Lyases: A class of enzymes that catalyze the cleavage of C-C, C-O, and C-N, and other bonds by other means than by hydrolysis or oxidation. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 4.Chondroitin Lyases: Enzymes which catalyze the elimination of delta-4,5-D-glucuronate residues from polysaccharides containing 1,4-beta-hexosaminyl and 1,3-beta-D-glucuronosyl or 1,3-alpha-L-iduronosyl linkages thereby bringing about depolymerization. EC 4.2.2.4 acts on chondroitin sulfate A and C as well as on dermatan sulfate and slowly on hyaluronate. EC 4.2.2.5 acts on chondroitin sulfate A and C.Pectobacterium chrysanthemi: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that causes vascular wilts on a wide range of plant species. It was formerly named Erwinia chrysanthemi.Chondroitinases and Chondroitin Lyases: Enzymes which catalyze the elimination of glucuronate residues from chondroitin A,B, and C or which catalyze the hydrolysis of sulfate groups of the 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-D-galactose 6-sulfate units of chondroitin sulfate. EC 4.2.2.-.Pectins: High molecular weight polysaccharides present in the cell walls of all plants. Pectins cement cell walls together. They are used as emulsifiers and stabilizers in the food industry. They have been tried for a variety of therapeutic uses including as antidiarrheals, where they are now generally considered ineffective, and in the treatment of hypercholesterolemia.Phycobiliproteins: Light harvesting proteins found in phycobilisomes.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Chicory: A thick-rooted perennial (Cichorium intybus) native to Europe but widely grown for its young leaves used as salad greens and for its roots, dried and ground-roasted, used to flavor or adulterate coffee. (From Webster, 3d ed)Aldehyde-Lyases: Enzymes that catalyze a reverse aldol condensation. A molecule containing a hydroxyl group and a carbonyl group is cleaved at a C-C bond to produce two smaller molecules (ALDEHYDES or KETONES). EC 4.1.2.Carbon-Oxygen Lyases: Enzymes that catalyze the cleavage of a carbon-oxygen bond by means other than hydrolysis or oxidation. EC 4.2.Erwinia: A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria whose organisms are associated with plants as pathogens, saprophytes, or as constituents of the epiphytic flora.Heparin Lyase: An enzyme of the isomerase class that catalyzes the eliminative cleavage of polysaccharides containing 1,4-linked D-glucuronate or L-iduronate residues and 1,4-alpha-linked 2-sulfoamino-2-deoxy-6-sulfo-D-glucose residues to give oligosaccharides with terminal 4-deoxy-alpha-D-gluc-4-enuronosyl groups at their non-reducing ends. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 4.2.2.7.Oxo-Acid-Lyases: Enzymes that catalyze the cleavage of a carbon-carbon bond of a 3-hydroxy acid. (Dorland, 28th ed) EC 4.1.3.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Polygalacturonase: A cell wall-degrading enzyme found in microorganisms and higher plants. It catalyzes the random hydrolysis of 1,4-alpha-D-galactosiduronic linkages in pectate and other galacturonans. EC 3.2.1.15.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Alginates: Salts of alginic acid that are extracted from marine kelp and used to make dental impressions and as absorbent material for surgical dressings.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Hexuronic Acids: Term used to designate tetrahydroxy aldehydic acids obtained by oxidation of hexose sugars, i.e. glucuronic acid, galacturonic acid, etc. Historically, the name hexuronic acid was originally given to ascorbic acid.Isocitrate Lyase: A key enzyme in the glyoxylate cycle. It catalyzes the conversion of isocitrate to succinate and glyoxylate. EC 4.1.3.1.Rhodophyta: Plants of the division Rhodophyta, commonly known as red algae, in which the red pigment (PHYCOERYTHRIN) predominates. However, if this pigment is destroyed, the algae can appear purple, brown, green, or yellow. Two important substances found in the cell walls of red algae are AGAR and CARRAGEENAN. Some rhodophyta are notable SEAWEED (macroalgae).Phycobilins: Open chain tetrapyrroles that function as light harvesting chromophores in PHYCOBILIPROTEINS.Chondroitin ABC Lyase: An enzyme that catalyzes the eliminative degradation of polysaccharides containing 1,4-beta-D-hexosaminyl and 1,3-beta-D-glucuronosyl or 1,3-alpha-L-iduronosyl linkages to disaccharides containing 4-deoxy-beta-D-gluc-4-enuronosyl groups. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992)Sphingomonas: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria characterized by an outer membrane that contains glycosphingolipids but lacks lipopolysaccharide. They have the ability to degrade a broad range of substituted aromatic compounds.Cytochromes c1: The 30-kDa membrane-bound c-type cytochrome protein of mitochondria that functions as an electron donor to CYTOCHROME C GROUP in the mitochondrial and bacterial RESPIRATORY CHAIN. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p545)Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Bacteroides: A genus of gram-negative, anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria. Its organisms are normal inhabitants of the oral, respiratory, intestinal, and urogenital cavities of humans, animals, and insects. Some species may be pathogenic.Flavobacterium: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in SOIL and WATER. Its organisms are also found in raw meats, MILK and other FOOD, hospital environments, and human clinical specimens. Some species are pathogenic in humans.Adenylosuccinate Lyase: An enzyme that, in the course of purine ribonucleotide biosynthesis, catalyzes the conversion of 5'-phosphoribosyl-4-(N-succinocarboxamide)-5-aminoimidazole to 5'-phosphoribosyl-4-carboxamide-5-aminoimidazole and the conversion of adenylosuccinic acid to AMP. EC 4.3.2.2.Streptococcus anginosus: A species of gram-positive bacteria in the STREPTOCOCCUS MILLERI GROUP. It is the most frequently seen isolate of that group, has a proclivity for abscess formation, and is most often isolated from the blood, gastrointestinal, and urogenital tract.Glucuronic Acid: A sugar acid formed by the oxidation of the C-6 carbon of GLUCOSE. In addition to being a key intermediate metabolite of the uronic acid pathway, glucuronic acid also plays a role in the detoxification of certain drugs and toxins by conjugating with them to form GLUCURONIDES.Hevea: A plant genus of the family EUPHORBIACEAE, order Euphorbiales, subclass Rosidae. Commercial natural RUBBER is mainly obtained from Hevea brasiliensis but also from some other plants.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Glycosaminoglycans: Heteropolysaccharides which contain an N-acetylated hexosamine in a characteristic repeating disaccharide unit. The repeating structure of each disaccharide involves alternate 1,4- and 1,3-linkages consisting of either N-acetylglucosamine or N-acetylgalactosamine.Proteus vulgaris: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that occurs in soil, fecal matter, and sewage. It is an opportunistic pathogen and causes cystitis and pyelonephritis.Uronic Acids: Acids derived from monosaccharides by the oxidation of the terminal (-CH2OH) group farthest removed from the carbonyl group to a (-COOH) group. (From Stedmans, 26th ed)Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Chondroitin Sulfates: Derivatives of chondroitin which have a sulfate moiety esterified to the galactosamine moiety of chondroitin. Chondroitin sulfate A, or chondroitin 4-sulfate, and chondroitin sulfate C, or chondroitin 6-sulfate, have the sulfate esterified in the 4- and 6-positions, respectively. Chondroitin sulfate B (beta heparin; DERMATAN SULFATE) is a misnomer and this compound is not a true chondroitin sulfate.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Mutagenesis, Site-Directed: Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.Sulfonium Compounds: Sulfur compounds in which the sulfur atom is attached to three organic radicals and an electronegative element or radical.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Glycoside HydrolasesDermatan Sulfate: A naturally occurring glycosaminoglycan found mostly in the skin and in connective tissue. It differs from CHONDROITIN SULFATE A (see CHONDROITIN SULFATES) by containing IDURONIC ACID in place of glucuronic acid, its epimer, at carbon atom 5. (from Merck, 12th ed)Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Carbohydrate Sequence: The sequence of carbohydrates within POLYSACCHARIDES; GLYCOPROTEINS; and GLYCOLIPIDS.Carbon-Nitrogen Lyases: Enzymes that catalyze the cleavage of a carbon-nitrogen bond by means other than hydrolysis or oxidation. Subclasses are the AMMONIA-LYASES, the AMIDINE-LYASES, the amine-lyases, and other carbon-nitrogen lyases. EC 4.3.Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.Disaccharides: Oligosaccharides containing two monosaccharide units linked by a glycosidic bond.Carbon-Carbon Lyases: Enzymes that catalyze the cleavage of a carbon-carbon bond by means other than hydrolysis or oxidation. This subclass contains the DECARBOXYLASES, the ALDEHYDE-LYASES, and the OXO-ACID-LYASES. EC 4.1.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.DNA-(Apurinic or Apyrimidinic Site) Lyase: A DNA repair enzyme that catalyses the excision of ribose residues at apurinic and apyrimidinic DNA sites that can result from the action of DNA GLYCOSYLASES. The enzyme catalyzes a beta-elimination reaction in which the C-O-P bond 3' to the apurinic or apyrimidinic site in DNA is broken, leaving a 3'-terminal unsaturated sugar and a product with a terminal 5'-phosphate. This enzyme was previously listed under EC 3.1.25.2.Crystallography, X-Ray: The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Pseudomonas: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in nature. Some species are pathogenic for humans, animals, and plants.Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.N-Glycosyl Hydrolases: A class of enzymes involved in the hydrolysis of the N-glycosidic bond of nitrogen-linked sugars.Catalysis: The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.Chromatography, Gel: Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.Fungi: A kingdom of eukaryotic, heterotrophic organisms that live parasitically as saprobes, including MUSHROOMS; YEASTS; smuts, molds, etc. They reproduce either sexually or asexually, and have life cycles that range from simple to complex. Filamentous fungi, commonly known as molds, refer to those that grow as multicellular colonies.Isoenzymes: Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.Plants: Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.Carbohydrate Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a carbohydrate.DNA Glycosylases: A family of DNA repair enzymes that recognize damaged nucleotide bases and remove them by hydrolyzing the N-glycosidic bond that attaches them to the sugar backbone of the DNA molecule. The process called BASE EXCISION REPAIR can be completed by a DNA-(APURINIC OR APYRIMIDINIC SITE) LYASE which excises the remaining RIBOSE sugar from the DNA.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Bacillus: A genus of BACILLACEAE that are spore-forming, rod-shaped cells. Most species are saprophytic soil forms with only a few species being pathogenic.Ethyldimethylaminopropyl Carbodiimide: Carbodiimide cross-linking reagent.Protein Structure, Secondary: The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.Intramolecular Lyases: Enzymes of the isomerase class that catalyze reactions in which a group can be regarded as eliminated from one part of a molecule, leaving a double bond, while remaining covalently attached to the molecule. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 5.5.Heparitin Sulfate: A heteropolysaccharide that is similar in structure to HEPARIN. It accumulates in individuals with MUCOPOLYSACCHARIDOSIS.Biocatalysis: The facilitation of biochemical reactions with the aid of naturally occurring catalysts such as ENZYMES.Catalytic Domain: The region of an enzyme that interacts with its substrate to cause the enzymatic reaction.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Sequence Deletion: Deletion of sequences of nucleic acids from the genetic material of an individual.Epitopes: Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.Oligosaccharides: Carbohydrates consisting of between two (DISACCHARIDES) and ten MONOSACCHARIDES connected by either an alpha- or beta-glycosidic link. They are found throughout nature in both the free and bound form.Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.Viral Proteins: Proteins found in any species of virus.Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Multigene Family: A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid: The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.Chromatography: Techniques used to separate mixtures of substances based on differences in the relative affinities of the substances for mobile and stationary phases. A mobile phase (fluid or gas) passes through a column containing a stationary phase of porous solid or liquid coated on a solid support. Usage is both analytical for small amounts and preparative for bulk amounts.Enzyme Stability: The extent to which an enzyme retains its structural conformation or its activity when subjected to storage, isolation, and purification or various other physical or chemical manipulations, including proteolytic enzymes and heat.Cell Wall: The outermost layer of a cell in most PLANTS; BACTERIA; FUNGI; and ALGAE. The cell wall is usually a rigid structure that lies external to the CELL MEMBRANE, and provides a protective barrier against physical or chemical agents.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Naphthols: Naphthalene derivatives carrying one or more hydroxyl (-OH) groups at any ring position. They are often used in dyes and pigments, as antioxidants for rubber, fats, and oils, as insecticides, in pharmaceuticals, and in numerous other applications.Phosphorus-Oxygen Lyases: Enzymes that catalyze the cleavage of a phosphorus-oxygen bond by means other than hydrolysis or oxidation. EC 4.6.Conserved Sequence: A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.Bacillus subtilis: A species of gram-positive bacteria that is a common soil and water saprophyte.Protein Folding: Processes involved in the formation of TERTIARY PROTEIN STRUCTURE.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Genes, Viral: The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.Chromatography, Ion Exchange: Separation technique in which the stationary phase consists of ion exchange resins. The resins contain loosely held small ions that easily exchange places with other small ions of like charge present in solutions washed over the resins.Protein Sorting Signals: Amino acid sequences found in transported proteins that selectively guide the distribution of the proteins to specific cellular compartments.Protein Processing, Post-Translational: Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Precipitin Tests: Serologic tests in which a positive reaction manifested by visible CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION occurs when a soluble ANTIGEN reacts with its precipitins, i.e., ANTIBODIES that can form a precipitate.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Plant Diseases: Diseases of plants.Nuclear Proteins: Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.Crystallization: The formation of crystalline substances from solutions or melts. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Viral Envelope Proteins: Layers of protein which surround the capsid in animal viruses with tubular nucleocapsids. The envelope consists of an inner layer of lipids and virus specified proteins also called membrane or matrix proteins. The outer layer consists of one or more types of morphological subunits called peplomers which project from the viral envelope; this layer always consists of glycoproteins.DNA Mutational Analysis: Biochemical identification of mutational changes in a nucleotide sequence.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.Ficain: A sulfhydryl proteinase with cysteine at the active site from ficus latex. Preferential cleavage is at tyrosine and phenylalanine residues. EC 3.4.22.3.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Viral Matrix Proteins: Proteins associated with the inner surface of the lipid bilayer of the viral envelope. These proteins have been implicated in control of viral transcription and may possibly serve as the "glue" that binds the nucleocapsid to the appropriate membrane site during viral budding from the host cell.Proteoglycans: Glycoproteins which have a very high polysaccharide content.Nucleocapsid Proteins: Viral proteins found in either the NUCLEOCAPSID or the viral core (VIRAL CORE PROTEINS).Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Mutagenesis: Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.Restriction Mapping: Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.Endopeptidases: A subclass of PEPTIDE HYDROLASES that catalyze the internal cleavage of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS.Protein PrecursorsCell Compartmentation: A partitioning within cells due to the selectively permeable membranes which enclose each of the separate parts, e.g., mitochondria, lysosomes, etc.Carbon-Sulfur Lyases: Enzymes that catalyze the cleavage of a carbon-sulfur bond by means other than hydrolysis or oxidation. EC 4.4.HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Fungal Proteins: Proteins found in any species of fungus.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.COS Cells: CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)Cytoplasm: The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)DNA Repair: The reconstruction of a continuous two-stranded DNA molecule without mismatch from a molecule which contained damaged regions. The major repair mechanisms are excision repair, in which defective regions in one strand are excised and resynthesized using the complementary base pairing information in the intact strand; photoreactivation repair, in which the lethal and mutagenic effects of ultraviolet light are eliminated; and post-replication repair, in which the primary lesions are not repaired, but the gaps in one daughter duplex are filled in by incorporation of portions of the other (undamaged) daughter duplex. Excision repair and post-replication repair are sometimes referred to as "dark repair" because they do not require light.Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins: Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Capsid: The outer protein protective shell of a virus, which protects the viral nucleic acid.Bluetongue virus: The type species of ORBIVIRUS causing a serious disease in sheep, especially lambs. It may also infect wild ruminants and other domestic animals.Peptide Mapping: Analysis of PEPTIDES that are generated from the digestion or fragmentation of a protein or mixture of PROTEINS, by ELECTROPHORESIS; CHROMATOGRAPHY; or MASS SPECTROMETRY. The resulting peptide fingerprints are analyzed for a variety of purposes including the identification of the proteins in a sample, GENETIC POLYMORPHISMS, patterns of gene expression, and patterns diagnostic for diseases.Point Mutation: A mutation caused by the substitution of one nucleotide for another. This results in the DNA molecule having a change in a single base pair.Antigens, Viral: Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.Virion: The infective system of a virus, composed of the viral genome, a protein core, and a protein coat called a capsid, which may be naked or enclosed in a lipoprotein envelope called the peplos.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Repetitive Sequences, Nucleic Acid: Sequences of DNA or RNA that occur in multiple copies. There are several types: INTERSPERSED REPETITIVE SEQUENCES are copies of transposable elements (DNA TRANSPOSABLE ELEMENTS or RETROELEMENTS) dispersed throughout the genome. TERMINAL REPEAT SEQUENCES flank both ends of another sequence, for example, the long terminal repeats (LTRs) on RETROVIRUSES. Variations may be direct repeats, those occurring in the same direction, or inverted repeats, those opposite to each other in direction. TANDEM REPEAT SEQUENCES are copies which lie adjacent to each other, direct or inverted (INVERTED REPEAT SEQUENCES).Genetic Complementation Test: A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Escherichia coli Proteins: Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Inclusion Bodies, Viral: An area showing altered staining behavior in the nucleus or cytoplasm of a virus-infected cell. Some inclusion bodies represent "virus factories" in which viral nucleic acid or protein is being synthesized; others are merely artifacts of fixation and staining. One example, Negri bodies, are found in the cytoplasm or processes of nerve cells in animals that have died from rabies.DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Genes: A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.Chromosome Deletion: Actual loss of portion of a chromosome.Transmissible gastroenteritis virus: A species of CORONAVIRUS causing a fatal disease to pigs under 3 weeks old.Open Reading Frames: A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.Antigens, Polyomavirus Transforming: Polyomavirus antigens which cause infection and cellular transformation. The large T antigen is necessary for the initiation of viral DNA synthesis, repression of transcription of the early region and is responsible in conjunction with the middle T antigen for the transformation of primary cells. Small T antigen is necessary for the completion of the productive infection cycle.PhosphoproteinsOncogene Protein pp60(v-src): A tyrosine-specific protein kinase encoded by the v-src oncogene of ROUS SARCOMA VIRUS. The transforming activity of pp60(v-src) depends on both the lack of a critical carboxy-terminal tyrosine phosphorylation site at position 527, and the attachment of pp60(v-src) to the plasma membrane which is accomplished by myristylation of its N-terminal glycine.Gene Deletion: A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.Virus Assembly: The assembly of VIRAL STRUCTURAL PROTEINS and nucleic acid (VIRAL DNA or VIRAL RNA) to form a VIRUS PARTICLE.Epitope Mapping: Methods used for studying the interactions of antibodies with specific regions of protein antigens. Important applications of epitope mapping are found within the area of immunochemistry.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Viral Structural Proteins: Viral proteins that are components of the mature assembled VIRUS PARTICLES. They may include nucleocapsid core proteins (gag proteins), enzymes packaged within the virus particle (pol proteins), and membrane components (env proteins). These do not include the proteins encoded in the VIRAL GENOME that are produced in infected cells but which are not packaged in the mature virus particle,i.e. the so called non-structural proteins (VIRAL NONSTRUCTURAL PROTEINS).Cercopithecus aethiops: A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.Protein Biosynthesis: The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.Cysteine: A thiol-containing non-essential amino acid that is oxidized to form CYSTINE.Oligopeptides: Peptides composed of between two and twelve amino acids.Retroviridae Proteins: Proteins from the family Retroviridae. The most frequently encountered member of this family is the Rous sarcoma virus protein.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Rhodamines: A family of 3,6-di(substituted-amino)-9-benzoate derivatives of xanthene that are used as dyes and as indicators for various metals; also used as fluorescent tracers in histochemistry.DNA, Viral: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.Macromolecular Substances: Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.Amino Acid Substitution: The naturally occurring or experimentally induced replacement of one or more AMINO ACIDS in a protein with another. If a functionally equivalent amino acid is substituted, the protein may retain wild-type activity. Substitution may also diminish, enhance, or eliminate protein function. Experimentally induced substitution is often used to study enzyme activities and binding site properties.Amino Acids: Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.Hydrolysis: The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Bacterial Outer Membrane Proteins: Proteins isolated from the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Amino Acid Motifs: Commonly observed structural components of proteins formed by simple combinations of adjacent secondary structures. A commonly observed structure may be composed of a CONSERVED SEQUENCE which can be represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Immunoblotting: Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.Murine hepatitis virus: A species of the CORONAVIRUS genus causing hepatitis in mice. Four strains have been identified as MHV 1, MHV 2, MHV 3, and MHV 4 (also known as MHV-JHM, which is neurotropic and causes disseminated encephalomyelitis with demyelination as well as focal liver necrosis).Avian Sarcoma Viruses: Group of alpharetroviruses (ALPHARETROVIRUS) producing sarcomata and other tumors in chickens and other fowl and also in pigeons, ducks, and RATS.Tyrosine: A non-essential amino acid. In animals it is synthesized from PHENYLALANINE. It is also the precursor of EPINEPHRINE; THYROID HORMONES; and melanin.Oligodeoxyribonucleotides: A group of deoxyribonucleotides (up to 12) in which the phosphate residues of each deoxyribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the deoxyribose moieties.Carboxylic Acids: Organic compounds containing the carboxy group (-COOH). This group of compounds includes amino acids and fatty acids. Carboxylic acids can be saturated, unsaturated, or aromatic.Two-Hybrid System Techniques: Screening techniques first developed in yeast to identify genes encoding interacting proteins. Variations are used to evaluate interplay between proteins and other molecules. Two-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for protein-protein interactions, one-hybrid for DNA-protein interactions, three-hybrid interactions for RNA-protein interactions or ligand-based interactions. Reverse n-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for mutations or other small molecules that dissociate known interactions.Glycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.Protein Kinases: A family of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of ATP and a protein to ADP and a phosphoprotein.Alternative Splicing: A process whereby multiple RNA transcripts are generated from a single gene. Alternative splicing involves the splicing together of other possible sets of EXONS during the processing of some, but not all, transcripts of the gene. Thus a particular exon may be connected to any one of several alternative exons to form a mature RNA. The alternative forms of mature MESSENGER RNA produce PROTEIN ISOFORMS in which one part of the isoforms is common while the other parts are different.Viral Nonstructural Proteins: Proteins encoded by a VIRAL GENOME that are produced in the organisms they infect, but not packaged into the VIRUS PARTICLES. Some of these proteins may play roles within the infected cell during VIRUS REPLICATION or act in regulation of virus replication or VIRUS ASSEMBLY.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.

