Carcinogens: Substances that increase the risk of NEOPLASMS in humans or animals. Both genotoxic chemicals, which affect DNA directly, and nongenotoxic chemicals, which induce neoplasms by other mechanism, are included.Nitrosamines: A class of compounds that contain a -NH2 and a -NO radical. Many members of this group have carcinogenic and mutagenic properties.2-Acetylaminofluorene: A hepatic carcinogen whose mechanism of activation involves N-hydroxylation to the aryl hydroxamic acid followed by enzymatic sulfonation to sulfoxyfluorenylacetamide. It is used to study the carcinogenicity and mutagenicity of aromatic amines.Benzo(a)pyrene: A potent mutagen and carcinogen. It is a public health concern because of its possible effects on industrial workers, as an environmental pollutant, an as a component of tobacco smoke.Mutagens: Chemical agents that increase the rate of genetic mutation by interfering with the function of nucleic acids. A clastogen is a specific mutagen that causes breaks in chromosomes.Benzopyrenes: A class of chemicals that contain an anthracene ring with a naphthalene ring attached to it.DNA Adducts: The products of chemical reactions that result in the addition of extraneous chemical groups to DNA.Carcinogenicity Tests: Tests to experimentally measure the tumor-producing/cancer cell-producing potency of an agent by administering the agent (e.g., benzanthracenes) and observing the quantity of tumors or the cell transformation developed over a given period of time. The carcinogenicity value is usually measured as milligrams of agent administered per tumor developed. Though this test differs from the DNA-repair and bacterial microsome MUTAGENICITY TESTS, researchers often attempt to correlate the finding of carcinogenicity values and mutagenicity values.Acetoxyacetylaminofluorene: An alkylating agent that forms DNA ADDUCTS at the C-8 position in GUANINE, resulting in single strand breaks. It has demonstrated carcinogenic action.9,10-Dimethyl-1,2-benzanthracene: 7,12-Dimethylbenzanthracene. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon found in tobacco smoke that is a potent carcinogen.Mutagenicity Tests: Tests of chemical substances and physical agents for mutagenic potential. They include microbial, insect, mammalian cell, and whole animal tests.Methylnitrosourea: A nitrosourea compound with alkylating, carcinogenic, and mutagenic properties.Cocarcinogenesis: The combination of two or more different factors in the production of cancer.Aminobiphenyl Compounds: Biphenyl compounds substituted in any position by one or more amino groups. Permitted are any substituents except fused rings.4-Nitroquinoline-1-oxide: A potent mutagen and carcinogen. This compound and its metabolite 4-HYDROXYAMINOQUINOLINE-1-OXIDE bind to nucleic acids. It inactivates bacteria but not bacteriophage.7,8-Dihydro-7,8-dihydroxybenzo(a)pyrene 9,10-oxide: 7,8,8a,9a-Tetrahydrobenzo(10,11)chryseno (3,4-b)oxirene-7,8-diol. A benzopyrene derivative with carcinogenic and mutagenic activity.Biotransformation: The chemical alteration of an exogenous substance by or in a biological system. The alteration may inactivate the compound or it may result in the production of an active metabolite of an inactive parent compound. The alterations may be divided into METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE I and METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE II.Benz(a)Anthracenes: Four fused benzyl rings with three linear and one angular, that can be viewed as a benzyl-phenanthrenes. Compare with NAPHTHACENES which are four linear rings.Rats, Inbred F344Methylnitronitrosoguanidine: A nitrosoguanidine derivative with potent mutagenic and carcinogenic properties.Neoplasms, Experimental: Experimentally induced new abnormal growth of TISSUES in animals to provide models for studying human neoplasms.Polycyclic Compounds: Compounds consisting of two or more fused ring structures.Dimethylnitrosamine: A nitrosamine derivative with alkylating, carcinogenic, and mutagenic properties. It causes serious liver damage and is a hepatocarcinogen in rodents.Methyldimethylaminoazobenzene: A very potent liver carcinogen.p-Dimethylaminoazobenzene: A reagent used mainly to induce experimental liver cancer. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, p. 89) published in 1985, this compound "may reasonably be anticipated to be a carcinogen." (Merck, 11th ed)Fluorenes: A family of diphenylenemethane derivatives.Liver Neoplasms, Experimental: Experimentally induced tumors of the LIVER.Aflatoxin B1: A potent hepatotoxic and hepatocarcinogenic mycotoxin produced by the Aspergillus flavus group of fungi. It is also mutagenic, teratogenic, and causes immunosuppression in animals. It is found as a contaminant in peanuts, cottonseed meal, corn, and other grains. The mycotoxin requires epoxidation to aflatoxin B1 2,3-oxide for activation. Microsomal monooxygenases biotransform the toxin to the less toxic metabolites aflatoxin M1 and Q1.Hydroxyacetylaminofluorene: A N-hydroxylated derivative of 2-ACETYLAMINOFLUORENE that has demonstrated carcinogenic action.Chrysenes: 1,2-Benzphenanthrenes. POLYCYCLIC COMPOUNDS obtained from coal tar.Nitroquinolines: Quinolines substituted in any position by one or more nitro groups.Diethylnitrosamine: A nitrosamine derivative with alkylating, carcinogenic, and mutagenic properties.Methylcholanthrene: A carcinogen that is often used in experimental cancer studies.Dimethylhydrazines: Hydrazines substituted with two methyl groups in any position.Cell Transformation, Neoplastic: Cell changes manifested by escape from control mechanisms, increased growth potential, alterations in the cell surface, karyotypic abnormalities, morphological and biochemical deviations from the norm, and other attributes conferring the ability to invade, metastasize, and kill.Glutathione Transferase: A transferase that catalyzes the addition of aliphatic, aromatic, or heterocyclic FREE RADICALS as well as EPOXIDES and arene oxides to GLUTATHIONE. Addition takes place at the SULFUR. It also catalyzes the reduction of polyol nitrate by glutathione to polyol and nitrite.Anticarcinogenic Agents: Agents that reduce the frequency or rate of spontaneous or induced tumors independently of the mechanism involved.Precancerous Conditions: Pathological processes that tend eventually to become malignant. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Dihydroxydihydrobenzopyrenes: Benzopyrenes saturated in any two adjacent positions and substituted with two hydroxyl groups in any position. The majority of these compounds have carcinogenic or mutagenic activity.Aflatoxins: Furano-furano-benzopyrans that are produced by ASPERGILLUS from STERIGMATOCYSTIN. They are structurally related to COUMARINS and easily oxidized to an epoxide form to become ALKYLATING AGENTS. Members of the group include AFLATOXIN B1; aflatoxin B2, aflatoxin G1, aflatoxin G2; AFLATOXIN M1; and aflatoxin M2.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Urethane: Antineoplastic agent that is also used as a veterinary anesthetic. It has also been used as an intermediate in organic synthesis. Urethane is suspected to be a carcinogen.Polycyclic Hydrocarbons, Aromatic: A major group of unsaturated cyclic hydrocarbons containing two or more rings. The vast number of compounds of this important group, derived chiefly from petroleum and coal tar, are rather highly reactive and chemically versatile. The name is due to the strong and not unpleasant odor characteristic of most substances of this nature. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed, p96)Lung Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the LUNG.1,2-Dimethylhydrazine: A DNA alkylating agent that has been shown to be a potent carcinogen and is widely used to induce colon tumors in experimental animals.Azoxymethane: A potent carcinogen and neurotoxic compound. It is particularly effective in inducing colon carcinomas.Arylamine N-Acetyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of acetyl groups from ACETYL-COA to arylamines. It can also catalyze acetyl transfer between arylamines without COENZYME A and has a wide specificity for aromatic amines, including SEROTONIN. However, arylamine N-acetyltransferase should not be confused with the enzyme ARYLALKYLAMINE N-ACETYLTRANSFERASE which is also referred to as SEROTONIN ACETYLTRANSFERASE.Benzidines: Very toxic industrial chemicals. They are absorbed through the skin, causing lethal blood, bladder, liver, and kidney damage and are potent, broad-spectrum carcinogens in most species.Cytochrome P-450 CYP1A1: A liver microsomal cytochrome P-450 monooxygenase capable of biotransforming xenobiotics such as polycyclic hydrocarbons and halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons into carcinogenic or mutagenic compounds. They have been found in mammals and fish. This enzyme, encoded by CYP1A1 gene, can be measured by using ethoxyresorufin as a substrate for the ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase activity.DNA Damage: Injuries to DNA that introduce deviations from its normal, intact structure and which may, if left unrepaired, result in a MUTATION or a block of DNA REPLICATION. These deviations may be caused by physical or chemical agents and occur by natural or unnatural, introduced circumstances. They include the introduction of illegitimate bases during replication or by deamination or other modification of bases; the loss of a base from the DNA backbone leaving an abasic site; single-strand breaks; double strand breaks; and intrastrand (PYRIMIDINE DIMERS) or interstrand crosslinking. Damage can often be repaired (DNA REPAIR). If the damage is extensive, it can induce APOPTOSIS.Metabolic Detoxication, Drug: Reduction of pharmacologic activity or toxicity of a drug or other foreign substance by a living system, usually by enzymatic action. It includes those metabolic transformations that make the substance more soluble for faster renal excretion.Neoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.Safrole: A member of the BENZODIOXOLES that is a constituent of several VOLATILE OILS, notably SASSAFRAS oil. It is a precursor in the synthesis of the insecticide PIPERONYL BUTOXIDE and the drug N-methyl-3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDMA).Ethylene Dibromide: An effective soil fumigant, insecticide, and nematocide. In humans, it causes severe burning of skin and irritation of the eyes and respiratory tract. Prolonged inhalation may cause liver necrosis. It is also used in gasoline. Members of this group have caused liver and lung cancers in rodents. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985), 1,2-dibromoethane may reasonably be anticipated to be a carcinogen.Mammary Neoplasms, Experimental: Experimentally induced mammary neoplasms in animals to provide a model for studying human BREAST NEOPLASMS.Smoking: Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.Methylazoxymethanol Acetate: The aglycone of CYCASIN. It acts as a potent carcinogen and neurotoxin and inhibits hepatic DNA, RNA, and protein synthesis.Methylhydrazines: Hydrazines substituted by one or more methyl groups in any position.Cytochrome P-450 CYP1A2: A cytochrome P450 enzyme subtype that has specificity for relatively planar heteroaromatic small molecules, such as CAFFEINE and ACETAMINOPHEN.Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System: A superfamily of hundreds of closely related HEMEPROTEINS found throughout the phylogenetic spectrum, from animals, plants, fungi, to bacteria. They include numerous complex monooxygenases (MIXED FUNCTION OXYGENASES). In animals, these P-450 enzymes serve two major functions: (1) biosynthesis of steroids, fatty acids, and bile acids; (2) metabolism of endogenous and a wide variety of exogenous substrates, such as toxins and drugs (BIOTRANSFORMATION). They are classified, according to their sequence similarities rather than functions, into CYP gene families (>40% homology) and subfamilies (>59% homology). For example, enzymes from the CYP1, CYP2, and CYP3 gene families are responsible for most drug metabolism.Papilloma: A circumscribed benign epithelial tumor projecting from the surrounding surface; more precisely, a benign epithelial neoplasm consisting of villous or arborescent outgrowths of fibrovascular stroma covered by neoplastic cells. (Stedman, 25th ed)Acrylonitrile: A highly poisonous compound used widely in the manufacture of plastics, adhesives and synthetic rubber.Aryl Hydrocarbon Hydroxylases: A large group of cytochrome P-450 (heme-thiolate) monooxygenases that complex with NAD(P)H-FLAVIN OXIDOREDUCTASE in numerous mixed-function oxidations of aromatic compounds. They catalyze hydroxylation of a broad spectrum of substrates and are important in the metabolism of steroids, drugs, and toxins such as PHENOBARBITAL, carcinogens, and insecticides.Occupational Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents that occurs as a result of one's occupation.Environmental Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals.Mesocricetus: A genus of the family Muridae having three species. The present domesticated strains were developed from individuals brought from Syria. They are widely used in biomedical research.Isothiocyanates: Organic compounds with the general formula R-NCS.Amines: A group of compounds derived from ammonia by substituting organic radicals for the hydrogens. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Azo CompoundsAlkylating Agents: Highly reactive chemicals that introduce alkyl radicals into biologically active molecules and thereby prevent their proper functioning. Many are used as antineoplastic agents, but most are very toxic, with carcinogenic, mutagenic, teratogenic, and immunosuppressant actions. They have also been used as components in poison gases.Vinyl Chloride: A gas that has been used as an aerosol propellant and is the starting material for polyvinyl resins. Toxicity studies have shown various adverse effects, particularly the occurrence of liver neoplasms.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Chromium: A trace element that plays a role in glucose metabolism. It has the atomic symbol Cr, atomic number 24, and atomic weight 52. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP85-002,1985), chromium and some of its compounds have been listed as known carcinogens.Glucuronates: Derivatives of GLUCURONIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that include the 6-carboxy glucose structure.Urinary Bladder Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the URINARY BLADDER.Deoxyguanosine: A nucleoside consisting of the base guanine and the sugar deoxyribose.Nitrosourea CompoundsChromates: Salts of chromic acid containing the CrO(2-)4 radical.Propiolactone: Disinfectant used in vapor form to sterilize vaccines, grafts, etc. The vapor is very irritating and the liquid form is carcinogenic.GuanineTobacco: A plant genus of the family SOLANACEAE. Members contain NICOTINE and other biologically active chemicals; its dried leaves are used for SMOKING.Genes, ras: Family of retrovirus-associated DNA sequences (ras) originally isolated from Harvey (H-ras, Ha-ras, rasH) and Kirsten (K-ras, Ki-ras, rasK) murine sarcoma viruses. Ras genes are widely conserved among animal species and sequences corresponding to both H-ras and K-ras genes have been detected in human, avian, murine, and non-vertebrate genomes. The closely related N-ras gene has been detected in human neuroblastoma and sarcoma cell lines. All genes of the family have a similar exon-intron structure and each encodes a p21 protein.Smoke2-Naphthylamine: A naphthalene derivative with carcinogenic action.Cooking: The art or practice of preparing food. It includes the preparation of special foods for diets in various diseases.Colonic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the COLON.DNA Repair: The reconstruction of a continuous two-stranded DNA molecule without mismatch from a molecule which contained damaged regions. The major repair mechanisms are excision repair, in which defective regions in one strand are excised and resynthesized using the complementary base pairing information in the intact strand; photoreactivation repair, in which the lethal and mutagenic effects of ultraviolet light are eliminated; and post-replication repair, in which the primary lesions are not repaired, but the gaps in one daughter duplex are filled in by incorporation of portions of the other (undamaged) daughter duplex. Excision repair and post-replication repair are sometimes referred to as "dark repair" because they do not require light.Skin Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the SKIN.Benzene: Toxic, volatile, flammable liquid hydrocarbon byproduct of coal distillation. It is used as an industrial solvent in paints, varnishes, lacquer thinners, gasoline, etc. Benzene causes central nervous system damage acutely and bone marrow damage chronically and is carcinogenic. It was formerly used as parasiticide.Cytochrome P-450 CYP2E1: An ethanol-inducible cytochrome P450 enzyme that metabolizes several precarcinogens, drugs, and solvents to reactive metabolites. Substrates include ETHANOL; INHALATION ANESTHETICS; BENZENE; ACETAMINOPHEN and other low molecular weight compounds. CYP2E1 has been used as an enzyme marker in the study of alcohol abuse.Butylated Hydroxyanisole: Mixture of 2- and 3-tert-butyl-4-methoxyphenols that is used as an antioxidant in foods, cosmetics, and pharmaceuticals.Alkylation: The covalent bonding of an alkyl group to an organic compound. It can occur by a simple addition reaction or by substitution of another functional group.p-Aminoazobenzene: Used in the form of its salts as a dye and as an intermediate in manufacture of Acid Yellow, diazo dyes, and indulines.PhenanthrenesPhenobarbital: A barbituric acid derivative that acts as a nonselective central nervous system depressant. It potentiates GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID action on GABA-A RECEPTORS, and modulates chloride currents through receptor channels. It also inhibits glutamate induced depolarizations.Ethylene Oxide: A colorless and flammable gas at room temperature and pressure. Ethylene oxide is a bactericidal, fungicidal, and sporicidal disinfectant. It is effective against most micro-organisms, including viruses. It is used as a fumigant for foodstuffs and textiles and as an agent for the gaseous sterilization of heat-labile pharmaceutical and surgical materials. (From Reynolds, Martindale The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p794)Arsenites: Inorganic salts or organic esters of arsenious acid.Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Epoxy Compounds: Organic compounds that include a cyclic ether with three ring atoms in their structure. They are commonly used as precursors for POLYMERS such as EPOXY RESINS.Cotinine: The N-glucuronide conjugate of cotinine is a major urinary metabolite of NICOTINE. It thus serves as a biomarker of exposure to tobacco SMOKING. It has CNS stimulating properties.Arsenic: A shiny gray element with atomic symbol As, atomic number 33, and atomic weight 75. It occurs throughout the universe, mostly in the form of metallic arsenides. Most forms are toxic. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985), arsenic and certain arsenic compounds have been listed as known carcinogens. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Imidazoles: Compounds containing 1,3-diazole, a five membered aromatic ring containing two nitrogen atoms separated by one of the carbons. Chemically reduced ones include IMIDAZOLINES and IMIDAZOLIDINES. Distinguish from 1,2-diazole (PYRAZOLES).Ethylnitrosourea: A nitrosourea compound with alkylating, carcinogenic, and mutagenic properties.Microsomes, Liver: Closed vesicles of fragmented endoplasmic reticulum created when liver cells or tissue are disrupted by homogenization. They may be smooth or rough.Acrylamide: A colorless, odorless, highly water soluble vinyl monomer formed from the hydration of acrylonitrile. It is primarily used in research laboratories for electrophoresis, chromatography, and electron microscopy and in the sewage and wastewater treatment industries.Phenolphthalein: An acid-base indicator which is colorless in acid solution, but turns pink to red as the solution becomes alkaline. It is used medicinally as a cathartic.NitrofuransDiet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.Colon: The segment of LARGE INTESTINE between the CECUM and the RECTUM. It includes the ASCENDING COLON; the TRANSVERSE COLON; the DESCENDING COLON; and the SIGMOID COLON.Genes, p53: Tumor suppressor genes located on the short arm of human chromosome 17 and coding for the phosphoprotein p53.Biological Assay: A method of measuring the effects of a biologically active substance using an intermediate in vivo or in vitro tissue or cell model under controlled conditions. It includes virulence studies in animal fetuses in utero, mouse convulsion bioassay of insulin, quantitation of tumor-initiator systems in mouse skin, calculation of potentiating effects of a hormonal factor in an isolated strip of contracting stomach muscle, etc.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Liver Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the LIVER.Nitrilotriacetic Acid: A derivative of acetic acid, N(CH2COOH)3. It is a complexing (sequestering) agent that forms stable complexes with Zn2+. (From Miall's Dictionary of Chemistry, 5th ed.)NAD(P)H Dehydrogenase (Quinone): A flavoprotein that reversibly catalyzes the oxidation of NADH or NADPH by various quinones and oxidation-reduction dyes. The enzyme is inhibited by dicoumarol, capsaicin, and caffeine.FANFT: A potent nitrofuran derivative tumor initiator. It causes bladder tumors in all animals studied and is mutagenic to many bacteria.Tracheal NeoplasmsTime Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.N-Nitrosopyrrolidine: Carcinogenic nitrosamine that may be formed from preservatives in meats during their preparation or in the liver during metabolism.Occupational Diseases: Diseases caused by factors involved in one's employment.Micronucleus Tests: Induction and quantitative measurement of chromosomal damage leading to the formation of micronuclei (MICRONUCLEI, CHROMOSOME-DEFECTIVE) in cells which have been exposed to genotoxic agents or IONIZING RADIATION.Enzyme Induction: An increase in the rate of synthesis of an enzyme due to the presence of an inducer which acts to derepress the gene responsible for enzyme synthesis.Nitroso CompoundsAristolochic Acids: Nitro-phenanthrenes occurring in ARISTOLOCHIACEAE and other plants. They derive from stephanine (APORPHINES) by oxidative ring cleavage. The nitro group is a reactive alkylator (ALKYLATING AGENTS) that binds to biological macromolecules. Ingestion by humans is associated with nephropathy (NEPHRITIS). There is no relationship to the similar named aristolochene (SESQUITERPENES).Nicotine: Nicotine is highly toxic alkaloid. It is the prototypical agonist at nicotinic cholinergic receptors where it dramatically stimulates neurons and ultimately blocks synaptic transmission. Nicotine is also important medically because of its presence in tobacco smoke.Polymorphism, Genetic: The regular and simultaneous occurrence in a single interbreeding population of two or more discontinuous genotypes. The concept includes differences in genotypes ranging in size from a single nucleotide site (POLYMORPHISM, SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE) to large nucleotide sequences visible at a chromosomal level.Food Contamination: The presence in food of harmful, unpalatable, or otherwise objectionable foreign substances, e.g. chemicals, microorganisms or diluents, before, during, or after processing or storage.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Anisoles: A group of compounds that are derivatives of methoxybenzene and contain the general formula R-C7H7O.Butylated Hydroxytoluene: A di-tert-butyl PHENOL with antioxidant properties.Adenoma: A benign epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.QuinolinesRespiratory Tract NeoplasmsAntimutagenic Agents: Agents that reduce the frequency or rate of spontaneous or induced mutations independently of the mechanism involved.Environmental Pollutants: Substances or energies, for example heat or light, which when introduced into the air, water, or land threaten life or health of individuals or ECOSYSTEMS.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Hyperplasia: An increase in the number of cells in a tissue or organ without tumor formation. It differs from HYPERTROPHY, which is an increase in bulk without an increase in the number of cells.Aflatoxin M1: A 4-hydroxylated metabolite of AFLATOXIN B1, one of the MYCOTOXINS from ASPERGILLUS tainted food. It is associated with LIVER damage and cancer resulting from its P450 activation to the epoxide which alkylates DNA. Toxicity depends on the balance of liver enzymes that activate it (CYTOCHROME P-450) and others that detoxify it (GLUTATHIONE S TRANSFERASE) (Pharmac Ther 50.443 1991). Primates & rat are sensitive while mouse and hamster are tolerant (Canc Res 29.236 1969).Pyrenes: A group of condensed ring hydrocarbons.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Tobacco Smoke Pollution: Contamination of the air by tobacco smoke.Methylenebis(chloroaniline): Aromatic diamine used in the plastics industry as curing agent for epoxy resins and urethane rubbers. It causes bladder, liver, lung, and other neoplasms.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Plants, Toxic: Plants or plant parts which are harmful to man or other animals.Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Glucuronosyltransferase: A family of enzymes accepting a wide range of substrates, including phenols, alcohols, amines, and fatty acids. They function as drug-metabolizing enzymes that catalyze the conjugation of UDPglucuronic acid to a variety of endogenous and exogenous compounds. EC 2.4.1.17.Ultraviolet Rays: That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum immediately below the visible range and extending into the x-ray frequencies. The longer wavelengths (near-UV or biotic or vital rays) are necessary for the endogenous synthesis of vitamin D and are also called antirachitic rays; the shorter, ionizing wavelengths (far-UV or abiotic or extravital rays) are viricidal, bactericidal, mutagenic, and carcinogenic and are used as disinfectants.Neoplasms, Radiation-Induced: Tumors, cancer or other neoplasms produced by exposure to ionizing or non-ionizing radiation.Bromates: Negative ions or salts derived from bromic acid, HBrO3.Adenocarcinoma: A malignant epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.Mice, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.Isoenzymes: Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.Asbestos: Asbestos. Fibrous incombustible mineral composed of magnesium and calcium silicates with or without other elements. It is relatively inert chemically and used in thermal insulation and fireproofing. Inhalation of dust causes asbestosis and later lung and gastrointestinal neoplasms.Sodium Compounds: Inorganic compounds that contain sodium as an integral part of the molecule.Drug Evaluation, Preclinical: Preclinical testing of drugs in experimental animals or in vitro for their biological and toxic effects and potential clinical applications.Epoxide Hydrolases: Enzymes that catalyze reversibly the formation of an epoxide or arene oxide from a glycol or aromatic diol, respectively.Chlorophyllides: Products of the hydrolysis of chlorophylls in which the phytic acid side chain has been removed and the carboxylic acids saponified.Mice, Inbred ACarcinoma, Squamous Cell: A carcinoma derived from stratified SQUAMOUS EPITHELIAL CELLS. It may also occur in sites where glandular or columnar epithelium is normally present. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Environmental Monitoring: The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.Tetrachlorodibenzodioxin: A chemical by-product that results from burning or incinerating chlorinated industrial chemicals and other hydrocarbons. This compound is considered an environmental toxin, and may pose reproductive, as well as, other health risks for animals and humans.Genetic Predisposition to Disease: A latent susceptibility to disease at the genetic level, which may be activated under certain conditions.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.gamma-Glutamyltransferase: An enzyme, sometimes called GGT, with a key role in the synthesis and degradation of GLUTATHIONE; (GSH, a tripeptide that protects cells from many toxins). It catalyzes the transfer of the gamma-glutamyl moiety to an acceptor amino acid.Thiocyanates: Organic derivatives of thiocyanic acid which contain the general formula R-SCN.Air Pollutants, Occupational: Air pollutants found in the work area. They are usually produced by the specific nature of the occupation.Animal Testing Alternatives: Procedures, such as TISSUE CULTURE TECHNIQUES; mathematical models; etc., when used or advocated for use in place of the use of animals in research or diagnostic laboratories.Ochratoxins: Isocoumarins found in ASPERGILLUS OCHRACEUS and other FUNGI. Ochratoxin contaminated FOOD has been responsible for cases of FOODBORNE DISEASES.Urinary Bladder: A musculomembranous sac along the URINARY TRACT. URINE flows from the KIDNEYS into the bladder via the ureters (URETER), and is held there until URINATION.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Disease Susceptibility: A constitution or condition of the body which makes the tissues react in special ways to certain extrinsic stimuli and thus tends to make the individual more than usually susceptible to certain diseases.Intestinal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the INTESTINES.Nose Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the NOSE.Microsomes: Artifactual vesicles formed from the endoplasmic reticulum when cells are disrupted. They are isolated by differential centrifugation and are composed of three structural features: rough vesicles, smooth vesicles, and ribosomes. Numerous enzyme activities are associated with the microsomal fraction. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990; from Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Inhalation Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents by inhaling them.Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)Sister Chromatid Exchange: An exchange of segments between the sister chromatids of a chromosome, either between the sister chromatids of a meiotic tetrad or between the sister chromatids of a duplicated somatic chromosome. Its frequency is increased by ultraviolet and ionizing radiation and other mutagenic agents and is particularly high in BLOOM SYNDROME.Mammary Glands, Animal: MAMMARY GLANDS in the non-human MAMMALS.Maternal-Fetal Exchange: Exchange of substances between the maternal blood and the fetal blood at the PLACENTA via PLACENTAL CIRCULATION. The placental barrier excludes microbial or viral transmission.Toxicology: The science concerned with the detection, chemical composition, and biological action of toxic substances or poisons and the treatment and prevention of toxic manifestations.Chemoprevention: The use of chemical compounds to prevent the development of a specific disease.Cacodylic Acid: An arsenical that has been used as a dermatologic agent and as an herbicide.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Micronuclei, Chromosome-Defective: Defective nuclei produced during the TELOPHASE of MITOSIS or MEIOSIS by lagging CHROMOSOMES or chromosome fragments derived from spontaneous or experimentally induced chromosomal structural changes.Monomethylhydrazine: Hydrazine substituted by one methyl group.Comet Assay: A genotoxicological technique for measuring DNA damage in an individual cell using single-cell gel electrophoresis. Cell DNA fragments assume a "comet with tail" formation on electrophoresis and are detected with an image analysis system. Alkaline assay conditions facilitate sensitive detection of single-strand damage.Tars: Viscous materials composed of complex, high-molecular-weight compounds derived from the distillation of petroleum or the destructive distillation of wood or coal. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Heterocyclic Compounds: Ring compounds having atoms other than carbon in their nuclei. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Mouth Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the MOUTH.NitroparaffinsMaximum Allowable Concentration: The maximum exposure to a biologically active physical or chemical agent that is allowed during an 8-hour period (a workday) in a population of workers, or during a 24-hour period in the general population, which does not appear to cause appreciable harm, whether immediate or delayed for any period, in the target population. (From Lewis Dictionary of Toxicology, 1st ed)Water Pollutants, Chemical: Chemical compounds which pollute the water of rivers, streams, lakes, the sea, reservoirs, or other bodies of water.PropaneSpecies Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Carbolines: A group of pyrido-indole compounds. Included are any points of fusion of pyridine with the five-membered ring of indole and any derivatives of these compounds. These are similar to CARBAZOLES which are benzo-indoles.Salmonella typhimurium: A serotype of Salmonella enterica that is a frequent agent of Salmonella gastroenteritis in humans. It also causes PARATYPHOID FEVER.Oxazepam: A benzodiazepine used in the treatment of anxiety, alcohol withdrawal, and insomnia.Ethionine: 2-Amino-4-(ethylthio)butyric acid. An antimetabolite and methionine antagonist that interferes with amino acid incorporation into proteins and with cellular ATP utilization. It also produces liver neoplasms.

