Carcinogens: Substances that increase the risk of NEOPLASMS in humans or animals. Both genotoxic chemicals, which affect DNA directly, and nongenotoxic chemicals, which induce neoplasms by other mechanism, are included.Carcinogenesis: The origin, production or development of cancer through genotypic and phenotypic changes which upset the normal balance between cell proliferation and cell death. Carcinogenesis generally requires a constellation of steps, which may occur quickly or over a period of many years.Cell Transformation, Neoplastic: Cell changes manifested by escape from control mechanisms, increased growth potential, alterations in the cell surface, karyotypic abnormalities, morphological and biochemical deviations from the norm, and other attributes conferring the ability to invade, metastasize, and kill.Cocarcinogenesis: The combination of two or more different factors in the production of cancer.9,10-Dimethyl-1,2-benzanthracene: 7,12-Dimethylbenzanthracene. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon found in tobacco smoke that is a potent carcinogen.Precancerous Conditions: Pathological processes that tend eventually to become malignant. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Azoxymethane: A potent carcinogen and neurotoxic compound. It is particularly effective in inducing colon carcinomas.Anticarcinogenic Agents: Agents that reduce the frequency or rate of spontaneous or induced tumors independently of the mechanism involved.Papilloma: A circumscribed benign epithelial tumor projecting from the surrounding surface; more precisely, a benign epithelial neoplasm consisting of villous or arborescent outgrowths of fibrovascular stroma covered by neoplastic cells. (Stedman, 25th ed)Rats, Inbred F344Skin Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the SKIN.Methylnitrosourea: A nitrosourea compound with alkylating, carcinogenic, and mutagenic properties.Colonic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the COLON.Carcinogenicity Tests: Tests to experimentally measure the tumor-producing/cancer cell-producing potency of an agent by administering the agent (e.g., benzanthracenes) and observing the quantity of tumors or the cell transformation developed over a given period of time. The carcinogenicity value is usually measured as milligrams of agent administered per tumor developed. Though this test differs from the DNA-repair and bacterial microsome MUTAGENICITY TESTS, researchers often attempt to correlate the finding of carcinogenicity values and mutagenicity values.1,2-Dimethylhydrazine: A DNA alkylating agent that has been shown to be a potent carcinogen and is widely used to induce colon tumors in experimental animals.Neoplasms, Experimental: Experimentally induced new abnormal growth of TISSUES in animals to provide models for studying human neoplasms.Nitrosamines: A class of compounds that contain a -NH2 and a -NO radical. Many members of this group have carcinogenic and mutagenic properties.Mammary Neoplasms, Experimental: Experimentally induced mammary neoplasms in animals to provide a model for studying human BREAST NEOPLASMS.Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.Stomach Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the STOMACH.Adenocarcinoma: A malignant epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.Adenoma: A benign epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.4-Nitroquinoline-1-oxide: A potent mutagen and carcinogen. This compound and its metabolite 4-HYDROXYAMINOQUINOLINE-1-OXIDE bind to nucleic acids. It inactivates bacteria but not bacteriophage.Neoplasms, Radiation-Induced: Tumors, cancer or other neoplasms produced by exposure to ionizing or non-ionizing radiation.Liver Neoplasms, Experimental: Experimentally induced tumors of the LIVER.Carcinoma, Squamous Cell: A carcinoma derived from stratified SQUAMOUS EPITHELIAL CELLS. It may also occur in sites where glandular or columnar epithelium is normally present. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Diethylnitrosamine: A nitrosamine derivative with alkylating, carcinogenic, and mutagenic properties.Neoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.Butylhydroxybutylnitrosamine: A substituted carcinogenic nitrosamine.Carcinogens, Environmental: Carcinogenic substances that are found in the environment.Dimethylhydrazines: Hydrazines substituted with two methyl groups in any position.Methylnitronitrosoguanidine: A nitrosoguanidine derivative with potent mutagenic and carcinogenic properties.Benzo(a)pyrene: A potent mutagen and carcinogen. It is a public health concern because of its possible effects on industrial workers, as an environmental pollutant, an as a component of tobacco smoke.Genes, ras: Family of retrovirus-associated DNA sequences (ras) originally isolated from Harvey (H-ras, Ha-ras, rasH) and Kirsten (K-ras, Ki-ras, rasK) murine sarcoma viruses. Ras genes are widely conserved among animal species and sequences corresponding to both H-ras and K-ras genes have been detected in human, avian, murine, and non-vertebrate genomes. The closely related N-ras gene has been detected in human neuroblastoma and sarcoma cell lines. All genes of the family have a similar exon-intron structure and each encodes a p21 protein.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Colorectal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the COLON or the RECTUM or both. Risk factors for colorectal cancer include chronic ULCERATIVE COLITIS; FAMILIAL POLYPOSIS COLI; exposure to ASBESTOS; and irradiation of the CERVIX UTERI.Hyperplasia: An increase in the number of cells in a tissue or organ without tumor formation. It differs from HYPERTROPHY, which is an increase in bulk without an increase in the number of cells.Mesocricetus: A genus of the family Muridae having three species. The present domesticated strains were developed from individuals brought from Syria. They are widely used in biomedical research.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Mouth Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the MOUTH.DNA Methylation: Addition of methyl groups to DNA. DNA methyltransferases (DNA methylases) perform this reaction using S-ADENOSYLMETHIONINE as the methyl group donor.Cyclooxygenase 2: An inducibly-expressed subtype of prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase. It plays an important role in many cellular processes and INFLAMMATION. It is the target of COX2 INHIBITORS.Chemoprevention: The use of chemical compounds to prevent the development of a specific disease.Lung Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the LUNG.Liver Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the LIVER.Colon: The segment of LARGE INTESTINE between the CECUM and the RECTUM. It includes the ASCENDING COLON; the TRANSVERSE COLON; the DESCENDING COLON; and the SIGMOID COLON.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Carcinoma: A malignant neoplasm made up of epithelial cells tending to infiltrate the surrounding tissues and give rise to metastases. It is a histological type of neoplasm but is often wrongly used as a synonym for "cancer." (From Dorland, 27th ed)Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Intestinal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the INTESTINES.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.DNA Adducts: The products of chemical reactions that result in the addition of extraneous chemical groups to DNA.Azaserine: Antibiotic substance produced by various Streptomyces species. It is an inhibitor of enzymatic activities that involve glutamine and is used as an antineoplastic and immunosuppressive agent.Tumor Suppressor Protein p53: Nuclear phosphoprotein encoded by the p53 gene (GENES, P53) whose normal function is to control CELL PROLIFERATION and APOPTOSIS. A mutant or absent p53 protein has been found in LEUKEMIA; OSTEOSARCOMA; LUNG CANCER; and COLORECTAL CANCER.DNA Damage: Injuries to DNA that introduce deviations from its normal, intact structure and which may, if left unrepaired, result in a MUTATION or a block of DNA REPLICATION. These deviations may be caused by physical or chemical agents and occur by natural or unnatural, introduced circumstances. They include the introduction of illegitimate bases during replication or by deamination or other modification of bases; the loss of a base from the DNA backbone leaving an abasic site; single-strand breaks; double strand breaks; and intrastrand (PYRIMIDINE DIMERS) or interstrand crosslinking. Damage can often be repaired (DNA REPAIR). If the damage is extensive, it can induce APOPTOSIS.Keratinocytes: Epidermal cells which synthesize keratin and undergo characteristic changes as they move upward from the basal layers of the epidermis to the cornified (horny) layer of the skin. Successive stages of differentiation of the keratinocytes forming the epidermal layers are basal cell, spinous or prickle cell, and the granular cell.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Urethane: Antineoplastic agent that is also used as a veterinary anesthetic. It has also been used as an intermediate in organic synthesis. Urethane is suspected to be a carcinogen.Urinary Bladder Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the URINARY BLADDER.Tumor Markers, Biological: Molecular products metabolized and secreted by neoplastic tissue and characterized biochemically in cells or body fluids. They are indicators of tumor stage and grade as well as useful for monitoring responses to treatment and predicting recurrence. Many chemical groups are represented including hormones, antigens, amino and nucleic acids, enzymes, polyamines, and specific cell membrane proteins and lipids.Mutagens: Chemical agents that increase the rate of genetic mutation by interfering with the function of nucleic acids. A clastogen is a specific mutagen that causes breaks in chromosomes.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.2-Acetylaminofluorene: A hepatic carcinogen whose mechanism of activation involves N-hydroxylation to the aryl hydroxamic acid followed by enzymatic sulfonation to sulfoxyfluorenylacetamide. It is used to study the carcinogenicity and mutagenicity of aromatic amines.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Esophageal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the ESOPHAGUS.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Genes, Tumor Suppressor: Genes that inhibit expression of the tumorigenic phenotype. They are normally involved in holding cellular growth in check. When tumor suppressor genes are inactivated or lost, a barrier to normal proliferation is removed and unregulated growth is possible.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Mice, Inbred SENCAR: Mice selectively bred for hypersusceptibility to two-stage chemical skin carcinogenesis. They are also hypersusceptible to UV radiation tumorigenesis with single high-dose, but not chronic low-dose, exposures. SENCAR (SENsitive to CARcinogenesis) mice are used in research as an animal model for tumor production.DNA, Neoplasm: DNA present in neoplastic tissue.Disease Progression: The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.Genes, p53: Tumor suppressor genes located on the short arm of human chromosome 17 and coding for the phosphoprotein p53.Epithelial Cells: Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.Diet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.Mutagenicity Tests: Tests of chemical substances and physical agents for mutagenic potential. They include microbial, insect, mammalian cell, and whole animal tests.Gastric Mucosa: Lining of the STOMACH, consisting of an inner EPITHELIUM, a middle LAMINA PROPRIA, and an outer MUSCULARIS MUCOSAE. The surface cells produce MUCUS that protects the stomach from attack by digestive acid and enzymes. When the epithelium invaginates into the LAMINA PROPRIA at various region of the stomach (CARDIA; GASTRIC FUNDUS; and PYLORUS), different tubular gastric glands are formed. These glands consist of cells that secrete mucus, enzymes, HYDROCHLORIC ACID, or hormones.Ultraviolet Rays: That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum immediately below the visible range and extending into the x-ray frequencies. The longer wavelengths (near-UV or biotic or vital rays) are necessary for the endogenous synthesis of vitamin D and are also called antirachitic rays; the shorter, ionizing wavelengths (far-UV or abiotic or extravital rays) are viricidal, bactericidal, mutagenic, and carcinogenic and are used as disinfectants.Mice, Hairless: Mutant strains of mice that produce little or no hair.Benz(a)Anthracenes: Four fused benzyl rings with three linear and one angular, that can be viewed as a benzyl-phenanthrenes. Compare with NAPHTHACENES which are four linear rings.beta Catenin: A multi-functional catenin that participates in CELL ADHESION and nuclear signaling. Beta catenin binds CADHERINS and helps link their cytoplasmic tails to the ACTIN in the CYTOSKELETON via ALPHA CATENIN. It also serves as a transcriptional co-activator and downstream component of WNT PROTEIN-mediated SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS.Intestinal Mucosa: Lining of the INTESTINES, consisting of an inner EPITHELIUM, a middle LAMINA PROPRIA, and an outer MUSCULARIS MUCOSAE. In the SMALL INTESTINE, the mucosa is characterized by a series of folds and abundance of absorptive cells (ENTEROCYTES) with MICROVILLI.Pancreatic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the PANCREAS. Depending on the types of ISLET CELLS present in the tumors, various hormones can be secreted: GLUCAGON from PANCREATIC ALPHA CELLS; INSULIN from PANCREATIC BETA CELLS; and SOMATOSTATIN from the SOMATOSTATIN-SECRETING CELLS. Most are malignant except the insulin-producing tumors (INSULINOMA).Prostatic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the PROSTATE.Carcinoma, Hepatocellular: A primary malignant neoplasm of epithelial liver cells. It ranges from a well-differentiated tumor with EPITHELIAL CELLS indistinguishable from normal HEPATOCYTES to a poorly differentiated neoplasm. The cells may be uniform or markedly pleomorphic, or form GIANT CELLS. Several classification schemes have been suggested.Methylhydrazines: Hydrazines substituted by one or more methyl groups in any position.Neoplasm Proteins: Proteins whose abnormal expression (gain or loss) are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS. Some neoplasm proteins are tumor antigens (ANTIGENS, NEOPLASM), i.e. they induce an immune reaction to their tumor. Many neoplasm proteins have been characterized and are used as tumor markers (BIOMARKERS, TUMOR) when they are detectable in cells and body fluids as monitors for the presence or growth of tumors. Abnormal expression of ONCOGENE PROTEINS is involved in neoplastic transformation, whereas the loss of expression of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEINS is involved with the loss of growth control and progression of the neoplasm.Mammary Neoplasms, Animal: Tumors or cancer of the MAMMARY GLAND in animals (MAMMARY GLANDS, ANIMAL).Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Skin: The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.Carcinoma in Situ: A lesion with cytological characteristics associated with invasive carcinoma but the tumor cells are confined to the epithelium of origin, without invasion of the basement membrane.Tetradecanoylphorbol Acetate: A phorbol ester found in CROTON OIL with very effective tumor promoting activity. It stimulates the synthesis of both DNA and RNA.Uterine Cervical Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the UTERINE CERVIX.Dimethylnitrosamine: A nitrosamine derivative with alkylating, carcinogenic, and mutagenic properties. It causes serious liver damage and is a hepatocarcinogen in rodents.Epidermis: The external, nonvascular layer of the skin. It is made up, from within outward, of five layers of EPITHELIUM: (1) basal layer (stratum basale epidermidis); (2) spinous layer (stratum spinosum epidermidis); (3) granular layer (stratum granulosum epidermidis); (4) clear layer (stratum lucidum epidermidis); and (5) horny layer (stratum corneum epidermidis).Cheek: The part of the face that is below the eye and to the side of the nose and mouth.Mammary Glands, Animal: MAMMARY GLANDS in the non-human MAMMALS.Mice, Inbred C57BLAberrant Crypt Foci: Clusters of colonic crypts that appear different from the surrounding mucosa when visualized after staining. They are of interest as putative precursors to colorectal adenomas and potential biomarkers for colorectal carcinoma.Deoxyguanosine: A nucleoside consisting of the base guanine and the sugar deoxyribose.Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Oncogenes: Genes whose gain-of-function alterations lead to NEOPLASTIC CELL TRANSFORMATION. They include, for example, genes for activators or stimulators of CELL PROLIFERATION such as growth factors, growth factor receptors, protein kinases, signal transducers, nuclear phosphoproteins, and transcription factors. A prefix of "v-" before oncogene symbols indicates oncogenes captured and transmitted by RETROVIRUSES; the prefix "c-" before the gene symbol of an oncogene indicates it is the cellular homolog (PROTO-ONCOGENES) of a v-oncogene.Breast Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.Rats, Inbred ACIProstaglandin-Endoperoxide Synthases: Enzyme complexes that catalyze the formation of PROSTAGLANDINS from the appropriate unsaturated FATTY ACIDS, molecular OXYGEN, and a reduced acceptor.Genes, APC: Tumor suppressor genes located in the 5q21 region on the long arm of human chromosome 5. The mutation of these genes is associated with familial adenomatous polyposis (ADENOMATOUS POLYPOSIS COLI) and GARDNER SYNDROME, as well as some sporadic colorectal cancers.Tongue Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the TONGUE.Ornithine Decarboxylase: A pyridoxal-phosphate protein, believed to be the rate-limiting compound in the biosynthesis of polyamines. It catalyzes the decarboxylation of ornithine to form putrescine, which is then linked to a propylamine moiety of decarboxylated S-adenosylmethionine to form spermidine.Butylated Hydroxytoluene: A di-tert-butyl PHENOL with antioxidant properties.Metaplasia: A condition in which there is a change of one adult cell type to another similar adult cell type.Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen: Nuclear antigen with a role in DNA synthesis, DNA repair, and cell cycle progression. PCNA is required for the coordinated synthesis of both leading and lagging strands at the replication fork during DNA replication. PCNA expression correlates with the proliferation activity of several malignant and non-malignant cell types.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Benzopyrenes: A class of chemicals that contain an anthracene ring with a naphthalene ring attached to it.Loss of Heterozygosity: The loss of one allele at a specific locus, caused by a deletion mutation; or loss of a chromosome from a chromosome pair, resulting in abnormal HEMIZYGOSITY. It is detected when heterozygous markers for a locus appear monomorphic because one of the ALLELES was deleted.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Sulfadimethoxine: A sulfanilamide that is used as an anti-infective agent.Neoplasm Invasiveness: Ability of neoplasms to infiltrate and actively destroy surrounding tissue.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Epithelium: One or more layers of EPITHELIAL CELLS, supported by the basal lamina, which covers the inner or outer surfaces of the body.Alkylating Agents: Highly reactive chemicals that introduce alkyl radicals into biologically active molecules and thereby prevent their proper functioning. Many are used as antineoplastic agents, but most are very toxic, with carcinogenic, mutagenic, teratogenic, and immunosuppressant actions. They have also been used as components in poison gases.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Butylated Hydroxyanisole: Mixture of 2- and 3-tert-butyl-4-methoxyphenols that is used as an antioxidant in foods, cosmetics, and pharmaceuticals.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Genetic Predisposition to Disease: A latent susceptibility to disease at the genetic level, which may be activated under certain conditions.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Papillomaviridae: A family of small, non-enveloped DNA viruses infecting birds and most mammals, especially humans. They are grouped into multiple genera, but the viruses are highly host-species specific and tissue-restricted. They are commonly divided into hundreds of papillomavirus "types", each with specific gene function and gene control regions, despite sequence homology. Human papillomaviruses are found in the genera ALPHAPAPILLOMAVIRUS; BETAPAPILLOMAVIRUS; GAMMAPAPILLOMAVIRUS; and MUPAPILLOMAVIRUS.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Plant Extracts: Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.Croton Oil: Viscous, nauseating oil obtained from the shrub Croton tiglium (Euphorbaceae). It is a vesicant and skin irritant used as pharmacologic standard for skin inflammation and allergy and causes skin cancer. It was formerly used as an emetic and cathartic with frequent mortality.Down-Regulation: A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Gene Silencing: Interruption or suppression of the expression of a gene at transcriptional or translational levels.Tumor Suppressor Proteins: Proteins that are normally involved in holding cellular growth in check. Deficiencies or abnormalities in these proteins may lead to unregulated cell growth and tumor development.Aflatoxin B1: A potent hepatotoxic and hepatocarcinogenic mycotoxin produced by the Aspergillus flavus group of fungi. It is also mutagenic, teratogenic, and causes immunosuppression in animals. It is found as a contaminant in peanuts, cottonseed meal, corn, and other grains. The mycotoxin requires epoxidation to aflatoxin B1 2,3-oxide for activation. Microsomal monooxygenases biotransform the toxin to the less toxic metabolites aflatoxin M1 and Q1.DNA Repair: The reconstruction of a continuous two-stranded DNA molecule without mismatch from a molecule which contained damaged regions. The major repair mechanisms are excision repair, in which defective regions in one strand are excised and resynthesized using the complementary base pairing information in the intact strand; photoreactivation repair, in which the lethal and mutagenic effects of ultraviolet light are eliminated; and post-replication repair, in which the primary lesions are not repaired, but the gaps in one daughter duplex are filled in by incorporation of portions of the other (undamaged) daughter duplex. Excision repair and post-replication repair are sometimes referred to as "dark repair" because they do not require light.Cyclin D1: Protein encoded by the bcl-1 gene which plays a critical role in regulating the cell cycle. Overexpression of cyclin D1 is the result of bcl-1 rearrangement, a t(11;14) translocation, and is implicated in various neoplasms.Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16: A product of the p16 tumor suppressor gene (GENES, P16). It is also called INK4 or INK4A because it is the prototype member of the INK4 CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE INHIBITORS. This protein is produced from the alpha mRNA transcript of the p16 gene. The other gene product, produced from the alternatively spliced beta transcript, is TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN P14ARF. Both p16 gene products have tumor suppressor functions.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Glutathione Transferase: A transferase that catalyzes the addition of aliphatic, aromatic, or heterocyclic FREE RADICALS as well as EPOXIDES and arene oxides to GLUTATHIONE. Addition takes place at the SULFUR. It also catalyzes the reduction of polyol nitrate by glutathione to polyol and nitrite.Immunoenzyme Techniques: Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.Isoenzymes: Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.Helicobacter Infections: Infections with organisms of the genus HELICOBACTER, particularly, in humans, HELICOBACTER PYLORI. The clinical manifestations are focused in the stomach, usually the gastric mucosa and antrum, and the upper duodenum. This infection plays a major role in the pathogenesis of type B gastritis and peptic ulcer disease.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.CpG Islands: Areas of increased density of the dinucleotide sequence cytosine--phosphate diester--guanine. They form stretches of DNA several hundred to several thousand base pairs long. In humans there are about 45,000 CpG islands, mostly found at the 5' ends of genes. They are unmethylated except for those on the inactive X chromosome and some associated with imprinted genes.FANFT: A potent nitrofuran derivative tumor initiator. It causes bladder tumors in all animals studied and is mutagenic to many bacteria.Mice, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis: Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.Mouth Mucosa: Lining of the ORAL CAVITY, including mucosa on the GUMS; the PALATE; the LIP; the CHEEK; floor of the mouth; and other structures. The mucosa is generally a nonkeratinized stratified squamous EPITHELIUM covering muscle, bone, or glands but can show varying degree of keratinization at specific locations.Azo CompoundsEstrogens, Catechol: 2- or 4-Hydroxyestrogens. Substances that are physiologically active in mammals, especially in the control of gonadotropin secretion. Physiological activity can be ascribed to either an estrogenic action or interaction with the catecholaminergic system.Epigenesis, Genetic: A genetic process by which the adult organism is realized via mechanisms that lead to the restriction in the possible fates of cells, eventually leading to their differentiated state. Mechanisms involved cause heritable changes to cells without changes to DNA sequence such as DNA METHYLATION; HISTONE modification; DNA REPLICATION TIMING; NUCLEOSOME positioning; and heterochromatization which result in selective gene expression or repression.Helicobacter pylori: A spiral bacterium active as a human gastric pathogen. It is a gram-negative, urease-positive, curved or slightly spiral organism initially isolated in 1982 from patients with lesions of gastritis or peptic ulcers in Western Australia. Helicobacter pylori was originally classified in the genus CAMPYLOBACTER, but RNA sequencing, cellular fatty acid profiles, growth patterns, and other taxonomic characteristics indicate that the micro-organism should be included in the genus HELICOBACTER. It has been officially transferred to Helicobacter gen. nov. (see Int J Syst Bacteriol 1989 Oct;39(4):297-405).RNA, Neoplasm: RNA present in neoplastic tissue.Prostate: A gland in males that surrounds the neck of the URINARY BLADDER and the URETHRA. It secretes a substance that liquefies coagulated semen. It is situated in the pelvic cavity behind the lower part of the PUBIC SYMPHYSIS, above the deep layer of the triangular ligament, and rests upon the RECTUM.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Lipotropic Agents: Endogenous factors or drugs that increase the transport and metabolism of LIPIDS including the synthesis of LIPOPROTEINS by the LIVER and their uptake by extrahepatic tissues.Antioxidants: Naturally occurring or synthetic substances that inhibit or retard the oxidation of a substance to which it is added. They counteract the harmful and damaging effects of oxidation in animal tissues.Endometrial Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of ENDOMETRIUM, the mucous lining of the UTERUS. These neoplasms can be benign or malignant. Their classification and grading are based on the various cell types and the percent of undifferentiated cells.Kidney Neoplasms: Tumors or cancers of the KIDNEY.Cyclooxygenase 2 Inhibitors: A subclass of cyclooxygenase inhibitors with specificity for CYCLOOXYGENASE-2.Cell Cycle: The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.p-Dimethylaminoazobenzene: A reagent used mainly to induce experimental liver cancer. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, p. 89) published in 1985, this compound "may reasonably be anticipated to be a carcinogen." (Merck, 11th ed)Up-Regulation: A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Isothiocyanates: Organic compounds with the general formula R-NCS.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Keratin-14: A type I keratin that is found associated with the KERATIN-5 in the internal stratified EPITHELIUM. Mutations in the gene for keratin-14 are associated with EPIDERMOLYSIS BULLOSA SIMPLEX.Breast: In humans, one of the paired regions in the anterior portion of the THORAX. The breasts consist of the MAMMARY GLANDS, the SKIN, the MUSCLES, the ADIPOSE TISSUE, and the CONNECTIVE TISSUES.MicroRNAs: Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs, 21-25 nucleotides in length generated from single-stranded microRNA gene transcripts by the same RIBONUCLEASE III, Dicer, that produces small interfering RNAs (RNA, SMALL INTERFERING). They become part of the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX and repress the translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC) of target RNA by binding to homologous 3'UTR region as an imperfect match. The small temporal RNAs (stRNAs), let-7 and lin-4, from C. elegans, are the first 2 miRNAs discovered, and are from a class of miRNAs involved in developmental timing.Mice, Nude: Mutant mice homozygous for the recessive gene "nude" which fail to develop a thymus. They are useful in tumor studies and studies on immune responses.Tea: The infusion of leaves of CAMELLIA SINENSIS (formerly Thea sinensis) as a beverage, the familiar Asian tea, which contains CATECHIN (especially epigallocatechin gallate) and CAFFEINE.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Estrogens: Compounds that interact with ESTROGEN RECEPTORS in target tissues to bring about the effects similar to those of ESTRADIOL. Estrogens stimulate the female reproductive organs, and the development of secondary female SEX CHARACTERISTICS. Estrogenic chemicals include natural, synthetic, steroidal, or non-steroidal compounds.Disease Susceptibility: A constitution or condition of the body which makes the tissues react in special ways to certain extrinsic stimuli and thus tends to make the individual more than usually susceptible to certain diseases.Helicobacter felis: A species of HELICOBACTER that colonizes in the STOMACH of laboratory MICE; CATS; and DOGS. It is associated with lymphoid follicular hyperplasia and mild GASTRITIS in CATS.Methyldimethylaminoazobenzene: A very potent liver carcinogen.Mice, Inbred ICRMethylcholanthrene: A carcinogen that is often used in experimental cancer studies.Trans-Activators: Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Telomerase: An essential ribonucleoprotein reverse transcriptase that adds telomeric DNA to the ends of eukaryotic CHROMOSOMES.Papillomavirus Infections: Neoplasms of the skin and mucous membranes caused by papillomaviruses. They are usually benign but some have a high risk for malignant progression.Oncogene Proteins, Viral: Products of viral oncogenes, most commonly retroviral oncogenes. They usually have transforming and often protein kinase activities.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Polymorphism, Single-Stranded Conformational: Variation in a population's DNA sequence that is detected by determining alterations in the conformation of denatured DNA fragments. Denatured DNA fragments are allowed to renature under conditions that prevent the formation of double-stranded DNA and allow secondary structure to form in single stranded fragments. These fragments are then run through polyacrylamide gels to detect variations in the secondary structure that is manifested as an alteration in migration through the gels.Aminobiphenyl Compounds: Biphenyl compounds substituted in any position by one or more amino groups. Permitted are any substituents except fused rings.Organ Size: The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.Leukoplakia: A white patch lesion found on a MUCOUS MEMBRANE that cannot be scraped off. Leukoplakia is generally considered a precancerous condition, however its appearance may also result from a variety of HEREDITARY DISEASES.Keratosis: Any horny growth such as a wart or callus.Saccharin: Flavoring agent and non-nutritive sweetener.gamma-Glutamyltransferase: An enzyme, sometimes called GGT, with a key role in the synthesis and degradation of GLUTATHIONE; (GSH, a tripeptide that protects cells from many toxins). It catalyzes the transfer of the gamma-glutamyl moiety to an acceptor amino acid.Antineoplastic Agents: Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Human papillomavirus 16: A type of ALPHAPAPILLOMAVIRUS especially associated with malignant tumors of the CERVIX and the RESPIRATORY MUCOSA.Arsenic: A shiny gray element with atomic symbol As, atomic number 33, and atomic weight 75. It occurs throughout the universe, mostly in the form of metallic arsenides. Most forms are toxic. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985), arsenic and certain arsenic compounds have been listed as known carcinogens. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Barrett Esophagus: A condition with damage to the lining of the lower ESOPHAGUS resulting from chronic acid reflux (ESOPHAGITIS, REFLUX). Through the process of metaplasia, the squamous cells are replaced by a columnar epithelium with cells resembling those of the INTESTINE or the salmon-pink mucosa of the STOMACH. Barrett's columnar epithelium is a marker for severe reflux and precursor to ADENOCARCINOMA of the esophagus.Antimutagenic Agents: Agents that reduce the frequency or rate of spontaneous or induced mutations independently of the mechanism involved.Microsatellite Repeats: A variety of simple repeat sequences that are distributed throughout the GENOME. They are characterized by a short repeat unit of 2-8 basepairs that is repeated up to 100 times. They are also known as short tandem repeats (STRs).

