Carbonyl Cyanide m-Chlorophenyl Hydrazone: A proton ionophore. It is commonly used as an uncoupling agent and inhibitor of photosynthesis because of its effects on mitochondrial and chloroplast membranes.Cyanides: Inorganic salts of HYDROGEN CYANIDE containing the -CN radical. The concept also includes isocyanides. It is distinguished from NITRILES, which denotes organic compounds containing the -CN radical.Carbonyl Cyanide p-Trifluoromethoxyphenylhydrazone: A proton ionophore that is commonly used as an uncoupling agent in biochemical studies.Hydrogen Cyanide: Hydrogen cyanide (HCN); A toxic liquid or colorless gas. It is found in the smoke of various tobacco products and released by combustion of nitrogen-containing organic materials.Potassium Cyanide: A highly poisonous compound that is an inhibitor of many metabolic processes, but has been shown to be an especially potent inhibitor of heme enzymes and hemeproteins. It is used in many industrial processes.Uncoupling Agents: Chemical agents that uncouple oxidation from phosphorylation in the metabolic cycle so that ATP synthesis does not occur. Included here are those IONOPHORES that disrupt electron transfer by short-circuiting the proton gradient across mitochondrial membranes.Sodium Cyanide: A highly poisonous compound that is an inhibitor of many metabolic processes and is used as a test reagent for the function of chemoreceptors. It is also used in many industrial processes.Valinomycin: A cyclododecadepsipeptide ionophore antibiotic produced by Streptomyces fulvissimus and related to the enniatins. It is composed of 3 moles each of L-valine, D-alpha-hydroxyisovaleric acid, D-valine, and L-lactic acid linked alternately to form a 36-membered ring. (From Merck Index, 11th ed) Valinomycin is a potassium selective ionophore and is commonly used as a tool in biochemical studies.Proton Ionophores: Chemical agents that increase the permeability of CELL MEMBRANES to PROTONS.Ionophores: Chemical agents that increase the permeability of biological or artificial lipid membranes to specific ions. Most ionophores are relatively small organic molecules that act as mobile carriers within membranes or coalesce to form ion permeable channels across membranes. Many are antibiotics, and many act as uncoupling agents by short-circuiting the proton gradient across mitochondrial membranes.Nigericin: A polyether antibiotic which affects ion transport and ATPase activity in mitochondria. It is produced by Streptomyces hygroscopicus. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Oligomycins: A closely related group of toxic substances elaborated by various strains of Streptomyces. They are 26-membered macrolides with lactone moieties and double bonds and inhibit various ATPases, causing uncoupling of phosphorylation from mitochondrial respiration. Used as tools in cytochemistry. Some specific oligomycins are RUTAMYCIN, peliomycin, and botrycidin (formerly venturicidin X).Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)2,4-Dinitrophenol: A toxic dye, chemically related to trinitrophenol (picric acid), used in biochemical studies of oxidative processes where it uncouples oxidative phosphorylation. It is also used as a metabolic stimulant. (Stedman, 26th ed)Antimycin A: An antibiotic substance produced by Streptomyces species. It inhibits mitochondrial respiration and may deplete cellular levels of ATP. Antimycin A1 has been used as a fungicide, insecticide, and miticide. (From Merck Index, 12th ed)Hydrazones: Compounds of the general formula R:N.NR2, as resulting from the action of hydrazines with aldehydes or ketones. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Mitochondria: Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Dicyclohexylcarbodiimide: A carbodiimide that is used as a chemical intermediate and coupling agent in peptide synthesis. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)Antimetabolites: Drugs that are chemically similar to naturally occurring metabolites, but differ enough to interfere with normal metabolic pathways. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p2033)Adenosine Triphosphate: An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.Protein Carbonylation: The appearance of carbonyl groups (such as aldehyde or ketone groups) in PROTEINS as the result of several oxidative modification reactions. It is a standard marker for OXIDATIVE STRESS. Carbonylated proteins tend to be more hydrophobic and resistant to proteolysis.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Biological Transport, Active: The movement of materials across cell membranes and epithelial layers against an electrochemical gradient, requiring the expenditure of metabolic energy.Sodium Azide: A cytochrome oxidase inhibitor which is a nitridizing agent and an inhibitor of terminal oxidation. (From Merck Index, 12th ed)Protons: Stable elementary particles having the smallest known positive charge, found in the nuclei of all elements. The proton mass is less than that of a neutron. A proton is the nucleus of the light hydrogen atom, i.e., the hydrogen ion.Oxidative Phosphorylation: Electron transfer through the cytochrome system liberating free energy which is transformed into high-energy phosphate bonds.Monensin: An antiprotozoal agent produced by Streptomyces cinnamonensis. It exerts its effect during the development of first-generation trophozoites into first-generation schizonts within the intestinal epithelial cells. It does not interfere with hosts' development of acquired immunity to the majority of coccidial species. Monensin is a sodium and proton selective ionophore and is widely used as such in biochemical studies.Membrane Potentials: The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Iron Carbonyl Compounds: Complex of iron atoms chelated with carbonyl ions.Thenoyltrifluoroacetone: Chelating agent and inhibitor of cellular respiration.Hydroxocobalamin: Injectable form of VITAMIN B 12 that has been used therapeutically to treat VITAMIN B 12 DEFICIENCY.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.Oxygen Consumption: The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)Nitriles: Organic compounds containing the -CN radical. The concept is distinguished from CYANIDES, which denotes inorganic salts of HYDROGEN CYANIDE.Intracellular Membranes: Thin structures that encapsulate subcellular structures or ORGANELLES in EUKARYOTIC CELLS. They include a variety of membranes associated with the CELL NUCLEUS; the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.Azides: Organic or inorganic compounds that contain the -N3 group.Electron Transport: The process by which ELECTRONS are transported from a reduced substrate to molecular OXYGEN. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary and Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984, p270)Ruthenium Red: An inorganic dye used in microscopy for differential staining and as a diagnostic reagent. In research this compound is used to study changes in cytoplasmic concentrations of calcium. Ruthenium red inhibits calcium transport through membrane channels.Rotenone: A botanical insecticide that is an inhibitor of mitochondrial electron transport.Phenalenes: A group of AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS that have three rings joined as a triad around a single carbon atom so all three are conjoined, in contrast to a linear arrangement (ANTHRACENES) or angular arrangement (PHENANTHRENES).Arsenates: Inorganic or organic salts and esters of arsenic acid.Methylphenazonium Methosulfate: Used as an electron carrier in place of the flavine enzyme of Warburg in the hexosemonophosphate system and also in the preparation of SUCCINIC DEHYDROGENASE.Dinitrophenols: Organic compounds that contain two nitro groups attached to a phenol.Onium Compounds: Ions with the suffix -onium, indicating cations with coordination number 4 of the type RxA+ which are analogous to QUATERNARY AMMONIUM COMPOUNDS (H4N+). Ions include phosphonium R4P+, oxonium R3O+, sulfonium R3S+, chloronium R2Cl+KetonesAntidotes: Agents counteracting or neutralizing the action of POISONS.Sodium: A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.Succinates: Derivatives of SUCCINIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain a 1,4-carboxy terminated aliphatic structure.Mitochondria, Liver: Mitochondria in hepatocytes. As in all mitochondria, there are an outer membrane and an inner membrane, together creating two separate mitochondrial compartments: the internal matrix space and a much narrower intermembrane space. In the liver mitochondrion, an estimated 67% of the total mitochondrial proteins is located in the matrix. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p343-4)Potassium: An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.HydrazinesRuthenium Compounds: Inorganic compounds that contain ruthenium as an integral part of the molecule.Aldehydes: Organic compounds containing a carbonyl group in the form -CHO.Proton-Motive Force: Energy that is generated by the transfer of protons or electrons across an energy-transducing membrane and that can be used for chemical, osmotic, or mechanical work. Proton-motive force can be generated by a variety of phenomena including the operation of an electron transport chain, illumination of a PURPLE MEMBRANE, and the hydrolysis of ATP by a proton ATPase. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed, p171)Cytochromes: Hemeproteins whose characteristic mode of action involves transfer of reducing equivalents which are associated with a reversible change in oxidation state of the prosthetic group. Formally, this redox change involves a single-electron, reversible equilibrium between the Fe(II) and Fe(III) states of the central iron atom (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p539). The various cytochrome subclasses are organized by the type of HEME and by the wavelength range of their reduced alpha-absorption bands.Sulfur Oxides: Inorganic oxides of sulfur.MethylaminesAcriflavine: 3,6-Diamino-10-methylacridinium chloride mixt. with 3,6-acridinediamine. Fluorescent dye used as a local antiseptic and also as a biological stain. It intercalates into nucleic acids thereby inhibiting bacterial and viral replication.Alcohol Oxidoreductases: A subclass of enzymes which includes all dehydrogenases acting on primary and secondary alcohols as well as hemiacetals. They are further classified according to the acceptor which can be NAD+ or NADP+ (subclass 1.1.1), cytochrome (1.1.2), oxygen (1.1.3), quinone (1.1.5), or another acceptor (1.1.99).Mitochondria, Muscle: Mitochondria of skeletal and smooth muscle. It does not include myocardial mitochondria for which MITOCHONDRIA, HEART is available.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Energy Metabolism: The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.Proteolipids: Protein-lipid combinations abundant in brain tissue, but also present in a wide variety of animal and plant tissues. In contrast to lipoproteins, they are insoluble in water, but soluble in a chloroform-methanol mixture. The protein moiety has a high content of hydrophobic amino acids. The associated lipids consist of a mixture of GLYCEROPHOSPHATES; CEREBROSIDES; and SULFOGLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS; while lipoproteins contain PHOSPHOLIPIDS; CHOLESTEROL; and TRIGLYCERIDES.NAD: A coenzyme composed of ribosylnicotinamide 5'-diphosphate coupled to adenosine 5'-phosphate by pyrophosphate linkage. It is found widely in nature and is involved in numerous enzymatic reactions in which it serves as an electron carrier by being alternately oxidized (NAD+) and reduced (NADH). (Dorland, 27th ed)Aminopyrine N-DemethylaseFluorescent Dyes: Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Iridium: A metallic element with the atomic symbol Ir, atomic number 77, and atomic weight 192.22.Thapsigargin: A sesquiterpene lactone found in roots of THAPSIA. It inhibits CA(2+)-TRANSPORTING ATPASE mediated uptake of CALCIUM into SARCOPLASMIC RETICULUM.Spheroplasts: Cells, usually bacteria or yeast, which have partially lost their cell wall, lost their characteristic shape and become round.PhenazinesElectrochemistry: The study of chemical changes resulting from electrical action and electrical activity resulting from chemical changes.Glucose: A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.Digitonin: A glycoside obtained from Digitalis purpurea; the aglycone is digitogenin which is bound to five sugars. Digitonin solubilizes lipids, especially in membranes and is used as a tool in cellular biochemistry, and reagent for precipitating cholesterol. It has no cardiac effects.Ethidium: A trypanocidal agent and possible antiviral agent that is widely used in experimental cell biology and biochemistry. Ethidium has several experimentally useful properties including binding to nucleic acids, noncompetitive inhibition of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, and fluorescence among others. It is most commonly used as the bromide.Oxygen: An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.Anaerobiosis: The complete absence, or (loosely) the paucity, of gaseous or dissolved elemental oxygen in a given place or environment. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Cell Membrane Permeability: A quality of cell membranes which permits the passage of solvents and solutes into and out of cells.Hydrogen: The first chemical element in the periodic table. It has the atomic symbol H, atomic number 1, and atomic weight [1.00784; 1.00811]. It exists, under normal conditions, as a colorless, odorless, tasteless, diatomic gas. Hydrogen ions are PROTONS. Besides the common H1 isotope, hydrogen exists as the stable isotope DEUTERIUM and the unstable, radioactive isotope TRITIUM.Aerobiosis: Life or metabolic reactions occurring in an environment containing oxygen.Indicators and Reagents: Substances used for the detection, identification, analysis, etc. of chemical, biological, or pathologic processes or conditions. Indicators are substances that change in physical appearance, e.g., color, at or approaching the endpoint of a chemical titration, e.g., on the passage between acidity and alkalinity. Reagents are substances used for the detection or determination of another substance by chemical or microscopical means, especially analysis. Types of reagents are precipitants, solvents, oxidizers, reducers, fluxes, and colorimetric reagents. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed, p301, p499)Membrane Transport Proteins: Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of molecules across a biological membrane. Included in this broad category are proteins involved in active transport (BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT, ACTIVE), facilitated transport and ION CHANNELS.Ammonium Chloride: An acidifying agent that has expectorant and diuretic effects. Also used in etching and batteries and as a flux in electroplating.Adenosine Triphosphatases: A group of enzymes which catalyze the hydrolysis of ATP. The hydrolysis reaction is usually coupled with another function such as transporting Ca(2+) across a membrane. These enzymes may be dependent on Ca(2+), Mg(2+), anions, H+, or DNA.Ferricyanides: Inorganic salts of the hypothetical acid, H3Fe(CN)6.Mitochondrial Swelling: An increase in MITOCHONDRIAL VOLUME due to an influx of fluid; it occurs in hypotonic solutions due to osmotic pressure and in isotonic solutions as a result of altered permeability of the membranes of respiring mitochondria.Spectrophotometry: The art or process of comparing photometrically the relative intensities of the light in different parts of the spectrum.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Anti-Infective Agents: Substances that prevent infectious agents or organisms from spreading or kill infectious agents in order to prevent the spread of infection.Phosphates: Inorganic salts of phosphoric acid.MalatesOxidoreductases Acting on CH-NH2 Group Donors: Enzymes catalyzing the dehydrogenation of or oxidation of compounds containing primary amines.Succinic Acid: A water-soluble, colorless crystal with an acid taste that is used as a chemical intermediate, in medicine, the manufacture of lacquers, and to make perfume esters. It is also used in foods as a sequestrant, buffer, and a neutralizing agent. (Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed, p1099; McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1851)Proton-Translocating ATPases: Multisubunit enzymes that reversibly synthesize ADENOSINE TRIPHOSPHATE. They are coupled to the transport of protons across a membrane.Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Phenylhydrazines: Diazo derivatives of aniline, used as a reagent for sugars, ketones, and aldehydes. (Dorland, 28th ed)Thiocyanates: Organic derivatives of thiocyanic acid which contain the general formula R-SCN.Organophosphorus Compounds: Organic compounds that contain phosphorus as an integral part of the molecule. Included under this heading is broad array of synthetic compounds that are used as PESTICIDES and DRUGS.Cytosol: Intracellular fluid from the cytoplasm after removal of ORGANELLES and other insoluble cytoplasmic components.Caffeine: A methylxanthine naturally occurring in some beverages and also used as a pharmacological agent. Caffeine's most notable pharmacological effect is as a central nervous system stimulant, increasing alertness and producing agitation. It also relaxes SMOOTH MUSCLE, stimulates CARDIAC MUSCLE, stimulates DIURESIS, and appears to be useful in the treatment of some types of headache. Several cellular actions of caffeine have been observed, but it is not entirely clear how each contributes to its pharmacological profile. Among the most important are inhibition of cyclic nucleotide PHOSPHODIESTERASES, antagonism of ADENOSINE RECEPTORS, and modulation of intracellular calcium handling.MethemoglobinCells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Stereoisomerism: The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes: A species of gram-negative bacteria in the genus PSEUDOMONAS. All strains can utilize FRUCTOSE for energy. It is occasionally isolated from humans and some strains are pathogenic to WATERMELON.Glycolysis: A metabolic process that converts GLUCOSE into two molecules of PYRUVIC ACID through a series of enzymatic reactions. Energy generated by this process is conserved in two molecules of ATP. Glycolysis is the universal catabolic pathway for glucose, free glucose, or glucose derived from complex CARBOHYDRATES, such as GLYCOGEN and STARCH.Cell Respiration: The metabolic process of all living cells (animal and plant) in which oxygen is used to provide a source of energy for the cell.Submitochondrial Particles: The various filaments, granules, tubules or other inclusions within mitochondria.Oxidative Stress: A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).Calcium-Transporting ATPases: Cation-transporting proteins that utilize the energy of ATP hydrolysis for the transport of CALCIUM. They differ from CALCIUM CHANNELS which allow calcium to pass through a membrane without the use of energy.Anti-Bacterial Agents: Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.Adenosine Diphosphate: Adenosine 5'-(trihydrogen diphosphate). An adenine nucleotide containing two phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety at the 5'-position.Cytochrome c Group: A group of cytochromes with covalent thioether linkages between either or both of the vinyl side chains of protoheme and the protein. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p539)Anions: Negatively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms which travel to the anode or positive pole during electrolysis.Microbial Sensitivity Tests: Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).Hydrogenation: Addition of hydrogen to a compound, especially to an unsaturated fat or fatty acid. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Proline: A non-essential amino acid that is synthesized from GLUTAMIC ACID. It is an essential component of COLLAGEN and is important for proper functioning of joints and tendons.Reactive Oxygen Species: Molecules or ions formed by the incomplete one-electron reduction of oxygen. These reactive oxygen intermediates include SINGLET OXYGEN; SUPEROXIDES; PEROXIDES; HYDROXYL RADICAL; and HYPOCHLOROUS ACID. They contribute to the microbicidal activity of PHAGOCYTES, regulation of signal transduction and gene expression, and the oxidative damage to NUCLEIC ACIDS; PROTEINS; and LIPIDS.Liposomes: Artificial, single or multilaminar vesicles (made from lecithins or other lipids) that are used for the delivery of a variety of biological molecules or molecular complexes to cells, for example, drug delivery and gene transfer. They are also used to study membranes and membrane proteins.Catalysis: The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Molecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.Adenine NucleotidesMitochondria, Heart: The mitochondria of the myocardium.Carbon Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of carbon that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. C atoms with atomic weights 10, 11, and 14-16 are radioactive carbon isotopes.Thiosulfate Sulfurtransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of the planetary sulfur atom of thiosulfate ion to cyanide ion to form thiocyanate ion. EC 2.8.1.1.Intracellular Fluid: The fluid inside CELLS.Vanadates: Oxyvanadium ions in various states of oxidation. They act primarily as ion transport inhibitors due to their inhibition of Na(+)-, K(+)-, and Ca(+)-ATPase transport systems. They also have insulin-like action, positive inotropic action on cardiac ventricular muscle, and other metabolic effects.Calcium Signaling: Signal transduction mechanisms whereby calcium mobilization (from outside the cell or from intracellular storage pools) to the cytoplasm is triggered by external stimuli. Calcium signals are often seen to propagate as waves, oscillations, spikes, sparks, or puffs. The calcium acts as an intracellular messenger by activating calcium-responsive proteins.Carbon Monoxide: Carbon monoxide (CO). A poisonous colorless, odorless, tasteless gas. It combines with hemoglobin to form carboxyhemoglobin, which has no oxygen carrying capacity. The resultant oxygen deprivation causes headache, dizziness, decreased pulse and respiratory rates, unconsciousness, and death. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Cations: Positively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms which travel to the cathode or negative pole during electrolysis.Spectrophotometry, Infrared: Spectrophotometry in the infrared region, usually for the purpose of chemical analysis through measurement of absorption spectra associated with rotational and vibrational energy levels of molecules. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Oxidoreductases: The class of all enzymes catalyzing oxidoreduction reactions. The substrate that is oxidized is regarded as a hydrogen donor. The systematic name is based on donor:acceptor oxidoreductase. The recommended name will be dehydrogenase, wherever this is possible; as an alternative, reductase can be used. Oxidase is only used in cases where O2 is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p9)Osmolar Concentration: The concentration of osmotically active particles in solution expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per liter of solution. Osmolality is expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per kilogram of solvent.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Magnesium: A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Mg, atomic number 12, and atomic weight 24.31. It is important for the activity of many enzymes, especially those involved in OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION.Fluoroquinolones: A group of QUINOLONES with at least one fluorine atom and a piperazinyl group.Spectrometry, Fluorescence: Measurement of the intensity and quality of fluorescence.CobamidesCarbonic Acid: Carbonic acid (H2C03). The hypothetical acid of carbon dioxide and water. It exists only in the form of its salts (carbonates), acid salts (hydrogen carbonates), amines (carbamic acid), and acid chlorides (carbonyl chloride). (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)GlyoxalHydrogen Bonding: A low-energy attractive force between hydrogen and another element. It plays a major role in determining the properties of water, proteins, and other compounds.Fluorescence: The property of emitting radiation while being irradiated. The radiation emitted is usually of longer wavelength than that incident or absorbed, e.g., a substance can be irradiated with invisible radiation and emit visible light. X-ray fluorescence is used in diagnosis.Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Calcimycin: An ionophorous, polyether antibiotic from Streptomyces chartreusensis. It binds and transports CALCIUM and other divalent cations across membranes and uncouples oxidative phosphorylation while inhibiting ATPase of rat liver mitochondria. The substance is used mostly as a biochemical tool to study the role of divalent cations in various biological systems.Ouabain: A cardioactive glycoside consisting of rhamnose and ouabagenin, obtained from the seeds of Strophanthus gratus and other plants of the Apocynaceae; used like DIGITALIS. It is commonly used in cell biological studies as an inhibitor of the NA(+)-K(+)-EXCHANGING ATPASE.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Coloring Agents: Chemicals and substances that impart color including soluble dyes and insoluble pigments. They are used in INKS; PAINTS; and as INDICATORS AND REAGENTS.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Alcohols: Alkyl compounds containing a hydroxyl group. They are classified according to relation of the carbon atom: primary alcohols, R-CH2OH; secondary alcohols, R2-CHOH; tertiary alcohols, R3-COH. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)DNA Gyrase: A bacterial DNA topoisomerase II that catalyzes ATP-dependent breakage of both strands of DNA, passage of the unbroken strands through the breaks, and rejoining of the broken strands. Gyrase binds to DNA as a heterotetramer consisting of two A and two B subunits. In the presence of ATP, gyrase is able to convert the relaxed circular DNA duplex into a superhelix. In the absence of ATP, supercoiled DNA is relaxed by DNA gyrase.Thiosulfates: Inorganic salts of thiosulfuric acid possessing the general formula R2S2O3.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Membrane Potential, Mitochondrial: The voltage difference, normally maintained at approximately -180mV, across the INNER MITOCHONDRIAL MEMBRANE, by a net movement of positive charge across the membrane. It is a major component of the PROTON MOTIVE FORCE in MITOCHONDRIA used to drive the synthesis of ATP.Amygdalin: A cyanogenic glycoside found in the seeds of Rosaceae.Electron Transport Complex IV: A multisubunit enzyme complex containing CYTOCHROME A GROUP; CYTOCHROME A3; two copper atoms; and 13 different protein subunits. It is the terminal oxidase complex of the RESPIRATORY CHAIN and collects electrons that are transferred from the reduced CYTOCHROME C GROUP and donates them to molecular OXYGEN, which is then reduced to water. The redox reaction is simultaneously coupled to the transport of PROTONS across the inner mitochondrial membrane.Escherichia coli Proteins: Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.Endoplasmic Reticulum: A system of cisternae in the CYTOPLASM of many cells. In places the endoplasmic reticulum is continuous with the plasma membrane (CELL MEMBRANE) or outer membrane of the nuclear envelope. If the outer surfaces of the endoplasmic reticulum membranes are coated with ribosomes, the endoplasmic reticulum is said to be rough-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, ROUGH); otherwise it is said to be smooth-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, SMOOTH). (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Pyruvaldehyde: An organic compound used often as a reagent in organic synthesis, as a flavoring agent, and in tanning. It has been demonstrated as an intermediate in the metabolism of acetone and its derivatives in isolated cell preparations, in various culture media, and in vivo in certain animals.Permeability: Property of membranes and other structures to permit passage of light, heat, gases, liquids, metabolites, and mineral ions.Heme: The color-furnishing portion of hemoglobin. It is found free in tissues and as the prosthetic group in many hemeproteins.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Ryanodine: A methylpyrrole-carboxylate from RYANIA that disrupts the RYANODINE RECEPTOR CALCIUM RELEASE CHANNEL to modify CALCIUM release from SARCOPLASMIC RETICULUM resulting in alteration of MUSCLE CONTRACTION. It was previously used in INSECTICIDES. It is used experimentally in conjunction with THAPSIGARGIN and other inhibitors of CALCIUM ATPASE uptake of calcium into SARCOPLASMIC RETICULUM.Porins: Porins are protein molecules that were originally found in the outer membrane of GRAM-NEGATIVE BACTERIA and that form multi-meric channels for the passive DIFFUSION of WATER; IONS; or other small molecules. Porins are present in bacterial CELL WALLS, as well as in plant, fungal, mammalian and other vertebrate CELL MEMBRANES and MITOCHONDRIAL MEMBRANES.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.AcroleinProtein Processing, Post-Translational: Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.Ciprofloxacin: A broad-spectrum antimicrobial carboxyfluoroquinoline.Cytoplasmic Granules: Condensed areas of cellular material that may be bounded by a membrane.Molecular Conformation: The characteristic three-dimensional shape of a molecule.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Ion Channels: Gated, ion-selective glycoproteins that traverse membranes. The stimulus for ION CHANNEL GATING can be due to a variety of stimuli such as LIGANDS, a TRANSMEMBRANE POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE, mechanical deformation or through INTRACELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS.Vacuoles: Any spaces or cavities within a cell. They may function in digestion, storage, secretion, or excretion.Alkadienes: Acyclic branched or unbranched hydrocarbons having two carbon-carbon double bonds.Drug Resistance, Microbial: The ability of microorganisms, especially bacteria, to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).Pseudomonas fluorescens: A species of nonpathogenic fluorescent bacteria found in feces, sewage, soil, and water, and which liquefy gelatin.Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.Metmyoglobin: Myoglobin which is in the oxidized ferric or hemin form. The oxidation causes a change in color from red to brown.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Hydroxyquinolines: The 8-hydroxy derivatives inhibit various enzymes and their halogenated derivatives, though neurotoxic, are used as topical anti-infective agents, among other uses.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Cell Compartmentation: A partitioning within cells due to the selectively permeable membranes which enclose each of the separate parts, e.g., mitochondria, lysosomes, etc.Drug Resistance, Multiple: Simultaneous resistance to several structurally and functionally distinct drugs.Egtazic Acid: A chelating agent relatively more specific for calcium and less toxic than EDETIC ACID.Cytoplasm: The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)Drug Resistance, Bacterial: The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial: The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to several structurally and functionally distinct drugs simultaneously. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).Allyl CompoundsStructure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Electron Spin Resonance Spectroscopy: A technique applicable to the wide variety of substances which exhibit paramagnetism because of the magnetic moments of unpaired electrons. The spectra are useful for detection and identification, for determination of electron structure, for study of interactions between molecules, and for measurement of nuclear spins and moments. (From McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science and Technology, 7th edition) Electron nuclear double resonance (ENDOR) spectroscopy is a variant of the technique which can give enhanced resolution. Electron spin resonance analysis can now be used in vivo, including imaging applications such as MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING.

