Organic compounds containing the carboxy group (-COOH). This group of compounds includes amino acids and fatty acids. Carboxylic acids can be saturated, unsaturated, or aromatic.
A class of amino acids characterized by a closed ring structure.
Derivatives of ethylene, a simple organic gas of biological origin with many industrial and biological use.
A proline analog that acts as a stoichiometric replacement of proline. It causes the production of abnormal proteins with impaired biological activity.
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
A cyclized derivative of L-GLUTAMIC ACID. Elevated blood levels may be associated with problems of GLUTAMINE or GLUTATHIONE metabolism.
The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
A class of enzymes that catalyze the cleavage of C-C, C-O, and C-N, and other bonds by other means than by hydrolysis or oxidation. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 4.
Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).
Reduced (protonated) form of THIAZOLES. They can be oxidized to THIAZOLIDINEDIONES.
A psychoactive compound extracted from the resin of Cannabis sativa (marihuana, hashish). The isomer delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is considered the most active form, producing characteristic mood and perceptual changes associated with this compound.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
Spectrophotometry in the infrared region, usually for the purpose of chemical analysis through measurement of absorption spectra associated with rotational and vibrational energy levels of molecules. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A microanalytical technique combining mass spectrometry and gas chromatography for the qualitative as well as quantitative determinations of compounds.
Inhibits the activity of prostaglandins.
A non-essential amino acid that is synthesized from GLUTAMIC ACID. It is an essential component of COLLAGEN and is important for proper functioning of joints and tendons.
A group of compounds with three aromatic rings joined in linear arrangement.
A fungistatic compound that is widely used as a food preservative. It is conjugated to GLYCINE in the liver and excreted as hippuric acid.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.
Compounds with a 5-membered ring of four carbons and an oxygen. They are aromatic heterocycles. The reduced form is tetrahydrofuran.
Enzymes that catalyze the cleavage of a carbon-carbon bond by means other than hydrolysis or oxidation. This subclass contains the DECARBOXYLASES, the ALDEHYDE-LYASES, and the OXO-ACID-LYASES. EC 4.1.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Changing an open-chain hydrocarbon to a closed ring. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
Organic compounds containing a carbonyl group in the form -CHO.
The chemical alteration of an exogenous substance by or in a biological system. The alteration may inactivate the compound or it may result in the production of an active metabolite of an inactive parent compound. The alterations may be divided into METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE I and METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE II.
Alkyl compounds containing a hydroxyl group. They are classified according to relation of the carbon atom: primary alcohols, R-CH2OH; secondary alcohols, R2-CHOH; tertiary alcohols, R3-COH. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Any of the hormones produced naturally in plants and active in controlling growth and other functions. There are three primary classes: auxins, cytokinins, and gibberellins.
2-, 3-, or 4-Pyridinecarboxylic acids. Pyridine derivatives substituted with a carboxy group at the 2-, 3-, or 4-position. The 3-carboxy derivative (NIACIN) is active as a vitamin.
Substances used for the detection, identification, analysis, etc. of chemical, biological, or pathologic processes or conditions. Indicators are substances that change in physical appearance, e.g., color, at or approaching the endpoint of a chemical titration, e.g., on the passage between acidity and alkalinity. Reagents are substances used for the detection or determination of another substance by chemical or microscopical means, especially analysis. Types of reagents are precipitants, solvents, oxidizers, reducers, fluxes, and colorimetric reagents. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed, p301, p499)
An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.
Organic compounds containing the -CO-NH2 radical. Amides are derived from acids by replacement of -OH by -NH2 or from ammonia by the replacement of H by an acyl group. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Derivatives of propionic acid. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxyethane structure.
A basic science concerned with the composition, structure, and properties of matter; and the reactions that occur between substances and the associated energy exchange.
Inorganic derivatives of phosphorus trihydroxide (P(OH)3) and its tautomeric form dihydroxyphosphine oxide (HP=O(OH)2). Note that organic derivatives of phosphonic acids are listed under are ORGANOPHOSPHONATES.
The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.
A mass spectrometry technique used for analysis of nonvolatile compounds such as proteins and macromolecules. The technique involves preparing electrically charged droplets from analyte molecules dissolved in solvent. The electrically charged droplets enter a vacuum chamber where the solvent is evaporated. Evaporation of solvent reduces the droplet size, thereby increasing the coulombic repulsion within the droplet. As the charged droplets get smaller, the excess charge within them causes them to disintegrate and release analyte molecules. The volatilized analyte molecules are then analyzed by mass spectrometry.
The composition, conformation, and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in nature. Some species are pathogenic for humans, animals, and plants.
A class of enzymes that catalyze oxidation-reduction reactions of amino acids.
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
Benzopyrroles with the nitrogen at the number one carbon adjacent to the benzyl portion, in contrast to ISOINDOLES which have the nitrogen away from the six-membered ring.
Detection of drugs that have been abused, overused, or misused, including legal and illegal drugs. Urine screening is the usual method of detection.
The characteristic three-dimensional shape of a molecule.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Determination of the spectra of ultraviolet absorption by specific molecules in gases or liquids, for example Cl2, SO2, NO2, CS2, ozone, mercury vapor, and various unsaturated compounds. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A group of ISOQUINOLINES in which the nitrogen containing ring is protonated. They derive from the non-enzymatic Pictet-Spengler condensation of CATECHOLAMINES with ALDEHYDES.
Chemical compounds which yield hydrogen ions or protons when dissolved in water, whose hydrogen can be replaced by metals or basic radicals, or which react with bases to form salts and water (neutralization). An extension of the term includes substances dissolved in media other than water. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A group of pyrido-indole compounds. Included are any points of fusion of pyridine with the five-membered ring of indole and any derivatives of these compounds. These are similar to CARBAZOLES which are benzo-indoles.
Aliphatic acids that contain four carbons in a branched-chain configuration. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the 2-carboxypropane structure.
A genus of bacteria that form a nonfragmented aerial mycelium. Many species have been identified with some being pathogenic. This genus is responsible for producing a majority of the ANTI-BACTERIAL AGENTS of practical value.
Benzoic acids, salts, or esters that contain an amino group attached to carbon number 2 or 6 of the benzene ring structure.
A mass spectrometric technique that is used for the analysis of a wide range of biomolecules, such as glycoalkaloids, glycoproteins, polysaccharides, and peptides. Positive and negative fast atom bombardment spectra are recorded on a mass spectrometer fitted with an atom gun with xenon as the customary beam. The mass spectra obtained contain molecular weight recognition as well as sequence information.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A group of broad-spectrum antibiotics first isolated from the Mediterranean fungus ACREMONIUM. They contain the beta-lactam moiety thia-azabicyclo-octenecarboxylic acid also called 7-aminocephalosporanic acid.
A colorless, flammable, poisonous liquid, CS2. It is used as a solvent, and is a counterirritant and has local anesthetic properties but is not used as such. It is highly toxic with pronounced CNS, hematologic, and dermatologic effects.
The removal of a carboxyl group, usually in the form of carbon dioxide, from a chemical compound.
Derivatives of ACETIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxymethane structure.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.
Derivatives of BENZOIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxybenzene structure.
Chemical compounds derived from acids by the elimination of a molecule of water.
Cell membrane glycoproteins that form channels to selectively pass chloride ions. Nonselective blockers include FENAMATES; ETHACRYNIC ACID; and TAMOXIFEN.
An amino acid formed by cyclization of leucine. It has cytostatic, immunosuppressive and antineoplastic activities.
Chemical substances which inhibit the process of spermatozoa formation at either the first stage, in which spermatogonia develop into spermatocytes and then into spermatids, or the second stage, in which spermatids transform into spermatozoa.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Insoluble polymers of TYROSINE derivatives found in and causing darkness in skin (SKIN PIGMENTATION), hair, and feathers providing protection against SUNBURN induced by SUNLIGHT. CAROTENES contribute yellow and red coloration.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Unstable isotopes of carbon that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. C atoms with atomic weights 10, 11, and 14-16 are radioactive carbon isotopes.
The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.
Unsaturated hydrocarbons of the type Cn-H2n, indicated by the suffix -ene. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed, p408)
One of the SCHISTOSOMICIDES, it has been replaced largely by HYCANTHONE and more recently PRAZIQUANTEL. (From Martindale The Extrapharmacopoeia, 30th ed., p46)
Enzymes which catalyze the hydrolysis of carboxylic acid esters with the formation of an alcohol and a carboxylic acid anion.
Chromatography on thin layers of adsorbents rather than in columns. The adsorbent can be alumina, silica gel, silicates, charcoals, or cellulose. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A group of enzymes that catalyze the reduction of 1-pyrroline carboxylate to proline in the presence of NAD(P)H. Includes both the 2-oxidoreductase (EC and the 5-oxidoreductase (EC The former also reduces 1-piperidine-2-carboxylate to pipecolate and the latter also reduces 1-pyrroline-3-hydroxy-5-carboxylate to hydroxyproline.
A plant species of the family SOLANACEAE, native of South America, widely cultivated for their edible, fleshy, usually red fruit.
The usually underground portions of a plant that serve as support, store food, and through which water and mineral nutrients enter the plant. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982; Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
A broad-spectrum 6-fluoronaphthyridinone antibacterial agent that is structurally related to NALIDIXIC ACID.
Azoles of one NITROGEN and two double bonds that have aromatic chemical properties.
Derivatives of caproic acid. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain a carboxy terminated six carbon aliphatic structure.
A group of alicyclic hydrocarbons with the general formula R-C5H9.
A group of tetraterpenes, with four terpene units joined head-to-tail. Biologically active members of this class are used clinically in the treatment of severe cystic ACNE; PSORIASIS; and other disorders of keratinization.
A spectroscopic technique in which a range of wavelengths is presented simultaneously with an interferometer and the spectrum is mathematically derived from the pattern thus obtained.
A CD98 antigen light chain that when heterodimerized with CD98 antigen heavy chain (ANTIGENS, CD98 HEAVY CHAIN) forms a protein that mediates sodium-independent L-type amino acid transport.
A reagent used for the determination of iron.
A tricyclo bridged hydrocarbon.
An analgesic and anti-inflammatory agent used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.
Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.
Inorganic compounds derived from hydrochloric acid that contain the Cl- ion.
An essential branched-chain amino acid important for hemoglobin formation.
