Lyases: A class of enzymes that catalyze the cleavage of C-C, C-O, and C-N, and other bonds by other means than by hydrolysis or oxidation. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 4.Chondroitin Lyases: Enzymes which catalyze the elimination of delta-4,5-D-glucuronate residues from polysaccharides containing 1,4-beta-hexosaminyl and 1,3-beta-D-glucuronosyl or 1,3-alpha-L-iduronosyl linkages thereby bringing about depolymerization. EC 4.2.2.4 acts on chondroitin sulfate A and C as well as on dermatan sulfate and slowly on hyaluronate. EC 4.2.2.5 acts on chondroitin sulfate A and C.Pectobacterium chrysanthemi: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that causes vascular wilts on a wide range of plant species. It was formerly named Erwinia chrysanthemi.Chondroitinases and Chondroitin Lyases: Enzymes which catalyze the elimination of glucuronate residues from chondroitin A,B, and C or which catalyze the hydrolysis of sulfate groups of the 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-D-galactose 6-sulfate units of chondroitin sulfate. EC 4.2.2.-.Pectins: High molecular weight polysaccharides present in the cell walls of all plants. Pectins cement cell walls together. They are used as emulsifiers and stabilizers in the food industry. They have been tried for a variety of therapeutic uses including as antidiarrheals, where they are now generally considered ineffective, and in the treatment of hypercholesterolemia.Phycobiliproteins: Light harvesting proteins found in phycobilisomes.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Chicory: A thick-rooted perennial (Cichorium intybus) native to Europe but widely grown for its young leaves used as salad greens and for its roots, dried and ground-roasted, used to flavor or adulterate coffee. (From Webster, 3d ed)Aldehyde-Lyases: Enzymes that catalyze a reverse aldol condensation. A molecule containing a hydroxyl group and a carbonyl group is cleaved at a C-C bond to produce two smaller molecules (ALDEHYDES or KETONES). EC 4.1.2.Carbon-Oxygen Lyases: Enzymes that catalyze the cleavage of a carbon-oxygen bond by means other than hydrolysis or oxidation. EC 4.2.Erwinia: A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria whose organisms are associated with plants as pathogens, saprophytes, or as constituents of the epiphytic flora.Heparin Lyase: An enzyme of the isomerase class that catalyzes the eliminative cleavage of polysaccharides containing 1,4-linked D-glucuronate or L-iduronate residues and 1,4-alpha-linked 2-sulfoamino-2-deoxy-6-sulfo-D-glucose residues to give oligosaccharides with terminal 4-deoxy-alpha-D-gluc-4-enuronosyl groups at their non-reducing ends. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 4.2.2.7.Oxo-Acid-Lyases: Enzymes that catalyze the cleavage of a carbon-carbon bond of a 3-hydroxy acid. (Dorland, 28th ed) EC 4.1.3.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Polygalacturonase: A cell wall-degrading enzyme found in microorganisms and higher plants. It catalyzes the random hydrolysis of 1,4-alpha-D-galactosiduronic linkages in pectate and other galacturonans. EC 3.2.1.15.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Alginates: Salts of alginic acid that are extracted from marine kelp and used to make dental impressions and as absorbent material for surgical dressings.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Hexuronic Acids: Term used to designate tetrahydroxy aldehydic acids obtained by oxidation of hexose sugars, i.e. glucuronic acid, galacturonic acid, etc. Historically, the name hexuronic acid was originally given to ascorbic acid.Isocitrate Lyase: A key enzyme in the glyoxylate cycle. It catalyzes the conversion of isocitrate to succinate and glyoxylate. EC 4.1.3.1.Rhodophyta: Plants of the division Rhodophyta, commonly known as red algae, in which the red pigment (PHYCOERYTHRIN) predominates. However, if this pigment is destroyed, the algae can appear purple, brown, green, or yellow. Two important substances found in the cell walls of red algae are AGAR and CARRAGEENAN. Some rhodophyta are notable SEAWEED (macroalgae).Phycobilins: Open chain tetrapyrroles that function as light harvesting chromophores in PHYCOBILIPROTEINS.Chondroitin ABC Lyase: An enzyme that catalyzes the eliminative degradation of polysaccharides containing 1,4-beta-D-hexosaminyl and 1,3-beta-D-glucuronosyl or 1,3-alpha-L-iduronosyl linkages to disaccharides containing 4-deoxy-beta-D-gluc-4-enuronosyl groups. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992)Sphingomonas: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria characterized by an outer membrane that contains glycosphingolipids but lacks lipopolysaccharide. They have the ability to degrade a broad range of substituted aromatic compounds.Cytochromes c1: The 30-kDa membrane-bound c-type cytochrome protein of mitochondria that functions as an electron donor to CYTOCHROME C GROUP in the mitochondrial and bacterial RESPIRATORY CHAIN. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p545)Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Bacteroides: A genus of gram-negative, anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria. Its organisms are normal inhabitants of the oral, respiratory, intestinal, and urogenital cavities of humans, animals, and insects. Some species may be pathogenic.Flavobacterium: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in SOIL and WATER. Its organisms are also found in raw meats, MILK and other FOOD, hospital environments, and human clinical specimens. Some species are pathogenic in humans.Adenylosuccinate Lyase: An enzyme that, in the course of purine ribonucleotide biosynthesis, catalyzes the conversion of 5'-phosphoribosyl-4-(N-succinocarboxamide)-5-aminoimidazole to 5'-phosphoribosyl-4-carboxamide-5-aminoimidazole and the conversion of adenylosuccinic acid to AMP. EC 4.3.2.2.Streptococcus anginosus: A species of gram-positive bacteria in the STREPTOCOCCUS MILLERI GROUP. It is the most frequently seen isolate of that group, has a proclivity for abscess formation, and is most often isolated from the blood, gastrointestinal, and urogenital tract.Glucuronic Acid: A sugar acid formed by the oxidation of the C-6 carbon of GLUCOSE. In addition to being a key intermediate metabolite of the uronic acid pathway, glucuronic acid also plays a role in the detoxification of certain drugs and toxins by conjugating with them to form GLUCURONIDES.Hevea: A plant genus of the family EUPHORBIACEAE, order Euphorbiales, subclass Rosidae. Commercial natural RUBBER is mainly obtained from Hevea brasiliensis but also from some other plants.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Glycosaminoglycans: Heteropolysaccharides which contain an N-acetylated hexosamine in a characteristic repeating disaccharide unit. The repeating structure of each disaccharide involves alternate 1,4- and 1,3-linkages consisting of either N-acetylglucosamine or N-acetylgalactosamine.Proteus vulgaris: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that occurs in soil, fecal matter, and sewage. It is an opportunistic pathogen and causes cystitis and pyelonephritis.Uronic Acids: Acids derived from monosaccharides by the oxidation of the terminal (-CH2OH) group farthest removed from the carbonyl group to a (-COOH) group. (From Stedmans, 26th ed)Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Chondroitin Sulfates: Derivatives of chondroitin which have a sulfate moiety esterified to the galactosamine moiety of chondroitin. Chondroitin sulfate A, or chondroitin 4-sulfate, and chondroitin sulfate C, or chondroitin 6-sulfate, have the sulfate esterified in the 4- and 6-positions, respectively. Chondroitin sulfate B (beta heparin; DERMATAN SULFATE) is a misnomer and this compound is not a true chondroitin sulfate.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Mutagenesis, Site-Directed: Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.Sulfonium Compounds: Sulfur compounds in which the sulfur atom is attached to three organic radicals and an electronegative element or radical.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Glycoside HydrolasesDermatan Sulfate: A naturally occurring glycosaminoglycan found mostly in the skin and in connective tissue. It differs from CHONDROITIN SULFATE A (see CHONDROITIN SULFATES) by containing IDURONIC ACID in place of glucuronic acid, its epimer, at carbon atom 5. (from Merck, 12th ed)Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Carbohydrate Sequence: The sequence of carbohydrates within POLYSACCHARIDES; GLYCOPROTEINS; and GLYCOLIPIDS.Carbon-Nitrogen Lyases: Enzymes that catalyze the cleavage of a carbon-nitrogen bond by means other than hydrolysis or oxidation. Subclasses are the AMMONIA-LYASES, the AMIDINE-LYASES, the amine-lyases, and other carbon-nitrogen lyases. EC 4.3.Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.Disaccharides: Oligosaccharides containing two monosaccharide units linked by a glycosidic bond.Carbon-Carbon Lyases: Enzymes that catalyze the cleavage of a carbon-carbon bond by means other than hydrolysis or oxidation. This subclass contains the DECARBOXYLASES, the ALDEHYDE-LYASES, and the OXO-ACID-LYASES. EC 4.1.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.DNA-(Apurinic or Apyrimidinic Site) Lyase: A DNA repair enzyme that catalyses the excision of ribose residues at apurinic and apyrimidinic DNA sites that can result from the action of DNA GLYCOSYLASES. The enzyme catalyzes a beta-elimination reaction in which the C-O-P bond 3' to the apurinic or apyrimidinic site in DNA is broken, leaving a 3'-terminal unsaturated sugar and a product with a terminal 5'-phosphate. This enzyme was previously listed under EC 3.1.25.2.Crystallography, X-Ray: The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Pseudomonas: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in nature. Some species are pathogenic for humans, animals, and plants.Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.N-Glycosyl Hydrolases: A class of enzymes involved in the hydrolysis of the N-glycosidic bond of nitrogen-linked sugars.Catalysis: The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.Chromatography, Gel: Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.Fungi: A kingdom of eukaryotic, heterotrophic organisms that live parasitically as saprobes, including MUSHROOMS; YEASTS; smuts, molds, etc. They reproduce either sexually or asexually, and have life cycles that range from simple to complex. Filamentous fungi, commonly known as molds, refer to those that grow as multicellular colonies.Isoenzymes: Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.Plants: Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.Carbohydrate Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a carbohydrate.DNA Glycosylases: A family of DNA repair enzymes that recognize damaged nucleotide bases and remove them by hydrolyzing the N-glycosidic bond that attaches them to the sugar backbone of the DNA molecule. The process called BASE EXCISION REPAIR can be completed by a DNA-(APURINIC OR APYRIMIDINIC SITE) LYASE which excises the remaining RIBOSE sugar from the DNA.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Bacillus: A genus of BACILLACEAE that are spore-forming, rod-shaped cells. Most species are saprophytic soil forms with only a few species being pathogenic.Ethyldimethylaminopropyl Carbodiimide: Carbodiimide cross-linking reagent.Protein Structure, Secondary: The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.Intramolecular Lyases: Enzymes of the isomerase class that catalyze reactions in which a group can be regarded as eliminated from one part of a molecule, leaving a double bond, while remaining covalently attached to the molecule. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 5.5.Heparitin Sulfate: A heteropolysaccharide that is similar in structure to HEPARIN. It accumulates in individuals with MUCOPOLYSACCHARIDOSIS.Biocatalysis: The facilitation of biochemical reactions with the aid of naturally occurring catalysts such as ENZYMES.Catalytic Domain: The region of an enzyme that interacts with its substrate to cause the enzymatic reaction.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Sequence Deletion: Deletion of sequences of nucleic acids from the genetic material of an individual.Epitopes: Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.Oligosaccharides: Carbohydrates consisting of between two (DISACCHARIDES) and ten MONOSACCHARIDES connected by either an alpha- or beta-glycosidic link. They are found throughout nature in both the free and bound form.Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.Viral Proteins: Proteins found in any species of virus.Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Multigene Family: A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid: The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.Chromatography: Techniques used to separate mixtures of substances based on differences in the relative affinities of the substances for mobile and stationary phases. A mobile phase (fluid or gas) passes through a column containing a stationary phase of porous solid or liquid coated on a solid support. Usage is both analytical for small amounts and preparative for bulk amounts.Enzyme Stability: The extent to which an enzyme retains its structural conformation or its activity when subjected to storage, isolation, and purification or various other physical or chemical manipulations, including proteolytic enzymes and heat.Cell Wall: The outermost layer of a cell in most PLANTS; BACTERIA; FUNGI; and ALGAE. The cell wall is usually a rigid structure that lies external to the CELL MEMBRANE, and provides a protective barrier against physical or chemical agents.