Substances that increase the risk of NEOPLASMS in humans or animals. Both genotoxic chemicals, which affect DNA directly, and nongenotoxic chemicals, which induce neoplasms by other mechanism, are included.
A class of compounds that contain a -NH2 and a -NO radical. Many members of this group have carcinogenic and mutagenic properties.
A hepatic carcinogen whose mechanism of activation involves N-hydroxylation to the aryl hydroxamic acid followed by enzymatic sulfonation to sulfoxyfluorenylacetamide. It is used to study the carcinogenicity and mutagenicity of aromatic amines.
A potent mutagen and carcinogen. It is a public health concern because of its possible effects on industrial workers, as an environmental pollutant, an as a component of tobacco smoke.
Chemical agents that increase the rate of genetic mutation by interfering with the function of nucleic acids. A clastogen is a specific mutagen that causes breaks in chromosomes.
A class of chemicals that contain an anthracene ring with a naphthalene ring attached to it.
The products of chemical reactions that result in the addition of extraneous chemical groups to DNA.
Tests to experimentally measure the tumor-producing/cancer cell-producing potency of an agent by administering the agent (e.g., benzanthracenes) and observing the quantity of tumors or the cell transformation developed over a given period of time. The carcinogenicity value is usually measured as milligrams of agent administered per tumor developed. Though this test differs from the DNA-repair and bacterial microsome MUTAGENICITY TESTS, researchers often attempt to correlate the finding of carcinogenicity values and mutagenicity values.
An alkylating agent that forms DNA ADDUCTS at the C-8 position in GUANINE, resulting in single strand breaks. It has demonstrated carcinogenic action.
7,12-Dimethylbenzanthracene. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon found in tobacco smoke that is a potent carcinogen.
Tests of chemical substances and physical agents for mutagenic potential. They include microbial, insect, mammalian cell, and whole animal tests.
A nitrosourea compound with alkylating, carcinogenic, and mutagenic properties.
The combination of two or more different factors in the production of cancer.
Biphenyl compounds substituted in any position by one or more amino groups. Permitted are any substituents except fused rings.
A potent mutagen and carcinogen. This compound and its metabolite 4-HYDROXYAMINOQUINOLINE-1-OXIDE bind to nucleic acids. It inactivates bacteria but not bacteriophage.
7,8,8a,9a-Tetrahydrobenzo(10,11)chryseno (3,4-b)oxirene-7,8-diol. A benzopyrene derivative with carcinogenic and mutagenic activity.
The chemical alteration of an exogenous substance by or in a biological system. The alteration may inactivate the compound or it may result in the production of an active metabolite of an inactive parent compound. The alterations may be divided into METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE I and METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE II.
Four fused benzyl rings with three linear and one angular, that can be viewed as a benzyl-phenanthrenes. Compare with NAPHTHACENES which are four linear rings.
A nitrosoguanidine derivative with potent mutagenic and carcinogenic properties.
Experimentally induced new abnormal growth of TISSUES in animals to provide models for studying human neoplasms.
Compounds consisting of two or more fused ring structures.
A nitrosamine derivative with alkylating, carcinogenic, and mutagenic properties. It causes serious liver damage and is a hepatocarcinogen in rodents.
A very potent liver carcinogen.
A reagent used mainly to induce experimental liver cancer. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, p. 89) published in 1985, this compound "may reasonably be anticipated to be a carcinogen." (Merck, 11th ed)
A family of diphenylenemethane derivatives.
Experimentally induced tumors of the LIVER.
A potent hepatotoxic and hepatocarcinogenic mycotoxin produced by the Aspergillus flavus group of fungi. It is also mutagenic, teratogenic, and causes immunosuppression in animals. It is found as a contaminant in peanuts, cottonseed meal, corn, and other grains. The mycotoxin requires epoxidation to aflatoxin B1 2,3-oxide for activation. Microsomal monooxygenases biotransform the toxin to the less toxic metabolites aflatoxin M1 and Q1.
A N-hydroxylated derivative of 2-ACETYLAMINOFLUORENE that has demonstrated carcinogenic action.
1,2-Benzphenanthrenes. POLYCYCLIC COMPOUNDS obtained from coal tar.
Quinolines substituted in any position by one or more nitro groups.
A nitrosamine derivative with alkylating, carcinogenic, and mutagenic properties.
A carcinogen that is often used in experimental cancer studies.
Hydrazines substituted with two methyl groups in any position.
Cell changes manifested by escape from control mechanisms, increased growth potential, alterations in the cell surface, karyotypic abnormalities, morphological and biochemical deviations from the norm, and other attributes conferring the ability to invade, metastasize, and kill.
A transferase that catalyzes the addition of aliphatic, aromatic, or heterocyclic FREE RADICALS as well as EPOXIDES and arene oxides to GLUTATHIONE. Addition takes place at the SULFUR. It also catalyzes the reduction of polyol nitrate by glutathione to polyol and nitrite.
Agents that reduce the frequency or rate of spontaneous or induced tumors independently of the mechanism involved.
Pathological processes that tend eventually to become malignant. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
Benzopyrenes saturated in any two adjacent positions and substituted with two hydroxyl groups in any position. The majority of these compounds have carcinogenic or mutagenic activity.
Furano-furano-benzopyrans that are produced by ASPERGILLUS from STERIGMATOCYSTIN. They are structurally related to COUMARINS and easily oxidized to an epoxide form to become ALKYLATING AGENTS. Members of the group include AFLATOXIN B1; aflatoxin B2, aflatoxin G1, aflatoxin G2; AFLATOXIN M1; and aflatoxin M2.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
Antineoplastic agent that is also used as a veterinary anesthetic. It has also been used as an intermediate in organic synthesis. Urethane is suspected to be a carcinogen.
A major group of unsaturated cyclic hydrocarbons containing two or more rings. The vast number of compounds of this important group, derived chiefly from petroleum and coal tar, are rather highly reactive and chemically versatile. The name is due to the strong and not unpleasant odor characteristic of most substances of this nature. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed, p96)
Tumors or cancer of the LUNG.
A DNA alkylating agent that has been shown to be a potent carcinogen and is widely used to induce colon tumors in experimental animals.
A potent carcinogen and neurotoxic compound. It is particularly effective in inducing colon carcinomas.
An enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of acetyl groups from ACETYL-COA to arylamines. It can also catalyze acetyl transfer between arylamines without COENZYME A and has a wide specificity for aromatic amines, including SEROTONIN. However, arylamine N-acetyltransferase should not be confused with the enzyme ARYLALKYLAMINE N-ACETYLTRANSFERASE which is also referred to as SEROTONIN ACETYLTRANSFERASE.
Very toxic industrial chemicals. They are absorbed through the skin, causing lethal blood, bladder, liver, and kidney damage and are potent, broad-spectrum carcinogens in most species.
A liver microsomal cytochrome P-450 monooxygenase capable of biotransforming xenobiotics such as polycyclic hydrocarbons and halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons into carcinogenic or mutagenic compounds. They have been found in mammals and fish. This enzyme, encoded by CYP1A1 gene, can be measured by using ethoxyresorufin as a substrate for the ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase activity.
Injuries to DNA that introduce deviations from its normal, intact structure and which may, if left unrepaired, result in a MUTATION or a block of DNA REPLICATION. These deviations may be caused by physical or chemical agents and occur by natural or unnatural, introduced circumstances. They include the introduction of illegitimate bases during replication or by deamination or other modification of bases; the loss of a base from the DNA backbone leaving an abasic site; single-strand breaks; double strand breaks; and intrastrand (PYRIMIDINE DIMERS) or interstrand crosslinking. Damage can often be repaired (DNA REPAIR). If the damage is extensive, it can induce APOPTOSIS.
Reduction of pharmacologic activity or toxicity of a drug or other foreign substance by a living system, usually by enzymatic action. It includes those metabolic transformations that make the substance more soluble for faster renal excretion.
New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.
A member of the BENZODIOXOLES that is a constituent of several VOLATILE OILS, notably SASSAFRAS oil. It is a precursor in the synthesis of the insecticide PIPERONYL BUTOXIDE and the drug N-methyl-3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDMA).
An effective soil fumigant, insecticide, and nematocide. In humans, it causes severe burning of skin and irritation of the eyes and respiratory tract. Prolonged inhalation may cause liver necrosis. It is also used in gasoline. Members of this group have caused liver and lung cancers in rodents. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985), 1,2-dibromoethane may reasonably be anticipated to be a carcinogen.
Experimentally induced mammary neoplasms in animals to provide a model for studying human BREAST NEOPLASMS.
Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.
The aglycone of CYCASIN. It acts as a potent carcinogen and neurotoxin and inhibits hepatic DNA, RNA, and protein synthesis.
Hydrazines substituted by one or more methyl groups in any position.
A cytochrome P450 enzyme subtype that has specificity for relatively planar heteroaromatic small molecules, such as CAFFEINE and ACETAMINOPHEN.
A superfamily of hundreds of closely related HEMEPROTEINS found throughout the phylogenetic spectrum, from animals, plants, fungi, to bacteria. They include numerous complex monooxygenases (MIXED FUNCTION OXYGENASES). In animals, these P-450 enzymes serve two major functions: (1) biosynthesis of steroids, fatty acids, and bile acids; (2) metabolism of endogenous and a wide variety of exogenous substrates, such as toxins and drugs (BIOTRANSFORMATION). They are classified, according to their sequence similarities rather than functions, into CYP gene families (>40% homology) and subfamilies (>59% homology). For example, enzymes from the CYP1, CYP2, and CYP3 gene families are responsible for most drug metabolism.
A circumscribed benign epithelial tumor projecting from the surrounding surface; more precisely, a benign epithelial neoplasm consisting of villous or arborescent outgrowths of fibrovascular stroma covered by neoplastic cells. (Stedman, 25th ed)
A highly poisonous compound used widely in the manufacture of plastics, adhesives and synthetic rubber.
A large group of cytochrome P-450 (heme-thiolate) monooxygenases that complex with NAD(P)H-FLAVIN OXIDOREDUCTASE in numerous mixed-function oxidations of aromatic compounds. They catalyze hydroxylation of a broad spectrum of substrates and are important in the metabolism of steroids, drugs, and toxins such as PHENOBARBITAL, carcinogens, and insecticides.
The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents that occurs as a result of one's occupation.
The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals.
A genus of the family Muridae having three species. The present domesticated strains were developed from individuals brought from Syria. They are widely used in biomedical research.
Organic compounds with the general formula R-NCS.
A group of compounds derived from ammonia by substituting organic radicals for the hydrogens. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Highly reactive chemicals that introduce alkyl radicals into biologically active molecules and thereby prevent their proper functioning. Many are used as antineoplastic agents, but most are very toxic, with carcinogenic, mutagenic, teratogenic, and immunosuppressant actions. They have also been used as components in poison gases.
A gas that has been used as an aerosol propellant and is the starting material for polyvinyl resins. Toxicity studies have shown various adverse effects, particularly the occurrence of liver neoplasms.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
A trace element that plays a role in glucose metabolism. It has the atomic symbol Cr, atomic number 24, and atomic weight 52. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP85-002,1985), chromium and some of its compounds have been listed as known carcinogens.
Derivatives of GLUCURONIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that include the 6-carboxy glucose structure.
Tumors or cancer of the URINARY BLADDER.
A nucleoside consisting of the base guanine and the sugar deoxyribose.
Salts of chromic acid containing the CrO(2-)4 radical.
Disinfectant used in vapor form to sterilize vaccines, grafts, etc. The vapor is very irritating and the liquid form is carcinogenic.
A plant genus of the family SOLANACEAE. Members contain NICOTINE and other biologically active chemicals; its dried leaves are used for SMOKING.
Family of retrovirus-associated DNA sequences (ras) originally isolated from Harvey (H-ras, Ha-ras, rasH) and Kirsten (K-ras, Ki-ras, rasK) murine sarcoma viruses. Ras genes are widely conserved among animal species and sequences corresponding to both H-ras and K-ras genes have been detected in human, avian, murine, and non-vertebrate genomes. The closely related N-ras gene has been detected in human neuroblastoma and sarcoma cell lines. All genes of the family have a similar exon-intron structure and each encodes a p21 protein.
A naphthalene derivative with carcinogenic action.
The art or practice of preparing food. It includes the preparation of special foods for diets in various diseases.
Tumors or cancer of the COLON.
The reconstruction of a continuous two-stranded DNA molecule without mismatch from a molecule which contained damaged regions. The major repair mechanisms are excision repair, in which defective regions in one strand are excised and resynthesized using the complementary base pairing information in the intact strand; photoreactivation repair, in which the lethal and mutagenic effects of ultraviolet light are eliminated; and post-replication repair, in which the primary lesions are not repaired, but the gaps in one daughter duplex are filled in by incorporation of portions of the other (undamaged) daughter duplex. Excision repair and post-replication repair are sometimes referred to as "dark repair" because they do not require light.
Tumors or cancer of the SKIN.
Toxic, volatile, flammable liquid hydrocarbon byproduct of coal distillation. It is used as an industrial solvent in paints, varnishes, lacquer thinners, gasoline, etc. Benzene causes central nervous system damage acutely and bone marrow damage chronically and is carcinogenic. It was formerly used as parasiticide.
