A family of zinc-containing enzymes that catalyze the reversible hydration of carbon dioxide. They play an important role in the transport of CARBON DIOXIDE from the tissues to the LUNG. EC 4.2.1.1.
A membrane-bound carbonic anhydrase found in lung capillaries and kidney.
A cytosolic carbonic anhydrase isoenzyme found widely distributed in cells of almost all tissues. Deficiencies of carbonic anhydrase II produce a syndrome characterized by OSTEOPETROSIS, renal tubular acidosis (ACIDOSIS, RENAL TUBULAR) and cerebral calcification. EC 4.2.1.-
A cytosolic carbonic anhydrase isoenzyme primarily expressed in ERYTHROCYTES, vascular endothelial cells, and the gastrointestinal mucosa. EC 4.2.1.-
A class of compounds that reduces the secretion of H+ ions by the proximal kidney tubule through inhibition of CARBONIC ANHYDRASES.
A carbonic anhydrase isoenzyme found in MITOCHONDRIA where it provides bicarbonate ions that are components in the urea cycle and in GLUCONEOGENESIS.
Inorganic salts that contain the -HCO3 radical. They are an important factor in determining the pH of the blood and the concentration of bicarbonate ions is regulated by the kidney. Levels in the blood are an index of the alkali reserve or buffering capacity.
A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
One of the CARBONIC ANHYDRASE INHIBITORS that is sometimes effective against absence seizures. It is sometimes useful also as an adjunct in the treatment of tonic-clonic, myoclonic, and atonic seizures, particularly in women whose seizures occur or are exacerbated at specific times in the menstrual cycle. However, its usefulness is transient often because of rapid development of tolerance. Its antiepileptic effect may be due to its inhibitory effect on brain carbonic anhydrase, which leads to an increased transneuronal chloride gradient, increased chloride current, and increased inhibition. (From Smith and Reynard, Textbook of Pharmacology, 1991, p337)
A metallic element of atomic number 30 and atomic weight 65.38. It is a necessary trace element in the diet, forming an essential part of many enzymes, and playing an important role in protein synthesis and in cell division. Zinc deficiency is associated with ANEMIA, short stature, HYPOGONADISM, impaired WOUND HEALING, and geophagia. It is known by the symbol Zn.
Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
An order of fungi in the phylum ASCOMYCOTA that includes many valuable experimental organisms. There are eight families and very few anamorphic forms.
The fruiting 'heads' or 'caps' of FUNGI, which as a food item are familiarly known as MUSHROOMS, that contain the FUNGAL SPORES.
A group of compounds that contain the structure SO2NH2.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.

Does gill boundary layer carbonic anhydrase contribute to carbon dioxide excretion: a comparison between dogfish (Squalus acanthias) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). (1/1306)

In vivo experiments were conducted on spiny dogfish (Squalus acanthias) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) in sea water to determine the potential role of externally oriented or gill boundary layer carbonic anhydrase in carbon dioxide excretion. This was accomplished by assessing pH changes in expired water using a stopped-flow apparatus. In dogfish, expired water was in acid-base disequilibrium as indicated by a pronounced acidification (delta pH=-0.11+/-0.01; N=22; mean +/- s.e.m.) during the period of stopped flow; inspired water, however, was in acid-base equilibrium (delta pH=-0.002+/-0.01; N=22). The acid-base disequilibrium in expired water was abolished (delta pH=-0.005+/-0.01; N=6) by the addition of bovine carbonic anhydrase (5 mg l-1) to the external medium. Addition of the carbonic anhydrase inhibitor acetazolamide (1 mmol l-1) to the water significantly reduced the magnitude of the pH disequilibrium (from -0.133+/-0.03 to -0.063+/-0.02; N=4). However, after correcting for the increased buffering capacity of the water caused by acetazolamide, the acid-base disequilibrium during stopped flow was unaffected by this treatment (control delta [H+]=99.8+/-22.8 micromol l-1; acetazolamide delta [H+]=81.3+/-21.5 micromol l-1). In rainbow trout, expired water displayed an acid-base disequilibrium (delta pH=0.09+/-0.01; N=6) that also was abolished by the application of external carbonic anhydrase (delta pH=0.02+/-0.01). The origin of the expired water acid-base disequilibrium was investigated further in dogfish. Intravascular injection of acetazolamide (40 mg kg-1) to inhibit internal carbonic anhydrase activity non-specifically and thus CO2 excretion significantly diminished the extent of the expired water disequilibrium pH after 30 min (from -0.123+/-0.01 to -0.065+/-0.01; N=6). Selective inhibition of extracellular carbonic anhydrase activity using a low intravascular dose (1.3 mg kg-1) of the inhibitor benzolamide caused a significant reduction in the acid-base disequilibrium after 5 min (from -0.11+/-0.01 to -0.07+/-0. 01; N=14). These results demonstrate that the expired water acid-base disequilibrium originates, at least in part, from excretory CO2 and that extracellular carbonic anhydrase in dogfish may have a significant role in carbon dioxide excretion. However, externally oriented carbonic anhydrase (if present in dogfish) plays no role in catalysing the hydration of the excretory CO2 in water flowing over the gills and thus is unlikely to facilitate CO2 excretion.  (+info)

Role of a novel photosystem II-associated carbonic anhydrase in photosynthetic carbon assimilation in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. (2/1306)

Intracellular carbonic anhydrases (CA) in aquatic photosynthetic organisms are involved in the CO2-concentrating mechanism (CCM), which helps to overcome CO2 limitation in the environment. In the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, this CCM is initiated and maintained by the pH gradient created across the chloroplast thylakoid membranes by photosystem (PS) II-mediated electron transport. We show here that photosynthesis is stimulated by a novel, intracellular alpha-CA bound to the chloroplast thylakoids. It is associated with PSII on the lumenal side of the thylakoid membranes. We demonstrate that PSII in association with this lumenal CA operates to provide an ample flux of CO2 for carboxylation.  (+info)

Modulation of chloride, potassium and bicarbonate transport by muscarinic receptors in a human adenocarcinoma cell line. (3/1306)

1. Short-circuit current (I(SC)) responses to carbachol (CCh) were investigated in Colony 1 epithelia, a subpopulation of the HCA-7 adenocarcinoma cell line. In Krebs-Henseleit (KH) buffer, CCh responses consisted of three I(SC) components: an unusual rapid decrease (the 10 s spike) followed by an upward spike at 30 s and a slower transient increase (the 2 min peak). This response was not potentiated by forskolin; rather, CCh inhibited cyclic AMP-stimulated I(SC). 2. In HCO3- free buffer, the decrease in forskolin-elevated I(SC) after CCh was reduced, although the interactions between CCh and forskolin remained at best additive rather than synergistic. When Cl- anions were replaced by gluconate, both Ca2+- and cyclic AMP-mediated electrogenic responses were significantly inhibited. 3. Basolateral Ba2+ (1-10 mM) and 293B (10 microM) selectively inhibited forskolin stimulation of I(SC), without altering the effects of CCh. Under Ba2+- or 293B-treated conditions, CCh responses were potentiated by pretreatment with forskolin. 4. Basolateral charybdotoxin (50 nM) significantly increased the size of the 10 s spike of CCh responses in both KH and HCO3- free medium, without affecting the 2 min peak. The enhanced 10 s spike was inhibited by prior addition of 5 mM apical Ba2+. Charybdotoxin did not affect forskolin responses. 5. In epithelial layers prestimulated with forskolin, the muscarinic antagonists atropine and 4-diphenylacetoxy-N-methylpiperidine methiodide (4-DAMP, both at 100 nM) abolished subsequent 10 microM CCh responses. Following addition of p-fluoro hexahydro-sila-difenidol (pF-HHSiD, 10 microM) or pirenzepine (1 microM), qualitative changes in the CCh response time-profile also indicated a rightward shift of the agonist concentration-response curve; however, 1 microM gallamine had no effect. These results suggest that a single M3-like receptor subtype mediates the secretory response to CCh. 6. It is concluded that CCh and forskolin activate discrete populations of basolateral K+ channels gated by either Ca2+ or cyclic AMP, but that the Cl- permeability of the apical membrane may limit their combined effects on electrogenic Cl- secretion. In addition, CCh activates a Ba2+-sensitive apical K+ conductance leading to electrogenic K+ transport. Both agents may also modulate HCO3- secretion through a mechanism at least partially dependent on carbonic anhydrase.  (+info)

Carbonic anhydrase III protects cells from hydrogen peroxide-induced apoptosis. (4/1306)

Carbonic anhydrase III (CA III; EC 4.2.1.1) is a cytoplasmic enzyme that exhibits a relatively low carbon dioxide hydratase activity. It is expressed at a very high level in skeletal muscle, where physical exercise has been shown to increase free radical production. In this work we show the effect of overexpression of CA III on cellular response to oxidative stress. Rat CA III cDNA was transfected to NIH/3T3 cells, which have no endogenous CA III expression. The isolated clones expressed CA III mRNA and protein. The protein was localized to cytoplasm and nuclei. Compared to parental cells, transfected cells showed lower basal oxidized state as judged by measurement of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) using fluorescent dye and an image analysis system. Addition of exogenous H2O2 to cells induced a rapid increase of ROS in control but not in CA III overexpressing cells. Association of this phenomenon with CA III expression was further confirmed by showing that overexpression of CA II could not prevent H2O2-stimulated increase of ROS. In proliferation assays, CA III overexpressing cells grew faster and were more resistant to cytotoxic concentrations of H2O2 than control cells. After a 16 h exposure to oxidative stress, the number of apoptotic cells was also reduced in transfectants. Our results suggest that CA III functions as an oxyradical scavenger and thus protects cells from oxidative damage. A lower level of free radicals in CA III overexpressing cells may also affect growth signaling pathways.  (+info)

A novel role for carbonic anhydrase: cytoplasmic pH gradient dissipation in mouse small intestinal enterocytes. (5/1306)

1. The spatial and temporal distribution of intracellular H+ ions in response to activation of a proton-coupled dipeptide transporter localized at the apical pole of mouse small intestinal isolated enterocytes was investigated using intracellular carboxy-SNARF-1 fluorescence in combination with whole-cell microspectrofluorimetry or confocal microscopy. 2. In Hepes-buffered Tyrode solution, application of the dipeptide Phe-Ala (10 mM) to a single enterocyte reduced pHi locally in the apical submembranous space. After a short delay (8 s), a fall of pHi occurred more slowly at the basal pole. 3. In the presence of CO2/HCO3--buffered Tyrode solution, the apical and basal rates of acidification were not significantly different and the time delay was reduced to 1 s or less. 4. Following application of the carbonic anhydrase inhibitor acetazolamide (100 microM) in the presence of CO2/HCO3- buffer, addition of Phe-Ala once again produced a localized apical acidification that took 5 s to reach the basal pole. Basal acidification was slower than at the apical pole. 5. We conclude that acid influx due to proton-coupled dipeptide transport can lead to intracellular pH gradients and that intracellular carbonic anhydrase activity, by facilitating cytoplasmic H+ mobility, limits their magnitude and duration.  (+info)

Characterization of a molten globule state of bovine carbonic anhydrase III: loss of asymmetrical environment of the aromatic residues has a profound effect on both the near- and far-UV CD spectrum. (6/1306)

Bovine muscle carbonic anhydrase (isoenzyme III; BCAIII) exhibited a three-state unfolding process at equilibrium upon denaturation in guanidine hydrochloride (GuHCl). The stable folding intermediate appeared to be of molten globule type. The stability towards GuHCl in terms of mid-point concentrations of denaturation were very similar for BCAIII and human CAII (HCAII). It was further demonstrated that the aromatic amino acid residues contributed significantly to the circular dichroism (CD) spectrum in the far-UV wavelength region during the native-->molten globule state transition. Thus, the ellipiticity change at 218 nm was shown to monitor the loss of tertiary interactions of aromatic side chains at the first unfolding transition as well as the rupture of secondary structure at the second unfolding transition. Similar aromatic contributions to the far-UV CD spectrum, but with varying magnitudes, were also noted for BCAII and HCAII, further emphasizing that interference of aromatic residues should not be neglected at wavelengths that normally are assigned to secondary structural changes.  (+info)

Denatured states of human carbonic anhydrase II: an NMR study of hydrogen/deuterium exchange at tryptophan-indole-H(N) sites. (7/1306)

Hydrogen/deuterium (H/D) exchange measurements in low and moderate concentrations of GuHCI were conducted on the side chain H(N) atoms of the seven tryptophans of pseudo wild-type human carbonic anhydrase II. Tryptophans 5, 16 and 245, situated in or close to the N-terminal domain were found to have little protection against exchange. The H/D exchange results for Trp-123, Trp-192 and Trp-209 showed that a previously identified molten globule and the native state gave a similar protection against exchange. Global unfolding of the protein is necessary for the efficient exchange at Trp-97, which is located in the central part of the beta-sheet.  (+info)

Detection of intermediates in protein folding of carbonic anhydrase with fluorescence emission and polarization. (8/1306)

The three-dimensional structure of carbonic anhydrase is a result of specific folding of the protein chain to form a compact, globular molecule. Fluorescence measurements on the nature of the rate-limiting steps in folding from the random coil to the native structure show that each step involves an actual folding reaction of the protein chain. Emission intensity and polarization of the intrinsic fluorescence due to tryptophan residues reach a maximum during the early period of the folding process. The changes occur in at least three kinetic phases (tau1 less than 3 S, tau2 = 1 min, tau3 = 10 min, 1 M guanidinium chloride, 2 M NaC1, pH 7, 20 degrees C). None of these phases are explained by configurational changes in the fully unfolded chain. The results are consistent with a kinetic scheme that involves stepwise acquisition of the specific folded structure of the native enzyme.  (+info)