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Naphthols: Naphthalene derivatives carrying one or more hydroxyl (-OH) groups at any ring position. They are often used in dyes and pigments, as antioxidants for rubber, fats, and oils, as insecticides, in pharmaceuticals, and in numerous other applications.Phosphorus-Oxygen Lyases: Enzymes that catalyze the cleavage of a phosphorus-oxygen bond by means other than hydrolysis or oxidation. EC 4.6.Conserved Sequence: A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.Bacillus subtilis: A species of gram-positive bacteria that is a common soil and water saprophyte.Protein Folding: Processes involved in the formation of TERTIARY PROTEIN STRUCTURE.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Genes, Viral: The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.Chromatography, Ion Exchange: Separation technique in which the stationary phase consists of ion exchange resins. The resins contain loosely held small ions that easily exchange places with other small ions of like charge present in solutions washed over the resins.Protein Sorting Signals: Amino acid sequences found in transported proteins that selectively guide the distribution of the proteins to specific cellular compartments.Protein Processing, Post-Translational: Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Precipitin Tests: Serologic tests in which a positive reaction manifested by visible CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION occurs when a soluble ANTIGEN reacts with its precipitins, i.e., ANTIBODIES that can form a precipitate.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Plant Diseases: Diseases of plants.Nuclear Proteins: Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.Crystallization: The formation of crystalline substances from solutions or melts. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Viral Envelope Proteins: Layers of protein which surround the capsid in animal viruses with tubular nucleocapsids. The envelope consists of an inner layer of lipids and virus specified proteins also called membrane or matrix proteins. The outer layer consists of one or more types of morphological subunits called peplomers which project from the viral envelope; this layer always consists of glycoproteins.DNA Mutational Analysis: Biochemical identification of mutational changes in a nucleotide sequence.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.Ficain: A sulfhydryl proteinase with cysteine at the active site from ficus latex. Preferential cleavage is at tyrosine and phenylalanine residues. EC 3.4.22.3.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Viral Matrix Proteins: Proteins associated with the inner surface of the lipid bilayer of the viral envelope. These proteins have been implicated in control of viral transcription and may possibly serve as the "glue" that binds the nucleocapsid to the appropriate membrane site during viral budding from the host cell.Proteoglycans: Glycoproteins which have a very high polysaccharide content.Nucleocapsid Proteins: Viral proteins found in either the NUCLEOCAPSID or the viral core (VIRAL CORE PROTEINS).Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Mutagenesis: Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.Restriction Mapping: Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.Endopeptidases: A subclass of PEPTIDE HYDROLASES that catalyze the internal cleavage of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS.Protein PrecursorsCell Compartmentation: A partitioning within cells due to the selectively permeable membranes which enclose each of the separate parts, e.g., mitochondria, lysosomes, etc.Carbon-Sulfur Lyases: Enzymes that catalyze the cleavage of a carbon-sulfur bond by means other than hydrolysis or oxidation. EC 4.4.HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Fungal Proteins: Proteins found in any species of fungus.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.COS Cells: CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)Cytoplasm: The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)DNA Repair: The reconstruction of a continuous two-stranded DNA molecule without mismatch from a molecule which contained damaged regions. The major repair mechanisms are excision repair, in which defective regions in one strand are excised and resynthesized using the complementary base pairing information in the intact strand; photoreactivation repair, in which the lethal and mutagenic effects of ultraviolet light are eliminated; and post-replication repair, in which the primary lesions are not repaired, but the gaps in one daughter duplex are filled in by incorporation of portions of the other (undamaged) daughter duplex. Excision repair and post-replication repair are sometimes referred to as "dark repair" because they do not require light.Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins: Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Capsid: The outer protein protective shell of a virus, which protects the viral nucleic acid.Bluetongue virus: The type species of ORBIVIRUS causing a serious disease in sheep, especially lambs. It may also infect wild ruminants and other domestic animals.Peptide Mapping: Analysis of PEPTIDES that are generated from the digestion or fragmentation of a protein or mixture of PROTEINS, by ELECTROPHORESIS; CHROMATOGRAPHY; or MASS SPECTROMETRY. The resulting peptide fingerprints are analyzed for a variety of purposes including the identification of the proteins in a sample, GENETIC POLYMORPHISMS, patterns of gene expression, and patterns diagnostic for diseases.Point Mutation: A mutation caused by the substitution of one nucleotide for another. This results in the DNA molecule having a change in a single base pair.Antigens, Viral: Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.Virion: The infective system of a virus, composed of the viral genome, a protein core, and a protein coat called a capsid, which may be naked or enclosed in a lipoprotein envelope called the peplos.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Repetitive Sequences, Nucleic Acid: Sequences of DNA or RNA that occur in multiple copies. There are several types: INTERSPERSED REPETITIVE SEQUENCES are copies of transposable elements (DNA TRANSPOSABLE ELEMENTS or RETROELEMENTS) dispersed throughout the genome. TERMINAL REPEAT SEQUENCES flank both ends of another sequence, for example, the long terminal repeats (LTRs) on RETROVIRUSES. Variations may be direct repeats, those occurring in the same direction, or inverted repeats, those opposite to each other in direction. TANDEM REPEAT SEQUENCES are copies which lie adjacent to each other, direct or inverted (INVERTED REPEAT SEQUENCES).Genetic Complementation Test: A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Escherichia coli Proteins: Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Inclusion Bodies, Viral: An area showing altered staining behavior in the nucleus or cytoplasm of a virus-infected cell. Some inclusion bodies represent "virus factories" in which viral nucleic acid or protein is being synthesized; others are merely artifacts of fixation and staining. One example, Negri bodies, are found in the cytoplasm or processes of nerve cells in animals that have died from rabies.DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Genes: A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.Chromosome Deletion: Actual loss of portion of a chromosome.Transmissible gastroenteritis virus: A species of CORONAVIRUS causing a fatal disease to pigs under 3 weeks old.Open Reading Frames: A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.Antigens, Polyomavirus Transforming: Polyomavirus antigens which cause infection and cellular transformation. The large T antigen is necessary for the initiation of viral DNA synthesis, repression of transcription of the early region and is responsible in conjunction with the middle T antigen for the transformation of primary cells. Small T antigen is necessary for the completion of the productive infection cycle.PhosphoproteinsOncogene Protein pp60(v-src): A tyrosine-specific protein kinase encoded by the v-src oncogene of ROUS SARCOMA VIRUS. The transforming activity of pp60(v-src) depends on both the lack of a critical carboxy-terminal tyrosine phosphorylation site at position 527, and the attachment of pp60(v-src) to the plasma membrane which is accomplished by myristylation of its N-terminal glycine.Gene Deletion: A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.Virus Assembly: The assembly of VIRAL STRUCTURAL PROTEINS and nucleic acid (VIRAL DNA or VIRAL RNA) to form a VIRUS PARTICLE.Epitope Mapping: Methods used for studying the interactions of antibodies with specific regions of protein antigens. Important applications of epitope mapping are found within the area of immunochemistry.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Viral Structural Proteins: Viral proteins that are components of the mature assembled VIRUS PARTICLES. They may include nucleocapsid core proteins (gag proteins), enzymes packaged within the virus particle (pol proteins), and membrane components (env proteins). These do not include the proteins encoded in the VIRAL GENOME that are produced in infected cells but which are not packaged in the mature virus particle,i.e. the so called non-structural proteins (VIRAL NONSTRUCTURAL PROTEINS).Cercopithecus aethiops: A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.Protein Biosynthesis: The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.Cysteine: A thiol-containing non-essential amino acid that is oxidized to form CYSTINE.Oligopeptides: Peptides composed of between two and twelve amino acids.Retroviridae Proteins: Proteins from the family Retroviridae. The most frequently encountered member of this family is the Rous sarcoma virus protein.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Rhodamines: A family of 3,6-di(substituted-amino)-9-benzoate derivatives of xanthene that are used as dyes and as indicators for various metals; also used as fluorescent tracers in histochemistry.DNA, Viral: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.Macromolecular Substances: Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.Amino Acid Substitution: The naturally occurring or experimentally induced replacement of one or more AMINO ACIDS in a protein with another. If a functionally equivalent amino acid is substituted, the protein may retain wild-type activity. Substitution may also diminish, enhance, or eliminate protein function. Experimentally induced substitution is often used to study enzyme activities and binding site properties.Amino Acids: Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.Hydrolysis: The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Bacterial Outer Membrane Proteins: Proteins isolated from the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Amino Acid Motifs: Commonly observed structural components of proteins formed by simple combinations of adjacent secondary structures. A commonly observed structure may be composed of a CONSERVED SEQUENCE which can be represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Immunoblotting: Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.Murine hepatitis virus: A species of the CORONAVIRUS genus causing hepatitis in mice. Four strains have been identified as MHV 1, MHV 2, MHV 3, and MHV 4 (also known as MHV-JHM, which is neurotropic and causes disseminated encephalomyelitis with demyelination as well as focal liver necrosis).Avian Sarcoma Viruses: Group of alpharetroviruses (ALPHARETROVIRUS) producing sarcomata and other tumors in chickens and other fowl and also in pigeons, ducks, and RATS.Tyrosine: A non-essential amino acid. In animals it is synthesized from PHENYLALANINE. It is also the precursor of EPINEPHRINE; THYROID HORMONES; and melanin.Oligodeoxyribonucleotides: A group of deoxyribonucleotides (up to 12) in which the phosphate residues of each deoxyribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the deoxyribose moieties.Carboxylic Acids: Organic compounds containing the carboxy group (-COOH). This group of compounds includes amino acids and fatty acids. Carboxylic acids can be saturated, unsaturated, or aromatic.Two-Hybrid System Techniques: Screening techniques first developed in yeast to identify genes encoding interacting proteins. Variations are used to evaluate interplay between proteins and other molecules. Two-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for protein-protein interactions, one-hybrid for DNA-protein interactions, three-hybrid interactions for RNA-protein interactions or ligand-based interactions. Reverse n-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for mutations or other small molecules that dissociate known interactions.Glycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.Protein Kinases: A family of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of ATP and a protein to ADP and a phosphoprotein.Alternative Splicing: A process whereby multiple RNA transcripts are generated from a single gene. Alternative splicing involves the splicing together of other possible sets of EXONS during the processing of some, but not all, transcripts of the gene. Thus a particular exon may be connected to any one of several alternative exons to form a mature RNA. The alternative forms of mature MESSENGER RNA produce PROTEIN ISOFORMS in which one part of the isoforms is common while the other parts are different.Viral Nonstructural Proteins: Proteins encoded by a VIRAL GENOME that are produced in the organisms they infect, but not packaged into the VIRUS PARTICLES. Some of these proteins may play roles within the infected cell during VIRUS REPLICATION or act in regulation of virus replication or VIRUS ASSEMBLY.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.

