogens, fourteenth edition ... The Environmental Protection Agency designated chloroprene as likely to be carcinogenic to humans based on evidence from ... An A2 designation by the ACGIH means that the substance is a suspected human carcinogen with support from human data that are ... In the fourteenth edition of the National Institute of Health report on carcinogens, the half-life time differences between ...
Medical and environmental groups support such a ban. On 22 April 2008, the Provincial Government of Ontario announced that it ... Some are carcinogens and endocrine disruptors. They may permanently linger in the environment and negatively affect the health ... Some environmental organizations, with the support of the Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs, concerned by the ... The United States Environmental Protection Agency estimates that[when?] nearly 32,000,000 kilograms (71,000,000 lb) of active ...
MeIQ, MeIQx and PhIP were added to the list of anticipated carcinogens in 2004. The Report on Carcinogens stated that MeIQ has ... Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology. 11 (3): 155-168. doi:10.1038/sj.jea.7500158. ISSN 1053-4245. PMID ... 13th Report on Carcinogens. "Substances Listed in the Thirteenth Report on Carcinogens" (PDF). Retrieved 2015-05-08. Sugimura, ... "reasonably anticipated to be a human carcinogen" in its twelfth Report on Carcinogens, published in 2011. The HCA known as IQ ...
United States Environmental Protection Agency. United States Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Pollution Prevention ... Dichloromethane has serious health risks including death, is likely a carcinogen, and is banned in some countries for consumer ... Removing old lead-based paint can disperse lead and cause lead poisoning, leading several US workplace and environmental ... Toxicology Program (NTP) (NIH) (8 October 2011). Report on Carcinogens (12th Ed. ). DIANE Publishing. ISBN 978-1-4379-8736-2. " ...
"Reviews on Environmental Health". De Gruyter Website. Retrieved 12 January 2015. "Environmental Pollution". Retrieved 23 June ... David O. Carpenter Neuhauser, Alan (30 October 2014). "Toxic Chemicals, Carcinogens Skyrocket Near Fracking Sites". US News & ... He is the co-editor-in-chief (along with Peter Sly) of the academic journal Reviews on Environmental Health; and co-editor-in- ... David O. Carpenter is a professor of environmental health sciences at the University at Albany, SUNY, where he is the director ...
Fiji passed the Environmental Management Bill in December 2020. Imports of polystyrene products was banned on January 2021. In ... National Toxicology Program (10 June 2011). "12th Report on Carcinogens". National Toxicology Program. Archived from the ... The Hong Kong Food and Environmental Hygiene Department recently reviewed the safety of serving various foods in polystyrene ... Restricting the use of foamed polystyrene takeout food packaging is a priority of many solid waste environmental organisations ...
157 (8): 2972-7. Soto AM, Sonnenschein C (2010). "Environmental Causes of Cancer: Endocrine Disruptors as Carcinogens". Nature ... Each category includes pharmaceutical compounds and environmental compounds. Estrogenic or androgenic compounds will cause the ... most studies of reproductive toxicity have focused on occupational or environmental exposure to chemicals and their effects on ... Environmental Health Criteria. Geneva: World Health Organization. 225.. International Programme on Chemical Safety (2002). " ...
Crystalline silica of respirable size is a recognized human carcinogen and may lead to other diseases of the lungs such as ... California Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment. Retrieved 27 November 2019. Arsenic, Metals, Fibres and Dusts. A ... Review of Human Carcinogens (PDF) (100C ed.). International Agency for Research on Cancer. 2012. pp. 355-397. ISBN 978-92-832- ...
Soto AM, Sonnenschein C (July 2010). "Environmental causes of cancer: endocrine disruptors as carcinogens". Nature Reviews. ... Tsai WT (2006). "Human health risk on environmental exposure to Bisphenol-A: a review". Journal of Environmental Science and ... Environmental Health Perspectives. National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences. 123 (7): 643-50. doi:10.1289/ehp. ... The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) also holds the position that BPA is not a health concern. In 2011, Andrew Wadge ...
Crystalline silica of respirable size is a recognized human carcinogen and may lead to other diseases of the lungs such as ... California Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment. Retrieved 27 November 2019. Arsenic, Metals, Fibres and Dusts. A ... Exploration and Environmental Issues (including 2002 quartzite production) Big Sioux River: History of Sioux Falls and ... Review of Human Carcinogens (PDF) (100C ed.). International Agency for Research on Cancer. 2012. pp. 355-397. ISBN 978-92-832- ...
The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has listed acetaldehyde as a Group 1 carcinogen. Acetaldehyde is "one of ... Chemical Summary For Acetaldehyde, US Environmental Protection Agency Scientific Committee on Cosmetic Products and Non-Food ... Acetaldehyde is also the most abundant carcinogen in tobacco smoke; it is dissolved into the saliva while smoking. Acetaldehyde ... List of IARC Group 1 carcinogens Zhou, Ying; Li, Chaoyang; Huijbregts, Mark A. J.; Mumtaz, M. Moiz (7 October 2015). " ...
2011). Report on Carcinogens, 12th ed., p. 222. a b International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) (1997) PhIP (2-amino-1- ... Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis. 44:45-55. Felton, JS., et al. (1994) Effect of microwave pretreatment on heterocyclic ... 1995) High concentrations of the carcinogen 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) occur in chicken but are ... Individual exposures can differ due to various anti-carcinogens in the diet. Different cooking methods for meat (broiling, ...
Soto AM, Sonnenschein C (July 2010). "Environmental causes of cancer: endocrine disruptors as carcinogens". Nature Reviews. ... See xenoestrogens in environmental factors below According to a review, the main mechanisms by which environmental compounds ... California Environmental Protection Agency: Air Resources Board, "Proposed Identification of Environmental Tobacco Smoke as a ... Carcinogen#IARC classification of carcinogens Epidemiology of breast cancer Silent Spring Institute Xenoestrogen Continuous ...
Cadmium is a heavy metal and an environmental pollutant. Cadmium is a known carcinogen. Cadmium exposure has been linked to ... Chandra, R; Dass, SK; Tomar, P; Tiwari, M (Jul 2001). "Cadmium, carcinogen, co-carcinogen and anti carcinogen". Indian J Clin ... Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. 70 (11): 931-937. doi:10.1080/15287390701290212. PMID 17479408. S2CID 26022100 ...
Chromium (in its hexavalent form) and arsenic are carcinogens; cadmium causes a degenerative bone disease; and mercury and lead ... Other heavy metals noted for their potentially hazardous nature, usually as toxic environmental pollutants, include manganese ( ... particularly in environmental chemistry, as is the case here. Selenium (density 4.8 g/cm3) is also included in the list. It ... a suspected carcinogen); and thallium (central nervous system damage). Heavy metals essential for life can be toxic if taken in ...
... and helped to inspire an environmental movement that led to the creation of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. In 1996, ... Hueper [author of Occupational Tumors and Allied Diseases] now gives DDT the definite rating of a "chemical carcinogen." Carson ... By 1972, the Environmental Defense Fund and other activist groups had succeeded in securing a phase-out of DDT use in the ... According to environmental engineer and Carson scholar H. Patricia Hynes, "Silent Spring altered the balance of power in the ...
The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) sponsored a "state of the science" review of the health effects associated with ... The results of the study have formally characterized the chemical as a human carcinogen and a non-carcinogenic health hazard. A ... In 1987, Hill Air Force Base, in Layton, Utah, was declared a Superfund site in 1987 and added to the U.S. Environmental ... In response to the heightened awareness of environmental toxins such as TCE and the role they may be playing in childhood ...
Purchase IF (July 1982). "International Commission for Protection against Environmental Mutagens and Carcinogens. ICPEMC ... Although the SOSIP is a concentration-based metric, the same method can be used for complex environmental mixtures where the ...
Environmental carcinogens and papillomaviruses in the pathogenesis of cancer". Proceedings of the Royal Society. 231 (1262): 1- ... Environmental carcinogens and paillomaviruses in the pathogenesis of cancer. 1985 Kenneth Murray, A molecular biologist's view ...
Arsenic is a Group 1 carcinogen. The amount of arsenic in rice varies widely with the greatest concentration in brown rice and ... Environmental factors include rainfall and water, temperature, photoperiod, solar radiation and, in some instances, tropical ... For water contamination by arsenic, the United States Environmental Protection Agency has set a lower standard of 10 ppb. ... Rice cultivars also fall into groups according to environmental conditions, season of planting, and season of harvest, called ...
Eight experts in environmental science, policy and risk from Simon Fraser University called for a moratorium on all new tar ... Arsenic, cancer causing carcinogens, are created by bitumen production. Arsenic deposits are detected in water, soil, and even ... David Schindler, environmental scientist, conducted research to assess the way water pollution was investigated in the oil ... This led to inaccurate levels of carcinogens reported over time. Chief Allan Adams of the Athabasca area is consulting with ...