An investigation into the binding of the carcinogen 15,16-dihydro-11-methylcyclopenta[a]phenanthren-17-one to DNA in vitro. (1/6863)

After metabolic activation the carcinogen 15,16-dihydro-11-[3H]methylcyclopenta[a]phenanthren-17-one binds to DNA in vitro, and this binding is prevented by 7,8-benzoflavone. Radioactivity cannot be removed from the DNA with organic solvents or by chromatography on Sephadex G-50, even after heat denaturation of the DNA. Enzymatic hydrolysis yields radioactive fractions, which elute from a column of Sephadex LH-20 immediately after the natural nucleosides. At least two species of reactive metabolites are involved in this bending, those with a half-life of a few hr and others with greater stability. After extraction from the aqueous incubation mixture, they could be detected in discrete polar fractions from separations of the complex metabolite mixture by high-pressure liquid chromatography. Their ability to bind to DNA decreased with time at ambient temperature, and they were rapidly deactivated by acid. 7,8-Benzolflavone acted by suppressing the formation of polar metabolites derived from enzymatic oxidation of the aromatic double bonds. The inhibitor had no effect on the enzymes hydroxylating saturated carbon; hence it is unlikely that metabolism of the methyl group is important in conversion of this carcinogen to its proximate form, although the presence of the 11-methyl group is essential for carcinogenic activity in this series.  (+info)

Effect of hepatocarcinogens on the binding of glucocorticoid-receptor complex in rat liver nuclei. (2/6863)

The effects of a number of carcinogens and hepatotoxins on the binding kinetics of the interactions of glucocorticoidcytosol receptor complex with nuclear acceptor sites in rat liver were investigated. Both the apparent sites in rat liver were investigated. Both the apparent concentration of nuclear binding sites and the Kd were significantly diminished following treatment of rats with sublethal doses of the carcinogens aflatoxin B1, diethylnitrosamine, dimethylnitrosamine, thioacetamide, 3'-methyl-4-dimethylaminoazobenzene, 4-dimethylaminoazobenzene, and 3-methylcholanthrene. Treatment with actinomycin D resulted in a slight reduction in the apparent concentration of nuclear acceptor sites but had no effect on the nuclear binding Kd. The hepatotoxic but noncarcinogenic analgesic, acetaminophen, as well as the weakly toxic aflatoxin B1 cognate, aflatoxin B2, were without effect on the kinetics or binding capacity of glucocorticoid-nuclear acceptor site interaction. These experiments suggest that chemically induced alteration of functional glucocorticoid binding sites on chromatin may be involved in the biochemical effects produced in liver by carcinogens of several chemical types. This experimental model may provide a useful approach for further elucidation of early events in carcinogenesis.  (+info)

Assaying potential carcinogens with Drosophila. (3/6863)

Drosophila offers many advantages for the detection of mutagenic activity of carcinogenic agents. It provides the quickest assay system for detecting mutations in animals today. Its generation time is short, and Drosophila is cheap and easy to breed in large numbers. The simple genetic testing methods give unequivocal answers about the whole spectrum of relevant genetic damage. A comparison of the detection capacity of assays sampling different kinds of genetic damage revealed that various substances are highly effective in inducing mutations but do not produce chromosome breakage effects at all, or only at much higher concentrations than those required for mutation induction. Of the different assay systems available, the classical sex-linked recessive lethal test deserves priority, in view of its superior capacity to detect mutagens. Of practical importance is also its high sensitivity, because a large number of loci in one fifth of the genome is tested for newly induced forward mutations, including small deletions. The recent findings that Drosophila is capable of carrying out the same metabolic activation reactions as the mammalian liver makes the organism eminently suitable for verifying results obtained in prescreening with fast microbial assay systems. An additional advantage in this respect is the capacity of Drosophila for detecting short-lived activation products, because intracellular metabolic activation appears to occur within the spermatids and spermatocytes.  (+info)

Carcinogenicity of triethanolamine in mice and its mutagenicity after reaction with sodium nitrite in bacteria. (4/6863)

Mice fed a diet containing 0.3 or 0.03% triethanolamine developed malignant tumors. Females showed a high incidence of tumors in lymphoid tissues, while this type was absent in males. Tumors in other tissues were produced at a considerable rate in both sexes, but no hepatoma was found. Triethanolamine was not mutagenic to Bacillus subtilis by itself, but it became mutagenic after reacting with sodium nitrite under acidic conditions or when the mixture was heated. Although N-nitrosodiethanolamine, a known carcinogen and mutagen, was detected in the reaction mixture by thin-layer chromatography, it may not be the main mutagenic product, because the product was a stable and direct mutagen and its mutagenic activity was destroyed by liver enzymes, unlike N-nitrosodiethanolamine. The lethal and mutagenic DNA damages produced by this unidentified product were susceptible to some extent to the repair functions of the bacteria.  (+info)

The five amino acid-deleted isoform of hepatocyte growth factor promotes carcinogenesis in transgenic mice. (5/6863)

Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) is a polypeptide with mitogenic, motogenic, and morphogenic effects on different cell types including hepatocytes. HGF is expressed as two biologically active isotypes resulting from alternative RNA splicing. The roles of each HGF isoform in development, liver regeneration and tumorigenesis have not yet been well characterized. We report the generation and analysis of transgenic mice overexpressing the five amino acid-deleted variant of HGF (dHGF) in the liver by virtue of an albumin expression vector. These ALB-dHGF transgenic mice develop normally, have an enhanced rate of liver regeneration after partial hepatectomy, and exhibit a threefold higher incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) beyond 17 months of age. Moreover, overexpression of dHGF dramatically accelerates diethyl-nitrosamine induced HCC tumorigenesis. These tumors arise faster, are significantly larger, more numerous and more invasive than those appearing in non-transgenic littermates. Approximately 90% of female dHGF-transgenic mice had multiple macroscopic HCCs 40 weeks after injection of DEN; whereas the non-transgenic counterparts had only microscopic nodules. Liver tumors and cultured tumor cell lines from dHGF transgenics showed high levels of HGF and c-Met mRNA and protein. Together, these results reveal that in vivo dHGF plays an active role in liver regeneration and HCC tumorigenesis.  (+info)

Expression of dominant negative Erk2 inhibits AP-1 transactivation and neoplastic transformation. (6/6863)

The mitogen activated protein (MAP) kinases or extracellular signal-regulated kinases (Erks) are activated in response to Ras expression or exposure to tumor promoters or to growth factors, and have been implicated in AP-1 transactivation in some models. We have shown that tumor promoter induced activation of the transcription factor AP-1 is required for induced neoplastic transformation in the Balb/C JB6 cell model. Jun and Fos family protein levels have been found not to be limiting for AP-1 response. The present study asks whether activation of Erks1 and 2 is required for AP-1 transactivation and transformation of JB6 cells and whether Erks might be targeted for cancer prevention. Expression of either of two different dominant negative kinase inactive Erk2 mutants in transformation sensitive (P+) JB6 cells substantially inhibited the tumor promoter induced activation of Erks1 and 2 and of AP-1 measured by a collagenase-luciferase reporter. Multiple mutant Erk2 expressing clonal lines were also rendered non-responsive to induced neoplastic transformation. These observations, together with our recent finding attributing AP-1 non-responsiveness to Erk deficiency in a clonal line of transformation resistant (P-) cells, argue for a requirement for Erks1 and/or 2 activation in AP-1 transactivation in the mouse JB6 neoplastic progression model, and suggest the utility of Erks as a prevention target.  (+info)

Carboxyl-terminal phosphorylation regulates the function and subcellular localization of protein kinase C betaII. (7/6863)

Protein kinase C is processed by three phosphorylation events before it is competent to respond to second messengers. Specifically, the enzyme is first phosphorylated at the activation loop by another kinase, followed by two ordered autophosphorylations at the carboxyl terminus (Keranen, L. M., Dutil, E. M., and Newton, A. C. (1995) Curr. Biol. 5, 1394-1403). This study examines the role of negative charge at the first conserved carboxyl-terminal phosphorylation position, Thr-641, in regulating the function and subcellular localization of protein kinase C betaII. Mutation of this residue to Ala results in compensating phosphorylations at adjacent sites, so that a triple Ala mutant was required to address the function of phosphate at Thr-641. Biochemical and immunolocalization analyses of phosphorylation site mutants reveal that negative charge at this position is required for the following: 1) to process catalytically competent protein kinase C; 2) to allow autophosphorylation of Ser-660; 3) for cytosolic localization of protein kinase C; and 4) to permit phorbol ester-dependent membrane translocation. Thus, phosphorylation of Thr-641 in protein kinase C betaII is essential for both the catalytic function and correct subcellular localization of protein kinase C. The conservation of this residue in every protein kinase C isozyme, as well as other members of the kinase superfamily such as protein kinase A, suggests that carboxyl-terminal phosphorylation serves as a key molecular switch for defining kinase function.  (+info)

Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARS) and carcinogenesis. (8/6863)

Peroxisome proliferators (PPs) are an important group of chemicals that include certain hypolipidemic drugs, plasticizers and pollutants. Many of these agents are known rodent liver tumor promoters and debate exists as to whether humans are at increased cancer risk following exposure to PPs. Research over the last decade has focused on determining the biochemical and molecular mechanisms by which peroxisome proliferators exert their effects, in the hope that this controversy will be settled. PPs regulate gene expression via a steroid hormone receptor, the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR). At least three subtypes of PPAR (alpha, beta and gamma) have been cloned from several species, including humans. These receptors have been implicated in tumor promotion, cellular differentiation, and apoptosis. In the present article, the current understanding of how PPARs are involved in tumorigenesis, and what this may mean to human risk assessment, will be discussed.  (+info)

... ,Disposable paper cups or hidden potential carcinogens,Disposable paper cups or hidden potential carcinogens
論文:Final Report on Carcinogens Background Document fo...[Report on carcinogens background document for [substance name]] - Pubmed Result(ATGCchecker)の詳細情報です。フルテキスト情報、関連する論文情報も掲載。
Project [Review of the Formaldehyde Assessment in the National Toxicology Program 12th Report on Carcinogens (COMPLETED)] has been completed and the following reports have been generated ...
Project [Review of the Styrene Assessment in the National Toxicology Program 12th Report on Carcinogens (COMPLETED)] has been completed and the following reports have been generated ...
Iannaccone, P M. and Tsao, T Y., "Acute effects of in vitro exposure to chemical carcinogens on preimplantation mouse embryos. Abstr." (1980). Subject Strain Bibliography 1980. 2117 ...
It has been estimated that exposure to environmental chemical carcinogens may contribute significantly to the causation of a sizable fraction, perhaps a majority, of human cancers. Human carcinogens act through a variety of genotoxic and non-genotoxic mechanisms. Genotoxic carcinogens can attack biological macromolecules such as DNA and RNA either directly or indirectly through metabolism, resulting in the formation of adducts with these macromolecules. If DNA adducts escape cellular repair mechanisms and persist, they may lead to miscoding, resulting in permanent mutations. Non-genotoxic carcinogens act by the mechanisms such as induction of inflammation, immunosuppression, formation of reactive oxygen species, activation of receptors, and epigenetic silencing. Together, these genotoxic and non-genotoxic mechanisms can alter signal-transduction pathways that finally result in hypermutability, genomic instability, loss of proliferation control, and resistance to apoptosis - some of the ...
It has been estimated that exposure to environmental chemical carcinogens may contribute significantly to the causation of a sizable fraction, perhaps a majority, of human cancers. Human carcinogens act through a variety of genotoxic and non-genotoxic mechanisms. Genotoxic carcinogens can attack biological macromolecules such as DNA and RNA either directly or indirectly through metabolism, resulting in the formation of adducts with these macromolecules. If DNA adducts escape cellular repair mechanisms and persist, they may lead to miscoding, resulting in permanent mutations. Non-genotoxic carcinogens act by the mechanisms such as induction of inflammation, immunosuppression, formation of reactive oxygen species, activation of receptors, and epigenetic silencing. Together, these genotoxic and non-genotoxic mechanisms can alter signal-transduction pathways that finally result in hypermutability, genomic instability, loss of proliferation control, and resistance to apoptosis - some of the ...
When carcinogens are involved at the workplace, employers have to do everything in their power to prevent workers coming into contact with these substances.
Today, the House Science, Space, and Technology Committee and House Small Business Committee held a joint hearing on the National Toxicology Programs (NTP) Report on Carcinogens. It is critical that the NTP use the best available, peer reviewed science when making its decisions on what chemicals to list, yet it clearly doesnt do that. Read the full story on CEIs OpenMarket.org.. ...
Definition of non-genotoxic carcinogen and genotoxic carcinogens and whether there are any thresholds for carcinogens from a regulatory perspective.
A carcinogen is any substance, radionuclide, or radiation that promotes carcinogenesis, the formation of cancer. This may be due to the ability to damage the genome or to the disruption of cellular metabolic processes. Several radioactive substances are considered carcinogens, but their carcinogenic activity is attributed to the radiation, for example gamma rays and alpha particles, which they emit. Common examples of non-radioactive carcinogens are inhaled asbestos, certain dioxins, and tobacco smoke. Although the public generally associates carcinogenicity with synthetic chemicals, it is equally likely to arise in both natural and synthetic substances.[1] Carcinogens are not necessarily immediately toxic; thus, their effect can be insidious.. Cancer is any disease in which normal cells are damaged and do not undergo programmed cell death as fast as they divide via mitosis. Carcinogens may increase the risk of cancer by altering cellular metabolism or damaging DNA directly in cells, which ...
No component of this product present at levels greater than or equal to 0.1% is identified as probable, possible or confirmed human carcinogen by IARC. No component of this product present at levels greater than or equal to 0.1% is identified as a carcinogen or potential carcinogen by ACGIH. No component of this product present at levels greater than or equal to 0.1% is identified as a known or anticipated carcinogen by NTP. No component of this product present at levels greater than or equal to 0.1% is identified as a carcinogen or potential carcinogen by OSHA. Genotoxicity in vitro - rat - Liver Sister chromatid exchange Signs and Symptoms of Exposure ...
Fig. 1. Inhibition of azoxymethane-induced ACF in the colon of rats by polyethylene glycols (PEG) of various molecular weights given at 5% in the drinking water for 30 d (see Methods, study 5). Data from two sequential experiments are shown here, and are plotted as percent of control values, i.e., 135 ± 33 and 81 ± 13 ACF in the first (hatched bars) and second (empty bars) experiment, respectively. Molecular weights are given in dalton, or kilodalton (k). Data are mean and SD from 10 rats (control groups), 4 rats (hatched bars), or 8 rats (empty bars). A star indicates that P , 0.01 compared with respective control value (Dunnetts test made on the actual numbers of ACF).. ...
American baby care products are not as safe as consumers may expect. The Campaign for Safe Cosmetics released a report on 48 baby care products that were tested for the carcinogens formaldehyde and 1,4-dioxane. The March 2009 report, entitled "No More Toxic Tub", reveals that 67 percent of the products tested contained detectable levels of 1,4-dioxane. 82 percent of the products tested contained detectable levels of formaldehyde and 1,4-dioxane. And 61 percent of products tested contained both.. Of the 48 products tested, only 28 were tested for formaldehyde. So theres a chance that if all products had been tested for both, the percentage of products contaminated with both could be higher than 61 percent.. The State of California classifies both chemicals as carcinogens under its Proposition 65 "The Safe Drinking Water and Toxic Enforcement Act of 1986" passed in 1986. Both were listed as carcinogens on January 1, 1988. The US EPA regards both as probable carcinogens ...
Learn how potential carcinogens are tested and classified, find lists of known and possible carcinogens, and learn about cancer clusters.
Researchers for the first time have developed a method to track through the human body the movement of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, or PAHs, as extraordinarily tiny amounts of these potential carcinogens are biologically processed and eliminated.
Lung cancer is strongly associated with exogenous risk factors, in particular tobacco smoking and asbestos exposure. New research data are accumulating about the regulation of the metabolism of tobacco carcinogens and the metabolic response to oxidative stress. These data provide mechanistic details about why well known risk factors cause lung cancer. The purpose of this review is to evaluate the present knowledge of the role of cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes in the metabolism of tobacco carcinogens and associations with tobacco and asbestos carcinogenesis. Major emphasis is placed on human data and regulatory pathways involved in CYP regulation and lung carcinogenesis. The most exciting new research findings concern cross-talk of the CYP-regulating aryl hydrocarbon receptor with other transcription factors, such as nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2, involved in the regulation of xenobiotic metabolism and antioxidant enzymes. This cross-talk between transcription factors may provide mechanistic
No person shall distribute, sell, offer for sale, or expose for sale any art or craft material containing toxic substances causing chronic illness on which the person:. (a) Has failed to affix a conspicuous label containing the signal word "WARNING," to alert users of potential adverse health effects. (b) Has failed to affix a conspicuous label warning of the health-related dangers of the art or craft material. (1) If the product contains a human carcinogen, the warning shall contain the statement: "CANCER HAZARD! Overexposure may create cancer risk." (2) If the product contains a potential human carcinogen, and does not contain a human carcinogen, the warning shall contain the statement: "POSSIBLE CANCER HAZARD! Overexposure might create cancer risk." (3) If the product contains a toxic substance causing chronic illness, the warning shall contain, but not be limited to, the following statement or statements where applicable: (A) May cause sterility or damage to reproductive organs. (B) May ...
p,,b,BACKGROUND: ,/b,The aim of this work was to establish recommendations for the medical follow-up of workers currently or previously exposed to lung carcinogens.,/p,,p,,b,METHODS: ,/b,A critical synthesis of the literature was conducted. Occupational lung carcinogenic substances were listed and classified according to their level of lung cancer risk. A targeted screening protocol was defined.,/p,,p,,b,RESULTS: ,/b,A clinical trial, National Lung Screnning Trial (NLST), showed the efficacy of chest CAT scan (CT) screening for populations of smokers aged 55-74 years with over 30 pack-years of exposure who had stopped smoking for less than 15 years. To propose screening in accordance with NLST criteria, and to account for occupational risk factors, screening among smokers and former smokers needs to consider the types of occupational exposure for which the risk level is at least equivalent to the risk of the subjects included in the NLST. The working group proposes an algorithm that estimates ...
During this introductory online 13 Carcinogen safety class, we will teach you what carcinogens are and what they can do to the human body. Proper carcinogen training decreases the risk of fatal exposure and teaches what to do in case of exposure. Along with carcinogen safety, we will discuss your right to know and how medical surveillance impacts your life.. ...
IARC, the French-based cancer research department of WHO, released its findings Friday after studying the carcinogenicity of five insecticides and herbicides. News on NewsHub.org
What Carcinogens Are You Avoiding? - posted in Cancer: Are there any substances besides the obvious (smoking, being overweight, excess alcohol, exhaust fumes) that you are avoiding to prevent cancer? Are there any substances that are legally in the global food supply (preservatives, colorings and the like) that you are fairly convinced increase the probability of cancer and are therefore avoiding?
Tumor promotion is a critical event in cancer development and a potential target for chemopreventive measures. The multistage model of mouse skin carcinogenesis defines tumor development in terms of distinct stages and provides a standardized scheme for the investigation of tumor promoters. By using this model, a specific COX-2 inhibitor, celecoxib, was found to inhibit tumor formation by interfering with the promotion stage. Although COX-2 has been shown to catalyze the formation of genotoxic metabolites from polycyclic hydrocarbons (19), tumor initiation in skin by DMBA is not affected by celecoxib, whereas DMBA-induced breast cancer in rats was inhibited by this drug (7). Inhibition of postinitiation stages has also been observed for chemically induced colorectal carcinogenesis in rats (20). Thus, these studies indicate that COX-2 is involved in the promotion of both mouse skin and rat colon tumors.. As shown previously (15), transgenic overexpression of COX-2 in basal keratinocytes of mice ...
Because the scope of Volume 100 is so broad, its Monographs are focused on key information. Each Monograph presents a description of a carcinogenic agent and how people are exposed, critical overviews of the epidemiological studies and animal cancer bioassays, and a concise review of the agents toxicokinetics, plausible mechanisms of carcinogenesis, and potentially susceptible populations, and life-stages. Details of the design and results of individual epidemiological studies and animal cancer bioassays are summarized in tables. Short tables that highlight key results are printed in Volume 100, and more extensive tables that include all studies appear on the Monographs programme website (http://monographs.iarc.fr ...
Cancer Council Victoria would like to acknowledge the traditional custodians of the land on which we live and work. We would also like to pay respect to the elders past and present and extend that respect to all other Aboriginal people. ...
The main targets for antineoplastic drug in development are colorectal cancer, non-small cell lung cancer, breast and ovarian cancer. This reflects the frequency of the diseases. Lung cancer is the most common type of cancer, causing 24% of cancer deaths in UK males and 19% in females. Breast cancer and prostate cancer are the next most common cancers at 17% and 13% in the UK, while colorectal cancers account for around 10% of UK cancer deaths. There is also interest in drugs effective against less prevalent forms of cancer, partly because they may eventually provide treatments for other cancer types. The toxicity of many current antineoplastic is a major concern. Drugs which interfere with DNA and the cells ability to divide are also likely to introduce mutations, and are therefore potential carcinogens. For example, cyclophosphamide is listed as a human carcinogen and cisplatin as a probable carcinogen, by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. This means that these drugs can lead ...
Looking for epigenetic carcinogen? Find out information about epigenetic carcinogen. see cancer cancer, in medicine, common term for neoplasms, or tumors, that are malignant. Like benign tumors, malignant tumors do not respond to body... Explanation of epigenetic carcinogen
Looking for carcinogen? Find out information about carcinogen. see cancer cancer, in medicine, common term for neoplasms, or tumors, that are malignant. Like benign tumors, malignant tumors do not respond to body... Explanation of carcinogen
An overview of regulatory classification systems on carcinogens in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) countries is presented based on a questionnaire study. Most OECD countries have implemented legislation including classification systems and lists of carcinogens. Basic...
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Limited daily exposure to toxins is tough in a pretty toxic world, but its a reasonable expectation that we all want to kick known carcinogens out of our homes. To that end, we asked Cara Bondi, a green scientists at Seventh Generation,