Transgenic UCP1 in white adipocytes modulates mitochondrial membrane potential. (1/582)

To test if mitochondrial uncoupling in white adipocytes is responsible for obesity resistance of the aP2-Ucp transgenic mice expressing ectopic uncoupling protein 1 (UCPI) in white fat, mitochondrial membrane potential (delta psi(m)) was estimated by flow cytometry in adipocytes isolated from gonadal fat. Ectopic UCP1 (approximately 0.8 mol UCP1/mol respiratory chain) decreased the delta psi(m) and rendered the potential sensitive to GDP and fatty acids. These ligands of UCP1 had no effect on delta psi(m) in white adipocytes from non-transgenic mice, suggesting that the function of endogenous UCP2 in adipocytes was not affected. The results support the hypothesis that mitochondrial uncoupling in white fat may prevent development of obesity.  (+info)

Release of Ca2+ from the sarcoplasmic reticulum increases mitochondrial [Ca2+] in rat pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells. (2/582)

1. The Ca2+-sensitive fluorescent indicator rhod-2 was used to measure mitochondrial [Ca2+] ([Ca2+]m) in single smooth muscle cells from the rat pulmonary artery, while simultaneously monitoring cytosolic [Ca2+] ([Ca2+]i) with fura-2. 2. Application of caffeine produced an increase in [Ca2+]i and also increased [Ca2+]m. The increase in [Ca2+]m occurred after the increase in [Ca2+]i, and remained elevated for a considerable time after [Ca2+]i had returned to resting values. 3. The protonophore carbonyl cyanide p-(trifluoromethoxy)phenylhydrazone (FCCP), which causes the mitochondrial membrane potential to collapse, markedly attenuated the increase in [Ca2+]m following caffeine application and also increased the half-time for recovery of [Ca2+]i to resting values. 4. Activation of purinoceptors with ATP also produced increases in both [Ca2+]i and [Ca2+]m in these smooth muscle cells. In some cells, oscillations in [Ca2+]i were observed during ATP application, which produced corresponding oscillations in [Ca2+]m and membrane currents. 5. This study provides direct evidence that Ca2+ release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum, either through ryanodine or inositol 1,4, 5-trisphosphate (InsP3) receptors, increases both cytosolic and mitochondrial [Ca2+] in smooth muscle cells. These results have potential implications both for the role of mitochondria in Ca2+ regulation in smooth muscle, and for understanding how cellular metabolism is regulated.  (+info)

Cimetidine transport in brush-border membrane vesicles from rat small intestine. (3/582)

In previous studies, sulfoxide metabolite was observed in animal and human intestinal perfusions of cimetidine and other H2-antagonists. A sequence of follow-up studies is ongoing to assess the intestinal contributions of drug metabolism and drug and metabolite transport to variable drug absorption. An evaluation of these contributions to absorption variability is carried out in isolated fractions of the absorptive cells to uncouple the processes involved. In this report, data is presented on the drug entry step from a study on [3H]cimetidine uptake into isolated brush-border membrane vesicles from rat small intestine. A saturable component for cimetidine uptake was characterized with a Vmax and Km (mean +/- S.E.M.) of 6.1 +/- 1.5 nmol/30s/mg protein and 8.4 +/- 2.0 mM, respectively. Initial binding, and possibly intravesicular uptake, was inhibited by other cationic compounds including ranitidine, procainamide, imipramine, erythromycin, and cysteamine but not by TEA or by the organic anion, probenecid. Initial uptake was not inhibited by amino acids methionine, cysteine, or histidine, by the metabolite cimetidine sulfoxide, or by inhibitors of cimetidine sulfoxidation, methimazole, and diisothiocyanostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid. Equilibrium uptake was inhibited by ranitidine, procainamide, and cysteamine but not by erythromycin or imipramine. Initial cimetidine uptake was stimulated by an outwardly directed H+ gradient, and efflux was enhanced by an inwardly directed H+ gradient. Collapse of the H+ gradient as well as voltage-clamping potential difference to zero significantly reduced initial cimetidine uptake. The data is supportive of both a cimetidine/H+ exchange mechanism and a driving-force contribution from an inside negative proton or cation diffusion potential.  (+info)

Reactive oxygen metabolites increase mitochondrial calcium in endothelial cells: implication of the Ca2+/Na+ exchanger. (4/582)

In endothelial cells, a bolus of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) or oxygen metabolites generated by hypoxanthine-xanthine oxidase (HX-XO) increased the mitochondrial calcium concentration [Ca2+]m. Both agents caused a biphasic increase in [Ca2+]m which was preceded by a rise in cytosolic free calcium concentration [Ca2+]c (18 and 6 seconds for H2O2 and HX-XO, respectively). The peak and plateau elevations of [Ca2+] were consistently higher in the mitochondrial matrix than in the cytosol. In Ca2+-free/EGTA medium, the plateau phase of elevated [Ca2+] evoked by H2O2 due to capacitative Ca2+ influx was abolished in the cytosol, but was maintained in the mitochondria. In contrast to H2O2 and HX-XO, ATP which binds the P2Y purinoceptors induced an increase in [Ca2+]m that was similar to that of [Ca2+]c. When cells were first stimulated with inositol 1,4, 5-trisphosphate-generating agonists or the Ca2+-ATPase inhibitor cyclopiazonic acid (CPA), subsequent addition of H2O2 did not affect [Ca2+]c, but still caused an elevation of [Ca2+]m. Moreover, the specific inhibitor of the mitochondrial Ca2+/Na+ exchanger, 7-chloro-3,5-dihydro-5-phenyl-1H-4.1-benzothiazepine-2-on (CGP37157), did not potentiate the effects of H2O2 and HX-XO on [Ca2+]m, while causing a marked increase in the peak [Ca2+]m and a significant attenuation of the rate of [Ca2+]m efflux upon addition of histamine or CPA. In permeabilized cells, H2O2 mimicked the effects of CGP37157 causing an increase in the basal level of matrix free Ca2+ and decreased efflux. Dissipation of the electrochemical proton gradient by carbonylcyanide p-(trifluoromethoxy) phenylhydrazone (FCCP), and blocade of the Ca2+ uptake by ruthenium red prevented [Ca2+]m increases evoked by H2O2. These results demonstrate that the H2O2-induced elevation in [Ca2+]m results from a transfer of Ca2+ secondary to increased [Ca2+]c, and an inhibition of the Ca2+/Na+ electroneutral exchanger of the mitochondria.  (+info)

Roles of Na(+)-Ca2+ exchange and of mitochondria in the regulation of presynaptic Ca2+ and spontaneous glutamate release. (5/582)

The release of neurotransmitter from presynaptic terminals depends on an increase in the intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i). In addition to the opening of presynaptic Ca2+ channels during excitation, other Ca2+ transport systems may be involved in changes in [Ca2+]i. We have studied the regulation of [Ca2+]i in nerve terminals of hippocampal cells in culture by the Na(+)-Ca2+ exchanger and by mitochondria. In addition, we have measured changes in the frequency of spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic currents (sEPSC) before and after the inhibition of the exchanger and of mitochondrial metabolism. We found rather heterogeneous [Ca2+]i responses of individual presynaptic terminals after inhibition of Na(+)-Ca2+ exchange. The increase in [Ca2+]i became more uniform and much larger after additional treatment of the cells with mitochondrial inhibitors. Correspondingly, sEPSC frequencies changed very little when only Na(+)-Ca2+ exchange was inhibited, but increased dramatically after additional inhibition of mitochondria. Our results provide evidence for prominent roles of Na(+)-Ca2+ exchange and mitochondria in presynaptic Ca2+ regulation and spontaneous glutamate release.  (+info)

-->H+/2e- stoichiometry in NADH-quinone reductase reactions catalyzed by bovine heart submitochondrial particles. (6/582)

Tightly coupled bovine heart submitochondrial particles treated to activate complex I and to block ubiquinol oxidation were capable of rapid uncoupler-sensitive inside-directed proton translocation when a limited amount of NADH was oxidized by the exogenous ubiquinone homologue Q1. External alkalization, internal acidification and NADH oxidation were followed by the rapidly responding (t1/2 < or = 1 s) spectrophotometric technique. Quantitation of the initial rates of NADH oxidation and external H+ decrease resulted in a stoichiometric ratio of 4 H+ vectorially translocated per 1 NADH oxidized at pH 8.0. ADP-ribose, a competitive inhibitor of the NADH binding site decreased the rates of proton translocation and NADH oxidation without affecting -->H+/2e- stoichiometry. Rotenone, piericidin and thermal deactivation of complex I completely prevented NADH-induced proton translocation in the NADH-endogenous ubiquinone reductase reaction. NADH-exogenous Q1 reductase activity was only partially prevented by rotenone. The residual rotenone- (or piericidin-) insensitive NADH-exogenous Q1 reductase activity was found to be coupled with vectorial uncoupler-sensitive proton translocation showing the same -->H+/2e- stoichiometry of 4. It is concluded that the transfer of two electrons from NADH to the Q1-reactive intermediate located before the rotenone-sensitive step is coupled with translocation of 4 H+.  (+info)

Bcl-2 protects against FCCP-induced apoptosis and mitochondrial membrane potential depolarization in PC12 cells. (7/582)

This report addresses the relation between Bcl-2 and mitochondrial membrane potential (DeltaPsi(m)) in apoptotic cell death. Rat pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells are differentiated into neuron-like cells with nerve growth factor (NGF). It is known that Bcl-2 can attenuate apoptosis induced by deprivation of neurotrophic factor. The protective effect of Bcl-2 has been correlated with preservation of DeltaPsi(m). Protonophores, such as carbonyl cyanide p-trifluoromethoxyphenylhydrazone (FCCP), collapse the proton gradient across the mitochondrial inner membrane, resulting in a complete abolition of the mitochondrial membrane potential. Based on the analysis of morphology, of phosphatidylserine exposure and of nuclear fragmentation we conclude that FCCP induces apoptosis in PC12 cells, which can be prevented by overexpression of Bcl-2. To determine whether the cytoprotective effect of Bcl-2 is due to stabilization of DeltaPsi(m), we investigated the effect of Bcl-2 on changes in DeltaPsi(m), induced by FCCP in PC12 cells. We showed that treatment with FCCP induced a reduction in DeltaPsi(m), as assessed with the lipophilic cationic membrane potential-sensitive dye JC-1, and that Bcl-2 protects against FCCP-induced changes in NGF differentiated PC12 cells. Our data indicate that Bcl-2 protects against FCCP-induced cell death by stabilizing DeltaPsi(m).  (+info)

Purification and ligand binding of EmrR, a regulator of a multidrug transporter. (8/582)

EmrR, the repressor of the emrRAB operon of Escherichia coli, was purified to 95% homogeneity. EmrR was found to bind putative ligands of the EmrAB pump-2,4-dinitrophenol, carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone, and carbonyl cyanide p-(trifluoro-methoxy)phenylhydrazone-with affinities in the micromolar range. Equilibrium dialysis experiments suggested one bound ligand per monomer of the dimeric EmrR.  (+info)

*Carbonyl cyanide-p-trifluoromethoxyphenylhydrazone

Carbonyl cyanide-4-(trifluoromethoxy)phenylhydrazone (FCCP) is an ionophore that is a mobile ion carrier. It is referred to as ... Carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenyl hydrazone (CCCP) FCCP - Compound Summary, PubChem. MeSH Descriptor Data, MeSH. Heytler, P G ( ... Carbonyl cyanide phenylhydrazones". Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications. 7 (4): 272-275. doi:10.1016/0006-291X( ...

*Carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenyl hydrazone

Carbonyl cyanide-p-trifluoromethoxyphenylhydrazone (FCCP) J.W. Park; S.Y. Lee; J.Y. Yang; H.W. Rho; B.H. Park; S.N. Lim; J.S. ... Carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenyl hydrazone (CCCP) is a chemical inhibitor of oxidative phosphorylation. It is a nitrile, ... "Effect of carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone (CCCP) on the dimerization of lipoprotein lipase". Biochimica et Biophysica ...

*Ionophore

Some synthetic agents are not macrocyclic, e.g., carbonyl cyanide-p-trifluoromethoxyphenylhydrazone. Even simple organic ... With the ion(s) they act upon: Beauvericin (Ca2+, Ba2+) Calcimycine or A23187 (Mn2+, Ca2+, Mg2+) Cezomycin Carbonyl cyanide m- ...

*Hydrazone

The compound carbonyl cyanide-p-trifluoromethoxyphenylhydrazone (abbreviated as FCCP) is used to uncouple ATP synthesis and ... Hydrazones Benzophenone hydrazone, an illustrative hydrazone Carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenyl hydrazone Gyromitrin (Acetaldehyde ... Use in efficient, positionally and stereochemically selective C_C bond formation; oxidative hydrolysis to carbonyl compounds". ...

*FCCP

Sri Lanka Carbonyl cyanide-p-trifluoromethoxyphenylhydrazone, a hydrazone compound used in biochemistry. ...

*List of MeSH codes (D02)

... carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenyl hydrazone MeSH D02.442.288.220 --- carbonyl cyanide-p-trifluoromethoxyphenylhydrazone MeSH ...