A kinetic study of ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase from the photosynthetic bacterium Rhodospirillum rubrum. (1/1854)

The activation kinetics of purified Rhodospirillum rubrum ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase were analysed. The equilibrium constant for activation by CO(2) was 600 micron and that for activation by Mg2+ was 90 micron, and the second-order activation constant for the reaction of CO(2) with inactive enzyme (k+1) was 0.25 X 10(-3)min-1 . micron-1. The latter value was considerably lower than the k+1 for higher-plant enzyme (7 X 10(-3)-10 X 10(-3)min-1 . micron-1). 6-Phosphogluconate had little effect on the active enzyme, and increased the extent of activation of inactive enzyme. Ribulose bisphosphate also increased the extent of activation and did not inhibit the rate of activation. This effect might have been mediated through a reaction product, 2-phosphoglycolic acid, which also stimulated the extent of activation of the enzyme. The active enzyme had a Km (CO2) of 300 micron-CO2, a Km (ribulose bisphosphate) of 11--18 micron-ribulose bisphosphate and a Vmax. of up to 3 mumol/min per mg of protein. These data are discussed in relation to the proposed model for activation and catalysis of ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase.  (+info)

A general method for selection of alpha-acetolactate decarboxylase-deficient Lactococcus lactis mutants to improve diacetyl formation. (2/1854)

The enzyme acetolactate decarboxylase (Ald) plays a key role in the regulation of the alpha-acetolactate pool in both pyruvate catabolism and the biosynthesis of the branched-chain amino acids, isoleucine, leucine, and valine (ILV). This dual role of Ald, due to allosteric activation by leucine, was used as a strategy for the isolation of Ald-deficient mutants of Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis biovar diacetylactis. Such mutants can be selected as leucine-resistant mutants in ILV- or IV-prototrophic strains. Most dairy lactococcus strains are auxotrophic for the three amino acids. Therefore, the plasmid pMC004 containing the ilv genes (encoding the enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of IV) of L. lactis NCDO2118 was constructed. Introduction of pMC004 into ILV-auxotrophic dairy strains resulted in an isoleucine-prototrophic phenotype. By plating the strains on a chemically defined medium supplemented with leucine but not valine and isoleucine, spontaneous leucine-resistant mutants were obtained. These mutants were screened by Western blotting with Ald-specific antibodies for the presence of Ald. Selected mutants lacking Ald were subsequently cured of pMC004. Except for a defect in the expression of Ald, the resulting strain, MC010, was identical to the wild-type strain, as shown by Southern blotting and DNA fingerprinting. The mutation resulting in the lack of Ald in MC010 occurred spontaneously, and the strain does not contain foreign DNA; thus, it can be regarded as food grade. Nevertheless, its application in dairy products depends on the regulation of genetically modified organisms. These results establish a strategy to select spontaneous Ald-deficient mutants from transformable L. lactis strains.  (+info)

Reconstitution of a bacterial/plant polyamine biosynthesis pathway in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. (3/1854)

Polyamine synthesis in most organisms is initiated by the decarboxylation of ornithine to form putrescine via ornithine decarboxylase (ODC). Plants, some bacteria and some fungi and protozoa generate putrescine from arginine, via arginine decarboxylase (ADC) and agmatine ureohydrolase (AUH) or agmatine iminohydrolase. A polyamine-requiring strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae with a mutation in the gene encoding ODC was transformed with plasmids bearing genes encoding Escherichia coli ADC and AUH. Transformants regained the ability to grow in the absence of exogenous polyamines and contained enzyme activities consistent with the presence of both prokaryotic enzymes. Similar results were obtained when a plasmid containing a gene encoding oat (Avena sativa L.) ADC was substituted for the E. coli gene. These data demonstrate the successful complementation of a yeast biosynthetic polyamine synthesis defect by genes encoding an alternative pathway found in bacteria; they also show that plant ADC can substitute for the bacterial enzyme in this pathway. The recombinant yeast provides a tool for the study of the functional properties of these enzymes and for discovery of compounds that specifically inhibit this pathway.  (+info)