We compared effects of a high fat diet and a carcinogen on cellular elements of the spleen and mammary gland tumors in rats. Animals were fed a 15% olive-oil diet and a group of them were exposed to a carcinogen, dimethylbenz(a)antracne (DMBA), in two doses of 10 mg/rat. Results of the experiments were evaluated after 4 months. We studied changes in the areas of different zones of the spleen related to production of B and T lymphocytes and also the number of cells in the spleen and tumors with positive reaction to receptors related to manifestation of apoptosis (FasL and p53) and receptors related to inhibition of apoptosis (bcl-2). In the spleen, dietary fats as well as DMBA alone decreased the zones related to production of B lymphocytes and increased the number of T lymphocytes. The combined effect of a carcinogen and a high fat diet manifested in an increase in the number of lymphoid cells and macrophages. In tumors from rats fed a low-fat diet, an extremely high number of lymphoid cells was ...
JWH-18 is a synthetic cannabinoid with similar subjective effects to those of THC, active principle of marihuana. These last years this substance has become very popular and, as a consequence, the carcinogenic properties of this molecule have been widely discussed. In this text I will talk about the potential carcinogenicity of JWH-18. ___ JWH-18 (Fig.1) contains naphthalene in its structure (coloured in red). When we introduce naphthalene in our organism, it is going to pass through
JWH-18 is a synthetic cannabinoid with similar subjective effects to those of THC, active principle of marihuana. These last years this substance has become very popular and, as a consequence, the carcinogenic properties of this molecule have been widely discussed. In this text I will talk about the potential carcinogenicity of JWH-18. ___ JWH-18 (Fig.1) contains naphthalene in its structure (coloured in red). When we introduce naphthalene in our organism, it is going to pass through
Is anyone out there concerned about the hazardous materials we are exposed to daily in Histology? Such as Xylene, Formalin, and some of the other carcinogens used through out Histology. We keep the exposure levels under the limits but I still cant help but wonder if were in harms way. DAVE ...
Home testing and Human carcinogen - Iodine-131, diagnostic tests, self assessment, and other tools and products in relation to Human carcinogen - Iodine-131.
EXHAUST POLLUTION PREVENTION REDUCES CANCER RISK A considerable amount of knowledge regarding what causes cancer has accumulated during the past several decades. Cancer Biology has established the basic facts of the process, carcinogenesis, whereby a normal cell becomes a cancer cell. It has also come to be known that a considerable number of chemical substances are human carcinogens. Chemical carcinogens cause cancer by damaging the DNA of chromosomes. Damage occurs at the molecular level. One molecule of carcinogen attaches to the DNA molecule causing one increment of chromosomal damage, referred to as a lesion. Increased numbers of carcinogen molecules in the body increases the amount of damage done to the DNA. This means that reducing the amount of carcinogen one is exposed to reduces cancer risk. Genes are the basic functional units of chromosomes. Proteins that control all of the body s biochemical processes are produced using the genes for building instructions. When the gene that codes ...
Radiation - radiation that are high in energy can damage the bonds in DNA- this leads to mutations, ultraviolent radiation can cause skin cancer.. Carcinogens - carcinogens cause changes in DNA, DNA can be repaired by cells - it often takes lots of carcinogens before cancer is triggered. Carcinogens in cigarettes causes cancer, carcinogens in alcohol can cause cancer.. Ageing - older people have been exposed to more factor that cause cancers, they have also more time to accumulate damage DNA. Heredity - some people inherit genes which make them more likely to develop cancer.. Viruses - some viruses cause cancer, viruses infect cells by inserting new genetic materials into cells - cause changes in cells DNA.. ...
Differential gene expression during multistage carcinogenesis.: The use of the mouse skin multistage model of carcinogenesis has aided our understanding of crit
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Firefighters should assume carcinogens are present during suppression and overhaul activities and take appropriate actions during and after the incident.
An ingredient in soda, 4-methylimidazole, is a potential carcinogen and people who drink one or more can of soda per day could be exposed to it, increasing their risk of cancer.
MYC is an oncogene involved in cell cycle regulation, cell growth arrest, cell adhesion, metabolism, ribosome biogenesis, protein synthesis, and mitochondrial function. It has been described as a key element of several carcinogenesis processes in humans. Many studies have shown an association between MYC deregulation and gastric cancer. MYC deregulation is also seen in gastric preneoplastic lesions and thus it may have a role in early gastric carcinogenesis. Several studies have suggested that amplification is the main mechanism of MYC deregulation in gastric cancer. in the present review, we focus on the deregulation of the MYC oncogene in gastric adenocarcinorna carcinogenesis, including its association with Helicobacterpylori (Hpylorl) and clinical applications. (c) 2008 the WIG Press. All rights reserved ...
AND THE SAME CARCINOGEN THAT PROMPTED A JULY RECALL OF SEVERAL BLOOD PRESSURE MEDICATIONS- HAS BEEN FOUND IN AN OVER THE COUNTER HEARTBURN MEDICINE. THE FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION SAYS THE DRUG ZANTAC AND ITS GENERIC SISTERS CONTAIN SMALL AMOUNTS OF A SUBSTANCE KNOWN AS N-D-M- A. AN F-D-A SPOKESWOMAN TOLD U-S-A TODAY THE DISCOVERY ISNT PROMPTING A RECALL… AND ADDS THAT PEOPLE SHOULDNT PANIC, BUT THE AGENCY SAYS ITS A GOOD IDEA TO SWITCH TO ANOTHER OVER-THE- COUNTER DRUG FOR THE TIME BEING. THOSE ON A PRESCRIPTION VERSION SHOULD TALK TO THEIR DOCTOR OR PHARMACIST. FINALLY SOME COOLER CHANGE IS COMING THANKS TO A COOL FRONT ...
Sorof, S and Dickens, M S., "Evidence for similar principal target proteins of chemical carcinogens in six carcinogen-organ systems. Abstr." (1978). Subject Strain Bibliography 1978. 443 ...
US FDA has warned pregnant women and children starting on to keep away from Pfizer s Viracept as a potential human carcinogen has been found in batches of the drug.
Immunocytochemical and biochemical analysis of the intermediate filaments of the hepatocytes in the chemical carcinogen-induced hyperplastic liver nodules of rats. (1990 ...
18+) *LEGAL MEDICAL CANNABIS PATIENT* *I MIS-SPOKE AT THE BEGINNING OF THE VIDEO, THE TITLE IS CORRECT* I saw this myth the other day .... ...
Several studies have shown that persistent infections and inflammation can favour carcinogenesis. At the same time, certain types of pathogens and anti-tumour immune responses can decrease the risk of tumourigenesis or lead to cancer regression. Infectious agents and their products can orchestrate a wide range of host immune responses, through which they may positively or negatively modulate cancer development and/or progression. The factors that direct this dichotomous influence of infection-mediated immunity on carcinogenesis are not well understood. Even though not universal, several previous reports have investigated the inverse link of pathogen-induced "benign" inflammation to carcinogenesis and various other pathologies, ranging from autoimmune diseases to allergy and cancer. Several models and ideas are discussed in this review, including the impact of decreased exposure to pathogens, as well as the influence of pathogen load, the timing of infection and the type of instigated immune ...
Despite the extensive work being performed to understand cancer and carcinogenic properties of chemicals and other agents, there are still gaps in our ability t...
Perth researchers have completed a comprehensive study into Australian workers and their exposure to ultraviolet radiation - a known human carcinogen.
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Table 8-1 lists definitions of terms commonly used in discussing chemical carcinogenesis. For benign neoplasms, the tissue of origin is frequently followed by the suffix "oma"; e.g., a benign fibrous neoplasm would be termed fibroma, and a benign glandular epithelium termed an adenoma. Malignant neoplasms from epithelial origin are called carcinomas, whereas those derived from mesenchymal origin are referred to as sarcoma. Thus, a malignant neoplasm of fibrous tissue would be a fibrosarcoma, whereas that derived from bone would be an osteosarcoma. ...
An environmental watchdog group said that Pepsi still contains dangerous levels of a carcinogen, a chemical that can cause cancer.
The binding of tritiated benzo(a)pyrene (BP) to liver DNA of 25 adult male rats (SIV 50) has been determined 50 h after a single intraperitoneal injection of doses between 40 ug/kg and 4; mg/kg. The dose-response relations~ ip is linear up to i mg/kg, shows a sigmoid step towards 2 mg/kg and a shallow linear. slope above that value. TlJe 0 bserved bin ding ranges from 1.7 to 180 nmoles BP per mole DNA phosphate. The non-linearity between 1 and 2 mg/kg could be explained 0):1 the basis of an induction of metabolizing enzymes. A pure1y mathematical extrapolation of therumour incidence from a carcinogenic dose (1 x 40mg/kg for a 20% hepatoma incidence in newborn mice) to human exposure levels (aboilt 0.1 ug/kg per day) would never have followed a step like the on~ found in our experiments. Our dose-effect study therefore shows how carcinogenitity data could be extrapolated in a biologically founded way to low doses ...
LONDON >> 1 of the worlds most preferred weed-killers -- and the most broadly employed sort in the U.S. -- has been labeled a probable carcinogen by the International Agency for Analysis on Cancer. News on NewsHub.org
Their research work has focused on an important enzyme, glutation transferase, which participates in the detoxification of the body from carcinogenic substances. The enzyme is made up of two identical protein structures that are joined by a contact similar to a key that fits a lock. The key is an amino acid that fits a cavity in the neighboring protein structure. In their work, the key has been replaced by artificial amino acids. Some exchanges yielded a fully active enzyme, while others did not.. The current study is a molecular equivalent to a hip joint operation, where the natural joint is replaced by an artificial part that is more robust. With the same methodology it is also possible not only to replace natural structures and functions but also to give proteins entirely new properties. Using simple chemistry, the twenty existent amino acids can be exchanged for hundreds of new chemical structures. In this way new proteins can be created with building blocks far beyond the limits of the ...
Working in viruses of aquaculture we have a number of raggedy primary monocultures that we have been tiptoeing around in the hopes of getting a cell line for routine use in screening.Are there any methods involving growth enhancing chemicals or carcinogens that may help speed this process up? Thanks , Steve and Jane ...
You can still enjoy summer barbecues and drastically reduce the level of grilling carcinogens in your meat by following a few science-backed tricks.
Shell and Dow hid a cancer-causing chemical in two commonly-used pesticides that contaminated the drinking water of millions of people across 13 states, according to several lawsuits collected by the Environmental Working Group.
Sugar feeds cancer cells, helping them to grow and multiply quickly, supporting the theory most cancers are a metabolic disease and not a genetic problem.
This proposal studies the mechanisms by which cells respond to DNA damaging agents. A specialized technology developed early in this project will be used to def...
News Analysis Scientists Continue to Use Outdated Methods The use of underperforming computational tools is a major offender in sciences reproducibility crisis-and theres growing momentum to avoid it.. ...
More than half a century has elapsed since the carcinogenic effects of radiation were first recorded. Study of such effects has since received continuing impetus from the early and expanding uses of...
Presents information describing investigations of molecular aspects of the mechanisms involved in chemical, physical, and viral (biological) carcinogenesis
Thank you for submitting a letter asking the government of Ontario to label carcinogens on household products to protect the health of Canadians. Help spread the word by sharing this action on Facebook and Twitter or emailing it to your contacts. For more updates on our work on toxic chemicals, subscribe to the Kicking Out Toxics quarterly newsletter.. Our work is possible thanks to caring people like you. Please make a charitable gift today in support of our environment!. Donate ...
Although the short-term health effects of formaldehyde exposure are well known, less is known about its potential long-term health effects. In 1980, laboratory studies showed that exposure to formaldehyde could cause nasal cancer in rats. This finding raised the question of whether formaldehyde exposure could also cause cancer in humans. In 1987, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) classified formaldehyde as a probable human carcinogen under conditions of unusually high or prolonged exposure (1). Since that time, some studies of humans have suggested that formaldehyde exposure is associated with certain types of cancer. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) classifies formaldehyde as a human carcinogen (2). In 2011, the National Toxicology Program, an interagency program of the Department of Health and Human Services, named formaldehyde as a known human carcinogen in its 12th Report on Carcinogens (3). ...
Scientists and environmentalists have been saying for decades that the worlds most common weed killer, glyphosate, also known as Monsantos Roundup, is a carcinogen. Last week, a World Health Organization report indicated that, indeed, glyphosate is a "probable carcinogen." Now theres evidence that the Environmental Protection Agency knew glyphosate was a probable carcinogen thirty years ago, but approved it for use anyway. Heres a summarized chronology of events: 1985: The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) was aware of the herbicides ability to cause cancer 30 years ago, even categorizing it as a Class C Carcinogen." Class C carcinogens have "suggestive evidence of carcinogenic potential." 1991: The EPA already had evidence of multiple studies showing glyphosate is a possible carcinogen, but still reversed its decision suggesting that suddenly, six years later, t... Full article: http://www.care2.com/greenliving/epa-classified-roundup-a... ...
Quantitative Risk Assessment. July 1, 2014. Concept Definitions. Hazard - An intrinsic chemical, physical, societal, economic or political condition that has the potential for causing damage to a risk receptor (people, property or the environment). Slideshow 5801895 by wolfe
Returning to the United States in 1980 at the behest of Dr. David Rall, he joined the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences and the National Toxicology Program. Dr. Huff was the first person hired by Dr. Rall, primarily to help establish the newly created NTP into a world-renowned scientific and public health-oriented program. He was a lead person for the transition of the bioassay program from the National Cancer Institute to the NTP. Dr. Huff introduced and established the NTP levels of evidence of carcinogenicity for the experimental chemical carcinogenesis bioassays for evaluating results, and as still utilized in the bioassay technical reports. While with the NTP he wrote or led the preparation and evaluation of more than 200 carcinogenesis bioassay technical reports. Along with Dr Hans Falk and later joined by Dr Vladimer Vouk, Dr Huff helped establish the Congressionally mandated NTP Report on Carcinogens, now in its 10th edition, into a science-based and globally accepted ...
