Carboxin: A systemic agricultural fungicide and seed treatment agent.Fungicides, Industrial: Chemicals that kill or inhibit the growth of fungi in agricultural applications, on wood, plastics, or other materials, in swimming pools, etc.Cytochromes b: Cytochromes of the b group that have alpha-band absorption of 563-564 nm. They occur as subunits in MITOCHONDRIAL ELECTRON TRANSPORT COMPLEX III.Quinone Reductases: NAD(P)H:(quinone acceptor) oxidoreductases. A family that includes three enzymes which are distinguished by their sensitivity to various inhibitors. EC 1.6.99.2 (NAD(P)H DEHYDROGENASE (QUINONE);) is a flavoprotein which reduces various quinones in the presence of NADH or NADPH and is inhibited by dicoumarol. EC 1.6.99.5 (NADH dehydrogenase (quinone)) requires NADH, is inhibited by AMP and 2,4-dinitrophenol but not by dicoumarol or folic acid derivatives. EC 1.6.99.6 (NADPH dehydrogenase (quinone)) requires NADPH and is inhibited by dicoumarol and folic acid derivatives but not by 2,4-dinitrophenol.Succinic Acid: A water-soluble, colorless crystal with an acid taste that is used as a chemical intermediate, in medicine, the manufacture of lacquers, and to make perfume esters. It is also used in foods as a sequestrant, buffer, and a neutralizing agent. (Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed, p1099; McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1851)Paracoccus denitrificans: A species of bacteria isolated from soil.Ustilago: A genus of basidiomycetous smut fungi comprising the loose smuts.Library Administration: Planning, organizing, staffing, direction, and control of libraries.Patient Access to Records: The freedom of patients to review their own medical, genetic, or other health-related records.Basidiomycota: A phylum of fungi that produce their sexual spores (basidiospores) on the outside of the basidium. It includes forms commonly known as mushrooms, boletes, puffballs, earthstars, stinkhorns, bird's-nest fungi, jelly fungi, bracket or shelf fungi, and rust and smut fungi.Triticum: A plant genus of the family POACEAE that is the source of EDIBLE GRAIN. A hybrid with rye (SECALE CEREALE) is called TRITICALE. The seed is ground into FLOUR and used to make BREAD, and is the source of WHEAT GERM AGGLUTININS.Captan: One of the phthalimide fungicides.Seeds: The encapsulated embryos of flowering plants. They are used as is or for animal feed because of the high content of concentrated nutrients like starches, proteins, and fats. Rapeseed, cottonseed, and sunflower seed are also produced for the oils (fats) they yield.Murinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the Old World MICE and RATS.Pesticide Residues: Pesticides or their breakdown products remaining in the environment following their normal use or accidental contamination.Nitro Compounds: Compounds having the nitro group, -NO2, attached to carbon. When attached to nitrogen they are nitramines and attached to oxygen they are NITRATES.Electron Transport Complex II: A flavoprotein oxidase complex that contains iron-sulfur centers. It catalyzes the oxidation of SUCCINATE to fumarate and couples the reaction to the reduction of UBIQUINONE to ubiquinol.Succinate Dehydrogenase: A flavoprotein containing oxidoreductase that catalyzes the dehydrogenation of SUCCINATE to fumarate. In most eukaryotic organisms this enzyme is a component of mitochondrial electron transport complex II.Electron Transport Complex I: A flavoprotein and iron sulfur-containing oxidoreductase complex that catalyzes the conversion of UBIQUINONE to ubiquinol. In MITOCHONDRIA the complex also couples its reaction to the transport of PROTONS across the internal mitochondrial membrane. The NADH DEHYDROGENASE component of the complex can be isolated and is listed as EC 1.6.99.3.Potassium: An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.Food, Organic: Food that is grown or manufactured in accordance with nationally regulated production standards that include restrictions on the use of pesticides, non-organic fertilizers, genetic engineering, growth hormones, irradiation, antibiotics, and non-organic ingredients.Pesticides: Chemicals used to destroy pests of any sort. The concept includes fungicides (FUNGICIDES, INDUSTRIAL); INSECTICIDES; RODENTICIDES; etc.Pest Control: The reduction or regulation of the population of noxious, destructive, or dangerous plants, insects, or other animals. This includes control of plants that serve as habitats or food sources for animal pests.Agriculture: The science, art or practice of cultivating soil, producing crops, and raising livestock.Mosquito Control: The reduction or regulation of the population of mosquitoes through chemical, biological, or other means.Insecticides: Pesticides designed to control insects that are harmful to man. The insects may be directly harmful, as those acting as disease vectors, or indirectly harmful, as destroyers of crops, food products, or textile fabrics.China: A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.Fraud: Exploitation through misrepresentation of the facts or concealment of the purposes of the exploiter.Counterfeit Drugs: Drugs manufactured and sold with the intent to misrepresent its origin, authenticity, chemical composition, and or efficacy. Counterfeit drugs may contain inappropriate quantities of ingredients not listed on the label or package. In order to further deceive the consumer, the packaging, container, or labeling, may be inaccurate, incorrect, or fake.Fertilizers: Substances