A kinetic study of ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase from the photosynthetic bacterium Rhodospirillum rubrum. (1/1854)

The activation kinetics of purified Rhodospirillum rubrum ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase were analysed. The equilibrium constant for activation by CO(2) was 600 micron and that for activation by Mg2+ was 90 micron, and the second-order activation constant for the reaction of CO(2) with inactive enzyme (k+1) was 0.25 X 10(-3)min-1 . micron-1. The latter value was considerably lower than the k+1 for higher-plant enzyme (7 X 10(-3)-10 X 10(-3)min-1 . micron-1). 6-Phosphogluconate had little effect on the active enzyme, and increased the extent of activation of inactive enzyme. Ribulose bisphosphate also increased the extent of activation and did not inhibit the rate of activation. This effect might have been mediated through a reaction product, 2-phosphoglycolic acid, which also stimulated the extent of activation of the enzyme. The active enzyme had a Km (CO2) of 300 micron-CO2, a Km (ribulose bisphosphate) of 11--18 micron-ribulose bisphosphate and a Vmax. of up to 3 mumol/min per mg of protein. These data are discussed in relation to the proposed model for activation and catalysis of ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase.  (+info)

A general method for selection of alpha-acetolactate decarboxylase-deficient Lactococcus lactis mutants to improve diacetyl formation. (2/1854)

The enzyme acetolactate decarboxylase (Ald) plays a key role in the regulation of the alpha-acetolactate pool in both pyruvate catabolism and the biosynthesis of the branched-chain amino acids, isoleucine, leucine, and valine (ILV). This dual role of Ald, due to allosteric activation by leucine, was used as a strategy for the isolation of Ald-deficient mutants of Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis biovar diacetylactis. Such mutants can be selected as leucine-resistant mutants in ILV- or IV-prototrophic strains. Most dairy lactococcus strains are auxotrophic for the three amino acids. Therefore, the plasmid pMC004 containing the ilv genes (encoding the enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of IV) of L. lactis NCDO2118 was constructed. Introduction of pMC004 into ILV-auxotrophic dairy strains resulted in an isoleucine-prototrophic phenotype. By plating the strains on a chemically defined medium supplemented with leucine but not valine and isoleucine, spontaneous leucine-resistant mutants were obtained. These mutants were screened by Western blotting with Ald-specific antibodies for the presence of Ald. Selected mutants lacking Ald were subsequently cured of pMC004. Except for a defect in the expression of Ald, the resulting strain, MC010, was identical to the wild-type strain, as shown by Southern blotting and DNA fingerprinting. The mutation resulting in the lack of Ald in MC010 occurred spontaneously, and the strain does not contain foreign DNA; thus, it can be regarded as food grade. Nevertheless, its application in dairy products depends on the regulation of genetically modified organisms. These results establish a strategy to select spontaneous Ald-deficient mutants from transformable L. lactis strains.  (+info)

Reconstitution of a bacterial/plant polyamine biosynthesis pathway in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. (3/1854)

Polyamine synthesis in most organisms is initiated by the decarboxylation of ornithine to form putrescine via ornithine decarboxylase (ODC). Plants, some bacteria and some fungi and protozoa generate putrescine from arginine, via arginine decarboxylase (ADC) and agmatine ureohydrolase (AUH) or agmatine iminohydrolase. A polyamine-requiring strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae with a mutation in the gene encoding ODC was transformed with plasmids bearing genes encoding Escherichia coli ADC and AUH. Transformants regained the ability to grow in the absence of exogenous polyamines and contained enzyme activities consistent with the presence of both prokaryotic enzymes. Similar results were obtained when a plasmid containing a gene encoding oat (Avena sativa L.) ADC was substituted for the E. coli gene. These data demonstrate the successful complementation of a yeast biosynthetic polyamine synthesis defect by genes encoding an alternative pathway found in bacteria; they also show that plant ADC can substitute for the bacterial enzyme in this pathway. The recombinant yeast provides a tool for the study of the functional properties of these enzymes and for discovery of compounds that specifically inhibit this pathway.  (+info)

