Organic compounds containing the carboxy group (-COOH). This group of compounds includes amino acids and fatty acids. Carboxylic acids can be saturated, unsaturated, or aromatic.
A class of amino acids characterized by a closed ring structure.
Derivatives of ethylene, a simple organic gas of biological origin with many industrial and biological use.
A proline analog that acts as a stoichiometric replacement of proline. It causes the production of abnormal proteins with impaired biological activity.
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
A cyclized derivative of L-GLUTAMIC ACID. Elevated blood levels may be associated with problems of GLUTAMINE or GLUTATHIONE metabolism.
The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
A class of enzymes that catalyze the cleavage of C-C, C-O, and C-N, and other bonds by other means than by hydrolysis or oxidation. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 4.
Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).
Reduced (protonated) form of THIAZOLES. They can be oxidized to THIAZOLIDINEDIONES.
A psychoactive compound extracted from the resin of Cannabis sativa (marihuana, hashish). The isomer delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is considered the most active form, producing characteristic mood and perceptual changes associated with this compound.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
Spectrophotometry in the infrared region, usually for the purpose of chemical analysis through measurement of absorption spectra associated with rotational and vibrational energy levels of molecules. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A microanalytical technique combining mass spectrometry and gas chromatography for the qualitative as well as quantitative determinations of compounds.
Inhibits the activity of prostaglandins.
A non-essential amino acid that is synthesized from GLUTAMIC ACID. It is an essential component of COLLAGEN and is important for proper functioning of joints and tendons.
A group of compounds with three aromatic rings joined in linear arrangement.
A fungistatic compound that is widely used as a food preservative. It is conjugated to GLYCINE in the liver and excreted as hippuric acid.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.
Compounds with a 5-membered ring of four carbons and an oxygen. They are aromatic heterocycles. The reduced form is tetrahydrofuran.
Enzymes that catalyze the cleavage of a carbon-carbon bond by means other than hydrolysis or oxidation. This subclass contains the DECARBOXYLASES, the ALDEHYDE-LYASES, and the OXO-ACID-LYASES. EC 4.1.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Changing an open-chain hydrocarbon to a closed ring. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
Organic compounds containing a carbonyl group in the form -CHO.
The chemical alteration of an exogenous substance by or in a biological system. The alteration may inactivate the compound or it may result in the production of an active metabolite of an inactive parent compound. The alterations may be divided into METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE I and METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE II.
Alkyl compounds containing a hydroxyl group. They are classified according to relation of the carbon atom: primary alcohols, R-CH2OH; secondary alcohols, R2-CHOH; tertiary alcohols, R3-COH. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Any of the hormones produced naturally in plants and active in controlling growth and other functions. There are three primary classes: auxins, cytokinins, and gibberellins.
2-, 3-, or 4-Pyridinecarboxylic acids. Pyridine derivatives substituted with a carboxy group at the 2-, 3-, or 4-position. The 3-carboxy derivative (NIACIN) is active as a vitamin.
Substances used for the detection, identification, analysis, etc. of chemical, biological, or pathologic processes or conditions. Indicators are substances that change in physical appearance, e.g., color, at or approaching the endpoint of a chemical titration, e.g., on the passage between acidity and alkalinity. Reagents are substances used for the detection or determination of another substance by chemical or microscopical means, especially analysis. Types of reagents are precipitants, solvents, oxidizers, reducers, fluxes, and colorimetric reagents. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed, p301, p499)
An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.
Organic compounds containing the -CO-NH2 radical. Amides are derived from acids by replacement of -OH by -NH2 or from ammonia by the replacement of H by an acyl group. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Derivatives of propionic acid. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxyethane structure.
A basic science concerned with the composition, structure, and properties of matter; and the reactions that occur between substances and the associated energy exchange.
Inorganic derivatives of phosphorus trihydroxide (P(OH)3) and its tautomeric form dihydroxyphosphine oxide (HP=O(OH)2). Note that organic derivatives of phosphonic acids are listed under are ORGANOPHOSPHONATES.
The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.
A mass spectrometry technique used for analysis of nonvolatile compounds such as proteins and macromolecules. The technique involves preparing electrically charged droplets from analyte molecules dissolved in solvent. The electrically charged droplets enter a vacuum chamber where the solvent is evaporated. Evaporation of solvent reduces the droplet size, thereby increasing the coulombic repulsion within the droplet. As the charged droplets get smaller, the excess charge within them causes them to disintegrate and release analyte molecules. The volatilized analyte molecules are then analyzed by mass spectrometry.
The composition, conformation, and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in nature. Some species are pathogenic for humans, animals, and plants.
A class of enzymes that catalyze oxidation-reduction reactions of amino acids.
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
Benzopyrroles with the nitrogen at the number one carbon adjacent to the benzyl portion, in contrast to ISOINDOLES which have the nitrogen away from the six-membered ring.
Detection of drugs that have been abused, overused, or misused, including legal and illegal drugs. Urine screening is the usual method of detection.
The characteristic three-dimensional shape of a molecule.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Determination of the spectra of ultraviolet absorption by specific molecules in gases or liquids, for example Cl2, SO2, NO2, CS2, ozone, mercury vapor, and various unsaturated compounds. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A group of ISOQUINOLINES in which the nitrogen containing ring is protonated. They derive from the non-enzymatic Pictet-Spengler condensation of CATECHOLAMINES with ALDEHYDES.
Chemical compounds which yield hydrogen ions or protons when dissolved in water, whose hydrogen can be replaced by metals or basic radicals, or which react with bases to form salts and water (neutralization). An extension of the term includes substances dissolved in media other than water. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A group of pyrido-indole compounds. Included are any points of fusion of pyridine with the five-membered ring of indole and any derivatives of these compounds. These are similar to CARBAZOLES which are benzo-indoles.
Aliphatic acids that contain four carbons in a branched-chain configuration. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the 2-carboxypropane structure.
A genus of bacteria that form a nonfragmented aerial mycelium. Many species have been identified with some being pathogenic. This genus is responsible for producing a majority of the ANTI-BACTERIAL AGENTS of practical value.
Benzoic acids, salts, or esters that contain an amino group attached to carbon number 2 or 6 of the benzene ring structure.
A mass spectrometric technique that is used for the analysis of a wide range of biomolecules, such as glycoalkaloids, glycoproteins, polysaccharides, and peptides. Positive and negative fast atom bombardment spectra are recorded on a mass spectrometer fitted with an atom gun with xenon as the customary beam. The mass spectra obtained contain molecular weight recognition as well as sequence information.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A group of broad-spectrum antibiotics first isolated from the Mediterranean fungus ACREMONIUM. They contain the beta-lactam moiety thia-azabicyclo-octenecarboxylic acid also called 7-aminocephalosporanic acid.
A colorless, flammable, poisonous liquid, CS2. It is used as a solvent, and is a counterirritant and has local anesthetic properties but is not used as such. It is highly toxic with pronounced CNS, hematologic, and dermatologic effects.
The removal of a carboxyl group, usually in the form of carbon dioxide, from a chemical compound.
Derivatives of ACETIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxymethane structure.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.
Derivatives of BENZOIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxybenzene structure.
Chemical compounds derived from acids by the elimination of a molecule of water.
Cell membrane glycoproteins that form channels to selectively pass chloride ions. Nonselective blockers include FENAMATES; ETHACRYNIC ACID; and TAMOXIFEN.
An amino acid formed by cyclization of leucine. It has cytostatic, immunosuppressive and antineoplastic activities.
Chemical substances which inhibit the process of spermatozoa formation at either the first stage, in which spermatogonia develop into spermatocytes and then into spermatids, or the second stage, in which spermatids transform into spermatozoa.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Insoluble polymers of TYROSINE derivatives found in and causing darkness in skin (SKIN PIGMENTATION), hair, and feathers providing protection against SUNBURN induced by SUNLIGHT. CAROTENES contribute yellow and red coloration.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Unstable isotopes of carbon that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. C atoms with atomic weights 10, 11, and 14-16 are radioactive carbon isotopes.
The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.
Unsaturated hydrocarbons of the type Cn-H2n, indicated by the suffix -ene. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed, p408)
One of the SCHISTOSOMICIDES, it has been replaced largely by HYCANTHONE and more recently PRAZIQUANTEL. (From Martindale The Extrapharmacopoeia, 30th ed., p46)
Enzymes which catalyze the hydrolysis of carboxylic acid esters with the formation of an alcohol and a carboxylic acid anion.
Chromatography on thin layers of adsorbents rather than in columns. The adsorbent can be alumina, silica gel, silicates, charcoals, or cellulose. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A group of enzymes that catalyze the reduction of 1-pyrroline carboxylate to proline in the presence of NAD(P)H. Includes both the 2-oxidoreductase (EC 1.5.1.1) and the 5-oxidoreductase (EC 1.5.1.2). The former also reduces 1-piperidine-2-carboxylate to pipecolate and the latter also reduces 1-pyrroline-3-hydroxy-5-carboxylate to hydroxyproline.
A plant species of the family SOLANACEAE, native of South America, widely cultivated for their edible, fleshy, usually red fruit.
The usually underground portions of a plant that serve as support, store food, and through which water and mineral nutrients enter the plant. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982; Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
A broad-spectrum 6-fluoronaphthyridinone antibacterial agent that is structurally related to NALIDIXIC ACID.
Azoles of one NITROGEN and two double bonds that have aromatic chemical properties.
Derivatives of caproic acid. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain a carboxy terminated six carbon aliphatic structure.
A group of alicyclic hydrocarbons with the general formula R-C5H9.
A group of tetraterpenes, with four terpene units joined head-to-tail. Biologically active members of this class are used clinically in the treatment of severe cystic ACNE; PSORIASIS; and other disorders of keratinization.
A spectroscopic technique in which a range of wavelengths is presented simultaneously with an interferometer and the spectrum is mathematically derived from the pattern thus obtained.
A CD98 antigen light chain that when heterodimerized with CD98 antigen heavy chain (ANTIGENS, CD98 HEAVY CHAIN) forms a protein that mediates sodium-independent L-type amino acid transport.
A reagent used for the determination of iron.
A tricyclo bridged hydrocarbon.
An analgesic and anti-inflammatory agent used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.
Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.
Inorganic compounds derived from hydrochloric acid that contain the Cl- ion.
An essential branched-chain amino acid important for hemoglobin formation.
A plant genus in the family PINACEAE, order Pinales, class Pinopsida, division Coniferophyta. They are coniferous evergreen trees with long, flat, spirally arranged needles that grow directly from the branch.
A sodium-independent neutral amino acid transporter system with specificity for large amino acids. One of the functions of the transporter system is to supply large neutral amino acids to the brain.
The application of medical knowledge to questions of law.
Organic compounds composed exclusively of carbon and hydrogen forming a closed ring that may be either alicyclic or aromatic.
Ring compounds having atoms other than carbon in their nuclei. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A technology, in which sets of reactions for solution or solid-phase synthesis, is used to create molecular libraries for analysis of compounds on a large scale.
A group of compounds derived from ammonia by substituting organic radicals for the hydrogens. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Liquids that dissolve other substances (solutes), generally solids, without any change in chemical composition, as, water containing sugar. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Azoles of two nitrogens at the 1,2 positions, next to each other, in contrast with IMIDAZOLES in which they are at the 1,3 positions.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
Organic compounds that contain silicon as an integral part of the molecule.
Acetic acid derivatives of the heterocyclic compound indole. (Merck Index, 11th ed)
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
Antibiotic pigment produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa.
A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Derivatives of acetic acid with one or more fluorines attached. They are almost odorless, difficult to detect chemically, and very stable. The acid itself, as well as the derivatives that are broken down in the body to the acid, are highly toxic substances, behaving as convulsant poisons with a delayed action. (From Miall's Dictionary of Chemistry, 5th ed)
A plant family of the order Santalales, subclass Rosidae, class Magnoliopsida. They are parasites that form connections (haustoria) to their hosts to obtain water and nutrients. The one-seeded fruit may be surrounded by a brightly colored nut-like structure.
A class of acids containing a ring structure in which at least one atom other than CARBON is incorporated.
A non-essential amino acid. It is found primarily in gelatin and silk fibroin and used therapeutically as a nutrient. It is also a fast inhibitory neurotransmitter.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
A generic grouping for dihydric alcohols with the hydroxy groups (-OH) located on different carbon atoms. They are viscous liquids with high boiling points for their molecular weights.
A group of derivatives of naphthyridine carboxylic acid, quinoline carboxylic acid, or NALIDIXIC ACID.
Negatively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms which travel to the anode or positive pole during electrolysis.
A species of nonpathogenic fluorescent bacteria found in feces, sewage, soil, and water, and which liquefy gelatin.
The volatile portions of substances perceptible by the sense of smell. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The molecular designing of drugs for specific purposes (such as DNA-binding, enzyme inhibition, anti-cancer efficacy, etc.) based on knowledge of molecular properties such as activity of functional groups, molecular geometry, and electronic structure, and also on information cataloged on analogous molecules. Drug design is generally computer-assisted molecular modeling and does not include pharmacokinetics, dosage analysis, or drug administration analysis.
Fractionation of a vaporized sample as a consequence of partition between a mobile gaseous phase and a stationary phase held in a column. Two types are gas-solid chromatography, where the fixed phase is a solid, and gas-liquid, in which the stationary phase is a nonvolatile liquid supported on an inert solid matrix.
The class of all enzymes catalyzing oxidoreduction reactions. The substrate that is oxidized is regarded as a hydrogen donor. The systematic name is based on donor:acceptor oxidoreductase. The recommended name will be dehydrogenase, wherever this is possible; as an alternative, reductase can be used. Oxidase is only used in cases where O2 is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p9)
A genus of gram-positive, aerobic bacteria whose species are widely distributed and are abundant in soil. Some strains are pathogenic opportunists for humans and animals.
Placing of a hydroxyl group on a compound in a position where one did not exist before. (Stedman, 26th ed)
Six-membered heterocycles containing an oxygen and a nitrogen.
Chromatographic techniques in which the mobile phase is a liquid.
Elimination of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS; PESTICIDES and other waste using living organisms, usually involving intervention of environmental or sanitation engineers.
A group of compounds with the heterocyclic ring structure of benzo(c)pyridine. The ring structure is characteristic of the group of opium alkaloids such as papaverine. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
A powerful herbicide used as a selective weed killer.
Stable carbon atoms that have the same atomic number as the element carbon, but differ in atomic weight. C-13 is a stable carbon isotope.
A family of fused-ring hydrocarbons isolated from coal tar that act as intermediates in various chemical reactions and are used in the production of coumarone-indene resins.
Eighteen-carbon cyclopentyl polyunsaturated fatty acids derived from ALPHA-LINOLENIC ACID via an oxidative pathway analogous to the EICOSANOIDS in animals. Biosynthesis is inhibited by SALICYLATES. A key member, jasmonic acid of PLANTS, plays a similar role to ARACHIDONIC ACID in animals.
Derivatives of BUTYRIC ACID that include a double bond between carbon 2 and 3 of the aliphatic structure. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that include the aminobutryrate structure.
The process of converting an acid into an alkyl or aryl derivative. Most frequently the process consists of the reaction of an acid with an alcohol in the presence of a trace of mineral acid as catalyst or the reaction of an acyl chloride with an alcohol. Esterification can also be accomplished by enzymatic processes.
A plant species of the family CARYOPHYLLACEAE. It is a source of SAPONINS. The common name "Soapwort" is also used with VACCARIA. The common name of "Bouncing Bet" is occasionally used with VIOLA.
An inhibitor of anion conductance including band 3-mediated anion transport.
A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE known for the root used in hot SPICES. It is also the source of HORSERADISH PEROXIDASE which is widely used in laboratories.
Derivatives of ACETIC ACID which contain an hydroxy group attached to the methyl carbon.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A cephalosporin antibiotic that is administered intravenously or intramuscularly. It is active against most common gram-positive and gram-negative microorganisms, is a potent inhibitor of Enterobacteriaceae, and is highly resistant to hydrolysis by beta-lactamases. The drug has a high rate of efficacy in many types of infection and to date no severe side effects have been noted.
A very strong halogenated derivative of acetic acid. It is used in acid catalyzed reactions, especially those where an ester is cleaved in peptide synthesis.
The phenomenon whereby certain chemical compounds have structures that are different although the compounds possess the same elemental composition. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
A non-essential amino acid present abundantly throughout the body and is involved in many metabolic processes. It is synthesized from GLUTAMIC ACID and AMMONIA. It is the principal carrier of NITROGEN in the body and is an important energy source for many cells.
A group of compounds that are derivatives of the amino acid 2-amino-2-methylpropanoic acid.
Organic compounds that are acyclic and contain three acid groups. A member of this class is citric acid which is the first product formed by reaction of pyruvate and oxaloacetate. (From Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p443)
Alicyclic hydrocarbons in which three or more of the carbon atoms in each molecule are united in a ring structure and each of the ring carbon atoms is joined to two hydrogen atoms or alkyl groups. The simplest members are cyclopropane (C3H6), cyclobutane (C4H8), cyclohexane (C6H12), and derivatives of these such as methylcyclohexane (C6H11CH3). (From Sax, et al., Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)
Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
A colorless, slightly viscous liquid used as a defoaming or wetting agent. It is also used as a solvent for protective coatings, waxes, and oils, and as a raw material for plasticizers. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Inhaling and exhaling the smoke from CANNABIS.
A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.
Attachment of isoprenoids (TERPENES) to other compounds, especially PROTEINS and FLAVONOIDS.
An enzyme that catalyzes the release of a N-terminal pyroglutamyl group from a polypeptide provided the next residue is not proline. It is inhibited by thiol-blocking reagents and occurs in mammalian tissues, microorganisms, and plants. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 3.4.19.3.
A family of nonmetallic, generally electronegative, elements that form group 17 (formerly group VIIa) of the periodic table.
The 8-hydroxy derivatives inhibit various enzymes and their halogenated derivatives, though neurotoxic, are used as topical anti-infective agents, among other uses.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
Agents, either mechanical or chemical, which destroy spermatozoa in the male genitalia and block spermatogenesis.
SESQUITERPENES cyclized to one 10-carbon ring.
A compound that, on administration, must undergo chemical conversion by metabolic processes before becoming the pharmacologically active drug for which it is a prodrug.
Chemical substances that are foreign to the biological system. They include naturally occurring compounds, drugs, environmental agents, carcinogens, insecticides, etc.
QUINOLONES containing a 4-oxo (a carbonyl in the para position to the nitrogen). They inhibit the A subunit of DNA GYRASE and are used as antimicrobials. Second generation 4-quinolones are also substituted with a 1-piperazinyl group at the 7-position and a fluorine at the 6-position.
A low-energy attractive force between hydrogen and another element. It plays a major role in determining the properties of water, proteins, and other compounds.
Techniques used to separate mixtures of substances based on differences in the relative affinities of the substances for mobile and stationary phases. A mobile phase (fluid or gas) passes through a column containing a stationary phase of porous solid or liquid coated on a solid support. Usage is both analytical for small amounts and preparative for bulk amounts.
A family of hexahydropyridines.
Glycosides of GLUCURONIC ACID formed by the reaction of URIDINE DIPHOSPHATE GLUCURONIC ACID with certain endogenous and exogenous substances. Their formation is important for the detoxification of drugs, steroid excretion and BILIRUBIN metabolism to a more water-soluble compound that can be eliminated in the URINE and BILE.
A plant genus of the family ARALIACEAE. Ciwujia extract, which is prepared from plants of this genus, contains ciwujianosides and is used to enhance PHYSICAL ENDURANCE.
Derivatives of BUTYRIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxypropane structure.
Enzymes that catalyze the formation of acyl-CoA derivatives. EC 6.2.1.
Tree-like, highly branched, polymeric compounds. They grow three-dimensionally by the addition of shells of branched molecules to a central core. The overall globular shape and presence of cavities gives potential as drug carriers and CONTRAST AGENTS.
A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.
Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.
The directional growth of organisms in response to gravity. In plants, the main root is positively gravitropic (growing downwards) and a main stem is negatively gravitropic (growing upwards), irrespective of the positions in which they are placed. Plant gravitropism is thought to be controlled by auxin (AUXINS), a plant growth substance. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
Closed vesicles of fragmented endoplasmic reticulum created when liver cells or tissue are disrupted by homogenization. They may be smooth or rough.
A chemical element having an atomic weight of 106.4, atomic number of 46, and the symbol Pd. It is a white, ductile metal resembling platinum, and following it in abundance and importance of applications. It is used in dentistry in the form of gold, silver, and copper alloys.