Carbonic anhydrase-related proteins (CARPs) have previously been described as catalytically inactive proteins closely related to α-carbonic anhydrases (α-CAs). These CARPs are found in animals (both vertebrates and invertebrates) and viruses as either independent proteins or domains of other proteins. We report here the identification of a new CARP (TgCA_RP) in the unicellular organism Toxoplasma gondii that is related to the recently described η-class CA found in Plasmodium falciparum. TgCA_RP is posttranslationally modified at its C terminus with a glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchor that is important for its localization in intracellular tachyzoites. The protein localizes throughout the rhoptry bulbs of mature tachyzoites and to the outer membrane of nascent rhoptries in dividing tachyzoites, as demonstrated by immunofluorescence and immunoelectron microscopy using specific antibodies. T. gondii mutant tachyzoites lacking TgCA_RP display a growth and invasion phenotype in vitro and have ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Carbonic anhydrase IX expression in renal neoplasms. T2 - Correlation with tumor type and grade. AU - Genega, Elizabeth M.. AU - Ghebremichael, Musie. AU - Najarian, Robert. AU - Fu, Yineng. AU - Wang, Yihong. AU - Argani, Pedram. AU - Grisanzio, Chiara. AU - Signoretti, Sabina. PY - 2010/12. Y1 - 2010/12. N2 - Carbonic anhydrase IX (CAIX), a hypoxia-induced protein, is expressed in some renal tumors. We evaluated its immunohistochemical expression in 317 primary and 42 metastatic renal neoplasms (186 clear cell, 52 papillary, 35 chromophobe, 47 unclassified, and 15 Xp11.2 translocation renal cell carcinomas [RCCs]; 26 oncocytomas; 2 metanephric adenomas; 1 urothelial carcinoma; 1 mixed epithelial and stromal tumor; and 1 angiomyolipoma); 7 neoplasms were unknown as to whether they were primary or metastatic. We also correlated expression with tumor type and grade. Variable staining was seen in clear cell, papillary, unclassified, and Xp11.2 translocation carcinomas. One ...
Carbonic anhydrases are abundant in mammalian tissues, plants and bacteria. The several distinct classes of this enzyme (α, β, γ etc.) share little similarity in terms of structure and sequence, but they all perform the same function of catalyzing the hydration of carbon dioxide and the dehydration of bicarbonate [3]. Carbonic anhydrase B is one of the two major forms of carbonic anhydrase in human red blood cell (the other form is CA C). Like other members of the CA family, its main function is assisting the important chemical reaction that occurs in the blood. CO2 + H2O ,-----, HCO3- + H+. The above reaction is very slow in the absence of the enzyme. Hence, by assisting the inter-conversion between carbon dioxide and bicarbonate, Carbonic anhydrase B helps to maintain acid-base balance in blood, and transport carbon dioxide out of blood. Note that the carbonic acid (H2CO3) and hydrogen carbonate ions (HCO3-) is an important buffer system in the body. They equilibrate in the blood plasma to ...
The hydration rate of CO2 catalyzed by human red cell carbonic anhydrase B is 92 percent reduced by the normal concentrations of chloride and bicarbonate in red cells. This reflects a general sensitivity of this reaction to halides and other anions, up to 87 times greater than the effect on red cell carbonic anhydrase C. The catalytic hydration of CO2 is generally more (up to 24 times) sensitive to inhibition by anions and sulfonamides than the dehydration of HCO3-, probably reflecting different mechanisms. The sensitivity of enzyme B to anion inhibition also depends upon the substrate, being much greater for CO2 than for certain esters. On the basis of the very low catalytic activity of B for CO2 in the presence of physiological concentration of chloride, and the fact that carbonic anhydrase C is effective for CO2 hydration (in the presence of chloride) at a rate 340 times greater than that of CO2 output from tissues, it appears that the biological role of enzyme B is not that of a carbonic ...
PURPOSE: To evaluate carbonic anhydrase (CA) IX as a surrogate marker of hypoxia and investigate the prognostic significance of different patterns of expression in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). METHODS: Standard immunohistochemical techniques were used to study CA IX expression in 175 resected NSCLC tumors. CA IX expression was determined by Western blotting in A549 cell lines grown under normoxic and hypoxic conditions. Measurements from microvessels to CA IX positivity were obtained. RESULTS: CA IX immunostaining was detected in 81.8% of patients. Membranous (m) (P =.005), cytoplasmic (c) (P =.018), and stromal (P |.001) CA IX expression correlated with the extent of tumor necrosis (TN). The mean distance from vascular endothelium to the start of tumor cell positivity was 90 micro m, which equates to an oxygen pressure of 5.77 mmHg. The distance to blood vessels from individual tumor cells or tumor cell clusters was greater if they expressed mCA IX than if they did not (P |.001). Hypoxic
Carbonic anhydrase IX (CAIX) is generally expressed in individual tumors and serves as a marker for hypoxia. Breasts. Am.J.Pathol. 2001;158:1011C1019. [PMC free of charge content] [PubMed] [10] Sowter HM, Raval R, Moore J, Ratcliffe PJ, Harris AL. Predominant Function of Hypoxia-Inducible Transcription Aspect Ednra (Hif)-1 Hif-2 in Legislation from the Transcriptional Response to Hypoxia. Cancers Res. 2003;63:6130C6134. [PubMed] [11] Chiche J, Ilc K, Laferriere J, Trottier E, Dayan F, Mazure NM, Brahimi-Horn MC, Pouyssegur J. Cyclopamine Hypoxia-Inducible Carbonic Anhydrase XII and IX Promote Tumor Cell Growth by Counteracting Acidosis coming from the Regulation from the Intracellular pH. Cancer tumor Res. 2009;69:358C368. [PubMed] [12] Swinson DEB, Jones JL, Richardson D, Wykoff C, Turley H, Pastorek J, Taub N, Harris AL, OBryne KJ. Carbonic Anhydrase IX Appearance, a Book Surrogate Marker of Tumor Hypoxia, Is normally Associated with an unhealthy Prognosis in Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancers. ...
The time course of and the influence of light intensity and light quality on the induction of a mitochondrial carbonic anhydrase (CA) in the unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii was characterized using western and northern blots. This CA was expressed only under low-CO2 conditions (ambient air). In asynchronously grown cells, the mRNA was detected 15 min after transfer from air containing 5% CO2 to ambient air, and the 21-kD polypeptide was detected on western blots after 1 h. When transferred back to air containing 5% CO2, the mRNA disappeared within 1 h and the polypeptide was degraded within 3 d. Photosynthesis was required for the induction in asynchronous cultures. The induction increased with light up to 500 mu mol m(-2) s(-1), where saturation occurred. In cells grown synchronously, however, expression of the mitochondrial CA was also detected in darkness. Under such conditions the expression followed a circadian rhythm, with mRNA appearing in the dark 30 min before the light ...
Carbonic anhydrase III (CAIII) is a member of a multigene family (at least six separate genes are known) that encodes carbonic anhydrase isozymes. These carbonic anhydrases are a class of metalloenzymes that catalyze the reversible hydration of carbon dioxide and are differentially expressed in a number of cell types. The expression of the CA3 gene is strictly tissue specific and present at high levels in skeletal muscle and much lower levels in cardiac and smooth muscle. A proportion of carriers of Duchenne muscle dystrophy have a higher CA3 level than normal. The gene spans 10.3 kb and contains seven exons and six introns. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2008 ...
Carbonic anhydrases (CAs) are ubiquitously expressed enzymes and catalyse an important physiological reaction of interconverting the hydration of carbon dioxide to bicarbonates, which is crucial for maintaining acid/base equilibrium in certain tissues. While 15 different isoforms of CAs are present in various cell types in human tissues, their expression pattern in the epidermis remains to be investigated. Here, we report the expression of 5 CA isoforms (CAII, CAIX, CAXI, CAXII and CAXIII) in human primary keratinocytes. Further, we demonstrate that the expression of CAII and CAIX in these cells is significantly up-regulated by the biologically active metabolites of vitamin A (all-trans retinoic acid) and vitamin D (1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 ), respectively. Taken together, apart from providing new information on the expression of CAs in the skin, our results highlight a previously undisclosed connection between vitamin A and CAII expression and vitamin D and CAIX expression. ...
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
PURPOSE: Bevacizumab, an anti-VEGFA antibody, inhibits the developing vasculature of tumors, but resistance is common. Antiangiogenic therapy induces hypoxia and we observed increased expression of hypoxia-regulated genes, including carbonic anhydrase IX (CAIX), in response to bevacizumab treatment in xenografts. CAIX expression correlates with poor prognosis in most tumor types and with worse outcome in bevacizumab-treated patients with metastatic colorectal cancer, malignant astrocytoma, and recurrent malignant glioma. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We knocked down CAIX expression by short hairpin RNA in a colon cancer (HT29) and a glioblastoma (U87) cell line which have high hypoxic induction of CAIX and overexpressed CAIX in HCT116 cells which has low CAIX. We investigated the effect on growth rate in three-dimensional (3D) culture and in vivo, and examined the effect of CAIX knockdown in combination with bevacizumab. RESULTS: CAIX expression was associated with increased growth rate in spheroids and in vivo.
PURPOSE: Bevacizumab, an anti-VEGFA antibody, inhibits the developing vasculature of tumors, but resistance is common. Antiangiogenic therapy induces hypoxia and we observed increased expression of hypoxia-regulated genes, including carbonic anhydrase IX (CAIX), in response to bevacizumab treatment in xenografts. CAIX expression correlates with poor prognosis in most tumor types and with worse outcome in bevacizumab-treated patients with metastatic colorectal cancer, malignant astrocytoma, and recurrent malignant glioma. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We knocked down CAIX expression by short hairpin RNA in a colon cancer (HT29) and a glioblastoma (U87) cell line which have high hypoxic induction of CAIX and overexpressed CAIX in HCT116 cells which has low CAIX. We investigated the effect on growth rate in three-dimensional (3D) culture and in vivo, and examined the effect of CAIX knockdown in combination with bevacizumab. RESULTS: CAIX expression was associated with increased growth rate in spheroids and in vivo.
Zn(2+)-dependent carbonic anhydrases (CA) catalyse the reversible hydration of carbon dioxide to bicarbonate and participate in diverse physiological processes, hence having manifold therapeutic potentials. Among the 15 human CAs with wide-ranging sub-cellular localisation and kinetic properties, CA VI is the only secretory isoform. The 1.9Å crystal structure of the human CA VI catalytic domain reveals a prototypical mammalian CA fold, and a novel dimeric arrangement as compared to previously-reported CA structures. The active site cavity contains a cluster of non-conserved residues that may be involved in ligand binding and have significant implications for developing the next-generation of isoform-specific inhibitors.
The IUPHAR/BPS Guide to Pharmacology. carbonic anhydrase 9 - Carbonic anhydrases. Detailed annotation on the structure, function, physiology, pharmacology and clinical relevance of drug targets.
The transcriptional complex hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) has emerged as an important mediator of gene expression patterns in tumors, although the range of responding genes is still incompletely defined. Here we show that the tumor-associated carbonic anhydrases (CAs) are tightly regulated by this system. Both CA9 and CA12 were strongly induced by hypoxia in a range of tumor cell lines. In renal carcinoma cells that are defective for the von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) tumor suppressor, up-regulation of these CAs is associated with loss of regulation by hypoxia, consistent with the critical function of pVHL in the regulation of HIF-1. Further studies of CA9 defined a HIF-1-dependent hypoxia response element in the minimal promoter and demonstrated that tight regulation by the HIF/pVHL system was reflected in the pattern of CA IX expression within tumors. Generalized up-regulation of CA IX in VHL-associated renal cell carcinoma contrasted with focal perinecrotic expression in a variety of non-VHL-associated
The transcriptional complex hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) has emerged as an important mediator of gene expression patterns in tumors, although the range of responding genes is still incompletely defined. Here we show that the tumor-associated carbonic anhydrases (CAs) are tightly regulated by this system. Both CA9 and CA12 were strongly induced by hypoxia in a range of tumor cell lines. In renal carcinoma cells that are defective for the von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) tumor suppressor, up-regulation of these CAs is associated with loss of regulation by hypoxia, consistent with the critical function of pVHL in the regulation of HIF-1. Further studies of CA9 defined a HIF-1-dependent hypoxia response element in the minimal promoter and demonstrated that tight regulation by the HIF/pVHL system was reflected in the pattern of CA IX expression within tumors. Generalized up-regulation of CA IX in VHL-associated renal cell carcinoma contrasted with focal perinecrotic expression in a variety of non-VHL-associated
TY - JOUR. T1 - Association of the gross appearance of intratumoral vascularity at MDCT with the carbonic anhydrase IX score in clear cell renal cell carcinoma. AU - Young, Jonathan R. AU - Coy, Heidi. AU - Kim, Hyun J.. AU - Douek, Michael. AU - Sisk, Anthony. AU - Pantuck, Allan J.. AU - Raman, Steven S.. PY - 2018/12/1. Y1 - 2018/12/1. N2 - OBJECTIVE. The purpose of this study was to determine whether qualitative MDCT features are associated with the carbonic anhydrase IX (CAIX) score of clear cell renal cell carcinoma (RCC). The CAIX score has been previously found to have prognostic significance for disease-free survival, overall survival, and lymph node involvement. MATERIALS AND METHODS. A cohort of 105 histologically proven clear cell RCCs in patients who underwent preoperative four-phase renal mass MDCT was derived from 2001 to 2013. Two genitourinary radiologists evaluated each lesion for the gross appearance of intratumoral vascularity, calcification, enhancement pattern, necrosis, ...
Carbonic anhydrases (CAs I-VII) are products of a gene family that encodes seven isozymes and several homologous, CA- related proteins. All seven isozymes have been cloned, sequenced, and mapped, and the intron-exon organization of five genes established. They differ in subcellular localizations, be …
Carbonic Anhydrase IX/CA9 Antibody Pairs available through Novus Biologicals. Browse our Carbonic Anhydrase IX/CA9 Antibody Pair catalog backed by our Guarantee+.