A plant genus in the family PINACEAE, order Pinales, class Pinopsida, division Coniferophyta. They are coniferous evergreen trees with long, flat, spirally arranged needles that grow directly from the branch.
A sodium-independent neutral amino acid transporter system with specificity for large amino acids. One of the functions of the transporter system is to supply large neutral amino acids to the brain.
The application of medical knowledge to questions of law.
Organic compounds composed exclusively of carbon and hydrogen forming a closed ring that may be either alicyclic or aromatic.
Ring compounds having atoms other than carbon in their nuclei. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A technology, in which sets of reactions for solution or solid-phase synthesis, is used to create molecular libraries for analysis of compounds on a large scale.
A group of compounds derived from ammonia by substituting organic radicals for the hydrogens. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Liquids that dissolve other substances (solutes), generally solids, without any change in chemical composition, as, water containing sugar. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Azoles of two nitrogens at the 1,2 positions, next to each other, in contrast with IMIDAZOLES in which they are at the 1,3 positions.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
Organic compounds that contain silicon as an integral part of the molecule.
Acetic acid derivatives of the heterocyclic compound indole. (Merck Index, 11th ed)
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
Antibiotic pigment produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa.
A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Derivatives of acetic acid with one or more fluorines attached. They are almost odorless, difficult to detect chemically, and very stable. The acid itself, as well as the derivatives that are broken down in the body to the acid, are highly toxic substances, behaving as convulsant poisons with a delayed action. (From Miall's Dictionary of Chemistry, 5th ed)
A plant family of the order Santalales, subclass Rosidae, class Magnoliopsida. They are parasites that form connections (haustoria) to their hosts to obtain water and nutrients. The one-seeded fruit may be surrounded by a brightly colored nut-like structure.
A class of acids containing a ring structure in which at least one atom other than CARBON is incorporated.
A non-essential amino acid. It is found primarily in gelatin and silk fibroin and used therapeutically as a nutrient. It is also a fast inhibitory neurotransmitter.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
A generic grouping for dihydric alcohols with the hydroxy groups (-OH) located on different carbon atoms. They are viscous liquids with high boiling points for their molecular weights.
A group of derivatives of naphthyridine carboxylic acid, quinoline carboxylic acid, or NALIDIXIC ACID.
Negatively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms which travel to the anode or positive pole during electrolysis.
A species of nonpathogenic fluorescent bacteria found in feces, sewage, soil, and water, and which liquefy gelatin.
The volatile portions of substances perceptible by the sense of smell. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The molecular designing of drugs for specific purposes (such as DNA-binding, enzyme inhibition, anti-cancer efficacy, etc.) based on knowledge of molecular properties such as activity of functional groups, molecular geometry, and electronic structure, and also on information cataloged on analogous molecules. Drug design is generally computer-assisted molecular modeling and does not include pharmacokinetics, dosage analysis, or drug administration analysis.
Fractionation of a vaporized sample as a consequence of partition between a mobile gaseous phase and a stationary phase held in a column. Two types are gas-solid chromatography, where the fixed phase is a solid, and gas-liquid, in which the stationary phase is a nonvolatile liquid supported on an inert solid matrix.
The class of all enzymes catalyzing oxidoreduction reactions. The substrate that is oxidized is regarded as a hydrogen donor. The systematic name is based on donor:acceptor oxidoreductase. The recommended name will be dehydrogenase, wherever this is possible; as an alternative, reductase can be used. Oxidase is only used in cases where O2 is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p9)
A genus of gram-positive, aerobic bacteria whose species are widely distributed and are abundant in soil. Some strains are pathogenic opportunists for humans and animals.
Placing of a hydroxyl group on a compound in a position where one did not exist before. (Stedman, 26th ed)
Six-membered heterocycles containing an oxygen and a nitrogen.
Chromatographic techniques in which the mobile phase is a liquid.
Elimination of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS; PESTICIDES and other waste using living organisms, usually involving intervention of environmental or sanitation engineers.
A group of compounds with the heterocyclic ring structure of benzo(c)pyridine. The ring structure is characteristic of the group of opium alkaloids such as papaverine. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
A powerful herbicide used as a selective weed killer.
Stable carbon atoms that have the same atomic number as the element carbon, but differ in atomic weight. C-13 is a stable carbon isotope.
A family of fused-ring hydrocarbons isolated from coal tar that act as intermediates in various chemical reactions and are used in the production of coumarone-indene resins.
Eighteen-carbon cyclopentyl polyunsaturated fatty acids derived from ALPHA-LINOLENIC ACID via an oxidative pathway analogous to the EICOSANOIDS in animals. Biosynthesis is inhibited by SALICYLATES. A key member, jasmonic acid of PLANTS, plays a similar role to ARACHIDONIC ACID in animals.
Derivatives of BUTYRIC ACID that include a double bond between carbon 2 and 3 of the aliphatic structure. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that include the aminobutryrate structure.
The process of converting an acid into an alkyl or aryl derivative. Most frequently the process consists of the reaction of an acid with an alcohol in the presence of a trace of mineral acid as catalyst or the reaction of an acyl chloride with an alcohol. Esterification can also be accomplished by enzymatic processes.
A plant species of the family CARYOPHYLLACEAE. It is a source of SAPONINS. The common name "Soapwort" is also used with VACCARIA. The common name of "Bouncing Bet" is occasionally used with VIOLA.
An inhibitor of anion conductance including band 3-mediated anion transport.
A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE known for the root used in hot SPICES. It is also the source of HORSERADISH PEROXIDASE which is widely used in laboratories.
Derivatives of ACETIC ACID which contain an hydroxy group attached to the methyl carbon.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A cephalosporin antibiotic that is administered intravenously or intramuscularly. It is active against most common gram-positive and gram-negative microorganisms, is a potent inhibitor of Enterobacteriaceae, and is highly resistant to hydrolysis by beta-lactamases. The drug has a high rate of efficacy in many types of infection and to date no severe side effects have been noted.
A very strong halogenated derivative of acetic acid. It is used in acid catalyzed reactions, especially those where an ester is cleaved in peptide synthesis.
The phenomenon whereby certain chemical compounds have structures that are different although the compounds possess the same elemental composition. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
A non-essential amino acid present abundantly throughout the body and is involved in many metabolic processes. It is synthesized from GLUTAMIC ACID and AMMONIA. It is the principal carrier of NITROGEN in the body and is an important energy source for many cells.
A group of compounds that are derivatives of the amino acid 2-amino-2-methylpropanoic acid.
Organic compounds that are acyclic and contain three acid groups. A member of this class is citric acid which is the first product formed by reaction of pyruvate and oxaloacetate. (From Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p443)
Alicyclic hydrocarbons in which three or more of the carbon atoms in each molecule are united in a ring structure and each of the ring carbon atoms is joined to two hydrogen atoms or alkyl groups. The simplest members are cyclopropane (C3H6), cyclobutane (C4H8), cyclohexane (C6H12), and derivatives of these such as methylcyclohexane (C6H11CH3). (From Sax, et al., Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)
Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
A colorless, slightly viscous liquid used as a defoaming or wetting agent. It is also used as a solvent for protective coatings, waxes, and oils, and as a raw material for plasticizers. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Inhaling and exhaling the smoke from CANNABIS.
A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.
Attachment of isoprenoids (TERPENES) to other compounds, especially PROTEINS and FLAVONOIDS.
An enzyme that catalyzes the release of a N-terminal pyroglutamyl group from a polypeptide provided the next residue is not proline. It is inhibited by thiol-blocking reagents and occurs in mammalian tissues, microorganisms, and plants. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC
A family of nonmetallic, generally electronegative, elements that form group 17 (formerly group VIIa) of the periodic table.
The 8-hydroxy derivatives inhibit various enzymes and their halogenated derivatives, though neurotoxic, are used as topical anti-infective agents, among other uses.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
Agents, either mechanical or chemical, which destroy spermatozoa in the male genitalia and block spermatogenesis.
SESQUITERPENES cyclized to one 10-carbon ring.
A compound that, on administration, must undergo chemical conversion by metabolic processes before becoming the pharmacologically active drug for which it is a prodrug.
Chemical substances that are foreign to the biological system. They include naturally occurring compounds, drugs, environmental agents, carcinogens, insecticides, etc.
QUINOLONES containing a 4-oxo (a carbonyl in the para position to the nitrogen). They inhibit the A subunit of DNA GYRASE and are used as antimicrobials. Second generation 4-quinolones are also substituted with a 1-piperazinyl group at the 7-position and a fluorine at the 6-position.
A low-energy attractive force between hydrogen and another element. It plays a major role in determining the properties of water, proteins, and other compounds.
Techniques used to separate mixtures of substances based on differences in the relative affinities of the substances for mobile and stationary phases. A mobile phase (fluid or gas) passes through a column containing a stationary phase of porous solid or liquid coated on a solid support. Usage is both analytical for small amounts and preparative for bulk amounts.
A family of hexahydropyridines.
Glycosides of GLUCURONIC ACID formed by the reaction of URIDINE DIPHOSPHATE GLUCURONIC ACID with certain endogenous and exogenous substances. Their formation is important for the detoxification of drugs, steroid excretion and BILIRUBIN metabolism to a more water-soluble compound that can be eliminated in the URINE and BILE.
A plant genus of the family ARALIACEAE. Ciwujia extract, which is prepared from plants of this genus, contains ciwujianosides and is used to enhance PHYSICAL ENDURANCE.
Derivatives of BUTYRIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxypropane structure.
Enzymes that catalyze the formation of acyl-CoA derivatives. EC 6.2.1.
Tree-like, highly branched, polymeric compounds. They grow three-dimensionally by the addition of shells of branched molecules to a central core. The overall globular shape and presence of cavities gives potential as drug carriers and CONTRAST AGENTS.
A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.
Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.
The directional growth of organisms in response to gravity. In plants, the main root is positively gravitropic (growing downwards) and a main stem is negatively gravitropic (growing upwards), irrespective of the positions in which they are placed. Plant gravitropism is thought to be controlled by auxin (AUXINS), a plant growth substance. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
Closed vesicles of fragmented endoplasmic reticulum created when liver cells or tissue are disrupted by homogenization. They may be smooth or rough.
A chemical element having an atomic weight of 106.4, atomic number of 46, and the symbol Pd. It is a white, ductile metal resembling platinum, and following it in abundance and importance of applications. It is used in dentistry in the form of gold, silver, and copper alloys.