Characterization of mdcR, a regulatory gene of the malonate catabolic system in Klebsiella pneumoniae. (4/1854)

The Klebsiella pneumoniae mdcR gene, which encodes a LysR-type regulator, was overexpressed in Escherichia coli. Purified MdcR was found to bind specifically to the control region of either the malonate decarboxylase (mdc) genes or mdcR. We have also demonstrated that MdcR is an activator of the expression of the mdc genes, whereas it represses the transcription of the putative control region of mdcR, PmdcR, indicating a negative autoregulatory control.  (+info)

Genetic heterogeneity in propionic acidemia patients with alpha-subunit defects. Identification of five novel mutations, one of them causing instability of the protein. (5/1854)

The inherited metabolic disease propionic acidemia (PA) can result from mutations in either of the genes PCCA or PCCB, which encode the alpha and beta subunits, respectively, of the mitochondrial enzyme propionyl CoA-carboxylase. In this work we have analyzed the molecular basis of PCCA gene defects, studying mRNA levels and identifying putative disease causing mutations. A total of 10 different mutations, none predominant, are present in a sample of 24 mutant alleles studied. Five novel mutations are reported here for the first time. A neutral polymorphism and a variant allele present in the general population were also detected. To examine the effect of a point mutation (M348K) involving a highly conserved residue, we have carried out in vitro expression of normal and mutant PCCA cDNA and analyzed the mitochondrial import and stability of the resulting proteins. Both wild-type and mutant proteins were imported into mitochondria and processed into the mature form with similar efficiency, but the mature mutant M348K protein decayed more rapidly than did the wild-type, indicating a reduced stability, which is probably the disease-causing mechanism.  (+info)

Cyclic AMP can decrease expression of genes subject to catabolite repression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. (6/1854)

External cyclic AMP (cAMP) hindered the derepression of gluconeogenic enzymes in a pde2 mutant of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, but it did not prevent invertase derepression. cAMP reduced nearly 20-fold the transcription driven by upstream activation sequence (UAS1FBP1) from FBP1, encoding fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase; it decreased 2-fold the activation of transcription by UAS2FBP1. Nuclear extracts from cells derepressed in the presence of cAMP were impaired in the formation of specific UASFBP1-protein complexes in band shift experiments. cAMP does not appear to act through the repressing protein Mig1. Control of FBP1 transcription through cAMP is redundant with other regulatory mechanisms.  (+info)

Brown adipose tissue triacylglycerol synthesis in rats adapted to a high-protein, carbohydrate-free diet. (7/1854)

Adaptation of rats to a high-protein, carbohydrate-free (HP) diet induced a marked reduction of brown adipose tissue (BAT) fatty acid (FA) synthesis from both 3H2O and [14C]glucose in vivo, with pronounced decreases in the activities of four enzymes associated with lipogenesis: glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, malic enzyme, citrate lyase, and acetyl-CoA carboxylase. In both HP-adapted and control rats, in vivo incorporation of 3H2O and [14C]glucose into BAT glyceride-glycerol was much higher than into FA. It could be estimated that most of the glycerol synthetized was used to esterify preformed FA. Glycerol synthesis from nonglucose sources (glyceroneogenesis) was increased in BAT from HP rats, as evidenced by an increased capacity of tissue fragments to incorporate [1-14C]pyruvate into glycerol and by a fourfold increase in the activity of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase activity, a key glyceroneogenic enzyme. The data suggest that high rates of glyceroneogenesis and of esterification of preformed FA in BAT from HP-adapted rats are essential for preservation of tissue lipid stores, necessary for heat generation when BAT is recruited in nonshivering thermogenesis.  (+info)

Evidence for an inducible nucleotide-dependent acetone carboxylase in Rhodococcus rhodochrous B276. (8/1854)

The metabolism of acetone was investigated in the actinomycete Rhodococcus rhodochrous (formerly Nocardia corallina) B276. Suspensions of acetone- and isopropanol-grown R. rhodochrous readily metabolized acetone. In contrast, R. rhodochrous cells cultured with glucose as the carbon source lacked the ability to metabolize acetone at the onset of the assay but gained the ability to do so in a time-dependent fashion. Chloramphenicol and rifampin prevented the time-dependent increase in this activity. Acetone metabolism by R. rhodochrous was CO2 dependent, and 14CO2 fixation occurred concomitant with this process. A nucleotide-dependent acetone carboxylase was partially purified from cell extracts of acetone-grown R. rhodochrous by DEAE-Sepharose chromatography. Analysis by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis suggested that the acetone carboxylase was composed of three subunits with apparent molecular masses of 85, 74, and 16 kDa. Acetone metabolism by the partially purified enzyme was dependent on the presence of a divalent metal and a nucleoside triphosphate. GTP and ITP supported the highest rates of acetone carboxylation, while CTP, UTP, and XTP supported carboxylation at 10 to 50% of these rates. ATP did not support acetone carboxylation. Acetoacetate was determined to be the stoichiometric product of acetone carboxylation. The longer-chain ketones butanone, 2-pentanone, 3-pentanone, and 2-hexanone were substrates. This work has identified an acetone carboxylase with a novel nucleotide usage and broader substrate specificity compared to other such enzymes studied to date. These results strengthen the proposal that carboxylation is a common strategy used for acetone catabolism in aerobic acetone-oxidizing bacteria.  (+info)