Additive SMILES-based carcinogenicity models: Probabilistic principles in the search for robust predictions. (1/423)

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Functional analysis of familial Asp67Glu and Thr1051Ser BRCA1 mutations in breast/ovarian carcinogenesis. (2/423)

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Lewis Y promotes growth and adhesion of ovarian carcinoma-derived RMG-I cells by upregulating growth factors. (3/423)

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Alcohol intake and folate antagonism via CYP2E1 and ALDH1: effects on oral carcinogenesis. (4/423)

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The propensity for tumorigenesis in human induced pluripotent stem cells is related with genomic instability. (5/423)

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The good, the bad and the ugly: epigenetic mechanisms in glioblastoma. (6/423)

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Analysis of a novel highly metastatic melanoma cell line identifies osteopontin as a new lymphangiogenic factor. (7/423)

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Eicosanoid profiling in colon cancer: emergence of a pattern. (8/423)

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*Carcinogenesis

This model of carcinogenesis is popular because it explains why cancers grow. It would be expected that cells that are damaged ... Carcinogenesis, also called oncogenesis or tumorigenesis, is the formation of a cancer, whereby normal cells are transformed ... There are a number of theories of carcinogenesis and cancer treatment that fall outside the mainstream of scientific opinion, ... Furthermore, in light of the Darwinistic mechanisms of carcinogenesis, it has been theorized that the various forms of cancer ...

