Enzymes which catalyze the hydrolysis of carboxylic acid esters with the formation of an alcohol and a carboxylic acid anion.
Carboxylesterase is a serine-dependent esterase with wide substrate specificity. The enzyme is involved in the detoxification of XENOBIOTICS and the activation of ester and of amide PRODRUGS.
An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and some other sterol esters, to liberate cholesterol plus a fatty acid anion.
A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Family of the suborder HAPLORHINI (Anthropoidea) comprising bipedal primate MAMMALS. It includes modern man (HOMO SAPIENS) and the great apes: gorillas (GORILLA GORILLA), chimpanzees (PAN PANISCUS and PAN TROGLODYTES), and orangutans (PONGO PYGMAEUS).
Phospholipases that hydrolyze the acyl group attached to the 2-position of PHOSPHOGLYCERIDES.
Phospholipases that hydrolyze one of the acyl groups of phosphoglycerides or glycerophosphatidates.
A nodular organ in the ABDOMEN that contains a mixture of ENDOCRINE GLANDS and EXOCRINE GLANDS. The small endocrine portion consists of the ISLETS OF LANGERHANS secreting a number of hormones into the blood stream. The large exocrine portion (EXOCRINE PANCREAS) is a compound acinar gland that secretes several digestive enzymes into the pancreatic ductal system that empties into the DUODENUM.
A class of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of phosphoglycerides or glycerophosphatidates. EC 3.1.-.
A phospholipid derivative formed by PLATELETS; BASOPHILS; NEUTROPHILS; MONOCYTES; and MACROPHAGES. It is a potent platelet aggregating agent and inducer of systemic anaphylactic symptoms, including HYPOTENSION; THROMBOCYTOPENIA; NEUTROPENIA; and BRONCHOCONSTRICTION.
A secreted phospholipase A2 subtype that contains a interfacial-binding region with specificity for PHOSPHATIDYLCHOLINE. This enzyme group may play a role in eliciting ARACHIDONIC ACID release from intact cellular membranes and from LOW DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS. Members of this group bind specifically to PHOSPHOLIPASE A2 RECEPTORS.
The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
An enzyme of the hydrolase class that catalyzes the reaction of triacylglycerol and water to yield diacylglycerol and a fatty acid anion. It is produced by glands on the tongue and by the pancreas and initiates the digestion of dietary fats. (From Dorland, 27th ed) EC 3.1.1.3.
The metabolic process of breaking down LIPIDS to release FREE FATTY ACIDS, the major oxidative fuel for the body. Lipolysis may involve dietary lipids in the DIGESTIVE TRACT, circulating lipids in the BLOOD, and stored lipids in the ADIPOSE TISSUE or the LIVER. A number of enzymes are involved in such lipid hydrolysis, such as LIPASE and LIPOPROTEIN LIPASE from various tissues.
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
An enzyme of the hydrolase class that catalyzes the reaction of triacylglycerol and water to yield diacylglycerol and a fatty acid anion. The enzyme hydrolyzes triacylglycerols in chylomicrons, very-low-density lipoproteins, low-density lipoproteins, and diacylglycerols. It occurs on capillary endothelial surfaces, especially in mammary, muscle, and adipose tissue. Genetic deficiency of the enzyme causes familial hyperlipoproteinemia Type I. (Dorland, 27th ed) EC 3.1.1.34.
An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of glycerol monoesters of long-chain fatty acids EC 3.1.1.23.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of D-glucose 6-phosphate and water to D-glucose and orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.9.
A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.
A group of enzymes removing the SERINE- or THREONINE-bound phosphate groups from a wide range of phosphoproteins, including a number of enzymes which have been phosphorylated under the action of a kinase. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992)
A eukayrotic protein serine-threonine phosphatase subtype that dephosphorylates a wide variety of cellular proteins. The enzyme is comprised of a catalytic subunit and regulatory subunit. Several isoforms of the protein phosphatase catalytic subunit exist due to the presence of multiple genes and the alternative splicing of their mRNAs. A large number of proteins have been shown to act as regulatory subunits for this enzyme. Many of the regulatory subunits have additional cellular functions.
Glucose in blood.
An enzyme group that specifically dephosphorylates phosphotyrosyl residues in selected proteins. Together with PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE, it regulates tyrosine phosphorylation and dephosphorylation in cellular signal transduction and may play a role in cell growth control and carcinogenesis.
Artificial, single or multilaminar vesicles (made from lecithins or other lipids) that are used for the delivery of a variety of biological molecules or molecular complexes to cells, for example, drug delivery and gene transfer. They are also used to study membranes and membrane proteins.
A technique using antibodies for identifying or quantifying a substance. Usually the substance being studied serves as antigen both in antibody production and in measurement of antibody by the test substance.
Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).
The complex formed by the binding of antigen and antibody molecules. The deposition of large antigen-antibody complexes leading to tissue damage causes IMMUNE COMPLEX DISEASES.
Exclusive legal rights or privileges applied to inventions, plants, etc.
An early local inflammatory reaction to insult or injury that consists of fever, an increase in inflammatory humoral factors, and an increased synthesis by hepatocytes of a number of proteins or glycoproteins usually found in the plasma.
Serum glycoproteins participating in the host defense mechanism of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION that creates the COMPLEMENT MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX. Included are glycoproteins in the various pathways of complement activation (CLASSICAL COMPLEMENT PATHWAY; ALTERNATIVE COMPLEMENT PATHWAY; and LECTIN COMPLEMENT PATHWAY).
A phosphoprotein phosphatase subtype that is comprised of a catalytic subunit and two different regulatory subunits. At least two genes encode isoforms of the protein phosphatase catalytic subunit, while several isoforms of regulatory subunits exist due to the presence of multiple genes and the alternative splicing of their mRNAs. Protein phosphatase 2 acts on a broad variety of cellular proteins and may play a role as a regulator of intracellular signaling processes.
Catalytically active enzymes that are formed by the combination of an apoenzyme (APOENZYMES) and its appropriate cofactors and prosthetic groups.
A specific inhibitor of phosphoserine/threonine protein phosphatase 1 and 2a. It is also a potent tumor promoter. (Thromb Res 1992;67(4):345-54 & Cancer Res 1993;53(2):239-41)
Five-membered heterocyclic ring structures containing an oxygen in the 1-position and a nitrogen in the 3-position, in distinction from ISOXAZOLES where they are at the 1,2 positions.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
Specialized non-fenestrated tightly-joined ENDOTHELIAL CELLS with TIGHT JUNCTIONS that form a transport barrier for certain substances between the cerebral capillaries and the BRAIN tissue.
Fatty acid esters of cholesterol which constitute about two-thirds of the cholesterol in the plasma. The accumulation of cholesterol esters in the arterial intima is a characteristic feature of atherosclerosis.
Luciferases from BACTERIA such as PHOTOBACTERIUM; VIBRIO; and PHOTORHABDUS.
Derivatives of carbamic acid, H2NC(=O)OH. Included under this heading are N-substituted and O-substituted carbamic acids. In general carbamate esters are referred to as urethanes, and polymers that include repeating units of carbamate are referred to as POLYURETHANES. Note however that polyurethanes are derived from the polymerization of ISOCYANATES and the singular term URETHANE refers to the ethyl ester of carbamic acid.
Salts or ions of the theoretical carbonic acid, containing the radical CO2(3-). Carbonates are readily decomposed by acids. The carbonates of the alkali metals are water-soluble; all others are insoluble. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Carbonic acid calcium salt (CaCO3). An odorless, tasteless powder or crystal that occurs in nature. It is used therapeutically as a phosphate buffer in hemodialysis patients and as a calcium supplement.
Organic compounds containing the carboxy group (-COOH). This group of compounds includes amino acids and fatty acids. Carboxylic acids can be saturated, unsaturated, or aromatic.
A sulfonic acid-based naphthylazo dye used as a coloring agent for foodstuffs and medicines and as a dye and chemical indicator. It was banned by the FDA in 1976 for use in foods, drugs, and cosmetics. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
A disorder beginning in childhood. It is marked by the presence of markedly abnormal or impaired development in social interaction and communication and a markedly restricted repertoire of activity and interest. Manifestations of the disorder vary greatly depending on the developmental level and chronological age of the individual. (DSM-V)
Proteins from the nematode species CAENORHABDITIS ELEGANS. The proteins from this species are the subject of scientific interest in the area of multicellular organism MORPHOGENESIS.
A species of nematode that is widely used in biological, biochemical, and genetic studies.
A genus of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) frequently found in tropical and subtropical regions. YELLOW FEVER and DENGUE are two of the diseases that can be transmitted by species of this genus.
Slender-bodies diurnal insects having large, broad wings often strikingly colored and patterned.

Genetic polymorphism and interethnic variability of plasma paroxonase activity. (1/1703)

A method for determining plasma paroxonase activity using an auto-analyser is described. Frequency distributions for British and Indian subjects show bimodality. A study of 40 British families confirms the presence of a genetic polymorphism with regard to plasma paroxonase activity. Two phenotypes can be defined, controlled by two alleles at one autosomal locus. The frequency of the low activity phenotype is less in the Indian population than in the British population. Malay, Chinese, and African subjects fail to show obvious bimodality.  (+info)

Comparison of two in vitro activation systems for protoxicant organophosphorous esterase inhibitors. (2/1703)

In order to perform in vitro testing of esterase inhibition caused by organophosphorous (OP) protoxicants, simple, reliable methods are needed to convert protoxicants to their esterase-inhibiting forms. Incubation of parathion or chlorpyrifos with 0.05% bromine solution or uninduced rat liver microsomes (RLM) resulted in production of the corresponding oxygen analogs of these OP compounds and markedly increased esterase inhibition in SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells. Neither activation system affected cell viability or the activity of AChE or NTE in the absence of OP compounds. Although parathion and chlorpyrifos were activated by RLM, bromine activation required fewer steps and produced more esterase inhibition for a given concentration of chlorpyrifos. However, RLM activation of OP protoxicants produced metabolites other than oxygen analogs and may, therefore, be more relevant as a surrogate for OP biotransformation in vivo. This methodology makes the use of intact cells for in vitro testing of esterase inhibition caused by protoxicant organophosphate compounds a viable alternative to in vivo tests.  (+info)

Inhibition of translation and cell growth by minigene expression. (3/1703)

A random five-codon gene library was used to isolate minigenes whose expression causes cell growth arrest. Eight different deleterious minigenes were isolated, five of which had in-frame stop codons; the predicted expressed peptides ranged in size from two to five amino acids. Mutational analysis demonstrated that translation of the inhibitory minigenes is essential for growth arrest. Pulse-labeling experiments showed that expression of at least some of the selected minigenes results in inhibition of cellular protein synthesis. Expression of the deleterious minigenes in cells deficient in peptidyl-tRNA hydrolase causes accumulation of families of peptidyl-tRNAs corresponding to the last minigene codon; the inhibitory action of minigene expression could be suppressed by overexpression of the tRNA corresponding to the last sense codon in the minigene. Experimental data are compatible with the model that the deleterious effect of minigene expression is mediated by depletion of corresponding pools of free tRNAs.  (+info)

Pectin methylesterase gene (pmeA) from Aspergillus oryzae KBN616: its sequence analysis and overexpression, and characterization of the gene product. (4/1703)

A gene (pmeA) encoding pectin methylesterase was isolated from a shoyu koji mold, Aspergillus oryzae KBN616, and characterized. The structural gene comprised 1,370 bp with six introns. The PMEA protein consisted of 331 amino acids with a putative signal peptide of 17 amino acids. The deduced amino acid sequence was very similar to those of Aspergillus niger PMEA and Aspergillus aculeatus PME1. The pmeA gene was efficiently expressed under control of the A. oryzae TEF1 gene promoter for purification and characterization of the ezymatic properties. PMEA had a molecular mass of 38.5 kDa, a pH optimum of 5.0, and a temperature optimum of 55 degrees C.  (+info)

Localization of a candidate surfactant convertase to type II cells, macrophages, and surfactant subfractions. (5/1703)