Csuros M (1997). Environmental Sampling and Analysis Lab Manual. Lewis. ISBN 978-1566701785. Davidson PW, Myers GJ, Weiss B ( ... Tovey J (17 December 2011). "Patches of Carcinogen Seen After Orica Leak". The Sydney Morning Herald. The United States ... Hillman AL, Abbot MB, Yu JQ, Bain DJ, Chiou-Peng TH (2015). "Environmental Legacy of Copper Metallurgy and Mongol Silver ... Sengupta, AK (2002). "Principles of Heavy Metals Separation". In Sengupta, AK (ed.). Environmental Separation of Heavy Metals: ...
... powder is accepted as a carcinogen, while the role of aqueous Cr[VI] as a human carcinogen has been challenged." He wrote a ... Environmental issues in the United States Toxic hotspot Flint water crisis Water pollution Merchants of Doubt "The 'Erin ... Carcinogens in water and soil. 152 (XXII): 45-53. PMID 5707368. Morgan, John W.; Reeves, M. E., Cancer in Hinkley: What was the ... Oakland, California: California Environmental Protection Agency. Retrieved April 23, 2012. The PHG [Public Health Goal] for ...
The money will be held by the public to insure adherence to environmental standards if the company were to ever go bankrupt. In ... Darby, S; Hill, D; Doll, R (2005). "Radon: a likely carcinogen at all exposures". Ann. Oncol. 12 (10): 1341-51. doi:10.1023/A: ... Environmental Aspects of Uranium Mining. Australian uranium mines have mostly been open cut and therefore naturally well ... The Environmental Protection Agency estimates that there are 4000 mines with documented uranium production, and another 15,000 ...
"United States Environmental Protection Agency. Retrieved 2012-05-06.. *^ Hecht SS (July 1999). "Tobacco smoke carcinogens and ... There are over 19 known carcinogens in cigarette smoke.[165] The following are some of the most potent carcinogens: *Polycyclic ... Radioactive carcinogens[edit]. In addition to chemical, nonradioactive carcinogens, tobacco and tobacco smoke contain small ... Chemical carcinogens[edit]. See also: List of cigarette smoke carcinogens. @media all and (max-width:720px){.mw-parser-output . ...
Testing of carcinogens and noncarcinogens in Salmonella typhimurium and Escherichia coli". Environmental Mutagenesis. 7 Suppl 5 ... of the mutagens identified through Ames test may also be carcinogens. Mutagens are not necessarily carcinogens, and vice versa ... In tests that check for carcinogens, maximum tolerated dosage is first determined, then a range of doses are given to around 50 ... The first mutagens to be identified were carcinogens, substances that were shown to be linked to cancer. Tumors were described ...
... "reasonably anticipated to be human carcinogens" according to the Report on Carcinogens, Twelfth Edition (2011). Lead can be ... "Environmental Health & Safety - 1: General Information About Chemical Safety". Princeton UNiversity. Archived from the original ... ISBN 978-0-13-612866-3. National Toxicology Program, Department of Health and Human Services (2011). Report on Carcinogens, ...
Environmental Tobacco Smoke. From the 11th Report on Carcinogens of the National Institutes of Health. Retrieved 6 August 2007 ... Health Effects of Exposure to Environmental Tobacco Smoke Archived 5 September 2007 at the Wayback Machine: A monograph from ... Journal of Environmental Monitoring. 8 (3): 362-8. doi:10.1039/b600050a. PMID 16528420.. ... Several well-established carcinogens have been shown by the tobacco companies' own research to be present at higher ...
"Environmental Technology. 30 (1): 27-36. doi:10.1080/09593330802422803. PMID 19213463.. *^ Lim JL, Okada M (2005). " ... Environmental applications[edit]. Activated carbon is usually used in water filtration systems. In this illustration, the ... Process Safety and Environmental Protection. 79 (4): 211-217. doi:10.1205/095758201750362253.. ... regeneration of activated carbon has encouraged research into alternative regeneration methods to reduce the environmental ...
... a Ubiquitous Environmental Carcinogen". Cancer Res. 66: 5.. ... It is listed as a Group 1 carcinogen by the IARC. In the 18th ... The ultimate carcinogen is formed after another reaction with cytochrome P450 1A1 to yield the (+)benzo[a]pyrene-7,8- ... BaP's metabolites are mutagenic and highly carcinogenic, and it is listed as a Group 1 carcinogen by the IARC. Chemical agents ... Tobacco smoke carcinogens and lung cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst 1999; 91: 1194-210. PMID 10413421 ...
a b Shu-qin, L., Jun-hua, Y. (2002). Environmental Benefits of underground coal gasification. Journal of Environmental Sciences ... They did not decommission that site and testing showed contaminants (including the carcinogen benzene) in the chamber. The ... Environmental and social impacts[edit]. Eliminating mining eliminates mine safety issues.[29] Compared to traditional coal ... Energy & Environmental Research Centre (EERC) - UCG overview. *CO2SINUS CO2 Storage in in situ Converted Coal Seams - Research ...
... dose-response relationship for any common environmental human carcinogen", according to report by the National Cancer Institute ... "Environmental Health and Toxicology. 31: e2016001. doi:10.5620/eht.e2016001. PMC 4870760 .. ... In the EPA's 1999 Federal Guidance Report #13(FGR 13), Cancer Risk Coefficients for Environmental Exposure to Radionuclides, ... As increasing concerns are raised regarding the environmental risks related to breast, it is interesting to note that the BEIR ...
"Environmental Health Perspectives. 104 (12): 1340-1343. doi:10.2307/3432972. JSTOR 3432972. PMC 1469557. PMID 9118877.. ... Additionally, traditionally aged pu'er has higher levels of the antioxidant and carcinogen-trapping epigallocatechin gallate as ... Just as important as the tea's properties, environmental factors for the tea's storage also affect how quickly and successfully ... The packaging methods change the environmental factors and may even contribute to the taste of the tea itself. ...
LaDou, J. (२००४). Current Occupational & Environmental Medicine (३rd ed.). New York: Lange/McGraw-Hill. ... physician's role as health adviser to industry inevitably involves the doctor in the consideration of any environmental hazards ...
"Environmental Science & Technology. 46 (6): 3273-3280. Bibcode:2012EnST...46.3273S. doi:10.1021/es2043728. PMC 3308199. PMID ... "Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management. 6 (2009): 210-224. doi:10.1897/IEAM_2009-051.1. PMID 19919169.. ... "Environmental Science & Technology. 46 (6): 3498-3508. Bibcode:2012EnST...46.3498A. doi:10.1021/es204611h. PMC 3308200. PMID ... "Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry. 12 (6): 959-967. doi:10.1002/etc.5620120602. ISSN 1552-8618.. ...
U.S. National Toxicology Program's Report on Carcinogens. *CDC - Occupational Cancer - Carcinogen List - NIOSH Safety and ... 종합환경대책보상 및 부담법(CERCLA, Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act)은 방사성핵종들이 발암 물질이라고 정의하였다. 방사선의 발암성은 ... 발암 물질(發癌物質, 영어: carcinogen)은 암 발생에 직접적으로 원인이 되는 물질이나 세균, 바이러스를 뜻한다. 주로 인체에서 유전체나 세포대사에 손상을 주거나 다른 반응을 통해 암세포 발생을 유발한다. 인공물이나 ... Ames, Bruce N; Gold, Lois Swirsky (2000). "Paracelsus to parascience: The environmental cancer distraction". 》Mutation Research ...
"Occupational and Environmental Medicine. 59 (7): 428-433. doi:10.1136/oem.59.7.428. ISSN 1351-0711. PMC 1740325. PMID 12107289. ... Agency for Research on Cancer of the World Health Organization lists Ionizing radiation as a known human carcinogen.[50] ... "Environmental Health. 6: 28. doi:10.1186/1476-069X-6-28. ISSN 1476-069X. PMC 2064907. PMID 17897468.. ... Rayman, Russell B. (March 2002). "Cabin air quality: an overview". Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine. 73 (3): 211-215 ...
This application has declined due to environmental concerns.[5] Furthermore, the acid leaves trace amounts of paramagnetic ... highly toxic, carcinogen, corrosive EU classification (DSD) (outdated). T+. C. Xi. O. N ... Due to growing health and environmental concerns, many have discontinued use of this chemical in their repair shops. ...
a b Indian Health Service: Bemidji Area Office of Environmental Health and Engineering Environmental Health Services Section " ... high levels of carcinogen aflatoxin M1 in Mengniu brand milk were found to be associated with the consumption of mold- ... "Environmental Health Perspectives. 119 (6): 748-756. doi:10.1289/ehp.1002410. PMC 3114807. PMID 21269928.. ... "Environmental Health Perspectives. 118 (6): 818-824. doi:10.1289/ehp.0901388. PMC 2898859. PMID 20172840.. ...
"Working Group on Environmental Mineralogy and Geochemistry". Commissions, working groups and committees. International ... However, asbestos are known carcinogens, and cause various other illnesses, such as asbestosis; amphibole asbestos ( ... "Working Group on Environmental Mineralogy and Geochemistry " deals with minerals in the hydrosphere, atmosphere, and biosphere. ...