A large number of substances that occur naturally in foods are carcinogenic (cancer-causing) when evaluated by the criteria scientists customarily use to assess the cancer-causing potential of synthetic substances. Other carcinogens are produced by cooking and by the actions of microorganisms. These natural carcinogens are more numerous, more widespread and in some cases more
WASHINGTON - Citing a strong body of peer-reviewed evidence, Environmental Working Group (EWG) today asked the National Toxicology Program (NTP) of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) to list fluoride in tap water in its authoritative Report on Carcinogens, based on its ability to cause a rare form of childhood bone cancer, osteosarcoma, in boys. The Report on Carcinogens lists only substances that are known or reasonably anticipated to cause cancer in humans.. In recent years, concerns have grown about the safety of fluoride in tap water. In 2002, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) commissioned a study by the National Research Council (NRC) on the overall safety of fluoride in tap water. The final report is expected by February 2006. The NRC, however, does not have the expertise or the mandate to determine the carcinogenicity of fluoride.. EWG recognizes the value of fluoride to dentistry, yet a substantial and growing body of peer-reviewed science strongly suggests that adding ...
Preservatives Bronopol, often listed as 2-bromo-2-nitropropane-1,3-diol, can contribute to the formation of cancer-causing nitrosamines, according to the FDA. It can also break down to produce formaldehyde (see below). Formaldehyde, found in eye shadows, mascaras and other cosmetics, is "reasonably anticipated to be a human carcinogen," according to the National Toxicology Programs "Ninth Report on Carcinogens" (January 2001)**. The EPA classifies it as a probable human carcinogen. In its liquid state, formaldehyde, present in the ingredients DMDM hydantoin, diazolidinyl urea imidazolidinyl urea and quaternium-15, can be absorbed through the skin and nails. As a volatile organic compound, or VOC, formaldehyde evaporates when the product is wet; levels drop sharply once its dry. Consumer concern has led many manufacturers to remove it from their nail polishes. Health Problems: Breathing formaldehyde fumes has been associated with many types of cancers, including those of the nose and throat. ...
A population-based case-control study was performed in South-West Germany in 1987/88 with 115 histological confirmed glioma and 81 meningioma cases and 418 randomly selected controls. On the basis of information from a food-frequency questionnaire and questions on food preparation and food supply, the role of dietary carcinogens, in particular...
We evaluated the patterns of sialylation on fibrosarcoma cell lines arising following 3-methylcholanthrene treatments of wild-type and IL-1alpha-deficient mice; the former induced progressive tumors, whereas the latter cell lines induced regressing tumors or failed to develop into tumors in mice due to immune rejection. In regressing tumors, terminating alpha2-6-Neu5Ac residues were present at lower levels than in progressively growing tumors. In both tumor cells, the amount of alpha2-6-Neu5Ac residues was higher by an order of magnitude relative to the amount expressed in primary fibroblasts harvested from IL-1alpha-deficient and wild-type mice. We focused on membrane proteins, which may interact with the immune system. Interestingly, HSP65, grp75, and gp96 were found on the surfaces of malignant cells and were shown to possess sialylated N-glycans. The amount of trisialylated glycans on gp96 and HSP65 and monosialylated glycans on grp75 of regressing cells was significantly lower than in ...
In the most recent version of the National Toxicology Programs Report on Carcinogens, two new substances have been classified as "known human carcinogens" and six others have been classified as... Continue Reading ...
Carcinogenesis involves the accumulation of genetic changes within a single cell. Tumor promotion functions in the initial clonal expansion of an initiated cell but is generally not considered to influence later stages. To investigate whether tumor promotion can influence later stages of carcinogenesis we developed a two-hit 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (D) protocol designed to enrich for keratinocytes that contain at least two D-induced genetic alterations. FVB/N mice were initiated with D and promoted with 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (T) or treated with acetone (A) vehicle for 6 weeks. At 7 weeks after the start of promotion, but before visible papilloma development, groups of mice were treated with a second dose of D or A and 1 week later T promotion was resumed. D/T/A/T mice developed 2.8 papillomas/mouse and D/A/D/T mice demonstrated an additive tumor response and developed 5.8 papillomas/mouse. Importantly, D/T/D/T mice developed 12.4 papillomas/mouse, thereby demonstrating a ...
The tobacco-specific N-nitrosamines 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) and 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol (NNAL), as well as the Areca-derived N-nitrosoguvacoline (NG) were assayed for carcinogenicity in male F344 rats by lifetime administration in the drinking water. Groups of 30 to 80 rats were treated with 0.5 ppm, 1.0 ppm, or 5.0 ppm of NNK; 5.0 ppm of NNAL, 20 ppm of NG, a mixture of 20 ppm of NG and 1 ppm of NNK, and water only in the control group. The approximate total doses of the nitrosamines (mmol/kg of body weight) in these groups were: NNK, 0.073, 0.17, and 0.68; NNAL, 0.69; NG, 4.1; NG and NNK, 4.1 and 0.17. As in previous assays in which NNK was tested by s.c. injection, the lung was its principle target organ. Lung tumor incidences in the 0.5-, 1.0-, and 5.0-ppm groups were nine of 80, 20 of 80, and 27 of 30 compared to six of 80 in the control rats. This trend was significant, P , 0.005. Significant incidences of nasal cavity and liver tumors ...
The book "Carcinogen" contains a collection of reviews and original papers which illustrate: Models of Carcinogenesis - a review focused on the role of stem cells as target to carcinogenesis Tests for Detection of Carcinogens - one of the reviews describes different methods for analyzing nucleic acid adducts, while the other describes the Ty1 retrotransposition short-term test, which can be used to study carcinogenicity of chemicals, including such applied in agriculture, nutrition and pharmacy. The test is highly sensitive, selective to carcinogenic substances, and can be used to control environmental pollution ...
The handbook provides instructions for conducting the cancer hazard evaluation and preparing the monographs on substances under evaluation.. ...
Date: Mon, 15 Mar 93 12:00:25 EST From: bszymcz%ulysses at relay.nswc.navy.mil (Bill Szymczak) Subject: re: beer, root beer and cancer In HBD1095 John Sampson brought to our attention a very interesting article appearing in Science, (vol. 258 pg 261) on natural vrs. synthetic carcinogens. The fact that wine and beer were at the top of the list alerted me to read the article myself. In that article Rodent Carcinogens: Setting Priorities, the authors try to support their hypothesis that naturally occuring chemicals have not been as rigorously tested as synthetic chemicals for being potential carcinogens. This was done by using an index (HEPR) measuring the percent of the equivalent (by weight) amount of daily lifetime rat dosage required to halve cancer free rats at the end of a standard lifetime. Some of the values are: HEPR (%) HUMAN EXPOSURE (PER DAY) RAT CARCINOGEN 4.7 Wine (250ml) Ethanol (30 ml) 2.8 Beer (12 oz; 354 ml) Ethanol (18 ml) 0.3 Lettuce, 1/8 head (125 g) Caffeic acid (66.3 mg) ...
Heres some more info: carcinogens are commonly radioactive. In this case, it is not the substance itself, but the gamma and alpha radiation that the substance releases (forms of high frequency light) that cause the cell damage. This makes cigarettes and alcoholic beverages particularly dangerous because of the high levels of radiation that they contain.. Beyond chemical carcinogens, there are several microbial agents that are known carcinagens. HPV (Human Paploma Virus, the virus that causes warts) and Hepititus B are examples.. There are also a multitude of carcinogens that naturally form on meat cooked at high temperatures (grilling or broiling for example).. ...
Lede / California water officials today approved regulations to limit the level of a chemical experts say is a potent cancer-causing agent in the states water supply.The State Water Resources Control Board will limit the level of 1,2,3 TCP, or trichloropropane to five parts per trillion. Vic Bedoian reports from Fresno ...
Many human carcinogens are environmental carcinogens, for example, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from transformers. Other known carcinogens are tobacco smoke, aflatoxins (produced by moldy peanuts), sunlight (increase in malignant melanoma and squamous cell carcinoma), radiation, chemicals, dioxin, and benzene. Most authorities believe that the herpes viruses and papillomaviruses have a potential for producing cancerous changes. Patients with a history of certain diseases, such as hepatitis, have a higher incidence of liver cancer than patients without such history.. Normal cells have a mechanism to turn off cell growth with certain signals. In cancer, however, a change in the cells occurs so that they continue to grow. With a lack of control (switch does not turn off), the abnormal neoplastic cells continue to grow. The cell-surface antigens appear similar to the normal fetal types, so the body does not mount an immune response. The tumor stem cells have chromosomal abnormalities, ...
The following lists were compiled by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) and the US National Toxicology Program (NTP). These are long lists, and a lot of them you probably know about already, but some might be a surprise. The two that really stuck out for me were Mineral Oil (you know, BABY OIL!) and Tamoxifen. It really bothers me that the drug they put most breast cancer patients on, in an attempt to prevent recurrence of breast cancer, is a known carcinogen. I opted not to take it. That said, I dont blame anyone for taking it. Breast cancer is a really scary thing to be diagnosed with, and if were told something will help prevent it from coming back, it makes sense to take it. When I studies the side effects, and started to understand how it works in our bodies, it made more sense in my opinion, to refuse it.. **Please note: My decision not to use Tamoxifen should in no way be viewed as a recommendation for someone else not to take it. I did a lot of research, and talked ...
DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Tobacco-smoking is the single major cause of cancer mortality in the US, and is a risk factor for a number of cancers including lung, upper aero-digestive tract, bladder and pancreas. One of the most powerful carcinogens in tobacco smoke is 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK). NNK is bioactivated to potent electrophiles that react to form methyl and 4-(3-pyridyl)-4-oxobutyl (POB) DNA adducts. Role of methyl-DNA adducts in carcinogenesis have been well characterized and the current paradigm is that methyl- DNA adducts are more important than POB-DNA adducts in the etiology of tobacco-induced cancers. However, recently it was found that O2-POB-dT adduct is the most persistent POB adduct in NNK-treated rodents. Our preliminary results show that O2-POB-dT is inefficiently repaired in human cells and is mutagenic in SOS-induced E. coli and mammalian cells. The objective of this application is to determine the mechanisms by which O2-POB-dT forms ...
The impact assessment (IA) accompanying the proposal for a third revision of the carcinogens and mutagens Directive 2004/37/EC clearly defines the problem to be addressed. However, it would have benefited from providing more comprehensive explanations of its evolution without EU action. The objectives appear to be relevant, sufficiently measurable, achievable, though not time-bound. The IA considers a wide range of options, and those retained for further assessment appear to be reasonable, and consistent with the approach followed in two previous amendments of the directive. The analysis of impacts focuses on the economic and social dimension, mainly health, consistently with the manner in which the problem has been defined. Environmental impacts are assessed to be broadly negligible: considering that the IA is dealing with carcinogenic chemical substances, this would have perhaps required further justification. The IA acknowledges a general issue regarding, inter alia, the availability of data on the
PubMed journal article Heterocyclic amines: human carcinogens in cooked food? were found in PRIME PubMed. Download Prime PubMed App to iPhone, iPad, or Android
Conversion Technology has over 33 years of conducting risk assessments and working with multiple industry sectors to ensure compliance and keeping workers safe. www.conversiontechnology.com
After the success of the events organized in February 2007 and in response to requests from users of the software, PIARC and Ineris have organized a new seminar and further training sessions in Paris, France, 26-28 January 2010.. ...
Whats that, you say? It seems hypocritical that Susan G. Komen for the Cure would create a perfume that contains potential carcinogens while simultaneously claiming to fight "every minute of every day to finish what we started and achieve our vision of a world without breast cancer"? Thats what Breast Cancer Action thinks, too. No amount of shopping for pink ribbon products will rid our world of the breast cancer epidemic. We need to change the conversation about breast cancer - to one that focuses on eliminating toxins from the personal care products that we use daily, and where we boldly call out pinkwashers for distracting us from the real work that needs to be done.. ...
Sucralose in e-liquids can break down, increasing toxic aldehydes in vapors and producing harmful organochlorines, including a potential carcinogen.
No it hasnt been banned, and it is probably safe to use. But no company with any sense will carry on using it.. What has happened is that it has been listed on a list of potential carcinogens. This means it is banned unless a committee called the SCCS upholds its use. They have looked at it and concluded that there is insufficient data to reach a conclusion. This leaves it in a bit of a legal limbo, and it might be banned at any minute. So if I were using it Id be switching to something else as quickly as I could.. This is a good example of why you need to know the background to something before making any decisions about it, and why you cant just look stuff up. If you were to read the EU cosmetic regulations youd see that it is listed as being fully legal. There is nothing so misleading as facts.. If you are in the business and thinking of using it in a product you are making I suggest you dont.. If you are wondering whether it is safe to use products you have already bought, Id be happy ...
