Carboxylic Acids: Organic compounds containing the carboxy group (-COOH). This group of compounds includes amino acids and fatty acids. Carboxylic acids can be saturated, unsaturated, or aromatic.Amino Acids, Cyclic: A class of amino acids characterized by a closed ring structure.Ethylenes: Derivatives of ethylene, a simple organic gas of biological origin with many industrial and biological use.Azetidinecarboxylic Acid: A proline analog that acts as a stoichiometric replacement of proline. It causes the production of abnormal proteins with impaired biological activity.EstersMolecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.Pyrrolidonecarboxylic Acid: A cyclized derivative of L-GLUTAMIC ACID. Elevated blood levels may be associated with problems of GLUTAMINE or GLUTATHIONE metabolism.AzetinesPhenazinesStereoisomerism: The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Lyases: A class of enzymes that catalyze the cleavage of C-C, C-O, and C-N, and other bonds by other means than by hydrolysis or oxidation. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 4.Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Pipecolic AcidsThiazolidines: Reduced (protonated) form of THIAZOLES. They can be oxidized to THIAZOLIDINEDIONES.Dronabinol: A psychoactive compound extracted from the resin of Cannabis sativa (marihuana, hashish). The isomer delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is considered the most active form, producing characteristic mood and perceptual changes associated with this compound.Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Spectrophotometry, Infrared: Spectrophotometry in the infrared region, usually for the purpose of chemical analysis through measurement of absorption spectra associated with rotational and vibrational energy levels of molecules. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry: A microanalytical technique combining mass spectrometry and gas chromatography for the qualitative as well as quantitative determinations of compounds.Dibenz(b,f)(1,4)oxazepine-10(11H)-carboxylic acid, 8-chloro-, 2-acetylhydrazide: Inhibits the activity of prostaglandins.Proline: A non-essential amino acid that is synthesized from GLUTAMIC ACID. It is an essential component of COLLAGEN and is important for proper functioning of joints and tendons.KetonesAnthracenes: A group of compounds with three aromatic rings joined in linear arrangement.Benzoic Acid: A fungistatic compound that is widely used as a food preservative. It is conjugated to GLYCINE in the liver and excreted as hippuric acid.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Amino Acids: Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.Furans: Compounds with a 5-membered ring of four carbons and an oxygen. They are aromatic heterocycles. The reduced form is tetrahydrofuran.ThiazolesCarbon-Carbon Lyases: Enzymes that catalyze the cleavage of a carbon-carbon bond by means other than hydrolysis or oxidation. This subclass contains the DECARBOXYLASES, the ALDEHYDE-LYASES, and the OXO-ACID-LYASES. EC 4.1.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Cyclization: Changing an open-chain hydrocarbon to a closed ring. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Aldehydes: Organic compounds containing a carbonyl group in the form -CHO.Biotransformation: The chemical alteration of an exogenous substance by or in a biological system. The alteration may inactivate the compound or it may result in the production of an active metabolite of an inactive parent compound. The alterations may be divided into METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE I and METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE II.Alcohols: Alkyl compounds containing a hydroxyl group. They are classified according to relation of the carbon atom: primary alcohols, R-CH2OH; secondary alcohols, R2-CHOH; tertiary alcohols, R3-COH. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Plant Growth Regulators: Any of the hormones produced naturally in plants and active in controlling growth and other functions. There are three primary classes: auxins, cytokinins, and gibberellins.Nicotinic Acids: 2-, 3-, or 4-Pyridinecarboxylic acids. Pyridine derivatives substituted with a carboxy group at the 2-, 3-, or 4-position. The 3-carboxy derivative (NIACIN) is active as a vitamin.Indicators and Reagents: Substances used for the detection, identification, analysis, etc. of chemical, biological, or pathologic processes or conditions. Indicators are substances that change in physical appearance, e.g., color, at or approaching the endpoint of a chemical titration, e.g., on the passage between acidity and alkalinity. Reagents are substances used for the detection or determination of another substance by chemical or microscopical means, especially analysis. Types of reagents are precipitants, solvents, oxidizers, reducers, fluxes, and colorimetric reagents. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed, p301, p499)Mass Spectrometry: An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.Amides: Organic compounds containing the -CO-NH2 radical. Amides are derived from acids by replacement of -OH by -NH2 or from ammonia by the replacement of H by an acyl group. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Propionates: Derivatives of propionic acid. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxyethane structure.Chemistry: A basic science concerned with the composition, structure, and properties of matter; and the reactions that occur between substances and the associated energy exchange.Phosphorous Acids: Inorganic derivatives of phosphorus trihydroxide (P(OH)3) and its tautomeric form dihydroxyphosphine oxide (HP=O(OH)2). Note that organic derivatives of phosphonic acids are listed under are ORGANOPHOSPHONATES.Catalysis: The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.Spectrometry, Mass, Electrospray Ionization: A mass spectrometry technique used for analysis of nonvolatile compounds such as proteins and macromolecules. The technique involves preparing electrically charged droplets from analyte molecules dissolved in solvent. The electrically charged droplets enter a vacuum chamber where the solvent is evaporated. Evaporation of solvent reduces the droplet size, thereby increasing the coulombic repulsion within the droplet. As the charged droplets get smaller, the excess charge within them causes them to disintegrate and release analyte molecules. The volatilized analyte molecules are then analyzed by mass spectrometry.Chemical Phenomena: The composition, conformation, and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.Pseudomonas: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in nature. Some species are pathogenic for humans, animals, and plants.Amino Acid Oxidoreductases: A class of enzymes that catalyze oxidation-reduction reactions of amino acids.Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Indoles: Benzopyrroles with the nitrogen at the number one carbon adjacent to the benzyl portion, in contrast to ISOINDOLES which have the nitrogen away from the six-membered ring.Substance Abuse Detection: Detection of drugs that have been abused, overused, or misused, including legal and illegal drugs. Urine screening is the usual method of detection.Molecular Conformation: The characteristic three-dimensional shape of a molecule.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Spectrophotometry, Ultraviolet: Determination of the spectra of ultraviolet absorption by specific molecules in gases or liquids, for example Cl2, SO2, NO2, CS2, ozone, mercury vapor, and various unsaturated compounds. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Tetrahydroisoquinolines: A group of ISOQUINOLINES in which the nitrogen containing ring is protonated. They derive from the non-enzymatic Pictet-Spengler condensation of CATECHOLAMINES with ALDEHYDES.Acids: Chemical compounds which yield hydrogen ions or protons when dissolved in water, whose hydrogen can be replaced by metals or basic radicals, or which react with bases to form salts and water (neutralization). An extension of the term includes substances dissolved in media other than water. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)CarbodiimidesCarbolines: A group of pyrido-indole compounds. Included are any points of fusion of pyridine with the five-membered ring of indole and any derivatives of these compounds. These are similar to CARBAZOLES which are benzo-indoles.Isobutyrates: Aliphatic acids that contain four carbons in a branched-chain configuration. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the 2-carboxypropane structure.Streptomyces: A genus of bacteria that form a nonfragmented aerial mycelium. Many species have been identified with some being pathogenic. This genus is responsible for producing a majority of the ANTI-BACTERIAL AGENTS of practical value.ortho-Aminobenzoates: Benzoic acids, salts, or esters that contain an amino group attached to carbon number 2 or 6 of the benzene ring structure.Spectrometry, Mass, Fast Atom Bombardment: A mass spectrometric technique that is used for the analysis of a wide range of biomolecules, such as glycoalkaloids, glycoproteins, polysaccharides, and peptides. Positive and negative fast atom bombardment spectra are recorded on a mass spectrometer fitted with an atom gun with xenon as the customary beam. The mass spectra obtained contain molecular weight recognition as well as sequence information.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Models, Chemical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Cephalosporins: A group of broad-spectrum antibiotics first isolated from the Mediterranean fungus ACREMONIUM. They contain the beta-lactam moiety thia-azabicyclo-octenecarboxylic acid also called 7-aminocephalosporanic acid.Carbon Disulfide: A colorless, flammable, poisonous liquid, CS2. It is used as a solvent, and is a counterirritant and has local anesthetic properties but is not used as such. It is highly toxic with pronounced CNS, hematologic, and dermatologic effects.Decarboxylation: The removal of a carboxyl group, usually in the form of carbon dioxide, from a chemical compound.Acetates: Derivatives of ACETIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxymethane structure.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.CyclopropanesBacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.Benzoates: Derivatives of BENZOIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxybenzene structure.Anhydrides: Chemical compounds derived from acids by the elimination of a molecule of water.QuinolinesChloride Channels: Cell membrane glycoproteins that form channels to selectively pass chloride ions. Nonselective blockers include FENAMATES; ETHACRYNIC ACID; and TAMOXIFEN.Cycloleucine: An amino acid formed by cyclization of leucine. It has cytostatic, immunosuppressive and antineoplastic activities.Spermatogenesis-Blocking Agents: Chemical substances which inhibit the process of spermatozoa formation at either the first stage, in which spermatogonia develop into spermatocytes and then into spermatids, or the second stage, in which spermatids transform into spermatozoa.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Melanins: Insoluble polymers of TYROSINE derivatives found in and causing darkness in skin (SKIN PIGMENTATION), hair, and feathers providing protection against SUNBURN induced by SUNLIGHT. CAROTENES contribute yellow and red coloration.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Carbon Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of carbon that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. C atoms with atomic weights 10, 11, and 14-16 are radioactive carbon isotopes.Cyclohexanecarboxylic AcidsHydrolysis: The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.Alkenes: Unsaturated hydrocarbons of the type Cn-H2n, indicated by the suffix -ene. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed, p408)Lucanthone: One of the SCHISTOSOMICIDES, it has been replaced largely by HYCANTHONE and more recently PRAZIQUANTEL. (From Martindale The Extrapharmacopoeia, 30th ed., p46)Carboxylic Ester Hydrolases: Enzymes which catalyze the hydrolysis of carboxylic acid esters with the formation of an alcohol and a carboxylic acid anion.Chromatography, Thin Layer: Chromatography on thin layers of adsorbents rather than in columns. The adsorbent can be alumina, silica gel, silicates, charcoals, or cellulose. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Pyrroline Carboxylate Reductases: A group of enzymes that catalyze the reduction of 1-pyrroline carboxylate to proline in the presence of NAD(P)H. Includes both the 2-oxidoreductase (EC 1.5.1.1) and the 5-oxidoreductase (EC 1.5.1.2). The former also reduces 1-piperidine-2-carboxylate to pipecolate and the latter also reduces 1-pyrroline-3-hydroxy-5-carboxylate to hydroxyproline.Lycopersicon esculentum: A plant species of the family SOLANACEAE, native of South America, widely cultivated for their edible, fleshy, usually red fruit.D-Amino-Acid OxidasePlant Roots: The usually underground portions of a plant that serve as support, store food, and through which water and mineral nutrients enter the plant. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982; Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Enoxacin: A broad-spectrum 6-fluoronaphthyridinone antibacterial agent that is structurally related to NALIDIXIC ACID.Pyrroles: Azoles of one NITROGEN and two double bonds that have aromatic chemical properties.Caproates: Derivatives of caproic acid. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain a carboxy terminated six carbon aliphatic structure.Cyclopentanes: A group of alicyclic hydrocarbons with the general formula R-C5H9.Retinoids: A group of tetraterpenes, with four terpene units joined head-to-tail. Biologically active members of this class are used clinically in the treatment of severe cystic ACNE; PSORIASIS; and other disorders of keratinization.Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared: A spectroscopic technique in which a range of wavelengths is presented simultaneously with an interferometer and the spectrum is mathematically derived from the pattern thus obtained.Large Neutral Amino Acid-Transporter 1: A CD98 antigen light chain that when heterodimerized with CD98 antigen heavy chain (ANTIGENS, CD98 HEAVY CHAIN) forms a protein that mediates sodium-independent L-type amino acid transport.2,2'-Dipyridyl: A reagent used for the determination of iron.Adamantane: A tricyclo bridged hydrocarbon.Niflumic Acid: An analgesic and anti-inflammatory agent used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis.Gene Expression Regulation, Plant: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.CyclobutanesAnti-Bacterial Agents: Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.Chlorides: Inorganic compounds derived from hydrochloric acid that contain the Cl- ion.Leucine: An essential branched-chain amino acid important for hemoglobin formation.Pseudotsuga: A plant genus in the family PINACEAE, order Pinales, class Pinopsida, division Coniferophyta. They are coniferous evergreen trees with long, flat, spirally arranged needles that grow directly from the branch.Amino Acid Transport System L: A sodium-independent neutral amino acid transporter system with specificity for large amino acids. One of the functions of the transporter system is to supply large neutral amino acids to the brain.ImidesForensic Medicine: The application of medical knowledge to questions of law.Hydrocarbons, Cyclic: Organic compounds composed exclusively of carbon and hydrogen forming a closed ring that may be either alicyclic or aromatic.Heterocyclic Compounds: Ring compounds having atoms other than carbon in their nuclei. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Combinatorial Chemistry Techniques: A technology, in which sets of reactions for solution or solid-phase synthesis, is used to create molecular libraries for analysis of compounds on a large scale.Amines: A group of compounds derived from ammonia by substituting organic radicals for the hydrogens. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Solvents: Liquids that dissolve other substances (solutes), generally solids, without any change in chemical composition, as, water containing sugar. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Pyrazoles: Azoles of two nitrogens at the 1,2 positions, next to each other, in contrast with IMIDAZOLES in which they are at the 1,3 positions.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Organosilicon Compounds: Organic compounds that contain silicon as an integral part of the molecule.MalatesHydrazinesIndoleacetic Acids: Acetic acid derivatives of the heterocyclic compound indole. (Merck Index, 11th ed)Benzyl CompoundsEnzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.Pyocyanine: Antibiotic pigment produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa.Water: A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Fluoroacetates: Derivatives of acetic acid with one or more fluorines attached. They are almost odorless, difficult to detect chemically, and very stable. The acid itself, as well as the derivatives that are broken down in the body to the acid, are highly toxic substances, behaving as convulsant poisons with a delayed action. (From Miall's Dictionary of Chemistry, 5th ed)Santalaceae: A plant family of the order Santalales, subclass Rosidae, class Magnoliopsida. They are parasites that form connections (haustoria) to their hosts to obtain water and nutrients. The one-seeded fruit may be surrounded by a brightly colored nut-like structure.Acids, Heterocyclic: A class of acids containing a ring structure in which at least one atom other than CARBON is incorporated.Glycine: A non-essential amino acid. It is found primarily in gelatin and silk fibroin and used therapeutically as a nutrient. It is also a fast inhibitory neurotransmitter.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Glycols: A generic grouping for dihydric alcohols with the hydroxy groups (-OH) located on different carbon atoms. They are viscous liquids with high boiling points for their molecular weights.IndazolesQuinolones: A group of derivatives of naphthyridine carboxylic acid, quinoline carboxylic acid, or NALIDIXIC ACID.ThiophenesAnions: Negatively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms which travel to the anode or positive pole during electrolysis.Pseudomonas fluorescens: A species of nonpathogenic fluorescent bacteria found in feces, sewage, soil, and water, and which liquefy gelatin.Odors: The volatile portions of substances perceptible by the sense of smell. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)GlyoxylatesDrug Design: The molecular designing of drugs for specific purposes (such as DNA-binding, enzyme inhibition, anti-cancer efficacy, etc.) based on knowledge of molecular properties such as activity of functional groups, molecular geometry, and electronic structure, and also on information cataloged on analogous molecules. Drug design is generally computer-assisted molecular modeling and does not include pharmacokinetics, dosage analysis, or drug administration analysis.Chromatography, Gas: Fractionation of a vaporized sample as a consequence of partition between a mobile gaseous phase and a stationary phase held in a column. Two types are gas-solid chromatography, where the fixed phase is a solid, and gas-liquid, in which the stationary phase is a nonvolatile liquid supported on an inert solid matrix.Oxidoreductases: The class of all enzymes catalyzing oxidoreduction reactions. The substrate that is oxidized is regarded as a hydrogen donor. The systematic name is based on donor:acceptor oxidoreductase. The recommended name will be dehydrogenase, wherever this is possible; as an alternative, reductase can be used. Oxidase is only used in cases where O2 is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p9)Nocardia: A genus of gram-positive, aerobic bacteria whose species are widely distributed and are abundant in soil. Some strains are pathogenic opportunists for humans and animals.Hydroxylation: Placing of a hydroxyl group on a compound in a position where one did not exist before. (Stedman, 26th ed)Oxazines: Six-membered heterocycles containing an oxygen and a nitrogen.Chromatography, Liquid: Chromatographic techniques in which the mobile phase is a liquid.ThiazinesBiodegradation, Environmental: Elimination of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS; PESTICIDES and other waste using living organisms, usually involving intervention of environmental or sanitation engineers.NorbornanesAcrylatesIsoquinolines: A group of compounds with the heterocyclic ring structure of benzo(c)pyridine. The ring structure is characteristic of the group of opium alkaloids such as papaverine. (From Stedman, 25th ed)2-Methyl-4-chlorophenoxyacetic Acid: A powerful herbicide used as a selective weed killer.Carbon Isotopes: Stable carbon atoms that have the same atomic number as the element carbon, but differ in atomic weight. C-13 is a stable carbon isotope.CinnamatesIndenes: A family of fused-ring hydrocarbons isolated from coal tar that act as intermediates in various chemical reactions and are used in the production of coumarone-indene resins.Oxylipins: Eighteen-carbon cyclopentyl polyunsaturated fatty acids derived from ALPHA-LINOLENIC ACID via an oxidative pathway analogous to the EICOSANOIDS in animals. Biosynthesis is inhibited by SALICYLATES. A key member, jasmonic acid of PLANTS, plays a similar role to ARACHIDONIC ACID in animals.Crotonates: Derivatives of BUTYRIC ACID that include a double bond between carbon 2 and 3 of the aliphatic structure. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that include the aminobutryrate structure.AzetidinesEsterification: The process of converting an acid into an alkyl or aryl derivative. Most frequently the process consists of the reaction of an acid with an alcohol in the presence of a trace of mineral acid as catalyst or the reaction of an acyl chloride with an alcohol. Esterification can also be accomplished by enzymatic processes.Saponaria: A plant species of the family CARYOPHYLLACEAE. It is a source of SAPONINS. The common name "Soapwort" is also used with VACCARIA. The common name of "Bouncing Bet" is occasionally used with VIOLA.4,4'-Diisothiocyanostilbene-2,2'-Disulfonic Acid: An inhibitor of anion conductance including band 3-mediated anion transport.Armoracia: A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE known for the root used in hot SPICES. It is also the source of HORSERADISH PEROXIDASE which is widely used in laboratories.Glycolates: Derivatives of ACETIC ACID which contain an hydroxy group attached to the methyl carbon.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Cefmenoxime: A cephalosporin antibiotic that is administered intravenously or intramuscularly. It is active against most common gram-positive and gram-negative microorganisms, is a potent inhibitor of Enterobacteriaceae, and is highly resistant to hydrolysis by beta-lactamases. The drug has a high rate of efficacy in many types of infection and to date no severe side effects have been noted.Trifluoroacetic Acid: A very strong halogenated derivative of acetic acid. It is used in acid catalyzed reactions, especially those where an ester is cleaved in peptide synthesis.Isomerism: The phenomenon whereby certain chemical compounds have structures that are different although the compounds possess the same elemental composition. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Glutamine: A non-essential amino acid present abundantly throughout the body and is involved in many metabolic processes. It is synthesized from GLUTAMIC ACID and AMMONIA. It is the principal carrier of NITROGEN in the body and is an important energy source for many cells.Aminoisobutyric Acids: A group of compounds that are derivatives of the amino acid 2-amino-2-methylpropanoic acid.Tricarboxylic Acids: Organic compounds that are acyclic and contain three acid groups. A member of this class is citric acid which is the first product formed by reaction of pyruvate and oxaloacetate. (From Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p443)Cycloparaffins: Alicyclic hydrocarbons in which three or more of the carbon atoms in each molecule are united in a ring structure and each of the ring carbon atoms is joined to two hydrogen atoms or alkyl groups. The simplest members are cyclopropane (C3H6), cyclobutane (C4H8), cyclohexane (C6H12), and derivatives of these such as methylcyclohexane (C6H11CH3). (From Sax, et al., Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)Microbial Sensitivity Tests: Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).Picolinic AcidsTemperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.1-Octanol: A colorless, slightly viscous liquid used as a defoaming or wetting agent. It is also used as a solvent for protective coatings, waxes, and oils, and as a raw material for plasticizers. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Crystallography, X-Ray: The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Dicarboxylic AcidsEscherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Marijuana Smoking: Inhaling and exhaling the smoke from CANNABIS.Carbon: A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.Prenylation: Attachment of isoprenoids (TERPENES) to other compounds, especially PROTEINS and FLAVONOIDS.Pyroglutamyl-Peptidase I: An enzyme that catalyzes the release of a N-terminal pyroglutamyl group from a polypeptide provided the next residue is not proline. It is inhibited by thiol-blocking reagents and occurs in mammalian tissues, microorganisms, and plants. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 3.4.19.3.Halogens: A family of nonmetallic, generally electronegative, elements that form group 17 (formerly group VIIa) of the periodic table.Hydroxyquinolines: The 8-hydroxy derivatives inhibit various enzymes and their halogenated derivatives, though neurotoxic, are used as topical anti-infective agents, among other uses.Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.Antispermatogenic Agents: Agents, either mechanical or chemical, which destroy spermatozoa in the male genitalia and block spermatogenesis.Sesquiterpenes, Germacrane: SESQUITERPENES cyclized to one 10-carbon ring.Prodrugs: A compound that, on administration, must undergo chemical conversion by metabolic processes before becoming the pharmacologically active drug for which it is a prodrug.Xenobiotics: Chemical substances that are foreign to the biological system. They include naturally occurring compounds, drugs, environmental agents, carcinogens, insecticides, etc.4-Quinolones: QUINOLONES containing a 4-oxo (a carbonyl in the para position to the nitrogen). They inhibit the A subunit of DNA GYRASE and are used as antimicrobials. Second generation 4-quinolones are also substituted with a 1-piperazinyl group at the 7-position and a fluorine at the 6-position.Hydrogen Bonding: A low-energy attractive force between hydrogen and another element. It plays a major role in determining the properties of water, proteins, and other compounds.Chromatography: Techniques used to separate mixtures of substances based on differences in the relative affinities of the substances for mobile and stationary phases. A mobile phase (fluid or gas) passes through a column containing a stationary phase of porous solid or liquid coated on a solid support. Usage is both analytical for small amounts and preparative for bulk amounts.Piperidines: A family of hexahydropyridines.Glucuronides: Glycosides of GLUCURONIC ACID formed by the reaction of URIDINE DIPHOSPHATE GLUCURONIC ACID with certain endogenous and exogenous substances. Their formation is important for the detoxification of drugs, steroid excretion and BILIRUBIN metabolism to a more water-soluble compound that can be eliminated in the URINE and BILE.Acanthopanax: A plant genus of the family ARALIACEAE. Ciwujia extract, which is prepared from plants of this genus, contains ciwujianosides and is used to enhance PHYSICAL ENDURANCE.Butyrates: Derivatives of BUTYRIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxypropane structure.Coenzyme A Ligases: Enzymes that catalyze the formation of acyl-CoA derivatives. EC 6.2.1.Dendrimers: Tree-like, highly branched, polymeric compounds. They grow three-dimensionally by the addition of shells of branched molecules to a central core. The overall globular shape and presence of cavities gives potential as drug carriers and CONTRAST AGENTS.Arabidopsis: A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.Fermentation: Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.Gravitropism: The directional growth of organisms in response to gravity. In plants, the main root is positively gravitropic (growing downwards) and a main stem is negatively gravitropic (growing upwards), irrespective of the positions in which they are placed. Plant gravitropism is thought to be controlled by auxin (AUXINS), a plant growth substance. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Microsomes, Liver: Closed vesicles of fragmented endoplasmic reticulum created when liver cells or tissue are disrupted by homogenization. They may be smooth or rough.Palladium: A chemical element having an atomic weight of 106.4, atomic number of 46, and the symbol Pd. It is a white, ductile metal resembling platinum, and following it in abundance and importance of applications. It is used in dentistry in the form of gold, silver, and copper alloys.

