Carbonyl Cyanide m-Chlorophenyl Hydrazone: A proton ionophore. It is commonly used as an uncoupling agent and inhibitor of photosynthesis because of its effects on mitochondrial and chloroplast membranes.Hydrazones: Compounds of the general formula R:N.NR2, as resulting from the action of hydrazines with aldehydes or ketones. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Cyanides: Inorganic salts of HYDROGEN CYANIDE containing the -CN radical. The concept also includes isocyanides. It is distinguished from NITRILES, which denotes organic compounds containing the -CN radical.Carbonyl Cyanide p-Trifluoromethoxyphenylhydrazone: A proton ionophore that is commonly used as an uncoupling agent in biochemical studies.Pyridoxal: The 4-carboxyaldehyde form of VITAMIN B 6 which is converted to PYRIDOXAL PHOSPHATE which is a coenzyme for synthesis of amino acids, neurotransmitters (serotonin, norepinephrine), sphingolipids, aminolevulinic acid.Hydrogen Cyanide: Hydrogen cyanide (HCN); A toxic liquid or colorless gas. It is found in the smoke of various tobacco products and released by combustion of nitrogen-containing organic materials.Potassium Cyanide: A highly poisonous compound that is an inhibitor of many metabolic processes, but has been shown to be an especially potent inhibitor of heme enzymes and hemeproteins. It is used in many industrial processes.Uncoupling Agents: Chemical agents that uncouple oxidation from phosphorylation in the metabolic cycle so that ATP synthesis does not occur. Included here are those IONOPHORES that disrupt electron transfer by short-circuiting the proton gradient across mitochondrial membranes.Iron Chelating Agents: Organic chemicals that form two or more coordination links with an iron ion. Once coordination has occurred, the complex formed is called a chelate. The iron-binding porphyrin group of hemoglobin is an example of a metal chelate found in biological systems.Sodium Cyanide: A highly poisonous compound that is an inhibitor of many metabolic processes and is used as a test reagent for the function of chemoreceptors. It is also used in many industrial processes.Ionophores: Chemical agents that increase the permeability of biological or artificial lipid membranes to specific ions. Most ionophores are relatively small organic molecules that act as mobile carriers within membranes or coalesce to form ion permeable channels across membranes. Many are antibiotics, and many act as uncoupling agents by short-circuiting the proton gradient across mitochondrial membranes.Valinomycin: A cyclododecadepsipeptide ionophore antibiotic produced by Streptomyces fulvissimus and related to the enniatins. It is composed of 3 moles each of L-valine, D-alpha-hydroxyisovaleric acid, D-valine, and L-lactic acid linked alternately to form a 36-membered ring. (From Merck Index, 11th ed) Valinomycin is a potassium selective ionophore and is commonly used as a tool in biochemical studies.2,4-Dinitrophenol: A toxic dye, chemically related to trinitrophenol (picric acid), used in biochemical studies of oxidative processes where it uncouples oxidative phosphorylation. It is also used as a metabolic stimulant. (Stedman, 26th ed)Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Proton Ionophores: Chemical agents that increase the permeability of CELL MEMBRANES to PROTONS.Nigericin: A polyether antibiotic which affects ion transport and ATPase activity in mitochondria. It is produced by Streptomyces hygroscopicus. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Isoniazid: Antibacterial agent used primarily as a tuberculostatic. It remains the treatment of choice for tuberculosis.Oligomycins: A closely related group of toxic substances elaborated by various strains of Streptomyces. They are 26-membered macrolides with lactone moieties and double bonds and inhibit various ATPases, causing uncoupling of phosphorylation from mitochondrial respiration. Used as tools in cytochemistry. Some specific oligomycins are RUTAMYCIN, peliomycin, and botrycidin (formerly venturicidin X).Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.HydrazinesMolecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.Biological Transport, Active: The movement of materials across cell membranes and epithelial layers against an electrochemical gradient, requiring the expenditure of metabolic energy.Mitochondria: Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Aldehydes: Organic compounds containing a carbonyl group in the form -CHO.Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).meta-Aminobenzoates: Aminobenzoate derivatives that contain an amino group attached to carbon number 3 or 5 of the benzene ring structure.Gallium: A rare, metallic element designated by the symbol, Ga, atomic number 31, and atomic weight 69.72.Antimycin A: An antibiotic substance produced by Streptomyces species. It inhibits mitochondrial respiration and may deplete cellular levels of ATP. Antimycin A1 has been used as a fungicide, insecticide, and miticide. (From Merck Index, 12th ed)Arsenates: Inorganic or organic salts and esters of arsenic acid.Membrane Potentials: The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).DeoxyriboseDicyclohexylcarbodiimide: A carbodiimide that is used as a chemical intermediate and coupling agent in peptide synthesis. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)Oximes: Compounds that contain the radical R2C=N.OH derived from condensation of ALDEHYDES or KETONES with HYDROXYLAMINE. Members of this group are CHOLINESTERASE REACTIVATORS.Phenylhydrazines: Diazo derivatives of aniline, used as a reagent for sugars, ketones, and aldehydes. (Dorland, 28th ed)Deferoxamine: Natural product isolated from Streptomyces pilosus. It forms iron complexes and is used as a chelating agent, particularly in the mesylate form.Antimetabolites: Drugs that are chemically similar to naturally occurring metabolites, but differ enough to interfere with normal metabolic pathways. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p2033)Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Indicators and Reagents: Substances used for the detection, identification, analysis, etc. of chemical, biological, or pathologic processes or conditions. Indicators are substances that change in physical appearance, e.g., color, at or approaching the endpoint of a chemical titration, e.g., on the passage between acidity and alkalinity. Reagents are substances used for the detection or determination of another substance by chemical or microscopical means, especially analysis. Types of reagents are precipitants, solvents, oxidizers, reducers, fluxes, and colorimetric reagents. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed, p301, p499)Adenosine Triphosphate: An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.Protein Carbonylation: The appearance of carbonyl groups (such as aldehyde or ketone groups) in PROTEINS as the result of several oxidative modification reactions. It is a standard marker for OXIDATIVE STRESS. Carbonylated proteins tend to be more hydrophobic and resistant to proteolysis.Dinitrophenols: Organic compounds that contain two nitro groups attached to a phenol.Sodium Azide: A cytochrome oxidase inhibitor which is a nitridizing agent and an inhibitor of terminal oxidation. (From Merck Index, 12th ed)Astatine: Astatine. A radioactive halogen with the atomic symbol At, atomic number 85, and atomic weight 210. Its isotopes range in mass number from 200 to 219 and all have an extremely short half-life. Astatine may be of use in the treatment of hyperthyroidism.Chlorpropham: A carbamate that is used as an herbicide and as a plant growth regulator.Protons: Stable elementary particles having the smallest known positive charge, found in the nuclei of all elements. The proton mass is less than that of a neutron. A proton is the nucleus of the light hydrogen atom, i.e., the hydrogen ion.DDT: A polychlorinated pesticide that is resistant to destruction by light and oxidation. Its unusual stability has resulted in difficulties in residue removal from water, soil, and foodstuffs. This substance may reasonably be anticipated to be a carcinogen: Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP-85-002, 1985). (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Uranium Compounds: Inorganic compounds that contain uranium as an integral part of the molecule.Pyrazoles: Azoles of two nitrogens at the 1,2 positions, next to each other, in contrast with IMIDAZOLES in which they are at the 1,3 positions.omega-Chloroacetophenone: A potent eye, throat, and skin irritant. One of its uses is as a riot control agent.Adrenergic beta-3 Receptor Agonists: Compounds that bind to and activate ADRENERGIC BETA-3 RECEPTORS.Coordination Complexes: Neutral or negatively charged ligands bonded to metal cations or neutral atoms. The number of ligand atoms to which the metal center is directly bonded is the metal cation's coordination number, and this number is always greater than the regular valence or oxidation number of the metal. A coordination complex can be negative, neutral, or positively charged.Dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane: An organochlorine insecticide that is slightly irritating to the skin. (From Merck Index, 11th ed, p482)Oxidative Phosphorylation: Electron transfer through the cytochrome system liberating free energy which is transformed into high-energy phosphate bonds.Monensin: An antiprotozoal agent produced by Streptomyces cinnamonensis. It exerts its effect during the development of first-generation trophozoites into first-generation schizonts within the intestinal epithelial cells. It does not interfere with hosts' development of acquired immunity to the majority of coccidial species. Monensin is a sodium and proton selective ionophore and is widely used as such in biochemical studies.Iron: A metallic element with atomic symbol Fe, atomic number 26, and atomic weight 55.85. It is an essential constituent of HEMOGLOBINS; CYTOCHROMES; and IRON-BINDING PROTEINS. It plays a role in cellular redox reactions and in the transport of OXYGEN.Dichlorodiphenyl Dichloroethylene: An organochlorine pesticide, it is the ethylene metabolite of DDT.Iron Carbonyl Compounds: Complex of iron atoms chelated with carbonyl ions.Stereoisomerism: The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)BenzaldehydesMagnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Thenoyltrifluoroacetone: Chelating agent and inhibitor of cellular respiration.Schiff Bases: Condensation products of aromatic amines and aldehydes forming azomethines substituted on the N atom, containing the general formula R-N:CHR. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Hydroxocobalamin: Injectable form of VITAMIN B 12 that has been used therapeutically to treat VITAMIN B 12 DEFICIENCY.Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.Tropanes: N-methyl-8-azabicyclo[3.2.1]octanes best known for the ones found in PLANTS.Oxygen Consumption: The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)Piperidines: A family of hexahydropyridines.Anthracenes: A group of compounds with three aromatic rings joined in linear arrangement.Trityl CompoundsNitriles: Organic compounds containing the -CN radical. The concept is distinguished from CYANIDES, which denotes inorganic salts of HYDROGEN CYANIDE.Intracellular Membranes: Thin structures that encapsulate subcellular structures or ORGANELLES in EUKARYOTIC CELLS. They include a variety of membranes associated with the CELL NUCLEUS; the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.Azides: Organic or inorganic compounds that contain the -N3 group.Dicofol: An organochlorine insecticide.ThiosemicarbazonesEscherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Electron Transport: The process by which ELECTRONS are transported from a reduced substrate to molecular OXYGEN. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary and Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984, p270)Ruthenium Red: An inorganic dye used in microscopy for differential staining and as a diagnostic reagent. In research this compound is used to study changes in cytoplasmic concentrations of calcium. Ruthenium red inhibits calcium transport through membrane channels.Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Receptor, Cannabinoid, CB1: A subclass of cannabinoid receptor found primarily on central and peripheral NEURONS where it may play a role modulating NEUROTRANSMITTER release.Boron Compounds: Inorganic or organic compounds that contain boron as an integral part of the molecule.Rotenone: A botanical insecticide that is an inhibitor of mitochondrial electron transport.Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.Phenalenes: A group of AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS that have three rings joined as a triad around a single carbon atom so all three are conjoined, in contrast to a linear arrangement (ANTHRACENES) or angular arrangement (PHENANTHRENES).Spectrophotometry: The art or process of comparing photometrically the relative intensities of the light in different parts of the spectrum.Methylphenazonium Methosulfate: Used as an electron carrier in place of the flavine enzyme of Warburg in the hexosemonophosphate system and also in the preparation of SUCCINIC DEHYDROGENASE.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Onium Compounds: Ions with the suffix -onium, indicating cations with coordination number 4 of the type RxA+ which are analogous to QUATERNARY AMMONIUM COMPOUNDS (H4N+). Ions include phosphonium R4P+, oxonium R3O+, sulfonium R3S+, chloronium R2Cl+Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.KetonesNortropanesAntidotes: Agents counteracting or neutralizing the action of POISONS.Sodium: A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Succinates: Derivatives of SUCCINIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain a 1,4-carboxy terminated aliphatic structure.Catalysis: The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.Mitochondria, Liver: Mitochondria in hepatocytes. As in all mitochondria, there are an outer membrane and an inner membrane, together creating two separate mitochondrial compartments: the internal matrix space and a much narrower intermembrane space. In the liver mitochondrion, an estimated 67% of the total mitochondrial proteins is located in the matrix. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p343-4)Potassium: An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.ThiazolesTemperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Ruthenium Compounds: Inorganic compounds that contain ruthenium as an integral part of the molecule.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Naphthols: Naphthalene derivatives carrying one or more hydroxyl (-OH) groups at any ring position. They are often used in dyes and pigments, as antioxidants for rubber, fats, and oils, as insecticides, in pharmaceuticals, and in numerous other applications.Proton-Motive Force: Energy that is generated by the transfer of protons or electrons across an energy-transducing membrane and that can be used for chemical, osmotic, or mechanical work. Proton-motive force can be generated by a variety of phenomena including the operation of an electron transport chain, illumination of a PURPLE MEMBRANE, and the hydrolysis of ATP by a proton ATPase. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed, p171)Cannabinoids: Compounds having the cannabinoid structure. They were originally extracted from Cannabis sativa L. The most pharmacologically active constituents are TETRAHYDROCANNABINOL; CANNABINOL; and CANNABIDIOL.Cytochromes: Hemeproteins whose characteristic mode of action involves transfer of reducing equivalents which are associated with a reversible change in oxidation state of the prosthetic group. Formally, this redox change involves a single-electron, reversible equilibrium between the Fe(II) and Fe(III) states of the central iron atom (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p539). The various cytochrome subclasses are organized by the type of HEME and by the wavelength range of their reduced alpha-absorption bands.Sulfur Oxides: Inorganic oxides of sulfur.MethylaminesMembrane Transport Proteins: Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of molecules across a biological membrane. Included in this broad category are proteins involved in active transport (BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT, ACTIVE), facilitated transport and ION CHANNELS.Acriflavine: 3,6-Diamino-10-methylacridinium chloride mixt. with 3,6-acridinediamine. Fluorescent dye used as a local antiseptic and also as a biological stain. It intercalates into nucleic acids thereby inhibiting bacterial and viral replication.Alcohol Oxidoreductases: A subclass of enzymes which includes all dehydrogenases acting on primary and secondary alcohols as well as hemiacetals. They are further classified according to the acceptor which can be NAD+ or NADP+ (subclass 1.1.1), cytochrome (1.1.2), oxygen (1.1.3), quinone (1.1.5), or another acceptor (1.1.99).Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Receptors, Cannabinoid: A class of G-protein-coupled receptors that are specific for CANNABINOIDS such as those derived from CANNABIS. They also bind a structurally distinct class of endogenous factors referred to as ENDOCANNABINOIDS. The receptor class may play a role in modulating the release of signaling molecules such as NEUROTRANSMITTERS and CYTOKINES.Mitochondria, Muscle: Mitochondria of skeletal and smooth muscle. It does not include myocardial mitochondria for which MITOCHONDRIA, HEART is available.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Energy Metabolism: The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.Proteolipids: Protein-lipid combinations abundant in brain tissue, but also present in a wide variety of animal and plant tissues. In contrast to lipoproteins, they are insoluble in water, but soluble in a chloroform-methanol mixture. The protein moiety has a high content of hydrophobic amino acids. The associated lipids consist of a mixture of GLYCEROPHOSPHATES; CEREBROSIDES; and SULFOGLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS; while lipoproteins contain PHOSPHOLIPIDS; CHOLESTEROL; and TRIGLYCERIDES.Microbial Sensitivity Tests: Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).BornanesDesigner Drugs: Drugs designed and synthesized, often for illegal street use, by modification of existing drug structures (e.g., amphetamines). Of special interest are MPTP (a reverse ester of meperidine), MDA (3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine), and MDMA (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine). Many drugs act on the aminergic system, the physiologically active biogenic amines.Antibiotics, Antineoplastic: Chemical substances, produced by microorganisms, inhibiting or preventing the proliferation of neoplasms.NAD: A coenzyme composed of ribosylnicotinamide 5'-diphosphate coupled to adenosine 5'-phosphate by pyrophosphate linkage. It is found widely in nature and is involved in numerous enzymatic reactions in which it serves as an electron carrier by being alternately oxidized (NAD+) and reduced (NADH). (Dorland, 27th ed)Aminopyrine N-DemethylaseCell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Adrenergic beta-3 Receptor Antagonists: Drugs that bind to and block the activation of ADRENERGIC BETA-3 RECEPTORS.src-Family Kinases: A PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE family that was originally identified by homology to the Rous sarcoma virus ONCOGENE PROTEIN PP60(V-SRC). They interact with a variety of cell-surface receptors and participate in intracellular signal transduction pathways. Oncogenic forms of src-family kinases can occur through altered regulation or expression of the endogenous protein and by virally encoded src (v-src) genes.Fluorescent Dyes: Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.Transferrin: An iron-binding beta1-globulin that is synthesized in the LIVER and secreted into the blood. It plays a central role in the transport of IRON throughout the circulation. A variety of transferrin isoforms exist in humans, including some that are considered markers for specific disease states.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Iridium: A metallic element with the atomic symbol Ir, atomic number 77, and atomic weight 192.22.Carbon Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of carbon that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. C atoms with atomic weights 10, 11, and 14-16 are radioactive carbon isotopes.Thapsigargin: A sesquiterpene lactone found in roots of THAPSIA. It inhibits CA(2+)-TRANSPORTING ATPASE mediated uptake of CALCIUM into SARCOPLASMIC RETICULUM.Spheroplasts: Cells, usually bacteria or yeast, which have partially lost their cell wall, lost their characteristic shape and become round.Antineoplastic Agents: Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.PhenazinesMolecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Electrochemistry: The study of chemical changes resulting from electrical action and electrical activity resulting from chemical changes.Cyclohexanols: Monohydroxy derivatives of cyclohexanes that contain the general formula R-C6H11O. They have a camphorlike odor and are used in making soaps, insecticides, germicides, dry cleaning, and plasticizers.Glucose: A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.Digitonin: A glycoside obtained from Digitalis purpurea; the aglycone is digitogenin which is bound to five sugars. Digitonin solubilizes lipids, especially in membranes and is used as a tool in cellular biochemistry, and reagent for precipitating cholesterol. It has no cardiac effects.Ethidium: A trypanocidal agent and possible antiviral agent that is widely used in experimental cell biology and biochemistry. Ethidium has several experimentally useful properties including binding to nucleic acids, noncompetitive inhibition of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, and fluorescence among others. It is most commonly used as the bromide.Benzoxazines: OXAZINES with a fused BENZENE ring.Oxygen: An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.Anaerobiosis: The complete absence, or (loosely) the paucity, of gaseous or dissolved elemental oxygen in a given place or environment. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Cell Membrane Permeability: A quality of cell membranes which permits the passage of solvents and solutes into and out of cells.Drug Design: The molecular designing of drugs for specific purposes (such as DNA-binding, enzyme inhibition, anti-cancer efficacy, etc.) based on knowledge of molecular properties such as activity of functional groups, molecular geometry, and electronic structure, and also on information cataloged on analogous molecules. Drug design is generally computer-assisted molecular modeling and does not include pharmacokinetics, dosage analysis, or drug administration analysis.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Receptors, Adrenergic, beta-3: A subclass of beta-adrenergic receptors (RECEPTORS, ADRENERGIC, BETA). The beta-3 adrenergic receptors are the predominant beta-adrenergic receptor type expressed in white and brown ADIPOCYTES and are involved in modulating ENERGY METABOLISM and THERMOGENESIS.Hydrogen: The first chemical element in the periodic table. It has the atomic symbol H, atomic number 1, and atomic weight [1.00784; 1.00811]. It exists, under normal conditions, as a colorless, odorless, tasteless, diatomic gas. Hydrogen ions are PROTONS. Besides the common H1 isotope, hydrogen exists as the stable isotope DEUTERIUM and the unstable, radioactive isotope TRITIUM.Aerobiosis: Life or metabolic reactions occurring in an environment containing oxygen.Polychlorinated Biphenyls: Industrial products consisting of a mixture of chlorinated biphenyl congeners and isomers. These compounds are highly lipophilic and tend to accumulate in fat stores of animals. Many of these compounds are considered toxic and potential environmental pollutants.Ammonium Chloride: An acidifying agent that has expectorant and diuretic effects. Also used in etching and batteries and as a flux in electroplating.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Adenosine Triphosphatases: A group of enzymes which catalyze the hydrolysis of ATP. The hydrolysis reaction is usually coupled with another function such as transporting Ca(2+) across a membrane. These enzymes may be dependent on Ca(2+), Mg(2+), anions, H+, or DNA.Ferricyanides: Inorganic salts of the hypothetical acid, H3Fe(CN)6.Mitochondrial Swelling: An increase in MITOCHONDRIAL VOLUME due to an influx of fluid; it occurs in hypotonic solutions due to osmotic pressure and in isotonic solutions as a result of altered permeability of the membranes of respiring mitochondria.Intermediate-Conductance Calcium-Activated Potassium Channels: A major class of calcium-activated potassium channels that were originally discovered in ERYTHROCYTES. They are found primarily in non-excitable CELLS and set up electrical gradients for PASSIVE ION TRANSPORT.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Anti-Infective Agents: Substances that prevent infectious agents or organisms from spreading or kill infectious agents in order to prevent the spread of infection.Phosphates: Inorganic salts of phosphoric acid.MalatesOxidoreductases Acting on CH-NH2 Group Donors: Enzymes catalyzing the dehydrogenation of or oxidation of compounds containing primary amines.Succinic Acid: A water-soluble, colorless crystal with an acid taste that is used as a chemical intermediate, in medicine, the manufacture of lacquers, and to make perfume esters. It is also used in foods as a sequestrant, buffer, and a neutralizing agent. (Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed, p1099; McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1851)Yawning: An involuntary deep INHALATION with the MOUTH open, often accompanied by the act of stretching.Receptor, Cannabinoid, CB2: A subclass of cannabinoid receptor found primarily on immune cells where it may play a role modulating release of CYTOKINES.Proton-Translocating ATPases: Multisubunit enzymes that reversibly synthesize ADENOSINE TRIPHOSPHATE. They are coupled to the transport of protons across a membrane.Doxorubicin: Antineoplastic antibiotic obtained from Streptomyces peucetius. It is a hydroxy derivative of DAUNORUBICIN.Molecular Conformation: The characteristic three-dimensional shape of a molecule.Dopamine Plasma Membrane Transport Proteins: Sodium chloride-dependent neurotransmitter symporters located primarily on the PLASMA MEMBRANE of dopaminergic neurons. They remove DOPAMINE from the EXTRACELLULAR SPACE by high affinity reuptake into PRESYNAPTIC TERMINALS and are the target of DOPAMINE UPTAKE INHIBITORS.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Polyethylene Glycols: Polymers of ETHYLENE OXIDE and water, and their ethers. They vary in consistency from liquid to solid depending on the molecular weight indicated by a number following the name. They are used as SURFACTANTS, dispersing agents, solvents, ointment and suppository bases, vehicles, and tablet excipients. Some specific groups are NONOXYNOLS, OCTOXYNOLS, and POLOXAMERS.Crystallography, X-Ray: The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Thiocyanates: Organic derivatives of thiocyanic acid which contain the general formula R-SCN.Naphthalenes: Two-ring crystalline hydrocarbons isolated from coal tar. They are used as intermediates in chemical synthesis, as insect repellents, fungicides, lubricants, preservatives, and, formerly, as topical antiseptics.Dronabinol: A psychoactive compound extracted from the resin of Cannabis sativa (marihuana, hashish). The isomer delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is considered the most active form, producing characteristic mood and perceptual changes associated with this compound.Organophosphorus Compounds: Organic compounds that contain phosphorus as an integral part of the molecule. Included under this heading is broad array of synthetic compounds that are used as PESTICIDES and DRUGS.Cytosol: Intracellular fluid from the cytoplasm after removal of ORGANELLES and other insoluble cytoplasmic components.Pyrimidines: A family of 6-membered heterocyclic compounds occurring in nature in a wide variety of forms. They include several nucleic acid constituents (CYTOSINE; THYMINE; and URACIL) and form the basic structure of the barbiturates.Caffeine: A methylxanthine naturally occurring in some beverages and also used as a pharmacological agent. Caffeine's most notable pharmacological effect is as a central nervous system stimulant, increasing alertness and producing agitation. It also relaxes SMOOTH MUSCLE, stimulates CARDIAC MUSCLE, stimulates DIURESIS, and appears to be useful in the treatment of some types of headache. Several cellular actions of caffeine have been observed, but it is not entirely clear how each contributes to its pharmacological profile. Among the most important are inhibition of cyclic nucleotide PHOSPHODIESTERASES, antagonism of ADENOSINE RECEPTORS, and modulation of intracellular calcium handling.Succinimides: A subclass of IMIDES with the general structure of pyrrolidinedione. They are prepared by the distillation of ammonium succinate. They are sweet-tasting compounds that are used as chemical intermediates and plant growth stimulants.Epoxy Compounds: Organic compounds that include a cyclic ether with three ring atoms in their structure. They are commonly used as precursors for POLYMERS such as EPOXY RESINS.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Pyridines: Compounds with a six membered aromatic ring containing NITROGEN. The saturated version is PIPERIDINES.MethemoglobinBiodegradation, Environmental: Elimination of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS; PESTICIDES and other waste using living organisms, usually involving intervention of environmental or sanitation engineers.Drug Carriers: Forms to which substances are incorporated to improve the delivery and the effectiveness of drugs. Drug carriers are used in drug-delivery systems such as the controlled-release technology to prolong in vivo drug actions, decrease drug metabolism, and reduce drug toxicity. Carriers are also used in designs to increase the effectiveness of drug delivery to the target sites of pharmacological actions. Liposomes, albumin microspheres, soluble synthetic polymers, DNA complexes, protein-drug conjugates, and carrier erythrocytes among others have been employed as biodegradable drug carriers.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes: A species of gram-negative bacteria in the genus PSEUDOMONAS. All strains can utilize FRUCTOSE for energy. It is occasionally isolated from humans and some strains are pathogenic to WATERMELON.Glycolysis: A metabolic process that converts GLUCOSE into two molecules of PYRUVIC ACID through a series of enzymatic reactions. Energy generated by this process is conserved in two molecules of ATP. Glycolysis is the universal catabolic pathway for glucose, free glucose, or glucose derived from complex CARBOHYDRATES, such as GLYCOGEN and STARCH.Cell Respiration: The metabolic process of all living cells (animal and plant) in which oxygen is used to provide a source of energy for the cell.Submitochondrial Particles: The various filaments, granules, tubules or other inclusions within mitochondria.Oxidative Stress: A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).Calcium-Transporting ATPases: Cation-transporting proteins that utilize the energy of ATP hydrolysis for the transport of CALCIUM. They differ from CALCIUM CHANNELS which allow calcium to pass through a membrane without the use of energy.Anti-Bacterial Agents: Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.Androstanes: The family of steroids from which the androgens are derived.Receptors, Dopamine D4: A subtype of dopamine D2 receptors that has high affinity for the antipsychotic CLOZAPINE.Adenosine Diphosphate: Adenosine 5'-(trihydrogen diphosphate). An adenine nucleotide containing two phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety at the 5'-position.Cytochrome c Group: A group of cytochromes with covalent thioether linkages between either or both of the vinyl side chains of protoheme and the protein. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p539)Anions: Negatively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms which travel to the anode or positive pole during electrolysis.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Ligands: A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Hydrogenation: Addition of hydrogen to a compound, especially to an unsaturated fat or fatty acid. (From Stedman, 26th ed)