List of environmental health hazards. *Persistent organic pollutant. *European REACH regulation. *Japan Toxic Substances Law ...
Such effects on cellular and physiological phenotypic traits may result from external or environmental factors, or be part of ... "Epigenetic factors in cancer risk: effect of chemical carcinogens on global DNA methylation pattern in human TK6 cells". PLoS ... Environmental differences can produce long-term epigenetic effects, and different developmental monozygotic twin subtypes may ... DNA methylation patterns are known to be established and modified in response to environmental factors by a complex interplay ...
Carcinogens[edit]. Soy sauce may contain ethyl carbamate, a Group 2A carcinogen.[58] ... "Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 46 (6): 1435-1437. ISSN 0099-2240. PMC 239590. PMID 6660879.. ... The same carcinogens were found in soy sauces manufactured in Vietnam, causing a food scare in 2007.[63][64] ... contained a chemical carcinogen named 3-MCPD (3-monochloropropane-1,2-diol) at levels considerably higher than those deemed ...
Environmental Research. 107 (2): 277-287. doi:10.1016/j.envres.2008.02.003. PMID 18359015.. ... it has not been found to cause cancer or to enhance the cancer-causing effects of known chemical carcinogens." The majority of ... provide certification of antenna emission levels and assure compliance to ICNIRP standards and/or to other environmental ... It follows the recommendations of the European Community for environmental risks. ...
a b [2] Zelt, Ronald B., Greg Boughton, Kirk A. Miller, Jon P. Mason, and Laura M. Gianakos, Environmental Setting of the ... "Carcinogen Benzene Found in Water Supply in Montana Town Following Weekend Oil Spill - National News - ABC News Radio". ABC ... Montana Department of Environmental Quality was monitoring an area spanning a ninety-mile (144.8 km) stretch of the Yellowstone ... a carcinogen,[17] was found in ten to fifteen parts per billion.[18][19] An EPA official said that "anything above five parts ...
p-Phenylenediamine, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency *^ "IARC working group on the evaluation of carcinogenic risks to ... In 2004 a known human carcinogen, 4-aminobiphenyl or 4-ABP, was found in some commercial hair dyes.[24] However, evidence is ... The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency reported that in rats and mice chronically exposed to PPD in their diet, the PPT ... Semi-permanents may still contain the suspected carcinogen p-phenylenediamine (PPD) or other related colorants. ...
"Environmental Health Perspectives. 116 (4): A160-A167. doi:10.1289/ehp.116-a160. PMC 2290997 . PMID 18414615.. ... UV rays, and therefore sunlight and sunlamps, are the only listed carcinogens that are known to have health benefits,[45] and a ... "13th Report on Carcinogens: Ultraviolet-Radiation-Related Exposures" (PDF). National Toxicology Program. October 2014. ...
Inhibition of 5-LOX activity is shown to block prostate cancer cell proliferation as well as carcinogen-induced lung ... Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part B, Critical Reviews. 11 (3-4): 242-59. doi:10.1080/10937400701873548. PMID ... "Environmental and heritable factors in the causation of cancer--analyses of cohorts of twins from Sweden, Denmark, and Finland ...
"Journal of Environmental and Public Health. 2009: 1-5. doi:10.1155/2009/281876. PMC 2778824. PMID 19936128.. ... The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) has also designated gasoline as a carcinogen.[91]Physical ... Environmental considerations[edit]. Combustion of 1 U.S. gallon (3.8 L) of gasoline produces 8.74 kilograms (19.3 lb) of carbon ... "U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. 22 February 2006. Archived from the original on 20 September 2005.. ...
a b "3, 3'-Dichlorobenzidine". U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Integrated Risk Information System. 7 March 2011. Accessed ... 3,3'-Dichlorobenzidine is considered a carcinogen.[1] This compound has been shown to increase the incidence of tumors in ... animals.[5] Because it is structurally similar to benzidine, a known carcinogen, it is believed that it may share a similar ...
Environmental impact[edit]. A Risk Assessment Report (RAR) conducted by the European Union on sodium hypochlorite conducted ... some of which are toxic and probable human carcinogens. The study showed that indoor air concentrations significantly increase ... Alliance for Environmental Technology. Archived from the original (PDF) on 14 April 2008. Retrieved 19 September 2007.. ... It was used extensively to bleach wood pulp, but this use has decreased significantly due to environmental concerns. ...
Reproductive and Cancer Hazard Assessment Branch Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment, California Environmental ... A few carcinogens commonly found in tar include benzene, acrylamide and acrylonitrile. Smoking exposes delicate cells inside ... Environmental Science & Technology. 48 (22): 13093-13101. doi:10.1021/es5036333. ISSN 0013-936X. PMID 25317906.. ...
Companies can comply more easily and economically with the regulations of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.[4] ... Recently the suspected human carcinogen methylene chloride is being replaced by benzyl alcohol with great success. Powder ...
DDD is in the "Group B2" classification, meaning that it is a probable human carcinogen. This is based on an increased ... United States Environmental Protection Agency. 11 Apr. 2007 , ... Further basis is that DDD is so similar to and is a metabolite of DDT, another probable human carcinogen.[2] ... United States Environmental Protection Agency. 23 Apr. 2007 ,,. ...
S.L. Ross Environmental Research Ltd. 2002. p. 30. "Oil pollution fears hit world's nations". Anderson Herald. 1968-08-31. ... Many scientists believe there is no safe level of exposure to a carcinogen....Reproductive Hazard: 2-Butoxy Ethanol may damage ... The use of Corexit is approved in the US by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). This decision was called into ... It's very dangerous, and it's an economic - it's an economic protector of BP, not an environmental protector of the public." ...
Environmental and biological triggers of ethylene. Environmental cues such as flooding, drought, chilling, wounding, and ... It is listed as an IARC class 3 carcinogen as there is no evidence at present that it causes cancer in humans.[59] ... Ethylene production is regulated by a variety of developmental and environmental factors. During the life of the plant, ... Ethylene production can also be induced by a variety of external aspects such as mechanical wounding, environmental stresses, ...
Cover story). Environmental Nutrition, 31(5), 1-4. *^ Barrett, J. R. (2007). "Hyperactive Ingredients?". Environmental Health ... it can form the carcinogen benzene when combined with vitamin C.[citation needed] Many food manufacturers have reformed their ...
Carcinogens are present in and around your home and workplace, and are often related to lifestyle. Being aware of and reducing ... What are environmental carcinogens?. Cancer is caused by mutations in a cells DNA. Though some of these mutations may be ... Types of environmental carcinogens. Infectious agents. Research indicates that 15 to 20 percent of worldwide cancer cases are ... Radon, a colorless, odorless, radioactive gas, is among the best studied of environmental carcinogens. It is found in soil and ...
... In the search for carcinogens, competing interests can complicate and compromise the ... and the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences to study "environmental and other potential risks contributing to ... "The really big environmental causes of cancer are things like being overweight, smoking and inactivity," says Walter Willett, ... In the previous issue, we discussed environmental causes of cancer-how they are identified and proven-and how study results are ...
Environmental and occupational carcinogens such as arsenic and cadmium are implicated in both epigenetic changes and ... As understanding of the epigenetic impact of environmental carcinogens increases, so will the potential for identifying ... For example, the environmental contaminant arsenic is known to cause repression of tumor suppressor genes via methylation and ... The epigenetic effects induced by environmental contaminants are implicated by these studies and others to have a significant ...
Why some are more susceptible to environmental carcinogens. UH News » Research » Why some are more…. ... The decrease of calcium makes cells more likely to become malignant when exposed to environmental carcinogens. ... sunlight and other environmental carcinogens. University of Hawaiʻi Cancer Center researchers also found that cancer cells with ...
About Environmental XPRT. Environmental XPRT is a global environmental industry marketplace and information resource. Online ... The Environmental Working Group (EWG) study, published in the journal Environmental Health, found that concentrations of ... No comments were found for Study Finds Carcinogens in CA Drinking Water. Be the first to comment! ... This time to raise awareness and take action is important as estimates from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) ...
... 1. Environmental Carcinogens. Over the past 100 years, there has been a significant rise in life ... Increased levels of exposure to a carcinogen carry with them an increased risk of developing cancer, a single exposure to a ... Environmental influences may already be factors in life expectancy and health in the United States. ... It is probable that a high proportion of human cancer, perhaps 60 to 90% is due to environmental causes. Cigarette smoke, ...
PubMed Central Canada (PMC Canada) provides free access to a stable and permanent online digital archive of full-text, peer-reviewed health and life sciences research publications. It builds on PubMed Central (PMC), the U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH) free digital archive of biomedical and life sciences journal literature and is a member of the broader PMC International (PMCI) network of e-repositories.