Carbonic Anhydrase IX/CA9 Antibody Pairs available through Novus Biologicals. Browse our Carbonic Anhydrase IX/CA9 Antibody Pair catalog backed by our Guarantee+.
Carbonic anhydrase IX (CA IX) is a transmembrane glycoprotein with an active extracellular enzyme site. We have shown previously that it was hypoxia inducible and may therefore be an endogenous marker of hypoxia. It is overexpressed in some tumors, particularly renal cell carcinoma. The aim of this study was to examine the expression and localization of CA IX in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) and relate this to the location of tumor microvessels, angiogenesis, necrosis, and stage. Expression of CA IX was determined by immunoblotting in three HNSCC cell lines grown in normoxia and hypoxia (pO(2) 0.1%) and three paired tumor and normal tissue samples of HNSCC. Archived paraffin sections (79) of HNSCC were immunostained with antibodies to CA IX and CD34 to determine microvessel density (MVD). By double staining sections with CA IX and CD34, the distance between blood vessels and the start of CA IX expression and necrosis was calculated. CA IX was induced by hypoxia in all three HNSCC cell
FUNCTIONS OF CARBONIC ANHYDRASES. The presence of carbonic anhydrases in all living organisms probably originates because the components of the catalyzed reaction are involved in almost all metabolic processes. We suppose that the main reason for the abundance of CAs in nature is the ubiquitous involvement of bicarbonate buffers in aqueous media and then in the cytoplasm at every stage of evolution; these enzymes acceleration achieving appropriate pH, which is important for homeostasis of every living cell. The role of carbonic anhydrases in accelerating the conversion of inorganic forms of carbon was probably not their initial main function, but now it is established that these enzymes are critical regulators of the exchange of these forms in many metabolic processes.. Functions of Carbonic Anhydrases in Animals. Although the main purpose of this review is to consider the available experimental data and ideas concerning the role of CAs in higher plants, we should present, at least briefly, ...
PubMed Central Canada (PMC Canada) provides free access to a stable and permanent online digital archive of full-text, peer-reviewed health and life sciences research publications. It builds on PubMed Central (PMC), the U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH) free digital archive of biomedical and life sciences journal literature and is a member of the broader PMC International (PMCI) network of e-repositories.
3MHL: 4-[N-(Substituted 4-pyrimidinyl)amino]benzenesulfonamides as inhibitors of carbonic anhydrase isozymes I, II, VII, and XIII
We have recently shown that CA IV expression in kidney cortex increased five-fold at the mRNA level (35) and 3- to 5-fold at the protein level (25) during postnatal maturation. A previous study showed a 19-fold increase in CA IV mRNA expression in rat lung between fetal day 20 and postnatal day 6, and a 40% postnatal increase to day 17, with no further increase (7). The postnatal increase was nearly comparable to what we have observed in rabbit lung (Fig. 5B). However, the increase in CA IV mRNA in kidney cortex is at least 10-fold and likely to account for the postnatal increment in protein (24). With most of the increase occurring during postnatal weeks 3-5, it is likely that the increase reflects the change in eating habits and a shift to an alkaline ash diet that requires a renal adaptation in transport. The large increase in CA IV may allow the kidney to handle the maturational increase in filtered load of bicarbonate and its proximal reabsorption.. Detailed studies of CA IX expression ...
Novelty, in brief, is represented by the intended elaboration of carborane, heteroborane and metallaborane compounds as active-site inhibitors of CA isoenzymes. All currently used inhibitors anhydrase inhibitors contain a sulfonamide or a sulfamate moiety connected to so called ring structure which is usually a 5- or 6-membered aromatic ring or conjugated ring system containing nitrogen, oxygen, and/or sulfur heteroatoms. The ring structure bears characteristics or functionality which modulates the affinity toward certain CA isoform. The use of three-dimensional boron cluster is a novel approach in development of isoform-specific CA inhibitors. Selected sulfamides incorporating cluster with inhibitory effects toward CAs (IC50 values in low micromolar and submicromolar range, some of the inhibitors being more than 50-times more selective toward the tumor specific CAIX than for CAII abundantly present in normal tissues ...
Carbonic anhydrases (CAs) are a large family of zinc metalloenzymes that catalyze the reversible hydration of carbon dioxide. They participate in a variety of biological processes, including respiration, calcification, acid-base balance, bone resorption, and the formation of aqueous humor, cerebrospinal fluid, saliva, and gastric acid. They show extensive diversity in tissue distribution and in their subcellular localization. CA IX is a transmembrane protein and is one of only two tumor-associated carbonic anhydrase isoenzymes known. It is expressed in all clear-cell renal cell carcinoma, but is not detected in normal kidney or most other normal tissues. It may be involved in cell proliferation and transformation. This gene was mapped to 17q21.2 by fluorescence in situ hybridization, however, radiation hybrid mapping localized it to 9p13-p12. [provided by RefSeq, Jun 2014 ...
beta-Lactam antibiotics are a broad class of antibiotics, consisting of all antibiotic agents that contain a beta-lactam ring in their molecular structures. Synthesis of beta-lactam analogs, which are containing dichloride atoms and N-methyl, N-aromatic rings, was achieved by Schiff bases and dichloroketene compounds. All the synthesized imines and beta-lactam analogs were tested against two physiologically relevant carbonic anhydrase isozymes (hCA I and II) and acetylcholinesterase (AChE). They demponstrated effective inhibitory profiles with K-i values in ranging of 3.22-11.18 nM against hCA I, 3.74-10.41 nM against hCA II, and 0.50-1.57 nM against AChE. On the other hand, acetazolamide and dorzolamide clinically used as CA inhibitors, showed K-i value of 170.34 and 129.26nM against hCA I, and 115.43 and 135.67 nM against hCA II, respectively. Also, tacrine used as standard AChE inhibitor showed Ki value of 5.70 nM against AChE ...
Blood and urine analyses: Visit 1: electrolytes, creatinine, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), glycemia, renin, angiotensin, aldosterone, plasma catecholamines, 24 h urinary sodium excretion, carbonic anhydrase activity and isoenzyme expression (in 50 randomly selected subjects), samples for genetic studies. Visit 2: electrolytes, creatinine, eGFR. Visit 3: complete blood count, electrolytes, creatinine, eGFR, glycemia, insulin, renin, angiotensin, aldosterone, plasma catecholamines, classic urinalysis, microalbuminuria, 24 h urinary sodium excretion, carbonic anhydrase activity and isoenzyme expression (in 50 subjects selected at Visit 1). Visit 4: electrolytes, creatinine, eGFR, glycemia, insulin, renin, angiotensin, aldosterone, plasma catecholamines, 24 h urinary sodium excretion, carbonic anhydrase activity and isoenzyme expression (in 50 subjects selected at Visit 1 ...
One of the four discrete isoenzymes of carbonic anhydrase hitherto characterized, CA III, has the lowest turnover rate and the greatest resistance to inhibition by sulphonamides. Streptozotocin-induced diabetes mellitus resulted in a reduction in acetazolamide-resistant activity of carbonic anhydrase in the liver, but not in tonic skeletal muscle, of adult male rats. The hepatic activity declined with apparent first-order kinetics [calculated rate constant (k) 0.089 day-1] to a minimum of approx. 6% of control values; the reduction in activity was moderated by administration of insulin. ...
As a member of the wwPDB, the RCSB PDB curates and annotates PDB data according to agreed upon standards. The RCSB PDB also provides a variety of tools and resources. Users can perform simple and advanced searches based on annotations relating to sequence, structure and function. These molecules are visualized, downloaded, and analyzed by users who range from students to specialized scientists.
CAIX is a transmembrane protein and is a tumor-associated carbonic anhydrase isoenzyme. It is over-expressed in VHL mutated clear-cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) and hypoxic solid tumors, but is low-expressed in normal kidney and most other normal tissues. It may be involved in cell proliferation and transformation. This gene is mapped to 9p13-p12.[7]. CAIX is a cellular biomarkers of hypoxia. Furthermore, recent studies examining the association between CAIX levels and various clinicopathological outcomes suggest that CAIX expression may also be a valuable prognostic indicator for overall survival[8] although this association has been questioned.[9]. ...
Anti-human Carbonic Anhydrase IX/CA9 antibody,Rabbit MAb. Applications for ELISA,IHC-P, fully validated. Quality guaranteed. Buy elite antibodies at up to 60% cost saving.
Anti-human Carbonic Anhydrase IX/CA9 antibody,Rabbit MAb. Applications for ELISA,FCM, fully validated. Quality guaranteed. Buy elite antibodies at up to 60% cost saving.
CAIX expression in bronchial trees and genital organs: In the bronchial trees high expression of CAIX was seen in the peribronchial immature mesenchymal cells a
Effect of Hyperglycemia on Erythrocyte Carbonic Anhydrase and Lactic Acid in Type II Diabetic Subjects. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
Carbonic anhydrase (CA) IX is a plasma membrane-associated member of the alpha-CA enzyme family, which is involved in solid tumor acidification. It is a marker of tumor hypoxia and a prognostic factor in several human cancers. An aberrant increase in CA IX expression in chronic hypoxia and during development of various carcinomas contributes to tumorigenesis through at least two mechanisms: pH regulation and cell adhesion control. Here we report the X-ray structure of the catalytic domain of CA IX in complex with a classical, clinically used sulfonamide inhibitor, acetazolamide. The structure reveals a typical alpha-CA fold, which significantly differs from the other CA isozymes when the protein quaternary structure is considered. Thus, two catalytic domains of CA IX associate to form a dimer, which is stabilized by the formation of an intermolecular disulfide bond. The active site clefts and the PG domains are located on one face of the dimer, while the C-termini are located on the opposite ...
Carbonic anhydrase 12, 0.1 ml. Carbonic anhydrases (CAs) are a large family of zinc metalloenzymes that catalyze the reversible hydration of carbon dioxide.
The main findings of this study showed that the PCs exhibit OxSt and apoptosis responses when exposed to high glucose. Both high glucose-induced OxSt and apoptosis of PCs were rescued by pharmacological inhibition of mCA.. The PCs in immediate contact with the specialized EC of cerebral microvasculature comprising the BBB are vital for integrity of the latter and are especially susceptible to OxSt. Loss of PCs results in a focal increase in BBB permeability (Bonkowski et al., 2011). A close correlation between PC density and BBB permeability has been reported in PC-deficient adult mice (Armulik et al., 2010). Recently, we reported hyperglycemia-induced OxSt in the brain and cerebral PC loss in diabetic mice (Price et al., 2012). Clinical evidence suggests that diabetes-induced changes in the BBB may be a predisposing factor for Alzheimers disease (Ristow, 2004) and people suffering from both types of diabetes have an increased risk of cognitive impairment (Whitmer, 2007; Bruce et al., 2008; ...
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
Recently, a convincing body of evidence has accumulated suggesting that the overexpression of carbonic anhydrase isozyme IX (CA IX) in some cancers contributes to the acidification of the extracellular matrix, which in turn promotes the growth and metastasis of the tumor. These observations have made CA IX an attractive drug target for the selective treatment of certain cancers. Currently, there is no available X-ray crystal structure of CA IX, and this lack of availability has hampered the rational design of selective CA IX inhibitors. In light of these observations and on the basis of structural alignment homology, using the crystal structure of carbonic anhydrase II (CA II) and the sequence of CA IX, a double mutant of CA II with Ala65 replaced by Ser and Asn67 replaced by Gln has been constructed to resemble the active site of CA IX. This CA IX mimic has been characterized kinetically using (18)O-exchange and structurally using X-ray crystallography, alone and in complex with five CA ...
Zakšauskas, A., Čapkauskaitė, E., Jezepčikas, L., Linkuvienė, V., Paketurytė, V., Smirnov, A., Leitans, J., Kazaks, A., Dvinskis, E., Manakova, E., Gražulis, S., Tars, K., Matulis, D., 2020. Halogenated and di-substituted benzenesulfonamides as selective inhibitors of carbonic anhydrase isoforms. European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry 185:111825. Vaškevičienė, I., Paketurytė, V., Pajanok, N., Žukauskas, Š., Sapijanskaitė, B., Kantminienė, K., Mickevičius, V., Zubrienė, A., Matulis, D., 2019. Pyrrolidinone-bearing methylated and halogenated benzenesulfonamides as inhibitors of carbonic anhydrases. Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry 27:322-337. Stravinskiene, D., Imbrasaite, A., Petrikaite, V., Matulis, D., Matuliene, J., Zvirbliene, A., 2019. New Monoclonal Antibodies for a Selective Detection of Membrane-Associated and Soluble Forms of Carbonic Anhydrase IX in Human Cell Lines and Biological Samples. Biomolecules 9:304. Paketurytė, V., Linkuvienė, V., Krainer, G., Chen, W.-Y., ...
Reactome is pathway database which provides intuitive bioinformatics tools for the visualisation, interpretation and analysis of pathway knowledge.
Carbonic anhydrase IX (CAIX) is a hypoxia-induced, membrane-tethered enzyme that is highly expressed in many cancers. It catalyses the hydration of CO 2 to HCO3- and H+, and the reverse dehydration reaction. Recent studies have shown an important role for CAIX in pH regulation and it has been speculated that CAIX may play a role in supporting cancer progression towards more aggressive forms of the disease. Clinical correlative studies in many tumours have shown that high expression is related to poor outcome. In the present study, we have selected antigen-binding antibody fragments (Fab) against human CAIX by phage-display, and tested these for inhibitory potency on CAIX catalytic activity. Inhibition was assessed from the kinetics of the CAIX-catalysed reaction, using assays performed on intact cells over-expressing CAIX, and their CAIX-containing membrane fragments. Inhibition was also assessed in multi-cellular tissue-models (spheroids) from the kinetics of CO2 venting. We have identified a Fab