The interaction of rhodium(II) carboxylates with enzymes. (1/1503)

The effect of rhodium(II) acetate, propionate, and methoxyacetate on the activity of 17 enzymes was evaluated. The enzymes were preincubated with the rhodium(II) complexes in order to detect irreversible inhibition. All enzymes that have essential sulfhydryl groups in or near their active site were found to be irreversibly inhibited. Those enzymes without essential sulfhydryl groups were not affected. In each case, the rate of inactivation closely paralleled the observed toxicity and antitumor activity of rhodium(II) carboxylates; that is, rhodium(II) propionate greater than rhodium(II) acetate greater than rhodium(II) methoxyacetate. In addition, those enzymes that have been demonstrated to be most sensitive to established sulfhydryl inhibitors, such as glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, were also most sensitive to rhodium(II) carboxylate inactivation. Proton nuclear magnetic resonance measurements made during the titration of rhodium(II) acetate with cysteine showed that breakdown of the carboxylate cage occurred as a result of reaction with this sulfhydryl-containing amino acid.  (+info)

Synthesis and evaluation of [18F]1-amino-3-fluorocyclobutane-1-carboxylic acid to image brain tumors. (2/1503)

We have developed a new tumor-avid amino acid, 1-amino-3-fluorocyclobutane-1-carboxylic acid (FACBC), labeled with 18F for nuclear medicine imaging. METHODS: [18F]FACBC was prepared with high specific activity (no carrier added [NCA]) and was evaluated for its potential in tumor localization. A comparative study was performed for [18F]FACBC and [18F]2-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) in which the uptake of each agent in 9L gliosarcoma (implanted intracerebrally in Fisher 344 rats) was measured. In addition, the first human PET study of [18F]FACBC was performed on a patient with residual glioblastoma multiforme. Quantitative brain images of the patient were obtained by using a Siemens 921 47-slice PET imaging system. RESULTS: In the rat brain, the initial level of radioactivity accumulation after injection of [18F]FACBC was low (0.11 percentage injected dose per gram [%ID/g]) at 5 min and increased slightly to 0.26 %ID/g at 60 min. The tumor uptake exhibited a maximum at 60 min (1.72 %ID/g), resulting in a tumor-to-brain ratio increase of 5.58 at 5 min to 6.61 at 60 min. In the patient, the uptake of [18F]FACBC in the tumor exhibited a maximum concentration of 146 nCi/mL at 35 min after injection. The uptake of radioactivity in the normal brain tissue was low, 21 nCi/mL at 15 min after injection, and gradually increased to 29 nCi/mL at 60 min after injection. The ratio of tumor to normal tissue was 6 at 20 min after injection. The [18F]FACBC PET scan showed intense uptake in the left frontal region of the brain. CONCLUSION: The amino acid FACBC can be radiofluorinated for clinical use. [18F]FACBC is a potential PET tracer for tumor imaging.  (+info)

The PalkBFGHJKL promoter is under carbon catabolite repression control in Pseudomonas oleovorans but not in Escherichia coli alk+ recombinants. (3/1503)

The alk genes are located on the OCT plasmid of Pseudomonas oleovorans and encode an inducible pathway for the utilization of n-alkanes as carbon and energy sources. We have investigated the influence of alternative carbon sources on the induction of this pathway in P. oleovorans and Escherichia coli alk+ recombinants. In doing so, we confirmed earlier reports that induction of alkane hydroxylase activity in pseudomonads is subject to carbon catabolite repression. Specifically, synthesis of the monooxygenase component AlkB is repressed at the transcriptional level. The alk genes have been cloned into plasmid pGEc47, which has a copy number of about 5 to 10 per cell in both E. coli and pseudomonads. Pseudomonas putida GPo12 is a P. oleovorans derivative cured of the OCT plasmid. Upon introduction of pGEc47 in this strain, carbon catabolite repression of alkane hydroxylase activity was reduced significantly. In cultures of recombinant E. coli HB101 and W3110 carrying pGEc47, induction of AlkB and transcription of the alkB gene were no longer subject to carbon catabolite repression. This suggests that carbon catabolite repression of alkane degradation is regulated differently in Pseudomonas and in E. coli strains. These results also indicate that PalkBFGHJKL, the Palk promoter, might be useful in attaining high expression levels of heterologous genes in E. coli grown on inexpensive carbon sources which normally trigger carbon catabolite repression of native expression systems in this host.  (+info)

Trigeminal nerve ganglion stimulation-induced neurovascular reflexes in the anaesthetized cat: role of endothelin(B) receptors in carotid vasodilatation. (4/1503)

1. The effects of intravenous administration of endothelin (ET) receptor antagonists SB-209670 (0.001-10.0 mg kg(-1)), SB-217242, SB-234551 (0.01-10.0 mg kg(-1)) and BQ-788 (0.001-1.0 mg kg(-1)) were investigated on trigeminal nerve ganglion stimulation-induced neurovascular reflexes in the carotid vasculature of the anaesthetized cat. Comparisons were made with sumatriptan (0.003-3.0 mg kg(-1)) and alpha-CGRP8-37 (0.001-0.1 mg kg(-1)). 2. Trigeminal nerve ganglion stimulation produced frequency related increases in carotid blood flow, reductions in carotid vascular resistance and non-frequency related increases in blood pressure. Guanethidine (3 mg kg(-1), i.v.) blocked trigeminal nerve ganglion-induced increases in blood pressure but had no effect on changes in carotid flow or resistance. Maximal reductions in carotid vascular resistance was observed at 10 Hz, and this frequency was selected to investigate the effects of drugs on trigeminal nerve ganglion stimulation-induced responses in guanethidine treated cats. 3. Saline, alpha-CGRP8-37 SB-209670 and BQ-788 had little or no effect on resting haemodynamic parameters. SB-217242 (10 mg kg(-1), n=3) produced a 56% reduction in arterial blood pressure whereas SB-233451 (10 mg kg(-1), n=3) produced a 30% reduction in carotid vascular resistance. Sumatriptan produced dose-related reductions in resting carotid flow and increases (max. 104% at 0.3 mg kg(-1), n = 5) in vascular resistance. 4. SB-209670 (n=6-7), SB-217242 (n=3) and BQ-788 (n=3) produced inhibition of trigeminal nerve ganglion stimulation-induced reductions in carotid vascular resistance. Saline, SB-234551, alpha-CGRP8-37 and sumatriptan had no effect. 5. These data demonstrate ET(B) receptor blockade attenuates the vasodilator effects of trigeminal nerve ganglion stimulation in the carotid vascular bed of guanethidine pretreated anaesthetized cats.  (+info)

Active site characterization of the exo-N-acetyl-beta-D- glucosaminidase from thermotolerant Bacillus sp. NCIM 5120: involvement of tryptophan, histidine and carboxylate residues in catalytic activity. (5/1503)

The exo-N-acetyl-beta-d-glucosaminidase (EC from thermotolerant Bacillus sp. NCIM 5120 is a homotetramer with a molecular mass of 240000 kDa. Chemical modification studies on the purified exo-N-acetyl-beta-d-glucosaminidase revealed the involvement of a single tryptophan, histidine and carboxylate, per monomer, in the catalytic activity of the enzyme. Spectral analysis and maintenance of total enzyme activities indicated that N-acetylglucosamine (competitive inhibitor) and p-nitrophenyl-N-acetyl-beta-d-glucosaminide (substrate) prevented the modification of a single essential tryptophan, histidine and carboxylate residue. Kinetic parameters of partially inactivated enzyme (by NBS/HNBB) showed the involvement of tryptophan in substrate binding while that of histidine (by photooxidation/DEPC) and carboxylate (by EDAC/WRK) in catalysis. The Bacillus sp. NCIM 5120 exo-N-acetyl-beta-d-glucosaminidase deviates from the reported N-acetyl-beta-d-glucosaminidases and beta-hexosaminidases that utilize anchimeric assistance in their hydrolytic mechanism.  (+info)

Combinatorial receptor codes for odors. (6/1503)

The discriminatory capacity of the mammalian olfactory system is such that thousands of volatile chemicals are perceived as having distinct odors. Here we used a combination of calcium imaging and single-cell RT-PCR to identify odorant receptors (ORs) for odorants with related structures but varied odors. We found that one OR recognizes multiple odorants and that one odorant is recognized by multiple ORs, but that different odorants are recognized by different combinations of ORs. Thus, the olfactory system uses a combinatorial receptor coding scheme to encode odor identities. Our studies also indicate that slight alterations in an odorant, or a change in its concentration, can change its "code," potentially explaining how such changes can alter perceived odor quality.  (+info)

Requirement of the carboxy-terminal domain of RNA polymerase II for the transcriptional activation of chromosomal c-fos and hsp70A genes. (7/1503)

The carboxy-terminal domain of the large subunit of mouse and human RNA polymerase II contains 52 repeats of a heptapeptide which are the targets for a variety of kinases. We have used an alpha-amanitin resistant form of the large subunit of pol II to study the role of the carboxy-terminal domain in the expression of chromosomal genes. The large subunit of RNA polymerase II and deletion mutants thereof, which contain only 31 (LSdelta31) and 5 (LSdeltaS) repeats, were expressed in 293 cells. Subsequently, the endogenous large subunit of RNA polymerase II was inhibited by alpha-amanitin and the induction of chromosomal c-fos and hsp70A genes was determined. Cells expressing the large subunit of RNA polymerase II and LSdelta31 were able to transcribe the c-fos and hsp70A genes after treatment with the phorbolester TPA and after heat-shock, respectively. In contrast, cells expressing LSdelta5 failed to induce expression of both genes.  (+info)

Microbial oxidation of methane and methanol: isolation of methane-utilizing bacteria and characterization of a facultative methane-utilizing isolate. (8/1503)

A methane-utilizing organism capable of growth both on methane and on more complex organic substrates as a sole source of carbon and energy, has been isolated and studied in detail. Suspensions of methane-grown cells of this organism oxidized C-1 compounds (methane, methanol, formaldehyde, formate); hydrocarbons (ethane, propane); primary alcohols (ethanol, propanol); primary aldehydes (acetaldehyde, propionaldehyde); alkenes (ethylene, propylene); dimethylether; and organic acids (acetate, malate, succinate, isocitrate). Suspensions of methanol-or succinate-grown cells did not oxidize methane, ethane, propane, ethylene, propylene, or dimethylether, suggesting that the enzymatic systems required for oxidation of these substrates are induced only during growth on methane. Extracts of methane-grown cells contained a particulate reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide-dependent methane monooxygenase activity. Oxidation of methanol, formaldehyde, and primary alcohols was catalyzed by a phenazine methosulfate-linked, ammonium ion-requiring methanol dehydrogenase. Oxidation of primary aldehydes was catalyzed by a phenazine methosulfate-linked, ammonium ion-independent aldehyde dehydrogenase. Formate was oxidized by a nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide-specific formate dehydrogenase. Extracts of methane-grown, but not succinate-grown, cells contained the key enzymes of the serine pathway, hydroxypyruvate reductase and malate lyase, indicating that the enzymes of C-1 assimilation are induced only during growth on C-1 compounds. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase was induced during growth on glucose. Extracts of methane-grown cells contained low levels of enzymes of the tricarboxylic acid cycle, including alpha-keto glutarate dehydrogenase, relative to the levels found during growth on succinate.  (+info)

