The covalent bonding of an alkyl group to an organic compound. It can occur by a simple addition reaction or by substitution of another functional group.
Organic compounds containing the carboxy group (-COOH). This group of compounds includes amino acids and fatty acids. Carboxylic acids can be saturated, unsaturated, or aromatic.
A class of amino acids characterized by a closed ring structure.
Highly reactive chemicals that introduce alkyl radicals into biologically active molecules and thereby prevent their proper functioning. Many are used as antineoplastic agents, but most are very toxic, with carcinogenic, mutagenic, teratogenic, and immunosuppressant actions. They have also been used as components in poison gases.
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
Derivatives of ethylene, a simple organic gas of biological origin with many industrial and biological use.
A proline analog that acts as a stoichiometric replacement of proline. It causes the production of abnormal proteins with impaired biological activity.
A cyclized derivative of L-GLUTAMIC ACID. Elevated blood levels may be associated with problems of GLUTAMINE or GLUTATHIONE metabolism.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
A chemical element having an atomic weight of 106.4, atomic number of 46, and the symbol Pd. It is a white, ductile metal resembling platinum, and following it in abundance and importance of applications. It is used in dentistry in the form of gold, silver, and copper alloys.
Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).
Changing an open-chain hydrocarbon to a closed ring. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
A class of enzymes that catalyze the cleavage of C-C, C-O, and C-N, and other bonds by other means than by hydrolysis or oxidation. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 4.
The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
Spectrophotometry in the infrared region, usually for the purpose of chemical analysis through measurement of absorption spectra associated with rotational and vibrational energy levels of molecules. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Reduced (protonated) form of THIAZOLES. They can be oxidized to THIAZOLIDINEDIONES.
A microanalytical technique combining mass spectrometry and gas chromatography for the qualitative as well as quantitative determinations of compounds.
A psychoactive compound extracted from the resin of Cannabis sativa (marihuana, hashish). The isomer delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is considered the most active form, producing characteristic mood and perceptual changes associated with this compound.
An alkylating agent in cancer therapy that may also act as a mutagen by interfering with and causing damage to DNA.
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.
An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.
Inhibits the activity of prostaglandins.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A thiol-containing non-essential amino acid that is oxidized to form CYSTINE.
A basic science concerned with the composition, structure, and properties of matter; and the reactions that occur between substances and the associated energy exchange.
A non-essential amino acid that is synthesized from GLUTAMIC ACID. It is an essential component of COLLAGEN and is important for proper functioning of joints and tendons.
A group of alkylating agents derived from mustard gas, with the sulfur replaced by nitrogen. They were formerly used as toxicants and vesicants, but now function as antineoplastic agents. These compounds are also powerful mutagens, teratogens, immunosuppressants, and carcinogens.
The composition, conformation, and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.
Substances used for the detection, identification, analysis, etc. of chemical, biological, or pathologic processes or conditions. Indicators are substances that change in physical appearance, e.g., color, at or approaching the endpoint of a chemical titration, e.g., on the passage between acidity and alkalinity. Reagents are substances used for the detection or determination of another substance by chemical or microscopical means, especially analysis. Types of reagents are precipitants, solvents, oxidizers, reducers, fluxes, and colorimetric reagents. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed, p301, p499)
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Compounds with a 5-membered ring of four carbons and an oxygen. They are aromatic heterocycles. The reduced form is tetrahydrofuran.
Benzopyrroles with the nitrogen at the number one carbon adjacent to the benzyl portion, in contrast to ISOINDOLES which have the nitrogen away from the six-membered ring.
A group of compounds with three aromatic rings joined in linear arrangement.
Compounds containing the -SH radical.
The chemical alteration of an exogenous substance by or in a biological system. The alteration may inactivate the compound or it may result in the production of an active metabolite of an inactive parent compound. The alterations may be divided into METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE I and METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE II.
A fungistatic compound that is widely used as a food preservative. It is conjugated to GLYCINE in the liver and excreted as hippuric acid.
Determination of the spectra of ultraviolet absorption by specific molecules in gases or liquids, for example Cl2, SO2, NO2, CS2, ozone, mercury vapor, and various unsaturated compounds. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Alkyl compounds containing a hydroxyl group. They are classified according to relation of the carbon atom: primary alcohols, R-CH2OH; secondary alcohols, R2-CHOH; tertiary alcohols, R3-COH. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
An alkylating sulfhydryl reagent. Its actions are similar to those of iodoacetate.
Unsaturated hydrocarbons of the type Cn-H2n, indicated by the suffix -ene. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed, p408)
Organic compounds containing a carbonyl group in the form -CHO.
A sulfhydryl reagent that is widely used in experimental biochemical studies.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Organic compounds containing the -CO-NH2 radical. Amides are derived from acids by replacement of -OH by -NH2 or from ammonia by the replacement of H by an acyl group. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Iodinated derivatives of acetic acid. Iodoacetates are commonly used as alkylating sulfhydryl reagents and enzyme inhibitors in biochemical research.
A nitrosourea compound with alkylating, carcinogenic, and mutagenic properties.
Enzymes that catalyze the cleavage of a carbon-carbon bond by means other than hydrolysis or oxidation. This subclass contains the DECARBOXYLASES, the ALDEHYDE-LYASES, and the OXO-ACID-LYASES. EC 4.1.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
A mass spectrometry technique used for analysis of nonvolatile compounds such as proteins and macromolecules. The technique involves preparing electrically charged droplets from analyte molecules dissolved in solvent. The electrically charged droplets enter a vacuum chamber where the solvent is evaporated. Evaporation of solvent reduces the droplet size, thereby increasing the coulombic repulsion within the droplet. As the charged droplets get smaller, the excess charge within them causes them to disintegrate and release analyte molecules. The volatilized analyte molecules are then analyzed by mass spectrometry.
A nitrosoguanidine derivative with potent mutagenic and carcinogenic properties.
Organic compounds that include a cyclic ether with three ring atoms in their structure. They are commonly used as precursors for POLYMERS such as EPOXY RESINS.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
An enzyme that transfers methyl groups from O(6)-methylguanine, and other methylated moieties of DNA, to a cysteine residue in itself, thus repairing alkylated DNA in a single-step reaction. EC 2.1.1.63.
Azoles of one NITROGEN and two double bonds that have aromatic chemical properties.
The characteristic three-dimensional shape of a molecule.
Ring compounds having atoms other than carbon in their nuclei. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
The removal of a carboxyl group, usually in the form of carbon dioxide, from a chemical compound.
Nitrogen mustard derivative of URACIL. It is a alkylating antineoplastic agent that is used in lymphatic malignancies, and causes mainly gastrointestinal and bone marrow damage.
Nitrogen mustard analog of quinacrine used primarily as a stain in the studies of chromosomes and chromatin. Fluoresces by reaction with nucleic acids in chromosomes.
Chemical compounds which yield hydrogen ions or protons when dissolved in water, whose hydrogen can be replaced by metals or basic radicals, or which react with bases to form salts and water (neutralization). An extension of the term includes substances dissolved in media other than water. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Any of the hormones produced naturally in plants and active in controlling growth and other functions. There are three primary classes: auxins, cytokinins, and gibberellins.
2-, 3-, or 4-Pyridinecarboxylic acids. Pyridine derivatives substituted with a carboxy group at the 2-, 3-, or 4-position. The 3-carboxy derivative (NIACIN) is active as a vitamin.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A mass spectrometric technique that is used for the analysis of a wide range of biomolecules, such as glycoalkaloids, glycoproteins, polysaccharides, and peptides. Positive and negative fast atom bombardment spectra are recorded on a mass spectrometer fitted with an atom gun with xenon as the customary beam. The mass spectra obtained contain molecular weight recognition as well as sequence information.
Saturated azacyclopropane compounds. They include compounds with substitutions on CARBON or NITROGEN atoms.
A technology, in which sets of reactions for solution or solid-phase synthesis, is used to create molecular libraries for analysis of compounds on a large scale.
Derivatives of propionic acid. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxyethane structure.
Derivatives of ACETIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxymethane structure.
Inorganic derivatives of phosphorus trihydroxide (P(OH)3) and its tautomeric form dihydroxyphosphine oxide (HP=O(OH)2). Note that organic derivatives of phosphonic acids are listed under are ORGANOPHOSPHONATES.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Oligopeptide antibiotics from Streptomyces distallicus. Their binding to DNA inhibits synthesis of nucleic acids.
The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.
An antibiotic complex produced by Streptomyces kitasatoensis. The complex consists of a mixture of at least eight biologically active components, A1 and A3 to A9. Leucomycins have both antibacterial and antimycoplasmal activities.
Unstable isotopes of carbon that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. C atoms with atomic weights 10, 11, and 14-16 are radioactive carbon isotopes.
The reconstruction of a continuous two-stranded DNA molecule without mismatch from a molecule which contained damaged regions. The major repair mechanisms are excision repair, in which defective regions in one strand are excised and resynthesized using the complementary base pairing information in the intact strand; photoreactivation repair, in which the lethal and mutagenic effects of ultraviolet light are eliminated; and post-replication repair, in which the primary lesions are not repaired, but the gaps in one daughter duplex are filled in by incorporation of portions of the other (undamaged) daughter duplex. Excision repair and post-replication repair are sometimes referred to as "dark repair" because they do not require light.
Polymers where the main polymer chain comprises recurring amide groups. These compounds are generally formed from combinations of diamines, diacids, and amino acids and yield fibers, sheeting, or extruded forms used in textiles, gels, filters, sutures, contact lenses, and other biomaterials.
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in nature. Some species are pathogenic for humans, animals, and plants.
A biologic alkylating agent that exerts its cytotoxic effects by forming DNA ADDUCTS and DNA interstrand crosslinks, thereby inhibiting rapidly proliferating cells. The hydrochloride is an antineoplastic agent used to treat HODGKIN DISEASE and LYMPHOMA.
Inorganic or organic oxy acids of sulfur which contain the RSO2(OH) radical.
A class of enzymes that catalyze oxidation-reduction reactions of amino acids.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
A family of nonmetallic, generally electronegative, elements that form group 17 (formerly group VIIa) of the periodic table.
Detection of drugs that have been abused, overused, or misused, including legal and illegal drugs. Urine screening is the usual method of detection.
A nitrosourea compound with alkylating, carcinogenic, and mutagenic properties.
Hydrazine substituted by one methyl group.
A group of ISOQUINOLINES in which the nitrogen containing ring is protonated. They derive from the non-enzymatic Pictet-Spengler condensation of CATECHOLAMINES with ALDEHYDES.
A group of pyrido-indole compounds. Included are any points of fusion of pyridine with the five-membered ring of indole and any derivatives of these compounds. These are similar to CARBAZOLES which are benzo-indoles.
Aliphatic acids that contain four carbons in a branched-chain configuration. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the 2-carboxypropane structure.
A genus of bacteria that form a nonfragmented aerial mycelium. Many species have been identified with some being pathogenic. This genus is responsible for producing a majority of the ANTI-BACTERIAL AGENTS of practical value.
A family of DNA repair enzymes that recognize damaged nucleotide bases and remove them by hydrolyzing the N-glycosidic bond that attaches them to the sugar backbone of the DNA molecule. The process called BASE EXCISION REPAIR can be completed by a DNA-(APURINIC OR APYRIMIDINIC SITE) LYASE which excises the remaining RIBOSE sugar from the DNA.
Chromatography on thin layers of adsorbents rather than in columns. The adsorbent can be alumina, silica gel, silicates, charcoals, or cellulose. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The products of chemical reactions that result in the addition of extraneous chemical groups to DNA.
Benzoic acids, salts, or esters that contain an amino group attached to carbon number 2 or 6 of the benzene ring structure.