In this study, bovine articular and human chondrocytes from the C-20/A4 cell line were tested for the functional activity and molecular presence of the enzyme carbonic anhydrase. This enzyme is classically considered to be important in the maintenance of high cellular buffering capacity by catalysing the slow attainment of equilibrium between CO(2) and HCO(3)(-). The first functional assay measured the rate of pH equilibration after administration of a fixed dose of CO(2) solution to cell lysates. Compared to positive controls (human erythrocytes, murine M1 cells and purified carbonic anhydrase), chondrocyte lysates attained equilibrium at a significantly slower rate, similar to the rate obtained with a negative control (Xenopus oocytes). A second functional assay studied CO(2) hydration kinetics in intact C-20/A4 cells, using a pH-sensitive fluorescent dye, as the CO(2) content of the extracellular solution was changed. It was shown that C-20/A4 cells accelerate hydration only to a small degree.
ESCUDERO-ALMANZA, Dalila Jacqueline et al. Carbonic Anhydrase and Zinc in Plant Physiology. Chilean J. Agric. Res. [online]. 2012, vol.72, n.1, pp.140-146. ISSN 0718-5839. http://dx.doi.org/10.4067/S0718-58392012000100022.. Carbonic anhydrase (CA) (EC: 2.4.1.1) catalyzes the rapid conversion of carbon dioxide plus water into a proton and the bicarbonate ion (HCO3-) that can be found in prokaryotes and higher organisms; it is represented by four different families. Carbonic anhydrase is a metalloenzyme that requires Zn as a cofactor and is involved in diverse biological processes including pH regulation, CO2 transfer, ionic exchange, respiration, CO2 photosynthetic fixation, and stomatal closure. Therefore, the review includes relevant aspects about CA morphology, oligomerization, and structural differences in the active site. On the other hand, we consider the general characteristics of Zn, its geometry, reactions, and physiology. We then consider the CA catalysis mechanism that is carried out ...
Background: In HCC, hypoxia and MET can promote tumor progression and induce resistance to radiation, chemo or targeted therapies. The aim of this study was to correlate MET and hypoxia marker carbonic anhydrase 9 (CA9) expression levels by immunohistochemistry with clinicopathological characteristics and disease-free survival (DFS) in patients with HCC.. Material and methods: One-hundred HCC resection specimens were evaluated by immunohistochemistry for MET (clone sp44, Ventana) and CA9 (rabbit polyclonal) expression. For automated evaluation, we elaborated our own macro using ImageJ software, and compared it with H- and MetMab validated scores. METhigh and CA9high expression were defined as moderate to strong staining. Staining results were correlated with clinicopathological characteristics. Univariate analyses were performed using Fishers exact or chi square tests, and multivariate analyses using Cox regression model. Median DFS (mDFS) were calculated by Kaplan-Meier method. MET ...
The enzyme carbonic anhydrase has been well characterized in mammalian systems, but the structural properties of the plant isozymes remain elusive. To investigate the nature of the zinc-binding site in spinach carbonic anhydrase, we targeted potential zinc ligands for mutagenesis and examined the re …
Carbonic anhydrase IX (CAIX) is a cell surface enzyme that is over-expressed in approximately 95% of clear cell renal cell carcinomas (ccRCCs), the most common renal cancer. CAIX is also a surrogate marker of hypoxic tumors for various human cancers; however, a clinically viable molecular imaging agent targeting CAIX is not available. We have synthesized and performed in vitro and in vivo evaluation of a dual-motif, low-molecular-weight inhibitor of CAIX, [64Cu] XYIMSR-06, for imaging CAIX expression on ccRCC tumors using positron emission tomography (PET). [64Cu] XYIMSR-06 was synthesized in two steps from reported dual-motif precursor 1. Upon radiolabeling, [64Cu] XYIMSR-06 was evaluated in immunocompromised mice bearing CAIX-expressing SK-RC-52 tumors for in vivo PET imaging and biodistribution. [64Cu] XYIMSR-06 was generated in radiochemical yields of 51.0 ± 4.5% (n = 5) and specific radioactivity of 6.0 GBq/μmol (170Ci/mmol ± 70, n = 5). Tumor could be visualized on PET images by 1 h ...
Most loss-of-function diseases are caused by aberrant folding of important proteins. These proteins often misfold due to inherited mutations. The rare disease marble brain disease (MBD) also known as carbonic anhydrase II deficiency syndrome (CADS) can manifest in carriers of point mutations in the human carbonic anhydrase II (HCA II) gene. We have over the past 10-15 years studied the folding, misfolding and aggregation of the enzyme human carbonic anhydrase II. In summary our HCA II folding studies have shown that the protein folds via an intermediate of molten-globule type, which lacks enzyme activity and the molten globule state of HCA II is prone to aggregation. One mutation associated with MBD entails the His107Tyr (H107Y) substitution. We have demonstrated that the H107Y mutation is a remarkably destabilizing mutation influencing the folding behavior of HCA II. A mutational survey of position H107 and a neighboring conserved position E117 has been performed entailing the mutants H107A, ...
Looking for Carbonic anhydrase iv? Find out information about Carbonic anhydrase iv. An enzyme which aids carbon dioxide transport and release by catalyzing the synthesis, and the dehydration, of carbonic acid from, and to, carbon dioxide... Explanation of Carbonic anhydrase iv
Aryl sulfonamides are a widely used drug class for the inhibition of carbonic anhydrases. In the context of our program of photochromic pharmacophores we were interested in the exploration of azobenzene-containing sulfonamides to block the catalytic activity of human carbonic anhydrase II (hCAII). Herein, we report the synthesis and in vitro evaluation of a small library of nine photochromic sulfonamides towards hCAII. All molecules are azobenzene-4-sulfonamides, which are substituted by different functional groups in the 4 -position and were characterized by X-ray crystallography. We aimed to investigate the influence of electrondonating or electron-withdrawing substituents on the inhibitory constant Ki. With the aid of an hCAII crystal structure bound to one of the synthesized azobenzenes, we found that the electronic structure does not strongly affect inhibition. Taken together, all compounds are strong blockers of hCAII with K-i = 25-65 nM that are potentially photochromic and thus combine ...
Carbonic anhydrase-9 (CA9), a transmembrane enzyme with an extracellular active site, is involved in the reversible metabolism of the carbon dioxide to carbonic acid. Up-regulation of CA by hypoxia and the hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) pathway has been recently postulated (Wykoff et al. Cancer Res., 60: 7075-7083, 2000). In the present study we examined the expression of this enzyme in non-small cell lung cancer. Of 107 cases analyzed, 39 (36.4%) had strong membrane/cytoplasmic expression of CA9 and were grouped as positive. The staining was confined around areas of necrosis, and a significant association of CA9 expression with the extent of necrosis was noted (P = 0.004). Nevertheless, 38 of 74 cases with focal or extensive necrosis did not express CA9. CA9 expression was more frequent in the squamous cell histology (P = 0.001) and with advanced T stage (P = 0.009). A significant coexpression of CA9 with platelet-derived endothelial cell growth factor and basic fibroblast growth factor receptor
Cryptococcus neoformans, a fungal pathogen of humans, causes fatal meningitis in immunocompromised patients. Its virulence is mainly determined by the elaboration of a polysaccharide capsule surrounding its cell wall. During its life, C. neoformans is confronted with and responds to dramatic variations in CO2 concentrations; one important morphological change triggered by the shift from its natural habitat (0.033% CO2) to infected hosts (5% CO2) is the induction of capsule biosynthesis. In cells, CO2 is hydrated to bicarbonate in a spontaneous reaction that is accelerated by carbonic anhydrases. Here we show that C. neoformans contains two beta-class carbonic anhydrases, Can1 and Can2. We further demonstrate that CAN2, but not CAN1, is abundantly expressed and essential for the growth of C. neoformans in its natural environment, where CO2 concentrations are limiting. Structural studies reveal that Can2 forms a homodimer in solution. Our data reveal Can2 to be the main carbonic anhydrase and ...
BACKGROUND: Carbonic anhydrase IX (CA9) is reportedly overexpressed in several types of carcinomas, but little is known about the expression pattern of CA9 in osteosarcoma. We aimed to assess the prevalence of CA9 expression and its prognostic implications in osteosarcoma patients. METHODS: We compared immunohistochemical expression of CA9 between conventional, high-grade and low-grade, central osteosarcomas. Specimens were obtained before chemotherapy and stained with anti-human CA9 antibody. We also evaluated the histologic grade, presence of metastasis, and patient prognosis. RESULTS: Among 38 samples of conventional high-grade osteosarcoma, 22 (57.9%) tumors displayed CA9 overexpression. Twenty-five cases of low-grade central osteosarcomas were all negative (p < 0.0001). CA9 expression was significantly associated with the presence of metastasis (p = 0.0010). The overall survival rate was significantly reduced with increased CA9 expression (p = 0.0012), higher histologic grade (p < 0.0001), ...
Most loss-of-function diseases are caused by aberrant folding of important proteins. These proteins often misfold due to inherited mutations. The rare disease marble brain disease (MBD) also known as carbonic anhydrase II deficiency syndrome (CADS) can manifest in carriers of point mutations in the human carbonic anhydrase II (HCA II) gene. We have over the past 10-15 years studied the folding, misfolding and aggregation of the enzyme human carbonic anhydrase II. In summary our HCA II folding studies have shown that the protein folds via an intermediate of molten-globule type, which lacks enzyme activity and the molten globule state of HCA II is prone to aggregation. One mutation associated with MBD entails the His107Tyr (H107Y) substitution. We have demonstrated that the H107Y mutation is a remarkably destabilizing mutation influencing the folding behavior of HCA II. A mutational survey of position H107 and a neighboring conserved position E117 has been performed entailing the mutants H107A, ...
Inhibition of ammonia excretion (J(amm)) is a common response to Cu exposure in freshwater (FW) and seawater (SW) organisms. To determine the mechanism of this response, a euryhaline species of guppy (Poecilia vivipara) was exposed to 20 μg Cu/l in FW (0 ppt) and SW (25 ppt) for 96 h. In both salinities, Cu transiently inhibited ammonia excretion (J(amm)) followed by a full recovery by the end of the 96 h exposure. The activities of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase, H(+)-ATPase, and carbonic anhydrase (CA) were examined in the gills at 12 and 96 h of Cu exposure. In both salinity acclimations, CA activity was significantly inhibited following 12h of Cu exposure in P. vivipara, marking the first in vivo evidence of Cu-induced inhibition of CA in fish. Moreover, the inhibition and recovery of this enzyme were correlated with the inhibition and recovery of J(amm) in both salinity acclimations. The blockade of CA potentially acts as a common mechanism of J(amm) inhibition in FW and SW. There were no significant ...
Mono- and Stereopictres of 5.0 Angstrom coordination sphere of Zinc atom in PDB 1z9y: Carbonic Anhydrase II in Complex With Furosemide As Sulfonamide Inhibitor
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Vaida Morkūnaitė, Joana Gylytė, Asta Zubrienė, Lina Baranauskienė, Miglė Kišonaitė, Vilma Michailovienė, Vaida Juozapaitienė, Matthew J Todd, Daumantas Matulis].
Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology. ...
The plant hormone salicylic acid (SA) is required for defense responses. NON EXPRESSER OF PATHOGENESIS RELATED 1 (NPR1) and NON RECOGNITION OF BTH-4 (NRB4) are required for the response to SA in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). Here, we isolated several interactors of NRB4 using yeast two-hybrid assays. Two of these interactors, βCA1 and βCA2, are β-carbonic anhydrase family proteins. Since double mutant βca1 βca2 plants did not show any obvious phenotype, we investigated other βCAs and found that NRB4 also interacts with βCA3 and βCA4. Moreover, several βCAs interacted with NPR1 in yeast, including one that interacted in a SA-dependent manner. This interaction was abolished in loss-of-function alleles of NPR1. Interactions between βCAs and both NRB4 and NPR1 were also detected in planta, with evidence for a triple interaction, NRB4-βCA1-NPR1. The quintuple mutant βca1 βca2 βca3 βca4 βca6 showed partial insensitivity to SA. These findings suggest that one of the functions of carbonic
To further assess our results, we performed a literature review of the genes reported by at least seven studies in the cancer versus normal comparison to determine if any have been shown to have diagnostic and/or prognostic utility in colorectal cancer. The most consistently reported differentially expressed gene in our meta-analysis was carbonic anhydrase II (CA2), which was reported as down-regulated in 11 studies. Along with carbonic anhydrase I, CA2 has been shown to have prognostic significance where the expression of both enzymes was related to the metastatic aggressiveness of colorectal cancer (23). Similarly, the potential diagnostic utility of CA2 was shown in a study in which the average level of fecal CA2 in colorectal cancer patients was shown to be significantly greater than those in the control group (24). Immunohistochemistry has been done on colorectal tumor and healthy mucosa tissue to monitor the protein levels of four carbonic anhydrases, among them CA2 (25). That study showed ...
This study tests the hypothesis that the increase in blood PCO2 and associated respiratory acidosis after exhaustive exercise play an important role in stimulating ventilation during post-exercise recovery in fish. Injection of bovine carbonic anhydrase (10 mg kg-1) into the bloodstream of rainbow trout caused a persistent 40 % increase in the HCO3- dehydration capacity of the blood. The treatment was designed to increase CO2 excretion and therefore to reduce PCO2 build-up and acidosis after exercise. Aerobic and anaerobic swimming performance were not affected by carbonic anhydrase, and there were only very minor effects on arterial blood acid­base status in resting fish. However, carbonic anhydrase attenuated post-exercise increases in PaCO2 and decreases in pHa by about 50 % without altering arterial O2 variables, red cell swelling or the intracellular pH of the brain or muscle tissues. The effects on arterial pH (pHa) resulted largely from alleviation of the increase in PaCO2. In ...
In vertebrates, carbonic anhydrases (CAs) play important roles in ion transport and pH regulation in many organs, including the eyes, kidneys, central nervous system, and inner ear. In aquatic organis
