Tests to experimentally measure the tumor-producing/cancer cell-producing potency of an agent by administering the agent (e.g., benzanthracenes) and observing the quantity of tumors or the cell transformation developed over a given period of time. The carcinogenicity value is usually measured as milligrams of agent administered per tumor developed. Though this test differs from the DNA-repair and bacterial microsome MUTAGENICITY TESTS, researchers often attempt to correlate the finding of carcinogenicity values and mutagenicity values.
Substances that increase the risk of NEOPLASMS in humans or animals. Both genotoxic chemicals, which affect DNA directly, and nongenotoxic chemicals, which induce neoplasms by other mechanism, are included.
Experimentally induced new abnormal growth of TISSUES in animals to provide models for studying human neoplasms.
Carcinogenic substances that are found in the environment.
Tests of chemical substances and physical agents for mutagenic potential. They include microbial, insect, mammalian cell, and whole animal tests.
Chemical agents that increase the rate of genetic mutation by interfering with the function of nucleic acids. A clastogen is a specific mutagen that causes breaks in chromosomes.
Experiments designed to determine the potential toxic effects of a long-term exposure to a chemical or chemicals.
The science concerned with the detection, chemical composition, and biological action of toxic substances or poisons and the treatment and prevention of toxic manifestations.
A serotype of Salmonella enterica that is a frequent agent of Salmonella gastroenteritis in humans. It also causes PARATYPHOID FEVER.
The interaction of persons or groups of persons representing various nations in the pursuit of a common goal or interest.
Studies designed to assess the efficacy of programs. They may include the evaluation of cost-effectiveness, the extent to which objectives are met, or impact.
A genus of the family Muridae having three species. The present domesticated strains were developed from individuals brought from Syria. They are widely used in biomedical research.
Cell changes manifested by escape from control mechanisms, increased growth potential, alterations in the cell surface, karyotypic abnormalities, morphological and biochemical deviations from the norm, and other attributes conferring the ability to invade, metastasize, and kill.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
Cell lines developed from disaggregated BALB/c mouse embryos. They are extremely sensitive to CONTACT INHIBITION, and highly susceptible to transformation by SV40 VIRUS and murine sarcoma virus (SARCOMA VIRUSES, MURINE).
The entity of a developing mammal (MAMMALS), generally from the cleavage of a ZYGOTE to the end of embryonic differentiation of basic structures. For the human embryo, this represents the first two months of intrauterine development preceding the stages of the FETUS.
In statistics, a technique for numerically approximating the solution of a mathematical problem by studying the distribution of some random variable, often generated by a computer. The name alludes to the randomness characteristic of the games of chance played at the gambling casinos in Monte Carlo. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, 1993)
Information systems, usually computer-assisted, designed to store, manipulate, and retrieve information for planning, organizing, directing, and controlling administrative and clinical activities associated with the provision and utilization of clinical laboratory services.
A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.
Description of pattern of recurrent functions or procedures frequently found in organizational processes, such as notification, decision, and action.
Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.
Solid dosage forms, of varying weight, size, and shape, which may be molded or compressed, and which contain a medicinal substance in pure or diluted form. (Dorland, 28th ed)
The part of the face that is below the eye and to the side of the nose and mouth.
A progestational and glucocorticoid hormone antagonist. Its inhibition of progesterone induces bleeding during the luteal phase and in early pregnancy by releasing endogenous prostaglandins from the endometrium or decidua. As a glucocorticoid receptor antagonist, the drug has been used to treat hypercortisolism in patients with nonpituitary CUSHING SYNDROME.
The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.
Tablets coated with material that delays release of the medication until after they leave the stomach. (Dorland, 28th ed)
A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
Activity involved in transfer of goods from producer to consumer or in the exchange of services.
Procedures, such as TISSUE CULTURE TECHNIQUES; mathematical models; etc., when used or advocated for use in place of the use of animals in research or diagnostic laboratories.
An array of tests used to determine the toxicity of a substance to living systems. These include tests on clinical drugs, foods, and environmental pollutants.
The effort of two or more parties to secure the business of a third party by offering, usually under fair or equitable rules of business practice, the most favorable terms.
Critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or the practical application of such new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws. (Webster, 3d ed)
Substances and materials manufactured for use in various technologies and industries and for domestic use.
Formal voluntary or governmental procedures and standards required of hospitals and health or other facilities to improve operating efficiency, and for the protection of the consumer.
An agency of the PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE concerned with the overall planning, promoting, and administering of programs pertaining to maintaining standards of quality of foods, drugs, therapeutic devices, etc.
Substances intended to be applied to the human body for cleansing, beautifying, promoting attractiveness, or altering the appearance without affecting the body's structure or functions. Included in this definition are skin creams, lotions, perfumes, lipsticks, fingernail polishes, eye and facial makeup preparations, permanent waves, hair colors, toothpastes, and deodorants, as well as any material intended for use as a component of a cosmetic product. (U.S. Food & Drug Administration Center for Food Safety & Applied Nutrition Office of Cosmetics Fact Sheet (web page) Feb 1995)
An application that must be submitted to a regulatory agency (the FDA in the United States) before a drug can be studied in humans. This application includes results of previous experiments; how, where, and by whom the new studies will be conducted; the chemical structure of the compound; how it is thought to work in the body; any toxic effects found in animal studies; and how the compound is manufactured. (From the "New Medicines in Development" Series produced by the Pharmaceutical Manufacturers Association and published irregularly.)
That segment of commercial enterprise devoted to the design, development, and manufacture of chemical products for use in the diagnosis and treatment of disease, disability, or other dysfunction, or to improve function.
A system for verifying and maintaining a desired level of quality in a product or process by careful planning, use of proper equipment, continued inspection, and corrective action as required. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)

Evaluation of the chronic toxicity and oncogenicity of N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide (DEET). (1/865)

Chronic toxicity and/or oncogenicity studies were conducted in rats, mice, and dogs with the insect repellent DEET. DEET was mixed in the diet and administered to CD rats for two years at concentrations that corresponded to dosage levels of 10, 30 or 100 mg/kg/day for males and 30, 100, or 400 mg/kg/day for females; to CD-1 mice for 18 months at dosage levels of 250, 500, or 1000 mg/kg/day; and to dogs for one year, via gelatin capsules, at dosage levels of 30, 100, or 400 mg/kg/day. In the rodent studies, each group consisted of 60 animals of each sex, and two concurrent independent control groups, each containing 60 animals/sex were included in each study. Each group in the dog study consisted of four male and four female dogs and one control group was included in the study. Treatment-related effects were observed at the highest dose level in all three studies. For rats, the effects included decreases in body weight and food consumption and an increase in serum cholesterol in females only. In mice, the effects observed were decreases in body weight and food consumption in both sexes. The effects observed in dogs included increased incidences of emesis and ptyalism, and levels of transient reduction in hemoglobin and hematocrit, increased alkaline phosphatase (males only), decreased cholesterol, and increased potassium. One male dog in the high-dose group also exhibited ataxia, tremors, abnormal head movements, and/or convulsions on several occasions during the study. The highest no-observed-effect levels (NO-ELs) for rats, mice and dogs were determined to be 100, 500, and 100 mg/kg/day, respectively. No specific target organ toxicity or oncogenicity was observed in any of the studies.  (+info)

Administration of an unconjugated bile acid increases duodenal tumors in a murine model of familial adenomatous polyposis. (2/865)

Intestinal carcinogenesis involves the successive accumulation of multiple genetic defects until cellular transformation to an invasive phenotype occurs. This process is modulated by many epigenetic factors. Unconjugated bile acids are tumor promoters whose presence in intestinal tissues is regulated by dietary factors. We studied the role of the unconjugated bile acid, chenodeoxycholate, in an animal model of familial adenomatous polyposis. Mice susceptible to intestinal tumors as a result of a germline mutation in Apc (Min/+ mice) were given a 10 week dietary treatment with 0.5% chenodeoxycholate. Following this, the mice were examined to determine tumor number, enterocyte proliferation, apoptosis and beta-catenin expression. Intestinal tissue prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) levels were also assessed. Administration of chenodeoxycholate in the diet increased duodenal tumor number in Min/+ mice. Promotion of duodenal tumor formation was accompanied by increased beta-catenin expression in duodenal cells, as well as increased PGE2 in duodenal tissue. These data suggest that unconjugated bile acids contribute to periampullary tumor formation in the setting of an Apc mutation.  (+info)

Malignant transformation of p53-deficient astrocytes is modulated by environmental cues in vitro. (3/865)

The early incidence of p53 mutation in astrocytomas suggests that it plays an important role in astrocyte transformation. Astrocytes isolated from homozygous p53 knockout mice grow rapidly, lack contact inhibition, and are immortal. Here we tested whether the loss of p53 is sufficient for progression to tumorigenicity of astrocytes. We grew primary astrocytes under three conditions for over 120 population doublings and assessed their antigenic phenotype, chromosome number, and expression of glioma-associated genes as well as their ability to form colonies in soft agarose and tumors s.c. and intracranially in nude mice. Under two conditions (10% FCS and 0.5% FCS plus 20 ng/ml EGF), cells acquired the ability to form colonies in soft agarose and tumors in nude mice, and this was accompanied by the expression of genes, including epidermal growth factor receptor, platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha and beta, protein kinase Cdelta, and vascular endothelial growth factor, which are known to be aberrantly regulated in human astrocytomas. Under the third condition (0.5% FCS plus 10 ng/ml basic fibroblast growth factor), astrocytes gained the ability to form colonies in soft agarose and had abnormal chromosome numbers similar to cells in the first two conditions but did not form tumors in nude mice or overexpress glioma-associated genes. These data provide experimental evidence for the idea that the malignant progression initiated by the loss of p53 may be subject to modulation by extracellular environmental influences.  (+info)

Expression of AML1-d, a short human AML1 isoform, in embryonic stem cells suppresses in vivo tumor growth and differentiation. (4/865)

The human AML1 gene encodes a heterodimeric transcription factor which plays an important role in mammalian hematopoiesis. Several alternatively spliced AML1 mRNA species were identified, some of which encode short protein products that lack the transactivation domain. When transfected into cells these short isoforms dominantly suppress transactivation mediated by the full length AML1 protein. However, their biological function remains obscure. To investigate the role of these short species in cell proliferation and differentiation we generated embryonic stem (ES) cells overexpressing one of the short isoforms, AML1-d, as well as cells expressing the full length isoforms AML1-b and AML2. The in vitro growth rate and differentiation of the transfected ES cells were unchanged. However, overexpression of AML1-d significantly affected the ES cells' ability to form teratocarcinomas in vivo in syngeneic mice, while a similar overexpression of AML1-b and AML2 had no effect on tumor formation. Histological analysis revealed that the AML1-d derived tumors were poorly differentiated and contained numerous apoptotic cells. These data highlight the pleiotropic effects of AML1 gene products and demonstrate for the first time an in vivo growth regulation function for the short isoform AML1-d.  (+info)

Marriage of a medium-term liver model to surrogate markers--a practical approach for risk and benefit assessment. (5/865)

The need for a reliable medium-term alternative to traditional long-term rodent test protocols for carcinogen risk assessment is pressing given the immense variety of compounds being developed for introduction into the human environment. The established lack of a complete correlation between mutagenicity and carcinogenicity means that recourse must be made to an in vivo model. Optimally, this model should be able to detect not only complete carcinogenic or promoting potential but also any ability to inhibit neoplasia. In order to be effective, it must take into account the available detailed knowledge on mechanisms of action of carcinogens and modulating agents. The Ito model, for which a uniquely comprehensive set of background data has already been accumulated, has a solid scientific basis; this model utilizes quantitative data for glutathione S transferase-positive foci as the preneoplasia-based surrogate end point (PSE). A very practical candidate for routine application, its predictive power, its flexibility, and its capacity to incorporate a range of mechanism-based surrogate end points (MSEs) provide a powerful tool for attainment of the twin goals of detecting carcinogenic agents and identifying promising chemopreventors.  (+info)

Comparison of the effectiveness of adenovirus vectors expressing cyclin kinase inhibitors p16INK4A, p18INK4C, p19INK4D, p21(WAF1/CIP1) and p27KIP1 in inducing cell cycle arrest, apoptosis and inhibition of tumorigenicity. (6/865)

Cell cycle regulatory proteins are important candidates for therapeutic tumour suppressors. Adenovirus vectors were constructed to overexpress cyclin kinase inhibitors p16INK4A, p18INK4C, p19INK4D, p21(WAF1/CIP1) and p27KIP1 under the control of the murine cytomegalovirus immediate early gene promoter. These vectors directed the efficient expression of each of the cyclin kinase inhibitors and induced growth arrest, inhibited DNA synthesis, and prevented phosphorylation of the retinoblastoma protein (pRb) in cell lines expressing functional pRb. In pRb-deficient cells, expression of the cyclin kinase inhibitors was not effective in inhibiting DNA replication or growth arrest. Interestingly, three of the cyclin kinase inhibitors, p16, p18 and p27 were found to induce apoptotic death in transduced HeLa and A549 cells. When the vectors were tested for their ability to inhibit tumorigenicity in a polyomavirus middle T antigen model of murine breast carcinoma, expression of the cyclin kinase inhibitors resulted in a delay in tumour formation that varied from several weeks for the p19 expressing vector to greater than 25 weeks for the p27 expressing vector. When tumours were injected directly with the adenovirus vectors expressing the cyclin kinase inhibitors, only treatment with the vector expressing p16 resulted in a delay in tumour growth.  (+info)

Tumorigenic conversion resulting from inhibition of apoptosis in a nontumorigenic HeLa-derived hybrid cell line. (7/865)