An ethanol-inducible cytochrome P450 enzyme that metabolizes several precarcinogens, drugs, and solvents to reactive metabolites. Substrates include ETHANOL; INHALATION ANESTHETICS; BENZENE; ACETAMINOPHEN and other low molecular weight compounds. CYP2E1 has been used as an enzyme marker in the study of alcohol abuse.
Mixture of 2- and 3-tert-butyl-4-methoxyphenols that is used as an antioxidant in foods, cosmetics, and pharmaceuticals.
The covalent bonding of an alkyl group to an organic compound. It can occur by a simple addition reaction or by substitution of another functional group.
Used in the form of its salts as a dye and as an intermediate in manufacture of Acid Yellow, diazo dyes, and indulines.
A barbituric acid derivative that acts as a nonselective central nervous system depressant. It potentiates GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID action on GABA-A RECEPTORS, and modulates chloride currents through receptor channels. It also inhibits glutamate induced depolarizations.
A colorless and flammable gas at room temperature and pressure. Ethylene oxide is a bactericidal, fungicidal, and sporicidal disinfectant. It is effective against most micro-organisms, including viruses. It is used as a fumigant for foodstuffs and textiles and as an agent for the gaseous sterilization of heat-labile pharmaceutical and surgical materials. (From Reynolds, Martindale The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p794)
Inorganic salts or organic esters of arsenious acid.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
Organic compounds that include a cyclic ether with three ring atoms in their structure. They are commonly used as precursors for POLYMERS such as EPOXY RESINS.
The N-glucuronide conjugate of cotinine is a major urinary metabolite of NICOTINE. It thus serves as a biomarker of exposure to tobacco SMOKING. It has CNS stimulating properties.
A shiny gray element with atomic symbol As, atomic number 33, and atomic weight 75. It occurs throughout the universe, mostly in the form of metallic arsenides. Most forms are toxic. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985), arsenic and certain arsenic compounds have been listed as known carcinogens. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
Compounds containing 1,3-diazole, a five membered aromatic ring containing two nitrogen atoms separated by one of the carbons. Chemically reduced ones include IMIDAZOLINES and IMIDAZOLIDINES. Distinguish from 1,2-diazole (PYRAZOLES).
A nitrosourea compound with alkylating, carcinogenic, and mutagenic properties.
Closed vesicles of fragmented endoplasmic reticulum created when liver cells or tissue are disrupted by homogenization. They may be smooth or rough.
A colorless, odorless, highly water soluble vinyl monomer formed from the hydration of acrylonitrile. It is primarily used in research laboratories for electrophoresis, chromatography, and electron microscopy and in the sewage and wastewater treatment industries.
An acid-base indicator which is colorless in acid solution, but turns pink to red as the solution becomes alkaline. It is used medicinally as a cathartic.
Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.
The segment of LARGE INTESTINE between the CECUM and the RECTUM. It includes the ASCENDING COLON; the TRANSVERSE COLON; the DESCENDING COLON; and the SIGMOID COLON.
Tumor suppressor genes located on the short arm of human chromosome 17 and coding for the phosphoprotein p53.
A method of measuring the effects of a biologically active substance using an intermediate in vivo or in vitro tissue or cell model under controlled conditions. It includes virulence studies in animal fetuses in utero, mouse convulsion bioassay of insulin, quantitation of tumor-initiator systems in mouse skin, calculation of potentiating effects of a hormonal factor in an isolated strip of contracting stomach muscle, etc.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
Tumors or cancer of the LIVER.
A derivative of acetic acid, N(CH2COOH)3. It is a complexing (sequestering) agent that forms stable complexes with Zn2+. (From Miall's Dictionary of Chemistry, 5th ed.)
A flavoprotein that reversibly catalyzes the oxidation of NADH or NADPH by various quinones and oxidation-reduction dyes. The enzyme is inhibited by dicoumarol, capsaicin, and caffeine.
A potent nitrofuran derivative tumor initiator. It causes bladder tumors in all animals studied and is mutagenic to many bacteria.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Carcinogenic nitrosamine that may be formed from preservatives in meats during their preparation or in the liver during metabolism.
Diseases caused by factors involved in one's employment.
Induction and quantitative measurement of chromosomal damage leading to the formation of micronuclei (MICRONUCLEI, CHROMOSOME-DEFECTIVE) in cells which have been exposed to genotoxic agents or IONIZING RADIATION.
An increase in the rate of synthesis of an enzyme due to the presence of an inducer which acts to derepress the gene responsible for enzyme synthesis.
Nitro-phenanthrenes occurring in ARISTOLOCHIACEAE and other plants. They derive from stephanine (APORPHINES) by oxidative ring cleavage. The nitro group is a reactive alkylator (ALKYLATING AGENTS) that binds to biological macromolecules. Ingestion by humans is associated with nephropathy (NEPHRITIS). There is no relationship to the similar named aristolochene (SESQUITERPENES).
Nicotine is highly toxic alkaloid. It is the prototypical agonist at nicotinic cholinergic receptors where it dramatically stimulates neurons and ultimately blocks synaptic transmission. Nicotine is also important medically because of its presence in tobacco smoke.
The regular and simultaneous occurrence in a single interbreeding population of two or more discontinuous genotypes. The concept includes differences in genotypes ranging in size from a single nucleotide site (POLYMORPHISM, SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE) to large nucleotide sequences visible at a chromosomal level.
The presence in food of harmful, unpalatable, or otherwise objectionable foreign substances, e.g. chemicals, microorganisms or diluents, before, during, or after processing or storage.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
A group of compounds that are derivatives of methoxybenzene and contain the general formula R-C7H7O.
A di-tert-butyl PHENOL with antioxidant properties.
A benign epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.
Agents that reduce the frequency or rate of spontaneous or induced mutations independently of the mechanism involved.
Substances or energies, for example heat or light, which when introduced into the air, water, or land threaten life or health of individuals or ECOSYSTEMS.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
An increase in the number of cells in a tissue or organ without tumor formation. It differs from HYPERTROPHY, which is an increase in bulk without an increase in the number of cells.
A 4-hydroxylated metabolite of AFLATOXIN B1, one of the MYCOTOXINS from ASPERGILLUS tainted food. It is associated with LIVER damage and cancer resulting from its P450 activation to the epoxide which alkylates DNA. Toxicity depends on the balance of liver enzymes that activate it (CYTOCHROME P-450) and others that detoxify it (GLUTATHIONE S TRANSFERASE) (Pharmac Ther 50.443 1991). Primates & rat are sensitive while mouse and hamster are tolerant (Canc Res 29.236 1969).
A group of condensed ring hydrocarbons.
Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.
Contamination of the air by tobacco smoke.
Aromatic diamine used in the plastics industry as curing agent for epoxy resins and urethane rubbers. It causes bladder, liver, lung, and other neoplasms.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
Plants or plant parts which are harmful to man or other animals.
Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.
A family of enzymes accepting a wide range of substrates, including phenols, alcohols, amines, and fatty acids. They function as drug-metabolizing enzymes that catalyze the conjugation of UDPglucuronic acid to a variety of endogenous and exogenous compounds. EC 2.4.1.17.
That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum immediately below the visible range and extending into the x-ray frequencies. The longer wavelengths (near-UV or biotic or vital rays) are necessary for the endogenous synthesis of vitamin D and are also called antirachitic rays; the shorter, ionizing wavelengths (far-UV or abiotic or extravital rays) are viricidal, bactericidal, mutagenic, and carcinogenic and are used as disinfectants.
Tumors, cancer or other neoplasms produced by exposure to ionizing or non-ionizing radiation.
Negative ions or salts derived from bromic acid, HBrO3.
A malignant epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.
Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.
Asbestos. Fibrous incombustible mineral composed of magnesium and calcium silicates with or without other elements. It is relatively inert chemically and used in thermal insulation and fireproofing. Inhalation of dust causes asbestosis and later lung and gastrointestinal neoplasms.
Inorganic compounds that contain sodium as an integral part of the molecule.
Preclinical testing of drugs in experimental animals or in vitro for their biological and toxic effects and potential clinical applications.
Enzymes that catalyze reversibly the formation of an epoxide or arene oxide from a glycol or aromatic diol, respectively.
Products of the hydrolysis of chlorophylls in which the phytic acid side chain has been removed and the carboxylic acids saponified.
A carcinoma derived from stratified SQUAMOUS EPITHELIAL CELLS. It may also occur in sites where glandular or columnar epithelium is normally present. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.
A chemical by-product that results from burning or incinerating chlorinated industrial chemicals and other hydrocarbons. This compound is considered an environmental toxin, and may pose reproductive, as well as, other health risks for animals and humans.
A latent susceptibility to disease at the genetic level, which may be activated under certain conditions.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
An enzyme, sometimes called GGT, with a key role in the synthesis and degradation of GLUTATHIONE; (GSH, a tripeptide that protects cells from many toxins). It catalyzes the transfer of the gamma-glutamyl moiety to an acceptor amino acid.
Organic derivatives of thiocyanic acid which contain the general formula R-SCN.
Air pollutants found in the work area. They are usually produced by the specific nature of the occupation.
Procedures, such as TISSUE CULTURE TECHNIQUES; mathematical models; etc., when used or advocated for use in place of the use of animals in research or diagnostic laboratories.
Isocoumarins found in ASPERGILLUS OCHRACEUS and other FUNGI. Ochratoxin contaminated FOOD has been responsible for cases of FOODBORNE DISEASES.
A musculomembranous sac along the URINARY TRACT. URINE flows from the KIDNEYS into the bladder via the ureters (URETER), and is held there until URINATION.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A constitution or condition of the body which makes the tissues react in special ways to certain extrinsic stimuli and thus tends to make the individual more than usually susceptible to certain diseases.
Tumors or cancer of the INTESTINES.
Tumors or cancer of the NOSE.
Artifactual vesicles formed from the endoplasmic reticulum when cells are disrupted. They are isolated by differential centrifugation and are composed of three structural features: rough vesicles, smooth vesicles, and ribosomes. Numerous enzyme activities are associated with the microsomal fraction. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990; from Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents by inhaling them.
The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)
An exchange of segments between the sister chromatids of a chromosome, either between the sister chromatids of a meiotic tetrad or between the sister chromatids of a duplicated somatic chromosome. Its frequency is increased by ultraviolet and ionizing radiation and other mutagenic agents and is particularly high in BLOOM SYNDROME.
MAMMARY GLANDS in the non-human MAMMALS.
Exchange of substances between the maternal blood and the fetal blood at the PLACENTA via PLACENTAL CIRCULATION. The placental barrier excludes microbial or viral transmission.
The science concerned with the detection, chemical composition, and biological action of toxic substances or poisons and the treatment and prevention of toxic manifestations.
The use of chemical compounds to prevent the development of a specific disease.
An arsenical that has been used as a dermatologic agent and as an herbicide.
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
Defective nuclei produced during the TELOPHASE of MITOSIS or MEIOSIS by lagging CHROMOSOMES or chromosome fragments derived from spontaneous or experimentally induced chromosomal structural changes.
Hydrazine substituted by one methyl group.
A genotoxicological technique for measuring DNA damage in an individual cell using single-cell gel electrophoresis. Cell DNA fragments assume a "comet with tail" formation on electrophoresis and are detected with an image analysis system. Alkaline assay conditions facilitate sensitive detection of single-strand damage.
Viscous materials composed of complex, high-molecular-weight compounds derived from the distillation of petroleum or the destructive distillation of wood or coal. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Ring compounds having atoms other than carbon in their nuclei. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Tumors or cancer of the MOUTH.
The maximum exposure to a biologically active physical or chemical agent that is allowed during an 8-hour period (a workday) in a population of workers, or during a 24-hour period in the general population, which does not appear to cause appreciable harm, whether immediate or delayed for any period, in the target population. (From Lewis Dictionary of Toxicology, 1st ed)
Chemical compounds which pollute the water of rivers, streams, lakes, the sea, reservoirs, or other bodies of water.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
A group of pyrido-indole compounds. Included are any points of fusion of pyridine with the five-membered ring of indole and any derivatives of these compounds. These are similar to CARBAZOLES which are benzo-indoles.
A serotype of Salmonella enterica that is a frequent agent of Salmonella gastroenteritis in humans. It also causes PARATYPHOID FEVER.
A benzodiazepine used in the treatment of anxiety, alcohol withdrawal, and insomnia.
2-Amino-4-(ethylthio)butyric acid. An antimetabolite and methionine antagonist that interferes with amino acid incorporation into proteins and with cellular ATP utilization. It also produces liver neoplasms.
Elements, compounds, mixtures, or solutions that are considered severely harmful to human health and the environment. They include substances that are toxic, corrosive, flammable, or explosive.