UCP4, a novel brain-specific mitochondrial protein that reduces membrane potential in mammalian cells. (1/884)

Uncoupling proteins (UCPs) are a family of mitochondrial transporter proteins that have been implicated in thermoregulatory heat production and maintenance of the basal metabolic rate. We have identified and partially characterized a novel member of the human uncoupling protein family, termed uncoupling protein-4 (UCP4). Protein sequence analyses showed that UCP4 is most related to UCP3 and possesses features characteristic of mitochondrial transporter proteins. Unlike other known UCPs, UCP4 transcripts are exclusively expressed in both fetal and adult brain tissues. UCP4 maps to human chromosome 6p11.2-q12. Consistent with its potential role as an uncoupling protein, UCP4 is localized to the mitochondria and its ectopic expression in mammalian cells reduces mitochondrial membrane potential. These findings suggest that UCP4 may be involved in thermoregulatory heat production and metabolism in the brain.  (+info)

Mitochondrial regulation of the cytosolic Ca2+ concentration and the InsP3-sensitive Ca2+ store in guinea-pig colonic smooth muscle. (2/884)

1. Mitochondrial regulation of the cytosolic Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]c) in guinea-pig single colonic myocytes has been examined, using whole-cell recording, flash photolysis of caged InsP3 and microfluorimetry. 2. Depolarization increased [Ca2+]c and triggered contraction. Resting [Ca2+]c was virtually restored some 4 s after the end of depolarization, a time when the muscle had shortened to 50 % of its fully relaxed length. The muscle then slowly relaxed (t = 17 s). 3. The decline in the Ca2+ transient was monophasic but often undershot or overshot resting levels, depending on resting [Ca2+]c. The extent of the overshoot or undershoot increased with increasing peak [Ca2+]c. 4. Carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenyl hydrazone (CCCP; 5 microM), which dissipates the mitochondrial proton electrochemical gradient and therefore prevents mitochondrial Ca2+ accumulation, slowed Ca2+ removal at high ( > 300 nM) but not at lower [Ca2+]c and abolished [Ca2+]c overshoots. Oligomycin B (5 microM), which prevents mitchondrial ATP production, affected neither the rate of decline nor the magnitude of the overshoot. 5. During depolarization, the global rhod-2 signal (which represents the mitochondrial matrix Ca2+ concentration, [Ca2+]m) rose slowly in a CCCP-sensitive manner during and for about 3 s after depolarization had ended. [Ca2+]m then slowly decreased over tens of seconds. 6. Inhibition of sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ uptake with thapsigargin (100 nM) reduced the undershoot and increased the overshoot. 7. Flash photolysis of caged InsP3 (20 microM) evoked reproducible increases in [Ca2+]c. CCCP (5 microM) reduced the magnitude of the [Ca2+]c transients evoked by flash photolysis of caged InsP3. Oligomycin B (5 microM) did not reduce the inhibition of the InsP3-induced Ca2+ transient by CCCP thus minimizing the possibility that CCCP lowered ATP levels by reversing the mitochondrial ATP synthase and so reducing SR Ca2+ refilling. 8. While CCCP reduced the magnitude of the InsP3-evoked Ca2+ signal, the internal Ca2+ store content, as assessed by the magnitude of ionomycin-evoked Ca2+ release, did not decrease significantly. 9. [Ca2+]c decline in smooth muscle, following depolarization, may involve mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake. Following InsP3-evoked Ca2+ release, mitochondrial uptake of Ca2+ may regulate the local [Ca2+]c near the InsP3 receptor so maintaining the sensitivity of the InsP3 receptor to release Ca2+ from the SR.  (+info)

Uncoupling of transfer of the presequence and unfolding of the mature domain in precursor translocation across the mitochondrial outer membrane. (3/884)

Translocation of mitochondrial precursor proteins across the mitochondrial outer membrane is facilitated by the translocase of the outer membrane (TOM) complex. By using site-specific photocrosslinking, we have mapped interactions between TOM proteins and a mitochondrial precursor protein arrested at two distinct stages, stage A (accumulated at 0 degrees C) and stage B (accumulated at 30 degrees C), in the translocation across the outer membrane at high resolution not achieved previously. Although the stage A and stage B intermediates were assigned previously to the forms bound to the cis site and the trans site of the TOM complex, respectively, the results of crosslinking indicate that the presequence of the intermediates at both stage A and stage B is already on the trans side of the outer membrane. The mature domain is unfolded and bound to Tom40 at stage B whereas it remains folded at stage A. After dissociation from the TOM complex, translocation of the stage B intermediate, but not of the stage A intermediate, across the inner membrane was promoted by the intermembrane-space domain of Tom22. We propose a new model for protein translocation across the outer membrane, where translocation of the presequence and unfolding of the mature domain are not necessarily coupled.  (+info)