or mixtures that are added to the soil to supply nutrients or to make available nutrients already present in the soil, in order to increase plant growth and productivity.Pyrethrins: The active insecticidal constituent of CHRYSANTHEMUM CINERARIIFOLIUM flowers. Pyrethrin I is the pyretholone ester of chrysanthemummonocarboxylic acid and pyrethrin II is the pyretholone ester of chrysanthemumdicarboxylic acid monomethyl ester.Rodenticides: Substances used to destroy or inhibit the action of rats, mice, or other rodents.United States Environmental Protection Agency: An agency in the Executive Branch of the Federal Government. It was created as an independent regulatory agency responsible for the implementation of federal laws designed to protect the environment. Its mission is to protect human health and the ENVIRONMENT.Equipment Safety: Freedom of equipment from actual or potential hazards.4-Hydroxycoumarins: Substances found in many plants, containing the 4-hydroxycoumarin radical. They interfere with vitamin K and the blood clotting mechanism, are tightly protein-bound, inhibit mitochondrial and microsomal enzymes, and are used as oral anticoagulants.United States Food and Drug Administration: An agency of the PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE concerned with the overall planning, promoting, and administering of programs pertaining to maintaining standards of quality of foods, drugs, therapeutic devices, etc.FlavoproteinsPyruvate Dehydrogenase Complex: A multienzyme complex responsible for the formation of ACETYL COENZYME A from pyruvate. The enzyme components are PYRUVATE DEHYDROGENASE (LIPOAMIDE); dihydrolipoamide acetyltransferase; and LIPOAMIDE DEHYDROGENASE. Pyruvate dehydrogenase complex is subject to three types of control: inhibited by acetyl-CoA and NADH; influenced by the energy state of the cell; and inhibited when a specific serine residue in the pyruvate decarboxylase is phosphorylated by ATP. PYRUVATE DEHYDROGENASE (LIPOAMIDE)-PHOSPHATASE catalyzes reactivation of the complex. (From Concise Encyclopedia Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 3rd ed)Search Engine: Software used to locate data or information stored in machine-readable form locally or at a distance such as an INTERNET site.Databases, Genetic: Databases devoted to knowledge about specific genes and gene products.Paraganglioma: A neural crest tumor usually derived from the chromoreceptor tissue of a paraganglion, such as the carotid body, or medulla of the adrenal gland (usually called a chromaffinoma or pheochromocytoma). It is more common in women than in men. (Stedman, 25th ed; from Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Referral and Consultation: The practice of sending a patient to another program or practitioner for services or advice which the referring source is not prepared to provide.European Union: The collective designation of three organizations with common membership: the European Economic Community (Common Market), the European Coal and Steel Community, and the European Atomic Energy Community (Euratom). It was known as the European Community until 1994. It is primarily an economic union with the principal objectives of free movement of goods, capital, and labor. Professional services, social, medical and paramedical, are subsumed under labor. The constituent countries are Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, and the United Kingdom. (The World Almanac and Book of Facts 1997, p842)Ethics Consultation: Services provided by an individual ethicist (ETHICISTS) or an ethics team or committee (ETHICS COMMITTEES, CLINICAL) to address the ethical issues involved in a specific clinical case. The central purpose is to improve the process and outcomes of patients' care by helping to identify, analyze, and resolve ethical problems.Remote Consultation: Consultation via remote telecommunications, generally for the purpose of diagnosis or treatment of a patient at a site remote from the patient or primary physician.Product Packaging: Form in which product is processed or wrapped and labeled. PRODUCT LABELING is also available.Environmental Policy: A course of action or principle adopted or proposed by a government, party, business, or individual that concerns human interactions with nature and natural resources.EuropeMetabolomics: The systematic identification and quantitation of all the metabolic products of a cell, tissue, organ, or organism under varying conditions. The METABOLOME of a cell or organism is a dynamic collection of metabolites which represent its net response to current conditions.Canada: The largest country in North America, comprising 10 provinces and three territories. Its capital is Ottawa.Alberta: A province of western Canada, lying between the provinces of British Columbia and Saskatchewan. Its capital is Edmonton. It was named in honor of Princess Louise Caroline Alberta, the fourth daughter of Queen Victoria. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p26 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p12)British Columbia: A province of Canada on the Pacific coast. Its capital is Victoria. The name given in 1858 derives from the Columbia River which was named by the American captain Robert Gray for his ship Columbia which in turn was named for Columbus. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p178 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p81-2)Genomics: The systematic study of the complete DNA sequences (GENOME) of organisms.