*Transplacental carcinogenesis

... is a series of genotypic and/or phenotypic changes in the cells of a fetus due to in utero ... Donovan PJ (June 1999). "Cell sensitivity to transplacental carcinogenesis by N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea is greatest in early post- ... Alexandrov V, Aiello C, Rossi L (1990). "Modifying factors in prenatal carcinogenesis (review)". In Vivo. 4 (5): 327-35. PMID ... Magee PN (October 1975). "Transplacental carcinogenesis". Proc. R. Soc. Med. 68 (10): 655-7. PMC 1864063 . PMID 1208519. ...

*Carcinogenesis (journal)

1981), "Front matter" (PDF), Carcinogenesis, 2 (1), retrieved 17 August 2010 Anon. (1982), "Front matter" (PDF), Carcinogenesis ... Carcinogenesis, 1 (1), retrieved 17 August 2010 Harris CC. (2008), "Editorial", Carcinogenesis, 29: 1, doi:10.1093/carcin/ ... Carcinogenesis is a peer-reviewed medical journal in the field of cancer biology. It was established in 1980 and is published ... Carcinogenesis is abstracted and indexed in Biological Abstracts, BIOSIS Previews, CAB Abstracts, Chemical Abstracts, Current ...

*Spaceflight radiation carcinogenesis

Cucinotta, F.A.; Durante, M. "Risk of Radiation Carcinogenesis" (PDF). Human Health and Performance Risks of Space Exploration ... Cucinotta, F.A.; Durante, M. "Risk of Radiation Carcinogenesis" (PDF). Human Health and Performance Risks of Space Exploration ... Cucinotta, F.A.; Durante, M. "Risk of Radiation Carcinogenesis" (PDF). Human Health and Performance Risks of Space Exploration ... Cucinotta, F.A.; Durante, M. "Risk of Radiation Carcinogenesis" (PDF). Human Health and Performance Risks of Space Exploration ...

*Journal of Carcinogenesis

The Journal of Carcinogenesis is a peer-reviewed open access medical journal published by Medknow Publications on behalf of the ... Carcinogenesis Press. The journal covers research in oncology. The journal is abstracted and indexed in: Abstracts on Hygiene ...

*Armitage-Doll multistage model of carcinogenesis

Armitage, P. and Doll, R. (1954) "The Age Distribution of Cancer and a Multi-Stage Theory Of Carcinogenesis", British Journ. of ... The Armitage-Doll model is a statistical model of carcinogenesis, proposed in 1954 by Peter Armitage and Richard Doll, which ... The age distribution of cancer and a multistage theory of carcinogenesis", Int. J. Epidemiol. 33(6): 1183-1184 doi:10.1093/ije/ ...

*Susan K. Gilmour

Carcinogenesis. 13 (1): 51-56. doi:10.1093/carcin/13.1.51. PMID 1733573. DeFeo, K; Hayes, C; Chernick, M; Van Ryn, J; Gilmour, ... Carcinogenesis. 26 (1): 119-24. doi:10.1093/carcin/bgh281. PMID 15375010. Hayes, CS; DeFeo, K; Lan, L; Paul, B; Sell, C; ... Carcinogenesis. 19 (8): 1409-15. doi:10.1093/carcin/19.8.1409. PMID 9744537. Hogarty, MD; Norris, MD; Davis, K; Liu, X; ... Carcinogenesis. 7 (6): 943-47. doi:10.1093/carcin/7.6.943. PMID 2423265. Gilmour, SK (2007). "Polyamines and nonmelanoma skin ...

*Catenin

However, in contrast to α-catenin, heightened β-catenin levels may be associated with carcinogenesis. In particular, abnormal ... Carcinogenesis. 33 (3): 637-43. doi:10.1093/carcin/bgr306. PMID 22198215. Song S, Christova T, Perusini S, Alizadeh S, Bao RY, ...

*Aflatoxin B1

Newberne Paul M., Wogan Gerald N. (1968). "Sequential Morphologic Changes in Aflatoxin B1 Carcinogenesis in the Rat". Cancer ... Semela, Maryann (2001). "The chemistry and biology of aflatoxin B1: from mutational spectrometry to carcinogenesis" (PDF). ... Carcinogenesis. 22: 535-545. Ross, R. K.; Yuan, J. M.; Yu, M. C.; Wogan, G. N.; Qian, G. S.; Tu, J. T.; Groopman, J. D.; Gao, Y ... Carcinogenesis. 15 (5): 947-55. doi:10.1093/carcin/15.5.947. PMID 8200100. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) ...

*Apocarotenal

Carcinogenesis. 25 (5): 827-31. doi:10.1093/carcin/bgh056. PMID 14688018. Some info on apocarotenal Olson, A.J. (1964). "The ...

*MAGEB2

Carcinogenesis. 28 (3): 560-71. doi:10.1093/carcin/bgl167. PMID 17012225. Ewing RM, Chu P, Elisma F, et al. (2007). "Large- ...

*POLG2

Carcinogenesis. 28 (8): 1731-9. doi:10.1093/carcin/bgm111. PMID 17494052. Huang H, Shiffman ML, Cheung RC, et al. (2006). " ...

*AP-1 transcription factor

Carcinogenesis. 28 (3): 738-48. doi:10.1093/carcin/bgl180. PMID 17065199. Ahn JD, Morishita R, Kaneda Y, et al. (June 2001). " ...

*Caretaker gene

Carcinogenesis. 26 (10): 1741-7. doi:10.1093/carcin/bgi126. PMID 15905204. ...

*Eicosanoid receptor

DuBois RN, Gupta R, Brockman J, Reddy BS, Krakow SL, Lazar MA (1998). "PPAR-γ". Carcinogenesis. 19 (1): 49-53. doi:10.1093/ ...

*HEPACAM

Carcinogenesis. 29 (12): 2298-305. doi:10.1093/carcin/bgn226. PMID 18845560. Lee LH, Moh MC, Zhang T, Shen S (August 2009). " ...

*Cancer

Ultraviolet Radiation Carcinogenesis". In Bast RC, Kufe DW, Pollock RE, et al. Holland-Frei Cancer Medicine (5th ed.). Hamilton ... Many studies of heavy metal-induced carcinogenesis show that such heavy metals cause a reduction in expression of DNA repair ... Carcinogenesis. 27 (12): 2402-8. doi:10.1093/carcin/bgl079. PMC 2612936 . PMID 16728433. Tutt AN, van Oostrom CT, Ross GM, van ... Carcinogenesis (review). 30 (7): 1073-81. doi:10.1093/carcin/bgp127. PMID 19468060. Ungefroren H, Sebens S, Seidl D, Lehnert H ...

*PGRMC1

Carcinogenesis. 17 (12): 2609-15. doi:10.1093/carcin/17.12.2609. PMID 9006096. Crudden G, Loesel R, Craven RJ (2005). " ...

*PCLKC

Carcinogenesis. 23 (7): 1139-48. doi:10.1093/carcin/23.7.1139. PMID 12117771. "Entrez Gene: PCLKC protocadherin LKC". Yang LY, ...

*Mir-572 microRNA precursor family

Carcinogenesis. 33 (7): 1294-1301. doi:10.1093/carcin/bgs179. PMID 22610076. Sand, M.; Skrygan, M.; Sand, D.; Georgas, D.; Hahn ...

*Cruciferous vegetables

Carcinogenesis. 33 (10): 1833-42. doi:10.1093/carcin/bgs216. PMC 3529556 . PMID 22739026. Gupta P, Kim B, Kim SH, Srivastava SK ... Carcinogenesis. 21 (6): 1157-62. doi:10.1093/carcin/21.6.1157. PMID 10837004. Bibi Z (2008). "Role of cytochrome P450 in drug ...

*Oncogene

Yokota J (March 2000). "Tumor progression and metastasis". Carcinogenesis. 21 (3): 497-503. doi:10.1093/carcin/21.3.497. PMID ...

*Psoralen

Carcinogenesis. 2: 121-7. doi:10.1093/carcin/2.2.121. PMID 7273295. Autier P.; Dore J.-F.; Cesarini J.-P. (1997). "Should ...

*MPGES-2

Carcinogenesis. 27 (11): 2308-15. doi:10.1093/carcin/bgl073. PMID 16714329. Meng Q, Raha A, Roy S, Hu J, Kalvakolanu DV (May ...