The interaction of rhodium(II) carboxylates with enzymes. (1/1503)

The effect of rhodium(II) acetate, propionate, and methoxyacetate on the activity of 17 enzymes was evaluated. The enzymes were preincubated with the rhodium(II) complexes in order to detect irreversible inhibition. All enzymes that have essential sulfhydryl groups in or near their active site were found to be irreversibly inhibited. Those enzymes without essential sulfhydryl groups were not affected. In each case, the rate of inactivation closely paralleled the observed toxicity and antitumor activity of rhodium(II) carboxylates; that is, rhodium(II) propionate greater than rhodium(II) acetate greater than rhodium(II) methoxyacetate. In addition, those enzymes that have been demonstrated to be most sensitive to established sulfhydryl inhibitors, such as glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, were also most sensitive to rhodium(II) carboxylate inactivation. Proton nuclear magnetic resonance measurements made during the titration of rhodium(II) acetate with cysteine showed that breakdown of the carboxylate cage occurred as a result of reaction with this sulfhydryl-containing amino acid.  (+info)

Synthesis and evaluation of [18F]1-amino-3-fluorocyclobutane-1-carboxylic acid to image brain tumors. (2/1503)

We have developed a new tumor-avid amino acid, 1-amino-3-fluorocyclobutane-1-carboxylic acid (FACBC), labeled with 18F for nuclear medicine imaging. METHODS: [18F]FACBC was prepared with high specific activity (no carrier added [NCA]) and was evaluated for its potential in tumor localization. A comparative study was performed for [18F]FACBC and [18F]2-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) in which the uptake of each agent in 9L gliosarcoma (implanted intracerebrally in Fisher 344 rats) was measured. In addition, the first human PET study of [18F]FACBC was performed on a patient with residual glioblastoma multiforme. Quantitative brain images of the patient were obtained by using a Siemens 921 47-slice PET imaging system. RESULTS: In the rat brain, the initial level of radioactivity accumulation after injection of [18F]FACBC was low (0.11 percentage injected dose per gram [%ID/g]) at 5 min and increased slightly to 0.26 %ID/g at 60 min. The tumor uptake exhibited a maximum at 60 min (1.72 %ID/g), resulting in a tumor-to-brain ratio increase of 5.58 at 5 min to 6.61 at 60 min. In the patient, the uptake of [18F]FACBC in the tumor exhibited a maximum concentration of 146 nCi/mL at 35 min after injection. The uptake of radioactivity in the normal brain tissue was low, 21 nCi/mL at 15 min after injection, and gradually increased to 29 nCi/mL at 60 min after injection. The ratio of tumor to normal tissue was 6 at 20 min after injection. The [18F]FACBC PET scan showed intense uptake in the left frontal region of the brain. CONCLUSION: The amino acid FACBC can be radiofluorinated for clinical use. [18F]FACBC is a potential PET tracer for tumor imaging.  (+info)

The PalkBFGHJKL promoter is under carbon catabolite repression control in Pseudomonas oleovorans but not in Escherichia coli alk+ recombinants. (3/1503)

The alk genes are located on the OCT plasmid of Pseudomonas oleovorans and encode an inducible pathway for the utilization of n-alkanes as carbon and energy sources. We have investigated the influence of alternative carbon sources on the induction of this pathway in P. oleovorans and Escherichia coli alk+ recombinants. In doing so, we confirmed earlier reports that induction of alkane hydroxylase activity in pseudomonads is subject to carbon catabolite repression. Specifically, synthesis of the monooxygenase component AlkB is repressed at the transcriptional level. The alk genes have been cloned into plasmid pGEc47, which has a copy number of about 5 to 10 per cell in both E. coli and pseudomonads. Pseudomonas putida GPo12 is a P. oleovorans derivative cured of the OCT plasmid. Upon introduction of pGEc47 in this strain, carbon catabolite repression of alkane hydroxylase activity was reduced significantly. In cultures of recombinant E. coli HB101 and W3110 carrying pGEc47, induction of AlkB and transcription of the alkB gene were no longer subject to carbon catabolite repression. This suggests that carbon catabolite repression of alkane degradation is regulated differently in Pseudomonas and in E. coli strains. These results also indicate that PalkBFGHJKL, the Palk promoter, might be useful in attaining high expression levels of heterologous genes in E. coli grown on inexpensive carbon sources which normally trigger carbon catabolite repression of native expression systems in this host.  (+info)

Trigeminal nerve ganglion stimulation-induced neurovascular reflexes in the anaesthetized cat: role of endothelin(B) receptors in carotid vasodilatation. (4/1503)

1. The effects of intravenous administration of endothelin (ET) receptor antagonists SB-209670 (0.001-10.0 mg kg(-1)), SB-217242, SB-234551 (0.01-10.0 mg kg(-1)) and BQ-788 (0.001-1.0 mg kg(-1)) were investigated on trigeminal nerve ganglion stimulation-induced neurovascular reflexes in the carotid vasculature of the anaesthetized cat. Comparisons were made with sumatriptan (0.003-3.0 mg kg(-1)) and alpha-CGRP8-37 (0.001-0.1 mg kg(-1)). 2. Trigeminal nerve ganglion stimulation produced frequency related increases in carotid blood flow, reductions in carotid vascular resistance and non-frequency related increases in blood pressure. Guanethidine (3 mg kg(-1), i.v.) blocked trigeminal nerve ganglion-induced increases in blood pressure but had no effect on changes in carotid flow or resistance. Maximal reductions in carotid vascular resistance was observed at 10 Hz, and this frequency was selected to investigate the effects of drugs on trigeminal nerve ganglion stimulation-induced responses in guanethidine treated cats. 3. Saline, alpha-CGRP8-37 SB-209670 and BQ-788 had little or no effect on resting haemodynamic parameters. SB-217242 (10 mg kg(-1), n=3) produced a 56% reduction in arterial blood pressure whereas SB-233451 (10 mg kg(-1), n=3) produced a 30% reduction in carotid vascular resistance. Sumatriptan produced dose-related reductions in resting carotid flow and increases (max. 104% at 0.3 mg kg(-1), n = 5) in vascular resistance. 4. SB-209670 (n=6-7), SB-217242 (n=3) and BQ-788 (n=3) produced inhibition of trigeminal nerve ganglion stimulation-induced reductions in carotid vascular resistance. Saline, SB-234551, alpha-CGRP8-37 and sumatriptan had no effect. 5. These data demonstrate ET(B) receptor blockade attenuates the vasodilator effects of trigeminal nerve ganglion stimulation in the carotid vascular bed of guanethidine pretreated anaesthetized cats.  (+info)

Active site characterization of the exo-N-acetyl-beta-D- glucosaminidase from thermotolerant Bacillus sp. NCIM 5120: involvement of tryptophan, histidine and carboxylate residues in catalytic activity. (5/1503)

The exo-N-acetyl-beta-d-glucosaminidase (EC 3.2.1.30) from thermotolerant Bacillus sp. NCIM 5120 is a homotetramer with a molecular mass of 240000 kDa. Chemical modification studies on the purified exo-N-acetyl-beta-d-glucosaminidase revealed the involvement of a single tryptophan, histidine and carboxylate, per monomer, in the catalytic activity of the enzyme. Spectral analysis and maintenance of total enzyme activities indicated that N-acetylglucosamine (competitive inhibitor) and p-nitrophenyl-N-acetyl-beta-d-glucosaminide (substrate) prevented the modification of a single essential tryptophan, histidine and carboxylate residue. Kinetic parameters of partially inactivated enzyme (by NBS/HNBB) showed the involvement of tryptophan in substrate binding while that of histidine (by photooxidation/DEPC) and carboxylate (by EDAC/WRK) in catalysis. The Bacillus sp. NCIM 5120 exo-N-acetyl-beta-d-glucosaminidase deviates from the reported N-acetyl-beta-d-glucosaminidases and beta-hexosaminidases that utilize anchimeric assistance in their hydrolytic mechanism.  (+info)

Combinatorial receptor codes for odors. (6/1503)

The discriminatory capacity of the mammalian olfactory system is such that thousands of volatile chemicals are perceived as having distinct odors. Here we used a combination of calcium imaging and single-cell RT-PCR to identify odorant receptors (ORs) for odorants with related structures but varied odors. We found that one OR recognizes multiple odorants and that one odorant is recognized by multiple ORs, but that different odorants are recognized by different combinations of ORs. Thus, the olfactory system uses a combinatorial receptor coding scheme to encode odor identities. Our studies also indicate that slight alterations in an odorant, or a change in its concentration, can change its "code," potentially explaining how such changes can alter perceived odor quality.  (+info)

Requirement of the carboxy-terminal domain of RNA polymerase II for the transcriptional activation of chromosomal c-fos and hsp70A genes. (7/1503)

The carboxy-terminal domain of the large subunit of mouse and human RNA polymerase II contains 52 repeats of a heptapeptide which are the targets for a variety of kinases. We have used an alpha-amanitin resistant form of the large subunit of pol II to study the role of the carboxy-terminal domain in the expression of chromosomal genes. The large subunit of RNA polymerase II and deletion mutants thereof, which contain only 31 (LSdelta31) and 5 (LSdeltaS) repeats, were expressed in 293 cells. Subsequently, the endogenous large subunit of RNA polymerase II was inhibited by alpha-amanitin and the induction of chromosomal c-fos and hsp70A genes was determined. Cells expressing the large subunit of RNA polymerase II and LSdelta31 were able to transcribe the c-fos and hsp70A genes after treatment with the phorbolester TPA and after heat-shock, respectively. In contrast, cells expressing LSdelta5 failed to induce expression of both genes.  (+info)

Microbial oxidation of methane and methanol: isolation of methane-utilizing bacteria and characterization of a facultative methane-utilizing isolate. (8/1503)

A methane-utilizing organism capable of growth both on methane and on more complex organic substrates as a sole source of carbon and energy, has been isolated and studied in detail. Suspensions of methane-grown cells of this organism oxidized C-1 compounds (methane, methanol, formaldehyde, formate); hydrocarbons (ethane, propane); primary alcohols (ethanol, propanol); primary aldehydes (acetaldehyde, propionaldehyde); alkenes (ethylene, propylene); dimethylether; and organic acids (acetate, malate, succinate, isocitrate). Suspensions of methanol-or succinate-grown cells did not oxidize methane, ethane, propane, ethylene, propylene, or dimethylether, suggesting that the enzymatic systems required for oxidation of these substrates are induced only during growth on methane. Extracts of methane-grown cells contained a particulate reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide-dependent methane monooxygenase activity. Oxidation of methanol, formaldehyde, and primary alcohols was catalyzed by a phenazine methosulfate-linked, ammonium ion-requiring methanol dehydrogenase. Oxidation of primary aldehydes was catalyzed by a phenazine methosulfate-linked, ammonium ion-independent aldehyde dehydrogenase. Formate was oxidized by a nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide-specific formate dehydrogenase. Extracts of methane-grown, but not succinate-grown, cells contained the key enzymes of the serine pathway, hydroxypyruvate reductase and malate lyase, indicating that the enzymes of C-1 assimilation are induced only during growth on C-1 compounds. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase was induced during growth on glucose. Extracts of methane-grown cells contained low levels of enzymes of the tricarboxylic acid cycle, including alpha-keto glutarate dehydrogenase, relative to the levels found during growth on succinate.  (+info)

