Carbonyl Cyanide m-Chlorophenyl Hydrazone: A proton ionophore. It is commonly used as an uncoupling agent and inhibitor of photosynthesis because of its effects on mitochondrial and chloroplast membranes.Protein Carbonylation: The appearance of carbonyl groups (such as aldehyde or ketone groups) in PROTEINS as the result of several oxidative modification reactions. It is a standard marker for OXIDATIVE STRESS. Carbonylated proteins tend to be more hydrophobic and resistant to proteolysis.Iron Carbonyl Compounds: Complex of iron atoms chelated with carbonyl ions.Carbonyl Cyanide p-Trifluoromethoxyphenylhydrazone: A proton ionophore that is commonly used as an uncoupling agent in biochemical studies.KetonesSulfur Oxides: Inorganic oxides of sulfur.Aldehydes: Organic compounds containing a carbonyl group in the form -CHO.Alcohol Oxidoreductases: A subclass of enzymes which includes all dehydrogenases acting on primary and secondary alcohols as well as hemiacetals. They are further classified according to the acceptor which can be NAD+ or NADP+ (subclass 1.1.1), cytochrome (1.1.2), oxygen (1.1.3), quinone (1.1.5), or another acceptor (1.1.99).Iridium: A metallic element with the atomic symbol Ir, atomic number 77, and atomic weight 192.22.Phenylhydrazines: Diazo derivatives of aniline, used as a reagent for sugars, ketones, and aldehydes. (Dorland, 28th ed)Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Hydrogenation: Addition of hydrogen to a compound, especially to an unsaturated fat or fatty acid. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Oxidative Stress: A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).Stereoisomerism: The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Carbonic Acid: Carbonic acid (H2C03). The hypothetical acid of carbon dioxide and water. It exists only in the form of its salts (carbonates), acid salts (hydrogen carbonates), amines (carbamic acid), and acid chlorides (carbonyl chloride). (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)GlyoxalMolecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.Uncoupling Agents: Chemical agents that uncouple oxidation from phosphorylation in the metabolic cycle so that ATP synthesis does not occur. Included here are those IONOPHORES that disrupt electron transfer by short-circuiting the proton gradient across mitochondrial membranes.Pyruvaldehyde: An organic compound used often as a reagent in organic synthesis, as a flavoring agent, and in tanning. It has been demonstrated as an intermediate in the metabolism of acetone and its derivatives in isolated cell preparations, in various culture media, and in vivo in certain animals.Catalysis: The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.Hydrogen Bonding: A low-energy attractive force between hydrogen and another element. It plays a major role in determining the properties of water, proteins, and other compounds.AcroleinAlcohols: Alkyl compounds containing a hydroxyl group. They are classified according to relation of the carbon atom: primary alcohols, R-CH2OH; secondary alcohols, R2-CHOH; tertiary alcohols, R3-COH. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Alkadienes: Acyclic branched or unbranched hydrocarbons having two carbon-carbon double bonds.Spectrophotometry, Infrared: Spectrophotometry in the infrared region, usually for the purpose of chemical analysis through measurement of absorption spectra associated with rotational and vibrational energy levels of molecules. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).HydrazinesMolecular Conformation: The characteristic three-dimensional shape of a molecule.Allyl CompoundsLipid Peroxidation: Peroxidase catalyzed oxidation of lipids using hydrogen peroxide as an electron acceptor.Glycosylation End Products, Advanced: Products derived from the nonenzymatic reaction of GLUCOSE and PROTEINS in vivo that exhibit a yellow-brown pigmentation and an ability to participate in protein-protein cross-linking. These substances are involved in biological processes relating to protein turnover and it is believed that their excessive accumulation contributes to the chronic complications of DIABETES MELLITUS.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Phosphines: Inorganic or organic compounds derived from phosphine (PH3) by the replacement of H atoms. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Comamonas testosteroni: A species of gram-negative, aerobic rods formerly called Pseudomonas testosteroni. It is differentiated from other Comamonas species by its ability to assimilate testosterone and to utilize phenylacetate or maleate as carbon sources.Antioxidants: Naturally occurring or synthetic substances that inhibit or retard the oxidation of a substance to which it is added. They counteract the harmful and damaging effects of oxidation in animal tissues.Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Crystallography, X-Ray: The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Valinomycin: A cyclododecadepsipeptide ionophore antibiotic produced by Streptomyces fulvissimus and related to the enniatins. It is composed of 3 moles each of L-valine, D-alpha-hydroxyisovaleric acid, D-valine, and L-lactic acid linked alternately to form a 36-membered ring. (From Merck Index, 11th ed) Valinomycin is a potassium selective ionophore and is commonly used as a tool in biochemical studies.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Organometallic Compounds: A class of compounds of the type R-M, where a C atom is joined directly to any other element except H, C, N, O, F, Cl, Br, I, or At. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Models, Chemical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared: A spectroscopic technique in which a range of wavelengths is presented simultaneously with an interferometer and the spectrum is mathematically derived from the pattern thus obtained.SemicarbazidesRuthenium: A hard, brittle, grayish-white rare earth metal with an atomic symbol Ru, atomic number 44, and atomic weight 101.07. It is used as a catalyst and hardener for PLATINUM and PALLADIUM.Protons: Stable elementary particles having the smallest known positive charge, found in the nuclei of all elements. The proton mass is less than that of a neutron. A proton is the nucleus of the light hydrogen atom, i.e., the hydrogen ion.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenases: Enzymes of the oxidoreductase class that catalyze the dehydrogenation of hydroxysteroids. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 1.1.-.Hydrazones: Compounds of the general formula R:N.NR2, as resulting from the action of hydrazines with aldehydes or ketones. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Malondialdehyde: The dialdehyde of malonic acid.Alkynes: Hydrocarbons with at least one triple bond in the linear portion, of the general formula Cn-H2n-2.Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Substances: Low-molecular-weight end products, probably malondialdehyde, that are formed during the decomposition of lipid peroxidation products. These compounds react with thiobarbituric acid to form a fluorescent red adduct.Water: A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Glutathione: A tripeptide with many roles in cells. It conjugates to drugs to make them more soluble for excretion, is a cofactor for some enzymes, is involved in protein disulfide bond rearrangement and reduces peroxides.Ionophores: Chemical agents that increase the permeability of biological or artificial lipid membranes to specific ions. Most ionophores are relatively small organic molecules that act as mobile carriers within membranes or coalesce to form ion permeable channels across membranes. Many are antibiotics, and many act as uncoupling agents by short-circuiting the proton gradient across mitochondrial membranes.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Carbon: A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Acetohexamide: A sulfonylurea hypoglycemic agent that is metabolized in the liver to 1-hydrohexamide.Amines: A group of compounds derived from ammonia by substituting organic radicals for the hydrogens. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Indicators and Reagents: Substances used for the detection, identification, analysis, etc. of chemical, biological, or pathologic processes or conditions. Indicators are substances that change in physical appearance, e.g., color, at or approaching the endpoint of a chemical titration, e.g., on the passage between acidity and alkalinity. Reagents are substances used for the detection or determination of another substance by chemical or microscopical means, especially analysis. Types of reagents are precipitants, solvents, oxidizers, reducers, fluxes, and colorimetric reagents. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed, p301, p499)Propanols: Isomeric forms and derivatives of PROPANOL (C3H7OH).Acetaldehyde: A colorless, flammable liquid used in the manufacture of acetic acid, perfumes, and flavors. It is also an intermediate in the metabolism of alcohol. It has a general narcotic action and also causes irritation of mucous membranes. Large doses may cause death from respiratory paralysis.Sulfhydryl Compounds: Compounds containing the -SH radical.Chemistry, Organic: The study of the structure, preparation, properties, and reactions of carbon compounds. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Nigericin: A polyether antibiotic which affects ion transport and ATPase activity in mitochondria. It is produced by Streptomyces hygroscopicus. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Aldehyde Reductase: An enzyme that catalyzes reversibly the oxidation of an aldose to an alditol. It possesses broad specificity for many aldoses. EC 1.1.1.21.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Proton Ionophores: Chemical agents that increase the permeability of CELL MEMBRANES to PROTONS.ButanonesNADP: Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate. A coenzyme composed of ribosylnicotinamide 5'-phosphate (NMN) coupled by pyrophosphate linkage to the 5'-phosphate adenosine 2',5'-bisphosphate. It serves as an electron carrier in a number of reactions, being alternately oxidized (NADP+) and reduced (NADPH). (Dorland, 27th ed)Borohydrides: A class of inorganic or organic compounds that contain the borohydride (BH4-) anion.Cyclization: Changing an open-chain hydrocarbon to a closed ring. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Thermodynamics: A rigorously mathematical analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, temperature, and equilibrium). It describes systems whose states are determined by thermal parameters, such as temperature, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic parameters. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)Mitochondria: Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Acetone: A colorless liquid used as a solvent and an antiseptic. It is one of the ketone bodies produced during ketoacidosis.EstersEscherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Oxygen: An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.Lysine: An essential amino acid. It is often added to animal feed.Carboxylic Acids: Organic compounds containing the carboxy group (-COOH). This group of compounds includes amino acids and fatty acids. Carboxylic acids can be saturated, unsaturated, or aromatic.Advanced Oxidation Protein Products: A class of dityrosine-containing protein-derived molecules formed by OXIDATIVE STRESS. Their accumulation in plasma is associated with certain pathological conditions.Cyanides: Inorganic salts of HYDROGEN CYANIDE containing the -CN radical. The concept also includes isocyanides. It is distinguished from NITRILES, which denotes organic compounds containing the -CN radical.Oxidoreductases: The class of all enzymes catalyzing oxidoreduction reactions. The substrate that is oxidized is regarded as a hydrogen donor. The systematic name is based on donor:acceptor oxidoreductase. The recommended name will be dehydrogenase, wherever this is possible; as an alternative, reductase can be used. Oxidase is only used in cases where O2 is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p9)Amides: Organic compounds containing the -CO-NH2 radical. Amides are derived from acids by replacement of -OH by -NH2 or from ammonia by the replacement of H by an acyl group. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Lactoylglutathione Lyase: An enzyme that catalyzes the interconversion of methylglyoxal and lactate, with glutathione serving as a coenzyme. EC 4.4.1.5.Alkenes: Unsaturated hydrocarbons of the type Cn-H2n, indicated by the suffix -ene. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed, p408)Gramicidin: A group of peptide antibiotics from BACILLUS brevis. Gramicidin C or S is a cyclic, ten-amino acid polypeptide and gramicidins A, B, D are linear. Gramicidin is one of the two principal components of TYROTHRICIN.Oligomycins: A closely related group of toxic substances elaborated by various strains of Streptomyces. They are 26-membered macrolides with lactone moieties and double bonds and inhibit various ATPases, causing uncoupling of phosphorylation from mitochondrial respiration. Used as tools in cytochemistry. Some specific oligomycins are RUTAMYCIN, peliomycin, and botrycidin (formerly venturicidin X).Spectrophotometry: The art or process of comparing photometrically the relative intensities of the light in different parts of the spectrum.Sulfur Compounds: Inorganic or organic compounds that contain sulfur as an integral part of the molecule.Reactive Oxygen Species: Molecules or ions formed by the incomplete one-electron reduction of oxygen. These reactive oxygen intermediates include SINGLET OXYGEN; SUPEROXIDES; PEROXIDES; HYDROXYL RADICAL; and HYPOCHLOROUS ACID. They contribute to the microbicidal activity of PHAGOCYTES, regulation of signal transduction and gene expression, and the oxidative damage to NUCLEIC ACIDS; PROTEINS; and LIPIDS.Superoxide Dismutase: An oxidoreductase that catalyzes the reaction between superoxide anions and hydrogen to yield molecular oxygen and hydrogen peroxide. The enzyme protects the cell against dangerous levels of superoxide. EC 1.15.1.1.Chemical Processes: The reactions and interactions of atoms and molecules, the changes in their structure and composition, and associated energy changes.Dicyclohexylcarbodiimide: A carbodiimide that is used as a chemical intermediate and coupling agent in peptide synthesis. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)2,4-Dinitrophenol: A toxic dye, chemically related to trinitrophenol (picric acid), used in biochemical studies of oxidative processes where it uncouples oxidative phosphorylation. It is also used as a metabolic stimulant. (Stedman, 26th ed)Catalytic Domain: The region of an enzyme that interacts with its substrate to cause the enzymatic reaction.Oxidants: Electron-accepting molecules in chemical reactions in which electrons are transferred from one molecule to another (OXIDATION-REDUCTION).Lipid Peroxides: Peroxides produced in the presence of a free radical by the oxidation of unsaturated fatty acids in the cell in the presence of molecular oxygen. The formation of lipid peroxides results in the destruction of the original lipid leading to the loss of integrity of the membranes. They therefore cause a variety of toxic effects in vivo and their formation is considered a pathological process in biological systems. Their formation can be inhibited by antioxidants, such as vitamin E, structural separation or low oxygen tension.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.IminesBiocatalysis: The facilitation of biochemical reactions with the aid of naturally occurring catalysts such as ENZYMES.Lipid Bilayers: Layers of lipid molecules which are two molecules thick. Bilayer systems are frequently studied as models of biological membranes.Oxygen Isotopes: Stable oxygen atoms that have the same atomic number as the element oxygen, but differ in atomic weight. O-17 and 18 are stable oxygen isotopes.Hydroxyprostaglandin Dehydrogenases: Catalyzes reversibly the oxidation of hydroxyl groups of prostaglandins.