Acid anhydride Acid chloride Amide Amino acid Ester List of carboxylic acids Dicarboxylic acid Polyhydroxy carboxylic acid (PHC ... Carboxylic acids occur widely. Important examples include the amino acids and fatty acids. Deprotonation of a carboxylic acid ... carboxylic acids have an -oic acid suffix. For example, butyric acid (C3H7CO2H) is butanoic acid by IUPAC guidelines. For ... Carboxylic acids are Brønsted-Lowry acids because they are proton (H+) donors. They are the most common type of organic acid. ...
... (PFCAs), or perfluorocarboxylic acids are compounds of the formula CnF(2n+1)CO2H that belong to ... The simplest example is trifluoroacetic acid. These compounds are organofluorine analogues of ordinary carboxylic acids, but ... Perfluoroalkyl dicarboxylic acids (PFdiCAs) are also known, e.g. C2F4(CO2H)2. Trifluoroacetic acid is a widely employed acid, ... Longer-chain perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids, e.g. with five to nine carbons, are useful fluorosurfactants and emulsifiers used ...
... is a trihydroxybenzoic acid, a type of phenolic acid. It is produced by Pseudomonas fluorescens ... HPLC separation of benzoic and hydroxycinnamic acids in wines, Chromatographia, Volume 17, Number 5, pages 249-252, doi:10.1007 ... Trihydroxybenzoic acids, Phloroglucinols, All stub articles, Aromatic compound stubs). ...
Carboxylic acids are organic acids characterized by a carboxyl (-COOH) functional group. The naming of these compounds is ... This list is ordered by the number of carbon atoms in a carboxylic acid. 2-6 dimethyl octen dioic acid (Articles with short ... The systematic IUPAC name is not always the preferred IUPAC name, for example, lactic acid is a common, and also the preferred ... description, Short description is different from Wikidata, Carboxylic acids, Chemistry-related lists). ...
... , like other omega-3 fatty acid based drugs, appears to reduce production of triglycerides in the liver ... Omega-3 carboxylic acids are derived from fish oil and are a purified mixture of the polyunsaturated free fatty acids ... In addition, as with other omega-3 fatty acids, taking omega-3 carboxylic acids puts people who are on anticoagulants at risk ... A notable difference is that the carboxylic acid treatment was the first approved in free fatty acid form. Development was ...
Cyclic amino acids, Azetidines, Toxic amino acids, Non-proteinogenic amino acids, Plant toxins, Secondary amino acids). ... Azetidine-2-carboxylic acid (abbreviated Aze) is a plant non-protein amino acid homologue of proline with the molecular formula ... Fowden, L. (1956). "Azetidine-2-carboxylic Acid: a New Cyclic Imino Acid Occurring in Plants". Biochemical Journal. 64 (2): 323 ... Azetidine-2-carboxylic acid has been known since 1955 to be present in rhizomes and fresh foliage of certain plants. It is ...
... is an organic compound with the formula SC4H3CO2H. It is one of two monocarboxylic acids of ... Thiophene-2-carboxylic acid has been widely studied as a substrate in coupling reactions and olefinations. E. Campaigne, ... Upon treatment with LDA, thiophene-2-carboxylic acid undergoes double deprotonation to give the 5-lithio derivative, a ... the other being thiophene-3-carboxylic acid. Copper(I) thiophene-2-carboxylate is a catalyst for Ullmann coupling reactions. It ...
... is an organic compound with the formula HNC4H3CO2H. It is one of two monocarboxylic acids of pyrrole ... It arises in nature by dehydrogenation of the amino acid proline. It also arises by carboxylation of pyrrole. The ethyl ester ... of this acid is readily prepared from pyrrole. Thomas, Michael G.; Burkart, Michael D.; Walsh, Christopher T. (2002). " ...
... (ACC) is a disubstituted cyclic α-amino acid in which a cyclopropane ring is fused to the ... Nelson W, van Staden J (1985). "Aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid in seaweed concentrate". Botanica Marina. 28 (9): 415-417. ... 1. 1-Aminocyclopropanecarboxylic Acid and Other 2,3-Methanoamino Acids". Chemical Reviews. 107 (11): 4493-4537. doi:10.1021/ ... Many cyclopropane-substituted amino acids are known, but this one occurs naturally.[verification needed] Like glycine, but ...
... (systematic name 3,4-dihydro-2H-pyrrole-2-carboxylic acid) is a cyclic imino acid. Its conjugate ... "3,4-Dihydro-2H-pyrrole-2-carboxylic acid". Retrieved 2020-01-23. Heacock, Anne M.; Williams, Irene H ... In most eukaryotes, GSA is synthesised from the amino acid glutamate by the bifunctional enzyme 1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate ... Carboxylic acids, All stub articles, Biochemistry stubs). ... to form P5C and an L-amino acid (typically glutamate). Under ...
... is a mycotoxin found in some mushrooms such as Russula subnigricans. When ingested, the ... 3-(Cycloprop-2-en-1-oyl)oxazolidinones are a class of 'unusually stable' derivatives of cycloprop-2-ene carboxylic acid that ... "Synthesis of Stable Derivatives of Cycloprop-2-ene Carboxylic Acid". The Journal of Organic Chemistry. 73 (11): 4283-4286. doi: ...
... (ACTA) is the organosulfur compound and a heterocycle with the formula HO2CCHCH2SCNH2N. ... ACTA exists in equilibrium with its tautomer 2-iminothiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid. It is produced by the reaction of methyl ... "Determination of the cyanide metabolite 2-aminothiazoline-4-carboxylic acid in urine and plasma by gas chromatography-mass ... This derivative of thiazoline is an intermediate in the industrial synthesis of L-cysteine, an amino acid. ...
The Na+-transporting Carboxylic Acid Decarboxylase (NaT-DC) Family (TC# 3.B.1) is a family of porters that belong to the CPA ... Porters of the NaT-DC family catalyze decarboxylation of a substrate carboxylic acid and use the energy released to drive ... As of this edit, this article uses content from "3.B.1 The Na+-transporting Carboxylic Acid Decarboxylase (NaT-DC) Family", ... "3.B.1 The Na+-transporting Carboxylic Acid Decarboxylase (NaT-DC) Family". TCDB. Retrieved 7 April 2016. Boiangiu CD, Jayamani ...
... ((+)-CAMP) is an agonist for the GABAA-rho receptor. "AC1LT400 - Compound Summary ... Amino acids, Cyclopropanes, GABAA-rho receptor agonists, All stub articles, Amine stubs, Nervous system drug stubs). ... cis-2-aminomethylcyclopropanecarboxylic acids show opposite pharmacology at recombinant rho(1) and rho(2) GABA(C) receptors". ...
... results in oxidation to carboxylic acids rather than aldehydes. No oxidation to carboxylic acids occurs on allylic and benzylic ... When a primary alcohol is converted to a carboxylic acid, the terminal carbon atom increases its oxidation state by four. ... The procedure of Corey and Schmidt for the oxidation of saturated primary alcohols to carboxylic acids is run under essentially ... Marcos Fernández; Gabriel Tojo (2006). Oxidation of Primary Alcohols to Carboxylic Acids: A Guide to Current Common Practice ( ...
Common names for the enzyme are: MenD SEPHCHC synthase 2-succinyl-5-enolpyruvyl-6-hydroxy-3-cyclohexene-1-carboxylic-acid ...
... is any of five mono-carboxylic acids whose molecule has an unbranched chain of five carbons connected by three ... Valeric acid or pentanoic acid Pentynic acid Pentenedioic acid hexenoic acid Butenoic acid Regina Palkovits (2010): "Pentenoic ... 2-Propyl-trans-2-pentenoic acid (2-en-valproic acid), major metabolite of anticonvulsant valproic acid. cis-2-methyl-2- ... doi:10.1016/S0006-291X(75)80147-1 Allen M. Glasgow and H. Peter Chase (1976): "Effect of pent-4-enoic acid, propionic acid and ...
... is any mono-carboxylic acid with an unbranched chain of ten carbons connected by eight single bonds and one ... Decanoic acid, capric acid, HO(O=)C-(CH 2) 9-H Decadienoic acid Davies, DG; Marques, CN (2009). "A fatty acid messenger is ... 9-oxo-trans-2-decenoic acid.A pheromone produced by queen bees. 10-hydroxy-trans-2-decenoic acid, "queen bee acid" (CAS 14113- ... caproleic acid, 9-decenoic acid, or dec-9-enoic acid. (CAS 14436-32-9, PUBchem 61743, FEMA 3660, Nikkaji J81.770H, FDA ...
Cathodic reduction of a carboxylic acid (oxalic acid) to an aldehyde (glyoxylic acid, shows as the rare aldehyde form) in a ... Amines, alcohols, carboxylic acids, and sulfonic acids are converted to perfluorinated derivatives using this technology. A ... Wilhelm Riemenschneider (2002). "Carboxylic Acids, Aliphatic". Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. Weinheim: Wiley- ... A well-known electrosynthesis is the Kolbe electrolysis, in which two carboxylic acids decarboxylate, and the remaining ...
... is the organic compound with the formula CH3(CH2)3CH(C2H5)CO2H. It is a carboxylic acid that is widely ... Oxidation of this aldehyde gives the carboxylic acid. 2-Ethylhexanoic acid forms compounds with metal cations that have ... Riemenschneider, Wilhelm (2002). "Carboxylic Acids, Aliphatic". Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. Weinheim: Wiley ... 2-Ethylhexanoic acid is a colorless viscous oil. It is supplied as a racemic mixture. 2-Ethylhexanoic acid is produced ...
Carboxylic acids, Ethers). ... Divinylether fatty acids contain a fatty acid chemically ... Etheroleic acid has systematic name 12-[1′E-hexenyloxy]-9Z,11Z-dodecadienoic acid. Etherolenic acid has systematic name (9Z,11E ... These compounds, named colneleic acid (from linoleic acid) and colnelenicacid (from linolenic acid), could be also produced in ... Fatty acid hydroperoxides generated by plant lipoxygenases from linoleic and linolenic acids are known to serve as substrates ...
It is one of the fatty acid subgroup called short-chain fatty acids. Butyric acid is a typical carboxylic acid that reacts with ... acids α-Hydroxybutyric acid β-Hydroxybutyric acid γ-Hydroxybutyric acid β-Methylbutyric acid β-Hydroxy β-methylbutyric acid ... Butyric acid reacts as a typical carboxylic acid: it can form amide, ester, anhydride, and chloride derivatives. The latter, ... Isobutyric acid (2-methylpropanoic acid) is an isomer. Salts and esters of butyric acid are known as butyrates or butanoates. ...
List of saturated fatty acids List of carboxylic acids Budavari, Susan, ed. (1996), The Merck Index: An Encyclopedia of ... caproic acid (C6) and capric acid (C10). Together, these three fatty acids comprise 15% of the fatty acids in goat milk fat. ... The acid chloride of caprylic acid is used in the synthesis of perfluorooctanoic acid.[citation needed] Caprylic acid is taken ... also known under the systematic name octanoic acid or C8 Acid, is a saturated fatty acid, medium-chain fatty acid (MCFA). It ...
F. Röhrscheid (2012). "Carboxylic Acids, Aromatic". Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. Weinheim: Wiley-VCH. doi: ... Pyromellitic dianhydride (PMDA) is an organic compound with the formula C6H2(C2O3)2. It is the double carboxylic acid anhydride ... E. Philippi; R. Thelen (1930). "Pyromellitic Acid". Organic Syntheses. 10: 90. doi:10.15227/orgsyn.010.0090. Robertson, B. E.; ... it can be prepared by dehydration of pyromellitic acid using acetic anhydride. PMDA is an electron-acceptor, forming a variety ...
... are carboxylic acids in which a halogen atom takes the place of a hydrogen atom in acetic acid. Thus, in a ... ClCH2COOH dichloroacetic acid (DCA) Cl2CHCOOH trichloroacetic acid (TCA) Cl3CCOOH monobromoacetic acid (MBA) BrCH2COOH ... For example, chloroacetic acid would have the structural formula CH2ClCO2H. In the same manner, in dichloroacetic acid two ... Trichloroacetic acid Trifluoroacetic acid "Drinking Water". Retrieved 2016-08-15. Levesque, S; Rodriguez, MJ; ...
... systematic name chloroethanoic acids) are three related chlorocarbon carboxylic acids: Chloroacetic acid (chloroethanoic acid ... dichloroethanoic acid; bichloroacetic acid, BCA), CHCl2COOH Trichloroacetic acid (trichloroethanoic acid), CCl3COOH As the ... Trichloroacetic acid is made by directly reacting chlorine with acetic acid using a suitable catalyst. Chloroacetic acid is ... The sodium salt of trichloroacetic acid is used as a weedkiller. All of these acids are unusually strong for organic acids, and ...
... is the organic compound with the formula HC2CO2H. It is the simplest acetylenic carboxylic acid. It is a ... 5-tricarboxylic acid). It undergoes bromination to give dibromoacrylic acid. With hydrogen chloride it forms chloroacrylic acid ... Wilhelm Riemenschneider (2002). "Carboxylic Acids, Aliphatic". Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. Weinheim: Wiley- ... It can also be prepared by decarboxylation of acetylenedicarboxylic acid. Exposure to sunlight converts it into trimesic acid ( ...
Röhrscheid, F. (2012). "Carboxylic Acids, Aromatic". Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. doi:10.1002/14356007.a05_ ...
Riemenschneider, Wilhelm (2002). "Carboxylic Acids, Aliphatic". Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. Weinheim: Wiley ... Valeraldehyde is oxidized to give valeric acid. Merck Index, 11th Edition, 9813. n-Valeraldehyde at NIOSH ...
List of saturated fatty acids List of carboxylic acids 4-Hydroxy-4-methylpentanoic acid Pivalic acid (2,2-dimethylpropanoic ... Valeric acid or pentanoic acid is a straight-chain alkyl carboxylic acid with the chemical formula CH3(CH2)3COOH. Like other ... Valeric acid reacts as a typical carboxylic acid: it can form amide, ester, anhydride, and chloride derivatives. The latter, ... Valeric acid is one volatile component in swine manure. Other components include other carboxylic acids, skatole, trimethyl ...
6-dihydroxipyridine-4-carboxylic acid and 3-benzylidene-2,6-dioxo-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine-4-carboxylic acid. Union enthalpy ... Progress in Nucleic Acid Research and Molecular Biology. Vol. 53. pp. 1-78. doi:10.1016/s0079-6603(08)60142-7. ISBN ... Traut TW, Jones ME (1996). Uracil metabolism--UMP synthesis from orotic acid or uridine and conversion of uracil to beta- ... 2010) performed reactions on 2-ethoxiethanselenic acid using electron-rich aromatic substrates to produce (2-ethoxiethyl)seleno ...
Donnelly MI, Dagley S (1980). "Production of methanol from aromatic acids by Pseudomonas putida". J. Bacteriol. 142 (3): 916-24 ... specifically those acting on carboxylic ester bonds. The systematic name is oxaloacetate-4-methyl-ester oxaloacetohydrolase. ...
Carboxylic acids, Decahydroisoquinolines, Kainate receptor antagonists, Chlorobenzenes, Prodrugs, Tetrazoles, All stub articles ...
... which the acetyl group at the C17β position has been cyclized with the C17α hydroxyl group to form a spiro 21-carboxylic acid γ ...
Abietic acid is dehydrogenated to dehydroabietic acid, which then loses its carboxylic acid functional group to become ... The presence of one or more polar functional groups (typically a carboxylic acid or alcohol) tends to increase the polarity and ... The ratio of oxidation products of abietanes including dehydroabietic acid and de-7-oxo-dehydroabietic acid and 15-hydroxyl-7- ... including carboxylic acids and alcohols, as well as methyl groups. In addition to defunctionalization, abietanes likely undergo ...
Tungsten-using enzymes typically reduce free carboxylic acids to aldehydes. The first tungsten-requiring enzyme to be ...
For example, the set of carboxylic acids that are best known as the intermediates in the citric acid cycle are present in all ... lack all amino acid synthesis and take their amino acids directly from their hosts. All amino acids are synthesized from ... Fatty acids are made by fatty acid synthases that polymerize and then reduce acetyl-CoA units. The acyl chains in the fatty ... Amino acids also contribute to cellular energy metabolism by providing a carbon source for entry into the citric acid cycle ( ...
... for example the oxidation of aldehydes to carboxylic acids with chromic acid. Coupling reactions can also be considered radical ... The Minisci reaction involves generation of an alkyl radical from a carboxylic acid and a silver salt, and subsequent ... The Hunsdiecker reaction converts silver salts of carboxylic acids to alkyl halides. The Dowd-Beckwith reaction involves ring ...
... acetic acid). Hence, different solubilities can be obtained by using, for instance, different carboxylic acids as HBD. ... It has been reported that eutectic ionic fluids of lower pH-values, such as ChCl:oxalic acid and ChCl:lactic acid, allow a ... "Deep Eutectic Solvents formed between choline chloride and carboxylic acids: Versatile alternatives to ionic liquids". J. Am. ... Studies have shown that ionic oxides such as ZnO tend to have high solubility in ChCl:malonic acid, ChCl:urea and Ethaline, ...
When the R group is a carboxylic acid the yield increases to 50%. In general the White Chen catalyst will bind to a carboxylic ... Thus far, only carboxylic acid functional groups have been shown to be effective and when present, the AcOH additive does not ... Example of directing group selectivity The above figure shows the effects of a carboxylic acid directing group on the overall ... Example of directing group selectivity The above figure shows a carboxylic acid directed diastereoselective lactonization of ...
Carboxylic acids, Alkene derivatives). ... 2R)-2-Methylpent-4-enoic acid is an organic acid with the ... 2-methyl-4-pentenoic acid, and methylallylacetic acid. (R)-2-Methylpent-4-enoic acid can be synthesized using a chiral ... and sulfite to reduce the peroxide to the acid. (R)-2-Methylpent-4-enoic acid can also be used in synthesis of other chiral ... Other names for this molecule include (R)-2-methyl-4-pentenoic acid, (R)-(−)- ...
At neutral pH, the acid exists as 3-methylsalicylate Its functional groups include a carboxylic acid and a phenol group. It is ... 4-Methylsalicylic acid 6-Methylsalicylic acid Takayuki Iijima; Tatsuaki Yamaguchi (2001). "K2CO3-Catalyzed Direct Synthesis of ... 3-Methylsalicylic acid is an organic compound with the formula CH3C6H3(CO2H)(OH). It is a white solid that is soluble in basic ... Salicylic acids, All stub articles, Aromatic compound stubs). ... Salicylic Acid from Phenol and Supercritical CO2". Applied ...
In this kind of condensation, two amino acids approach each other, with the non-side chain (C1) carboxylic acid moiety of one ... and two amino acids joined by a peptide bond (−CO−NH−). The two joined amino acids are called a dipeptide. The amide bond is ... which is another type of amide bond between two amino acids. When two amino acids form a dipeptide through a peptide bond, it ... In organic chemistry, a peptide bond is an amide type of covalent chemical bond linking two consecutive alpha-amino acids from ...
Its structure is composed by a dithiete moiety fused to tropone-2-carboxylic acid. Rabe, Patrick; Klapschinski, Tim A; Brock, ... Carboxylic acids, All stub articles, Aromatic compound stubs). ... Tropodithietic acid is a tropolone derivative produced by the ... "Dual function of tropodithietic acid as antibiotic and signaling molecule in global gene regulation of the probiotic bacterium ... "Synthesis and bioactivity of analogues of the marine antibiotic tropodithietic acid". Beilstein Journal of Organic Chemistry. ...
Upon forming the aldehyde in the ring opening step, it is oxidized to form the carboxylic acid and subsequently a ... Aflatoxin B1 is derived from both a dedicated fatty acid synthase (FAS) and a polyketide synthase (PKS), together known as ... A reductase then catalyzes the reduction of the ketone on the norsolorinic acid side-chain to yield averantin. Averantin is ... Sur, E; Celik, İ (2003). "Effects of aflatoxin B1on the development of the bursa of Fabricius and blood lymphocyte acid ...
Carboxylic acids). ... Coumalic acid is an organic compound with the molecular formula ... In laboratory coumalic acid may be obtained by self-condensation of malic acid in fuming sulfuric acid: Richard H. Wiley and ... Newton R. Smith (1963). "Coumalic acid". Organic Syntheses.; Collective Volume, vol. 4, p. 201 (Chemical pages without ...
... as protecting groups for carboxylic acids and increasingly as monomers for the production of polymers. The synthesis of 2- ... Thionyl chloride is commonly used to generate the acid chloride in situ, care being taken to maintain anhydrous conditions, as ... The ring is thermally stable and resistant to nucleophiles, bases, radicals, and weak acids as well as being fairly resistant ... Chirality is easily incorporated by using 2-amino alcohols prepared by the reduction of amino acids; which are both optically ...
Matthys J. Janssen "Carboxylic Acids and Esters" in PATAI'S Chemistry of Functional Groups: Carboxylic Acids and Esters, Saul ... Thioacetic acid is an organosulfur compound with the molecular formula CH3C(O)SH. It is the sulfur analogue of acetic acid ( ... With a pKa near 3.4, thioacetic acid is about 15 times more acidic than acetic acid. The conjugate base is thioacetate: CH 3 C ... Thioacetic acid is typically contaminated by acetic acid. The compound exists exclusively as the thiol tautomer, consistent ...
... hydrolysis of an ester to an alcohol and a carboxylic acid). In inorganic chemistry, the word most often applies to cations ...
Hydroxycinnamic acid esters, Vinylogous carboxylic acids, All stub articles, Aromatic compound stubs). ... Coumaroyl-coenzyme A is the thioester of coenzyme-A and coumaric acid. Coumaroyl-coenzyme A is a central intermediate in the ...
"Fluorinated alternatives to long-chain perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs), perfluoroalkane sulfonic acids (PFSAs) and ... 2-fluorotelomer sulfonic acid (6:2 FTS), perfluorobutanoic acid (PFBA), perfluoropentanoic acid (PFPeA), perfluorohexanoic acid ... PFHxA), perfluoroheptanoic acid (PFHpA), PFOA, perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) and perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA). The Swedish ... Its sulfonic acid functional group imparts polarity, and allows it to interact with other polar compounds. Due to the strength ...
1-diphenylpropane-carboxylic acid) morpheridine morphine morphine-methobromide morphine-N-oxide myrophine nicocodeine ... 4-phenylpiperidine-4-carbonic acid ethylester) pethidine Intermediate C (1-methyl-4-phenylpiperidine-4-carbonic acid) ... 4-hydroxybutyric acid) hemp oil (concentrate of plants from the Cannabis species (hemp) obtained by extraction of hemp or ... and morpholine derivatives of lysergic acid, and the thereby introduction of methyl-, acetyl- or halogen groups obtained ...
... an amino acid such as glutamate on the surface of a protein can have its side chain carboxylic acid deprotonated in ... environments with pH greater than 4.1 to produce a charged amino acid at the surface, which would create an interfacial ...
Alpha hydroxy acids (AHAs) are naturally occurring carboxylic acids such as glycolic acid, a natural constituent of sugar cane ... There are five usual fruit acids: citric acid, glycolic acid, lactic acid, malic acid and tartaric acid. Many other alpha ... Salicylic acid is a beta hydroxy acid. It is antibacterial (mostly bacteriostatic, except in high concentrations when it is ... It is becoming common for beta hydroxy acid (BHA) peels to be used instead of the stronger alpha hydroxy acid (AHA) peels due ...
The Hauser donor is an aromatic sulfone or methylene sulfoxide with a carboxylic ester group in the ortho position. The Hauser ... A typical Michael acceptor is an α,β-unsaturated ketone, although aldehydes and acid derivatives work as well. In addition, ... Heathcock and Ellis report similar results to the base-catalyzed method using sulfuric acid. The Michael reaction can occur ... Heathcock, Clayton H.; Ellis, John E.; McMurry, John E.; Coppolino, Anthony (1971). "Acid-catalyzed Robinson Annelations". ...
Ammonium salts of carboxylic acids can be dehydrated to amides by heating to 150-200 °C as long as no thermally sensitive ... It combines with acids to form salts; thus with hydrochloric acid it forms ammonium chloride (sal ammoniac); with nitric acid, ... Amides can be prepared by the reaction of ammonia with carboxylic acid derivatives. For example, ammonia reacts with formic ... the ammonia evolved being absorbed in a known volume of standard sulfuric acid and the excess of acid then determined ...
Carboxylic acids). ... Thiophene-2-acetic acid is the organosulfur compound with the ... Together with thiophene-3-acetic acid, it is one of two isomeric thiophene acetic acids. It is prepared from 2-acetylthiophene ... "2-Thiopheneacetic acid". Retrieved 9 January 2022. Swanston, Jonathan (2006). "Thiophene". Ullmann's ...
... was first discovered in the early 1960s for its ability to catalyze the hydration of a nitrile to a carboxylic acid. ... Nitrile hydratases are almost invariably co-expressed with an amidase, which converts the amide to the carboxylic acid. ... Nitrilase enzymes (nitrile aminohydrolase; EC catalyse the hydrolysis of nitriles to carboxylic acids and ammonia, ... Further hydrolyzation of the acylenzyme with water produces the carboxylic acid and the regenerated enzyme. The acylenzyme is ...
Phosphorylation and mutations, especially at the C-terminus (carboxylic acid end of primary amino acid sequence), can alter the ...
This trifunctional molecule inserts itself in the polymeric chain and bonds to three carboxylic acid groups forming a branch ... The monomers which could be used to create this polymer are ethylene glycol and terephthalic acid: HO-CH2-CH2-OH and HOOC-C6H4- ...
4-carboxylic acid; p-Phenylbenzoic acid; Diphenyl-4-carboxylic acid; Para phenyl benzoic acid; 4-Carboxy-1,1-biphenyl; 4- ... Carboxybiphenyl; 4-Diphenylcarboxylic acid; 4-Phenylbenzoic acid; NSC 23040; Benzoic acid, p-phenyl- ... Other names: 4-Biphenylcarboxylic acid; Biphenylcarboxylic acid-(4); [1,1-Biphenyl]- ...
... Molecular Formula: C11H12F3NO3 ...
... NEXT PREVIOUS. Downloadable transform files: Source .src file, ...
Omega-3-carboxylic acid (Epanova) is the third prescription omega-3 fatty acid product approved in the United States as an ... Omega-3-carboxylic acid (Epanova) for hypertriglyceridemia Alan Zhao et al. Cardiol Rev. 2015 May-Jun. ... Omega-3-carboxylic acid (Epanova) for hypertriglyceridemia Alan Zhao 1 , Sum Lam ... Omega-3 carboxylic acids (Epanova): a review of its use in patients with severe hypertriglyceridemia. Blair HA, Dhillon S. ...
Carboxylic acids are mainly prepared by the oxidation of a number of different functional groups, as the following sections ... The reaction of aliphatic carboxylic acids with bromine in the presence of phosphorous produces α halo acids. This reaction is ... Grignard reagents react with carbon dioxide to yield acid salts, which, upon acidification, produce carboxylic acids. ... α halo acids and α hydroxy acids can be converted to α, β unsaturated acids by dehydrohalogenation and dehydration, ...
Quetiapine carboxylic acid Solution, 1.0 mg/mL in Acetonitrile, Sold by MilliporeSigma™ Supelco™ ... Quetiapine carboxylic acid, a Certified Solution Standard for this significant urinary metabolite of quetiapine, marketed as ... CERILLIANT™ Quetiapine carboxylic acid Solution, 1.0 mg/mL in Acetonitrile, Sold by MilliporeSigma™ Supelco™ ...
However, acid oxidation generates additional oxygen containing groups, including epoxides, ketones, aldehydes, lactones, and ... Carboxylic acid is a commonly utilized functional group for covalent surface conjugation of carbon nanoparticles that is ... General Method to Increase Carboxylic Acid Content on Nanodiamonds Ganesh Shenoy 1 , Jessica Ettedgui 2 , Chandrasekhar Mushti ... General Method to Increase Carboxylic Acid Content on Nanodiamonds Ganesh Shenoy et al. Molecules. 2022. . ...
... Prices are increased for the following products;. ... A novel combination of organic acids helps poultry producers realize superior levels of gut health and performance. Animal ...
Carboxylic acids can be natural and synthetic, can be extracted or synthesized, presented chemical structure highly polar, ... In this chapter is presented a current overview of the use of carboxylic acids in a different area as organic synthesis, ... The application carboxylic acids in these areas are: obtaining of small molecules, macromolecules, synthetic or natural ... The purpose of this chapter is to emphasize the importance of carboxylic acids in different areas, highlighting the area of ...
le-5-carboxylic aci. d nitrate (1:1) [ACD/IUPAC Name] Acide 1-méthyl-1H-i. midazole-5-carboxyl. ique nitrate (1:1) [French] [ ... oxylic acid, 1-meth. yl-, nitrate (1:1) [ACD/Index Name] 1-Methyl-1H-imidazo. l-5-carbonsäurenitr. at (1:1) [German] [ACD/IUPAC ... ylic acid nitrate (1:1) *Molecular FormulaC5H7N3O5 ...
7-Fluoro-4-oxo-4H-chromene-2-carboxylic acid , C10H5FO4 , CID 14567874 - structure, chemical names, physical and chemical ...
Xylonic acid as a replacement for gluconic acid. Gluconic acid is an important constituent of foodstuffs, construction ... Together with succinic and fumaric acid, it belongs to the group of C4 dicarboxylic acids. C4 acids can be converted into 1,4- ... For example, xylonic acid can be tested as a substitute for gluconic acid as a curing retardant for concrete or chelating agent ... An alternative to gluconic acid is xylonic acid: on the one hand, this has similar properties and, on the other hand, it can be ...
All carboxylic acid derivatives yield the parent carboxylic acid upon reaction with water. Moreover, one derivative can be ... As strong organic acids, carboxylic acids react with silver nitrate and sodium bicarbonate to form the corresponding carboxylic ... Objectives To differentiate the reactivates of carboxylic acid derivatives. To distinguished carboxylic acid derivatives using ... Among the carboxylic acid derivatives, call halides are the most reactive and amides the least. Thus, the reactions of these ...
... CAS 5096-73-1 WIKI information includes physical and chemical properties, USES, security ... 6-Chloropyridazine-3-carboxylic acid. Iupac Name:6-chloropyridazine-3-carboxylic acid. CAS No.: 5096-73-1. Molecular Weight: ... 6-Chloropyridazine-3-carboxylic acid , its cas register number is 5096-73-1. It also can be called 3-Pyridazinecarboxylic acid ... 6-Chloro-pyridazine-3-carboxylic Acid β-Chloro-pyridazine-S-carboxylic acidA mixture of 3-chloro-6-methyl-pyridazine (10.0 g, ...
... typically using carboxylic fatty acids. In this thesis, effects of humidity and fatty carboxylic acids vapor on CaCO3 surface ... layer with maximum packing density of carboxylate and carboxylic acid species was achieved with the use of stearic acid (C18) ... That is leading to formation of hillocks at the contact line consisting of dissolved fatty carboxylic acid and possibly calcium ... surface nature of calcite and its role in determining the adsorptive stability toward hydrophobizing carboxylic fatty acids. ...
Methods from previous chapters to synthesize carboxylic acids are reviewed and new reactions to synthesize carboxylic acids ... Hydrolysis of Carboxylic Acid Derivatives and Nitriles. In this chapter we learn that all of the carboxylic acid derivatives ... Carboxylic Acid Synthesis - New. Two other useful procedures for preparing carboxylic acids involve hydrolysis of nitriles and ... The carboxylic acid derivatives along can be hydrolyzed to produce carboxylic acids. These hydrolysis reactions have limited ...
CRYSTAL STRUCTURE OF BACE-1 IN COMPLEX WITH 5-Cyano-pyridine-2-carboxylic acid [3-((4R,5R,6S)-2-amino-5-fluoro-4-methyl-6- ... CRYSTAL STRUCTURE OF BACE-1 IN COMPLEX WITH 5-Cyano-pyridine-2-carboxylic acid [3-((4R,5R,6S)-2-amino-5-fluoro-4-methyl-6- ...
Comparison of Whole Blood and Serum Levels of Mefloquine and Its Carboxylic Acid Metabolite published on Oct 1997 by The ... Although several studies have compared plasma and whole blood concentrations of either mefloquine or its carboxylic acid ... Comparison of Whole Blood and Serum Levels of Mefloquine and Its Carboxylic Acid Metabolite ...
... capacity is expected to be completed in the fourth quarter and will add approximately 50 million pounds of carboxylic acids to ... recently announced an expansion of carboxylic acids capacity at its Longview, Texas, and Kingsport, Tenn., facilities. The ... "Our olefin crackers in Texas allow Eastman a competitive position in carboxylic acid production with the supply chain ... recently announced an expansion of carboxylic acids capacity at its Longview, Texas, and Kingsport, Tenn., facilities. The ...
Why are carboxylic acids considered weak acids?. Carboxylic acids are weak acids because they do not contain large amount of h+ ... How are carboxylic acid derivatives named?. What is meant by carboxylic acid derivatives?. Carboxylic acid derivatives are ... What is Carboxylic Acid Formula? The general molecular formula for carboxylic acid is CnH2n+1COOH. Carboxylic acids are nothing ... If the corresponding carboxylic acid has an -oic acid or -ic acid ending it is removed and replaced with the ending -oyl ...
A New Condensation Reaction for the Synthesis of Carboxylic Esters from Nearly Equimolar Amounts of Carboxylic Acids and ... chemoselectivities from nearly equimolar amounts of carboxylic acids and alcohols. ... synthesis of various carboxylic esters in excellent yields with high ...