An investigation into the binding of the carcinogen 15,16-dihydro-11-methylcyclopenta[a]phenanthren-17-one to DNA in vitro. (1/6863)

After metabolic activation the carcinogen 15,16-dihydro-11-[3H]methylcyclopenta[a]phenanthren-17-one binds to DNA in vitro, and this binding is prevented by 7,8-benzoflavone. Radioactivity cannot be removed from the DNA with organic solvents or by chromatography on Sephadex G-50, even after heat denaturation of the DNA. Enzymatic hydrolysis yields radioactive fractions, which elute from a column of Sephadex LH-20 immediately after the natural nucleosides. At least two species of reactive metabolites are involved in this bending, those with a half-life of a few hr and others with greater stability. After extraction from the aqueous incubation mixture, they could be detected in discrete polar fractions from separations of the complex metabolite mixture by high-pressure liquid chromatography. Their ability to bind to DNA decreased with time at ambient temperature, and they were rapidly deactivated by acid. 7,8-Benzolflavone acted by suppressing the formation of polar metabolites derived from enzymatic oxidation of the aromatic double bonds. The inhibitor had no effect on the enzymes hydroxylating saturated carbon; hence it is unlikely that metabolism of the methyl group is important in conversion of this carcinogen to its proximate form, although the presence of the 11-methyl group is essential for carcinogenic activity in this series.  (+info)

Effect of hepatocarcinogens on the binding of glucocorticoid-receptor complex in rat liver nuclei. (2/6863)

The effects of a number of carcinogens and hepatotoxins on the binding kinetics of the interactions of glucocorticoidcytosol receptor complex with nuclear acceptor sites in rat liver were investigated. Both the apparent sites in rat liver were investigated. Both the apparent concentration of nuclear binding sites and the Kd were significantly diminished following treatment of rats with sublethal doses of the carcinogens aflatoxin B1, diethylnitrosamine, dimethylnitrosamine, thioacetamide, 3'-methyl-4-dimethylaminoazobenzene, 4-dimethylaminoazobenzene, and 3-methylcholanthrene. Treatment with actinomycin D resulted in a slight reduction in the apparent concentration of nuclear acceptor sites but had no effect on the nuclear binding Kd. The hepatotoxic but noncarcinogenic analgesic, acetaminophen, as well as the weakly toxic aflatoxin B1 cognate, aflatoxin B2, were without effect on the kinetics or binding capacity of glucocorticoid-nuclear acceptor site interaction. These experiments suggest that chemically induced alteration of functional glucocorticoid binding sites on chromatin may be involved in the biochemical effects produced in liver by carcinogens of several chemical types. This experimental model may provide a useful approach for further elucidation of early events in carcinogenesis.  (+info)

Assaying potential carcinogens with Drosophila. (3/6863)

Drosophila offers many advantages for the detection of mutagenic activity of carcinogenic agents. It provides the quickest assay system for detecting mutations in animals today. Its generation time is short, and Drosophila is cheap and easy to breed in large numbers. The simple genetic testing methods give unequivocal answers about the whole spectrum of relevant genetic damage. A comparison of the detection capacity of assays sampling different kinds of genetic damage revealed that various substances are highly effective in inducing mutations but do not produce chromosome breakage effects at all, or only at much higher concentrations than those required for mutation induction. Of the different assay systems available, the classical sex-linked recessive lethal test deserves priority, in view of its superior capacity to detect mutagens. Of practical importance is also its high sensitivity, because a large number of loci in one fifth of the genome is tested for newly induced forward mutations, including small deletions. The recent findings that Drosophila is capable of carrying out the same metabolic activation reactions as the mammalian liver makes the organism eminently suitable for verifying results obtained in prescreening with fast microbial assay systems. An additional advantage in this respect is the capacity of Drosophila for detecting short-lived activation products, because intracellular metabolic activation appears to occur within the spermatids and spermatocytes.  (+info)

Carcinogenicity of triethanolamine in mice and its mutagenicity after reaction with sodium nitrite in bacteria. (4/6863)

Mice fed a diet containing 0.3 or 0.03% triethanolamine developed malignant tumors. Females showed a high incidence of tumors in lymphoid tissues, while this type was absent in males. Tumors in other tissues were produced at a considerable rate in both sexes, but no hepatoma was found. Triethanolamine was not mutagenic to Bacillus subtilis by itself, but it became mutagenic after reacting with sodium nitrite under acidic conditions or when the mixture was heated. Although N-nitrosodiethanolamine, a known carcinogen and mutagen, was detected in the reaction mixture by thin-layer chromatography, it may not be the main mutagenic product, because the product was a stable and direct mutagen and its mutagenic activity was destroyed by liver enzymes, unlike N-nitrosodiethanolamine. The lethal and mutagenic DNA damages produced by this unidentified product were susceptible to some extent to the repair functions of the bacteria.  (+info)

The five amino acid-deleted isoform of hepatocyte growth factor promotes carcinogenesis in transgenic mice. (5/6863)

Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) is a polypeptide with mitogenic, motogenic, and morphogenic effects on different cell types including hepatocytes. HGF is expressed as two biologically active isotypes resulting from alternative RNA splicing. The roles of each HGF isoform in development, liver regeneration and tumorigenesis have not yet been well characterized. We report the generation and analysis of transgenic mice overexpressing the five amino acid-deleted variant of HGF (dHGF) in the liver by virtue of an albumin expression vector. These ALB-dHGF transgenic mice develop normally, have an enhanced rate of liver regeneration after partial hepatectomy, and exhibit a threefold higher incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) beyond 17 months of age. Moreover, overexpression of dHGF dramatically accelerates diethyl-nitrosamine induced HCC tumorigenesis. These tumors arise faster, are significantly larger, more numerous and more invasive than those appearing in non-transgenic littermates. Approximately 90% of female dHGF-transgenic mice had multiple macroscopic HCCs 40 weeks after injection of DEN; whereas the non-transgenic counterparts had only microscopic nodules. Liver tumors and cultured tumor cell lines from dHGF transgenics showed high levels of HGF and c-Met mRNA and protein. Together, these results reveal that in vivo dHGF plays an active role in liver regeneration and HCC tumorigenesis.  (+info)

Expression of dominant negative Erk2 inhibits AP-1 transactivation and neoplastic transformation. (6/6863)

The mitogen activated protein (MAP) kinases or extracellular signal-regulated kinases (Erks) are activated in response to Ras expression or exposure to tumor promoters or to growth factors, and have been implicated in AP-1 transactivation in some models. We have shown that tumor promoter induced activation of the transcription factor AP-1 is required for induced neoplastic transformation in the Balb/C JB6 cell model. Jun and Fos family protein levels have been found not to be limiting for AP-1 response. The present study asks whether activation of Erks1 and 2 is required for AP-1 transactivation and transformation of JB6 cells and whether Erks might be targeted for cancer prevention. Expression of either of two different dominant negative kinase inactive Erk2 mutants in transformation sensitive (P+) JB6 cells substantially inhibited the tumor promoter induced activation of Erks1 and 2 and of AP-1 measured by a collagenase-luciferase reporter. Multiple mutant Erk2 expressing clonal lines were also rendered non-responsive to induced neoplastic transformation. These observations, together with our recent finding attributing AP-1 non-responsiveness to Erk deficiency in a clonal line of transformation resistant (P-) cells, argue for a requirement for Erks1 and/or 2 activation in AP-1 transactivation in the mouse JB6 neoplastic progression model, and suggest the utility of Erks as a prevention target.  (+info)

Carboxyl-terminal phosphorylation regulates the function and subcellular localization of protein kinase C betaII. (7/6863)

Protein kinase C is processed by three phosphorylation events before it is competent to respond to second messengers. Specifically, the enzyme is first phosphorylated at the activation loop by another kinase, followed by two ordered autophosphorylations at the carboxyl terminus (Keranen, L. M., Dutil, E. M., and Newton, A. C. (1995) Curr. Biol. 5, 1394-1403). This study examines the role of negative charge at the first conserved carboxyl-terminal phosphorylation position, Thr-641, in regulating the function and subcellular localization of protein kinase C betaII. Mutation of this residue to Ala results in compensating phosphorylations at adjacent sites, so that a triple Ala mutant was required to address the function of phosphate at Thr-641. Biochemical and immunolocalization analyses of phosphorylation site mutants reveal that negative charge at this position is required for the following: 1) to process catalytically competent protein kinase C; 2) to allow autophosphorylation of Ser-660; 3) for cytosolic localization of protein kinase C; and 4) to permit phorbol ester-dependent membrane translocation. Thus, phosphorylation of Thr-641 in protein kinase C betaII is essential for both the catalytic function and correct subcellular localization of protein kinase C. The conservation of this residue in every protein kinase C isozyme, as well as other members of the kinase superfamily such as protein kinase A, suggests that carboxyl-terminal phosphorylation serves as a key molecular switch for defining kinase function.  (+info)

Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARS) and carcinogenesis. (8/6863)

Peroxisome proliferators (PPs) are an important group of chemicals that include certain hypolipidemic drugs, plasticizers and pollutants. Many of these agents are known rodent liver tumor promoters and debate exists as to whether humans are at increased cancer risk following exposure to PPs. Research over the last decade has focused on determining the biochemical and molecular mechanisms by which peroxisome proliferators exert their effects, in the hope that this controversy will be settled. PPs regulate gene expression via a steroid hormone receptor, the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR). At least three subtypes of PPAR (alpha, beta and gamma) have been cloned from several species, including humans. These receptors have been implicated in tumor promotion, cellular differentiation, and apoptosis. In the present article, the current understanding of how PPARs are involved in tumorigenesis, and what this may mean to human risk assessment, will be discussed.  (+info)