Although tumorigenicity in nude mice is one of the most important transformed phenotypes, its mechanism has been little analyzed. To understand the molecular basis of tumorigenicity, we characterized nontumorigenic CGL1 and tumorigenic CGL4 cell lines, both of which were originated from a common ancestral HeLa-human diploid fibroblast hybrid cell clone and retained a malignant state except tumorigenicity. When injected into nude mice, nontumorigenic CGL1 cells underwent apoptosis, but tumorigenic CGL4 cells did not. In vitro, CGL1 was also less resistant to various apoptotic stimuli than CGL4. These results suggested that inhibition of apoptosis may lead to tumorigenicity. To examine this hypothesis, we introduced antiapoptotic genes into the CGL1 cell line and injected the resulting clones into nude mice. The results showed that the ectopic expression of Bcl-2 or E1B19k, but not of crmA, converted CGL1 cells to tumorigenicity, suggesting strongly that this phenotype may be conferred by evasion of apoptosis.  (+info)

Increased oncogenicity of subclones of SV40 large T-induced neuroectodermal tumor cell lines after loss of large T expression and concomitant mutation in p53. (8/865)

A model for medulloblastoma-like primitive neuroectodermal tumors was established in rat using retrovirally transduced SV40 large T antigen (LT) as an inducing agent (O. D. Wiestler et al., Brain Pathol., 2: 47-59, 1992). A cell line isolated from such a tumor and clonal derivatives thereof were biologically and molecularly characterized. In the parental tumor cell line, TZ870, which had been selected for G418 resistance, virtually all cells expressed LT and wild-type p53, which were complexed to each other. When plated in soft agar, these cells grew relatively slowly and formed disperse colonies. However, when grown without selection pressure, these cells reproducibly gave rise to LT-negative and G418-sensitive derivatives, LT-0 cells. Surprisingly, these latter cells exhibited a higher degree of malignancy both in vitro, growing readily to large colonies in soft agar, and in vivo, where they gave rise to a rapidly growing malignant tumor. Clonal selection from TZ870 cells revealed two types of clones: in one type, LT expression was stably maintained, even without selection pressure, whereas the other type lost the LT coding sequences. All LT-negative clones exhibited the same phenotype as the LT-0 cells. Reexpression of LT had no effect. However, LT no longer formed complexes with p53, and p53 was metabolically stable, suggesting that it had been mutated. Sequence analyses and diagnostic restriction digests of the p53 gene revealed that (a) both the parental LT-transformed cells and their derivatives contained only one complete p53 allele and (b) all LT-positive clones expressed wild-type p53, whereas all LT-negative clones expressed a mutant allele with a common mutation at Cys-174-->Tyr, indicating their clonal origin. We assume that the loss of LT coding sequences is the consequence of the p53 mutation, perhaps by inducing genomic instability, and that both the p53 mutation and additional genetic alterations that accompany the loss of LT coding sequences might contribute to enhanced malignancy.  (+info)