Pulmonary surfactant exists in the alveolus in several distinct subtypes that differ in their morphology, composition, and surface activity. Experiments by others have implicated a serine hydrolase in the production of the inactive small vesicular subtype of surfactant (N. J. Gross and R. M. Schultz. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1044: 222-230, 1990). Our laboratory recently identified this enzyme in the rat as the serine carboxylesterase ES-2 [F. Barr, H. Clark, and S. Hawgood. Am. J. Physiol. 274 (Lung Cell. Mol. Physiol. 18): L404-L410, 1998]. In the present study, we determined the cellular sites of expression of ES-2 in rat lung using a digoxygenin-labeled ES-2 riboprobe. ES-2 mRNA was localized to type II cells and alveolar macrophages but not to Clara cells. Using a specific ES-2 antibody, we determined the protein distribution of ES-2 in the lung by immunohistochemistry, and it was found to be consistent with the sites of mRNA expression. Most of the ES-2 in rat bronchoalveolar lavage is in the surfactant-depleted supernatant, but ES-2 was also consistently localized to the small vesicular surfactant subfraction presumed to form as a consequence of conversion activity. These results are consistent with a role for endogenous lung ES-2 in surfactant metabolism.  (+info)

Preferential release of 11-cis-retinol from retinal pigment epithelial cells in the presence of cellular retinaldehyde-binding protein. (6/1703)

In photoreceptor cells of the retina, photoisomerization of 11-cis-retinal to all-trans-retinal triggers phototransduction. Regeneration of 11-cis-retinal proceeds via a complex set of reactions in photoreceptors and in adjacent retinal pigment epithelial cells where all-trans-retinol is isomerized to 11-cis-retinol. Our results show that isomerization in vitro only occurs in the presence of apo-cellular retinaldehyde-binding protein. This retinoid-binding protein may drive the reaction by mass action, overcoming the thermodynamically unfavorable isomerization. Furthermore, this 11-cis-retinol/11-cis-retinal-specific binding protein potently stimulates hydrolysis of endogenous 11-cis-retinyl esters but has no effect on hydrolysis of all-trans-retinyl esters. Apo-cellular retinaldehyde-binding protein probably exerts its effect by trapping the 11-cis-retinol product. When retinoid-depleted retinal pigment epithelial microsomes were preincubated with different amounts of all-trans-retinol to form all-trans-retinyl esters and then [3H]all-trans-retinol was added, as predicted, the specific radioactivity of [3H]all-trans-retinyl esters increased during subsequent reaction. However, the specific radioactivity of newly formed 11-cis-retinol stayed constant during the course of the reaction, and it was largely unaffected by expansion of the all-trans-retinyl ester pool during the preincubation. The absence of dilution establishes that most of the ester pool does not participate in isomerization, which in turn suggests that a retinoid intermediate other than all-trans-retinyl ester is on the isomerization reaction pathway.  (+info)

Production of poly(3-hydroxybutyric acid-co-4-hydroxybutyric acid) and poly(4-hydroxybutyric acid) without subsequent degradation by Hydrogenophaga pseudoflava. (7/1703)

A Hydrogenophaga pseudoflava strain was able to synthesize poly(3-hydroxybutyric acid-co-4-hydroxybutyric acid) [P(3HB-co-4HB)] having a high level of 4-hydroxybutyric acid monomer unit (4HB) from gamma-butyrolactone. In a two-step process in which the first step involved production of cells containing a minimum amount of poly(3-hydroxybutyric acid) [P(3HB)] and the second step involved polyester accumulation from the lactone, approximately 5 to 10 mol% of the 3-hydroxybutyric acid (3HB) derived from the first-step culture was unavoidably reincorporated into the polymer in the second cultivation step. Reincorporation of the 3HB units produced from degradation of the first-step residual P(3HB) was confirmed by high-resolution 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. In order to synthesize 3HB-free poly(4-hydroxybutyric acid) [P(4HB)] homopolymer, a three-stage cultivation technique was developed by adding a nitrogen addition step, which completely removed the residual P(3HB). The resulting polymer was free of 3HB. However, when the strain was grown on gamma-butyrolactone as the sole carbon source in a synthesis medium, a copolyester of P(3HB-co-4HB) containing 45 mol% 3HB was produced. One-step cultivation on gamma-butyrolactone required a rather long induction time (3 to 4 days). On the basis of the results of an enzymatic study performed with crude extracts, we suggest that the inability of cells to produce 3HB in the multistep culture was due to a low level of 4-hydroxybutyric acid (4HBA) dehydrogenase activity, which resulted in a low level of acetyl coenzyme A. Thus, 3HB formation from gamma-butyrolactone is driven by a high level of 4HBA dehydrogenase activity induced by long exposure to gamma-butyrolactone, as is the case for a one-step culture. In addition, intracellular degradation kinetics studies showed that P(3HB) in cells was completely degraded within 30 h of cultivation after being transferred to a carbon-free mineral medium containing additional ammonium sulfate, while P(3HB-co-4HB) containing 5 mol% 3HB and 95 mol% 4HB was totally inert in interactions with the intracellular depolymerases. Intracellular inertness could be a useful factor for efficient synthesis of the P(4HB) homopolymer and of 4HB-rich P(3HB-co-4HB) by the strain used in this study.  (+info)

Relationship between succinate transport and production of extracellular poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) depolymerase in Pseudomonas lemoignei. (8/1703)

The relationship between extracellular poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) depolymerase synthesis and the unusual properties of a succinate uptake system was investigated in Pseudomonas lemoignei. Growth on and uptake of succinate were highly pH dependent, with optima at pH 5.6. Above pH 7, growth on and uptake of succinate were strongly reduced with concomitant derepression of PHB depolymerase synthesis. The specific succinate uptake rates were saturable by high concentrations of succinate, and maximal transport rates of 110 nmol/mg of cell protein per min were determined between pH 5.6 and 6. 8. The apparent KS0.5 values increased with increasing pH from 0.2 mM succinate at pH 5.6 to more than 10 mM succinate at pH 7.6. The uptake of [14C]succinate was strongly inhibited by several monocarboxylates. Dicarboxylates also inhibited the uptake of succinate but only at pH values near the dissociation constant of the second carboxylate function (pKa2). We conclude that the succinate carrier is specific for the monocarboxylate forms of various carboxylic acids and is not able to utilize the dicarboxylic forms. The inability to take up succinate2- accounts for the carbon starvation of P. lemoignei observed during growth on succinate at pH values above 7. As a consequence the bacteria produce high levels of extracellular PHB depolymerase activity in an effort to escape carbon starvation by utilization of PHB hydrolysis products.  (+info)