Disposable paper cups or hidden potential carcinogens,Disposable paper cups or hidden potential carcinogens,Disposable paper cups or hidden potential carcinogens
BRC - Biennial Report on Carcinogens. Looking for abbreviations of BRC? It is Biennial Report on Carcinogens. Biennial Report on Carcinogens listed as BRC
論文:Final Report on Carcinogens Background Document fo...[Report on carcinogens background document for [substance name]] - Pubmed Result(ATGCchecker)の詳細情報です。フルテキスト情報、関連する論文情報も掲載。
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Dysfunction of the circadian transcriptional factor CLOCK in mice resists chemical carcinogen-induced tumorigenesis. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
Camber Pharmaceuticals, Inc. recalled 87 lots of the blood pressure medication losartan on Thursday after discovering trace amounts of a potential carcinogen. The recalled 25 mg, 50 mg and 100 mg tablets contained small amounts of N-Nitroso N-Methyl 4-amino butyric acid, or NMBA, according to a company recall notice posted on the Food and Drug Administrations website. Its the second losartan recall in a week; Macleods Pharmaceuticals Limited recalled a single lot on Feb. 22.. Camber says the medication was nationally distributed to retail and mail-order pharmacies, in addition to wholesalers and distributors.. To date, Camber has not received any reports of adverse events related to this recall, the release says.. The medication is packaged in 30 count, 90 count, 500 count and 1000 count bottles. A full list of recalled medications is available from the FDA. The release says that consumers should continue taking the product until receiving guidance from their doctor.. Feb. 25: Blood pressure ...
Project [Review of the Formaldehyde Assessment in the National Toxicology Program 12th Report on Carcinogens (COMPLETED)] has been completed and the following reports have been generated ...
Project [Review of the Styrene Assessment in the National Toxicology Program 12th Report on Carcinogens (COMPLETED)] has been completed and the following reports have been generated ...
Iannaccone, P M. and Tsao, T Y., Acute effects of in vitro exposure to chemical carcinogens on preimplantation mouse embryos. Abstr. (1980). Subject Strain Bibliography 1980. 2117 ...
It has been estimated that exposure to environmental chemical carcinogens may contribute significantly to the causation of a sizable fraction, perhaps a majority, of human cancers. Human carcinogens act through a variety of genotoxic and non-genotoxic mechanisms. Genotoxic carcinogens can attack biological macromolecules such as DNA and RNA either directly or indirectly through metabolism, resulting in the formation of adducts with these macromolecules. If DNA adducts escape cellular repair mechanisms and persist, they may lead to miscoding, resulting in permanent mutations. Non-genotoxic carcinogens act by the mechanisms such as induction of inflammation, immunosuppression, formation of reactive oxygen species, activation of receptors, and epigenetic silencing. Together, these genotoxic and non-genotoxic mechanisms can alter signal-transduction pathways that finally result in hypermutability, genomic instability, loss of proliferation control, and resistance to apoptosis - some of the ...
It has been estimated that exposure to environmental chemical carcinogens may contribute significantly to the causation of a sizable fraction, perhaps a majority, of human cancers. Human carcinogens act through a variety of genotoxic and non-genotoxic mechanisms. Genotoxic carcinogens can attack biological macromolecules such as DNA and RNA either directly or indirectly through metabolism, resulting in the formation of adducts with these macromolecules. If DNA adducts escape cellular repair mechanisms and persist, they may lead to miscoding, resulting in permanent mutations. Non-genotoxic carcinogens act by the mechanisms such as induction of inflammation, immunosuppression, formation of reactive oxygen species, activation of receptors, and epigenetic silencing. Together, these genotoxic and non-genotoxic mechanisms can alter signal-transduction pathways that finally result in hypermutability, genomic instability, loss of proliferation control, and resistance to apoptosis - some of the ...
When carcinogens are involved at the workplace, employers have to do everything in their power to prevent workers coming into contact with these substances.
Today, the House Science, Space, and Technology Committee and House Small Business Committee held a joint hearing on the National Toxicology Programs (NTP) Report on Carcinogens. It is critical that the NTP use the best available, peer reviewed science when making its decisions on what chemicals to list, yet it clearly doesnt do that. Read the full story on CEIs OpenMarket.org.. ...
Definition of non-genotoxic carcinogen and genotoxic carcinogens and whether there are any thresholds for carcinogens from a regulatory perspective.
A carcinogen is any substance, radionuclide, or radiation that promotes carcinogenesis, the formation of cancer. This may be due to the ability to damage the genome or to the disruption of cellular metabolic processes. Several radioactive substances are considered carcinogens, but their carcinogenic activity is attributed to the radiation, for example gamma rays and alpha particles, which they emit. Common examples of non-radioactive carcinogens are inhaled asbestos, certain dioxins, and tobacco smoke. Although the public generally associates carcinogenicity with synthetic chemicals, it is equally likely to arise in both natural and synthetic substances.[1] Carcinogens are not necessarily immediately toxic; thus, their effect can be insidious. Cancer is any disease in which normal cells are damaged and do not undergo programmed cell death as fast as they divide via mitosis. Carcinogens may increase the risk of cancer by altering cellular metabolism or damaging DNA directly in cells, which ...
No component of this product present at levels greater than or equal to 0.1% is identified as probable, possible or confirmed human carcinogen by IARC. No component of this product present at levels greater than or equal to 0.1% is identified as a carcinogen or potential carcinogen by ACGIH. No component of this product present at levels greater than or equal to 0.1% is identified as a known or anticipated carcinogen by NTP. No component of this product present at levels greater than or equal to 0.1% is identified as a carcinogen or potential carcinogen by OSHA. Genotoxicity in vitro - rat - Liver Sister chromatid exchange Signs and Symptoms of Exposure ...
Fig. 1. Inhibition of azoxymethane-induced ACF in the colon of rats by polyethylene glycols (PEG) of various molecular weights given at 5% in the drinking water for 30 d (see Methods, study 5). Data from two sequential experiments are shown here, and are plotted as percent of control values, i.e., 135 ± 33 and 81 ± 13 ACF in the first (hatched bars) and second (empty bars) experiment, respectively. Molecular weights are given in dalton, or kilodalton (k). Data are mean and SD from 10 rats (control groups), 4 rats (hatched bars), or 8 rats (empty bars). A star indicates that P , 0.01 compared with respective control value (Dunnetts test made on the actual numbers of ACF).. ...
Sandoz Inc. is recalling a generic version of Zantac, also known as prescription ranitidine hydrochloride, over concerns it may have a contaminant that might cause cancer.
Figure 5. NNK administration differentially stimulates GM-CSF secretion in vitro and in vivo. A, RNAs obtained from PanIN cells treated with NNK (1 μmol/L) or DMSO (control) for 5 and 50 days, respectively, were subjected to RNA-seq analysis. The differentially expressed genes between the control and treatment groups were determined using hierarchical clustering and subsequent heat map generation of normalized gene expression in standardized units. Data analysis using IPA revealed the upregulated genes in the treatment group (red). B, qPCR data of RNA collected from PanIN cells (top) and H6c7 cells (bottom) treated with NNK (1 μmol/L) or DMSO (control) for 50 days and analyzed to validate the genes upregulated in RNA-seq data (n = 3). C, Human cytokine array data obtained using conditioned media collected from NNK (1 μmol/L)-treated H6c7 cells and PanIN cells (left). Relative GM-CSF expression from the respective NNK-treated cells (H6c7 and PanIN) quantified using ImageJ image analysis ...
American baby care products are not as safe as consumers may expect. The Campaign for Safe Cosmetics released a report on 48 baby care products that were tested for the carcinogens formaldehyde and 1,4-dioxane. The March 2009 report, entitled No More Toxic Tub, reveals that 67 percent of the products tested contained detectable levels of 1,4-dioxane. 82 percent of the products tested contained detectable levels of formaldehyde and 1,4-dioxane. And 61 percent of products tested contained both.. Of the 48 products tested, only 28 were tested for formaldehyde. So theres a chance that if all products had been tested for both, the percentage of products contaminated with both could be higher than 61 percent.. The State of California classifies both chemicals as carcinogens under its Proposition 65 The Safe Drinking Water and Toxic Enforcement Act of 1986 passed in 1986. Both were listed as carcinogens on January 1, 1988. The US EPA regards both as probable carcinogens ...
Learn how potential carcinogens are tested and classified, find lists of known and possible carcinogens, and learn about cancer clusters.
Researchers for the first time have developed a method to track through the human body the movement of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, or PAHs, as extraordinarily tiny amounts of these potential carcinogens are biologically processed and eliminated.
Lung cancer is strongly associated with exogenous risk factors, in particular tobacco smoking and asbestos exposure. New research data are accumulating about the regulation of the metabolism of tobacco carcinogens and the metabolic response to oxidative stress. These data provide mechanistic details about why well known risk factors cause lung cancer. The purpose of this review is to evaluate the present knowledge of the role of cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes in the metabolism of tobacco carcinogens and associations with tobacco and asbestos carcinogenesis. Major emphasis is placed on human data and regulatory pathways involved in CYP regulation and lung carcinogenesis. The most exciting new research findings concern cross-talk of the CYP-regulating aryl hydrocarbon receptor with other transcription factors, such as nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2, involved in the regulation of xenobiotic metabolism and antioxidant enzymes. This cross-talk between transcription factors may provide mechanistic
No person shall distribute, sell, offer for sale, or expose for sale any art or craft material containing toxic substances causing chronic illness on which the person:. (a) Has failed to affix a conspicuous label containing the signal word WARNING, to alert users of potential adverse health effects. (b) Has failed to affix a conspicuous label warning of the health-related dangers of the art or craft material. (1) If the product contains a human carcinogen, the warning shall contain the statement: CANCER HAZARD! Overexposure may create cancer risk. (2) If the product contains a potential human carcinogen, and does not contain a human carcinogen, the warning shall contain the statement: POSSIBLE CANCER HAZARD! Overexposure might create cancer risk. (3) If the product contains a toxic substance causing chronic illness, the warning shall contain, but not be limited to, the following statement or statements where applicable: (A) May cause sterility or damage to reproductive organs. (B) May ...
Researchers presenting at the 242nd National Meeting and Exposition of the American Chemical Society this week in Denver have demonstrated a new DNA test that can measure the amount of potential carcinogens clinging to a persons DNA. But unlike previous tests that required white blood cell or urine samples and fairly intensive lab scrutiny, this one can hunt for carcinogens in a simple saliva swab.
Based on extensive reviews of research studies, there is a strong scientific consensus of an association between alcohol drinking and several types of cancer. In its Report on Carcinogens, the National Toxicology Program of the US Department of Health and Human Services lists consumption of alcoholic beverages as a known human carcinogen. The research evidence indicates that the more alcohol a person drinks particularly the more alcohol a person drinks regularly over time, the higher his or her risk of developing an alcohol-associated cancer. It will shock you to know that the effects are very fatal when accounting for deaths resulting from the consumption of alcohol. From the available statistics, it was estimated that in 2009 about 3.5% of cancer deaths in the United State, were alcohol related. That percentage represents about 19500 people dying from this scourge.. Request more information on screening and treatment of Alcohol and cancer today: Call (843) 213-1480 or contact online.. Experts ...
The Ah receptor is a soluble protein complex of about 280 kD. The receptor binds, and mediates carcinogenesis by, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), which...
Editor in Chief Fred Rivara and Deputy Editor Steve Fihn discuss research published in JAMA Network Open in November 2020 Related Articles: Effect of Vitamin D Supplements on Development of Advanced Cancer: A Secondary Analysis of the VITAL Randomized Clinical Trial Effect of Pod e-Cigarettes vs Cigarettes on Carcinogen Exposure Among African American and Latinx Smokers: A Randomized Clinical Trial
Why do carcinogens cause cancer? Take a look at studies on common carcinogens and learn how carcinogens cause cancer at Discovery Health.
p,,b,BACKGROUND: ,/b,The aim of this work was to establish recommendations for the medical follow-up of workers currently or previously exposed to lung carcinogens.,/p,,p,,b,METHODS: ,/b,A critical synthesis of the literature was conducted. Occupational lung carcinogenic substances were listed and classified according to their level of lung cancer risk. A targeted screening protocol was defined.,/p,,p,,b,RESULTS: ,/b,A clinical trial, National Lung Screnning Trial (NLST), showed the efficacy of chest CAT scan (CT) screening for populations of smokers aged 55-74 years with over 30 pack-years of exposure who had stopped smoking for less than 15 years. To propose screening in accordance with NLST criteria, and to account for occupational risk factors, screening among smokers and former smokers needs to consider the types of occupational exposure for which the risk level is at least equivalent to the risk of the subjects included in the NLST. The working group proposes an algorithm that estimates ...
During this introductory online 13 Carcinogen safety class, we will teach you what carcinogens are and what they can do to the human body. Proper carcinogen training decreases the risk of fatal exposure and teaches what to do in case of exposure. Along with carcinogen safety, we will discuss your right to know and how medical surveillance impacts your life.. ...
IARC, the French-based cancer research department of WHO, released its findings Friday after studying the carcinogenicity of five insecticides and herbicides. News on NewsHub.org
What Carcinogens Are You Avoiding? - posted in Cancer: Are there any substances besides the obvious (smoking, being overweight, excess alcohol, exhaust fumes) that you are avoiding to prevent cancer? Are there any substances that are legally in the global food supply (preservatives, colorings and the like) that you are fairly convinced increase the probability of cancer and are therefore avoiding?