Injuries to DNA that introduce deviations from its normal, intact structure and which may, if left unrepaired, result in a MUTATION or a block of DNA REPLICATION. These deviations may be caused by physical or chemical agents and occur by natural or unnatural, introduced circumstances. They include the introduction of illegitimate bases during replication or by deamination or other modification of bases; the loss of a base from the DNA backbone leaving an abasic site; single-strand breaks; double strand breaks; and intrastrand (PYRIMIDINE DIMERS) or interstrand crosslinking. Damage can often be repaired (DNA REPAIR). If the damage is extensive, it can induce APOPTOSIS.
A pyrano-acridone alkaloid found in RUTACEAE plants.
A group of broad-spectrum antibiotics first isolated from the Mediterranean fungus ACREMONIUM. They contain the beta-lactam moiety thia-azabicyclo-octenecarboxylic acid also called 7-aminocephalosporanic acid.
A colorless, flammable, poisonous liquid, CS2. It is used as a solvent, and is a counterirritant and has local anesthetic properties but is not used as such. It is highly toxic with pronounced CNS, hematologic, and dermatologic effects.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
A derivative of ACETIC ACID that contains one IODINE atom attached to its methyl group.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Stable carbon atoms that have the same atomic number as the element carbon, but differ in atomic weight. C-13 is a stable carbon isotope.
A group of compounds consisting in part of two rings sharing one atom (usually a carbon) in common.
A group of compounds derived from ammonia by substituting organic radicals for the hydrogens. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Inorganic or organic compounds derived from phosphine (PH3) by the replacement of H atoms. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.
Derivatives of BENZOIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxybenzene structure.
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
Liquids that dissolve other substances (solutes), generally solids, without any change in chemical composition, as, water containing sugar. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Chemical compounds derived from acids by the elimination of a molecule of water.
Fractionation of a vaporized sample as a consequence of partition between a mobile gaseous phase and a stationary phase held in a column. Two types are gas-solid chromatography, where the fixed phase is a solid, and gas-liquid, in which the stationary phase is a nonvolatile liquid supported on an inert solid matrix.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
The addition of an organic acid radical into a molecule.
Cell membrane glycoproteins that form channels to selectively pass chloride ions. Nonselective blockers include FENAMATES; ETHACRYNIC ACID; and TAMOXIFEN.
An amino acid formed by cyclization of leucine. It has cytostatic, immunosuppressive and antineoplastic activities.
Chemical substances which inhibit the process of spermatozoa formation at either the first stage, in which spermatogonia develop into spermatocytes and then into spermatids, or the second stage, in which spermatids transform into spermatozoa.
The molecular designing of drugs for specific purposes (such as DNA-binding, enzyme inhibition, anti-cancer efficacy, etc.) based on knowledge of molecular properties such as activity of functional groups, molecular geometry, and electronic structure, and also on information cataloged on analogous molecules. Drug design is generally computer-assisted molecular modeling and does not include pharmacokinetics, dosage analysis, or drug administration analysis.
Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.
Insoluble polymers of TYROSINE derivatives found in and causing darkness in skin (SKIN PIGMENTATION), hair, and feathers providing protection against SUNBURN induced by SUNLIGHT. CAROTENES contribute yellow and red coloration.
Addition of methyl groups. In histo-chemistry methylation is used to esterify carboxyl groups and remove sulfate groups by treating tissue sections with hot methanol in the presence of hydrochloric acid. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
A class of compounds that contain a -NH2 and a -NO radical. Many members of this group have carcinogenic and mutagenic properties.
Negatively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms which travel to the anode or positive pole during electrolysis.
A class of enzymes involved in the hydrolysis of the N-glycosidic bond of nitrogen-linked sugars.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
One of the SCHISTOSOMICIDES, it has been replaced largely by HYCANTHONE and more recently PRAZIQUANTEL. (From Martindale The Extrapharmacopoeia, 30th ed., p46)
A class of drugs that differs from other alkylating agents used clinically in that they are monofunctional and thus unable to cross-link cellular macromolecules. Among their common properties are a requirement for metabolic activation to intermediates with antitumor efficacy and the presence in their chemical structures of N-methyl groups, that after metabolism, can covalently modify cellular DNA. The precise mechanisms by which each of these drugs acts to kill tumor cells are not completely understood. (From AMA, Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p2026)
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
Enzymes which catalyze the hydrolysis of carboxylic acid esters with the formation of an alcohol and a carboxylic acid anion.
Organic salts or esters of methanesulfonic acid.
Salts or ions of the theoretical carbonic acid, containing the radical CO2(3-). Carbonates are readily decomposed by acids. The carbonates of the alkali metals are water-soluble; all others are insoluble. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A group of enzymes that catalyze the reduction of 1-pyrroline carboxylate to proline in the presence of NAD(P)H. Includes both the 2-oxidoreductase (EC 1.5.1.1) and the 5-oxidoreductase (EC 1.5.1.2). The former also reduces 1-piperidine-2-carboxylate to pipecolate and the latter also reduces 1-pyrroline-3-hydroxy-5-carboxylate to hydroxyproline.
A colorless liquid used as a solvent and an antiseptic. It is one of the ketone bodies produced during ketoacidosis.
Techniques for labeling a substance with a stable or radioactive isotope. It is not used for articles involving labeled substances unless the methods of labeling are substantively discussed. Tracers that may be labeled include chemical substances, cells, or microorganisms.
A plant species of the family SOLANACEAE, native of South America, widely cultivated for their edible, fleshy, usually red fruit.
The usually underground portions of a plant that serve as support, store food, and through which water and mineral nutrients enter the plant. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982; Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
A broad-spectrum 6-fluoronaphthyridinone antibacterial agent that is structurally related to NALIDIXIC ACID.
Derivatives of caproic acid. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain a carboxy terminated six carbon aliphatic structure.
A group of alicyclic hydrocarbons with the general formula R-C5H9.
Separation technique in which the stationary phase consists of ion exchange resins. The resins contain loosely held small ions that easily exchange places with other small ions of like charge present in solutions washed over the resins.
Organic esters of sulfuric acid.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
A group of tetraterpenes, with four terpene units joined head-to-tail. Biologically active members of this class are used clinically in the treatment of severe cystic ACNE; PSORIASIS; and other disorders of keratinization.
Chromatographic techniques in which the mobile phase is a liquid.
A spectroscopic technique in which a range of wavelengths is presented simultaneously with an interferometer and the spectrum is mathematically derived from the pattern thus obtained.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A CD98 antigen light chain that when heterodimerized with CD98 antigen heavy chain (ANTIGENS, CD98 HEAVY CHAIN) forms a protein that mediates sodium-independent L-type amino acid transport.
A reagent used for the determination of iron.
A tricyclo bridged hydrocarbon.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A nitrosamine derivative with alkylating, carcinogenic, and mutagenic properties. It causes serious liver damage and is a hepatocarcinogen in rodents.
An analgesic and anti-inflammatory agent used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.
The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Techniques used to separate mixtures of substances based on differences in the relative affinities of the substances for mobile and stationary phases. A mobile phase (fluid or gas) passes through a column containing a stationary phase of porous solid or liquid coated on a solid support. Usage is both analytical for small amounts and preparative for bulk amounts.
The phenomenon whereby certain chemical compounds have structures that are different although the compounds possess the same elemental composition. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
Inorganic compounds derived from hydrochloric acid that contain the Cl- ion.
The class of all enzymes catalyzing oxidoreduction reactions. The substrate that is oxidized is regarded as a hydrogen donor. The systematic name is based on donor:acceptor oxidoreductase. The recommended name will be dehydrogenase, wherever this is possible; as an alternative, reductase can be used. Oxidase is only used in cases where O2 is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p9)
Cyclic AMIDES formed from aminocarboxylic acids by the elimination of water. Lactims are the enol forms of lactams.
An essential branched-chain amino acid important for hemoglobin formation.
A subclass of enzymes of the transferase class that catalyze the transfer of a methyl group from one compound to another. (Dorland, 28th ed) EC 2.1.1.
A class of compounds of the type R-M, where a C atom is joined directly to any other element except H, C, N, O, F, Cl, Br, I, or At. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.
A plant genus in the family PINACEAE, order Pinales, class Pinopsida, division Coniferophyta. They are coniferous evergreen trees with long, flat, spirally arranged needles that grow directly from the branch.
Organic compounds that contain phosphorus as an integral part of the molecule. Included under this heading is broad array of synthetic compounds that are used as PESTICIDES and DRUGS.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
A sodium-independent neutral amino acid transporter system with specificity for large amino acids. One of the functions of the transporter system is to supply large neutral amino acids to the brain.
Chemical groups containing the covalent disulfide bonds -S-S-. The sulfur atoms can be bound to inorganic or organic moieties.
The application of medical knowledge to questions of law.
Organic compounds composed exclusively of carbon and hydrogen forming a closed ring that may be either alicyclic or aromatic.
A compound that, on administration, must undergo chemical conversion by metabolic processes before becoming the pharmacologically active drug for which it is a prodrug.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
A series of heterocyclic compounds that are variously substituted in nature and are known also as purine bases. They include ADENINE and GUANINE, constituents of nucleic acids, as well as many alkaloids such as CAFFEINE and THEOPHYLLINE. Uric acid is the metabolic end product of purine metabolism.
That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum from the UHF (ultrahigh frequency) radio waves and extending into the INFRARED RAYS frequencies.
Kulinkovich, O. G. (2004). "Alkylation of carboxylic acid derivatives with dialkoxytitanacyclopropane reagents". Russ. Chem. ... Cha, Jin Kun; Kulinkovich, Oleg G. (2012). "The Kulinkovich cyclopropanation of carboxylic acid derivatives". Organic Reactions ... "Reaction of ethylmagnesium bromide with carboxylic acid esters in the presence of tetraisopropoxytitanium". Zh. Org. Khim. 25: ... Reductive Coupling of Carboxylic Esters with Terminal Olefins". J. Am. Chem. Soc. 118 (17): 4198-99. doi:10.1021/ja954147f. ...
"Direct Catalytic N-Alkylation of Amines with Carboxylic Acids". Journal of the American Chemical Society. 136 (40): 14314-14319 ... The catalyst can also be used in a reductive amination reaction between a carboxylic acid and an amine with phenylsilane as the ... The catalyst is produced by treatment of chloroplatinic acid by the divinyltetramethyldisiloxane. ...
Reduction and Alkylation of Quinoline and Isoquinoline with Carboxylic Acids". Synthesis. 1975 (10): 650-652. doi:10.1055/s- ... Doebner reaction using anilines with an aldehyde and pyruvic acid to form quinoline-4-carboxylic acids Doebner-Miller reaction ... Oxidation of quinoline affords quinolinic acid (pyridine-2,3-dicarboxylic acid), a precursor to the herbicide sold under the ... using a β-ketoanilide and sulfuric acid Niementowski quinoline synthesis, using anthranilic acid and ketones Pfitzinger ...
Pseudoephedrine is reacted with a carboxylic acid, acid anhydride, or acyl chloride to give the corresponding amide. The α- ... The preparation of a variety of enantiomerically pure uncommon R-amino acids can be achieved by the alkylation of chiral ... A Practical Approach to the Enantioselective Synthesis of a-Substituted Carboxylic Acid Derivatives". J. Am. Chem. Soc. 104 (6 ... 1997). "Pseudoephedrine as a Practical Chiral Auxiliary for the Synthesis of Highly Enantiomerically Enriched Carboxylic Acids ...
N-Alkylation[edit]. N-Methylation of aniline with methanol at elevated temperatures over acid catalysts gives N-methylaniline ... At high temperatures aniline and carboxylic acids react to give the anilides.[17] ... and oxalic acid; in acid solution to aniline black. Hypochlorous acid gives 4-aminophenol and para-amino diphenylamine.[13] ... First, benzene is nitrated with a concentrated mixture of nitric acid and sulfuric acid at 50 to 60 °C to yield nitrobenzene. ...