Characterization of mdcR, a regulatory gene of the malonate catabolic system in Klebsiella pneumoniae. (4/1854)

The Klebsiella pneumoniae mdcR gene, which encodes a LysR-type regulator, was overexpressed in Escherichia coli. Purified MdcR was found to bind specifically to the control region of either the malonate decarboxylase (mdc) genes or mdcR. We have also demonstrated that MdcR is an activator of the expression of the mdc genes, whereas it represses the transcription of the putative control region of mdcR, PmdcR, indicating a negative autoregulatory control.  (+info)

Genetic heterogeneity in propionic acidemia patients with alpha-subunit defects. Identification of five novel mutations, one of them causing instability of the protein. (5/1854)

The inherited metabolic disease propionic acidemia (PA) can result from mutations in either of the genes PCCA or PCCB, which encode the alpha and beta subunits, respectively, of the mitochondrial enzyme propionyl CoA-carboxylase. In this work we have analyzed the molecular basis of PCCA gene defects, studying mRNA levels and identifying putative disease causing mutations. A total of 10 different mutations, none predominant, are present in a sample of 24 mutant alleles studied. Five novel mutations are reported here for the first time. A neutral polymorphism and a variant allele present in the general population were also detected. To examine the effect of a point mutation (M348K) involving a highly conserved residue, we have carried out in vitro expression of normal and mutant PCCA cDNA and analyzed the mitochondrial import and stability of the resulting proteins. Both wild-type and mutant proteins were imported into mitochondria and processed into the mature form with similar efficiency, but the mature mutant M348K protein decayed more rapidly than did the wild-type, indicating a reduced stability, which is probably the disease-causing mechanism.  (+info)

Cyclic AMP can decrease expression of genes subject to catabolite repression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. (6/1854)

External cyclic AMP (cAMP) hindered the derepression of gluconeogenic enzymes in a pde2 mutant of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, but it did not prevent invertase derepression. cAMP reduced nearly 20-fold the transcription driven by upstream activation sequence (UAS1FBP1) from FBP1, encoding fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase; it decreased 2-fold the activation of transcription by UAS2FBP1. Nuclear extracts from cells derepressed in the presence of cAMP were impaired in the formation of specific UASFBP1-protein complexes in band shift experiments. cAMP does not appear to act through the repressing protein Mig1. Control of FBP1 transcription through cAMP is redundant with other regulatory mechanisms.  (+info)

Brown adipose tissue triacylglycerol synthesis in rats adapted to a high-protein, carbohydrate-free diet. (7/1854)

Adaptation of rats to a high-protein, carbohydrate-free (HP) diet induced a marked reduction of brown adipose tissue (BAT) fatty acid (FA) synthesis from both 3H2O and [14C]glucose in vivo, with pronounced decreases in the activities of four enzymes associated with lipogenesis: glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, malic enzyme, citrate lyase, and acetyl-CoA carboxylase. In both HP-adapted and control rats, in vivo incorporation of 3H2O and [14C]glucose into BAT glyceride-glycerol was much higher than into FA. It could be estimated that most of the glycerol synthetized was used to esterify preformed FA. Glycerol synthesis from nonglucose sources (glyceroneogenesis) was increased in BAT from HP rats, as evidenced by an increased capacity of tissue fragments to incorporate [1-14C]pyruvate into glycerol and by a fourfold increase in the activity of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase activity, a key glyceroneogenic enzyme. The data suggest that high rates of glyceroneogenesis and of esterification of preformed FA in BAT from HP-adapted rats are essential for preservation of tissue lipid stores, necessary for heat generation when BAT is recruited in nonshivering thermogenesis.  (+info)

Evidence for an inducible nucleotide-dependent acetone carboxylase in Rhodococcus rhodochrous B276. (8/1854)

The metabolism of acetone was investigated in the actinomycete Rhodococcus rhodochrous (formerly Nocardia corallina) B276. Suspensions of acetone- and isopropanol-grown R. rhodochrous readily metabolized acetone. In contrast, R. rhodochrous cells cultured with glucose as the carbon source lacked the ability to metabolize acetone at the onset of the assay but gained the ability to do so in a time-dependent fashion. Chloramphenicol and rifampin prevented the time-dependent increase in this activity. Acetone metabolism by R. rhodochrous was CO2 dependent, and 14CO2 fixation occurred concomitant with this process. A nucleotide-dependent acetone carboxylase was partially purified from cell extracts of acetone-grown R. rhodochrous by DEAE-Sepharose chromatography. Analysis by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis suggested that the acetone carboxylase was composed of three subunits with apparent molecular masses of 85, 74, and 16 kDa. Acetone metabolism by the partially purified enzyme was dependent on the presence of a divalent metal and a nucleoside triphosphate. GTP and ITP supported the highest rates of acetone carboxylation, while CTP, UTP, and XTP supported carboxylation at 10 to 50% of these rates. ATP did not support acetone carboxylation. Acetoacetate was determined to be the stoichiometric product of acetone carboxylation. The longer-chain ketones butanone, 2-pentanone, 3-pentanone, and 2-hexanone were substrates. This work has identified an acetone carboxylase with a novel nucleotide usage and broader substrate specificity compared to other such enzymes studied to date. These results strengthen the proposal that carboxylation is a common strategy used for acetone catabolism in aerobic acetone-oxidizing bacteria.  (+info)

*Carboxy-lyases

... ". www.biochem.ucl.ac.uk. Carboxy-Lyases at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) ... Carboxy-lyases, also known as decarboxylases, are carbon-carbon lyases that add or remove a carboxyl group from organic ... Carboxy-lyases are categorized under EC number 4.1.1. Usually, they are named after the substrate whose decarboxylation they ... leads to a net fixation of carbon dioxide Uridine monophosphate synthetase Uroporphyrinogen III decarboxylase Enzymes Lyases ...

*Sulfopyruvate decarboxylase

This enzyme belongs to the family of lyases, specifically the carboxy-lyases, which cleave carbon-carbon bonds. The systematic ... This enzyme is also called sulfopyruvate carboxy-lyase. Graupner M, Xu H, White RH (2000). "Identification of the gene encoding ... name of this enzyme class is 3-sulfopyruvate carboxy-lyase (2-sulfoacetaldehyde-forming). ...

*Carnitine decarboxylase

This enzyme belongs to the family of lyases, specifically the carboxy-lyases, which cleave carbon-carbon bonds. The systematic ... name of this enzyme class is carnitine carboxy-lyase (2-methylcholine-forming). This enzyme is also called carnitine carboxy- ... lyase. It employs one cofactor, ATP. Khairallah EA, Wolf G (1967). "Carnitine decarboxylase. The conversion of carnitine to ...

*Hydroxypyruvate decarboxylase

This enzyme belongs to the family of lyases, specifically the carboxy-lyases, which cleave carbon-carbon bonds. The systematic ... This enzyme is also called hydroxypyruvate carboxy-lyase. This enzyme participates in glyoxylate and dicarboxylate metabolism. ... name of this enzyme class is hydroxypyruvate carboxy-lyase (glycolaldehyde-forming). ...

*Orsellinate decarboxylase

4-dihydroxy-6-methylbenzoate carboxy-lyase (orcinol-forming). This enzyme is also called orsellinate carboxy-lyase. Pettersson ... This enzyme belongs to the family of lyases, specifically the carboxy-lyases, which cleave carbon-carbon bonds. The systematic ...

*O-pyrocatechuate decarboxylase

3-dihydroxybenzoate carboxy-lyase (catechol-forming). This enzyme is also called 2,3-dihydroxybenzoate carboxy-lyase. This ... This enzyme belongs to the family of lyases, specifically the carboxy-lyases, which cleave carbon-carbon bonds. The systematic ... Rao PV, Moore K, Towers GH (1967). "O-pyrocatechiuc acid carboxy-lyase from Aspergillus niger". Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 122 (2 ...

*Phenylpyruvate decarboxylase

This enzyme belongs to the family of lyases, specifically the carboxy-lyases, which cleave carbon-carbon bonds. The systematic ... This enzyme is also called phenylpyruvate carboxy-lyase. This enzyme participates in phenylalanine and tryptophan metabolism. ... name of this enzyme class is phenylpyruvate carboxy-lyase (phenylacetaldehyde-forming). ...

*Oxalate decarboxylase

The systematic name of this enzyme class is oxalate carboxy-lyase (formate-forming). This enzyme is also called oxalate carboxy ... This enzyme belongs to the family of lyases, specifically the carboxy-lyases, which cleave carbon-carbon bonds. ... lyase. This enzyme participates in glyoxylate and dicarboxylate metabolism. As of late 2007, 5 structures have been solved for ...

*Sulfinoalanine decarboxylase

This enzyme belongs to the family of lyases, specifically the carboxy-lyases, which cleave carbon-carbon bonds. The systematic ... JACOBSEN JG, THOMAS LL, SMITH LH (1964). "PROPERTIES AND DISTRIBUTION OF MAMMALIAN L-CYSTEINE SULFINATE CARBOXY-LYASES". ... and 3-sulfino-L-alanine carboxy-lyase. This enzyme participates in taurine and hypotaurine metabolism. It employs one cofactor ... name of this enzyme class is 3-sulfino-L-alanine carboxy-lyase (hypotaurine-forming). Other names in common use include ...

*4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate decarboxylase

This enzyme belongs to the family of lyases, specifically the carboxy-lyases, which cleave carbon-carbon bonds. The systematic ... This enzyme is also called 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate carboxy-lyase. Rueffer M; Zenk MH (1987). "Distant precursors of ... name of this enzyme class is 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate carboxy-lyase (4-hydroxyphenylacetaldehyde-forming). ...

*Stipitatonate decarboxylase

This enzyme belongs to the family of lyases, specifically the carboxy-lyases, which cleave carbon-carbon bonds. The systematic ... This enzyme is also called stipitatonate carboxy-lyase (decyclizing). Bentley R; Thiessen CP (1963). "Biosynthesis of ... name of this enzyme class is stipitatonate carboxy-lyase (decyclizing, stipitatate-forming). ...

*4-oxalocrotonate decarboxylase

This enzyme belongs to the family of lyases, specifically the carboxy-lyases, which cleave carbon-carbon bonds. The systematic ... This enzyme is also called 4-oxalocrotonate carboxy-lyase. This enzyme participates in 3 metabolic pathways: benzoate ... name of this enzyme class is 4-oxalocrotonate carboxy-lyase (2-oxopent-4-enoate-forming). ...

*Phosphonopyruvate decarboxylase

This enzyme belongs to the family of lyases, specifically the carboxy-lyases, which cleave carbon-carbon bonds. The systematic ... This enzyme is also called 3-phosphonopyruvate carboxy-lyase. This enzyme participates in aminophosphonate metabolism. Zhang G ... name of this enzyme class is 3-phosphonopyruvate carboxy-lyase (2-phosphonoacetaldehyde-forming). ...

*UDP-glucuronate decarboxylase

This enzyme belongs to the family of lyases, specifically the carboxy-lyases, which cleave carbon-carbon bonds. The systematic ... 1. Uridine diphosphate glucuronate carboxy-lyase of wheat germ". Biochemistry. 4 (11): 2468-2475. doi:10.1021/bi00887a028. ... and UDP-D-glucuronate carboxy-lyase. This enzyme participates in starch and sucrose metabolism and nucleotide sugars metabolism ... name of this enzyme class is UDP-D-glucuronate carboxy-lyase (UDP-D-xylose-forming). Other names in common use include uridine- ...

*4,5-dihydroxyphthalate decarboxylase

This enzyme belongs to the family of lyases, specifically the carboxy-lyases, which cleave carbon-carbon bonds. The systematic ... 5-dihydroxyphthalate carboxy-lyase (3,4-dihydroxybenzoate-forming). This enzyme is also called 4,5-dihydroxyphthalate carboxy- ... lyase. This enzyme participates in 2,4-dichlorobenzoate degradation. Ribbons DW; Evans WC (1966). "Oxidative metabolism of ...

*3,4-dihydroxyphthalate decarboxylase

This enzyme belongs to the family of lyases, specifically the carboxy-lyases, which cleave carbon-carbon bonds. The systematic ... 4-dihydroxyphthalate carboxy-lyase (3,4-dihydroxybenzoate-forming). This enzyme is also called 3,4-dihydroxyphthalate carboxy- ... lyase. Eaton RW, Ribbons DW (1982). "Metabolism of dibutylphthalate and phthalate by Micrococcus sp. strain 12B". J. Bacteriol ...

*Tartrate decarboxylase

... tartrate carboxy-lyase (D-glycerate-forming). This enzyme is also called (R,R)-tartrate carboxy-lyase. Furuyoshi S, Kawabata N ... This enzyme belongs to the family of lyases, specifically the carboxy-lyases, which cleave carbon-carbon bonds. The systematic ...