*CLPTM1L

Carcinogenesis. 31 (2): 234-8. doi:10.1093/carcin/bgp287. PMID 19955392. Wang Y, Broderick P, Webb E, Wu X, Vijayakrishnan J, ... Carcinogenesis. 30 (6): 987-90. doi:10.1093/carcin/bgp090. PMID 19369581. Broderick P, Wang Y, Vijayakrishnan J, Matakidou A, ... Carcinogenesis. 31 (11): HASH(0x29e0370). doi:10.1093/carcin/bgq179. PMC 2966556 . PMID 20802237. Petersen GM, Amundadottir L, ...
A number of high profiled names came out in 2013, and in an age where visibility still matters, were very glad they did. Heres just a few people wed like to
52 Weeks is a year long challenge for YOU to be in a picture once a week for 52 weeks. We are always the ones behind the camera, this is YOUR chance to get out in front and be in the pictures with our family. We are glad you are joining this challenge. More importantly your family will really enjoy having you in the picture. Thanks for playing along! Oh, you can just jump in now with 1 of 52, youre not getting off that easy! Now go take a picture ...
whew Im really glad that time is actually passing. Now im like rebuilding myself... its weird though because I just want everything to happen for me instantly. I cant relax I am itching for...
Im glad you are happy and the world is shining down on you! Enjoy your grands and know I am wishing you a beautiful weekend. ...
Wittie answered a post in our national costume. We have been concerned about her for so long and not one comment! Wittie we are so glad your back, and hope your ok.
Unlike your Yanks, weve never had a consistent 1-2-3 closer so Im glad he got it out of the way now so I dont have to keep praying for it to finally happen during the year.. Delete ...
Greetings! Yes the time has come! Well what do you mean the time has come? Glad you asked, please allow me to explain. In all my time spent here over
Buy our Flotillin 2 293T transfected lysate (positive control). ab94260 has been validated in western blot. Abcam now offers a 12-month guarantee.
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Presents information describing investigations of molecular aspects of the mechanisms involved in chemical, physical, and viral (biological) carcinogenesis
weird chances thank you all, i just so glad shes o.k., i feel still nervous today i may lay down and take a nap, i was going over things in my head and i know we did what we could , i have never had a experience.... ...
Hi, Im new to this site, and I just want to say that Im glad that Im not suffering from OCD alone, even though the majority of the time it feels like I am. Ive....
Im glad to see that the sites moderators have responded to an earlier question about excessive spamming and tag abuse. Apparently they are going to get on that Real Soon Now.
โปรแกรมฟุตบอล : สปาร์ตัก ตัมบอฟ ปะทะ อแวนการ์ด คุร์สค์ - ในการแข่งของกลุ่ม รัสเซีย ดิวิชั่น 1 ผ่านมาเกินครึ่งฤดู[...] The post โปรแกรมฟุตบอล : สปาร์ตัก ตัมบอฟ ปะทะ อแวนการ์ด คุร์สค์ appeared first on ผลบอลวันนี... ...
If you have ever asked yourself, Can I pull that off? take a cue from these (former) fellow skeptics who prove that, yes, you can.
She was glad to receive at least one Valentine, but whom could this one be from? I have to find out, she thought.. by bqueen6430 ...
Aimovig side effects Hi Trina. Im sorry of your side effects of the Aimovig. Im glad after a few days it is a little better. I started with 1 shot of 70 mg. That didnt do much for me. By the last week, I had a.... ...
Hi all! so glad to have found this site! I am newly diagnosed and overwhelmed! So much information and changes! Any of you have tips of easy ways to div...
Im glad they figured it out, and I hope the antibiotics work quickly and clear it out. Have you ever tried a Netti Pot? Ive used them in the summer
I am so glad today is over, for reals. It was not a good day.Matt stayed in with Nolan while I walked J and T to Js bus stop. Not even five minutes after we got there, T told me she has to pee REALLY BAD AND CANT HOLD IT. She told me shed pee…
I am so glad i have found this site, i have spent the last hour reading stories, tips and motivation from you all :) I found it hard the last time as i...
Janet Devlin is glad she was booted off The X Factor because she felt like she was becoming a karaoke artist. The 16-year-old singer was voted off the ITV1 talent show last night (27.11.11) - after finding herself in the bottom two alongside Mischa…
Yuma Territorial Prison State Historic Park: Very interesting, glad I was never a prisoner! - See 1,046 traveller reviews, 620 candid photos, and great deals for Yuma, AZ, at TripAdvisor.
Im excited because there are 30 odd non-Christians to hear the message... and Im glad that these ppl actually listen attentively to Wee Seng as he gave the message.. there is no much movement and no disruptions at all.. Im glad that Wee Sengs had delievered the message so well and faithful that some of the people there had actually started thinking.. in fact Wenfeng had even started asking questions. Im glad because I know that God is at work in the back scene... he is merciful to save ...
If you are willing to play with us for a bit on your server and move over to ours after you feel comfortable wed be glad to have you. Our guild is set up to invest in its team and members. Wed be glad to have a player such as yourself in our team ...
Originally Posted by Gordon Shumway Glad everythings OK. Notify EMT asap. Cops will usually confiscate weapons here, no receipts given. Most local EM
「終わりの朝」 (Owari no Asa) Morning of The End Even though there wasnt all that much that happened throughout this weeks episode, Im glad that the debate has been settled on screen once and for all.
Spring is making its appearance here in the Rockies! Im so glad, too. Being stuck inside during the winter months is a big part of my problems, but it is just about over now. I have my garden in,...
Hi everyone so glad to be here! Ive taken a test this morning and wasnt expecting to see a bfp! I have a 13 month old boy who Im still bf so this is a bit of a surprise! I think Im about 6 weeks ❤ Congratulations everyone x
After its extraordinary trailer, Im glad to report/sad to say that Coast Guard is everything we could have hoped for. I struggled through the first hour of
Originally Posted by AngAngeles13 NOOO! I wasnt complaining that anyone bashed this guy. (I was actually glad to see that I wasnt alone
This is the day which the LORD hath made; we will rejoice and be glad in it. These words came from King David in the Psalms, it speaks of the thankfulness he has toward God, because He is the source of all things (Psalms 118:24). And whether, this thankfulness is arising from the circumstances at…
Non-melanomatous skin cancers (NMSCs), which include basal and squamous cell carcinoma (BCC and SCC respectively), represent a significant burden on the population, as well as an economic load to the health care system; yet treatments of these preventable cancers remain ineffective. Studies estimate that there has been a 2-fold increase in the incidence of NMSCs between the 1960s and 1980s. The increase in cases of NMSCs, as well as the lack of effective treatments, makes the need for novel therapeutic approaches all the more necessary. To rationally develop more targeted treatments for NMSCs, a better understanding of the cell of origin, in addition to the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms that govern the development of these cancers, is urgently required. Research over the past few years has provided data supporting both a
Buy Ill be Glad when Ive Had Enough! by Robin Marshall-Ball (Paperback) online at Lulu. Visit the Lulu Marketplace for product details, ratings, and reviews.
Lyrics to Glad Im Not God by Lords Of Acid: I was about to lose my girlfriend / Had to make a clever move / Entered into a meditation
In the last chapter, characteristics and mechanisms of the early stages of neoplastic develop- ment-initiation and promotion-were presented as being the result of cellular and molecular changes induced by specific ...
I dont take my role as Mylahs mother lightly and Im glad that I was picked to be her mother! She has made me so happy. I felt my love grow for her all day. The cards that I received meant so much to me! ( I love cards) Especially the ones with the personal messages wrote on the inside ...
I am glad dexaroni has returned. And lols at teh amount of little kids on this website now. I feel like im playing halo 3 on xbox live only the kids are attempting to type things out instead of talking "you got pwned you stupid idiot heheeh ...
Liu CY; Wu MC; Chen F; Ter-Minassian M; Asomaning K; Zhai R; Wang Z; Su L; Heist RS; Kulke MH; Lin X; Liu G; Christiani DC; Carcinogenesis, 2010, vol. 31, issue 7, p 1259, ISSN 14602180. ISBN 14602180. ...
Shop Flotillin ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Flotillin Antibody at MyBioSource. Custom ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Antibody are available.
Toast Restaurant: So glad we tried this place while visiting Charleston! - See 5,493 traveler reviews, 453 candid photos, and great deals for Charleston, SC, at TripAdvisor.
I thought I would do a side by side of my progress in just under a year - I know if I can do this so can YOU - it is about being healthy and putting yourself first. This journey has never been about getting Skinny -for me it is making sure that I am healthy so I can watch my children grow and watch my grandchildren grow one day. I am glad that I didnt give up on myself - I am soooo glad I stumbled upon Skinny Fiber late one night and I am soooooo glad that I took the chance on this wonderful product. I do only drink water, I do eat low carb, but I also do use Skinny Fiber which naturally gives my system the boost it was missing. I feel the best I ever have ...
NIH Funding Opportunities and Notices in the NIH Guide for Grants and Contracts: Immunoregulation of Gastrointestinal Carcinogenesis (R01) PA-07-256. NCI
Glad youre feeling better! I improvised on your beans and greens with some stuff I had in the house and it came out OK, though it didnt look as good as yours. I used spinach, and it was a little watery. Next time I send my daughter to the store Im going to get the right ingredients. Keep on truckin ...
Anyway, i am glad February is over now. Many things had happened (mostly good things) but i dont wish to share in here. I have gained 4kgs over the past two months. I take it as a sign of prosperity to start the year and not all is gloomy or bleak like the economy. At least i have something to cheer and look forward to each i come back home. The house is getting merrier, busier and happier ...
Nygaard, Vigdis; Holden, Marit; Trimarchi, Jeff; Ohno-Machado, Lucila; Frigessi, Arnoldo; Glad, Ingrid K; Wiel, Mark A van de et al. (BMC Genomics, 2008) Link to Published Version ...
The glue I was using had alpha ethyl cyanoacrylate and polymathy methcrylate. Acetone did not work, soaking in hot soapy water did not work. This worked wonderfully and fast! Glad I dont have psoriasis though. ...
glad you guys were on the same page! I should have known seeing as it was in the K2xx section... but i overlooked that! I wish we had more K2xx action
The Sonrise Palms Matrons unit is a good example. It is located among the Muslims and they need to be reached with the Gospel so we are glad to be here to reach them.
Thankyou for joining 2GB, were glad youre with us. Your account has been created however we need a small amount of additional information. Would you mind filling it out on the right hand side and then click the Update My Details button. Thanks ...
Im me. Basically, thats it. My friends love me for who i am. And my best friend, i must say shes FRICKKING AMAZING. and i LURVE her, derdeder! And im so glad we will be besties foreve!!!
I will miss Rwrld but, if you have come to this point, all I can add is that I am glad you are doing what you feel you must. That wont stop me from adding my voice to the choir and expressing that I hope youll make a comeback. Thanks for all the thought-provoking posts. Milena ...
My first DVF dress and I love it. Beautiful fabric, falls nicely along the body, cant wait to wear it. I was in between size 2 and 4 and went with a size 4, glad that I did ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Oligonol Alleviates Sarcopenia by Regulation of Signaling Pathways Involved in Protein Turnover and Mitochondrial Quality. AU - Chang, Yun Ching. AU - Chen, Yi Tien. AU - Liu, Hung Wen. AU - Chan, Yin Ching. AU - Liu, Ming Yi. AU - Hu, Shu Hui. AU - Tseng, Wei Tai. AU - Wu, Hsin Ling. AU - Wang, Ming Fu. AU - Chang, Sue Joan. PY - 2019/1/1. Y1 - 2019/1/1. N2 - Scope: Oligonol has been shown to moderate mitochondrial biogenesis, protein synthesis, and protein degradation in diabetic mice in a previous study. It is therefore hypothesized that oligonol alleviated sarcopenia by regulating pathways involved in protein turnover and mitochondrial quality. Methods and results: The 32-week-old senescence-accelerated mouse prone 8 (SAMP8) mice are fed with chow diet containing 200 mg kg −1 oligonol for 8 weeks. Oligonol supplementation increased skeletal muscle mass, cross-sectional areas, and grip strength in SAMP8 mice. Oligonol increased phosphorylation of AKT/mTOR/p70sk6, inhibited ...
We curse Dan Harkins every time some kid asks us to upsize our popcorn (didnt the movie magnate see Super Size Me?), but Dan, were still glad your mot...