Tumor promotion is a critical event in cancer development and a potential target for chemopreventive measures. The multistage model of mouse skin carcinogenesis defines tumor development in terms of distinct stages and provides a standardized scheme for the investigation of tumor promoters. By using this model, a specific COX-2 inhibitor, celecoxib, was found to inhibit tumor formation by interfering with the promotion stage. Although COX-2 has been shown to catalyze the formation of genotoxic metabolites from polycyclic hydrocarbons (19), tumor initiation in skin by DMBA is not affected by celecoxib, whereas DMBA-induced breast cancer in rats was inhibited by this drug (7). Inhibition of postinitiation stages has also been observed for chemically induced colorectal carcinogenesis in rats (20). Thus, these studies indicate that COX-2 is involved in the promotion of both mouse skin and rat colon tumors.. As shown previously (15), transgenic overexpression of COX-2 in basal keratinocytes of mice ...
Because the scope of Volume 100 is so broad, its Monographs are focused on key information. Each Monograph presents a description of a carcinogenic agent and how people are exposed, critical overviews of the epidemiological studies and animal cancer bioassays, and a concise review of the agents toxicokinetics, plausible mechanisms of carcinogenesis, and potentially susceptible populations, and life-stages. Details of the design and results of individual epidemiological studies and animal cancer bioassays are summarized in tables. Short tables that highlight key results are printed in Volume 100, and more extensive tables that include all studies appear on the Monographs programme website (http://monographs.iarc.fr ...
Cancer Council Victoria would like to acknowledge the traditional custodians of the land on which we live and work. We would also like to pay respect to the elders past and present and extend that respect to all other Aboriginal people. ...
The main targets for antineoplastic drug in development are colorectal cancer, non-small cell lung cancer, breast and ovarian cancer. This reflects the frequency of the diseases. Lung cancer is the most common type of cancer, causing 24% of cancer deaths in UK males and 19% in females. Breast cancer and prostate cancer are the next most common cancers at 17% and 13% in the UK, while colorectal cancers account for around 10% of UK cancer deaths. There is also interest in drugs effective against less prevalent forms of cancer, partly because they may eventually provide treatments for other cancer types. The toxicity of many current antineoplastic is a major concern. Drugs which interfere with DNA and the cells ability to divide are also likely to introduce mutations, and are therefore potential carcinogens. For example, cyclophosphamide is listed as a human carcinogen and cisplatin as a probable carcinogen, by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. This means that these drugs can lead ...
In vitro antioxidative potential of lactoferrin and black tea polyphenols and protective effects in vivo on carcinogen activation, DNA damage, proliferation, invasion, and angiogenesis during experimental oral carcinogenesis.. Oncology research Anti-cancer drug design. 17:193-203. 2008 ...
When considering the nutritional value of our meals, we have been trained to pay close attention to numbers such as fat content and calories. What we dont often think about is if there is something in our food that could be causing us cancer. Substances that can lead to cancer are called carcinogens, and you may be surprised to find out that these harmful chemicals can be found in your everyday foods.. Carcinogens enter your diet through the way your food is processed, environmental exposures, and even certain types of packaging. The safest way to [avoid carcinogens] is to buy organic whole foods and cook them yourself, says Susan Machtinger, RD.. Because no one wants to consume cancer-causing chemicals, weve come up with a list of five ways that carcinogens could be making their way into your food. ...
Looking for epigenetic carcinogen? Find out information about epigenetic carcinogen. see cancer cancer, in medicine, common term for neoplasms, or tumors, that are malignant. Like benign tumors, malignant tumors do not respond to body... Explanation of epigenetic carcinogen
Looking for carcinogen? Find out information about carcinogen. see cancer cancer, in medicine, common term for neoplasms, or tumors, that are malignant. Like benign tumors, malignant tumors do not respond to body... Explanation of carcinogen
An overview of regulatory classification systems on carcinogens in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) countries is presented based on a questionnaire study. Most OECD countries have implemented legislation including classification systems and lists of carcinogens. Basic...
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Limited daily exposure to toxins is tough in a pretty toxic world, but its a reasonable expectation that we all want to kick known carcinogens out of our homes. To that end, we asked Cara Bondi, a green scientists at Seventh Generation,
We compared effects of a high fat diet and a carcinogen on cellular elements of the spleen and mammary gland tumors in rats. Animals were fed a 15% olive-oil diet and a group of them were exposed to a carcinogen, dimethylbenz(a)antracne (DMBA), in two doses of 10 mg/rat. Results of the experiments were evaluated after 4 months. We studied changes in the areas of different zones of the spleen related to production of B and T lymphocytes and also the number of cells in the spleen and tumors with positive reaction to receptors related to manifestation of apoptosis (FasL and p53) and receptors related to inhibition of apoptosis (bcl-2). In the spleen, dietary fats as well as DMBA alone decreased the zones related to production of B lymphocytes and increased the number of T lymphocytes. The combined effect of a carcinogen and a high fat diet manifested in an increase in the number of lymphoid cells and macrophages. In tumors from rats fed a low-fat diet, an extremely high number of lymphoid cells was ...
JWH-18 is a synthetic cannabinoid with similar subjective effects to those of THC, active principle of marihuana. These last years this substance has become very popular and, as a consequence, the carcinogenic properties of this molecule have been widely discussed. In this text I will talk about the potential carcinogenicity of JWH-18. ___ JWH-18 (Fig.1) contains naphthalene in its structure (coloured in red). When we introduce naphthalene in our organism, it is going to pass through
JWH-18 is a synthetic cannabinoid with similar subjective effects to those of THC, active principle of marihuana. These last years this substance has become very popular and, as a consequence, the carcinogenic properties of this molecule have been widely discussed. In this text I will talk about the potential carcinogenicity of JWH-18. ___ JWH-18 (Fig.1) contains naphthalene in its structure (coloured in red). When we introduce naphthalene in our organism, it is going to pass through
Is anyone out there concerned about the hazardous materials we are exposed to daily in Histology? Such as Xylene, Formalin, and some of the other carcinogens used through out Histology. We keep the exposure levels under the limits but I still cant help but wonder if were in harms way. DAVE ...
Home testing and Human carcinogen - Iodine-131, diagnostic tests, self assessment, and other tools and products in relation to Human carcinogen - Iodine-131.
This 1961 confidential Philip Morris (PM) Research and Development Department document written by Helmut Wakeham, the head of PMs R & D department, acknowledges the existence of such chemicals in cigarette smoke as arsenic, benzene, toluene, acetone, methanol, phenols, formic acid, napthalene and others. A list on page 9 of the document (Bates Page 2024947813) is entitled Partial List of Compounds in Cigarette Smoke Also Identified as Carcinogens. It lists approximately 42 compounds. A section entitled Smoking and Cardiovascular Disease (Page 13, Bates Page No.2024947187) gives a general discussion of the means through which nicotine affects the brain, nervous and cardiovascular systems. The next page is entitled, R&D Program Leading to a Medically Acceptable Cigarette. It lists three means through which PM could produce a safer cigarette. Method III lists Reduction of the General Level of Carcinogenic Substances in Smoke (but without Complete Elimination of More than a Few Specific ...
EXHAUST POLLUTION PREVENTION REDUCES CANCER RISK A considerable amount of knowledge regarding what causes cancer has accumulated during the past several decades. Cancer Biology has established the basic facts of the process, carcinogenesis, whereby a normal cell becomes a cancer cell. It has also come to be known that a considerable number of chemical substances are human carcinogens. Chemical carcinogens cause cancer by damaging the DNA of chromosomes. Damage occurs at the molecular level. One molecule of carcinogen attaches to the DNA molecule causing one increment of chromosomal damage, referred to as a lesion. Increased numbers of carcinogen molecules in the body increases the amount of damage done to the DNA. This means that reducing the amount of carcinogen one is exposed to reduces cancer risk. Genes are the basic functional units of chromosomes. Proteins that control all of the body s biochemical processes are produced using the genes for building instructions. When the gene that codes ...
Controversies have erupted multiple times when the IARC has classified many things as Class 2a (probable carcinogens) or 2b ( ... Missing or empty ,title= (help) Ferber D (July 2003). "Carcinogens. Lashed by critics, WHO's cancer agency begins a new regime ... possible carcinogen), including cell phone signals, glyphosate, drinking hot beverages, and working as a barber. In 2019 IARC ... after IARC received numerous requests for lists of known and suspected human carcinogens, its Advisory Committee recommended ...
Compounds related to methyl violet[which?] are potential carcinogens.[citation needed] Methyl violet 10B inhibits the growth of ...
... so the EPA has classified it as a Group B2 carcinogen, meaning it is a probable human carcinogen. The International Agency for ... It is thought to be a potential carcinogen in humans, though this has not yet been proven. Toxaphene is a synthetic organic ... "Toxaphene" (PDF). Report on Carcinogens. National Toxicology Program, Department of Health and Human Services. 13. October 2, ... Research on Cancer has classified it as a Group 2B carcinogen. Toxaphene can be detected in blood, urine, breast milk, and body ...
Phagocytes as carcinogens. Science. 1985; 227:1231-1233. 86. Weitzman SA, Weitberg AB, Niederman R, Stossel TP. Chronic ...
National Toxicology Program (10 June 2011). "12th Report on Carcinogens". National Toxicology Program. Archived from the ...
Alcohol is an example of a chemical carcinogen. The World Health Organization has classified alcohol as a Group 1 carcinogen. ... known as carcinogens, have been linked to specific types of cancer. Common examples of non-radioactive carcinogens are inhaled ... This may be partially explained by the presence of carcinogens in food cooked at high temperatures. Several risk factors for ... Maltoni CF, Holland JF (2000). "Chapter 16: Physical Carcinogens". In Bast RC, Kufe DW, Pollock RE, et al. (eds.). Holland-Frei ...
... is regarded as a "known carcinogen", especially in case of eye contact, but also in case of skin contact, of ingestion ... "Styrene entry in National Toxicology Program's Thirteenth Report on Carcinogens" (PDF). nih.gov. Archived from the original ( ... National Toxicology Program (10 June 2011). "12th Report on Carcinogens". National Toxicology Program. Archived from the ... "reasonably anticipated to be a human carcinogen". However, a STATS author describes a review that was done on scientific ...
BEIR VI did not consider that other carcinogens such as dust might be the cause of some or all of the lung cancers, thus ... As with the miner data, the same confounding factor of other carcinogens such as dust applies. Radon concentration is high in ... "Known and Probable Carcinogens". American Cancer Society. Retrieved June 26, 2008. "UI professor contributes to WHO's first ... ISBN 978-0-7503-0224-1. Darby, S; Hill, D; Doll, R (2005). "Radon: a likely carcinogen at all exposures". Annals of Oncology. ...
"Known and Probable Carcinogens". American Cancer Society. 2006-02-03. Archived from the original on 2008-03-17. Retrieved 2008- ... The American Cancer Society lists tamoxifen as a known carcinogen, stating that it increases the risk of some types of uterine ...
Several well-established carcinogens have been shown by the tobacco companies' own research to be present at higher ... 219 KB). From the 11th Report on Carcinogens of the U.S. National Institutes of Health U.S. Dept. of Health and Human Services ... "Environmental Tobacco Smoke" (PDF). 11th Report on Carcinogens. U.S. National Institutes of Health. Archived (PDF) from the ... Schick, S. F.; Glantz, S. (1 August 2007). "Concentrations of the Carcinogen 4-(Methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-Pyridyl)-1-Butanone in ...
It is also classified by the IARC as a Group 2B carcinogen: possibly carcinogenic to humans because it is a known carcinogen in ... Tenth Report on Carcinogens Archived 1 November 2004 at the Wayback Machine. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, ... "12th Report on Carcinogens". United States Department of Health and Human Services' National Toxicology Program. Archived from ... Dioxane is classified by the National Toxicology Program as "reasonably anticipated to be a human carcinogen". ...
Chromium (in its hexavalent form) and arsenic are carcinogens; cadmium causes a degenerative bone disease; and mercury and lead ... a suspected carcinogen); and thallium (central nervous system damage). Heavy metals essential for life can be toxic if taken in ... carcinogens); copper, zinc, selenium and silver (endocrine disruption, congenital disorders, or general toxic effects in fish, ...
MeIQ, MeIQx and PhIP were added to the list of anticipated carcinogens in 2004. The Report on Carcinogens stated that MeIQ has ... 13th Report on Carcinogens. "Substances Listed in the Thirteenth Report on Carcinogens" (PDF). Retrieved 2015-05-08. Sugimura, ... "reasonably anticipated to be a human carcinogen" in its twelfth Report on Carcinogens, published in 2011. The HCA known as IQ ... Most of the 20 HCAs are more toxic than benzopyrene, a carcinogen found in cigarette smoke and coal tar. MeIQ, IQ and 8-MeIQx ...
Carcinogens are exogenous factors. In geography, exogenous processes all take place outside the Earth and all the other planets ...
"12th Report on Carcinogens". National Toxicology Program. Archived from the original on 25 June 2011. Retrieved 24 June 2011. ... Cobalt-cemented tungsten carbide is also anticipated to be a human carcinogen by the American National Toxicology Program. http ... Sittig's Handbook of Toxic and Hazardous Chemicals and Carcinogens (6th ed.). Elsevier, Inc. p. 2670. ISBN 978-1-4377-7869-4. ...
Ames BN (September 1983). "Dietary carcinogens and anticarcinogens. Oxygen radicals and degenerative diseases". Science. 221 ( ... such as carcinogens, without inducing apoptosis. Autophagic cell death can be prompted by the over expression of autophagy ...
Report on Carcinogens, Eleventh Edition. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. 2005. Occupational Safety and Health ... Chrysotile has been included with other forms of asbestos in being classified as a human carcinogen by the International Agency ...
"Known and Probable Human Carcinogens". www.cancer.org. Elisa K. Ong; Stanton A. Glantz (November 2001). "Constructing "Sound ... human carcinogen. TASSC's stated objectives were to: (1) discredit the EPA report; (2) fight anti-smoking legislation; and (3) ...
Report on Carcinogens, Fourteenth Edition; U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, National ...
Additionally, arsenite containing compounds have also been labeled carcinogens. The carcinogenicity of potassium arsenite ... Report on Carcinogens, Thirteenth Edition. Caspari, Charles (1901). A Treatise on Pharmacy for Students and Pharmacists (2nd ed ...
American Cancer Society (2013). "Known and Probable Human Carcinogens". cancer.org. American Cancer Society, Inc. Retrieved ... and are classified by the International Agency for Research on Cancer as a group 1 biological carcinogen in 2009. O. viverrini ...
77-78-1" (PDF). 12th Report on Carcinogens (RoC). US Department of Health and Human Services. 2011. "Dupont product information ...
... is listed by the U.S. National Toxicology Program (NTP) as reasonably anticipated to be a human carcinogen. ... Metronidazole is listed as a possible carcinogen according to the World Health Organization (WHO) International Agency for ... National Toxicology Program (2016). "Metronidazole" (PDF). Report on Carcinogens (Fourteenth ed.). National Toxicology Program ...
... was revealed to be on the list of Group 1 known carcinogens, but was suspected and studied for its links ... "Known and Probable Human Carcinogens". www.cancer.org. Retrieved 2019-09-25. Humans, IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of ...
"NTP: Report on Carcinogens (RoC)". Ntp.niehs.nih.gov. 13 February 2009. Archived from the original on 12 June 2011. Retrieved ...
The Report on Carcinogens (RoC) is a U.S. congressionally-mandated, science-based public health report that identifies agents, ... In the U.S., o-toluidine was first listed in the Third Annual Report on Carcinogens as 'reasonably anticipated to be a human ... "o-Toluidine" (PDF). Report on Carcinogens (13th ed.). US National Institute of Health. Kadlubar, F. F.; Badawi, A. F. (1995). " ... This was done 31 years later in the Thirteenth Report on Carcinogens (2014). The International Agency for Research on Cancer ( ...
... has also been classified as an IARC Group 1 carcinogen (known to cause cancer) but is only cancerous when combined ... "Known and Probable Human Carcinogens". American Cancer Society. "Dead Like Me on snopes.com". "Methoxsalen". Drug Information ...
"Hydrazobenzene" (PDF). Report on Carcinogens, Fourteenth Edition. National Toxicology Program, Department of Health and Human ...
79-44-7" (PDF). Report on Carcinogens (13th ed.). National Toxicology Program, Department of Health and Human Services. ... Dimethylcarbamoyl fluoride Pohanish, R. P. (2011). Sittig's Handbook of Toxic and Hazardous Chemicals and Carcinogens (6th ed ...
... rated as IARC Group 1 carcinogen or a known carcinogen. Gastrointestinal Tumor Study Group (April 1992). "Radiation therapy and ... "Known and Probable Human Carcinogens". American Cancer Society. v t e. ...
Director, Office of the Report on Carcinogens Tel 984-287-3155 Fax 301-480-2970 [email protected] P.O. Box 12233 ... The Office of the Report on Carcinogens - headed by Ruth M. Lunn, Dr.P.H - coordinates one of the NTPs hazard evaluation ... Substances are listed in the report as either known or reasonably anticipated human carcinogens. ... prepares the Report on Carcinogens , a congressionally mandated report that identifies substances or exposure circumstances ...
Group A1: Confirmed human carcinogen Group A2: Suspected human carcinogen Group A3: Confirmed animal carcinogen with unknown ... Carcinogen List - NIOSH Safety and Health Topic Recognized Carcinogens American Cancer Society Database of Rodent Carcinogens ... Co-carcinogens are chemicals that do not necessarily cause cancer on their own, but promote the activity of other carcinogens ... However, in some cases, these reactions can also convert a less toxic carcinogen into a more toxic carcinogen. DNA is ...
According to the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, the following are known human carcinogens found in cigarette ... "About the Report on Carcinogens". Archived from the original on 2013-04-10. Retrieved 2013-04-16. Godwin, W. S.; Subha, V. R.; ...
... Unreleased internal FDA emails show glyphosate weedkiller residue in almost every food tested. *by Kristine ... Study Shows Air Emissions from Fracking Sites Contain Carcinogens and Other Harmful Chemicals. *by ...
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Congress, Obama find accord on regulation of household chemicals President Obama reached a rare agreement with Congress on a new law to regulate toxic household chemicals. The legislation, signed Wednesday, will give the EPA the authority to vet and ban tens of thousands of substances potentially harmful to humans,…. By PBS NewsHour. ...
... promulgated standards in 1974 to regulate the industrial use of 13 chemicals identified as potential occupational carcinogens. ... which considers the 13 chemicals to be potential occupational carcinogens. ... promulgated standards in 1974 to regulate the industrial use of 13 chemicals identified as potential occupational carcinogens. ...
NIOSH has adopted a more inclusive carcinogen policy. ... When thresholds for carcinogens that would protect 100% of the ... In this way, respirators will be consistently recommended regardless of whether a substance is a carcinogen or a non-carcinogen ... For the past 20 plus years, NIOSH has subscribed to a carcinogen policy that was published in 1976 by Edward J. Fairchild, II, ... Potential occupational carcinogen means any substance, or combination or mixture of substances, which causes an increased ...
... some related information is included on how different agencies and groups test and classify possible carcinogens. ... Carcinogens do not cause cancer at all times, under all circumstances. In other words, a carcinogen does not always cause ... "Reasonably anticipated to be human carcinogens". Learn more about the topics in this list in the NTPs Report on Carcinogens at ... National Toxicology Program 14th Report on Carcinogens. "Known to be human carcinogens". Learn more about the topics in this ...
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Exposure to carcinogens at work in EUs crosshairs. The EU Agency for Safety and Health at Work has launched a joint campaign ... Carcinogens found in British baby food and Belgian fries. Two new surveys have found high levels of acrylamide, a known ... MEPs adopt stricter limits on carcinogens in the workplace. EU lawmakers on Wednesday (30 August) voted on tough new exposure ... Sunbed ultraviolet radiation is a complete carcinogen, EU panel says. The European Commissions Scientific Committee on ...
Substances, mixtures and exposure circumstances in this list have been classified by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) as Group 3: The agent (mixture or exposure circumstance) is not classifiable as to its carcinogenicity to humans. This category is used most commonly for agents, mixtures and exposure circumstances for which the evidence of carcinogenicity is inadequate in humans and inadequate or limited in experimental animals. Exceptionally, agents (mixtures) for which the evidence of carcinogenicity is inadequate in humans but sufficient in experimental animals may be placed in this category when there is strong evidence that the mechanism of carcinogenicity in experimental animals does not operate in humans. Agents, mixtures and exposure circumstances that do not fall into any other group are also placed in this category. Further details can be found in the IARC Monographs Acenaphthene Acepyrene Aciclovir Acridine orange Acriflavinium chloride Acrolein Acrylic acid ...
Substances, mixtures and exposure circumstances in this list have been classified by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) as Group 1: The agent (mixture) is carcinogenic to humans. The exposure circumstance entails exposures that are carcinogenic to humans. This category is used when there is sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity in humans. Exceptionally, an agent (mixture) may be placed in this category when evidence of carcinogenicity in humans is less than sufficient but there is sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity in experimental animals and strong evidence in exposed humans that the agent (mixture) acts through a relevant mechanism of carcinogenicity. 2-Naphthylamine Acetaldehyde associated with consumption of alcoholic beverages 4-Aminobiphenyl Aflatoxins Aristolochic acids, and plants containing them Arsenic and inorganic arsenic compounds1 Asbestos Azathioprine Benzene Benzidine, and dyes metabolized to Benzo[a]pyrene Beryllium and beryllium compounds2 Chlornapazine ...
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Mutagens and carcinogens in the environment represent a potential hazard, and it is important to screen large numbers of ... Ames B.N. (1982) Mutagens, Carcinogens, and Anti-Carcinogens. In: Fleck R.A., Hollaender A. (eds) Genetic Toxicology. Basic ... Mutagens and carcinogens in the environment represent a potential hazard, and it is important to screen large numbers of ... Ames, B.N., L.S. Gold, B.B. Sawyer, and W. Havender, Carcinogenic potency, in: "Environmental Mutagens and Carcinogens", T. ...
Every time you make up, you lather your face with a deadly cocktail of carcinogens, preservatives, mutagens, allergens, toxic ... Even those that dont have carcinogens may use ingredients that can cause allergic reactions, irritation or photosensitivity. ...
Carcinogen A carcinogen is a substance that causes a normal cell to change into a cancerous cell, resulting in uncontrolled ... Carcinogen Encyclopedia of Public Health COPYRIGHT 2002 The Gale Group Inc.. CARCINOGEN. A carcinogen is an agent that can ... Carcinogen UXL Encyclopedia of Science COPYRIGHT 2002 The Gale Group, Inc.. Carcinogen. A carcinogen is a substance that causes ... Carcinogen. A carcinogen is a substance that causes a normal cell to change into a cancerous cell. The word "car cinogen" is ...
Carcinogens are present in and around your home and workplace, and are often related to lifestyle. Being aware of and reducing ... Being exposed to carcinogens doesnt guarantee that you will get cancer; however, substances labeled as carcinogens have ... What are environmental carcinogens?. Cancer is caused by mutations in a cells DNA. Though some of these mutations may be ... Carcinogens are present in and around your home and workplace, and are often related to lifestyle. Being aware of and reducing ...
Further discussion of eliminating carcinogens in smoke states, "To achieve this objective will require a major research effort ... "Partial List of Compounds in Cigarette Smoke Also Identified as Carcinogens." It lists approximately 42 compounds. A section ... because, 1. Carcinogens are found in practically every class of compounds in smoke. This fact prohibits complete solution of ... Retrieved from "https://www.sourcewatch.org/index.php?title=Carcinogens_in_cigarettes,_1961&oldid=773249" ...
... physical carcinogens, and oncogenic (cancer-causing) viruses. Most carcinogens, singly or in combination, produce ... They can be divided into three major categories: chemical carcinogens (including those from biological sources), ... Carcinogen, any of a number of agents that can cause cancer in humans. ... More About Carcinogen. 10 references found in Britannica articles. Assorted References. *chemical carcinogens* In poison: ...
Melbourne F Hovell, John Bellettiere, Sandy Liles, Benjamin Nguyen, Vincent Berardi, Christine Johnson, Georg E Matt, John Malone, Marie C Boman-Davis, Penelope J E Quintana, Saori Obayashi, Dale Chatfield, Robert Robinson, Elaine J Blumberg, Weg M Ongkeko, Neil E Klepeis, Suzanne C Hughes ...
... bringing its total number of known human carcinogens to 248. ... and Human Services released its 14th Report on Carcinogens in ...
To see information on the 9th edition of the RoC, see the NTP RoC Homepage Report on Carcinogens or contact the NTP-RoC, MD EC- ... It had been listed in the Report as "reasonably anticipated to be a human carcinogen" since 1985. The Report cites findings of ... An agent, substance, mixture or exposure circumstance can be listed in the Report either as "known to be a human carcinogen" or ... Eight of the new entries are listed as "known to be human carcinogens" and the other six entries as "reasonably anticipated to ...
Cola giants under fire for carcinogens 11 Mar, 2012 5:20am 2 minutes to read ... Under Californian law, drinks containing a certain level of carcinogens must have a cancer-warning label on their packaging. ... Coca-Cola is altering its drink in the US after the state of California declared one of its flavourings a carcinogen though it ...
... Sheila M. EldredHealth Writer. Sep 23, 2019. ... "Its the most obvious carcinogen, and the one where people can make a change." (Check out these quitting resources from the ... Steering clear of these eight common carcinogens is a great place to start. ... https://www.healthcentral.com/slideshow/common-carcinogens-you-should-be-avoiding. .header { margin-bottom: 10px } @media (min- ...
... and keep up with all the news on PureVolume.com/carcinogen ... Download and stream Carcinogen songs and albums, watch videos, ...
Tag: carcinogens. Book & movie reviewsCritical ThinkingPublic Health. Pesticides: Just How Bad Are They?. I think everyone ... Are Cell Phones a Possible Carcinogen? An Update on the IARC Report. EDITORS NOTE: Because I am at the annual meeting of the ...
... nearly 20 percent of the bottles tested were contaminated with possible carcinogens and neurotoxins. ... Natural Resources Defense Council tested 1,000 of what item and found that 20 percent of them contained possible carcinogens ...
... this one can hunt for carcinogens in a simple saliva swab. ... DNA test that can measure the amount of potential carcinogens ... DNA Analysis Catches Carcinogens in a Simple Saliva Sample. Researchers presenting at the 242nd National Meeting and Exposition ... Theyre kind of like a direct measurement of what carcinogens a person is coming in contact with in his or her daily life, ... Our DNA has mechanisms for repairing itself when carcinogens damage our genetic material, but when it fails to do so that ...
Common and known human carcinogens include alcoholic beverages, engine exhaust, consumption of processed meat, tobacco smoking ... Factors that determine the degree of risk that a carcinogen presents include the type of carcinogen, the extent of exposure to ... Carcinogens are substances and exposures that may lead to cancer or increase the risk of getting it, explains the American ... Common and known human carcinogens include alcoholic beverages, engine exhaust, consumption of processed meat, tobacco smoking ...
  • What are environmental carcinogens? (sheknows.com)
  • The burgeoning number and complexity of known or suspected environmental carcinogens compel us to act to protect public health, even though we may lack irrefutable proof of harm. (foodpolitics.com)
  • This means individuals must do their best to protect themselves and their children (who are more susceptible to damage from environmental carcinogens) from exposure to known cancer-causing substances. (qualityhealth.com)
  • This has important implications for the regulation of potential environmental carcinogens. (ewg.org)
  • As understanding of the epigenetic impact of environmental carcinogens increases, so will the potential for identifying epigenetic biomarkers for toxicant exposure that could predict the risk for developing disease. (qiagen.com)
  • Because the findings can be generalized to other environmental carcinogens, they could help regulators identify chemicals that increase breast cancer risk. (eurekalert.org)
  • People carrying mutations of a gene called BAP1 are much more susceptible to asbestos, sunlight and other environmental carcinogens. (hawaii.edu)
  • The decrease of calcium makes cells more likely to become malignant when exposed to environmental carcinogens. (hawaii.edu)
  • Co-carcinogens are chemicals that do not necessarily cause cancer on their own, but promote the activity of other carcinogens in causing cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • Without establishing PELs, OSHA promulgated standards in 1974 to regulate the industrial use of 13 chemicals identified as potential occupational carcinogens. (cdc.gov)
  • Respirator selections in the Pocket Guide are based on NIOSH policy, which considers the 13 chemicals to be potential occupational carcinogens. (cdc.gov)
  • Carcinogens include both naturally occurring and artificially produced chemicals, ultraviolet light, and radioactive substances such as radon (a radioactive gas that is present in rock). (encyclopedia.com)
  • About 23 chemicals have been identified as carcinogens in humans, with many more shown to cause cancer in laboratory animals. (encyclopedia.com)
  • In addition, various chemicals used in industrial processes, such as vinyl chloride and certain dyes, are known human carcinogens. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Working in viruses of aquaculture we have a number of raggedy primary monocultures that we have been tiptoeing around in the hopes of getting a cell line for routine use in screening.Are there any methods involving growth enhancing chemicals or carcinogens that may help speed this process up? (bio.net)
  • This table lists those chemicals considered to be carcinogens under the requirements of the Occupation Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) and the basis for the classifications. (epa.gov)
  • Many carcinogens are well known and exposure is preventable, such as chemicals in asbestos or tobacco smoke. (cancer.org.au)
  • Other environmental factors, such as chemicals and radiation, are carcinogens as well. (qualityhealth.com)
  • The reports of the Halifax Project demonstrate that the universe of cancer-causing chemicals may be much larger than the list of known complete carcinogens. (ewg.org)
  • Some of these chemicals are known or suspected carcinogens, but despite this knowledge, it is not yet fully understood how cancer risk is increased by red meat or processed meat. (zerohedge.com)
  • These abnormalities may be due to the effects of carcinogens, such as tobacco smoke, radiation , chemicals, or infectious agents. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Although all of these chemicals are known or highly suspected carcinogens, they continue to pollute the foods we feed our families and ourselves. (thedailymeal.com)
  • To help you avoid these cancer-causing chemicals, we've compiled a list of the 10 most popular carcinogens hiding in your foods and drinks. (thedailymeal.com)
  • The ROC is a scientific report (see this factsheet ) that identifies substances, including industrial chemicals and pesticides, either known or reasonably anticipated to be human carcinogens . (edf.org)
  • The simple answer is that the producers of those chemicals are profoundly unhappy that the 12th ROC identified formaldehyde as a known human carcinogen and styrene as reasonably anticipated to be a human carcinogen . (edf.org)
  • Revised edition of: Handbook of toxic and hazardous chemicals and carcinogens / by Marshall Sittig. (worldcat.org)
  • Several radioactive substances are considered carcinogens, but their carcinogenic activity is attributed to the radiation, for example gamma rays and alpha particles, which they emit. (wikipedia.org)
  • For the past 20 plus years, NIOSH has subscribed to a carcinogen policy that was published in 1976 by Edward J. Fairchild, II, Associate Director for Cincinnati Operations, which called for "no detectable exposure levels for proven carcinogenic substances" (Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 271:200-207, 1976). (cdc.gov)
  • In the past, NIOSH identified numerous substances that should be treated as potential occupational carcinogens even though OSHA might not have identified them as such. (cdc.gov)
  • The lists do not include substances that have been classified as possible carcinogens, for which the evidence is not as strong. (cancer.org)
  • The US Department of Health and Human Services released its 14th Report on Carcinogens in November, including seven "newly reviewed" substances, bringing its total number of known human carcinogens to 248. (cnn.com)
  • however, substances labeled as carcinogens have varying levels of cancer-causing potential. (sheknows.com)
  • Carcinogens are substances and exposures that may lead to cancer or increase the risk of getting it, explains the American Cancer Society. (reference.com)
  • Substances and exposures that can lead to cancer are called carcinogens . (cancer.org)
  • Substances labeled as carcinogens can have different levels of cancer-causing potential. (cancer.org)
  • European research into the potential carcinogen acrylamide has received a massive injection of cash to boost the biggest international project to date on toxic substances formed when food is heated. (foodnavigator.com)
  • Eight new substances have been added to a list of carcinogens by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. (livescience.com)
  • The congressionally mandated report identifies substances that are either known to be human carcinogens or are reasonably anticipated to be a human carcinogen. (livescience.com)
  • Reducing exposure to cancer-causing agents is something we all want, and the Report on Carcinogens provides important information on substances that pose a cancer risk," Linda Birnbaum, director of both the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences and the National Toxicology Program, said in a statement. (livescience.com)
  • Now you're ingesting benzaldehyde, hydrogen peroxide and quercetin glycosides, the last two substances being proven mutagens as well as rodent carcinogens. (houstonpress.com)
  • These substances include components of food-packaging materials, processing additives, which are used in food packaging and as food processing aids carcinogens in food to the lowest feasible levels. (change.org)
  • Carcinogens are substances that can cause cancer, either by damaging people's DNA or other means, such as causing cells to divide more quickly than usual, according to the American Cancer Society. (reference.com)
  • Some carcinogens, such as tobacco and certain types of radiation, are relatively well understood, while other substances are considered probable causes of cancer. (reference.com)
  • Carcinogens are substances or agents that cause cancer. (greenanswers.com)
  • It is not unusual for cancer to appear 20 to 25 years after initial exposure to a carcinogen. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Protective clothing means clothing designed to protect an employee against contact with or exposure to a carcinogen addressed by this section. (osha.gov)
  • When the proto-oncogene is mutated to an oncogene by exposure to a carcinogen, the resultant protein may lack ability to govern cell growth and division, resulting in unrestrained and rapid cell proliferation (Narins 2005). (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Common examples of non-radioactive carcinogens are inhaled asbestos, certain dioxins, and tobacco smoke. (wikipedia.org)
  • Common examples of carcinogens are tobacco smoke, inhaled asbestos , benzene, hepatitis B, and human papilloma virus. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Common examples of carcinogens are inhaled asbestos , certain dioxins , and tobacco smoke. (greenanswers.com)
  • Formaldehyde is classified as a "Group 1 Carcinogen" which is defined as an agent that "is definitely carcinogenic to humans" by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), and "a complete carcinogen" in the words of the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA). (treehugger.com)
  • A culture of a strain of Salmonella bacteria that lacks an enzyme needed for growth is exposed to possible carcinogens. (encyclopedia.com)
  • EarthShare member the Natural Resources Defense Council tested 1,000 of what item and found that 20 percent of them contained possible carcinogens and neurotoxins? (earthshare.org)
  • EarthShare member National Resources Defense Council (NRDC) conducted a four-year study of the bottled water industry and found that while the water itself was generally safe, nearly 20 percent of the bottles tested were contaminated with possible carcinogens and neurotoxins. (earthshare.org)
  • A review of human carcinogens--Part B: biological agents. (nih.gov)
  • A Review of Human Carcinogens. (who.int)
  • A carcinogen is any substance, radionuclide, or radiation that promotes carcinogenesis, the formation of cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • Carcinogens may increase the risk of cancer by altering cellular metabolism or damaging DNA directly in cells, which interferes with biological processes, and induces the uncontrolled, malignant division, ultimately leading to the formation of tumors. (wikipedia.org)
  • In general, the American Cancer Society does not determine if something causes cancer (that is, if it is a carcinogen ). (cancer.org)
  • To learn more about these agencies and how they study and classify cancer causes, see Determining if Something Is a Carcinogen . (cancer.org)
  • Carcinogens do not cause cancer at all times, under all circumstances. (cancer.org)
  • Carcinogens cause cancer by producing changes (or mutations) in the genetic material, or DNA, of a cell. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Sunlight is a well-known carcinogen that can cause changes in skin cells that may lead to skin cancer . (encyclopedia.com)
  • Being aware of and reducing your exposure to carcinogens can reduce your risk of developing cancer. (sheknows.com)
  • Diesel exhaust, a contributor to air pollution, has been classified as an environmental carcinogen and is most associated with an increased risk of lung cancer. (sheknows.com)
  • Carcinogen , any of a number of agents that can cause cancer in humans. (britannica.com)
  • They can be divided into three major categories: chemical carcinogens (including those from biological sources), physical carcinogens, and oncogenic (cancer-causing) viruses . (britannica.com)
  • Most carcinogens, singly or in combination, produce cancer by interacting with DNA in cells and thereby interfering with normal cellular function. (britannica.com)
  • There also exist carcinogens that induce cancer through nongenotoxic mechanisms, such as immunosuppression and induction of tissue-specific inflammation . (britannica.com)
  • Other examples of chemical carcinogens include nitrosamines and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, which are found in tobacco smoke and are associated with the development of lung cancer . (britannica.com)
  • The identification and timely elimination of carcinogens can reduce the incidence of cancer. (britannica.com)
  • Under Californian law, drinks containing a certain level of carcinogens must have a cancer-warning label on their packaging. (nzherald.co.nz)
  • Our DNA has mechanisms for repairing itself when carcinogens damage our genetic material, but when it fails to do so that genetic damage can lead to cell mutations and eventually to health problems like cancer and inflammatory diseases. (popsci.com)
  • Common and known human carcinogens include alcoholic beverages, engine exhaust, consumption of processed meat, tobacco smoking, and ultraviolet or UV radiation, according to the American Cancer Society. (reference.com)
  • When a substance or exposure has been labeled a carcinogen, it means it has been studied extensively by researchers, and one or more agencies have evaluated the evidence and determined it to be a cause of cancer. (cancer.org)
  • Some carcinogens cause cancer by changing a cell's DNA. (cancer.org)
  • Carcinogens do not cause cancer in every case, all the time. (cancer.org)
  • And for any particular person, the risk of developing cancer depends on many factors, including how they are exposed to a carcinogen, the length and intensity of the exposure, and the person's genetic makeup. (cancer.org)
  • On top of putting themselves at risk of injury, they also expose themselves to dangerous carcinogens that can lead to cancer. (preventcancer.org)
  • The European Commission is undertaking a phased process to amend Directive 2004/37/EC (the Carcinogens and Mutagens Directive), expanding its scope and including and/or revising occupational exposure limit values for a number of cancer- or mutation-causing chemical agents. (europa.eu)
  • Tobacco carcinogens, their biomarkers and tobacco-induced cancer. (nih.gov)
  • What are the mechanisms by which this deadly combination leads to 30% of cancer-related deaths in developed countries, and how can carcinogen biomarkers help to reveal these mechanisms? (nih.gov)
  • Dr. Schwartzentruber, tell us what we know about how carcinogens cause cancer. (bigthink.com)
  • I mean most carcinogens we think cause cancer by mutating DNA, but there are examples of carcinogens for example, forballesters [ph] which can cause skin cancers that almost certainly are to working through mutating DNA directly, although in the long run you always end up getting mutations in DNA. (bigthink.com)
  • The situations described in this section are those where there is a proven cancer risk: an increased incidence of cancer has clearly been associated with exposure to a known carcinogen. (cancer.org.au)
  • A carcinogen is a substance that causes cancer in the body. (cancer.org.au)
  • Any environmental factor that is capable of causing cancer is called a carcinogen. (qualityhealth.com)
  • Some carcinogens are associated with specific types of cancer. (qualityhealth.com)
  • Research on the environmental causes of cancer is limited, so researchers really don't fully know the consequences of cumulative lifetime exposure to known carcinogens or how specific environmental contaminants interact with each other. (qualityhealth.com)
  • Rethinking Carcinogens: Comparing Cancer Risk Factors: Should We Be Concerned? (ewg.org)
  • The American Cancer Society notes that carcinogens are often associated with specific types of cancer and that some carcinogens, such as radiation from the sun, are natural and difficult to avoid. (reference.com)
  • Evidence for acetaminophen's link to cancer has been weak enough that the International Agency for Research on Cancer declined to list it as a possible carcinogen following reviews in 1990 and 1999. (ktvu.com)
  • After the state listed glyphosate - widely known as the weed killer Roundup - as a carcinogen in 2017, a jury ordered the company that makes Roundup to pay a California couple with cancer more than $2 billion. (ktvu.com)
  • A carcinogen is any substance or agent that can cause cancer . (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • A carcinogen can be a chemical, radiation, radionuclide (an atom with an unstable nucleus), virus , hormone , or other agent that is directly involved in the promotion of cancer or in the facilitation of its propagation. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • There also is a responsibility on behalf of society to identify cancer-causing agents, doing assessments for them, implementing laws to remove potential carcinogens, and providing educational programs to warn the public, despite the high costs of such efforts. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • This study is important and highlights the need for a holistic consideration of mechanistic evidence when identifying potential carcinogens," says Kathryn Guyton, a senior toxicologist at the International Agency for Research on Cancer. (eurekalert.org)
  • Many things are said to cause cancer, but proven carcinogens are actually more difficult to pin down. (greenanswers.com)
  • A carcinogen is any substance, radionuclide , or radiation that is an agent directly involved in causing cancer . (greenanswers.com)
  • Chlorinated Tris has been added as a cancer causing carcinogen by the Californian government last year which also made it mandatory to put up warning messages on products that contained the chemical. (medindia.net)
  • The district says investigators found high levels of arsenic, lead, chromium, copper, polychlorinated biphenyls and other carcinogens at David Starr Jordan High School in South Los Angeles. (courthousenews.com)
  • Environmental and occupational carcinogens such as arsenic and cadmium are implicated in both epigenetic changes and carcinogenesis, but the mechanisms underlying this connection remain unclear. (qiagen.com)