*Aspartate 4-decarboxylase

This enzyme belongs to the family of lyases, specifically the carboxy-lyases, which cleave carbon-carbon bonds. The systematic ... Wilson EM; Kornberg HL (1963). "Properties of crystalline l-aspartate 4-carboxy-lyase from Achromobacter sp". Biochem. J. 88 (3 ... and L-aspartate 4-carboxy-lyase. This enzyme participates in alanine and aspartate metabolism and cysteine metabolism. It ... name of this enzyme class is L-aspartate 4-carboxy-lyase (L-alanine-forming). Other names in common use include desulfinase, ...

*David Sidney Feingold

V. UDP-D-glucuronate and UDP-D-galacturonate carboxy-lyase of Ampullariella digitata. Fan, D. F. and Feingold, D. S. Arch. ... V. UDP-D-glucuronate and UDP-D-galacturonate carboxy-lyase of Ampullariella digitata. Uridine diphosphate-D-glucose ... Mechanism of action of UDP-glucuronate carboxyl-lyase. Schutzbach, J. S. and Feingold D. S. J. Biol. Chem. 245:2476-2482, 1970 ... Mechanism of action of UDP-glucuronate carboxyl-lyase. Biosynthesis of uridine diphosphate-D-xylose. ...

*Hydroxyglutamate decarboxylase

This enzyme belongs to the family of lyases, specifically the carboxy-lyases, which cleave carbon-carbon bonds. The systematic ... This enzyme is also called 3-hydroxy-L-glutamate 1-carboxy-lyase. It employs one cofactor, pyridoxal phosphate. Umbreit WW, ... name of this enzyme class is 3-hydroxy-L-glutamate 1-carboxy-lyase (4-amino-3-hydroxybutanoate-forming). ...

*Benzoylformate decarboxylase

This enzyme belongs to the family of lyases, specifically the carboxy-lyases, which cleave carbon-carbon bonds. The systematic ... and benzoylformate carboxy-lyase. This enzyme participates in benzoate degradation via hydroxylation and toluene and xylene ... name of this enzyme class is benzoylformate carboxy-lyase (benzaldehyde-forming). Other names in common use include ...

*Arginine decarboxylase

This enzyme belongs to the family of lyases, specifically the carboxy-lyases, which cleave carbon-carbon bonds. The systematic ... and L-arginine carboxy-lyase. This enzyme participates in urea cycle and metabolism of amino groups and glutamate metabolism. ... name of this enzyme class is L-arginine carboxy-lyase (agmatine-forming). Other names in common use include SpeA, ...

*Gallate decarboxylase

This enzyme belongs to the family of lyases, specifically the carboxy-lyases, which cleave carbon-carbon bonds. The systematic ... and gallate carboxy-lyase. This enzyme participates in benzoate degradation via coa ligation. Grant DJW; Patel JC (1969). "Non- ... 5-trihydroxybenzoate carboxy-lyase (pyrogallol-forming). Other names in common use include gallic acid decarboxylase, ...

*Aminobenzoate decarboxylase

This enzyme belongs to the family of lyases, specifically the carboxy-lyases, which cleave carbon-carbon bonds. The systematic ... name of this enzyme class is aminobenzoate carboxy-lyase (aniline-forming). It employs one cofactor, pyridoxal phosphate. ...