Oxaloacetate decarboxylase is a carboxy-lyase involved in the conversion of oxaloacetate into pyruvate. It is categorized under EC 4.1.1.3. In some bacteria this enzyme is a trimer, composed of alpha, beta and gamma subunits. The beta and gamma subunits are integral membrane proteins. Pyruvate carboxylase Bott M, Pfister K, Burda P, Kalbermatter O, Woehlke G, Dimroth P (December 1997). "Methylmalonyl-CoA decarboxylase from Propionigenium modestum--cloning and sequencing of the structural genes and purification of the enzyme complex". Eur. J. Biochem. 250 (2): 590-9. doi:10.1111/j.1432-1033.1997.0590a.x. PMID 9428714. Laussermair E, Schwarz E, Oesterhelt D, Reinke H, Beyreuther K, Dimroth P (1989). "The sodium ion translocating oxaloacetate decarboxylase of Klebsiella pneumoniae. Sequence of the integral membrane-bound subunits beta and gamma". J Biol Chem. 264 (25): 14710-5. PMID 2549031. Schmid M, Wild MR, Dahinden P, Dimroth P (2002). "Subunit gamma of the oxaloacetate decarboxylase Na(+) ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Malonyl CoA decarboxylase deficiency. T2 - C to T transition in intron 2 of the MCD gene. AU - Surendran, Sankar. AU - Sacksteder, Katherine A.. AU - Gould, Stephen J.. AU - Coldwell, James G.. AU - Rady, Peter L.. AU - Tyring, Stephan K.. AU - Matalon, Reuben. PY - 2001/9/15. Y1 - 2001/9/15. N2 - Malonyl CoA decarboxylase (MCD) is an enzyme involved in the metabolism of fatty acids synthesis. Based on reports of MCD deficiency, this enzyme is particular important in muscle and brain metabolism. Mutations in the MCD gene result in a deficiency of MCD activity, that lead to psychomotor retardation, cardiomyopathy and neonatal death. To date however, only a few patients have been reported with defects in MCD. We report here studies of a patient with MCD deficiency, who presented with hypotonia, cardiomyopathy and psychomotor retardation. DNA sequencing of MCD revealed a homozygous intronic mutation, specifically a -5 C to T transition near the acceptor site for exon 3. RT-PCR ...
Shop Arginine decarboxylase ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Arginine decarboxylase Antibody at MyBioSource. Custom ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Antibody are available.
Type II pyridoxal 5′-phosphate (PLP)-dependent decarboxylases are a group of enzymes with important roles in amino acid metabolism. This group of enzymes has undergone functional evolution from a shared ancient evolutionary origin to generate a selection of subfamilies with stringent substrate selectivitys [14]. Plant type II PLP decarboxylases include aromatic amino acid decarboxylases (AAADs), serine decarboxylases (SDCs) and glutamate decarboxylases (GDCs). Plant SDSs catalyze the decarboxylation of serine to ethanolamine [1], GDCs catalyze the decarboxylation of glutamate to γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) [19] and AAADs catalyze the decarboxylation of aromatic amino acids to generate aromatic arylalkylamines [10]-[12]. Based on their respective substrate specificities each group is responsible for the biosynthesis of unique products [1],[10],[19]. Although all plant type II PLP decarboxylases have evolved from a common evolutionary ancestor, significant evolutionary divergence has occurred ...
for determination of lysine decarboxylase activity of lactose nonfermenting members of Enterobacteriaceae especially Salmonellae.
Translation initiation factor 5A (IF5A) is essential and highly conserved in Eukarya (eIF5A) and Archaea (aIF5A). YK 4-279 metabolism and aIF5A modification inHfx. volcanii Hfx. volcaniiby LC-MS/MS revealed it was exclusively deoxyhypusinylated. Genetic studies confirmed the role of the predicted arginine decarboxylase gene(HVO_1958)in agmatine synthesis. The agmatinase-like gene(HVO_2299)was found to be essential consistent with a … Continue reading Translation initiation factor 5A (IF5A) is essential and highly conserved in. ...
encodes a biotin-dependent oxaloacetate decarboxylase (OAD), which can be constituted by 4 subunits: carboxyltransferase subunit OadA (termed genes was performed in and sole deletion mutants in citrate-supplemented moderate indicated that the experience of the organic is vital for citrate usage. organization from the oxaloacetate decarboxylase involved with citrate usage. (A) The locus can be constituted by genes coding for citrate transporters (could be thought to be the prototype from the Na+-translocating decarboxylase (NaT-DC) category of enzymes. It includes both membrane-bound subunits (OadA (gene, renamed (termed cells during citrate fermentation. Strategies and Components Bacterial strains and development circumstances. Cultures of had been expanded at 37C, without shaking, in Luria-Bertani moderate (LB; Difco, NJ), preliminary pH 7.0, and supplemented with 33 mM trisodium citrate (LBC). Erythromycin was added, when suitable, inside a 5 g ml?1 concentration. Development was supervised by ...
The API profiles for all the pathogenic strains showed that they differed in three respects: production of lysine decarboxylase (LDC) and L-ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) and utilisation of saccharose. Variation in these three properties has been observed before in E. coli isolated from untreated surface waters and soil.29,30 It has furthermore been reported that E. coli can induce production of amino acid decarboxylases (such as LDC and ODC) in response to reduced pH conditions.31 This report illustrates the highly adaptable nature of E. coli which helps it survive in more acidic environments.32. Because the PCR-based detection method of Clermont20 was used to identify E. coli phylogenetic groups (genogroups), the four main groups (A, B1, B2 and D) can further be subdivided into seven subgroups to increase discrimination: A0, A1, B1, B22, B23, D1 and D2.33 It has been reported that ExPEC strains usually belong to genogroups B2 and D, while InPEC strains that cause severe diarrhoea-related ...
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Ho, M.C., Menetret, J.F., Tsuruta, H. and Allen, K.N. (2009). „The origin of the electrostatic perturbation in acetoacetate decarboxylase". Nature. 459: 393-397. PMID 19458715 ...
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Cégünk működését több évtizedes múltra visszatekintő követeléskezelésben és ingatlan értékbecslésben szerzett tapasztalatunk alapozza meg, amelynek bázisa az 1990-es évek eleje óta együtt dolgozó összeszokott, sikeres csapat. Társaságunk tulajdonosai, illetve munkatársai széles körű szakmai tapasztalattal és megfelelő referenciákkal rendelkeznek az általuk ellátott tevékenységek végzéséhez. Végzettségüket tekintve van közüttünk pénzügyi szakközgazdász, okleveles gépészmérnök, felszámolói és vagyonfelügyelői szakképesítéssel rendelkező munkatárs és természetesen ingatlankezeléshez ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effects of growth hormone and glucagon on ornithine decarboxylase activity and adenosine 3,5-Monophosphate levels in isolated rat hepatocytes. AU - Klingensmith, Mark R.. AU - Freifeld, Alison G.. AU - Pegg, Anthony E.. AU - Jefferson, Leonard S.. PY - 1980/1. Y1 - 1980/1. N2 - l-Ornithine decarboxylase (l-ornithine carboxylase; E.C. 4.1.1.17) activity was studied in isolated rat hepatocytes maintained as suspensions of free cells. Activity in freshly prepared hepatocytes was reduced to approximately 10% of the amount found in the intact liver. Activity increased to the same level as that found in the intact liver when the cells were incubated for 4 h in medium containing a mixture of 20 amino acids at concentrations 10 times those found in normal rat plasma. The increase in activity between 2 and 4 h of incubation was substantially augmented when the medium also contained 25 μg/ml of a crude preparation of bovine GH (bGH; NIH-GHB18). The increase in activity and the hormone ...