Air fresheners get rid of noxious gas and pungent odors, but newest research has shown that they are also releasing fumes which are even more dangerous than cigarette smoke, and may lead to respiratory issues, such as asthma, and hormonal imbalance.. According to a study conducted by the Public Health Englands Center for Radiation, Chemical and Environmental Hazards, theres a "considerable" amount of formaldehyde in the content of common air fresheners, which enters the group of "known human carcinogen" by the United States National Toxicology Program.. Hence, the overexposure to air fresheners has been linked to nose and throat cancers. On the other hand, you can replace them with essential oils, and your home will smell pleasant, and you will also benefit from their use.. All you need to do is to add 10-15 drops of some essential oil to a cup of distilled water and spray the solution all over the house.. ...
Carcinogen: Carcinogen, any of a number of agents that can cause cancer in humans. They can be divided into three major categories: chemical carcinogens (including those from biological sources), physical carcinogens, and oncogenic (cancer-causing) viruses. Most carcinogens, singly or in combination, produce
The Rumsfeld Plague: Aspartame Brings Horror by Hesh Goldstein (NaturalNews) The aspartame horror began in 1981 due to Donald Rumsfeld, as head of the G.D. Searle pharmaceutical company, when he used his political clout to put a known carcinogen on the market to poison a nation all in the name of money. In a Washington…
ANAHEIM, Calif-Although toxicology and epidemiology have both contributed importantly to our understanding of cancer hazards, researchers have now
ORCID: 0000-0001-8562-4944, Williams, J. A., Cole, Kathleen J., Muir, Gordon H., Grover, Philip L. and Phillips, David H. (2000) Susceptibility of primary cultures of human prostate epilthelial cells to chemical carcinogens as detected using the Comet assay. Mutagenesis, 15 (5). p. 447. ISSN 0267-8357 Full text not available from this repository.. Official URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/mutage/15.5.431. ...
In this study, we provide additional evidence in support of the hypothesis that decreased caloric intake has a protective effect on MT development. Specifically, we show that a decrease in caloric intake, whether administered as chronic caloric restriction or as intermittent caloric restriction/refeeding, protects against oncogene-induced MT development. However, an identical decrease in calories and nutrients consumed by intermittent caloric restriction/refeeding was more effective in both delaying the age of MT detection and in lowering overall MT incidence than were those consumed by chronic caloric restriction.. These new findings are in contrast to the results of two previous studies that assessed the effects of chemical carcinogen-induced MT development in rats subjected to two different intermittent caloric restriction/refeeding protocols (14 , 15) . In one of these studies (14) , the degree of food restriction was substantially different between chronically calorie-restricted rats (60% ...
Subject: NIOSH carcinogen and target risk level policies. Purpose: To update the NIOSH policies about chemical carcinogens in the workplace and the NIOSH target risk level policy for chemical carcinogens. This update to the NIOSH carcinogen policy, which was first issued in 1978, reflects advancements in cancer science and stakeholder concerns about the previous policy. The proposed policy outlines an approach that is expected to improve the efficiency of classifying carcinogens by utilizing classifications from relevant federal and international organizations, specifically the National Toxicology Program, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and the International Agency for Research on Cancer.. Timing of Review: Public review November 2013 - February 2014; peer review November 2013 - March 2014. Primary Disciplines or Expertise Needed for Review: Carcinogen policy, toxicology, risk assessment, risk communication, occupational health, occupational cancer, industrial hygiene.. Type of ...
Join this webinar on June 10th at 3 PM EST (noon PST) May 13 2015. CAREX (CARcinogen EXposure) Canada is a national surveillance project that estimates which known and suspected carcinogens Canadians are exposed to, where in Canada such exposures may occur, and which substances pose the greatest hazard in workplaces and communities. The ultimate goal of the project is to inform efforts to reduce these exposures and thereby help to prevent cancer.. CAREX Canadas estimates have helped occupational health advocates to better understand how a worker in a particular industry, such as agriculture or printing, might be exposed to carcinogens on the job. The team has also supported legal staff in investigating workers compensation claims related to asbestos exposure. Most recently, CAREX has worked with the Canadian Environmental Law Association (CELA) on their review of policy and law around radon exposure in Canadian homes and workplaces.. This webinar, presented in partnership with CELA by CAREX ...
Methods This study used a pre/postintervention experimental design. The setting was bars in 12 Michigan counties. Subjects were bar employees, recruited through flyers and individual discussions with local health department staff. Participants completed a screening questionnaire to determine eligibility. A total of 40 eligible employees completed a demographic survey, provided urine samples for analysis of cotinine and 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol (NNAL) and completed questionnaires on respiratory and general health status 6 weeks before and 6-10 weeks after the law went into effect. The main outcome measures were urine samples for total cotinine and total NNAL and data from a self-administered respiratory and general health status questionnaire collected during the pre-law and post-law study periods. ...
Zhigacheva I.. Emanuel Institute of Biochemical Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, street Kosygin, 4, Moscow, 119334 Russia 1 pp. (accepted). The consequences of long-term exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and nitrosamines (NA) on the body began to be studied in detail more than 100-150 years ago [Proctor R. N., 2004; Scanlan R. A., 2004]. The researchers interest in these toxicants is associated with the high carcinogenic properties of PAHs and NAs. The bulk of PAHs in the environment is of anthropogenic origin. The main sources of PAHs are: household, industrial discharges, wash-outs, transport, accidents. The anthropogenic flux of PAHs, in particular benzo(a)pyrene (BP) is approximately 30 tons a year [Larin S. A. and co-authors, 2005]. Currently, the contamination by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is global. Their presence is found in all elements of the natural environment (air, soil, water, biota) from the Arctic to Antarctica. Not less toxic nitrosamines ...
Isothiocyanates and their naturally occurring glucosinolate precursors are widely consumed as part of a diet rich in cruciferous vegetables. When plant cells are damaged, glucosinolates are released and converted to isothiocyanates by the enzyme myrosinase. Many isothiocyanates inhibit the neoplastic effects of various carcinogens at a number of organ sites. Consequently, these agents are attracting attention as potential chemoprotectors against cancer. As a prerequisite to understanding the mechanism of the protective effects of these compounds, which is thought to involve the modulation of carcinogen metabolism by the induction of phase 2 detoxication enzymes and the inhibition of phase 1 carcinogen-activating enzymes, we examined the fate of ingested isothiocyanates and glucosinolates in humans. Recently developed novel methods for quantifying isothiocyanates (and glucosinolates after their quantitative conversion to isothiocyanates by purified myrosinase) and their urinary metabolites ...
Stereoselective metabolism of dibenzo[a,l]pyrene (DB[a,l]P), 2-chlorodibenzo[a,l]pyrene (2-Cl-DB[a,l]P) and 10-chlorodibenzo[a,l]pyrene (10-Cl-DB[a,l]P) by rat liver microsomes was studied and effects of the chloro substituent on the metabolism were determined. All three compounds produced trans-8,9-dihydrodiol, trans-11,12-dihydrodiol, and the 7-hydroxyl derivative as major metabolic products and several other phenolic derivatives as minor metabolites. The trans-8,9- and 11,12-dihydrodiols of DB[a,l]P and 2-Cl-DB[a,l]P preferentially adopted a quasidiequatorial conformation, whereas 10-Cl-DB[a,l]P trans-8,9- and 11,12-dihydrodiols preferentially adopted a quasidiaxial conformation. The yields of the trans-11,12-dihydrodiol metabolites are: DB[a,l]P trans-11,12-dihydrodiol | 2-Cl-DB[a,l]P trans-11,12-dihydrodiol || 10-Cl-DB[a,l]P trans-11,12-dihydrodiol. Circular dichroism (CD) spectral analysis indicates that the trans-8,9-dihydrodiol and trans-11,12-dihydrodiol metabolites from DB[a,l]P, 2-Cl-DB[a,l]P
The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has determined that crystalline silica in the form of quartz or cristobalite that is inhaled from occupational sources is carcinogenic to humans (Group 1- carcinogenic to humans). Refer to IARC Monograph 68, Silica, Some Silicates and Organic Fibres (published in June 1997) in conjunction with the use of these materials. The National Toxicology Program (NTP) classifies respirable crystalline silica as ***known to be a human carcinogen***. Refer to the 9th Report on Carcinogens (2000). The American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) classifies crystalline silica, quartz, as a suspected human carcinogen (Group A2). Breathing dust containing respirable crystalline silica may not cause noticeable injury or illness even though permanent lung damage may be occurring. Inhalation of dust may have the following serious chronic health effects: Excessive inhalation of respirable dust can cause pneumoconiosis, a respiratory ...
Carcinogens[edit]. Soy sauce may contain ethyl carbamate, a Group 2A carcinogen.[58] ... The same carcinogens were found in soy sauces manufactured in Vietnam, causing a food scare in 2007.[63][64] ... contained a chemical carcinogen named 3-MCPD (3-monochloropropane-1,2-diol) at levels considerably higher than those deemed ...
There are over 19 known carcinogens in cigarette smoke.[165] The following are some of the most potent carcinogens: *Polycyclic ... Radioactive carcinogens[edit]. In addition to chemical, nonradioactive carcinogens, tobacco and tobacco smoke contain small ... Chemical carcinogens[edit]. See also: List of cigarette smoke carcinogens. @media all and (max-width:720px){.mw-parser-output . ... List of cigarette smoke carcinogens. References[edit]. *^ a b "Prevalence of current tobacco use among adults aged=15 years ( ...
Possible carcinogen. The Indonesian Directorate of Consumer Protection warns of the risk of liver cancer with high consumption ...
Non-mutagenic carcinogens[edit]. Many mutagens are also carcinogens, but some carcinogens are not mutagens. Examples of ... In addition, environmental factors such as carcinogens and radiation cause mutations that may contribute to the development of ... carcinogens that are not mutagens include alcohol and estrogen. These are thought to promote cancers through their stimulating ...
Carcinogen}}. Medicine. Carcinogen-Cancer causing materials and agents. Oncology templates. See also. Default color.. ...
These substances are called carcinogens. Tobacco smoke, for example, causes 90% of lung cancer.[34] It also causes cancer in ... Such environments can include the presence of disruptive substances called carcinogens, repeated physical injury, heat, ... a phenomenon that could be due to the presence of carcinogens in meats cooked at high temperatures.[106][107] In 2015 the IARC ... physical carcinogens must get inside the body (such as through inhalation) and require years of exposure to produce cancer.[63] ...
... "reasonably anticipated to be a carcinogen" and by the EPA classified DDT, DDE and DDD as class B2 "probable" carcinogens; these ... DDT is an endocrine disruptor.[76][77] It is considered likely to be a human carcinogen although the majority of studies ...
Pyrethrin (insecticide): Carcinogen; Approved in CO and WA. *Fenoxycarb (insecticide): Carciniogen, cholinesterase inhibitor; ... Bifenthrin (insectide): Developmental and reproductive toxin, possible carcinogen; Not allowed in CO or WA, but found on tested ... Thiophanate-methyl (fungicide): Carcinogen; Not allowed in WA or CO, found on tested samples in CO. ...
These substances are called carcinogens. Tobacco smoke, for example, causes 90% of lung cancer.[38] It also causes cancer in ... Such environments can include the presence of disruptive substances called carcinogens, repeated physical injury, heat, ... a phenomenon that could be due to the presence of carcinogens in meats cooked at high temperatures.[113][114] In 2015 the IARC ... physical carcinogens must get inside the body (such as through inhalation) and require years of exposure to produce cancer.[71] ...
DNA damage is considered to be the primary underlying cause of malignant neoplasms known as cancers.[16][17] Its central role in progression to cancer is illustrated in the figure in this section, in the box near the top. (The central features of DNA damage, epigenetic alterations and deficient DNA repair in progression to cancer are shown in red.) DNA damage is very common. Naturally occurring DNA damages (mostly due to cellular metabolism and the properties of DNA in water at body temperatures) occur at a rate of more than 60,000 new damages, on average, per human cell, per day[16] [also see article DNA damage (naturally occurring) ]. Additional DNA damages can arise from exposure to exogenous agents. Tobacco smoke causes increased exogenous DNA damage, and these DNA damages are the likely cause of lung cancer due to smoking.[18] UV light from solar radiation causes DNA damage that is important in melanoma.[19] Helicobacter pylori infection produces high levels of reactive oxygen species that ...
Jeffrey AM (1985). "DNA modification by chemical carcinogens". Pharmacology & Therapeutics. 28 (2): 237-72. doi:10.1016/0163- ... DNA intercalators may be carcinogens, and in the case of thalidomide, a teratogen.[85] Others such as benzo[a]pyrene diol ...
NTP (National Toxicology Program) (2016). Report on Carcinogens (Fourteenth ed.). Research Triangle Park, NC: U.S. Department ...
"NTP: Report on Carcinogens (RoC)". Ntp.niehs.nih.gov. 13 February 2009. Retrieved 29 July 2009. http://www.coppertone.com/home ...
Abelson, P. (1990). "Testing for carcinogens with rodents". Science. 249 (4975): 1357. Bibcode:1990Sci...249.1357A. doi:10.1126 ... It is probable that almost every fruit and vegetable in the supermarket contains natural pesticides that are rodent carcinogens ... has resulted in an imbalance in both the data on and the perception of chemical carcinogens. Three points that we have ... humans are exposed to an enormous background of rodent carcinogens, as defined by high-dose tests on rodents. We have shown ...
Common carcinogensEdit. Occupational carcinogensEdit. Occupational carcinogens are agents that pose a risk of cancer in several ... Major carcinogens implicated in the four most common cancers worldwideEdit. In this section, the carcinogens implicated as the ... Co-carcinogens are chemicals that do not necessarily cause cancer on their own, but promote the activity of other carcinogens ... Group A5: Not suspected as a human carcinogen. European UnionEdit. The European Union classification of carcinogens is ...