This invention pertains to the production of higher homologues of aliphatic carboxylic acids by reaction of said acids with carbon monoxide and hydrogen in the presence of one or more palladium-contai
Carboxylic acids Carboxylic acids are considered the most acidic organic compounds, however, they are not strong acids like the inorganic acids such as
0143] As an aliphatic carboxylic acid component constituting the aliphatic carboxylate ester, the same acid as said aliphatic carboxylic acid can be used. On the other hand, as an alcohol component constituting the aliphatic carboxylate ester, saturated or unsaturated monohydric alcohol, saturated or unsaturated polyhydric alcohol, and the like are included. These alcohols may have a substituent such as fluorine atom, aryl group, and the like. Among these alcohols, monohydric or polyhydric saturated alcohol having 30 or less carbon atoms is preferable, and aliphatic saturated monohydric alcohol or polyhydric alcohol having 30 or less carbon atoms is further preferable. Herein, aliphatic alcohol also encompasses alicyclic alcohols. Specific example of such alcohol includes octanol, decanol, dodecanol, stearyl alcohol, behenyl alcohol, ethylene glycol, diethylene glycol, glycerin, pentaerythritol, 2,2-dihydroxyperfluoropropanol, neopentylene glycol, ditrimethylolpropane, dipentaerythritol, and the ...
295329207 - EP 1009741 A1 2000-06-21 - NOVEL CARBOXYLIC ACID DERIVATIVES, THEIR PRODUCTION AND THEIR USE AS MIXED ET A?/ET B? ENDOTHELIN-RECEPTOR ANTAGONISTS - [origin: WO9911629A1] The invention relates to carboxylic acid derivatives of formula (I) wherein the radicals are defined in the description, and to the use of these derivatives as ETA/ETB endothelin-receptor antagonists.[origin: WO9911629A1] The invention relates to carboxylic acid derivatives of formula (I) wherein the radicals are defined in the description, and to the use of these derivatives as ETA/ETB endothelin-receptor antagonists.
United States Patent f U.S. Cl. 38144 20 Claims ABSTRACT OF THE DISCLOSURE Crosslinked fibrous compositions comprising cellulose esterified with a polycarboxylic acid, which acid meets the following requirements: (1) contains no functional groups except carboxyl, (2) contains at least three free carboxylic groups, (3) each carboxyl group attached to a separate carbon atom, (4) at least two of the plurality of carboxyl groups separated by no more than one carbon atom, are prepared by treating fibrous cellulose with said carboxylic acid having varying amounts of the carboxylic acid function neutralized with an alkali metal hydroxide, ammonium hydroxide or an amine, and heating the treated cellulose to induce esterification and concurrent crosslinking. Fabrics composed of such fibers are capable of developing durable creases. A non-exclusive, irrevocable, royalty-free license in the invention herein described, throughout the world for all purposes of the United States Government, with the power to ...
1811107DNASaccharomyces cerevisiae 1atgaaaataa aaattttagt agatgaatat aatacgcaga aagaacaggc taaaaaagta 60cgaaaagcaa cttcattata tttccgcatt catccttcaa ttatggccag caagactttg 120agggttcttt ttctgggtcc caaaggtacg tattcccatc aagctgcatt acaacaattt 180caatcaacat ctgatgttga gtacctccca gcagcctcta tcccccaatg ttttaaccaa 240ttggagaacg acactagtat agattattca gtggtaccgt tggaaaattc caccaatgga 300caagtagttt tttcctatga tctcttgcgt gataggatga tcaaaaaagc cctatcctta 360cctgctccag cagatactaa tagaattaca ccagatatag aagttatagc ggagcaatat 420gtacccatta cccattgtct aatcagccca atccaactac caaatggtat tgcatccctt 480ggaaattttg aagaagtcat aatacactca catccgcaag tatggggcca ggttgaatgt 540tacttaaggt ccatggcaga aaaatttccg caggtcacct ttataagatt ggattgttct 600tccacatctg aatcagtgaa ccaatgcatt cggtcatcaa cggccgattg cgacaacatt 660ctgcatttag ccattgctag tgaaacagct gcccaattgc ataaggcgta catcattgaa 720cattcgataa atgataagct aggaaataca acaagatttt tagtattgaa gagaagggag 780aacgcaggcg acaatgaagt agaagacact ggattactac gggttaacct actcaccttt ...
Pakistan imported Acids; cyclanic, cyclenic or cycloterpenic polycarboxylic acids, their anhydrides, halides, peroxides, peroxyacids and derivatives from China ($346.11K , 200,000 Kg), Germany ($295.14K , 146,981 Kg), Hong Kong, China ($55.86K , 38,740 Kg), Other Asia, nes ($35.39K , 20,790 Kg), United States ($22.66K , 5,013 Kg ...
Concrete Water Reducing Agent Polycarboxylic Acid Super Plasticizer picture from Shandong Jufu Chemical Technology Co., Ltd. view photo of Polycarboxylate Superplasticizer, PCE Powder, Water Reducer.Contact China Suppliers for More Products and Price.
Summary of Facts and Submissions. I. The appeals of the patent proprietor and of opponent 2 lie against the decision of the opposition division posted on 2 April 2012 maintaining European patent No. 1 517 959 (application No. 03 736 789.3, based on international application WO 03/106561, filed as PCT/US2003/017279) in amended form according to the seventh auxiliary request filed on 23 December 2011.. II. The application as filed contained 16 claims, of which the claims relevant for the present decision read as follows:. 1. An aqueous binder composition for making glass fiber products comprising an aqueous mixture of a substantially infinitely water-dilutable or dispersible adduct of a monomeric polycarboxylic acid component and a monomeric polyol component.. 5. The aqueous binder composition of claim 1 wherein the monomeric polycarboxylic acid component has a molecular weight less than 500 and has a plurality of carboxylic acid moieties.. 7. The aqueous binder composition of claim 5 wherein ...
Ethyl propionate is a small aliphatic ester with a molecular weight of 102.1 g/mole. It is soluble in water (19.0 g/L at 20¿C, pH 4.4) with a partition coefficient (Log Pow) of 1.31 and a vapor pressure of 42.8 hPa at 20°C. With these physical/chemical (phys/chem) properties, oral, dermal and inhalation exposures are all potential routes of exposure. The metabolism and excretion of a number of flavouring esters with a similar structure to ethyl propionate (such as ethyl butyrate) has been evaluated by the WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives in a review of food additives and contaminants (WHO 1997). These esters are readily hydrolyzed to ethyl alcohol (ethanol) and the corresponding aliphatic carboxylic acid. It is therefore expected that ethyl propionate will behave in the same way, giving rise to ethanol and propionic acid. Ethanol is oxidized by alcohol and aldehyde dehydrogenases to eventually form acetyl CoA which joins the natural carbon pool to be converted into CO2, fatty acids, ...
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In a new paper, a large international research team describes how they methodically varied the combinations and concentrations of CO2, ammonia, L-lactic acid and seven aliphatic carboxylic acids to come up with a synthetic human scent that, under some conditions, is even more attractive to mosquitoes than the real thing. The team tested the synthetic lures in the field in a village in southeastern Tanzania. The optimized odor blend was more attractive than human scent when the two samples were set up in huts located 10 to 100 meters apart. When mosquitoes had to choose between sample in close proximity in the same hut, the synthetic lure no longer had an advantage. Still, bait stations strategically located outside a village could draw significant numbers of insects away from homes in the village ...
A composition capable of promoting the skin permeation or percutaneous absorption of a drug, which comprises a lower alcohol and at least one member of the group consisting of a saturated aliphatic hydrocarbon containing 5 to 20 carbon atoms, which may optionally be halogen-substituted, a monohydric alcohol ester of an aliphatic carboxylic acid, which contains 13 to 24 carbon atoms, and an ether containing 8 to 16 carbon atoms with one ether bondage in the molecule; and an external preparation containing the above composition as a base.
When we think of the deadliest diseases of the world, things like Ebola and the Black Death come to our minds. However, it turns out that cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the worlds leading cause of death in this day and age. In the 1970s, we were convinced that CVD was caused by dietary fat. Indeed, there was a public campaign to stamp out fat and replace it with carbohydrates. People didnt realize that fat wasnt the issue. Rather, fat has the highest calorie/mass ratio (9 calories per gram) and excess consumption of fat leads to obesity and its milieu of problems, including CVD. The food industry replaced fat with carbohydrates to meet this craze, and fat-free foods were instead pumped with sugar. Of course, calories are calories-and when people consumed these foods in earnest, not much changed with regards to the incidence of CVD.. So what exactly is fat? Chemically, fat is a glycerol molecule + three fatty acids. Fatty acids are long-chained aliphatic carboxylic acids that are either ...
At least three component, body-implantable, absorbable, biocompatible, putty, and non-putty pain-relieving compositions for use in surgery comprising in intimate admixture: an analgesic having local pain-relieving activity for internal relief of pain, a finely powdered bulking material, preferably less than 50 microns, e.g. the metal salts of fatty acid, hydroxyapatite, DBM, polyglycolide, polylactide, polycaprolactones, absorbable glasses, gelatin, collagens, mono, and polysaccharides starches. An organic liquid capable of solubilizing, dispensing or suspending the analgesic, such as esters of monohydric alcohols with aliphatic monocarboxylic acids; C2-C18 monohydric alcohols with polycarboxylic acids; C8-C30 monohydric alcohols; tocopherol and esters thereof with mono or polycarboxylic acids; free carboxylic acids such as oleic, capric, and lauric; dialkyl ethers and ketones; polyhydroxy compounds and esters and ethers thereof; random or block copolymers of ethylene oxide and propylene oxide.
The pH of saturated benzoic acid (C6H5COOH) at 25 degrees Celsius is 2.8. Benzoic acid is the simplest aromatic carboxylic acid, consisting of a benzene ring bonded to carboxylic acid.Source:Benzoic Acid MSDSNIST: Benzoic AcidIPCS: Benzoic Acid
Disclosed herein are anti-inflammatory and anti-ulcer copper coordination compounds and a process for using them in the treatment of arthritis and gastrointestinal ulcers in animal bodies. The copper coordination compounds utilized are the reaction products of copper salts with: 1. aromatic carboxylic acids or their alkaline earth salts; 2. heterocyclic carboxylic acids or their alkaline earth salts; 3. amino acids or their alkaline earth salts; 4. amines; and 5. suitably substituted steroids. The process disclosed comprises administering to experimental animals, orally or parentrally (subcutaneously), in controlled dosages, the aforementioned copper coordination compounds for the treatment of inflammation (i.e., arthritis) and ulcers of the gastrointestinal tract.
Carboxylic acids are commonly identified by their trivial names. They often have the suffix -ic acid. IUPAC-recommended names also exist; in this system, carboxylic acids have an -oic acid suffix.[2] For example, butyric acid (C3H7CO2H) is butanoic acid by IUPAC guidelines. For nomenclature of complex molecules containing a carboxylic acid, the carboxyl can be considered position one of the parent chain even if there are other substituents, such as 3-chloropropanoic acid. Alternately, it can be named as a carboxy or carboxylic acid substituent on another parent structure, such as 2-carboxyfuran. The carboxylate anion (R-COO− or RCO2−) of a carboxylic acid is usually named with the suffix -ate, in keeping with the general pattern of -ic acid and -ate for a conjugate acid and its conjugate base, respectively. For example, the conjugate base of acetic acid is acetate. Carbonic acid, which occurs in bicarbonate buffer systems in nature, is not generally classed as one of the carboxylic ...
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The syntheses of a number of aromatic aldonitrones of N-(2-hydroxyphenylmethyl)hydroxylamine and their subsequent reactions with diphenylborinic or carboxylic acid derivatives are reported. Crystals of 8-(4-dimethylaminophenylmethylene)-6,6-diphenyl-5,7-dioxa-8-azonia-6-bor ata-5H-6,7,8,9-tetrahydrobenzocycloheptene, 2b, are triclinic. ...
295841911 - EP 0969841 A1 20000112 - USE OF CARBOXYLIC ACID DERIVATIVES FOR TREATING CANCER - [origin: WO9841206A1] This invention provides a method for treating cancer in an individual, wherein the cancer is a tumor in which endothelin is upregulated (e.g. tumors of the prostate, lung, liver, breast, brain, stomach, colon, endometrium, testicle, thyroid, pituitary, bladder, kidney, pancreas and meninges) by administering to the individual an effective amount of a compound of formula (I) or formula (Ia), as described therein.[origin: WO9841206A1] This invention provides a method for treating cancer in an individual, wherein the cancer is a tumor in which endothelin is upregulated (e.g. tumors of the prostate, lung, liver, breast, brain, stomach, colon, endometrium, testicle, thyroid, pituitary, bladder, kidney, pancreas and meninges) by administering to the individual an effective amount of a compound of formula (I) or formula (Ia), as described therein.
Carboxylic acids contain a carbon atom that is attached to one oxygen atom with a double bond, a hydroxyl group by a single bond, and one additional bond to an organic group (R-) which is often an alkane or alkene group. They are often written as R-C(=O)OH, , R-COOH or R-CO2H. Carboxylic acids are weak Brønsted-Lowry acids which only partially dissociate in water to produce the hydronium ion [H3O]+ and the conjugate base of the acid, [R-CO2]-. Although small carboxylic acids are soluble in water, larger acids are increasingly insoluble in water but increasingly soluble in non-polar solvents. ...
Preparation of a 1,2,4-triazol-3-one compound substituted in positions 4 and 5 by an alkyl or aryl group and, optionally, in position 2 by an alkyl group, by reacting an ester a of carbamic acid N-substituted by an alkyl or aryl group with a hydrazide of an aliphatic or aromatic carboxylic acid, optionally N-substituted by an alkyl group, in the presence of a strong base.
Water insoluble polycaprolactone-epoxide adducts are produced comprising the reaction product of a polycaprolactone polyol, a diepoxide and an anhydride of a polycarboxylic acid. The polycaprolactone polyol reacted with the diepoxide and the anhydride of the polycarboxylic acid has at least two hydroxyl groups in the molecule, a hydroxyl number of from about 15 to about 600 and an average molecular weight of from about 290 to about 6,000. The carboxylic acid anhydride has at least one intramolecular carboxylic anhydride group. These water insoluble polycaprolactone-epoxide adducts on reaction with an inorganic or organic base produce water soluble, carboxyl modifier polycarprolactone-epoxide oligomer addition reaction products which are eminently suitable for the production of aqueous coatings compositions. Exceptionally good coatings compositions are obtained when a crosslinker is present in the coating composition.
PURPOSE: For the accurate diagnosis of organic acidopathies, quantification of urinary organic acid should be done and we should know the normal ranges of each organic acid excreted in the urine. The amount of organic acids excreted in the urine shows wide variability according to ethnic group, diet and age. We have quantified 82 organic acids to make a Korean reference value. METHODS: Organic acid concentrations were quantified with gas chromatography and the individual acids identified with mass spectrometry in urine specimens from members of the healthy Korean population of ages of one day to more than 12 years, subdivided into four age groups : neonatal period(-2 mon), infantile period(-2 year), childhood period(-12 year) and adolescent and adulthood(over 12 years). For isolation of organic acids from urine, we used solvent extraction method with ethylacetate. Derivatization was done with MSTFA(N-methyl-N-trimethylsilylfluoroacetamide). The library and four points quantification curve for ...
Pyrogenic organic matter (PyOM), the incomplete combustion product of organic materials, is considered stable in soils and represents a potentially important terrestrial sink for atmospheric carbon dioxide. One well-established method of measuring PyOM in the environment is as benzene polycarboxylic acids (BPCAs), a compound-specific method, which allows both qualitative and quantitative estimation of PyOM. Until now, stable isotope measurement of PyOM carbon involved measurement of the trimethylsilyl (TMS) or methyl (Me) polycarboxylic acid derivatives by gas chromatography-combustion-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC-C-IRMS). However, BPCA derivatives can contain as much as 150% derivative carbon, necessitating post-analysis correction for the accurate measurement of δ13 C values, leading to increased measurement error. Here, we describe a method for δ13 C isotope ratio measurement and quantification of BPCAs from soil-derived PyOM, based on ion-exchange chromatography (IEC-IRMS). The ...
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Cancer cells exhibit characteristic changes in their metabolism with efforts being made to address them therapeutically. However, targeting metabolic enzymes as such is a major challenge due to their essentiality for normal proliferating cells. The most successful pharmaceutical targets are G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), with more than 40% of all currently available drugs acting through them. We show that, a family of metabolite-sensing GPCRs, the Hydroxycarboxylic acid receptor family (HCAs), is crucial for breast cancer cells to control their metabolism and proliferation. We found HCA(1) and HCA(3) mRNA expression were significantly increased in breast cancer patient samples and detectable in primary human breast cancer patient cells. Furthermore, siRNA mediated knock-down of HCA3 induced considerable breast cancer cell death as did knock-down of HCA1, although to a lesser extent. Liquid Chromatography Mass Spectrometry based analyses of breast cancer cell medium revealed a role for HCA3 ...