*Oxalyl-CoA decarboxylase

CO2 OXC belongs to the family of lyases, specifically the carboxy-lyases (decarboxylases), which cleave carbon-carbon bonds. ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is oxalyl-CoA carboxy-lyase (formyl-CoA-forming). Other names in common use include ... and oxalyl-CoA carboxy-lyase. This enzyme participates in glyoxylate and dicarboxylate metabolism. It employs one cofactor, ...
Oxaloacetate decarboxylase is a carboxy-lyase involved in the conversion of oxaloacetate into pyruvate. It is categorized under EC 4.1.1.3. In some bacteria this enzyme is a trimer, composed of alpha, beta and gamma subunits. The beta and gamma subunits are integral membrane proteins. Pyruvate carboxylase Bott M, Pfister K, Burda P, Kalbermatter O, Woehlke G, Dimroth P (December 1997). "Methylmalonyl-CoA decarboxylase from Propionigenium modestum--cloning and sequencing of the structural genes and purification of the enzyme complex". Eur. J. Biochem. 250 (2): 590-9. doi:10.1111/j.1432-1033.1997.0590a.x. PMID 9428714. Laussermair E, Schwarz E, Oesterhelt D, Reinke H, Beyreuther K, Dimroth P (1989). "The sodium ion translocating oxaloacetate decarboxylase of Klebsiella pneumoniae. Sequence of the integral membrane-bound subunits beta and gamma". J Biol Chem. 264 (25): 14710-5. PMID 2549031. Schmid M, Wild MR, Dahinden P, Dimroth P (2002). "Subunit gamma of the oxaloacetate decarboxylase Na(+) ...
Shop Arginine decarboxylase ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Arginine decarboxylase Antibody at MyBioSource. Custom ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Antibody are available.
Type II pyridoxal 5′-phosphate (PLP)-dependent decarboxylases are a group of enzymes with important roles in amino acid metabolism. This group of enzymes has undergone functional evolution from a shared ancient evolutionary origin to generate a selection of subfamilies with stringent substrate selectivitys [14]. Plant type II PLP decarboxylases include aromatic amino acid decarboxylases (AAADs), serine decarboxylases (SDCs) and glutamate decarboxylases (GDCs). Plant SDSs catalyze the decarboxylation of serine to ethanolamine [1], GDCs catalyze the decarboxylation of glutamate to γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) [19] and AAADs catalyze the decarboxylation of aromatic amino acids to generate aromatic arylalkylamines [10]-[12]. Based on their respective substrate specificities each group is responsible for the biosynthesis of unique products [1],[10],[19]. Although all plant type II PLP decarboxylases have evolved from a common evolutionary ancestor, significant evolutionary divergence has occurred ...
Translation initiation factor 5A (IF5A) is essential and highly conserved in Eukarya (eIF5A) and Archaea (aIF5A). YK 4-279 metabolism and aIF5A modification inHfx. volcanii Hfx. volcaniiby LC-MS/MS revealed it was exclusively deoxyhypusinylated. Genetic studies confirmed the role of the predicted arginine decarboxylase gene(HVO_1958)in agmatine synthesis. The agmatinase-like gene(HVO_2299)was found to be essential consistent with a … Continue reading Translation initiation factor 5A (IF5A) is essential and highly conserved in. ...
The API profiles for all the pathogenic strains showed that they differed in three respects: production of lysine decarboxylase (LDC) and L-ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) and utilisation of saccharose. Variation in these three properties has been observed before in E. coli isolated from untreated surface waters and soil.29,30 It has furthermore been reported that E. coli can induce production of amino acid decarboxylases (such as LDC and ODC) in response to reduced pH conditions.31 This report illustrates the highly adaptable nature of E. coli which helps it survive in more acidic environments.32. Because the PCR-based detection method of Clermont20 was used to identify E. coli phylogenetic groups (genogroups), the four main groups (A, B1, B2 and D) can further be subdivided into seven subgroups to increase discrimination: A0, A1, B1, B22, B23, D1 and D2.33 It has been reported that ExPEC strains usually belong to genogroups B2 and D, while InPEC strains that cause severe diarrhoea-related ...
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This gene encodes an oxidative stress response protein that regulates cell death. Expression of the gene is regulated by p53 and is induced by DNA damage. The protein regulates apoptosis by inducing cytochrome c release from mitochondria. It also appears to be a key regulator of both inflammatory and anti-inflammatory molecules. The loss of this protein correlates with uncontrolled cell growth and tumor formation. Naturally occurring read-through transcription exists between this gene and the neighboring upstream malonyl-CoA decarboxylase (MLYCD) gene, but the read-through transcripts are unlikely to produce a protein product. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2011 ...
Klinikai Genetika - Genomikai Medicina A gének és betegségek kapcsolata Molekuláris biológiai metodikák Onkogenetika (solid tumorok, onkohaematológia) Kromoszóma rendellenességek, veleszületett rendellenességek és dysmorphiás syndromák Monogénes betegségek klinikai manifesztációja Neurogenetikai betegségek Belgyógyászati betegségek Haematológiai betegségek Cardiológiai betegségek Szemészeti betegségek Bőrgyógyászati betegségek Polygénes, multifaktoriális betegségek genetikája Személyre szabott orvoslás Közvetlenül a fogyasztók által rendelhető genetikai vizsgálatok A genetikai betegségek megelőzése: szűrés, genetikai tanácsadás A genetikai betegségek kezelési lehetőségei A genetikai orvoslás etikai és jogi aspektusai
Diphosphomevalonate decarboxylase (EC 4.1.1.33), most commonly referred to in scientific literature as mevalonate diphosphate decarboxylase, is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction ATP + (R)-5-diphosphomevalonate ⇌ {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } ADP + phosphate + isopentenyl diphosphate + CO2 This enzyme converts mevalonate 5-diphosphate (MVAPP) to isopentenyl diphosphate (IPP) through ATP dependent decarboxylation. The two substrates of this enzyme are ATP and mevalonate 5-diphosphate, whereas its 4 products are ADP, phosphate, isopentenyl diphosphate, and CO2. Mevalonate diphosphate decarboxylase catalyzes the final step in the mevalonate pathway. The mevalonate pathway is responsible for the biosynthesis of isoprenoids from acetate. This pathway plays a key role in multiple cellular processes by synthesizing sterol isoprenoids, such as cholesterol, and non-sterol isoprenoids, such as dolichol, heme A, tRNA isopentenyltransferase, and ubiquinone. This enzyme belongs to the ...
InterPro provides functional analysis of proteins by classifying them into families and predicting domains and important sites. We combine protein signatures from a number of member databases into a single searchable resource, capitalising on their individual strengths to produce a powerful integrated database and diagnostic tool.
The decarboxylation of dopachrome to 5,6-dihydroxyindole (DHI) appears to be a major control point in the biosynthesis of melanin, in particular the conversion of dopachrome to 5,6-dihydroxyindole-2-carboxylic acid (DHICA). The recent discovery of a factor, DHICA stablin, that stabilizes DHICA and inhibits its conversion to DHI has added insight into the regulation of this intermediary compound. This study has shown that DHICA stablin activity is present in the melanosomal fraction of Cloudman murine melanoma cells and that this activity was observed by a new method using two complementary decarboxylase assays. When three known decarboxylase stabilizing cofactors (biotin, pyridoxal phosphate, and pyruvate) were added to melanosomal extracts, DHICA decarboxylase activity was enhanced but these factors did not decrease the lability of the decarboxylase enzyme. Protein kinases have been shown to mediate an adenylate cyclase system that is involved in the regulation of morphology and proliferation of
In the present communication, an experimental approach is utilized that facilitates the study of biochemical processes induced in B cells after their interaction with Th cells. In this approach, Th cell clones are stimulated for 18 h upon anti-CD3-coated plates, fixed with paraformaldehyde, and added at a 2 to 3:1 ratio to small, resting B cells (isolated from Percoll gradients). Th cells not stimulated on anti-CD3-coated plates, but fixed with paraformaldehyde, serve as controls for these experiments. The activated, fixed Th cells induce a transient, sixfold increase in B cell levels of cAMP, as well as an increase in B cell expression of ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) activity. This enzyme initiates the synthesis of polyamines and has been shown to be increased as cells enter the growth phase. In addition, previous studies have shown that the cellular levels of ODC activity are controlled by a multi-tiered regulatory cascade. To examine this aspect, polyclonally stimulated B cells were studied. ...
Catalyzes the conversion of malonyl-CoA to acetyl-CoA. In the fatty acid biosynthesis MCD selectively removes malonyl-CoA and thus assures that methyl-malonyl-CoA is the only chain elongating substrate for fatty acid synthase and that fatty acids with multiple methyl side chains are produced. In peroxisomes it may be involved in degrading intraperoxisomal malonyl-CoA, which is generated by the peroxisomal beta-oxidation of odd chain-length dicarboxylic fatty acids. Plays a role in the metabolic balance between glucose and lipid oxidation in muscle independent of alterations in insulin signaling. May play a role in controlling the extent of ischemic injury by promoting glucose oxidation.
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1N2M: Pyruvoyl-Dependent Arginine Decarboxylase from Methanococcus jannaschii: Crystal Structures of the Self-Cleaved and S53A Proenzyme Forms
1MT1: Pyruvoyl-Dependent Arginine Decarboxylase from Methanococcus jannaschii: Crystal Structures of the Self-Cleaved and S53A Proenzyme Forms
Baltimore Ravens offensive line coach Andy Moeller has pleaded guilty to a charge of driving while intoxicated, but he will not have to serve time in jail.
Dr. Matthew Moeller, MD, rated 4.6/5 by patients. 18 reviews, Phone number & practice locations, Gastroenterologist in Grand Rapids, MI.
Orioles starter Kevin Millwood, right, gives the ball to manager Dave Trembley as he is taken out of the game against the Twins in the third inning. Catcher Chad Moeller looks on at Millwood, who gave up five runs on nine hits in 2 2/3 innings against Minnesota.
Ability of the Ca2+ ionophores A23187 and ionomycin to mimic some of the effects of the tumor promoter 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate on hydroperoxide production, ornithine decarboxylase activity, and DNA synthesis in mouse epidermis in vivo. Cancer Res. 1990 Sep 15;50(18):5806-12. To Reference ...
Its uncomplicated and un-fussy. Our RAVA convertible car seat is filled with little extras like laid back legroom, fuss-free adjustments and a unique installation that makes setup a snap.RAVA has always included fabrics that are flame retardant additive free where the child sits and we strive to continuously improve o
SWISS-MODEL Repository entry for P94063 (HAL3B_ARATH), Probable phosphopantothenoylcysteine decarboxylase. Arabidopsis thaliana (Mouse-ear cress)
tr:H6RQV8_BLASD] ppc; Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase, Carbon dioxide fixing enzyme; K01595 phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase [EC:4.1.1.31] ...
pae:PA3687 K01595 phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase [EC:4.1.1.31] , (RefSeq) ppc; phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (A) MPEIDARLREDVHQLGELLGDTIREQYGPRFLDKIELIRKGAKAARRGSAEGAQQLTATL DGLEEDELLPVARAFNQFLNLANIAEQYHRIRRRRPNEPEPFENLVLEELLGRLKDAGHA PGQLARQLAGLEIELVLTAHPTEVARRTLIQKYDAITAQLAAKDHADLLPEERSRIQQRL QRLVAEAWHTDEIRKVRPTPVDEAKWGFAVIEHSLWQALPNVLRHVDEVLLRSTGERLPL TAAPLRFASWMGGDRDGNPNVTASVTREVLLLARWMAADLYLRDIDRLAAELSMQQASPQ LLARVGDSAEPYRALLKQLRERLRVTRNWTHQALAGEVPAAEGVLEHNRDLVEPLQLCHE SLHACGMGVIADGALLDCLRRAATFGLFLVRLDVRQDSARHAAALSEITEYLELGSYDEW DEKTRLEFLLEELNSRRPLLPAHYQPSADTAEVLATCRAIAAAPPASLGSYVISMAGQPS DVLAVQLLLKESGVDWPMRVVPLFETLDDLDNAGPCMERLLTLPGYRSRLSGVQEVMIGY SDSAKDAGTLTAAWAQYRAQEKLVEICRQHEVELLLFHGRGGTVGRGGGPAHAAILSQPP GSVAGRFRVTEQGEMIRFKFGLPDIAEQNLNLYLAAVLEATLMPPPAPEPAWRAQMDRLA KDALLAYRRVVRDDPQFVEYFRLATPEQELGRLPLGSRPAKRREGGVESLRAIPWIFAWT QTRLMLPAWLGWETALLNAIERGEGALLGQMREQWPFFTTRIDMLEMVLAKADADIARLY DERLVPLELRPLGRRLRDLLSQAVRVVLGLTGQSLLLAHASETRESISVRNSYLDPLHLL QAELLARSRRCRGDACGGLEQALLVTVAGVAAGLRNTG ...
elr:ECO55CA74_22865 K01595 phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase [EC:4.1.1.31] , (GenBank) phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (A) MNEQYSALRSNVCMLGKVLGETIKDALGEHILERVETIRKLSKSSRAGNDANRQELLTTL QNLSNDELLPVARAFSQFLNLANTAEQYHSISPKGEAASNPEVIARTLRKLKNQPELSED TIKKAVESLSLELVLTAHPTEITRRTLIHKMVEVNACLKQLDNKDIADYEHNQLMRRLRQ LIAQSWHTDEIRKLRPSPVDEAKWGFAVVENSLWQGVPNYLRELNEQLEENLGYKLPVEF VPVRFTSWMGGDRDGNPNVTADITRHVLLLSRWKATDLFLKDIQVLVSELSMVEATPELL ALVGEEGAAEPYRYLMKNLRSRLMATQAWLEARLKGEELPKPEGLLTQNEELWEPLYACY QSLQACGMGIIANGDLLDTLRRVKCFGVPLVRIDIRQESTRHTEALGELTRYLGIGDYES WSEADKQAFLIRELNSKRPLLPRNWQPSAETREVLDTCQVIAEAPQGSIAAYVISMAKTP SDVLAVHLLLKEAGIGFAMPVAPLFETLDDLNNANDVMTQLLNIDWYRGLIQGKQMVMIG YSDSAKDAGVMAASWAQYQAQDALIKTCEKAGIELTLFHGRGGSIGRGGAPAHAALLSQP PGSLKGGLRVTEQGEMIRFKYGLPEITVSSLSLYTGAILEANLLPPPEPKESWRRIMDEL SVISCDLYRGYVRENKDFVPYFRSATPEQELGKLPLGSRPAKRRPTGGVESLRAIPWIFA WTQNRLMLPAWLGAGTALQKVVEDGKQSELEAMCRDWPFFSTRLGMLEMVFAKADLWLAE YYDQRLVDKTLWPLGKELRNLQEEDIKVVLAIANDSHLMADLPWIAESIQLRNIYTDPLN ...
K01595 phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase [EC:4.1.1.31] , (GenBank) ppc; probable phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (pepcase) (pepc) ...
Package: wnpp Severity: wishlist Owner: Steffen Moeller ,[email protected], * Package name : genometools * URL : http://www.genometools.org/ * License : BSD-like (ICS) Programming Lang: C Description : versatile genome analysis toolkit Contains collection of useful tools for * sequence and annotation handling * index structure generation and -access * efficient matching * annotation visualisation ...
What are the "tools" that allow us to construct molecules, and are these "tools" capable of building what we need in a timely and efficient manner? These two questions provide the motivation for our groups exploration of electrochemistry, an exploration that has led us to pursue two broad areas of research: synthetic electrochemistry and microelectrode array.. ...
Doktor juga mencadangkan anak anak mandi dengan air panas yang dicampurkan ke dalam air mandian mereka. Ini bertujuan untuk membunuh hama yang ada pada kulit. Doktor juga memberi ubat sapu dan ubat sirap tahan gatal untuk Aina dan Auni manakala Adhwa diberi ubat sapu dalam tiub. Ubat untuk Adhwa tak sama dengan Aina dan Auni. Semua ubat perlu disapu pada kulit selepas mereka mandi. Ubat sapu dan makan perlu diambil pada waktu malam sebelum tidur. Doktor beri tempoh tiga hari untuk merawat, sekiranya semakin teruk kena rujuk klinik semula ...