Carbonic anhydrase 12 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CA12 gene. Carbonic anhydrases (CAs) are a large family of zinc metalloenzymes that catalyze the reversible hydration of carbon dioxide. They participate in a variety of biological processes, including respiration, calcification, acid-base balance, bone resorption, and the formation of aqueous humor, cerebrospinal fluid, saliva, and gastric acid. This gene product is a type I membrane protein that is highly expressed in normal tissues, such as kidney, colon and pancreas, and has been found to be overexpressed in 10% of clear cell renal carcinomas. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been identified for this gene. Loss of function mutations in the CAXII gene result in defects in fluids and carbonate secretions in the following diseases: 1) Cystic fibrosis-like syndrome with normal cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) protein levels 2) Pancreatitis 3) Sjögrens syndrome 4) Xerostomia or ...
Alfa Aesar™ 4-Nitrophenyl acetate, 98+% 10g Alfa Aesar™ 4-Nitrophenyl acetate, 98+% Nitrog to Nitrophenylacet -Organics
Hyperventilation is a difficult diagnosis to make clinically and that is why having an objective test of hyperventilation is so useful. People who hyperventilate deplete their levels of red cell carbonic anhydrase and the ratio between the activity and the protein gives us a good indication of whether or not hyperventilation is a problem. Hyperventilation is also difficult to treat and so this test tells us how much effort we have to put in to correcting this. Essentially, there is a two-pronged approach - firstly biochemical and secondly physical: Biochemically, red cell carbonic anhydrase is a zinc dependent enzyme and will be depleted simply by zinc deficiency. Furthermore, a low red cell carbonic anhydrase drives hyperventilation and so this is another example of one of the many vicious cycles seen in patients with chronic fatigue. Zinc is best absorbed at night and I recommend taking 30mg last thing at night on an empty stomach. This should be in addition to zinc taken in my physiological ...
Looking for online definition of CA-IX in the Medical Dictionary? CA-IX explanation free. What is CA-IX? Meaning of CA-IX medical term. What does CA-IX mean?
We investigated the expression of CA IX in a series of oligodendroglial brain tumors. We found that CA IX is expressed in most of these tumors and that it has an independent prognostic value, predicting a poor outcome. In addition, CA IX(+) tumors had decreased cell proliferation compared to CA IX(-) tumors.. Chromosomal loss of 1p and 19q is a common genotypic change in oligodendrogliomas. It is commonly used as a tool to make more precise decisions concerning the treatment. Recently, it has become clear, however, that defects in single chromosomes, genes, or even the sequential acquisition of mutations, are not the entire story in tumorigenesis, given that many cancer susceptibility genes show a high degree of tissue specificity in their association with neoplastic transformation. Also in oligodendrogliomas and other malignant brain tumors, the acquisition of a complete neoplastic phenotype is caused by the activation of several oncogenes and the inactivation of several growth-suppressor ...
Special note about Community Feature Content. Any content and/or opinions uploaded, expressed or submitted through any Community Feature or any other publicly available section of the Web Site (including password-protected areas), and all articles and responses to questions, other than the content explicitly authorized by the Company, are solely the opinions and responsibility of the person or entity submitting them and do not necessarily reflect the opinions of the Company. By way of example, any recommended or suggested use of products or services available from the Company that is posted through a Community Feature is not a sign of approval or recommendation by the Company. If you choose to follow any such recommendation you do so at your own risk.. Links to Third Party Sites. The Web Site may contain links to other websites on the internet. The Company is not responsible for the content, products, services or practices of any third party websites, including without limitation sites linked to ...
Santa Cruz Biotechnology, Inc. bietet eine Vielzahl an Produkten für das Genom Editing an einschließlich CRISPR/Cas9 Knockout und CRISPR Double Nickase Plasmide für das Gen Silencing. CA XIV Gen Silencer sind als CA XIV CRISPR/Cas9 Knockout Plasmide und CA XIV Double Nickase Plasmide erhältlich. CA XIV CRISPR/dCas9 Aktivierungs-Plasmide und CRISPR Lenti Aktivierungssysteme zur Aktivierung von Genen sind ebenfals verfügbar. Gen Silencer und Aktivatoren sind äußerst hilfreich bei der Untersuchung von Genen, besonders in Kombination mit Antikörpern, die für die Detektion des entsprechenden Proteins geeignet sind.
Santa Cruz Biotechnology, Inc. offre unampia gamma di prodotti per processamento genico inclusi plasmidi CRISPR/Cas9 Knockout e CRISPR Double Nickase per silenziamento genico. CA XIV silenziatori genici sono anche disponibili come CA XIV plasmidi CRISPR/Cas9 Knockout e Plasmidi CA XIV Double Nickase .Plasmidi di attivazione CRISPR/dCas9 e Sistemi CRISPR lentivirali di attivazione CA XIV per attivazione genica sono disponibili. I silenziatori genici e gli attivatori sono utili per studi genici in combinazione con anticorpi utilizzati per il rilevamento proteico.
Read Assignment of the gene determining human carbonic anhydrase, CAI, to chromosome 8, Annals of Human Genetics on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
BioAssay record AID 644085 submitted by ChEMBL: Inhibition of human carbonic anhydrase 2 using 4-nitrophenylacetate as substrate after 3 mins using spectrophotometry by Lineweaver-Burk plot analysis.
en] Acidosis, Renal Tubular/chemically induced/enzymology ; Anticonvulsants/adverse effects/therapeutic use ; Carbonic Anhydrases/metabolism ; Female ; Fructose/adverse effects/analogs & derivatives/therapeutic use ; Humans ; Kidney/drug effects/enzymology/pathology ; Middle Aged ; Migraine Disorders/drug therapy ; Models, ...
A major challenge in photodynamic cancer therapy (PDT) is avoiding PDT-induced hypoxia, which can lead to cancer recurrence and progression through activation of various angiogenic factors and significantly reduce treatment outcomes. Reported here is an acetazolamide (AZ) conjugated BODIPY photosensitizer (AZ-BPS) designed to mitigate the effects of PDT-based hypoxia by combining the benefits of anti-angiogenesis therapy with PDT. AZ-BPS showed specific affinity to aggressive cancer cells (MDA-MB-231 cells) that overexpress carbonic anhydrase IX (CAIX). It displayed enhanced photo-cytotoxicity compared to a reference compound, BPS, which is an analogous PDT agent that lacks an acetazolamide unit. AZ-BPS also displayed an enhanced in vivo efficacy in a xenograft mouse tumor regrowth model relative to BPS, an effect attributed to inhibition of tumor angiogenesis by both PDT-induced ROS generation and CAIX knockdown. AZ-BPS was evaluated successfully in clinical samples collected from breast cancer ...
Mlig034227.g3 {REF} {Length: 2733} {Pfam: Tubulin/FtsZ family, GTPase domain [PF00091.25, score=231.9]; Tubulin C-terminal domain [PF03953.17, score=146.9]; Misato Segment II tubulin-like domain [PF10644.9, score=25.7]} {Human: ENSG00000188229, TUBB4B, tubulin beta 4B class IVb, [RH, Score=920, Expect=0.0]; ENSG00000137285, TUBB2B, tubulin beta 2B class IIb, [RH, Score=908, Expect=0.0]; ENSG00000104833, TUBB4A, tubulin beta 4A class IVa, [RH, Score=905, Expect=0.0]; ENSG00000232575, TUBB, tubulin beta class I, [RH, Score=903, Expect=0.0]; ENSG00000196230, TUBB, tubulin beta class I, [RH, Score=903, Expect=0.0]; ENSG00000183311, TUBB, tubulin beta class I, [RH, Score=903, Expect=0.0]; ENSG00000227739, TUBB, tubulin beta class I, [RH, Score=903, Expect=0.0]; ENSG00000235067, TUBB, tubulin beta class I, [RH, Score=903, Expect=0.0]; ENSG00000229684, TUBB, tubulin beta class I, [RH, Score=903, Expect=0.0]; ENSG00000137267, TUBB2A, tubulin beta 2A class IIa, [RH, Score=903, Expect=0.0]; ...
Glaucoma is a serious disease associated with increased intraocular pressure which often leads to blindness. One of the ways to treat glaucoma is to reduce aqueous humour secretion in the ciliary body of the eye by suppressing (inhibiting) activity of special enzymes - carbonic anhydrases. Russian scientists from RUDN University have designed new compounds that can effectively reduce intraocular pressure by isoform selective inhibiting human carbonic anhydrase. The results of the study were published in the prestigious Bioorganic Chemistry journal.
Reactome is pathway database which provides intuitive bioinformatics tools for the visualisation, interpretation and analysis of pathway knowledge.
2foy: Ultrahigh resolution crystal structures of human carbonic anhydrases I and II complexed with two-prong inhibitors reveal the molecular basis of high affinity.
SWISS-MODEL Template Library (SMTL) entry for 2hoc.1. Crystal structure of the human carbonic anhydrase II in complex with the 5-(4-amino-3-chloro-5-fluorophenylsulfonamido)-1,3,4-thiadiazole-2-sulfonamide inhibitor
Rabbit polyclonal Carbonic Anhydrase IV/CA4 antibody validated for WB, ELISA and tested in Human and Mouse. Immunogen corresponding to synthetic peptide
Zinc. Zinc is a component of certain important enzymes, such as carbonic anhydrase, lactic dehydrogenase, alkaline phosphatase, DNA and RNA polymerases, and d-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase. Zinc is obtained primarily through food. About 30% of that ingested is absorbed in the small intestine. About 80% of zinc in blood is found in RBCs, mostly as part of the enzyme carbonic anhydrase. Of that portion not in RBCs, about 50% is bound to albumin, about 30% is bound to alpha-2 macroglobulin or transferrin, and about 5% is bound to histidine and certain other amino acids, leaving about 15% free in plasma. Excretion occurs predominately in the stool, with a much smaller amount excreted in urine and sweat.. Zinc deficiency is usually not clinically evident until it becomes severe. Severe deficiency may produce growth retardation, delayed sexual development, acrodermatitis enterohepatica (dermatitis, diarrhea, and alopecia), decreased taste acuity, and poor wound healing. Acrodermatitis enterohepatica ...
A study of CO2 storage in excised, exsanguinated lungs revealed that CO2 stores include a compartment which reaches equilibration very rapidly (less than 3s) and a slower compartment which equilibrates with a half-time of approximately 15 s. Inhibition of carbonate dehydratase (carbonic anhydrase, EC 4.2.1.1) does not change the slope of the total CO2 dissociation curve of the lung but does increase the slow compartment at the expense of the fast. CO2 diffusion across the pleura is approximately 20 times faster than that of O2, a relationship that is not affected by inhibition of carbonate dehydratase. The role of tissue CO2 stores in limiting respiratory fluctuations of PCO2 or pH in arterial blood is only minor and may be of significance only in rapid, deep inspiration. CO2 uptake or release by the stores is out of phase with blood CO2 exchange. As a consequence, the time course of CO2 exchange at the mouth during expiration cannot be used to predict alveolar or capillary CO2 exchange. ...
Ethyl 2,2-Difluoro-2-(4-nitrophenyl)acetate; CAS Number: 243656-25-9; Linear Formula: C10H9F2NO4; find Accela ChemBio Inc.-AC5947208022 MSDS, related peer-reviewed papers, technical documents, similar products & more at Sigma-Aldrich
Recombinant Carbonic Anhydrase VII (CA7) Protein. Species: Rat (Rattus). Source: Escherichia coli (E. coli). Order product ABIN6302725.
Rickli, E E; Edsall, J. T.; Ghazanfar, A S S; Gibbons, B H (1964). "Carbonic anhydrases from human erythrocytes". J. Biol. Chem ... and carbonic anhydrase. In 1944 John Edsall was a founding co-editor of the journal Advances in Protein Chemistry. He was ...
Catalyzed by carbonic anhydrase, carbon dioxide (CO2) reacts with water (H2O) to form carbonic acid (H2CO3), which in turn ... Meldrum, N. U.; Roughton, F. J. W. (1933-12-05). "Carbonic anhydrase. Its preparation and properties". The Journal of ... causing carbonic anhydrase to form CO2 until all excess protons are removed. Bicarbonate concentration is also further ... are facilitated by carbonic anhydrase in both the blood and duodenum. While in the blood, bicarbonate ion serves to neutralize ...
Imidazole binding to human carbonic anhydrase B and the mechanism of action of carbonic anhydrases". FEBS Letters. 73 (1): 115- ... The team managed to determine the three-dimensional structure of carbonic anhydrase and a particular structure of G-actin ... Kannan, K. K.; Petef, M.; Fridborg, K.; Cid-Dresdner, H.; Lövgren, S. (15 January 1977). "Structure and function of carbonic ...
"Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors and osmotic agents in glaucoma. Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors". The British Journal of ... is a sulfonamide and a carbonic anhydrase inhibitor of the meta-disulfamoylbenzene class. Dichlorphenamide as a carbonic ... it falls under the class of a first generation carbonic anhydrase Inhibitor. Diclofenamide was approved in the United States in ... Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors, Sulfonamides, Chlorobenzenes, Ophthalmology drugs, All stub articles, Antihypertensive agent ...
Casini, Angela (2004). "Hypoxia activates the capacity of tumor‐associated carbonic anhydrase IX to acidify extracellular pH". ... Casini, Angela (2004). "Unexpected nanomolar inhibition of carbonic anhydrase by COX-2-selective celecoxib: new pharmacological ... "Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors". Medicinal Research Reviews. 23 (2): 146-189. doi:10.1002/med.10025. PMID 12500287. S2CID ...
Sato S, Zhu XL, Sly WS (1990). "Carbonic anhydrase isozymes IV and II in urinary membranes from carbonic anhydrase II-deficient ... "Human carbonic anhydrases and carbonic anhydrase deficiencies". Annu. Rev. Biochem. 64 (1): 375-401. doi:10.1146/annurev.bi. ... Roth DE, Venta PJ, Tashian RE, Sly WS (1992). "Molecular basis of human carbonic anhydrase II deficiency". Proc. Natl. Acad. ... Sly also identified the first inherited deficiency of a human carbonic anhydrase, CA II, and defined the biochemical and ...
"Heat-stable carbonic anhydrases and their use." U.S. Patent No. 7,892,814. 22 Feb. 2011. De Bruijn, F. J. "Handbook of ...
... cerebral carbonic anhydrase activation has cognition-enhancing effects; but, based upon the clinical use of carbonic anhydrase ... CARBONIC ANHYDRASE INHIBITORS (CAIs). The design and development of CAIs represent the most prolific area within the CA ... Bozdag M, Altamimi AA, Vullo D, Supuran CT, Carta F (2019). "State of the Art on Carbonic Anhydrase Modulators for Biomedical ... Amphetamine also activates seven human carbonic anhydrase enzymes, several of which are expressed in the human brain. ...
... forms of carbonic anhydrase. The action on carbonic anhydrase isoenzymes may contribute to the drug's side-effects, including ... As topiramate inhibits carbonic anhydrase, use with other inhibitors of carbonic anhydrase (e.g. acetazolamide) increases the ... Topiramate, sold under the brand name Topamax among others, is a carbonic anhydrase inhibitor medication used to treat epilepsy ... the inhibition of carbonic anhydrase may be strong enough to cause metabolic acidosis of clinical importance. The U.S. Food and ...
The enzyme is similar to that of carbonic anhydrases. The enzyme monomer of CS2 hydrolase displays a typical β-carbonic ... The process is similar to the hydration of CO2 by carbonic anhydrase. This similarity points to a likely mechanism. The zinc at ... Similar ring structures have been seen in strains of carbonic anhydrases, however, in CS2 hydrolase is an enzyme consisting of ... This provides a key difference between carbonic anhydrase and CS2 hydrolase. This tunnel determines the enzyme's substrate ...