Succinate:quinone oxidoreductase in the bacteria Paracoccus denitrificans and Bacillus subtilis. (1/16)

An overview of the present knowledge about succinate:quinone oxidoreductase in Paracoccus denitrificans and Bacillus subtilis is presented. P. denitrificans contains a monoheme succinate:ubiquinone oxidoreductase that is similar to that of mammalian mitochondria with respect to composition and sensitivity to carboxin. Results obtained with carboxin-resistant P. denitrificans mutants provide information about quinone-binding sites on the enzyme and the molecular basis for the resistance. B. subtilis contains a diheme succinate:menaquinone oxidoreductase whose activity is dependent on the electrochemical gradient across the cytoplasmic membrane. Data from studies of mutant variants of the B. subtilis enzyme combined with available crystal structures of a similar enzyme, Wolinella succinogenes fumarate reductase, substantiate a proposed explanation for the mechanism of coupling between quinone reductase activity and transmembrane potential.  (+info)

Construction of a homologous selectable marker gene for Lentinula edodes transformation. (2/16)

We cloned a gene for the iron sulfur protein (Ip) subunit from an edible mushroom, Lentinula edodes, and introduced a point mutation that confers carboxin resistance into it. The mutant gene successfully transformed L. edodes with high efficiency (9 transformants/2.5 microg vector DNA). Restriction enzyme-mediated integration (REMI) increased the transformation efficiency by about two-fold.  (+info)

Effect of the systemic fungicide carboxin on electron transport function in membranes of Micrococcus denitrificans. (3/16)

The systemic fungicide carboxin (5,6-dihydro-2-methyl-1,4-oxathiin-3-carboxanilide) inhibited oxidation of succinate by membranes prepared from Micrococcus denitrificans, the K(i) being 16 muM. Oxycarboxin (5,6-dihydro-2-methyl-1,4-oxathiin-3-carboxanilide-4,4-dioxide), F831 (5,6-dihydro-2-methyl-1,4-oxathiin-3-carboxanilide-4-oxide), and another succinate oxidase inhibitor, 4,4,4-trifluoro-1-(2-thienyl)-1,3-butanedione (TTB) were less effective inhibitors of succinate oxidation by membranes of M. denitrificans. Oxidation of other substrates (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, reduced form, d-lactate, l-lactate, malate, and d,l-alpha-hydroxybutyrate) was inhibited to a lesser degree by carboxin, and formate oxidation was entirely resistant. With all substrates tested, oxycarboxin, the dioxide analogue of carboxin, was less effective than carboxin. Carboxin also inhibited dichlorophenol indophenol (DCIP) reductase activities by these membranes in a manner both qualitatively and quantitatively similar to the inhibition of oxidation of the various substrates. The inhibition of DCIP reductase activities by TTB was qualitatively similar to carboxin, but TTB was a less effective inhibitor with all substrates tested. The inhibition of DCIP reductase by carboxin could be relieved by phenazine methosulfate with all substrates except d-lactate. Only slight inhibition of d-lactate-stimulated uptake of [(14)C]glycine by these membrane vesicles was seen with carboxin. Uptake of [(14)C]glycine could be stimulated to varying degrees with the other substrates tested, but in no case did carboxin cause significant inhibition. Membranes isolated from M. denitrificans are a useful system for investigating the mechanism of inhibition of electron transport function by carboxin, and the use of this system for evaluations of carboxin and its metabolites is suggested.  (+info)

3-nitropropionic acid is a suicide inhibitor of mitochondrial respiration that, upon oxidation by complex II, forms a covalent adduct with a catalytic base arginine in the active site of the enzyme. (4/16)

We report three new structures of mitochondrial respiratory Complex II (succinate ubiquinone oxidoreductase, E.C. 1.3.5.1) at up to 2.1 A resolution, with various inhibitors. The structures define the conformation of the bound inhibitors and suggest the residues involved in substrate binding and catalysis at the dicarboxylate site. In particular they support the role of Arg(297) as a general base catalyst accepting a proton in the dehydrogenation of succinate. The dicarboxylate ligand in oxaloacetate-containing crystals appears to be the same as that reported for Shewanella flavocytochrome c treated with fumarate. The plant and fungal toxin 3-nitropropionic acid, an irreversible inactivator of succinate dehydrogenase, forms a covalent adduct with the side chain of Arg(297). The modification eliminates a trypsin cleavage site in the flavoprotein, and tandem mass spectroscopic analysis of the new fragment shows the mass of Arg(297) to be increased by 83 Da and to have the potential of losing 44 Da, consistent with decarboxylation, during fragmentation.  (+info)

Oxathiin carboxanilide, a potent inhibitor of human immunodeficiency virus reproduction. (5/16)

Oxathiin carboxanilide (OC), NSC 615985, a compound originally synthesized as a potential fungicide, was demonstrated to be highly active in preventing human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-induced cell killing and in inhibiting HIV reproduction. Virus-infected CD4+ lymphocytes were completely protected by 0.5 microM OC, whereas no toxicity was observed at concentrations below 50 microM OC. Production of infectious virus, viral p24 antigen, and virion reverse transcriptase were reduced by OC at concentrations that prevented viral cell killing. A variety of CD4+ T-cell lines were protected by OC from HIV cytopathicity, and OC inhibited two distinct strains of HIV-1. However, HIV-2 infections were unaffected by OC. OC had no direct effect on virions of HIV or on the enzymatic activities of HIV reverse transcriptase or HIV protease. Time-limited treatments of cells with OC before, during, or after exposure of cells to virus failed to protect cells from the eventual cytopathic effects of HIV, and OC failed to inhibit the production of virus from cells in which infection was established or from chronically infected cells. We conclude that the highly active OC has a reversible effect on some early stage of HIV-1 reproduction and cytopathicity. Pilot in vivo experiments showed that circulating concentrations of OC exceeding 1 microM could be achieved and sustained in hamsters for at least a week with no remarkable toxicological sequelae. OC represents a new class of anti-HIV agents that are promising candidates for drug development.  (+info)

Structure of Escherichia coli succinate:quinone oxidoreductase with an occupied and empty quinone-binding site. (6/16)

 (+info)

Five carboxin-resistant mutants exhibited various responses to carboxin and related fungicides. (7/16)

Five carboxin-resistant mutants from Aspergillus oryzae were characterized by the sensitivities of their mycelial growth and succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) activity to carboxin and three related fungicides. Despite a significant resistance to carboxin, exhibited by all the mutants, their patterns of sensitivity to the other fungicides was distinct. This provides clues to the molecular interaction between SDH and these fungicides.  (+info)

Molecular characterization of boscalid resistance in field isolates of Botrytis cinerea from apple. (8/16)

 (+info)

*Succinate dehydrogenase

Carboxin was mainly used to control disease caused by basidiomycetes such as stem rusts and Rhizoctonia diseases. More recently ... Ubiquinone type inhibitors include carboxin and thenoyltrifluoroacetone. Succinate-analogue inhibitors include the synthetic ...

*Covered smut (barley)

Seed treatments: carboxin, fenpiclonil, tebuconazole, triadimenol, triticonazole. EPPO Australia Canada: Alberta US: Oregon ...

*Common bunt

Systemic seed treatment fungicides include carboxin, difenoconazole, triadimenol and others and are highly effective. However, ...

*Urocystis agropyri

Carboxin is a commonly used fungicide on seeds, which works well to prevent onset of disease. In addition to seed treatments, ...

*Loose smut

The most common type of systemic fungicides used for loose smut are from the Carboxin group of chemicals. Although carboxins ...

*Spot blotch (wheat)

Fungicide seed treatments include: captan, mancozeb, maneb, thiram, pentachloronitrobenzene (PCNB) or carboxin guazatine plus, ...

*Pythium graminicola

Chemical control involves using specific pesticides such as benomyl, captafol, captan, carboxin, metalaxyl, propamocarb ...

*List of MeSH codes (D03)

... carboxin MeSH D03.383.533.249 --- benzoxazines MeSH D03.383.533.500 --- ifosfamide MeSH D03.383.533.640 --- morpholines MeSH ...

*List of MeSH codes (D02)

... carboxin MeSH D02.065.199.385 --- encainide MeSH D02.065.199.420 --- flutamide MeSH D02.065.199.750 --- prilocaine MeSH D02.065 ...

*List of fungicides

... calcium polysulfide captafol captan carbamate fungicides carbamorph carbanilate fungicides carbendazim carboxin carpropamid ...
UC 38, a simple analog of oxathiin carboxanilide, UC 84, lacking the oxathiin ring, was found to be a potent inhibitor of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1-induced cell killing and HIV replication in a variety of human cell lines, as well as in human peripheral blood lymphocytes and macrophages. UC 38 was active against a wide range of biologically diverse laboratory and clinical strains of HIV-1. However, UC 38 was inactive against HIV-2 and both nevirapine- and pyridinone-resistant strains of HIV-1. UC 38 selectively inhibited HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT), but not HIV-2 RT. Combination of UC 38 with 3-azido-3-deoxythymidine synergistically inhibited HIV-induced cell killing. An HIV-1 isolate resistant to UC 38 was selected in cell culture, and the mutations in the RT nucleotide sequences were determined. Comparison with the wild-type RT sequence revealed an amino acid change at position 181 (Tyr to Cys). The UC 38-resistant virus was found to be cross-resistant to a variety of ...
Rights: This volume was digitized and made accessible online due to deterioration of the original print copy. If you are the author of this work and would like to have online access removed, please contact the Library Administration Office, 785-532-7400, [email protected] ...
Mono- and Stereopictres of 5.0 Angstrom coordination sphere of Potassium atom in PDB 2wqy: Remodelling Of Carboxin Binding to the Q-Site of Avian Respiratory Complex II
Chemet offers public health insecticides for Seed Treatment including Captan, Imidacloprid, Carboxin, Metaxyl, Captafol from Bharuch, India.
Thank you for your interest in spreading the word about Biochemical Society Transactions.. NOTE: We only request your email address so that the person you are recommending the page to knows that you wanted them to see it, and that it is not junk mail. We do not capture any email address.. ...
Flutolanil is a systemic fungicide for use specifically against basidiomycetes. It inhibits the hyphal growth and infection cushion formation. It ...
Parinov V.Ya.; Trushule M.; Lukevics E. Comparative pharmacokinetics of fungicides 3-(5-nitro-2-furyl)acrylic acid (5-NFAA) and 3-(5-nitro-2-furyl)acroleinoxime (5-NFAO) in rats and rabbits . Abstracts of lectures a. posters. S.l, 8th International symposium Systemic fungicides a. antifungal compounds; , 1986 ...
Chemicals & Allied Products - Manufacturer of Agricultural Herbicides, Agricultural Insecticide & Systemic Fungicides from Deoria, Uttar Pradesh, India
In accordance with Article 6 of Regulation (EC) No 396/2005, the applicant BASF SE submitted a request to the competent national authority in Germany to modify the existing maximum residue level (MRL) for the active substance boscalid in honey and other a .... ...
Background: Methyl-thiophanate (MT), a fungicide largely used in agriculture throughout the world including Tunisia, protects many vegetables, fruits and field crops against a wide spectrum of fungal diseases. Oxidative stress has been proposed as a possible mechanism involved in MT toxicity on non-target organism.. Methods: In the present study, the effect of MT injected intraperitoneally to adult rats at 300 or 500 mg/kg of body weight was studied on blood, liver and kidney.. Results: Our results showed 3 days after MT injection, a significant decrease in hemoglobin and hematocrit values. A disruption in total white blood cells and platelets also occurred. Accordingly, an increased in malondialdehyde, H2O2 and advanced oxidation protein levels in liver and kidney were noted with the two doses. A significant change in plasma biomarkers and organ enzymatic and non-enzymatic activities were observed after MT treatment. The modifications in biochemical parameters were substantiated by ...
Azoxystrobin is a systemic fungicide. It is absorbed through the roots and translocated in the xylem to the stems and leaves, or through leaf surfaces to the leaf tips and growing edges. The mode of action is by inhibition of mitochondrial...
0082] Further suitable examples of pesticides that can be used include acephate, acetamiprid, acetoprole, aldicarb, alpha-cypermethrin, azinphos-methyl, azoxystrobin, benalaxyl, benalaxyl-M, benclothiaz, bendicoarb, benfuracarb, benomyl, bensultap, bifenthrin, bitertanol, boscalid, captan, carbendazim, carbaryl, carbofuran, carbosulfan, carboxin, carbpropamid, chlorothalonil, chlorpyrifos, chlorpyrifos-methyl, clothianidin, copper salts (such as copper sulfate, cuprous oxide, Bordeaux mixture, copper hydroxide, copper sulfate (tribasic), copper oxychloride and copper octanoate), cymoxanil, cypermethrin, cyproconazole, cyprodinil, cyromazine, dazomet, deltamethrin, diazinon, difenoconazole, dimethoate, dimoxystrobin, diniconazole, dinotefuran, Emamectin, endosulfan, ethaboxam, ethirimol, ethiprole, ethoprophos, famoxadone, fenamidone, fenamiphos, fenhexamid, fenpiclonil, fipronil, flonicamid, fluoxastrobin, fluazinam, fludioxonil, fluquinconazole, flutolanil, flutriafol, fonophos, ...
0060] Further suitable examples of pesticides that can be used include acephate, acetamiprid, acetoprole, aldicarb, alpha-cypermethrin, azinphos-methyl, azoxystrobin, benalaxyl, benalaxyl-M, benclothiaz, bendicoarb, benfuracarb, benomyl, bensultap, bifenthrin, bitertanol, boscalid, captan, carbendazim, carbaryl, carbofuran, carbosulfan, carboxin, carbpropamid, chlorothalonil, chlorpyrifos, chlorpyrifos-methyl, clothianidin, copper salts (such as copper sulfate, cuprous oxide, Bordeaux mixture, copper hydroxide, copper sulfate (tribasic), copper oxychloride and copper octanoate), cymoxanil, cypermethrin, cyproconazole, cyprodinil, cyromazine, dazomet, deltamethrin, diazinon, difenoconazole, dimethoate, dimoxystrobin, diniconazole, dinotefuran, Emamectin, endosulfan, ethaboxam, ethirimol, ethiprole, ethoprophos, famoxadone, fenamidone, fenamiphos, fenhexamid, fenpiclonil, fipronil, flonicamid, fluoxastrobin, fluazinam, fludioxonil, fluquinconazole, flutolanil, flutriafol, fonophos, ...
1. Fungicides. Learn the difference between a contact (protectant) fungicide and a systemic fungicide. Although a glossary may help, the index in your textbook may guide you to good descriptions in the text.. 2. Biological control. Learn that biocontrol agents often interfere with pathogen activity by one or more of the following mechanisms: (1) parasitism of the pathogen, (2) competition with the pathogen for nutrients or other resources, (3) excretion of toxic substances or (4) induction of host resistance. For students with access to Agrios (1), read about Mechanism of Action on p. 307 and view the images in Figures 9-7 through 9-13.. 3. Host resistance. Learn what phytoalexins are (just a general working definition, not specifics about particular phytoalexins); the glossary and index of your text may serve as a guide to appropriate information. Although plants produce many types of biochemical defense mechanisms, phytoalexins will serve as a good example. Also learn that plants sometimes ...
Signs of Pytophthora crown rot and stem canker are wilting, decline and plant death although a fairly healthy root system may be present.. Phytophthora like Pythium is a a lower fungus favored by excess moisture and excess nitrogen fertility. Unlike Pythium, species of Phytophthora are more aggressive, more likely to be host specific, and less frequently found in greenhouses. The most likely source of origin is plant material.. Start with soilless growing media and avoid contaminating media with soiled hands, tools, or containers. Promptly remove diseased plants, avoid splashing water when irrigating and keep hose ends off the floor. The best means for controlling Phytophthora is with drenches of systemic fungicides which will move up into the crown area such as mefenoxam (Subdue Maxx), foestyl-Al (Aliette) azoxystrobin (Heritage), or phosphonate-Al (ProPhyt). Check label for crop appropriateness. Rotate fungicides to prevent resistance development.. ...

Carboxin- CAS Number 5234-68-4Carboxin- CAS Number 5234-68-4

Buy Carboxin - CAS Number 5234-68-4 from LGC Standards. Please login or register to view prices, check availability and place ...
more infohttps://www.lgcstandards.com/CN/en/Carboxin/p/DRE-C11040000

Effect of Carboxin on loose smut, Ustilago tritici, of wheatEffect of Carboxin on loose smut, Ustilago tritici, of wheat

... K-REx Repository. Search K-REx. This Collection. ... Effect of Carboxin on loose smut, Ustilago tritici, of wheat. Baig, Anwar ...
more infohttp://krex.k-state.edu/dspace/handle/2097/10485

CarboxinCarboxin

... is an anilide fungicide. It is used agriculturally to protect seeds from disease by application prior to planting. CAS ...
more infohttps://www.toku-e.com/Carboxin-P3930.aspx

Seed Treatment - Captan, Imidacloprid, Carboxin, Metaxyl, CaptafolSeed Treatment - Captan, Imidacloprid, Carboxin, Metaxyl, Captafol

Generic Name : CARBOXIN 75% WP Chemical composition Carboxin Technical 75.00% w/w. Adjuvents /filler*. Adjuvent ie. Emulsifire ...
more infohttp://www.chemet.in/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=50&Itemid=142

Germination, vigor and pathogen incidence in broccoli seeds treated with Carboxin + ThiramGermination, vigor and pathogen incidence in broccoli seeds treated with Carboxin + Thiram