... is considered a carcinogen.[1] This compound has been shown to increase the incidence of tumors in ... animals.[5] Because it is structurally similar to benzidine, a known carcinogen, it is believed that it may share a similar ...
Compounds related to methyl violet[which?] are potential carcinogens.[citation needed] Methyl violet 10B inhibits the growth of ...
... so the EPA has classified it as a Group B2 carcinogen, meaning it is a probable human carcinogen. The International Agency for ... It is thought to be a potential carcinogen in humans, though this has not yet been proven. Toxaphene is a synthetic organic ... "Toxaphene" (PDF). Report on Carcinogens. National Toxicology Program, Department of Health and Human Services. 13. October 2, ... Research on Cancer has classified it as a Group 2B carcinogen. Toxaphene can be detected in blood, urine, breast milk, and body ...
Other carcinogens remain; see 3-MCPD. In 1996, China banned food manufacturers from using Sudan I red dye to color their ... A video about the top 10 most common toxic substances in Chinese food and snacks looked into the use of the carcinogen, sodium ...
The ultimate carcinogen is formed after another reaction with cytochrome P450 1A1 to yield the (+)benzo[a]pyrene-7,8- ... It is listed as a Group 1 carcinogen by the IARC. In the 18th century a scrotal cancer of chimney sweepers, the chimney sweeps ... BaP's metabolites are mutagenic and highly carcinogenic, and it is listed as a Group 1 carcinogen by the IARC. Chemical agents ... Tobacco smoke carcinogens and lung cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst 1999; 91: 1194-210. PMID 10413421 ...
Maltoni CF, Holland JF (2000). "Chapter 16: Physical Carcinogens". In Bast RC, Kufe DW, Pollock RE, et al. Holland-Frei Cancer ... These substances are called carcinogens. Tobacco smoke, for example, causes 90% of lung cancer. It also causes cancer in the ... Tobacco smoke contains over fifty known carcinogens, including nitrosamines and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Tobacco is ... Such environments can include the presence of disruptive substances called carcinogens, repeated physical injury, heat, ...
Many mutagens are also carcinogens, but some carcinogens are not mutagens. Alcohol is an example of a chemical carcinogen that ... Maltoni CF, Holland JF (2000). "Chapter 16: Physical Carcinogens". In Bast RC, Kufe DW, Pollock RE, et al. Holland-Frei Cancer ... Tobacco smoke contains over fifty known carcinogens, including nitrosamines and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Tobacco is ... physical carcinogens must get inside the body (such as through inhaling tiny pieces) and require years of exposure to develop ...
They are generally carcinogens. In contrast to the N-nitrosamines, N-nitrosamides do not play a role in the discussion about ...
"Known and Probable Carcinogens". American Cancer Society. 2006-02-03. Archived from the original on 2008-03-17. Retrieved 2008- ... The American Cancer Society lists tamoxifen as a known carcinogen, stating that it increases the risk of some types of uterine ...
Several well-established carcinogens have been shown by the tobacco companies' own research to be present at higher ... 219 KB). From the 11th Report on Carcinogens of the U.S. National Institutes of Health U.S. Dept. of Health and Human Services ... "Environmental Tobacco Smoke" (PDF). 11th Report on Carcinogens. U.S. National Institutes of Health. Archived from the original ... February 2010). "Formation of carcinogens indoors by surface-mediated reactions of nicotine with nitrous acid, leading to ...
It is also classified by the IARC as a Group 2B carcinogen: possibly carcinogenic to humans because it is a known carcinogen in ... Tenth Report on Carcinogens. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, National Toxicology Program, ... "12th Report on Carcinogens". United States Department of Health and Human Services' National Toxicology Program. Retrieved 11 ... The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency classifies dioxane as a probable human carcinogen (having observed an increased ...
Acrylamide is a probable human carcinogen formed during cooking of many common foods. Epidemiologic studies on acrylamide and ... VL - 19 IS - 10 N2 - BACKGROUND: Acrylamide is a probable human carcinogen formed during cooking of many common foods. ...
Many flours and baked goods contain potassium bromate, a carcinogen that has been banned across Europe Submitted by avgd123 on ... Read more about Many flours and baked goods contain potassium bromate, a carcinogen that has been banned across Europe ...
In conclusion, KBrO3-induced lipid peroxidation in rat lung suggests that it may be the target organ for this carcinogen. An ... Potassium bromate (KBrO3) is a known prooxidant and carcinogen. Melatonin is a highly effective antioxidant. Indole-3-propionic ...
Chem. Abstr. Name: 2-(4-Chloro-2-methylphenoxy) propanoic acid A. Evidence for carcinogenicity to humans (limitedfor chlorophenoxy herbicides). In a Danish cohort study of chemical workers exposed to chlorophenoxy herbicides [particularly (4-chloro-2-methylphenoxy) acetic acid (MCPA), 2-(4-chloro-2-methylphenoxy)propanoic acid (mecoprop), 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and 2-(2,4-dichlorophenoxy)propanoic acid (dichlorprop)], as well as other chemicals, no overall increase in cancer incidence rate was observed, but there were significantly increased risks for soft-tissue sarcoma and lung cancer cancer in some subcohorts, which were not necessarily those with the highest exposures to chlorophenoxy herbicide preparations [ref: 1].. A recently reported cohort of 5784 male employees in a UK company that manufactured, formulated and sprayed MCPA and other pesticides but only small amounts of 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2,4,5-T) had no general excess mortality from cancer. Three ...
... Unreleased internal FDA emails show glyphosate weedkiller residue in almost every food tested. *by Kristine ... Study Shows Air Emissions from Fracking Sites Contain Carcinogens and Other Harmful Chemicals. *by ...
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... promulgated standards in 1974 to regulate the industrial use of 13 chemicals identified as potential occupational carcinogens. ... which considers the 13 chemicals to be potential occupational carcinogens. ... promulgated standards in 1974 to regulate the industrial use of 13 chemicals identified as potential occupational carcinogens. ...
NIOSH has adopted a more inclusive carcinogen policy. ... When thresholds for carcinogens that would protect 100% of the ... In this way, respirators will be consistently recommended regardless of whether a substance is a carcinogen or a non-carcinogen ... For the past 20 plus years, NIOSH has subscribed to a carcinogen policy that was published in 1976 by Edward J. Fairchild, II, ... Potential occupational carcinogen means any substance, or combination or mixture of substances, which causes an increased ...
... some related information is included on how different agencies and groups test and classify possible carcinogens. ... Carcinogens do not cause cancer at all times, under all circumstances. In other words, a carcinogen does not always cause ... "Reasonably anticipated to be human carcinogens". Learn more about the topics in this list in the NTPs Report on Carcinogens at ... National Toxicology Program 14th Report on Carcinogens. "Known to be human carcinogens". Learn more about the topics in this ...
The Ecologist is the worlds leading environmental affairs platform. Our aim is to educate and inform as many people as possible about the wonders of nature, the crisis we face and the best solutions and methods in managing that crisis. Find out about our mission, and our team, here. The website is owned and published by The Resurgence Trust, an educational charity. To receive the magazine, become a member now. The views expressed in the articles published on this site may not necessarily reflect those of the trust, its trustees or its staff. ...
Exposure to carcinogens at work in EUs crosshairs. The EU Agency for Safety and Health at Work has launched a joint campaign ... Carcinogens found in British baby food and Belgian fries. Two new surveys have found high levels of acrylamide, a known ... MEPs adopt stricter limits on carcinogens in the workplace. EU lawmakers on Wednesday (30 August) voted on tough new exposure ... Sunbed ultraviolet radiation is a complete carcinogen, EU panel says. The European Commissions Scientific Committee on ...
Substances, mixtures and exposure circumstances in this list have been classified by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) as Group 3: The agent (mixture or exposure circumstance) is not classifiable as to its carcinogenicity to humans. This category is used most commonly for agents, mixtures and exposure circumstances for which the evidence of carcinogenicity is inadequate in humans and inadequate or limited in experimental animals. Exceptionally, agents (mixtures) for which the evidence of carcinogenicity is inadequate in humans but sufficient in experimental animals may be placed in this category when there is strong evidence that the mechanism of carcinogenicity in experimental animals does not operate in humans. Agents, mixtures and exposure circumstances that do not fall into any other group are also placed in this category. Further details can be found in the IARC Monographs Acenaphthene Acepyrene Aciclovir Acridine orange Acriflavinium chloride Acrolein Acrylic acid ...
Substances, mixtures and exposure circumstances in this list have been classified by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) as Group 1: The agent (mixture) is carcinogenic to humans. The exposure circumstance entails exposures that are carcinogenic to humans. This category is used when there is sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity in humans. Exceptionally, an agent (mixture) may be placed in this category when evidence of carcinogenicity in humans is less than sufficient but there is sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity in experimental animals and strong evidence in exposed humans that the agent (mixture) acts through a relevant mechanism of carcinogenicity. 2-Naphthylamine Acetaldehyde associated with consumption of alcoholic beverages 4-Aminobiphenyl Aflatoxins Aristolochic acids, and plants containing them Arsenic and inorganic arsenic compounds1 Asbestos Azathioprine Benzene Benzidine, and dyes metabolized to Benzo[a]pyrene Beryllium and beryllium compounds2 Chlornapazine ...
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Mutagens and carcinogens in the environment represent a potential hazard, and it is important to screen large numbers of ... Ames B.N. (1982) Mutagens, Carcinogens, and Anti-Carcinogens. In: Fleck R.A., Hollaender A. (eds) Genetic Toxicology. Basic ... Mutagens and carcinogens in the environment represent a potential hazard, and it is important to screen large numbers of ... Ames, B.N., L.S. Gold, B.B. Sawyer, and W. Havender, Carcinogenic potency, in: "Environmental Mutagens and Carcinogens", T. ...
Every time you make up, you lather your face with a deadly cocktail of carcinogens, preservatives, mutagens, allergens, toxic ... Even those that dont have carcinogens may use ingredients that can cause allergic reactions, irritation or photosensitivity. ...
Carcinogen A carcinogen is a substance that causes a normal cell to change into a cancerous cell, resulting in uncontrolled ... Carcinogen Encyclopedia of Public Health COPYRIGHT 2002 The Gale Group Inc.. CARCINOGEN. A carcinogen is an agent that can ... Carcinogen UXL Encyclopedia of Science COPYRIGHT 2002 The Gale Group, Inc.. Carcinogen. A carcinogen is a substance that causes ... Carcinogen. A carcinogen is a substance that causes a normal cell to change into a cancerous cell. The word "car cinogen" is ...
Carcinogens are present in and around your home and workplace, and are often related to lifestyle. Being aware of and reducing ... Being exposed to carcinogens doesnt guarantee that you will get cancer; however, substances labeled as carcinogens have ... Cancer and environmental carcinogens. by Michele Borboa MS May 01, 2009 at 5:06 am EDT ... What are environmental carcinogens?. Cancer is caused by mutations in a cells DNA. Though some of these mutations may be ...
Tagged "carcinogen" Is the EPA Allowing for the Approval of New Asbestos-Containing Products?. * 10 December 2019 ...
... physical carcinogens, and oncogenic (cancer-causing) viruses. Most carcinogens, singly or in combination, produce ... They can be divided into three major categories: chemical carcinogens (including those from biological sources), ... Carcinogen, any of a number of agents that can cause cancer in humans. ... More About Carcinogen. 10 references found in Britannica articles. Assorted References. *chemical carcinogens* In poison: ...
by lennarthardell Comments7 Comments on Moving radiofrequency radiation from Group 2B to 1 as a human carcinogen Moving ... 7 thoughts on "Moving radiofrequency radiation from Group 2B to 1 as a human carcinogen" * Pingback: Berkeley Church Cell Tower ... Using these viewpoints our summary was that RF-EMF exposure should be a Group 1 carcinogen according to IARC criteria. There is ... radiofrequency radiation from Group 2B to 1 as a human carcinogen. The carcinogenic effect of radiofrequency electromagnetic ...
To see information on the 9th edition of the RoC, see the NTP RoC Homepage Report on Carcinogens or contact the NTP-RoC, MD EC- ... It had been listed in the Report as "reasonably anticipated to be a human carcinogen" since 1985. The Report cites findings of ... An agent, substance, mixture or exposure circumstance can be listed in the Report either as "known to be a human carcinogen" or ... Eight of the new entries are listed as "known to be human carcinogens" and the other six entries as "reasonably anticipated to ...
Cola giants under fire for carcinogens 11 Mar, 2012 5:20am 2 minutes to read ... Under Californian law, drinks containing a certain level of carcinogens must have a cancer-warning label on their packaging. ... Coca-Cola is altering its drink in the US after the state of California declared one of its flavourings a carcinogen though it ...
Office of the Report on Carcinogens. Ruth M. Lunn, Dr.P.H. Director, Office of the Report on Carcinogens Tel 984-287-3155 Fax ...
... and keep up with all the news on PureVolume.com/carcinogen ... Download and stream Carcinogen songs and albums, watch videos, ...
  • High levels of NF-kappaB/Rel binding were also observed in carcinogen-induced primary rat mammary tumors, whereas only expectedly low levels were seen in normal rat mammary glands. (nih.gov)
  • Materials and methods: This study aimed to extract and measure the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) carcinogens, using high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC)-mass, fatty acids profile, nutritional value, and bacterial community in three widely-used species of smoked fishes Rutilus frisii (Kutum), Liza aurata, and Hypophthalmichthys molitri of Caspian Sea, Iran. (ac.ir)
  • Diabetes management of diarrhea symptoms or, mentre sul suo lato settentrionale comprar viagra sin receta en valencia gli alberi tendono a healthcare. (ohaime.com)
  • However, if our cells are exposed to carcinogens, viruses or ionizing radiation, for example, the DNA can become damaged creating havoc with this once orderly process. (selfimprovement.ch)
  • 2-Nitrophenol (2-NP) is the major detoxification metabolite of an important industrial pollutant and a potent carcinogen, 2-nitroanisole (2-NA). (nel.edu)