These enzymes are carbonic anhydrase, carbonic disulfide hydrolase, nitrogenase, carbon monoxide, and RuBisCO. The enzymes ... Haritos VS, Dojchinov G (January 2005). "Carbonic anhydrase metabolism is a key factor in the toxicity of CO2 and COS but not ... March 2013). "Carbonyl sulfide hydrolase from Thiobacillus thioparus strain THI115 is one of the β-carbonic anhydrase family ... Supuran CT (February 2008). "Carbonic anhydrases: novel therapeutic applications for inhibitors and activators". Nature Reviews ...
"Carbonic Anhydrase Related Proteins: Molecular Biology and Evolution". Carbonic Anhydrase: Mechanism, Regulation, Links to ... Among these genes, members of the alpha carbonic anhydrase gene family (CAs) are essential for biomineralization. CAs are zinc- ... Tripp, Brian C.; Smith, Kerry; Ferry, James G. (2001). "Carbonic Anhydrase: New Insights for an Ancient Enzyme". Journal of ... Supuran, Claudiu T. (2016). "Structure and function of carbonic anhydrases". Biochemical Journal. 473 (14): 2023-2032. doi: ...
Carbonic anhydrase-related protein 11 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CA11 gene. Carbonic anhydrases (CAs) are a ... "Entrez Gene: CA11 carbonic anhydrase XI". Liao W, Xiao Q, Tchikov V, Fujita K, Yang W, Wincovitch S, Garfield S, Conze D, El- ... Bellingham J, Gregory-Evans K, Gregory-Evans CY (1998). "Sequence and tissue expression of a novel human carbonic anhydrase- ... Okamoto N, Fujikawa-Adachi K, Nishimori I, Taniuchi K, Onishi S (2001). "cDNA sequence of human carbonic anhydrase-related ...
Some of chlortalidone's diuretic effect is also due to this inhibition of carbonic anhydrase in the proximal tubule. Chronic ... Johnston MM, Li H, Mufson D (December 1977). "Chlorthalidone analysis using carbonic anhydrase inhibition". J Pharm Sci. 66 (12 ... Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors, World Anti-Doping Agency prohibited substances). ... it also strongly inhibits multiple isoforms of carbonic anhydrase. ...
3 A reaction similar to this is almost instantaneous with carbonic anhydrase. The structure of the active site in carbonic ... Lindskog S (1997). "Structure and mechanism of carbonic anhydrase". Pharmacology & Therapeutics. 74 (1): 1-20. doi:10.1016/ ... In aqueous solution, carbon dioxide forms carbonic acid CO2 + H2O ⇌ H2CO3 This reaction is very slow in the absence of a ... H+ favours dissociation of carbonic acid at biological pH values. The cobalt-containing Vitamin B12 (also known as cobalamin) ...
Carbonic anhydrase is one of the fastest enzymes, and its rate is typically limited by the diffusion rate of its substrates. ... Lindskog, Sven (January 1997). "Structure and mechanism of carbonic anhydrase". Pharmacology & Therapeutics. 74 (1): 1-20. doi: ...
Likewise, in some cyanobacterial strains the beta-carboxysomes contain a beta-carbonic anhydrase that is not encoded in the ccm ... The signature proteins of the beta-carboxysome are Form IB RuBisCO and a gamma carbonic anhydrase homolog. Beta-carboxysomes ... CsoSCA is a shell-associated beta-carbonic anhydrase. Studies in Halothiobacillus neapolitanus have shown that empty shells of ... Cannon, Gordon C.; Heinhorst, Sabine; Kerfeld, Cheryl A. (2010). "Carboxysomal carbonic anhydrases: Structure and role in ...
"Carbonic anhydrase in the female reproductive tract. II. Endometrial carbonic anhydrase as indicator of luteoid potency: ...
It is a weak carbonic anhydrase inhibitor. Satomi, H.; Umemura, K.; Ueno, A.; Hatano, T.; Okuda, T.; Noro, T. (1993). "Carbonic ... anhydrase inhibitors from the pericarps of Punica granatum L". Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin. 16 (8): 787-790. doi: ...
"Carbonic anhydrase in the female reproductive tract. II. Endometrial carbonic anhydrase as indicator of luteoid potency: ... to possess similar potency to progesterone and hydroxyprogesterone caproate in the rabbit endometrial carbonic anhydrase test, ...
Cadmium Carbonic anhydrase Diatoms Cullen, Jay T.; Maldonado, Maria T. (2013). "Biogeochemistry of Cadmium and Its Release to ...
doi:10.1016/S0031-9422(00)83125-8. Satomi H, Umemura K, Ueno A, Hatano T, Okuda T, Noro T (August 1993). "Carbonic anhydrase ... It is a weak carbonic anhydrase inhibitor. Ellagic acid and corilagin inhibit TGF-β1-dependent EMT and has been shown to ...
Carbon Dioxide Removal from e.g. Blood using Membrane and Immobilized Carbonic Anhydrase; Artificial Lung for Example, US ...
Samukawa, Mio; Shen, Chen; Hopkinson, Brian; Matsuda, Yusuke (2014). "Localization of putative carbonic anhydrases in the ...
"Carbonic anhydrases from Trypanosoma and 'Leishmania as anti-protozoan drug targets". Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry. ...
... lowers intraocular pressure by about 20%. Normally, carbonic anhydrase converts carbonic acid (H2CO3) into ... It is a carbonic anhydrase inhibitor and works by decreasing the production of aqueous humour. Dorzolamide was approved for ... It is a second-generation carbonic anhydrase inhibitor. Dorzolamide hydrochloride is used to lower excessive intraocular ... As a second generation carbonic anhydrase inhibitor, Dorzolamide avoids systemic effects associated with first generation ...
It is a highly active carbonic anhydrase inhibitor. The molecule contains a gallagic acid component linked to a glucose. Zhang ... Satomi, H.; Umemura, K.; Ueno, A.; Hatano, T.; Okuda, T.; Noro, T. (1993). "Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors from the pericarps of ... Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors, All stub articles, Aromatic compound stubs). ...
It is a highly active carbonic anhydrase inhibitor. www.chemicalbook.com Satomi, H.; Umemura, K.; Ueno, A.; Hatano, T.; Okuda, ... "Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors from the pericarps of Punica granatum L". Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin. 16 (8): 787-790. ... Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors, All stub articles, Aromatic compound stubs). ...
... is a carbonic anhydrase inhibitor. Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors: binding of indanesulfonamides to the ...
It is a highly active carbonic anhydrase inhibitor. In some plants including oak and chestnut, the ellagitannins are formed ... "Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors from the pericarps of Punica granatum L". Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin. 16 (8): 787-790. ...
"Pepsin and carbonic anhydrase isoenzyme III as diagnostic markers for laryngopharyngeal reflux disease". The Laryngoscope. 114 ...
David W. Christianson, Carol A. Fierke: Carbonic anhydrase: Evolution of the zinc binding site by nature and by design. In: ...
Carbonic anhydrases hCA4, hCA5A, hCA5B, hCA7, hCA12, hCA13, and hCA14 (enzyme activator) ...
Carbohydrate deficient glycoprotein syndrome Carbon baby syndrome Carbonic anhydrase II deficiency Carcinoid syndrome Carcinoma ...
... for the need of zinc in human cells was shown until the late 1930s where its presence was demonstrated in carbonic anhydrase ...
... such as carbonic anhydrase II and myoglobin, over that predicted by the overall decrease in muscle protein synthesis. In ... "Effect of immobilization on carbonic anhydrase III and myoglobin content in human leg muscle". Acta Physiologica Scandinavica. ...
Thiazide (blockade of sodium-chloride symporter), amiloride (blockade of epithelial sodium channels) and carbonic anhydrase ...
She also contributed many studies of the carbonic anhydrase activity of the central nervous system. Women of Mayo Clinic Laura ...
Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors decrease bicarbonate formation from ciliary processes in the eye, thus decreasing the formation ... Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors, such as dorzolamide, brinzolamide, and acetazolamide, lower secretion of aqueous humor by ... carbonic anhydrase inhibitors in the mid-1990s.. Early surgical techniques like iridectomy and fistulating methods have ... inhibiting carbonic anhydrase in the ciliary body. Poor compliance with medications and follow-up visits is a major reason for ...
In vertebrate blood, carbonic anhydrase converts CO 2 into bicarbonate and the same enzyme transforms the bicarbonate back into ... The non-related β-carbonic anhydrase is required in plants for leaf formation, the synthesis of indole acetic acid (auxin) and ... Two examples of zinc-containing enzymes are carbonic anhydrase and carboxypeptidase, which are vital to the processes of carbon ...
CA3 carbonic anhydrase III, muscle specific". Sly WS, Hu PY (1995). "Human carbonic anhydrases and carbonic anhydrase ... Carbonic anhydrase 3 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CA3 gene. Carbonic anhydrase III (CAIII) is a member of a ... that encode carbonic anhydrase isozymes. These carbonic anhydrases are a class of metalloenzymes that catalyze the reversible ... Du AL, Ren HM, Lu CZ, Tu JL, Xu CF, Sun YA (Mar 2009). "Carbonic anhydrase III is insufficient in muscles of myasthenia gravis ...
... is metabolized to a carbonic anhydrase inhibitor, which could potentially result in metabolic acidosis.[citation ...
... carbonic anhydrase inhibitors such as topiramate), surgery, and other procedures, or in people having a radiological study with ...
... a combined application of cyanase and carbonic anhydrase has been used in a study. Qian D, Jiang L, Lu L, Wei C, Li Y (March ...
Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors, All stub articles, Cardiovascular system drug stubs). ...
Towards a model for inorganic carbon uptake in seagrasses involving carbonic anhydrase. In Kuo J, Phillips RC, Walker DI, ...
... may refer to : Carbonic anhydrase VI, a human gene United States Court of Appeals for the Sixth Circuit CA-6 may refer to ...
3 through the action of carbonic anhydrase. When the extracellular fluids tend towards acidity, the renal tubular cells secrete ... H2CO3] is the molar concentration of carbonic acid in the extracellular fluid. However, since the carbonic acid concentration ... There, carbonic acid spontaneously dissociates into hydrogen ions and bicarbonate ions. When the pH in the ECF falls, hydrogen ... pKa H2CO3 is the cologarithm of the acid dissociation constant of carbonic acid. It is equal to 6.1. [HCO− 3] is the molar ...
ISBN 0-08-086577-1. editors, Susan C. Frost, Robert McKenna (2014). Carbonic Anhydrase: Mechanism, Regulation, Links to Disease ...
... has been shown to interact with carbonic anhydrase II and CHP. It is also the target of the ... Li X, Alvarez B, Casey JR, Reithmeier RA, Fliegel L (September 2002). "Carbonic anhydrase II binds to and enhances activity of ...
"The functional and physical relationship between the DRA bicarbonate transporter and carbonic anhydrase II". American Journal ...
... often from normal saline Acetazolamide and other carbonic anhydrase inhibitors Renal tubular acidosis Diarrhea: due to a loss ...
"The binding of benzoarylsulfonamide ligands to human carbonic anhydrase is insensitive to formal fluorination of the ligand". ...
The sulfamate moiety of EMATE results in carbonic anhydrase binding which, in turn, results in EMATE being taken up into and ...
... continues to carry a carbonic anhydrase designation based on clear sequence identity to other members of the carbonic anhydrase ... Carbonic anhydrase-related protein is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CA8 gene. The CA8 protein lacks the catalytic ... Bergenhem NC, Sait SS, Eddy RL, Shows TB, Tashian RE (1995). "Assignment of the gene for human carbonic anhydrase VIII(CA8) to ... "Entrez Gene: CA8 carbonic anhydrase VIII". UniProt accession number: P35219; Retrieved 27 December 2019 Online Mendelian ...
... a type of mineral Carbonic anhydrase inhibitor, in pharmacology Codon Adaptation Index, a measure of codon bias in protein- ...
Carbonic anhydrase VA deficiency is an inherited disorder characterized by episodes of metabolic crisis abnormal brain function ... Human carbonic anhydrases and carbonic anhydrase deficiencies. Annu Rev Biochem. 1995;64:375-401. doi: 10.1146/annurev.bi. ... Hyperammonemia due to carbonic anhydrase VA deficiency. *Hyperammonemic encephalopathy due to carbonic anhydrase VA deficiency ... medlineplus.gov/genetics/condition/carbonic-anhydrase-va-deficiency/ Carbonic anhydrase VA deficiency. ...
Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors. Class Summary. Can be used in selected cases because they decrease the production of CSF and, ... Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors act by inhibiting the conversion of carbon dioxide to bicarbonate, thus inhibiting the production ... Diamox and other carbonic anhydrase inhibitors can decrease the production of CSF. ...
Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors. Class Summary. Can be used in selected cases because they decrease the production of CSF and, ... Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors act by inhibiting the conversion of carbon dioxide to bicarbonate, thus inhibiting the production ... Diamox and other carbonic anhydrase inhibitors can decrease the production of CSF. ...
Several forms of carbonic anhydrase occur in nature. In the best-studied α-carbonic anhydrase form present in animals, the zinc ... Carbonic anhydrase inhibitor Badger MR, Price GD (1994). "The role of carbonic anhydrase in photosynthesis". Annu. Rev. Plant ... Carbonic anhydrase could in principle prove relevant to carbon capture. Some carbonic anhydrases can withstand temperatures up ... Class one being alpha carbonic anhydrase which is found in mammals, class two being beta carbonic anhydrase which is found in ...
Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitors: Dosing, Uses, Side Effects, Interactions, Patient Handouts, Pricing and more from Medscape ...
Human Carbonic Anhydrase III: Structural and Kinetic Study of Catalysis and Proton Transfer. ... Carbonic anhydrase III. A. 266. Homo sapiens. Mutation(s): 3 Gene Names: CA3. EC: 4.2.1.1. ... Human Carbonic Anhydrase III: Structural and Kinetic Study of Catalysis and Proton Transfer. Duda, D.M., Tu, C., Fisher, S.Z., ... Human Carbonic Anhydrase III: Structural and Kinetic Study of Catalysis and Proton Transfer.. *PDB DOI: 10.2210/pdb1Z97/pdb ...
The Journal of Clinical ...
... carbonic anhydrase (CA, EC 4.2.1.1) from the pathogenic protozoan Entamoeba histolytica, EhiCA, was recently shown to possess a ... Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors. Cloning, characterization, and inhibition studies of a new beta-carbonic anhydrase from ... beta-and gamma-carbonic anhydrases from Bacteria: Can bacterial carbonic anhydrases shed new light on evolution of bacteria? J ... Supuran, C.T. Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors and their potential in a range of therapeutic areas. Expert Opin. Ther. Pat. 2018, ...
Antiglaucoma, Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitors. Class Summary. CA is an enzyme found in many tissues of the body, including the ... It catalyzes a reversible reaction whereby carbon dioxide becomes hydrated and carbonic acid dehydrated. By slowing the ... carbonic anhydrase (CA) inhibitors, and osmotic diuretics. ...