Neuropathy target esterase also known as patatin-like phospholipase domain-containing protein 6 (PNPLA6) is a neuropathy target esterase enzyme that in humans is encoded by the PNPLA6 gene. Neuropathy target esterase is a phospholipase that deacetylates intracellular phosphatidylcholine to produce glycerophosphocholine. It is thought to function in neurite outgrowth and process elongation during neuronal differentiation. The protein is anchored to the cytoplasmic face of the endoplasmic reticulum in both neurons and non-neuronal cells. Neuropathy target esterase is an enzyme with phospholipase B activity: It sequentially hydrolyses both fatty acids from the major membrane lipid phosphatidylcholine, which generates water-soluble glycerophosphocholine. In cells of eukaryotes from yeast to humans, NTE is anchored to the cytoplasmic face of the endoplasmic reticulum membrane and is particularly abundant in neurons, the placenta, and the kidney. Loss of NTE activity results in abnormally elevated ...
Product Pig Arylacetamide deacetylase like 4(AADACL4) ELISA kit From B-Gene - A competitive ELISA for quantitative measurement of Porcine Arylacetamide deacetylase like 4(AADACL4) in samples from blood, plasma, serum, cell culture supernatant and other biological fluids. This is a high quality ELISA kit developped for optimal performance with samples from the particular species. Kit contents: 1. MICROTITER PLATE * 1 2. ENZYME CONJUGATE*1 vial 3. STANDARD A*1 vial 4. STANDARD B*1 vial 5. STANDARD C*1 vial 6. STANDARD D*1 vial 7. STANDARD E*1 vial 8. STANDARD F*1 vial 9. SUBSTRATE A*1 vial 10. SUBSTRATE B*1 vial 11. STOP SOLUTION*1 vial 12. WASH SOLUTION (100 x)*1 vial 13. BALANCE SOLUTION*1 vial 14. INSTRUCTION*1
In enzymology, an acyloxyacyl hydrolase (EC 3.1.1.77) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction 3-(acyloxy)acyl group of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (lipid A moiety) ⇌ {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } 3-hydroxyacyl group of bacterial lipopolysaccharide + a fatty acid Hence, this enzyme has one substrate, the 3-(acyloxy)acyl groups of bacterial lipopolysaccharides, and two products, [partially deacylated lipopolysaccharide] and fatty acid. The enzyme removes from lipid A the secondary acyl chains that are needed for lipopolysaccharides to be recognized by the MD-2--TLR4 receptor on animal cells. This reaction inactivates the lipopolysaccharide (endotoxin). Acyloxyacyl hydrolase is produced by monocyte-macrophages, neutrophils, dendritic cells, and renal cortical epithelial cells. It is a protein of Mr = ~60,000 that has two disulfide-linked subunits. The smaller subunit, of Mr = ~14,000 (including glycosylation), is a member of the SAPLIP (saposin-like protein) family along with ...
Acetylcholinesterase and neuropathy target esterase inhibitions in neuroblastoma cells to distinguish organophosphorus compounds causing acute and delayed neuro
The major source of retinoids from the diet are plant pigments such as carotenes and retinyl esters derived from animal sources. Retinyl esters are hydrolyzed in the intestinal lumen to yield free retinol and the corresponding fatty acid (i.e. palmitate or stearate). After hydrolysis, retinol is taken up by the enterocytes. Retinyl ester hydrolysis requires the presence of bile salts that serve to solubilize the retinyl esters in mixed micelles and to activate the hydrolyzing enzymes [3]. Several enzymes that are present in the intestinal lumen may be involved in the hydrolysis of dietary retinyl esters. Cholesterol esterase is secreted into the intestinal lumen from the pancreas and has been shown, in vitro, to display retinyl ester hydrolase activity. In addition, a retinyl ester hydrolase that is intrinsic to the brush-border membrane of the small intestine has been characterized in the rat as well as in the human. The different hydrolyzing enzymes are activated by different types of bile ...
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Bacterial cocaine esterase: A protein-based therapy for cocaine overdose and addiction. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
Thirty carbonates, thiocarbonates, carbamates, and carboxylic esters of alpha-naphthol, beta-naphthol, and p-nitrophenol were synthesized and tested as substrates for liver carboxylesterases from the crude microsomal fractions of human and mouse, and purified isozymes, hydrolases A and B, from rat l …
List of words make out of Pectinesterase. Anagrams and Words made out of Pectinesterase. Find Scrabble Point of Pectinesterase. Definition of Pectinesterase. Puzzle Solver.
Carboxylesterases hydrolyze numerous endogenous and foreign compounds with diverse structures. Humans and rodents express multiple forms of carboxylesterases, which share a high degree of sequence identity (∼70%). Alignment analyses locate in carboxylesterases several functional subsites such the catalytic triad as seen in acetylcholinesterase. The aim of this study was to determine among human and rodent carboxylesterases the immunorelatedness, overlapping substrate specificity, differential sensitivity to serine enzyme inhibitors, tissue distribution, and tumor-related expression. Six antibodies against whole carboxylesterases or synthetic peptides were tested for their reactivity toward 11 human or rodent recombinant carboxylesterases. The antibodies against whole proteins generally exhibited a broader cross-reactivity than the anti-peptide antibodies. All carboxylesterases hydrolyzed para-nitrophenylacetate and para-nitrophenylbutyrate. However, the relative activity varied markedly from ...
cell wall, extracellular region, acylglycerol lipase activity, carboxylic ester hydrolase activity, short-chain carboxylesterase activity, medium-chain fatty acid catabolic process, monoacylglycerol catabolic process, short-chain fatty acid catabolic process
Peptidyl-tRNA hydrolase (Pth) catalyzes the breakdown of peptidyl-tRNA into peptide and tRNA components. Pth from Acinetobacter baumannii (AbPth) was cloned, expressed, purified and crystallized in a native unbound (AbPth-N) state and in a bound state with the phosphate ion and cytosine arabinoside (cytarabine) (AbPth-C). Structures of AbPth-N and AbPth-C were determined at 1.36 and 1.10 Å resolutions, respectively. The structure of AbPth-N showed that the active site is filled with water molecules. In the structure of AbPth-C, a phosphate ion is present in the active site, while cytarabine is bound in a cleft which is located away from the catalytic site. The cytarabine-binding site is formed with residues: Gln19, Trp27, Glu30, Gln31, Lys152, Gln158 and Asp162. In the structure of AbPth-N, the side chains of two active-site residues, Asn70 and Asn116, were observed in two conformations. Upon binding of the phosphate ion in the active site, the side chains of both residues were ordered to ...
The Peptidyl-tRNA Hydrolase 2 (PTRH2) gene codes for a highly conserved mitochondrial protein. This protein prevents the accumulation of dissociated peptidyl-tRNA, and plays an important role in regulating cell survival and death. It promotes cell survival as part of an integrin-signaling pathway for cells attached to the extracellular matrix (ECM), through interaction with focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and subsequent activation of the PI3K-AKT-NFkB pathway. It also induces Bcl-2 transcription that blocks the intrinsic mitochondrial apoptotic pathway. PTRH2 functions as a phosphoprotein that regulates NFkB and ERK signaling. In cells that have lost their attachment to the ECM through anoikos, PTRH2 promotes apoptosis. Upon loss of integrin-mediated cell attachment to the ECM, PTRH2 protein is phosphorylated, is released from the mitochondria into the cytosol, and promotes apoptosis through interactions with transcriptional regulator amino-terminal enhancer of split (AES). Defects in this protein ...
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Plasmodium falciparum glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase 6-phosphogluconolactonase is a potential drug target Journal Articles Refereed ...
Carboxylesterases play an important role in the metabolism of endogenous compounds and exogenous substances such as drugs (including prodrugs), pesticides, and herbicides. Carboxylesterases are widely distributed in the microsomes of the several tissues such as liver, kidney, brain, and lung, where they are loosely bound to the luminal surface of the ER. The highest concentration of carboxylesterases is found in the liver microsomes (Morgan et al., 1994). Furthermore, it has been reported that secretory form such as serum carboxylesterase is highly expressed in rodent (Yan et al., 1995b). Therefore, the in vivo hydrolysis of drug containing ester moiety depends on hydrolase activity in the tissues as well as the blood.. Taking into account the drug disposition after administration, hydrophilic drugs are mainly distributed to the systemic blood circulation, whereas hydrophobic drugs distribute in several tissues. The hydrophobicity and basicity of butyryl-PL strongly suggest that butyryl-PL is ...
Copying of this document in whole or in part is allowable only for scholarly purposes. It is understood, however, that any copying or publication of this documentation for commercial purposes, or for financial gain, shall not be allowed without the authors written permission.. ...
p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.,/p> ,p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.,/p> ,p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).,/p> ,p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x,sup>64,/sup> + x,sup>4,/sup> + x,sup>3,/sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. ,/p> ,p class=publication>Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.,br /> ,strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums,/strong>,br /> ,a href=http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php>Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993),/a>),/p> Checksum:i ...
CP001825.PE410 Location/Qualifiers FT CDS_pept complement(441864..442601) FT /codon_start=1 FT /transl_table=11 FT /locus_tag=Tter_0412 FT /product=6-phosphogluconolactonase FT /note=TIGRFAM: 6-phosphogluconolactonase; PFAM: FT glucosamine/galactosamine-6-phosphate isomerase; KEGG: FT dvu:DVU2313 6-phosphogluconolactonase FT /db_xref=EnsemblGenomes-Gn:Tter_0412 FT /db_xref=EnsemblGenomes-Tr:ACZ41334 FT /db_xref=GOA:D1CEH8 FT /db_xref=InterPro:IPR005900 FT /db_xref=InterPro:IPR006148 FT /db_xref=InterPro:IPR037171 FT /db_xref=InterPro:IPR039104 FT /db_xref=UniProtKB/TrEMBL:D1CEH8 FT /inference=protein motif:TFAM:TIGR01198 FT /protein_id=ACZ41334.1 FT /translation=MAGKLSIVENSSEVARAGAEQFISRAKESIDDHGSFFVALSGGST FT PVAMYKLLASDEYRGKVDWDKVLFFWSDERCVPPDHPDSNYGSAHQHLLQPLGITEDRV FT FRMKGELPPEEAAREYEEIVKKAVPGDPPRFDLIFLGLGDDAHTASLFPETDALHVTDR FT LVVHNYVPKLNTYRITFTSTLINAAASVVFLVSGEGKAEALKSVLEGEQNPTKYPAQMV FT NPTSGALLWVVDRAAASLLSGTQ atggcaggaa agttatcgat tgtagaaaat tcctccgagg ...
Background: Our understanding of how fungi evolved to develop a variety of ecological niches, is limited but of fundamental biological importance. Specifically, the evolution of enzymes affects how well species can adapt to new environmental conditions. Feruloyl esterases (FAEs) are enzymes able to hydrolyze the ester bonds linking ferulic acid to plant cell wall polysaccharides. The diversity of substrate specificities found in the FAE family shows that this family is old enough to have experienced the emergence and loss of many activities. Methodology/Principal Findings: In this study we evaluate the relative activity of FAEs against a variety of model substrates as a novel predictive tool for Ascomycota taxonomic classification. Our approach consists of two analytical steps; (1) an initial unsupervised analysis to cluster the FAEs substrate specificity data which were generated by cultivation of 34 Ascomycota strains and then an analysis of the produced enzyme cocktail against 10 substituted
Background One of the most intriguing groups of enzymes, the feruloyl esterases (FAEs), is ubiquitous in both simple and complex organisms. FAEs have gained importance in biofuel, medicine and food industries due to their capability of acting on a large range of substrates for cleaving ester bonds and synthesizing high-added value molecules through esterification and transesterification reactions. During the past two decades extensive studies have been carried out on the production and partial characterization of FAEs from fungi, while much less is known about FAEs of bacterial or plant origin. Initial classification studies on FAEs were restricted on sequence similarity and substrate specificity on just four model substrates and considered only a handful of FAEs belonging to the fungal kingdom. Results Our study centers on the descriptor-based classification and structural analysis of experimentally verified and putative FAEs. 365 FAE-related sequences of fungal, bacterial and plantae origin were