Diphosphomevalonate decarboxylase (EC 4.1.1.33), most commonly referred to in scientific literature as mevalonate diphosphate decarboxylase, is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction ATP + (R)-5-diphosphomevalonate ⇌ {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } ADP + phosphate + isopentenyl diphosphate + CO2 This enzyme converts mevalonate 5-diphosphate (MVAPP) to isopentenyl diphosphate (IPP) through ATP dependent decarboxylation. The two substrates of this enzyme are ATP and mevalonate 5-diphosphate, whereas its 4 products are ADP, phosphate, isopentenyl diphosphate, and CO2. Mevalonate diphosphate decarboxylase catalyzes the final step in the mevalonate pathway. The mevalonate pathway is responsible for the biosynthesis of isoprenoids from acetate. This pathway plays a key role in multiple cellular processes by synthesizing sterol isoprenoids, such as cholesterol, and non-sterol isoprenoids, such as dolichol, heme A, tRNA isopentenyltransferase, and ubiquinone. This enzyme belongs to the ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Overexpression of human arginine decarboxylase rescues human mesenchymal stem cells against H2O2 toxicity through cell survival protein activation. AU - Seo, Su Kyoung. AU - Yang, Wonsuk. AU - Park, Yu Mi. AU - Lee, Won Taek. AU - Park, Kyung Ah. AU - Lee, Jong Eun. PY - 2013/3/1. Y1 - 2013/3/1. N2 - In this study, we explored the potentiality of human arginine decarboxylase (ADC) to enhance the survival of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) against unfavorable milieu of host tissues as the low survival of MSCs is the issue in cell transplantation therapy. To address this, human MSCs overexpressing human ADC were treated with H2O2 and the resultant intracellular events were examined. First, we examined whether human ADC is overexpressed in human MSCs. Then, we investigated cell survival or death related events. We found that the overexpression of human ADC increases formazan production and reduces caspase 3 activation and the numbers of FITC, hoechst, or propidium iodide positive ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Inhibition of osteoblastic cell proliferation and ornithine decarboxylase activity by ethanol. AU - Klein, Robert F.. AU - Carlos, Amy S.. PY - 1995/8. Y1 - 1995/8. N2 - Low bone mass and an increased prevalence of skeletal fractures are evident in the alcoholic population. Histomorphometric analysis of skeletal tissue from alcoholic patients reveals reduced osteoblast number and suppressed bone formation activity, with relative sparing of resorptive indexes. The decreased number of osteoblasts observed in alcoholic subjects results from either impaired proliferation or accelerated senescence. Polyamines and ornithine decarboxylase (ODC), the rate-limiting enzyme for polyamine synthesis, are essential for cell proliferation in a variety of cell types. To determine whether the consequences of ethanol on osteoblast number involve the modulation of polyamine biosynthesis, we examined the effect of ethanol on parameters of cell growth and ODC activity in a rat osteoblast-like ...
Polyamines stimulate DNA transcription and mRNA translation for protein synthesis in trophectoderm cells, as well as proliferation and migration of cells; therefore, they are essential for development and survival of conceptuses (embryo/fetus and placenta). The ovine conceptus produces polyamines via classical and non-classical pathways. In the classical pathway, arginine (Arg) is transformed into ornithine, which is then decarboxylated by ornithine decarboxylase (ODC1) to produce putrescine which is the substrate for the production of spermidine and spermine. In the non-classical pathway, Arg is converted to agmatine (Agm) by arginine decarboxylase (ADC), and Agm is converted to putrescine by agmatinase (AGMAT). Morpholino antisense oligonucleotides (MAOs) were designed and synthesized to inhibit translational initiation of the mRNAs for ODC1 and ADC, in ovine conceptuses. The morphologies of MAO control, MAO-ODC1, and MAO-ADC conceptuses were normal. Double knockdown of ODC1 and ADC (MAO-ODC1:ADC)
SWISS-MODEL Repository entry for A0KIP8 (SPEA_AERHH), Biosynthetic arginine decarboxylase. Aeromonas hydrophila subsp hydrophila (strain ATCC 7966 / DSM 30187 / JCM1027 / KCTC 2358 / NCIMB 9240)
08-24-2020 (Akron, Ohio). Akron Childrens Hospital Pediatrics welcomes Kelsie Moeller, M.D., to its Green office. The practice - which is located at 1622 E. Turkeyfoot Road - provides pediatric primary care for infants, babies and teens.. Dr. Moeller most recently completed her postgraduate training at Akron Childrens Hospital. She earned her medical degree from The University of Toledo College of Medicine and Life Sciences in Toledo. She also earned a bachelor of science degree in bioengineering from The University of Toledo.. In addition to Dr. Moeller, the Akron Childrens Hospital Pediatrics care team in Green includes Drs. Erin Armao, Valeri Hood, Jason Levine, Sharon McKee, Shannon Thompson, Abigail Vallandingham and Leigh Wells, and nurse practitioners Donald Croston, Elizabeth Forcina, Lynne Hamrick, Sharon Juszli, Colette Libertin and Tara Morissette.. With same-day, evening and Saturday appointments available, Akron Childrens Hospital Pediatrics offers:. ...
The decarboxylation of dopachrome to 5,6-dihydroxyindole (DHI) appears to be a major control point in the biosynthesis of melanin, in particular the conversion of dopachrome to 5,6-dihydroxyindole-2-carboxylic acid (DHICA). The recent discovery of a factor, DHICA stablin, that stabilizes DHICA and inhibits its conversion to DHI has added insight into the regulation of this intermediary compound. This study has shown that DHICA stablin activity is present in the melanosomal fraction of Cloudman murine melanoma cells and that this activity was observed by a new method using two complementary decarboxylase assays. When three known decarboxylase stabilizing cofactors (biotin, pyridoxal phosphate, and pyruvate) were added to melanosomal extracts, DHICA decarboxylase activity was enhanced but these factors did not decrease the lability of the decarboxylase enzyme. Protein kinases have been shown to mediate an adenylate cyclase system that is involved in the regulation of morphology and proliferation of
In the present communication, an experimental approach is utilized that facilitates the study of biochemical processes induced in B cells after their interaction with Th cells. In this approach, Th cell clones are stimulated for 18 h upon anti-CD3-coated plates, fixed with paraformaldehyde, and added at a 2 to 3:1 ratio to small, resting B cells (isolated from Percoll gradients). Th cells not stimulated on anti-CD3-coated plates, but fixed with paraformaldehyde, serve as controls for these experiments. The activated, fixed Th cells induce a transient, sixfold increase in B cell levels of cAMP, as well as an increase in B cell expression of ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) activity. This enzyme initiates the synthesis of polyamines and has been shown to be increased as cells enter the growth phase. In addition, previous studies have shown that the cellular levels of ODC activity are controlled by a multi-tiered regulatory cascade. To examine this aspect, polyclonally stimulated B cells were studied. ...
Catalyzes the conversion of malonyl-CoA to acetyl-CoA. In the fatty acid biosynthesis MCD selectively removes malonyl-CoA and thus assures that methyl-malonyl-CoA is the only chain elongating substrate for fatty acid synthase and that fatty acids with multiple methyl side chains are produced. In peroxisomes it may be involved in degrading intraperoxisomal malonyl-CoA, which is generated by the peroxisomal beta-oxidation of odd chain-length dicarboxylic fatty acids. Plays a role in the metabolic balance between glucose and lipid oxidation in muscle independent of alterations in insulin signaling. May play a role in controlling the extent of ischemic injury by promoting glucose oxidation.
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1MT1: Pyruvoyl-Dependent Arginine Decarboxylase from Methanococcus jannaschii: Crystal Structures of the Self-Cleaved and S53A Proenzyme Forms
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Baltimore Ravens offensive line coach Andy Moeller has pleaded guilty to a charge of driving while intoxicated, but he will not have to serve time in jail.
Dr. Matthew Moeller, MD, rated 4.6/5 by patients. 18 reviews, Phone number & practice locations, Gastroenterologist in Grand Rapids, MI.
Title:Glyoxylate carboligase of Pseudomonas oxalaticus. A possible structural role for flavine-adenine dinucleotide.,Author:Chung S T,Tan R T,Suzuki I,Journal:Biochemistry,1971/3/30;10(7):1205-9.,Publ...
Ability of the Ca2+ ionophores A23187 and ionomycin to mimic some of the effects of the tumor promoter 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate on hydroperoxide production, ornithine decarboxylase activity, and DNA synthesis in mouse epidermis in vivo. Cancer Res. 1990 Sep 15;50(18):5806-12. To Reference ...
Its uncomplicated and un-fussy. Our RAVA convertible car seat is filled with little extras like laid back legroom, fuss-free adjustments and a unique installation that makes setup a snap.RAVA has always included fabrics that are flame retardant additive free where the child sits and we strive to continuously improve o
SWISS-MODEL Repository entry for P94063 (HAL3B_ARATH), Probable phosphopantothenoylcysteine decarboxylase. Arabidopsis thaliana (Mouse-ear cress)
tr:H6RQV8_BLASD] ppc; Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase, Carbon dioxide fixing enzyme; K01595 phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase [EC:4.1.1.31] ...
pae:PA3687 K01595 phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase [EC:4.1.1.31] , (RefSeq) ppc; phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (A) MPEIDARLREDVHQLGELLGDTIREQYGPRFLDKIELIRKGAKAARRGSAEGAQQLTATL DGLEEDELLPVARAFNQFLNLANIAEQYHRIRRRRPNEPEPFENLVLEELLGRLKDAGHA PGQLARQLAGLEIELVLTAHPTEVARRTLIQKYDAITAQLAAKDHADLLPEERSRIQQRL QRLVAEAWHTDEIRKVRPTPVDEAKWGFAVIEHSLWQALPNVLRHVDEVLLRSTGERLPL TAAPLRFASWMGGDRDGNPNVTASVTREVLLLARWMAADLYLRDIDRLAAELSMQQASPQ LLARVGDSAEPYRALLKQLRERLRVTRNWTHQALAGEVPAAEGVLEHNRDLVEPLQLCHE SLHACGMGVIADGALLDCLRRAATFGLFLVRLDVRQDSARHAAALSEITEYLELGSYDEW DEKTRLEFLLEELNSRRPLLPAHYQPSADTAEVLATCRAIAAAPPASLGSYVISMAGQPS DVLAVQLLLKESGVDWPMRVVPLFETLDDLDNAGPCMERLLTLPGYRSRLSGVQEVMIGY SDSAKDAGTLTAAWAQYRAQEKLVEICRQHEVELLLFHGRGGTVGRGGGPAHAAILSQPP GSVAGRFRVTEQGEMIRFKFGLPDIAEQNLNLYLAAVLEATLMPPPAPEPAWRAQMDRLA KDALLAYRRVVRDDPQFVEYFRLATPEQELGRLPLGSRPAKRREGGVESLRAIPWIFAWT QTRLMLPAWLGWETALLNAIERGEGALLGQMREQWPFFTTRIDMLEMVLAKADADIARLY DERLVPLELRPLGRRLRDLLSQAVRVVLGLTGQSLLLAHASETRESISVRNSYLDPLHLL QAELLARSRRCRGDACGGLEQALLVTVAGVAAGLRNTG ...
elr:ECO55CA74_22865 K01595 phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase [EC:4.1.1.31] , (GenBank) phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (A) MNEQYSALRSNVCMLGKVLGETIKDALGEHILERVETIRKLSKSSRAGNDANRQELLTTL QNLSNDELLPVARAFSQFLNLANTAEQYHSISPKGEAASNPEVIARTLRKLKNQPELSED TIKKAVESLSLELVLTAHPTEITRRTLIHKMVEVNACLKQLDNKDIADYEHNQLMRRLRQ LIAQSWHTDEIRKLRPSPVDEAKWGFAVVENSLWQGVPNYLRELNEQLEENLGYKLPVEF VPVRFTSWMGGDRDGNPNVTADITRHVLLLSRWKATDLFLKDIQVLVSELSMVEATPELL ALVGEEGAAEPYRYLMKNLRSRLMATQAWLEARLKGEELPKPEGLLTQNEELWEPLYACY QSLQACGMGIIANGDLLDTLRRVKCFGVPLVRIDIRQESTRHTEALGELTRYLGIGDYES WSEADKQAFLIRELNSKRPLLPRNWQPSAETREVLDTCQVIAEAPQGSIAAYVISMAKTP SDVLAVHLLLKEAGIGFAMPVAPLFETLDDLNNANDVMTQLLNIDWYRGLIQGKQMVMIG YSDSAKDAGVMAASWAQYQAQDALIKTCEKAGIELTLFHGRGGSIGRGGAPAHAALLSQP PGSLKGGLRVTEQGEMIRFKYGLPEITVSSLSLYTGAILEANLLPPPEPKESWRRIMDEL SVISCDLYRGYVRENKDFVPYFRSATPEQELGKLPLGSRPAKRRPTGGVESLRAIPWIFA WTQNRLMLPAWLGAGTALQKVVEDGKQSELEAMCRDWPFFSTRLGMLEMVFAKADLWLAE YYDQRLVDKTLWPLGKELRNLQEEDIKVVLAIANDSHLMADLPWIAESIQLRNIYTDPLN ...
K01595 phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase [EC:4.1.1.31] , (GenBank) ppc; probable phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (pepcase) (pepc) ...
Package: wnpp Severity: wishlist Owner: Steffen Moeller ,[email protected], * Package name : genometools * URL : http://www.genometools.org/ * License : BSD-like (ICS) Programming Lang: C Description : versatile genome analysis toolkit Contains collection of useful tools for * sequence and annotation handling * index structure generation and -access * efficient matching * annotation visualisation ...
What are the "tools" that allow us to construct molecules, and are these "tools" capable of building what we need in a timely and efficient manner? These two questions provide the motivation for our groups exploration of electrochemistry, an exploration that has led us to pursue two broad areas of research: synthetic electrochemistry and microelectrode array.. ...
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Pengendalian Hama Terpadu (PHT) pada Jagung. Disusun memenuhi tugas kelompok mata kuliah Pengendalian Hama pada Jurusan Biologi , Universitas Andalas , Padang 2012 . Kelompok 3. Robby Jannatan Melinda Purnamasari Dera Satria Fitri Rizky Andrian Jasmi Putriana Haragus. PHT?....
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PENGARUH TERAPI MUROTTAL AL-QURAN TERHADAP PENURUNAN SKALA NYERI PADA PASIEN CEDERA KEPALA DI RUANG BEDAH UMUM RSUD ULIN BANJARMASIN
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This enzyme belongs to the family of lyases, specifically the carboxy-lyases, which cleave carbon-carbon bonds. The systematic ... JACOBSEN JG, THOMAS LL, SMITH LH (1964). "PROPERTIES AND DISTRIBUTION OF MAMMALIAN L-CYSTEINE SULFINATE CARBOXY-LYASES". ... and 3-sulfino-L-alanine carboxy-lyase. This enzyme participates in taurine and hypotaurine metabolism. It employs one cofactor ... name of this enzyme class is 3-sulfino-L-alanine carboxy-lyase (hypotaurine-forming). Other names in common use include ...
This enzyme belongs to the family of lyases, specifically the carboxy-lyases, which cleave carbon-carbon bonds. The systematic ... This enzyme is also called sulfopyruvate carboxy-lyase. Graupner M, Xu H, White RH (2000). "Identification of the gene encoding ... name of this enzyme class is 3-sulfopyruvate carboxy-lyase (2-sulfoacetaldehyde-forming). ...
This enzyme belongs to the family of lyases, specifically the carboxy-lyases, which cleave carbon-carbon bonds. The systematic ... name of this enzyme class is carnitine carboxy-lyase (2-methylcholine-forming). This enzyme is also called carnitine carboxy- ... lyase. It employs one cofactor, ATP. Khairallah EA, Wolf G (1967). "Carnitine decarboxylase. The conversion of carnitine to ...
This enzyme belongs to the family of lyases, specifically the carboxy-lyases, which cleave carbon-carbon bonds. The systematic ... This enzyme is also called hydroxypyruvate carboxy-lyase. This enzyme participates in glyoxylate and dicarboxylate metabolism. ... name of this enzyme class is hydroxypyruvate carboxy-lyase (glycolaldehyde-forming). ...
4-dihydroxy-6-methylbenzoate carboxy-lyase (orcinol-forming). This enzyme is also called orsellinate carboxy-lyase. Pettersson ... This enzyme belongs to the family of lyases, specifically the carboxy-lyases, which cleave carbon-carbon bonds. The systematic ...
3-dihydroxybenzoate carboxy-lyase (catechol-forming). This enzyme is also called 2,3-dihydroxybenzoate carboxy-lyase. This ... This enzyme belongs to the family of lyases, specifically the carboxy-lyases, which cleave carbon-carbon bonds. The systematic ... Rao PV, Moore K, Towers GH (1967). "O-pyrocatechiuc acid carboxy-lyase from Aspergillus niger". Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 122 (2 ...
This enzyme belongs to the family of lyases, specifically the carboxy-lyases, which cleave carbon-carbon bonds. The systematic ... This enzyme is also called phenylpyruvate carboxy-lyase. This enzyme participates in phenylalanine and tryptophan metabolism. ... name of this enzyme class is phenylpyruvate carboxy-lyase (phenylacetaldehyde-forming). ...
The systematic name of this enzyme class is oxalate carboxy-lyase (formate-forming). This enzyme is also called oxalate carboxy ... This enzyme belongs to the family of lyases, specifically the carboxy-lyases, which cleave carbon-carbon bonds. ... lyase. This enzyme participates in glyoxylate and dicarboxylate metabolism. As of late 2007, 5 structures have been solved for ...
This enzyme belongs to the family of lyases, specifically the carboxy-lyases, which cleave carbon-carbon bonds. The systematic ... This enzyme is also called 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate carboxy-lyase. Rueffer M; Zenk MH (1987). "Distant precursors of ... name of this enzyme class is 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate carboxy-lyase (4-hydroxyphenylacetaldehyde-forming). ...
This enzyme belongs to the family of lyases, specifically the carboxy-lyases, which cleave carbon-carbon bonds. The systematic ... This enzyme is also called stipitatonate carboxy-lyase (decyclizing). Bentley R; Thiessen CP (1963). "Biosynthesis of ... name of this enzyme class is stipitatonate carboxy-lyase (decyclizing, stipitatate-forming). ...
This enzyme belongs to the family of lyases, specifically the carboxy-lyases, which cleave carbon-carbon bonds. The systematic ... This enzyme is also called 4-oxalocrotonate carboxy-lyase. This enzyme participates in 3 metabolic pathways: benzoate ... name of this enzyme class is 4-oxalocrotonate carboxy-lyase (2-oxopent-4-enoate-forming). ...
This enzyme belongs to the family of lyases, specifically the carboxy-lyases, which cleave carbon-carbon bonds. The systematic ... This enzyme is also called 3-phosphonopyruvate carboxy-lyase. This enzyme participates in aminophosphonate metabolism. Zhang G ... name of this enzyme class is 3-phosphonopyruvate carboxy-lyase (2-phosphonoacetaldehyde-forming). ...
This enzyme belongs to the family of lyases, specifically the carboxy-lyases, which cleave carbon-carbon bonds. The systematic ... 1. Uridine diphosphate glucuronate carboxy-lyase of wheat germ". Biochemistry. 4 (11): 2468-2475. doi:10.1021/bi00887a028. ... and UDP-D-glucuronate carboxy-lyase. This enzyme participates in starch and sucrose metabolism and nucleotide sugars metabolism ... name of this enzyme class is UDP-D-glucuronate carboxy-lyase (UDP-D-xylose-forming). Other names in common use include uridine- ...
V. UDP-D-glucuronate and UDP-D-galacturonate carboxy-lyase of Ampullariella digitata. Fan, D. F. and Feingold, D. S. Arch. ... V. UDP-D-glucuronate and UDP-D-galacturonate carboxy-lyase of Ampullariella digitata. Uridine diphosphate-D-glucose ... Mechanism of action of UDP-glucuronate carboxyl-lyase. Schutzbach, J. S. and Feingold D. S. J. Biol. Chem. 245:2476-2482, 1970 ... Mechanism of action of UDP-glucuronate carboxyl-lyase. Biosynthesis of uridine diphosphate-D-xylose. ...
This enzyme belongs to the family of lyases, specifically the carboxy-lyases, which cleave carbon-carbon bonds. The systematic ... 5-dihydroxyphthalate carboxy-lyase (3,4-dihydroxybenzoate-forming). This enzyme is also called 4,5-dihydroxyphthalate carboxy- ... lyase. This enzyme participates in 2,4-dichlorobenzoate degradation. Ribbons DW; Evans WC (1966). "Oxidative metabolism of ...
This enzyme belongs to the family of lyases, specifically the carboxy-lyases, which cleave carbon-carbon bonds. The systematic ... 4-dihydroxyphthalate carboxy-lyase (3,4-dihydroxybenzoate-forming). This enzyme is also called 3,4-dihydroxyphthalate carboxy- ... lyase. Eaton RW, Ribbons DW (1982). "Metabolism of dibutylphthalate and phthalate by Micrococcus sp. strain 12B". J. Bacteriol ...
... tartrate carboxy-lyase (D-glycerate-forming). This enzyme is also called (R,R)-tartrate carboxy-lyase. Furuyoshi S, Kawabata N ... This enzyme belongs to the family of lyases, specifically the carboxy-lyases, which cleave carbon-carbon bonds. The systematic ...
This enzyme belongs to the family of lyases, specifically the carboxy-lyases, which cleave carbon-carbon bonds. The systematic ... Wilson EM; Kornberg HL (1963). "Properties of crystalline l-aspartate 4-carboxy-lyase from Achromobacter sp". Biochem. J. 88 (3 ... and L-aspartate 4-carboxy-lyase. This enzyme participates in alanine and aspartate metabolism and cysteine metabolism. It ... name of this enzyme class is L-aspartate 4-carboxy-lyase (L-alanine-forming). Other names in common use include desulfinase, ...
This enzyme belongs to the family of lyases, specifically the carboxy-lyases, which cleave carbon-carbon bonds. The systematic ... This enzyme is also called 3-hydroxy-L-glutamate 1-carboxy-lyase. It employs one cofactor, pyridoxal phosphate. Umbreit WW, ... name of this enzyme class is 3-hydroxy-L-glutamate 1-carboxy-lyase (4-amino-3-hydroxybutanoate-forming). ...
This enzyme belongs to the family of lyases, specifically the carboxy-lyases, which cleave carbon-carbon bonds. The systematic ... and benzoylformate carboxy-lyase. This enzyme participates in benzoate degradation via hydroxylation and toluene and xylene ... name of this enzyme class is benzoylformate carboxy-lyase (benzaldehyde-forming). Other names in common use include ...
This enzyme belongs to the family of lyases, specifically the carboxy-lyases, which cleave carbon-carbon bonds. The systematic ... and L-arginine carboxy-lyase. This enzyme participates in urea cycle and metabolism of amino groups and glutamate metabolism. ... name of this enzyme class is L-arginine carboxy-lyase (agmatine-forming). Other names in common use include SpeA, ...
This enzyme belongs to the family of lyases, specifically the carboxy-lyases, which cleave carbon-carbon bonds. The systematic ... and gallate carboxy-lyase. This enzyme participates in benzoate degradation via coa ligation. Grant DJW; Patel JC (1969). "Non- ... 5-trihydroxybenzoate carboxy-lyase (pyrogallol-forming). Other names in common use include gallic acid decarboxylase, ...
This enzyme belongs to the family of lyases, specifically the carboxy-lyases, which cleave carbon-carbon bonds. The systematic ... name of this enzyme class is aminobenzoate carboxy-lyase (aniline-forming). It employs one cofactor, pyridoxal phosphate. ...
This enzyme belongs to the family of lyases, specifically the carboxy-lyases, which cleave carbon-carbon bonds. The systematic ... and L-valine carboxy-lyase. It employs one cofactor, pyridoxal phosphate. Sutton CR; King HK (1962). "Inhibition of leucine ... name of this enzyme class is L-valine carboxy-lyase (2-methylpropanamine-forming). Other names in common use include leucine ...
This enzyme belongs to the family of lyases, specifically the carboxy-lyases, which cleave carbon-carbon bonds. The systematic ... and acetylenedicarboxylate carboxy-lyase. This enzyme participates in pyruvate metabolism. Yamada EW; Jakoby WB (1958). " ... name of this enzyme class is acetylenedicarboxylate carboxy-lyase (pyruvate-forming). Other names in common use include ...
Other names in common use include 2-hydroxy-3-carboxyadipate dehydrogenase, 3-carboxy-2-hydroxyadipate dehydrogenase, ... homoisocitric dehydrogenase, (−)-1-hydroxy-1,2,4-butanetricarboxylate:NAD+ oxidoreductase, (decarboxylating), 3-carboxy-2- ...
Carboxy-lyases". www.biochem.ucl.ac.uk. Carboxy-Lyases at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) ... Carboxy-lyases, also known as decarboxylases, are carbon-carbon lyases that add or remove a carboxyl group from organic ... Carboxy-lyases are categorized under EC number 4.1.1. Usually, they are named after the substrate whose decarboxylation they ... leads to a net fixation of carbon dioxide Uridine monophosphate synthetase Uroporphyrinogen III decarboxylase Enzymes Lyases ...
S-adenosyl-L-methionine:(3-phospho-D-glycerate-carboxy-lyase (dimerizing))-lysine 6-N-methyltransferase may refer to: (Ribulose ...
The Gene Ontology (GO) project is a collaborative effort to address the need for consistent descriptions of gene products across databases. You can use this browser to view terms, definitions, and term relationships in a hierarchical display. Links to summary annotated gene data at MGI are provided in Term Detail reports.
Carboxy-lyase activity. - Caspase activator activity. - Catalytic activity. - Cell adhesion molecule activity. - Chaperone ...
carboxy-lyase activity IBA Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor. more info ...
Carboxy-Lyases / antagonists & inhibitors * Carboxy-Lyases / chemistry * Carboxy-Lyases / deficiency * Carboxy-Lyases / ...
Uroporphyrinogen-III carboxy-lyase. Additional Information & Resources. Tests Listed in the Genetic Testing Registry. *Tests of ...
GO:0016831 carboxy-lyase activity GO:0030170 pyridoxal phosphate binding Cellular Component. No terms assigned in this category ...
GO:0016831 carboxy-lyase activity Cellular Component. No terms assigned in this category. ...
carboxy-lyase activity. · lyase activity. · amino acid binding. · histidine decarboxylase activity. · pyridoxal phosphate ...
Lyases;. Carbon-carbon lyases;. Carboxy-lyases. Sysname. peptidyl-glutamate 4-carboxylase (2-methyl-3-phytyl-1,4-naphthoquinol- ...
Carboxy-Lyases / genetics * Carboxy-Lyases / metabolism* * Carnitine / analogs & derivatives* * Carnitine / chemistry * ...
1-(5-phosphoribosyl)-5-amino-4-imidazolecarboxylate carboxy-lyase;. ADE2;. class II PurE;. 5-amino-1-(5-phospho-D-ribosyl) ... 5-amino-1-(5-phospho-D-ribosyl)imidazole-4-carboxylate carboxy-lyase [5-amino-1-(5-phospho-D-ribosyl)imidazole-forming]. ... Lyases;. Carbon-carbon lyases;. Carboxy-lyases. BRITE hierarchy. Sysname. ...
CARBOXY-LYASES - Carboxy-lyases are involved in the the addition of a carboxyl group to a compound (carboxylases) or the ...
Carboxy-Lyases / metabolism. Diethylhexyl Phthalate / metabolism, pharmacology*, toxicity*. Feeding Behavior / drug effects. ... Carboxy-Lyases; EC 4.1.1.45/aminocarboxymuconate-semialdehyde decarboxylase From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. ...
Carboxy-Lyases / metabolism. Culture Media. Hep G2 Cells. Hepatocytes / metabolism*. Histones / metabolism. Homeostasis / ... 0/Culture Media; 0/Histones; 58-85-5/Biotin; EC 4.1.1.-/Carboxy-Lyases ...
Studies on the biosynthesis of L-aspartate 4-carboxy-lyase by Cunninghamella elegans and Penicillium citrinum ... Studies on the biosynthesis of L-aspartate 4-carboxy-lyase by Cunninghamella elegans and P ...
L-histidine carboxy-lyase, EC 4.1.1.22). We have cloned HDC-encoding cDNA from a fetal rat liver cDNA library (phage lambda ... Amino- and Carboxy-Terminal PEST Domains Mediate Gastrin Stabilization of Rat L-Histidine Decarboxylase Isoforms ...
carboxy-lyase activity Source: GO_Central ,p>Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor,/p> ,p>A type of phylogenetic evidence ...
3-octaprenyl-4-hydroxybenzoate carboxy-lyase. Tolumonas auensis (strain DSM 9187 / TA4) ... 3-octaprenyl-4-hydroxybenzoate carboxy-lyase UniProtKBInterProSTRINGInteractive Modelling. 489 aa; Sequence (Fasta) ...
3-octaprenyl-4-hydroxybenzoate carboxy-lyase. Shewanella amazonensis (strain ATCC BAA-1098 / SB2B) ... 3-octaprenyl-4-hydroxybenzoate carboxy-lyase UniProtKBInterProSTRINGInteractive Modelling. 493 aa; Sequence (Fasta) ...
DR GO; GO:0016831; F:carboxy-lyase activity; IEA:UniProtKB-KW. DR GO; GO:0045312; P:nor-spermidine biosynthetic process; IEA: ... Lyase {ECO:0000256,PIRNR:PIRNR038941}; KW Polyamine biosynthesis {ECO:0000256,PIRNR:PIRNR038941}; KW Pyridoxal phosphate {ECO: ...
... carboxy-lyase activity; IEA:InterPro. DR GO; GO:0030170; F:pyridoxal phosphate binding; IEA:InterPro. DR GO; GO:0006520; P: ...
3-octaprenyl-4-hydroxybenzoate carboxy-lyase. CUPMC. 507. UniRef50_Q1LJV5. 3-octaprenyl-4-hydroxybenzoate carboxy-lyase. CUPPJ ...
lyase activity. IEA. --. GO:0016831. carboxy-lyase activity. IEA. --. GO:0042803. protein homodimerization activity. IDA. ...
  • The effect of 3-mercaptopicolinate, an inhibitor of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase [GTP:oxaloacetate carboxy-lyase (transphosphorylating), EC 4.1.1.32], was tested on NH3 formation via the purine nucleotide cycle and glutamate dehydrogenase (EC 1.4.1.2). (biochemj.org)
  • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/GABA) Doses of GABA 1 to 3 g orally also have been used effectively to raise the IQ of mentally retarded persons. (hmdb.ca)