Apo-human carbonic anhydrase II revisited: Implications of the loss of a metal in protein structure, stability and solvent ... Carbonic anhydrase 2. A. 259. Homo sapiens. Mutation(s): 0 Gene Names: CA2. EC: 4.2.1.1 (PDB Primary Data), 4.2.1.69 (UniProt) ... Human carbonic anhydrase II (HCA II) is a monomeric zinc-containing metalloenzyme that catalyzes the hydration of CO(2) to form ... Human carbonic anhydrase II (HCA II) is a monomeric zinc-containing metalloenzyme that catalyzes the hydration of CO(2) to form ...
Characterization of two novel nodule-enhanced a-type carbonic anhydrases from Lotus japonicus 1st April 2011 ... Characterization of two novel nodule-enhanced a-type carbonic anhydrases from Lotus japonicus ...
Omeprazole Has a Dual Mechanism of Action: It Inhibits Both H+K+ATPase and Gastric Mucosa Carbonic Anhydrase Enzyme in Humans ( ... Omeprazole Has a Dual Mechanism of Action: It Inhibits Both H+K+ATPase and Gastric Mucosa Carbonic Anhydrase Enzyme in Humans ( ... Omeprazole Has a Dual Mechanism of Action: It Inhibits Both H+K+ATPase and Gastric Mucosa Carbonic Anhydrase Enzyme in Humans ( ... Omeprazole Has a Dual Mechanism of Action: It Inhibits Both H+K+ATPase and Gastric Mucosa Carbonic Anhydrase Enzyme in Humans ( ...
The enzyme carbonic anhydrase catalyzes the reaction CO2(g)+H2O(l)HCO3-(aq)+H+(aq). Carbonic anhydrase, enzyme found in red ... Which reaction is catalyzed by carbonic anhydrase? The enzyme carbonic anhydrase catalyzes the reaction CO2(g)+H2O(l)HCO3-( ... Carbonic anhydrase is the enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction that makes carbonic acid (H2CO3). Hydrase is related to ... carbonic anhydrase an enzyme that catalyzes the decomposition of carbonic acid into carbon dioxide and water, facilitating ...
This ELISA kit is a 1.5 hour solid-phase ELISA designed for the quantitative determination of the targets. This ELISA kit for research use only, not for therapeutic or diagnostic applications!
Gladis, A., Deslauriers, M. G., Fosbøl, P. L., Woodley, J., & von Solms, N. (2016). Carbonic Anhydrase Enhanced Carbon Capture ... Gladis, A, Deslauriers, MG, Fosbøl, PL, Woodley, J & von Solms, N 2016, Carbonic Anhydrase Enhanced Carbon Capture: Kinetic ... Carbonic Anhydrase Enhanced Carbon Capture: Kinetic Measurements and Pilot Plant Trials. Arne Gladis, Maria Gundersen ... Carbonic Anhydrase Enhanced Carbon Capture: Kinetic Measurements and Pilot Plant Trials. 2016. Abstract from 2016 AIChE Annual ...
... hens from these exposure groups also had a significantly reduced frequency of shell gland capillaries with carbonic anhydrase ( ... Disrupted carbonic anhydrase distribution in the avian shell gland following in ovo exposure to estrogen. *L. Holm, C. Berg, B ... Embryonic exposure to o,p′‐DDT causes eggshell thinning and altered shell gland carbonic anhydrase expression in the domestic ... The eggshell thinning action of acetazolamide; Relation to the binding of Ca2+ and carbonic anhydrase activity of the shell ...
The content herein is provided for informational purposes and does not replace the need to apply professional clinical judgement when diagnosing or treating any medical condition. A licensed medical practitioner should be consulted for diagnosis and treatment of any and all medical conditions. Copyright 2022 Oxbridge Solutions Ltd®. Any distribution or duplication of the information contained herein is strictly prohibited. Oxbridge Solutions Ltd® receives funding from advertising but maintains editorial independence. GPnotebook stores small data files on your computer called cookies so that we can recognise you and provide you with the best service. If you do not want to receive cookies please do not use GPnotebook ...
A panel of compounds belonging to the underexposed sulfamate class of carbonic anhydrase (CA, EC 4.2.1.1) inhibitors was ... Antimetastatic Effect of Sulfamate Carbonic Anhydrase IX Inhibitors in Breast Carcinoma Xenografts ... Antimetastatic Effect of Sulfamate Carbonic Anhydrase IX Inhibitors in Breast Carcinoma Xenografts. Journal of Medicinal ...
The aim of this study was thus to clarify the correlation between expression of the hypoxic marker carbonic anhydrase-9 (CA9) ... Carbonic anhydrase 9 (CA9) is a cell surface enzyme that catalyzes the reversible hydration of carbon dioxide to bicarbonate ... Aomatsu, N., Yashiro, M., Kashiwagi, S. et al. Carbonic anhydrase 9 is associated with chemosensitivity and prognosis in breast ... Carbonic anhydrase 9 is associated with chemosensitivity and prognosis in breast cancer patients treated with taxane and ...
Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors. Class Summary. These agents inhibit an enzyme found in many tissues of the body that catalyzes a ... Noncompetitive reversible inhibitor of enzyme carbonic anhydrase, which catalyzes the reaction between water and carbon dioxide ... and decreasing CSF production by inhibiting carbonic anhydrase. Used as adjunctive therapy with ACZ in temporary treatment of ... reversible reaction in which carbon dioxide becomes hydrated and carbonic acid dehydrated. These changes may result in a ...
... has become a milestone in human carbonic anhydrase inhibitor (hCAI) design for various therapeutics, including antiglaucoma ... The "tail approach" has become a milestone in human carbonic anhydrase inhibitor (hCAI) design for various therapeutics, ... Sulfonamide Inhibitors of Human Carbonic Anhydrases Designed through a Three-Tails Approach: Improving Ligand/Isoform Matching ...
Whether glaucoma patients take carbonic-anhydrase inhibitors as pills or eye drops, the risk of severe adverse events is low, ... NEW YORK (Reuters Health) - Whether glaucoma patients take carbonic-anhydrase inhibitors (CAIs) as pills or eye drops, the risk ... "It remains important to weigh the decision to start oral carbonic-anhydrase inhibitors carefully, but I generally feel ...
... Academic Article ... CA (carbonic anhydrase) IX is expressed in pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells (PMVECs), where it contributes to CO2 and ...
Carbonic anhydrase IX unifies spatial pH(i) regulation in large cell-clusters ... Carbonic anhydrase IX unifies spatial pH(i) regulation in large cell-clusters ...
Carbonic anhydrases are involved in numerous physiological and pathological processes, including gluconeogenesis, lipogenesis, ... Eight genetically distinct carbonic anhydrase enzyme families (α-, β-, γ- δ-, ζ-, η-, θ- and ι- CAs) were described to date. ... Carbonic anhydrase (CA) is a zinc-containing enzyme that catalyzes the reversible hydration of carbon dioxide: CO2carbonic anhydrase) 抑制剂,对人 carbonic anhydrase II 的 Ki 为 14 nM。Methazolamide 是一
... pH by hydration of CO2 in absence and presence of carbonic anhydrase inhibitor have been used to measure the carbonic anhydrase ... Carbonic anhydrase enzyme activity could be measured by manometeric and colorimetric techniques. A simpler and modified method ... Tripathi K, Upadhyay L. Assessment of carbonic anhydrase activity in blood by alteration in pH. Indian Journal of Experimental ... of carbonic anhydrase enzyme activity assessment in blood is proposed. In the present method differences in ...
Recombinant Mouse Carbonic Anhydrase XIV Protein, CF (2504-CA) is manufactured by R&D Systems, Inc. a Bio-Techne Brand. ... Carbonic Anhydrase XIV, EC 4.2.1.1, carbonic anhydrase XIVcarbonic anhydrase 14, carbonic dehydratase ... Background: Carbonic Anhydrase XIV/CA14 Carbonic anhydrase (CA) catalyzes the reversible reaction of CO2 + H2O = HCO3- + H+, ... Recombinant Mouse Carbonic Anhydrase XIV Protein, CF. R&D Systems, Inc. a Bio-Techne Brand. ...
  • Diamox and other carbonic anhydrase inhibitors can decrease the production of CSF. (medscape.com)
  • Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors act by inhibiting the conversion of carbon dioxide to bicarbonate, thus inhibiting the production of both aqueous humor and CSF. (medscape.com)
  • Inhibitors of carbonic anhydrase are used to treat glaucoma, the excessive build-up of water in the eyes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Medications used to treat red eye depend on the underlying cause of the condition and may include antivirals, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), cholinergic agents, carbonic anhydrase (CA) inhibitors, and osmotic diuretics. (medscape.com)
  • NEW YORK (Reuters Health) - Whether glaucoma patients take carbonic-anhydrase inhibitors (CAIs) as pills or eye drops, the risk of severe adverse events is low, researchers in Canada report. (medscape.com)
  • Dr. Michael M. Lin, a glaucoma specialist at Massachusetts Eye and Ear in Boston, said, "It remains important to weigh the decision to start oral carbonic-anhydrase inhibitors carefully, but I generally feel comfortable prescribing acetazolamide to most of my patients who need additional intraocular pressure control. (medscape.com)
  • 7-Substituted-sulfocoumarins are isoform-selective, potent carbonic anhydrase II inhibitors. (unifi.it)
  • 7-Substituted-sulfocoumarins are isoform-selective, potent carbonic anhydrase II inhibitors / M. Tanc;F. Carta;M. Bozdag;A. Scozzafava;C. T. Supuran. (unifi.it)
  • In people with juvenile retinoschisis, carbonic anhydrase inhibitors may help with symptoms. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • These compounds were good inhibitors of the alpha-glycosidase, human carbonic anhydrase I and II isoforms and acetylcholinesterase enzyme withK(i)values in the range of 1.14 +/- 0.14-3.63 +/- 0.26 nM for alpha-glycosidase, 66.05 +/- 9.21-125.45 +/- 11.54 nM for hCA I, 89.14 +/- 10.43-170.22 +/- 26.05 nM for hCA II and 754.03 +/- 73.22-943.92 +/- 58.15 nM for AChE, respectively. (itu.edu.tr)
  • New zinc binding motifs in the design of selective carbonic anhydrase inhibitors. (cnr.it)
  • Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors (CAIs) are a class of drugs used to treat glaucoma by reducing intraocular pressure (IOP). (southsidemedical.net)
  • There are a few different types of oral medications that we might recommend, including beta blockers and carbonic anhydrase inhibitors. (southsidemedical.net)
  • In this work, different series of benzothiazole-based sulphonamides 8a-c, 10, 12, 16a-b and carboxylic acids 14a-c were developed as novel SLC-0111 analogues with the goal of generating potent carbonic anhydrase (CA) inhibitors. (figshare.com)
  • To investigate the factors associated with visual improvement in response to oral carbonic anhydrase inhibitors (CAIs) and the occurrence of microvascular changes in patients with retinitis pigmentosa-associated cystoid macular edema (RP-CME). (octclub.org)
  • Eyes with CME extending to the outer nuclear layer or central fovea, and higher initial photoreceptor integrity may be prognostic factors associated with structural and functional improvements after carbonic anhydrase inhibitors treatment. (octclub.org)
  • It belongs to a class of drugs known as carbonic anhydrase inhibitors. (internationaldrugmart.com)
  • Generic for Trusopt* can interact with oral carbonic anhydrase inhibitors. (internationaldrugmart.com)
  • Topical prostaglandin analogues or beta-adrenergic receptor blockers are first used, followed by alpha-agonists or topical carbonic anhydrase inhibitors, and infrequently, cholinergic agonists and oral therapy. (ajmc.com)
  • Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors are also available in pill form. (specsavers.ie)
  • Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors are typically used 2-3 times a day, sometimes alone, but usually in combination with another anti-glaucoma eye drop. (specsavers.ie)
  • Supuran, CT Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors: inhibition of the membrane-bound human isozyme IV with anions. (bindingdb.org)
  • May enhance the adverse/toxic effects of other carbonic anhydrase inhibitors. (mims.com)
  • The drugs may include Beta-blockers like betaxolol hydrochloride or carbonic anhydrase inhibitors dorzolamide and Sympathomimetics like brimonidine tartrate. (news-medical.net)
  • Caution with other drugs that interfere with temperature regulation (eg, anticholinergics, carbonic anhydrase inhibitors). (empr.com)
  • Comment: Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors (CAIs) and salicylates inhibit each other's renal tubular secretion, resulting in increased plasma levels. (medscape.com)
  • Gallorini M , Berardi AC , Ricci A , Antonetti Lamorgese Passeri C , Zara S , Oliva F , Cataldi A , Carta F , Carradori S . Dual Acting Carbon Monoxide Releasing Molecules and Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitors Differentially Modulate Inflammation in Human Tenocytes. (wjgnet.com)
  • Multitargeting approaches involving carbonic anhydrase inhibitors: hybrid drugs against a variety of disorders. (wjgnet.com)
  • When carbonic anhydrase inhibitors (e.g. methazolamide or acetazolamide) are introduced along with 1-42 in a similar experiment, cell apoptosis is disrupted. (claremont.edu)
  • Are these carbonic anhydrase inhibitors acting on the same or a different pathway? (claremont.edu)
  • Opical carbonic anhydrase inhibitors, such as Dorzolamide (Trusopt), lower IOP but less effectively than oral acetazolamide. (cehjournal.org)
  • Most patients, however, had preexisting disease and were receiving therapy such as beta-blockers, alpha-adrenergics, or carbonic anhydrase inhibitors. (ophthalmologytimes.com)
  • In this study, scientists produced a chip capable of conducting 1,024 reactions simultaneously, which, in a test system, ably identified potent inhibitors to the enzyme bovine carbonic anhydrase. (nextbigfuture.com)
  • Sulfamic acid is also used in the design of various types of therapeutic agents including HIV protease inhibitors (PIs), antibiotics, anti-cancer drugs (carbonic anhydrase and steroid sulfatase inhibitors), anti-epileptic drugs, nucleoside human immunodeficiency virus that are reverse transcriptase inhibitors, and weight loss drugs. (sbwire.com)
  • Those using the carbonic anhydrase inhibitor acetazolamide were significantly less likely to develop acute mountain sickness (AMS) on the 5-day ascents, but 40% or more of those taking this medication still reported AMS symptoms. (cdc.gov)
  • The same goes for acetazolamide, a carbonic anhydrase inhibitor indicated for glaucoma but prohibited by WADA because it is a diuretic. (wms.org)
  • The main role of carbonic anhydrase in humans is to catalyze the conversion of carbon dioxide to carbonic acid and back again. (wikipedia.org)
  • Citation needed] Therefore, the role of carbonic anhydrase depends on where it is found in the body. (wikipedia.org)
  • Regulation of tumor pH and the role of carbonic anhydrase 9. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Role of carbonic anhydrase IX in human tumor cell growth, survival, and invasion. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Dorzolamide reversibly inhibits carbonic anhydrase resulting in reduction of hydrogen ion secretion at renal tubule and increased renal excretion of Na, K, bicarbonate, and water, thus decreasing the production of aqueous humor. (mims.com)
  • Trusopt Eye Drops contain Dorzolamide HCl, a carbonic anhydrase inhibitor prescribed to treat ocular hypertension and intraocular pressure (IOP) in open-angle glaucoma. (northwestpharmacy.com)
  • Trusopt Eye Drops or generic Dorzolamide HCl works by inhibiting an enzyme called carbonic anhydrase in the ciliary body to lower the secretion of aqueous humor. (northwestpharmacy.com)