  • As far back as the 1930s, Industrial smoke and tobacco smoke were identified as sources of dozens of carcinogens, including benzo[a]pyrene, tobacco-specific nitrosamines such as nitrosonornicotine, and reactive aldehydes such as formaldehyde, which is also a hazard in embalming and making plastics. (wikipedia.org)
  • Eric Boyland and collaborator demonstrated about 20 years ago that N'-nitrosonornicotine (NNN), a suspected smoke constituent, was a lung carcinogen in mice and that thiocyanate, a major detoxification product of the smoke component hydrogen cyanide, catalyzes the endogenous formation of nitrosamines. (biomedsearch.com)
  • However, it is actually a minor player compared to non-radioactive carcinogens such as polynuclear aromatic compounds and nitrosamines. (greenanswers.com)
  • The lists below are from IARC and NTP, and more information on each of these known and probable human carcinogens can be found on their websites. (cancer.org)
  • Using these viewpoints our summary was that RF-EMF exposure should be a Group 1 carcinogen according to IARC criteria. (wordpress.com)
  • It's worth noting that the ROC's scientific evaluation of formaldehyde and styrene are consistent with those conducted by the World Health Organization's International Agency for Research on Carcinogens (IARC). (edf.org)
  • CERCLA identifies all radionuclides as carcinogens, although the nature of the emitted radiation (alpha, beta, gamma, or neutron and the radioactive strength), its consequent capacity to cause ionization in tissues, and the magnitude of radiation exposure, determine the potential hazard. (wikipedia.org)
  • Physical carcinogens include ultraviolet rays from sunlight and ionizing radiation from X-rays and from radioactive materials in industry and in the general environment. (britannica.com)
  • Basically a cell has to go through a division cycle and make a daughter cell in order for a mutation to get locked in and that- But most really do it by directly damaging DNA, UV light, radiation directly damage the nucleotides in the DNA and many other chemical carcinogens interpolate into the DNA and at the time of cell division interfere with proper base replacement. (bigthink.com)
  • The other point I would make is that not all carcinogens are UV light or radiation. (bigthink.com)
  • In this way, respirators will be consistently recommended regardless of whether a substance is a carcinogen or a non-carcinogen. (cdc.gov)
  • This definition also includes any substance which is metabolized into one or more potential occupational carcinogens by mammals. (cdc.gov)
  • A carcinogen is a substance that causes a normal cell to change into a cancerous cell, resulting in uncontrolled cell growth. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The action in a federal court in Louisiana drew a quick and angry response from Susan King, chairman of the Consumer Product Safety Commission, which had been poised yesterday to categorize perchloroethylene (Perc) as a carcinogen, a move that would have likely resulted in the substance eventually being banned. (washingtonpost.com)
  • She said the preliminary decision by the commission to classify Perc as a carcinogen was meant to "indicate to the public that the CPSC believes the existing evidence concerning the carcinogenic potential of the substance is strong, and that further detailed investigation and evaluation of products containing the substance is warrented. (washingtonpost.com)
  • A good rule is this: if the substance/agent has the ability to damage the genetic code of a cell or causes the disruption of cellular metabolic processes, it is a carcinogen. (greenanswers.com)
  • The Environmental Protection Agency's own scientific advisory panel has identified perfluorooctanoic acid, a chemical compound used to make Teflon, as a "likely carcinogen" in a report it plans to submit to the agency next month. (washingtonpost.com)
  • Instead, it says that the fact that animal studies have identified four different kinds of tumors in both male and female rats and mice that had been exposed to the compound convinced a majority of its members that it is a likely carcinogen. (washingtonpost.com)
  • AP) - A scientific advisory panel to the Environmental Protection Agency voted unanimously yesterday to recommend that a chemical used when making Teflon and other nonstick and stain-resistant products should be considered a likely carcinogen. (washingtontimes.com)
  • That is why recent efforts by the chemical industry and its allies to block Congressionally-mandated, scientific information on carcinogenic hazards by defunding the Report on Carcinogens (ROC) have many researchers and public health officials alarmed. (edf.org)
  • For example, Thorotrast, a (incidentally radioactive) suspension previously used as a contrast medium in x-ray diagnostics, is a potent human carcinogen known because of its retention within various organs and persistent emission of alpha particles. (wikipedia.org)
  • These lists include agents that have been classified as known and probable human carcinogens. (cancer.org)
  • The Working Group categorised RF-EMF from mobile phones, and from other devices that emit similar non-ionising electromagnetic fields, as a Group 2B, i.e. a 'possible', human carcinogen . (wordpress.com)
  • The devastating link between tobacco products and human cancers results from a powerful alliance of two factors - nicotine and carcinogens. (nih.gov)
  • The new additions, announced on June 6, include formaldehyde and aristolochic acids, a family of acids that occur naturally in some plant species, which are now both considered known human carcinogens. (livescience.com)
  • The Food and Drug Administration said Monday Pfizer Inc. informed health care professionals that its HIV drug Viracept contains some traces of a potential human carcinogen. (crainsnewyork.com)
  • These compounds have been shown to be both mutagens and human and rodent carcinogens. (houstonpress.com)
  • Many carcinogens are associated with human activity and lifestyle choices, including cigarette smoking, excessive alcohol use, poor diet, and lack of exercise. (qualityhealth.com)
  • Increasingly, we are appreciating that human carcinogens may exhibit different combinations of these key characteristics. (eurekalert.org)
  • The National Toxicology Program also recently revised its characterization of formaldehyde to that of "known human carcinogen. (treehugger.com)
  • Heterocyclic amines: human carcinogens in cooked food? (unboundmedicine.com)
  • TY - JOUR T1 - Heterocyclic amines: human carcinogens in cooked food? (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Note: In general, polymers are not known as carcinogens or mutagens, however, residual monomers or additives can cause genetic mutations. (wikipedia.org)
  • When carcinogens interact with DNA, they can cause genetic alterations, or mutations, which cells pass along as they divide. (qualityhealth.com)
  • Aflatoxin B1, which is produced by the fungus Aspergillus flavus growing on stored grains, nuts and peanut butter, is an example of a potent, naturally occurring microbial carcinogen. (wikipedia.org)
  • For much of Camp Lejeune's history, its drinking water was contaminated by potent carcinogens at levels rarely if ever seen in a large water system, a new federal report shows. (tampabay.com)
  • The common cultivated mushroom Agaricus bisporus or champignon contains hydrazine, a component of modern rocket fuel and a potent rodent carcinogen. (houstonpress.com)
  • Since it is one of the most potent liver carcinogens known, the research to detect and limit its presence in sunflower seeds and their products could help save lives and reduce liver disease in areas where sunflowers and their byproducts are consumed, said study co-author Gale Strasburg, Professor at Michigan State University in the US. (yahoo.com)
  • The widely used preservative formaldehyde, and styrene, found in food containers and coffee cups, are among eight agents added to a list of known and suspected carcinogens by the U.S. National Institutes of Health. (bloomberg.com)
  • Two new surveys have found high levels of acrylamide, a known carcinogen, in UK-made baby biscuits and Belgium's favourite fast food. (euractiv.com)
  • One such example is acrylamide , which is considered a probable carcinogen in humans and is produced as a result of industrial processes and cooking certain foods at high temperatures. (britannica.com)
  • Beware of wide variations in the levels of possible carcinogen acrylamide in Christmas gingerbread, the Norwegian consumer group has said. (foodnavigator.com)
  • The European Food Safety Authority's (EFSA) annual update report on acrylamide levels in foods does not reveal any considerable change in the presence of the possible carcinogen in foods. (foodnavigator.com)
  • European scientists agree that efforts to reduce the potential carcinogen acrylamide from the European food chain must continue, and that science must focus on long-term studies to build a stronger picture of the impact this genotoxic. (foodnavigator.com)
  • When thresholds for carcinogens that would protect 100% of the population had not been identified, NIOSH usually recommended that occupational exposures to carcinogens be limited to the lowest feasible concentration. (cdc.gov)
  • The following criteria for identification, classification and regulation of potential occupational carcinogens will be applied, unless the Secretary considers evidence under the provisions of §§ 1990.143 , 1990.144 and 1990.145 and determines that such evidence warrants an exception to these criteria. (cornell.edu)
  • Carcinogens are present in and around your home and workplace, and are often related to lifestyle. (sheknows.com)
  • DNA adducts-as strings of DNA damaged by carcinogens are known-serve as biomarkers for doctors, letting them know what diseases a patient might be vulnerable to and helping them monitor for ailments that the patient has a higher likelihood of developing. (popsci.com)
  • Mutagens and carcinogens in the environment represent a potential hazard, and it is important to screen large numbers of compounds and mixtures of compounds to which humans are exposed. (springer.com)
  • Repeated local injury (e.g., wounding) or recurring irritation (e.g., chronic inflammation ) to a part of the body are other examples of potential physical carcinogens. (britannica.com)
  • Researchers presenting at the 242nd National Meeting and Exposition of the American Chemical Society this week in Denver have demonstrated a new DNA test that can measure the amount of potential carcinogens clinging to a person's DNA. (popsci.com)
  • This gap in testing means potential breast carcinogens are being given the green light for use in our consumer products. (eurekalert.org)
  • Classification of potential carcinogens. (cornell.edu)
  • 29 CFR 1990.112 - Classification of potential carcinogens. (cornell.edu)
  • a) Category I Potential Carcinogens. (cornell.edu)
  • b) Category II Potential Carcinogens. (cornell.edu)
  • Therefore HMGB2 expression may be a good screening tool for the identification of potential of prostate carcinogens. (go.jp)
  • There may be such a thing as partial chemical carcinogens that play a role. (ewg.org)
  • The chemical firms also allege that the commission action to classify Perc as a carcinogen is "arbitrary, capricious and unsupported by the record," and that implementation of such a classification "would inflict serious and irreparable injury on the plaintiffs. (washingtonpost.com)
  • If such a proposal were successful, it would effectively delay public access to critical information on chemical carcinogens for years. (edf.org)
  • More than 20 years ago, we learned that this dangerous chemical poisoned the tap water of California communities, and now these tests and EWG's report show that roughly 218 million Americans are being served drinking water polluted with potentially dangerous levels of this known carcinogen," said Erin Brockovich, a consumer advocate whose investigation of deaths and disease in a small desert town brought chromium-6 to national attention. (commondreams.org)
  • Beyond chemical carcinogens, there are several microbial agents that are known carcinagens. (greenanswers.com)
  • Consequently it takes a long time to determine that a chemical is a prostate carcinogen with animal models. (go.jp)
  • Also, in 1989, NIOSH adopted several quantitative RELs for carcinogens from OSHA's permissible exposure limit (PEL) update. (cdc.gov)
  • Under the new policy, NIOSH will also recommend the complete range of respirators (as determined by the NIOSH Respirator Decision Logic) for carcinogens with quantitative RELs. (cdc.gov)
  • To ensure maximum protection from carcinogens through the use of respiratory protection, NIOSH also recommended that only the most reliable and protective respirators be used. (cdc.gov)
  • However, in some cases, these reactions can also convert a less toxic carcinogen into a more toxic carcinogen. (wikipedia.org)
  • Every time you make up, you lather your face with a deadly cocktail of carcinogens, preservatives, mutagens, allergens, toxic heavy metals and other poisons that slip through the loose regulatory net. (healthy.net)
  • Many of the beauty products such as hair, skin and body care and cosmetics as well as the food we eat contain well known carcinogens and are highly toxic. (articlealley.com)
  • Perhaps you'll be able to control yourself better at the holiday table once you remember that you're ingesting naturally occurring carcinogens and mutagens. (houstonpress.com)
  • There are also a multitude of carcinogens that naturally form on meat cooked at high temperatures (grilling or broiling for example). (greenanswers.com)
  • Vinyl chloride, from which PVC is manufactured, is a carcinogen and thus a hazard in PVC production. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, said Heckman, vinyl chloride is a carcinogen, but its one-part-per-million presence in FDA-approved PVC packaging is low enough for FDA policy to consider it an ``unwanted contaminant. (plasticsnews.com)
  • Under the old policy, RELs for most carcinogens were non-quantitative values labeled "lowest feasible concentration (LFC). (cdc.gov)
  • This was in response to a generic OSHA rulemaking on carcinogens. (cdc.gov)
  • Carcinogens are found in practically every class of compounds in smoke. (sourcewatch.org)
  • With these additions, the 12th Report on Carcinogens now includes 240 listings, which can all be found here . (livescience.com)
  • By learning about the carcinogens found in every day foods, you can be vigilant about which products you purchase and choose to feed your family. (thedailymeal.com)
  • NDMA is a known carcinogen, the report reads based on lab data and is also found in the environment, food and water the report adds. (news-medical.net)
  • Dec. 5, 2019 -- The FDA has begun testing samples of the diabetes drug metformin for the carcinogen N-Nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA), the agency announced Wednesday. (webmd.com)
  • They contain aniline and caffeic acid, both rodent carcinogens. (houstonpress.com)
  • Marinating your meat is a great way to flavor your food and it reduces the carcinogens, too. (acefitness.org)
  • Until now, the EPA has classified PFOA as a "suggested" carcinogen, which requires fewer health precautions. (washingtonpost.com)
  • The two primary mechanisms by which carcinogens initiate the formation of such tumours is via alterations in DNA that encourage cell division and that prevent cells from being able to self-destruct when stimulated by normal triggers, such as DNA damage or cellular injury (a process known as apoptosis ). (britannica.com)
  • In a letter to Ruth Lunn, Director of the Office of the Report on Carcinogens, back in February of this year, the ACC urged delaying the development of any future Reports until the NAS completed its review. (edf.org)
  • Some of the products of the metabolic process are carcinogens. (springer.com)