Pengendalian Hama Terpadu (PHT) pada Jagung. Disusun memenuhi tugas kelompok mata kuliah Pengendalian Hama pada Jurusan Biologi , Universitas Andalas , Padang 2012 . Kelompok 3. Robby Jannatan Melinda Purnamasari Dera Satria Fitri Rizky Andrian Jasmi Putriana Haragus. PHT?....
Sistem Organ pada Manusia, Sistem Ekskresi, Sistem Pencernaan, Sistem Pernapasan, Sistem Peredaran Darah, Sistem Rangka, Sistem Saraf, Sistem Endokrin, Sistem Imun, Sistem Reproduksi, Sistem Indera, Sistem Otot, Sistem Integumen
Tak hanya warna kulit kekuningan yang harus diperhatikan. Warna lidah juga bisa menjadi sebuah penanda ada atau tidak adanya penyakit berbahaya pada bayi.
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Pengaruh Frekuensi Konsumsi Kafein Terhadap Sindrom Premenstruasi Pada Mahasiswi Fakultas Kedokteran Angkatan 2013 - 2015 Universitas Muhammadiyah Purwokerto
ADM,AGTR1A,ALDH1L1,CASP7,CAV1,CDH5,COL3A1,CSAD,CXADR,CYP26A1,EDN1,FBN1,GJA1,HEXIM1,HOPX,ID2,IFITM1,ILK,KCNJ8,LOX,MMP13,MMP2,MMP9,NRG1,PKD2,PTN,RIT1,ROBO2,SLC25A4,SMAD2,SOX4,SPARC,SRI,TFPI2,TGFB1,TGFBR2, ...
Nemcsak n gy gy szati, illetve f rfi ivarszervi r kok, hanem egy b daganatos betegs gek kapcs n is felmer l a k rd s, hogy vajon v llalhat-e m g gyermeket valaki a daganatos betegs gb l val gy gyul s ut n. Szak rt nket arr l k rdezt k, hogy mik nt befoly solj k a k l nb z r kkezel sek a fogamz k pess get, illetve, hogy mit tehet a m g fogamz korban l v r kbeteg, ha szeretne gyermeket. Dr. Gundy Sarolta, az Orsz gos Onkol giai Int zet genetikai tan csad ja, a Diagnosztikus Onko-Cytogenetikai oszt ly vezet je v laszolt.
tab=Ikhtisar}Definisi Batu saluran kemih adalah terbentuknya batu ( kalkulus ) pada sistem penyalur urine. Berdasarkan tempatnya batu saluran kemih dapat dibagi menjadi batu ginjal dan batu kandung kemih. Lokasi batu ginjal khas dijumpai pada kaliks dan pelvis, dan bila akan keluar dapat terhenti pada ureter atau kandung kemih. Epidemiologi Penyakit batu ... Continue Reading ...
Kor pulmonal kronik pada kasus ini bila terjadi anastomisis cabang-cabang arteri dan vena pulmonalis pada dinding bronkus akan terjadi arterio-venous shunt, terjadi gangguan oksigenasi darah, timbul sianosis sentral, selanjutnya terjadi hipoksemia. Pada keadaan lanjut akan terjadi hipertensi pulmonal, kor pulmoner kronik,. Selanjutnya akan terjadi gagal jantung kanan ...
Im wondering why, at the temps and times needed, decarboxylation is recommended when making cannabutter? Some of those recipes talk about 12 and even...
MDASLEKIADPTLAEMGKNLKEAVKMLEDSQRRTEEENGKKLISGDIPGPLQGSGQDMVSILQLVQNLMH 1 - 70 GDEDEEPQSPRIQNIGEQGHMALLGHSLGAYISTLDKEKLRKLTTRILSDTTLWLCRIFRYENGCAYFHE 71 - 140 EEREGLAKICRLAIHSRYEDFVVDGFNVLYNKKPVIYLSAAARPGLGQYLCNQLGLPFPCLCRVPCNTVF 141 - 210 GSQHQMDVAFLEKLIKDDIERGRLPLLLVANAGTAAVGHTDKIGRLKELCEQYGIWLHVEGVNLATLALG 211 - 280 YVSSSVLAAAKCDSMTMTPGPWLGLPAVPAVTLYKHDDPALTLVAGLTSNKPTDKLRALPLWLSLQYLGL 281 - 350 DGFVERIKHACQLSQRLQESLKKVNYIKILVEDELSSPVVVFRFFQELPGSDPVFKAVPVPNMTPSGVGR 351 - 420 ERHSCDALNRWLGEQLKQLVPASGLTVMDLEAEGTCLRFSPLMTAAVLGTRGEDVDQLVACIESKLPVLC 421 - 490 CTLQLREEFKQEVEATAGLLYVDDPNWSGIGVVRYEHANDDKSSLKSDPEGENIHAGLLKKLNELESDLT 491 - 560 FKIGPEYKSMKSCLYVGMASDNVDAAELVETIAATAREIEENSRLLENMTEVVRKGIQEAQVELQKASEE 561 - 630 RLLEEGVLRQIPVVGSVLNWFSPVQALQKGRTFNLTAGSLESTEPIYVYKAQGAGVTLPPTPSGSRTKQR 631 - 700 LPGQKPFKRSLRGSDALSETSSVSHIEDLEKVERLSSGPEQITLEASSTEGHPGAPSPQHTDQTEAFQKG 701 - 770 VPHPEDDHSQVEGPESLR 771 - 788 ...
Tinjauan dan Daftar Pustaka  Petunjuk PKM Hal 314 Hal 318 Pelatihan Penulisan Karya Ilmiah Mahasiswa, INSTITUT TEKNOLOGI SEPULUH NOPEMBER (ITS) 2
PERSANDINGAN di taman biasanya dikaitkan dengan persalinan gaun mewah berlatar belakangkan hiasan bunga-bungaan pada singgahsana dan perincian manik pada busana
walau pun tidak ada majlis sambutan yang besar-besaran pada hari ini, sekadar mendengar perutusan dan ucapan Menteri Pelajaran( Perayaan hari guru peringkat sekilah akan diadakan pada 23 Mei nanti ) disebabkan musim peperiksaan ...
rkz, rkz malang, rkz sawahan, pantiwaluyo, pantiwaluya, rkz pantiwaluyo, rkz pantiwaluya, rs pantiwaluyo, rs pantiwaluya, rs pantiwaluya sawahan, rkz sawahan malang, pantiwaluyo malang, pantiwaluya malang, rkz pantiwaluyo malang, rkz pantiwaluya malang, rs pantiwaluyo malang, rs pantiwaluya malang, rs pantiwaluyo sawahan malang, rs pantiwaluya malang, rs pantiwaluya sawahan malang, rs malang,
MetabolismBiosynthesis of cofactors, prosthetic groups, and carriersPantothenate and coenzyme Aphosphopantothenoylcysteine decarboxylase / phosphopantothenate--cysteine ligase (TIGR00521; EC 4.1.1.36,6.3.2.5; HMM-score: 97.8) ...
MetabolismBiosynthesis of cofactors, prosthetic groups, and carriersPantothenate and coenzyme Aphosphopantothenoylcysteine decarboxylase / phosphopantothenate--cysteine ligase (TIGR00521; EC 4.1.1.36,6.3.2.5; HMM-score: 476.8) ...
Tiada istilah betul atau salah dalam solekan kerana ia bergantung sepenuhnya pada kreativiti jurusolek.Bagi Ady Razak, dia menggunakan pendekatan teknik seni pa
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Pembayaran : Jamkesmas Pemeriksaan fisik dilakukan pada hari Kamis, tanggal 4 Mei 2012 pukul 11.00 di Bangsal Neurologi RSCM Gedung A. ILUSTRASI KASUS PEMERIKSAAN FISIK PEMERIKSAAN PENUNJANG Meningoensefalitis ...
Dan hari pertama persekolahan, P&P akan bermula, keadaan kelas semuanya mesti tip-top.... form teacher dan pelajar kelas masing-masing harus membersih dan menceriakan kelas pada hari sabtu ...
Looking for online definition of decarboxylate in the Medical Dictionary? decarboxylate explanation free. What is decarboxylate? Meaning of decarboxylate medical term. What does decarboxylate mean?
Recently we deleted the pyruvate decarboxylase structural gene PDC1 from the genome of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The pdc1 deletion mutants had pyruvate decarboxylase activity due to the presence of a second structural gene [Schaaff, I., Green, J. B. A., Gozalbo, D. & Hohmann, S. (1989) Curr. Genet. 15, 75-81]. We cloned and sequenced this gene which we call PDC5. The predicted amino acid sequences of PDC1 and PDC5 are 88% identical.. Deletion of PDC5 did not cause any decrease in the specific pyruvate decarboxylase activity while pdc1 deletion mutants had 80% of the wild-type activity. Deletion mutants lacking both PDC1 and PDC5 did not show any detectable pyruvate decarboxylase activity in vitro and were unable to ferment glucose. This indicates that PDC1 and PDC5 are the only structural genes for pyruvate decarboxylase in yeast.. The PDC5 isoenzyme showed a slightly higher Km value for its substrate pyruvate than the PDC1 product (PDC5: Km= 8 mM; PDC1: Km= 5 mM), as measured in crude ...
The demand for new methods through which important enantiopure compounds can be produced is increasing within the chemical industry. In this regard, one group of interesting compounds are enantiopure carboxylic acids as traditional methods towards producing these compounds that rely on a process known as enantioselective decarboxylative protonation (EDP) are often insufficient due to a combination of factors including low yields, low enantioselectivities, the need for environmentally deleterious reaction conditions and high costs. Due to the shortcomings of these synthetic techniques, the application of biological systems is an alternative method that has come to the forefront of current research, which is because biological systems often boast a number of advantages over traditional chemical methods. Described within this thesis is one such biological method towards the production of enantiopure carboxylic acid compounds via EDP, a method that utilises the enzyme aryl malonate decarboxylase ...
The AADC Research Trust was founded in 2006 to globally disseminate as much medical and scientific information and improve disease awareness about Aromatic Amino Acid Decarboxylase (AADC) deficiency.
This model finds the subfamily of distantly related, low complexity, hydrophobic small subunits of several related sodium ion-pumping decarboxylases. These include oxaloacetate decarboxylase gamma subunit and methylmalonyl-CoA decarboxylase delta subunit. Most sequences scoring between the noise and trusted cutoffs are eukaryotic sodium channel proteins ...
Shop Propionyl-CoA carboxylase regulator ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Propionyl-CoA carboxylase regulator Antibody at MyBioSource. Custom ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Antibody are available.
In an amazing demonstration of strength and courage, three months after her ALS diagnosis Carol Moeller finished her final 10k race at the 2016 Long Island Marathon.. "She couldnt speak, was having trouble walking, couldnt swallow, and she delayed her feeding tube operation so she could compete in the 10k race. She did it and she didnt give up. She was a week away from having a feeding tube inserted into her body, but still pushed herself into completing a 10k," Carols son, Kevin Moeller said.. Carols other son Dennis Moeller added, "Mom was in the middle and we surrounded her like secret service. She fell twice during the race. A mile before the finish line, we helped her up and my brother and I each had an arm around her. We told her to slow down and she just moaned the word, RUN! She finished the race and it was really special.". This year the Moeller family will be running the Long Island Marathon, on May 7th, in honor of their mother Carol who passed away last October.. "I know it ...
Vitamin B6-responsive seizures symptoms, causes, diagnosis, and treatment information for Vitamin B6-responsive seizures (Glutamate decarboxylase deficiency) with alternative diagnoses, full-text book chapters, misdiagnosis, research treatments, prevention, and prognosis.
Perform reliable qPCR with Bio-Rads pre-validated CSAD primer pair, for the Rhesus Monkey genome. Designed for SYBR Green-based detection.
Catalyzes two steps in the biosynthesis of coenzyme A. In the first step cysteine is conjugated to 4-phosphopantothenate to form 4-phosphopantothenoylcysteine, in the latter compound is decarboxylated to form 4-phosphopantotheine (By similarity).
Obat Gatal Pada Selangkangan Dan Bokong, 100% Ampuh Mengatasi Gatal Sampai Tuntas Gatal yang muncul pada bagian selangkangan serta juga bokong kini bisa dihilangkan serta diatasi dengan cepat, efektif dan tanpa efeksamping dengan menggunakan Cara Mengatasi Gatal Pada Selangkangan & Bokong Yang Tak Kunjung Hilang adalah dengan Obat Gatal Pada Selangkangan Dan Bokong, 100% Ampuh…. ...
Science News / Sponges Secret Weapon Restores Antibiotics PowerResearchers led by Moeller, of Hollings Marine Laboratory in Charleston, found a sponge thriving in the midst of dead organisms. This anomalous life amidst death raised an obvious question, says Moeller:
Reactivity: Cow, Dog, REACT_Escherichia coli and more. Compare 57 different HDC Antibodies. Buy directly at antibodies-online.com!
DEFINISI Kelainan Bawaan (Kelainan Kongenital) adalah suatu kelainan pada struktur, fungsi maupun metabolisme tubuh yang ditemukan pada bayi ketika dia dilahirkan. Sekitar 3-4% bayi baru lahir memiliki kelainan bawaan yang berat. Beberapa kelainan baru ditemukan pada saat anak mulai tumbuh, yaitu sekitar 7,5% terdiagnosis ketika anak berusia 5 tahun, tetapi kebanyakan bersifat ringan.
Studi penelitian telah membuktikan bahwa magnet mempunyai efek yang luar biasa terhadap organ-organ dan sistem syaraf dalam tubuh manusia ketika ia diterapkan pada titik-titik akupunktur tertentu.Ia dapat mengaktifkan tisu pada sel,memperlebar kapilari darah,menambah supplai oksigen dan meningkatkan nutrisi pada sel.Eye Care Massager YASHUAI YS-128 didesain berdasarkan terapan studi tersebut.Ia adalah alat pijat mata yang berbentuk mirip kacamata yang ada magnetnya pada ujung pentolan-pentolan pemijatnya.Ketika di"on"kan,ia akan bergetar,merangsang titik-titik akupunktur di sekitar mata. Studi penelitian telah membuktikan bahwa magnet mempunyai efek yang luar biasa terhadap organ-organ dan sistem syaraf dalam tubuh manusia ketika ia diterapkan pada titik-titik akupunktur tertentu.Ia dapat mengaktifkan tisu pada sel,memperlebar kapilari darah, menambah supplai oksigen dan meningkatkan nutrisi pada sel.Alat Pijat Mata YASHUAI YS-128 atau Eye Care Massager YASHUAI YS-128 didesain berdasarkan ...
Thank you to everyone who made the 32nd EDRN Steering Committee meeting a success. The next event is the 10th EDRN Scientific Workshop from March 6-8, 2018 in Bethesda, MD. More information about this Workshop will be sent soon ...
Dari hasil penelitian ini diperoleh data berat keausan pahat pada kecepatan 430 rpm, 545 rpm dan 700 rpm masing-masing sebesar 0,11gram, 0,13 gram dan 0,15 gram serta perubahan sudut mata pahat masing-masing 0,10,0,20 dan 0,30 serta parameter pemotongan untuk kecepatan 430 rpm, 545rpm dan 700 rpm besarnya daya, waktu pengeboran dan energy listrik dan volume tatal yang dihasilkan pada putaran 430 rpm,540 rpm dan 700 rpm masing-masing 220 watt,276 watt, 374 watt, 0,13 menit, 0,10 menit, 0.01 menit, 44x10-5kWH, 45 x 10-5 kWH, 63 x 10-5 kWH dan voleme tatal tiap menitnya masing-masing adalah 12.152 mm3 per menit, 15.402 mm3 per menit dan 19.782 mm3 per menit.. ...
Obat Gonore Pada WanitaApa itu Kencing Nanah ?Kencing nanah atau gonore adalah penyakit menular seksual yang disebabkan oleh Neisseria gonorrhoeae yang menginfeksi lapisan dalam uretra, leher rahim, rektum, tenggorokan, dan bagian putih mata (konjungtiva). Gonore bisa menyebar melalui aliran darah ke bagian tubuh lainnya, terutama kulit dan persendian. Pada wanita, gonore bisa menjalar ke saluran ...
BISSMILLAH. Srengenge nyunar kanti mulya, Angine midit kawandana, Manuke ngoceh ana ing wit witan, Kewane nyenggut ana ing pasuketan, Kabeh pada muji Allah Kang Mulya... Bermaksud :- Matahari menyinarkan kemuliaan, Dan ketika anginnya sepoi-sepoi, Burung pun sedang berkicau, Hewan ternak sedang merumput, Semua memuji Allah Yang Mulia . ASSALAMUALAIKOM........KU DOAKAN PADA SEMUA SEMOGA BERADA DALAM PENUH KECINTAAN ALLAH. BEKAS2 MURIDKU,"TUK CHA MASIH DI KAKI BUKIT SRENGENGE".. ...
Kanker paru merupakan penyakit keganasan yang terjadi pada jaringan paru-paru. Tahukah Anda ? Penyebab utama kematian pada kasus-kasus kanker adalah KANKER PARU (kanker paru berkontribusi pada 32% kematian pada pria & 25% pada wanita penderita kanker) 90% penderita kanker paru adalah perokok aktif atau mantan perokok Merokok satu pak per hari meningkatkan resiko kanker paru…
Dalam tradisi Yunani, diceritakan bahwa ia banyak melakukan perjalanan, diantaranya ke Mesir. Perjalanan Phytagoras ke Mesir merupakan salah satu bentuk usahanya untuk berguru, menimba ilmu, pada imam-imam di Mesir. Konon, karena kecerdasannya yang luar biasa, para imam yang dikunjunginya merasa tidak sanggup untuk menerima Phytagoras sebagai murid. Namun, pada akhirnya ia diterima sebagai murid oleh para imam di Thebe. Disini ia belajar berbagai macam misteri. Selain itu, Phytagoras juga berguru pada imam-imam Caldei untuk belajar Astronomi, pada para imam Phoenesia untuk belajar Logistik dan Geometri, pada para Magi untuk belajar ritus-ritus mistik, dan dalam perjumpaannya dengan Zarathustra, ia belajar teori perlawanan ...
Lutz Bindl, Stephan Buderus, Peter Dahlem, Sueha Demirakca, Martin Goldner, Ralf Huth, Martina Kohl, Martin Krause, Peter Kühl, Peter Lasch, Klaus Lewandowski, Ulrich Merz, Jens Moeller, Yehya Mohamad, Mark Peters, Wolfgang Porz, Anne Vierzig, Jochen Rüchard, Jochem Scharf, Verena ...
Decarboxylation is essential to getting the most of of your medical cannabis. Here are 5 things you should know about decarboxylation...
APAKAH KANKER PROSTAT? Kanker prostat adalah tumor ganas yang tumbuh pada organ prostat pria, adalah hasil dari pertumbuhan sel acinic prostat yang tidak normal dan tidak teratur. BERAPA TINGGI PERSENTASE TUMBUHNYA KANKER PROSTAT? Kanker prostat sangat jarang ditemui pada pria dibawah umur 45 tahun, tapi bersamaan dengan penambahan umur, secara diam-diam kemungkinan tumbuhnya kanker prostat meningkat, sebagian besar pasien kanker prostat berumur di atas 65 tahun. Pada dasarnya, setiap penambahan umur 10 tahun pada orang yang berusia di atas 40 tahun, kemungkinan tumbuhnya kanker prostate menjadi berlipat ganda, bahaya pria berumur 50 - 59 tahun terkena kanker prostat yaitu 10%, sedangkan pria umur 80 - 89 tahun bertambah menjadi 70%.
Penggunaan gambar pada SOP (Standard Operating Procedure) dikenal dengan nama visualisasi SOP. Berkat visualisasi -- sebuah SOP menjadi lebih mudah dimengerti oleh operator. Visualisasi juga mencegah operator salah menafsirkan kata-kata yang tertera pada prosedur kerja. Pada kasus perakitan sebuah alat, visualisasi sangat membantu operator untuk mencocokkan pekerjaannya dengan gambar yang tertera pada SOP. Operator melihat gambar kemudian merakit komponen-komponen alat sesuai gambar. Dengan cara demikian pekerjaaan jauh lebih mudah dilakukan dan kesalahan perakitan dapat diminimalkan (Undil-2008) ...
Acak, terkontrol, efikasi grader-blind. Subyek berpartisipasi dalam evaluasi penyaringan awal diikuti oleh 1 minggu periode washout (penghilangan materi atau substansi pada tubuh). Produk dioleskan pada wajah dan leher dua kali sehari selama 12 minggu. Aplikasi dilakukan dibawah pengawasan secara berkala. Penilaian dilakukan pada minggu ke-0, 2, 4, 8 dan 12. Subyek secara klinis dinilai secara terpisah pada wajah dan leher untuk warna kulit tidak merata dan pigmentasi berbintik dengan parameter berikut: keseluruhan penampilan, garis halus, kerutan kasar, pigmentasi berbintik, warna kulit tidak merata, visual kekasaran/kehalusan, taktil kekasaran/kehaluan, tampilan kekerasan, dan kecerahan (kusam ...
Acak, terkontrol, efikasi grader-blind. Subyek berpartisipasi dalam evaluasi penyaringan awal diikuti oleh 1 minggu periode washout (penghilangan materi atau substansi pada tubuh). Produk dioleskan pada wajah dan leher dua kali sehari selama 12 minggu. Aplikasi dilakukan dibawah pengawasan secara berkala. Penilaian dilakukan pada minggu ke-0, 2, 4, 8 dan 12. Subyek secara klinis dinilai secara terpisah pada wajah dan leher untuk warna kulit tidak merata dan pigmentasi berbintik dengan parameter berikut: keseluruhan penampilan, garis halus, kerutan kasar, pigmentasi berbintik, warna kulit tidak merata, visual kekasaran/kehalusan, taktil kekasaran/kehaluan, tampilan kekerasan, dan kecerahan (kusam ...
Jumlah leukosit dipengaruhi oleh umur, penyimpangan dari keadaan basal dan lain-lain.Pada bayi baru lahir jumlah leukosit tinggi, sekitar 10.000 - 30.000/µl. Jumlah leukosit tertinggi pada bayi umur 12 jam yaitu antara 13.000 - 38.000 /µl. Setelah itu jumlah leukosit turun secara bertahap dan pada umur 21 tahun jumlah leukosit berkisar antara 4500 - 11.000/µl. Pada…
EFEKTIVITAS PIJAT PUNGGUNG TERHADAP INTENSITAS NYERI REMATIK SEDANG PADA WANITA LANJUT USIA DI DESA KARYAWANGI KABUPATEN BANDUNG BARAT
Obat Gatal Pada Selangkangan Dan Bokong, 100% Ampuh Mengatasi Gatal Sampai Tuntas Gatal yang muncul pada bagian selangkangan serta juga bokong kini bisa dihilangkan serta diatasi dengan cepat, efektif dan tanpa efeksamping dengan menggunakan Cara Mengatasi Gatal Pada Selangkangan & Bokong Yang Tak Kunjung Hilang adalah dengan Obat Gatal Pada Selangkangan Dan Bokong, 100% Ampuh…. ...
Penyakit limpa bengkak mungkin anda sudah mengenalnya, tapi untuk pengobatannya mungkin ada yang kurang tau. Apabilan anda mengalami penyakit limpa kami sarankan pengobatannya dengan Obat Herbal QnC Jelly Gamat salah satu Cara Mengobati Pembengkakan Pada Limpa, dengan aman dan nyaman Tanpa Efek Samping Apapun. Produk kesehatan yang sangat ampuh dalam mengobati penyakit baik itu akut maupun kronis ...
Hipertensi merupakan kondisi tekanan sistolik lebih dari 140 mmHg dan tekanan diastolik lebih dari 90 mmHg. Hipertensi menyebabkan berbagai komplikasi berkaitan dengan penurunan usia harapan hidup. Penggunaan obat antihipertensi yang tidak rasional dapat meningkatkan morbiditas dan mortalitas pada pasien. Penelitian ini bertujuan mengetahui pola penggunaan obat, kerasionalan penggunaan obat serta hubungan antara diagnosa dan kerasionalan dengan karakteristik demografis dan klinis. Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian deskriptif dengan pengambilan data secara retrokspektif dari rekam medis pasien selama periode Januari- Desember 2015 dibangsal penyakit dalam dan jantung pembuluh darah RSUP M. Jamil Padang. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan 84 pasien memenuhi kriteria inklusi. Karakteristik demografi yang paling banyak adalah laki-laki, umur 40-65 tahun, SMA dan tidak bekerja. Sementara karakteristik klinis adalah pasien dengan diagnosa hypertension renal disease (I.12), lama rawat 1-5 hari, tekanan ...
GER, Hipersensitif Saluran Cerna Pada Dewasa dan Alergi Penyakit refluks gastroesofageal (Gastroesopagheal Reflux Disease (GERD) adalah suatu keadaan patologis sebagai akibat refluks kandungan lambung ke dalamesofagus, dengan berbagai gejala yang timbul akibat keterlibatan esofagus, faring, laring dan saluran nafas. Telah diketahui bahwa refluks kandungan lambung keesofagus dapat menimbulkan berbagai gejala di esofagus maupun ekstra-esofagus,dapat menyebabkan…
Pilihlah jawaban yang paling tepat dari soal di bawah ini dengan memberi tanda silang (x) pada lembar jawaban !! 1. Tiga syarat penting d ...
Thank you for always being caring and compassionate. When I got to 40 after having missing periods for month on end - they suddenly became regular as clockwork, and heavy, very heavy indeed.
Prolaktin adalah hormon yang dihasilkan oleh kelenjar hipofisa anterior. Meningkat pada wanita hamil dan menyusui. Apabila kadar prolaktin meningkat pada wanita yang tidak sedang hamil atau laki-laki perlu dicurigai adanya gangguan pada fungsi hormonal ...
Hari ini, satu ikhtiar lagi saya lakukan untuk mendapatkan momongan. Cek Hormon. Jam 7 pagi, saya dan suami sudah berangkat ke laboratorium klinik, karena persyaratannya seperti berikut: 1. harus dilakukan pada hari ke-3 atau ke-4 dari hari pertama haid terakhir( tapi dokterku membolehkan untuk melakukan pengecekan pada hari ke-5) 2. pengambilan sampel darah diambil pada…
ASUHAN KEPERAWATAN KLIEN DENGAN BLADER NEOPLASMA ➢ Sebagian besar tumbuh dalam lumen kandung kemih. ➢ Cancer tersering pada saluran kemih. ➢ Jumlah 3 % dari semua kematian karena kanker ➢ Sering pada usia 50 - 70 tahun ➢ Laki-laki 2 - 3 kali dari wanita FAKTOR RESIKO ➢ Paparan dari sigaret rokok (mayor)…
06.02.2012 PIDATO TENTANG BAHAYA SEKS BEBAS DI KALANGAN REMAJA PIDATO TENTANG BAHAYA SEKS BEBAS DI KALANGAN REMAJA Assalamulaikaum wr, wb Ibu/bapak guru yang saya ...
Perkara ini akan merangsang rakyat bersama kita untuk mengubah kerajaan pada PRU13," kata beliau ketika berucap pada Konvensyen PR Keempat di Pusat Konvensyen Shah Alam (SACC) hari ini di sini ...
EPHYRA merupakan produk minuman kecantikan yang bermula dari dalam. Dari dalamlah keserian dan kecantikan wajah terserlah. Betul tak? Malah ia juga berkesan mengembalikan keremajaan kulit, bukan saja pada wajah, tetapi pada seluruh tubuh badan kita. ...
Ditanya perlu mesyuarat semula bagi menentukan hukum baru jika dakwat yang diguna pada PRU-13 tidak sama seperti diputuskan pada 2007, Abd Shukor berkata, Majlis Fatwa dimaklumkan bahawa SPR menggunakan dakwat kekal mengandungi bahan sama seperti sebelum ini ...
:kiss :ngakak Banyak pria maupun wanita membayangkan kehidupan seksnya terjadi sama seperti adegan dalam film bokep. Namun hal tersebut jarang bahkan tidak pernah terjadi. Kenapa? Sebab ada satu perbedaan mencolok antara seks dan film bokep, realita dan khayalan. Sebagaimana dilansir dari Huffington Post, pada seks di dunia nyata, sebanyak 75 persen pria burungnya njebret (ejakulasi) dalam waktu t
PAS pernah bertanding pada pilihan raya umum sebelum ini, jadi ini kerusi bagi PAS meletakkan calon. Maka, PAS akan meletakkan calon di sini untuk bertanding," kata Tuan Ibrahim kepada The Malaysian Insider. [ lagi ] ...
Rapat terbuka penyampaian hasil penelitian berkas bakal calon Gubernur dan Wk. Gubernur Sumsel pada kamis, 18 janua… https://t.co/kmlqfH7OsF ...
1. Ornithine decarboxylase activity is stimulated in high-density HeLa-cell cultures by dilution of or replacement of spent culture medium with fresh medium containing 10% (v/v) horse serum. 2. After stimulation, ornithine decarboxylase activity reaches a peak at 4-6h, then rapidly declines to the low enzyme activity characteristic of quiescent cultures, where it remains during the remainder of the cell cycle. 3. The stimulation of ornithine decarboxylase is eliminated by the addition of 0.5μm-spermine or -spermidine or 10μm-putrescine to the HeLa-cell cultures at the time of re-feeding with fresh medium. Much higher concentrations (1mm) of the non-physiological diamines, 1,3-diamino-propane or 1,3-diamino-2-hydroxypropane, are required to eliminate the stimulation of ornithine decarboxylase in re-fed HeLa-cell cultures. 4. A heat-labile, non-diffusible inhibitor, comparable with the inhibitory protein ornithine decarboxylase antizyme, is induced in HeLa cells by the addition of exogenous ...
Conventional methods for detecting ornithine decarboxylase activity require an extended period of incubation. The tests generally involve the fermentation of glucose, which lowers the pH of the medium to the optimum hydrogen ion concentration for decarboxylase activity. Decarboxylation results in the formation of amines that will raise the pH. Positive reactions are usually obtained after 18 to 24 hours of incubation, but some strains require up to four days incubation. An overlay of mineral oil acts as a barrier to oxygen and prevents alkalinization of the surface of the medium. Fay and Barry modified the conventional decarboxylase medium by removing the glucose and decreasing the pH to 5.5.(7) A small volume of the broth is heavily inoculated and then overlayed with sterile mineral oil. With the Hardy Diagnostics Rapid Ornithine, results can be obtained after only two to five hours of incubation at 35 to 37ºC.. The test can be used to determine ornithine decarboxylase activity in the family ...
Cysteine sulfinic acid | C3H7NO4S | CID 109 - structure, chemical names, physical and chemical properties, classification, patents, literature, biological activities, safety/hazards/toxicity information, supplier lists, and more.
Polyamine biosynthesis in intact cells can be exquisitely controlled with exogenous polyamines through the regulation of rate-limiting biosynthetic enzymes, particularly ornithine decarboxylase (ODC). In an attempt to exploit this phenomenon as an antiproliferative strategy, certain polyamine analogues have been identified [Porter, Cavanaugh, Stolowich, Ganis, Kelly & Bergeron (1985) Cancer Res. 45, 2050-2057] which lower ODC activity in intact cells, have no direct inhibitory effects on ODC, are incapable of substituting for spermidine (SPD) in supporting cell growth, and are growth-inhibitory at micromolar concentrations. In the present study, the most effective of these analogues, N1N8-bis(ethyl)SPD (BES), is compared with SPD in its ability to regulate ODC activity in intact L1210 cells and in the mechanism(s) by which this is accomplished. With respect to time and dose-dependence of ODC suppression, both polyamines closely paralleled one another in their response curves, although BES was ...
Porphyria cutanea tarda (PCT) is characterized by light-sensitive dermatitis and the excretion of large amounts of uroporphyrin in urine ({18:Elder et al., 1980}). {14:De Verneuil et al. (1978)} and others classified porphyria cutanea tarda, the most common type of porphyria, into 2 types: type I ({176090}), or sporadic type, associated with approximately 50% level of uroporphyrinogen decarboxylase (UROD) in liver ({17:Elder et al., 1978}; {22:Felsher et al., 1982}), and type II, or familial type, characterized by 50% deficient activity of the same enzyme in many tissues ({35:Kushner et al., 1976}; {18:Elder et al., 1980}). PCT type II is an autosomal dominant disorder with low penetrance and constitutes about 20% of cases of PCT. Recognized exacerbating factors of PCT include iron overload, excessive use of alcohol, exposure to polyhalogenated aromatic chemicals, exposure to estrogens, chronic viral hepatitis C, HIV infections, and mutation in the HFE gene ({613609}) that are responsible ...
Propionic acidemia is caused by deficiency of propionyl CoA carboxylase that impairs the supply of succinyl CoA to the citric acid (Krebs) cycle. The Krebs cycle is responsible for obtaining energy from food in the form of ATP. ATP is essential for muscle contraction and correct functioning of all organs including the hearth, the kidney, and the pancreas.. Patients with propionic acidemia develop hyperammonemia at birth that recurs during episodes of metabolic decompensation. We found that plasma levels of the amino acids glutamine/glutamate are reduced in patients with propionic acidemia and decrease, rather than increase (like in urea cycle defects or other types of hyperammonemia) with hyperammonemia. Since alpha-ketoglutarate is the main source of endogenous glutamate/glutamine synthesis, our hypothesis is that chronic hyperammonemia and progressive dysfunction of multiple organs in patients with propionic acidemia is due to a functional insufficiency of the citric acid (Krebs) cycle with ...
Propionyl-CoA is an intermediate in the metabolism of propanoate. Propionic aciduria is caused by an autosomal recessive disorder of propionyl coenzyme A (CoA) carboxylase deficiency (EC 6.4.1.3). In propionic aciduria, propionyl CoA accumulates within the mitochondria in massive quantities; free carnitine is then esterified, creating propionyl carnitine, which is then excreted in the urine. Because the supply of carnitine in the diet and from synthesis is limited, such patients readily develop carnitine deficiency as a result of the increased loss of acylcarnitine derivatives. This condition demands supplementation of free carnitine above the normal dietary intake to continue to remove (detoxify) the accumulating organic acids. Propionyl-CoA is a substrate for Acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (medium-chain specific, mitochondrial), Acetyl-coenzyme A synthetase 2-like (mitochondrial), Propionyl-CoA carboxylase alpha chain (mitochondrial), Methylmalonate-semialdehyde dehydrogenase (mitochondrial), ...