*Protonophore

4-dinitrophenol Carbonyl cyanide-p-trifluoromethoxyphenylhydrazone (FCCP) Carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenyl hydrazone (CCCP) The ...
The oxidation of L-glutamate and L-glutamine by enterocyte mitochondria was supported by malate. The stimulation of the rate of oxidation of the two amino acids by small amounts of added malate was 93% and 76% respectively. This could not be accounted for by the oxidation of the small amounts of malate added. Amino-oxyacetate added initially inhibited malate-supported oxidation of L-glutamate by 81% and that of L-glutamine by 38%. The inhibition of L-glutamate oxidation was partially reversed by L-glutamine. The dicarboxylate-carrier inhibitor 2-phenylsuccinate inhibited the malate-supported oxidation of both amino acids, but appeared to be slightly stimulatory to L-glutamine oxidation when added initially. The inhibition of L-glutamate oxidation was reversed by L-glutamine. The mitochondrial uncoupler FCCP (carbonyl cyanide p-trifluoromethoxyphenylhydrazone) inhibited malate-supported oxidation of L-glutamate by 78% when added initially. The oxidation of L-glutamine was completely inhibited. ...
1-bromo-4-[4-(trifluoromethoxy)phenyl]benzene 134150-03-1 Precursor and Downstream products, 1-bromo-4-[4-(trifluoromethoxy)phenyl]benzene Precursor products, 1-bromo-4-[4-(trifluoromethoxy)phenyl]benzene Downstream products ect.
4-chloro-2-methyl-6-(trifluoromethoxy)quinoline chemical properties, What are the chemical properties of 4-chloro-2-methyl-6-(trifluoromethoxy)quinoline 951905-08-1, What are the physical properties of 4-chloro-2-methyl-6-(trifluoromethoxy)quinoline ect.
4-Amino-3-(trifluoromethoxy)benzoic acid, 95%, Maybridge Amber Glass Bottle; 10g 4-Amino-3-(trifluoromethoxy)benzoic acid, 95%, Maybridge Aminothia to Amy -Organics
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N-[4-(trifluoromethoxy)phenyl]quinoxaline-6-carboxamide | C16H10F3N3O2 | CID 2226431 - structure, chemical names, physical and chemical properties, classification, patents, literature, biological activities, safety/hazards/toxicity information, supplier lists, and more.
(Trifluoromethoxy)benzene | C7H5F3O | CID 68010 - structure, chemical names, physical and chemical properties, classification, patents, literature, biological activities, safety/hazards/toxicity information, supplier lists, and more.
Buy high quality 2,3-Dihydro-3-oxo-2-(tetrahydro-2H-pyran-4-yl)-N-[[4-(trifluoromethoxy)phenyl]methyl]-1H-Isoindole-1-carboxamide 1198160-14-3 from toronto research chemicals Inc.
Electrophysiological and microfluorometric measurements were combined to analyse the responses of rat striatal medium spiny (MS) and large aspiny (LA) interneurons to the mitochondrial uncoupler carbonyl cyanide p-trifluoromethoxyphenylidrazone (FCCP). FCCP produced a membrane depolarisation coupled to an irreversible increase in intracellular calcium [Ca2+]i in MS. Conversely, LA interneurons hyperpolarised and a moderate [Ca2+]i rise was observed. Cyclosporin A, inhibitor of the mitochondrial membrane transition pore, prevented the FCCP-induced changes in LA interneurons, whereas only a partial reduction was observed in MS cells. The present results indicate that mitochondrial Ca2+ released into the cytosol may contribute to the selective vulnerability to metabolic impairment in striatal neuronal subtypes.. ...
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1. The properties of membrane vesicles from the extreme thermophile Bacillus caldolyticus were investigated. 2. Vesicles prepared by exposure of spheroplasts to ultrasound contained cytochromes a, b and c, and at 50°C they rapidly oxidized NADH and ascorbate in the presence of tetramethyl-p-phenylenediamine. Succinate and l-malate were oxidized more slowly, and dl-lactate, l-alanine and glycerol 1-phosphate were not oxidized. 3. In the absence of proton-conducting uncouplers the oxidation of NADH was accompanied by a net translocation of H+ into the vesicles. Hydrolysis of ATP by a dicyclohexylcarbodi-imide-sensitive adenosine triphosphatase was accompanied by a similarly directed net translocation of H+. 4. Uncouplers (carbonyl cyanide p-trifluoromethoxyphenylhydrazone or valinomycin plus NH4+) prevented net H+ translocation but stimulated ATP hydrolysis, NADH oxidation and ascorbate oxidation. The last result suggested an energy-conserving site in the respiratory chain between cytochrome c ...
Methods and compositions, useful in the treatment of amyloidosis and conditions and diseases associated therewith, such as Alzheimers Disease (AD). These methods involve administering to a subject a pharmaceutical composition including one or more agents which modulate APP catabolism and amyloid deposition. Accordingly, the methods and compositions are useful for inhibiting amyloidosis in disorders in which amyloid deposition occurs. The methods are based, at least in part, on modulating catabolism of APP in APP-containing cells through the use of a mobile ionophore, such as carbonyl cyanide p-(trifluoromethoxy) phenylhydrazone, which does not substantially alter the viability of those cells.
Dichiarazioni precauzionali: P261-P280-P301+P310a-P305+P351+P338-P405-P501a Avoid breathing dust/fume/gas/mist/vapours/spray. Wear protective gloves/protective clothing/eye protection/face protection. IF SWALLOWED: Immediately call a POISON CENTER/doctor IF IN EYES: Rinse cautiously with water for several minutes. Remove contact lenses, if present and easy to do. Continue rinsing. Store locked up. Dispose of contents/container in accordance with local/regional/national/international regulations. ...
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Materials. Carbonyl cyanide p-(trifluoro-methoxy)phenylhydrazone, 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT), rotenone, antimycin A, ADP, and ATP were purchased from Sigma (Milan, Italy). Dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate was from Molecular Probes (Invitrogen, Milan, Italy). ATP monitoring kit was from BioOrbit (Turku, Finland). Antibodies used for Western blot were mouse antibodies for complex I, II, and IV subunits, purchased in cocktails from MitoSciences (Eugene, OR); rabbit polyclonal antibody against human ND1 subunit, a kind gift from Dr. A. Lombes (Institut National de la Sante et de la Recherche Medicale, Hospital Salpetriere, Paris, France); rabbit antibody for complex III, a kind gift from Prof. C. Godinot (University Claude Bernard de Lyon, France); and mouse monoclonal antibody for porin, purchased from Molecular Probes (Invitrogen).. Cell cultures and growth conditions. Human thyroid carcinoma cell lines used are oncocytic carcinoma cell line XTC.UC1 ...
According to a number of chemistry books acetaldehyde phenylhydrazone cant be converted into indole by the Fisher method. I found this patent that converts this starting material into indole using a high temperature catalytic process (aluminium oxide at 320-330 degrees C). The patent number is 3,790,596 ...
Move victim to fresh air. Apply artificial respiration if victim is not breathing. Do not use mouth-to-mouth method if victim ingested or inhaled the substance; induce artificial respiration with the aid of a pocket mask equipped with a one-way valve or other proper respiratory medical device. Administer oxygen if breathing is difficult ...
A compound of the formula: ##STR1## wherein R1, R2, R3, R4 and R6 are independently hydrogen, C1-6 alkyl, C1-6 cycloalkyl, C1-3 alkoxy, n-botoxy, i-botoxy, sec-butoxy, R7 R8 N-- (wherein R7 and R8 are independently hydrogen or C1-3 alkyl), trifluoromethyl, trifluoromethoxy, difluoromethoxy, fluoro, chloro, bromo, phenyl, phenoxy, benzyloxy, hydroxy, trimethylsilyloxy, diphenyl-t-butylsilyloxy, hydroxymethyl or --O(CH2)l OR19 (wherein R19 is hydrogen or C1-3 alkyl, and l is 1,2 or 3); or when located at the ortho position to each other, R1 and R2, and R3 and R4 together form --CH═CH--CH═CH--; or when located at the ortho position to each other, R1 and R2 together form --OC(R15)(R16)O-- (wherein R15 and R16 are independently hydrogen or C1-3 alkyl); Y is --CH2 --, --CH2 CH2 --, --CH═CH--, --CH2 CH═CH-- or --CH═CH-- CH2 --; and Z is --Q--CH2 WCH2 --CO2 R12, ##STR2## (wherein Q is --C(O)--, --C(OR13)2 -- or --CH(OH)--; W is --C(O)--, --C(OR13)2 -- or --C(R11)(OH)--; R11 is hydrogen atom or C1-3
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PMVE is a gas at ambient conditions which is expected to primarly and rapidly distribute to atmosphere in case of releases. Due to the gaseous nature of the substance and its partition to the atmosphere, as well as the consequent difficulty to appropriately test PMVE and provide meaningful results, no experimental data are reported for this endpoint. However, in order to evaluate the soil adsorption hazard profile of PMVE despite the fact that it is expected to rapidly partition to the atmosphere compartment,aQuantitative Structure Activity Relationships (QSARs)assessmenthas been applied. The estimated Koc value of PMVE (KOCWIN model ,v.2.0, EPI Suite v 4.0) isKoc = 96.38 L/Kg (estimatedfrom MCI) and Koc = 41.68 L/Kg (estimated from log Kow) indicating that the potential adsorption of PMVE to soil and sediment is expected to be low. In fact, as indicated in the Guidance on Information Requirements and Chemical Safety Assessment Chapter R.7a: Endpoint Specific Guidance, Appendix R.7.1.15 ...
Syndyoceras collyweston viperfish hyperneurotic polychromatophil corpusculum coenocentrum drapable safranin healthfulness scatologia geomyid aliveness raphidiid asthenobiosis [email protected] ...
About this substance This section provides an overview of the calculated volume at which the substance is manufactured or imported to the European Economic Area (EU28 + Iceland, Liechtenstein and Norway). Additionally, if available, information on the use of the substance and how consumers and workers are likely to be exposed to it can also be displayed here.. The use information is displayed per substance life cycle stage (consumer use, in articles, by professional workers (widespread uses), in formulation or re-packing, at industrial sites or in manufacturing). The information is aggregated from the data coming from REACH substance registrations provided by industry.. For a detailed overview on identified uses and environmental releases, please consult the registered substance factsheet.. Use descriptors are adapted from ECHA guidance to improve readability and may not correspond textually to descriptor codes described in Chapter R.12: Use Descriptor system of ECHA Guidance on information ...