Do I miss Utah? Yes. Am I glad to be back in New York? Yes. Going back was great just to see people and enjoy some good compnay. It also reminded me of how clean the state is and how little traffic is on the roads. I forgot that there isnt a stop light on every corner and it doesnt take an hour to go a few miles. Of course I am glad to be abck home here in Queens; loud neighbors, traffic at 6:20 this morning, working with the team here at Orkin... Now it is just a matter of getting all my Utah friends to come out here and see my new way of life ...
So fun! Im glad to hear that she is feeling back to normal, although Im glad I dont have to be around your house at midnight. So sorry you have to deal with all the clean-up. Well work on inventing some kind of auto-clean room where you shut the door and bubbles and water spray all over. You open the door and everything is completely dry and just as it should be. ...
Dont sleep when it comes to trying all the products in a haircare line. I did for awhile with this one, but now that I tried it, Im glad I made a new discovery.. ...
How did I not find out the block was on until last night when I was out and couldnt watch it!? I googled it and noticed its in bloody South Yarra again!!!! But Im glad the brother and sister are back in it! :) Anyone else watching? - page 10
You will get it done! I wish it was a one trip adoption! It will be hard to meet them and then come home. But maybe it will not be a long goodbye. The boys will probably have an easier time going home because they had some time to meet you, and get use to the whole thing. you will know what they like/need so you can better prepare for them. Im trying to look on the bright side! Anyway...so glad you will be meeting them soon! ...
What a thrilling night of fights. I have to say, as a fan, Im constantly rewarded each time I show up to shoot. Sure, there are a few stinkers in the mix - you cant help that in a night of ten bouts. Im happiest for Takanori Gomi. Im glad he gets to pay off […]. 2010/08/02 , 8 Comments ». ...
Sometimes, from a certain angle, the black sclera make it seem like the head is hollow, and that theres something inside thats very small and piloting the whole bot. Still, glad weve got some options here ...
Thankyou for joining 2GB, were glad youre with us. Your account has been created however we need a small amount of additional information. Would you mind filling it out on the right hand side and then click the Update My Details button. Thanks ...
Years on PPIs. However I found that by taking Zantac. I am so glad this thread is still current as I am weaning off omprazole and over
That is EXACTLY what I was thinking! Im so glad he gets along with the boys! Love the family jewels pic too haha. He looks like hes so happy! The collar looks fab on him too ...
the public wronged.-National Econo- are glad of it. If you get anything out ofa tended at great length, but there is no I bushels see to a yield the acre of seventy-five of grain weighing or eighty ...
Got the standard you are fine checklist from my echocardiogram. My hearts still beating a-ok, they say. Well, Im glad to hear that, but that does leave the why am I
I am glad to introduce myself as the author of this website. I am an enthusiastic egghead from India and being a perfectionist and diligent person I...
Downloading a figure as powerpoint requires a browser with javascript support. Enable javascript and try again For help please contact [email protected] ...
Im glad to announce that Ill be guesting @ultimate_skin in LEEDS, every 3 months...see you in July people. #tattoo #tattoolookbook #tattooart #tattoos #blacktattoo #iblackwork #onlyblackart #blackworkerssubmission #blacktattooart #radtattoos #FORMink #uktta #bestofbritishtattooists #taot #flashworkers #inkstinctsubmission #radtattoos #TAOT #btattooing #equilattera #geometricink #geometric_ink #darkartists #skinartmag #blackinkuk #totaltattoomagazine #patternworkerssub
Ten minutes ago, Frank though he was going to prison. Now he knows hes not, and part of him thinks he should just be glad hes getting out of this at all, but hes not. Hes not glad. Hes furious. Hes known the world is broken for a long time, hes known that, but sometimes hes amazed at how broken; even now, at this point in his life, nearing fifty years old, he can stumble across something that makes him realize all over again that the world is not only broken, but beyond fixing. No amount of glue can ever make it right. And yet, you have to focus on your little part of it, d... more » ...
[caption id=attachment_20480 align=alignnone width=350] Photo: Newsha-Tavakolian-for-The-New-York-Times[/caption] Heres a story from the NY Times that may set your head spinning, like ...
I would also like to take this opportunity to squash the persistent rumours about mysterious disappearances and emphasize that rural and urban areas are now enjoying a life of harmony and peace. Im sure youre glad to hear this. And Im happy youre glad." ...
I would also like to take this opportunity to squash the persistent rumours about mysterious disappearances and emphasize that rural and urban areas are now enjoying a life of harmony and peace. Im sure youre glad to hear this. And Im happy youre glad." ...
What was great about my run last night is that I didnt feel the slightest bit of soreness when I first took off. Usually I skip a day (or several) between running because in the past my legs would hurt when I would try to get going. I didnt feel any pain or discomfort at all when I got started yesterday. That made me feel so confident that Ive improved my skills and that my muscles are healthier than they used to be. I also completed three sets of 20 each of sit ups and push ups between my laps, so I was glad to mix things up a little. It felt good to go a bit further than just cardio. I had wanted to go for some squats, too, but there was another lady on the track and I didnt want to look overly goofy. Plus, by the time I finished my last lap I was glad I didnt push my legs more since they were ready for a break. ...
Dont get so huffy! You know I am usually the first to jump to Jeffs defence! Im glad that he and Sheila are together as well, and Im sure they are both profiting from the arrangement emotionally. All I mean is that Vera had some preconceived notions about Jeff that hopefully she can see past now ...
light open raw passionate spontaneous fine true honest intelligent soft faithful sincere courageous curious sober awake developing believing being integrated coordinated malleable excited decisive choiceless laughing respectful elemental luminous clear fluent upright uplifted upstanding outstanding understanding standing undertaking composed conjuring seemly gracious wholesome alert quick knowing skilful silent directed unified mobile fertile female philosophical better compact condensed concentrated undiverted unshakable unstoppable sustained persevering long-lived keen glad broad heedful entering trusting sympathetic persistent confident considerate considerable favourable unblaming rooted sensible communicative continual trustworthy genuine receptive dutiful audacious robust friendly steady loyal modest constant reasonable spiritual spirited spiritful spirituous yielding pliable reciprocating decorous beneath beholden behoveful grave kindly manly monkish monastic stimulated stimulating ...
I would LOVE to be close enough to NYC to get there in a days drive! Ive only been there twice, but its a fun city! (And lucky you, having friends to stay with! I was always there on business and was spoiled by my company paying for everything. If I had to pay for a hotel there? Ouch!) Glad you got a few days to enjoy yourselves. I hope you have a productive week while Sophia is in school ...
Im glad I waited to write about reiki, because I might have sounded, at the time, a little bit crazy. Now, with some perspective, I can write about it a little more calmly... It was amazing!! Bear with me. You know me well enough by now to know I am a rational person. But I…
Chemistry ...in Binfield. Spending a day here for our recruitment as an assessor in the assessment centre. Glad I wasnt one of the candidates !
)))))))Greetings(((((((( Glad you are back and yes i do like the new layout and style. Well done and thanks to those who have done the hard work. Shall see you in my more usual haunts of bipolar and TBI threads but i pop up all over the place as my symptoms are many and varied. Now i am off to check out the boards and the chat. Wishing you all well and not just better. Be seeing you Neil :devilish:
aw i loved it. it was short but it was awesome. i thought it was harry and ginny lmao. i know...but still. but...aw. no one ever does ne thing on lupin and tonks and im glad u did! *yes i read harry potter...i love harry potter! but greys will always b in my writings*. ne way...i already said it but again...i loved it ...
So, Ive just got back in from our Health and Your Hormones talk. Im absolutely delighted that we had 50 people attend and also very glad that we asked for extra seats before they all arrived as we were full! … Continue reading →. ...
Cost Of Propecia At Sams Club Welcome We are glad to welcome you to our website Tableti forgoes however delay cells or strategies vocational as interactions.
I really enjoyed this read. Im glad you took the time to get it out to us as well as a thank you to Maciej and yourself for the interview ...
Simon, our little piece of Heaven, given by God to grace Earth for a short period of time. We are so glad you are here, Simon. Thank you f ...
Simon, our little piece of Heaven, given by God to grace Earth for a short period of time. We are so glad you are here, Simon. Thank you f ...
Glad you were able to get your blog caught up. Something that is just a little job gets to be a big one when you get behind, doesnt it? That happens to me all the time. I procrastinate too much so it takes forever to get stuff done ...
Congratulations on such a great success. It is so nice that you are raising awareness of this terrible disease and at the same time are contributing to finding a cure and cause. I have been following Charlottes story and am so glad that she has been doing well lately. I have a two year old daughter who was diagnosed with JRA this march. We are getting ready to start MTX and I am very upset and scared about it. I just hope that she gets some relief. Congratulations again.. also I just wanted to tell you that your girls are adorable!! ...
Do you know any websites with tutorials that explain algorithms like back sack or bubble well ? Id be very glad if you could direct me to a website tha...
Old fashioned values are often espoused as something wed like to aspire to, whether in our personal lives, or in business. When a deal used to be sealed with a handshake, the world must have been grand. Take a quick glance at advertisements from long ago, and those that are frightfully recent, and you can see how far society has come (and in some cases, how short a distance). From bogus remedies and health claims, to outright abusive and misogynistic images, here are 33 disturbing vintage advertisements were glad are gone:. ...
X Factor winner Matt Cardle has claimed hes glad hes been dropped by his record label after releasing just one album.. Speaking to The Sun, the singer said he would now have the freedom to do his own thing. "I think we were going in different ways," he said. "I feel super-excited to be finally in control, and fully in control of what I am doing musically and the direction I am going in.". ...
Mark and Al, I am looking forward to our time together tomorrow night. Lig, it wont be the same without you, my friend, but I am glad you can join us by phone later in the evening. Im sure our conversation will prove to be edifying and exhausting (from ...
RiverLight - glad you got your money back. To you and all US members of DF, the IRS will never call you. They contact you by mail. I guy I work with got the same call but he knew that the IRS never calls and he told them that. They hung up quickly. If a caller asks for gift cards, it is probably a scam. Be careful enough, the world is full of shady people. There are a lot of good people too, we just dont hear about them ...
Hi Saija...I was all tucked into bed and our son called to have me do something online for him. We women always seem to go the second mile and then some, dont we! I like your new picture. I was surprised to read its time for you to go back to work, I forgot about that but Im glad you are getting some resting time from the move and all. Thanks for the advice to me to rest up,..when I read that I smiled. I like to be pampered sometimes. Varnishing the closet doors went well ....it helped that there were only 4 instead of 6. (well, it seemed like 6 anyway). Just thought since I was online...., Id come on over & visit....smile. Hugs to you!! ...
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Spence - a curious sequence of events has led me to discover this page on this particular day. Get well soon sounds feeble, but you know what I mean. After all these years - Im glad youre still with us... Peter Sweasey ...
Hello, Im glad you found your way here from the guest article at Five Cent Nickel, hopefully it convinced you to strive to become The Biggest Saver!
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Carcinogenesis - WikipediaCarcinogenesis - Wikipedia