Earlier this month, the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services released the 14th Report on Carcinogens (RoC). It ... Identifying Environmental and Occupational Exposure Risks to Suspected Carcinogens in Puerto Rico. Zimmetry Environmental ... About Zimmetry Environmental Since 2002, Zimmetry Environmental has been providing environmental consulting services to ... To learn more about Zimmetry Environmental and their occupational, industrial hygiene, environmental, air quality, compliance ...
Children and Increased Susceptibility to Environmental Carcinogens. Evidence or Empathy?. Christopher Paul Wild and Jos ... Children and Increased Susceptibility to Environmental Carcinogens Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you from ... Another parameter expected to modulate the effects of exposure to an environmental carcinogen is DNA repair. Changes in DNA ... However, specifically in relation to environmental carcinogens what is the evidence that children are at higher risk than ...
Environmental carcinogens can induce specific genetic and epigenetic alterations in lung tissue, leading to aberrant function ... The etiology of these tumors has been largely associated with exposure to well-established environmental lung carcinogens such ... It also summarizes the main protein-coding and non-coding genes affected by exposure to these environmental agents, and the ... Exposure to environmental carcinogens, such as arsenic, asbestos, and radon will play a key role in their etiology. Further ...
About Environmental XPRT. Environmental XPRT is a global environmental industry marketplace and information resource. Online ... Zimmetry Environmental provides indoor air quality (IAQ) testing services to help identify known carcinogens to protect ... To learn more about Zimmetry Environmental and their indoor air quality, environmental, industrial hygiene and compliance ... No comments were found for Lung Cancer Awareness Month in Puerto Rico and Identifying Airborne Carcinogens. Be the first to ...
Occupational exposure to carcinogens in the European Union Message subject: (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you from ... Your Name) thought you would like to see this page from the Occupational & Environmental Medicine web site. ...
... environmental tobacco smoke at work). The contribution of these environmental factors was almost half out of 42 million ... On the other hand, the figures for solar radiation and environmental tobacco smoke would have been still higher if short term ... Of these at least 22 million were exposed to agents classified as definite human carcinogens by the IARC. Substantial parts of ... The numbers of workers exposed to known or suspected carcinogens generated by the CAREX system and the network of national ...
Environmental Protection Agencys Class A Carcinogens. The EPA considers Class A carcinogens as pollutants with adequate human ... Class B2 carcinogens have limited to no human data, but sufficient animal data to indicate its potential to cause cancer. ... The Environmental Protection Agencys Integrated Risk Information System - list of non-cancer and cancer risk values for many ... Class B1 carcinogens have some human data and sufficient animal data to indicate its potential to cause cancer. ...
Interactions between retroviruses and environmental carcinogens and their role in animal and human leukemogenesis.. Aboud M1, ...
Known and Suspected Carcinogens. The following chemicals are known or suspected carcinogens. This list has been compiled from a ... CUNY Central Environmental, Health, Safety and Risk Management (CUNY eHSRM). *Risk Management - Emergency Management - Business ... Environmental Compliance & Pollution Prevention Guide for Small Quantity Generators. *Lehman College Universal Waste Management ... However, users should treat the materials listed with the caution due to suspected carcinogens, and gather as much safety data ...
... coal power disease environmental health EPA / Environmental Protection Agency failure of government fish fish / fishing food ... U.S. EPA [Environmental Protection Agency] published a report in 1998. saying that 100% of the outdoor air in the continental U ... All eight are carcinogens, that is, they are known to cause. cancer: bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate; benzene; carbon tetrachloride ... for a Threshold," ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH Vol. 65 (1994), pgs. 42-55.. And see: Herbert L. Needleman and Constantine A. Gastonis ...
Initiatives in Environmental Health Science Explore Initiatives in Environmental Health Science *Chemical Spill in West ... Interagency Breast Cancer & Environmental Research Coordinating Committee. *National Advisory Environmental Health Sciences ... The vision of NIEHS is to use environmental health sciences to understand human disease and improve human health. Use the ... If you are giving a presentation about an environmental health topic or just looking for general information about ...
Carcinogen found in childrens products. Dec 6, 2012jmiles. Source: San Francisco Chronicle Stephanie M. Lee. December 6, 2012 ... Last year, California added it to its list of carcinogens, meaning that products with a certain level of the chemical must ... The Center for Environmental Health in Oakland said Thursday it is taking legal action against major national retailers, ... But a growing number of studies, including the Center for Environmental Healths, show that chlorinated Tris and other flame ...
Position Statement: Environmental Carcinogens & Health. Submitted by admin on Jul 17, 2008, 12:00am Recognizing the adverse ... This action plan sets targets for various risks, including occupational and environmental carcinogens. Organizations such as ... including environmental carcinogens). RNAO will also continue to support provincial and municipal right-to-know initiatives. ... in environmental carcinogens.. *Greatly strengthened regulation that: obliges users, manufacturers, and importers of substances ...
Environmental Research On the subject. Medical and Health Sciences Search outside of DiVA. GoogleGoogle Scholar. ... Chemicals related to environmental pollution appear to be of critical importance, since they can induce occupational cancers as ... 2007 (English)In: Environmental Research, ISSN 0013-9351, E-ISSN 1096-0953, Vol. 105, no 3, p. 414-429Article in journal ( ... In order to propose the concept that in addition to lifestyle related factors, exogenous environmental factors may play a more ...
While it is difficult to determine the exact significance of exposure to environmental carcinogens - due to the sheer volume of ... To his credit, the president has worked to make progress against some specific types of environmental carcinogens, like cutting ... Tell President Obama: Implement the recommendations of the Presidents Cancer Panel to get tough on environmental carcinogens. ... Tell President Obama: Implement the recommendations of the Presidents Cancer Panel to get tough on environmental carcinogens. ...
Flawed US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Analysis Rejects Finding that Glyphosate Is a Probable Carcinogen. By Center ... The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency today released controversial analyses that rely heavily on industry studies to ... contradicts a 2015 World Health Organization analysis of published research that determined glyphosate is a probable carcinogen ...
Green tea catechin extract in intervention of chronic breast cell carcinogenesis induced by environmental carcinogens.. Rathore ... Green Tea Catechin Extract in Intervention of Chronic Breast Cell Carcinogenesis Induced by Environmental Carcinogens ... Green Tea Catechin Extract in Intervention of Chronic Breast Cell Carcinogenesis Induced by Environmental Carcinogens ... Green Tea Catechin Extract in Intervention of Chronic Breast Cell Carcinogenesis Induced by Environmental Carcinogens ...
Interactions between environmental carcinogen exposure and genetic polymorphisms in human esophageal carcinogenesis. Zemin Wang ... Interactions between environmental carcinogen exposure and genetic polymorphisms in human esophageal carcinogenesis ... Interactions between environmental carcinogen exposure and genetic polymorphisms in human esophageal carcinogenesis ... Interactions between environmental carcinogen exposure and genetic polymorphisms in human esophageal carcinogenesis ...
The California Environmental Protection Agencys Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment (OEHHA) is the lead agency ... Environmental Resource Centers Hazardous Waste Training is available at nationwide locations, and via live webcasts. If you ... Environmental Resource Center may also distribute various newsletters or advertisements to you. You can subscribe and ... Environmental Resource Center may occasionally share your mailing address with pre-screened companies who offer relevant ...
WHO SHOULD ATTEND: lawyers with an interest in environmental and occupational exposure, advocates for environmental/ ... CAREX (CARcinogen EXposure) Canada is a national surveillance project that estimates which known and suspected carcinogens ... Media Release, Public Legal Educationcarcinogens, occupational health and safety (OHS), webinar Post navigation. Previous Entry ... CAREX Canada and CELA Webinar on June 10th: Looking at exposures to carcinogens in legal and advocacy contexts. by Robert Huff ...
Home » California tightens rules on popular pesticide - and carcinogen - Telone. October 6, 2016. California tightens rules on ... The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency does not limit annual use of Telone, and California is the only state to restrict how ... Tags: cancer, carcinogen, dow-chemical, food, fruit, laws, pesticide, produce, telone, vegetables ... Telone came under fire recently when the Oakland-based Center for Environmental Health sued its maker, Dow Agro-Sciences. The ...
Identification and quantification of DNA adducts in the oral tissues of mice treated with the environmental carcinogen dibenzo[ ... Identification and quantification of DNA adducts in the oral tissues of mice treated with the environmental carcinogen dibenzo[ ... Identification and quantification of DNA adducts in the oral tissues of mice treated with the environmental carcinogen dibenzo[ ... Identification and quantification of DNA adducts in the oral tissues of mice treated with the environmental carcinogen dibenzo[ ...
When chemical or biological agents are being used and there is not another means of protection, respirators can provide an effective method to protect and clean the air we breathe. Respirators come in many shapes and sizes that cover a wide variety of applications. They may be used to filter out many different chemicals and [...]. ...
  • Earlier this month, the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services released the 14th Report on Carcinogens (RoC). (
  • The 11th Report on Carcinogens (2005) of the National Toxicology Program lists agents, chemical substances, mixtures or exposure circumstances known to be human carcinogens. (
  • The National Toxicology Program has listed environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure as a workplace carcinogen in its Tenth Annual Report on Carcinogens ( 1 ). (
  • These sixteen chemicals have been classified by the National Toxicology Program (NTP) in their Report on Carcinogens (RoC) as ''reasonably anticipated to be a human carcinogen. (
  • The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services' 12th Report on Carcinogens, released June 2011, includes 8 new substances: industrial chemical formaldehyde and a botanical known as aristolochic acids, as well as captafol, cobalt-tungsten carbide, certain inhalable glass wool fibers, o-nitrotoluene, riddelliine, and styrene. (
  • however, substances labeled as carcinogens have varying levels of cancer-causing potential. (
  • Many other environmental substances are potentially carcinogenic and under study to determine their level of cancer-causing potential. (
  • CAREX (CARcinogen EXposure) Canada is a national surveillance project that estimates which known and suspected carcinogens Canadians are exposed to, where in Canada such exposures may occur, and which substances pose the greatest hazard in workplaces and communities. (
  • Carcinogen testing is an easy and quick way to determine dangerous levels of cancer-causing substances in your building. (
  • Carcinogens include both naturally occurring and artificially produced chemicals, ultraviolet light, and radioactive substances such as radon (a radioactive gas that is present in rock). (
  • The lists do not include substances that have been classified as possible carcinogens, for which the evidence is not as strong. (
  • Substances and exposures that can lead to cancer are called carcinogens . (
  • Substances labeled as carcinogens can have different levels of cancer-causing potential. (
  • Carcinogens, reproductive toxins, and chemicals with high acute toxicity are considered to be high-risk materials and are classified by OSHA as " Particularly Hazardous Substances . (
  • In many cases, these suspect carcinogens are regulated by the OSHA Lab Standard as carcinogens, and in all cases, steps must be implemented to minimize exposure to these substances (see "Working with Particularly Hazardous Substances" below). (
  • A listing of several common laboratory chemicals that are known carcinogens, reproductive toxins, or which have high acute toxicity is provided to assist laboratory workers in identifying particularly hazardous substances. (
  • The Writ petition is about the unrestricted commercial availability of many substances which are labelled as Group 1 (Class A) or Group 2A/2B Carcinogens (Sure-shot Cancer causing agents) by the WHO IARC (International Agency. (
  • Several radioactive substances are considered carcinogens, but their carcinogenic activity is attributed to the radiation, for example gamma rays and alpha particles, which they emit. (
  • In pursuing its mandated responsibilities, the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) must address public health concerns associated with exposure to carcinogens in the context of all available relevant information. (
  • The Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) pursues a range of legislatively mandated programs that address public health concerns regarding carcinogens. (
  • This means individuals must do their best to protect themselves and their children (who are more susceptible to damage from environmental carcinogens) from exposure to known cancer-causing substances. (
  • Know what substances are carcinogens and stay away from them. (
  • Zimmetry Environmental provides testing and consulting services to detect exposure hazards to possible carcinogens throughout the Caribbean. (
  • A culture of a strain of Salmonella bacteria that lacks an enzyme needed for growth is exposed to possible carcinogens. (
  • The download dna replication damage from environmental carcinogens you hunger Controlled presented an Poster: nature cannot finish been. (
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  • industrial slow download dna replication damage from environmental carcinogens predictions scattered on 23Amendment much errors. (
  • The following chemicals are known or suspected carcinogens. (
  • U.S. EPA [Environmental Protection Agency] published a report in 1998 saying that 100% of the outdoor air in the continental U.S. is contaminated with eight cancer-causing industrial chemicals at levels that exceed EPA's "benchmark" safety standards. (
  • Chemicals related to environmental pollution appear to be of critical importance, since they can induce occupational cancers as well as other cancers. (
  • Non-hereditary factors - covering everything from nutrition and physical activity, to carcinogens like tobacco smoke, toxics, chemicals and pollutants - account for an estimated 75 - 80 percent of cancer diagnosis and death. (
  • The Carcinogen Identification Committee (CIC) advises and assists OEHHA in compiling the list of chemicals known to the state to cause cancer as required by Health and Safety Code section 25249.8. (
  • Rely on professional carcinogen testing to uncover the hidden sources of cancer-causing chemicals around you. (
  • About 23 chemicals have been identified as carcinogens in humans, with many more shown to cause cancer in laboratory animals. (
  • In addition, various chemicals used in industrial processes, such as vinyl chloride and certain dyes, are known human carcinogens. (
  • Many other environmental chemicals and factors have been suggested to be carcinogenic. (
  • In addition to chemicals classified as known carcinogens, there are many chemicals classified as "suspect carcinogens" since they show carcinogenic activity under certain circumstances but do not demonstrate unequivocal evidence of an increased risk of cancer in humans. (
  • In a landmark study published in 2007 in Environmental Factors in Breast Cancer , a supplement issue of Cancer, researchers at Silent Spring identified 216 chemicals that cause mammary tumors in animals. (
  • Co-carcinogens are chemicals that do not necessarily cause cancer on their own, but promote the activity of other carcinogens in causing cancer. (
  • Environmental toxins are cancer-causing chemicals and endocrine disruptors, both human-made and naturally occurring, that can harm our health by disrupting sensitive biological systems. (
  • advisory report to President Obama (release in May 2010, by the U.S. Presidents Cancer Council, "Reducing Environmental Cancer Risk: What We Can Do Now") the authors have made a 'call to action' for more research on the more than 80,000 chemicals that we are exposed to in our daily lives. (
  • Nevertheless, awareness of the chemicals in your environmental and reducing your exposure to them is the best policy. (
  • Other environmental factors, such as chemicals and radiation, are carcinogens as well. (
  • These guidelines will help us apply the most up-to-date science and to incorporate new science as it becomes available in assessing the risks associated with environmental exposures to carcinogens,' said Acting Assistant Administrator for the Office of Research and Development Tim Oppelt. (
  • This framework reflects an assessment of current practice within the Agency and defines the appropriate roles of conclusions derived by other groups, professional judgment, and emerging scientific principles in ATSDR's public health assessments of exposures to carcinogens. (
  • Effects of Carcinogens, Mutagens, and Teratogens on Non-human Species (Aquatic Animals). (
  • Studies were conducted of aquatic systems and organisms both under field and laboratory conditions to develop indicator, screening, and modeling capabilities for the detection and evaluation of carcinogens, mutagens, and teratogens. (
  • Atherosclerosis is associated with DNA damage in both circulating and vessel-wall cells and DNA adducts derived from exposure to environmental mutagens are abundant in atherosclerotic vessels. (
  • Environmental physical mutagens, including ionizing radiation, are a risk factor for atherosclerosis even at the low exposure dose occurring in case of occupational exposure or the high exposure doses occurring during radiotherapy. (
  • Note: In general, polymers are not known as carcinogens or mutagens, however, residual monomers or additives can cause genetic mutations. (
  • Being aware of and reducing your exposure to carcinogens can reduce your risk of developing cancer. (
  • Diesel exhaust, a contributor to air pollution, has been classified as an environmental carcinogen and is most associated with an increased risk of lung cancer. (
  • Check with the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and American Cancer Society for more information. (
  • For example, the environmental contaminant arsenic is known to cause repression of tumor suppressor genes via methylation and to drive global DNA hypomethylation, a phenomenon frequently associated with cancer. (
  • The Environmental Working Group (EWG) study, published in the journal Environmental Health, found that concentrations of contaminants in California public water systems may contribute to approximately 15,500 cancer cases in the state over a lifetime. (
  • Increased levels of exposure to a carcinogen carry with them an increased risk of developing cancer, a single exposure to a chemical may also result in a cancer. (
  • It is probable that a high proportion of human cancer, perhaps 60 to 90% is due to environmental causes. (
  • Environmental carcinogens can induce specific genetic and epigenetic alterations in lung tissue, leading to aberrant function of lung cancer oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes. (
  • It also summarizes the main protein-coding and non-coding genes affected by exposure to these environmental agents, and the underlying molecular mechanisms promoting their deregulation in lung cancer. (
  • Sadly, many people do not know they have developed lung cancer until the late stages of the disease," said Harry Pena, President of Zimmetry Environmental. (
  • As a part of a European project on the estimation of the burden of occupational cancer in Europe, 1 an international group of experts was established to provide documented estimates of the number of workers in the European Union (EU) exposed to carcinogens by country, agent, and industry. (
  • The EPA considers Class A carcinogens as pollutants with adequate human data indicating the chemical causes cancer in people. (
  • Class B1 carcinogens have some human data and sufficient animal data to indicate its potential to cause cancer. (
  • Among the exogenous cancer-causing environmental contaminants are polycyclic aromatic compounds that are byproducts of fossil fuel combustion found at toxic waste dumps and superfund sites, in airborne particulates, and in our food and water. (
  • In order to propose the concept that in addition to lifestyle related factors, exogenous environmental factors may play a more important role in carcinogenesis than it is expected, and may therefore account for the growing incidence of cancer, we overview herein environmental factors, rated as certainly or potentially carcinogenic by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). (
  • If you want to do everything in your power to cure cancer, it's time to take steps to follow the 2010 recommendations of the President's Cancer Panel, to get tough on environmental carcinogens. (
  • The president has largely failed to act on the findings of a 2010 report entitled "Reducing the Environmental Cancer Risk" by the President's Cancer Panel. (
  • The president can't fight cancer without finally taking seriously these recommendations, and the harm caused by environmental carcinogens. (
  • Tell President Obama: Implement the recommendations of the President's Cancer Panel to get tough on environmental carcinogens. (
  • The President's Cancer Panel found that "U.S. regulation of environmental contaminants is rendered ineffective" by factors including insufficient agency funds, weak regulations, inconsistent enforcement, and industry influence. (
  • The EPA review, which ignored the agency's own guidelines for assessing cancer risks, contradicts a 2015 World Health Organization analysis of published research that determined glyphosate is a probable carcinogen. (
  • June 5, 2015 - Monsanto's toxic weed-killer Roundup has been declared a carcinogen (cancer-causing chemical) by the Working Environmental Authority in Denmark. (
  • The review included exposure to environmental agents carcinogenic to humans (International Agency for Research on Cancer classification), as well as lifestyle factors known to affect cancer risk. (
  • RÉSUMÉ Afin d'atteindre les objectifs de santé fixés par le pays pour 2011-2016, une analyse qualitative de l'exposition aux facteurs de risque de cancer au Qatar a été conduite en 2013. (
  • Les risques de cancer les plus élevés pour les Qatariens proviendraient de facteurs associés aux modes de vie, en particulier l'obésité, la sédentarité et le tabagisme. (
  • In this paper, Hardell and Carlberg reach the same conclusion as Miller et al 2018 that there is now sufficient evidence for the International Agency for Research on Cancer to categorize radiofrequency radiation as a Group 1 human carcinogen. (
  • Carcinogens are agents that exhibit the potential to cause cancer, and are classified by a number of organizations. (
  • In the first part of this series we discussed one of the causes of Dog Skin Cancer, which are Environmental Carcinogens. (
  • Here are 7 cancer-causing environmental carcinogens to watch out for. (
  • Carcinogens are any substance known to cause cancer. (
  • Carcinogens cause cancer by producing changes (or mutations) in the genetic material, or DNA, of a cell. (
  • It is not unusual for cancer to appear 20 to 25 years after initial exposure to a carcinogen. (
  • Sunlight is a well-known carcinogen that can cause changes in skin cells that may lead to skin cancer . (
  • One of the difficulties in determining cause is that many years may ensue between exposure to a carcinogen and the development of cancer. (
  • Approximately 30% of cancer deaths from environmental causes have been attributed to smoking and other uses of tobacco. (
  • Diesel engine exhaust is listed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, NIOSH and Occupational Safety and Health Administration as a potential cancer causing agent [3,4,5]. (
  • In general, the American Cancer Society does not determine if something causes cancer (that is, if it is a carcinogen ). (
  • To learn more about these agencies and how they study and classify cancer causes, see Determining if Something Is a Carcinogen . (
  • Carcinogens do not cause cancer at all times, under all circumstances. (
  • When a substance or exposure has been labeled a carcinogen, it means it has been studied extensively by researchers, and one or more agencies have evaluated the evidence and determined it to be a cause of cancer. (
  • Some carcinogens cause cancer by changing a cell's DNA. (
  • Carcinogens do not cause cancer in every case, all the time. (
  • And for any particular person, the risk of developing cancer depends on many factors, including how they are exposed to a carcinogen, the length and intensity of the exposure, and the person's genetic makeup. (
  • The State also fails to provide good healthcare facilities and compensation to the victims who afflict cancer due to exposure to such carcinogens at some point of time in their life. (
  • A compensatory mechanism should be evolved for the affected victims with proportional contributory/ equal liability of the organisation/ business trading in it and the State in case of continued use of any identified Carcinogens whenever it can be reasonably linked to the type of cancer suffered by a person who has any kind of exposure to such a cancer. (
  • Exposure of nonsmokers to environmental tobacco smoke results in increased risk for cancer and other diseases. (
  • Tasked by the WHO with evaluating potential causes of cancer, IARC conducts hazard evaluations of suspected carcinogens two to three times a year. (
  • Law360, Philadelphia (August 25, 2017, 6:57 PM EDT) -- A recent move by Pennsylvania environmental regulators to consider limiting the amount of a cancer-causing compound in drinking water supplies could put the state well ahead of peers in independently adopting such water quality rules, which have gained traction in the absence of formal guidance from the federal government. (
  • Further work is needed to obtain more reliable estimates of the risk of lung cancer associated with residential radon and on the cost-effectiveness of various intervention strategies before the most appropriate policies can be developed for managing exposure to this natural carcinogen. (
  • A carcinogen is any substance, radionuclide, or radiation that promotes carcinogenesis, the formation of cancer. (
  • Carcinogens may increase the risk of cancer by altering cellular metabolism or damaging DNA directly in cells, which interferes with biological processes, and induces the uncontrolled, malignant division, ultimately leading to the formation of tumors. (
  • The combustion of fossil fuels generates polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) that are ubiquitous and potentially cancer-causing environmental contaminants. (
  • Washington, D.C.-- 03/29/05) Two documents released today provide principles and procedures to guide EPA scientists assessing cancer risk from exposures to environmental pollutants. (
  • The documents, 'Guidelines for Carcinogen Risk Assessment (Cancer Guidelines),' and 'Supplemental Guidance for Assessing Susceptibility from Early-Life Exposure to Carcinogens (Supplemental Guidance)' reflect EPA's evolving approach to cancer risk assessment. (
  • In those materials, you will find an unflagging focus on awareness and getting mammograms, but you will probably not find any mention of environmental carcinogens or the need to find what causes or how to prevent breast cancer in the first place. (
  • The American Cancer Society feels that this report overstates the potential cancer-causing risks of environmental toxins. (
  • For years the Johnson County community has been told that everything was alright, and that their children with cancer were not specifically significant, but our data shows that this is not the case and that these environmental issues must be properly addressed," said Shannon Lisa, Project Director for Edison Wetlands Association (EWA). (
  • This information will be useful in biomarker studies of environmental human exposure, and will be especially useful for identifying individuals who, because of genetic polymorphisms, are of particular risk of developing cancer. (
  • The purpose of the ATSDR Cancer Policy Framework is to define scientifically credible, internally consistent policy positions to guide ATSDR's activities that address the public health implications of exposure to carcinogens. (
  • Any environmental factor that is capable of causing cancer is called a carcinogen. (
  • Some carcinogens are associated with specific types of cancer. (
  • Research on the environmental causes of cancer is limited, so researchers really don't fully know the consequences of cumulative lifetime exposure to known carcinogens or how specific environmental contaminants interact with each other. (
  • Reducing Environmental Cancer Risk. (
  • Carcinogens are things that cause cancer. (
  • People carrying mutations of a gene called BAP1 are much more susceptible to asbestos, sunlight and other environmental carcinogens. (
  • Exposure to PAHs is of particular concern as the compounds can cause DNA mutations and are known carcinogens. (
  • When carcinogens interact with DNA, they can cause genetic alterations, or mutations, which cells pass along as they divide. (
  • The first is that children are exposed to relatively higher exogenous doses of environmental toxins, i.e ., intakes are increased compared with adults. (
  • Environmental Defence is a charity that conducts research on the relationship between environment and health, and works to educate on how to avoid toxins in our homes and bodies. (
  • Why the silence about toxins and environmental carcinogens? (
  • Environmental toxins: How to protect yourself and your family. (
  • What are environmental toxins? (
  • While these three environmental toxins are well-known, this article will focus on the compounds that are ubiquitous in our environment, but aren't as well regulated. (
  • There is concern over its wide use as it has a great environmental impact and contains both toxins and carcinogens. (
  • The most common toxins in PVCs are phthalate plasticizers W and lead W . Phthalate plasticizers have risen a large amount of concern as DEHP W and DINP, the most common phthalates in PVC, have been listed as probable carcinogens by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. (
  • The lists below are from IARC and NTP, and more information on each of these known and probable human carcinogens can be found on their websites. (
  • Suspect carcinogens (check the IARC and NTP carcinogen lists above) should be handled using these procedures when using toxicologically significant quantities or under conditions with increased likelihood of exposure (such as, generation of vapor or aerosol outside of a laboratory hood, or when skin contact is likely). (
  • A carcinogen is a substance that causes a normal cell to change into a cancerous cell, resulting in uncontrolled cell growth. (
  • Potential occupational carcinogen" means any substance, which causes an increased incidence of neoplasm, or a substantial decrease in the latency period between exposure and onset of neoplasm in humans or in animals as the result of exposure resulting in tumors. (
  • This definition also includes any substance that is metabolized into one or more potential occupational carcinogens by mammals. (
  • indoor air pollution by environmental tobacco smoke, formaldehyde and volatile organic compounds such as benzene and 1,3 butadiene, which may particularly affect children, and food pollution by food additives and by carcinogenic contaminants such as nitrates, pesticides, dioxins and other organochlorines. (
  • Please consider becoming a monthly donor to ensure CELA continues to be there to protect low-income and vulnerable populations from environmental pollution. (
  • Part II: "Prevention and Action" offers environmental health leadership training, including tools for working towards reducing toxic pollution from consumer products, and brainstorming ways to speak out about this issue in our communities. (
  • Earlier this year, award-winning science journalist Barbara Moran was the recipient of a Fund for Environmental Journalism grant for her proposal to produce articles examining the impact on environmental pollution and public health of industrial laundries in New England. (
  • Last year, California added it to its list of carcinogens, meaning that products with a certain level of the chemical must carry a warning label. (
  • Recognizing the adverse impact of exposure to environmental carcinogens on health, the Registered Nurses' Association of Ontario (RNAO) believes those exposures should be minimized. (
  • Sporadic breast cancers are mainly attributable to long-term exposure to environmental factors, via a multi-year, multi-step, and multi-path process of tumorigenesis involving cumulative genetic and epigenetic alterations in the chronic carcinogenesis of breast cells from a non-cancerous stage to precancerous and cancerous stages. (
  • This study described methods to predict human health risk associated with exposure to environmental carciongens using animal bioassay data. (
  • Aside from tobacco smoke, there are many other environmental pollutants that can also increase a person's risk of developing the disease. (
  • The most common exposures were solar radiation (9.1 million workers exposed at least 75% of working time), environmental tobacco smoke (7.5 million workers exposed at least 75% of working time), crystalline silica (3.2 million exposed), diesel exhaust (3.0 million), radon (2.7 million), and wood dust (2.6 million). (
  • A whole host of carcinogens exist in tobacco smoke. (
  • The N -Nitrosamine 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) is tobacco specific and has been shown to be a potent lung carcinogen ( 4 , 5 ). (
  • Common examples of non-radioactive carcinogens are inhaled asbestos, certain dioxins, and tobacco smoke. (
  • As far back as the 1930s, Industrial smoke and tobacco smoke were identified as sources of dozens of carcinogens, including benzo[a]pyrene, tobacco-specific nitrosamines such as nitrosonornicotine, and reactive aldehydes such as formaldehyde, which is also a hazard in embalming and making plastics. (
  • The etiology of these tumors has been largely associated with exposure to well-established environmental lung carcinogens such as radon, arsenic, and asbestos. (
  • Most recently, CAREX has worked with the Canadian Environmental Law Association (CELA) on their review of policy and law around radon exposure in Canadian homes and workplaces. (
  • Radon is a well-established lung carcinogen that has been extensively studied. (
  • Environmental and occupational carcinogens such as arsenic and cadmium are implicated in both epigenetic changes and carcinogenesis, but the mechanisms underlying this connection remain unclear. (
  • OBJECTIVES To construct a computer assisted information system for the estimation of the numbers of workers exposed to established and suspected human carcinogens in the member states of the European Union (EU). (
  • Interactions between retroviruses and environmental carcinogens and their role in animal and human leukemogenesis. (
  • NIEHS research uses state-of-the-art science and technology to investigate the interplay between environmental exposures, human biology, genetics, and common diseases to help prevent disease and improve human health. (
  • The vision of NIEHS is to use environmental health sciences to understand human disease and improve human health. (
  • The National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS) is expanding and accelerating its contributions to scientific knowledge of human health and the environment, and to the health and well-being of people everywhere. (
  • The human genome is under constant attack from environmental pollutants, endogenous reactive oxidizing species that are secreted in human tissues during the inflammatory response, and ultraviolet components of sunlight. (
  • As part of the REACH registration process, titanium dioxide (TiO2) was recently evaluated by the French government as a suspected human carcinogen. (
  • They conclude in their paper "that there is clear evidence that RF radiation is a human carcinogen, causing glioma and vestibular schwannoma (acoustic neuroma). (
  • In 2013, Hardell and Carlberg published the conclusion that RF radiation should be regarded as a human carcinogen, Group 1 according to the IARC definition as the scientific evidence fulfilled Bradford Hill causality criteria. (
  • Potential carcinogens identified in the laboratory using short term mutagenicity tests and animal bioassays must be confirmed as human carcinogens by well-conducted epidemiological studies. (
  • It also lists those reasonably anticipated to be human carcinogens. (
  • These lists include agents that have been classified as known and probable human carcinogens. (
  • The EPA recently concluded that the dry cleaning solvent perchloroethylene is likely a human carcinogen, but it s still being used. (
  • In a much-needed update to its 1988 assessment, the US-based Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) recently concluded that the dry cleaning solvent perchloroethylene (also known as perc and tetrachloroethylene) is likely a human carcinogen. (
  • The National Toxicology Program has classified vinyl fluoride as ''reasonably anticipated to be a human carcinogen. (
  • Vinyl fluoride is reasonably anticipated to be a human carcinogen based on sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity in experimental animals. (
  • The tumor responses of laboratory animals to vinyl fluoride are similar to their responses to vinyl chloride, a known human carcinogen (IARC 1987), and to vinyl bromide, a probable human carcinogen (IARC 1986). (
  • Peer reviewers agreed with the National Toxicology Program preliminary recommendations to list five viruses as known to be human carcinogens. (
  • However, BC incidence is also significantly higher in male animals than in their female counterparts after treatment with aromatic amines, which are principal human bladder carcinogens. (
  • For example, Thorotrast, a (incidentally radioactive) suspension previously used as a contrast medium in x-ray diagnostics, is a potent human carcinogen known because of its retention within various organs and persistent emission of alpha particles. (
  • The human nucleotide excision repair (NER) system represents a critically important first line of defense against bulky polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and other carcinogens that are ubiquitous in our urban and industrial environments. (
  • It is evident from many different experiments, that the human nucleotide excision repair (NER) apparatus first distinguishes structural DNA perturbations caused by bulky lesions derived from the reactions of metabolically activated environmental carcinogens that enter the human body. (
  • The results of this project will have ultimate translational identification by providing new information about DNA lesiosn that are resistant to DNA repair, thus providing important information about biomarkers of exposure of the human population to environmental carcinogens. (
  • One of the critical lines of defense of the human body to these environmental carcinogens is DNA repair, specifically by the nucleotide excision repair (NER) mechanism that deals with bulky DNA damage. (
  • Her focus areas are the impacts of toxics on human health, environmental justice in the Native American community, and Indigenous Peoples worldwide. (
  • It's published monthly by the U.S. National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, National Institutes of Health, Department of Health and Human Services, with select translations for subscribers in China, Brazil, Mexico and Chile. (
  • Many carcinogens are associated with human activity and lifestyle choices, including cigarette smoking, excessive alcohol use, poor diet, and lack of exercise. (
  • Nap mats, changing pads and crib mattress pads may be comfortable places for infants to rest, but some contain dangerous levels of a known carcinogen, a local watchdog group has found. (
  • Vinyl chloride W , a known carcinogen, is the main chemical used to make PVC. (
  • This presents concern for long term health effects proven to exists from extensive interaction with this known carcinogen. (
  • As understanding of the epigenetic impact of environmental carcinogens increases, so will the potential for identifying epigenetic biomarkers for toxicant exposure that could predict the risk for developing disease. (
  • The professionals at Zimmetry offer environmental compliance, indoor air quality, asbestos, lead-based paint, Phase I ESAs and general environmental consulting services. (
  • Contextualize this word based on the implications of the specific environmental exposure (e.g., lead, asbestos, etc. (
  • Aneuploidy, defined as structural and numerical aberrations of chromosomes, continues to draw attention as an informative effect biomarker for carcinogens and male reproductive toxicants. (
  • Your Search: (SUBJECT=Carcinogens Environmental Congresses. (
  • For further information see 29CFR1910.1990, ACGIH Threshold Limit Values and Biological Exposure Indices, NTP Annual Report of Carcinogens, or IARC Directory of Agents Being Tested for Carcinogenicity. (
  • It is a Class 1 carcinogen according to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and may cause reproductive, developmental, hormone or immune system problems [6] . (
  • Carcinogens are present in and around your home and workplace, and are often related to lifestyle. (
  • In other words, EPA believes that being inside your home or workplace does not protect you from constant exposure to these eight carcinogens. (
  • Protect your home and workplace with carcinogen testing through the experienced team at Benchmark Environmental Consulting in San Jose, California. (
  • Green tea catechin extract in intervention of chronic breast cell carcinogenesis induced by environmental carcinogens. (
  • In our research, we have developed a cellular model that mimics breast cell carcinogenesis chronically induced by cumulative exposures to low doses of environmental carcinogens. (
  • Thus, GTC may be used in dietary and chemoprevention of breast cell carcinogenesis associated with long-term exposure to low doses of environmental carcinogens. (
  • California's Environmental Protection Agency's Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment (OEHHA) has selected Acetaminophen for the CIC's review for possible listing under Proposition 65. (
  • Hazard identification materials for acetaminophen will be presented at a future meeting of the Carcinogen Identification Committee (CIC) for consideration of listing under Proposition 65. (
  • The California Environmental Protection Agency's Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment (OEHHA) is the lead agency for the implementation of the Safe Drinking Water and Toxic Enforcement Act of 1986 (known as Proposition 65). (
  • Vinyl chloride, from which PVC is manufactured, is a carcinogen and thus a hazard in PVC production. (
  • CERCLA identifies all radionuclides as carcinogens, although the nature of the emitted radiation (alpha, beta, gamma, or neutron and the radioactive strength), its consequent capacity to cause ionization in tissues, and the magnitude of radiation exposure, determine the potential hazard. (
  • The seed and agrochemicals company said it filed the suit against the state's Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment (OEHHA) and the agency's acting director, Lauren Zeise, in California state court, according to the filing seen by Reuters. (
  • The limited data on occupational exposure suggests that the greatest risks for workers in the construction industry are likely to be from environmental dust and related air pollutants. (
  • The guidelines are prospective only and will apply to the agency's current and future risk assessments of environmental pollutants. (
  • The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency today released controversial analyses that rely heavily on industry studies to conclude that glyphosate poses no significant risks to humans. (
  • Want to find out more information about environmental health risks, or about EHT's current efforts and projects? (
  • In addition to improving the school's physical environment and minimizing potential health risks, school environmental health programs help local communities, schools, and school districts make healthy, safe, and cost-effective choices that address each school's environmental health priorities. (
  • it is more potent than numerous classical mammary carcinogens such as benzo[a]pyrene (BaP). (
  • This study examined the uptake of nicotine and 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK), a potent lung carcinogen, in nonsmokers who work in restaurants and bars that permitted smoking. (
  • Aflatoxin B1, which is produced by the fungus Aspergillus flavus growing on stored grains, nuts and peanut butter, is an example of a potent, naturally occurring microbial carcinogen. (
  • Environmental influences may already be factors in life expectancy and health in the United States. (
  • The WHO Task Force for the Protection of Children's Environmental Health declared in its Bangkok statement that "children are not little adults. (
  • The Third European Ministerial Conference on Environment and Health, held in London in 1999, emphasized the importance of protecting children from undesirable environmental exposures in stating: "We recognize the special vulnerability of children and commit to develop policies and actions to achieve a safe environment in which children can develop to their highest attainable level of health. (
  • However, the apparent scientific corollary to this position is that children are particularly or even uniquely vulnerable to environmental health hazards, i.e ., that the consequences of exposure in children are more severe than the consequences in adults. (
  • Zimmetry Environmental provides indoor air quality (IAQ) testing services to help identify known carcinogens to protect people's health. (
  • A first version of an exposure information system called CAREX (carcinogen exposure) was constructed by the Finnish Institute of Occupational Health (FIOH) to support the estimation process. (
  • If you are giving a presentation about an environmental health topic or just looking for general information about environmental health research or the institute, this page will help. (
  • NIEHS is committed to conducting the most rigorous research in environmental health sciences, and to communicating the results of this research to the public. (
  • NIEHS offers a broad range of job opportunities, career enhancement programs, and research training grants and programs in environmental health sciences and administration. (
  • The Center for Environmental Health in Oakland said Thursday it is taking legal action against major national retailers, including Toys R Us, Target and Walmart , to force them to stop selling foam products that contain levels of chlorinated Tris that exceed those permitted by California law. (
  • The companies were among nine that last month received legal notices, the first step in a lawsuit, from the Center for Environmental Health. (
  • RNAO supports this stance and works with CNA on environmental and health issues. (
  • The ICN also has position statements on reducing environmental and lifestyle-related health hazards and on occupational health and safety for nurses. (
  • and theintegration of environmental health principles into nursing education, practice, research, advocacy and policy development. (
  • At the same time, international nursing associations spell out very broad expectations on nurses regarding environmental health. (
  • CAREX Canada's estimates have helped occupational health advocates to better understand how a worker in a particular industry, such as agriculture or printing, might be exposed to carcinogens on the job. (
  • Telone came under fire recently when the Oakland-based Center for Environmental Health sued its maker, Dow Agro-Sciences. (
  • Use this thesaurus to help you write about environmental health using plain language. (
  • For each environmental health term, you'll see a tip, recommended alternative, and example sentence. (
  • The results of this study show that smoke exposure in bars and restaurants may have important health effects on nonsmoking employees, elicited by the increase in carcinogen levels. (
  • The National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS) has funded research that's helped scientists better understand how the poisons work, how they affect the body, and how the body might protect itself. (
  • International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. (
  • Monday afternoon, Mayor Barnett's office put out a statement that said the mayor would be meeting with he Indiana Department of Environmental Management, and the Indiana State Department of Health this week to discuss the testing results. (
  • What is a School Environmental Health Program? (
  • A school environmental health program is a holistic, comprehensive, and actionable strategy that integrates preventive measures and addresses environmental health issues by fostering well-maintained school buildings and grounds. (
  • Sustainable school environmental health programs promote environments that are conducive to learning and protect the health of building occupants. (
  • Although no single program model must be followed in establishing a school environmental health program, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) Tools for Schools program framework and technical solutions have been widely adopted by schools and school districts over the past 15 years. (
  • For the tens of thousands of schools familiar with the IAQ Tools for Schools framework and technical solutions, IAQ Tools for Schools is a logical platform from which many school environmental health issues can be tackled. (
  • EPA encourages states, schools, and school districts to use the IAQ Tools for Schools framework and the model program that follows to identify actions and resources that might be of use to schools for building or further strengthening their school environmental health programs. (
  • The following model program provides guidance for schools and school districts that are beginning to develop, or are strengthening, a school environmental health program, including the key steps for implementing a program and practical actions that schools can take to address a wide range of environmental issues. (
  • The model program also includes examples of how schools have approached environmental health issues and links to other valuable resources to help schools develop comprehensive school environmental health programs. (
  • School environmental health programs should be dynamic and need to evolve as schools and school districts identify new priorities, set new goals, and balance existing resources. (
  • A number of states have regulations, policies, and guidance that address key environmental health issues in schools, including green cleaning, chemical management, indoor air quality, and integrated pest management. (
  • The environmental and occupational exposure experts at Zimmetry offer testing and monitoring services for cobalt, cobalt compounds and a wide range of other potentially hazardous materials for clients in Puerto Rico and throughout the Caribbean. (
  • In Puerto Rico and throughout the Caribbean, Zimmetry Environmental provides air quality testing and industrial hygiene services to identify and mitigate respirable hazards in residential, commercial, industrial and institutional environments. (
  • We compared mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells and fibroblasts (MEFs) for their ability to metabolically activate the environmental carcinogens benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), 3-nitrobenzanthrone (3-NBA) and aristolochic acid I (AAI), measuring DNA adduct formation by (32)P-postlabelling and expression of xenobiotic-metabolism genes by quantitative real-time PCR. (
  • It is striking that several carcinogens induce aneuploidy in somatic cells, and also adversely affect the chromosome compliment of germ cells. (
  • The burning of coal as it's used as a heat source causes the release of formaldehyde, another carcinogen. (
  • To further investigate the role of the environmental and genetic factors in the formation of ESCC in this endemic area, in this study we focused on inflammation pathway and interactions between gene-gene and gene-environment. (
  • In the wake of actions taken on August 5, 2015 by contractors for the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) that resulted in the Gold King Mine Spill, western states that rely on water from the Animas River, the. (
  • In this project, a systematic approach towards solving this problem is proposed that will identify the kind of carcinogen-DNA lesions that are poorly repaired by NER mechanisms. (
  • Benzene is a carcinogen, and the other compounds can damage the nervous system. (
  • Now researchers have measured how much firefighters' exposure to carcinogens and other harmful compounds increases when fighting fires. (
  • METHODS A database called CAREX (carcinogen exposure) was designed to provide selected exposure data and documented estimates of the number of workers exposed to carcinogens by country, carcinogen, and industry. (
  • 1 The premise behind this principle is that children have an exceptional vulnerability to both the acute and chronic effects of environmental hazards and that they are disproportionately susceptible by comparison with adults. (
  • There is an almost intuitive recognition that children, as vulnerable members of society, merit special attention and protection with respect to environmental hazards. (
  • The EPA continues allowing oil and gas companies to engage in fracking - injecting a secret cocktail of toxic ingredients, including known carcinogens, thousands of feet underground, posing a massive and ill-understood risk of long-term groundwater contamination. (
  • Although risk varies depending on the specific conditions of use, the procedures described in this section are generally required when handling any chemical that is a carcinogen or highly acutely toxic. (
  • However, in some cases, these reactions can also convert a less toxic carcinogen into a more toxic carcinogen. (