The interaction of rhodium(II) carboxylates with enzymes. (1/1503)

The effect of rhodium(II) acetate, propionate, and methoxyacetate on the activity of 17 enzymes was evaluated. The enzymes were preincubated with the rhodium(II) complexes in order to detect irreversible inhibition. All enzymes that have essential sulfhydryl groups in or near their active site were found to be irreversibly inhibited. Those enzymes without essential sulfhydryl groups were not affected. In each case, the rate of inactivation closely paralleled the observed toxicity and antitumor activity of rhodium(II) carboxylates; that is, rhodium(II) propionate greater than rhodium(II) acetate greater than rhodium(II) methoxyacetate. In addition, those enzymes that have been demonstrated to be most sensitive to established sulfhydryl inhibitors, such as glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, were also most sensitive to rhodium(II) carboxylate inactivation. Proton nuclear magnetic resonance measurements made during the titration of rhodium(II) acetate with cysteine showed that breakdown of the carboxylate cage occurred as a result of reaction with this sulfhydryl-containing amino acid.  (+info)

Synthesis and evaluation of [18F]1-amino-3-fluorocyclobutane-1-carboxylic acid to image brain tumors. (2/1503)

We have developed a new tumor-avid amino acid, 1-amino-3-fluorocyclobutane-1-carboxylic acid (FACBC), labeled with 18F for nuclear medicine imaging. METHODS: [18F]FACBC was prepared with high specific activity (no carrier added [NCA]) and was evaluated for its potential in tumor localization. A comparative study was performed for [18F]FACBC and [18F]2-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) in which the uptake of each agent in 9L gliosarcoma (implanted intracerebrally in Fisher 344 rats) was measured. In addition, the first human PET study of [18F]FACBC was performed on a patient with residual glioblastoma multiforme. Quantitative brain images of the patient were obtained by using a Siemens 921 47-slice PET imaging system. RESULTS: In the rat brain, the initial level of radioactivity accumulation after injection of [18F]FACBC was low (0.11 percentage injected dose per gram [%ID/g]) at 5 min and increased slightly to 0.26 %ID/g at 60 min. The tumor uptake exhibited a maximum at 60 min (1.72 %ID/g), resulting in a tumor-to-brain ratio increase of 5.58 at 5 min to 6.61 at 60 min. In the patient, the uptake of [18F]FACBC in the tumor exhibited a maximum concentration of 146 nCi/mL at 35 min after injection. The uptake of radioactivity in the normal brain tissue was low, 21 nCi/mL at 15 min after injection, and gradually increased to 29 nCi/mL at 60 min after injection. The ratio of tumor to normal tissue was 6 at 20 min after injection. The [18F]FACBC PET scan showed intense uptake in the left frontal region of the brain. CONCLUSION: The amino acid FACBC can be radiofluorinated for clinical use. [18F]FACBC is a potential PET tracer for tumor imaging.  (+info)

The PalkBFGHJKL promoter is under carbon catabolite repression control in Pseudomonas oleovorans but not in Escherichia coli alk+ recombinants. (3/1503)

The alk genes are located on the OCT plasmid of Pseudomonas oleovorans and encode an inducible pathway for the utilization of n-alkanes as carbon and energy sources. We have investigated the influence of alternative carbon sources on the induction of this pathway in P. oleovorans and Escherichia coli alk+ recombinants. In doing so, we confirmed earlier reports that induction of alkane hydroxylase activity in pseudomonads is subject to carbon catabolite repression. Specifically, synthesis of the monooxygenase component AlkB is repressed at the transcriptional level. The alk genes have been cloned into plasmid pGEc47, which has a copy number of about 5 to 10 per cell in both E. coli and pseudomonads. Pseudomonas putida GPo12 is a P. oleovorans derivative cured of the OCT plasmid. Upon introduction of pGEc47 in this strain, carbon catabolite repression of alkane hydroxylase activity was reduced significantly. In cultures of recombinant E. coli HB101 and W3110 carrying pGEc47, induction of AlkB and transcription of the alkB gene were no longer subject to carbon catabolite repression. This suggests that carbon catabolite repression of alkane degradation is regulated differently in Pseudomonas and in E. coli strains. These results also indicate that PalkBFGHJKL, the Palk promoter, might be useful in attaining high expression levels of heterologous genes in E. coli grown on inexpensive carbon sources which normally trigger carbon catabolite repression of native expression systems in this host.  (+info)

Trigeminal nerve ganglion stimulation-induced neurovascular reflexes in the anaesthetized cat: role of endothelin(B) receptors in carotid vasodilatation. (4/1503)

1. The effects of intravenous administration of endothelin (ET) receptor antagonists SB-209670 (0.001-10.0 mg kg(-1)), SB-217242, SB-234551 (0.01-10.0 mg kg(-1)) and BQ-788 (0.001-1.0 mg kg(-1)) were investigated on trigeminal nerve ganglion stimulation-induced neurovascular reflexes in the carotid vasculature of the anaesthetized cat. Comparisons were made with sumatriptan (0.003-3.0 mg kg(-1)) and alpha-CGRP8-37 (0.001-0.1 mg kg(-1)). 2. Trigeminal nerve ganglion stimulation produced frequency related increases in carotid blood flow, reductions in carotid vascular resistance and non-frequency related increases in blood pressure. Guanethidine (3 mg kg(-1), i.v.) blocked trigeminal nerve ganglion-induced increases in blood pressure but had no effect on changes in carotid flow or resistance. Maximal reductions in carotid vascular resistance was observed at 10 Hz, and this frequency was selected to investigate the effects of drugs on trigeminal nerve ganglion stimulation-induced responses in guanethidine treated cats. 3. Saline, alpha-CGRP8-37 SB-209670 and BQ-788 had little or no effect on resting haemodynamic parameters. SB-217242 (10 mg kg(-1), n=3) produced a 56% reduction in arterial blood pressure whereas SB-233451 (10 mg kg(-1), n=3) produced a 30% reduction in carotid vascular resistance. Sumatriptan produced dose-related reductions in resting carotid flow and increases (max. 104% at 0.3 mg kg(-1), n = 5) in vascular resistance. 4. SB-209670 (n=6-7), SB-217242 (n=3) and BQ-788 (n=3) produced inhibition of trigeminal nerve ganglion stimulation-induced reductions in carotid vascular resistance. Saline, SB-234551, alpha-CGRP8-37 and sumatriptan had no effect. 5. These data demonstrate ET(B) receptor blockade attenuates the vasodilator effects of trigeminal nerve ganglion stimulation in the carotid vascular bed of guanethidine pretreated anaesthetized cats.  (+info)

Active site characterization of the exo-N-acetyl-beta-D- glucosaminidase from thermotolerant Bacillus sp. NCIM 5120: involvement of tryptophan, histidine and carboxylate residues in catalytic activity. (5/1503)

The exo-N-acetyl-beta-d-glucosaminidase (EC 3.2.1.30) from thermotolerant Bacillus sp. NCIM 5120 is a homotetramer with a molecular mass of 240000 kDa. Chemical modification studies on the purified exo-N-acetyl-beta-d-glucosaminidase revealed the involvement of a single tryptophan, histidine and carboxylate, per monomer, in the catalytic activity of the enzyme. Spectral analysis and maintenance of total enzyme activities indicated that N-acetylglucosamine (competitive inhibitor) and p-nitrophenyl-N-acetyl-beta-d-glucosaminide (substrate) prevented the modification of a single essential tryptophan, histidine and carboxylate residue. Kinetic parameters of partially inactivated enzyme (by NBS/HNBB) showed the involvement of tryptophan in substrate binding while that of histidine (by photooxidation/DEPC) and carboxylate (by EDAC/WRK) in catalysis. The Bacillus sp. NCIM 5120 exo-N-acetyl-beta-d-glucosaminidase deviates from the reported N-acetyl-beta-d-glucosaminidases and beta-hexosaminidases that utilize anchimeric assistance in their hydrolytic mechanism.  (+info)

Combinatorial receptor codes for odors. (6/1503)

The discriminatory capacity of the mammalian olfactory system is such that thousands of volatile chemicals are perceived as having distinct odors. Here we used a combination of calcium imaging and single-cell RT-PCR to identify odorant receptors (ORs) for odorants with related structures but varied odors. We found that one OR recognizes multiple odorants and that one odorant is recognized by multiple ORs, but that different odorants are recognized by different combinations of ORs. Thus, the olfactory system uses a combinatorial receptor coding scheme to encode odor identities. Our studies also indicate that slight alterations in an odorant, or a change in its concentration, can change its "code," potentially explaining how such changes can alter perceived odor quality.  (+info)

Requirement of the carboxy-terminal domain of RNA polymerase II for the transcriptional activation of chromosomal c-fos and hsp70A genes. (7/1503)

The carboxy-terminal domain of the large subunit of mouse and human RNA polymerase II contains 52 repeats of a heptapeptide which are the targets for a variety of kinases. We have used an alpha-amanitin resistant form of the large subunit of pol II to study the role of the carboxy-terminal domain in the expression of chromosomal genes. The large subunit of RNA polymerase II and deletion mutants thereof, which contain only 31 (LSdelta31) and 5 (LSdeltaS) repeats, were expressed in 293 cells. Subsequently, the endogenous large subunit of RNA polymerase II was inhibited by alpha-amanitin and the induction of chromosomal c-fos and hsp70A genes was determined. Cells expressing the large subunit of RNA polymerase II and LSdelta31 were able to transcribe the c-fos and hsp70A genes after treatment with the phorbolester TPA and after heat-shock, respectively. In contrast, cells expressing LSdelta5 failed to induce expression of both genes.  (+info)

Microbial oxidation of methane and methanol: isolation of methane-utilizing bacteria and characterization of a facultative methane-utilizing isolate. (8/1503)

A methane-utilizing organism capable of growth both on methane and on more complex organic substrates as a sole source of carbon and energy, has been isolated and studied in detail. Suspensions of methane-grown cells of this organism oxidized C-1 compounds (methane, methanol, formaldehyde, formate); hydrocarbons (ethane, propane); primary alcohols (ethanol, propanol); primary aldehydes (acetaldehyde, propionaldehyde); alkenes (ethylene, propylene); dimethylether; and organic acids (acetate, malate, succinate, isocitrate). Suspensions of methanol-or succinate-grown cells did not oxidize methane, ethane, propane, ethylene, propylene, or dimethylether, suggesting that the enzymatic systems required for oxidation of these substrates are induced only during growth on methane. Extracts of methane-grown cells contained a particulate reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide-dependent methane monooxygenase activity. Oxidation of methanol, formaldehyde, and primary alcohols was catalyzed by a phenazine methosulfate-linked, ammonium ion-requiring methanol dehydrogenase. Oxidation of primary aldehydes was catalyzed by a phenazine methosulfate-linked, ammonium ion-independent aldehyde dehydrogenase. Formate was oxidized by a nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide-specific formate dehydrogenase. Extracts of methane-grown, but not succinate-grown, cells contained the key enzymes of the serine pathway, hydroxypyruvate reductase and malate lyase, indicating that the enzymes of C-1 assimilation are induced only during growth on C-1 compounds. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase was induced during growth on glucose. Extracts of methane-grown cells contained low levels of enzymes of the tricarboxylic acid cycle, including alpha-keto glutarate dehydrogenase, relative to the levels found during growth on succinate.  (+info)