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Chemistry: A basic science concerned with the composition, structure, and properties of matter; and the reactions that occur between substances and the associated energy exchange.Adenosine Triphosphate: An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.Uremia: A clinical syndrome associated with the retention of renal waste products or uremic toxins in the blood. It is usually the result of RENAL INSUFFICIENCY. Most uremic toxins are end products of protein or nitrogen CATABOLISM, such as UREA or CREATININE. Severe uremia can lead to multiple organ dysfunctions with a constellation of symptoms.X-Ray Diffraction: The scattering of x-rays by matter, especially crystals, with accompanying variation in intensity due to interference effects. Analysis of the crystal structure of materials is performed by passing x-rays through them and registering the diffraction image of the rays (CRYSTALLOGRAPHY, X-RAY). (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Hydrogen: The first chemical element in the periodic table. It has the atomic symbol H, atomic number 1, and atomic weight [1.00784; 1.00811]. It exists, under normal conditions, as a colorless, odorless, tasteless, diatomic gas. Hydrogen ions are PROTONS. Besides the common H1 isotope, hydrogen exists as the stable isotope DEUTERIUM and the unstable, radioactive isotope TRITIUM.3-alpha-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase (B-Specific): A 3-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase which catalyzes the reversible reduction of the active androgen, DIHYDROTESTOSTERONE to 5 ALPHA-ANDROSTANE-3 ALPHA,17 BETA-DIOL. It also has activity towards other 3-alpha-hydroxysteroids and on 9-, 11- and 15- hydroxyprostaglandins. The enzyme is B-specific in reference to the orientation of reduced NAD or NADPH.Catalase: An oxidoreductase that catalyzes the conversion of HYDROGEN PEROXIDE to water and oxygen. It is present in many animal cells. A deficiency of this enzyme results in ACATALASIA.Free Radical Scavengers: Substances that influence the course of a chemical reaction by ready combination with free radicals. Among other effects, this combining activity protects pancreatic islets against damage by cytokines and prevents myocardial and pulmonary perfusion injuries.Chemical Phenomena: The composition, conformation, and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.Biological Transport, Active: The movement of materials across cell membranes and epithelial layers against an electrochemical gradient, requiring the expenditure of metabolic energy.Proline: A non-essential amino acid that is synthesized from GLUTAMIC ACID. It is an essential component of COLLAGEN and is important for proper functioning of joints and tendons.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Vitamin K 3: A synthetic naphthoquinone without the isoprenoid side chain and biological activity, but can be converted to active vitamin K2, menaquinone, after alkylation in vivo.Oxygen Compounds: Inorganic compounds that contain oxygen as an integral part of the molecule.Free Radicals: Highly reactive molecules with an unsatisfied electron valence pair. Free radicals are produced in both normal and pathological processes. They are proven or suspected agents of tissue damage in a wide variety of circumstances including radiation, damage from environment chemicals, and aging. Natural and pharmacological prevention of free radical damage is being actively investigated.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Carbonates: Salts or ions of the theoretical carbonic acid, containing the radical CO2(3-). Carbonates are readily decomposed by acids. The carbonates of the alkali metals are water-soluble; all others are insoluble. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Mass Spectrometry: An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.Protein Structure, Secondary: The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.11-beta-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenases: Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases that catalyzes the reversible conversion of CORTISOL to the inactive metabolite CORTISONE. Enzymes in this class can utilize either NAD or NADP as cofactors.Membrane Potentials: The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).Quantum Theory: The theory that the radiation and absorption of energy take place in definite quantities called quanta (E) which vary in size and are defined by the equation E=hv in which h is Planck's constant and v is the frequency of the radiation.Amino Acids: Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.Iron: A metallic element with atomic symbol Fe, atomic number 26, and atomic weight 55.85. It is an essential constituent of HEMOGLOBINS; CYTOCHROMES; and IRON-BINDING PROTEINS. It plays a role in cellular redox reactions and in the transport of OXYGEN.Ascorbic Acid: A six carbon compound related to glucose. It is found naturally in citrus fruits and many vegetables. Ascorbic acid is an essential nutrient in human diets, and necessary to maintain connective tissue and bone. Its biologically active form, vitamin C, functions as a reducing agent and coenzyme in several metabolic pathways. Vitamin C is considered an antioxidant.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Acylation: The addition of an organic acid radical into a molecule.Carbon Monoxide: Carbon monoxide (CO). A poisonous colorless, odorless, tasteless gas. It combines with hemoglobin to form carboxyhemoglobin, which has no oxygen carrying capacity. The resultant oxygen deprivation causes headache, dizziness, decreased pulse and respiratory rates, unconsciousness, and death. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Biophysical Phenomena: The physical characteristics and processes of biological systems.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Catecholamine Plasma Membrane Transport Proteins: A group of membrane transport proteins that transport biogenic amine derivatives of catechol across the PLASMA MEMBRANE. Catecholamine plasma membrane transporter proteins regulate neural transmission as well as catecholamine metabolism and recycling.Solvents: Liquids that dissolve other substances (solutes), generally solids, without any change in chemical composition, as, water containing sugar. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Antimetabolites: Drugs that are chemically similar to naturally occurring metabolites, but differ enough to interfere with normal metabolic pathways. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p2033)Carnosine: A naturally occurring dipeptide neuropeptide found in muscles.Deuterium: Deuterium. The stable isotope of hydrogen. It has one neutron and one proton in the nucleus.Antimycin A: An antibiotic substance produced by Streptomyces species. It inhibits mitochondrial respiration and may deplete cellular levels of ATP. Antimycin A1 has been used as a fungicide, insecticide, and miticide. (From Merck Index, 12th ed)Carbon Isotopes: Stable carbon atoms that have the same atomic number as the element carbon, but differ in atomic weight. C-13 is a stable carbon isotope.Electrochemistry: The study of chemical changes resulting from electrical action and electrical activity resulting from chemical changes.Blood Proteins: Proteins that are present in blood serum, including SERUM ALBUMIN; BLOOD COAGULATION FACTORS; and many other types of proteins.Chalcogens: The elements OXYGEN; POLONIUM; SELENIUM; SULFUR; and TELLURIUM; that form group 16 (formerly group VI) of the periodic table.Glutathione Peroxidase: An enzyme catalyzing the oxidation of 2 moles of glutathione in the presence of hydrogen peroxide to yield oxidized glutathione and water. EC 1.11.1.9.Sodium Azide: A cytochrome oxidase inhibitor which is a nitridizing agent and an inhibitor of terminal oxidation. (From Merck Index, 12th ed)Glycyrrhetinic Acid: An oleanolic acid from GLYCYRRHIZA that has some antiallergic, antibacterial, and antiviral properties. It is used topically for allergic or infectious skin inflammation and orally for its aldosterone effects in electrolyte regulation.Arginine: An essential amino acid that is physiologically active in the L-form.NAD: A coenzyme composed of ribosylnicotinamide 5'-diphosphate coupled to adenosine 5'-phosphate by pyrophosphate linkage. It is found widely in nature and is involved in numerous enzymatic reactions in which it serves as an electron carrier by being alternately oxidized (NAD+) and reduced (NADH). (Dorland, 27th ed)Hydrolysis: The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.Photobiology: The branch of biology dealing with the effect of light on organisms.Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.Copper: A heavy metal trace element with the atomic symbol Cu, atomic number 29, and atomic weight 63.55.Mutagenesis, Site-Directed: Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.Rhodium: Rhodium. A hard and rare metal of the platinum group, atomic number 45, atomic weight 102.905, symbol Rh. (Dorland, 28th ed)Acetoacetates: Salts and derivatives of acetoacetic acid.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Carboxypeptidases A: Carboxypeptidases that are primarily found the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM that catalyze the release of C-terminal amino acids. Carboxypeptidases A have little or no activity for hydrolysis of C-terminal ASPARTIC ACID; GLUTAMIC ACID; ARGININE; LYSINE; or PROLINE. This enzyme requires ZINC as a cofactor and was formerly listed as EC 3.4.2.1 and EC 3.4.12.2.Alkylation: The covalent bonding of an alkyl group to an organic compound. It can occur by a simple addition reaction or by substitution of another functional group.Maillard Reaction: One of a group of nonenzymatic reactions in which aldehydes, ketones, or reducing sugars react with amino acids, peptides, or proteins. Food browning reactions, such as those that occur with cooking of meats, and also food deterioration reactions, resulting in decreased nutritional value and color changes, are attributed to this reaction type. The Maillard reaction is studied by scientists in the agriculture, food, nutrition, and carbohydrate chemistry fields.Serum Albumin, Bovine: Serum albumin from cows, commonly used in in vitro biological studies. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Potassium Cyanide: A highly poisonous compound that is an inhibitor of many metabolic processes, but has been shown to be an especially potent inhibitor of heme enzymes and hemeproteins. It is used in many industrial processes.Arsenates: Inorganic or organic salts and esters of arsenic acid.Acetates: Derivatives of ACETIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxymethane structure.Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, Biomolecular: NMR spectroscopy on small- to medium-size biological macromolecules. This is often used for structural investigation of proteins and nucleic acids, and often involves more than one isotope.Electrons: Stable elementary particles having the smallest known negative charge, present in all elements; also called negatrons. Positively charged electrons are called positrons. The numbers, energies and arrangement of electrons around atomic nuclei determine the chemical identities of elements. Beams of electrons are called CATHODE RAYS.Isatin: An indole-dione that is obtained by oxidation of indigo blue. It is a MONOAMINE OXIDASE INHIBITOR and high levels have been found in urine of PARKINSONISM patients.Phosgene: A highly toxic gas that has been used as a chemical warfare agent. It is an insidious poison as it is not irritating immediately, even when fatal concentrations are inhaled. (From The Merck Index, 11th ed, p7304)NitroparaffinsElectron Transport: The process by which ELECTRONS are transported from a reduced substrate to molecular OXYGEN. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary and Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984, p270)Guanidines: A family of iminourea derivatives. The parent compound has been isolated from mushrooms, corn germ, rice hulls, mussels, earthworms, and turnip juice. Derivatives may have antiviral and antifungal properties.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Halogenation: Covalent attachment of HALOGENS to other compounds.Ferrous Compounds: Inorganic or organic compounds that contain divalent iron.Heterocyclic Compounds: Ring compounds having atoms other than carbon in their nuclei. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.Membranes, Artificial: Artificially produced membranes, such as semipermeable membranes used in artificial kidney dialysis (RENAL DIALYSIS), monomolecular and bimolecular membranes used as models to simulate biological CELL MEMBRANES. These membranes are also used in the process of GUIDED TISSUE REGENERATION.Biophysics: The study of PHYSICAL PHENOMENA and PHYSICAL PROCESSES as applied to living things.Hydrogen Peroxide: A strong oxidizing agent used in aqueous solution as a ripening agent, bleach, and topical anti-infective. It is relatively unstable and solutions deteriorate over time unless stabilized by the addition of acetanilide or similar organic materials.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Crystallization: The formation of crystalline substances from solutions or melts. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)BenzaldehydesFurans: Compounds with a 5-membered ring of four carbons and an oxygen. They are aromatic heterocycles. The reduced form is tetrahydrofuran.Organosilicon Compounds: Organic compounds that contain silicon as an integral part of the molecule.Palladium: A chemical element having an atomic weight of 106.4, atomic number of 46, and the symbol Pd. It is a white, ductile metal resembling platinum, and following it in abundance and importance of applications. It is used in dentistry in the form of gold, silver, and copper alloys.Histidine: An essential amino acid that is required for the production of HISTAMINE.Dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine: A synthetic phospholipid used in liposomes and lipid bilayers for the study of biological membranes.Hypochlorous Acid: An oxyacid of chlorine (HClO) containing monovalent chlorine that acts as an oxidizing or reducing agent.Glucose: A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.Monensin: An antiprotozoal agent produced by Streptomyces cinnamonensis. It exerts its effect during the development of first-generation trophozoites into first-generation schizonts within the intestinal epithelial cells. It does not interfere with hosts' development of acquired immunity to the majority of coccidial species. Monensin is a sodium and proton selective ionophore and is widely used as such in biochemical studies.Amine Oxidase (Copper-Containing): A group of enzymes including those oxidizing primary monoamines, diamines, and histamine. They are copper proteins, and, as their action depends on a carbonyl group, they are sensitive to inhibition by semicarbazide.Phosphatidylcholines: Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to a choline moiety. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid and choline and 2 moles of fatty acids.Oxygen Consumption: The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)Fluorescent Dyes: Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.Cyclohexanones: Cyclohexane ring substituted by one or more ketones in any position.
Reductive reactions employing iron carbonyl complexes should be carried out in a well-ventilated fume hood, as free carbon ... Reducing agents used include copper-bronze., iron carbonyl complexes., and copper/zinc As mentioned previously, products ... Increasing the covalent character of the metal-oxygen bond (by, for instance, employing iron carbonyl reducing agents instead ...
... forms carbonyl complexes, e.g. (C5H5)2Ti(CO)2. Titanium was discovered in 1791 by the clergyman and amateur geologist ... Unlike most other transition metals, simple aquo Ti(IV) complexes are unknown. The most important oxide is TiO2, which exists ... Commonly, titanium adopts an octahedral coordination geometry in its complexes, but tetrahedral TiCl4 is a notable exception. ... The most common organotitanium complex is titanocene dichloride ((C5H5)2TiCl2). Related compounds include Tebbe's reagent and ...
Steric effects strain - Increasing the steric strain of the chelate backbone in square planar complexes pushes the carbonyl and ... ISBN 978-81-261-1898-4. Anderson, G. K.; Cross, R. J. (1984). "Carbonyl-Insertion Reactions of Square Planar Complexes". Acc. ... This can be demonstrated by reacting a square planar [(PN)M(CO)(CH3)] complex with CO, where PN is a bidentate phosphorus- or ... This can increase the reaction rate by a factor of up to 108, and the complex formed is stable enough that the reaction ...