Excretion of taurocholate from isolated hepatocytes. (4/884)

Efflux of taurocholate from isolated rat hepatocytes was studied to characterize the mechanism of bile acid secretion. Cells were incubated with taurocholate for 15 min. The amount of the intracellularly accumulated bile acid was directly related to the concentration in the medium. Transfer of the loaded cells from the incubation medium to a medium without taurocholate led to taurocholate efflux. Efflux was saturable, its activation energy amounted to 12 kcal/mol (50 kJ). It was strongly inhibited by the metabolic inhibitor antimycin A and to a lesser extend by the uncoupler carbonylcyanide-m-chlorophenylhydrazone. Dinitrofluorobenzene and mersalyl, reagents which react with amino acids, inhibited efflux by about 30% when applied at concentrations of 50 muM. Ouabain increased the rate of efflux. The observations indicate that secretory functions are maintained in isolated liver cells.  (+info)

Light-induced oxidation-reduction reactions of cytochromes in the green sulfur photosynthetic bacterium Prosthecochloris aesturarii. (5/884)

The light-induced oxidation-reduction reactions of cytochromes in intact cells, starved cells, and chlorobium vesicle fractions of the green sulfur photosynthetic bacterium Prosthecochloris aesturarii were studied under anaerobic conditions. On the basis of both kinetic and spectral properties, at least three cytochrome species were found to be involved in the light-induced oxidation-reduction reactions of intact cells. These cytochromes were designated according to the positions of alpha-band maxima as C555 (rapid and slow components) and C552 (intermediate). By comparing the light-minus-dark difference spectra with the reduced-minus-oxidized difference spectra of purified cytochromes of this organism, rapid component C555 and intermediate component C552 are suggested to correspond to the purified cytochromes c-555(550) and c-551.5, respectively. Although the identity of the slow-phase component is uncertain, one possibility is that the slow phase is due to the bound form of c-555(550). In substrate-depleted (starved) cells, only one cytochrome species, C555 remained in the reduced state in the dark and oxidized upon actinic illumination. This corresponds to the rapid C555 component in intact cells. In the case of chlorobium vesicle fractions, one cytochrome species having an alpha-band maximum at 554 nm was oxidized by actinic light. The effects of several inhibitors on the absorbance changes of intact cells were studied. Antimycin A decreased the rate of the dark reduction of rapid C555 component. The complex effects of CCCP (carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone) on the oxidation-reduction reactions of cytochromes were interpreted as the results of inhibition of the electron donation to oxidized C552 and C555 (slow), and a shift of the dark steady-state redox levels of cytochromes. Based on these findings, it is suggested that the rapid C555 component is located in a cyclic electron transfer pathway. The other two cytochromes, C552 and C555 (slow), may be located in non-cyclic electron transfer pathways and receive electrons from exogenous substrates such as sodium sulfide. A tentative scheme for the electron transfer system in Prosthecochloris aestuarii is presented and its nature is discussed.  (+info)

cAMP-mediated catabolite repression and electrochemical potential-dependent production of an extracellular amylase in Vibrio alginolyticus. (6/884)

Vibrio alginolyticus, a halophilic marine bacterium, produced an extracellular amylase with a molecular mass of approximately 56,000, and the amylase appeared to be subject to catabolite repression mediated by cAMP. The production of amylase at pH 6.5, at which the respiratory chain-linked H+ pump functions, was inhibited about 75% at 24 hours following the addition of 2 microM carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone (CCCP), while the production at pH 8.5, at which the respiratory chain-linked Na+ pump functions, was only slightly inhibited by the addition of 2 microM CCCP. In contrast, the production of amylase in a mutant bacterium defective in the Na+ pump was almost completely inhibited even at pH 8.5 as well as pH 6.5 by the addition of 2 microM CCCP.  (+info)

Uncouplers of oxidative phosphorylation can enhance a Fas death signal. (7/884)

Recent work suggests a participation of mitochondria in apoptotic cell death. This role includes the release of apoptogenic molecules into the cytosol preceding or after a loss of mitochondrial membrane potential DeltaPsim. The two uncouplers of oxidative phosphorylation carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone (CCCP) and 2, 4-dinitrophenol (DNP) reduce DeltaPsim by direct attack of the proton gradient across the inner mitochondrial membrane. Here we show that both compounds enhance the apoptosis-inducing capacity of Fas/APO-1/CD95 signaling in Jurkat and CEM cells without causing apoptotic changes on their own account. This amplification occurred upstream or at the level of caspases and was not inhibited by Bcl-2. The effect could be blocked by the cowpox protein CrmA and is thus likely to require caspase 8 activity. Apoptosis induction by staurosporine in Jurkat cells as well as by Fas in SKW6 cells was unaffected by CCCP and DNP. The role of cytochrome c during Fas-DNP signaling was investigated. No early cytochrome c release from mitochondria was detected by Western blotting. Functional assays with cytoplasmic preparations from Fas-DNP-treated cells also indicated that there was no major contribution by cytochrome c or caspase 9 to the activation of effector caspases. Furthermore, an increase of rhodamine-123 uptake into intact cells, which has been explained by mitochondrial swelling, occurred considerably later than the caspase activation and was blocked by Z-VAD-fmk. These data show that uncouplers of oxidative phosphorylation can presensitize some but not all cells for a Fas death signal and provide information about the existence of separate pathways in the induction of apoptosis.  (+info)

Secretagogues modulate the calcium concentration in the endoplasmic reticulum of insulin-secreting cells. Studies in aequorin-expressing intact and permeabilized ins-1 cells. (8/884)

The precise regulation of the Ca2+ concentration in the endoplasmic reticulum ([Ca2+]er) is important for protein processing and signal transduction. In the pancreatic beta-cell, dysregulation of [Ca2+]er may cause impaired insulin secretion. The Ca2+-sensitive photoprotein aequorin mutated to lower its Ca2+ affinity was stably expressed in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) of rat insulinoma INS-1 cells. The steady state [Ca2+]er was 267 +/- 9 microM. Both the Ca2+-ATPase inhibitor cyclopiazonic acid and 4-chloro-m-cresol, an activator of ryanodine receptors, caused an almost complete emptying of ER Ca2+. The inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate generating agonists, carbachol, and ATP, reduced [Ca2+]er by 20-25%. Insulin secretagogues that raise cytosolic [Ca2+] by membrane depolarization increased [Ca2+]er in the potency order K+ >> glucose > leucine, paralleling their actions in the cytosolic compartment. Glucose, which augmented [Ca2+]er by about 25%, potentiated the Ca2+-mobilizing effect of carbachol, explaining the corresponding observation in cytosolic [Ca2+]. The filling of ER Ca2+ by glucose is not directly mediated by ATP production as shown by the continuous monitoring of cytosolic ATP in luciferase expressing cells. Both glucose and K+ increase [Ca2+]er, but only the former generated whereas the latter consumed ATP. Nonetheless, drastic lowering of cellular ATP with a mitochondrial uncoupler resulted in a marked decrease in [Ca2+]er, emphasizing the requirement for mitochondrially derived ATP above a critical threshold concentration. Using alpha-toxin permeabilized cells in the presence of ATP, glucose 6-phosphate did not change [Ca2+]er, invalidating the hypothesis that glucose acts through this metabolite. Therefore, insulin secretagogues that primarily stimulate Ca2+ influx, elevate [Ca2+]er to ensure beta-cell homeostasis.  (+info)