... Author. * Cardoso, Antonio Ismael ... Therefore, this study evaluates the effects of Carboxin + Thiram doses on germination and vigor of three lots of broccoli seeds ... Germination, vigor and pathogen incidence in broccoli seeds treated with Carboxin + Thiram. African Journal of Agricultural ... of Carboxin + Thiram fungicide (commercial name Vitavax-Thiran). The germination and seed vigor were evaluated, in addition to ...
more infohttps://repositorio.unesp.br/handle/11449/137525

Potassium in the structure of Remodelling Of Carboxin Binding to the Q-Site of Avian Respiratory Complex II (pdb 2wqy)Potassium in the structure of Remodelling Of Carboxin Binding to the Q-Site of Avian Respiratory Complex II (pdb 2wqy)

Remodelling Of Carboxin Binding to the Q-Site of Avian Respiratory Complex II ... Potassium in the structure of Remodelling Of Carboxin Binding to the Q-Site of Avian Respiratory Complex II (pdb 2wqy). ... The binding sites of Potassium atom in the structure of Remodelling Of Carboxin Binding to the Q-Site of Avian Respiratory ...
more infohttp://potassium.atomistry.com/pdb2wqy.html

Gateway on Pesticide Hazards and Safe Pest Management - Beyond PesticidesGateway on Pesticide Hazards and Safe Pest Management - Beyond Pesticides

Carboxin. General Information. *Product Names:. Prevail (Bayer) formulated with Benzene and Metalaxyl. Stiletto (Bayer) ...
more infohttp://beyondpesticides.org/resources/pesticide-gateway?pesticideid=109

Fungicides - RPIFungicides - RPI

Shop for fungicides and other products for plant and life science research labs at RPI. Here you get the highest quality product at the lowest possible price.
more infohttps://www.rpicorp.com/products/biochemicals/fungicides.html

Registration Review Schedules | Reevaluation: Review of Registered Pesticides | US EPARegistration Review Schedules | Reevaluation: Review of Registered Pesticides | US EPA

Through the Pesticide Registration Review program, EPA reviews all registered pesticides at least every 15 years, as mandated by the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act.. EPA always strives to base its decisions on the best available sound science. However, science is constantly evolving, and new scientific information can come to light at any time and change our understanding of potential risks from pesticides. The review of new data could potentially prolong the risk assessment and decision-making process and change this schedule.. The schedule below shows the status of pesticides undergoing registration review. This schedule is subject to change based on shifting priorities and is intended to be a rough timeline. We will update the schedule regularly to reflect any timeline changes and to include anticipated deliverables for later dates.. ...
more infohttps://www.epa.gov/pesticide-reevaluation/registration-review-schedules

Federal Register
       :: 
      Pesticide Reregistration Performance Measures and GoalsFederal Register :: Pesticide Reregistration Performance Measures and Goals

This notice announces EPAs progress in meeting its performance measures and goals for pesticide reregistration during fiscal year 2003. The Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA) requires EPA to publish information about EPAs annual achievements in this area. This notice...
more infohttps://www.federalregister.gov/documents/2004/05/05/04-10213/pesticide-reregistration-performance-measures-and-goals

Pesticide Analytical Manual Volume II (PAM 2) IndexPesticide Analytical Manual Volume II (PAM 2) Index

180.301 carboxin 10/77. 180.303 oxamyl (186.4575) 10/77. 180.304 oryzalin (185.4550) 10/77. 180.305 3,4,5-trimethylphenyl ... carboxin (180.301) 10/77. carfentrazone ethyl ester, see carfentrazone-ethyl (180.515) *. carfentrazone-ethyl (180.515) *. ...
more infohttps://www.fda.gov/Food/FoodScienceResearch/LaboratoryMethods/ucm115113.htm

Hetero compounds with composition C H N O SHetero compounds with composition C H N O S

... carboxin; cbx Get C12 H13 N O3 S = ans = 5-(dimethylamino)-1-naphthalenesulfonic acid(dansyl acid); dansyl acid Get C12 H13 N ...
more infohttp://xray.bmc.uu.se/hicup/comp/C_H_N_O_S_comp.html

SDHA Gene - GeneCards | SDHA Protein | SDHA AntibodySDHA Gene - GeneCards | SDHA Protein | SDHA Antibody

Complete information for SDHA gene (Protein Coding), Succinate Dehydrogenase Complex Flavoprotein Subunit A, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
more infohttp://www.genecards.org/cgi-bin/carddisp.pl?gene=SDHA

SDHA Gene - GeneCards | SDHA Protein | SDHA AntibodySDHA Gene - GeneCards | SDHA Protein | SDHA Antibody

Complete information for SDHA gene (Protein Coding), Succinate Dehydrogenase Complex Flavoprotein Subunit A, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
more infohttp://www.genecards.org/cgi-bin/carddisp.pl?gene=SDHA&rf=/home/genecards/current/website/carddisp.pl&origene_rfpshrna_func=2

Harmonised classification and labelling previous consultations - ECHAHarmonised classification and labelling previous consultations - ECHA

carboxin (ISO); 2-methyl-N-phenyl-5,6-dihydro-1,4-oxathiine-3-carboxamide; 5,6-dihydro-2-methyl-1,4-oxathiine-3-carboxanilide ...
more infohttps://echa.europa.eu/harmonised-classification-and-labelling-previous-consultations

Succinate dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] flavoprotein subunit, mitochondrial - DrugBankSuccinate dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] flavoprotein subunit, mitochondrial - DrugBank

Carboxin. experimental, investigational. unknown. Details. DB04795. Thenoyltrifluoroacetone. experimental. unknown. Details. ...
more infohttps://www.drugbank.ca/biodb/bio_entities/BE0000176

Eating with a Conscience - Beyond PesticidesEating with a Conscience - Beyond Pesticides

Carboxin (C, W). Carfentrazone-ethyl (W). Chloroneb (C). Chlorothalonil (A, C, GW, W, LT). Chlorpyrifos (A, C, SW, GW, W, B, LT ...
more infohttp://beyondpesticides.org/resources/eating-with-a-conscience/choose-a-crop?foodid=21

SDHB - WikipediaSDHB - Wikipedia

Initially, SDHA oxidizes succinate via deprotonation at the FAD binding site, forming FADH2 and leaving fumarate, loosely bound to the active site, free to exit the protein. Electrons from FADH2 are transferred to the SDHB subunit iron clusters [2Fe-2S],[4Fe-4S],[3Fe-4S] and tunnel along the [Fe-S] relay until they reach the [3Fe-4S] iron sulfur cluster. The electrons are then transferred to an awaiting ubiquinone molecule at the Q pool active site in the SDHC/SDHD dimer. The O1 carbonyl oxygen of ubiquinone is oriented at the active site (image 4) by hydrogen bond interactions with Tyr83 of SDHD. The presence of electrons in the [3Fe-4S] iron sulphur cluster induces the movement of ubiquinone into a second orientation. This facilitates a second hydrogen bond interaction between the O4 carbonyl group of ubiquinone and Ser27 of SDHC. Following the first single electron reduction step, a semiquinone radical species is formed. The second electron arrives from the [3Fe-4S] cluster to provide full ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/SDHB

Phenomenex GC Application #15440: Nitrogen and Phosphorous Pesticides on ZB-5MSPhenomenex GC Application #15440: Nitrogen and Phosphorous Pesticides on ZB-5MS

GC Application #15440: Nitrogen and Phosphorous Pesticides on ZB-5MS. Column used: Zebron™ ZB-5MS, GC Cap. Column 30 m x 0.25 mm x 0.25 µm, Ea Part#: 7HG-G010-11
more infohttp://www.phenomenex.com/Application/Detail/15440

Asia-Pacific Seed Treatment Market by Crop Types & Applications -2018 | MarketsandMarketsAsia-Pacific Seed Treatment Market by Crop Types & Applications -2018 | MarketsandMarkets

4.2.3.3.5 Carboxin 4.2.4 Others 4.2.4.1 Micronutrients 4.2.4.2 Colorants 4.2.4.3 Polymers 4.2.4.4 Phytohormones 4.2.4.5 ...
more infohttps://www.marketsandmarkets.com/Market-Reports/asia-pacific-seed-treatment-market-1125.html

North America Seed Treatment Market - Forecast-2018 | MarketsandMarketsNorth America Seed Treatment Market - Forecast-2018 | MarketsandMarkets

4.2.3.3.5 Carboxin 4.2.4 Others 4.2.4.1 Micronutrients 4.2.4.2 Colorants 4.2.4.3 Polymers 4.2.4.4 Phytohormones 4.2.4.5 ...
more infohttps://www.marketsandmarkets.com/Market-Reports/north-america-seed-treatment-market-1123.html
  • Carboxin is an anilide fungicide. (toku-e.com)
  • The 15 treatments were evaluated in a factorial system (3x5), with the first factor consisting of three lots of 'Avenger' broccoli seeds (lots 82744, 82745 and 82749), and the second factor consisting of five doses (0, 0.04, 0.06, 0.10 and 0.12% of a.i.) of Carboxin + Thiram fungicide (commercial name Vitavax-Thiran). (unesp.br)