Background mitochondrion, carboxylic ester hydrolase activity Description Abhd11 Polyclonal Antibody, HRP Conjugated. HRP. Raised in Rabbit. Formulation Liquid. 0.03% Proclin 300. 50% Glycerol, 0.01M PBS, PH 7.4. Specificity...
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
Build: Wed Jun 21 18:33:50 EDT 2017 (commit: 4a3b2dc). National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences (NCATS), 6701 Democracy Boulevard, Bethesda MD 20892-4874 • 301-435-0888. ...
Build: Wed Jun 21 18:33:50 EDT 2017 (commit: 4a3b2dc). National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences (NCATS), 6701 Democracy Boulevard, Bethesda MD 20892-4874 • 301-435-0888. ...
Shop Methylesterase ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Methylesterase Antibody at MyBioSource. Custom ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Antibody are available.
B14. Advances in plant biochemistry Lectures L27.1 Polyisoprenoids secondary metabolites or physiologically important superlipids? Liliana Surmacz, Ewa Swiezewska Institute of Biochemistry and Biophysics,
Donaghy et al. (1998) added the ethyl ferulate solution directly to the media immediately before pouring the plates, and used a final concentration of 2mg/mL while Hassan and Pattat (2011) added it to the top agar at a stated concentration of 0.05mg/ml. Weve found that the hassan and pattat concentration is way too low to make the agar cloudy but 1mg/ml can work well in a pinch. -- ...
Donaghy et al. (1998) added the ethyl ferulate solution directly to the media plates at a final concentration of 2mg/mL while Hassan and Pattat (2011) added it to the top agar at a stated concentration of 0.05mg/ml. Weve found that the hassan and pattat concentration is way too low to make the agar cloudy but 1mg/ml can work well in a pinch. -- ...
From Prosite: Peptidyl-tRNA hydrolase (EC 3.1.1.29) (PTH) is a bacterial enzyme that cleaves peptidyl-tRNA or N-acyl-aminoacyl-tRNA to yield free peptides or N-acyl-amino acids and tRNA. The natural substrate for this enzyme may be peptidyl-tRNA which drop off the ribosome during protein synthesis ...
1FDK: Crystal structure of the complex of bovine pancreatic phospholipase A2 with the inhibitor 1-hexadecyl-3-(trifluoroethyl)-sn-glycero-2-phosphomethanol,.
In this study, we provided insights into how PMEI modulates the activity of PME through the formation of the PME-PMEI complex. We chose GhPMEI3 as a possible pathogen resistance-associated PMEI, and GhPME2 and GhPME31 as representatives of two different types of PMEs. The alignment of the GhPMEI3 sequence with sequences of functionally characterized PMEIs showed that GhPMEI3 has two INH sequences (Fig. 1). The structure of an INH from tobacco (Nt-CIF) has been previously elucidated (Hothorn et al., 2004a). KwPMEI and Nt-CIF are strikingly similar from a structural point of view, but recognize different target enzymes, as key amino acids that are involved in the formation of intermolecular H-bonds with PMEs are only conserved in PMEIs. Therefore, the structural view of the PMEI-PME complex provided insights into the specific binding between GhPMEI3 and GhPME2/ GhPME31. Since the highly conserved INHs lack the PKF motif in the α3 helix, GhPMEI3 may be unable to participate in interactions with ...
Esta serie de fotos de Sevilla está dedicada a todos mis hermanos (Leo,Rubén y Manu) y a mis amigos: Andrea Niederfriniger,Conchi y Adrián González Da Sousa.Con ellos, he disfrutado,conocido,amado a esta gran ciudad que SIEMPRE estará en mí. Un saludo PD:Todas las fotos agrupadas en esta serie, están hechas en los puentes y vacaciones que me he pasado en Sevilla, algunas ya están en la galería
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Yesterday we were travelling but forgot to apply for our ESTA, so we had to submit a last minute application. How long does it take for an ESTA to be approved?
For the attribute list - its a vector because technically you could have multiple entries of the same attribute type. The only place this seems to happen in the real world is for the vendor-specific type. I have some code that would deal with those types, but it requires some further work (and that wont be a base script). Im not sure what to do in the case that other attribute types (e.g. username, calling station id, etc.) are present multiple times. Its not a violation of the RFC, so perhaps just a weird? ...
PME Services (Pty) Ltd, 083 707 7487, To exceed our customers expectations in quality, delivery, and cost through continual improvement and customer interaction.
Eesti Teadusinfosüsteem koondab informatsiooni teadus- ja arendusasutuste, teadlaste, teadusprojektide ning erinevate teadustegevuste tulemuste kohta.
Somos la primer asociación de esta especialidad en México. Avalamos diversos cursos y programas de entrenamiento en Ozonoterapia para médicos.
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Bohorova, N.E.; Zhang, W.; Julstrom, P.; McLean, S.D.; Luna, B.; Brito, R.M.; Díaz, L.; Ramos, M.E.; Estañol, P.; Pacheco, M.; Salgado, M.; Hoisington, D.A. (1999) ...
Shows the %age of participants who met specific weight-transformation thresholds 6 and 24 months after randomization. At two years, the %age of participants in
In this study, the effect of geraniol (50 mg/kg for 30 d), a natural antioxidant and repellent/antifeedant monoterpene, in a rat model of lead acetate-induced (500 ppm for 30 d) liver damage was evaluated. Hepatic malondialdehyde increased in the lead acetate group. Reduced glutathione unchanged, but glutathione S-transferase, glutathione reductase, as well as carboxylesterase activities decreased in geraniol, lead acetate and geraniol+lead acetate groups. 8-OhDG immunoreactivity, mononuclear cell infiltrations and hepatic lead concentration were lower in the geraniol+lead acetate group than the lead acetate group. Serum aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase activities increased in the Pb acetate group. In conclusion, lead acetate causes oxidative and toxic damage in the liver and this effect can reduce with geraniol treatment. However, we first observed that lead acetate, as well as geraniol, can affect liver carboxylesterase activity. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Hydrolysis of capecitabine to 5′-deoxy-5-fluorocytidine by human carboxylesterases and inhibition by loperamide. AU - Quinney, S. K.. AU - Sanghani, S. P.. AU - Davis, W. I.. AU - Hurley, T. D.. AU - Sun, Z.. AU - Murry, D. J.. AU - Bosron, William F.. PY - 2005/6/1. Y1 - 2005/6/1. N2 - Capecitabine is an oral prodrug of 5-fluorouracil that is indicated for the treatment of breast and colorectal cancers. A three-step in vivo-targeted activation process requiring carboxylesterases, cytidine deaminase, and thymidine phosphorylase converts capecitabine to 5-fluorouracil. Carboxylesterases hydrolyze capecitabines carbamate side chain to form 5′-deoxy-5-fluorocytidine (5′-DFCR). This study examines the steady-state kinetics of recombinant human carboxylesterase isozymes carboxylesterase (CES) 1A1, CES2, and CES3 for hydrolysis of capecitabine with a liquid chromatography/mass spectroscopy assay. Additionally, a spectrophotometric screening assay was utilized to identify drugs ...
Control and hyperhydric micropropagated plantlets from three carnation cultivars have been used to study their pectin composition and the activity of pectin methyl esterases (PMEs; EC 3.1.1.11). Pectins are a highly heterogeneous group of polymers that contribute to cell adhesion, cell wall architecture, and cell wall mechanical strength. Pectins control cell wall porosity and cell wall ionic status and are implicated in intercellular space development. The degree of esterification of pectins is controlled by the activity of cell wall PMEs; their different actions can affect the properties of the cell wall, which have been considered important with respect to controlling the development of hyperhydricity. The total pectins of hyperhydric leaves of the three varieties were significantly reduced in comparison with controls. The pectate fraction was significantly increased in hyperhydric leaves of all varieties while soluble pectins and protopectins were significantly lower. The PME activity of ...
During seed coat formation, the developing seeds of myxospermous species, such as Arabidopsis thaliana, accumulate polysaccharides in the apoplast of epidermal cells. When mature seeds are imbibed, the rehydrated polysaccharides expand and rupture the outer cell wall, and the released polysaccharides then encapsulate the seed as viscous mucilage. The functional role of this mucilage remains unclear, as Arabidopsis seeds without mucilage are viable and germinate under laboratory conditions. Certain reduced mucilage mutants have, however, been found to have delayed germination or increased sensitivity to low water potential compared with wild-type seeds (Penfield et al., 2001; Arsovski et al., 2009a). Diverse physiological roles have been proposed; for example, the adhesive properties of mucilage could glue seeds to animals for dispersion, or to soil particles, thereby impeding predation by ants or retaining seeds in a favorable environment (Young and Evans, 1973; García-Fayos et al., 2010; ...
Sensory adaptation by the chemotaxis system of Escherichia coli requires adjustments of the extent of methyl esterification of the chemotaxis receptor proteins. One mechanism utilized by E. coli to make such adjustments is to control the activity of CheB, the enzyme responsible for removing receptor methyl ester groups. Previous work has established the existence of a multicomponent signal transduction pathway that enables the chemotaxis receptor proteins to control the methylesterase activity in response to chemotactic stimuli. We isolated and characterized CheB mutants that do not respond normally to this control mechanism. In intact cells these CheB variants could not be activated in response to negative chemotaxis stimuli. Further characterization indicated that these CheB variants could not be phosphorylated by the chemotaxis protein kinase CheA. Disruption of the mechanism responsible for regulating methylesterase activity was also observed in cells carrying chromosomal deletions of either cheA or
The yeast Yarrowia lipolytica degrades efficiently low-cost hydrophobic substrates for the production of various added-value products such as lipases. To obtain yeast strains producing high levels of extracellular lipase, Y. lipolytica DSM3286 was subjected to mutation using ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS) and ultraviolet (UV) light. Twenty mutants were selected out of 1600 mutants of Y. lipolytica t ...
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Contents. EC 3.1.1 Carboxylic Ester Hydrolases. EC 3.1.2 Thioester Hydrolases. EC 3.1.3 Phosphoric Monoester Hydrolases. EC 3.1.4 Phosphoric Diester Hydrolases. EC 3.1.5 Triphosphoric Monoester Hydrolases. EC 3.1.6 Sulfuric Ester Hydrolases. EC 3.1.7 Diphosphoric Monoester Hydrolases. EC 3.1.8 Phosphoric Triester Hydrolases. EC 3.1.11 Exodeoxyribonucleases Producing 5-Phosphomonoesters. EC 3.1.12 Exodeoxyribonucleases Producing 3-Phosphomonoesters. EC 3.1.13 Exoribonucleases Producing 5-Phosphomonoesters. EC 3.1.14 Exoribonucleases Producing 3-Phosphomonoesters. EC 3.1.15 Exonucleases Active with either Ribo- or Deoxyribonucleic Acids and Producing 5-Phosphomonoesters. EC 3.1.16 Exonucleases Active with either Ribo- or Deoxyribonucleic Acids and Producing 3-Phosphomonoesters. EC 3.1.21 Endodeoxyribonucleases Producing 5-Phosphomonoesters. EC 3.1.22 Endodeoxyribonucleases Producing 3-Phosphomonoesters. EC 3.1.23 Site Specific Endodeoxyribonucleases: Cleavage is Sequence Specific ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Identification and comparison of cutinases for synthetic polyester degradation. AU - Baker, Peter James. AU - Poultney, Christopher. AU - Liu, Zhiqiang. AU - Gross, Richard. AU - Montclare, Jin. PY - 2012/1. Y1 - 2012/1. N2 - Cutinases have been exploited for a broad range of reactions, from hydrolysis of soluble and insoluble esters to polymer synthesis. To further expand the biotechnological applications of cutinases for synthetic polyester degradation, we perform a comparative activity and stability analysis of five cutinases from Alternaria brassicicola (AbC), Aspergillus fumigatus (AfC), Aspergillus oryzae (AoC), Humicola insolens (HiC), and the well-characterized Fusarium solani (FsC). Of the cutinases, HiC demonstrated enhanced poly(ε-caprolactone) hydrolysis at high temperatures and under all pH values, followed by AoC and AfC. Both AbC and FsC are least stable and function poorly at high temperatures as well as at acidic pH conditions. Surface charge calculations and ...
Aspergillus terreus MTCC 11096 isolated from the soils of agricultural fields cultivating sweet sorghum was previously identified to produce feruloyl esterases (FAEs). The enzymes responsible for feruloyl esterase activity were purified to homogeneity and named as AtFAE-1, AtFAE-2, and AtFAE-3. The …
Pectins are one of the main components of plant cell walls. They are secreted to the wall as highly methylesterified forms that can be de-esterified by pectin methylesterases (PMEs). The degree of methylesterification of pectins changes during development, PMEs are involved in the cell wall remodeling that occurs during diverse plant developmental processes. Nevertheless, the functional meaning of pectin-related wall remodeling in different cell types and processes remains unclear. In vivo, the microspore follows the gametophytic pathway and differentiates to form the pollen grain. In vitro, the microspore can be reprogrammed by stress treatments becoming a totipotent cell that starts to proliferate and follows the embryogenic pathway, a process known as microspore embryogenesis. To investigate if the change of developmental programme of the microspore towards embryogenesis involves changes in pectin esterification levels, which would cause the cell wall remodeling during the process, in the present
The primary structure of AtPAEs revealed that they are unlikely to be membrane proteins and that most isoforms have a basic pI, as suggested in the early literature [17]. However, the predicted GPI anchor for AtPAE10 and AtPAE12, both from clade 2, could indicate a putative role in plant signaling and some interaction with the plasma membrane. The presence of such a predicted GPI anchor has been observed in other pectin-related genes, including PMEI [55]. The absence of a predicted signaling sequence for three AtPAEs, AtPAE2, AtPAE4 and AtPAE5, indicates that some Arabidopsis PAEs without a signal peptide could have a functional activity. Similar results have been observed with several PMEs from distinct plant species and particularly for AtPME31, which has no signaling sequence but is active and cannot be inhibited by the kiwi pectin methylesterase inhibitor, a strong PME inhibitor [56]. 3D homology modeling of AtPME31 revealed an external loop. The function and the mechanism by which AtPME31 ...
Flutamide, an antiandrogen drug, is widely used for the treatment of prostate cancer. The major metabolic pathways of flutamide are hydroxylation and hydrolysis. The hydrolyzed metabolite, 5-amino-2-nitrobenzotrifluoride (FLU-1), is further metabolized to N-hydroxy FLU-1, an assumed hepatotoxicant. Our previous study demonstrated that arylacetamide deacetylase (AADAC), one of the major serine esterases expressed in the human liver and gastrointestinal tract, catalyzes the flutamide hydrolysis. However, the enzyme kinetics in human tissue microsomes were not consistent with the kinetics by recombinant human AADAC. Thus, it seemed that AADAC is not the sole enzyme responsible for flutamide hydrolysis in human. In the present study, we found that recombinant carboxylesterase (CES) 2 could hydrolyze flutamide at low concentrations of flutamide. In the inhibition assay, the flutamide hydrolase activities at a flutamide concentration of 5 μM in human liver and jejunum microsomes were strongly ...
enzyme inhibitor/ pectinesterase; FUNCTIONS IN: enzyme inhibitor activity, pectinesterase activity; INVOLVED IN: cell wall modification; LOCATED IN: endomembrane system, cell wall, plant-type cell wall; EXPRESSED IN: 22 plant structures; EXPRESSED DURING: 13 growth stages; CONTAINS InterPro DOMAIN/s: Pectinesterase, active site (InterPro:IPR018040), Pectin lyase fold/virulence factor (InterPro:IPR011050), Pectinesterase inhibitor (InterPro:IPR006501), Pectinesterase, catalytic (InterPro:IPR000070), Pectin lyase fold (InterPro:IPR012334); BEST Arabidopsis thaliana protein match is: pectinesterase family protein (TAIR:AT3G43270.1); Has 1247 Blast hits to 1216 proteins in 178 species: Archae - 0; Bacteria - 249; Metazoa - 1; Fungi - 131; Plants - 866; Viruses - 0; Other Eukaryotes - 0 (source: NCBI BLink ...
In order to establish the thermal process required by acified papaya pulp (pH 3.8) var formosa, a study was carried out on the kinetics of thermal inactivation of the heat resistant enzymes present in the pulp. Since no peroxidase activity was detected, the study was focused on pectinesterase. The heat inactivation curves at 75, 77 and 80C showed a change in slope indicating the presence of two different portions of the enzyme, one heat labile and the other hear resistant. The decimal reduction limes (D value) of pectinesterase were 0.8, 0.3 and 0.2 min for the heat labile portion and for the heat resistant portion 16.7, 7.2 and 3.7 min, respectively. The temperature-dependency factor for the heat labile portion was 9.2C and 7.8C for the thermostable portion, while the activation energies were 258.3 and 304.4 Kj/mol. These values were within the range of 167.5-418.7 Kj/mol reported in the literature for the thermal inactivation of enzymes. Thermal destruction studies with Clostridium ...
Lipase de Fusarium solani FS1 foi imobilizada por ligação covalente usando esferas de poliacrilamida e Dacron magnetizado, retendo 12%, e 97% de atividade, respectivamente. A lipase foi também enclausurada em esferas de poliacrilamida e reteve 53% de sua atividade específica. Investigações sobre...
Indivior (formerly Reckitt Benckiser Pharmaceuticals) is developing RBP 8000 as an intravenous antidote for cocaine toxicity. RBP 8000 is a cocaine esterase
In this study, we exploited two different expression systems in two distant plant species to address pivotal questions concerning the role and regulation of Chlase in chlorophyll catabolism. Although the EST database suggests that most plants contain more than one Chlase homolog, we chose to conduct this study using the Chlase1 gene from citrus (Jacob-Wilk et al., 1999) because (1) it is the only Chlase gene encoding an enzyme experimentally shown to be localized to the chloroplast (Trebitsh et al., 1993; Jacob-Wilk et al., 1999) and (2) it is one of only two Chlases for which the processing site of the mature protein was experimentally determined (Jacob-Wilk et al., 1999; Tsuchiya et al., 1999). The citrus Chlase1 gene was overexpressed in two systems: (1) a ZYMV-based viral vector expression system that efficiently expressed citrus Chlase versions in squash plants for at least 21 d, which was more than sufficient time to study the physiological effects of Chlase expression in plants; and (2) a ...
Compounds of formula (1) wherein R|sub|1|/sub| is hydrogen, hydroxy, halogen, nitro, cyano, amino, carboxy, carboxylic ester, sulfo, sulfonic ester, carboxylic amide, sulfonic amide, alkoxy, aryloxy, alkylthio or arylthio, X is -0-, -S-, -NH- or -N(alkyl)-, Y is hydrogen or carboxylic ester, Z is =C- or =N-, T is =C- or =N-, R|sub|2|/sub| is hydrogen, alkyl or CN, n is 0 or 1, when Z is =N- then n is 0, m is 0 or 1, when T is =N- then m is 0, A is a heterocyclic or linear or polycondensed aromatic group which is unsubstituted or substituted by hydroxy alkyl, halogen, nitro, cyano, amino, acylarnino, carboxylic ester, sulfonic ester, carboxylic amide, sulfonic amide, alkoxy, aryloxy, alkylthio, arylthio or phenyl, or A together with T and R|sub|2|/sub| can form an allycyclic or heterocyclic ring, their preparation and their use in the production of coloured plastics or polymeric colour particles.
pectinesterase family protein; FUNCTIONS IN: pectinesterase activity; INVOLVED IN: cell wall modification; LOCATED IN: endomembrane system, cell wall, plant-type cell wall; EXPRESSED IN: 18 plant structures; EXPRESSED DURING: 12 growth stages; CONTAINS InterPro DOMAIN/s: Pectinesterase, active site (InterPro:IPR018040), Pectin lyase fold/virulence factor (InterPro:IPR011050), Pectinesterase, catalytic (InterPro:IPR000070), Pectin lyase fold (InterPro:IPR012334); BEST Arabidopsis thaliana protein match is: pectinesterase family protein (TAIR:AT5G19730.1); Has 1217 Blast hits to 1190 proteins in 176 species: Archae - 0; Bacteria - 260; Metazoa - 1; Fungi - 128; Plants - 828; Viruses - 0; Other Eukaryotes - 0 (source: NCBI BLink ...
The YRC PDR provides for the searching of millions of protein descriptions from many databases to find proteins and public experimental data describing those proteins produced by the YRC. The experimental data is in the form of mass spectrometry, yeast two-hybrid, protein structure prediction, light microscopy and protein complex predictions.
Ota T, Suzuki Y, Nishikawa T, Otsuki T, Sugiyama T, Irie R, Wakamatsu A, Hayashi K, Sato H, Nagai K, Kimura K, Makita H, Sekine M, Obayashi M, Nishi T, Shibahara T, Tanaka T, Ishii S, Yamamoto J, Saito K, Kawai Y, Isono Y, Nakamura Y, Nagahari K, Murakami K, Yasuda T, Iwayanagi T, Wagatsuma M, Shiratori A, Sudo H, Hosoiri T, Kaku Y, Kodaira H, Kondo H, Sugawara M, Takahashi M, Kanda K, Yokoi T, Furuya T, Kikkawa E, Omura Y, Abe K, Kamihara K, Katsuta N, Sato K, Tanikawa M, Yamazaki M, Ninomiya K, Ishibashi T, Yamashita H, Murakawa K, Fujimori K, Tanai H, Kimata M, Watanabe M, Hiraoka S, Chiba Y, Ishida S, Ono Y, Takiguchi S, Watanabe S, Yosida M, Hotuta T, Kusano J, Kanehori K, Takahashi-Fujii A, Hara H, Tanase TO, Nomura Y, Togiya S, Komai F, Hara R, Takeuchi K, Arita M, Imose N, Musashino K, Yuuki H, Oshima A, Sasaki N, Aotsuka S, Yoshikawa Y, Matsunawa H, Ichihara T, Shiohata N, Sano S, Moriya S, Momiyama H, Satoh N, Takami S, Terashima Y, Suzuki O, Nakagawa S, Senoh A, Mizoguchi H, Goto Y, ...
Abdomen • Abscisic Acid • Acetaminophen • Acetylcholinesterase • Actins • Action Potentials • Adaptation, Biological • Adaptation, Physiological • Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing • Adenosine • Adolescent • Adult • Aedes • Aging • Algorithms • Alleles • Allosteric Regulation • Allosteric Site • Amaranth Dye • Analysis of Variance • Animal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena • Animals • Anopheles • Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal • Antidepressive Agents • Antioxidants • Ants • Arsenic • Autistic Disorder • Autoreceptors • Bangladesh • Bees • Beetles • Behavior, Animal • Betaine • Biochemistry • Biological Evolution • Biological Markers • Biological Transport • Biomass • Biometry • Body Constitution • Body Patterning • Body Size • Body Weight • Body Weights and Measures • Brain • Butterflies • Caenorhabditis elegans Proteins • Carbohydrates • Carbon • Carboxylic Ester Hydrolases • ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Baboon carboxylesterases 1 and 2. T2 - Sequences, structures and phylogenetic relationships with human and other primate carboxylesterases. AU - Holmes, Roger S.. AU - Glenn, Jeremy P.. AU - Vandeberg, John L.. AU - Cox, Laura A.. PY - 2009. Y1 - 2009. N2 - Background: Carboxylesterase (CES) is predominantly responsible for the detoxification of a wide range of drugs and narcotics, and catalyze several reactions in cholesterol and fatty acid metabolism. Studies of the genetic and biochemical properties of primate CES may contribute to an improved understanding of human disease, including atherosclerosis, obesity and drug addiction, for which non-human primates serve as useful animal models. Methods: We cloned and sequenced baboon CES1 and CES2 and used in vitro and in silico methods to predict protein secondary and tertiary structures, and examined evolutionary relationships for these enzymes with other primate and mouse CES orthologs. Results and Conclusions: We found that ...
InterPro provides functional analysis of proteins by classifying them into families and predicting domains and important sites. We combine protein signatures from a number of member databases into a single searchable resource, capitalising on their individual strengths to produce a powerful integrated database and diagnostic tool.
Close The Infona portal uses cookies, i.e. strings of text saved by a browser on the users device. The portal can access those files and use them to remember the users data, such as their chosen settings (screen view, interface language, etc.), or their login data. By using the Infona portal the user accepts automatic saving and using this information for portal operation purposes. More information on the subject can be found in the Privacy Policy and Terms of Service. By closing this window the user confirms that they have read the information on cookie usage, and they accept the privacy policy and the way cookies are used by the portal. You can change the cookie settings in your browser. ...
This cell line was derived from the peripheral blood of a 1 year old male with acute monocytic leukaemia. THP-1 cells show alpha-naphtyl butyrate esterase activity, phagocytose latex particles as well as sensitized sheep erythrocytes and have the ability to restore T-lymphocyte response to Con A. When incubating with TPA or DMSO the cells can be differentiated into macrophage-like cells ...
Cutinases are α/β hydrolases, which possess a conventional catalytic triad with a serine residue located within the conserved pentapeptide G-X-S-X-G m
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Would anyone know structural charactersitics of enzymes catalyzing the hydrolysis of 4-methylumbelliferyl-p-guanidinobenzoate to its product, 4-methylumbelliferone? I am presently working with the identification of a sperm protein possessing this enzymatic capability. zu04516 at uabdpo.dpo.uab.edu ...
Landowski, Christopher P. et al Nucleoside Ester Prodrug Substrate Specificity of Liver Carboxylesterase. Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics 316.2 (2006): 572-580. Web. 29 Mar. 2020. ...
Sterol esterase belongs to the family of hydrolases, specifically those acting on carboxylic ester bonds. The systematic name of this enzyme class is steryl-ester acylhyd
Corona del Mar High graduate Tumua Anae will attempt to become the third local athlete to win a gold medal at the London Olympics on Thursday. Anae, a backup goalie on the U.S. women's water polo team, will help the Americans battle Spain in the gold-medal game. The two teams, both 4-0-1 in the...
1LE7: Crystal structure of human group X secreted phospholipase A2. Electrostatically neutral interfacial surface targets zwitterionic membranes.
Recombinant Carboxylesterase 5A (CES5A) Protein (His tag). Species: Mouse (Murine). Source: Human Cells. Order product ABIN2008060.
Measurement of Carboxylesterase (CES) Activities (Masakiyo Hosokawa, Chiba University, Chiba, Japan and Tetsuo Satoh, Biomedical Research Institute, Chiba, Japan)
Powers R, Mirkovic N, Goldsmith-Fischman S, Acton TB, Chiang Y, Huang YJ, Ma L, Rajan PK, Cort JR, Kennedy MA, et al. Solution structure of Archaeglobus fulgidis peptidyl-tRNA hydrolase (Pth2) provides evidence for an extensive conserved family of Pth2 enzymes in archea, bacteria, and eukaryotes. Protein Sci. 2005 ;14(11):2849-61. ...
Powers R, Mirkovic N, Goldsmith-Fischman S, Acton TB, Chiang Y, Huang YJ, Ma L, Rajan PK, Cort JR, Kennedy MA, et al. Solution structure of Archaeglobus fulgidis peptidyl-tRNA hydrolase (Pth2) provides evidence for an extensive conserved family of Pth2 enzymes in archea, bacteria, and eukaryotes. Protein Sci. 2005 ;14(11):2849-61. ...
Hydrolase: esterases (EC 3.1). 3.1.1: Carboxylic. ester hydrolases. *Cholinesterase *Acetylcholinesterase. * ... Hormone-sensitive lipase (EC 3.1.1.79, HSL), also previously known as cholesteryl ester hydrolase (CEH),[5] sometimes referred ... hydrolase activity. • protein kinase binding. • serine hydrolase activity. Cellular component. • cytoplasm. • membrane. • lipid ... Aten RF, Kolodecik TR, Macdonald GJ, Behrman HR (November 1995). "Modulation of cholesteryl ester hydrolase messenger ...
Hydrolase: esterases (EC 3.1). 3.1.1: Carboxylic. ester hydrolases. *Cholinesterase *Acetylcholinesterase. * ... IGRP has almost no hydrolase activity, and may play a different role in stimulating pancreatic insulin secretion.[5] ...
Hydrolase: esterases (EC 3.1). 3.1.1: Carboxylic. ester hydrolases. *Cholinesterase *Acetylcholinesterase. * ... Other types of PET degrading hydrolases have been known before this discovery.[2] These include hydrolases such as: lipases, ... PETase exhibits shared qualities with both lipases and cutinases in that it possesses an α/β-hydrolase fold; although, the ... The Ideonella sakaiensis PETase is similar to dienelactone hydrolase, according to Pfam. According to ESTHER, it falls into the ...
Hydrolase: esterases (EC 3.1). 3.1.1: Carboxylic. ester hydrolases. *Cholinesterase *Acetylcholinesterase. * ... This enzyme belongs to the family of hydrolases, specifically those acting on phosphoric monoester bonds. The systematic name ...
Hydrolase: esterases (EC 3.1). 3.1.1: Carboxylic. ester hydrolases. *Cholinesterase *Acetylcholinesterase. * ...
Hydrolase: esterases (EC 3.1). 3.1.1: Carboxylic. ester hydrolases. *Cholinesterase *Acetylcholinesterase. * ... phosphoric diester hydrolase activity. • phospholipase C activity. • glutamate receptor binding. • hydrolase activity. • ...
Hydrolase: esterases (EC 3.1). 3.1.1: Carboxylic. ester hydrolases. *Cholinesterase *Acetylcholinesterase. * ... hydrolase activity. • ribonuclease A activity. • nucleic acid binding. • lipopolysaccharide binding. • ribonuclease activity. • ...
Hydrolase: esterases (EC 3.1). 3.1.1: Carboxylic. ester hydrolases. *Cholinesterase *Acetylcholinesterase. * ...
Hydrolase: esterases (EC 3.1). 3.1.1: Carboxylic. ester hydrolases. *Cholinesterase *Acetylcholinesterase. * ... Some are cAMP (figure 1) selective hydrolases (PDE 4, -7 and -8), others are cGMP (figure 1) selective hydrolases (PDE 5, -6 ...
Hydrolase: esterases (EC 3.1). 3.1.1: Carboxylic. ester hydrolases. *Cholinesterase *Acetylcholinesterase. * ...
Hydrolase: esterases (EC 3.1). 3.1.1: Carboxylic. ester hydrolases. *Cholinesterase *Acetylcholinesterase. * ...
This enzyme belongs to the family of hydrolases, specifically those acting on carboxylic ester bonds. The systematic name of ... the two substrates of this enzyme are oxaloacetate 4-methyl ester and H2O, whereas its two products are oxaloacetate and ... is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction oxaloacetate 4-methyl ester + H2O ⇌ {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } ... this enzyme class is oxaloacetate-4-methyl-ester oxaloacetohydrolase. Donnelly MI, Dagley S (1980). "Production of methanol ...
This enzyme belongs to the family of hydrolases, specifically those acting on carboxylic ester bonds. The systematic name of ... cholesteryl ester hydrolase, sterol ester hydrolase, cholesterol ester hydrolase, cholesterase, and acylcholesterol lipase. ... Okawa Y, Yamaguchi T (May 1977). "Studies on sterol-ester hydrolase from Fusarium oxysporum. I Partial purification and ... In enzymology, a sterol esterase (EC 3.1.1.13) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction sterol ester + H2O ⇌ {\ ...
This enzyme belongs to the family of hydrolases, specifically those acting on carboxylic ester bonds. The systematic name of ... Cutinase is a serine esterase containing the classical Ser, His, Asp triad of serine hydrolases. The protein belongs to the ... this enzyme class is cutin hydrolase. Aerial plant organs are protected by a cuticle composed of an insoluble polymeric ...
This enzyme belongs to the family of hydrolases, specifically those acting on carboxylic ester bonds. The systematic name of ... 3-oxoadipic enol-lactone hydrolase, and beta-ketoadipate enol-lactone hydrolase. This enzyme participates in benzoate ... Other names in common use include carboxymethylbutenolide lactonase, beta-ketoadipic enol-lactone hydrolase, 3-ketoadipate enol ...
This enzyme belongs to the family of hydrolases, specifically those acting on carboxylic ester bonds. The systematic name of ...
This enzyme belongs to the family of hydrolases, specifically those acting on carboxylic ester bonds. The systematic name of ... Other names in common use include triacetic lactone hydrolase, triacetic acid lactone hydrolase, TAL hydrolase, and triacetate ... III Properties of triacetic acid lactone hydrolase.]". Nippon Nogei Kagaku Kaishi. 42: 596-600. Biology portal v t e. ... lactone hydrolase. Kato S, Ueda H, Nonomura S, Tatsumi C (1968). "[Degradation of dehydroacetic acid by microorganisms. ...
This enzyme belongs to the family of hydrolases, specifically those acting on carboxylic ester bonds. The systematic name of ... hydrolase. Jendrossek D (2001). "Microbial degradation of polyesters". Adv. Biochem. Eng. Biotechnol. 71: 293-325. doi:10.1007/ ... this enzyme class is poly{oxycarbonyl[(R)-2-pentylethylene]} hydrolase. Other names in common use include PHO depolymerase, ...
This enzyme belongs to the family of hydrolases, specifically those acting on carboxylic ester bonds. The systematic name of ...
This enzyme belongs to the family of hydrolases, specifically those acting on carboxylic ester bonds. The systematic name of ... This enzyme is also called alpha-amino acid ester hydrolase. As of late 2007, 5 structures have been solved for this class of ... Kato K, Kawahara K, Takahashi T, Kakinuma A (1980). "Purification of an alpha-amino acid ester hydrolase from Xanthomonas citri ... Kato K, Kawahara K, Takahashi T, Kakinuma A (1980). "Substrate specificity of an alpha-amino acid ester hydrolase from ...
This enzyme belongs to the family of hydrolases, specifically those acting on carboxylic ester bonds. The systematic name of ... the two substrates of this enzyme are cetraxate benzyl ester and H2O, whereas its two products are cetraxate and benzyl alcohol ... and some properties and reactivities of cetraxate benzyl ester hydrochloride-hydrolyzing enzyme". Chem. Pharm. Bull. Tokyo. 37 ... is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction cetraxate benzyl ester + H2O ⇌ {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } cetraxate ...
This enzyme belongs to the family of hydrolases, specifically those acting on carboxylic ester bonds. The systematic name of ...
This enzyme belongs to the family of hydrolases, specifically those acting on carboxylic ester bonds. The systematic name of ... cinnamoyl ester hydrolase (cinnAE). As of late 2007, 6 structures have been solved for this class of enzymes, with PDB ...
This enzyme belongs to the family of hydrolases, specifically those acting on carboxylic ester bonds. The systematic name of ...
This enzyme belongs to the family of hydrolases, specifically those acting on carboxylic ester bonds. The systematic name of ... Other names in common use include aspirin esterase, acetylsalicylic acid esterase, and aspirin hydrolase. Ali B, Kaur S (1983 ... "Partial purification and characterization of a microsomal carboxylesterase specific for salicylate esters from guinea-pig liver ...
This enzyme belongs to the family of hydrolases, specifically those acting on carboxylic ester bonds. The systematic name of ... They catalyze the removal of O-acetyl ester groups from position 9 of the parent sialic acid. In human it is encoded by the ...
... specifically those acting on carboxylic ester bonds. The systematic name of this enzyme class is aryl-ester hydrolase. Other ... This enzyme belongs to the family of hydrolases, ...
This enzyme belongs to the family of hydrolases, specifically those acting on carboxylic ester bonds. The systematic name of ... Other names in common use include cephalosporin C acetyl-hydrolase, cephalosporin C acetylase, cephalosporin acetylesterase, ...
This enzyme belongs to the family of hydrolases, specifically those acting on carboxylic ester bonds. The systematic name of ... Other names in common use include ornithine esterase, and 5-N-acyl-L-ornithine-ester hydrolase. Emery T (June 1976). "Fungal ... this enzyme class is N5-acyl-L-ornithine-ester hydrolase. ... the two substrates of this enzyme are N5-acyl-L-ornithine ester ... is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction N5-acyl-L-ornithine ester + H2O ⇌ {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } N5-acyl ...
This enzyme belongs to the family of hydrolases, specifically those acting on carboxylic ester bonds. The systematic name of ... Other names in common use include C-esterase (in animal tissues), acetic ester hydrolase, chloroesterase, p-nitrophenyl acetate ... In enzymology, an acetylesterase (EC 3.1.1.6) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction an acetic ester + H2O ⇌ {\ ... displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } an alcohol + acetate Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are acetic ester and H2O, ...
E304 fatty acid esters of ascorbic acid such as ascorbyl palmitate (approved for use as a food additive in the EU,[88] U.S.[89] ... This is followed by lactone formation with the hydrolase gluconolactonase between the carbonyl on C1 and hydroxyl group on C4. ... Vinylogous carboxylic acids. Hidden categories: *Webarchive template wayback links. *CS1: long volume value ... Ascorbic acid and some of its salts and esters are common additives added to various foods, mostly to retard oxidation. The ...
Esters and amidesEdit. Acid-base-catalysed hydrolyses are very common; one example is the hydrolysis of amides or esters. Their ... Upon hydrolysis, an amide converts into a carboxylic acid and an amine or ammonia (which in the presence of acid are ... Enzymes that hydrolyse glycosidic bonds are called "glycoside hydrolases" or "glycosidases". The best-known disaccharide is ... The products for both hydrolyses are compounds with carboxylic acid groups. Perhaps the oldest commercially practiced example ...
For example, aqueous abiotic hydrolysis degrades organophosphates, carboxylic acid esters, carbamates, carbonates, some halides ... For instance, the atzD gene encoding cyanuric acid hydrolase correlates with atrazine biodegradation in agricultural soil ... For example, organophosphate esters that interfere with nerve signal transmission in insects do not affect microbial processes ...
JH esterase cleaves the methyl ester giving JH acid. JH acid is attached by JH epoxide hydrolase, which converts the epoxide ... Isolation, Identification, and Biological Activity of cis-4-[1′(R)-5′-Dimethyl-3′-oxohexyl]-cyclohexane-1-carboxylic Acid and ... In the Lepidoptera, the order is as given here; ester cleavage preceding epoxide hydration. Either one terminates the activity ... JH is principally degraded by the enzymes Juvenile-hormone esterase (JHE) or juvenile hormone epoxide hydrolase (JHEH). JHE and ...
Fatty esters include important biochemical intermediates such as wax esters, fatty acid thioester coenzyme A derivatives, fatty ... Fezza F, De Simone C, Amadio D, Maccarrone M (2008). "Fatty acid amide hydrolase: a gate-keeper of the endocannabinoid system ... They are made of a hydrocarbon chain that terminates with a carboxylic acid group; this arrangement confers the molecule with a ... by ester linkages and to one "head" group by a phosphate ester linkage.[citation needed] While glycerophospholipids are the ...
... except the carboxylic acid and hydrazide analogs were derivatized from isolated bottromycin A2 using an activated azide ester. ... btmH or btmI both have homology to hydrolytic enzymes (α/β hydrolase and metallo-dependent hydrolase, respectively) may ... Only derivatives of the methyl ester moiety were explored, as they found that the methyl ester was both important for ... Although the methyl ester is still present in bottromycin D, one of the macrocyclic valines is mutated to an alanine. The ...
Aryldialkylphosphatase (also known as organophosphorus hydrolase, phosphotriesterase, and paraoxon hydrolase) uses an aryl ... In olive oil, tyrosol forms esters with fatty acids.[23] In rye, alkylresorcinols are phenolic lipids. ... The proteobacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens produces phloroglucinol, phloroglucinol carboxylic acid and diacetylphloroglucinol. ... "Surface-Active Properties of Lipophilic Antioxidants Tyrosol and Hydroxytyrosol Fatty Acid Esters: A Potential Explanation for ...
2-Aminothiazoline-4-carboxylic acid is an intermediate in the industrial synthesis of L-cysteine for example. Aspartic acid is ... Homoserine undergoes O-phosphorylation; this phosphate ester undergoes hydrolysis concomitant with relocation of the OH group.[ ... 3-hydroxyisobutyryl-CoA hydrolase. *3-hydroxyisobutyrate dehydrogenase. *Methylmalonate semialdehyde dehydrogenase. ISOLEUCINE→ ...
3 Category:Hydrolases (EC 3) (Hydrolase) *3.1 Category:EC 3.1 (act on ester bonds) ... 2-Succinyl-5-enolpyruvyl-6-hydroxy-3-cyclohexene-1-carboxylic-acid synthase EC 2.2.1.9 ... Trans-epoxysuccinate hydrolase. Category:EC 3.4 (act on peptide bonds - Peptidase)Edit. *Category:EC 3.4.11 *Alanine ... EC 3.12.1.1: Trithionate hydrolase. Category:EC 3.13 (act on carbon-sulfur bonds)Edit. *EC 3.13.1.1: UDP-sulfoquinovose ...
Aryldialkylphosphatase (also known as organophosphorus hydrolase, phosphotriesterase, and paraoxon hydrolase) uses an aryl ... by an ester rearrangement in the Fries rearrangement. *by a rearrangement of N-phenylhydroxylamines in the Bamberger ... The acidity of the hydroxyl group in phenols is commonly intermediate between that of aliphatic alcohols and carboxylic acids ( ... In olive oil, tyrosol forms esters with fatty acids.[28] In rye, alkylresorcinols are phenolic lipids. ...
For example, the set of carboxylic acids that are best known as the intermediates in the citric acid cycle are present in all ... Proteins are made from amino acids that have been activated by attachment to a transfer RNA molecule through an ester bond. ... These digestive enzymes include proteases that digest proteins into amino acids, as well as glycoside hydrolases that digest ... a glycerol molecule attached to three fatty acid esters is called a triacylglyceride. Several variations on this basic ...
LXXXII: Nomenclature and Classification of Hydroxy-carboxylic Acid Receptors (GPR81, GPR109A, and GPR109B)". Pharmacological ... 3HIA-carnitine is thought to be either directly deacylated by a hydrolase to 3HIA or to undergo a second CoA exchange to again ... 3-Hydroxybutanoic Acid and Its Methyl Ester" Org. Synth. 1993, 71, 39. doi:10.15227/orgsyn.071.0039. ... is catalyzed by the hydroxybutyrate-dimer hydrolase enzyme. The concentration of β-hydroxybutyrate in human blood plasma, as ...
... carboxylic acid esterase activity, carboxylic ester hydrolase activity, carboxylic esterase activity, cocaine esterase activity ... Gene Ontology Term: carboxylic ester hydrolase activity. GO ID. GO:0052689 Aspect. Molecular Function. Description. Catalysis ... carboxyl ester hydrolase activity, carboxylate esterase activity, carboxylesterase activity, ... of the hydrolysis of a carboxylic ester bond.. Synonyms. Ali-esterase activity, ali-esterase activity, alpha-carboxylesterase ...
tr,A0A140TA61,A0A140TA61_HUMAN Carboxylic ester hydrolase OS=Homo sapiens OX=9606 GN=CES5A PE=1 SV=1 ... HydrolaseUniRule annotation. ,p>Information which has been generated by the UniProtKB automatic annotation system, without ... IPR029058, AB_hydrolase. IPR002018, CarbesteraseB. IPR019826, Carboxylesterase_B_AS. IPR019819, Carboxylesterase_B_CS. ... IPR029058, AB_hydrolase. IPR002018, CarbesteraseB. IPR019826, Carboxylesterase_B_AS. IPR019819, Carboxylesterase_B_CS. ...
CARBOXYLIC ESTER HYDROLASE (PLA2-MJ33 INHIBITOR COMPLEX). *DOI: 10.2210/pdb1fdk/pdb. *Classification: HYDROLASE ...
tr,O76999,O76999_BRAFL Carboxylic ester hydrolase OS=Branchiostoma floridae OX=7739 GN=ChE2 PE=2 SV=1 ... Acyl-ester intermediateUniRule annotation. ,p>Information which has been generated by the UniProtKB automatic annotation system ... IPR029058, AB_hydrolase. IPR002018, CarbesteraseB. IPR019826, Carboxylesterase_B_AS. IPR019819, Carboxylesterase_B_CS. ... IPR029058, AB_hydrolase. IPR002018, CarbesteraseB. IPR019826, Carboxylesterase_B_AS. IPR019819, Carboxylesterase_B_CS. ...
Enzymes which catalyze the hydrolysis of carboxylic acid esters with the formation of an alcohol and a carboxylic acid anion. ... Carboxylic Ester Hydrolases. Subscribe to New Research on Carboxylic Ester Hydrolases Enzymes which catalyze the hydrolysis of ... carboxylic acid esters with the formation of an alcohol and a carboxylic acid anion. ... Ester Hydrolases, Carboxylic; Hydrolases, Carboxylic Ester; Carboxylesterases. Networked: 40 relevant articles (1 outcomes, 3 ...
Antibodies for proteins involved in carboxylic ester hydrolase activity pathways, according to their Panther/Gene Ontology ... Antibodies for proteins involved in carboxylic ester hydrolase activity pathways; according to their Panther/Gene Ontology ...
1LE7: Crystal structure of human group X secreted phospholipase A2. Electrostatically neutral interfacial surface targets zwitterionic membranes.
... carboxylic ester hydrolases Remove constraint Subject: carboxylic ester hydrolases Subject egg yolk Remove constraint Subject: ... lipid content, etc ; acetone; carboxylic ester hydrolases; egg yolk; eggs; emulsifiers; emulsions; enzymatic ...
Hydrolase: esterases (EC 3.1). 3.1.1: Carboxylic. ester hydrolases. *Cholinesterase *Acetylcholinesterase. * ... Hormone-sensitive lipase (EC 3.1.1.79, HSL), also previously known as cholesteryl ester hydrolase (CEH),[5] sometimes referred ... hydrolase activity. • protein kinase binding. • serine hydrolase activity. Cellular component. • cytoplasm. • membrane. • lipid ... Aten RF, Kolodecik TR, Macdonald GJ, Behrman HR (November 1995). "Modulation of cholesteryl ester hydrolase messenger ...
Hydrolase: esterases (EC 3.1). 3.1.1: Carboxylic. ester hydrolases. *Cholinesterase *Acetylcholinesterase. * ... IGRP has almost no hydrolase activity, and may play a different role in stimulating pancreatic insulin secretion.[5] ...
... hydrolases, placed in numerical order as determined by the ... EC 3.1.1: Carboxylic Ester Hydrolases. * EC 3.1.1.1: ... 1 EC 3.1: Acting on Ester Bonds *1.1 EC 3.1.1: Carboxylic Ester Hydrolases ... EC 3.1.5: Triphosphoric Monoester Hydrolases. * EC 3.1.5.1: dGTPase EC 3.1.6: Sulfuric Ester Hydrolases. * EC 3.1.6.1: ... EC1 Oxidoreductases/list - EC2 Transferases/list - EC3 Hydrolases/list - EC4 Lyases/list - EC5 Isomerases/list - EC6 Ligases/ ...
3. Hydrolases. 3.1 Acting on ester bonds. 3.1.1 Carboxylic ester hydrolases ... diimide esters, aromatic and aliphatic diisocyanates, Bis-p-nitrophenyl esters of dicarboxylic acids, aromatic disulfonyl ... di- and triglycerides, long chain protonated fatty acids, sterol esters, long-chain alcohols, phytols, retinals, Vitamin A, ...
Carboxylic Ester Hydrolases / metabolism* * Holoenzymes / biosynthesis * Holoenzymes / metabolism * Humans * Intracellular ...
carboxylic ester hydrolase activity IBA Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor. more info ... retinyl ester hydrolase. serine esterase 1. triacylglycerol hydrolase. NP_001020365.1. *EC 3.1.1.1 ... cholesteryl ester hydrolase. cocaine carboxylesterase. egasyn. human monocyte/macrophage serine esterase 1. methylumbelliferyl- ... and endogenous substrates with ester, thioester, or amide bonds. They may participate in fatty acyl and cholesterol ester ...
carboxylic ester hydrolase activity IBA Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor. more info ... and endogenous substrates with ester, thioester, or amide bonds. They may participate in fatty acyl and cholesterol ester ... has triglyceride hydrolase activity; as a result, gain of hepatic CES2 function increases fatty acid oxidation and inhibits ...
... and carboxylic esters of alpha-naphthol, beta-naphthol, and p-nitrophenol were synthesized and tested as substrates for liver ... carboxylesterases from the crude microsomal fractions of human and mouse, and purified isozymes, hydrolases A and B, from rat l ... hydrolases A and B, from rat liver microsomes. The carbonates, thiocarbonates, and carboxylic esters of alpha-naphthol were ... Thirty carbonates, thiocarbonates, carbamates, and carboxylic esters of alpha-naphthol, beta-naphthol, and p-nitrophenol were ...
Carboxylic Ester Hydrolases • Carrier Proteins • Case-Control Studies • Cautery • cdc42 GTP-Binding Protein, Saccharomyces ... Hydrolases • Immunohistochemistry • Infant • Inflammation • Inheritance Patterns • Injections • Insect Hormones • Insect ...
12.3 Glycoside hydrolases.- 12.4 Phosphoric monoester hydrolases.- 12.5 Carboxylic ester hydrolases.- 12.6 Peptide hydrolases ... 11.5 Esters.- 11.6 Carbonyls.- 11.7 Sulphur compounds.- 11.8 Miscellaneous compounds.- 11.9 Conclusions.- References.- 12 ...
carboxylic ester hydrolase activity. cellular component biogenesis. 2. nucleus. cholinesterase activity. RNA metabolic process ...
Aspidogaster conchicola: histochemical localization of carboxylic ester hydrolases. Exp. Parasitol. 32:181-190. ...
Krisch, K.: Carboxylic ester hydrolases. In: The Enzymes 3rd ed., Vol. 5, edit, by P.D. Boyer, pp. 43-69. New York - London: ... Role of lipophilicity in determining porphyrin-inducing activity of esters and amides following blockade of their hydrolysis by ...
Hydrolases;. Acting on ester bonds;. Carboxylic-ester hydrolases. Sysname. pheophorbide-a hydrolase. ...
Hydrolases;. Acting on ester bonds;. Carboxylic-ester hydrolases. Sysname. 1,2-diacyl-3-beta-D-galactosyl-sn-glycerol ...
0 (Arabidopsis Proteins); 0 (Seed Storage Proteins); EC 3.1.1.- (Carboxylic Ester Hydrolases); EC 3.1.1.- (pectin ...
Carboxylic Ester Hydrolases / genetics*, physiology. Cloning, Molecular. Energy Intake*. Female. Lipase / metabolism. Lipolysis ... 122-32-7/Triolein; 63231-63-0/RNA; EC 3.1.1.-/Carboxylic Ester Hydrolases; EC 3.1.1.1/desnutrin protein, mouse; EC 3.1.1.3/ ... TAG hydrolase activity of WAT extracts was performed essentially as described (10). Briefly, WAT was homogenized in lysis ... 1138899 - Effect of methoxyindole 2-carboxylic acid and 4-pentenoic acid on adipose tissue metabo.... 6165809 - Effect of ...
... histochemical localization of carboxylic ester hydrolases. Experimental Parasitology 32, 181-190.. Watson, N. A. and Rohde, K ...
DR GO; GO:0052689; F:carboxylic ester hydrolase activity; IEA:UniProtKB-KW. DR GO; GO:0018738; F:S-formylglutathione hydrolase ... KW Hydrolase; Serine esterase. FT CHAIN 1..277 FT /note="S-formylglutathione hydrolase FrmB" FT /id="PRO_0000341662" FT ACT_ ... DE RecName: Full=S-formylglutathione hydrolase FrmB; DE Short=FGH; DE EC=3.1.2.12; GN Name=frmB; OrderedLocusNames=ECP_0420; OS ... DR Gene3D; 3.40.50.1820; -; 1. DR InterPro; IPR029058; AB_hydrolase. DR InterPro; IPR000801; Esterase_put. DR InterPro; ...
3.1.1: Carboxylic ester hydrolases. Cholinesterase (Acetylcholinesterase, Butyrylcholinesterase) · Pectinesterase · 6- ... hydrolase activity. • PDZ domain binding. • inositol-1,3,4,5-tetrakisphosphate 3-phosphatase activity. • phosphatidylinositol-3 ...
3.1.1: Carboxylic ester hydrolases. Cholinesterase (Acetylcholinesterase, Butyrylcholinesterase) · Pectinesterase · 6- ...
  • Enzymes which catalyze the hydrolysis of carboxylic acid esters with the formation of an alcohol and a carboxylic acid anion. (curehunter.com)
  • Hydrolases are classified as EC 3 in the EC number classification of enzymes. (wikidoc.org)
  • The enzymes from microsomes also catalyse the reactions of EC 3.1.1.2 (arylesterase), EC 3.1.1.5 (lysophospholipase), EC 3.1.1.6 (acetylesterase), EC 3.1.1.23 (acylglycerol lipase), EC 3.1.1.28 (acylcarnitine hydrolase), EC 3.1.2.2 (palmitoyl-CoA hydrolase), EC 3.5.1.4 (amidase) and EC 3.5.1.13 (aryl-acylamidase). (qmul.ac.uk)
  • Most esters are hydrolysed rapidly by enzymes present in the gut lumen, intestinal wall, and liver to yield the corresponding acids and alcohols. (inchem.org)
  • A wide range of enzymes (carboxyesterases and carboxylic acid hydrolases) can hydrolyse esters into their constituent alcohols and acids. (inchem.org)
  • Liver esterases are heterogeneous enzymes responsible for detoxification of xenobiotics and activation of ester and amide prodrugs. (leebio.com)
  • The invention relates to the utilization of fatty materials with substantial free fatty acid content in the production of biodiesel by the use of microbial enzymes that are effective in a solvent-free process for the production of esters of fatty acids and C 1 -C 3 alkyl alcohols. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Carboxylesterases (CE) are ubiquitous enzymes that hydrolyze numerous ester-containing xenobiotics, including complex molecules, such as the anticancer drugs irinotecan (CPT-11) and capecitabine and the pyrethroid insecticides. (elsevier.com)
  • Because of the role of CEs in the metabolism of many exogenous and endogenous ester-containing compounds, a number of studies have examined the inhibition of this class of enzymes. (elsevier.com)
  • In fact, after oral ingestion, fatty acid esters with glycerol (glycerides) are rapidly hydrolized by ubiquitously expressed esterases and almost completely absorbed (Mattson and Volpenhein, 1972a).The result of the pancreatic digestion of one NPG ester shows a degradation of the ester of almost 90% within 4 hours (Oßberger, 2012). (europa.eu)
  • Esterases hydrolyze water-soluble or emulsified esters with short-chain carboxylic acids, whereas lipases are specific for emulsified substrates with fatty acyl chains. (asm.org)
  • Carboxylic esterases are widely distributed in hematopoietic cells. (uni-regensburg.de)
  • Studies on the substrate specificity of a carboxyl ester hydrolase from human pancreatic juice. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Hormone-sensitive lipase ( EC 3.1.1.79 , HSL ), also previously known as cholesteryl ester hydrolase ( CEH ), [5] sometimes referred to as triacylglycerol lipase , is an enzyme that, in humans, is encoded by the LIPE gene . (wikipedia.org)
  • HSL is an intracellular neutral lipase that is capable of hydrolyzing a variety of esters . (wikipedia.org)
  • Objective Non-oxidative metabolism of ethanol (NOME) produces fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs) via carboxylester lipase (CEL) and other enzyme action implicated in mitochondrial injury and acute pancreatitis (AP). (bmj.com)
  • Lipase catalyzes the breakdown of lipids by hydrolyzing the esters of fatty acids. (proteopedia.org)
  • The hormone-sensitive lipase (LIPE) hydrolyzes a variety of esters. (proteopedia.org)
  • However, it wasn't until 1955 that Mattson and Beck demonstrated a high-specificity of pancreatic lipase for triglyceride primary esters [3] . (proteopedia.org)
  • SlCGT is therefore the first example of a GDSL lipase-like protein that lost hydrolytic activity and has acquired a completely new function in plant metabolism, functioning in secondary metabolism as acyltransferase in synthesis of hydroxycinnamate esters by employing amino acid residues different from the lipase catalytic triad. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • NCEH1 (Neutral Cholesterol Ester Hydrolase 1) is a Protein Coding gene. (genecards.org)
  • [4] In contrast, IGRP has almost no hydrolase activity, and may play a different role in stimulating pancreatic insulin secretion. (wikipedia.org)
  • They may participate in fatty acyl and cholesterol ester metabolism, and may play a role in the blood-brain barrier system. (nih.gov)
  • The enzyme plays an important role in the metabolism of ester-based local anaesthetics, a deficiency lowers the margin of safety and increases the risk of systemic effects with this type of anaesthetic. (wikidoc.org)
  • It is known for esters that they are readily susceptible to metabolism in fish (Barron et al. (europa.eu)
  • General aspects of metabolism The flavouring agents evaluated at the present meeting share a number of functional groups, e.g. linear, branched, alicyclic, and unsaturated alkyl chains and alcohol, ester, and ketone groups. (inchem.org)
  • LTA4 hydrolase appears to be ubiquitously distributed in mammalian tissues even in cell types that do not express 5-LO, suggesting the importance of transcellular metabolism of LTA4. (justia.com)
  • The serine hydrolase superfamily is one of the largest known enzyme families comprising approximately 1% of the genes in the human genome. (bionity.com)
  • It uses material from the Wikipedia article "Serine_hydrolase" . (bionity.com)
  • FUNCTION: Serine hydrolase involved in the detoxification of CC formaldehyde. (univ-lyon1.fr)
  • Cutinase is a serine esterase containing the classical Ser, His, Asp triad of serine hydrolases. (wikipedia.org)
  • Catalysis of the hydrolysis of a carboxylic ester bond. (yeastgenome.org)
  • They catalyze the hydrolysis of a carboxylic esters to the corresponding alcohols and carboxylic acids. (leebio.com)
  • For example, a nuclease is a hydrolase that cleaves nucleic acids. (wikidoc.org)
  • Should the substance be taken up by fish during the process of digestion and absorption in the intestinal tissue, polyol esters are expected to be initially metabolized via enzymatic hydrolysis in the corresponding free fatty acids and the free alcohols such as neopentylglycol (NPG), trimethylolpropane (TMP), pentaerythritol (PE) and dipentaerythritol (DiPE). (europa.eu)
  • An acetyl xylan esterase variant having perhydrolytic activity is provided for producing peroxycarboxylic acids from carboxylic acid esters and a source of peroxygen. (google.com)
  • Substrate specificity of characterized FAEs that belong to five different sub-families for the methyl esters of a series of 15 substituted cinnamic acids. (openaire.eu)
  • Among them are extensions with formation of additional ring systems ( e.g. flavonoids or stilbenes), degradation ( e.g. hydroxybenzoates), reduction ( e.g. hydroxycinnamyl alcohols feeding into lignin biosynthesis), oxidation and lactonization ( e.g. coumarins), and conjugation with a wide range of different primary and secondary compounds to form esters or amides. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The family members are responsible for the hydrolysis or transesterification of various xenobiotics, such as cocaine and heroin, and endogenous substrates with ester, thioester, or amide bonds. (nih.gov)
  • Such a pattern, for example, was recently identified from Brassica napus seeds and exhibited a mixture of sinapate esters containing choline, malate, mono- and disaccharides, as well as flavonoid glycosides and an unusual cyclic spermidine amide ( 3 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • This enzyme belongs to the family of hydrolases, specifically those acting on carboxylic ester bonds. (wikipedia.org)
  • Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include hydrolase activity and 1-alkyl-2-acetylglycerophosphocholine esterase activity . (genecards.org)
  • GO annotations related to this gene include hydrolase activity and phosphate ion binding . (genecards.org)
  • Purification and characterization of a novel pyrethroid hydrolase from Aspergillus niger ZD11. (kegg.jp)
  • JZ-2 and the purification and characterization of a novel pyrethroid hydrolase. (kegg.jp)
  • Systematic names of hydrolases are formed as " substrate hydrolase. (wikidoc.org)
  • The systematic name of this enzyme class is oxaloacetate-4-methyl-ester oxaloacetohydrolase. (wikipedia.org)
  • The systematic name of this enzyme class is steryl-ester acylhydrolase. (wikipedia.org)
  • The systematic name of this enzyme class is cutin hydrolase. (wikipedia.org)
  • Neopentylglycol (NPG), trimethylolpropane (TMP), pentaerythritol (PE) and dipentaerythritol (DiPE) are the expected possible corresponding alcohol metabolites from the enzymatic reaction of the polyol ester category members. (europa.eu)
  • Both the sequence and the structural context of the amino acid residues essential for peptidyl-tRNA hydrolase activity are conserved in CRS2, yet expression of CRS2 is incapable of rescuing a pth(ts)E.coli strain. (nih.gov)
  • Exhibits carboxylic ester hydrolase activity. (mcw.edu)
  • fam135b has several biochemical functions, for example, carboxylic ester hydrolase activity. (creativebiomart.net)
  • While peptidomimetic compounds such as bestatin and captopril have been shown to exhibit LTA4 hydrolase inhibitory activity, they are not able to satisfy the requirement of a small organic compound which is capable of cellular penetration. (justia.com)
  • In enzymology, a 4-methyloxaloacetate esterase (EC 3.1.1.44) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction oxaloacetate 4-methyl ester + H2O ⇌ {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } oxaloacetate + methanol Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are oxaloacetate 4-methyl ester and H2O, whereas its two products are oxaloacetate and methanol. (wikipedia.org)
  • Alkaline phosphatase ( ALP ) ( EC 3.1.3.1 ) is a hydrolase enzyme responsible for removing phosphate groups from many types of molecules, including nucleotides , proteins , and alkaloids . (wikidoc.org)
  • The retinol-binding proteins CRBP I and CRBP II appear to play an essential role in retinyl ester hydrolysis and formation and in retinoic acid formation. (tudelft.nl)
  • The long form is expressed in steroidogenic tissues such as testis , where it converts cholesteryl esters to free cholesterol for steroid hormone production. (wikipedia.org)
  • Another important role is the release of cholesterol from cholesteryl esters for use in the production of steroids [12] and cholesterol efflux. (wikipedia.org)
  • May be responsible for cholesterol ester hydrolysis in macrophages, thereby contributing to the development of atherosclerosis. (genecards.org)
  • Action on cholesterol esters and lipid-soluble vitamin esters. (semanticscholar.org)
  • In biochemistry , a cholinesterase or choline esterase is an esterase that lyses choline -based esters , several of which serve as neurotransmitters . (wikidoc.org)
  • carboxylic ester hydrolase) inhibitor that interferes with the action of cholinesterase (EC 3.1.1.8). (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Purification and properties of a lipid acyl-hydrolase from potato tubers. (genome.jp)
  • This list contains a list of EC numbers for the third group, EC 3 , hydrolases , placed in numerical order as determined by the Nomenclature Committee of the International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology. (bionity.com)
  • Se supone que ese resultado se debe a la presencia de un inhibidor endógeno no dializable, de peso molecular tal que puede ser parcialmente precipitado a 10.000g y en mayor medida a 100.000g. (bvsalud.org)
  • 5. A liposome in accordance with claim 1 wherein said enzyme is selected from the group consisting of oxidoreductases, hydrolases and mixtures thereof. (google.com)
  • CDP323 was designed as an ester prodrug to circumvent the low oral bioavailability of the active carboxylic acid moiety CT7758 observed in most animal species (mice, rat, monkey), which was assumed to be due to poor intestinal permeability. (aspetjournals.org)
  • The compounds of the present invention, in several embodiments, may comprise a carboxylic acid or ester moiety. (justia.com)
  • In structural terms, they belong to the α/β-hydrolase superfamily ( 2 - 4 ). (asm.org)
  • We identified the enzyme(s) involved in the hydrolysis of the ethyl ester prodrug CDP323 (C 28 H 29 BrN 4 0 3 ) and characterized its transesterification in the presence of ethanol with special emphasis on the risks of drug-drug interaction. (aspetjournals.org)
  • CDP323 (C 28 H 29 BrN 4 0 3 ) is an ethyl ester prodrug of CT7758 (C 26 H 25 BrN 4 0 3 ), a potent carboxylic acid antagonist of α 4 β 1 (very late antigen-4, VLA-4) and, to a lesser extent, α 4 β 7 integrins ( Fig. 1 ). (aspetjournals.org)
  • In biochemistry , a hydrolase is an enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of a chemical bond . (wikidoc.org)
  • In contrast with regard to the Polyol esters it was shown that lower rate of enzymatic hydrolysis in the GIT were showed for compounds with more than 3 ester groups (Mattson and Volpenhein, 1972a,b). (europa.eu)
  • This invention relates generally to anti-inflammatory compounds and pharmaceutical compositions, and more particularly to anti-inflammatory compounds and compositions which are capable of inhibiting leukotriene A4 hydrolase. (justia.com)
  • Lee Biosolutions is the largest producer of Esterase from porcine liver used in urine controls and for kinetic resolutions and asymmetric ester hydrolysis in organic chemistry. (leebio.com)