"Stereochemically Nonrigid Six-Coordinate Metal Carbonyl Complexes". J. Organomet. Chem. 134 (2): 219. doi:10.1016/S0022-328X(00 ... Viewed as an octahedral complex, the hydride ligands are cis. Viewed as a tetrahedral Fe(CO)4 complex, the hydrides occupy ... "Coordination chemistry of mononuclear iron carbonyl complexes", Coordination Chemistry Reviews 1998, 178-180, 331-352. doi: ... The complex is only stable at low temperatures and decomposes rapidly at temperatures above -20 °C. Iron tetracarbonyl hydride ...
Metal carbonyl Robert H. Crabtree (2005). Carbonyls, Phosphine Complexes, and Ligand Substitution Reactions. pp. 87-124. doi: ... LNi(CO)3 was chosen as the model compound because such complexes are readily prepared from tetracarbonylnickel(0). The carbonyl ... Carbonyl is a small ligand so steric factors do not complicate the analysis. Upon coordination to a metal, ν(CO) typically ... This can be explained by π backbonding: the metal is able to form a π bond with the carbonyl ligand by donating electrons ...
Synthetic CO-RMs are typically metal carbonyl complexes. A representative CO-RM that has been extensively characterized both ... from a biochemical and pharmacological view point is the ruthenium(II) complex Ru(glycinate)Cl(CO)3, also known as CORM-3. ...
Such complexes are usually prepared directly from the related metal carbonyl compound, with loss of CO. However, Nickel metal ... Its main use is as a ligand in metal complexes. As a ligand, it parallels carbon monoxide in metal carbonyls, and indeed its ... PF3 forms several complexes for which the corresponding CO derivatives (see metal carbonyl) are unstable or nonexistent. Thus, ... Clark, R. J.; Busch, M. A. (1973). "Stereochemical Studies of Metal Carbonyl-Phosphorus Trifluoride Complexes". Accounts of ...
Dotz, K. H. (1 January 1983). "Carbon-carbon bond formation via carbonyl-carbene complexes". Pure and Applied Chemistry. 55 (11 ... η3-complex shown as 4 subsequently undergoes CO insertion to give the η4-vinylketene complex 5 which undergoes ... The phenol can be liberated from the chromium complex by a mild oxidation, such as ceric ammonium nitrate or air oxidation. ... The first step of the reaction involves the loss of carbon monoxide from the Fischer carbene complex 1 to give intermediate 3. ...
Dötz, K. H. (1983). "Carbon-Carbon Bond Formation via Carbonyl-Carbene Complexes". Pure and Applied Chemistry. 55 (11). doi: ... CAN is traditionally used to release organic ligands from metal carbonyls. In the process, the metal is oxidised, CO is evolved ... and a chromium carbene are combined to form a chromium half-sandwich complex and the phenol ligand can be isolated by mild CAN ... "The Synthesis of Phenols and Quinones via Fischer Carbene Complexes". Organic Reactions. 70 (2): 121-623. doi:10.1002/ ...
Dötz, K. H. (1983). "Carbon-Carbon Bond Formation via Carbonyl-Carbene Complexes". Pure and Applied Chemistry. 55 (11). doi: ... carbon monoxide and a chromium carbene complex are the reactants and the product is a chromium half-sandwich complex. The ... Lerman, L. S. (1963). "The Structure of the DNA-Acridine Complex". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the ... Waters, M.; Wulff, W. D. (2008). "The Synthesis of Phenols and Quinones via Fischer Carbene Complexes". Organic Reactions. 70 ( ...
"Metal carbonyl .nu.(CO) force constants as predictors of .pi.-ethylene and .pi.-benzene complex reactivity with nucleophiles". ... This effect is enhanced if the metal is also attached to a carbonyl. Electron poor metals do not back bond well to the carbonyl ... The above complex contains three types of pi-ligands. The cyclooctane ring contains a butadiene fragment on the left and an ... for a ligated carbonyl represents the same force constant for pi ligands if they replaced the CO ligand in the same complex. ...
McNeill, E. A.; Scholer, F. R. (1977). "Molecular structure of the gaseous metal carbonyl hydrides of manganese, iron, and ... Moore, E. J.; Sullivan, J. M.; Norton, J. R. (1986). "Kinetic and thermodynamic acidity of hydrido transition-metal complexes. ... 3. Thermodynamic acidity of common mononuclear carbonyl hydrides". Journal of the American Chemical Society. 108 (9): 2257-2263 ... Unlike some other transition-metal hydrides complexes, HCo(CO)4 is highly acidic, with a pKa of 8.5. It readily undergoes ...
Since a Lewis acid can directly complex to a carbonyl oxygen, numerous trialkylaluminum catalysts have been developed for ... Complexes as Chiral Lewis Acids. Catalytic Enantioselective Carbonyl−Ene Reactions with Glyoxylate and Pyruvate Esters". J. Am ... In general, the more reactive the ene or enophile-Lewis acid complex is, the more likely the reaction is to be stepwise. A ... The reason behind the success of this catalyst is the fact that the ene-adduct- Me2AlCl complex can further react to afford ...
Carbonyls are coordination complexes between transition metals and carbonyl ligands. Metal carbonyls are complexes that are ... These complexes are covalent. Here is a list of some carbonyls: Cr(CO)6, Co2(CO)8, Fe(CO)5, Mn2(CO)10, Mo(CO)6, Ni(CO)4, W(CO)6 ... As with any other ionic compound, this complex ion could in principle pair with a counterion to form a salt. Other elements are ... Other types of inorganic compounds include the inorganic salts and complexes of the carbon-containing cyanide, cyanate, ...
In coordination complexes the carbon monoxide ligand is called carbonyl. Aristotle (384-322 BC) first recorded that burning ... One of the most important metal carbonyls is iron pentacarbonyl, Fe(CO)5: Many metal-CO complexes are prepared by ... In nickel carbonyl and other carbonyls, the electron pair on the carbon interacts with the metal; the carbon monoxide donates ... Nickel carbonyl, for example, forms by the direct combination of carbon monoxide and nickel metal: Ni + 4 CO → Ni(CO)4 (1 bar, ...
2 is found in carbon monoxide and transition metal carbonyl complexes. The largest sources of inorganic carbon are limestones, ... and transition metal carbene complexes. Many metal carbonyls exist (for example, tetracarbonylnickel); some workers consider ... More than 20% of the carbon in the universe may be associated with PAHs, complex compounds of carbon and hydrogen without ...
"Mononuclear hydrido alkyl carbonyl complexes of osmium and their polynuclear derivatives". Inorganic Chemistry. 21 (11): 3955- ... Sandwich Complex [(thf)3Ca(μ-C6H3-1,3,5-Ph3)Ca(thf)3] and Stability of Aryl-Substituted Phenylcalcium Complexes". Journal of ... Novel Bimetal Complexes Containing a Transition Metal and a Main Group Metal". Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 14 (11): 752-753. doi: ... Fe(−4), Ru(−4), and Os(−4) have been observed in metal-rich compounds containing octahedral complexes [MIn6−xSnx]; Pt(−3) (as a ...
"Carbonyl and Hydrido-Carbonyl Complexes of Iridium by Reaction with Alcohols. Hydrido Complexes by Reaction with Acid". Journal ... used organometallic iridium complexes that undergo an oxidative addition with the hydrocarbon. Iridium complexes are being ... One is Vaska's complex, IrCl(CO)[P(C 6H 5) 3] 2, which has the unusual property of binding to the dioxygen molecule, O 2. ... Although no binary hydrides of iridium, Ir xH y are known, complexes are known that contain IrH4− 5 and IrH3− 6, where iridium ...
... carbonyl)-iron complexes". Journal of the Chemical Society A. 1967: 264. Kettle, S.F.A.; Paul, I. (1968). "The b1 carbonyl ... carbonyl)iron complexes in the carbonyl stretching region". Journal of the Chemical Society A. 1968: 1215. Dalton, J; Paul, I; ... Raman and infraredactive carbonyl stretching vibrations of four methylbenzenetricarbonylchromium complexes". Journal of the ... V. Raman and infraredactive carbonyl stretching vibrations of three triphenyltin complexes". J. Chem. Soc., Dalton Trans. 1972 ...
He achieved significant acclaim for contributions to metal carbonyl clusters. Together with his longtime collaborator Brian F. ... Lewis's early career was dedicated to magnetic properties of metal complexes. ...
"Carbonyl and Hydrido-Carbonyl Complexes of Iridium by Reaction with Alcohols. Hydrido Complexes by Reaction with Acid". Journal ... The anionic carbonyl [IrI2(CO)2]2− is an intermediate in the Cativa Process discussed below. Diene complexes of iridium are ... In academic laboratories, iridium complexes are widely studied because its complexes promote C-H activation, but such reactions ... One is Vaska's complex, IrCl(CO)[P(C 6H 5) 3] 2, which has the unusual property of reversibly binding dioxygen molecule, O2. ...
"Carbonyl and Hydrido-Carbonyl Complexes of Iridium by Reaction with Alcohols. Hydrido Complexes by Reaction with Acid". Journal ... With J.W. Di Luzio in 1962 he first described the iridium compound which became known as Vaska's complex, trans-IrCl(CO)[P(C6H5 ... L. Vaska and J.W. DiLuzio (1962). "Activation of Hydrogen by a Transition Metal Complex at Normal Conditions Leading to a ... He subsequently discovered that his complex reversibly bound O2, which was then a startling achievement. He discovered the main ...
... complexes thus is induced to release N2, generating a metal complex in unusual oxidation states (see high-valent iron). ... It reacts with epoxides, causing a ring-opening; it undergoes Michael-like conjugate addition to 1,4-unsaturated carbonyl ... Azides can be used as precursors of the metal nitrido complexes. ...
The tricarbonyl(mesitylene)molybdenum complex adopts a near C3v symmetry with the three carbonyl groups occupying an eclipsed ... derivatives as arene ligands in metal carbonyl complexes". Organometallics. 8: 1679-88. doi:10.1021/om00109a017. M. Tamm; R.J. ... "Charge-trnasfer complexes of arene-molybdenum-tricarbonyl complexes as heterogenous metathesis catalysts for the polymerisation ... The Molybdenum complex is activated with an oxidant such as chloranil. The result of the charge transfer facilitates ring ...
2014). "Synthesis and detection of a seaborgium carbonyl complex". Science. 345 (6203): 1491. Bibcode:2014Sci...345.1491E. doi: ... subscription required) Loveland, Walter (19 September 2014). "Superheavy carbonyls". Science. 345 (6203): 1451-2. Bibcode: ... suggesting that carbonyl formation could be extended to further probe the chemistries of the early 6d transition metals from ...
The reaction with nickel tetracarbonyl, for example, proceeds through an unstable acyl nickel carbonyl complex which then ... ion forms most complexes and the heavier alkali metal ions form less and less (though exceptions occur for weak complexes).[10] ... which due to its small size forms tetrahedral tetrahydrate complexes ([Li(H2O)4)]+); the alkali metals form these complexes ... The structure of Na3As is complex with unusually short Na-Na distances of 328-330 pm which are shorter than in sodium metal, ...
These have been prepared by refluxing metal carbonyls and the ligands in 1:1molar ratio. The complexes were characterized by ... suggest that in all the complexes the ligands behave as neutral bidentate chelating type coordinating metal through carbonyl ... Carbonyl complexes of Chromium, molybdenum and tungsten of composition, [M(CO),sub,4,/sub,L-L], (where M= Cr, Mo or W and L-L= ... Carbonyl complexes of Chromium, molybdenum and tungsten of composition, [M(CO)4L-L], (where M= Cr, Mo or W and L-L= benzoic ...
... diimine-carbonyl moiety. Different types of linkages in terms of configuration and proper bridging lead to several types of ... Photofunctional multinuclear rhenium(I) diimine carbonyl complexes J. Rohacova and O. Ishitani, Dalton Trans., 2017, 46, 8899 ... In particular, we would like to emphasize bisphosphine-bridged multinuclear complexes that exhibit outstanding photophysical ... diimine-carbonyl moiety. Different types of linkages in terms of configuration and proper bridging lead to several types of ...
Crystal structure of the ternary complex of mouse lung carbonyl reductase at 1.8 A resolution: the structural origin of ... CARBONYL REDUCTASE COMPLEXED WITH NADPH AND 2-PROPANOL. *DOI: 10.2210/pdb1cyd/pdb ... CARBONYL REDUCTASE A, B, C, D 244 Mus musculus EC#: 1.1.1.184 IUBMB Details: THIS PROTEIN IS IDENTICAL WITH AN ADIPOCYTE 27-KDA ... Protein-ligand complexes in two dimensions, ACS Med. Chem. Lett., DOI: 10.1021/ml100164p. Ions and some metal complexes are ...
Multiple aromatic CH activations by a dirhenium complex have provided meta-related dimetallated arene rings in the complexes ... Multiple aromatic C-H bond activations by a dirhenium carbonyl complex R. D. Adams, P. Dhull and J. D. Tedder, Chem. Commun., ... Multiple aromatic CH activations by a dirhenium complex have provided meta-related dimetallated arene rings in the complexes Re ...
An octahedral geometry has been tentatively proposed for all these complexes. The new complexes have been tested for the ... The new complexes were also exhibited antimicrobial investigations. ... IR, electronic, 1H- NMR, 31P-NMR of the complexes are discussed. ... complexes of the type [Ru(CO)(B)(L)] (B = PPh3/AsPh3/py/pip; L ... Complex ν(C = N) ν(C = O) ν(C - O) ν(M - N) ν(M - O) λmax ... thenium(II) carbonyl complexes containing O, N - donor ligands ...
... carbonyl}amino)ethyl dihydrogen phosphate (F6) in the alpha-site. ... Tryptophan Synthase from Salmonella typhimurium in complex with ... Tryptophan Synthase from Salmonella typhimurium in complex with a single molecule of 2-({[4-(trifluoromethoxy)phenyl]carbonyl} ...
Studies of some organo-nitrogen three-electron ligands in transition metal carbonyl complexes ... A mechanism for the formation of the complexes and the biproducts (P-tolyl)2C:0, NCO" and CN~ is proposed. All complexes failed ... resulted in formation of the complexes jt-C^H^M(CO)2NCR2 to the exclusion of the aza-allyl/allene complexes, which are formed ... Reaction of [I] with (p-tolyl)(_2)C:NLi, however, produced three types of complex, π-C(_5)H(_5)M(CO)(_2)NC(P-TOLYL)(_2)[ll], π- ...
... complex. The photophysical properties of 1 were analyzed finding that it possesses significant luminescence rigidochromism. The ... characterization and detailed photoluminescence studies of the complex fac-[ReCl(CO)3L], 1, where L = 4-[4,6-bis(3,5-dimethyl- ... either as is or for their future complexes with various transition metals and lanthanides. ... The phenomenon luminescence rigidochromism has been reported since the 1970s in tricarbonyldiimine complexes with a general ...
High efficiency of extraction of carbonyl-chloride forms of Rh, Ru and Ir is reached via their extracting from solutions ... The simple method of re-extraction of carbonyl-chloride forms of platinum metals in aqueous phase with usage of oxidizing ... High extracting ability of the low carbonyl-chloride anions, [Rh(CO)2Cl4]2-, [Ru(CO)2Cl2]-, [Ir(CO)2Cl2]- by pure solvents (e.g ... Platinum metals, refining, extraction, carbonyl-chloride complexes, distribution ratio, solvent, content, extraction, aqueous ...
Bioinspired polymer functionalized with a diiron carbonyl model complex and its assembly onto the surface of a gold electrode ... Bioinspired polymer functionalized with a diiron carbonyl model complex and its assembly onto the surface of a gold electrode ...
The photochemistry of some d6 metal carbonyl complexes is investigated. In particular, the effect of the substitution of a ... Crocock, Barry (1992) The photochemistry of monosubstituted triphenylphosphine derivatives of some metal carbonyl complexes. ... complexes is also îeported. The crystal structures of the (T/5-C5H4CH3)Mn(CO)2L (L = pyridine, cvs-cyclooctene) complexes are ... The manganese complexes (775-C5H4CH3)Mn(CO)3 and (tj5- C5H4CH3)Mn(CO)2PPh3 are investigated by laser flash photolysis (X = ...
... and cationic tris-carbonyl complexes of the types cis-[M(κ3 P,N,P-PNP)(CO)2Y] and [M(κ3 P,N,P-PNP)(CO)3]+ was prepared by ... complexes 2 and 4 exhibit the two carbonyl stretching frequencies typical for a cis-CO arrangement. Complexes 3 and 5 give rise ... A series of neutral bis- and cationic tris-carbonyl complexes of the types cis-[M(κ3P,N,P-PNP)(CO)2Y] and [M(κ3P,N,P-PNP)(CO)3] ... In the case of the most bulky PNP ligand 1e, with [Mn(CO)5Br] the cationic 16e bis-carbonyl complex [Mn(PNPNH-tBu)(CO)2]+ (3e) ...
Comparison of the spectroscopic data on these complexes with those of other stibine complexes and with complexes of Group 16 ... Comparison of the spectroscopic data on these complexes with those of other stibine complexes and with complexes of Group 16 ... Brown, Michael D., Levason, William, Manning, Joanna M. and Reid, Gillian (2005) The transition metal carbonyl complexes of 1,3 ... The transition metal carbonyl complexes of 1,3-bis(di-R-stibino)propanes (R = Me or Ph) ...
crystals, engineering, hindrance, carbonyl, tuning, sterin, group, stoichiometry, imide, melamineцimide, complexes. ... All molecules in the complex leave one of their H-bond acceptor sites unused. Assuming that one of the four imide carbonyl ... X-ray analysis[*] showed a 1 :2-herringbone structure (Figure 2). In this complex, one of the four carbonyl acceptor sites of ... Crystal Engineering of MelamineЦImide Complexes; Tuning the Stoichiometry by Steric Hindrance of the Imide Carbonyl Groups.. ...
Scheer, Manfred (1993) Transformation of White Phosphorus by Carbonyl Complexes. Phosphorus, Sulfur and Silicon & the Related ...
... conversion of alcohols in water to carboxylic acids by in situ generated ruthenium trans dihydrido carbonyl PNP complexes. ... conversion of alcohols in water to carboxylic acids by in situ generated ruthenium trans dihydrido carbonyl PNP complexes ...
ucts from which purple complex 5 and orange complex 6 were isolated in 26 and 13% yield, respectively.] The molecular ... J Carbonyl insertion of the cyclopropenyl ligand may initiate formation of the oxocyclobutenyl complex. This latter type of ... I151 Complexes 5 and 6 could also be generated in a 1 :2 ratio (as determined by H NMR) by reaction of [W(CPh)CI(CO)(PMe,),(py ... lZ1or the formation of cyclopropenyl metal complexes.131The lowvalent carbyne alkyne metal complex 1 was proposed as an ...
Lee, K. [李家康]. (1997). The chemistry of mononuclear and polynuclear ruthenium carbonyl complexes containing nitrene and related ... Lee, K. [李家康]. (1997). The chemistry of mononuclear and polynuclear ruthenium carbonyl complexes containing nitrene and related ... postgraduate thesis: The chemistry of mononuclear and polynuclear ruthenium carbonyl complexes containing nitrene and related ... The chemistry of mononuclear and polynuclear ruthenium carbonyl complexes containing nitrene and related ligands. - ...
Intramolecular carbonylcarbonyl interactions in W, Mo and Fe complexes containing the η¹-N-maleimidato ligand. X-ray, DFT and ... Intramolecular carbonylcarbonyl interactions in W, Mo and Fe complexes containing the η¹-N-maleimidato ligand. X-ray, DFT and ...
TAN KHENG YEE DESMOND (2012-01-20). Spectroscopic Studies of Reactions of Transition Metal Carbonyl Complexes with Elemental ... Spectroscopic Studies of Reactions of Transition Metal Carbonyl Complexes with Elemental Sulfur and Its Compounds. ... This thesis covers reactions involving sulfur-containing substrates catalyzed by organo-manganese complexes. Chapter 1 provides ...
... reported examples where out-of-plane metalloporphyrins react in a manner similar to cyclopentadienyl metal carbonyl complexes. ... Oxidative chlorination of rhenium carbonylporphyrin complexes by antimony pentachloride provides the first ... The Synthesis of the first skewered porphyrin complex is reported. ... Synthesis of Skewered Complexes: Reaction of Rhenium Carbonyl Porphyrin Complexes with Antimony Pentachloride.. ...