2-Thiophene carboxylic acid ethyl ester. An open source of chemical information available to the public online since 2005. ... boronic acid 5-Ethyl-2-thiophenecarboxaldehyde Ethyl thiophene-3-carboxylate 5-Ethylthiophene-2-carboxylic acid Ethyl thiophene ... glyoxylate 4-Ethylthiophenol 3-(Ethylthio)propanoic acid ethyl ester S-Ethyl thiopropionate 5-[2-(Ethylthio)propyl]-1,3- ...
S)-1-(tert-Butoxycarbonyl)-4,4-difluoropyrrolidine-2-carboxylic acid, N-t-BOC-4,4-Difluoro-L-Proline, 203866-15-3, MFCD03094917 ... S)-1-(tert-Butoxycarbonyl)-4,4-difluoropyrrolidine-2-carboxylic acid - [B5711]. Item. Cost. QTY. US Stock. Overseas Stock. ...
The metabolism and disposition of 4-[4-(4-fluorophenoxy)-benzenesulfonylamino]tetrahydropyran-4-carboxylic acid hydroxyamide ( ... tetrahydropyran-4-carboxylic Acid Hydroxyamide (CP-544439), in Rats and Dogs: Assessment of the Metabolic Profile of CP-544439 ... tetrahydropyran-4-carboxylic Acid Hydroxyamide (CP-544439), in Rats and Dogs: Assessment of the Metabolic Profile of CP-544439 ... tetrahydropyran-4-carboxylic Acid Hydroxyamide (CP-544439), in Rats and Dogs: Assessment of the Metabolic Profile of CP-544439 ...
The ACC gene encodes for the carnation 1-amino-cyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) synthase which is required for normal ...
Carboxylic acid waterproofing admixtures improve concrete watertightness. 1% by mass of the carboxylic polymer reduces the ... Carboxylic acid waterproofing admixtures improve concrete watertightness. 1% by mass of the carboxylic polymer reduces the ... Self-Healing Watertight Concretes Manufactured with a Carboxylic Acid Waterproofing Admixture. COPPOLA, Luigi;COFFETTI, Denny; ... 2016). Self-Healing Watertight Concretes Manufactured with a Carboxylic Acid Waterproofing Admixture . In JOURNAL OF APPLIED ...
Calbiochem 1-Aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic Acid - CAS 22059-21-8, is an agonist for the glycine modulatory site of the N- ... 1-Aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic Acid - CAS 22059-21-8 - Calbiochem. 149101 Sigma-Aldrich1-Aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic Acid ... 1-Aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic Acid - CAS 22059-21-8, is an agonist for the glycine modulatory site of the N-methyl-D- ... 1-Aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic Acid - CAS 22059-21-8, is an agonist for the glycine modulatory site of the N-methyl-D- ...
3-thiazole-4-carboxylic acid - cas 2150-55-2, synthesis, structure, density, melting point, boiling point ... 3-thiazole-4-carboxylic acid - 2150-55-2 , refractive index of 2-amino-4,5-dihydro-1,3-thiazole-4-carboxylic acid - 2150-55-2 ... 3-thiazole-4-carboxylic acid - 2150-55-2 , boiling point of 2-amino-4,5-dihydro-1,3-thiazole-4-carboxylic acid - 2150-55-2 , ... 2-amino-4,5-dihydro-thiazole-4-carboxylic acid. 2-amino-4,5-dihydrothiazole-4-carboxylic acid ...
  • Omega-3-carboxylic acid (Epanova) is the third prescription omega-3 fatty acid product approved in the United States as an adjunct to diet for treating severe hypertriglyceridemia (≥ 500 mg/dL). (
  • However, evidence behind the effects of omega-3-carboxylic acid on cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, and pancreatitis risk, is lacking. (
  • At this time, omega-3-carboxylic acid is an alternative adjunct therapy (in addition to diet) for hypertriglyceridemia. (
  • The STRENGTH trial of high-dose (4g) omega-3 carboxylic acid/EPA in patients who are at high CV risk with elevated TG levels was recently stopped early for futility . (
  • The oxidation of primary alcohols leads to the formation of alde‐hydes that undergo further oxidation to yield acids. (
  • The alcohols are then converted to carboxylic acids through a rhodium (II) acetate catalyzed carbene insertion reaction with tert -butyl diazoacetate and subsequent ester cleavage with trifluoroacetic acid. (
  • Why are carboxylic acids more acidic than alcohols? (
  • The reason why carboxylic acids are much more acidic than alcohols is because the carboxylate anion is much. (
  • Both alcohols and carboxylic acids are acidic since their respective O-H bonds can be broken heterolytically, giving a proton and an oxygen anion. (
  • The combination of 2-methyl-6-nitrobenzoic anhydride with triethylamine in the presence of a catalytic amount of 4-(dimethylamino)pyridine enables the synthesis of various carboxylic esters in excellent yields with high chemoselectivities from nearly equimolar amounts of carboxylic acids and alcohols. (
  • In this chapter is presented a current overview of the use of carboxylic acids in a different area as organic synthesis, nanotechnology, and polymers. (
  • The purpose of this chapter is to emphasize the importance of carboxylic acids in different areas, highlighting the area of organic synthesis, nanotechnology and polymers and its applications. (
  • Procedure for synthesis of 6-chloropyridazine-3-carboxylic acid (Step-1) To a mixture of ethyl 6-chloropyridazine-3-carboxylate (commercially available) (1.00 g, 5.36 mmol) in THF (10 mL) was added LiOH (0.655 g, 26.8 mmol, 5 equiv. (
  • Citric acid stabilizes nanoceria during synthesis and in aqueous dispersions. (
  • The binding affinities for 24 PFAS that included perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (C4-C12), perfluoroalkyl sulfonic acids (C4-C8), mono- and polyether perfluoroalkyl ether acids, and polyfluoroalkyl fluorotelomer substances were determined. (
  • To achieve oleophilicity, and resulting hydrophobicity, the filler is surface treated, typically using carboxylic fatty acids. (
  • In this thesis, effects of humidity and fatty carboxylic acids vapor on CaCO3 surface wettability and nanomechanical properties were studied, with the aim to gain knowledge on layer packing density and order, as well as resistance to water exposure and mechanical wear. (
  • That is leading to formation of hillocks at the contact line consisting of dissolved fatty carboxylic acid and possibly calcium bicarbonate Ca(HCO3)2 molecules transported from the bare calcite region that also is created next to the droplet edge. (
  • In light of the necessity to invent sustainable production methods , multiple approaches to making alkenes from abundant fatty acids have been evaluated. (
  • We show how abundant fatty acids can be converted to alpha- olefins , and expand the method to include structurally complex carboxylic acids , giving access to synthetically versatile intermediates. (
  • This concentrated eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA)-only prescription omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) was associated with higher rate of atrial fibrillation and bleeding in REDUCE-IT, and while it is noted in the prescribing information under warnings and precautions, the FDA did not think these effects warranted a contraindication. (
  • The available prescription fish oils are not true fish oil products, but rather are different formulations of omega-3 fatty acids derived from fish oil. (
  • AHA Science Advisory on omega-3 fatty acids. (
  • The American Heart Association (AHA) Science Advisory on omega-3 fatty acids for the management of hypertriglyceridemia notes that "for all degrees of triglyceride elevation, treatment or elimination of secondary causes and intensive diet and lifestyle changes are recommended before direct pharmacotherapy. (
  • In carbohydrate-deficient states, fatty-acid metabolism spurs acetoacetate accumulation. (
  • [ 1 , 2 , 3 ] Ketone bodies fuel the brain with an alternative source of energy (close to two thirds of its needs) during periods of prolonged fasting or starvation, when the brain cannot use fatty acids for energy. (
  • Using a technique called mass spectrometry, they found that carboxylic acids-a type of fatty acid-were heavily enriched in the skin of the most attractive volunteers. (
  • Assay performance was initially evaluated for fatty acids and HSA-binding drugs ibuprofen and warfarin. (
  • Grignard reagents react with carbon dioxide to yield acid salts, which, upon acidification, produce carboxylic acids. (
  • As strong organic acids, carboxylic acids react with silver nitrate and sodium bicarbonate to form the corresponding carboxylic salts. (
  • The hydrolysis of nitriles , which are organic molecules containing a cyano group, leads to carboxylic acid formation. (
  • Carboxylic acids are versatile organic compounds. (
  • Theoretical background Carboxylic acid derivatives are organic compounds containing the call group core structure attached to a Y group, which may be an electronegative atom or substitutes. (
  • Carboxylic acids are nothing but organic compounds in which the carbon atom is bonded with an oxygen atom in the form of a double bond. (
  • Ethyl formate is an ester formed when ethanol (an alcohol) reacts with formic acid (a carboxylic acid). (
  • Here, we report an approach to making olefins from carboxylic acids , in which every additional reaction constituent can be used as a catalyst. (
  • coupling both processes enables catalytic conversion of carboxylic acids to olefins . (
  • Alkenes are oxidized to acids by heating them with solutions of potassium permanganate (KMnO 4 ) or potassium dichromate (K 2 Cr 2 O 7 ). (
  • Why are esters derivatives of carboxylic acids? (
  • Esters and amides are considered to be derivatives of carboxylic acids because the OH in the carboxyl group is replaced with another group. (
  • Carboxylic acids can also be derived by the hydrolysis of nitriles, esters, or amides, in common with acid- or base catalysis. (
  • It appeared to have a better bioavailability profile compared with an equivalent dose of omega-3-acid ethyl ester (Lovaza) in both low-fat and high-fat diets. (
  • Derivatives of benzoic acid such as Bromobenzoates are listed as descriptors under the common parent Benzoates and include their various salt and ester forms. (
  • Among the carboxylic acid derivatives, call halides are the most reactive and amides the least. (
  • All carboxylic acid derivatives yield the parent carboxylic acid upon reaction with water. (
  • Objectives To differentiate the reactivates of carboxylic acid derivatives. (
  • To distinguished carboxylic acid derivatives using classification tests To explain through chemical equations and mechanisms the reactions involved in each test. (
  • What are examples of carboxylic acid derivatives? (
  • How are carboxylic acid derivatives obtained? (
  • Carboxylic acids have a hydroxyl group bonded to an acyl group, and their functional derivatives are prepared by replacement of the hydroxyl group with substituents, such as halo, alkoxyl, amino and acyloxy. (
  • The carboxylic acid derivatives can all be hydrolyzed to carboxylic acids. (
  • How do you name carboxylic acid derivatives? (
  • What is meant by carboxylic acid derivatives? (
  • Carboxylic acid derivatives are compounds with the acyl group, RCO-, bonded to an electronegative atom or substituent, -Y, that can act as a leaving group in substitution reactions (nucleophilic acyl substitution). (