  • This gene provides instructions for making the carbonic anhydrase VA enzyme, which helps convert carbon dioxide to a substance called bicarbonate. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The carbonic anhydrases (or carbonate dehydratases) (EC 4.2.1.1) form a family of enzymes that catalyze the interconversion between carbon dioxide and water and the dissociated ions of carbonic acid (i.e. bicarbonate and hydrogen ions). (wikipedia.org)
  • Relating the Bohr effect to carbonic anhydrase is simple: carbonic anhydrase speeds up the reaction of carbon dioxide reacting with water to produce hydrogen ions (protons) and bicarbonate ions. (wikipedia.org)
  • These agents inhibit an enzyme found in many tissues of the body that catalyzes a reversible reaction in which carbon dioxide becomes hydrated and carbonic acid dehydrated. (medscape.com)
  • Noncompetitive reversible inhibitor of enzyme carbonic anhydrase, which catalyzes the reaction between water and carbon dioxide, resulting in protons and carbonate. (medscape.com)
  • The carbonic anhydrases are indentified as metalloenzyme for its zinc ion prosthetic group, it can catalyze the rapid interconversion of carbon dioxide and water to bicarbonate and protons. (medchemexpress.com)
  • One current study of this microbe by Alber, B.E. and Ferry J.G., determined that Methanosaeta thermophila archaea produce a carbonic anhydrase, which is an enzyme that catalyzes the reaction of water with carbon dioxide. (kenyon.edu)
  • For example, the carbon dioxide produced by the cell's respiration must be excreted from the body, but this carbon dioxide is transported to the lungs by the blood, so each carbon dioxide molecule must be combined with water molecules to form carbonic acid in order to be transported. (articlesfactory.com)
  • Each molecule of the enzyme (this special enzyme is called carbonic anhydrase) can catalyze the formation of 36 million carbonic acid molecules in one minute, naturally it can effectively remove carbon dioxide. (articlesfactory.com)
  • The compounds were tested for the inhibition of the zinc enzyme human (h) carbonic anhydrase (hCA, EC 4.2.1.1). (unifi.it)
  • The aim of this study was to investigate the inhibition effects of various phenolic standards, honey, propolis, and pollen species on human carbonic anhydrase I and II. (propolisscience.org)
  • These studies demonstrate that the chemical nature of the direct ligands and the structure of the surrounding hydrogen bond network are crucial for both the activity of carbonic anhydrase and the metal ion affinity of the zinc-binding site. (nih.gov)
  • We designed compatible low-molecular weight carbonic anhydrase inhibitor (CAI) ligands and doxorubicin (Dox) ligands and optimized protocols for efficient decoration of gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) to achieve both good targeting ligand density and optimum drug loading, while preserving colloidal stability. (uthscsa.edu)
  • CAIs work by inhibiting the carbonic anhydrase enzyme, which is involved in the production of aqueous humor (the clear fluid that fills the space between the cornea and iris). (southsidemedical.net)
  • Expression of the enzyme carbonic anhydrase 9 on the tumor cell surface catalyses the extracellular trapping of acid by hydrating cell-generated CO(2) into [see text] and H(+). These mechanisms contribute towards an acidic extracellular milieu favoring tumor growth, invasion and development. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Now consider convergence at the molecular level, specifically the enzyme carbonic anhydrase. (mysteriousuniverse.org)
  • The development of small molecule affinity-based chemical probes as research tools for studying the role of carbonic anhydrases (CAs) in their wider biological context has become an active field of research owing to an increasing awareness of the therapeutic relevance of this enzyme family, particularly in diseases such as glaucoma (CA II) and solid tumors (CA IX, CA XII). (edu.au)
  • The "tail approach" has become a milestone in human carbonic anhydrase inhibitor (hCAI) design for various therapeutics, including antiglaucoma agents. (nih.gov)
  • A Class of 4-Sulfamoylphenyl-Omega-Aminoalkyl Ethers with Effective Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitory Action and Antiglaucoma Effects. (atomistry.com)
  • It also inhibits carbonic anhydrase in CNS to retard abnormal and excessive discharge from CNS neurons. (mims.com)
  • Abstract: We report the production and biochemical characterization of an α-carbonic anhydrase (LrhCA) from gram-positive probiotic bacteria Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG. (tuni.fi)
  • Abstract: The North America Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitor market size is $XX million USD in 2018 with XX CAGR from 2014 to 2018, and it is expected to reach $XX million USD by the end of 2024 with a CAGR of XX% from 2019 to 2024. (marketresearchinc.com)
  • The carbonic anhydrase VA enzyme is particularly important in the liver, where it provides bicarbonate needed by four enzymes in the energy-producing centers of cells (mitochondria). (medlineplus.gov)
  • Insufficient bicarbonate results in impaired control of acid-base balance and reduces the activity of the four affected mitochondrial enzymes, resulting in the various biochemical abnormalities associated with carbonic anhydrase VA deficiency. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The chemists have tested their system on two proteins - the enzymes carbonic anhydrase and citrate synthase. (newscientist.com)
  • Since carbonic anhydrases are conserved among bacterial plant pathogens, these enzymes represent promising new targets for the development of anti-bacterial agents. (usda.gov)
  • The most common cause is carbonic anhydrase II (CAII) deficiency. (bmj.com)
  • In 1983, Sly et al 4 showed that in patients with this syndrome, carbonic anhydrase II (CAII) activity in erythrocytes was absent, suggesting that this was the primary defect. (bmj.com)
  • These cells are characterized by expression of PDX1 (white) and the BMP-7 receptor ALK3 (red), but not the ductal marker carbonic anhydrase II (CAII, green). (diabetesresearch.org)
  • Effect of Oral Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitor on Cystoid Macular Edema Associated wıth Retinitis Pigmentosa: An OCT and OCT Angiography Study. (octclub.org)
  • Human carbonic anhydrase II (HCA II) is a monomeric zinc-containing metalloenzyme that catalyzes the hydration of CO(2) to form bicarbonate and a proton. (rcsb.org)
  • Carbonic Anhydrase 14 Protein, Human (His) is an approximately 40.0 kDa human carbonic anhydrase 14 protein with a His-flag. (medchemexpress.com)
  • A DNA sequence encoding the Homo sapiens (Human) Carbonic Anhydrase IX, was expressed in the hosts and tags indicated. (enquirebio.com)
  • Structural Analysis of Inhibitor Binding to Human Carbonic Anhydrase II. (atomistry.com)
  • Investigation of the inhibitory properties of some phenolic standards and bee products against human carbonic anhydrase I and II. (propolisscience.org)
  • The Carbonic Anhydrase Vi (Cavi) Igg Antibodies reagent is RUO (Research Use Only) to test human serum or cell culture lab samples. (cropsciencejournal.org)
  • Description: Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay based on the Double-antibody Sandwich method for detection of Human Carbonic Anhydrase VI (CA6) in samples from Serum, plasma, saliva and other biological fluids with no significant corss-reactivity with analogues from other species. (cropsciencejournal.org)
  • Description: A sandwich quantitative ELISA assay kit for detection of Human Carbonic Anhydrase VI (CA6) in samples from serum, plasma, saliva or other biological fluids. (cropsciencejournal.org)
  • All compounds were examined as inhibitor of human carbonic anhydrase (hCA) I and II, and all of them inhibited hCA I and hCA II. (inonu.edu.tr)
  • Two pathological relevant proteins, human aldose reductase and human carbonic anhydrase, were used as model proteins to get insights into the process of molecular recognition. (uni-marburg.de)
  • Among other work we have determined shell protein structures, determined the structure of both carbonic anhydrases that are encapsulated, and shown that the mechanism of RubisCO recruitment operates differently than assumed. (uoguelph.ca)
  • Artificial sweeteners are used in diet drinks and foods but also could someday be used as treatments targeting carbonic anhydrase IX (CA IX), a protein associated with aggressive cancers. (phys.org)
  • Identification and characterization of a carbonic anhydrase involved in virulence and bacterial competition of Pseudomonas syringae pv. (usda.gov)
  • Carbonic anhydrase IX (CAIX) is a membrane-associated carbonic anhydrase (CA), strongly induced by hypoxia. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Carbonic anhydrase IX is a hypoxia-induced enzyme that has many biologically important functions, including its role in cell adhesion and invasion. (finna.fi)
  • Carbonic anhydrase IX, a biomarker of hypoxia, as a poor prognostic factor in invasive breast cancer: results from 321 cases in a tissue microarray series. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Carbonic anhydrase IX (CAIX) is an enzyme upregulated by hypoxia during tumour development and progression. (c3m-nice.fr)
  • One of the best-studied of these gene families comprises the α- carbonic anhydrases (CAs), which catalyse the reversible transformation of CO 2 to HCO 3 − and fulfill many physiological functions. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Carbonic anhydrases play important roles in balancing pH, lipid biogenesis, calcification, and pathogenesis of bacteria. (usda.gov)
  • Domains ruling for calcification mechanisms, e.g. carbonic anhydrase,chitin binding and tyrosinase remained common in all the species signing sustained calcifying control proteins. (canal-u.tv)
  • Carbonic anhydrase is one important enzyme that is found in red blood cells, gastric mucosa, pancreatic cells, and even renal tubules. (wikipedia.org)
  • Carbonic anhydrase VA deficiency is an inherited disorder characterized by episodes during which the balance of certain substances in the body is disrupted (known as metabolic crisis) and brain function is abnormal (known as acute encephalopathy). (medlineplus.gov)
  • During an episode, people with carbonic anhydrase VA deficiency have excess ammonia in the blood (hyperammonemia), problems with acid-base balance in the blood (metabolic acidosis and respiratory alkalosis), low glucose in the blood (hypoglycemia), and reduced production of a substance called bicarbonate in the liver. (medlineplus.gov)
  • People with carbonic anhydrase VA deficiency typically first experience episodes of the disorder by age 2. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Between episodes, children with carbonic anhydrase VA deficiency are generally healthy, and more than half have no further episodes after the first one. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Because of the small number of people with carbonic anhydrase VA deficiency who have come to medical attention, the effects of this disorder in adults are not well understood. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The prevalence of carbonic anhydrase VA deficiency is unknown. (medlineplus.gov)
  • researchers suspect that some babies diagnosed with transient hyperammonemia may actually have carbonic anhydrase VA deficiency. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Carbonic anhydrase VA deficiency is caused by mutations in the CA5A gene. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Polyphenols are important secondary products of plants with the potential to inhibit carbonic anhydrases. (propolisscience.org)
  • In our studies, we focussed on the carbonic anhydrase / silicase which are important for the formation of calcium carbonate and silica and the effects of the environment on biomineral formation. (rlp-forschung.de)
  • Enzyme-accelerated and structure-guided crystallization of calcium carbonate: Role of the carbonic anhydrase in the homologous system. (mpg.de)
  • To investigate their possible antitumor activity, molecular docking and molecular dynamics simulations were performed with Carbonic anhydrase, a prognostic factor in several cancers, and compared to the native ligand, 5-acetamido-1,3,4-thiadiazole- 2-sulfonamide. (ac.rs)
  • High levels of carbonic anhydrase IX in tumour tissue and plasma are biomarkers of poor prognostic in patients with non-small cell lung cancer. (c3m-nice.fr)
  • Cytotoxic effects, carbonic anhydrase is. (itu.edu.tr)
  • Zonisamide is a carbonic anhydrase inhibitor. (nih.gov)
  • However, as a carbonic anhydrase inhibitor, zonisamide may cause metabolic acidosis (see WARNINGS: Metabolic Acidosis ). (nih.gov)
  • Igg Antibody Laboratories manufactures the carbonic anhydrase vi (cavi) igg antibodies reagents distributed by Genprice. (cropsciencejournal.org)
  • The carbonic anhydrasekl (CA) family consists of at least 11 enzymatically active members and a few inactive homologous proteins [2] . (medchemexpress.com)
  • Carbonic anhydrases (CAs, EC 4.2.1.1) belong to the metalloenzymes family of proteins. (springeropen.com)
  • We review mechanisms regulating tumor intracellular and extracellular pH, with a focus on carbonic anhydrase 9. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Down-regulation of extracellular carbonic anhydrase occurred faster in the high CO 2 treatment. (biorxiv.org)
  • Carbonic anhydrase helps maintain acid-base homeostasis, regulate pH, and fluid balance. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, carbonic anhydrase produces acid in the stomach lining. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hydrochloric acid (HCl) is considered a strong acid because it is present only in a completely ionized form in the body, whereas carbonic acid (H 2 CO 3 ) is a weak acid because it is ionized incompletely, and, at equilibrium, all three reactants are present in body fluids. (medscape.com)
  • the carbonic acid, in turn, forms water and CO 2 . (medscape.com)
  • For this purpose, we constructed a gold nanoplatform targeting carbonic anhydrase IX (CA IX) epitope, which is overexpressed in hypoxic tumor cells versus in normal tissues. (uthscsa.edu)
  • In the present method differences in pH by hydration of CO2 in absence and presence of carbonic anhydrase inhibitor have been used to measure the carbonic anhydrase activity in the blood. (who.int)
  • 8. Mau M, Kaiser TM, Südekum K. Carbonic anhydrase II is secreted from bovine parotid glands. (southernbiotech.com)
  • Mutations in the CA5A gene result in absent or impaired carbonic anhydrase VA enzyme function, leading to reduced bicarbonate production. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Studies suggest that a related enzyme produced from the CA5B gene may increasingly compensate for the lack of carbonic anhydrase VA as affected individuals mature, which may result in a reduced risk of metabolic crisis and acute encephalopathy after childhood. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Researchers in our laboratory are dissecting the determinants of molecular recognition and catalysis in the zinc-binding site of carbonic anhydrase. (nih.gov)
  • The active site of most carbonic anhydrases contains a zinc ion. (wikipedia.org)