Acyl halides and anhydrides of carboxylic acids are also commonly used acylating agents. In some cases, active esters exhibit ... Acylation can be used to prevent rearrangement reactions that would normally occur in alkylation. To do this an acylation ... One prominent type is fatty acylation, the addition of fatty acids to particular amino acids (e.g. myristoylation, ... Palmitoleoylation is an acylation type where the monounsaturated fatty acid palmitoleic acid is covalently attached to serine ...
... can be used as a solvent and for the alkylation of CH-acidic compounds (e.g. phenols and carboxylic acids). ... R.H. De Wolfe, Carboxylic ortho acid derivatives: preparation and synthetic applications, Organic Chemistry, Vol. 14, Academic ... orthocarboxylic acid violates the Erlenmeyer rule and is unstable in free state). Tetraethoxymethane was described the first ... liquid of low-viscosity which is unstable against strong acids and strong bases. ...
The design devolves on the fact that the proton on a free tetrazole shows a (pKa) comparable to that of a carboxylic acid. ... Alkylation of nicotinonitrile (accessible from nicotinamide)) (1) with methyl iodide affords the N-methylpyridinium salt (2). ... The surrogate acid is then alkylated with ethyl iodide to afford (6). Treatment with acid then removes the carbamate on the ... ring nitrogen (7) and the methyl group on the piperidine ring restored using formaldehyde and formic acid under standard ...
Acylation of this amine with the imidazolide from 5-Methylsulfonaminoindole-2-carboxylic acid (1) affords the amide, reverse ... Modification of the scheme that was done for ateviridine q.v. by performing the reductive alkylation with acetone gives 2 after ... and several medications for acid reflux. The most common adverse event is moderate to severe rash, which occurs in up to 20% of ...
... decarboxylative alkynylation with alkynyl carboxylic acids. With tethered cross-coupling partners, Lautens, Malacria, and ... These include alkylation from alkyl halides, arylation from aryl bromides, amination from benzyloxyamines, acylation from ... Jiao, Lei; Herdtweck, Eberhardt; Bach, Thorsten (2012-09-05). "Pd(II)-Catalyzed Regioselective 2-Alkylation of Indoles via a ...
Part 6. Syntheses of 2-hydroxyethyl derivatives by reactions of ethylene carbonate with carboxylic acids or heterocycles in the ... Phase-transfer catalyst in geminal di-alkylation of fluorene, N,N-dialkylation of aniline and N-alkylation of carbazole using ... by ethylene carbonate of carboxylic acids and certain heterocycles bearing an acidic N-H. ... G. Saikia and P. K. Iyer (2010). "Facile C-H alkylation in water: enabling defect-free materials for optoelectronic devices". J ...
... carboxylic acids, and imines. On the other hand, it catalyzes the oxidation of alkanes to tertiary alcohols, amides to t- ... Using dichlorotris(triphenylphosphine)ruthenium(II) the N-alkylation of amines with alcohols is also possible (see "borrowing ... RuCl2(PPh3)3 + 2 dppe → RuCl2(dppe)2 + 3 PPh3 RuCl2(PPh3)3 catalyzes the decomposition of formic acid into carbon dioxide and ... Since carbon dioxide can be trapped and hydrogenated on an industrial scale, formic acid represents a potential storage and ...
4-dihydroxy-cinnamic acid (umbellic acid) followed by a bond rotation of the unsaturated bond adjacent to the carboxylic acid ... Once activated, the enzyme umbelliferone 6-prenyltransferase catalyzes a C-alkylation between DMAPP and umbelliferone at the ... Finally an intramolecular attack from the hydroxyl group of C2' to the carboxylic acid group closes the ring and forms the ... Phenylalanine is lysated into cinnamic acid, followed by hydroxylation by cinnamate 4-hydroxylase to yield 4-coumaric acid. The ...
Two methods for the synthesis of haloalkanes from carboxylic acids are the Hunsdiecker reaction and the Kochi reaction. Many ... Amines may also be prepared from alkyl halides in amine alkylation, the Gabriel synthesis and Delepine reaction, by undergoing ... For example, after undergoing substitution reactions, cyanoalkanes may be hydrolyzed to carboxylic acids, or reduced to primary ... Tertiary alkanol reacts with hydrochloric acid directly to produce tertiary choloroalkane (alkyl chloride), but if primary or ...
An alternative is to use a carboxylic acid, which can easily be removed during the cycloaddition process by decarboxylation. ... Another way to form azomethine ylides from imines is by prototropy and by alkylation. Ylides can be formed from münchnones, ... A cycloaddition of an azomethine ylide with an unactivated alkene was used in total synthesis of martinellic acid. The ... Snider, B. B.; Ahn, Y.; O'Hare, S. M. (2001). "Total synthesis of (±)-martinellic acid". Organic Letters. 3 (26): 4217-4220. ...
The common names of acyl groups are derived typically by replacing the -ic acid suffix of the corresponding carboxylic acid's ... O-alkylation of metal acyls gives Fischer carbene complexes. ... oic acid suffix of the corresponding carboxylic acid's systemic ... acyl groups can in principle be derived from other types of acids such as sulfonic acids, phosphonic acids. In the most common ... guanylic acid), CMP (5′-cytidylic acid), and UMP (5′-uridylic acid) are adenylyl, guanylyl, cytidylyl, and uridylyl ...
The molecule behaves as a strong dicarboxylic acid. It is stronger acid than typical carboxylic acids. C4O2(OH)2 → [C4O3(OH ... The bis(methylether) is prepared by alkylation with trimethyl orthoformate. Squaramides are prepared by displacement of alkoxy ... Squaric acid, also called quadratic acid because its four carbon atoms approximately form a square, is a dibasic organic acid ... Cyclobutene, C 4H 6 Deltic acid, C 3H 2O 3 Croconic acid, C 5H 2O 5 Rhodizonic acid, C 6H 2O 6 Squaramides, the amides of ...
Carboxylic Acids-Advances in Research and Application. 2012. p. 93. ISBN 9781464993923. Chan, Lina; Taylor, Mark S. (17 June ... "Regioselective Alkylation of Carbohydrate Derivatives Catalyzed by a Diarylborinic Acid Derivative". Organic Letters. 13 (12): ... Diphenylborinic acid can catalyse the condensation of pyruvic acids with aldehydes to yield substituted isotetronic acid. ... Borinic acid, also known as boronous acid, is an oxyacid of boron with formula H 2BOH. Borinate is the associated anion of ...
An exception is the amination of alpha-halo carboxylic acids that do permit synthesis of primary amines with ammonia. ... Key to the alkylation of alcohols is the use of catalysts that render the hydroxyl group a good leaving group. The largest ... Amine alkylation (amino-de-halogenation) is a type of organic reaction between an alkyl halide and ammonia or an amine. The ... N-alkylation is a general and useful route to quaternary ammonium salts from tertiary amines, because overalkylation is not ...
... carboxylic acids, and benzyl ester. Benzoic acid (C6H5COOH) can be prepared by oxidation of benzyl chloride in the presence of ... Quaternary ammonium salts, used as surfactants, are readily formed by alkylation of tertiary amines with benzyl chloride. ... Phenylacetic acid, a precursor to pharmaceuticals, is produced from benzyl cyanide, which in turn is generated by treatment of ... In contact with mucous membranes, hydrolysis produces hydrochloric acid. Thus, benzyl chloride is a lachrymator and has been ...
"Carboxylic Acids and Esters" in PATAI's Chemistry of Functional Groups: Carboxylic Acids and Esters, Saul Patai, Ed. John Wiley ... The alkylation can be conducted using Mannich bases and the thiocarboxylic acid: CH3COSH + R′2NCH2OH → CH3COSCH2NR′2 + H2O ... They are the product of esterification between a carboxylic acid and a thiol. In biochemistry, the best-known thioesters are ... doi:10.1002/9780470771099.ch15 Fujiwara, S.; Kambe, N. (2005). "Thio-, Seleno-, and Telluro-Carboxylic Acid Esters". Topics in ...
Similarly, it also reacts quickly with alcohols and carboxylic acids, although less vigorously than with water. With simple ... AlCl2Br Al2Br6 is used as a catalyst for the Friedel-Crafts alkylation reaction. Related Lewis acid-promoted reactions include ... It is a stronger Lewis acid than the more common Al2Cl6. Aluminium tribromide is a highly reactive material. Haynes, William M ... Al2Br6 Play media Al2Br6 dissociates readily to give the strong Lewis acid, AlBr3. Regarding the tendency of Al2Br6 to dimerize ...
It is commonly used as the hindered base in amide coupling reactions between a carboxylic acid (typically activated, for ... DIPEA has been investigated for its use as a selective reagent in the alkylation of secondary amines to tertiary amines by ... However, triethylamine is a slightly stronger base than DIPEA; the pKas of the respective conjugate acids in dimethyl sulfoxide ... It is traditionally prepared by the alkylation of diisopropylamine with diethyl sulfate. Pure DIPEA exists as a colorless ...
Perfluorinated carboxylic acids and sulfonic acids are produced in this way. 1,1-Difluoroethane is produced by adding HF to ... HF serves as a catalyst in alkylation processes in refineries. It is used in the majority of the installed linear alkyl benzene ... When dilute, hydrofluoric acid behaves like a weak acid, unlike the other hydrohalic acids, due to the formation of hydrogen- ... In 1771 Carl Wilhelm Scheele prepared the aqueous solution, hydrofluoric acid in large quantities, although hydrofluoric acid ...
Oxonium and acylium ions are carbocationic synthons for carbonyl compounds such as ketones, aldehydes and carboxylic acid ... Carbanion alkylation is a common strategy used to create carbon-carbon bonds. The alkylating agent is usually an alkyl halide ... In planning the synthesis of phenylacetic acid, two synthons are identified: a nucleophilic "COOH−" group, and an electrophilic ... The synthesis of phenylacetic acid determined by retrosynthetic analysis is thus: PhCH2Br + NaCN → PhCH2CN + NaBr PhCH2CN + 2 ...
NH2 and then carboxylic acids RCOOH. The hydrolysis of nitriles to carboxylic acids is efficient. In acid or base, the balanced ... AlkylationEdit. Alkyl nitriles are sufficiently acidic to form nitrile anions, which alkylate a wide variety of electrophiles.[ ... from aryl carboxylic acids (Letts nitrile synthesis). Sandmeyer reactionEdit. Aromatic nitriles are often prepared in the ... Nitrilases hydrolyze nitriles to carboxylic acids: RCN + 2 H2O → RCO2H + NH3. Nitrile hydratases are metalloenzymes that ...
5.4 Alkylation of carboxylate salts. *5.5 Transesterification. *5.6 Carbonylation. *5.7 Addition of carboxylic acids to alkenes ... Esterification of carboxylic acids with epoxides[edit]. Carboxylic acids are esterified by treatment with epoxides, giving β- ... As a class, esters serve as protecting groups for carboxylic acids. Protecting a carboxylic acid is useful in peptide synthesis ... Silicotungstic acid is used to manufacture ethyl acetate by the alkylation of acetic acid by ethylene: C2H4 + CH3CO2H → CH3CO2C ...
In the next step the carboxylic acid group is esterified with ethanol and the urea group replaced with a benzoyl group. The ... The oxime group is hydrogenated to the amine 11 with platinum in acetic acid and alkylation with iodomethane gives the ... The mixture of cis and trans isomers is then oxidized by chromic acid in acetic acid to the ketone 9. Only the cis isomer ... Removal of the silyl protecting group with p-toluenesulfonic acid to alcohol 4b and ring-closure by azeotropic distillation ...