  • 2. Carboxylic acid derivatives are compounds that yield a carboxylic acid upon rxn with water. (
  • Alkyl groups that contain benzylic hydrogens -hydrogen(s) on a carbon α to a benzene ring-undergo oxidation to acids with strong oxidizing agents. (
  • The second hydrogen on the methylene unit of acetoacetic ester can also be replaced by an alkyl group, creating a disubstituted acid. (
  • 6-Chloro-pyridazine-3-carboxylic Acid β-Chloro-pyridazine-S-carboxylic acidA mixture of 3-chloro-6-methyl-pyridazine (10.0 g, 77.8 mmol) and KTo an aqueous solution (2 ml) of disodium hydrogen phosphate dodecahydrate (50 mg), were added acetnitrile (3 ml), 6-chloro-3-pyridazinecarboxyaldehyde (0.10 g, 0.70 mmol), 31percent aqueous hydrogen peroxide (0.12 g, 1.1 mmol) and sodium chlorite (0.10 g, 1.1 mmol), and stirred for 3 hours. (
  • carboxylic acid methane sulphonate. (
  • The mechanism for these reactions involves the formation of an amide followed by hydrolysis of the amide to the acid. (
  • Carboxylic acid are more acidic than phenols because the negative charge in carboxylate anion is more spread out as compared to the phenoxide ion as there are two electronegative O-atoms in carboxylate anion in comparison to one in phenoxide ion. (
  • Carboxylic acids accelerate acidic environment-mediated nanoceria dissolution. (
  • This project assessed the carboxylic acid contribution to nanoceria dissolution in aqueous, acidic environments. (
  • In nanotechnology, the use of acid carboxylic as surface modifiers to promote the dispersion and incorporation of metallic nanoparticles or carbon nanostructure, in the area of polymer carboxylic acids present applications such monomers, additives, catalysts, etc. (
  • 1% by mass of the carboxylic polymer reduces the water penetration under pressure by 50% with respect the reference concrete with the same w/c provide that the wet curing time is 7 days. (
  • Hydrolysis of the resulting product with concentrated sodium hydroxide solution liberates the sodium salt of the substituted acid. (
  • Hydrolysis using concentrated aqueous sodium hydroxide leads to the formation of the sodium salt of the disubstituted acid. (
  • The nomenclature of acid halides starts with the name of the corresponding carboxylic acid. (
  • Quetiapine carboxylic acid, a Certified Solution Standard for this significant urinary metabolite of quetiapine, marketed as the atypical antipsychotic Seroquel™ for the treatment of depression, bipolar disorder, and schizophrenia. (
  • Although several studies have compared plasma and whole blood concentrations of either mefloquine or its carboxylic acid metabolite, we report the first comparison of serum and whole blood levels in 86 Dutch marines taking 250 mg of mefloquine weekly for 18 weeks while deployed in western Cambodia. (
  • Carboxylic acids are mainly prepared by the oxidation of a number of different functional groups, as the following sections detail. (
  • Carboxylic acid is a commonly utilized functional group for covalent surface conjugation of carbon nanoparticles that is typically generated by acid oxidation. (
  • Estimated Kd values for HSA binding of octanoic acid, decanoic acid, hexadecenoic acid, ibuprofen, and warfarin agreed with established values. (
  • The reaction mixture was poured into 2M hydrochloric acid and extracted with DCM. (
  • Concentrated sodium hydroxide is strong enough to hydrolyze both the ester functional group and the ketone functional group and, therefore, forms the substituted acid rather than the ketone. (
  • Addition of aqueous acid liberates the substituted acid. (
  • Using a JENWAY spectrophotometer at predetermined ëmax of 277nm with 1% v/v aqueous glacial acetic acid as blank, the method was validated for linearity, accuracy, precision, reproducibility, and specificity as per International Conference on Harmonization (ICH) guidelines and used to determine the content of pefloxacin in seven marketed brands in Nigeria. (
  • PFM standard (0.1g) was dissolved in 50 ml of 1% reported for the determination of pefloxacin and aqueous acetic acid and diluted to 100 ml mark with other fluoroquinolones in dosage preparations and the same solvent. (
  • The ozonolysis of alkenes produces aldehydes that can easily be further oxidized to acids. (
  • The ACC gene encodes for the carnation 1-amino-cyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) synthase which is required for normal ethylene biosynthesis which affects the rate of ripening in plants. (
  • The application carboxylic acids in these areas are: obtaining of small molecules, macromolecules, synthetic or natural polymers, modification surface of nanoparticles metallic, modification surface of nanostructure such as carbon nanotubes and graphene, nanomaterials, medical field, pharmacy, etc. (
  • The suffix of this carbon chain is then replaced, as carboxylic acids always end in "-oic acid. (
  • [ 6 ] Tissues outside the liver transfer coenzyme A from succinylcoenzyme A to acetoacetate, and, via the citric acid cycle, metabolize the active acetoacetate to carbon dioxide and water. (
  • In solutions of citric, malic, and lactic acids and the ammonium ion approximately 15 nm, ceria agglomerates persisted. (
  • The 2013 release of the Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) includes improvements in a variety of areas including new ingredient identifiers from the FDA, a redesign of the Carboxylic Acids tree structure and new terms from the disease portion of the Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM). (
  • 6-Chloropyridazine-3-carboxylic acid is a pyradazine derivative used in the preparation of stearoyl-CoA desaturase inhibitors. (
  • Their functional Group is COOH so they give out OH ions in liquid statein carboxylic acid -COOH is the functional group. (
  • People with higher levels of compounds called carboxylic acids on their skin were more attractive to mosquitoes, and this trait remained stable over years. (
  • And the levels of these carboxylic acids remained stable in skin for a year or more, regardless of changing environmental conditions. (
  • The acid formed has a methyl and an ethyl group in place of two hydrogens of acetic acid and is therefore often referred to as a disubstituted acetic acid. (
  • 1-Aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic Acid - CAS 22059-21-8, is an agonist for the glycine modulatory site of the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor complex. (
  • In cracked slabs produced with the waterproofing admixtures reduction in water absorption was recorded as a consequence of the ability of the carboxylic based products to seal cracks formed in the plastic stage. (
  • Previous studies of lower doses (1g) of combined EPA/docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) pills did not show a reduction in outcomes in at-risk patients without prior CVD, even in those with diabetes . (
  • Meanwhile, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and vibrational sum frequency spectroscopy techniques demonstrated that a coherent layer with maximum packing density of carboxylate and carboxylic acid species was achieved with the use of stearic acid (C18) with high enough vapor pressure and exposure time. (
  • We present a method to specifically enrich the carboxylic acid content on fluorescent nanodiamond (FND) surfaces. (
  • 3. [Simultaneous evaluation by gas chromatography of urinary acids: homovanillic, vanilmandelic, indoleacetic and 5 hydroxyindoleacetic]. (
  • 5. Simultaneous determination of urinary vanillylmandelic acid, 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid and homovanillic acid by liquid chromatography. (
  • 13. The secretion of ibuprofen metabolites interferes with the capillary chromatography of urinary homovanillic acid and 4-hydroxy-3-methoxymandelic acid in neuroblastoma diagnosis. (
  • 14. Urinary catecholamines, vanillylmandelic acid, 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid, and homovanillic acid measured by liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection and use of a single mobile phase. (
  • 17. Simultaneous liquid-chromatographic determination of urinary vanillylmandelic acid, homovanillic acid, and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid. (
  • 4. Simultaneous determination of vanillylmandelic, homovanillic and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acids in human urine by thin layer chromatography. (
  • 6. Determination of homovanillic, isohomovanillic and vanillylmandelic acids in human urine by means of glass capillary gas-liquid chromatography with temperature-programmed electron-capture detection. (
  • 10. [Gas chromatographic determination of hydroxyindoleacetic acid, vanilmandelic acid and homovanillic acid]. (
  • 12. Letter: Determination of vanilmandelic acid and homovanillic acid in urine by gas chromatography. (
  • 18. Simultaneous liquid chromatographic determination of vanillylmandelic acid, homovanillic acid, and 5-hydroxy-3-indoleacetic acid in urine, using isocratic elution and electrochemical detection. (
  • Rheological (in the fresh state) properties, compressive strength and water penetration under pressure (EN 12390-8) were measured on concretes manufactured with the carboxylic waterproofing admixture and a similar product already available on the market and compared to reference concretes produced by using only the traditional ingredients. (
  • The present paper deals with an experimental research program carried out to evaluate performances of an innovative polycarboxylate acid based waterproofing admixture added in the mixer together concrete traditional ingredients in order to improve concrete watertightness. (
  • The study could not show whether high levels of carboxylic acids were directly driving mosquito preference, only that they were associated with attractiveness to the bugs. (
  • And notably, one person with high levels of all the carboxylic acids examined did not attract mosquitoes. (
  • 11. Analysis of vanillylmandelic acid, homovanillic acid and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid in human urine by high-performance liquid chromatography and fluorometry. (
  • Secondly, AFM and contact angle goniometer measurements showed that the stability of the calcite surface improves with increasing carboxylic acid chain length (C2 to C18). (
  • Tyrp2 catalyzes the conversion of L-dopachrome into 5,6-dihydroxyindole-2-carboxylic acid (DHICA). (
  • The additional capacity is expected to be completed in the fourth quarter and will add approximately 50 million pounds of carboxylic acids to support the increasing internal and external demand of the product. (
  • Eastman is committed to the continued optimization of its plants that produce these acids," said Tony Ponder, business manager for the Oxo Chemicals business unit in the Specialty Fluids and Intermediates business segment. (

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