Carcinogenesis, also called oncogenesis or tumorigenesis, is the formation of a cancer, whereby normal cells are transformed ... This model of carcinogenesis is popular because it explains why cancers grow. It would be expected that cells that are damaged ... Dixon K, Kopras E (December 2004). "Genetic alterations and DNA repair in human carcinogenesis". Seminars in Cancer Biology. 14 ... A new way of looking at carcinogenesis comes from integrating the ideas of developmental biology into oncology. The cancer stem ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carcinogenesis

Chemical Carcinogenesis 2 | SpringerLinkChemical Carcinogenesis 2 | SpringerLink

chemical carcinogenesis is the general title of the series of international meetings which are held, biannually, in sardinia ( ... DNA apoptosis breast cancer cancer carcinogenesis cell cell death hormones liver prevention tumor ... "chemical carcinogenesis" is the general title of the series of international meetings which are held, biannually, in sardinia ( ... Growth Hormone-Regulated Expression of the c-myc Gene during Sex-Differentiated Promotion of Rat Liver Carcinogenesis ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/book/10.1007/978-1-4615-3694-9

Virus-associated CarcinogenesisVirus-associated Carcinogenesis

Division of Virus-associated Carcinogenesis. Prof. Dr. Ralf Bartenschlager. Chronic infections with Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and ... Building on this expertise, within the division Virus-Associated Carcinogenesis at the German Cancer Research Center we focus ...
more infohttps://www.dkfz.de/en/virus-assoziierte-karzinogenese/index.php

Chemical Carcinogenesis and Mutagenesis II | SpringerLinkChemical Carcinogenesis and Mutagenesis II | SpringerLink

I have been privileged to witness and participate in the great growth of knowledge on chemical carcinogenesis and mutagenesis ... Carcinom DNA Mutagene Onkogene Viren cancer cancer research carcinogenesis cellular differentiation mutagen mutagenesis ... The important and varied topics that are reviewed here attest to the continued growth of the fields of chemical car- cinogenesis ... I have been privileged to witness and participate in the great growth of knowledge on chemical carcinogenesis and mutagenesis ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/book/10.1007/978-3-642-74778-6

Inflammation in prostate carcinogenesis.  - PubMed - NCBIInflammation in prostate carcinogenesis. - PubMed - NCBI

Inflammation in prostate carcinogenesis.. De Marzo AM1, Platz EA, Sutcliffe S, Xu J, Grönberg H, Drake CG, Nakai Y, Isaacs WB, ... Recently, a new hypothesis has been proposed for prostate carcinogenesis. It proposes that exposure to environmental factors ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17384581?dopt=Abstract

Molecular CarcinogenesisMolecular Carcinogenesis

Home , Journals , Molecular Carcinogenesis View PDF. Molecular Carcinogenesis. Editor(s): John DiGiovanni. Publisher: Wiley. ... carcinogenesis studies in transgenic mice; and research on human tumor viruses. ...
more infohttp://ovid.com/site/catalog/journals/9867.jsp

Molecular CarcinogenesisMolecular Carcinogenesis

Home , Journals , Molecular Carcinogenesis View PDF. Molecular Carcinogenesis. Editor(s): John DiGiovanni. Publisher: Wiley. ... carcinogenesis studies in transgenic mice; and research on human tumor viruses. ...
more infohttp://www.ovid.com/site/catalog/journals/9867.jsp

A Major Breakthrough In Gastric Carcinogenesis - RedorbitA Major Breakthrough In Gastric Carcinogenesis - Redorbit

They found that twenty cases (33.9%) showed promoter methylation and no relation was observed with the clinicopathological factors. The promoter methylation of CHFR was frequently accompanied with MIN. Seven of 20 (35.0%) cases showed MIN in hypermethylation of the CHFR tumor, while three of 39 (7.7%) cases showed MIN in the non-methylated CHFR tumor (P , 0.01). However, they failed to find any relationship between CHFR methylation and p53 mutation status ...
more infohttp://www.redorbit.com/news/health/1703953/a_major_breakthrough_in_gastric_carcinogenesis/

NIOSHTIC-2  Publications Search - 00012058 - Experimental asbestos carcinogenesis.NIOSHTIC-2 Publications Search - 00012058 - Experimental asbestos carcinogenesis.

NIOSH-Publication; NIOSH-Grant; Dust-inhalation; Asbestos-dusts; Carcinogenesis; Lung-fibrosis; Respiratory-disorders; Lung- ...
more infohttps://www.cdc.gov/niosh/nioshtic-2/00012058.html

Lesser-Known Molecules in Ovarian CarcinogenesisLesser-Known Molecules in Ovarian Carcinogenesis

... Ludmila Lozneanu,1 Elena Cojocaru,1 Simona Eliza Giuşcă,1 Alexandru ... Their structural stability, once altered, triggers the initiation of the sequences characteristic for ovarian carcinogenesis, ... motivated by the perspectives provided through the current limited knowledge on their role in ovarian carcinogenesis and on ... of the signaling pathways brings about new advances in the understanding of the pathogenic mechanism of ovarian carcinogenesis ...
more infohttps://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2015/321740/abs/

Hypermethylation and Carcinogenesis | Science SignalingHypermethylation and Carcinogenesis | Science Signaling

In cancer cells, abnormal methylation patterns of DNA sequences are often present. By examining the role of the PML-RAR fusion gene, a well-studied translocation in leukemia, Di Croce et al. demonstrate that transcriptional silencing in cancer cells can occur through the recruitment of a DNA methyltransferase (Dnmt) by the PML-RAR fusion protein. Recruitment of Dnmts results in the hypermethylation of a PML-RAR target gene, RARβ2. In the presence of PML-RAR and Dnmt, cell differentiation was blocked, but this block could be overcome by administration of retinoic acid. Hence, transcription factors associated with neoplasia can function in methylation-linked silencing of genes important for growth and differentiation. Furthermore, the work shows that a genetic change in cancer can induce epigenetic gene silencing. L. Di Croce, V. A. Raker, M. Corsaro, F. Fazi, M. Fanelli, M. Faretta, F. Fuks, F. Lo Coco, T. Kouzarides, C. Nervi, S. Minucci, P. G. Pelicci, Methyltransferase recruitment and DNA ...
more infohttp://stke.sciencemag.org/content/2002/119/tw67

molecular carcinogenesis | Gutmolecular carcinogenesis | Gut

Erica Villa, Rosina Critelli, Barbara Lei, Guido Marzocchi, Calogero Cammà, Gianluigi Giannelli, Patrizia Pontisso, Giuseppe Cabibbo, Marco Enea, Stefano Colopi, Cristian Caporali, Teresa Pollicino, Fabiola Milosa, Aimilia Karampatou, Paola Todesca, Elena Bertolini, Livia Maccio, Maria Luz Martinez-Chantar, Elena Turola, Mariagrazia Del Buono, Nicola De Maria, Stefano Ballestri, Filippo Schepis, Paola Loria, Giorgio Enrico Gerunda, Luisa Losi, Umberto Cillo ...
more infohttp://gut.bmj.com/keyword/molecular-carcinogenesis