This invention pertains to the production of higher homologues of aliphatic carboxylic acids by reaction of said acids with carbon monoxide and hydrogen in the presence of one or more palladium-contai
Carboxylic acids Carboxylic acids are considered the most acidic organic compounds, however, they are not strong acids like the inorganic acids such as
0143] As an aliphatic carboxylic acid component constituting the aliphatic carboxylate ester, the same acid as said aliphatic carboxylic acid can be used. On the other hand, as an alcohol component constituting the aliphatic carboxylate ester, saturated or unsaturated monohydric alcohol, saturated or unsaturated polyhydric alcohol, and the like are included. These alcohols may have a substituent such as fluorine atom, aryl group, and the like. Among these alcohols, monohydric or polyhydric saturated alcohol having 30 or less carbon atoms is preferable, and aliphatic saturated monohydric alcohol or polyhydric alcohol having 30 or less carbon atoms is further preferable. Herein, aliphatic alcohol also encompasses alicyclic alcohols. Specific example of such alcohol includes octanol, decanol, dodecanol, stearyl alcohol, behenyl alcohol, ethylene glycol, diethylene glycol, glycerin, pentaerythritol, 2,2-dihydroxyperfluoropropanol, neopentylene glycol, ditrimethylolpropane, dipentaerythritol, and the ...
295329207 - EP 1009741 A1 2000-06-21 - NOVEL CARBOXYLIC ACID DERIVATIVES, THEIR PRODUCTION AND THEIR USE AS MIXED ET A?/ET B? ENDOTHELIN-RECEPTOR ANTAGONISTS - [origin: WO9911629A1] The invention relates to carboxylic acid derivatives of formula (I) wherein the radicals are defined in the description, and to the use of these derivatives as ETA/ETB endothelin-receptor antagonists.[origin: WO9911629A1] The invention relates to carboxylic acid derivatives of formula (I) wherein the radicals are defined in the description, and to the use of these derivatives as ETA/ETB endothelin-receptor antagonists.
United States Patent f U.S. Cl. 38144 20 Claims ABSTRACT OF THE DISCLOSURE Crosslinked fibrous compositions comprising cellulose esterified with a polycarboxylic acid, which acid meets the following requirements: (1) contains no functional groups except carboxyl, (2) contains at least three free carboxylic groups, (3) each carboxyl group attached to a separate carbon atom, (4) at least two of the plurality of carboxyl groups separated by no more than one carbon atom, are prepared by treating fibrous cellulose with said carboxylic acid having varying amounts of the carboxylic acid function neutralized with an alkali metal hydroxide, ammonium hydroxide or an amine, and heating the treated cellulose to induce esterification and concurrent crosslinking. Fabrics composed of such fibers are capable of developing durable creases. A non-exclusive, irrevocable, royalty-free license in the invention herein described, throughout the world for all purposes of the United States Government, with the power to ...
1811107DNASaccharomyces cerevisiae 1atgaaaataa aaattttagt agatgaatat aatacgcaga aagaacaggc taaaaaagta 60cgaaaagcaa cttcattata tttccgcatt catccttcaa ttatggccag caagactttg 120agggttcttt ttctgggtcc caaaggtacg tattcccatc aagctgcatt acaacaattt 180caatcaacat ctgatgttga gtacctccca gcagcctcta tcccccaatg ttttaaccaa 240ttggagaacg acactagtat agattattca gtggtaccgt tggaaaattc caccaatgga 300caagtagttt tttcctatga tctcttgcgt gataggatga tcaaaaaagc cctatcctta 360cctgctccag cagatactaa tagaattaca ccagatatag aagttatagc ggagcaatat 420gtacccatta cccattgtct aatcagccca atccaactac caaatggtat tgcatccctt 480ggaaattttg aagaagtcat aatacactca catccgcaag tatggggcca ggttgaatgt 540tacttaaggt ccatggcaga aaaatttccg caggtcacct ttataagatt ggattgttct 600tccacatctg aatcagtgaa ccaatgcatt cggtcatcaa cggccgattg cgacaacatt 660ctgcatttag ccattgctag tgaaacagct gcccaattgc ataaggcgta catcattgaa 720cattcgataa atgataagct aggaaataca acaagatttt tagtattgaa gagaagggag 780aacgcaggcg acaatgaagt agaagacact ggattactac gggttaacct actcaccttt ...
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In a new paper, a large international research team describes how they methodically varied the combinations and concentrations of CO2, ammonia, L-lactic acid and seven aliphatic carboxylic acids to come up with a synthetic human scent that, under some conditions, is even more attractive to mosquitoes than the real thing. The team tested the synthetic lures in the field in a village in southeastern Tanzania. The optimized odor blend was more attractive than human scent when the two samples were set up in huts located 10 to 100 meters apart. When mosquitoes had to choose between sample in close proximity in the same hut, the synthetic lure no longer had an advantage. Still, bait stations strategically located outside a village could draw significant numbers of insects away from homes in the village ...
A composition capable of promoting the skin permeation or percutaneous absorption of a drug, which comprises a lower alcohol and at least one member of the group consisting of a saturated aliphatic hydrocarbon containing 5 to 20 carbon atoms, which may optionally be halogen-substituted, a monohydric alcohol ester of an aliphatic carboxylic acid, which contains 13 to 24 carbon atoms, and an ether containing 8 to 16 carbon atoms with one ether bondage in the molecule; and an external preparation containing the above composition as a base.
When we think of the deadliest diseases of the world, things like Ebola and the Black Death come to our minds. However, it turns out that cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the worlds leading cause of death in this day and age. In the 1970s, we were convinced that CVD was caused by dietary fat. Indeed, there was a public campaign to stamp out fat and replace it with carbohydrates. People didnt realize that fat wasnt the issue. Rather, fat has the highest calorie/mass ratio (9 calories per gram) and excess consumption of fat leads to obesity and its milieu of problems, including CVD. The food industry replaced fat with carbohydrates to meet this craze, and "fat-free" foods were instead pumped with sugar. Of course, calories are calories-and when people consumed these foods in earnest, not much changed with regards to the incidence of CVD.. So what exactly is fat? Chemically, fat is a glycerol molecule + three fatty acids. Fatty acids are long-chained aliphatic carboxylic acids that are either ...
At least three component, body-implantable, absorbable, biocompatible, putty, and non-putty pain-relieving compositions for use in surgery comprising in intimate admixture: an analgesic having local pain-relieving activity for internal relief of pain, a finely powdered bulking material, preferably less than 50 microns, e.g. the metal salts of fatty acid, hydroxyapatite, DBM, polyglycolide, polylactide, polycaprolactones, absorbable glasses, gelatin, collagens, mono, and polysaccharides starches. An organic liquid capable of solubilizing, dispensing or suspending the analgesic, such as esters of monohydric alcohols with aliphatic monocarboxylic acids; C2-C18 monohydric alcohols with polycarboxylic acids; C8-C30 monohydric alcohols; tocopherol and esters thereof with mono or polycarboxylic acids; free carboxylic acids such as oleic, capric, and lauric; dialkyl ethers and ketones; polyhydroxy compounds and esters and ethers thereof; random or block copolymers of ethylene oxide and propylene oxide.
The pH of saturated benzoic acid (C6H5COOH) at 25 degrees Celsius is 2.8. Benzoic acid is the simplest aromatic carboxylic acid, consisting of a benzene ring bonded to carboxylic acid.Source:Benzoic Acid MSDSNIST: Benzoic AcidIPCS: Benzoic Acid
Disclosed herein are anti-inflammatory and anti-ulcer copper coordination compounds and a process for using them in the treatment of arthritis and gastrointestinal ulcers in animal bodies. The copper coordination compounds utilized are the reaction products of copper salts with: 1. aromatic carboxylic acids or their alkaline earth salts; 2. heterocyclic carboxylic acids or their alkaline earth salts; 3. amino acids or their alkaline earth salts; 4. amines; and 5. suitably substituted steroids. The process disclosed comprises administering to experimental animals, orally or parentrally (subcutaneously), in controlled dosages, the aforementioned copper coordination compounds for the treatment of inflammation (i.e., arthritis) and ulcers of the gastrointestinal tract.
Carboxylic acids are commonly identified by their trivial names. They often have the suffix -ic acid. IUPAC-recommended names also exist; in this system, carboxylic acids have an -oic acid suffix.[2] For example, butyric acid (C3H7CO2H) is butanoic acid by IUPAC guidelines. For nomenclature of complex molecules containing a carboxylic acid, the carboxyl can be considered position one of the parent chain even if there are other substituents, such as 3-chloropropanoic acid. Alternately, it can be named as a "carboxy" or "carboxylic acid" substituent on another parent structure, such as 2-carboxyfuran. The carboxylate anion (R-COO− or RCO2−) of a carboxylic acid is usually named with the suffix -ate, in keeping with the general pattern of -ic acid and -ate for a conjugate acid and its conjugate base, respectively. For example, the conjugate base of acetic acid is acetate. Carbonic acid, which occurs in bicarbonate buffer systems in nature, is not generally classed as one of the carboxylic ...
Carboxylic acids contain a carbon atom that is attached to one oxygen atom with a double bond, a hydroxyl group by a single bond, and one additional bond to an organic group (R-) which is often an alkane or alkene group. They are often written as R-C(=O)OH, , R-COOH or R-CO2H. Carboxylic acids are weak Brønsted-Lowry acids which only partially dissociate in water to produce the hydronium ion [H3O]+ and the conjugate base of the acid, [R-CO2]-. Although small carboxylic acids are soluble in water, larger acids are increasingly insoluble in water but increasingly soluble in non-polar solvents. ...
Preparation of a 1,2,4-triazol-3-one compound substituted in positions 4 and 5 by an alkyl or aryl group and, optionally, in position 2 by an alkyl group, by reacting an ester a of carbamic acid N-substituted by an alkyl or aryl group with a hydrazide of an aliphatic or aromatic carboxylic acid, optionally N-substituted by an alkyl group, in the presence of a strong base.
Water insoluble polycaprolactone-epoxide adducts are produced comprising the reaction product of a polycaprolactone polyol, a diepoxide and an anhydride of a polycarboxylic acid. The polycaprolactone polyol reacted with the diepoxide and the anhydride of the polycarboxylic acid has at least two hydroxyl groups in the molecule, a hydroxyl number of from about 15 to about 600 and an average molecular weight of from about 290 to about 6,000. The carboxylic acid anhydride has at least one intramolecular carboxylic anhydride group. These water insoluble polycaprolactone-epoxide adducts on reaction with an inorganic or organic base produce water soluble, carboxyl modifier polycarprolactone-epoxide oligomer addition reaction products which are eminently suitable for the production of aqueous coatings compositions. Exceptionally good coatings compositions are obtained when a crosslinker is present in the coating composition.
PURPOSE: For the accurate diagnosis of organic acidopathies, quantification of urinary organic acid should be done and we should know the normal ranges of each organic acid excreted in the urine. The amount of organic acids excreted in the urine shows wide variability according to ethnic group, diet and age. We have quantified 82 organic acids to make a Korean reference value. METHODS: Organic acid concentrations were quantified with gas chromatography and the individual acids identified with mass spectrometry in urine specimens from members of the healthy Korean population of ages of one day to more than 12 years, subdivided into four age groups : neonatal period(-2 mon), infantile period(-2 year), childhood period(-12 year) and adolescent and adulthood(over 12 years). For isolation of organic acids from urine, we used solvent extraction method with ethylacetate. Derivatization was done with MSTFA(N-methyl-N-trimethylsilylfluoroacetamide). The library and four points quantification curve for ...