carboxy-lyase activity Gene Ontology Term (GO:0016831)carboxy-lyase activity Gene Ontology Term (GO:0016831)

The Gene Ontology (GO) project is a collaborative effort to address the need for consistent descriptions of gene products across databases. You can use this browser to view terms, definitions, and term relationships in a hierarchical display. Links to summary annotated gene data at MGI are provided in Term Detail reports.
more infohttp://www.informatics.jax.org/vocab/gene_ontology/GO:0016831

Carboxy-lyases - WikipediaCarboxy-lyases - Wikipedia

Carboxy-lyases". www.biochem.ucl.ac.uk. Carboxy-Lyases at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) ... Carboxy-lyases, also known as decarboxylases, are carbon-carbon lyases that add or remove a carboxyl group from organic ... Carboxy-lyases are categorized under EC number 4.1.1. Usually, they are named after the substrate whose decarboxylation they ... leads to a net fixation of carbon dioxide Uridine monophosphate synthetase Uroporphyrinogen III decarboxylase Enzymes Lyases ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carboxy-lyases

Hematological Cancers Drug Pipeline Update 2012Hematological Cancers Drug Pipeline Update 2012

Carboxy-lyase activity. - Caspase activator activity. - Catalytic activity. - Cell adhesion molecule activity. - Chaperone ...
more infohttps://www.prnewswire.com/news-releases/hematological-cancers-drug-pipeline-update-2012-162271356.html

组氨酸脱羧酶 - 维基百科,自由的百科组氨酸脱羧酶 - 维基百科,自由的百科

carboxy-lyase activity. · lyase activity. · amino acid binding. · histidine decarboxylase activity. · pyridoxal phosphate ...
more infohttps://zh.wikipedia.org/wiki/%E7%BB%84%E6%B0%A8%E9%85%B8%E8%84%B1%E7%BE%A7%E9%85%B6

KEGG ENZYME: 4.1.1.90KEGG ENZYME: 4.1.1.90

Lyases;. Carbon-carbon lyases;. Carboxy-lyases. Sysname. peptidyl-glutamate 4-carboxylase (2-methyl-3-phytyl-1,4-naphthoquinol- ...
more infohttps://www.genome.jp/dbget-bin/www_bget?enzyme+4.1.1.90

KEGG ENZYME: 4.1.1.9KEGG ENZYME: 4.1.1.9

Lyases;. Carbon-carbon lyases;. Carboxy-lyases. Sysname. malonyl-CoA carboxy-lyase (acetyl-CoA-forming). ...
more infohttps://www.genome.jp/dbget-bin/www_bget?enzyme+4.1.1.9

Identification of a toxic mechanism of the plasticizers, phtahlic acid esters, which are putative endocrine disrupters: time...Identification of a toxic mechanism of the plasticizers, phtahlic acid esters, which are putative endocrine disrupters: time...

Carboxy-Lyases / metabolism. Diethylhexyl Phthalate / metabolism, pharmacology*, toxicity*. Feeding Behavior / drug effects. ... Carboxy-Lyases; EC 4.1.1.45/aminocarboxymuconate-semialdehyde decarboxylase From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. ...
more infohttp://www.biomedsearch.com/nih/Identification-toxic-mechanism-plasticizers-phtahlic/12596868.html

Biotin requirements are lower in human Jurkat lymphoid cells but homeostatic mechanisms are similar to those of HepG2 liver...Biotin requirements are lower in human Jurkat lymphoid cells but homeostatic mechanisms are similar to those of HepG2 liver...

Carboxy-Lyases / metabolism. Culture Media. Hep G2 Cells. Hepatocytes / metabolism*. Histones / metabolism. Homeostasis / ... 0/Culture Media; 0/Histones; 58-85-5/Biotin; EC 4.1.1.-/Carboxy-Lyases ...
more infohttp://www.biomedsearch.com/nih/Biotin-Requirements-Are-Lower-in/20357078.html

SWISSPROT: Q5LVU5 RUEPOSWISSPROT: Q5LVU5 RUEPO

DR GO; GO:0016831; F:carboxy-lyase activity; IEA:UniProtKB-KW. DR GO; GO:0045312; P:nor-spermidine biosynthetic process; IEA: ... Lyase {ECO:0000256,PIRNR:PIRNR038941}; KW Polyamine biosynthesis {ECO:0000256,PIRNR:PIRNR038941}; KW Pyridoxal phosphate {ECO: ...
more infohttp://pbil.univ-lyon1.fr/cgi-bin/acnuc-search-ac?query=Q5LVU5&db=SWISSPROT

SWISSPROT: F6HI33 VITVISWISSPROT: F6HI33 VITVI

... carboxy-lyase activity; IEA:InterPro. DR GO; GO:0030170; F:pyridoxal phosphate binding; IEA:InterPro. DR GO; GO:0006520; P: ... KW Complete proteome {ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000009183}; KW Lyase {ECO:0000256,RuleBase:RU000382}; KW Pyridoxal phosphate {ECO ...
more infohttp://pbil.univ-lyon1.fr/cgi-bin/acnuc-search-ac?query=CCB51879&db=SWISSPROT&ident=ACNUC16935

Pyridoxal phosphate-dependent decarboxylase (IPR002129) | InterPro | EMBL-EBIPyridoxal phosphate-dependent decarboxylase (IPR002129) | InterPro | EMBL-EBI

GO:0016831 carboxy-lyase activity GO:0030170 pyridoxal phosphate binding Cellular Component. No terms assigned in this category ...
more infohttp://www.ebi.ac.uk/interpro/entry/IPR002129

Decarboxylase MfnA, archaea (IPR020931) | InterPro | EMBL-EBIDecarboxylase MfnA, archaea (IPR020931) | InterPro | EMBL-EBI

GO:0016831 carboxy-lyase activity Cellular Component. No terms assigned in this category. ...
more infohttps://www.ebi.ac.uk/interpro/entry/IPR020931

UXS1 Gene - GeneCards | UXS1 Protein | UXS1 AntibodyUXS1 Gene - GeneCards | UXS1 Protein | UXS1 Antibody

lyase activity. IEA. --. GO:0016831. carboxy-lyase activity. IEA. --. GO:0042803. protein homodimerization activity. IDA. ...
more infohttp://www.genecards.org/cgi-bin/carddisp.pl?gene=UXS1

Deprenyl in Parkinsons disease: a two-year study in the different evolutive stages. | CureHunterDeprenyl in Parkinson's disease: a two-year study in the different evolutive stages. | CureHunter

Carboxy-Lyases (antagonists & inhibitors) *Drug Therapy, Combination. *Female. *Humans. *Levodopa (therapeutic use) ...
more infohttp://www.curehunter.com/public/pubmed3097258.do

Characterization and expression of the complementary DNA encoding rat histidine decarboxylase | PNASCharacterization and expression of the complementary DNA encoding rat histidine decarboxylase | PNAS

L-histidine carboxy-lyase, EC 4.1.1.22). We have cloned HDC-encoding cDNA from a fetal rat liver cDNA library (phage lambda ... Amino- and Carboxy-Terminal PEST Domains Mediate Gastrin Stabilization of Rat L-Histidine Decarboxylase Isoforms ...
more infohttp://www.pnas.org/content/87/2/733

RP821 - Uncharacterized protein RP821 - Rickettsia prowazekii (strain Madrid E) - RP821 gene & proteinRP821 - Uncharacterized protein RP821 - Rickettsia prowazekii (strain Madrid E) - RP821 gene & protein

3-octaprenyl-4-hydroxybenzoate carboxy-lyase. CUPMC. 507. UniRef50_Q1LJV5. 3-octaprenyl-4-hydroxybenzoate carboxy-lyase. CUPPJ ...
more infohttps://www.uniprot.org/uniprot/Q9ZCD6

GADL1 - Acidic amino acid decarboxylase GADL1 - Homo sapiens (Human) - GADL1 gene & proteinGADL1 - Acidic amino acid decarboxylase GADL1 - Homo sapiens (Human) - GADL1 gene & protein

carboxy-lyase activity Source: Reactome. *pyridoxal phosphate binding Source: InterPro. *sulfinoalanine decarboxylase activity ...
more infohttp://www.uniprot.org/uniprot/Q6ZQY3

BRENDA - Information on EC 4.1.1.67 - UDP-galacturonate decarboxylaseBRENDA - Information on EC 4.1.1.67 - UDP-galacturonate decarboxylase

V. UDP-D-glucuronate and UDP-D-galacturonate carboxy-lyase of Ampullariella digitata ...
more infohttp://www.brenda-enzymes.org/enzyme.php?ecno=4.1.1.67

EC 4.1.1.59EC 4.1.1.59

Other name(s): gallic acid decarboxylase; gallate carboxy-lyase. Systematic name: 3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoate carboxy-lyase ( ...
more infohttps://www.qmul.ac.uk/sbcs/iubmb/enzyme/EC4/1/1/59.html

Deamination of 6-aminodeoxyfutalosine in menaquinone biosynthesis by distantly related enzymes.  - PubMed - NCBIDeamination of 6-aminodeoxyfutalosine in menaquinone biosynthesis by distantly related enzymes. - PubMed - NCBI

UbiX (Acel0257) is a 3-octaprenyl-4-hydroxybenzoate carboxy-lyase. Acel0261 and Acel0263 are MqnA and MqnC homologs, ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23972005

Melanoma Drug Pipeline UpdateMelanoma Drug Pipeline Update

Carboxy-lyase activity. Carboxypeptidase activity. Catalytic activity. Cell adhesion molecule activity. Chaperone activity. ...
more infohttps://www.marketresearch.com/BioSeeker-Group-AB-v2583/Melanoma-Drug-Pipeline-Update-10246009/

Hematological Cancers Drug Pipeline UpdateHematological Cancers Drug Pipeline Update

Carboxy-lyase activity. Carboxypeptidase activity. Caspase activator activity. Catalytic activity. Cell adhesion molecule ...
more infohttps://www.marketresearch.com/BioSeeker-Group-AB-v2583/Hematological-Cancers-Drug-Pipeline-Update-10246000/

Human Metabolome Database: Showing Protein Malonyl-CoA decarboxylase, mitochondrial (HMDBP00016)Human Metabolome Database: Showing Protein Malonyl-CoA decarboxylase, mitochondrial (HMDBP00016)

lyase activity. carbon-carbon lyase activity. carboxy-lyase activity. malonyl-coa decarboxylase activity. ...
more infohttp://www.hmdb.ca/proteins/HMDBP00016

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Carboxy-lyase activity * Carboxypeptidase activity * Catalytic activity * Cell adhesion molecule activity * Chaperone activity ...
more infohttps://www.gii.co.jp/report/bg171759-immunotherapy.html
  • Gallagher DT, Mayhew M, Holden MJ, Howard A, Kim KJ, Vilker VL: The crystal structure of chorismate lyase shows a new fold and a tightly retained product. (smpdb.ca)
  • This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Oxo-Acid-Lyases" by people in Harvard Catalyst Profiles by year, and whether "Oxo-Acid-Lyases" was a major or minor topic of these publication. (harvard.edu)
  • Hence, this enzyme has one substrate , 2-amino-3-(3-oxoprop-1-en-1-yl)but-2-enedioate , and two products , 2-aminomuconate semialdehyde and CO 2 . (wikidoc.org)
  • This enzyme belongs to the family of lyases , specifically the carboxy-lyases, which cleave carbon-carbon bonds. (wikidoc.org)
  • The systematic name of this enzyme class is 2-amino-3-(3-oxoprop-1-en-1-yl)but-2-enedioate carboxy-lyase (2-aminomuconate-semialdehyde-forming) . (wikidoc.org)
  • an enzyme with systematic name 7,8-dihydroneopterin 3'-triphosphate acetaldehyde -lyase (6-carboxy-5,6,7,8-tetrahydropterin and triphosphate-forming). (wordaz.com)