Group 6 transition metal carbonyl complexes with chalcogen-bridged diarsenic(III) ligands. / Doerrer, L H; Green, J C; Green, M ... Group 6 transition metal carbonyl complexes with chalcogen-bridged diarsenic(III) ligands. Journal of the Chemical Society- ... title = "Group 6 transition metal carbonyl complexes with chalcogen-bridged diarsenic(III) ligands", ... T1 - Group 6 transition metal carbonyl complexes with chalcogen-bridged diarsenic(III) ligands ...
Carbonyl Sulfide) Complexes. Together they form a unique fingerprint. * carbonyl sulfide Chemical Compounds ... Comparison of the Stability of Iridium-(η2-Carbon Disulfide) and Iridium-(η2-Carbonyl Sulfide) Complexes. / Gaffney, Thomas R. ... Comparison of the Stability of Iridium-(η2-Carbon Disulfide) and Iridium-(η2-Carbonyl Sulfide) Complexes. Inorganic chemistry. ... Comparison of the Stability of Iridium-(η2-Carbon Disulfide) and Iridium-(η2-Carbonyl Sulfide) Complexes. ...
  • All complexes failed to undergo substitution reactions with PPh^ and reaction of iodine with [II] caused total decomposition of the complex. (bl.uk)
  • 41 The low-valent metal carbynes [M(CR)Br(C0),lfS1 were shown to induce the polymerization of acetylenes (M = W)I6l and to give annelated phenols in reactions with a p d i y n e s (M = Cr, We have recently described evidence for the existence of low-valent carbyne alkyne tungsten complexes of the type 2 and facile protonation to give the carbene alkyne tungsten complexes 3. (docme.ru)
  • This thesis covers reactions involving sulfur-containing substrates catalyzed by organo-manganese complexes. (nus.edu.sg)
  • Increasing the covalent character of the metal-oxygen bond (by, for instance, employing iron carbonyl reducing agents instead of sodium) also stabilizes the oxyallyl cation, leading to cleaner reactions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thermal reactions and flash photolysis are used to study the olefin bond-migration promoted by tungsten carbonyls. (unt.edu)
  • Coordination complexes are so pervasive that their structures and reactions are described in many ways, sometimes confusingly. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cobalt, Nickel, and Ruthenium Complexes with Poly(4-vinylpyridine) and Poly(L-histidine) that Exhibit Reduced Symmetry in the Molten State . (wiley.com)
  • Interactions of some diimine copper(II) complexes with bovine serum albumin (BSA) were investigated by spectroscopic techniques in order to compare the stability of the complexes and their capability of causing oxidative damage to the protein. (scielo.br)
  • A small amidated peptide, Asp-Thr-His-NH 2 , corresponding to the N - terminal region of BSA was synthesized, and its interaction with all the diimine-copper(II) complexes was also investigated in order to clarify the copper imine complex-albumin interactions. (scielo.br)
  • Typical values for rhodium cluster carbonyls are: In addition to symmetrical bridging modes, CO can be found bridge unsymmetrically or through donation from a metal d orbital to the π* orbital of CO. The increased π-bonding due to back-donation from multiple metal centers results in further weakening of the C-O bond. (wikipedia.org)
  • This Account describes our work on highly electrophilic γ-carbonyl cations featuring propargyldicobalt cations, cycloheptynedicobalt complexes, and the interconnection between the two systems. (uwindsor.ca)
  • The asymmetric unit of the title ion-pair complex, (C 9 H 12 NO 2 ) 2 [Ni(C 4 N 2 S 2 ) 2 ], contains two 1-(eth-oxy-carbonyl-meth-yl)pyridinium cations and one bis-(1,2-dicyano-ethene-1,2-dithiol-ato)nickelate(II) dianion, which exhibits a slightly distorted square-planar coordination geometry. (iucr.org)
  • Oxidation of pyruvate or fatty acids yields acetyl-CoA, which is oxidized in the TCA cycle, yielding NADH and FAD[H.sub. which in turn are oxidized by the respiratory chain (RC) and complex V to yield ATP (2). (thefreelibrary.com)
  • The intermolecular, three-component carbonyl ylide cycloaddition of a diazo compound, aldehyde, and carbon-carbon multiple bond is a powerful method to construct five-membered oxygen heterocycles. (mit.edu)
  • Those studies have been mainly performed based on the intramolecular vibrations of CO stretching modes in the IR region, because these modes are sensitive to changes in the electron density on the complexes. (nature.com)
  • This thesis presents a study of the reaction between an (NHC)gold(I) fluoride complex (NHC = N-heterocyclic carbene) and alkynes (Chapter 1). (mit.edu)
  • The W-C(1) distance is similar to the value of the tungsten-carbon double bond (1.97(2) A) in the related alkylidene alkyne tungsten complex 3, alkyne = Ph&, and the W-C(8) distance may be compared to the W-CHzCMe3 bond length (2.258(9) in 7 (dmpe = bis(dimethy1phos- A) [W(CCMe3)(CHCMe3)(CH2CMe,)(dmpe)] 7 phino)ethane). (docme.ru)
  • 9. Tertiary Phosphine Complexes of Tungsten. (columbia.edu)
  • In cyclic ketones the carbonyl group is assigned position #1, and this number is not cited in the name, unless more than one carbonyl group is present. (msu.edu)
  • In this source, unsaturated complex organic molecules such as CCH and cyclic-C3H2 are very abundant in the infalling gas, while SO preferentially exists in the boundary between the infalling gas and the disk structure. (innovations-report.com)
  • At higher temperatures and longer reaction times, the formation of neutral bis-carbonyl complexes is favored, whereas at lower temperatures and shorter reaction times, the formation of cationic tricarbonyl species is preferred. (springer.com)
  • This invention relates to a process for making primary alcohols characterized by the use of base to suppress formation of carbonyl reaction by-products to increase the yield of linear primary alcohols. (google.com)
  • Lynaugh, N. , Photoelectron Spectra of the bis(«pi»-allyl) complexes of nickel and palladium in Electron Spectroscopy , ed D.A. Shirely (North-Holland Publ Co., Amsterdam), 1972, 445. (nist.gov)
  • MEGS enzymes are localized in the mitochondrial matrix space [pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDHc) and tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle] and in the mitochondrial inner membrane [oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) complex]. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • As expected, complex II enzyme activity was diminished and O 2 − was elevated in the transgenic cell line, resulting in more cellular oxidative damage than in the isogenic wild-type cell line. (aacrjournals.org)
  • A ketone carbonyl function may be located anywhere within a chain or ring, and its position is given by a locator number. (msu.edu)
  • Very simple ketones, such as propanone and phenylethanone (first two examples in the right column), do not require a locator number, since there is only one possible site for a ketone carbonyl function. (msu.edu)