An Escherichia coli chromosomal DNA fragment cloned on a multicopy plasmid conferred resistance to carbonylcyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone, nalidixic acid, and a number of other toxic compounds. The sequence of the cloned emr locus located at minute 57.5 of the chromosome revealed two open reading frames, emrA and emrB. emrB encodes a highly hydrophobic 56.2-kDa peptide, with 14 potential alpha-helices to span the inner membrane. The peptide is homologous to QacA, a multidrug-resistant pump from Staphylococcus aureus, and belongs to a gene family that includes tetracycline-resistant pumps of Gram-positive bacteria and the galactose/H+ symporter of E. coli. emrA encodes a putative 42.7-kDa peptide containing a single hydrophobic domain and a large C-terminal hydrophilic domain. An active pho-fusion to the C domain suggested that EmrA is a membrane protein. Disruption of emrB significantly increased sensitivity of cells to uncouplers. The cellular content of uncoupler increased in the order: ...
Solid State Proton Conductors von Philippe Knauth, Maria Luisa Di Vona und Buchbewertungen gibt es auf ReadRate.com. Bücher können hier direkt online erworben werden.
An uncoupler is a protonophore (CCCP, FCCP, DNP) which cycles across the inner mt-membrane with transport of protons and dissipation of the electrochemical proton gradient. Mild uncoupling may be induced at low uncoupler concentrations, the noncoupled state of ET capacity is obtained at optimum uncoupler concentration for maximum flux, whereas at higher concentrations an uncoupler-induced inhibition is observed. Abbreviation: U Reference: Noncoupled respiration ...
Principal Investigator:YAMANAKA Shinsuke, Project Period (FY):1993 - 1994, Research Category:Grant-in-Aid for General Scientific Research (C), Research Field:Nuclear fusion studies
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BAM15, ST056388, mitochondrial protonophore uncoupler that does not depolarize the plasma membrane IDNUMBER ST056388 Other identifiers: SBB001916, ST4027337, T4021910, TBB011486, T3149443, ST236891 Formula: C16H10F2N6O MW: 340. 29 NAME: (2-fluorophenyl)amine SMILES: c12c(nc(c(n1)Nc1c(F)cccc1)Nc1c(F)cccc1)non2 InChI=1S/C16H10F2N6O/c17-9-5-1-3-7-11(9)19-13-14(20-12-8-4-2-6-10(12)18)22-16-15(21-13)23-25-24-16/h1-8H,(H,19,21,23)(H,20,22,24) InChIKey=OEGJBRZAJRPPHL-UHFFFAOYSA-N MDL: MFCD00373912 Contact us to order....
PINK1 can act as a molecular sensor of damaged mitochondria (Geisler et al., 2010a; Matsuda et al., 2010; Narendra et al., 2010b; Vives-Bauza et al., 2010). When mitochondria are experimentally depolarized, to mimic damage, with the use of uncouplers such as carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone (CCCP) - which severely reduces the membrane potential across the IMM, which is required for TIM-mediated mitochondrial import of proteins - PINK1 no longer becomes processed by either MPP or PARL and the full-length 64-kDa form rapidly accumulates, spanning the OMM with its kinase domain facing the cytosol (Jin et al., 2010; Narendra et al., 2010b) (Poster Panel 2, lower part). This rapid accumulation of full-length PINK1 is blocked when the cells are pretreated with the protein synthesis inhibitor cycloheximide, indicating that the accumulated full-length PINK1 is a newly translated protein and its turnover is remarkably fast (Matsuda et al., 2010; Narendra et al., 2010b). In addition, when CCCP is ...
Rastegar Lari, Abdolaziz and Ardebili, Abdollah and Talebi, Malihe and Azimi, Leila (2014) Effect of Efflux Pump Inhibitor Carbonyl Cyanide 3-Chlorophenylhydrazone on the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration of Ciprofloxacin in Acinetobacter baumannii Clinical Isolates. Jundishapur Journal of Microbiology, 7 (1). pp. 1-5. ISSN 2008-4161 ...
Looking for online definition of Proton-motive force in the Medical Dictionary? Proton-motive force explanation free. What is Proton-motive force? Meaning of Proton-motive force medical term. What does Proton-motive force mean?
The plasmoelectric effect: optically induced electrochemical potentials in resonant metallic structures Matthew T. Sheldon and Harry A. Atwater Thomas J. Watson Laboratories of Applied Physics, California
Recent Developments in Advanced Materials and Processes: Evaluation of Cytotoxic Activity of d-Metal Complexes with Hydrazone Ligands
MetabolismEnergy metabolismATP-proton motive force interconversionATP synthase F1, delta subunit (TIGR01145; EC 3.6.3.14; HMM-score: 118.5) ...
Electrophysiological and microfluorometric measurements were combined to analyse the responses of rat striatal medium spiny (MS) and large aspiny (LA) interneurons to the mitochondrial uncoupler carbonyl cyanide p-trifluoromethoxyphenylidrazone (FCCP). FCCP produced a membrane depolarisation coupled to an irreversible increase in intracellular calcium [Ca2+]i in MS. Conversely, LA interneurons hyperpolarised and a moderate [Ca2+]i rise was observed. Cyclosporin A, inhibitor of the mitochondrial membrane transition pore, prevented the FCCP-induced changes in LA interneurons, whereas only a partial reduction was observed in MS cells. The present results indicate that mitochondrial Ca2+ released into the cytosol may contribute to the selective vulnerability to metabolic impairment in striatal neuronal subtypes.. ...
These surface pores are attached to the electrosensory cells by canals filled with clear, viscous jelly, which let the fish detect weak electrical fields emitted by other animals in the sea - even signals as subtle as 5 nanovolts per centimetre.. As the scientists do not yet completely understand the way the jelly plays a part in this purpose, it is obvious that it somehow plays a particular role, because of its enormous convenience of conductivity, that the group claims to be the greatest previously documented to get a biological material.. At roughly 2 ± 1 millisiemens per centimetre, the conductivity of the jelly is just 40 times lower than the polymer Nafion, a synthetic material known for its superior conductivity.. Proton conductivity is just a type of electrical conductivity where hydrogen carry the charge ions, as opposed to electrons. Although electrons carry the charge in extremely conductive metals for example copper and silver, proton conductivity is definitely an essential process ...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - The level of stromal ATP regulates translation of the D1 protein in isolated chloroplasts. AU - Kuroda, Hiroshi. AU - Inagaki, Noritoshi. AU - Satoh, Kimiyuki. PY - 1992/1/1. Y1 - 1992/1/1. N2 - The synthesis of the D1 subunit of the reaction center of photosystem II is light-dependent in isolated chloroplasts. The mechanism of the regulation by light was analyzed using spinach chloroplasts. The light-regulated synthesis of the D1 protein was prevented by the addition of atrazine and the dependence on the concentration of atrazine of the inhibition was practically identical with that of the inhibition of photosynthetic electron transport in photosystem II, as measured by the photoreduction of 2,6-dichlorophenol indophenol. Inhibitors of photosynthetic phosphorylation, such as phloridzin, nigericin and carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone, also inhibited the light-dependent synthesis of the D1 protein. Determination of the levels of ATP in chloroplasts and the rates of ...
The strategy applied in the structure refinement of accurate single-crystal neutron diffraction data for pseudo-centrosymmetric proton conducting systems can often be decisive. The application of a combination of judicious symmetry constraints and symmet. ...
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Proposes the law of motive force as a fundamental law of nature and establishes its relation to other laws and principles in thermodynamics With the aid
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The Section for Proton Conductors focuses on materials science and electrochemical systems and components based on proton conducting cells in a broad sense, at low to intermediate temperature (below 400 °C). The electrolytes include direct proton conductors as well as indirect proton conductors like aqueous hydroxide. Research also encompasses electrocatalysis and development of complete cells around proton conducting electrolytes.. We synthesize polymers and manufacture and characterize proton conducting membranes. Special attention is devoted to high temperature membranes (polybenzimidazole, PBI) with chemical stability in acid as well as in base. Such polymers have been successfully applied in high-temperature PEM fuel cells, a research field in which we are pioneers. Lately, similar membranes have been successfully applied in alkaline electrolysis cells. Solid or liquid inorganic proton conductors are also studied for electrolysis above 200 °C. Within electrocatalysis our research focus is ...