1. A compound having formula (I) ##STR00022## wherein R1a, R1b, and R1c are independently hydrogen, hydroxy, nitro, halogen, cyano, trifluoromethyl, trifluoromethoxy, C1-4-alkyl, --ORa, or --NRbRc; X is heteroaryl, which is optionally substituted with one or more R5; n is 0, 1, 2, or 3; provided that when n is 1, 2, or 3, m is 0; m is 0, 1, 2, or 3; provided that when m is 1, 2, or 3, n is 0; Y is a bond, --O--, --C(O)--, --(O)C--, --C(O)O--, --OC(O)--, --NRe--, --NReC(O)--, --C(O)NRe--, --NReC(O)NRe--, --SO2NRe--, or --NReSO2--; Z is C3-8-cycloalkyl, heterocycloalkyl, aryl, or heteroaryl, wherein the C3-8-cycloalkyl, heterocycloalkyl, aryl, and heteroaryl, are optionally substituted with one or more R6; R5 is selected from the group consisting of C1-8-alkyl, C2-8-alkenyl, C2-8-alkynyl, aryl, heterocyclyl, halogen, cyano, nitro, --ORd, --C(O)Rd, --C(O)ORd, --OC(O)Rd, --NReRf, --NReC(O)Rd, --NHC(O)NHRe, --NHSO2Rd, --C(O)NReRf, --SRd, --S(O)Rd, --SO2Rd, --SO2NReNRf, --B(OH)2, --CF3, --CF2CF3, ...
Learn about Mohamad Mo Zeineddin, MD, FACP, FCCP, FACC, a doctor at Seton committed to providing the best care possible for people in Central Texas.
Global and Chinese 2-(Trifluoromethoxy) benzenesulfonyl isocyanate (CAS 99722-81-3) Industry, 2017 Market Research Report is a market research report available at US $3000 for a Single User PDF License from RnR Market Research Reports Library.
The mechanism of oxygen sensing in arterial chemoreceptors is unknown but has often been linked to mitochondrial function. A common criticism of this hypothesis is that mitochondrial function is insensitive to physiological levels of hypoxia. Here we investigate the effects of hypoxia (down to 0.5% O2) on mitochondrial function in neonatal rat type-1 cells. The oxygen sensitivity of mitochondrial [NADH] was assessed by monitoring autofluorescence and increased in hypoxia with a P50 of 15 mm Hg (1 mm Hg = 133.3 Pa) in normal Tyrode or 46 mm Hg in Ca(2+)-free Tyrode. Hypoxia also depolarised mitochondrial membrane potential (m, measured using rhodamine 123) with a P50 of 3.1, 3.3 and 2.8 mm Hg in normal Tyrode, Ca(2+)-free Tyrode and Tyrode containing the Ca(2+) channel antagonist Ni(2+), respectively. In the presence of oligomycin and low carbonyl cyanide 4-(trifluoromethoxy) phenylhydrazone (FCCP; 75 nm) m is maintained by electron transport working against an artificial proton leak. Under these
Dr. George Tu, MD, FCCP, rated 4.4/5 by patients. 21 reviews, Phone number & practice locations, Pulmonologist in Las Vegas, NV.
When you express interest in a specific study, the information from your profile will be sent to the doctor conducting that study. If youre eligible to participate, you may be contacted by a nurse or study coordinator. If you select a health category rather than a specific study, doctors who have active studies in that area may contact you to ask if you would like to participate. In both cases, you will be contacted by the preferred method (email or phone) that you specified in your profile. ...
Discount physical therapy products and equipment for professional and home use. Major brands such as Saunders, Chattanooga, Thera-Band, Iontophopresis, Biofreeze, Kinesio, Core and more. Massage therapy oils and supplies, rehabilitation equipment, hot and cold therapy products, back supports, pain relief products and devices, electrotherapy equipment, electrodes and much more.
1. A compound of formula (I): ##STR00141## andin whichR1 stands for a compound of formula ##STR00142## where * is the site of linkage to the indazole,R6 stands for C1-C6-alkyl, C3-C8-cycloalkyl, phenyl, 5- to 7-membered heterocyclyl or 5- or 6-membered heteroaryl,in which cycloalkyl and heterocyclyl can be substituted with 1 to 3 substituents, the substituents being selected independently of one another from the group comprising halogen, oxo, C1-C4-alkyl, C1-C4-alkoxy, C1-C4-alkylthio, C1-C4-alkyl-amino, C1-C4-alkylcarbonyl and C1-C4-alkoxycarbonyl,andin which phenyl and heteroaryl can be substituted with 1 to 3 substituents, the substituents being selected independently of one another from the group comprising halogen, cyano, trifluoromethyl, trifluoromethoxy, aminocarbonyl, C1-C4-alkyl, C1-C4-alkoxy, C1-C4-alkylthio, C1-C4-alkylamino, C1-C4-alkylcarbonyl, C1-C4-alkoxycarbonyl and C1-C4-alkylaminocarbonyl,R7 stands for hydrogen, C1-C6-alkyl, C1-C4-alkylamino, C1-C4-alkoxycarbonyl, 5- to ...
Figure 1 clearly illustrates the zigzag conformation of the 4-dimethylaminobenzaldehyde 1-methyl-1-phenylhydrazone ligand, (h6-C6H5)-N(Me)-N=CH-C 6H4-4-NMe2, from C(6) to C(14) with bond angles close to 120° at N(1), N(2), and C(13) atoms (see Table 1). A typical high anisotropic thermal motion and/or disorder was observed for the carbon atoms of the Cp ligand presumably due to partial rotation of the C5 ring about the Fe-Cp centroid axis, a phenomenon which has already been described in sandwich complexes5b,c,f,g,6,7). The Fe(1)-Cp and Fe(1)-Ph centroid distances are ca. 1.666 and 1.566 Å, respectively, while the ring centroid-iron-ring centroid vectors are essentially collinear (177.41), in accordance with a h5-Fe-h6 coordination mode8,9. On the other hand, the dihedral angle between the coordinated and free phenyl rings, C(6)···C(11) and C(14)···C(19), respectively, is 7.5 revealing a good planarity of the hydrazone ligand despite the steric hindrance of the methyl group at N(1). ...
BAM15, ST056388, mitochondrial protonophore uncoupler that does not depolarize the plasma membrane IDNUMBER ST056388 Other identifiers: SBB001916, ST4027337, T4021910, TBB011486, T3149443, ST236891 Formula: C16H10F2N6O MW: 340. 29 NAME: (2-fluorophenyl)amine SMILES: c12c(nc(c(n1)Nc1c(F)cccc1)Nc1c(F)cccc1)non2 InChI=1S/C16H10F2N6O/c17-9-5-1-3-7-11(9)19-13-14(20-12-8-4-2-6-10(12)18)22-16-15(21-13)23-25-24-16/h1-8H,(H,19,21,23)(H,20,22,24) InChIKey=OEGJBRZAJRPPHL-UHFFFAOYSA-N MDL: MFCD00373912 Contact us to order....
The shared transport system for uptake of L-cystine and L-lysine was examined in isolated rat renal brush-border membrane vesicles for the ionic requirements for activation of the system. No requirement for sodium was seen for either cystine or lysine influx. However, the efflux of lysine from the vesicle was stimulated by Na+. Therefore, the transport system appears to be asymmetric in its requirement for sodium. Two different divalent cations were used in the membrane isolations which resulted in different responses of cystine uptake to the electrogenic movement of K+ out of the vesicle. Membranes prepared by Mg-aggregation showed no stimulation of cystine influx by the imposition of a transient interior negative potential while vesicles prepared by Ca-aggregation did respond to electrogenic stimulation by an outwardly directed K-diffusion potential in the presence of valinomycin. Lysine influx was stimulated by electrogenic potassium efflux in both Mg-prepared and Ca-prepared membranes. No difference
The protonmotive force, ∆mFH+, is known as Δp in Peter Mitchells chemiosmotic theory [1], which establishes the link between electric and chemical components of energy transformation and coupling in oxidative phosphorylation. The unifying concept of the pmF ranks among the most fundamental theories in biology. As such, it provides the framework for developing a consistent theory and nomenclature for mitochondrial physiology and bioenergetics. The protonmotive force is not a vector force as defined in physics. This conflict is resolved by the generalized formulation of isomorphic, compartmental forces, ∆trF, in energy (exergy) transformations [2]. Protonmotive means that there is a potential for the movement of protons, and force is a measure of the potential for motion. The pmF is generated in oxidative phosphorylation by oxidation of reduced fuel substrates and reduction of O2 to H2O, driving the coupled proton translocation from the mt-matrix space across the mitochondrial inner membrane ...
Here aldohexose reacts with one molecule of phenylhyrazine which condenses with the aldehyde group to give phenylhydrazone. When warmed with excess of phenyl hydrazine, the secondary alcoholic group adjacent to the aldehyde group is oxidised by another molecule of phenylhydrazine, to a ketonic group. With this ketonic group, the third molecule of phenylhydrazine condenses to give osazone. The phenylhydrazinyl group is transferred from osazone to C6H5CHO giving C6H5CH = N×NHC6H5 and a dicarbonyl compound called an osone. The more reactive aldehyde group of the osone is reduced, not the less reactive keto group and it gives the 2-ketohexose.. b) The configurations of these carbons which are unchanged in the reactions, must be identical in order to get the same osazone. Question:3, Why should isoelectric point for Aspartic acid (2.98) be so much lower than that of leucine?. Solution: This may be explained by considering following ion equilibria. ...
Dr. Norman Soskel, MD, FACP, FCCP, rated 2/5 by patients. 4 reviews, Phone number & practice locations, Pulmonologist in Memphis, TN.
When you express interest in a specific study, the information from your profile will be sent to the doctor conducting that study. If youre eligible to participate, you may be contacted by a nurse or study coordinator. If you select a health category rather than a specific study, doctors who have active studies in that area may contact you to ask if you would like to participate. In both cases, you will be contacted by the preferred method (email or phone) that you specified in your profile. ...
Safranin is used as a dye for textiles and as a stain for various scientific procedures. Scientific procedures that involve safranin include Gram counterstaining, endospore counterstaining, granule...