Summary of Facts and Submissions. I. European patent No. 0 273 202 based on application No. 87 117 405.8 was granted with 21 claims.. Claim 1 as granted reads as follows:. Use of. - a topical dermatologic agent together with. - an enhancing effective amount of at least one compound selected from the group consisting of hydroxycarboxylic acids and ketocarboxylic acids and esters, lactones, or salt forms thereof,. - wherein the composition must not contain reductive diphenols together with a plant extract,. for the preparation of a topical dermatologic therapeutic composition with enhanced therapeutic effect. for use in the treatment of fungal infections, and pigmented spots including pigmented age spots, melasma, and lentigines.. II. Opposition was filed against the granted patent under Article 100(a) EPC for lack of novelty and inventive step and under Article 100(b) EPC for insufficiency of disclosure.. The following document was cited inter alia during the proceedings before the opposition ...
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In case of carboxylic acids the negative charge is on the more electronegative element that is oxygen as shown in the structure in both of the resonating structures. The negative charge on the more electronegative element makes it more stable. And thus it shows acidic character easily. But in case of phenols the negative charge…
For the reaction mechanism of the ketonic decarboxylation of two carboxylic acids, a β-keto acid is favored as key intermediate in many experimental and theoretical studies. Hydrogen atoms in the α-position are an indispensable requirement for the substrates to react by following this mechanism. However, isolated observations with tertiary carboxylic acids are not consistent with it and these are revisited and discussed herein. The experimental results obtained with pivalic acid indicate that th
Physical Properties of Carboxylic Acids. The first three acids are colourless, pungent smelling liquids.. First four members are miscible in water due the intermolecular hydrogen bonding whereas higher members are miscible in non - polar solvents like ether.. Benzene or ethanol but immiscible in water due to the increase in the size of lyophobic alkyl chain.. The first three acids are colourless, pungent smelling liquids. First four members are miscible in water due the intermolecular hydrogen bonding whereas higher members are miscible in non - polar solvents like ether. Benzene or ethanol but immiscible in water due to the increase in the size of lyophobic alkyl chain.. The b.p. of carboxylic acids are higher than alcohols because carboxylic acids exist as dimers due to the presence of intermolecular H-bonding. Increase in the number of Halogen atoms on a-position increases the acidity, eg. CCl3COOH , CHCl2COOH , ClCH2COOH , CH3COOH Increase in the distance of Halogen from COOH decreases the ...
Carboxylic acid is an organic molecule and an acid containing a carboxyl group, formula -COOH. They are a functional group present in both amino acids and fatty acids. Carboxylic acids are weak acids, and therefore dissociate incompletely in water, forming an equilibrium between the RCOOH molecule and the RCOO- and H+ ions. ...
This review focuses on catalytic enantioselective reactions wherein a catalytic amount of a chiral carboxylic acid is used to activate one or more substrates. While activation can occur via hydrogen bonding or protonation, it is often challenging to differentiate between these modes of activation which really represent different ends of a spectrum of possible interactions. While there are a significant number of plausible interactions between the catalyst and substrate(s), the nature of these interactions may also change during different stages of the reaction. In addition, a range of other non-covalent interactions between the catalyst and substrates are often present simultaneously and may play decisive roles with regard to reactivity and enantioselectivity.56,57 Reports wherein chiral carboxylic acids are used as additives in aminocatalysis to facilitate the formation of enamines or iminium ions,58-60 or in combination with chiral phosphoric acid catalysts to reduce product inhibition and ...
Polyglucosamine derivatives, e.g., chitosan, substituted with oxirane carboxylic acids, e.g., epoxysuccinic acid, are disclosed. The polyglucosamine derivatives can be prepared in a covalently bonded or ionically bonded form. Methods for preparing the polyglucosamine derivatives are disclosed as well as compositions containing the derivatives and uses for the derivatives.
61-24-5:C16H21N3O8S, 5-Thia-1-azabicyclo[4.2.0]oct-2-ene-2-carboxylic acid, 3-[(acetyloxy)methyl]-7-[[(5R)-5-amino-5-carboxy-1-oxopentyl]amino]-8-oxo-, (6R,7R)-, 5-Thia-1-azabicyclo[4.2.0]oct-2-ene-2-carboxylic acid, 3-[(acetyloxy)methyl]-7-[(5-amino-5-carboxy-1-oxopentyl)amino]-8-oxo-, [6R-[6α,7β(R*)]]-, 5-Thia-1-azabicyclo[4.2.0]oct-2-ene-2-carboxylic acid, 3-[(acetyloxy)methyl]-7-[[(5R)-5-amino-5-carboxy-1-oxopentyl]amino]-8-oxo-, (6R,7R)-, 5-Thia-1-azabicyclo[4.2.0]oct-2-ene-2-carboxylic acid, 7-(5-amino-5-carboxyvaleramido)-3-(hydroxymethyl)-8-oxo-, acetate (ester), 7-(5-amino-5-carboxyvaleramido)cephalosporanic acid, 7-(5-Amino-5-carboxyvaleramido)cephalosporansaure, acide 7-(5-amino-5-carboxyvaleramido)cephalosporanique, acido 7-(5-amino-5-carboxivaleramido)cefalosporanico, Cephalosporin C
TY - JOUR. T1 - Catalytic transformation of alcohols to carboxylic acid salts and H 2 using water as the oxygen atom source. AU - Balaraman, Ekambaram. AU - Khaskin, Eugene. AU - Leitus, Gregory. AU - Milstein, David. PY - 2013/2/1. Y1 - 2013/2/1. N2 - The oxidation of alcohols to carboxylic acids is an important industrial reaction used in the synthesis of bulk and fine chemicals. Most current processes are performed by making use of either stoichiometric amounts of toxic oxidizing agents or the use of pressurized dioxygen. Here, we describe an alternative dehydrogenative pathway effected by water and base with the concomitant generation of hydrogen gas. A homogeneous ruthenium complex catalyses the transformation of primary alcohols to carboxylic acid salts at low catalyst loadings (0.2 mol%) in basic aqueous solution. A consequence of this finding could be a safer and cleaner process for the synthesis of carboxylic acids and their derivatives at both laboratory and industrial scales.. AB - ...
Quick Tips Class 12th Chemistry Exam/Tips/Notes (Part 31) Aldehydes, Ketones, Carboxylic Acids (4) By Sanjit Sir Topic: Aldehydes, Ketones, Carboxylic Acids, Nomenclature of Carboxylic Acids, Methods of Preparation of Carboxylic Acids, Physical Properties #chemistry #cbse #class12 Download CBSE 2019 Chemistry Sample Questions Paper & Marking Scheme PDF on Link below:…
A coating solution comprising: a first solvent; 0.1 to 30 parts by weight of a polycarboxylic acid-based polymer relative to 100 parts by weight of the solvent; 0.01 to 0.35 chemical equivalent of an alkali metal compound relative to an amount of carboxyl group in the polycarboxylic acid-based polymer; and 0.05 to 0.75 chemical equivalent of a multivalent metal compound relative to the amount of the carboxyl group, wherein a number average molecular weight of the polycarboxylic acid-based polymer is in a range of 40,000 to 10,000,000.
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These organic compounds donate hydrogen ions if a base is present to accept them. They react in this way with all bases, both organic (for example, the amines) and inorganic. Their reactions with bases, called neutralizations, are accompanied by the evolution of substantial amounts of heat. Neutralization between an acid and a base produces water plus a salt. Carboxylic acids with six or fewer carbon atoms are freely or moderately soluble in water; those with more than six carbons are slightly soluble in water. Soluble carboxylic acid dissociate to some extent in water to yield hydrogen ions. The pH of solutions of carboxylic acids is therefore less than 7.0. Many insoluble carboxylic acids react rapidly with aqueous solutions containing a chemical base and dissolve as the neutralization generates a soluble salt. Carboxylic acids in aqueous solution and liquid or molten carboxylic acids can react with active metals to form gaseous hydrogen and a metal salt. Such reactions occur in principle ...
They are named using the alkane, followed by -oic acid, for example; CH3CH2COOH is ethanoic acid, as it has two carbons attached to the carboxyl group. For acids with two carboxyl groups, the suffix -dioic acid is added instead ...
1-Methyl-Piperidine-3-Carboxylic Acid Methyl Ester 1690-72-8 route of synthesis, 1-Methyl-Piperidine-3-Carboxylic Acid Methyl Ester chemical synthesis methods, 1-Methyl-Piperidine-3-Carboxylic Acid Methyl Ester synthetic routes ect.
5-ETHOXY-1H-INDOLE-2-CARBOXYLIC ACID METHYL ESTER chemical properties, What are the chemical properties of 5-ETHOXY-1H-INDOLE-2-CARBOXYLIC ACID METHYL ESTER 889955-61-7, What are the physical properties of 5-ETHOXY-1H-INDOLE-2-CARBOXYLIC ACID METHYL ESTER ect.
According to the systematic nomenclature, lactones are oxacycloalkanones. A five-membered ring lactone thus is an oxacyclopentan-2-one. The position number of the carbonyl carbon is 2, since, according to CIP rules, the ring atom with the highest mass is labeled number 1. If the term lactone is used in the classification of a lactone, the (longer) distance between the carbonyl carbon and the ring oxygen is indicated by a Greek symbol. Thus, while a four-membered ring lactone is a β-lactone, a five-membered ring lactone is a γ-lactone and a six-membered ring lactone is a δ-lactone. Since the ring strain would be too strong, α-lactones cannot be formed. ...
A carbon oxoacid acid carrying at least one -C(=O)OH group and having the structure RC(=O)OH, where R is any any monovalent functional group. Carboxylic acids are the most common type of organic acid.. ...
The transcriptional response to metabolites is an important mechanism by which plants integrate information about cellular energy and nutrient status. Although some carboxylic acids have been implicated in the regulation of gene expression for select transcripts, it is unclear whether all carboxylic acids have the same effect, how many transcripts are affected, and how carboxylic acid signaling is integrated with other metabolite signals. In this study, we demonstrate that perturbations in cellular concentrations of citrate, and to a lesser extent malate, have a major impact on nucleus-encoded transcript abundance. Functional categories of transcripts that were targeted by both organic acids included photosynthesis, cell wall, biotic stress, and protein synthesis. Specific functional categories that were only regulated by citrate included tricarboxylic acid cycle, nitrogen metabolism, sulfur metabolism, and DNA synthesis. Further quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis of specific
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A ruthenium based photoredox catalyst in combination with a substoichiometric amount of 1,4-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]octane (DABCO) efficiently catalyzed dual decarboxylative couplings between alkenyl carboxylic acids and N-(acyloxy)phthalimides derived from aliphatic carboxylic acids, delivering alkylated styrene
Benzoic acid / b ɛ n ˈ z oʊ. ɪ k /, C 7 H 6 O 2 (or C 6 H 5 COOH), is a colorless crystalline solid and a simple aromatic carboxylic acid.The name is derived from gum benzoin, which was for a long time its only known source.Benzoic acid occurs naturally in many plants and serves as an intermediate in the biosynthesis of many secondary metabolites. Salts of benzoic acid are used as food ...
A stabilized solid bleaching agent which has good solubility in water without undergoing the occurrence of foaming and without generating residues has been demanded. The present invention provides a stabilized solid-bleaching-agent-containing material having a coating layer formed therein, wherein the coating layer contains at least one component selected from the group consisting of an alkali metal salt of an aromatic carboxylic acid, an alkali metal salt of a non-cyclic dicarboxylic acid, an alkali metal salt of a non-cyclic monocarboxylic acid having 1 to 7 carbon atoms and mixtures thereof.
Hydrolyzes the toxic metabolites of a variety of organophosphorus insecticides. Capable of hydrolyzing a broad spectrum of organophosphate substrates and lactones, and a number of aromatic carboxylic acid esters. Mediates an enzymatic protection of low density lipoproteins against oxidative modification.
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臺大位居世界頂尖大學之列,為永久珍藏及向國際展現本校豐碩的研究成果及學術能量,圖書館整合機構典藏(NTUR)與學術庫(AH)不同功能平台,成為臺大學術典藏NTU scholars。期能整合研究能量、促進交流合作、保存學術產出、推廣研究成果。. To permanently archive and promote researcher profiles and scholarly works, Library integrates the services of NTU Repository with Academic Hub to form NTU Scholars.. ...
After the basic information about Carboxylic Acid Ester market, the report sheds light on the production. Production plants, their capacities, global production and revenue are studied. Also, the Carboxylic Acid Ester Industry growth in various regions and R&D status are also covered.. Purchase the Carboxylic Acid Ester Market Research Report @ http://www.360marketupdates.com/checkout/10349326. Further in the report, the Carboxylic Acid Ester market is examined for price, cost and gross. These three points are analysed for types, companies and regions. In continuation with this data sale price is for various types, applications and region is also included. The Carboxylic Acid Ester market consumption for major regions is given. Additionally, type wise and application wise consumption figures are also given.. To provide information on competitive landscape, this report includes detailed profiles of Carboxylic Acid Ester Industry key players. For each player, product details, capacity, price, ...
英文別名:5-Methyl-; 4-oxadiazole-2-carboxylic acid potassium salt; 5-methyl-1,3,4-oxadiazole-2-carboxylic acid potassium; potassiuM 5-Methyl-1,3,4-oxadiazole-2-carboxylic acid; 5-Methyl-1,3,4-oxadiazole-2-carboxylic acid potassium salt; 5-methyl-1,3,4-oxadiazole-2-carboxylic acid(SALTDATA: FREE); 1,3,4-Oxadiazole-2-carboxylic acid, 5-Methyl-, potassiuM salt; 5-Methyl-1,3,4-oxadiazole-2-carboxylic acid, potassiuM salt (1:1) ...
Looking for online definition of carboxylic acids in the Medical Dictionary? carboxylic acids explanation free. What is carboxylic acids? Meaning of carboxylic acids medical term. What does carboxylic acids mean?
In 2018, Top exporters of Acids; unsaturated acyclic monocarboxylic acids; esters of acrylic acid are Belgium ($493,922.76K , 311,279,000 Kg), Germany ($427,166.51K , 259,417,000 Kg), United States ($397,662.96K , 251,160,000 Kg), China ($351,020.34K , 206,045,000 Kg), European Union ($249,306.52K , 153,206,000 Kg ...
A process for producing polycarboxylic acids or salts thereof by contacting a polysaccharide with nitrogen dioxide and dinitrogen tetroxide at a charging temperature in the range from the boiling point of nitrogen dioxide under a particular pressure to a temperature which is 50.degree. C. higher than said boiling point, oxidizing the primary alcohol groups of the polysaccharide at a temperature which is at least about 10.degree. C. above said charging temperature to convert the primary alcohol groups into carboxyl groups, and optionally, at least partially neutralizing the carboxylic acid groups formed.
Heavy metals such as silver, mercury and lead form salts having more covalent character (3rd example), and the water solubility is reduced, especially for acids composed of four or more carbon atoms. Here the relatively small methyl group of acetic acid is replaced by a larger tert-butyl group, and the bulkier acid reacted fifty times slower than acetic acid. Carboxylic acid functional group is very common in organic synthesis and in biochemical processes. Carboxylic acids and sodium hydroxide reaction . Increasing the bulk of the alcohol reactant results in a similar rate reduction. Thus, knowing the reactions of carboxylic acids is a must for anyone who wants to master organic chemistry. A mechanism for this general esterification reaction will be displayed on clicking the Esterification Mechanism button; also, once the mechanism diagram is displayed, a reaction coordinate for it can be seen by clicking the head of the green energy diagram arrow. Carboxylic acid and metals reaction. For ...
About SODIUM LAURETH-13 CARBOXYLATE: Sodium Laureth-13 Carboxylate is a sodium salt of the carboxylic acid derived fromLaureth-13 (q.v.).. Function(s): Surfactant - Cleansing Agent. Synonym(s): .ALPHA.- (CARBOXYMETHYL) -.OMEGA.- (DODECYLOXY) POLY (OXY-1,2-ETHANEDIYL) , SODIUM SALT; DODECYLOXYPOLY (ETHYLENEOXY) ACETIC ACID SODIUM SALT; LAURETH-13 CARBOXYLIC ACID, SODIUM SALT; PEG-13 LAURYL ETHER CARBOXYLIC ACID, SODIUM SALT; POLY (OXY-1,2-ETHANEDIYL) , .ALPHA.- (CARBOXYMETHYL) -.OMEGA.- (DODECYLOXY) -, SODIUM SALT; POLYETHYLENE GLYCOL (13) LAURYL ETHER CARBOXYLIC ACID, SODIUM SALT; POLYOXYETHYLENE (13) LAURYL ETHER CARBOXYLIC ACID, SODIUM SALT; SODIUM SALT LAURETH-13 CARBOXYLIC ACID; SODIUM SALT PEG-13 LAURYL ETHER CARBOXYLIC ACID; SODIUM SALT POLYETHYLENE GLYCOL (13) LAURYL ETHER CARBOXYLIC ACID; SODIUM SALT POLYOXYETHYLENE (13) LAURYL ETHER CARBOXYLIC ACID. ...
Cannabinoid receptor subtype 2 (CB2) has been shown to be up-regulated in activated microglia and therefore plays an important role in neuroinflammatory and neurodegenerative diseases such as multiple sclerosis, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and Alzheimers disease. The CB2 receptor is therefore considered as a very promising target for therapeutic approaches as well as for imaging. A promising 2-oxoquinoline derivative designated KP23 was synthesized and radiolabeled and its potential as a ligand for PET imaging the CB2 receptor was evaluated. [11C]KP23 was obtained in 10%-25% radiochemical yield (decay corrected) and 99% radiochemical purity. It showed high stability in phosphate buffer, rat and mouse plasma. In vitro autoradiography of rat and mouse spleen slices, as spleen expresses a high physiological expression of CB2 receptors, demonstrated that [11C]KP23 exhibits specific binding towards CB2. High spleen uptake of [11C]KP23 was observed in dynamic in vivo PET studies with Wistar rats. In
Dibenzylbutyrolactone - Lignan lactone - Hydroquinone - 1-hydroxy-4-unsubstituted benzenoid - 1-hydroxy-2-unsubstituted benzenoid - Phenol - Monocyclic benzene moiety - Gamma butyrolactone - Benzenoid - Oxolane - Carboxylic acid ester - Lactone - Carboxylic acid derivative - Oxacycle - Organoheterocyclic compound - Monocarboxylic acid or derivatives - Hydrocarbon derivative - Organic oxide - Organic oxygen compound - Carbonyl group - Organooxygen compound - Aromatic heteromonocyclic compound ...
CCD:CCD00225634. CAS:39828-47-2. MDL:MFCD01547735. MF / MW:C4 H4 N2 O3 / 128.087. 同义词:2-OXO-2,3-DIHYDRO-1H-IMIDAZOLE-4-CARBOXYLIC ACID;2,3-DIHYDRO-2-OXO-1H-IMIDAZOLE-4-CARBOXYLIC ACID;1H-IMIDAZOLE-4-CARBOXYLIC ACID, 2,3-DIHYDRO-2-OXO-;2,3-DIHYDRO-2-OXO-1H-IMIDAZOLE-4-CARBOXYLICACID;BESTIPHARMA 543-714;ABLOCK AB-10-1646. ...
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1-Methyl-1H-indole-5-carboxylic acid, 95%, Maybridge Amber Glass Bottle; 250mg 1-Methyl-1H-indole-5-carboxylic acid, 95%, Maybridge Methylhydrox to Methylisos -Organics
We are starting our work with the carboxylic acids, these are chemicals which you will find in the home in several places. The soap you wash with is made up of carboxylic acid salts and the soup you drink in the kitchen has carboxylic acids (amino acids) which form polymers (proteins), your smelly socks in the…
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A study published in the April 19, 2013 issue of Science magazine titled Global Charcoal Mobilization from Soils via Dissolution and Riverine Transport to the Oceans examined the proportion of benzene polycarboxylic acids (BPCA) as a proxy for black (pyrogenic) carbon (BC) in dissolved organic carbon (DOC) of a number of rivers. While the paper makes an important contribution to the global knowledge base on DOC fluxes in the environment, IBI believes there are a number of clarifications needed to reduce the propagation of erroneous conclusions about biochar behavior in soil.. We concur with the finding that the export of BC to terrestrial ecosystems via rivers is significant. This should not be interpreted, however, as being greater than the export of uncharred material. In fact, the export of BC is only 10% of the total export of organic carbon, which is on the same order of magnitude or even smaller than the proportions that the authors cite for BC contents in soils of 5 - 40%. Therefore, BC ...
From carboxylic acids[edit]. Modification of the Appel reaction allows for the synthesis of oxazoline rings.[13] This method ... Aminomethyl propanol is the classical precursor to oxazolines using acid chloride method.[12] As applied to fatty acids, the ... as protecting groups for carboxylic acids and increasingly as monomers for the production of polymers. ... From acid chlorides[edit]. A routine route to oxazolines entails reactions of acyl chlorides with 2-amino alcohols. Thionyl ...
... see Carboxylic acid.. Carboxylic acids can be regenerated from the carboxylate salts using a process known as "acid springing ... such as carboxylic acids (e.g., acetic, propionic, butyric acid), ketones (e.g., acetone, methyl ethyl ketone, diethyl ketone) ... or the carboxylic acids (e.g., acetic, propionic, butyric acid) with a high-molecular-weight alcohol (e.g., hexanol, heptanol). ... As the microoganisms anaerobically digest the biomass and convert it into a mixture of carboxylic acids, the pH must be ...
... acetoacetic acid and pyruvic acid Aromatic carboxylic acids. benzoic acid, the sodium salt of benzoic acid is used as a food ... Other carboxylic acids Compound class Members unsaturated monocarboxylic acids. acrylic acid (2-propenoic acid) - CH2=CHCOOH, ... carboxylic acids have an -oic acid suffix.[2] For example, butyric acid (C3H7CO2H) is butanoic acid by IUPAC guidelines. The - ... Alpha hydroxy acids. containing a hydroxy group example glyceric acid, glycolic acid and lactic acid (2-hydroxypropanoic acid ...
... ification of carboxylic acids with epoxides[edit]. Carboxylic acids are esterified by treatment with epoxides, giving β- ... As a class, esters serve as protecting groups for carboxylic acids. Protecting a carboxylic acid is useful in peptide synthesis ... Addition of carboxylic acids to alkenes and alkynes[edit]. In the presence of palladium-based catalysts, ethylene, acetic acid ... Carboxylic acids also add across alkynes to give the same products. Silicotungstic acid is used to manufacture ethyl acetate by ...
I started a new article related to Alcohols entitled Oxidation of Primary Alcohols to Carboxylic Acids. I hope to finish it in ... They also cancel out acids in reactions with them, since the -OH from alcohol bonds with the hydrogen from acids to form water. ... New Article: Oxidation of Primary Alcohols to Carboxylic Acids. ... Oxidation of Primary Alcohols to Carboxylic Acids. *24 Alcohol ... However in the presence of a strong acid such as sulfuric acid they will protonate, for example ROH + H+ --, ROH2+. Read http ...
Carboxylic acid protecting groups[edit]. Protection of carboxylic acids: *Methyl esters - Removed by acid or base. ... Acetyl (Ac) - Removed by acid or base (see Acetoxy group).. *Benzoyl (Bz) - Removed by acid or base, more stable than Ac group. ... Silyl esters - Removed by acid, base and organometallic reagents.. *Orthoesters - Removed by mild aqueous acid to form ester, ... Methylthiomethyl ether - Removed by acid.. *Pivaloyl (Piv) - Removed by acid, base or reductant agents. It is substantially ...
From carboxylic acidsEdit. Two methods for the synthesis of haloalkanes from carboxylic acids are the Hunsdiecker reaction and ... For example, after undergoing substitution reactions, cyanoalkanes may be hydrolyzed to carboxylic acids, or reduced to primary ... Alcohols may likewise be converted to bromoalkanes using hydrobromic acid or phosphorus tribromide (PBr3). A catalytic amount ... Alcohol undergoes nucleophilic substitution reaction by halogen acid to give Haloalkanes.Tertiary alkanol reacts with ...
Other carboxylic acids Compound class Members unsaturated monocarboxylic acids. acrylic acid (2-propenoic acid) - CH2=CHCOOH, ... carboxylic acids have an -oic acid suffix.[2] For example, butyric acid (C3H7CO2H) is butanoic acid by IUPAC guidelines. For ... acetoacetic acid and pyruvic acid Aromatic carboxylic acids. containing at least one aromatic ring, examples: benzoic acid - ... Pelargonic acid. Nonanoic acid. CH3(CH2)7COOH. Pelargonium 10. Capric acid. Decanoic acid. CH3(CH2)8COOH. Coconut and Palm ...
Cathodic reduction of a carboxylic acid (oxalic acid) to an aldehyde (glyoxylic acid, shows as the rare aldehyde form) in a ... Amines, alcohols, carboxylic acids, and sulfonic acids are converted to the perfluorinated derivatives using this technology. A ... Wilhelm Riemenschneider (2002). "Carboxylic Acids, Aliphatic". Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. Weinheim: Wiley- ... A well-known electrosynthesis is the Kolbe electrolysis, in which two carboxylic acids decarboxylate, and the remaining ...
F. Röhrscheid (2012). "Carboxylic Acids, Aromatic". Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. Weinheim: Wiley-VCH. doi: ... Pyromellitic dianhydride (PMDA) is an organic compound with the formula C6H2(C2O3)2. It is the double carboxylic acid anhydride ... 1930). "Pyromellitic Acid". Organic Syntheses. 10: 90. doi:10.15227/orgsyn.010.0090. Robertson, B. E.; Stezowski, J. J. (1978 ... it can be prepared by dehydration of pyromellitic acid using acetic anhydride. PMDA is an electron-acceptor, forming a variety ...
Röhrscheid, F. (2012). "Carboxylic Acids, Aromatic". Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. doi:10.1002/14356007.a05_ ...
Riemenschneider, Wilhelm (2002). "Carboxylic Acids, Aliphatic". Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. Weinheim: Wiley ... Valeraldehyde is oxidized to give valeric acid. Merck Index, 11th Edition, 9813. n-Valeraldehyde at chemicalland21.com NIOSH ...
carboxylic acid. −. ,. H. −. N. +. ,. R. 2. R. 1. ,. −. H. +. R. 3. −. COO. −. ⏟. substituted-ammonium. carboxylate salt. →. d ... When formed from carboxylic acids and primary and secondary amines, these salts thermally dehydrate to form the corresponding ... carboxylic acid}}-,}\ \underbrace {\ce {{H-{\overset {\displaystyle R1 \atop ,}{\underset {, \atop \displaystyle R2}{N+}}}-H}+ ... Reductive amination with formic acid and formaldehyde via an imine intermediate Reactions[edit]. Alkylation, acylation, and ...
... carboxylic acids (R-COOH); esters (R-COO-R); acid anhydrides (R-CO-O-CO-R); amides (R-C(O)-NR2). There are many important ... fatty acids, amino acids, and proteins contain oxygen (due to the presence of carbonyl groups in these acids and their ester ... acetic acid, formic acid. Acetone ((CH 3) 2CO) and phenol (C 6H 5OH) are used as feeder materials in the synthesis of many ... such as phosphotungstic acid (H 3PW 12O 40) and octadecamolybdophosphoric acid (H 6P 2Mo 18O 62). One unexpected oxygen ...
... carboxylic acids (R-COOH); esters (R-COO-R); acid anhydrides (R-CO-O-CO-R); and amides (R-C(O)-NR 2). There are many important ... acetic acid, and formic acid. Acetone ((CH 3) 2CO) and phenol (C 6H 5OH) are used as feeder materials in the synthesis of many ... Lavoisier renamed 'vital air' to oxygène in 1777 from the Greek roots ὀξύς (oxys) (acid, literally "sharp", from the taste of ... Other important organic compounds that contain oxygen are: glycerol, formaldehyde, glutaraldehyde, citric acid, acetic ...
Savu, P (1994). "Fluorinated Higher Carboxylic Acids". Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Terminology. John Wiley & Sons, Inc ...
It is one of two isomeric unsaturated dicarboxylic acids, the other being maleic acid. In fumaric acid the carboxylic acid ... Fumaric acid or trans-butenedioic acid is the chemical compound with the formula HO2CCH=CHCO2H. Fumaric acid has a fruit-like ... Maleic acid, the cis-isomer of fumaric acid. References[edit]. *^ Record in the GESTIS Substance Database of the Institute for ... at a rate of 1 g of fumaric acid to every ~1.5 g of citric acid, in order to add sourness, similarly to the way malic acid is ...
Related carboxylic acids. Succinic acid. Tartaric acid. Fumaric acid Related compounds. Butanol. Butyraldehyde. Crotonaldehyde ... 2-Hydroxysuccinic acid. L-Malic acid. D-Malic acid. (-)-Malic acid. (+)-Malic acid. (S)-Hydroxybutanedioic acid. (R)- ... Malic acid is an organic compound with the molecular formula C4H6O5. It is a dicarboxylic acid that is made by all living ... The process of malolactic fermentation converts malic acid to much milder lactic acid. Malic acid occurs naturally in all ...
... sulfonic and phosphonic acids; amino, hydroxycarboxylic, and carboxylic acids; purines and pyrimidines; and kerogen-type ... as well as the amino acids, nucleobases, and many other compounds in meteorites, carry deuterium (2H) and isotopes of carbon, ...
Further hydrolysis yields carboxylic acids. Stephen aldehyde synthesis Marvel, C. S.; Sperry, W. M. (1928). "Benzophenone". ...
"Synthesis of Diamondoid Carboxylic Acids". Synthesis. 2012 (2): 259. doi:10.1055/s-0031-1289617. Dahl, J. E.; Liu, SG; Carlson ... Diamantane can be prepared by Lewis acid catalyzed rearrangements of various pentacyclic tetradecanes. The best yield (84%) can ... whereas use of chlorosulfonic acid yields mainly the 1-chloro isomer. Hydrolysis of the chlorides yield the corresponding ...
A chiral synthesis of erythro-.ALPHA.-hydroxy-.BETA.-alkyl carboxylic acid derivatives". Chem. Lett.: 69. doi:10.1246/cl. ... retigeranic acid a and two (−)-retigeranic acid B candidates". J. Org. Chem. 52 (13): 2960. doi:10.1021/jo00389a070. Marshall, ... Enantioselectivity in these reactions is often low, suggesting that the association between the conjugate acid of the base and ... dihydroxyserrulatic acid". J. Am. Chem. Soc. 113 (14): 5402. doi:10.1021/ja00014a036. Mikami, K.; Nakai, T. (1982). " ...
Adding boric acid to the acid-catalyzed reaction mixture increases the yield of phenol product over phenyl carboxylic acid ... MTO does not, however, change the relative yields of phenol and phenyl carboxylic acid products. Mixing urea and hydrogen ... Rather, they form phenyl carboxylic acids. Variations in the aryl rings' migratory aptitudes can explain this. Hydroxyl groups ... The benzylic hydrogen, which has the highest migratory aptitude, migrates instead (8), forming a phenyl carboxylic acid (9). ...
Kemp, Daniel S. (April 1970). "Decarboxylation of benzisoxazole-3-carboxylic acids. Catalysis by extraction of possible ... via a base catalyzed room temperature reaction with hydroxylamine-O-sulfonic acid. First reported by Daniel S. Kemp, the ...
Carboxylic acids convert to trifluoromethyl derivatives. For example, treatment of heptanoic acid with SF4 at 100-130 °C ... Hexafluoro-2-butyne can be similarly produced from acetylenedicarboxylic acid. The coproducts from these fluorinations, ...
It oxidizes aldehydes to carboxylic acids; in the presence of alcoholic solvents, the esters may be obtained. Internal alkenes ... It is the potassium salt of peroxymonosulfuric acid. The triple salt 2KHSO5·KHSO4·K2SO4 (known by the tradename Oxone) is a ... may be cleaved to two carboxylic acids (see below), while terminal alkenes may be epoxidized. Sulfides give sulfones, tertiary ... Benjamin R. Travis; Meenakshi Sivakumar; G. Olatunji Hollist & Babak Borhan (2003). "Facile Oxidation of Aldehydes to Acids and ...
Epanova (omega-3-carboxylic acids). *Imdur (isosorbide mononitrate). *Inderal (propranolol). *Lexxel (enalapril/felodipine) ... Later in the same month the company announced it would partner with Orca Pharmaceuticals to develop retinoic acid-related ...
ZCA) zolpidem 6-carboxylic acid; (ZPCA) zolpidem phenyl-4-carboxylic acid. Elimination half-life. 2.5-3 hours[4]. ... Valerian constituents (e.g., isovaleric acid, isovaleramide, valerenic acid, valerenol). *Unsorted benzodiazepine site positive ... of alpha subunit on allosteric modulation of ion channel function in stably expressed human recombinant gamma-aminobutyric acid ...
Mosettig, E. (1954). "The Synthesis of Aldehydes from Carboxylic Acids". Org. React. 8. pp. 232-240. doi:10.1002/0471264180. ... A new method for the conversion of acids into aldehydes". J. Chem. Soc.: 584. doi:10.1039/jr9360000584. ^ ...
"24-oic acid" indicates that the carboxylic acid is found at position 24, at the end of the side-chain. Chenodeoxycholic acid is ... Cholic acid is converted into deoxycholic acid and chenodeoxycholic acid into lithocholic acid. All four of these bile acids ... Primary bile acidsEdit. Bile acid synthesis occurs in liver cells, which synthesize primary bile acids (cholic acid and ... Conjugating bile acids with amino acids lowers the pKa of the bile-acid/amino-acid conjugate to between 1 and 4. Thus ...
... s are also distinct from other carbonyl-containing functional groups, such as carboxylic acids, esters and amides.[5] ... With strong oxidizing agents to give carboxylic acids.. *Electrophilic addition, reaction with an electrophile gives a ... The Dakin-West reaction provides an efficient method for preparation of certain methyl ketones from carboxylic acids.[16] ... In ketonic decarboxylation symmetrical ketones are prepared from carboxylic acids.[11][18] ...
"On the crystal structures and melting point alternation of the n-alkyl carboxylic acids" (PDF). RSC.org. Royal Society of ... "MYRISTIC ACID". ChemicalLand21.com. AroKor Holdings Inc. ശേഖരിച്ചത്: 17 June 2014.. *↑ Playfair, Lyon (2009). "XX. On a new fat ... 7.0 7.1 7.2 7.3 Tetradecanoic acid in Linstrom, P.J.; Mallard, W.G. (eds.) NIST Chemistry WebBook, NIST Standard Reference ... വിക്കിമീഡിയ കോമൺസിലെ Myristic acid എന്ന വർഗ്ഗത്തിൽ ഇതുമായി ബന്ധപ്പെട്ട കൂടുതൽ പ്രമാണങ്ങൾ ലഭ്യമാണ്. ...
All three tomatoes inhibited ethylene production by reducing the amount of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC), the ...
... turning carbon dioxide to aromatic carboxylic acids (ArCO2H) and aryl ketones to tertiary carbinols (Ar'2C(Ar)OH). Finally, ... Sodium salts of fatty acids are used as soap.[197] Pure sodium metal also has many applications, including use in sodium-vapour ... Indeed, transferring of protons between chemicals is the basis of acid-base chemistry.[10]:43 Also unique is hydrogen's ability ... Pure alkali metals are dangerously reactive with air and water and must be kept away from heat, fire, oxidising agents, acids, ...
... as using the ester avoids the need to deal with the acidity of the carboxylic acid and its unreactive carboxylate (see figure 6 ... Valerian constituents (e.g., isovaleric acid, isovaleramide, valerenic acid, valerenol). *Unsorted benzodiazepine site positive ... Barbituric acid is the parent compound of barbiturate drugs although barbituric acid itself is not pharmacologically active. ... Unlike GABAA receptor agonists, GABAA PAMs do not bind at the same active site as the γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) ...
They are made by reacting carboxylic acids like acetic acid with amines. There are many ways to make them. They are also used ... This is ammonia acting as an acid, although a very weak one. Amides made by deprotonating ammonia are very strong bases. Sodium ...
It also contains the unusual, poisonous amino acid azetidine-2-carboxylic acid. ... It likes soils that are silty or sandy and acid to moderately alkaline,[11] with preferably a plentiful amount of humus. The ...
Vinylogous carboxylic acids. Hidden categories: *CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list. *Webarchive template wayback links ... A second method to prepare fluorescein uses methanesulfonic acid as a Brønsted acid catalyst. This route has a high yield under ... The extent to which fluorescein dilaurate is broken down to yield lauric acid can be detected as a measure of pancreatic ...
Typical compounds used are carboxylic acids (e.g. fatty acids (most often oleic acid and stearic acid), dicarboxylic acids) and ... organic acids (monocarboxylic, e.g. formic acid, acetic acid, propionic acid, and dicarboxylic, e.g. oxalic acid, malonic acid ... A mixture of organic acids (resin acids, predominantly abietic acid, with pimaric acid, isopimaric acid, neoabietic acid, ... IA (Inorganic Acid) - rosin activated with inorganic acids (usually hydrochloric acid or phosphoric acid), highest activities, ...
carboxylic acid. −. ,. H. −. N. +. ,. R. 2. R. 1. ,. −. H. +. R. 3. −. COO. −. ⏟. substituted-ammonium. carboxylate salt. →. d ... When formed from carboxylic acids and primary and secondary amines, these salts thermally dehydrate to form the corresponding ... carboxylic acid}}-,}\ \underbrace {\ce {{H-{\overset {\displaystyle R1 \atop ,}{\underset {, \atop \displaystyle R2}{N+}}}-H}+ ... 3) are the most common positively charged moieties in proteins, specifically in the amino acid lysine.[16] The anionic polymer ...
It has a structure with a cycloheptene ring, with a nitrogen bridge, and a carboxylic acid side chain. Methylecgonidine is ...
17α-hydroxyyohimban-16α-carboxylic acid methyl ester. CAS Number. *146-48-5 Y ...
Potassium permanganate causes oxidation of the furan ring, while other methods of oxidation produce furan-2,3-carboxylic acid. ... Analysis of nucleic acids structures[edit]. Psoralens can reversibly crosslink nucleic acids double helices, and therefore have ... such as ring opening by alkali to give a coumarinic acid or coumaric acid derivative. ... Cimino GD, Gamper HB, Isaacs ST, Hearst JE (1985). "Psoralens as Photoactive Probes of Nucleic Acid Structure and Function: ...
... indole-2-carboxylic acid (peak C) and 2-(2-hydroxy indoline)-tryptophan (peak FF). These were characterized using accurate mass ... propanoic acid, a condensation product between L-tryptophan and 7-methylnonanoic acid) and peak AAA2 ((S)-2-amino-3-(2-((E)-dec ... en-1-yl)-1H-indol-3-yl)propanoic acid, a condensate between L-tryptophan and decanoic acid).[18] No consistent relationship has ... a novel amino acid associated with eosinophilia-myalgia syndrome". Science. 250 (4988): 1707-8. Bibcode:1990Sci...250.1707M. ...
... uptake transporters for amino acids, bile acids, carboxylic acids, etc. ...
In oxidations of alcohols or aldehydes into carboxylic acids, chromic acid is one of several reagents, including several that ... Molecular chromic acid, H2CrO4, has much in common with sulfuric acid, H2SO4. Both are classified as strong acids, though only ... Because a solution of chromic acid in sulfuric acid (also known as a sulfochromic mixture or chromosulfuric acid) is a powerful ... Dichromic acidEdit. Dichromic acid, H2Cr2O7, (structure illustrated top right) is the fully protonated form of the dichromate ...
The straight-chain carboxylic acids up to butanoic acid (with four carbon atoms) are miscible with water, pentanoic acid (with ... five carbons) is partly soluble and hexanoic acid (with six) is practically insoluble.[5] The same pattern exists for other ...
Vinylogous carboxylic acids. Hidden categories: *Webarchive template wayback links. *CS1: long volume value ... Ascorbic acid is a weak sugar acid structurally related to glucose. In biological systems, ascorbic acid can be found only at ... The biosynthesis of ascorbic acid in vertebrates starts with the formation of UDP-glucuronic acid. UDP-glucuronic acid is ... Haworth and Szent-Györgyi proposed that L-hexuronic acid be named a-scorbic acid, and chemically l-ascorbic acid, in honor of ...
Nonribosomal peptides and polyketides are synthesized from amino acids and short carboxylic acids by NRPSs and PKSs, ... Claussen, C.A.; Long, E.C. (1999). "Nucleic Acid Recognition by Metal Complexes of Bleomycin". Chem. Rev. 99 (9): 2797-2816. ... megasynthetase-templated assembly of the bleomycin peptide/polyketide/peptide aglycon was proposed from nine amino acids and ...
amino acid. A class of organic compounds containing an amine group and a carboxylic acid group which function as the ... ribonucleic acid (RNA). A nucleic acid polymer composed of a series of ribonucleotides which incorporate a set of four ... nucleic acid. The biopolymers, or small biomolecules, essential to all known forms of life .. nucleic acid sequence. A ... citric acid cycle. Also called the Krebs cycle and tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA). ...
... with subsequent detachment and ring opening to the corresponding carboxylic acid. MDPV may be quantified in blood, plasma or ...
கார்பாக்சைலிக் காடி (carboxylic acid) என்னும் வகையான காடிகளைச் சேர்ந்த இது அவற்றில் மிகவும் எளிய ஒரு காடி. இது தொழிலகங்களில் ... அசிட்டிக் காடி (இலங்கை வழக்கு: அசற்றிக்கு அமிலம் - Acetic acid), CH3COOH என்னும் வேதியியல் வாய்பாடு கொண்ட, ஒரு கரிமக் காடி ( ... காடி என்பதன் மறு பெயரான புளிமம் என்னும் சொல்லுக்கு ஈடான ஆசிட் (acid) என்னும் ஆங்கிலச் சொல்லும் இதே அசிட்டம் என்னும் இலத்தீன் ... Wagner Jr., Frank S, Acetic Acid, Kirk‑Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical ...
carboxylic acid binding. • cofactor binding. • oxidoreductase activity. • peptidyl-histidine dioxygenase activity. • oxygen ... peptidyl-aspartic acid hydroxylation. • peptidyl-asparagine hydroxylation. • positive regulation of myoblast differentiation. • ...
Using a carboxylic acid as a starting point, an amide group has similar PDE4 inhibition activity but both groups were shown to ... This route uses L-glutamine rather than L-glutamic acid as a starting material and by letting it react with N- ... The thalidomide molecule is a synthetic derivative of glutamic acid and consists of a glutarimide ring and a phthaloyl ring ( ... propionic acid (not shown), which had PDE4 inhibition activity the work began to optimize the activity. For that purpose the ...
Strecker, H.J. (1960). „The interconversion of glutamic acid and proline. III. Δ1-Pyrroline-5-carboxylic acid dehydrogenase". J ...
... or a Brønsted acid catalyst using the anhydride or even the carboxylic acid itself as the acylation agent. ... Typical Lewis acid catalysts are acids and aluminium trichloride. However, because the product ketone forms a rather stable ... For primary (and possibly secondary) alkyl halides, a carbocation-like complex with the Lewis acid, [R(+)---(X---MXn)(-)] is ... Friedel-Crafts alkylation involves the alkylation of an aromatic ring with an alkyl halide using a strong Lewis acid, such as ...
Lovelock, James (1947). The properties and use of aliphatic and hydroxy carboxylic acids in aerial disinfection (PhD thesis). ... The properties and use of aliphatic and hydroxy carboxylic acids in aerial disinfection (1947). ...
... acetoacetic acid and pyruvic acid Aromatic carboxylic acids. benzoic acid, the sodium salt of benzoic acid is used as a food ... Other carboxylic acids Compound class Members unsaturated monocarboxylic acids. acrylic acid (2-propenoic acid) - CH2=CHCOOH, ... carboxylic acids have an -oic acid suffix.[2] For example, butyric acid (C3H7CO2H) is butanoic acid by IUPAC guidelines. The - ... Alpha hydroxy acids. containing a hydroxy group example glyceric acid, glycolic acid and lactic acid (2-hydroxypropanoic acid ...
The commonest example is ethanoic acid [1] (acetic acid [2], CH3COOH), which is present in vinegar. These acids are weakly ... carboxylic acid* Member of a class of organic chemical compounds containing the group COOH. ... and lactic acid (sour milk). Two other simple carboxylic acids are propionic acid and butyric acid. Propionic acid is partly ... and lactic acid (sour milk). Two other simple carboxylic acids are propionic acid and butyric acid. Propionic acid is partly ...
1-Aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) is a disubstituted cyclic α-amino acid in which a three-membered cyclopropane ring ... 1-Aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. (Redirected from 1-Aminocyclopropanecarboxylic ... "Nucleic Acids Res. 34 (Database issue): D511-6. doi:10.1093/nar/gkj128. PMC 1347490 . PMID 16381923.. ... Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=1-Aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic_acid&oldid=797496139" ...
carboxylic acid-transporting ATPase activity (cargo),. carboxylic acid transmembrane transporter activity (cargo),. carboxylic ... For the conjugate bases of carboxylic acids, RCO2−, see Category:Carboxylate ions. For salts of carboxylic acids, RCO2M, see ... carboxylic acid (sco); Carboxylic acid (war); kwas karboksylowy (pl); കാർബോക്സിലിക് ആസിഡ് (ml); Azeffar akaṛbuksilin (kab); ... Molecules containing such a functional group are also called carboxylic acids or organic acids, although there are other ...
... is a ureas (CHEBI:47857) urea-1-carboxylic acid (CHEBI:9889) is conjugate acid of urea-1- ... urea-1-carboxylic acid (CHEBI:9889). urea-1-carboxylate (CHEBI:15832) is conjugate base of urea-1-carboxylic acid (CHEBI:9889) ... urea-1-carboxylic acid (CHEBI:9889). 1-carboxybiuret (CHEBI:143024) has functional parent urea-1-carboxylic acid (CHEBI:9889). ... CHEBI:9889 - urea-1-carboxylic acid. Main. ChEBI Ontology. Automatic Xrefs. Reactions. Pathways. Models. ...
... 2-O-(α-D-glucopyranosyl)-D-glyceric acid (CHEBI:62509) is a 3-hydroxy carboxylic acid ... 3-hydroxy carboxylic acid (CHEBI:61355). (3R,11R)-3,11-dihydroxylauric acid (CHEBI:79243) is a 3-hydroxy carboxylic acid (CHEBI ... 3-hydroxy carboxylic acid (CHEBI:61355). (3R,8R)-3,8-dihydroxynonanoic acid (CHEBI:79224) is a 3-hydroxy carboxylic acid (CHEBI ... 3-hydroxy carboxylic acid (CHEBI:61355). (3R,13R)-3,13-dihydroxymyristic acid (CHEBI:79245) is a 3-hydroxy carboxylic acid ( ...
Acid anhydride Acid chloride Amide Amino acid Ester List of carboxylic acids Dicarboxylic acid Polyhydroxy carboxylic acid (PHC ... Carboxylic acids occur widely. Important examples include the amino acids and fatty acids. Deprotonation of a carboxylic acid ... carboxylic acids have an -oic acid suffix. For example, butyric acid (C3H7CO2H) is butanoic acid by IUPAC guidelines. For ... Carboxylic acids are Brønsted-Lowry acids because they are proton (H+) donors. They are the most common type of organic acid. ...
Carboxylic acid is an organic molecule and an acid containing a carboxyl group, formula -COOH. They are a functional group ... present in both amino acids and fatty acids. Carboxylic acids are weak acids, and therefore dissociate incompletely in water, ... Retrieved from "http://www.conservapedia.com/index.php?title=Carboxylic_acid&oldid=1254189" ...
Phloroglucinol carboxylic acid is a trihydroxybenzoic acid, a type of phenolic acid. It is produced by Pseudomonas fluorescens ... HPLC separation of benzoic and hydroxycinnamic acids in wines, Chromatographia, Volume 17, Number 5, pages 249-252, doi:10.1007 ...
Definition of carboxylic acid ester. Provided by Stedmans medical dictionary and Drugs.com. Includes medical terms and ... Definition: specifically, an ester derived from a carboxylic acid and an alcohol; R-CO-R ...
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Other names: 1H-Pyrrole-2-carboxylic acid, 1-methyl-; 1-Methyl-2-pyrrolecarboxylic acid ... N-Methylpyrrole-2-carboxylic acid. *Formula: C6H7NO2 ...
Other carboxylic acids Compound class Members unsaturated monocarboxylic acids. acrylic acid (2-propenoic acid) - CH2=CHCOOH, ... carboxylic acids have an -oic acid suffix.[2] For example, butyric acid (C3H7CO2H) is butanoic acid by IUPAC guidelines. For ... acetoacetic acid and pyruvic acid Aromatic carboxylic acids. containing at least one aromatic ring, examples: benzoic acid - ... Pelargonic acid. Nonanoic acid. CH3(CH2)7COOH. Pelargonium 10. Capric acid. Decanoic acid. CH3(CH2)8COOH. Coconut and Palm ...
... substituted with oxirane carboxylic acids, e.g., epoxysuccinic acid, are disclosed. The polyglucosamine derivatives can be ... lactic acid, acetic acid, glycolic acid, pyrrolidone carboxylic acid or salts thereof and mixtures of these acids or salts or ... lactic acid, acetic acid, glycolic acid, pyrrolidone carboxylic acid and mixtures of said acids or salts thereof; and ... lactic acid, acetic acid, glycolic acid, pyrrolidone carboxylic acid and mixtures of said acids or salts thereof. ...
This invention pertains to the production of higher homologues of aliphatic carboxylic acids by reaction of said acids with ... The preferred carboxylic acids homologized here are acetic acid and propionic acid, with acetic acid being most preferred. ... chloropropionic acid, trichloroacetic acid, monofluoroacetic acid and the like. Mixtures of said carboxylic acids, in any ratio ... Where propionic acid is the reactant acid, the principal products are n-butyric acid and iso-butyric acid. The ratio of ...
... NSC643861 3-(((Dibutyl(((2-(methylthio)-3-pyridinyl)carbonyl)oxy)stannyl ... dibutyltin; 2-methylsulfanylpyridine-3-carboxylic acid
The resultant polymer carboxylic acids are of sufficient purity so that expensive and time containing purification steps ... glycol with a t-butyl haloacetate in the presence of a base followed by treatment with an acid such as trifluoroacetic acid. ... The present invention is directed to methods of preparing high purity polyalkylene oxide carboxylic acids. The methods include ... Carboxylic Acid. A solution of 10.0 grams (2 mmoles) of m-PEG carboxylic acid t-butyl ester, 50 ml of trifluoracetic acid, and ...
Looking for SPECTRUM Aminopyrazine Carboxylic Acid,25g (26WR20)? Graingers got your back. Price:$85.50. Easy ordering & ...
The twenty common amino acids are a particularly important class of carboxylic acids. Carboxylic acids are generally tart in ... Acetic acid is a carboxylic acid that gives vinegar its bite. Formic acid has historically been used to preserve specimens of ... and the conjugate base of the acid, [R-CO2]-. Although small carboxylic acids are soluble in water, larger acids are ... the Fisher esterification reaction can be used to react a carboxylic acid with an alcohol to form an ester. Carboxylic acids ...
See also changes related to Carboxylic acid, or pages that link to Carboxylic acid or to this page or whose text contains " ... Formic acid [r]: HCO2H, the smallest carboxylic acid, and the sting delivered by stinging nettles and ants. [e] ... Acetic acid [r]: An organic acid, CH3CO2H, responsible for vinegars tart taste and distinctive odor. [e] ... Ascorbic acid [r]: An organic acid with antioxidant properties whose L-enantiomer is called vitamin C. [e] ...
Carboxylic Acids - Download as Powerpoint Presentation (.ppt / .pptx), PDF File (.pdf), Text File (.txt) or view presentation ... Carboxylic acids are compounds which contain a -COOH group. Salts of carboxylic acids Carboxylic acids are acidic because of ... Uses of Carboxylic Acids in Industry Methanoic acid and ethanoic acid are used to coagulate rubber latex Methanoic acid is also ... A carboxylic acid is formed.. To liberate the weak acid. ethanoic acid. you just have to supply hydrogen ions from a strong ...
This invention relates to novel carboxylic acid indole compounds and compositions for use in the treatment of disease states ... acetic acid, malic acid, tartaric acid, citric acid, lactic acid, oxalic acid, succinic acid, fumaric acid, maleic acid, ... such as hydrochloric acid, hydrobromic acid, sulphuric acid, phosphoric acid, methane sulphonic acid, ethane sulphonic acid, ... indole-2-carboxylic acid; 1-(2-chloro-4,5-methylenedioxybenzyl)-5-(3-methoxybenzyloxy)indole-2-carboxylic acid; ...
Carboxylic Acids and their Derivatives. Simple Carboxylic Acids Rule C-403 403.1 - When the acid is named according to Rule C- ... Simple Carboxylic Acids Rule C-404, Rule C-405. Hydroxy, Alkoxy and Oxo Acids Rule C-411, Rule C-415, Rule C-416. Amino Acids ... Amic acids Rule C-431. Peroxy Acids Rule C-441. Imidic, Hydrazonic, and Hydroxamic Acids Rule C-451. Salts and Esters Rule C- ... 403.2 - If an acid name is formed with the ending "-carboxylic", the name of the radical obtained by removal of hydroxyl from ...
Quinoline-5-carboxylic acid; CAS Number: ; Linear Formula: C10 H7 N O2; find Manchester Organics-MAN182108160 MSDS, related ...
1-Methylindole-2-carboxylic acid 0.98; CAS No.: 16136-58-6; Synonyms: NSC 68357; Linear Formula: C10H9NO2; Empirical Formula: ... ic acid reacts with thionyl chloride to yield sulfinyl chlorides. Application • Reactant for preparation of keto-indoles as ... Reactant for synthesis of fenbufen and ethacrynic acid derivatives as potential antitumor agents via amide coupling reactions. ...
... Trends Pharmacol Sci. 2009 Nov;30(11):557-62. doi: ... In this article, we propose that the hydroxy-carboxylic acid structure of their endogenous ligands is the defining property of ... Thus, this receptor subfamily is activated by hydroxy-carboxylic acid ligands which are intermediates of energy metabolism. All ... this receptor subfamily and that hydroxy-carboxylic acid receptors function as metabolic sensors which fine-tune the regulation ...
Looking for TCI AMERICAS Pyrrole-2-Carboxylic Acid,5g (19UP67)? Graingers got your back. Price:$193.50. Easy ordering & ...
Our articles are evidence-based and contain scientific references, fact-checked by experts. We source information from studies, clinical trial findings, and meta-analyses published in peer-reviewed journals.. To increase transparency to the user, we provide reference links marked by numbers in parentheses in the copy of the article. The entire list of reference links is also provided at the bottom of the article.. ...
  • Salts and esters of carboxylic acids are called carboxylates . (wikipedia.org)
  • These acids are weakly acidic, forming salts with bases and esters with alcohols. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Many long-chain carboxylic acids occur naturally as esters in fats and oils and are therefore also known as fatty acids . (encyclopedia.com)
  • Esters have a hydrocarbon group of some sort replacing the hydrogen in the -COOH group of a carboxylic acid. (scribd.com)
  • Now how can these substituted malonic esters be used to make carboxylic acids? (infobarrel.com)
  • Esters are derivatives of carboxylic acids, in which the hydroxyl hydrogen is exchanged for a carbon residue R. One of the key pathways through which esters may be obtained is the acid-catalyzed reaction of a carboxylic acid with an excess of an alcohol. (chemgapedia.de)
  • Carboxylic acids, acid halides, esters, and amides are easily reduced by strong reducing agents, such as lithium aluminum hydride (LiAlH 4 ). (cliffsnotes.com)
  • The carboxylic acids, acid halides, and esters are reduced to alcohols, while the amide derivative is reduced to an amine. (cliffsnotes.com)
  • Acyl halides are very reactive and easily converted to esters, anhydrides, amides, N‐substituted amides, and carboxylic acids. (cliffsnotes.com)
  • Thus acid chlorides would be more reactive than esters, because the chlorine atom is much more electronegative than an alkoxide ion. (cliffsnotes.com)
  • Such esters are considered derivatives of carboxylic acids. (jrank.org)
  • Other esters, derived from carboxylic acids, have different uses. (jrank.org)
  • This invention relates to a process for purifying a 1,2-unsaturated carboxylic acid (otherwise known as an alpha, beta-unsaturated carboxylic acid or a 2-unsaturated carboxylic acid) and/or its esters. (google.com.au)
  • In accordance with the process of the present invention, aldehydes contained as impurities in 1,2-unsaturated carboxylic acids and/or their esters can be removed efficiently by simple operations. (google.com.au)
  • 1,2-Unsaturated carboxylic acids such as acrylic acid, methacrylic acid, etc. and/or their esters have a broad range of uses as starting materials for synthesis of high-molecular compounds. (google.com.au)
  • Methyl and phenyl esters and thioesters of carboxylic acids as surrogate substrates for microassay of proteinase K esterase activity. (cdc.gov)
  • The development of a microassay for proteinase K esterase activity with carboxylic acid esters is reported using novel substrates of the general formula R-C(O)-XR. (cdc.gov)
  • Ti(IV) Catalyzed Conversion of Primary Carboxamides to Carboxylic Acids or Esters. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Phys.org)-A team of researchers from the Scripps Research Institute has developed a simple, practical method for converting carboxylic acids into boronate esters and boronic acids. (phys.org)
  • They are used in a variety of manufacturing processes, most often as part of a reaction that produces other compounds such as boronate esters and boronic acids (alkyls or aryl substituted boric acids that have a carbon-boron bond). (phys.org)
  • In this new effort, the researchers describe a technique to convert such acids to boronate esters and boronic acids that is practical and relatively simple. (phys.org)
  • The widespread use of alkyl boronic acids and esters is frequently hampered by the challenges associated with their preparation. (phys.org)
  • Herein we describe a simple and practical method to rapidly access densely functionalized alkyl boronate esters from abundant carboxylic substituents. (phys.org)
  • This was the third class of fish oil-based drug, after omega-3 acid ethyl esters (Lovaza and Omtryg) and ethyl eicosapentaenoic acid (Vascepa), to be approved for use as a drug. (wikipedia.org)
  • Omega-3 acid ethyl esters (brand names Omarcor or Lovaza, Omtryg, and as of March 2016, four generic versions. (wikipedia.org)
  • There appears to be little difference between in effect between dietary supplement and prescription forms of omega-3 fatty acids but EPA and DHA ethyl esters (prescription forms) work less well when taken on an empty stomach or with a low-fat meal. (wikipedia.org)
  • ii) from about 0.1 to 99.9 weight percent of an organic acid selected from the group consisting of tartaric acid, lactic acid, acetic acid, glycolic acid, pyrrolidone carboxylic acid and mixtures of said acids or salts thereof. (google.com)
  • 4. The process of claim 1 wherein the palladium-containing compound is selected from the group consisting of one or more oxides of palladium, palladium salts of a mineral acid and palladium salts of an organic carboxylic acid. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • When the acids form salts, this is lost and replaced by a metal. (scribd.com)
  • Grignard reagents react with carbon dioxide to yield acid salts, which, upon acidification, produce carboxylic acids. (cliffsnotes.com)
  • This invention concerns a process for the preparation of carboxylic acids by synthesis gas homologation of aliphatic carboxylic acids using a specific catalyst system. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • One of the most valuable method to prepare carboxylic acid is the use of diethyl malonate, CH 2 (COOC 2 H) 2 , and is called the malonic-ester synthesis . (infobarrel.com)
  • A malonic ester synthesis yields an acetic acid in which one or two hydrogens have been replaced by alkyl groups. (infobarrel.com)
  • In place of simple alkyl halides, certain other halogen-containing compounds may be used, in particular the readily available α- bromo ester, which yield substituted succinic acids by the malonic ester synthesis as shown in the figure (iv) below. (infobarrel.com)
  • Calhoun, D. H., Jensen, H. A.: Significance of altered carbon flow in aromatic amino acid synthesis: an approach to the isolation of regulary mutants in Pseudomonas aeruginosa . (springer.com)
  • Indole-7-carboxylic acid is an important raw material and intermediate used in organic synthesis, pharmaceuticals, agrochemicals and dyestuff fields. (fishersci.ca)
  • The fluorimetric determination of traces of succinic acid by synthesis of succinylfluorescein is assessed and modified, and the extension of similar methods to other carboxylic acids is described. (bl.uk)
  • This study reports the synthesis of novel mixed ligand complexes of copper with nicotinic and other select carboxylic acids (phthalic, salicylic and anthranilic acids). (mdpi.com)
  • Application to peptides allowed expedient preparations of α-amino boronic acids, often with high stereoselectivity, facilitating the synthesis of both FDA approved alkyl boronic acid drugs (Velcade and Ninlaro) as well as a boronic acid version of the iconic antibiotic vancomycin. (phys.org)
  • Carboxylate ions are resonance-stabilized , and this increased stability makes carboxylic acids more acidic than alcohols . (wikipedia.org)
  • The many processes leading to the preparation of these acids include oxidation of saturated and unsaturated hydrocarbons, the carboxylation of monoolefins, particularly α-olefins, and dienes such as conjugated dienes like 1,3-butadiene, and the carbonylation of lower aliphatic alcohols. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Carboxylic acids can also be reduced to form aldehydes or further reduced to form primary alcohols. (citizendium.org)
  • by oxidising primary alcohols or aldehydes Primary alcohols are oxidised to carboxylic acids in two stages .1. (scribd.com)
  • Most reductions of carboxylic acids lead to the formation of primary alcohols. (cliffsnotes.com)
  • You can also use diborane (B 2 H 6 ) to reduce carboxylic acids to alcohols. (cliffsnotes.com)
  • Acid halides are reduced by lithium aluminum hydride to primary alcohols. (cliffsnotes.com)
  • The oxidation of primary alcohols leads to the formation of alde‐hydes that undergo further oxidation to yield acids. (cliffsnotes.com)
  • The dehydration reaction of alcohols to generate alkene proceeds by heating the alcohols in the presence of a strong acid, such as sulfuric or phosphoric acid, at high temperatures. (americans-world.org)
  • Not all acid-catalyzed conversions of alcohols to alkyl halides proceed through the formation of carbocations. (americans-world.org)
  • The oxidation of primary alcohols to carboxylic acids is an important oxidation reaction in organic chemistry. (americans-world.org)
  • Carboxylic acid derivatives, aldehydes, and ketones to alcohols Hydride reduction mechanism Mechanism. (americans-world.org)
  • Below the table, examples of molecule structures for the different classes of alcohols and acids are given, together with a definition of the different classes of organic compounds. (engineeringtoolbox.com)
  • Here, we describe a method where p -H 2 hyperpolarizes a range of amines, amides, carboxylic acids, alcohols, phosphates, and carbonates without changing their chemical identity. (sciencemag.org)
  • These data indicate that quinones had non-enzymatically oxidized alcohols to aldehydes, carboxylic acids and ketones. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • benzoic acid , the sodium salt of benzoic acid is used as a food preservative, salicylic acid - a beta hydroxy type found in many skin-care products, phenyl alkanoic acids the class of compounds where a phenyl group is attached to a carboxylic acid. (wikipedia.org)
  • carboxylic acid Member of a class of organic chemical compounds containing the group COOH. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Carboxylic acids are compounds which contain a -COOH group. (scribd.com)
  • This invention relates to novel carboxylic acid indole compounds and compositions for use in the treatment of disease states mediated by the chemokine, Interleukin-8 (IL-8). (google.es)
  • The filtered stream is subjected to membrane filtration to remove organic compounds having a molecular weight of greater than 150 while simultaneously permitting permeation of the membrane by the carboxylic acids to provide a membrane filtered stream. (google.es)
  • This invention relates to compounds suitable especially for microanalysis of optical isomers of carboxylic acids among optically active compounds, and to fluorescent chiral derivatization reagents containing said compound. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • This group of compounds includes amino acids and fatty acids. (curehunter.com)
  • Perhaps one of the most important industrial applications of compounds with carboxyl groups is the use of fatty acids (which are carboxyl groups attached to long carbon chains) in making soaps, detergents, and shampoos. (jrank.org)
  • It is preferred over Silia Bond Tosic Acid (SCX) when performing "Catch and Release" purification technique of compounds bearing a permanent positive charge such as tetraalkylammoniums. (silicycle.com)
  • But as the researchers note, until now, the process has involved converting such acids to more useful compounds in ways they describe as non-trivial. (phys.org)
  • They can be produced from another family of compounds, carboxylic acids, by simply replacing an acid with a halogen. (phys.org)
  • The systematic IUPAC name is not always the preferred IUPAC name, for example, lactic acid is a common, and also the preferred, name for what systematic rules call 2-hydroxypropanoic acid. (wikipedia.org)
  • iii) reacting said polyalkylene oxide containing said terminal carboxylic acid with a biologically active nucleophile under conditions sufficient to form a biologically active conjugate whereby said polyalkylene oxide is linked to said biologically active nucleophile by an ester linkage. (google.com)
  • Carboxylic acids can be formed by the hydrolysis of a corresponding ester or amide . (citizendium.org)
  • Conversely, the Fisher esterification reaction can be used to react a carboxylic acid with an alcohol to form an ester. (citizendium.org)
  • Like acetoacetatic ester, malonic acid contains alpha hydrogens that are particularly acidic: they are alpha to two keto groups. (infobarrel.com)
  • An acid halide can be converted to an ester by an acid catalyzed reaction with an alcohol. (cliffsnotes.com)
  • Reaction of an alcohol with an anhydride creates an ester and a carboxylic acid. (cliffsnotes.com)
  • The second hydrogen on the methylene unit of acetoacetic ester can also be replaced by an alkyl group, creating a disubstituted acid. (cliffsnotes.com)
  • Concentrated sodium hydroxide is strong enough to hydrolyze both the ester functional group and the ketone functional group and, therefore, forms the substituted acid rather than the ketone. (cliffsnotes.com)
  • A 1,2-unsaturated carboxylic acid or its ester such as acrylic or methacrylic acid or its alkyl ester is purified to remove aldehyde impurities contained therein by treating the acid or its ester with a mercapto containing compound in the presence of an acid catalyst. (google.com.au)
  • 7. The process as claimed in claim 6 in which the 1,2-alkenoic acid and/or ester is treated with the mercaptan compound in an amount of from equimole to 10 fold moles of the total molar amount of the aldehyde impurities. (google.com.au)
  • 9. The process as claimed in claim 1, in which the 1,2-alkenoic unsaturated acid and/or ester is treated with the mercaptan compound at a temperature of 25 to 90 C. (google.com.au)
  • To convert a carboxylic acid to a boron compound, the researchers started by converting it to a redox-active N-hydroxyphthalimide ester. (phys.org)
  • This broad-scope Ni-catalyzed reaction uses the same activating principle as amide bond formation to replace a carboxylic acid with a boronate ester. (phys.org)
  • for this reason carboxylic acids are often called fatty acids . (encyclopedia.com)
  • They are a functional group present in both amino acids and fatty acids . (conservapedia.com)
  • a lipid molecule made up of glycerol (that acts as a backbone) joined to three fatty acid molecules Fatty acids . (wn.com)
  • flax) are good dietary sources of essential fatty acids . (wn.com)
  • The learning unit describes the structure and syntheses of fatty acids. (chemgapedia.de)
  • The fatty acids are important components of the biomolecules known as lipids , especially fats and oils. (msu.edu)
  • Interestingly, the molecules of most natural fatty acids have an even number of carbon atoms . (msu.edu)
  • for each fatty acid. (osti.gov)
  • To make other cleansing agents, three molecules of fatty acid are combined with one molecule of a compound called glycerin in a reaction called saponification. (jrank.org)
  • Various fatty acids are used to make soaps and detergents that have different applications in society. (jrank.org)
  • Fatty acids are important components in fats, and are used to make soaps. (jrank.org)
  • A chemical reaction involving the breakdown of triglycerides to component fatty acids, and the conversion of these acids to soap. (jrank.org)
  • Volatile fatty acids (VFAs) can be readily produced from many anaerobic microbes and subsequently utilized as precursors to renewable biofuels and biochemicals. (mdpi.com)
  • See also FATTY ACIDS . (thefreedictionary.com)
  • In addition, as with other omega-3 fatty acids, taking omega-3 carboxylic acids puts people who are on anticoagulants at risk for prolonged bleeding time. (wikipedia.org)
  • Both DHA and EPA are mainly metabolized in the liver like other fatty acids derived from food. (wikipedia.org)
  • Omega-3 carboxylic acids are derived from fish oil and are a purified mixture of the polyunsaturated free fatty acids docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA). (wikipedia.org)
  • Omega-3 carboxylic acids was approved by the US FDA in May 2014 and was the third prescription form of an omega-3 product approved in the United States but the first in free fatty acid form. (wikipedia.org)
  • 7. The derivative of claim 1 wherein the oxirane carboxylic acid has from 3 to about 6 carbon atoms per molecule. (google.com)
  • The carboxylic acids with up to four carbon atoms will mix with water in any proportion. (scribd.com)
  • Simple alkyl carboxylic acids, composed of four to ten carbon atoms, are liquids or low melting solids having very unpleasant odors. (msu.edu)
  • Since nature makes these long-chain acids by linking together acetate units, it is not surprising that the carbon atoms composing the natural products are multiples of two. (msu.edu)
  • The -COOH group of atoms, whose presence defines a carboxylic acid. (jrank.org)
  • A carboxylic acid which is attached to a chain of at least 8 carbon atoms. (jrank.org)
  • Carboxylic acids are acids that belong, quite naturally, to the carboxyl group, which consists of double-bonded carbon atoms to a single oxygen atom and singly bonded to a member of a hydroxyl group. (phys.org)
  • This list is ordered by the number of carbon atoms in a carboxylic acid. (wikipedia.org)
  • Carboxylic acids occur widely and include the amino acids (which make up proteins ) and acetic acid (which is part of vinegar and occurs in metabolism ). (wikipedia.org)
  • 1-Aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid ( ACC ) is a disubstituted cyclic α- amino acid in which a three-membered cyclopropane ring is fused to the C α atom of the amino acid. (wikipedia.org)
  • The twenty common amino acids are a particularly important class of carboxylic acids. (citizendium.org)
  • A polar, neutral amino acid , the amide version of glutamic acid . (citizendium.org)
  • 1. A process for the cyclisation of 4-amino-2- halobutyric acid to azetidine-2-carboxylic acid wherein more than 20 g of 4-amino-2-halobutyric acid is cyclised per litre of reaction mixture. (epo.org)
  • 6. A process as claimed in any of claims 1 to 5, characterized in that the 4-amino-2-halobutyric acid is added as its hydrohalide salt to hot aqueous base. (epo.org)
  • as the closest state of the art, the technical problem to be solved was to be seen in the provision of an improved process in terms of yield and concentration for the cyclisation of 4-amino-2-halobutyric acid to azetidine-2-carboxylic acid. (epo.org)
  • 1. A process for the cyclisation of 4-amino-2- halobutyric acid to azetidine-2-carboxylic acid wherein the final concentration of azetidine-2-carboxylic acid in the reaction mixture corresponds to more than 20 g of 4-amino-2-halobutyric acid having been cyclised per litre of reaction mixture. (epo.org)
  • Some common names, the amino acid threonine for example, do not have any systematic origin and must simply be memorized. (msu.edu)
  • Azetidine-2-carboxylic acid (L-Aze) is a toxic and teratogenic non-protein amino acid that is misincorporated into protein in place of proline, altering collagen, keratin, hemoglobin, and protein folding. (selleckchem.com)
  • Tetrahydroisoquinoline-4-carboxylic acid, a constrained beta- 2-amino acid named beta -TIC, wassy in the sised for the first time in enantiopure form .The biocatalytic route applied herein represents one of the few successful examples of enzymatic resolu tion of beta- 2-aminoacids. (unimi.it)
  • Ethanoic acid is typical of the acids where the -COOH group is attached to a simple alkyl group. (scribd.com)
  • An isomer of isocaproic acid alpha methylvaleric acid , CH 3 CH 2 CH 2 CH(CH 3 )COOH, can be considered as acetic acid in which one hydrogen has been replaced by a n propyl group and a second hydrogen has been replaced by a methyl group;we must therefore use two alkyl halides, n peopyl bromide, and methyl bromide. (infobarrel.com)
  • Alkyl groups that contain benzylic hydrogens -hydrogen(s) on a carbon α to a benzene ring-undergo oxidation to acids with strong oxidizing agents. (cliffsnotes.com)
  • PURPOSE: To obtain a new alkyl ether carboxylic acid tauride excellent in foam stability, mild washing action, etc., as a detergent, etc., and useful for cosmetics, etc. (google.com)
  • CONSTITUTION: This alkyl ether carboxylic acid tauride is a compd. (google.com)
  • by converting an alkyl ether carboxylic acid represented by formula II into the corresponding acid chloride and allowing this acid chloride to react with an aq. (google.com)
  • [1] The general formula of a carboxylic acid is R-COOH, with R referring to the rest of the (possibly quite large) molecule . (wikipedia.org)
  • The commonest example is ethanoic acid ( acetic acid , CH 3 COOH), which is present in vinegar. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Carboxylic acid is an organic molecule and an acid containing a carboxyl group, formula -COOH. (conservapedia.com)
  • Carboxylic acids are acidic because of the hydrogen in the -COOH group. (scribd.com)
  • a hydrogen ion is transferred from the -COOH group to a water molecule.The acidity of the carboxylic acids The carboxylic acids are acidic because of the hydrogen in the -COOH group. (scribd.com)
  • depending on their concentrations.The pH of carboxylic acid solutions The pH depends on both the concentration of the acid and how easily it loses hydrogen ions from the -COOH group.3 range. (scribd.com)
  • A carboxylic acid has a COOH group, with 'C' denoting carbon, 'O' oxygen and 'H' hydrogen. (wn.com)
  • Isocaproic acid for example (CH 3 ) 3 CHCH 2 CH 2 COOH can be considered as acetic acid in which one hydrogen has been replaced by an isobutyl group. (infobarrel.com)
  • Carboxylic acids belong to a group of organic acids which contain at least one carboxyl group (COOH). (chemgapedia.de)
  • Carboxylic acids contain the carboxyl group COOH. (americans-world.org)
  • organic acids containing one or more carboxyl [COOH] groups, for example monocarboxylic acids with one carboxyl group, DICARBOXYLIC ACIDS with two carboxyl groups, TRICARBOXYLIC ACIDS with three carboxyl groups. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Carboxylic acids are organic acids characterized by a carboxyl (-COOH) functional group. (wikipedia.org)
  • As shown in the following table, these long-chain carboxylic acids are usually referred to by their common names, which in most cases reflect their sources. (msu.edu)
  • This invention pertains to the production of higher homologues of aliphatic carboxylic acids by reaction of said acids with carbon monoxide and hydrogen in the presence of one or more palladium-containing catalysts in combination with a Group VB tertiary donor ligand and in the presence of an iodide or bromide promoter. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • There is an ever increasing need for a wide variety of aliphatic carboxylic acids of differing carbon numbers and structures which have become important present articles of commerce. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • In the present study, we have studied the one-pot catalytic conversion of linear aliphatic carboxylic acids to linear olefins via tandem hydrogenation/dehydration reactions. (aiche.org)
  • 1. A polyglucosamine derivative containing free amine groups wherein at least a portion of said amine groups are substituted with an oxirane carboxylic acid in an amount of from about 0.05 to 1.0 mole of said oxirane carboxylic acid per mole of glucosamine monomer unit. (google.com)
  • 8. The derivative of claim 1 wherein the oxirane carboxylic acid is a dicarboxylic acid. (google.com)
  • 9. The derivative of claim 8 wherein the oxirane carboxylic acid is selected from the group consisting of cis-epoxysuccinic acid, trans-epoxysuccinic acid and mixtures thereof. (google.com)
  • 10. The derivative of claim 1 wherein the molar substitution of the oxirane carboxylic acid is from about 0.2 to 1.0 mole of oxirane carboxylic acid per mole of glucosamine monomer unit. (google.com)
  • 11. The derivative of claim 1 wherein the oxirane carboxylic acid is ionically bonded or covalently bonded to the polyglucosamine. (google.com)
  • The more reactive acid derivative can be easily converted into a less reactive derivative. (cliffsnotes.com)
  • A derivative of a carboxylic acid, where an organic group has been substituted for the hydrogen atom in the acid group. (jrank.org)
  • A carboxylic acid / ˌ k ɑːr b ɒ k ˈ s ɪ l ɪ k / is an organic compound that contains a carboxyl group (C(=O)OH). (wikipedia.org)
  • 14. The process of claim 1 wherein the said aliphatic carboxylic acid starting material is acetic acid, the said palladium-containing compound is palladium(II) acetate, the said Group VB tertiary donor ligand is triphenylphosphine and the said promoter is methyl iodide. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Novel fluorescent chiral derivatization reagent containing a compound of the formula: ##STR1## being useful for the determination of carboxylic acid enantiomers with high sensitivity, which are easily and well separated in a form of their consequent diastereomeric amides. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • 6. A chiral derivatization reagent for optically active carboxylic acids, containing the compound claimed in any one of claims 2 to 5 and 1, a condensing agent, and a base or an acid-scavenger in an aprotic solvent. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Carboxylic acid compound. (nationmaster.com)
  • Exports of Carboxylic acid compound, by country, in thousands USD. (nationmaster.com)
  • 5. The process as claimed in claim 1, in which the 1,2-unsaturated carboxylic acid is acrylic acid and the mercaptan compound is an alkylmercaptan having a boiling temperature not lower than approximately 270 C. (google.com.au)
  • Recently, the antimicrobial activity of 1H-pyrrole-2-carboxylic acid (PCA) has been reported as a secondary metabolite of Streptomyces griseus , which was identified as the main bioactive compound in the biological control. (springer.com)
  • The compound appears to have no tropic acid moiety (6), so it is from (5) alone. (github.com)
  • Like other carboxylic acid derivatives, amides can be reduced by lithium aluminum hydride. (cliffsnotes.com)
  • [ citation needed ] For nomenclature of complex molecules containing a carboxylic acid, the carboxyl can be considered position one of the parent chain even if there are other substituents , for example, 3-chloropropanoic acid . (wikipedia.org)
  • hydrogen bonding can occur between two molecules of acid to produce a dimer.2°C 118°C The boiling points of carboxylic acids of similar size are higher still. (scribd.com)
  • hydrogen bonds are formed between water molecules and individual molecules of acid.Solubility in water In the presence of water. (scribd.com)
  • Thermo Scientific Pierce HABA is 4'-hydroxyazobenzene-2-carboxylic acid, a simple reagent that enables spectrophotometric (colorimetric) estimation of biotinylation levels of labeled proteins and other molecules. (thermofisher.com)
  • The hydrolysis of nitriles , which are organic molecules containing a cyano group, leads to carboxylic acid formation. (cliffsnotes.com)
  • 2. . With metal hydroxides These are simple neutralisation reactions and are just the same as any other reaction in which hydrogen ions from an acid react with hydroxide ions. (scribd.com)
  • Colloidal suspensions of the NPs may be prepared by covalently bonding a series of carboxylic acids with secondary functional groups (HO 2 C-R-X) to the surface of the NPs: lysine (X = NH 2 ), p -hydroxybenzoic acid (X = OH), fumaric acid (X = CO 2 H), and 4-formylbenzoic acid (X = C(O)H). Subsequent reaction with octylamine at either 25°C or 70°C was investigated. (hindawi.com)
  • However, in the case of a carboxylic acid, the product of the second reaction step contains a carbon with three oxygens. (chemgapedia.de)
  • These 1,2-unsaturated carboxylic acids have been produced industrially through a vapor-phase catalytic oxidation reaction of alkenes and/or alkenals, etc., in recent years. (google.com.au)
  • Furthermore, the addition of carboxylic acids to the reaction medium during biomass upgrading could afford more control over the selectivity of the reaction. (aiche.org)
  • Reactions of the carboxylic acids 1. (scribd.com)
  • Researchers at Kanazawa University report in the Journal of Organic Chemistry that carboxylic acids , functional groups contained in biomolecules, drugs and materials, can be readily modified by light-induced organic reactions using an aminocyclopropenone. (wn.com)
  • The learning unit describes various reactions of carboxylic acids inclusive of reactions at the carboxyl carbon as well as the α carbon. (chemgapedia.de)
  • The mechanism for these reactions involves the formation of an amide followed by hydrolysis of the amide to the acid. (cliffsnotes.com)
  • In the presence of HBr a series of acid-base and SN2 reactions take place, along with the transient formation of carbocation intermediates. (americans-world.org)
  • It is also known that the use of water-soluble carboxylic acids in emulsion polymerization reactions normally leads to the formation of water-soluble species. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Reactions using butyric acid as feed also exhibit similar phenomena. (aiche.org)
  • We have also performed reactions utilizing butyric acid derived from biomass fermentation, albeit with significant catalyst deactivation. (aiche.org)
  • Carboxylic acid - Carboxylic acid - Reduction: Although carboxylic acids are more difficult to reduce than aldehydes and ketones, there are several agents that accomplish this reduction, the most important being lithium aluminum hydride (LiAlH4) and borane (BH3). (americans-world.org)
  • The -oic acid nomenclature detail is based on the name of the previously-known chemical benzoic acid . (wikipedia.org)
  • Foods are often preserved with the addition of sodium benzoate, which is the conjugate base of benzoic acid . (citizendium.org)
  • Simple dicarboxylic acids having the general formula HO 2 C-(CH 2 ) n -CO 2 H (where n = 0 to 5) are known by the common names: Oxalic (n=0), Malonic (n=1), Succinic (n=2), Glutaric (n=3), Adipic (n=4) and Pimelic (n=5) Acids. (msu.edu)
  • Formic acid has historically been used to preserve specimens of animal tissue. (citizendium.org)
  • 2. The method in accordance with claim 1 wherein the acids are selected from the group consisting of acetic acid and formic acid. (google.es)
  • Examples include formic acid, which is produced by some ants and causes their bites to sting. (jrank.org)
  • In fact, the scientific name for ants, Formica, is what gives formic acid its name. (jrank.org)
  • Carboxylic acids can be saturated, unsaturated, or aromatic. (curehunter.com)
  • Suksrichavalit T, Prachayasittikul S, Piacham T, Isarankura-Na-Ayudhya C, Nantasenamat C, Prachayasittikul V. Copper Complexes of Nicotinic-Aromatic Carboxylic Acids as Superoxide Dismutase Mimetics. (mdpi.com)
  • When heated above its melting point, malonic acid readily loses carbon dioxide to form substituted acetic acids. (infobarrel.com)
  • The solubility of heptanoic acid and octanoic acid in supercritical carbon dioxide has been determined at temperatures of (313.15, 323.15, and 333.15) K over a pressure range of (8.5 to 30.0) MPa, depending upon the solute. (osti.gov)
  • In addition, solubility experiments were performed for nonanoic acid in supercritical carbon dioxide at 323.15 K and pressures of (10.0 to 30.0) MPa to add to the solubility data previously published by the authors. (osti.gov)
  • Acetic acid is a carboxylic acid that gives vinegar its bite. (citizendium.org)
  • An organic acid, CH 3 CO 2 H, responsible for vinegar 's tart taste and distinctive odor. (citizendium.org)
  • Another example is acetic acid , which is found in vinegar. (jrank.org)
  • Carboxylic acids are weak acids, and therefore dissociate incompletely in water, forming an equilibrium between the RCOOH molecule and the RCOO- and H+ ions. (conservapedia.com)
  • With metals Carboxylic acids react with the more reactive metals to produce a salt and hydrogen. (scribd.com)
  • Carboxylic acids also react with alkalis, or bases. (jrank.org)
  • The acid formed has a methyl and an ethyl group in place of two hydrogens of acetic acid and is therefore often referred to as a disubstituted acetic acid. (cliffsnotes.com)
  • 1-Methylpyrrole-2-carboxylic acid is used for thermochemical and computational studies of 1-Methyl-2-pyrrolecarboxylic acid. (alfa.com)
  • Experimental and computational study on the molecular energetics of 2-pyrrolecarboxylic acid and 1-methyl-2-pyrrolecarboxylic acid. (alfa.com)
  • Isoguvacine, isonipecotic acid, muscimol and N-methyl isoguvacine on the GABA receptor in rat sympathetic ganglia. (wikigenes.org)
  • The carboxylation of alumina nanoparticles (NPs), with bifunctional carboxylic acids, provides molecular anchors that are used for building more complexed structures via either physisorption or chemisorption. (hindawi.com)
  • Product Name: EDTA-2Na (Ethylenediaminetetraacetic Acid Disodium Salt) Molecular Formula: [email protected] CAS NO.: 6381-92-6 Packing: 25kg/bag. (made-in-china.com)
  • Finally, hydrolysis of an acid halide with dilute aqueous acid produces a carboxylic acid. (cliffsnotes.com)
  • Finally, reacting an N,N‐disubstituted amide anhydride with dilute aqueous acid produces a carboxylic acid. (cliffsnotes.com)
  • Addition of aqueous acid liberates the substituted acid. (cliffsnotes.com)
  • Hydrolysis using concentrated aqueous sodium hydroxide leads to the formation of the sodium salt of the disubstituted acid. (cliffsnotes.com)
  • A dichromate salt and aqueous sulfuric acid are used to prepare chromic acid in situ, which is among the most powerful oxidizing agents commonly available. (americans-world.org)
  • The novel extraction of chromium(lll) by the high - capacity extractant octanoic acid is described, but applications are severely limited by interference from iron(lll) and nickel(ll). (bl.uk)
  • A buildup of lactic acid leads to a feeling of fatigue. (jrank.org)
  • The carboxylate anion (R-COO − ) of a carboxylic acid is usually named with the suffix -ate , in keeping with the general pattern of -ic acid and -ate for a conjugate acid and its conjugate base, respectively. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, the conjugate base of acetic acid is acetate . (wikipedia.org)
  • If the R-group is an electron acceptor, it can stabilize the negative charge of the conjugate base either through inductive or resonance effects and therefore increase the acid strength. (citizendium.org)
  • Carboxylic acids are important precursor chemicals both in the lab and in living organisms. (citizendium.org)
  • analyzed N-acetylamino acids and α-allyl propionic acids by normal-phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with the use of 1-(4-dimethylamino-1-naphthyl)ethylamine (J. Goto et al. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • boiling point and solubility) of the carboxylic acids are governed by their ability to form hydrogen bonds.Physical properties of carboxylic acids The physical properties (for example. (scribd.com)
  • The higher boiling points of the carboxylic acids are still caused by hydrogen bonding. (scribd.com)
  • you just have to supply hydrogen ions from a strong acid such as hydrochloric acid. (scribd.com)
  • However this depends upon (a) the high acidity of the alpha hydrogen of the diethyl malonate, and (b) the extreme ease with which malonic acid and the substituted malonic acids undergo decarboxylation. (infobarrel.com)
  • Temperature effects on the hydrogen-bond patterns in 4-piperidinecarboxylic acid. (wikigenes.org)
  • The present invention relates to derivatives of polyglucosamines, and more specifically relates to oxirane carboxylic acid derivatives, e.g., epoxysuccinic acid, of polyglucosamines, e.g., chitosan. (google.com)
  • The present invention relates to 6-substituted-hydrocarbon-2-(substituted-thio)penem-3-carboxylic acids and congeners. (patentgenius.com)
  • The invention relates to the use of short chain carboxylic acids, for color stabilization of colorations of keratin fibers, corresponding compositions and methods for the dyeing of fibers, and methods for maintaining dyed fibers. (google.com)
  • [2] For example, butyric acid (C 3 H 7 CO 2 H) is butanoic acid by IUPAC guidelines. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, butyric acid (C 3 H 7 CO 2 H) is, according to IUPAC guidelines, also known as butanoic acid. (wn.com)
  • Megasphaera elsdenii represents a promising host for production of VFAs, butyric acid (BA) and hexanoic acid (HA). (mdpi.com)
  • Silia Bond ® Carboxylic Acid (Si-CAA) can be used as a scavenger for amines or carbonates, and for the quench of alkoxides and organometallic reagents. (silicycle.com)
  • An anhydride may be produced by reacting an acid halide with the sodium salt of a carboxylic acid. (cliffsnotes.com)
  • Hydrolysis of the resulting product with concentrated sodium hydroxide solution liberates the sodium salt of the substituted acid. (cliffsnotes.com)
  • Any hydroxy carboxylic acid which contains a hydroxy group located β- to the carboxylic acid group. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Thus, this receptor subfamily is activated by hydroxy-carboxylic acid ligands which are intermediates of energy metabolism. (nih.gov)
  • In this article, we propose that the hydroxy-carboxylic acid structure of their endogenous ligands is the defining property of this receptor subfamily and that hydroxy-carboxylic acid receptors function as metabolic sensors which fine-tune the regulation of metabolic pathways. (nih.gov)
  • If the carboxyl group and the alcoholic hydroxy group are members of the same starting product, that is, if the starting product is a hydroxycarboxylic acid with an adequate distance between the carboxyl group and the alcoholic hydroxy group, Fischer esterification may proceed intramolecularly. (chemgapedia.de)
  • Acid hydrolysis The nitrile is heated under reflux with a dilute acid such as dilute hydrochloric acid. (scribd.com)
  • Examples include hydrochloric acid and sulfuric acid. (jrank.org)
  • Generally, however, carboxylic acids are not as chemically active as the non-organic mineral acids such as hydrochloric acid or sulfuric acid . (jrank.org)
  • In a pure carboxylic acid.Boiling points propan-1-ol ethanoic acid CH3CH2CH2OH CH3COOH 97. (scribd.com)
  • starting from ethanenitrile you would get ethanoic acid. (scribd.com)
  • The ethanoic acid could be distilled off the mixture. (scribd.com)
  • ethanoic acid reacts with methylamine to produce a colourless solution of the salt methylammonium ethanoate. (scribd.com)