You are viewing an interactive 3D depiction of the molecule 1-[(4s)-4-{[(benzyloxy)carbonyl]amino}-4-carboxybutanoyl]-2-indolinecarboxylic acid (C22H22N2O7) from the PQR.
MetabolismEnergy metabolismATP-proton motive force interconversionATP synthase F1, epsilon subunit (TIGR01216; EC 3.6.3.14; HMM-score: 120.2) ...
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H+/e- stoichiometry for NADH dehydrogenase I and dimethyl sulfoxide reductase in anaerobically grown Escherichia coli cells.: Anaerobically grown Escherichia co
Vascular superoxide levels were also measured after incubation with NG and HG using a chemiluminescent probe (L-012) in the absence and presence of 1 and 2 above.. Results: ACh-induced vasodilation was impaired by HG vs. NG control (P,0.001). This impairment was modestly reversed by gp91 ds-tat (P, 0.001), but endothelial function was completely restored to the level observed under euglycemic conditions by CCCP (P=0.008 vs. HG, P,0.90 vs. NG). Endothelium-dependent vasodilation in HG vessels was greater after CCCP compared to gp91ds-tat (P,0.001). L-NAME inhibited all dilation to ACh indicating endothelium-dependence (data not shown). HG induced an increase in superoxide relative to NG (P,0.001), which was similarly suppressed by gp91ds-tat (P = 0.001) and CCCP (P=0.002).. Conclusion: HG-induced endothelial dysfunction is reversed with partial uncoupling of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation. Mitochondrial uncoupling more than NADPH oxidase blockade improves endothelial dysfunction due to ...
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The physiological roles of polyphosphates (polyP) recently found in arthropod mitochondria remain obscure. Here, the relationship between the mitochondrial membrane exopolyphosphatase (PPX) and the energy metabolism of hard tick Rhipicephalus microplus embryos are investigated. Mitochondrial respiration was activated by adenosine diphosphate using polyP as the only source of inorganic phosphate (Pi) and this activation was much greater using polyP3 than polyP15. After mitochondrial subfractionation, most of the PPX activity was recovered in the membrane fraction and its kinetic analysis revealed that the affinity for polyP3 was 10 times stronger than that for polyP15. Membrane PPX activity was also increased in the presence of the respiratory substrate pyruvic acid and after addition of the protonophore carbonyl cyanide-p-trifluoromethoxyphenylhydrazone. Furthermore, these stimulatory effects disappeared upon addition of the cytochrome oxidase inhibitor potassium cyanide and the activity was completely
Proton motive force, a necessity for all living cells, is generated and exploited by asignificant number of membrane-bound enzymes and transporters. The focus of thisthesis was to understand the physiological relevance, structure and mechanism of threesuch bacterial enzymes: proteorhodopsin; transhydrogenase; and AcrB. Proteorhodopsin, common in surface living bacteria, is demonstrated to exist also inphylum Bacteriodetes, the third most abundant class of ocean bacteria. Evidence is alsopresented that its presence stimulates growth of one such bacterium in the presence oflight. This finding indicates that proteorhodopsin associated growth enhancementcould contribute to the primary production in earths biosphere. Furthermore,optimisation of proteorhodopsin synthesis in vitro and from E. coli shows that yieldssufficient for structural studies by NMR and X-ray crystallography are achievable. Over-production of functional transhydrogenase with an altered sub-unit composition,where the β-subunit is split
... _What is the role of cyanide in mining | MiningFacts miningfacts Environment WhatistheroleofcyanideinminingWhat is the role of cyanide in mining? the cyanide concentration of effluent leaving a
PINK1-YFP R98F (green) is found localized to mitochondria (red) in the presence of the mitochondrial depolarizing agent CCCP (carbonyl cyanide-m-chlor...
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Structure and function of SemiSWEET.(a) Time course of [14C]-sucrose uptake by proteoliposomes containing EcSemiSWEET (solid black squares) or empty control lip
The International Cyanide Management Institute (ICMI) announced today that Victor Masson Transportes Cruz del Sur S.A. (Cruz del Sur), a cyanide transporter in Argentina, has been recertified in full compliance with the International Cyanide Management Code (Cyanide Code).
P62-mediated mitophagy inducer is a mitophagy regulator which activates mitophagy without recruiting Parkin or collapsing ΔΨm and retains activity in cells devoid of a fully functional PINK1/Parkin pathway. - Mechanism of Action & Protocol.
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QUINOLINE-5-CARBONYL AZIDE,CCD编号:CCD03496255,分子式:C10 H6 N4 O,分子量:198.184,同义词:QUINOLINE-5-CARBONYL AZIDE; 分子结构,化学云数据库
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By the end of this section, you will be able to: Understand how electrochemical gradients affect ions Describe endocytosis, including phagocytosis, pi
... ,[[4-[(4R)-1,4,5,6-Tetrahydro-4-methyl-6-oxo-3-pyridazinyl]phenyl]hydrazono]propanedinitrile,(-)-[p[(R)-1,4,5,6-tetrahydro-4-methyl-6-oxo-3-pyridazinyl]phenyl]hydrazone mesoxalonitrile,(R)-simendan,OR-1259,Simdax
However, other substances, such as 2,4-dinitrophenol and carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenyl hydrazone, also serve the same ...
Cezomycin Carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenyl hydrazone (CCCP) (H+) Enniatin (ammonium) Gramicidin A (H+, Na+, K+) Ionomycin (Ca2+ ... Some synthetic agents are not macrocyclic, e.g., carbonyl cyanide-p-trifluoromethoxyphenylhydrazone. Even simple organic ...
... an Italian band formed in 1982 Carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenyl hydrazone, a toxic ionophore and decoupler of the respiratory ...
... carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenyl hydrazone MeSH D02.442.288.220 --- carbonyl cyanide-p-trifluoromethoxyphenylhydrazone MeSH ...
4-dinitrophenol Carbonyl cyanide-p-trifluoromethoxyphenylhydrazone (FCCP) Carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenyl hydrazone (CCCP) The ...
Hydrazones Benzophenone hydrazone, an illustrative hydrazone Carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenyl hydrazone Gyromitrin (Acetaldehyde ... The hydrazones are then eluted and analyzed by HPLC using a UV detector. The compound carbonyl cyanide-p- ... A hydrazone is an intermediate in the Wolff-Kishner reduction. Hydrazones can also be synthesized by the Japp-Klingemann ... Hydrazones are reactants in hydrazone iodination, the Shapiro reaction and the Bamford-Stevens reaction to vinyl compounds. ...
It is a nitrile and hydrazone. FCCP was first described in 1962 by Heytler. Carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenyl hydrazone (CCCP) ... Carbonyl cyanide-4-(trifluoromethoxy)phenylhydrazone (FCCP) is an ionophore that is a mobile ion carrier. It is referred to as ... Heytler, P G (1962). "A new class of uncoupling agents - Carbonyl cyanide phenylhydrazones". Biochemical and Biophysical ...
... (CCCP) is a chemical inhibitor of oxidative phosphorylation. It is a nitrile, ... "Effect of carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone (CCCP) on the dimerization of lipoprotein lipase". Biochimica et Biophysica ... Carbonyl cyanide-p-trifluoromethoxyphenylhydrazone (FCCP) J.W. Park; S.Y. Lee; J.Y. Yang; H.W. Rho; B.H. Park; S.N. Lim; J.S. ... hydrazone and protonophore. In general, CCCP causes the gradual destruction of living cells and death of the organism. CCCP ...
Carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenyl hydrazone (CCCP) is a chemical inhibitor of oxidative phosphorylation. It is a nitrile, ... "Effect of carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone (CCCP) on the dimerization of lipoprotein lipase". Biochimica et Biophysica ... Carbonyl cyanide-p-trifluoromethoxyphenylhydrazone (FCCP) J.W. Park; S.Y. Lee; J.Y. Yang; H.W. Rho; B.H. Park; S.N. Lim; J.S. ... hydrazone and protonophore. In general, CCCP causes the gradual destruction of living cells and death of the organism. CCCP ...
Carbonyl Cyanide m-Chlorophenyl Hydrazone/pharmacology*. *Cell Membrane Permeability. *Culture Media. *DNA Transposable ... a screening method was developed using the electrogenic protonophore carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone (CCCP). CCCP was ... smegmatis unable to grow at acidic pH in the presence of the protonophore carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone.. Tran SL1, ...