For example, it can be used for the methylation of carboxylic acids or phenols: In these examples, the base (K2CO3 or Li2CO3) ... With iodomethane, C-alkylation nearly always predominates. In the Monsanto process and the Cativa process, MeI forms in situ ... doi:10.1007/s13762-016-1219-5. Avila-Zárraga, J. G.; Martínez, R. (January 2001). "Efficient methylation of carboxylic acids ... the precursor to acetic acid after hydrolysis. The Cativa process is usually preferred because less water is required to use ...
... ification of carboxylic acids with epoxidesEdit. Carboxylic acids are esterified by treatment with epoxides, giving β- ... Silicotungstic acid is used to manufacture ethyl acetate by the alkylation of acetic acid by ethylene: C2H4 + CH3CO2H → CH3CO2C ... As a class, esters serve as protecting groups for carboxylic acids. Protecting a carboxylic acid is useful in peptide synthesis ... Addition of carboxylic acids to alkenes and alkynesEdit. In the presence of palladium-based catalysts, ethylene, acetic acid, ...
carboxylic acid. −. ,. H. −. N. +. ,. R. 2. R. 1. ,. −. H. +. R. 3. −. COO. −. ⏟. substituted-ammonium. carboxylate salt. →. d ... Amine alkylation Amines Degree of substitution increases Schotten-Baumann reaction Amide Reagents: acyl chlorides, acid ... When formed from carboxylic acids and primary and secondary amines, these salts thermally dehydrate to form the corresponding ... AlkylationEdit. The most industrially significant amines are prepared from ammonia by alkylation with alcohols:[5] ...
Friedel-Crafts alkylation involves the alkylation of an aromatic ring with an alkyl halide using a strong Lewis acid, such as ... or a Brønsted acid catalyst using the anhydride or even the carboxylic acid itself as the acylation agent. ... Typical Lewis acid catalysts are acids and aluminium trichloride. However, because the product ketone forms a rather stable ... Friedel-Crafts alkylation has been hypothesized to be reversible. In a retro-Friedel-Crafts reaction or Friedel-Crafts ...
carboxylic acid. −. ,. H. −. N. +. ,. R. 2. R. 1. ,. −. H. +. R. 3. −. COO. −. ⏟. substituted-ammonium. carboxylate salt. →. d ... Amine alkylation Amines Degree of substitution increases Schotten-Baumann reaction Amide Reagents: acyl chlorides, acid ... Reductive amination with formic acid and formaldehyde via an imine intermediate Reactions[edit]. Alkylation, acylation, and ... When formed from carboxylic acids and primary and secondary amines, these salts thermally dehydrate to form the corresponding ...
SAM is then converted to 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) by the enzyme ACC synthase (ACS). The activity of ACS ... Alkylation. Major chemical intermediates from the alkylation with ethylene is ethylbenzene, precursor to styrene. Styrene is ... In flooding, roots suffer from lack of oxygen, or anoxia, which leads to the synthesis of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid ... Valerian constituents (e.g., isovaleric acid, isovaleramide, valerenic acid, valerenol). *Unsorted benzodiazepine site positive ...
Acyl halides and anhydrides of carboxylic acids are also commonly used acylating agents. In some cases, active esters exhibit ... Acylation can be used to prevent rearrangement reactions that would normally occur in alkylation. To do this an acylation ... the addition of fatty acids to particular amino acids (e.g. myristoylation, palmitoylation or palmitoleoylation).[3] Different ... Palmitoleoylation is an acylation type where the monounsaturated fatty acid palmitoleic acid is covalently attached to serine ...
Trichloroacetic acid. Vinylogous carboxylic acids. Normal carboxylic acids are the direct union of a carbonyl group and a ... sulfuric acid is used in very large quantities in the alkylation process to produce gasoline. Strong acids, such as sulfuric, ... Common acids. Mineral acids (inorganic acids). *Hydrogen halides and their solutions: hydrofluoric acid (HF), hydrochloric acid ... See also: Acid dissociation constant § Monoprotic acids. Polyprotic acids. Polyprotic acids, also known as polybasic acids, are ...
If a higher priority group is present (such as an aldehyde, ketone, or carboxylic acid), then the prefix hydroxy-is used,[14] e ... Alcohol and carboxylic acids react in the so-called Fischer esterification. The reaction usually requires a catalyst, such as ... Primary alcohols (R-CH2OH) can be oxidized either to aldehydes (R-CHO) or to carboxylic acids (R-CO2H). The oxidation of ... The direct oxidation of primary alcohols to carboxylic acids can be carried out using potassium permanganate or the Jones ...
... s can also react with carbon dioxide to form carboxylic acids. In the case of enone substrates, where two ... Although they are considered more reactive than Grignards reactions in alkylation, their use is still limited due to competing ... Organolithium reagents are also superior to Grignard reagents in their ability to react with carboxylic acids to form ketones. ... Rubottom, G.M.; Kim, C (1983). "Preparation of methyl ketones by the sequential treatment of carboxylic acids with ...
N-AlkylationEdit. N-Methylation of aniline with methanol at elevated temperatures over acid catalysts gives N-methylaniline and ... At high temperatures aniline and carboxylic acids react to give the anilides.[15] ... and oxalic acid; in acid solution to aniline black. Hypochlorous acid gives 4-aminophenol and para-amino diphenylamine.[11] ... First, benzene is nitrated with a concentrated mixture of nitric acid and sulfuric acid at 50 to 60 °C to yield nitrobenzene. ...
Pyrrolidone Carboxylic Acid 504 Sulfation More details can be found at http://selene.princeton.edu/PTMCuration/. ... alkylation, the addition of an alkyl group, e.g. methyl, ethyl *methylation the addition of a methyl group, usually at lysine ... Glutamic acid Glu cyclization to Pyroglutamic acid (N-terminus), gamma-carboxylation Glycine Gly N-Myristoylation (N-terminus ... Aspartic acid Asp isomerization to isoaspartic acid Cysteine Cys disulfide-bond formation, oxidation to sulfenic, sulfinic or ...
A real example is the hydrolysis of an ester such as aspirin to a carboxylic acid and an alcohol. In the absence of added acid ... Petroleum refining makes intensive use of catalysis for alkylation, catalytic cracking (breaking long-chain hydrocarbons into ... on the esterification of carboxylic acids, such as the formation of methyl acetate from acetic acid and methanol.[12] One high- ... Illustrative is the base-catalysed hydrolysis of esters, where the produced carboxylic acid immediately reacts with the base ...
From carboxylic acidsEdit. Two methods for the synthesis of haloalkanes from carboxylic acids are the Hunsdiecker reaction and ... Amines may also be prepared from alkyl halides in amine alkylation, the Gabriel synthesis and Delepine reaction, by undergoing ... For example, after undergoing substitution reactions, cyanoalkanes may be hydrolyzed to carboxylic acids, or reduced to primary ... Alcohols may likewise be converted to bromoalkanes using hydrobromic acid or phosphorus tribromide (PBr3). A catalytic amount ...
Thiocarboxylic acids (RC(O)SH) and dithiocarboxylic acids (RC(S)SH) are well known. They are structurally similar to carboxylic ... Sulfides are typically prepared by alkylation of thiols. They can also be prepared via the Pummerer rearrangement. In one named ... Sulfonic acids like trifluoromethanesulfonic acid is a frequently used reagent in organic chemistry. Sulfinic acids have ... Sulfonic acids have functionality R−S(=O)2−OH.[20] They are strong acids that are typically soluble in organic solvents. ...
The prototype of a protein disulfide bond is the two-amino-acid peptide cystine, which is composed of two cysteine amino acids ... The alkylation of alkali metal di- and polysulfides gives disulfides. "Thiokol" polymers arise when sodium polysulfide is ... Over 90% of the dry weight of hair comprises proteins called keratins, which have a high disulfide content, from the amino acid ... lipoic acid,. a vitamin. Ph2S2,. a common organic disulfide. ... Such reactions are thought to proceed via sulfenic acid ...
Quinolines (e.g., 4-hydroxyquinoline, 4-hydroxyquinoline-3-carboxylic acid, 5,7-CIQA, 7-CIQ, 7-TFQ, 7-TFQA) ... In the laboratory taurine can be produced by alkylation of ammonia with bromoethanesulfonate salts.[9] ... Sulfamic acid. Aminomethanesulfonic acid. Homotaurine Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their ... Synthetic taurine is obtained by the ammonolysis of isethionic acid (2-hydroxyethanesulfonic acid), which in turn is obtained ...
... the cognate carboxylic acid of tazarotene, by rapid deesterification in animals and humans. Tazarotenic acid binds to all three ... with selective affinity for retinoic acid receptors RARβ and RARγ. The formation of the ring system involves first alkylation ... More evidence is needed before any recommendations can be made on oral or topical polysaccharides or hydroxy acids. Evidence ... members of the retinoic acid receptor (RAR) family: RARα, RARβ, and RARγ but shows relative selectivity for RARβ, and RARγ and ...
Quinolines (e.g., 4-hydroxyquinoline, 4-hydroxyquinoline-3-carboxylic acid, 5,7-CIQA, 7-CIQ, 7-TFQ, 7-TFQA) ... The alkylation of linear alkenes, even 1- alkenes such as 1-dodecene gives several isomers of phenyldodecane.[11] ... are then sulfonated with sulfur trioxide to give the sulfonic acid.[10] The sulfonic acid is subsequently neutralized with ... Bipin V. Vora, Joseph A. Kocal, Paul T. Barger, Robert J. Schmidt, James A. Johnson (2003). "Alkylation". Kirk‐Othmer ...
... carboxylic acids, and benzyl ester. Benzoic acid (C6H5COOH) can be prepared by oxidation of benzyl chloride in the presence of ... Quaternary ammonium salts, used as surfactants, are readily formed by alkylation of tertiary amines with benzyl chloride.[3] ... Phenylacetic acid, a precursor to pharmaceuticals, is produced from benzyl cyanide, which is generated by treatment of benzyl ... In contact with mucous membranes, hydrolysis produces hydrochloric acid. Thus, benzyl chloride is a lachrymator and has been ...
... is formed through oxidation of the alcohol moiety to a carboxylic acid by alcohol dehydrogenase, and overall effects are ... Hydroxyzine is synthesized by the alkylation of 1-(4-chlorobenzhydryl)piperazine with 2-(2-chloroethoxy)ethanol: Hydroxyzine ...
With nitrile electrophiles, nucleophilic addition take place by: hydrolysis of a nitrile to form an amide or a carboxylic acid ... Weiberth, Franz J.; Hall, Stan S. (1986). "Tandem alkylation-reduction of nitriles. Synthesis of branched primary amines". ... when both alkyl substituents are dissimilar and there are not any other controlling issues such as chelation with a Lewis acid ...
Diazomethane and the safer analogue trimethylsilyldiazomethane methylate carboxylic acids, phenols, and even alcohols: RCO2H + ... Methylation is a form of alkylation, with a methyl group replacing a hydrogen atom. These terms are commonly used in chemistry ... a general method for the synthesis of pure 2-arylpropionic acids. 2-Phenylpropionic acid". Organic Syntheses. 76: 169. doi: ... The term methylation in organic chemistry refers to the alkylation process used to describe the delivery of a CH3 group. ...
... is used to give salts of various carboxylic acid-containing pesticides, e.g. Triclopyr and 2,4- ... Triethylamine is prepared by the alkylation of ammonia with ethanol: NH3 + 3 C2H5OH → N(C2H5)3 + 3 H2O The pKa of protonated ... In alkane solvents triethylamine is a Lewis base that forms adducts with a variety of Lewis acid such as I2 and phenols. Owing ... It is also a catalyst and acid neutralizer for condensation reactions and is useful as an intermediate for manufacturing ...