Pyrogenic organic matter (PyOM), the incomplete combustion product of organic materials, is considered stable in soils and represents a potentially important terrestrial sink for atmospheric carbon dioxide. One well-established method of measuring PyOM in the environment is as benzene polycarboxylic acids (BPCAs), a compound-specific method, which allows both qualitative and quantitative estimation of PyOM. Until now, stable isotope measurement of PyOM carbon involved measurement of the trimethylsilyl (TMS) or methyl (Me) polycarboxylic acid derivatives by gas chromatography-combustion-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC-C-IRMS). However, BPCA derivatives can contain as much as 150% derivative carbon, necessitating post-analysis correction for the accurate measurement of δ13 C values, leading to increased measurement error. Here, we describe a method for δ13 C isotope ratio measurement and quantification of BPCAs from soil-derived PyOM, based on ion-exchange chromatography (IEC-IRMS). The ...
Cancer cells exhibit characteristic changes in their metabolism with efforts being made to address them therapeutically. However, targeting metabolic enzymes as such is a major challenge due to their essentiality for normal proliferating cells. The most successful pharmaceutical targets are G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), with more than 40% of all currently available drugs acting through them. We show that, a family of metabolite-sensing GPCRs, the Hydroxycarboxylic acid receptor family (HCAs), is crucial for breast cancer cells to control their metabolism and proliferation. We found HCA(1) and HCA(3) mRNA expression were significantly increased in breast cancer patient samples and detectable in primary human breast cancer patient cells. Furthermore, siRNA mediated knock-down of HCA3 induced considerable breast cancer cell death as did knock-down of HCA1, although to a lesser extent. Liquid Chromatography Mass Spectrometry based analyses of breast cancer cell medium revealed a role for HCA3 ...
Summary of Facts and Submissions. I. European patent No. 0 273 202 based on application No. 87 117 405.8 was granted with 21 claims.. Claim 1 as granted reads as follows:. Use of. - a topical dermatologic agent together with. - an enhancing effective amount of at least one compound selected from the group consisting of hydroxycarboxylic acids and ketocarboxylic acids and esters, lactones, or salt forms thereof,. - wherein the composition must not contain reductive diphenols together with a plant extract,. for the preparation of a topical dermatologic therapeutic composition with enhanced therapeutic effect. for use in the treatment of fungal infections, and pigmented spots including pigmented age spots, melasma, and lentigines.. II. Opposition was filed against the granted patent under Article 100(a) EPC for lack of novelty and inventive step and under Article 100(b) EPC for insufficiency of disclosure.. The following document was cited inter alia during the proceedings before the opposition ...
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Physical Properties of Carboxylic Acids. The first three acids are colourless, pungent smelling liquids.. First four members are miscible in water due the intermolecular hydrogen bonding whereas higher members are miscible in non - polar solvents like ether.. Benzene or ethanol but immiscible in water due to the increase in the size of lyophobic alkyl chain.. The first three acids are colourless, pungent smelling liquids. First four members are miscible in water due the intermolecular hydrogen bonding whereas higher members are miscible in non - polar solvents like ether. Benzene or ethanol but immiscible in water due to the increase in the size of lyophobic alkyl chain.. The b.p. of carboxylic acids are higher than alcohols because carboxylic acids exist as dimers due to the presence of intermolecular H-bonding. Increase in the number of Halogen atoms on a-position increases the acidity, eg. CCl3COOH , CHCl2COOH , ClCH2COOH , CH3COOH Increase in the distance of Halogen from COOH decreases the ...
Carboxylic acid is an organic molecule and an acid containing a carboxyl group, formula -COOH. They are a functional group present in both amino acids and fatty acids. Carboxylic acids are weak acids, and therefore dissociate incompletely in water, forming an equilibrium between the RCOOH molecule and the RCOO- and H+ ions. ...
This review focuses on catalytic enantioselective reactions wherein a catalytic amount of a chiral carboxylic acid is used to activate one or more substrates. While activation can occur via hydrogen bonding or protonation, it is often challenging to differentiate between these modes of activation which really represent different ends of a spectrum of possible interactions. While there are a significant number of plausible interactions between the catalyst and substrate(s), the nature of these interactions may also change during different stages of the reaction. In addition, a range of other non-covalent interactions between the catalyst and substrates are often present simultaneously and may play decisive roles with regard to reactivity and enantioselectivity.56,57 Reports wherein chiral carboxylic acids are used as additives in aminocatalysis to facilitate the formation of enamines or iminium ions,58-60 or in combination with chiral phosphoric acid catalysts to reduce product inhibition and ...
Polyglucosamine derivatives, e.g., chitosan, substituted with oxirane carboxylic acids, e.g., epoxysuccinic acid, are disclosed. The polyglucosamine derivatives can be prepared in a covalently bonded or ionically bonded form. Methods for preparing the polyglucosamine derivatives are disclosed as well as compositions containing the derivatives and uses for the derivatives.
61-24-5:C16H21N3O8S, 5-Thia-1-azabicyclo[4.2.0]oct-2-ene-2-carboxylic acid, 3-[(acetyloxy)methyl]-7-[[(5R)-5-amino-5-carboxy-1-oxopentyl]amino]-8-oxo-, (6R,7R)-, 5-Thia-1-azabicyclo[4.2.0]oct-2-ene-2-carboxylic acid, 3-[(acetyloxy)methyl]-7-[(5-amino-5-carboxy-1-oxopentyl)amino]-8-oxo-, [6R-[6α,7β(R*)]]-, 5-Thia-1-azabicyclo[4.2.0]oct-2-ene-2-carboxylic acid, 3-[(acetyloxy)methyl]-7-[[(5R)-5-amino-5-carboxy-1-oxopentyl]amino]-8-oxo-, (6R,7R)-, 5-Thia-1-azabicyclo[4.2.0]oct-2-ene-2-carboxylic acid, 7-(5-amino-5-carboxyvaleramido)-3-(hydroxymethyl)-8-oxo-, acetate (ester), 7-(5-amino-5-carboxyvaleramido)cephalosporanic acid, 7-(5-Amino-5-carboxyvaleramido)cephalosporansaure, acide 7-(5-amino-5-carboxyvaleramido)cephalosporanique, acido 7-(5-amino-5-carboxivaleramido)cefalosporanico, Cephalosporin C
TY - JOUR. T1 - Catalytic transformation of alcohols to carboxylic acid salts and H 2 using water as the oxygen atom source. AU - Balaraman, Ekambaram. AU - Khaskin, Eugene. AU - Leitus, Gregory. AU - Milstein, David. PY - 2013/2/1. Y1 - 2013/2/1. N2 - The oxidation of alcohols to carboxylic acids is an important industrial reaction used in the synthesis of bulk and fine chemicals. Most current processes are performed by making use of either stoichiometric amounts of toxic oxidizing agents or the use of pressurized dioxygen. Here, we describe an alternative dehydrogenative pathway effected by water and base with the concomitant generation of hydrogen gas. A homogeneous ruthenium complex catalyses the transformation of primary alcohols to carboxylic acid salts at low catalyst loadings (0.2 mol%) in basic aqueous solution. A consequence of this finding could be a safer and cleaner process for the synthesis of carboxylic acids and their derivatives at both laboratory and industrial scales.. AB - ...
Quick Tips Class 12th Chemistry Exam/Tips/Notes (Part 31) Aldehydes, Ketones, Carboxylic Acids (4) By Sanjit Sir Topic: Aldehydes, Ketones, Carboxylic Acids, Nomenclature of Carboxylic Acids, Methods of Preparation of Carboxylic Acids, Physical Properties #chemistry #cbse #class12 Download CBSE 2019 Chemistry Sample Questions Paper & Marking Scheme PDF on Link below:…
A coating solution comprising: a first solvent; 0.1 to 30 parts by weight of a polycarboxylic acid-based polymer relative to 100 parts by weight of the solvent; 0.01 to 0.35 chemical equivalent of an alkali metal compound relative to an amount of carboxyl group in the polycarboxylic acid-based polymer; and 0.05 to 0.75 chemical equivalent of a multivalent metal compound relative to the amount of the carboxyl group, wherein a number average molecular weight of the polycarboxylic acid-based polymer is in a range of 40,000 to 10,000,000.
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They are named using the alkane, followed by "-oic acid", for example; CH3CH2COOH is ethanoic acid, as it has two carbons attached to the carboxyl group. For acids with two carboxyl groups, the suffix "-dioic acid" is added instead ...
1-Methyl-Piperidine-3-Carboxylic Acid Methyl Ester 1690-72-8 route of synthesis, 1-Methyl-Piperidine-3-Carboxylic Acid Methyl Ester chemical synthesis methods, 1-Methyl-Piperidine-3-Carboxylic Acid Methyl Ester synthetic routes ect.
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According to the systematic nomenclature, lactones are oxacycloalkanones. A five-membered ring lactone thus is an oxacyclopentan-2-one. The position number of the carbonyl carbon is "2", since, according to CIP rules, the ring atom with the highest mass is labeled number "1". If the term "lactone" is used in the classification of a lactone, the (longer) distance between the carbonyl carbon and the ring oxygen is indicated by a Greek symbol. Thus, while a four-membered ring lactone is a β-lactone, a five-membered ring lactone is a γ-lactone and a six-membered ring lactone is a δ-lactone. Since the ring strain would be too strong, α-lactones cannot be formed. ...
A carbon oxoacid acid carrying at least one -C(=O)OH group and having the structure RC(=O)OH, where R is any any monovalent functional group. Carboxylic acids are the most common type of organic acid.. ...
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The article describes the synthesis, structure and magnetic investigations of a series of metal-organic framework compounds formed with Mn+2 and Ni+2 ions. The structures, determined using the single crystal X-ray diffraction, indicated that the structures possess two- and three-dimensional structures with magnetically active dimers, tetramers, chains, two-dimensional layers connected by polycarboxylic acids. These compounds provide good examples for the investigations of magnetic behaviour. Magnetic studies have been carried out using SQUID magnetometer in the range of 2-300 K and the behaviour indicates a predominant anti-ferromagnetic interactions, which appears to differ based on the M-O-C-O-M and/or the M-O-M (M = metal ions) linkages. Thus, compounds with carboxylate (Mn- O-C-O-Mn) connected ones, [C3N2H5][Mn(H2O){C6H3(COO)3 ...
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Efforts are made to change from 1st to 2nd generation bioethanol production, using lignocellulosics as raw materials rather than using raw materials that alternatively can be used as food sources. An issue with lignocellulosics is that a harsh pretreatment step is required in the process of converting them into fermentable sugars. In this step, inhibitory compounds such as furan aldehydes and carboxylic acids are formed, leading to suboptimal fermentation rates. Another issue is that lignocellulosics may contain a large portion of pentoses, which cannot be fermented simultaneously with glucose by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In this thesis, high local cell density has been investigated as a means of overcoming these two issues. Encapsulation of yeast in semi-permeable alginate-chitosan capsules increased the tolerance towards furan aldehydes, but not towards carboxylic acids. The selective tolerance can be explained by differences in the concentration of compounds radially through the cell pellet inside
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Read about the chemical and physical properties of 1-[2-Methoxy-4-(toluene-2-sulfonylaminocarbonyl)-benzyl]-3-methyl-1H-indole-6-carboxylic acid (2-ethyl-butyl)-amide. Get 1-[2-Methoxy-4-(toluene-2-sulfonylaminocarbonyl)-benzyl]-3-methyl-1H-indole-6-carboxylic acid (2-ethyl-butyl)-amide molecular formula, CAS number, boiling point, melting point, applications, synonyms and more here.
A series of 2-substituted 3,4-dihydro-2H-1,2-benzothiazine-3-carboxylic acid 1,1-dioxides were synthesized and evaluated for their affinity to the glycine binding site of the N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor. The binding affinity was determined by the displacement of radioligand [(3)H]MDL-105,519 from rat cortical membrane preparations. The most attractive structures in the search for prospective NMDA receptor ligands were identified to be 2-arylcarbonylmethyl substituted 3,4-dihydro-2H-1,2-benzothiazine-3-carboxylic acid 1,1-dioxides. It has been demonstrated for the first time that the replacement of NH group in the ligand by sp(3) CH2 is tolerated. This finding may pave the way for previously unexplored approaches for designing new ligands of the NMDA receptor.
Read about the chemical and physical properties of 2-Cyano-7-oxo-6-(2-tetrazol-1-yl-acetylamino)-6,7-dihydro-3H,5H-pyrazolo[1,2-a]pyrazole-1-carboxylic acid. Get 2-Cyano-7-oxo-6-(2-tetrazol-1-yl-acetylamino)-6,7-dihydro-3H,5H-pyrazolo[1,2-a]pyrazole-1-carboxylic acid molecular formula, CAS number, boiling point, melting point, applications, synonyms and more here.
Carboxylic acids, acid halides, esters, and amides are easily reduced by strong reducing agents, such as lithium aluminum hydride (LiAlH 4). The carboxylic acid
2-hydroxyquinolin-4-carboxylic acid Product Name: 2-hydroxyquinolin-4-carboxylic acid CAS:15733-89-8 Molecular formula: C10H7NO3 Molecular weight: 189 Structure: Properties: light yellow or yellow-green solid. Content: ≥ 99% Packaging: 25Kg / drum...
t-butoxycarbonyl-4-amino-1,2-dithiolane-4-carboxylic acid-4-amino-1,2-dithiolane-4-carboxylic acid methyl amide: structure in first source
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1,2-dihydro-pyridine-1-carboxylic acid methyl ester - chemical structural formula, chemical names, chemical properties, synthesis references
Practice solving Chemoselective Carboxylic Acid Reduction problems. Master even the most complex scientific problems with our step-by-step explanation videos.
4. A student ran a TLC of the reaction mixture of an organic reaction on a TLC plate using acetone 30 minutes after mixing the reactants and obtained the result below. The student was synthesizing an ester and had mixed an alcohol (R f = 0.33) with a carboxylic acid derivative (R f = 0.66). Explain the results and if the reaction is complete or if student should continue to wait longer before working up the reaction. Also, comment on the quality of the chromatogram and how it could be improved. ...
2-[[[(3S)-2-Oxo-1-[(1R)-1-phenylethyl]piperidin-3-yl]methylamino]methyl]pyridine-4-carboxylic acid | C21H25N3O3 | CID 127030272 - structure, chemical names, physical and chemical properties, classification, patents, literature, biological activities, safety/hazards/toxicity information, supplier lists, and more.
see article for more reactions. Abstract. In the presence of CuI/trans-N,N′-dimethylcyclohexane-1,2-diamine as catalyst, a number of carboxylic acids underwent efficient intramolecular O-vinylation with vinyl bromides leading to the corresponding five- and six-membered enol lactones. The same catalytic system also enabled an efficient cycloisomerization of alkynoic acids.. ...
By employing a carboxylate ligand derived from benzene-1,4-dicarboxylate, a chemically stable Zn4O-based self-penetrating metal-organic framework has been rationally synthesized, which exhibits high CO2 adsorption and efficient catalytic conversion for CO2 cycloaddition.
The Carbonyl group (C=O) is featured in a number of functional groups including Aldehydes, Ketones, Carboxylic Acids, and Esters.
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This page contains information on the chemical 5-Thia-1-azabicyclo(4.2.0)oct-2-ene-2-carboxylic acid, 7-(5-amino-5-carboxyvaleramido)-3- (hydroxymethyl)-7-methoxy-8-oxo-, carbamate (ester), monosodium salt including: 2 synonyms/identifiers.
AbstractsThe research explores the facile synthesis of some new phenylsulfamoyl carboxylic acids, their molecular docking, antimicrobial, and antioxidant activities. The procedure involved the mild reaction of amino acids with benzenesulfonyl chloride in a medium of aqueous base. The compounds were characterized using FTIR,1H-NMR,13C-NMR, and an elemental analysis. They were tested for their antim...
(2S,4R)-1-[(2S)-2-[(5-Chloro-1H-indole-2-carbonyl)amino]-3-phenylpropanoyl]-4-hydroxypyrrolidine-2-carboxylic acid | C23H22ClN3O5 | CID 57055842 - structure, chemical names, physical and chemical properties, classification, patents, literature, biological activities, safety/hazards/toxicity information, supplier lists, and more.
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You are viewing an interactive 3D depiction of the molecule 4,6-dichloro-3-[(e)-(2-oxo-1-phenyl-3-pyrrolidinylidene)methyl]-1h-indole-2-carboxylic acid (C20H14Cl2N2O3) from the PQR.
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Carboxylic Acids - 162 compounds. If you do not see a compound you are looking for please try search by structure or send inquiry for custom synthesis service.. ...
This page contains information on the chemical 4-Thia-1-azabicyclo(3.2.0)heptane-2-carboxylic acid, 3,3-dimethyl-7-oxo-6-(sulfoamino)-, sodium salt, hydrate (1:2:3), (2S-(2-alpha,5-alpha,6-beta))- including: 2 synonyms/identifiers.
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TY - CONF. T1 - A Multi-Enzyme System for the In vitro Reduction of Carboxylic Acids to Aldehydes. AU - Strohmeier, Gernot. AU - Schwarz, Anna. AU - Eiteljörg, Inge. AU - Kohrt, Jeffrey. AU - Howard, Roger. AU - Winkler, Margit. PY - 2019/7. Y1 - 2019/7. M3 - Poster. ER - ...
5-((4-trifluoromethyl-biphenyl-2-carbonyl)-amino)-1H-indole-2-carboxylic acid benzylmethyl carbamoylamide: structure in first source
ARBXYLI AIDS AND TEIR DERIVATIVES A STUDENT SULD BE ABLE T: 1. Give the IUPA name given the structure, and draw the structure given the name, of carboxylic acids and their metal salts, acyl chlorides,
Watch the video lecture Nomenclature - Carboxylic Acids and Their Derivatives & boost your knowledge! Study for your classes, USMLE, MCAT or MBBS. Learn online with high-yield video lectures by world-class professors & earn perfect scores. Save time & study efficiently. ➨ Try now for free!
TY - JOUR. T1 - Permeability and toxicity characteristics of L-cysteine and 2-methyl-thiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid in Caco-2 cells. AU - Kartal-Hodzic, Alma. AU - Marvola, Tuuli. AU - Schmitt, Mechthild. AU - Harju, Kirsi. AU - Peltoniemi, Marikki. AU - Siven, Mia PY - 2013/11. Y1 - 2013/11. KW - 317 Pharmacy. U2 - 10.3109/10837450.2012.659253. DO - 10.3109/10837450.2012.659253. M3 - Article. VL - 18. SP - 1288. EP - 1293. JO - Pharmaceutical Development and Technology. JF - Pharmaceutical Development and Technology. SN - 1083-7450. IS - 6. ER - ...
You are viewing an interactive 3D depiction of the molecule 2-amino-4-hydroxypteridine-6-carboxylic acid (C7H5N5O3) from the PQR.
28899-75-4 - NVKAHBFPKVINGE-UHFFFAOYSA-N - 7-Chloro-1H-indole-2-carboxylic acid - Similar structures search, synonyms, formulas, resource links, and other chemical information.
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Study Carboxylic Acid using smart web & mobile flashcards created by top students, teachers, and professors. Prep for a quiz or learn for fun!
When THCA is converted to THC-O- Acetate, the polar C-OH becomes C-O-CH2C=O-CH3. The carboxylic acid group is hydrolyzed by heating with H2SO4 which reacts with excess anhydride to produce acetic acid which reacts with regular THC at the hydroxyl group to form THC-O-Acetate.. THC-O- Acetate is activated in the body. I have no experience ingesting this compound. However, other then different ADME properties Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism, and Excretion. I believe the effect should be the same as ingesting high quality decarboxylated THCA. I believe its not more potent - its just you dont get complete homogenous decarboxylation by drying and burning also, some THC is also broken down via oxidation and burning. The THC-O acetate method is complete and homogeneous ...
Complete information for HCAR1 gene (Protein Coding), Hydroxycarboxylic Acid Receptor 1, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) uses its best efforts to deliver a high quality copy of the Database and to verify that the data contained therein have been selected on the basis of sound scientific judgment. However, NIST makes no warranties to that effect, and NIST shall not be liable for any damage that may result from errors or omissions in the Database ...
Or Formic acid is unique because it contains both an aldehyde group and carboxyl group also. Hence it can act as a reducing agent. It reduces Tollens reagent. But acetic acid has no aldehydic group hence it does not reduces Tollens reagent. ...
Data source: National Magnetic Resonance Facility at Madison - Maria Nesterova, Lawrence J. Clos, Christopher Stancic, Mark E. Anderson, John L. Markley. NMR-STAR file: bmse001183.str ...
Hi, Im looking through the Kaplan book over carboxylic acids, and it mentioned that in ONE step a carboxylic acid can form an amide. Is this true? I...
Relatively unreactive organic reagents should be collected in container A. If halogenated, they should be collected in container B. For solid residues use container C ...
K 111, a ω-substituted alkyl carboxylic acid, is a novel, orally active compound with insulin-sensitising and lipid-lowering properties. The drug (previously
Zhuk R.A.; Berzinya A.E.; Silinya V.N.; Liepinsh E.E.; Giller S.A. Analogs of pyrimidine mono- and polynucleotides - 7. 2-(1-Uracilyl)tetrahydrofuran-5-carboxylic acids and their derivatives. Chem. Heterocycl. Compd. 1979, 15(8), 926-929 ...
[158 Pages Report] Check for Discount on Global Organic Acids Market Professional Survey Report 2016 report by QYResearch Group. This report Mainly covers the following product types Acetic Acid...
View Notes - Organic_Acids_and_bases from CHEM CHEM266 at Waterloo. Organic Acids and Bases This document has been written to provide you with an overview of the fundamental concepts of organic
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Benzoic acid / b ɛ n ˈ z oʊ. ɪ k /, C 7 H 6 O 2 (or C 6 H 5 COOH), is a colorless crystalline solid and a simple aromatic carboxylic acid.The name is derived from gum benzoin, which was for a long time its only known source.Benzoic acid occurs naturally in many plants and serves as an intermediate in the biosynthesis of many secondary metabolites. Salts of benzoic acid are used as food ...
Hydrolyzes the toxic metabolites of a variety of organophosphorus insecticides. Capable of hydrolyzing a broad spectrum of organophosphate substrates and lactones, and a number of aromatic carboxylic acid esters. Mediates an enzymatic protection of low density lipoproteins against oxidative modification.
From carboxylic acids[edit]. Modification of the Appel reaction allows for the synthesis of oxazoline rings.[13] This method ... Aminomethyl propanol is the classical precursor to oxazolines using acid chloride method.[12] As applied to fatty acids, the ... as protecting groups for carboxylic acids and increasingly as monomers for the production of polymers. ... From acid chlorides[edit]. A routine route to oxazolines entails reactions of acyl chlorides with 2-amino alcohols. Thionyl ...
... ification of carboxylic acids with epoxides[edit]. Carboxylic acids are esterified by treatment with epoxides, giving β- ... As a class, esters serve as protecting groups for carboxylic acids. Protecting a carboxylic acid is useful in peptide synthesis ... Addition of carboxylic acids to alkenes and alkynes[edit]. In the presence of palladium-based catalysts, ethylene, acetic acid ... Carboxylic acids also add across alkynes to give the same products. Silicotungstic acid is used to manufacture ethyl acetate by ...
... see Carboxylic acid.. Carboxylic acids can be regenerated from the carboxylate salts using a process known as "acid springing ... such as carboxylic acids (e.g., acetic, propionic, butyric acid), ketones (e.g., acetone, methyl ethyl ketone, diethyl ketone) ... or the carboxylic acids (e.g., acetic, propionic, butyric acid) with a high-molecular-weight alcohol (e.g., hexanol, heptanol). ... As the microoganisms anaerobically digest the biomass and convert it into a mixture of carboxylic acids, the pH must be ...
... acetoacetic acid and pyruvic acid Aromatic carboxylic acids. benzoic acid, the sodium salt of benzoic acid is used as a food ... Other carboxylic acids Compound class Members unsaturated monocarboxylic acids. acrylic acid (2-propenoic acid) - CH2=CHCOOH, ... carboxylic acids have an -oic acid suffix.[2] For example, butyric acid (C3H7CO2H) is butanoic acid by IUPAC guidelines. The - ... Alpha hydroxy acids. containing a hydroxy group example glyceric acid, glycolic acid and lactic acid (2-hydroxypropanoic acid ...
I started a new article related to Alcohols entitled Oxidation of Primary Alcohols to Carboxylic Acids. I hope to finish it in ... They also cancel out acids in reactions with them, since the -OH from alcohol bonds with the hydrogen from acids to form water. ... New Article: Oxidation of Primary Alcohols to Carboxylic Acids. ... Oxidation of Primary Alcohols to Carboxylic Acids. *24 Alcohol ... However in the presence of a strong acid such as sulfuric acid they will protonate, for example ROH + H+ --, ROH2+. Read http ...
It is one of two isomeric unsaturated dicarboxylic acids, the other being maleic acid. In fumaric acid the carboxylic acid ... Fumaric acid or trans-butenedioic acid is the chemical compound with the formula HO2CCH=CHCO2H. Fumaric acid has a fruit-like ... Maleic acid, the cis-isomer of fumaric acid. References[edit]. *^ Record in the GESTIS Substance Database of the Institute for ... at a rate of 1 g of fumaric acid to every ~1.5 g of citric acid, in order to add sourness, similarly to the way malic acid is ...
carboxylic acid. −. ,. H. −. N. +. ,. R. 2. R. 1. ,. −. H. +. R. 3. −. COO. −. ⏟. substituted-ammonium. carboxylate salt. →. d ... When formed from carboxylic acids and primary and secondary amines, these salts thermally dehydrate to form the corresponding ... carboxylic acid}}-,}\ \underbrace {\ce {{H-{\overset {\displaystyle R1 \atop ,}{\underset {, \atop \displaystyle R2}{N+}}}-H}+ ... Reductive amination with formic acid and formaldehyde via an imine intermediate Reactions[edit]. Alkylation, acylation, and ...
Carboxylic acid protecting groups[edit]. Protection of carboxylic acids: *Methyl esters - Removed by acid or base. ... Acetyl (Ac) - Removed by acid or base (see Acetoxy group).. *Benzoyl (Bz) - Removed by acid or base, more stable than Ac group. ... Silyl esters - Removed by acid, base and organometallic reagents.. *Orthoesters - Removed by mild aqueous acid to form ester, ... Methylthiomethyl ether - Removed by acid.. *Pivaloyl (Piv) - Removed by acid, base or reductant agents. It is substantially ...
... carboxylic acids (R-COOH); esters (R-COO-R); acid anhydrides (R-CO-O-CO-R); and amides (R-C(O)-NR. 2). There are many important ... acetic acid, and formic acid. Acetone ((CH. 3). 2CO) and phenol (C. 6H. 5OH) are used as feeder materials in the synthesis of ... Lavoisier renamed 'vital air' to oxygène in 1777 from the Greek roots ὀξύς (oxys) (acid, literally "sharp", from the taste of ... Other important organic compounds that contain oxygen are: glycerol, formaldehyde, glutaraldehyde, citric acid, acetic ...
A chiral synthesis of erythro-.ALPHA.-hydroxy-.BETA.-alkyl carboxylic acid derivatives". Chem. Lett.: 69. doi:10.1246/cl. ... retigeranic acid a and two (−)-retigeranic acid B candidates". J. Org. Chem. 52 (13): 2960. doi:10.1021/jo00389a070. Marshall, ... Enantioselectivity in these reactions is often low, suggesting that the association between the conjugate acid of the base and ... dihydroxyserrulatic acid". J. Am. Chem. Soc. 113 (14): 5402. doi:10.1021/ja00014a036. Mikami, K.; Nakai, T. (1982). " ...
Epanova (omega-3-carboxylic acids). *Imdur (isosorbide mononitrate). *Inderal (propranolol). *Lexxel (enalapril/felodipine) ... Later in the same month the company announced it would partner with Orca Pharmaceuticals to develop retinoic acid-related ...
ZCA) zolpidem 6-carboxylic acid; (ZPCA) zolpidem phenyl-4-carboxylic acid. Elimination half-life. 2.5-3 hours[4]. ... Valerian constituents (e.g., isovaleric acid, isovaleramide, valerenic acid, valerenol). *Unsorted benzodiazepine site positive ... of alpha subunit on allosteric modulation of ion channel function in stably expressed human recombinant gamma-aminobutyric acid ...
Adding boric acid to the acid-catalyzed reaction mixture increases the yield of phenol product over phenyl carboxylic acid ... MTO does not, however, change the relative yields of phenol and phenyl carboxylic acid products. Mixing urea and hydrogen ... Rather, they form phenyl carboxylic acids. Variations in the aryl rings' migratory aptitudes can explain this. Hydroxyl groups ... The benzylic hydrogen, which has the highest migratory aptitude, migrates instead (8), forming a phenyl carboxylic acid (9). ...
Indoxyl-2-carboxylic acid is generated. This material readily decarboxylates to give indoxyl, which oxidizes in air to form ... Treatment with sulfuric acid converts indigo into a blue-green derivative called indigo carmine (sulfonated indigo). It became ... The precursor to indigo is indican, a colorless, water-soluble derivative of the amino acid tryptophan. Indican readily ... and concentrated sulfuric acid. The chemical formula of indigo is C16H10N2O2. ...
carboxylic acid metabolic process. · catecholamine biosynthetic process. · histamine metabolic process. · histidine metabolic ... Studies on bacterial amino-acid decarboxylases: 4. l(-)-histidine decarboxylase from Cl. welchii Type A. Biochem. J. 1945, 39 ( ...
Anhydride formation from thiol esters and carboxylic acids". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 257 (18): 10882-92. PMID ... Transamination, or the transfer of an amine (or NH2) group from an amino acid to a keto acid by an aminotransferase (also known ... The transfer involves the removal of the growing amino acid chain from the tRNA molecule in the A-site of the ribosome and its ... This in turn would pave the way for the possibility that similar transfers were a primary means of producing most amino acids ...
For example, it oxidizes aldehydes to carboxylic acids. Such reactions often work best when the silver oxide is prepared in ... A slurry of Ag2O is readily attacked by acids: Ag2O + 2 HX → 2 AgX + H2O. where HX = HF, HCl, HBr, or HI, HO2CCF3. It will also ...
Carboxylic acids. ,300. Hydrocarboxylic acids. 15. Purines and pyrimidines. 1.3. Alcohols. 11. ... Phosphonic acids. 2. Research in 2005 showed that an amino acid like L-proline is capable of catalyzing the formation of chiral ... 3.0 3.1 Nonprotein amino acids from spark discharges and their comparison with the Murchison Meteorite amino acids. Kvenvolden ... Murchison contains over 15 amino acids.[3] All the amino acids found in the Murchison meteorite have been synthesised in ...
From carboxylic acidsEdit. Two methods for the synthesis of haloalkanes from carboxylic acids are the Hunsdiecker reaction and ... For example, after undergoing substitution reactions, cyanoalkanes may be hydrolyzed to carboxylic acids, or reduced to primary ... Alcohols may likewise be converted to bromoalkanes using hydrobromic acid or phosphorus tribromide (PBr3). A catalytic amount ... Alcohol undergoes nucleophilic substitution reaction by halogen acid to give Haloalkanes.Tertiary alkanol reacts with ...
Other carboxylic acids Compound class Members unsaturated monocarboxylic acids. acrylic acid (2-propenoic acid) - CH2=CHCOOH, ... carboxylic acids have an -oic acid suffix.[2] For example, butyric acid (C3H7CO2H) is butanoic acid by IUPAC guidelines. For ... acetoacetic acid and pyruvic acid Aromatic carboxylic acids. containing at least one aromatic ring, examples: benzoic acid - ... Pelargonic acid. Nonanoic acid. CH3(CH2)7COOH. Pelargonium 10. Capric acid. Decanoic acid. CH3(CH2)8COOH. Coconut and Palm ...
1-Amino-5-phosphonoindan-1-carboxylic acid (APICA) is a drug that is used in neuroscience research. It is a selective ...
... -using enzymes typically reduce carboxylic acids to aldehydes.[83] The tungsten oxidoreductases may also catalyse ... In 1781, Carl Wilhelm Scheele discovered that a new acid, tungstic acid, could be made from scheelite (at the time named ... José and Fausto Elhuyar found an acid made from wolframite that was identical to tungstic acid. Later that year, at the Royal ... As tungstate is progressively treated with acid, it first yields the soluble, metastable "paratungstate A" anion, W. 7O6-. 24, ...
"Patent US4146719 - Piperazinyl derivatives of quinoline carboxylic acids - Google Patents". Archived from the original on 15 ... 1-cyclopropyl-6-fluoro-4-oxo-7-(piperazin-1-yl)-quinoline-3-carboxylic acid ... Valerian constituents (e.g., valerenic acid). *Volatiles/gases (e.g., chloral hydrate, chloroform, diethyl ether, paraldehyde, ... The first members of the quinolone antibacterial class were relatively low-potency drugs such as nalidixic acid, used mainly in ...
Many organic acids, like carboxylic acids and phenols, are oxoacids. Their molecular structure, however, is much more ... Well-known examples of such acids are sulfuric acid, nitric acid and phosphoric acid. This practice is fully well-established, ... Thus, for example, sulfuric acid is H2SO4, and sulfurous acid, H2SO3. Analogously, nitric acid is HNO3, and nitrous acid, HNO2 ... hypochlorous acid HClO chlorous acid HClO2 chloric acid HClO3 perchloric acid HClO4 The suffix -ite occurs in names of anions ...
Tertiary amines, carboxylic acids and alcohols (especially phenols) are effective accelerators. Bisphenol A is a highly ... Common classes of hardeners for epoxy resins include amines, acids, acid anhydrides, phenols, alcohols and thiols. Relative ... acids (and acid anhydrides), phenols, alcohols and thiols (usually called mercaptans). These co-reactants are often referred to ... Epoxies were modified in a variety of ways, Reacted with fatty acids derived from oils to yield epoxy esters, which were cured ...
... s are also distinct from other carbonyl-containing functional groups, such as carboxylic acids, esters and amides.[5] ... With strong oxidizing agents to give carboxylic acids.. *Electrophilic addition, reaction with an electrophile gives a ... The Dakin-West reaction provides an efficient method for preparation of certain methyl ketones from carboxylic acids.[16] ... In ketonic decarboxylation symmetrical ketones are prepared from carboxylic acids.[11][18] ...
... acetoacetic acid and pyruvic acid Aromatic carboxylic acids. benzoic acid, the sodium salt of benzoic acid is used as a food ... Other carboxylic acids Compound class Members unsaturated monocarboxylic acids. acrylic acid (2-propenoic acid) - CH2=CHCOOH, ... carboxylic acids have an -oic acid suffix.[2] For example, butyric acid (C3H7CO2H) is butanoic acid by IUPAC guidelines. The - ... Alpha hydroxy acids. containing a hydroxy group example glyceric acid, glycolic acid and lactic acid (2-hydroxypropanoic acid ...
The commonest example is ethanoic acid [1] (acetic acid [2], CH3COOH), which is present in vinegar. These acids are weakly ... carboxylic acid* Member of a class of organic chemical compounds containing the group COOH. ... and lactic acid (sour milk). Two other simple carboxylic acids are propionic acid and butyric acid. Propionic acid is partly ... and lactic acid (sour milk). Two other simple carboxylic acids are propionic acid and butyric acid. Propionic acid is partly ...
1-Aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) is a disubstituted cyclic α-amino acid in which a three-membered cyclopropane ring ... 1-Aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. (Redirected from 1-Aminocyclopropanecarboxylic ... "Nucleic Acids Res. 34 (Database issue): D511-6. doi:10.1093/nar/gkj128. PMC 1347490 . PMID 16381923.. ... Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=1-Aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic_acid&oldid=797496139" ...
carboxylic acid-transporting ATPase activity (cargo),. carboxylic acid transmembrane transporter activity (cargo),. carboxylic ... For the conjugate bases of carboxylic acids, RCO2−, see Category:Carboxylate ions. For salts of carboxylic acids, RCO2M, see ... carboxylic acid (sco); Carboxylic acid (war); kwas karboksylowy (pl); കാർബോക്സിലിക് ആസിഡ് (ml); Azeffar akaṛbuksilin (kab); ... Molecules containing such a functional group are also called carboxylic acids or organic acids, although there are other ...
... is a ureas (CHEBI:47857) urea-1-carboxylic acid (CHEBI:9889) is conjugate acid of urea-1- ... urea-1-carboxylic acid (CHEBI:9889). urea-1-carboxylate (CHEBI:15832) is conjugate base of urea-1-carboxylic acid (CHEBI:9889) ... urea-1-carboxylic acid (CHEBI:9889). 1-carboxybiuret (CHEBI:143024) has functional parent urea-1-carboxylic acid (CHEBI:9889). ... CHEBI:9889 - urea-1-carboxylic acid. Main. ChEBI Ontology. Automatic Xrefs. Reactions. Pathways. Models. ...
Carboxylic acid is an organic molecule and an acid containing a carboxyl group, formula -COOH. They are a functional group ... present in both amino acids and fatty acids. Carboxylic acids are weak acids, and therefore dissociate incompletely in water, ... Retrieved from "http://www.conservapedia.com/index.php?title=Carboxylic_acid&oldid=1254189" ...
Definition of carboxylic acid ester. Provided by Stedmans medical dictionary and Drugs.com. Includes medical terms and ... Definition: specifically, an ester derived from a carboxylic acid and an alcohol; R-CO-R ...
Acid anhydride Acid chloride Amide Ester List of carboxylic acids Dicarboxylic acid Pseudoacid Thiocarboxy IUPAC, Compendium of ... carboxylic acids have an -oic acid suffix. For example, butyric acid (C3H7CO2H) is butanoic acid by IUPAC guidelines. The -oic ... Carboxylic acids occur widely and include the amino acids (which make up proteins) and acetic acid (which is part of vinegar ... Carboxylic acids are Brønsted-Lowry acids because they are proton (H+) donors. They are the most common type of organic acid. ...
Carboxylic acids such as citric, lactic, succinic and itaconic acids are useful products and are obtained on large scale by ... Adsorption; Citric acid; Electrodialysis; Ion exchange; Lactic acid; Organic acids; Precipitation; Reactive extraction; ... Recovery of carboxylic acids produced by fermentation.. López-Garzón CS1, Straathof AJ2. ... If the carboxylate is formed rather than the carboxylic acid, the recovery process involves a step for removing the cation of ...
Other names: 1H-Pyrrole-2-carboxylic acid, 1-methyl-; 1-Methyl-2-pyrrolecarboxylic acid ... N-Methylpyrrole-2-carboxylic acid. *Formula: C6H7NO2 ...
Other carboxylic acids Compound class Members unsaturated monocarboxylic acids. acrylic acid (2-propenoic acid) - CH2=CHCOOH, ... carboxylic acids have an -oic acid suffix.[2] For example, butyric acid (C3H7CO2H) is butanoic acid by IUPAC guidelines. For ... acetoacetic acid and pyruvic acid Aromatic carboxylic acids. containing at least one aromatic ring, examples: benzoic acid - ... Pelargonic acid. Nonanoic acid. CH3(CH2)7COOH. Pelargonium 10. Capric acid. Decanoic acid. CH3(CH2)8COOH. Coconut and Palm ...
Phloroglucinol carboxylic acid is a trihydroxybenzoic acid, a type of phenolic acid. It is produced by Pseudomonas fluorescens ... HPLC separation of benzoic and hydroxycinnamic acids in wines, Chromatographia, Volume 17, Number 5, pages 249-252, doi:10.1007 ...
Perfluorinated carboxylic acids (PFCAs), or perfluorocarboxylic acids are compounds of the formula CnF(2n+1)CO2H. The simplest ... Perfluorinated dicarboxylic acids are also known, e.g. C2F4(CO2H)2. Trifluoroacetic acid is a widely employed acid, used for ... Longer chain perfluorinated carboxylic acids, e.g. with five to nine carbons, are useful fluorosurfactants and emulsifiers used ... These compounds are organofluorine analogues of ordinary carboxylic acids, but they are stronger by several pKa units and they ...
... substituted with oxirane carboxylic acids, e.g., epoxysuccinic acid, are disclosed. The polyglucosamine derivatives can be ... lactic acid, acetic acid, glycolic acid, pyrrolidone carboxylic acid or salts thereof and mixtures of these acids or salts or ... lactic acid, acetic acid, glycolic acid, pyrrolidone carboxylic acid and mixtures of said acids or salts thereof; and ... lactic acid, acetic acid, glycolic acid, pyrrolidone carboxylic acid and mixtures of said acids or salts thereof. ...
This invention pertains to the production of higher homologues of aliphatic carboxylic acids by reaction of said acids with ... The preferred carboxylic acids homologized here are acetic acid and propionic acid, with acetic acid being most preferred. ... chloropropionic acid, trichloroacetic acid, monofluoroacetic acid and the like. Mixtures of said carboxylic acids, in any ratio ... Where propionic acid is the reactant acid, the principal products are n-butyric acid and iso-butyric acid. The ratio of ...
... NSC643861 3-(((Dibutyl(((2-(methylthio)-3-pyridinyl)carbonyl)oxy)stannyl ... dibutyltin; 2-methylsulfanylpyridine-3-carboxylic acid
Carboxylic acids are organic compounds characterized by a carboxyl (-COOH) functional group. The naming of these compounds is ... This list is ordered by the number of carbon atoms in a carboxylic acid. ..... HOOC-C=C-COOH. ... It is worth noting that the IUPAC name is not always the preferred name, for example, lactic acid is a common, and also the ... preferred, name for what systemic rules call 2-Hydroxypropanoic acid. ...
The half-life of EPA from Omega-3 carboxylic acids is about 37 hours, and for DHA about 46 hours. Omega-3 carboxylic acids, ... omega-3-carboxylic acids)". CenterWatch. Retrieved 15 December 2014. Blair HA, Dhillon S. Omega-3 carboxylic acids (Epanova): a ... Omega-3 carboxylic acids are derived from fish oil and are a purified mixture of the polyunsaturated free fatty acids ... In addition, as with other omega-3 fatty acids, taking omega-3 carboxylic acids puts people who are on anticoagulants at risk ...
Azetidine-2-carboxylic acid (abbreviated Aze) is a plant non-protein amino acid homologue of proline with the molecular formula ... Fowden, L. (1956). "Azetidine-2-carboxylic Acid: a New Cyclic Imino Acid Occurring in Plants". Biochemical Journal. 64 (2): 323 ... Azetidine-2-carboxylic acid has been known since 1955 to be present in rhizomes and fresh foliage of certain plants. It is ... 2008). "Azetidine-2-carboxylic Acid in the Food Chain". Phytochemistry. 70 (1): 1-5. doi:10.1016/j.phytochem.2008.11.007. PMID ...
The resultant polymer carboxylic acids are of sufficient purity so that expensive and time containing purification steps ... glycol with a t-butyl haloacetate in the presence of a base followed by treatment with an acid such as trifluoroacetic acid. ... The present invention is directed to methods of preparing high purity polyalkylene oxide carboxylic acids. The methods include ... Carboxylic Acid. A solution of 10.0 grams (2 mmoles) of m-PEG carboxylic acid t-butyl ester, 50 ml of trifluoracetic acid, and ...
Looking for SPECTRUM Aminopyrazine Carboxylic Acid,25g (26WR20)? Graingers got your back. Price:$85.50. Easy ordering & ...
  • As shown in the following table, these long-chain carboxylic acids are usually referred to by their common names, which in most cases reflect their sources. (msu.edu)
  • So, a yeast strain producing a battery of long-chain carboxylic acids (CA) with fungicide properties was isolated from soil of coffee crop and identified as Pichia membranifaciens by ITS sequencing. (scielo.br)
  • The solubility of heptanoic acid and octanoic acid in supercritical carbon dioxide has been determined at temperatures of (313.15, 323.15, and 333.15) K over a pressure range of (8.5 to 30.0) MPa, depending upon the solute. (osti.gov)
  • In addition, solubility experiments were performed for nonanoic acid in supercritical carbon dioxide at 323.15 K and pressures of (10.0 to 30.0) MPa to add to the solubility data previously published by the authors. (osti.gov)
  • Grignard reaction with carbon dioxide yields carboxylic acids. (chemgapedia.de)
  • It oxidises carboxylic acids quantitatively to carbon dioxide and water. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ethylene can be carboxylated to acrylic acid under supercritical carbon dioxide condition. (wikipedia.org)
  • They are considered "simple" because they do not have reactive groups like −OH or −Cl attached directly to the carbon atom in the carbonyl group, as in carboxylic acids containing −COOH. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cyanuric fluoride is used for the mild and direct conversion of carboxylic acids to acyl fluorides: Other fluorinating methods are less direct and may be incompatible with some functional groups. (wikipedia.org)
  • Conversion of carboxylic acids and the acid chlorides into nitriles. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus, carboxylic acids are treated with thionyl chloride (SOCl2), phosphorus trichloride (PCl3), or phosphorus pentachloride (PCl5): RCOOH + SOCl2 → RCOCl + SO2 + HCl 3 RCOOH + PCl3 → 3 RCOCl + H3PO3 RCOOH + PCl5 → RCOCl + POCl3 + HCl The reaction with thionyl chloride may be catalyzed by dimethylformamide. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thermo Scientific Pierce HABA is 4'-hydroxyazobenzene-2-carboxylic acid, a simple reagent that enables spectrophotometric (colorimetric) estimation of biotinylation levels of labeled proteins and other molecules. (thermofisher.com)
  • Alkenes may be converted into carboxylic acid through oxidative cleavage of the double bond with neutral or acid permanganate, for instance. (chemgapedia.de)
  • Many alkenes may be converted into carboxylic acids through ozonization and subsequent oxidative workup. (chemgapedia.de)
  • Internal alkenes may be cleaved to two carboxylic acids (see below), while terminal alkenes may be epoxidized. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ozonolysis of alkynes generally gives an acid anhydride or diketone product, not complete fragmentation as for alkenes. (wikipedia.org)
  • The radical intermediates have been generated from carboxylic acids and boronic acid derivatives, by radical addition to alkenes, or C-H bond and C-C bond activations. (wikipedia.org)
  • 6. A process as claimed in any of claims 1 to 5, characterized in that the 4-amino-2-halobutyric acid is added as its hydrohalide salt to hot aqueous base. (epo.org)
  • Carboxylic acids are typically weak acids, meaning that they only partially dissociate into H+ cations and RCOO− anions in neutral aqueous solution. (wikipedia.org)
  • Finally, reacting an N,N‐disubstituted amide anhydride with dilute aqueous acid produces a carboxylic acid. (cliffsnotes.com)
  • The so-called Jones reagent is prepared by dissolving chromium trioxide (CrO3) in aqueous sulfuric acid, which results in formation of a reddish solution containing chromic acid (H2CrO4) and oligomers thereof. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pivalic acid is sometimes used as an internal chemical shift standard for NMR spectra of aqueous solutions. (wikipedia.org)
  • In aqueous solution, a strong acid is an acid that ionizes completely by losing one proton. (wikipedia.org)
  • This generally means that, in aqueous solution at standard temperature and pressure, the concentration of hydronium ions is equal to the concentration of strong acid introduced to the solution. (wikipedia.org)
  • No acid species stronger than H3O+(aq) can exist in aqueous solution, as any stronger acid is converted to H3O+. (wikipedia.org)
  • After the step involving the hydride is complete, the acetal is removed (by reacting it with an aqueous acid), giving back the original carbonyl. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are many possible synthetic pathways that yield carboxylic acids. (chemgapedia.de)
  • Diphenylborinic acid has an extra high affinity for catechols compared with carbohydrates Diphenylborinic acid can catalyse the condensation of pyruvic acids with aldehydes to yield substituted isotetronic acid. (wikipedia.org)
  • Enantioselective heterogeneous hydrogenation of furoic acid to chiral tetrahydro-2-furoic acid was achieved in the presence of cinchonidine-modified alumina supported palladium catalyst in 95% yield and 32% enantiomeric excess. (wikipedia.org)
  • Similarly, homogeneous hydrogenation to chiral tetrahydro-2-furoic acid was accomplished in 100% yield and 24-27% enantiomeric excess in methanol solution employing a chiral, phosphine modified ferrocene catalyst. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, the (R)- and (S)-enantiomers of 1-phenylethanol react with (S)-Mosher acid chloride to yield (R,S)- and (S,S)-diastereomers, respectively, that are distinguishable in NMR. (wikipedia.org)
  • Trialkylborates [(RO)3B] or trialkoxyboroxine [(ROBO)can be reduced to borinic acid by us of a Grignard reagent. (wikipedia.org)
  • TarB-X represents a new type of chiral Lewis acid and the authors note that "because the reagent is easily prepared, induces high enantioselectivity, and can be essentially fully recovered, the implications for its use in both industry and academia appear to be quite promising. (wikipedia.org)