The final concentrations in the assay were: carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenyl hydrazone (CCCP; 5 μmol/l); antimycin A (AA; 1 μg/ ... Carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenyl hydrazone. GM. 8 mmol/l glutamate, 4 mmol/l malate ...
Table 5: MIC of extracts and ciprofloxacin in the absence (−) and presence (+) of carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenyl hydrazone ( ... Bacterial efflux pump inhibitor (EPI), carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenyl hydrazone (CCCP), improved the activity of DES and UGB ... carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenyl hydrazone (CCCP) and chlorpromazine (CPZ) (Sigma-Aldrich) were used as efflux pump inhibitors ( ...
c) Carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenyl hydrazone was used as a positive control. The data are shown as the mean ± SE (. per group ... Figures 7(a) and 7(b)). Carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenyl hydrazone, the positive control, promoted mitochondrial inner membrane ... Carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenyl hydrazone. STAT3:. Signal transducers and activator of transcription 3. ...
carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenyl hydrazone. DPI. diphenyleneiodonium. eNOS. endothelial nitric oxide synthase. FITC. fluorescein ... inhibitors carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenyl hydrazone (CCCP) (500 nmol/l), thenoyltrifluoroacetone (TTFA) (10 μmol/l), or α- ...
2,4-Dinitrophenol , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Carbonyl Cyanide m-Chlorophenyl Hydrazone , Korea , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , ... Efflux Pump Inhibitor Carbonyl Cyanide-m-chlorophenylhydrazone (CCCP) Enhances Bacteriosta Efflux Pump Inhibitor Carbonyl ... Carbonyl Cyanide m-Chlorophenyl Hydrazone / Microbial Sensitivity Tests / Trimethoprim, Sulfamethoxazole Drug Combination / 2,4 ... Carbonyl cyanide-m-chlorophenylhydrazone (CCCP) decreased the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of TMP-SXT by eight to 128 ...
1,4-[sup.14]C]Succinate (0.55-1.11 GBq/mmol) and carbonyl cyanide 3-chlorophenyl hydrazone (CCCP) were from ICN. Sodium ... carbonyl cyanide 3-chlorophenyl hydrazone; CS, citrate synthase; SDH, succinate dehydrogenase; CrP, phosphocreatine; 2-ODHc, 2- ...
Abbreviations used in this paper: CCCP, carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenyl hydrazone; COX IV, cytochrome c oxidase subunit IV; ... control cells were treated with the protonophore carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenyl hydrazone (CCCP; Molecular Probes), which ...
It is a nitrile and hydrazone. FCCP was first described in 1962 by Heytler. Carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenyl hydrazone (CCCP) ... Carbonyl cyanide-4-(trifluoromethoxy)phenylhydrazone (FCCP) is an ionophore that is a mobile ion carrier. It is referred to as ... Heytler, P G (1962). "A new class of uncoupling agents - Carbonyl cyanide phenylhydrazones". Biochemical and Biophysical ...
carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenyl hydrazone. Cyt c. cytochrome c. ΔMTS. MTS deleted. FL. full length. KO. knockout. MEF. mouse ... m-chlorophenyl hydrazone (CCCP; Fig. 1 a). In addition, the molecular mass of the PINK1 band (Fig. 1 a, orange arrowhead) in ... siRNA for PARL led to increased expression of endogenous PINK1 in the absence of the depolarizing agent carbonyl cyanide- ...
carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenyl hydrazone. CHX. cycloheximide. m-AAA. matrix AAA. MEF. mouse embryonic fibroblast. mtDNA. ... 3 E). Whereas fluorescence dropped upon dissipation of the membrane potential by carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenyl hydrazone ( ...
Carbonyl Cyanide m-Chlorophenyl Hydrazone / pharmacology * Cell Membrane Permeability / drug effects * Colony Count, Microbial ...
The effect of mitophagy on antigen presentation was confirmed separately using carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenyl hydrazone, a ... or carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenyl hydrazone (20 μm; Sigma Aldrich) for 3 h were fixed for 10 min at 23 °C with 1% (w/vol) ...
Carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenyl hydrazone (CCCP) is a chemical inhibitor of oxidative phosphorylation. CCCP affects protein ... Effect of carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone (CCCP) inhibitor on metabolic activity of MCF10 cells measured [(a) and (b ... as well as the mitochondrial membrane uncoupling agent carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone. Through systematic analysis of ... Effects of carbonylcyanide 3-chlorophenylhydrazone," Eur. J. Cancer 15(10), 1281-1288 (1979).EJCAEL0959-8049 http://dx.doi.org/ ...
The effects of pmf disruptors, carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenyl hydrazone (CCCP) and nigericin were also tested. At higher ... such as carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenyl hydrazone and nigericin (Fig. 3), but not membrane potential disruptors, such as ...
carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone. CCRE. CO2/cAMP-responsive elements. Chl. chlorophyll. cmp. cytoplasmic-membrane ... μM carbonylcyanide m-chlorophenyl-hydrazone (CCCP), and 2 μM Valinomycin were added during the acclimation to air. ... S2A). The ATP synthesis inhibitor, carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone (CCCP), is a universal uncoupler of proton-motive ... 1962) A new class of uncoupling agents-carbonyl cyanide phenylhydrazones. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 7: 272-275. ...
carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenyl-hydrazone; LDH, lactate dehydrogenase; LR, liver regeneration; MFI, median fluorescence ...
... carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenyl-hydrazone; CsA, cyclosporin A; DIABLO, direct IAP (inhibitor of apoptosis protein) binding ...
... carbonyl cyanide-m-chlorophenyl hydrazone (CCCP) and sodium azide (NaN3; all from Sigma-Aldrich Japan K.K., Tokyo, Japan) was ... carbonyl cyanide-m-chlorophenyl hydrazone; NaN3, sodium azide; Tm, tunicamycin; LDH, lactate dehydrogenase; GAPDH, ...
The protonophore carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenyl hydrazone (CCCP) was applied to dissipate Δψm as a positive control. ROS were ... carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenyl hydrazone (CCCP)=2 μM). (B) Typical TPP+-selective electrode measurement of Δψm with succinate ... protonophore carbonyl cyanide m-chloro phenyl hydrazone, CCCP, middle) and NAD(P)H autofluorescence (right), showing protection ... carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenyl hydrazone induced no further ATP decline). (D) Top plot: representative trace showing ...
Exposure of mutant neurons to carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenyl-hydrazone, an uncoupler, caused extreme neurite degeneration ...
Maximum uncoupled respiration rate was obtained by the addition of 1 μl of 2.5 mM carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone ( ... 4-dinitrophenyl hydrazone derivatives. 2,4-dinitrophenyl-derivatized proteins were blotted to nitrocellulose membranes (Hybond- ... Quantification of Protein Carbonyls. Liver mitochondria were isolated by differential centrifugation as described (15). Total ... A) Relative amounts of carbonyl groups in liver total protein extracts, liver mitochondrial protein extracts, and heart total ...
However, other substances, such as 2,4-dinitrophenol and carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenyl hydrazone, also serve the same ...
  • This study uses two-photon fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) to investigate metabolic changes in MCF10A premalignant breast cancer cells treated with a range of glycolysis inhibitors: namely, 2 deoxy-D-glucose, oxythiamine, lonidamine, and 4-(chloromethyl) benzoyl chloride, as well as the mitochondrial membrane uncoupling agent carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone. (spiedigitallibrary.org)
  • Complete reduction of 2 mM Cr(VI) was achieved in 12 h when the strain was grown in medium for halophiles (MH medium) supplemented with 4% galactose and 5% NaCl at pH 7 and 32 °C. Presence of Mn, Cu and Pb in the culture media were non-toxic for growth and Cr(VI) reduction, while carbonyl cyanide-m-chlorophenyl hydrazone (CCC) inhibited both growth and Cr(VI) reduction. (springer.com)