We report a catalytic reductive alkylation reaction of primary or secondary amines with carboxylic acids. The two-phase process ... Catalytic reductive N-alkylation of amines using carboxylic acids K. G. Andrews, D. M. Summers, L. J. Donnelly and R. M. Denton ... We report a catalytic reductive alkylation reaction of primary or secondary amines with carboxylic acids. The two-phase process ... Catalytic reductive N-alkylation of amines using carboxylic acids Keith G. Andrews,a Declan M. Summers,a Liam J. Donnellya and ...
An expedient strategy of reductive N-alkylation of amines with readily available carboxylic acids as alkylating reagents has ... Reductive N-alkylation of primary and secondary amines using carboxylic acids and borazane under mild conditions Y. Wei, Q. ... Reductive N-alkylation of primary and secondary amines using carboxylic acids and borazane under mild conditions ... An expedient strategy of reductive N-alkylation of amines with readily available carboxylic acids as alkylating reagents has ...
... Andrews, Keith Gordon; Summers, Declan; Donnelly, Liam; ... We report a catalytic reductive alkylation reaction of primary or secondary amines with carboxylic acids. The two-phase process ... Catalytic reductive N-alkylation of amines using carboxylic acids. Chemical Communications, doi:10.1039/C5CC08881J ... A practical and catalyst-free trifluoroethylation reaction of amines using trifluoroacetic acid (2017) Journal Article ...
Figure 4: DNA alkylation of BNMPH. (a) BNMPH effect on DNA thermal denaturation. The flatted curve (black) indicated that the ... The Cytotoxicity of Benzaldehyde Nitrogen Mustard-2-Pyridine Carboxylic Acid Hydrazone Being Involved in Topoisomerase IIα ... Benzaldehyde nitrogen mustard-2-pyridine carboxyl acid hydrazone was made as described [9]. The BNMPH structure is shown in ... We made some hydrazones by condensation of pyridine carboxyl acid hydrazides with benzaldehyde nitrogen mustard [9, 10], ...
Palladium-Catalyzed Allylic Alkylation of Carboxylic Acid Derivatives: N-Acyloxazolinones as Ester Enolate Equivalents. *Trost ...
... efficiently catalyses the alkylation of a variety of indoles with a wide range of carboxylic acids. ... The first direct CH-alkylation of indoles using carboxylic acids and hydrogen is presented. A non-noble metal based catalytic ...
... and Nitriles in the context of Reactions of Carboxylic Acid Derivatives to help students study for a college level Organic ... Esters are also prepared via a base-catalyzed alkylation of a carboxylic acid. Base-catalyzed alkylation refers to the adding ... nitriles are carboxylic acid derivatives that can be prepared starting from either carboxylic acids or other carboxylic acid ... to a carboxylic acid. The lone pair on one of the nitrogen atoms in DCC deprotonates the hydroxyl group of the carboxylic acid ...
Catalytic reductive N-alkylation of amines using carboxylic acids.. Andrews KG, Summers DM, Donnelly LJ, Denton RM. ... Retinoic acid receptor signaling regulates choroid fissure closure through independent mechanisms in the ventral optic cup and ... Activation of the Bile Acid Pathway and No Observed Antimicrobial Peptide Sequences in the Skin of a Poison Frog. ... Nitrogen dioxide reducing ascorbic acid technologies in the ventilator circuit leads to uniform NO concentration during ...
Kulinkovich, O. G. (2004). "Alkylation of carboxylic acid derivatives with dialkoxytitanacyclopropane reagents". Russ. Chem. ... Cha, Jin Kun; Kulinkovich, Oleg G. (2012). "The Kulinkovich cyclopropanation of carboxylic acid derivatives". Organic Reactions ... "Reaction of ethylmagnesium bromide with carboxylic acid esters in the presence of tetraisopropoxytitanium". Zh. Org. Khim. 25: ... Reductive Coupling of Carboxylic Esters with Terminal Olefins". J. Am. Chem. Soc. 118 (17): 4198-99. doi:10.1021/ja954147f. ...
Metalated carboxylic acids. I. Alkylation. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1967, 89 (10), 2500-2501. ...
Alkylation of Aldehydes/Ketones, Carboxylic Acids, and beta-Dicarbonyl Compounds. Reactions of the Aldol and Mannich Type. ... Nucleophilic Addition to Aldehydes, Ketones, Carboxylic Acid Derivatives (Esters, Anhydrides) and alpha,beta-Unsaturated ... Amino Acids and Peptides. Nucleotides and Oligonucleotides. DOMINO REACTIONS. Domino Reactions in Synthetic Methodology. Domino ...
N-Alkylation[edit]. N-Methylation of aniline with methanol at elevated temperatures over acid catalysts gives N-methylaniline ... At high temperatures aniline and carboxylic acids react to give the anilides.[17] ... and oxalic acid; in acid solution to aniline black. Hypochlorous acid gives 4-aminophenol and para-amino diphenylamine.[13] ... First, benzene is nitrated with a concentrated mixture of nitric acid and sulfuric acid at 50 to 60 °C to yield nitrobenzene. ...
A manganese-catalyzed C-alkylation of carboxylic acid derivatives with alcohols operates via hydrogen autotransfer and ideally ... This presents a convenient and environmentally benign protocol for α-alkylation of amides.. L. Guo, Y. Liu, W. Yao, Y. Leng, Z ... An effective and robust iridium pincer complex achieves a selective α-alkylation of tertiary and secondary acetamides involving ... cobalt complexes stabilized with pincer ligands catalyze especially challenging alkylations of unactivated esters and amides ...
"Direct Catalytic N-Alkylation of Amines with Carboxylic Acids". Journal of the American Chemical Society. 136 (40): 14314-14319 ... The catalyst can also be used in a reductive amination reaction between a carboxylic acid and an amine with phenylsilane as the ... The catalyst is produced by treatment of chloroplatinic acid by the divinyltetramethyldisiloxane. ...
Catalytic N-Alkylation of Amines Using Carboxylic Acids and Molecular Hydrogen.. Sorribes I, Cabrero-Antonino JR, Vicent C, ... Tailored Cobalt-Catalysts for Reductive Alkylation of Anilines with Carboxylic Acids under Mild Conditions. ... Cobalt-catalysed reductive C-H alkylation of indoles using carboxylic acids and molecular hydrogen. ... Cobalt Pincer Complexes for Catalytic Reduction of Carboxylic Acid Esters.. Junge K, Wendt B, Cingolani A, Spannenberg A, Wei Z ...
... with nitric acid. Then O-alkylation with 1-bromobutane afforded compound 3 in 89% yield. Reduction of compound 3 using iron ... Its affinity and selectivity for CB2 is the highest among the known 2-oxoquinoline carboxylic acid derivatives. In vitro ... Synthesis and Preliminary Evaluation of a 2-Oxoquinoline Carboxylic Acid Derivative for PET Imaging the Cannabinoid Type 2 ... The affinity and selectivity of KP23 towards CB2 are the highest among the known 2-oxoquinoline carboxylic acid derivatives ...
... and 2-substituted-1-carba-2-penem-3-carboxylic acids of the following structure: ##STR1## wherein R.sup.1, R.sup.2, R.sup.3, R. ... Alkylation of 17 provides 18. Typically, 17 is treated with a strong base such as lithium diisopropylamide, sodium hydride, ... 4 may be achieved by well-known methods for converting a carboxylic acid to a ketone such as by activating a carboxylic ... 6-(1-hydroxyethyl)-pen-2-em-3-carboxylic acid Cornstarch, U.S.P. 6 mg. Dicalcium Phosphate 192mg. Lactose, U.S.P. 190 mg. ...
Carboxylic Acid Reduction. Esters and Lactones. Acid Amides. Acid Chlorides. Imines, Oximes and Hydrazones. Electrocatalytic ... Reductive Alkylation and Carboxylation. Electrocatalytic Hydrogenation. 8. Alcohols, Amines and Amides, Oxidation. Nitroxyl ... Oxidation of Hydrazine Derivatives. 9. Aldehydes, Ketones and Carboxylic Acids, Oxidation. Oxidation of Ketones. Oxidation of ...
Diastereoselective alkylation reactions of 1-methylcyclohexa-2,5-diene-1-carboxylic acid. Organic and Biomolecular Chemistry 10 ... Diastereoselective alkylation reactions of 1-methylcyclohexa-2,5-diene-1-carboxylic acid. Organic and Biomolecular Chemistry 10 ... Crystal structure of 7,7-dimethyl-6-methylidenetricyclo[6.2.1.01,5]undecane-2-carboxylic acid. Acta Crystallographica Section E ... Crystal structure of 7,7-dimethyl-6-methylidenetricyclo[6.2.1.01,5]undecane-2-carboxylic acid. Acta Crystallographica Section E ...
Diastereoselective alkylation reactions of 1-methylcyclohexa-2,5-diene-1-carboxylic acid. Organic and Biomolecular Chemistry 10 ... Diastereoselective alkylation reactions of 1-methylcyclohexa-2,5-diene-1-carboxylic acid. Organic and Biomolecular Chemistry 10 ... Diastereoselective alkylation reactions of 1-methylcyclohexa-2,5-diene-1-carboxylic acid. Organic and Biomolecular Chemistry 10 ... pyridine-4-carboxylic acids. Asian Journal of Chemistry 26(10), pp. 2870-2872. (10.14233/ajchem.2014.15918) ...
Zeolite-Induced Selectivity in the Conversion of the Lower Aliphatic Carboxylic Acids.- Selectivity Induced by the Void ... Structural and Catalytic Properties.- Shape Selective Alkylation Reactions over Medium-Pore High Silica Zeolites.- ... Crystalline Silicic Acids.- The Behaviour of Some Alkali Metal Graphite Compounds Towards Sundry Reagents.- Mechanism of the ... Acid-Catalyzed Reactions for the Characterization of the Porous Structure of Zeolites.- Pillared Clays: Synthesis and ...
Extraction of phenols, carboxylic acids and amines in aqueous solutions. *Electrophilic aromatic substitution of phenols (O vs ... Alkylation of thiols; S-adenosylmethionine. *Reactions of ethers. *Acidic cleavage. *Ring opening of epoxides (acidic and ... Characterize biomolecules including carbohydrates, amino acids, peptides, proteins, nucleic acids and lipids. ... carboxylic acids and their derivatives, amines, condensation reactions, polymers, and biomolecules. Weekly hands-on lab ...
... esterification of carboxylic acids using alkyl halides; alkylation of activated methylene compounds; dehalogenation of organic ... Biotage® PS-TBD is a polymer-supported base, which applications are Alkylation of phenols and amines; ... which can facilitate Williamson ether synthesis and may also be used for the N-alkylation of aryl halides, esterification of ...
PS-TBD applications include alkylation of phenols and amines; esterification of carboxylic acids using alkyl halides; ... Unreacted carboxylic acid, normally used in excess relative to the amine, remains bound to the resin during workup. ... PS-Carbodiimide was found to synthesize amides in high yield and purity without evidence of residual amine or carboxylic acid. ... Biotage® MP-Trisamine is a macroporous polystyrene-bound scavenger, for electrophiles such as acid chlorides, sulfonyl ...
β-Dicarbonyl compounds allow convenient alkylation and preparation of ketones and carboxylic acids. The aldol condensation, in ... β-Dicarbonyl compounds allow convenient alkylation and preparation of ketones and carboxylic acids. The aldol condensation, in ... α-Acylation of esters as in the Claisen condensation is a key step in the biosynthesis of fatty acids. Determining the ... α-Acylation of esters as in the Claisen condensation is a key step in the biosynthesis of fatty acids. Determining the ...
... quaternary carboxylic acid derivatives via iridium-catalyzed allylic alkylation. ... hydrochloric acid, hydrobromic acid, hydroiodic acid, sulfuric acid, nitric acid, phosphoric acid, acetic acid, trifluoroacetic ... Crystal Structure Data for Carboxylic Acid 7h Carboxylic acid 7h was recrystallized by slow evaporation of CH2CI2 to provide ... trifluoromethanesulfonic acid, p- toluenesulfonic acid, and/or aminomethylphosphonic acid. In preferred embodiments, the acid ...
N-Alkylation Using Sodium Triacetoxyborohydride with Carboxylic Acids as Alkyl Sources. Satoru Tamura, Keigo Sato, Tomikazu ... A versatile N-alkylation was performed using sodium triacetoxyborohydride and carboxylic acid as an alkyl source. The ... We have prepared analogues of two known GM1-binding peptides by replacing L-amino acids with D-amino acids, followed by ... lecanoric acid (3), a depside isolated from the lichen Parmotrema tinctorum, produces orsellinic acid (2,4-dihydroxy-6- ...
Professor Armen Zakarian, University of California, Santa Barbara "Direct Asymmetric Alkylation of Carboxylic Acids". ...
Analogues of valproic acid useful in treating neuroaffective disorders including convulsions, bipolar disorder, and migraine ... S., Mestres, R., Parra, M., Regioselective alkylation of lithium dienediolates of α,β-unsaturated carboxylic acids, Synthesis, ... pent-2-enoic acid, (2E)-2-(2-methylprop-1-enyl)pent-2-enoic acid, (2E)-2-(2-methylprop-1-en-1-yl)pent-2-enoic acid, and (2E)-4- ... but-3-enoic acid, 2-iso-propyl-3-(trifluoromethyl)but-3-enoic acid, 2-butyl-3-(trifluoromethyl)but-3-enoic acid, 2-sec-butyl-3 ...
... esterification of carboxylic acids using alkyl halides; alkylation of activated methylene compounds; dehalogenation of organic ... Phthalic acid esters. Plasticisers. Polyaromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH). Polyfluorinated acids. Preservative. Quaternary Amines. ... Acid herbicides. Acidic. Acidic catecholamine metabolites. Alcohol metabolite. Aliphatic hydrocarbons. Alkaloids. ... Biotage® PS-TBD is a polymer-supported base, which applications are Alkylation of phenols and amines; ...
  • Esters, amides, and nitriles are carboxylic acid derivatives that can be prepared starting from either carboxylic acids or other carboxylic acid derivatives. (coursehero.com)
  • A manganese-catalyzed C-alkylation of carboxylic acid derivatives with alcohols operates via hydrogen autotransfer and ideally produces water as the only side product. (organic-chemistry.org)
  • The present disclosure provides methods for enantioselective synthesis of acyclic α- quaternary carboxylic acid derivatives via iridium-catalyzed allylic alkylation. (sumobrain.com)
  • The products undergo oxidative functionalization to afford β,γ-unsaturated carboxylic acid derivatives. (organic-chemistry.org)
  • More than 100 remote carbofunctionalized alkyl carboxylic acid derivatives were rapidly synthesized from easily accessible starting materials. (bioportfolio.com)
  • The structures of the derivatives of indole-3-carboxylic acid were studied using gas chromatography with high resolution mass spectrometry (GC-HRMS), ultra-high performance liquid chromatography in combination with high resolution tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-HRMS), nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Analytical characterization of some synthetic cannabinoids, derivatives of indole-3-carboxylic acid. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • a) Ph (b) 3 L L 3 3 L L L L (c) A (d) ( 3 ) 3 L L L L L L( 3 ) REDUTI F ARBXYLI AID DERIVATIVE A. Reduction of Esters to Primary Alcohols thium aluminum hydride reduces all carboxylic acid derivatives. (docplayer.net)
  • Rank leaving groups/reactivity of carboxylic acid derivatives. (dezion.co.il)
  • The interference concerns certain substituted acyl derivatives of 1,2,3,4- tetrahydroisoquinoline-3-carboxylic acid. (ipmall.info)
  • Carboxylic Acid Derivatives and Nucleophilic Acyl Substitution Reactions RY C O acyl. (fratellimuratori.gq)
  • Esters with different-length carbon chains are created via Fischer esterification of a carboxylic acid and an alcohol. (coursehero.com)
  • Esters are also prepared via a base-catalyzed alkylation of a carboxylic acid. (coursehero.com)
  • In a reaction with methanol, the triester is broken into its three different fatty acid residues, forming new esters via transesterification. (coursehero.com)
  • Finally, esters are prepared via an alcohol attack on an acid halide or an anhydride. (coursehero.com)
  • Cobalt Pincer Complexes for Catalytic Reduction of Carboxylic Acid Esters. (nih.gov)
  • In a borrowing hydrogen methodology, cobalt complexes stabilized with pincer ligands catalyze especially challenging alkylations of unactivated esters and amides with alcohols as alkylating reagents. (organic-chemistry.org)
  • α-Acylation of esters as in the Claisen condensation is a key step in the biosynthesis of fatty acids. (videolectures.net)
  • New Insights on the Oxidation of Unsaturated Fatty Acid Methyl Esters Catalyzed by Niobium(V) Oxide. (mdpi.com)
  • For easy, effective preparation of methyl esters from fatty acids and amino acids. (thermofisher.com)
  • However, the trehalose difatty acid esters are used therein as a surfactant. (patent-de.com)
  • These esters are only mentioned as surfactants, along with trehalose monofatty acid esters, and alkylidene trehalose, and with anionic surfactants, etc. (patent-de.com)
  • The Wittig and Wittig-Horner Reaction Reactions of Carboxylic Acids, Esters and Amines 40. (abebooks.com)
  • The ready availability of numerous carboxylic acids (which are easily converted to esters) contributes to the reaction's versatility. (sciencemag.org)
  • Organized by functional groups for ready reference and featuring detailed examples of hundreds of reactions, this handbook covers hydrogenations of alkenes, alkynes, aldehydes and ketones, nitriles, imines, nitro and nitroso compounds, carboxylic acids and esters, and aromatic and heterocyclic compounds. (boomerangbooks.com.au)
  • Reduction of esters with this reagent, like the reduction of carboxylic acids, gives primary alcohols. (docplayer.net)
  • A compound of claim 4 that is 17β(4fluorobenzoyl)androst3,5diene3carboxylic acid, and pharmaceutically acceptable salts, hydrates, solvates and esters thereof. (sumobrain.com)
  • [1] Esters are generally derived from a carboxylic acid and an alcohol . (gutenberg.us)
  • Esters comprise most naturally occurring fats and oils, which are fatty acid esters of glycerol . (gutenberg.us)
  • Esters derived from the simplest carboxylic acids are commonly named according to the more traditional, so-called "trivial names" e.g. as formate, acetate, propionate, and butyrate, as opposed to the IUPAC nomenclature methanoate, ethanoate, propanoate and butanoate. (gutenberg.us)
  • Esters derived from more complex carboxylic acids are, on the other hand, more frequently named using the systematic IUPAC name, based on the name for the acid followed by the suffix -oate . (gutenberg.us)
  • The chemical formulas of organic esters usually take the form RCO 2 R', where R and R' are the hydrocarbon parts of the carboxylic acid and the alcohol, respectively. (gutenberg.us)
  • Esters can also be derived from an inorganic acid and an alcohol. (gutenberg.us)
  • Consequently esters are more volatile than carboxylic acids of similar molecular weight. (gutenberg.us)
  • Biotage® PS-Triphenylphosphine is a powerful supported phosphine reagent for popular reactions such as Wittig, Mitsunobu, chlorination of acids and alcohols and the scavenging of alkyl halides. (pyrosequencing.com)
  • In contrast, bis(2,2,2-trifluoroethyl) malonates readily undergo dehydrative alkylation with primary and some secondary alcohols. (organic-chemistry.org)
  • Perchloric acid-catalyzed additions of various β-dicarbonyl compounds to a series of secondary alcohols and alkenes could be conveniently conducted in commercial solvent and gave good yields. (organic-chemistry.org)
  • Environmentally benign additions of various 1,3-dicarbonyl compounds to alkenes and alcohols in the presence of solid acid catalysts have been described. (organic-chemistry.org)
  • Pseudoephedrine has been used as a chiral auxiliary in diastereoselective alkylation reactions, providing easy access to enantiomerically enriched carboxylic acids, alcohols, ketones, and aldehydes. (harvard.edu)
  • the same holds true for other nucleophiles such as alcohols, carboxylic acids, thiols, etc. (wikidoc.org)
  • Acid chlorides and anhydrides also react with Al 4 to give primary alcohols. (docplayer.net)
  • owever, because acid chlorides and anhydrides are usually prepared from carboxylic acids, and because carboxylic acids themselves can be reduced to alcohols with Al 4 (ec. (docplayer.net)
  • Aromatic carboxylic acids, as well as other carbonyl functional equivalents, underwent smooth partial reduction to the corresponding TES-protected benzylic alcohols. (elsevier.com)
  • In those strategies the aromatic nitrogen mustards are mostly used as alkylating pharmacophore (such as benzoic acid nitrogen mustard) as they are effective against quiescent cell and trend to be less susceptible to induced resistance than most anticancer drugs. (hindawi.com)
  • Substitution of an active hydrogen by an aliphatic or aliphatic-aromatic (benzyl) group for modifying compounds containing acidic hydrogens, such as carboxylic acids and phenols. (thermofisher.com)
  • Mechanism of the electrophilic aromatic substitution: alogenation, sulfonation, nitration, Friedel-Crafts alkylation and acylation, their restrictions and applications. (uniurb.it)
  • Examples include the use of alkyl halides with a Lewis acid catalyst to alkylate aromatic substrates in Friedel-Crafts reactions. (wikidoc.org)
  • The acylation reaction utilizes a Lewis acid catalyst, such as BF3 or AlCl3, to produce an acyl cation that adds to the aromatic ring. (thermofisher.com)
  • Due to their high surface area and acid functionality, these microcomposites possess wide utility as improved solid acid catalysts, particularly in the substitution of aromatic compounds, in the decomposition of hydroperoxides, and in the isomerization of olefins. (patentgenius.com)
  • 8. An improved method for the alkylation of an aromatic compound the improvement comprising using a catalytic amount of a microcomposite of claim 6. (patentgenius.com)
  • It was shown that, unlike the reduction of aliphatic substrates, the exhaustive reduction of aromatic substrates was not straightforward: a concurrent Friedel-Crafts-like alkylation process competed with the reduction yielding trace to notable amounts of dimeric products, thus decreasing the overall selectivity of the reduction process. (elsevier.com)
  • Shape Selective Alkylation Reactions over Medium-Pore High Silica Zeolites. (booktopia.com.au)
  • Acid-Catalyzed Reactions for the Characterization of the Porous Structure of Zeolites. (booktopia.com.au)
  • The primary application for the resin is as a catalyst for Suzuki-Miyaura coupling reactions between arylboronic acids and aryl halides. (biotage.com)
  • Acid catalysed addition of water, oxymercuration/reduction and hydroboration/oxidation reactions. (unimi.it)
  • Alkylation reactions are the transfer of an alkyl group from one molecule to the other via alkylating agents, that may have an electrophilic or nucleophilic character. (silicycle.com)
  • Just like for acylation reactions, the most common type of alkylation is the Friedel-Crafts reaction and the typical etherification reaction is the Williamson synthesis. (silicycle.com)
  • Acylation does not suffer from R-group rearrangement to a more stable carbocation species suffered by R groups Friedel-Crafts alkylation reactions, a major disadvantage, because electrophilic attack in acylation is via an acylium ion (an acyl cation, RC≡O+). (thermofisher.com)
  • It can be used as a general base to quench a reaction, to free base amines in their ammonium salt form and to scavenge acids and acidic phenols, including HOBt, which is widely used in amide coupling reactions. (silicycle.com)
  • Mechanism of S N 2 alkylation reactions of lithium organocuprate clusters with alkyl. (fratellimuratori.gq)
  • Gould-Jacobs reaction starting from an aniline and ethyl ethoxymethylenemalonate Skraup synthesis using ferrous sulfate, glycerol, aniline, nitrobenzene, and sulfuric acid. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2014. Pyrazolopyridines II: synthesis and antibacterial screening of 6-aryl-3-methyl-1-phenyl-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-b]pyridine-4-carboxylic acids . (cardiff.ac.uk)
  • Biotage® PS-TBD is a versatile polymer-supported base, which can facilitate Williamson ether synthesis and may also be used for the N-alkylation of aryl halides, esterification of carboxylic ac. (biotage.com)
  • Biotage® MP-TsOH resin is a sulfonated macroporous polystyrene resin and has been optimized for use as a bound reagent or scavenger resin for the synthesis of small molecules.The sulfonic acid groups in MP-TsOH are readily accessible for removal of basic compounds (e.g. primary, secondary, and tertiary amines) by quaternary salt formation. (biotage.com)
  • A one-pot procedure for the synthesis of 2-alkyl-2-arylcyanoacetates based on a Pd(OAc) 2 /dppf-catalyzed enolate arylation followed by in situ alkylation tolerates a diverse range of aryl and heteroaryl bromides, and provides a rapid entry to a wide range of products in very good to yield. (organic-chemistry.org)
  • Grignard Synthesis of Triphenylmethanol and Benzoic Acid 39. (abebooks.com)
  • The Perkin Reaction: Synthesis of alpha-Phenylcinnamic Acid Photochemistry 61. (abebooks.com)
  • Synthesis, kinetic studies and pharmacological evaluation of mutual azo prodrug of 5-aminosalicylic acid with D-phenylalanine for colon specific drug delivery in inflammatory bowel disease", "Bioorganic and Medicinal Chemistry Letters", Jan. 19, 2007, pp. 1897-1902, vol. 17. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Synthesis and Properties of 5-Aminosalicyl-taurine as a Colon-specific Prodrug of 5-Aminosalicylic Acid", "Arch Pharm Res", 2003, pp. 264-269, vol. 26, No. 4. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Enantioselective synthesis of (-)-cis-clavicipitic acid. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • It is sufficiently basic to deprotonate moderately acidic hydrogens, as in the alkylation of amines and phenols (Williamson ether synthesis) and the esterification of carboxylic acids using alkyl halides. (silicycle.com)
  • He spent each one postdoctoral year in the groups of A. Pfaltz (University of Basel) and A.P. Marchand (University of North Texas), and worked then on the synthesis of unnatural amino acids at the Technical University of Dresden. (wiley.com)
  • The purpose of this experiment is to perform a microscale synthesis of acetylferrocene from ferrocene and acetic anhydride in an acid-catalyzed (85% H3PO4) Friedel-Crafts reaction. (thermofisher.com)
  • [6] Around 1832 benzonitrile , the nitrile of benzoic acid , was prepared by Friedrich Wöhler and Justus von Liebig , but due to minimal yield of the synthesis neither physical nor chemical properties were determined nor a structure suggested. (wikipedia.org)
  • Triethylorthoformate (HC(OC 2 H 5 ) 3 ) is derived, in terms of its name (but not its synthesis) from orthoformic acid (HC(OH) 3 ) and ethanol . (gutenberg.us)
  • To carry out a structural analysis, compound 7 was converted into the derivative 10 by amide/ester conversion, azide reduction with hydrogen sulfide/pyridine, acylation of the free amino group with myristic acid, acid-catalyzed cleavage of the cyclohexylidene and terf-butyldimethylsilyl groups, 0-acetylation, hydrogenolytic debenzylation, and, once again, O-acetylation. (docme.ru)
  • Post-translational modification ( PTM ) refers to chemical modification of amino acids after they have been incorporated into protein chains in sequences specified by the genome. (proteopedia.org)
  • More than 200 kinds of PTM are known, affecting 15 of the 20 standard amino acids [1] [2] . (proteopedia.org)
  • A series of chiral imidazolium salts derived from natural amino acids has been obtained. (eurekaselect.com)
  • The synthetic route involves a multicomponent condensation reaction between the corresponding amino acid {(S)-methionine, (S)-threonine, (S)-phenylalanine, (S)- valine and (S)-alanine} in acidic medium and ammonium acetate, glyoxal and formaldehyde in aqueous solution at 95°C to form an imidazole ring in one pot. (eurekaselect.com)
  • The dermal irritation potential of 2-amino-5-acetamidobenzene-1-sulfonic acid was estimated using OECD QSAR toolbox v3.4 with logPow as the primary descriptor. (europa.eu)
  • 2-amino-5-acetamidobenzene-1-sulfonic acid was estimated to be not irritating to the skin of New Zealand White rabbits. (europa.eu)
  • Based on the estimated results, 2-amino-5-acetamidobenzene-1-sulfonic acid can be considered to be not irritating to skin and can be classified under the category "Not Classified" as per CLP regulation. (europa.eu)
  • β-Dicarbonyl compounds allow convenient alkylation and preparation of ketones and carboxylic acids. (videolectures.net)
  • Using a palladium-catalyzed alkylation reaction efficient conversion of ABE fermentation products into ketones, ranging from 2-pentanone to 6-undecanone was achieved. (escholarship.org)
  • Doebner reaction using anilines with an aldehyde and pyruvic acid to form quinoline-4-carboxylic acids Doebner-Miller reaction using anilines and α,β-unsaturated carbonyl compounds. (wikipedia.org)
  • A recyclable, convenient, and efficient catalytic system allows the C-acylation of 1,3-dicarbonyl compounds and malononitrile with acid chlorides in moderate to excellent yields under mild conditions. (organic-chemistry.org)
  • Enantioselective Catalytic Transfer-Hydrogenation of a$-Unsaturated Carboxylic Acids with Triethylammonium Formate** By Henri Brunner, * and Walter Leitner The hydrogenation of prochiral olefins in the presence of optically active rhodium complexes is the most wellknown enantioselective catalysis by transition metal compounds. (docme.ru)
  • The decomposition of formic acid to hydrogen and carbon dioxide is also catalyzed by rhodium compounds. (docme.ru)
  • No. 2,096,749, discloses a class of compounds formed by first condensing an alkylolamine and a carboxylic acid, then treating the condensate with an alkylating, arylating or aralkylating agent. (google.com)
  • In addition, coverage includes the preparation of amines by reductive alkylation and the hydrogenolysis of a variety of compounds. (boomerangbooks.com.au)
  • Ph L L L 3 Ph L L L 3 B A 1.18 ow would you synthesize each of the following compounds from an acid chloride? (docplayer.net)
  • Two compounds exhibited better thermal and acid stability than fumagillin, which should prolong the drug shelf life and reduce compound degradation in the stomach. (asm.org)
  • A subject of the invention is also the salts of these compounds which can be obtained with bases or organic or inorganic acids, together with the internal salts in which form certain compounds may, under certain conditions, be present. (allindianpatents.com)
  • 0.10), the reduction of acid chlorides and anhydrides is seldom used. (docplayer.net)
  • Important reagents for acylation are acyl halides, carboxylic acids, anhydrides and ketenes. (thermofisher.com)
  • For electron capture GC analysis of carboxyl acids, phenols and sulfonamides. (thermofisher.com)
  • Spectrum Chemical carries a large assortment of esterification alylation ingredicents used to derivatize carboxylic acids and other acidic functional groups. (spectrumchemical.com)
  • Provides convenient, fast and quantitative esterification of fatty acids. (thermofisher.com)
  • Two oxidative methods involving aqueous nitric acid were compared with respect to their capability to introduce carboxylic groups into single walled carbon nanotubes, and several literature methods for esterification and amidation of these groups have been evaluated with focus on efficiency and reproducibility in forming covalently functionalized products soluble in organic media. (diva-portal.org)
  • Esterification was achieved via the acyl chloride method and via alkylation of SWNT-(COO - ) n , the latter being the more efficient method. (diva-portal.org)
  • Here you can see the latest Iron Hydride Radical Reductive Alkylation Unactivated Alkenes articles that have been published worldwide. (bioportfolio.com)
  • We have published hundreds of Iron Hydride Radical Reductive Alkylation Unactivated Alkenes news stories on BioPortfolio along with dozens of Iron Hydride Radical Reductive Alkylation Unactivated Alkenes Clinical Trials and PubMed Articles about Iron Hydride Radical Reductive Alkylation Unactivated Alkenes for you to read. (bioportfolio.com)
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  • Iron Hydride Radical Reductive Alkylation of Unactivated Alkenes. (bioportfolio.com)
  • The process involves a new strategic bond disconnection resulting in the reductive alkylation of nonactivated alkenes. (bioportfolio.com)
  • In a standard oil refinery process, isobutane is alkylated with low-molecular-weight alkenes (primarily a mixture of propylene and butylene ) in the presence of a strong acid catalyst , either sulfuric acid or hydrofluoric acid . (wikidoc.org)
  • An expedient strategy of reductive N -alkylation of amines with readily available carboxylic acids as alkylating reagents has been developed. (rsc.org)
  • As in many synthetic procedures, an important challenge in ketone alkylation is choosing reagents and conditions that allow control of isomerism and of single vs. multiple substitution. (videolectures.net)
  • This study demonstrates how the same activating principles used for decades to make simple C-N (amide) bonds from carboxylic acids with loss of water can be used to make C-C bonds through coupling with dialkylzinc reagents and loss of carbon dioxide. (sciencemag.org)
  • We report a catalytic reductive alkylation reaction of primary or secondary amines with carboxylic acids. (rsc.org)
  • This reaction is catalyzed by a small amount of acid to protonate the carbonyl atom and make it more susceptible to nucleophilic attack by an alcohol. (coursehero.com)
  • The catalyst can also be used in a reductive amination reaction between a carboxylic acid and an amine with phenylsilane as the reducing agent. (wikipedia.org)
  • Described are antistatic and softener compositions for application to textiles consisting of (a) the reaction product of a member of the group consisting of alkylating, arylating and aralkylating agents and a condensation product of alkylolamine and carboxylic acid, the carboxylic acid containing at. (google.com)
  • The Sandmeyer Reaction: 1-Bromo-4-chlorobenzene, 2-Iodobenzoic Acid, and 4-Chlorotoluene 46. (abebooks.com)
  • The nitrosation of gramine, a tertiary amine alkaloid present in barley malt, was carried out by reaction with sodium nitrite in buffered acetic acid (pH 3.4) for 1 hr at room temperature. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Thus, in this microscale Friedel-Crafts acylation reaction of ferrocene with acetic anhydride using a phosphoric acid as the Lewis acid catalyst, the major reaction is acetylferrocene ([Fe(C5H4COCH3)(C5H5)]), with minor presence of diacetylferrocene (Fe(C5H4COCH3)2). (thermofisher.com)
  • A photo-organocatalytic enantioselective α- and γ-alkylation of aldehydes and enals with bromomalonates occurs under illumination by a fluorescent light bulb in the presence of a commercially available aminocatalyst without any external photoredox catalyst. (organic-chemistry.org)
  • Amides are prepared by adding N , N ′-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide (DCC) and an amine (ammonia derivative in which one or more hydrogen atoms are replaced by alkyl or aryl units) to a carboxylic acid. (coursehero.com)
  • This presents a convenient and environmentally benign protocol for α-alkylation of amides. (organic-chemistry.org)
  • In general, PS-Carbodiimide was found to synthesize amides in high yield and purity without evidence of residual amine or carboxylic acid. (biotage.com)
  • The modify the information-encoding nucleic acids. (wikidoc.org)
  • The invention also relates to nucleic acids encoding Intramolecular Dimer Fluorescent Proteins (IDFPs) and vectors comprising such nucleic acids. (google.es)
  • Figure 4.10 "The Two Smallest Organic Acids" shows the formulas and the molecular models of the two simplest carboxylic acids, perhaps best known by the common names formic acid and acetic acid. (dezion.co.il)
  • 5. Perfluorinated sulfonic acid resin (Nafion-H) catalyzed intramolecular Friedel-Crafts acylation," Journal of Organic Chemistry , vol. 56, no. 12, pp. 3955-3957, 1991. (hindawi.com)
  • Acylation of such enamines is the first step in a general procedure for increasing the chain length of a carboxylic acid by 5 or 6 carbon atoms and of a dicarboxylic acid by 10 or 12 carbon atoms. (orgsyn.org)
  • Acylation: attachment of acyl carboxylic acids, most commonly acetic (C 2 ), myristic (C 14 ), and palmitic (C 16 ) acids. (proteopedia.org)
  • Because of their high electron density, acylation of ferrocene is accomplished under milder conditions using a phosphoric acid as acid catalyst. (thermofisher.com)
  • In the presence of an acid catalyst and heat, the oxygen on the carbonyl carbon is protonated. (coursehero.com)
  • The catalyst is produced by treatment of chloroplatinic acid by the divinyltetramethyldisiloxane. (wikipedia.org)
  • A highly enantioselective catalytic alkylation of cyanoacetates was achieved using a chiral phase-transfer catalyst to give α,α-disubstituted α-cyanoacetates which have a chiral quaternary carbon. (organic-chemistry.org)
  • It is an effective catalyst for Friedel-Crafts alkylations and acylations. (silicycle.com)
  • Coupled with the optimization of a more water-resistant alkylation catalyst, hydrotalcite-supported copper(II) or palladium (0). (escholarship.org)
  • The first compound of the homolog row of nitriles, the nitrile of formic acid , hydrogen cyanide was first synthesized by C. W. Scheele in 1782. (wikipedia.org)
  • The inside cover features a story on Reductive N -alkylation of primary and secondary amines using carboxylic acids and borazane under mild conditions by Yahui Wei, Qingqing Xuan, Yao Zhou and Qiuling Song. (rsc.org)
  • The extraction capacity for copper(II) salts in weakly acid and ammonia media was examined in the range from pH 5-11 to a NH3 content of 2.7 M. The capacity of the organic phase for copper(II) and re-extraction conditions were determined for the example of N′,N′-dibutylhydrazide of octanoic acid. (deepdyve.com)
  • Azabicyclic heterocyclic Compound of general formula (I), or one of its salts with a base or an acid: in which R1, R2, R3, X, A and n are as herein described in the specification and claims. (allindianpatents.com)
  • Enantioselective Catalytic Transfer-Hydrogenation of -Unsaturated Carboxylic Acids with Triethylammonium Formate. (docme.ru)
  • Formerly, it was prepared by the reduction of dimethylnitrosamine or by the reductive catalytic alkylation of carboxylic acid hydrazides with formaldehyde and hydrogen, followed by basic hydrolysis (Budavari e al. (cdc.gov)
  • The aliphatic carboxylic group was efficiently reduced to the methyl group by HSiEt 3 in the presence of catalytic amounts of B(C 6 F 5 ) 3 . (elsevier.com)
  • 2020. Crystal structure of (E)-3-(3-(5-methyl-1-phenyl-1H-1,2,3-triazol-4-yl)-1-phenyl-1H-pyrazol-4-yl)-1-phenylprop-2-en-1-one, C27H21N5O . (cardiff.ac.uk)
  • Methylation is the most common type of alkylation, being associated with the transfer of a methyl group . (wikidoc.org)
  • Alkylation of solid sodium and lithium 2,6-dimethylphenoxide with methyl halide vapor1. (fratellimuratori.gq)
  • Tailored Cobalt-Catalysts for Reductive Alkylation of Anilines with Carboxylic Acids under Mild Conditions. (nih.gov)
  • Zeolite-Induced Selectivity in the Conversion of the Lower Aliphatic Carboxylic Acids. (booktopia.com.au)
  • Gusev, V. 2009-12-23 00:00:00 Dependence of physicochemical properties of N′,N′-dialkylhydrazides of aliphatic carboxylic acids (solubility in kerosene, acid-base properties) on the length of hydrocarbon radicals in the functional group was studied. (deepdyve.com)
  • To the best of our knowledge, this is the first example of a direct exhaustive reduction of aliphatic carboxylic function. (elsevier.com)
  • The reduction of quinoline with sodium borohydride in the presence of acetic acid is known to produce Kairoline A. (C.f. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example butyl acetate (systematically butyl ethanoate), derived from butanol and acetic acid (systematically ethanoic acid) would be written CH 3 CO 2 C 4 H 9 . (gutenberg.us)
  • Selectivity Induced by Heterogeneous Conditions in the Alkylation of Anionic Reagent. (booktopia.com.au)
  • 33 R L Al 3 Al 3 (1.53a) The lithium salt of the amide, a Lewis base, reacts with the Lewis acid Al Al 3 (1.53b) The resulting species is an active hydride reagent, conceptually much like Al 4, and it can deliver hydride to the A double bond. (docplayer.net)
  • Base-catalyzed alkylation refers to the adding of an alkyl group in the presence of a base. (coursehero.com)
  • Alkylation is the transfer of an alkyl group from one molecule to another. (wikidoc.org)
  • Patent Document 3 discloses diesters of C 7 -C 21 fatty acids and trehalose. (patent-de.com)
  • Apply carboxylic acids to fatty acids and pain relief topics. (dezion.co.il)
  • Unreacted carboxylic acid, normally used in excess relative to the amine, remains bound to the resin during workup. (biotage.com)
  • Molecules presenting a carboxylic acid have been immobilized to the exposed amine sites. (caltech.edu)
  • The excess of acid that is typically used converts the amine, which is a base, into its conjugate-acid ammonium ion. (docplayer.net)
  • R 3 conjugate-base ammonium ion (typical pk a = 8 11) R amine (pk a = 15.7) (1.50) Although water itself rather than acid can be used in the protonolysis step, for practical reasons the acidic workup is more convenient. (docplayer.net)
  • SiliaBond Amine (Si-NH 2 ) is an effective scavenger of acid chlorides, sulfonyl chlorides, isocyanates and other electrophiles. (silicycle.com)
  • SiliaBond Piperidine (Si-PIP) is a general purpose tertiary amine base to scavenge acids, thereby avoiding salt elimination problems. (silicycle.com)
  • Silia Bond Pyridine (Si-PYR) can be used as a tertiary amine for acid removal. (silicycle.com)
  • An effective and robust iridium pincer complex achieves a selective α-alkylation of tertiary and secondary acetamides involving a borrowing hydrogen methodology. (organic-chemistry.org)
  • 171 Favorable structural prerequisites for a-selective U-alkylation are found for neuraminic acids. (docme.ru)
  • Selective alkylation, or adding parts to the chain with the desired functional groups, is used, especially if there is no commonly available biological precursor. (wikidoc.org)
  • Enantioselective Cobalt(III)-Catalyzed C-H Activation Enabled by Chiral Carboxylic Acid Cooperation. (bioportfolio.com)
  • The enantioselective cobalt(III)-catalyzed C-H alkylation was achieved through the design of a novel chiral acid. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Scheme 1 shows the enantioselective transfer-hydrogenation of (2)-a-acetylaminocinnamic acid l a and itaconic acid l b to 2a and 2b, respectively. (docme.ru)
  • An enantioselective synthetic method for (-)-cis-clavicipitic acid (1) was reported. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • 6 Alkylation of enamines of cyclohexanones by alkyl halides 5 , 7 or electrophilic olefins, 8 followed by hydrolysis, is a good route to α-monoalkylcyclohexanones. (orgsyn.org)
  • The molecular structure of the imidazole carboxylic acid 1c (spatial group P21) as a zwitterion, was obtained by single-crystal X-ray diffraction study, showing that the chiral center is preserved. (eurekaselect.com)
  • Biotage® PS-Benzaldehyde resin is useful for removing nucleophiles from solution, including primary amines (selectively, even in the presence of secondary amines), hydrazines also carbon-based nucleophiles such as Meldrum's acid and organometallics. (biotage.com)
  • The preferred composition is that where (a) is a condensate of stearic acid and diethanolamine quaternized with dimethyl sulfate and (b) is lithium chloride and contains from 0.75 to 4 parts of (a) per part of (b). (google.com)
  • Silia Bond ® Aluminium Chloride (Si-AlCl 3 ) is the silica supported version of the most widely used Lewis acid, aluminium chloride. (silicycle.com)
  • In this case, the base reacts with the proton on the hydroxyl group of the carboxylic acid. (coursehero.com)
  • The strongest silylator for carbohydrates and steroids Reacts quickly and smoothly with hydroxyls and carboxylic acids, but not with amines. (thermofisher.com)
  • My question is about the products formed when phenol reacts with nitrous acid. (stackexchange.com)
  • It was found that phenol reacts with nitrous acid to produce cyanide ions. (stackexchange.com)
  • 13. The soluble formulation of claim 1 , wherein the preservative is selected from the group consisting of phenol, cresol, alkylparaben, benzyl alcohol, benzoic acid, chlorobutanol and mixtures thereof. (google.com)
  • A Molecular Mechanism for the Anti-Inflammatory Effect of Taurine-Conjugated 5-Aminosalicylic Acid in Inflamed Colon", "Molecular Pharmacology", 2006, pp. 1405-1412, vol. 69. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • We reported previously the syntheses and preliminary cytotoxicity evaluation of benzaldehyde nitrogen mustard pyridine carboxyl acid hydrazones (BNMPH) as extended study, more tumor cell lines (IC 50 for HepG2: 26.1 ± 3.5 μ M , HCT-116: 57.5 ± 5.3 μ M, K562: 48.2 ± 4.0 μ M, and PC-12: 19.4 ± 2.2 μ M) were used to investigate its cytotoxicity and potential mechanism. (hindawi.com)
  • A microcomposite comprising perfluorinated ion-exchange polymers (PFIEP) containing pendant sulfonic acid groups and/or pendant carboxylic acid groups entrapped within and highly dispersed throughout a metal oxide network and its preparation aredisclosed in WO95/19222. (patentgenius.com)
  • The water molecule that is formed has a proton from the carboxylic acid and the hydroxyl group from the base. (coursehero.com)
  • The lone pair on one of the nitrogen atoms in DCC deprotonates the hydroxyl group of the carboxylic acid. (coursehero.com)
  • Finally an intramolecular attack from the hydroxyl group of C2' to the carboxylic acid group closes the ring and forms the lactone umbelliferone. (wikipedia.org)
  • Subsequently, in 2015, a WHO report on the global burden of foodborne diseases listed G. lamblia as a priority intestinal protozoan because of the high disease burden and the markedly increased frequency of citations from 1990 to 2008 ( http://who.int/foodsafety/publications/foodborne_disease/fergreport/en/ ). (asm.org)
  • Biotage® MP-Trisamine is a macroporous polystyrene-bound scavenger, for electrophiles such as acid chlorides, sulfonyl chlorides, and isocyanates. (biotage.com)
  • Ester names are derived from the parent alcohol and the parent acid, where the latter may be organic or inorganic. (gutenberg.us)
  • An unprecedented acid- and ligand-controlled divergent allylation of indoles with unactivated skipped enynes via Pd hydride catalysis has been disclosed. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Extraction of Acids and Bases and the Isolation of Caffeine from Coffee, Tea, and Cola Syrup 9. (abebooks.com)
  • Those revealed that the cytotoxic mechanism of the BNMPH could stem from both the topoisomerase II inhibition, ROS generation and DNA alkylation. (hindawi.com)
  • Draw acid catalyzed nucleophilic addition mechanism. (dezion.co.il)
  • Inhibition of Rat Liver Steroid 5 Alpha-Reductase by 3-Androstene-3-Carboxylic Acids: Mechanism of Enzyme-Inhibitor Interaction", pages 2815-2830. (sumobrain.com)