Carbonyl Cyanide p-Trifluoromethoxyphenylhydrazone | C10H5F3N4O | ChemSpiderCarbonyl Cyanide p-Trifluoromethoxyphenylhydrazone | C10H5F3N4O | ChemSpider

Carbonyl Cyanide p-. Trifluoromethoxyphe. nylhydrazone Propanedinitrile, 2. -[2-[4-(trifluorome. thoxy)phenyl]hydraz. inylidene ... Carbonyl Cyanide p-Trifluorome. thoxyphenylhydrazone *Molecular FormulaC10H5F3N4O ... Carbonyl Cyanide p Trifluoromethoxyphe. nylhydrazone Carbonyl cyanide p-. (trifluoromethoxy)p. henylhydrazone Carbonyl Cyanide ... CARBONYL CYANIDE, 4. -TRIFLUOROMETHOXY-P. HENYLHYDRAZONE Carbonyl cyanide-p-. trifluoromethoxyphe. nylhydrazone Cyanide para- ...
more infohttp://www.chemspider.com/Chemical-Structure.3213.html

Carbonyl cyanide p-trifluoromethoxyphenylhydrazone | C10H5F3N4O - PubChemCarbonyl cyanide p-trifluoromethoxyphenylhydrazone | C10H5F3N4O - PubChem

Carbonyl cyanide p-trifluoromethoxyphenylhydrazone , C10H5F3N4O , CID 3330 - structure, chemical names, physical and chemical ...
more infohttps://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/compound/3330

Carbonyl Cyanide p-Trifluoromethoxyphenylhydrazone
      - FCCP
     Summary Report | CureHunterCarbonyl Cyanide p-Trifluoromethoxyphenylhydrazone - FCCP Summary Report | CureHunter

Carbonyl Cyanide p-Trifluoromethoxyphenylhydrazone: A proton ionophore that is commonly used as an uncoupling agent in ... p-Trifluoromethoxyphenylhydrazone, Carbonyl Cyanide; para-Trifluoromethoxyphenylhydrazone, Carbonyl Cyanide; Carbonyl Cyanide ... Carbonyl Cyanide p Trifluoromethoxyphenylhydrazone; Carbonyl Cyanide para Trifluoromethoxyphenylhydrazone; Cyanide p- ... Carbonyl Cyanide p-Trifluoromethoxyphenylhydrazone (FCCP). Subscribe to New Research on Carbonyl Cyanide p- ...
more infohttp://www.curehunter.com/public/keywordSummaryD002259-Carbonyl-Cyanide-p-Trifluoromethoxyphenylhydrazone-FCCP.do

Carbonyl cyanide-p-trifluoromethoxyphenylhydrazone - WikipediaCarbonyl cyanide-p-trifluoromethoxyphenylhydrazone - Wikipedia

Carbonyl cyanide-4-(trifluoromethoxy)phenylhydrazone (FCCP) is an ionophore that is a mobile ion carrier. It is referred to as ... Carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenyl hydrazone (CCCP) FCCP - Compound Summary, PubChem. MeSH Descriptor Data, MeSH. Heytler, P G ( ... Carbonyl cyanide phenylhydrazones". Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications. 7 (4): 272-275. doi:10.1016/0006-291X( ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carbonyl_cyanide-p-trifluoromethoxyphenylhydrazone

Carbonyl Cyanide 4-(Trifluoromethoxy)phenylhydrazone 370-86-5 | TCI AmericaCarbonyl Cyanide 4-(Trifluoromethoxy)phenylhydrazone 370-86-5 | TCI America

Carbonyl Cyanide 4-(Trifluoromethoxy)phenylhydrazone] [370-86-5] , Buy and find out price and availability, MSDS, properties of ... Carbonyl Cyanide 4-(Trifluoromethoxy)phenylhydrazone. (CAS RN:370-86-5 Product Number:C3463). Structure. ...
more infohttp://www.tcichemicals.com/eshop/en/us/commodity/C3463/

Carbonyl cyanide 4-(trifluoromethoxy)phenylhydrazone (FCCP) pre-exposure ensures follicle integrity during in vitro culture of...Carbonyl cyanide 4-(trifluoromethoxy)phenylhydrazone (FCCP) pre-exposure ensures follicle integrity during in vitro culture of...

Carbonyl cyanide p-(trifluoromethoxy) phenylhydrazone (FCCP) as an O2(*-) generator induces apoptosis via the depletion of ... Carbonyl cyanide 4-(trifluoromethoxy)phenylhydrazone (FCCP) pre-exposure ensures follicle integrity during in vitro culture of ... Carbonyl cyanide 4-(trifluoromethoxy)phenylhydrazone (FCCP) pre-exposure ensures follicle integrity during in vitro culture of ... The objectives of the study were to (1) optimize the concentration and duration of carbonyl cyanide 4-(trifluoromethoxy) ...
more infohttps://www.springermedizin.de/carbonyl-cyanide-4-trifluoromethoxy-phenylhydrazone-fccp-pre-exp/10710364

Products in G-Biosciences on Thomas ScientificProducts in G-Biosciences on Thomas Scientific

FCCP [Carbonyl cyanide 4-(trifluoromethoxy) phenylhydrazone] G-Biosciences. FCCP [Carbonyl cyanide 4-(trifluoromethoxy) ...
more infohttps://www.thomassci.com/nav/manufacturer/gbiosciences/0

Tafazzin knockdown interrupts cell cycle progression in cultured neonatal ventricular fibroblasts | Heart and Circulatory...Tafazzin knockdown interrupts cell cycle progression in cultured neonatal ventricular fibroblasts | Heart and Circulatory...