Mutagenicity and Carcinogenicity Assessment Of 1,3-Butadiene by (ISBN: 978-1-289-18870-2); Published by Creative Media Partners, LLCin Jul 2013. Compare book prices on Bookwire.com to buy books from the lowest price among top online book retailers
Aims and scope. Nemis Journal of Environmental Science - NJES is an open access journal that publishes (Monthly) well developed research articles, in English, in all areas of environmental sciences, such as physics, geology, mathematics, analytical and environmental chemistry, environmental biology, ecology, geo-sciences and environmental physics, study on atmospheric, terrestrial and aquatic environments, pollution control and Remediation, conservation of natural resources, environmental health and toxicology, mining, computer science, etc. All articles published in Nemis Journal of Enviromental Scence are peer-reviewed.. Nemis Journal of Environmental Science is published monthly by Nemis Journals.. Open Access. All articles published by Nemis Journal of Environmental Science are made freely and permanently accessible online immediately upon publication, without subscription charges or registration barriers. Authors of articles published in Nemis Journal of Environmental Science are the ...
This study enabled an empirical assessment of a model carcinogen borne in soil and its potency on human receptors. SOS-lux biosensors had numerous practical advantages over the traditional assays including procedural simplicity, ease of measurement and in vivo analysis without cell disruption. A key advantage of the application of biosensors is their ability to be deployed to genuine samples. This means that while chromatographic analysis requires extraction, purification, clean-up and then analysis, the biosensor can be used in crude and turbid solutions. This could be exclusively for a carcinogenic sensor or for a wider suite of sensors for specific analytes and generic toxicity. Samples could be exposed to a suite of sensors simultaneously allowing a real time response that could prove valuable for the protection of target receptors at a timescale commensurate with intervention. The data presented confirm that the sensors could be fabricated to permit compact analysis and the use of disposable
Groups of 10 male and 10 female B6C3F1 mice were exposed to 0, 10, 25, 75, 150, or 300 ppm (approximately 42, 105, 315, 630, or 1,260 mg/m3) isobutyl nitrite by inhalation for 6 hours per day, 5 days per week for 13 weeks. There were no chemical-related deaths. Final mean body weights and mean body weight gains of 150 and 300 ppm females were significantly less than those of the controls. Final mean body weights and mean body weight gains of exposed groups of males were similar to those of the controls. There were no chemical-related clinical findings. A very mild chemical-related methemoglobinemia occurred in male and female mice in the 150 and 300 ppm groups. A very mild anemia occurred in the 300 ppm groups. In the lung, increased incidences of mild to moderate hyperplasia of the bronchiolar epithelium occurred in males and females exposed to 300 ppm. Minimal hyperplasia occurred in males exposed to 75 ppm or greater and in females exposed to 150 ppm. Minimal epithelial cell hyperplasia of ...
Tumours induced by implants are well known in experiments using rats. This phenomenon is called foreign body carcinogenesis or solid state carcinogenesis. Method of test for carcinogenicity :Syrian Hamster Embryo Cell Transformation Assay. ...
National Toxicology Program (1978) Bioassay of 1H-Benzotriazole for Possible Carcinogenicity. National Cancer Institute Carcinogenesis Technical Report Series, 88, 1-131.
Dietary concentrations of furosemide used in the 14-day studies for rats and mice ranged up to 46,000 ppm. Two of five male and 3/5 female rats that received 46,000 ppm furosemide died before the end of the studies. Rats that received 15,300 or 46,000 ppm lost weight over the course of the studies. The final mean body weights of rats that received 1,700 or 5,100 ppm were 12% or 23% lower than that of controls for males and 8% or 16% lower for females. Nephrosis was dose related in rats. All five male and 1/5 female mice that received 46,000 ppm furosemide died before the end of the 14-day studies. Male mice that received 15,300 ppm and female mice that received 46,000 ppm lost weight. The final mean body weights of male mice that received 1,700 or 5,100 ppm were 16% or 14% lower than that of controls. The final mean body weight of females that received 15,300 ppm was 13% lower than that of controls. Slight dilatation of the renal cortical tubules and/or nephrosis were dose related in ...
The importance of environmental science and environmental studies is indisputable and often the focus of reports in news and media. In order to fully comprehend the issues being discussed-whether it be climate change, air and water pollution, pesticides, nuclear power, or renewable and nonrenewable energy-it is imperative to understand the basic principles necessary to address these multi-faceted and complex environmental concerns. Combining strong scientific grounding with a focus on contemporary case studies, calculations, and references, Environmental Science: Systems and Solutions teaches and engages. It appeals to all students as it covers the basics of environmental science in early chapters and provides the breadth and depth of topics to challenge the more experienced reader. Featuring updated data and statistics with additional tables throughout, the Sixth Edition lays the groundwork for a fair and apolitical foundational understanding of environmental science ...
An essay on Environmental Science is one type of Family and Consumer Science essay that explores the environment in which individuals, families and communities reside. The value of any essay, including an essay on environmental science lies basically in the ideas and thoughts expressed in the essay. The organization of an essay also plays a very important role, and could determine whether the essay gets an A or an F grade. Even if you have all the material to enable you to write an essay on Environmental Science, without proper organization, the essay will only be a collection of words. If a student hopes to score an impressive grade, then the student has to write the essay in a well organized manner, and should never write it without careful consideration and planning. Before writing an essay on Environmental Science, and any Family and Consumer Science essay, it is essential that you know what you want to write, and how you will present the material. You also need to do proper ...
Teach courses in environmental science. Includes both teachers primarily engaged in teaching and those who do a combination of teaching and research.. Sample of reported job titles: Assistant Professor, Associate Professor, Associate Professor of Environmental Science, Environmental Sciences Professor, Environmental Studies Professor, Faculty Member, Instructor, Lecturer, Professor, Professor of Environmental Science ...
In clinical trials, systemic drug exposure following topical administration of penciclovir cream was negligible, as the penciclovir content of all plasma and urine samples was below the limit of assay detection (0.1 mcg/mL and 10 mcg/mL, respectively). However, for the purpose of inter-species dose comparisons presented in the following sections, an assumption of 100% absorption of penciclovir from the topically applied product has been used. Based on the use of the maximal recommended topical dose of penciclovir of 0.05 mg/kg/day and an assumption of 100% absorption, the maximum theoretical plasma AUC0-24 hrs for penciclovir is approximately 0.129 mcg.hr/mL.. Carcinogenesis: Two-year carcinogenicity studies were conducted with famciclovir (the oral prodrug of penciclovir) in rats and mice. An increase in the incidence of mammary adenocarcinoma (a common tumor in female rats of the strain used) was seen in female rats receiving 600 mg/kg/day (approximately 395x the maximum theoretical human ...
There are no definite data for carcinogenicity in humans from using tacrolimus (Protopic) ointment, because no large long-term randomised controlled trials have yet been done. But we have a 2-year mouse carcinogenicity study using 0.03% and 0.1% tacrolimus with sham and vehicle-only control, with toxicokinetic data including area under the curve (AUC), and human pharmacokinetic data including AUC.. The lower concentration (0.03%) induced more cancer (all sites) than the vehicle-only control. So it could induce malignancy in long-term clinical use. It seems reasonable to think that small infants may be more affected than adults.. On 26 June 2003, the Advisory Committee to the Japanese Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare decided to include warnings on a potential cancer risk associated with tacrolimus ointment use, in response to the petition by Kusuri-no-Check and The Informed Prescriber13 insisting that cancer development can be expected considering the animal carcinogenicity tests and ...
What is Environmental Sciences & Pollution Management?. Environmental Sciences & Pollution Management (ESPM) is a multidisciplinary database which provides comprehensive coverage of the literature relating to environmental sciences dating from 1967 to the present.. Millions of abstracts and citations are included from scientific journals within the relevant literature ensuring researchers have the maximum opportunity to discover articles or papers for their search queries. ProQuest editors assign index terms to describe the documents in journals, books, maps and reports.. Beyond the mainstream peer reviewed journals in this field this resource also provides abstracts of hard-to-get, low circulation grey literature publications (conference proceedings, reports, monographs, books and government publications), sometimes with links back to the full text (typically open access repositories). The database also includes good coverage of international content including non English language ...
If you are looking for a Environmental Sciences or any other degree in Science & Math then you have come to the right place. We offer all sorts of Environmental Sciences and Science & Math degrees.
Environmental Science 2019-21 Catalog Faculty, Environmental Science Major (Comprehensive), Student Learning Outcomes, Environmental Science Curriculum
TY - JOUR. T1 - Environmental Science & Technology Letters Presents the 2015 Excellence in Review Awards. AU - Logan, Bruce Ernest. PY - 2015/11/10. Y1 - 2015/11/10. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84969286804&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=84969286804&partnerID=8YFLogxK. U2 - 10.1021/acs.estlett.5b00280. DO - 10.1021/acs.estlett.5b00280. M3 - Editorial. AN - SCOPUS:84969286804. VL - 2. JO - Environmental Science and Technology Letters. JF - Environmental Science and Technology Letters. SN - 2328-8930. IS - 11. ER - ...
Eventbrite - Department of Physical and Environmental Sciences - Graduate Studies presents Master of Environmental Science (U of T) Info Session - Saturday, 6 January 2018 at Environmental Science and Chemistry Building - Univ. of Toronto - Scarborough, Toronto, Ontario. Find event and ticket information.
Slide 1 What is Environmental Science? Environmental Science Slide 2 Environment Environment: two definitions: - The circumstances or conditions that surround an organism…
Returning to the United States in 1980 at the behest of Dr. David Rall, he joined the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences and the National Toxicology Program. Dr. Huff was the first person hired by Dr. Rall, primarily to help establish the newly created NTP into a world-renowned scientific and public health-oriented program. He was a lead person for the transition of the bioassay program from the National Cancer Institute to the NTP. Dr. Huff introduced and established the NTP levels of evidence of carcinogenicity for the experimental chemical carcinogenesis bioassays for evaluating results, and as still utilized in the bioassay technical reports. While with the NTP he wrote or led the preparation and evaluation of more than 200 carcinogenesis bioassay technical reports. Along with Dr Hans Falk and later joined by Dr Vladimer Vouk, Dr Huff helped establish the Congressionally mandated NTP Report on Carcinogens, now in its 10th edition, into a science-based and globally accepted ...
RasH2 mice are more sensitive to developing carcinogen-induced tumors, and can reduce both study timelines and the number of animals required.
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The University of California, Riverside has a long history of working with the Earth, studying and improving agricultural techniques, and delving into many various studies of scientific research involving air, soil, plants, and water. The Environmental Sciences Research Laboratory aims to continue this work, expanding the Departments role in providing opportunities for outside agencies to be able to take advantage of our facilities. Our researchers strive for quality and timeliness in regards to our work, while maintaining high safety standards in accordance with campus policies.
Surgery is a subcategory of the peer-reviewed articles found in the Journal of Biomedical Research & Environmental Sciences.These topics are filtered from our journals helping to discover the community within the widespread of multi-disciplinary Journal of Biomedical Research & Environmental Sciences venues and mainly focused on publishing excellence study from well-known scholars to serve the benefit of Scientific Community.Have a look at this page once and make your article more discoverable in our esteemed journal to ensuring readers find your article through search engines such as Google.
Articles published between 1989 and 2010 are not published as open access!. Environmental Sciences Europe, formerly known as Umweltwissenschaften und Schadstoff-Forschung (UWSF), is a peer-reviewed open access journal published under the brand SpringerOpen. It is an international journal, with a broad scope covering all aspects of environmental sciences, including the main topic regulation. The journal provides easy access to information on environmental issues at the regional and European level and gives authors the possibility to reach a broader, international readership. ...
Neurology is a subcategory of the peer-reviewed articles found in the Journal of Biomedical Research & Environmental Sciences.These topics are filtered from our journals helping to discover the community within the widespread of multi-disciplinary Journal of Biomedical Research & Environmental Sciences venues and mainly focused on publishing excellence study from well-known scholars to serve the benefit of Scientific Community.Have a look at this page once and make your article more discoverable in our esteemed journal to ensuring readers find your article through search engines such as Google.
List of Environmental Science Project topics and Materials. Browse the list of our Environmental Science project topics and materials , with complete chapters, references
Environmental science is the study of the interaction of the living and non-living components of the environment with special emphasis on the impact of humans on these components. Course: Environmental Science
Dr Patrick Osborne is Reader in Applied Ecology, Director of Programmes for Environmental Science within Geography and Environmental Science at the University of Southampton.
Review these environmental science flashcards at any time to help you study for exams and solidify your overall environmental science knowledge....
Environmental Science and Engineering Colleges in India, Environmental Engineering Colleges in India, BE/B.Tech/ME/M.Tech Environmental Science and Engineering
National Toxicology Program (NTP) Chronic Carcinogenicity Studies of Cell Phone Radiofrequency Radiation reported results supporting cancer effect of exposure
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The assessment of gene expression changes at key developmental periods of the life cycle, as well as at the ages most commonly used in pre-clinical drug safety testing, was the focus of this study. Fischer 344 rats are frequently used in the National Toxicology Program and one of the most commonly used inbred strains for preclinical pharmaceutical in-life testing [25, 33]. The two early time points, 2 and 5 weeks, span the time of weaning (3 weeks). The National Toxicology Program (NTP) 2-year bioassays are typically initiated in 6-8 week old rats [34], thus 6 and 8 week age groups were included to provide baseline for future NTP bioassays. The 15-week age group captures expression data after sexual and physical maturity [35]. Furthermore, a 13-week NTP sub-chronic study, initiated in 8 week old animals would be completed at 21 weeks. Reproductive senescence and aging phenotypes begin to be apparent during the second year [35], thus 52, 78, and 104 week age groups were assessed.. Data analysis ...
WU Gui-ping1, 2, AN Wen-hao 3, LU Xiao-hua 1, CHUNG Paul Gene 3 (1.Research Institute of Environmental Science, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430072; 2.Key Laboratory of Catalysis and Material Science of Hubei Province, School of Chemistry and Material Science, Central South University for Nationalities, Wuhan 430074; 3.Chonbuk National University, Chonbuk 561756) ...
As a worlds leading chemistry community, the Royal Society of Chemistry is proud to collaborate with the host institutes to organise two International Symposia on Environmental Science. The symposium in Beijing is supported by the Royal Society of Chemistry and the Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences (RCEES), Chinese Academy of Sciences, and is hosted by Prof Lianghong Guo from RCEES ...
This degree offers you a foundation in the biological, physical and social sciences as well as additional elective courses that explore environmental issues. Coursework brings together theoretical concepts in environmental science with laboratory experience and policy analysis for a well-rounded transfer-oriented program.. Many of the courses also provide students with hands-on field studies. Environmental internships/co-op programs also may be arranged for motivated, high achieving students.. This program will prepare you to continue your education in an environmental discipline and ultimately pursue a related career.. This program is offered by the Biology, Chemistry and Physics Department.. [Loading Program Requirements link…] ...
Students are encouraged to fulfill distribution requirements with courses that complement the environmental science major (e.g., ECON 1111 - Microeconomics, ECON 3007 - Environmental and Natural Resource Economics I, and ECON 3008 - Environmental and Natural Resource Economics II). Selection of electives must be done in consultation with an environmental science advisor. By the beginning of their junior year, students should submit a clearly articulated educational plan and a list of selected electives, to be reviewed and approved by the Environmental Science Advisory Group. Courses in the Division of Science and Math, other than those listed below, may be used to fulfill the Elective Science Courses with the prior approval of the Environmental Science Advisory Group. Required courses may not be taken S-N unless offered S-N only. Up to 4 credits of coursework with a grade of D or D+ may be used to meet the major requirements. A minimum GPA of 2.00 is required in the major to graduate. The GPA ...
Staff profile for Professor Ian Fairchild, Emeritus Professor in the School of Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences. Professor Fairchild is a geoscientist with broad interests in the geochemistry of the Earths surface, climate change and Quaternary and Neoproterozoic earth history. He employs this breadth of knowledge in teaching, in public outreach, and professional activities such as examining and research assessment. He is equally at home in the field and the laboratory with a wealth of experience in glacial environments, caves, rock successions and at national and international geochemical research facilities.
Find A PhD. Search Funded PhD Projects, Programs & Scholarships in Environmental Science. Search for PhD funding, scholarships & studentships in the UK, Europe and around the world.
People Environmental Science and Design Research Initiative | The ESDRI engages a broad range of scientists, practitioners, and designers, spanning dozens of academic disciplines, fields, and programs. Colleges represented within the ESDRI include the College of Architecture & Environmental Design, the College of the Arts, the College of Arts & Sciences, the College of
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Hybrid modelling is the combination of simulatory approaches aimed at the accurate mechanistic modelling of complex dynamic systems (Parrott, 2011; Vincenot et al., 2011). It basically consists in the coupling-to a varying degree ranging from simple comparison to bridging to total fusion-of models based on different existing modelling techniques. This concept may therefore, in some regards, seem trivial and more relevant to engineering than scientific research. Yet seeing this field of study through a purely technical eye produces a limited view of the complexity and open challenges relevant to the design and use of hybrid models. This shall be demonstrated throughout this book, in which we engage in showing the potential of hybrid modelling in environmental science in particular. The latter is a strongly interdisciplinary field devoted to the study of heterogeneous, highly dynamical, often non-linear, complex systems made of numerous different entities-rational or not- interacting in a changing
Buy Environmental Science: Physical Principles and Applications (9780471495772): NHBS - Rienk van Grondelle and Egbert Boeker, John Wiley & Sons
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Hexane, commercial grade (52% n-hexane, 16% 3-methylpentane, 16% methylcyclopentane) Results in the Carcinogenic Potency Database
The environmental science program at Drexel University is committed to educating undergraduates for technical careers and graduate study in the diverse areas of environmental science vital to understanding, conservation and restoration of clean and healthy natural environments in the 21st century. The affiliation between the Academy of Natural Science and Drexel University offers students unique opportunities to take a leadership role in ecology, environmental science and environmental policy, and to grow the scope, capacity and reputation of the natural sciences at the University. The philosophy of the Biodiversity, Earth, and Environmental Science Department is Experiential Learning Early and Often.. Environmental science is a multidisciplinary field designed to examine environmental problems and find solutions. This field requires understanding of a number of disciplines, including biology, physics and chemistry. Solving some of our environmental problems also requires knowledge of ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - A data-based assessment of alternative strategies for identification of potential human cancer hazards. AU - Boobis, R. Alan. AU - Cohen, M. Samuel. AU - Doerrer, G. Nancy. AU - Galloway, M. Sheila. AU - Haley, J. Patrick. AU - Hard, C. Gordon. AU - Hess, G. Frederick. AU - Macdonald, S. James. AU - Thibault, Stéphane. AU - Wolf, C. Douglas. AU - Wright, Jayne. N1 - Copyright: Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.. PY - 2009. Y1 - 2009. N2 - The two-year cancer bioassay in rodents remains the primary testing strategy for in-life screening of compounds that might pose a potential cancer hazard. Yet experimental evidence shows that cancer is often secondary to a biological precursor effect, the mode of action is sometimes not relevant to humans, and key events leading to cancer in rodents from nongenotoxic agents usually occur well before tumorigenesis and at the same or lower doses than those producing tumors. The International Life Sciences Institute (ILSI) Health ...
The Environmental Science Program is an interdisciplinary graduate program involving the science-based departments of Memorial University of Newfoundland and along with the Environmental Engineering Program makes up Memorials Environmental Studies Graduate Program. There are two Environmental Science Graduate degree streams, the Master of Science (M.Sc., Environmental Science) and the Master of Environmental Science (M.Env. Sci.). The program is available on a full-time or part-time basis. Admission is open to students with Science or Engineering backgrounds. ...
Journal of Environmental Science and Engineering Technology is a scholarly refereed research journal which covers all aspects of environmental science and engineering technology. It is the best international forum for the advancement and dissemination of research results that support high-level learning, teaching and research in the fields of environmental science & engineering technology. The objectives of the journal are to fortify academic exchanges between researchers and academician to endorse and disseminate advancement of environmental science and technology.Our topics of interest includes Environmental Monitoring, Environmental pollution,Geosciences and environmental physics, Environmental Technologies, Environmental Biology,Ecology, Environmental Biotechnology, Environmental Genomics, Environmental Chemistry, Environmental Engineering, Environmental Management, Biogeochemistry, Legal aspects related to Environment, Environmental related research works, Solid and Hazardous Waste ...
Research Associate, Environmental Sciences. The Department of Environmental Sciences at the University of Virginia (UVA) seeks a Research Associate to contribute to computational research on ocean tritium and helium isotope distributions in the framework of the Community Earth System Model. The research associate will work directly with Scott Doney in the Department of Environmental Sciences.. The candidate must have experience with ocean circulation modeling, data analysis and visualization. Prior experience with ocean transient tracers, marine biogeochemistry, and the Community Earth System Model or similar global model is preferred. Strong skills in verbal and written communication of scientific results, ability to work both independently and collaboratively as a member of interdisciplinary teams, and ability to organize, prioritize, and coordinate multiple tasks are required skills.. Appointment is for one year with possibility of a renewal for one additional year, contingent upon ...
We offer several Environmental Science degrees including a three-year BSc degree and a suite of four-year MEnvSci degrees.. We understand that you might not be sure which area of environmental science you want to specialise in, or whether you want to study to BSc or MEnvSci level.. All our students, regardless of which degree they are registered on, study the same modules for the first three years. This means you can transfer between degree programmes up until the end of Stage 2 if you want to.. Transfer from our BSc to an MEnvSci degree, and progress to Stage 4 of an MEnvSci degree, is subject to you meeting the appropriate academic standard.. ...
The National Toxicology Program (NTP) declared today that formaldehyde -- a common ingredient in home building products -- causes cancer in humans. NTP, which is administered by the National Institute…
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5.1 Exposure data. The main use of b-propiolactone has been as an intermediate in the production of acrylic acid and its esters. It has also been used for the sterilization of vaccines and blood products.. 5.2 Human carcinogenicity data. No data were available to the Working Group.. 5.3 Animal carcinogenicity data. b-Propiolactone was tested for carcinogenicity in mice by skin application and subcutaneous or intraperitoneal injection and in rats by inhalation exposure and subcutaneous injection, producing local tumours. The results obtained in studies in hamsters and guinea-pigs were equivocal.. 5.4 Other relevant data. b-Propiolactone is a direct-acting alkylating agent. It forms DNA adducts. It is mutagenic in a wide variety of in-vitro and in-vivo systems, both in somatic and germ cells.. 5.5 Evaluation. No epidemiological data relevant to the carcinogenicity of b-propiolactone were available.. There is sufficient evidence in experimental animals for the carcinogenicity of ...
NEW YORK, September 12, 2017 /PRNewswire/ -- Technical Reports on Processed & Packaged Goods Equities -- General Mills, Ingredion, Kellogg, and McCormick.
INSIDE THE BLACK BOX is an occasional column providing insight into the FDA and its policies and procedures. In this installment, National Toxicology Program scientists Kembra L. Howdeshell, PhD, and Michael D. Shelby, PhD, discuss a recently completed monograph that reviews the published data on pregnancy outcomes in women who received chemotherapy for cancer during pregnancy. Dr. Howdeshell and Dr. Shelby (retired) are Health Scientists with the Office of Health Assessment and Translation, National Toxicology Program, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, National Institutes of Health. In May 2013, the National Toxicology Program completed a Monograph on Developmental Effects and Pregnancy Outcomes Associated With Cancer Chemotherapy Use During Pregnancy.1 The Monograph is intended as a resource for clinicians and their pregnant patients and provides a comprehensive literature review of the human data, including all available data on follow-up evaluations in gestationally ...
Apologies if you receive multiple copies of this message! ======================================================== The lazar system for free online predictions of toxic activities is now available at http://www.predictive-toxicology.org/lazar/! You can use a webinterface to draw chemical structures and to obtain predictions for rodent (rat and mice) carcinogenicity and Salmonella mutagenicity. Further toxicity endpoints will be available in the future. At the same time I want to take the opportunity to announce the new book Predictive Toxicology that I have edited. It covers state-of-the art techniques, databases, application areas and the most important predictive toxicology programs. Predictive Toxicology has been published by Marcel Dekker/CRC Press. If you are interested in confidential predictions, batch predictions or the development of modules for new endpoints, please contact helma at in-silico.de. If you want to receive also in the future information about new lazar developments, ...
Western Michigan University has a proud legacy of specialized educators, dating back from its heritage as a normal school from 1903 to 1930. In its 50+ year history, the Department of Geological and Environmental Sciences has continued to build on this legacy. Today, 20 percent of our faculty focus on teaching and performing research related to improving educational methods in the geological and environmental sciences. Furthermore, teaching faculty work very closely with research faculty to develop new courses and continuously improve existing ones to match the highest requirements for nationally and internationally reputed geological and environmental programs. Undergraduate students receive an education that is 60 percent focused on classroom instruction and 40 percent on hands-on applications with a diverse set of laboratory measurements and field courses. Graduate students receive an education that is 20 to 40 percent focused on classroom/laboratory education with a 60 to 80 percent focus on ...
American Journal of Environmental Sciences is an international peer reviewed journal, presents original research articles, reviews, and letters in all areas of environmental studies and environmental sciences.. ...
American Journal of Environmental Sciences is an international peer reviewed journal, presents original research articles, reviews, and letters in all areas of environmental studies and environmental sciences.. ...
7th Annual Kent State Environmental Science & Design Research Symposium Environmental Science and Design Research Initiative | Poster session materials online! Check out all of this years posters and abstracts on the Universitys Institutional Repository.
5501. Independent Study: Visual Communications (3). HESC: HUMAN ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES 2126. Consumer Affairs (3) The consumer in the market place; bases for decision making, consumption patterns, and trends; consumer information and protection.. 3990, 3991, 3992. Field Experience in Human Environmental Sciences (1,1,1) (F) (S) (SS) May not be substituted for other required internships. P: HESC major or minor; minimum cumulative 2.0 GPA; minimum 2.5 GPA in HESC; 6 s.h. in applicable human environmental sciences area; consent of dean. Supervised professional work experience in the area of the students major or minor. 3999. Issues in Human Environmental Sciences (3) (F) (S) (SS) P: Junior standing and HESC major. Introduces current issues in human environmental sciences; demonstrates methodologies and approaches to resolving these issues in an integrative fashion.. 4500, 4501, 4502. Independent Study (3,3,3) (F) (S) (SS) Problems in one or more of the following areas of human environmental ...
Mutation Research - Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis (MRGTEM) publishes papers advancing knowledge in the field of genetic toxicology...
Oral and dermal carcinogenicity studies have been conducted on waxes, and were judged to be negative, i. e., the waxes were not considered to be carcinogenic. Based on a report that the application dose in the dermal carcinogenesis studies was approximately 7.5 mg, applied three times per week, and assuming an average body weight for the mice of 25 g, the average daily dose in the dermal studies was approximately 128 mg/kg/day. In a key carcinogenicity study (Klimisch score = 2), five petroleum waxes (3 of the waxes were microcrystalline and the other two were unidentified) were given to male and female Sprague-Dawley rats at a dietary concentration of 10% for 2 years (Shubik et al., 1962). Survival rates and growth rates were unaffected by oral exposure to any of the waxes tested. A number of tumours were found in all groups at necropsy. The most common tumours were those of the mammary regions (fibrocarcinomas, adenocarcinomas, fibromas, and sarcomas), of the adrenal glands (cortical adenomas ...
In a 103-week carcinogenicity study, the read-across substance DEHA was administered to F344 rats and B6C3F1 mice in the diet at levels of 12000 or 25000 ppm, equivalent to a daily intake of 600 or 1250 mg/kg of body weight in rats and 1715 or 3570 mg/kg of body weight in mice (conversion based on data from the WHO report (2004)). No test substance related tumors were found in the rat (no increased tumour incidences). In the (female) mice an increased number of hepatocellular carcinomas was found at both doses. Hepatocellular adenomas and carcinomas occured combined in high-dose mice of both sexes and in low-dose female mice at incidences that were dose-related and significantly higher than those in control mice. The association of liver tumours in male mice with the administration of DEHA was not considered to be conclusive because the increased number of liver tumours in males reflected only an increase in adenomas in the high-dose group and because the time to observation of tumours was not ...
An independent study done by European Ramazzini Foundation of Oncology and Environmental Sciences in Italy shows the intake of aspartame at far less than daily allowable levels is multi-carcinogenic (lymphomas and leukemias) in laboratory rats. Aspartame is marketed as Nutrasweet, Equal, and Aminosweet and commonly found in diet products such as diet sodas.. First Experimental Demonstration of the Multipotential Carcinogenic Effects of Aspartame Administered in the Feed to Sprague-Dawley Rats. Our study shows that APM is a multipotential carcinogenic compound whose carcinogenic effects are evident even at a daily dose of 20 mg/kg bw, much less than the current ADI for humans in Europe (40 mg/kg bw) and in the United States (50 mg/kg bw).. The results of carcinogenicity bioassays in rodents are consistent predictors of human cancer risks (Huff 1999; Rall 1995; Tomatis et al. 1989). The results of our study therefore call for an urgent reexamination of the present guidelines on the use and ...
At the ISO C++ Kona 2019 meeting, the ISO C++ Committees Tooling Study Group, SG15, met to discuss concerns raised by various stakeholders about how modules would impact and interact with the broader C++ ecosystem (build systems, tools, other languages, etc). During that discussion, SG15 reached a consensus that the best way to prepare the C++ community for modules and ensure a smooth transition to modules over the next decade would be to prepare a C++ Ecosystem Technical Report on modules.. Since that meeting, the Tooling Study Group has held a series of telecons to plan, discuss, and brainstorm ideas for the proposed Technical Report. One of the outcomes of these telecons is an outline and high-level design for the proposed Technical Report, as described below.. ...
MeSH-minor] Adipose Tissue, Brown / drug effects. Adipose Tissue, Brown / metabolism. Adipose Tissue, Brown / pathology. Administration, Oral. Animals. Carcinogenicity Tests / methods. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Female. Gene Expression Profiling. Hemangiosarcoma / genetics. Hemangiosarcoma / pathology. Hepatocytes / drug effects. Hepatocytes / metabolism. Hepatocytes / pathology. Humans. Hypoglycemic Agents / administration & dosage. Hypoglycemic Agents / toxicity. Male. Mice. Mice, Transgenic. Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis / methods. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Sex Factors. Time Factors. Vacuoles / drug ...
www.MOLUNA.de Surface Chemistry in Biomedical and Environmental Science [4093859] - Proceedings of the NATO Advanced Research Workshop on Pure and Applied Surface Chemistry and Nanomaterials for Human Life and Environmental Protection, Kyiv, Ukraine, 14-17 September 2005In September 2005 a NATO Advanced Research Workshop convened in Kiev to discuss the current state of the art in surface chemistry and nanomaterials research,
Probably not the type of diet you are thinking of. It has something to do with food, though. I am talking about the transfer mechanisms some bacteria use to share metabolites between them, and also with bacteria of different species. In this review published in Environmental Science: Processes & Impacts, two researchers from North Carolina analyse the latest discoveries in this field, specifically in mechanisms known as DIET: direct interspecies electron transfer.. Scientists discovered DIET not a decade ago. Before that, only conventional diffusion models were known: an organism generated an excess of certain metabolite, released it to the surrounding media and was consumed by a second organism. This is called mediated interspecies electron transfer (MIET).. DIET, however, is more efficient. Instead of releasing the metabolites around, bacteria use structures that allow them to transfer chemical substances directly to other cells. These structures, usually filamentous pili full of ...
Dendrite formation is one of the most pressing issues in current battery research. Lithium based batteries are prone to forming short-circuit causing dendrites, while magnesium based batteries are not. Recently it was proposed that the tendency towards dendrite growth is related to the height of the self-dif 2018 Energy and Environmental Science HOT Articles
Nanotechnology is no longer in its infancy and has made significant advances since the implementation of the National Nanotechnology Initiative (NNI) in 2000. Incorporation of nanotechnology in many fields including information technology, medicine, materials, energy, catalysis and cosmetics has led to an in Environmental Science: Nano Recent Review Articles Sustainable Nanotechnology Organization 2014
This is an advance summary of a forthcoming article in the Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Environmental Science. Please check back later for the full article.The burden of ill health has shifted, globally, from communicable to non-communicable disease, with poor health clustering in areas of economic deprivation. However, for the most part, public health programs remain focused on changing behaviors associated with poor health (such as smoking or physical inactivity) rather than the contexts that give rise to, and influence, the wide range of behaviors associated with poor health. This way of understanding and responding to population ill health views poor health behavior as a defining
An introduction to statistics and data analysis with emphasis on practical applications in the environmental sciences. Includes graphical analysis, common probability distributions, hypothesis testing, confidence intervals, and linear regression. The second part of the course introduces the topics of multiple regression and ANOVA that are typically not covered in an introductory class such as AP statistics. There are weekly problem sets using MINITAB, SPSS, or R, as well as a final project. This course is a prerequisite for other statistics courses offered through F&ES, and it presents statistical methods used in many Yale courses in both the natural and social sciences. This course is taught in a flipped classroom approach: students watch videos before class, and classroom time is spent answering questions and working examples on computers. Enrollment limited to thirty ...
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Purchase (1982). "An appraisal of predictive tests for carcinogenicity". Mutation Research. 99 (1): 53-71. doi:10.1016/0165- ... The umu test, using only a single Salmonella strain, could potentially test a greater range of new chemicals with the same ... "Bacterial systems for carcinogenicity testing". Mutation Research. 87 (2): 191-210. doi:10.1016/0165-1110(81)90032-4. PMID ... A simple colorimetric test is possible by adding a lactose analog which is degraded by β-galactosidase, producing a colored ...
ICPEMC working paper 2/6. An appraisal of predictive tests for carcinogenicity". Mutat. Res. 99 (1): 53-71. doi:10.1016/0165- ... The test is performed over a few hours in columns of a 96-well microplate with increasing concentrations of test samples. This ... Mohn GR (September 1981). "Bacterial systems for carcinogenicity testing". Mutat. Res. 87 (2): 191-210. doi:10.1016/0165-1110( ... The test is a colorimetric assay which measures the expression of genes induced by genotoxic agents in Escherichia coli, by ...
The carcinogenicity is estimated by animal testing. The regulation of Sudan 1 in Europe started in 2003 after repeated ... The mutagenicity and genetic hazard has been evaluated with the Ames-test and animal experiments. Further it is more suspected ... Comparisons between experimental animals and human Cytochrome P450 (CYP) strongly suggest animal carcinogenicity data can be ... Toxicology and toxicological testing of colorants. Review of Progress in Coloration and Related Topics 2005, 35 (1), 76-89 http ...
Tests of carcinogenicity in this range yielded differing results. It is moderately toxic to fish. "Extension Toxicology Network ...
... is not teratogenic and carcinogenicity and mutagenicity testing has proven inconclusive. King, Gregory S.; Smialek, John E.; ... but later studies have shown that although the thinner used was toxic there was no evidence of carcinogenicity. There were a ...
... was not generally active in short-term tests for genetic activity. There is sufficient evidence of its carcinogenicity in ... IARC (1979) evaluated mirex's carcinogenic hazard and concluded that "there is sufficient evidence for its carcinogenicity to ... the lowest dose tested. At higher dose levels, it is fetotoxic (25 mg/kg in diet) and teratogenic (6.0 mg/kg per day). ...
Carcinogenicity[edit]. There is scientific evidence that nitro-musks such as musk xylene could cause cancer in some specific ... April 2005). "Patch testing with a new fragrance mix - reactivity to the individual constituents and chemical detection in ... allergens most commonly causing patch test reactions in people referred to dermatology clinics.[44][45][46] A study in 2001 ... instead the FDA controls the safety of perfumes through their ingredients and requires that they be tested to the extent that ...
48, p-Chloro-o-Toluidine and its strong salts Weisburger E.K. et al., Testing of twenty-one environ. aromatic amines or ... Med., 1992, 49, 529-531 Stasik M.J., Current studies of 4-chloro-o-toluidine and chlordimeform carcinogenicity, 26th Intern. ... derivatives for long-term toxicity or carcinogenicity, J. Environ. Pathol. Toxicol., 1987, 2, 326-356 Bentley P. et al., ...
NTP scientists have recommended against chronic toxicity/carcinogenicity testing of acetone because "the prechronic studies ... Acetone has been tested in more than two dozen in vitro and in vivo assays. These studies indicate that acetone is not ... Reproductive toxicity tests show that it has low potential to cause reproductive problems. Ketogenic diets that increase ketone ... It auto-ignites at 465 °C (869 °F). Auto-ignition temperature is also dependent upon the exposure time, thus at some tests it ...
In 1915, Yamaigiwa Katsusaburo and Koichi Ichikawa tested the carcinogenicity of coal tar using the inner surface of rabbit's ... Home pregnancy test involves ELISA to detect the increase of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) during pregnancy. HIV test also ... Many of the early bioassays consisted of using animals to test carcinogenicity of chemicals. ... To test for methane, miners would take methane-sensitive canaries to coal mines to ensure safe air. ...
PhIP has been tested for carcinogenicity in both mice and rats by oral administration. Increases in lymphomas were seen in mice ... PhIP was positive in bacterial (Ames) test and induced chromosomal abnormalities in human and Chinese hamster cells in vitro. ... for the carcinogenicity of PhIP. PhIP has been found in cooked beef, pork, chicken, and fish products. Exposure to PhIP depends ...
These newer materials have been tested for carcinogenicity and most are found to be noncarcinogenic. IARC elected not to make ... This decision was made in part because no human data were available, although such fibres that have been tested appear to have ... The findings in this volume are not a determination of non-carcinogenicity or overall safety.) IARC Monographs on the ... The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) reviewed the carcinogenicity of man-made mineral fibres in October 2002 ...
Points in the controversy included: Animal testing for carcinogenicity - DMPA caused breast cancer tumors in dogs. Critics of ... Testing or use of DMPA was focused almost exclusively on women in developing countries and poor women in the United States, ... The two medications have not been adequately compared in direct tests to clear conclusions about safety and superiority. MPA is ... DMPA caused endometrial cancer in monkeys - 2 of 12 monkeys tested, the first ever recorded cases of endometrial cancer in ...
Careful selection of shRNA sequences and thorough preclinical testing of constructs can circumvent this issue. Rice, R. R.; ... Moreover, extensive clinical use of AAV vectors has provided no evidence of carcinogenicity. While lentiviral vectors do ... Careful monitoring of potential toxicities in preclinical testing and analyses of pre-existing antibodies to gene therapy ...
The longer term toxicity and carcinogenicity is ambiguous. Eye and throat sensitivity can occur when high level exposure to ... Ethylbenzene exposure can be determined by testing for the breakdown products in urine. As of September 2007, the United States ...
The micronucleus test in vivo is similar to the in vitro one because it tests for structural and numerical chromosomal ... Cancer Carcinogen Carcinogenesis Carcinogenicity Mutagen Mutagenesis Kolle S (2012-06-01). "Genotoxicity and Carcinogenicity". ... In a specific mammalian tissue, one can perform a mouse lymphoma TK+/- assay to test for changes in the genetic material. Gene ... The Bacterial Reverse Mutation Assay, also known as the Ames Assay, is used in laboratories to test for gene mutation. The ...
Her dissertation, The Weighted Normal Plot II: Efficiency of Tests for Carcinogenicity, was supervised by Arthur P. Dempster. ...
It is widely used to test the respiratory toxicity of a substance as an alternative to inhalation in animal testing. ... Intratracheal instillation was reported as early as 1923 in studies of the carcinogenicity of coal tar. Modern methodology was ... Their results provide a quick screen of potential toxicity and can be used to test its mechanism, but may not be directly ... A wide range of substances can be tested, including both soluble materials and insoluble particles or fibers, including ...
PhIP has also formed DNA adducts in vivo in both rats and monkeys.[18] PhIP has been tested for carcinogenicity in both mice ... PhIP was positive in bacterial (Ames) test and induced chromosomal abnormalities in human and Chinese hamster cells in vitro. ...
Due to the lack of information, EPA has determined that HMX is not classifiable as to its human carcinogenicity. The available ... In one study, volunteers submitted to patch testing, which produced skin irritation. Another study of a cohort of 93 workers at ...
Theiss, Jeffrey C.; Stoner, Gary D.; Shimkin, Michael B.; Weisburger, Elizabeth K. (1977). "Test for Carcinogenicity of Organic ... EPA tested drinking water quality on commercial aircraft and found that 15 percent of tested aircraft water systems tested ... 86 FR 4198 Friedman, List (2020-09-27). "E.P.A. to Promote Lead Testing Rule as Trump Tries to Burnish His Record". The New ... Improvements in chemical testing methods in the 1970s, particularly for synthetic organic chemicals, allowed for the detection ...
It has been reported that exposure to visible light can affect the variability of some physical property test results.[52] ... It is not regulated by OSHA for carcinogenicity. ... Open-flame test. Top, untreated polyurethane foam burns ... California later issued Technical Bulletin 117 2013 which allowed most polyurethane foam to pass flammability tests without the ...
... of bacterial mutagenicity as a screen for carcinogenicity confirmed the use of this methodology as a rapid and efficient test, ... The availability of such simpler tests in turn gave rise to greater government oversight and testing of compounds to which the ... Nomura, Taisei (1975). "Carcinogenicity of the food additive furylfuramide in foetal and young mice". Nature. 258 (5536): 610- ... This was confirmed later when animal testing found it to cause benign and malignant tumors in the mammary glands, stomachs, ...
... umu test using test results of 486 chemicals and comparison with the Ames test and carcinogenicity data". Mutation Research. ... The umu test, first developed and published by Oda et al., is based on the ability of DNA-damaging agents to induce the ... Like other tests, the strains have been genetically modified further. A reduction of the lipopolysaccharide structure of the ... Yasunaga, Kiyonari, Oikawa, Abe, Yoshikawa (1985). "Evaluation of the new system (umu-test) for the detection of environmental ...
Since the 1960s, the animal most used in testing the carcinogenicity of tobacco smoke has been the Syrian Golden Hamster due to ... Although the carcinogenicity of tobacco smoke was first established in humans, various types of animals have also been exposed ... As set out in the IARC monographs, the carcinogenicity of cigarette smoke is determined in two ways. The first is through the ... Once the condensate is collected, it is painted onto the skin of the animal test subjects, which are then examined at set ...
Studies regarding the carcinogenicity of DCPA have produced mixed results. A study by ISK Biotech Corp. in 1993 showed DCPA ... Environmental Protection Agency testing in New York showed "measurable residues of DCPA and degradates" on land that had ... In the study done on these river basin locations, roughly 39% of the fish tested had stored DCPA concentrations that exceeded ... Rats whose mothers were exposed to DCPA during pregnancy had impaired higher-level learning test scores than those whose ...
Ten diets were tested separately on the males and females. The diets comprised 11 percent, 22 percent and 33 percent ... and 50 rats for carcinogenicity studies. In addition, if the survival of the rats is less than 50% at 104 weeks (which is ... A 2015 reanalysis of multiple animal studies found that Seralini chose to forgo statistical tests in the main conclusions of ... For the study to achieve such separation (statistical power), each control and test group would have to include sufficiently ...
In a 1977 study using a human maximization test, 76% of subjects acquired a contact sensitization to benzoyl peroxide. ... A 1999 IARC review of carcinogenicity studies found no convincing evidence linking BPO acne medication to skin cancers in ...
The carcinogenicity was tested on rats in mice, via intraperitoneal administration and subcutaneous administration, of newborns ... 1,2-Dihydroxynaphthalene has been used as a potential biomarker of excessive exposure to naphthalene levels and was tested on ... however the tests were considered inefficient to substantiate a diagnosis resulting in naphthalene as a potential carcinogen ... as there is inadequate evidence in humans for the carcinogenicity of naphthalene, however there is sufficient evidence in ...
Tests for bile acids are useful in both human and veterinary medicine, as they aid in the diagnosis of a number of conditions, ... "Carcinogenicity of deoxycholate, a secondary bile acid". Arch. Toxicol. 85 (8): 863-71. doi:10.1007/s00204-011-0648-7. PMC ... bile acid malabsorption can be diagnosed by the SeHCAT test and treated with bile acid sequestrants.[30] ...
Blood testsEdit. There are no specific blood tests that can diagnose cholangiocarcinoma by themselves. Serum levels of ... Thorotrast was banned in the United States in the 1950s due to its carcinogenicity.[35][36][37] ... Blood tests of liver function in people with cholangiocarcinoma often reveal a so-called "obstructive picture", with elevated ... "Bile Duct Cancer (Cholangiocarcinoma) Symptoms, Tests, Prognosis, and Stages". National Cancer Institute. 5 July 2018. ...
To test the hypothesis that filtering is indeed unnecessary to quality control, many of the traditional publication practices ... Recent court documents have found that Monsanto ghost-wrote articles to counter government assessment of the carcinogenicity of ... real-world implementation could test and disprove this assumption; demonstrate researchers' desire for more that traditional ...
The calculations are taken from data collected regarding fallout from the nuclear weapons tests conducted at the Nevada Test ... Because of the carcinogenicity of its beta radiation in the thyroid in small doses, I-131 is rarely used primarily or solely ... 131I is a fission product with a yield of 2.878% from uranium-235,[12] and can be released in nuclear weapons tests and nuclear ... In 1997, NCI conducted a detailed evaluation of dose to the thyroid glands of U.S. residents from I-131 in fallout from tests ...
These tests showed that in certain aircraft, motor vehicle gasolines performed as well as "High-Test" but in other types ... "Evaluation of the Carcinogenicity of Unleaded Gasoline". epa.gov. Archived from the original on 27 June 2010.. ... "High-Test" or simply "High-Test" gasolines. These would often be used in aircraft engines. ... sulphur content and a gum formation test) along with one "Motor" grade for automobiles. The gum test essentially eliminated ...
"Arsenic and arsenic compounds", Overall Evaluations of Carcinogenicity: An Updating of IARC Monographs Volumes 1 to 42 (PDF), ... Precipitation of arsenic trisulfide is used as an analytical test for presence of dissimilatory arsenic-reducing bacteria (DARB ...
Carcinogenicity[edit]. Dioxins are well established carcinogens in animal studies, although the precise mechanistic role is not ... do indeed test positive for Dioxin. Dioxin, in turn, is a well-documented catalyst for Endometriosis - and the effects of ... After accidental or high occupational exposures there is evidence on human carcinogenicity.[29][30] There is much controversy ... The most important cause for differences in different assessments is carcinogenicity. If the dose-response of TCDD in causing ...
... mice and wild-type littermates were studied in the forced swim test (FST), the tail suspension test, and for sucrose ... More recently, the carcinogenicity of PRC200-SS was likewise reported. (+)-CPCA ("nocaine") is the 3R,4S piperidine ... RTI-112 is another good example of the compound becoming less likely to be self-administered by the test subject in the case of ... Further testing was able to reveal that reserpine causes a depletion of monoamine concentrations in the brain. Reserpine's ...
Whether the test is acceptable to the people: If a screening test is too burdensome (for example, extremely painful), then ... DNA repair inhibition is proposed to be a predominant mechanism in heavy metal-induced carcinogenicity. In addition, frequent ... People with suspected cancer are investigated with medical tests. These commonly include blood tests, X-rays, (contrast) CT ... Treatments that succeeded in one cancer type can be tested against other types.[211] Diagnostic tests are under development to ...
A 1999 IARC review of carcinogenicity studies found no convincing evidence linking BPO acne medication to skin cancers in ... In a 1977 study using a human maximization test, 76% of subjects acquired a contact sensitization to benzoyl peroxide. ...
The carcinogenicity of acrolein has been difficult to study by animal experimentation, because it has such a toxicity that it ... one study documents a significantly better performance on the normed Advanced Raven Progressive Matrices test after smoking.[ ... The carcinogenicity is radiomimetic, i.e. similar to that produced by ionizing nuclear radiation. Tobacco manufacturers have ... It gives smoke an acrid smell and an irritating, tear causing effect and is a major contributor to its carcinogenicity. Like ...
Reuber, MD (1981). "Carcinogenicity of Picloram". Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. 7 (2): 207-222. doi:10.1080/ ... Individual batches tested later were found to have as much as 60 ppm of TCDD. 2,4,5-T was withdrawn from use in the US in 1983 ... A key component of such tests is that the response of the suspect population to a herbicide can be compared with that of known ... For example, a 1995 panel of 13 scientists reviewing studies on the carcinogenicity of 2,4-D had divided opinions on the ...
The standard for fish for human consumption is less than 1 mg/kg, but many tested samples were more than five times that amount ... Cohen, MD; Kargacin, B; Klein, CB; Costa, M (1993). "Mechanisms of chromium carcinogenicity and toxicity". Critical Reviews in ... Dayan, AD; Paine, AJ (2001). "Mechanisms of chromium toxicity, carcinogenicity and allergenicity: Review of the literature from ...
It noted that there was "limited evidence" of carcinogenicity in humans for non-Hodgkin lymphoma.[5][8][9][141][142] The IARC ... However, a field test showed that lettuce, carrots, and barley contained glyphosate residues up to one year after the soil was ... According to the National Pesticide Information Center fact sheet, glyphosate is not included in compounds tested for by the ... It found that "no classification and labelling for carcinogenicity is warranted" and did not recommend a carcinogen ...
The test became the subject of controversy when it was blamed for birth defects, and it was withdrawn from the market in the ... "Glyphosate toxicity and carcinogenicity: a review of the scientific basis of the European Union assessment and its differences ... He also said he had invented the name aspirin and was the first person to use the new formulation to test its safety and ... In the 1960s Bayer introduced a pregnancy test, Primodos, that consisted of two pills that contained norethisterone (as acetate ...
The authors of the study "stressed the need for extreme caution in evaluation of carcinogenicity studies conducted at different ... Animal testing on rodents. *Morris water maze. *Rat Genome Database. References[edit]. *^ Vandenbergh JG (1 January 2000). "Use ...
Toxicology and testingEdit. Aniline is toxic by inhalation of the vapour, ingestion, or percutaneous absorption.[31][32] The ... IARC lists it in Group 3 (not classifiable as to its carcinogenicity to humans) due to the limited and contradictory data ... Its acetate is used in the aniline acetate test for carbohydrates, identifying pentoses by conversion to furfural. It is used ...
Heim, K. E; Bates, H. K; Rush, R. E; Oller, A. R (2007). "Oral carcinogenicity study with nickel sulfate hexahydrate in Fischer ... Small amounts have also been found near nuclear weapon test sites in the South Pacific.[27] ... Oller, A. R; Kirkpatrick, D. T; Radovsky, A; Bates, H. K (2008). "Inhalation carcinogenicity study with nickel metal powder in ... and animal data consistently indicate a lack of carcinogenicity via the oral route of exposure and limit the carcinogenicity of ...
2002). "Mutagenicity and carcinogenicity in relation to DNA adduct formation in rats fed leucomalachite green". Mutation ... "DNA Analyst Training Laboratory Training Manual Protocol 2.18 Leucomalachite Green Presumptive Test for Blood" (PDF). National ...
The R-value test measures heat transfer through the material, not to or from its surface. There is no standard test designed to ... not classifiable as to carcinogenicity in humans). All fiber glass wools that are commonly used for thermal and acoustical ... Sheep's wool insulation has a long lifetime due to the natural crimp in the fibre, endurance testing has shown it has a life ... no test exists for this characteristic), substrate deflection (for exposed application products), and air erosion (for exposed ...
... selected by history and a positive fFN test) and, conversely, the incidence of preterm delivery was found to be higher in women ... "Epidemiologic evaluation of pharmaceuticals with limited evidence of carcinogenicity". Int. J. Cancer. 125 (9): 2173-8. doi ... Although some of the testing methods have been questioned, oral exposure has been shown to cause cancer in experimental animals ...
Silver chloride is very insoluble in water and is thus often used as a qualitative test for chlorine.[39] ... and carcinogenicity of regulated and emerging disinfection by-products in drinking water: A review and roadmap for research". ... "Blood (Serum) Chloride Level Test". Archived from the original on 31 March 2009. Retrieved 30 April 2010.. ...
... long-term users can produce positive tests for two to three months after ceasing cannabis use (see drug test).[23] ... "Evidence on the carcinogenicity of marijuana smoke" (PDF). Reproductive and Cancer Hazard Assessment Branch Office of ... Main article: Cannabis drug testing. Most cannabinoids are lipophilic (fat soluble) compounds that are easily stored in fat, ... The THC molecule, and related compounds, are usually detectable in drug tests from 3 days up to 10 days according to Redwood ...
... is listed as an IARC Group 1 carcinogen (i.e. there is sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity in humans),[21] ... The immunosuppressive effect of the natural product cyclosporin was discovered in December 1971 in a screening test on immune ...
Results from photo co-carcinogenicity testing indicate ciprofloxacin does not reduce the time to appearance of UV-induced skin ... Long-term carcinogenicity studies in rats and mice resulted in no carcinogenic or tumorigenic effects due to ciprofloxacin at ... abnormal liver function tests (1.3%), vomiting (1%), and rash (1%). Other adverse events occurred at rates of ,1%. ...
140 of those chemicals were tested by regulatory order and 60 were tested after voluntary consent by the manufacturer.[36] ... no data on the spilled chemical were available, including data on repeated dose toxicity, carcinogenicity, reproductive ... TSCA does not require chemical companies to test toxicity tests for new chemicals on their effects on human health or the ... As of 2015[update], 250 of the more than 60,000 existing chemicals have been directly tested by the EPA.[35] ...
Carcinogenicity studies[edit]. Concern has arisen about the presence of 4-MeI in caramel color (which is the most-used food and ... 4-MeI was inactive in several in vitro and in vivo tests of genotoxicity.[7] ... A 2007 study by the United States National Toxicology Program (NTP) examined the potential carcinogenicity of 4-MeI in mice and ... The Agency describes the NTP carcinogenicity study as having been conducted at doses that "far exceed" current estimates of ...
The approval was rescinded the following year; but, after outside reviews of the problematic tests and additional testing, ... These reviews have looked at numerous carcinogenicity studies in animals, epidemiologic studies in humans, as well as in vitro ... problems with Searle's safety testing program, including testing of aspartame, were discovered subsequently. ... Stegink LD (July 1987). "The aspartame story: a model for the clinical testing of a food additive". The American Journal of ...
... a workshop on chronic inhalation toxicity and carcinogenicity testing of respirable fibrous particles was held in Chapel Hill, ... On May 8-10, 1995, a workshop on chronic inhalation toxicity and carcinogenicity testing of respirable fibrous particles was ... Workshop report: chronic inhalation toxicity and carcinogenicity testing of respirable fibrous particles.. ... available screening tests which can be used to develop a minimum data set for (a) making decisions about the potential health ...
The major impetus for developing the International Program for the Evaluation of Short-term Tests for Carcinogenicity (IPESTTC ... in press). International Program for the Evaluation of Short-Term Tests for Carcinogenicity. Elsevier/North Holland: Amsterdam. ... de Serres F.J. (1980) The International Program for the Evaluation of Short-Term Tests for Carcinogenicity (IPESTTC). In: ... The major impetus for developing the International Program for the Evaluation of Short-term Tests for Carcinogenicity (IPESTTC ...
... Biometrics. 1981 Dec;37(4): ... This paper provides a method for calculating the exact permutational probability of at least one significant Fisher-Irwin test ... The multiplicity of comparisons has given rise to concern that individual Fisher-Irwin tests could seriously overstate the ... frequently includes the comparison of the control group with each treatment group by the use of Fisher-Irwin exact tests for ...
... is routinely applied to carcinogenicity data as a test for linear trend in lifetime tumor incidence rates. The computing ... The Cochran-Armitage test (Cochran, 1954, Biometrika 10, 417-451; and Armitage, 1955, Biometrics 11, 375-386) ... demonstrates the use of the delta method for estimating the variance of ratio statistics derived from animal carcinogenicity ... Bieler, G., & Williams, R. (1993). Ratio estimates, the delta method, and quantal response tests for increased carcinogenicity ...
Short-term (*6 months) rapid carcinogenicity tests of various genotoxic carcinogens, 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide, cyclophosphamide ... The present studies were conducted as a model for the rapid carcinogenicity testing system. ... rasH2/CB6F1 mouse seems to be a promising candidate as an animal model for the development of a rapid carcinogenicity testing ... Only a very few lung adenomas but no other tumors were seen as spontaneous tumors during the months of carcnogenicity tests. ...
Tests for genotoxicity, carcinogenicity and reproductive toxicity Status : Under review, Current Published : October 2014 ... Guidance on tests to evaluate genotoxicity. Supplement to ISO 10993-3 * PD ISO/TR 15499:2016 - TC Tracked Changes. Biological ... Genotoxicity tests, Implants (surgical), Dental equipment, Biological analysis and testing ... Part 1. Evaluation and testing within a risk management process * PD ISO/TR 15499:2016 Biological evaluation of medical devices ...
Carcinogenicity Testing. The Department of Health and Human Services National Toxicology Program is currently testing 2EE for ... Mutagenicity Testing. The mutagenicity of 2ME was tested in Salmonella typhimurium strains TA 1535, TA 1537, TA 98, and TA 100 ... Mutagenicity Testing. The mutagenicity of 2EE was tested in Salmonella typhimurium strains TA 1535, TA 1537, TA 98, and TA 100 ... Altered behavioral test results; altered brain neurochemical concentrations. 28. F, pregnant. Rat. Dermal, 1.0 or 2.0 ml/day, ...
Carcinogenicity Testing. In male and female Fischer 344 rats given oral isotretinoin at dosages of 8 or 32 mg/kg/day (1.3 to ... Monitoring And Laboratory Tests. Pregnancy Tests. The patient should have two negative pregnancy tests (β-hCG in urine or serum ... Mutagenicity Testing. The Ames test was conducted with isotretinoin in two laboratories. The results of the tests in one ... Liver function tests: Increases in about 15% of ALT, AST, ALP baseline levels have been reported. Liver function tests should ...
Carcinogenicity In Animals. Metronidazole has been shown to be carcinogenic at high doses administered orally in mice and rats ... Culture and sensitivity testing of bacteria are not routinely performed to establish the diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis [see ... Drug/Laboratory Test Interactions. Metronidazole may interfere with certain types of determinations of serum chemistry values, ... Metronidazole was not clastogenic in vitro chromosome aberration tests in CHO cells up to 5000 μg/mL but was positive in human ...
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Results are consistent with the hypotheses that in high-dose rodent tests mitogenesis is important in the carci … ... Comparison of target organs of carcinogenicity for mutagenic and non-mutagenic chemicals Mutat Res. 1993 Mar;286(1):75-100. doi ... Results are consistent with the hypotheses that in high-dose rodent tests mitogenesis is important in the carcinogenic response ... for mutagens and non-mutagens alike, and that mutagens have a multiplicative interaction for carcinogenicity because they can ...
Carcinogenicity testing ; Carcinogenicity Tests--Congresses ; Data Collection--Congresses ; Mutagenicity Tests--Congresses ; ... Toxicity testing. ; Toxicity testing--United States. ; Toxicology--methods. Additional Subjects. Carcinogenicity testing ; ... Carcinogenicity testing ; Chemicals--Testing ; Chemical mutagenesis ; Teratogenic agents Holdings. Library. Call Number. ... Chronic toxicity testing. ; Toxicology--Dose-response relationship. ; Carcinogenicity testing. ; Carcinogens--Dose-response ...
Factors affecting possible carcinogenicity of inhaled nitropyrene aerosols / Ronald K. Wolff ... [et al.]. by Wolff, Ronald K ... The Use of short- and medium-term tests for carcinogens and data on genetic effects in carcinogenic hazard evaluation by ... BHA and cancer risk : the role of prostaglandin H synthase in the carcinogenicity of butylated hydroxyanisole / door Pauline ... Molecular and cellular aspects of carcinogen screening tests : proceedings of a meeting held in Hanover, Federal Republic of ...
Pentosan polysulfate sodium was not clastogenic or mutagenic when tested in the mouse micronucleus test or the Ames test (S. ... Carcinogenicity, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility. Long-term carcinogenicity studies of ELMIRON® in F344/N rats and B6C3F1 ... The dosages tested were up to 60 times the maximum recommended human dose (MRHD) in rats, and up to 117 times the MRHD in mice ... Laboratory Test Findings. Pentosan polysulfate sodium did not affect prothrombin time (PT) or partial thromboplastin time (PTT ...
Read chapter 4 Genotoxicity and Carcinogenicity: Beryllium is an important metal that is used in a number of industries- ... Beryllium from bertrandite was present in the test atmospheres at 210 μg/m3 and from beryl at 620 μg/m3; the geometric means of ... The carcinogenicity of beryllium metal has also been investigated. In one study, male and female F344/N rats were received a ... Genotoxicity and Carcinogenicity. The carcinogenic potential of beryllium and beryllium compounds has been assessed by various ...
National Cancer Institute (U.S.). Division of Cancer Cause and Prevention.; Litton-Bionetics, inc.; Carcinogenesis Testing ... Bioassay of 1-phenyl-2-thiourea for possible carcinogenicity. Author:. National Cancer Institute (U.S.). Division of Cancer ... schema:name "Bioassay of 1-phenyl-2-thiourea for possible carcinogenicity"@en ;. schema:productID "4251262" ;. schema: ... rdfs:label "Bioassay of 1-phenyl-2-thiourea for possible carcinogenicity" ;. schema:description "Online version:" ;. schema: ...
... have been utilized in modeling of carcinogenicity as continuous values (logTD50). These descriptors can be calculated using ... rtest2=0.7514, stest=0.684; split 2: rtest2=0.7998, stest=0.600; split 3: rtest2=0.7192, stest=0.728). View Full-Text ... Additive SMILES-Based Carcinogenicity Models: Probabilistic Principles in the Search for Robust Predictions. Andrey A. Toropov ... "Additive SMILES-Based Carcinogenicity Models: Probabilistic Principles in the Search for Robust Predictions." Int. J. Mol. Sci. ...
Preclinical Carcinogenicity Testing. One major issue is the potential carcinogenic activity of candidate drugs. Regulatory ... Preclinical Testing. In vivo testing to assess safety and efficacy is a crucial step in the preclinical drug development ... This supports increased sensitivity in safety testing and a reduction in both animal test cohort size and project timelines11. ... In addition to testing potential negative effects on the physiology of the organism, a major goal of target validation ...
Provides FDAs thinking on non-clinical engineering tests that are submitted in IDEs and PMAs to support safety/effectiveness ... carcinogenicity.. Delivery Systems. Because delivery catheters are externally communicating products in contact with ... Appendix A: Test Summary Checklist. Test. Sizes Tested and Sample Sizes. Test Method or Standard Reference. Accept/Reject ... Test Summaries. You should briefly describe all tests performed.. Test Data Summaries. You should include test data summaries ...
Effect on laboratory tests.. Plasma amylase and lipase activity.. Codeine may cause increased biliary tract pressure, thus ... Carcinogenicity.. Toxicity studies in animals have shown that high doses of paracetamol cause testicular atrophy and inhibition ... Timely, independent, evidence-based information on new drugs and medical tests, and changes to the PBS and MBS. ... If chronic paracetamol and zidovudine are to be given concurrently, monitor white blood count and liver function tests, ...
... mouse bone marrow micronucleus test). No evidence of genotoxicity was observed.. Carcinogenicity.. The potential ... Effect on laboratory tests.. There are no known effects of misoprostol on laboratory tests. ... Abnormal liver function tests, hepatic failure, hepatorenal failure.. Blood and lymphatic system disorders.. Thrombotic ... Misoprostol has been evaluated in tests for mutagenicity in bacterial, yeast and mammalian cells, and for clastogenicity in ...
... per sex is appropriate for carcinogenicity testing. The route of administration for carcinogenicity testing of veterinary drug ... 4 compounds do not need to be routinely tested for carcinogenicity. Such tests may however be required if, for example, 1) the ... 3. REFERENCES OECD Test Guideline 451. Carcinogenicity Studies. In: OECD Guideline for the Testing of Chemicals. Organization ... 2. OECD Test Guideline 453. Combined ChronicToxicity/Carcinogenicity Studies. In: OECD Guideline for the Testing of Chemicals. ...
Class-11 CBSE Board - Aromatic Hydrocarbons: Carcinogenicity And Toxicity - LearnNext offers animated video lessons with neatly ... explained examples, Study Material, FREE NCERT Solutions, Exercises and Tests. ... Aromatic Hydrocarbons: Carcinogenicity And Toxicity Watch Aromatic Hydrocarbons: Carcinogenicity And Toxicity explained in the ... Hydrocarbons - Aromatic Hydrocarbons: Carcinogenicity And Toxicity X Thank you for watching the sample video. Please register ...
SCARLET Workshop on in silico methods for carcinogenicity and mutagenicity. 2-4 April, Milan, Italy SCARLET: Structure-Activity ... In Vitro Testing Industrial Platform "Integrated In Vitro Testing Strategies - implementation challenges" ... European Partnership for Alternative Approaches to Animal Testing Annual conference 2011: « Integrated Testing Strategies (ITS ... 16th Congress on Alternatives to Animal Testing - Linz 2010 16th International Congress on In Vitro Toxicology - ESTIV 2010. 2 ...
Chronic Toxicity and Carcinogenicity Studies Ongoing During FY 2016. Test Article. CASRN*. Species. Length. Routes. Status. ... Test Article. CASRN*. Species. Length. Route. Status. Study Scientist. 1020 Long multiwalled carbon nanotube. N/A. Mice, rats. ... Toxicology and Carcinogenicity Studies. NTP performs toxicity studies to provide dose-setting information for chronic studies ... Toxicology and carcinogenicity studies fall into two categories: prechronic toxicity studies and chronic two-year toxicology ...
... the Global In Vitro Toxicology Testing Market is accounted for $12.30 billion in 2015 and is expected to reach $32.45 billion ... Carcinogenicity. • Neurotoxicity. • Dermal Toxicity. • Genotoxicity. • Other Toxicity Endpoints & Tests. Regions Covered:. • ... However, strict regulations and predictive ability of in vitro testing over in vivo testing are hampering the market. Growing ... In Vitro Toxicology Testing Market Size, Share, Analysis, Report and Forecast to 2022. Press Release • Jan 20, 2017 00:37 EST ...
Multiple-endpoint in vitro carcinogenicity test in human cell line TK6 distinguishes carcinogens from non-carcinogens and ... Multiple-endpoint in vitro carcinogenicity test in human cell line TK6 distinguishes carcinogens from non-carcinogens and ... Vinblastine and diethylstilboestrol tested in the in vitro mammalian cell micronucleus test (MNvit) at Swansea University UK in ... Vinblastine and diethylstilboestrol tested in the in vitro mammalian cell micronucleus test (MNvit) at Swansea University UK in ...
Limited evidence of carcinogenicity. European Food Safety Authority. One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show ...
Application of Biological Markers to Carcinogen Testing by Harry A. Milman available in Hardcover on Powells.com, also read ... Carcinogenicity testing.. Subject:. Tumor markers -- Diagnostic use -- Congresses.. Related Subjects. Health and Self-Help. ...
Filed under: Carcinogenicity testing*. Issues in Risk Assessment. , by National Research Council Board on Environmental Studies ... Toxicological testing. Filed under: Toxicity testing*. Toxicity Testing: Strategies to Determine Needs and Priorities. , by ... Filed under: Carcinogenicity testing -- Government policy -- United States*. Identifying and Regulating Carcinogens: Background ... Filed under: Toxicity testing -- United States*. Toxicity Testing: Strategies to Determine Needs and Priorities. , by National ...
  • The major impetus for developing the International Program for the Evaluation of Short-term Tests for Carcinogenicity (IPESTTC) was that our need for rapid identification and control of carcinogens is not satisfied by traditional rodent bioassays. (springer.com)
  • This need places tremendous pressure on the scientific community to develop test systems for identifying chemical carcinogens in the environment at a lower cost and on a shorter time scale. (springer.com)
  • Short-term (*6 months) rapid carcinogenicity tests of various genotoxic carcinogens, 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide, cyclophosphamide, N,N-diethyl-nitrosamine, N-methyl-N-nitrosourea, N-metyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine and methylazoxymethanol, revealed that Tg rasH2/CB6F1 mice are more susceptible to these genotoxic carcinogens than control non-Tg mice. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Any differences in metabolism between the test species, target animal species, and human beings should be taken into consideration Genotoxic compounds Many carcinogens have a genotoxic mode of action and it is prudent to regard genotoxicants as carcinogens unless there is convincing evidence that this is not the case. (docplayer.net)
  • the rasH2 mouse is the most widespread transgenic model used today and has been approved by the FDA for short-term carcinogenicity testing to evaluate genotoxic and non-genotoxic carcinogens. (taconic.com)
  • The expert system was able to recognize >94% of mutagens in ACD/Ames test database, and >90% of compounds marked as potent carcinogens in the FDA's OFAS Food-Additive Knowledgebase. (acdlabs.com)
  • While recognizing the limitations of the in vivo component of this study, the short-term tests were only partially successful in identifying potential carcinogens for this series of chemicals. (fluoridealert.org)
  • Toluene diisocynate (TDI) and toluenediamine (TDA) evidence of carcinogenicity. (epa.gov)
  • No evidence of carcinogenicity from animal testing. (ewg.org)
  • The correlation between rats to humans is about 70% and is more sensitive making them the major specie of animal used for the long-term carcinogenicity studies. (ukessays.com)
  • It's estimated that 500,000 mice, guinea pigs, rats, and rabbits suffer and die in these tests every year throughout the world. (humanesociety.org)
  • Male and female adult rats are exposed to the test substance, usually by force-feeding, for two to four weeks and then mated. (humanesociety.org)
  • BD has been tested for carcinogenicity in mice and rats. (osha.gov)
  • Chlorofluoromethane was tested for carcinogenicity in one study in rats by oral administration by gavage at one dose level. (fluoridealert.org)
  • Ref: Genotoxicity and carcinogenicity of fluorocarbons: Assessment by short-term in vitro tests and chronic exposure in rats. (fluoridealert.org)
  • In long-term carcinogenicity studies of oral emtricitabine, no drug-related increases in tumor incidence were found in mice (at doses up to 26 times the human systemic exposure) or in rats (at doses up to 31 times the human systemic exposure) at the therapeutic dose. (nih.gov)
  • Testing of chemicals for carcinogenicity, mutagenicity and teratogenicity. (epa.gov)
  • Adequate data on carcinogenicity and mutagenicity were not available. (powells.com)
  • Abstract: Two short-term in vitro tests for mutagenicity (Salmonella reverse mutation and BHK21 cell transformation) were conducted on a series of fluorocarbons. (fluoridealert.org)
  • We screen our materials for 18 different hazards, including carcinogenicity, mutagenicity and endocrine disruption. (apple.com)
  • The high correlation between the Umu Chromotest and traditional Ames test for mutagenicity supports it as a reasonable alternative for early-stage testing of the thousands of new pharmaceutical, agricultural and industrial chemicals synthesized every year. (wikipedia.org)
  • To ensure that substances that could pose carcinogenic potential at relevant exposure levels are adequately assessed, it is necessary to consider a number of issues, including genotoxicity, metabolic fate, species differences, and cellular changes Scope of the guideline This guideline sets out a data-driven decision pathway to determine the need to conduct carcinogenicity studies. (docplayer.net)
  • Adaptation of the in vitro micronucleus assay for genotoxicity testing using 3D liver models supporting longer-term exposure durations. (swansea.ac.uk)
  • tumor development following carcinogen exposure," which demonstrate equivalent performance with the standard two-year tests. (taconic.com)
  • The health of the animals was monitored during the study according to the protocols of the NTP Sentinel Animal Program.ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS OF CHAMBERS FOR EXPOSURE- Temperature (°C): 19.5°C-27.1° C- Relative humidity: 28%-93%:- Air changes (per hr): 9-23/hour- Photoperiod (hrs dark / hrs light): 12 hours/dayNo further information on the test animals was stated. (europa.eu)
  • Tests for changes in the cells or organs caused by repeat exposure. (humanesociety.org)
  • Tests for cancer and other long-term effects of exposure. (humanesociety.org)
  • Reactions to the exposure of these products vary among species, making it difficult to extract data from animal tests and apply them to situations in which humans are exposed. (aavs.org)
  • Acute toxicity testing is used to determine the danger of exposure to a chemical by mouth, skin, or inhalation. (aavs.org)
  • Written by leading research scientists, this book integrates current knowledge of toxicology and human health through coverage of environmental toxicants, genetic / epigenetic mechanisms, and carcinogenicity. (wiley.com)
  • Toxicology and carcinogenicity studies fall into two categories: prechronic toxicity studies and chronic two-year toxicology and carcinogenicity studies. (nih.gov)
  • The global In Vitro Toxicology Testing Market was valued at USD 6.1 billion in 2016 and is projected to reach USD 15.60 billion by 2025, growing at a CAGR of 11.0% from 2017 to 2025. (bccresearch.com)
  • Research study on the In Vitro Toxicology Testing Market was performed in five phases which include Secondary research, Primary research, subject matter expert advice, quality check and final review. (bccresearch.com)
  • Results are consistent with the hypotheses that in high-dose rodent tests mitogenesis is important in the carcinogenic response for mutagens and non-mutagens alike, and that mutagens have a multiplicative interaction for carcinogenicity because they can both damage DNA directly and cause cell division at high doses. (nih.gov)
  • A two-year rodent bio-assay to ascertain carcinogenicity has been a regulatory requirement for over 40 years. (taconic.com)
  • Emtricitabine was neither mutagenic nor clastogenic in a series of in vitro and animal in vivo screening tests. (nih.gov)
  • This test was developed as a practical complement or alternative to the traditional Ames test assay for genotoxicity, which involves growing bacteria on agar plates and comparing natural mutation rates to mutation rates of bacteria exposed to potentially mutagenic compounds or samples. (wikipedia.org)
  • Introduction Objective of the guideline Background Scope of the guideline Carcinogenicity Assessment Overall approach Genotoxic compounds Non-genotoxic compounds In vivo carcinogenicity testing Existing relevant guidelines Species selection for long-term carcinogenicity testing Number of animals and route of administration Dose selection for carcinogenicity testing General Dose selection In-life observations and pathological examination REFERENCES. (docplayer.net)
  • 2. Carcinogenicity Assessment 2.1. (docplayer.net)
  • Her interests extend to the development of advanced 3D culture models and mechanism-based bioassays for safety assessment to reduce the need for animal testing. (swansea.ac.uk)
  • The final assessment from this review resulted in a number of proposed changes to testing guidelines. (taconic.com)
  • The OECD Test Guidelines Programme develop Test Guidelines and other tools to support countries' needs related to testing and assessment of chemicals for endocrine disrupters. (oecd.org)
  • The OECD releases the Revised Guidance Document 150 on Standardised Test Guidelines for Evaluating Chemicals for Endocrine Disruption originally published in 2012 and updated in 2018 to reflect new and updated OECD test guidelines, as well as reflect on scientific advances in the use of test methods and assessment of the endocrine activity of chemicals. (oecd.org)
  • The OECD Conceptual Framework for Testing and Assessment of Endocrine Disrupters (as revised in 2012) lists the OECD Test Guidelines and standardized test methods available, under development or proposed that can be used to evaluate chemicals for endocrine disruption. (oecd.org)
  • The Conceptual Framework is intended to provide a guide to the tests available which can provide information for endocrine disrupters' assessment but is not intended to be a testing strategy. (oecd.org)
  • Recommended lists of genotoxic and non-genotoxic chemicals for assessment of the performance of new or improved genotoxicity tests: a follow-up to an ECVAM workshop. (europa.eu)
  • A large majority of the compounds has not been tested for potential adverse effects on human health, which makes it difficult to carry out adequate assessment of risks to an average consumer. (biomedsearch.com)
  • As revealed in a leaked copy of a draft version of the assessment report that was analysed by toxicologist Peter Clausing [4], even significant, positive results of carcinogenicity were dismissed, and evidence misrepresented and wilfully misinterpreted in order to diminish existing evidence. (i-sis.org.uk)
  • Tests for skin irritation (reversible skin damage) and skin corrosion (severe and irreversible skin damage). (humanesociety.org)
  • John H. Draize, Ph.D., a scientist at the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA), developed the Draize eye test in 1944 to assess eye irritation caused by various chemicals. (aavs.org)
  • Specific objectives include providing a description of the OECD conceptual framework for evaluating chemicals for endocrine disruption, background on the standardised test methods used, and guidance for interpreting the outcome of individual tests. (oecd.org)
  • Based on scientific works and research efforts, OECD started to investigate test methods that could be standardised and used in chemicals regulations to detect and characterise hazards posed by endocrine disrupting chemicals. (oecd.org)
  • Over 97% of all tested chemicals were classified correctly. (europa.eu)
  • In vitro testing methods are employed primarily to identify potentially hazardous chemicals and/or to confirm the lack of certain toxic properties in the early stages of the development of potentially useful new substances such as therapeutic drugs, agricultural chemicals and food additives. (bccresearch.com)
  • Most large chemical manufacturers have the ability to screen 100 or more synthetic chemicals per year with the traditional Ames test, which requires the use of several Salmonella strains. (wikipedia.org)
  • The umu test, using only a single Salmonella strain, could potentially test a greater range of new chemicals with the same resources. (wikipedia.org)
  • The SOS chromotest is comparable in accuracy and sensitivity to established methods such as the Ames test and is a useful tool to screen genotoxic compounds, which could prove carcinogenic in humans, in order to single out chemicals for further in-depth analysis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Secondly, it may allow the detection of genotoxic chemicals which yield false negatives in the Ames test (such as estradiol, a compound of growing concern). (wikipedia.org)
  • Compounds of beryllium have tested positively in nearly 50% of the genotoxic studies conducted without exogenous metabolic activation, but were nongenotoxic in most bacterial tests. (nap.edu)
  • 4 compounds do not need to be routinely tested for carcinogenicity. (docplayer.net)
  • The ToxTracker assay is a panel of six validated GFP-based mouse embryonic stem (mES) reporter cell lines that can be used to identify the biological reactivity and potential carcinogenic properties of compounds in a single test. (europa.eu)
  • The test compounds were solved in mouse embryonic stem (mES) cell culture medium. (europa.eu)
  • The methodology enabled prioritisation of the compounds on the basis of predicted toxicities, and identification of potential toxicants for targeted testing by standard laboratory procedures. (biomedsearch.com)
  • This response was due to bacterial metabolism of the test compounds by pathways believed to be similar to those known in the rat. (fluoridealert.org)
  • Salmonella typhimurium TA 1535 [pSK 1002] bacteria are exposed to potentially genotoxic test compounds in a 96-well microplate. (wikipedia.org)
  • Firstly, because of its simplicity and rapidity, the SOS chromotest may be used as a screening test for a large number of potentially genotoxic compounds. (wikipedia.org)
  • Structural correlates of carcinogenesis and mutagenesis : a guide to testing priorities? (who.int)
  • Carcinogenesis Testing Program (U.S. (worldcat.org)
  • However, strict regulations and predictive ability of in vitro testing over in vivo testing are hampering the market. (mynewsdesk.com)
  • Not considered genotoxic based on in vivo and in vitro testing. (ewg.org)
  • Such activity was not anticipated for what were previously considered inert materials, and in consequence several examples of these fluorocarbons, which represented different combinations of short-term test results, were tested for carcinogenicity in limited in vivo bioassays. (fluoridealert.org)
  • The general approach taken by the document is primarily to provide guidance on how test results might be interpreted based on the outcome of standardised assays. (oecd.org)
  • FC31 was a potent carcinogen (to the rat stomach) , a result which reflected the short-term test predictions, but FC133a, which gave a negative response in both the in vitro assays, induced a high incidence of reproductive tract tumors. (fluoridealert.org)
  • The tables below list prechronic and chronic toxicity studies and carcinogenicity studies, that were initiated, ongoing, or completed during FY 2016. (nih.gov)
  • The main purpose of carrying out these studies is to ensure that the test compound is safe before testing in humans (clinical trials), characterise toxicity and target organs, to fulfil regulatory requirements and to protect employees in manufacturing. (ukessays.com)
  • In humans, the bladder is one of the primary target organs for arsenic-induced carcinogenicity. (biomedsearch.com)
  • de Serres F.J. (1980) The International Program for the Evaluation of Short-Term Tests for Carcinogenicity (IPESTTC). (springer.com)
  • Cytotoxicity should be carried out in accordance with the requirements of ISO 10993-5 (Biological evaluation of medical devices - Part 5: Tests for cytotoxicity - in vitro methods). (fda.gov)
  • Testing for genotoxic potential should be conducted using two extractants as outlined in Annex D of ISO/DIS 11979-5 (Optics and Optical Instruments - Intraocular Lenses - Part 5: Biocompatibility), in accordance with ISO 10993-3 (Biological evaluation of medical devices - Part 3: Tests for genotoxicity, carcinogenicity and reproductive toxicity). (fda.gov)
  • All available (eco)toxicological data from standardized or non-standardized tests. (oecd.org)
  • ACD/Labs Package for Toxicity Screening of Impurities provides a battery of in silico tests to accurately assess the genotoxic and carcinogenic potential of impurities and degradants, found to be below the threshold of toxicological concern in drug products, helping companies remain compliant with regulatory submission requirements. (acdlabs.com)
  • In tests that are conducted on material extracts, testing should be conducted with two different extractants, one polar, and one nonpolar, except where a given extract is inappropriate (e.g., certain cytotoxicity protocols). (fda.gov)
  • Workshop report: chronic inhalation toxicity and carcinogenicity testing of respirable fibrous particles. (cdc.gov)
  • On May 8-10, 1995, a workshop on chronic inhalation toxicity and carcinogenicity testing of respirable fibrous particles was held in Chapel Hill, North Carolina. (cdc.gov)
  • and (iv) available screening tests which can be used to develop a minimum data set for (a) making decisions about the potential health hazard of the fibers and (b) prioritizing the need for further testing in a chronic inhalation study. (cdc.gov)
  • After extensive discussion and debate of the workshop issues, the general consensus of the expert panel is that chronic inhalation studies of fibers in the rat are the most appropriate tests for predicting inhalation hazard and risk of fibers to humans. (cdc.gov)
  • and (ii) to review and revise WHO guidelines on laboratory and field testing of chemical and bacterial larvicides and insect growth regulators (IGRs) against mosquito larvae. (who.int)
  • The Group also reviewed and revised the draft guidelines on laboratory and field testing of chemical and bacterial larvicides and insect growth regulators against mosquito larvae, to be published as a separate document by WHOPES. (who.int)
  • and Armitage, 1955, Biometrics 11, 375-386) is routinely applied to carcinogenicity data as a test for linear trend in lifetime tumor incidence rates. (rti.org)
  • This technique is compared to that of Bailer and Portier (1988, Biometrics 44, 417-431), who introduced a survival-adjusted quantal response test for trend in lifetime tumor incidence rates. (rti.org)
  • Although the delta method approach is slightly more computationally intensive, small-sample simulations indicate that it has superior operating characteristics over the Poly-3 trend test of Bailer and Portier when background tumor incidence rates are low (under 3%) and survival patterns differ markedly across treatments. (rti.org)
  • I thought you might be interested in this item at http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/4251262 Title: Bioassay of 1-phenyl-2-thiourea for possible carcinogenicity Publisher: Bethesda, Md. : U.S. Dept. of Health, Education, and Welfare, Public Health Service, National Institutes of Health, 1978. (worldcat.org)
  • However, little is known about the mechanisms underlying arsenic-induced carcinogenicity, and what arsenic species are responsible for this carcinogenicity. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Bioassay of 1-phenyl-2-thiourea for possible carcinogenicity/National Cancer Institute (U.S.). Division of Cancer Cause and Prevention. (worldcat.org)
  • The Department of Health and Human Services, the International Agency for Research on Cancer, and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) have not classified hexamethylene diisocyanate as to its human carcinogenicity. (cdc.gov)
  • The literature on carcinogenicity, including the epidemiologic literature and animal bioassays, is then reviewed. (nap.edu)
  • The delta method and weighted least squares techniques are applied here to approximate the variance of such ratio statistics and test for a linear dose-response relationship among treatments. (rti.org)
  • When analyzing common tumors, within-litter correlations can be included into the mixed effects logistic regression models used to test for dose-effects. (jyi.org)
  • In contrast, when studying less common tumors, these models often fail to converge, and thus prevent testing for dose effects. (jyi.org)
  • Overall, it was determined that when the dependent variable has a rare occurrence, optimization of the mixed model fitting cannot be completed and the tests for dose effects cannot be conducted. (jyi.org)
  • For decades, acute toxicity testing meant poisoning large numbers of animals in Lethal Dose 50 (LD50) tests, which are conducted until at least one half of the test animals die. (aavs.org)
  • If using a micro-plate reader, the test is quantitative and dose-response curves have an initial linear region. (wikipedia.org)
  • The present studies were conducted as a model for the rapid carcinogenicity testing system. (nii.ac.jp)
  • It also provides guidance on the conduct of carcinogenicity studies. (docplayer.net)
  • Overall approach The decision to undertake carcinogenicity testing should take into consideration, 1) the results of genotoxicity tests, 2) structure-activity relationships, and 3) findings in systemic toxicity tests that may be relevant to neoplasia in longer term studies. (docplayer.net)
  • In other words, quality, safety and efficacy of a test compound are determined during pre-clinical studies. (ukessays.com)
  • In order to evaluate carcinogenicity, two types of studies are conducted which are the short-term study and the long-term study. (ukessays.com)
  • No carcinogenicity studies are available in people. (cdc.gov)
  • No reproductive/developmentl toxicity reported from animal testing. (ewg.org)
  • Data on health effects in humans are confined to patch tests demonstrating skin sensitization in some subjects. (powells.com)
  • The document is not proscriptive but provides suggestions for possible next steps in testing (if any) which might be appropriate for a regulatory authority to take, given the various data scenarios. (oecd.org)
  • There are sufficient existing safety data as well as in vitro alternatives to make animal testing for cosmetic and household products obsolete. (aavs.org)
  • A method for comparing and combining short-term genotoxicity test data: the basic system. (nih.gov)
  • Since the chemical tested may inhibit protein synthesis at higher concentrations, which would lead to an underestimation of B-galactosidase induction, alkaline phosphatase is assayed simultaneously with β-galactosidase in order to scale the data to survivability of the cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Over the past century these and other species have been used to advance our knowledge of disease, to test new drugs, and to assure their safety before moving into the clinical phase with human subjects. (taconic.com)
  • It has not been adequately tested in other species. (inchem.org)
  • This paper demonstrates the use of the delta method for estimating the variance of ratio statistics derived from animal carcinogenicity experiments. (rti.org)
  • Their test modifies the usual Cochran-Armitage computing formula by weighting the denominators of the response rates to reflect less-than-whole-animal contributions to risk. (rti.org)
  • The Tg rasH2/CB6F1 mouse seems to be a promising candidate as an animal model for the development of a rapid carcinogenicity testing system. (nii.ac.jp)
  • The Foundation for Biomedical Research website has a table listing the animals behind top drugs and a comprehensive summary of how animal testing and research has advanced human health. (taconic.com)
  • Early identification of drugs that will fail testing in higher level animal models or clinical trials, lowers the over-all cost of drug development. (taconic.com)
  • GEN Exclusives has published an article by Amar Thyagarajan, PhD, Senior Product Manager at Taconic Biosciences, titled New Guidelines Involve the Testing Done on Animal Models . (taconic.com)
  • As a result, animal-based testing methods continue to fail legitimate human needs, while new discoveries in the field of alternatives have led to new and improved techniques that do not involve live animals. (aavs.org)
  • For years, the U.S. has lagged behind the European Union, which passed a law in 2004 that phased out the use of animals to test cosmetic products and ingredients, as well as the sale of products containing ingredients subjected to new animal tests. (aavs.org)
  • China has recently announced plans to limit mandatory animal testing for some cosmetic products. (aavs.org)
  • It would also ban the use animals testing cosmetics and their ingredients, as well as phase out the sale of cosmetic products containing animal tested ingredients. (aavs.org)
  • However, neither agency requires companies to use animal tests to access safety of their products. (aavs.org)
  • Unfortunately, many companies remain resistant to changing their testing techniques and U.S. agencies, like the FDA, continue to endorse animal testing methods as the gold standard. (aavs.org)
  • While no non-animal alternative has yet been approved as a replacement for the Draize eye test, two alternatives have been created to allow for partial replacement of animal tests in a tiered testing scheme. (aavs.org)
  • The carcinogenicity study evaluates the carcinogenic potential of the compound. (ukessays.com)
  • TEST ANIMALS- Source: Simonsen Laboratories (Gilroy, CA)- Age at study initiation: approx. (europa.eu)
  • Not applicable - Since this is an in vitro study there is no information on test animals. (europa.eu)
  • His laboratory was connected with her apartments by a secret passageway, so that no formulae could be stolen en route. (wikipedia.org)
  • Laboratory tests performed on whole blood specimens and includes the following: White blood cell count (WBC), hematocrit (Hct), red blood cell count (RBC), hemoglobin (Hgb), differential count of white blood cells, red blood cell morphology, red blood cell indices, and platelet count. (wa.gov)
  • MC has been tested for carcinogenicity in several laboratory rodents. (osha.gov)
  • The National Library of Medicine does not test products nor does it evaluate information from the product label or the (M)SDS. (nih.gov)
  • The multiplicity of comparisons has given rise to concern that individual Fisher-Irwin tests could seriously overstate the experimental evidence in some situations. (nih.gov)
  • There is limited evidence for the carcinogenicity of chlorofluoromethane to experimental animals. (fluoridealert.org)
  • mouse lymphoma assay (MLA) otherwise known as in vitro mammalian cell clastogenecity, the Bruce Ames test (Ames test) and mouse micronuclei assay. (ukessays.com)
  • The Ames test is commonly used for the genotoxicity test and it detects whether the drug is genotoxic. (ukessays.com)
  • The MLA requires between 2-3weeks and can either give a negative result to the Ames test or not detected at all. (ukessays.com)
  • It serves as a useful and cost effective complement to the traditional Ames test for a number of reasons. (wikipedia.org)
  • some of them support the development of OECD Test Guidelines (e.g. validation reports, guidance documents, detailed review papers). (oecd.org)
  • A validation management group for mammalian testing. (oecd.org)
  • In vitro toxicity testing is the scientific analysis of the effects of toxic chemical substances on cultured bacteria or mammalian cells. (bccresearch.com)
  • Meanwhile, several short-termin vitroandin vivostudies that may be useful to assess the relative potential of fibrous substances to cause lung toxicity/carcinogenicity have been identified. (cdc.gov)
  • However, there are problems with these tests: antibodies can react with other substances that look like hexamethylene diisocyanate in your blood and indicate that you have been exposed to hexamethylene diisocyanate when you have not been. (cdc.gov)
  • We built our own environmental testing lab, where our chemists and toxicologists look for any potentially harmful substances. (apple.com)
  • This concept is employed so as to reduce the numbers of animals and also to avoid prolonged testing period. (ukessays.com)
  • Pain relief is rarely provided and the animals used are always killed at the end of each test. (humanesociety.org)
  • A 2011 survey found that 67% of Americans believe that companies should not test products like cosmetics and dish soap on animals, and 60% are more likely to buy products that have not been testing on animals. (aavs.org)
  • Other tests include the acute toxic class method and the up-and-down procedure, which typically involve the use of a smaller number of animals. (aavs.org)
  • Some of these materials (FC22, FC31, FC142b, FC143 and FC143a) were found to be positive in 1 or both of the tests and could therefore be considered as being potentially carcinogenic to animals. (fluoridealert.org)
  • Genotoxicity test is carried out so as to determine whether the anti-arthritis drug can cause genetic damage. (ukessays.com)
  • These tests detects whether the anti-arthritis can cause alterations in chromosome and damage to DNA leading to genetic mutation and ultimately results in malignant tumour (cancerous cell). (ukessays.com)
  • Only a very few lung adenomas but no other tumors were seen as spontaneous tumors during the months of carcnogenicity tests. (nii.ac.jp)