KEGG PATHWAY: Viral carcinogenesisKEGG PATHWAY: Viral carcinogenesis

Viral carcinogenesis [ Pathway menu , Organism menu , Pathway entry , Download KGML , Show description , User data mapping ] ...
more infohttp://www.genome.jp/kegg-bin/show_pathway?ko05203+K11406

carcinogenesis | Gutcarcinogenesis | Gut

Matthäus Felsenstein, Michaël Noë, David L Masica, Waki Hosoda, Peter Chianchiano, Catherine G Fischer, Gemma Lionheart, Lodewijk A A Brosens, Antonio Pea, Jun Yu, Georgios Gemenetzis, Vincent P Groot, Martin A Makary, Jin He, Matthew J Weiss, John L Cameron, Christopher L Wolfgang, Ralph H Hruban, Nicholas J Roberts, Rachel Karchin, Michael G Goggins, Laura D Wood ...
more infohttps://gut.bmj.com/keyword/carcinogenesis

Carcinogenesis - wikidocCarcinogenesis - wikidoc

This model of carcinogenesis is popular because it explains why cancers grow. It would be expected that cells that are damaged ... Carcinogenesis (meaning literally, the creation of cancer) is the process by which normal cells are transformed into cancer ... Mechanisms of carcinogenesis. Cancer is, ultimately, a disease of genes. In order for cells to start dividing uncontrollably, ... Carcinogenesis is caused by this mutation of the genetic material of normal cells, which upsets the normal balance between ...
more infohttp://wikidoc.org/index.php/Carcinogenesis

Hepatocellular carcinoma: epidemiology and molecular carcinogenesis.  - PubMed - NCBIHepatocellular carcinoma: epidemiology and molecular carcinogenesis. - PubMed - NCBI

Hepatocellular carcinoma: epidemiology and molecular carcinogenesis.. El-Serag HB1, Rudolph KL. ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17570226?dopt=Abstract

Cigarette Tar Carcinogenesis - Cancer Council VictoriaCigarette Tar Carcinogenesis - Cancer Council Victoria

Intimacy counselling. Find out more about our free, confidential counselling with medical specialists trained in intimacy, body image, sexual confidence and relationships. Available to all those facing cancer and their partners, including members of the LGBTQI community. ...
more infohttps://www.cancervic.org.au/research/projects/project_cigarette_tar2.html

Mechanisms of Carcinogenesis - Epigenetics GroupMechanisms of Carcinogenesis - Epigenetics Group

You are here: Home / Research / Research Sections / Mechanisms of Carcinogenesis / Epigenetics Group / Current Topics ... You are here: Home / Research / Research Sections / Mechanisms of Carcinogenesis / Epigenetics Group / Current Topics ... Mechanisms of Carcinogenesis - Epigenetics Group. Current Research Topics:. 1. Identifying and characterizing epigenetic ...
more infohttp://www.iarc.fr/en/research-groups/EGE/current-topics.php

CarcinogenesisCarcinogenesis

Radiation Carcinogenesis: Lessons From Chernobyl.. Posted on April 1, 2011. by Dr. Gary Pack ... Conditions: Carcinogenesis, Chemotherapy, Chromate toxicity. *Supplements: Alpha lipoic acid, EGCG (epigallocatechin gallate), ... Cr(6+) causes free radical formation which is toxic to DNA and can lead to carcinogenesis. Treatment studies of Cr(6+) using N- ... Conditions: Breast cancer, Cancer, Carcinogenesis, Colon cancer, DNA damage, Leukemia, Mutation, Papillary thyroid cancer, ...
more infohttps://www.rainbow.coop/nutritional-library/condition/carcinogenesis/

Hp01 metals in gallbladder carcinogenesis.Hp01 metals in gallbladder carcinogenesis.

... gallbladder while trace metals are in lower concentration indicating possible role of heavy metal in gallbladder carcinogenesis ...
more infohttp://www.biomedsearch.com/nih/Hp01-metals-in-gallbladder-carcinogenesis/17490144.html

Chemical Carcinogenesis and Mutagenesis II | Colin S. Cooper | SpringerChemical Carcinogenesis and Mutagenesis II | Colin S. Cooper | Springer

I have been privileged to witness and participate in the great growth of knowledge on chemical carcinogenesis and mutagenesis ... Chemical Carcinogenesis and Mutagenesis II. Editors: Cooper, Colin S., Grover, Philip L. (Eds.) ... The important and varied topics that are reviewed here attest to the continued growth of the fields of chemical car- cinogenesis ... I have been privileged to witness and participate in the great growth of knowledge on chemical carcinogenesis and mutagenesis ...
more infohttps://www.springer.com/us/book/9783642747809?wt_mc=

NIOSHTIC-2  Publications Search - 20045268 - Novel biomarkers of asbestos carcinogenesis.NIOSHTIC-2 Publications Search - 20045268 - Novel biomarkers of asbestos carcinogenesis.

Biomarkers; Carcinogenesis; Carcinogens; Cancer; Diagnostic-tests; Diagnostic-techniques; Analytical-processes; Construction- ...
more infohttps://www.cdc.gov/niosh/nioshtic-2/20045268.html

Journal of CarcinogenesisJournal of Carcinogenesis

... , Published for Carcinogenesis Press by Wolters Kluwer - Medknow Online since 01 August, 2013, New ... Colorectal carcinogenesis: Review of human and experimental animal studies. Takuji Tanaka. 2009, 8:5 (26 March 2009). DOI: ... For colon carcinogenesis, however, constitutive signaling through the canonical Wnt pathway is not a singular event. Here we ... Although inflammation-linked carcinogenesis is a well accepted concept and is often observed within the gastrointestinal tract ...
more infohttp://www.carcinogenesis.com/showstats.asp?a=tc

Cutaneous Development and Carcinogenesis Section | NIAMSCutaneous Development and Carcinogenesis Section | NIAMS

... and using mouse genetics to model carcinogenesis in the skin. ... and using mouse genetics to model carcinogenesis in the skin. ... The Cutaneous Development and Carcinogenesis Section studies the signaling pathways such as Hedgehog signaling that regulate ... The Cutaneous Development and Carcinogenesis Section studies the signaling pathways such as Hedgehog signaling that regulate ...
more infohttps://www.niams.nih.gov/labs/brownell-lab

Molecular Mechanisms of Multistage CarcinogenesisMolecular Mechanisms of Multistage Carcinogenesis

Research Topics about Molecular Mechanisms of Multistage Carcinogenesis ... Molecular Mechanisms of Multistage Carcinogenesis. Summary. Principal Investigator: TREVOR PENNING. Abstract: DESCRIPTION ( ... You are here: Research Grants , P01 , CA , molecular , mechanisms , Molecular Mechanisms of Multistage Carcinogenesis ... contribute to PAHmultistage carcinogenesis. We propose that the electrophilic PAH-o-quinones plus the reactive oxygen species ( ...
more infohttp://www.labome.org/grant/p01/ca/molecular/mechanisms/molecular-mechanisms-of-multistage-carcinogenesis-7101871.html
  • chemical carcinogenesis" is the general title of the series of international meetings which are held, biannually, in sardinia (Italy) since 1981. (springer.com)
  • I have been privileged to witness and participate in the great growth of knowledge on chemical carcinogenesis and mutagenesis since 1939 when I entered graduate school in biochemistry at the University of Wisconsin- Madison. (springer.com)
  • In 1942 I joined a fellow graduate student, ELIZABETH CA VERT, in marriage and we soon commenced a joyous part- nership in research on chemical carcinogenesis at the McArdle Laboratory for Cancer Research in the University of Wisconsin Medical School in Madison. (springer.com)
  • We report here that PPARγ is a powerful tumor suppressor gene in the colon, and that loss of one allele of PPARγ is sufficient to increase sensitivity to chemical carcinogenesis. (pnas.org)
  • Building on this expertise, within the division Virus-Associated Carcinogenesis at the German Cancer Research Center we focus on the molecular and cellular mechanisms leading to persistent infection, how chronic viral hepatitis contributes to liver cancer and how oncogenic viruses develop from an evolutionary point of view. (dkfz.de)
  • According to the prevailing accepted theory of carcinogenesis, the somatic mutation theory, mutations in DNA and epimutations that lead to cancer disrupt these orderly processes by disrupting the programming regulating the processes, upsetting the normal balance between proliferation and cell death. (wikipedia.org)
  • Resveratrol, but not EGCG, suppressed mammary carcinogenesis (fewer tumors per rat and longer tumor latency). (carcinogenesis.com)
  • To delineate COX-2 functions for carcinogenesis, we have used the initiation-promotion model ( 2 ) for the induction of skin tumors in wild-type (wt) NMRI mice and COX-2 transgenic mouse lines. (pnas.org)
  • It is certain that chemical carcinogens are toxic to cells and cause DNA damage: however it is still an open question as to how to relate these changes to the different stages of carcinogenesis including initiation. (springer.com)
  • Their structural stability, once altered, triggers the initiation of the sequences characteristic for ovarian carcinogenesis, through their role as modulators for several signaling pathways, contributing to the disruption of cellular junctions, disturbance of pro-/antiapoptotic equilibrium, and alteration of transmission of the signals specific for the molecular pathways. (hindawi.com)
  • Within this framework, this review presents three protein molecules: ALCAM, c-FLIP, and caveolin, motivated by the perspectives provided through the current limited knowledge on their role in ovarian carcinogenesis and on their potential as prognosis factors. (hindawi.com)
  • Conclusion The heavy metals are in higher concentration in carcinoma gallbladder while trace metals are in lower concentration indicating possible role of heavy metal in gallbladder carcinogenesis. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Despite the generality of the title, the main effort of the scientific Committee has been to pursue a coherent line around one of the most distinguishing features of carcinogenesis: the "multifasic" development of the process. (springer.com)