FCCP, carbonyl cyanide 4-trifluoromethoxyphenylhydrazone. Data represent means ± SE of 4 separate experiments. *P , 0.05 vs. ... carbonyl cyanide 4-trifluoromethoxyphenylhydrazone) were obtained from ENZO Life Sciences (Farmingdale, NY). Clone vector pGEM- ...
more infohttp://ajpheart.physiology.org/content/305/9/H1332.long

Full text] Tetrandrine protects mouse retinal ganglion cells from ischemic injury | DDDTFull text] Tetrandrine protects mouse retinal ganglion cells from ischemic injury | DDDT

... carbonyl cyanide 4-trifluoromethoxyphenylhydrazone; FITC, fluorescein isothiocyanate; LL, lower left; LR, lower right; PBS, ... or the mitochondrial uncoupler carbonyl cyanide-4- (trifluoromethoxy)phenylhydrazone (FCCP) (5 μM) for 1 hour and then ...
more infohttps://www.dovepress.com/tetrandrine-protects-mouse-retinal-ganglion-cells-from-ischemic-injury-peer-reviewed-fulltext-article-DDDT

Complex I-mediated reactive oxygen species generation: modulation by cytochrome c and NAD(P)+ oxidation-reduction state |...Complex I-mediated reactive oxygen species generation: modulation by cytochrome c and NAD(P)+ oxidation-reduction state |...

Abbreviations used: FCCP, p-trifluoromethoxyphenylhydrazone carbonyl cyanide; β-HOB, d-β-hydroxybutyrate; ROS, reactive oxygen ...
more infohttp://www.biochemj.org/content/368/2/545

Separate Ca2+ Sources Are Buffered by Distinct Ca2+ Handling Systems in Aplysia Neuroendocrine Cells | Journal of NeuroscienceSeparate Ca2+ Sources Are Buffered by Distinct Ca2+ Handling Systems in Aplysia Neuroendocrine Cells | Journal of Neuroscience

Carbonyl cyanide 4-(trifluoromethoxy)phenylhydrazone (FCCP; 21857; Sigma-Aldrich), carboxyeosin (C-22803; Invitrogen), ... 1962) A new class of uncoupling agents-carbonyl cyanide phenylhydrazones. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 7:272-275, doi:10.1016/ ...
more infohttp://www.jneurosci.org/content/33/15/6476.full

TLR4-Mediated AKT Activation Is MyD88/TRIF Dependent and Critical for Induction of Oxidative Phosphorylation and Mitochondrial...TLR4-Mediated AKT Activation Is MyD88/TRIF Dependent and Critical for Induction of Oxidative Phosphorylation and Mitochondrial...

carbonyl cyanide 4-(trifluoromethoxy) phenylhydrazone. MnSOD. manganese superoxide dismutase. mROS. mitochondrial reactive ... As a control, the ΔΨm was dissipated using 1 μM carbonyl cyanide 4-(trifluoromethoxy) phenylhydrazone (FCCP) and 500 nM ...
more infohttp://www.jimmunol.org/content/188/6/2847

Physiological adaptations to reproduction. II. Mitochondrial adjustments in livers of lactating mice | Journal of Experimental...Physiological adaptations to reproduction. II. Mitochondrial adjustments in livers of lactating mice | Journal of Experimental...

carbonyl cyanide 4-(trifluoromethoxy)phenylhydrazone. LSD. least significant difference. RCR. respiratory control ratio. ROS. ... carbonyl cyanide 4-(trifluoromethoxy)phenylhydrazone (FCCP) (uncoupled respiration, optimum concentration reached between 0.5 ...
more infohttp://jeb.biologists.org/content/216/15/2889

Mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH2) protects against streptozotocin-induced diabetic cardiomyopathy: role of GSK3β and...Mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH2) protects against streptozotocin-induced diabetic cardiomyopathy: role of GSK3β and...

... the mitochondrial uncoupler carbonyl cyanide 4-trifluoromethoxyphenylhydrazone (FCCP, 1 μM) or the GSK3β inhibitor SB216763 (10 ... The mitochondrial uncoupler carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone (10 μM) was used as a positive control for the ... 10 μM carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone was used as a positive control). (K) Representative JC-1 fluorochrome images ...
more infohttps://bmcmedicine.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1741-7015-10-40

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0.5 μmol/L carbonyl cyanide 4-(trifluoromethoxy)phenylhydrazone, and 0.1 μmol/L rotenone). At the end of each assay, cell ...
more infohttp://diabetes.diabetesjournals.org/content/63/12/4314

Frontiers | The Dynamics of Plasma Membrane, Metabolism and Respiration (PM-M-R) in Penicillium ochrochloron CBS 123824 in...Frontiers | The Dynamics of Plasma Membrane, Metabolism and Respiration (PM-M-R) in Penicillium ochrochloron CBS 123824 in...

... carbonyl cyanide 4-(trifluoromethoxy) phenylhydrazone.. References. Andersen, M. R. (2014). Elucidation of primary metabolic ... AOX, Alternative Oxidase; ARC, Anabolic Reduction Charge; CCCP, carbonyl cyanide m- chlorophenylhydrazone; CRC, Catabolic ... For example, cyanide was clearly the better choice for inhibiting complex IV of glucose-limited grown mycelia (Schinagl et al ... Lambowitz, A. M., and Slayman, C. W. (1971). Cyanide-resistant respiration in Neurospora crassa. J. Bacteriol. 108, 1087-1096. ...
more infohttps://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fmicb.2017.02475/full

Agmatine is transported into liver mitochondria by a specific electrophoretic mechanism | Biochemical JournalAgmatine is transported into liver mitochondria by a specific electrophoretic mechanism | Biochemical Journal

... carbonyl cyanide p-trifluoromethoxyphenylhydrazone; MAO, monoamine oxidase; MPT, mitochondrial permeability transition; mtNOS, ...
more infohttp://www.biochemj.org/content/396/2/337

Amino acids trigger down-regulation of superoxide via TORC pathway in the midgut of Rhodnius prolixus | Bioscience Reports |...Amino acids trigger down-regulation of superoxide via TORC pathway in the midgut of Rhodnius prolixus | Bioscience Reports |...

Some AMs were pre-incubated with 0.5 μM FCCP (carbonyl cyanide 4-(trifluoromethoxy) phenylhydrazone) (Sigma) for 10 min and ... Protein carbonyl levels. Carbonyl contents of the midgut epithelia were assayed according to the protocol described by Levine ... We show here that in unfed R. prolixus insects, high levels of mROS and carbonyl proteins were found in the gut, together with ... DNPH leads to the derivatization of carbonyl groups, resulting in the formation of a stable dinitrophenyl (DNP) hydrazone ...
more infohttps://portlandpress.com/bioscirep/article/36/2/e00321/56226/Amino-acids-trigger-down-regulation-of-superoxide

FCCP | AbcamFCCP | Abcam

The molecular mechanism of action of the proton ionophore FCCP (carbonylcyanide p-trifluoromethoxyphenylhydrazone).. Biophys J ...
more infohttps://www.abcam.com/fccp-ab120081.html

Creatine Enhances Mitochondrial-Mediated Oligodendrocyte Survival After Demyelinating Injury | Journal of NeuroscienceCreatine Enhances Mitochondrial-Mediated Oligodendrocyte Survival After Demyelinating Injury | Journal of Neuroscience

Creatine monohydrate (C3630), 3-guanidinopropionoic acid (GPA; G6878), and carbonyl cyanide 4-(trifluoromethoxy)phenylhydrazone ...
more infohttp://www.jneurosci.org/content/37/6/1479?iss=6

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FCCP, carbonyl cyanide 4-(trifluoromethoxy) phenylhydrazone; R&A, rotenone and antimycin A. Spare respiratory capacity is ... followed by fluorocarbonyl cyanide phenylhydrazone or FCCP (to uncouple ATP synthesis from the electron transport chain, ETC), ... 1.5 μmol/L fluorocarbonyl cyanide phenylhydrazone (FCCP), 100 nmol/L rotenone, and 1 μmol/L antimycin A. ...
more infohttp://cancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/75/2/296

mTORC1 amplifies the ATF4-dependent de novo serine-glycine pathway to supply glycine during TGF-β1-induced collagen...mTORC1 amplifies the ATF4-dependent de novo serine-glycine pathway to supply glycine during TGF-β1-induced collagen...

FCCP, carbonyl cyanide p-trifluoromethoxyphenylhydrazone. (D and E) Confluent pHLFs were incubated in glucose-depleted media (D ...
more infohttps://stke.sciencemag.org/content/12/582/eaav3048.full

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carbonyl cyanide p-trifluoromethoxyphenylhydrazone. IC10. 10% inhibitory concentration. LNZ. linezolid. MT-CO2. cytochrome c ... carbonyl cyanide p-trifluoromethoxyphenylhydrazone [FCCP]-stimulated) mitochondrial respiration measured in the presence of ...
more infohttp://jpet.aspetjournals.org/content/365/3/711

Adenine nucleotide and lysine transport in Chlamydia psittaci. | Journal of BacteriologyAdenine nucleotide and lysine transport in Chlamydia psittaci. | Journal of Bacteriology

Oligomycin and carbonyl cyanide p-trifluoromethoxyphenylhydrazone inhibited ATP-dependent lysine transport. Lysine exited ... carbonyl cyanide p-trifluoromethoxyphenylhydrazone, or a reduced concentration of ATP. The results support the concept that ...
more infohttps://jb.asm.org/content/150/2/662?ijkey=337a87fc9f1da17cd7efea090b82b99f6460b6d4&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha