A family of zinc-containing enzymes that catalyze the reversible hydration of carbon dioxide. They play an important role in the transport of CARBON DIOXIDE from the tissues to the LUNG. EC 4.2.1.1.
A membrane-bound carbonic anhydrase found in lung capillaries and kidney.
A cytosolic carbonic anhydrase isoenzyme found widely distributed in cells of almost all tissues. Deficiencies of carbonic anhydrase II produce a syndrome characterized by OSTEOPETROSIS, renal tubular acidosis (ACIDOSIS, RENAL TUBULAR) and cerebral calcification. EC 4.2.1.-
A cytosolic carbonic anhydrase isoenzyme primarily expressed in ERYTHROCYTES, vascular endothelial cells, and the gastrointestinal mucosa. EC 4.2.1.-
A class of compounds that reduces the secretion of H+ ions by the proximal kidney tubule through inhibition of CARBONIC ANHYDRASES.
A carbonic anhydrase isoenzyme found in MITOCHONDRIA where it provides bicarbonate ions that are components in the urea cycle and in GLUCONEOGENESIS.
Inorganic salts that contain the -HCO3 radical. They are an important factor in determining the pH of the blood and the concentration of bicarbonate ions is regulated by the kidney. Levels in the blood are an index of the alkali reserve or buffering capacity.
A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
One of the CARBONIC ANHYDRASE INHIBITORS that is sometimes effective against absence seizures. It is sometimes useful also as an adjunct in the treatment of tonic-clonic, myoclonic, and atonic seizures, particularly in women whose seizures occur or are exacerbated at specific times in the menstrual cycle. However, its usefulness is transient often because of rapid development of tolerance. Its antiepileptic effect may be due to its inhibitory effect on brain carbonic anhydrase, which leads to an increased transneuronal chloride gradient, increased chloride current, and increased inhibition. (From Smith and Reynard, Textbook of Pharmacology, 1991, p337)
A metallic element of atomic number 30 and atomic weight 65.38. It is a necessary trace element in the diet, forming an essential part of many enzymes, and playing an important role in protein synthesis and in cell division. Zinc deficiency is associated with ANEMIA, short stature, HYPOGONADISM, impaired WOUND HEALING, and geophagia. It is known by the symbol Zn.
Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
An order of fungi in the phylum ASCOMYCOTA that includes many valuable experimental organisms. There are eight families and very few anamorphic forms.
The fruiting 'heads' or 'caps' of FUNGI, which as a food item are familiarly known as MUSHROOMS, that contain the FUNGAL SPORES.
A group of compounds that contain the structure SO2NH2.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
A heterogeneous group of sporadic or hereditary carcinoma derived from cells of the KIDNEYS. There are several subtypes including the clear cells, the papillary, the chromophobe, the collecting duct, the spindle cells (sarcomatoid), or mixed cell-type carcinoma.
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
Tumors or cancers of the KIDNEY.
A ubiquitin-protein ligase that mediates OXYGEN-dependent polyubiquitination of HYPOXIA-INDUCIBLE FACTOR 1, ALPHA SUBUNIT. It is inactivated in VON HIPPEL-LINDAU SYNDROME.
A bibliographic database that includes MEDLINE as its primary subset. It is produced by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), part of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. PubMed, which is searchable through NLM's Web site, also includes access to additional citations to selected life sciences journals not in MEDLINE, and links to other resources such as the full-text of articles at participating publishers' Web sites, NCBI's molecular biology databases, and PubMed Central.
A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.
A carbonic anhydrase inhibitor that is used as a diuretic and in the treatment of glaucoma.
A carbonic anhydrase inhibitor that is used in the treatment of glaucoma.
A carbonic anhydrase inhibitor used as diuretic and in glaucoma. It may cause hypokalemia.
Selective renal carbonic anhydrase inhibitor. It may also be of use in certain cases of respiratory failure.
A genus of gram-negative, ellipsoidal or rod-shaped bacteria whose major source of energy and reducing power is from the oxidation of ammonia to nitrite. Its species occur in soils, oceans, lakes, rivers, and sewage disposal systems.
The type species of the genus NITROSOMONAS, a gram-negative chemolithotroph that oxidizes ammonia to nitrite. It is found in soil, sewage, freshwater, and on building walls, and especially in polluted areas where air contains high levels of nitrogen compounds.
A white, crystalline powder that is commonly used as a pH buffering agent, an electrolyte replenisher, systemic alkalizer and in topical cleansing solutions.
A colorless alkaline gas. It is formed in the body during decomposition of organic materials during a large number of metabolically important reactions. Note that the aqueous form of ammonia is referred to as AMMONIUM HYDROXIDE.
A cytosolic carbonic anhydrase isoenzyme primarily expressed in skeletal muscle (MUSCLES, SKELETAL). EC 4.2.1.-
A compound obtained from the bark of the white willow and wintergreen leaves. It has bacteriostatic, fungicidal, and keratolytic actions.
Proteins that originate from plants species belonging to the genus ARABIDOPSIS. The most intensely studied species of Arabidopsis, Arabidopsis thaliana, is commonly used in laboratory experiments.
A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.
A family of POU domain factors that bind the octamer motif ATTTGCAT in enhancer and PROMOTER REGIONS to regulate GENE EXPRESSION.

Does gill boundary layer carbonic anhydrase contribute to carbon dioxide excretion: a comparison between dogfish (Squalus acanthias) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). (1/1306)

In vivo experiments were conducted on spiny dogfish (Squalus acanthias) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) in sea water to determine the potential role of externally oriented or gill boundary layer carbonic anhydrase in carbon dioxide excretion. This was accomplished by assessing pH changes in expired water using a stopped-flow apparatus. In dogfish, expired water was in acid-base disequilibrium as indicated by a pronounced acidification (delta pH=-0.11+/-0.01; N=22; mean +/- s.e.m.) during the period of stopped flow; inspired water, however, was in acid-base equilibrium (delta pH=-0.002+/-0.01; N=22). The acid-base disequilibrium in expired water was abolished (delta pH=-0.005+/-0.01; N=6) by the addition of bovine carbonic anhydrase (5 mg l-1) to the external medium. Addition of the carbonic anhydrase inhibitor acetazolamide (1 mmol l-1) to the water significantly reduced the magnitude of the pH disequilibrium (from -0.133+/-0.03 to -0.063+/-0.02; N=4). However, after correcting for the increased buffering capacity of the water caused by acetazolamide, the acid-base disequilibrium during stopped flow was unaffected by this treatment (control delta [H+]=99.8+/-22.8 micromol l-1; acetazolamide delta [H+]=81.3+/-21.5 micromol l-1). In rainbow trout, expired water displayed an acid-base disequilibrium (delta pH=0.09+/-0.01; N=6) that also was abolished by the application of external carbonic anhydrase (delta pH=0.02+/-0.01). The origin of the expired water acid-base disequilibrium was investigated further in dogfish. Intravascular injection of acetazolamide (40 mg kg-1) to inhibit internal carbonic anhydrase activity non-specifically and thus CO2 excretion significantly diminished the extent of the expired water disequilibrium pH after 30 min (from -0.123+/-0.01 to -0.065+/-0.01; N=6). Selective inhibition of extracellular carbonic anhydrase activity using a low intravascular dose (1.3 mg kg-1) of the inhibitor benzolamide caused a significant reduction in the acid-base disequilibrium after 5 min (from -0.11+/-0.01 to -0.07+/-0. 01; N=14). These results demonstrate that the expired water acid-base disequilibrium originates, at least in part, from excretory CO2 and that extracellular carbonic anhydrase in dogfish may have a significant role in carbon dioxide excretion. However, externally oriented carbonic anhydrase (if present in dogfish) plays no role in catalysing the hydration of the excretory CO2 in water flowing over the gills and thus is unlikely to facilitate CO2 excretion.  (+info)

Role of a novel photosystem II-associated carbonic anhydrase in photosynthetic carbon assimilation in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. (2/1306)

Intracellular carbonic anhydrases (CA) in aquatic photosynthetic organisms are involved in the CO2-concentrating mechanism (CCM), which helps to overcome CO2 limitation in the environment. In the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, this CCM is initiated and maintained by the pH gradient created across the chloroplast thylakoid membranes by photosystem (PS) II-mediated electron transport. We show here that photosynthesis is stimulated by a novel, intracellular alpha-CA bound to the chloroplast thylakoids. It is associated with PSII on the lumenal side of the thylakoid membranes. We demonstrate that PSII in association with this lumenal CA operates to provide an ample flux of CO2 for carboxylation.  (+info)

Modulation of chloride, potassium and bicarbonate transport by muscarinic receptors in a human adenocarcinoma cell line. (3/1306)

1. Short-circuit current (I(SC)) responses to carbachol (CCh) were investigated in Colony 1 epithelia, a subpopulation of the HCA-7 adenocarcinoma cell line. In Krebs-Henseleit (KH) buffer, CCh responses consisted of three I(SC) components: an unusual rapid decrease (the 10 s spike) followed by an upward spike at 30 s and a slower transient increase (the 2 min peak). This response was not potentiated by forskolin; rather, CCh inhibited cyclic AMP-stimulated I(SC). 2. In HCO3- free buffer, the decrease in forskolin-elevated I(SC) after CCh was reduced, although the interactions between CCh and forskolin remained at best additive rather than synergistic. When Cl- anions were replaced by gluconate, both Ca2+- and cyclic AMP-mediated electrogenic responses were significantly inhibited. 3. Basolateral Ba2+ (1-10 mM) and 293B (10 microM) selectively inhibited forskolin stimulation of I(SC), without altering the effects of CCh. Under Ba2+- or 293B-treated conditions, CCh responses were potentiated by pretreatment with forskolin. 4. Basolateral charybdotoxin (50 nM) significantly increased the size of the 10 s spike of CCh responses in both KH and HCO3- free medium, without affecting the 2 min peak. The enhanced 10 s spike was inhibited by prior addition of 5 mM apical Ba2+. Charybdotoxin did not affect forskolin responses. 5. In epithelial layers prestimulated with forskolin, the muscarinic antagonists atropine and 4-diphenylacetoxy-N-methylpiperidine methiodide (4-DAMP, both at 100 nM) abolished subsequent 10 microM CCh responses. Following addition of p-fluoro hexahydro-sila-difenidol (pF-HHSiD, 10 microM) or pirenzepine (1 microM), qualitative changes in the CCh response time-profile also indicated a rightward shift of the agonist concentration-response curve; however, 1 microM gallamine had no effect. These results suggest that a single M3-like receptor subtype mediates the secretory response to CCh. 6. It is concluded that CCh and forskolin activate discrete populations of basolateral K+ channels gated by either Ca2+ or cyclic AMP, but that the Cl- permeability of the apical membrane may limit their combined effects on electrogenic Cl- secretion. In addition, CCh activates a Ba2+-sensitive apical K+ conductance leading to electrogenic K+ transport. Both agents may also modulate HCO3- secretion through a mechanism at least partially dependent on carbonic anhydrase.  (+info)

Carbonic anhydrase III protects cells from hydrogen peroxide-induced apoptosis. (4/1306)

Carbonic anhydrase III (CA III; EC 4.2.1.1) is a cytoplasmic enzyme that exhibits a relatively low carbon dioxide hydratase activity. It is expressed at a very high level in skeletal muscle, where physical exercise has been shown to increase free radical production. In this work we show the effect of overexpression of CA III on cellular response to oxidative stress. Rat CA III cDNA was transfected to NIH/3T3 cells, which have no endogenous CA III expression. The isolated clones expressed CA III mRNA and protein. The protein was localized to cytoplasm and nuclei. Compared to parental cells, transfected cells showed lower basal oxidized state as judged by measurement of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) using fluorescent dye and an image analysis system. Addition of exogenous H2O2 to cells induced a rapid increase of ROS in control but not in CA III overexpressing cells. Association of this phenomenon with CA III expression was further confirmed by showing that overexpression of CA II could not prevent H2O2-stimulated increase of ROS. In proliferation assays, CA III overexpressing cells grew faster and were more resistant to cytotoxic concentrations of H2O2 than control cells. After a 16 h exposure to oxidative stress, the number of apoptotic cells was also reduced in transfectants. Our results suggest that CA III functions as an oxyradical scavenger and thus protects cells from oxidative damage. A lower level of free radicals in CA III overexpressing cells may also affect growth signaling pathways.  (+info)

A novel role for carbonic anhydrase: cytoplasmic pH gradient dissipation in mouse small intestinal enterocytes. (5/1306)

1. The spatial and temporal distribution of intracellular H+ ions in response to activation of a proton-coupled dipeptide transporter localized at the apical pole of mouse small intestinal isolated enterocytes was investigated using intracellular carboxy-SNARF-1 fluorescence in combination with whole-cell microspectrofluorimetry or confocal microscopy. 2. In Hepes-buffered Tyrode solution, application of the dipeptide Phe-Ala (10 mM) to a single enterocyte reduced pHi locally in the apical submembranous space. After a short delay (8 s), a fall of pHi occurred more slowly at the basal pole. 3. In the presence of CO2/HCO3--buffered Tyrode solution, the apical and basal rates of acidification were not significantly different and the time delay was reduced to 1 s or less. 4. Following application of the carbonic anhydrase inhibitor acetazolamide (100 microM) in the presence of CO2/HCO3- buffer, addition of Phe-Ala once again produced a localized apical acidification that took 5 s to reach the basal pole. Basal acidification was slower than at the apical pole. 5. We conclude that acid influx due to proton-coupled dipeptide transport can lead to intracellular pH gradients and that intracellular carbonic anhydrase activity, by facilitating cytoplasmic H+ mobility, limits their magnitude and duration.  (+info)

Characterization of a molten globule state of bovine carbonic anhydrase III: loss of asymmetrical environment of the aromatic residues has a profound effect on both the near- and far-UV CD spectrum. (6/1306)

Bovine muscle carbonic anhydrase (isoenzyme III; BCAIII) exhibited a three-state unfolding process at equilibrium upon denaturation in guanidine hydrochloride (GuHCl). The stable folding intermediate appeared to be of molten globule type. The stability towards GuHCl in terms of mid-point concentrations of denaturation were very similar for BCAIII and human CAII (HCAII). It was further demonstrated that the aromatic amino acid residues contributed significantly to the circular dichroism (CD) spectrum in the far-UV wavelength region during the native-->molten globule state transition. Thus, the ellipiticity change at 218 nm was shown to monitor the loss of tertiary interactions of aromatic side chains at the first unfolding transition as well as the rupture of secondary structure at the second unfolding transition. Similar aromatic contributions to the far-UV CD spectrum, but with varying magnitudes, were also noted for BCAII and HCAII, further emphasizing that interference of aromatic residues should not be neglected at wavelengths that normally are assigned to secondary structural changes.  (+info)

Denatured states of human carbonic anhydrase II: an NMR study of hydrogen/deuterium exchange at tryptophan-indole-H(N) sites. (7/1306)

Hydrogen/deuterium (H/D) exchange measurements in low and moderate concentrations of GuHCI were conducted on the side chain H(N) atoms of the seven tryptophans of pseudo wild-type human carbonic anhydrase II. Tryptophans 5, 16 and 245, situated in or close to the N-terminal domain were found to have little protection against exchange. The H/D exchange results for Trp-123, Trp-192 and Trp-209 showed that a previously identified molten globule and the native state gave a similar protection against exchange. Global unfolding of the protein is necessary for the efficient exchange at Trp-97, which is located in the central part of the beta-sheet.  (+info)

Detection of intermediates in protein folding of carbonic anhydrase with fluorescence emission and polarization. (8/1306)

The three-dimensional structure of carbonic anhydrase is a result of specific folding of the protein chain to form a compact, globular molecule. Fluorescence measurements on the nature of the rate-limiting steps in folding from the random coil to the native structure show that each step involves an actual folding reaction of the protein chain. Emission intensity and polarization of the intrinsic fluorescence due to tryptophan residues reach a maximum during the early period of the folding process. The changes occur in at least three kinetic phases (tau1 less than 3 S, tau2 = 1 min, tau3 = 10 min, 1 M guanidinium chloride, 2 M NaC1, pH 7, 20 degrees C). None of these phases are explained by configurational changes in the fully unfolded chain. The results are consistent with a kinetic scheme that involves stepwise acquisition of the specific folded structure of the native enzyme.  (+info)

Carbonic anhydrase-related proteins (CARPs) have previously been described as catalytically inactive proteins closely related to α-carbonic anhydrases (α-CAs). These CARPs are found in animals (both vertebrates and invertebrates) and viruses as either independent proteins or domains of other proteins. We report here the identification of a new CARP (TgCA_RP) in the unicellular organism Toxoplasma gondii that is related to the recently described η-class CA found in Plasmodium falciparum. TgCA_RP is posttranslationally modified at its C terminus with a glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchor that is important for its localization in intracellular tachyzoites. The protein localizes throughout the rhoptry bulbs of mature tachyzoites and to the outer membrane of nascent rhoptries in dividing tachyzoites, as demonstrated by immunofluorescence and immunoelectron microscopy using specific antibodies. T. gondii mutant tachyzoites lacking TgCA_RP display a growth and invasion phenotype in vitro and have ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Carbonic anhydrase IX expression in renal neoplasms. T2 - Correlation with tumor type and grade. AU - Genega, Elizabeth M.. AU - Ghebremichael, Musie. AU - Najarian, Robert. AU - Fu, Yineng. AU - Wang, Yihong. AU - Argani, Pedram. AU - Grisanzio, Chiara. AU - Signoretti, Sabina. PY - 2010/12. Y1 - 2010/12. N2 - Carbonic anhydrase IX (CAIX), a hypoxia-induced protein, is expressed in some renal tumors. We evaluated its immunohistochemical expression in 317 primary and 42 metastatic renal neoplasms (186 clear cell, 52 papillary, 35 chromophobe, 47 unclassified, and 15 Xp11.2 translocation renal cell carcinomas [RCCs]; 26 oncocytomas; 2 metanephric adenomas; 1 urothelial carcinoma; 1 mixed epithelial and stromal tumor; and 1 angiomyolipoma); 7 neoplasms were unknown as to whether they were primary or metastatic. We also correlated expression with tumor type and grade. Variable staining was seen in clear cell, papillary, unclassified, and Xp11.2 translocation carcinomas. One ...
Carbonic anhydrases are abundant in mammalian tissues, plants and bacteria. The several distinct classes of this enzyme (α, β, γ etc.) share little similarity in terms of structure and sequence, but they all perform the same function of catalyzing the hydration of carbon dioxide and the dehydration of bicarbonate [3]. Carbonic anhydrase B is one of the two major forms of carbonic anhydrase in human red blood cell (the other form is CA C). Like other members of the CA family, its main function is assisting the important chemical reaction that occurs in the blood. CO2 + H2O ,-----, HCO3- + H+. The above reaction is very slow in the absence of the enzyme. Hence, by assisting the inter-conversion between carbon dioxide and bicarbonate, Carbonic anhydrase B helps to maintain acid-base balance in blood, and transport carbon dioxide out of blood. Note that the carbonic acid (H2CO3) and hydrogen carbonate ions (HCO3-) is an important buffer system in the body. They equilibrate in the blood plasma to ...
The hydration rate of CO2 catalyzed by human red cell carbonic anhydrase B is 92 percent reduced by the normal concentrations of chloride and bicarbonate in red cells. This reflects a general sensitivity of this reaction to halides and other anions, up to 87 times greater than the effect on red cell carbonic anhydrase C. The catalytic hydration of CO2 is generally more (up to 24 times) sensitive to inhibition by anions and sulfonamides than the dehydration of HCO3-, probably reflecting different mechanisms. The sensitivity of enzyme B to anion inhibition also depends upon the substrate, being much greater for CO2 than for certain esters. On the basis of the very low catalytic activity of B for CO2 in the presence of physiological concentration of chloride, and the fact that carbonic anhydrase C is effective for CO2 hydration (in the presence of chloride) at a rate 340 times greater than that of CO2 output from tissues, it appears that the biological role of enzyme B is not that of a carbonic ...
PURPOSE: To evaluate carbonic anhydrase (CA) IX as a surrogate marker of hypoxia and investigate the prognostic significance of different patterns of expression in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). METHODS: Standard immunohistochemical techniques were used to study CA IX expression in 175 resected NSCLC tumors. CA IX expression was determined by Western blotting in A549 cell lines grown under normoxic and hypoxic conditions. Measurements from microvessels to CA IX positivity were obtained. RESULTS: CA IX immunostaining was detected in 81.8% of patients. Membranous (m) (P =.005), cytoplasmic (c) (P =.018), and stromal (P |.001) CA IX expression correlated with the extent of tumor necrosis (TN). The mean distance from vascular endothelium to the start of tumor cell positivity was 90 micro m, which equates to an oxygen pressure of 5.77 mmHg. The distance to blood vessels from individual tumor cells or tumor cell clusters was greater if they expressed mCA IX than if they did not (P |.001). Hypoxic
Carbonic anhydrase IX (CAIX) is generally expressed in individual tumors and serves as a marker for hypoxia. Breasts. Am.J.Pathol. 2001;158:1011C1019. [PMC free of charge content] [PubMed] [10] Sowter HM, Raval R, Moore J, Ratcliffe PJ, Harris AL. Predominant Function of Hypoxia-Inducible Transcription Aspect Ednra (Hif)-1 Hif-2 in Legislation from the Transcriptional Response to Hypoxia. Cancers Res. 2003;63:6130C6134. [PubMed] [11] Chiche J, Ilc K, Laferriere J, Trottier E, Dayan F, Mazure NM, Brahimi-Horn MC, Pouyssegur J. Cyclopamine Hypoxia-Inducible Carbonic Anhydrase XII and IX Promote Tumor Cell Growth by Counteracting Acidosis coming from the Regulation from the Intracellular pH. Cancer tumor Res. 2009;69:358C368. [PubMed] [12] Swinson DEB, Jones JL, Richardson D, Wykoff C, Turley H, Pastorek J, Taub N, Harris AL, OBryne KJ. Carbonic Anhydrase IX Appearance, a Book Surrogate Marker of Tumor Hypoxia, Is normally Associated with an unhealthy Prognosis in Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancers. ...
The time course of and the influence of light intensity and light quality on the induction of a mitochondrial carbonic anhydrase (CA) in the unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii was characterized using western and northern blots. This CA was expressed only under low-CO2 conditions (ambient air). In asynchronously grown cells, the mRNA was detected 15 min after transfer from air containing 5% CO2 to ambient air, and the 21-kD polypeptide was detected on western blots after 1 h. When transferred back to air containing 5% CO2, the mRNA disappeared within 1 h and the polypeptide was degraded within 3 d. Photosynthesis was required for the induction in asynchronous cultures. The induction increased with light up to 500 mu mol m(-2) s(-1), where saturation occurred. In cells grown synchronously, however, expression of the mitochondrial CA was also detected in darkness. Under such conditions the expression followed a circadian rhythm, with mRNA appearing in the dark 30 min before the light ...
Carbonic anhydrase III (CAIII) is a member of a multigene family (at least six separate genes are known) that encodes carbonic anhydrase isozymes. These carbonic anhydrases are a class of metalloenzymes that catalyze the reversible hydration of carbon dioxide and are differentially expressed in a number of cell types. The expression of the CA3 gene is strictly tissue specific and present at high levels in skeletal muscle and much lower levels in cardiac and smooth muscle. A proportion of carriers of Duchenne muscle dystrophy have a higher CA3 level than normal. The gene spans 10.3 kb and contains seven exons and six introns. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2008 ...
Carbonic anhydrases (CAs) are ubiquitously expressed enzymes and catalyse an important physiological reaction of interconverting the hydration of carbon dioxide to bicarbonates, which is crucial for maintaining acid/base equilibrium in certain tissues. While 15 different isoforms of CAs are present in various cell types in human tissues, their expression pattern in the epidermis remains to be investigated. Here, we report the expression of 5 CA isoforms (CAII, CAIX, CAXI, CAXII and CAXIII) in human primary keratinocytes. Further, we demonstrate that the expression of CAII and CAIX in these cells is significantly up-regulated by the biologically active metabolites of vitamin A (all-trans retinoic acid) and vitamin D (1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 ), respectively. Taken together, apart from providing new information on the expression of CAs in the skin, our results highlight a previously undisclosed connection between vitamin A and CAII expression and vitamin D and CAIX expression. ...
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
PURPOSE: Bevacizumab, an anti-VEGFA antibody, inhibits the developing vasculature of tumors, but resistance is common. Antiangiogenic therapy induces hypoxia and we observed increased expression of hypoxia-regulated genes, including carbonic anhydrase IX (CAIX), in response to bevacizumab treatment in xenografts. CAIX expression correlates with poor prognosis in most tumor types and with worse outcome in bevacizumab-treated patients with metastatic colorectal cancer, malignant astrocytoma, and recurrent malignant glioma. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We knocked down CAIX expression by short hairpin RNA in a colon cancer (HT29) and a glioblastoma (U87) cell line which have high hypoxic induction of CAIX and overexpressed CAIX in HCT116 cells which has low CAIX. We investigated the effect on growth rate in three-dimensional (3D) culture and in vivo, and examined the effect of CAIX knockdown in combination with bevacizumab. RESULTS: CAIX expression was associated with increased growth rate in spheroids and in vivo.
PURPOSE: Bevacizumab, an anti-VEGFA antibody, inhibits the developing vasculature of tumors, but resistance is common. Antiangiogenic therapy induces hypoxia and we observed increased expression of hypoxia-regulated genes, including carbonic anhydrase IX (CAIX), in response to bevacizumab treatment in xenografts. CAIX expression correlates with poor prognosis in most tumor types and with worse outcome in bevacizumab-treated patients with metastatic colorectal cancer, malignant astrocytoma, and recurrent malignant glioma. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We knocked down CAIX expression by short hairpin RNA in a colon cancer (HT29) and a glioblastoma (U87) cell line which have high hypoxic induction of CAIX and overexpressed CAIX in HCT116 cells which has low CAIX. We investigated the effect on growth rate in three-dimensional (3D) culture and in vivo, and examined the effect of CAIX knockdown in combination with bevacizumab. RESULTS: CAIX expression was associated with increased growth rate in spheroids and in vivo.
Zn(2+)-dependent carbonic anhydrases (CA) catalyse the reversible hydration of carbon dioxide to bicarbonate and participate in diverse physiological processes, hence having manifold therapeutic potentials. Among the 15 human CAs with wide-ranging sub-cellular localisation and kinetic properties, CA VI is the only secretory isoform. The 1.9Å crystal structure of the human CA VI catalytic domain reveals a prototypical mammalian CA fold, and a novel dimeric arrangement as compared to previously-reported CA structures. The active site cavity contains a cluster of non-conserved residues that may be involved in ligand binding and have significant implications for developing the next-generation of isoform-specific inhibitors.
The IUPHAR/BPS Guide to Pharmacology. carbonic anhydrase 9 - Carbonic anhydrases. Detailed annotation on the structure, function, physiology, pharmacology and clinical relevance of drug targets.
The transcriptional complex hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) has emerged as an important mediator of gene expression patterns in tumors, although the range of responding genes is still incompletely defined. Here we show that the tumor-associated carbonic anhydrases (CAs) are tightly regulated by this system. Both CA9 and CA12 were strongly induced by hypoxia in a range of tumor cell lines. In renal carcinoma cells that are defective for the von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) tumor suppressor, up-regulation of these CAs is associated with loss of regulation by hypoxia, consistent with the critical function of pVHL in the regulation of HIF-1. Further studies of CA9 defined a HIF-1-dependent hypoxia response element in the minimal promoter and demonstrated that tight regulation by the HIF/pVHL system was reflected in the pattern of CA IX expression within tumors. Generalized up-regulation of CA IX in VHL-associated renal cell carcinoma contrasted with focal perinecrotic expression in a variety of non-VHL-associated
The transcriptional complex hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) has emerged as an important mediator of gene expression patterns in tumors, although the range of responding genes is still incompletely defined. Here we show that the tumor-associated carbonic anhydrases (CAs) are tightly regulated by this system. Both CA9 and CA12 were strongly induced by hypoxia in a range of tumor cell lines. In renal carcinoma cells that are defective for the von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) tumor suppressor, up-regulation of these CAs is associated with loss of regulation by hypoxia, consistent with the critical function of pVHL in the regulation of HIF-1. Further studies of CA9 defined a HIF-1-dependent hypoxia response element in the minimal promoter and demonstrated that tight regulation by the HIF/pVHL system was reflected in the pattern of CA IX expression within tumors. Generalized up-regulation of CA IX in VHL-associated renal cell carcinoma contrasted with focal perinecrotic expression in a variety of non-VHL-associated
TY - JOUR. T1 - Association of the gross appearance of intratumoral vascularity at MDCT with the carbonic anhydrase IX score in clear cell renal cell carcinoma. AU - Young, Jonathan R. AU - Coy, Heidi. AU - Kim, Hyun J.. AU - Douek, Michael. AU - Sisk, Anthony. AU - Pantuck, Allan J.. AU - Raman, Steven S.. PY - 2018/12/1. Y1 - 2018/12/1. N2 - OBJECTIVE. The purpose of this study was to determine whether qualitative MDCT features are associated with the carbonic anhydrase IX (CAIX) score of clear cell renal cell carcinoma (RCC). The CAIX score has been previously found to have prognostic significance for disease-free survival, overall survival, and lymph node involvement. MATERIALS AND METHODS. A cohort of 105 histologically proven clear cell RCCs in patients who underwent preoperative four-phase renal mass MDCT was derived from 2001 to 2013. Two genitourinary radiologists evaluated each lesion for the gross appearance of intratumoral vascularity, calcification, enhancement pattern, necrosis, ...
Carbonic anhydrases (CAs I-VII) are products of a gene family that encodes seven isozymes and several homologous, CA- related proteins. All seven isozymes have been cloned, sequenced, and mapped, and the intron-exon organization of five genes established. They differ in subcellular localizations, be …
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Carbonic Anhydrase IX/CA9 Antibody Pairs available through Novus Biologicals. Browse our Carbonic Anhydrase IX/CA9 Antibody Pair catalog backed by our Guarantee+.
Carbonic anhydrase IX (CA IX) is a transmembrane glycoprotein with an active extracellular enzyme site. We have shown previously that it was hypoxia inducible and may therefore be an endogenous marker of hypoxia. It is overexpressed in some tumors, particularly renal cell carcinoma. The aim of this study was to examine the expression and localization of CA IX in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) and relate this to the location of tumor microvessels, angiogenesis, necrosis, and stage. Expression of CA IX was determined by immunoblotting in three HNSCC cell lines grown in normoxia and hypoxia (pO(2) 0.1%) and three paired tumor and normal tissue samples of HNSCC. Archived paraffin sections (79) of HNSCC were immunostained with antibodies to CA IX and CD34 to determine microvessel density (MVD). By double staining sections with CA IX and CD34, the distance between blood vessels and the start of CA IX expression and necrosis was calculated. CA IX was induced by hypoxia in all three HNSCC cell
FUNCTIONS OF CARBONIC ANHYDRASES. The presence of carbonic anhydrases in all living organisms probably originates because the components of the catalyzed reaction are involved in almost all metabolic processes. We suppose that the main reason for the abundance of CAs in nature is the ubiquitous involvement of bicarbonate buffers in aqueous media and then in the cytoplasm at every stage of evolution; these enzymes acceleration achieving appropriate pH, which is important for homeostasis of every living cell. The role of carbonic anhydrases in accelerating the conversion of inorganic forms of carbon was probably not their initial main function, but now it is established that these enzymes are critical regulators of the exchange of these forms in many metabolic processes.. Functions of Carbonic Anhydrases in Animals. Although the main purpose of this review is to consider the available experimental data and ideas concerning the role of CAs in higher plants, we should present, at least briefly, ...
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3MHL: 4-[N-(Substituted 4-pyrimidinyl)amino]benzenesulfonamides as inhibitors of carbonic anhydrase isozymes I, II, VII, and XIII
We have recently shown that CA IV expression in kidney cortex increased five-fold at the mRNA level (35) and 3- to 5-fold at the protein level (25) during postnatal maturation. A previous study showed a 19-fold increase in CA IV mRNA expression in rat lung between fetal day 20 and postnatal day 6, and a 40% postnatal increase to day 17, with no further increase (7). The postnatal increase was nearly comparable to what we have observed in rabbit lung (Fig. 5B). However, the increase in CA IV mRNA in kidney cortex is at least 10-fold and likely to account for the postnatal increment in protein (24). With most of the increase occurring during postnatal weeks 3-5, it is likely that the increase reflects the change in eating habits and a shift to an alkaline ash diet that requires a renal adaptation in transport. The large increase in CA IV may allow the kidney to handle the maturational increase in filtered load of bicarbonate and its proximal reabsorption.. Detailed studies of CA IX expression ...
Novelty, in brief, is represented by the intended elaboration of carborane, heteroborane and metallaborane compounds as active-site inhibitors of CA isoenzymes. All currently used inhibitors anhydrase inhibitors contain a sulfonamide or a sulfamate moiety connected to so called ring structure which is usually a 5- or 6-membered aromatic ring or conjugated ring system containing nitrogen, oxygen, and/or sulfur heteroatoms. The ring structure bears characteristics or functionality which modulates the affinity toward certain CA isoform. The use of three-dimensional boron cluster is a novel approach in development of isoform-specific CA inhibitors. Selected sulfamides incorporating cluster with inhibitory effects toward CAs (IC50 values in low micromolar and submicromolar range, some of the inhibitors being more than 50-times more selective toward the tumor specific CAIX than for CAII abundantly present in normal tissues ...
Carbonic anhydrases (CAs) are a large family of zinc metalloenzymes that catalyze the reversible hydration of carbon dioxide. They participate in a variety of biological processes, including respiration, calcification, acid-base balance, bone resorption, and the formation of aqueous humor, cerebrospinal fluid, saliva, and gastric acid. They show extensive diversity in tissue distribution and in their subcellular localization. CA IX is a transmembrane protein and is one of only two tumor-associated carbonic anhydrase isoenzymes known. It is expressed in all clear-cell renal cell carcinoma, but is not detected in normal kidney or most other normal tissues. It may be involved in cell proliferation and transformation. This gene was mapped to 17q21.2 by fluorescence in situ hybridization, however, radiation hybrid mapping localized it to 9p13-p12. [provided by RefSeq, Jun 2014 ...
beta-Lactam antibiotics are a broad class of antibiotics, consisting of all antibiotic agents that contain a beta-lactam ring in their molecular structures. Synthesis of beta-lactam analogs, which are containing dichloride atoms and N-methyl, N-aromatic rings, was achieved by Schiff bases and dichloroketene compounds. All the synthesized imines and beta-lactam analogs were tested against two physiologically relevant carbonic anhydrase isozymes (hCA I and II) and acetylcholinesterase (AChE). They demponstrated effective inhibitory profiles with K-i values in ranging of 3.22-11.18 nM against hCA I, 3.74-10.41 nM against hCA II, and 0.50-1.57 nM against AChE. On the other hand, acetazolamide and dorzolamide clinically used as CA inhibitors, showed K-i value of 170.34 and 129.26nM against hCA I, and 115.43 and 135.67 nM against hCA II, respectively. Also, tacrine used as standard AChE inhibitor showed Ki value of 5.70 nM against AChE ...
Blood and urine analyses: Visit 1: electrolytes, creatinine, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), glycemia, renin, angiotensin, aldosterone, plasma catecholamines, 24 h urinary sodium excretion, carbonic anhydrase activity and isoenzyme expression (in 50 randomly selected subjects), samples for genetic studies. Visit 2: electrolytes, creatinine, eGFR. Visit 3: complete blood count, electrolytes, creatinine, eGFR, glycemia, insulin, renin, angiotensin, aldosterone, plasma catecholamines, classic urinalysis, microalbuminuria, 24 h urinary sodium excretion, carbonic anhydrase activity and isoenzyme expression (in 50 subjects selected at Visit 1). Visit 4: electrolytes, creatinine, eGFR, glycemia, insulin, renin, angiotensin, aldosterone, plasma catecholamines, 24 h urinary sodium excretion, carbonic anhydrase activity and isoenzyme expression (in 50 subjects selected at Visit 1 ...
One of the four discrete isoenzymes of carbonic anhydrase hitherto characterized, CA III, has the lowest turnover rate and the greatest resistance to inhibition by sulphonamides. Streptozotocin-induced diabetes mellitus resulted in a reduction in acetazolamide-resistant activity of carbonic anhydrase in the liver, but not in tonic skeletal muscle, of adult male rats. The hepatic activity declined with apparent first-order kinetics [calculated rate constant (k) 0.089 day-1] to a minimum of approx. 6% of control values; the reduction in activity was moderated by administration of insulin. ...
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CAIX is a transmembrane protein and is a tumor-associated carbonic anhydrase isoenzyme. It is over-expressed in VHL mutated clear-cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) and hypoxic solid tumors, but is low-expressed in normal kidney and most other normal tissues. It may be involved in cell proliferation and transformation. This gene is mapped to 9p13-p12.[7]. CAIX is a cellular biomarkers of hypoxia. Furthermore, recent studies examining the association between CAIX levels and various clinicopathological outcomes suggest that CAIX expression may also be a valuable prognostic indicator for overall survival[8] although this association has been questioned.[9]. ...
Anti-human Carbonic Anhydrase IX/CA9 antibody,Rabbit MAb. Applications for ELISA,FCM, fully validated. Quality guaranteed. Buy elite antibodies at up to 60% cost saving.
Anti-human Carbonic Anhydrase IX/CA9 antibody,Rabbit MAb. Applications for ELISA,IHC-P, fully validated. Quality guaranteed. Buy elite antibodies at up to 60% cost saving.
CAIX expression in bronchial trees and genital organs: In the bronchial trees high expression of CAIX was seen in the peribronchial immature mesenchymal cells a
Effect of Hyperglycemia on Erythrocyte Carbonic Anhydrase and Lactic Acid in Type II Diabetic Subjects. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
Carbonic anhydrase (CA) IX is a plasma membrane-associated member of the alpha-CA enzyme family, which is involved in solid tumor acidification. It is a marker of tumor hypoxia and a prognostic factor in several human cancers. An aberrant increase in CA IX expression in chronic hypoxia and during development of various carcinomas contributes to tumorigenesis through at least two mechanisms: pH regulation and cell adhesion control. Here we report the X-ray structure of the catalytic domain of CA IX in complex with a classical, clinically used sulfonamide inhibitor, acetazolamide. The structure reveals a typical alpha-CA fold, which significantly differs from the other CA isozymes when the protein quaternary structure is considered. Thus, two catalytic domains of CA IX associate to form a dimer, which is stabilized by the formation of an intermolecular disulfide bond. The active site clefts and the PG domains are located on one face of the dimer, while the C-termini are located on the opposite ...
Carbonic anhydrase 12, 0.1 ml. Carbonic anhydrases (CAs) are a large family of zinc metalloenzymes that catalyze the reversible hydration of carbon dioxide.
The main findings of this study showed that the PCs exhibit OxSt and apoptosis responses when exposed to high glucose. Both high glucose-induced OxSt and apoptosis of PCs were rescued by pharmacological inhibition of mCA.. The PCs in immediate contact with the specialized EC of cerebral microvasculature comprising the BBB are vital for integrity of the latter and are especially susceptible to OxSt. Loss of PCs results in a focal increase in BBB permeability (Bonkowski et al., 2011). A close correlation between PC density and BBB permeability has been reported in PC-deficient adult mice (Armulik et al., 2010). Recently, we reported hyperglycemia-induced OxSt in the brain and cerebral PC loss in diabetic mice (Price et al., 2012). Clinical evidence suggests that diabetes-induced changes in the BBB may be a predisposing factor for Alzheimers disease (Ristow, 2004) and people suffering from both types of diabetes have an increased risk of cognitive impairment (Whitmer, 2007; Bruce et al., 2008; ...
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Recently, a convincing body of evidence has accumulated suggesting that the overexpression of carbonic anhydrase isozyme IX (CA IX) in some cancers contributes to the acidification of the extracellular matrix, which in turn promotes the growth and metastasis of the tumor. These observations have made CA IX an attractive drug target for the selective treatment of certain cancers. Currently, there is no available X-ray crystal structure of CA IX, and this lack of availability has hampered the rational design of selective CA IX inhibitors. In light of these observations and on the basis of structural alignment homology, using the crystal structure of carbonic anhydrase II (CA II) and the sequence of CA IX, a double mutant of CA II with Ala65 replaced by Ser and Asn67 replaced by Gln has been constructed to resemble the active site of CA IX. This CA IX mimic has been characterized kinetically using (18)O-exchange and structurally using X-ray crystallography, alone and in complex with five CA ...
Zakšauskas, A., Čapkauskaitė, E., Jezepčikas, L., Linkuvienė, V., Paketurytė, V., Smirnov, A., Leitans, J., Kazaks, A., Dvinskis, E., Manakova, E., Gražulis, S., Tars, K., Matulis, D., 2020. Halogenated and di-substituted benzenesulfonamides as selective inhibitors of carbonic anhydrase isoforms. European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry 185:111825. Vaškevičienė, I., Paketurytė, V., Pajanok, N., Žukauskas, Š., Sapijanskaitė, B., Kantminienė, K., Mickevičius, V., Zubrienė, A., Matulis, D., 2019. Pyrrolidinone-bearing methylated and halogenated benzenesulfonamides as inhibitors of carbonic anhydrases. Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry 27:322-337. Stravinskiene, D., Imbrasaite, A., Petrikaite, V., Matulis, D., Matuliene, J., Zvirbliene, A., 2019. New Monoclonal Antibodies for a Selective Detection of Membrane-Associated and Soluble Forms of Carbonic Anhydrase IX in Human Cell Lines and Biological Samples. Biomolecules 9:304. Paketurytė, V., Linkuvienė, V., Krainer, G., Chen, W.-Y., ...
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Carbonic anhydrase IX (CAIX) is a hypoxia-induced, membrane-tethered enzyme that is highly expressed in many cancers. It catalyses the hydration of CO 2 to HCO3- and H+, and the reverse dehydration reaction. Recent studies have shown an important role for CAIX in pH regulation and it has been speculated that CAIX may play a role in supporting cancer progression towards more aggressive forms of the disease. Clinical correlative studies in many tumours have shown that high expression is related to poor outcome. In the present study, we have selected antigen-binding antibody fragments (Fab) against human CAIX by phage-display, and tested these for inhibitory potency on CAIX catalytic activity. Inhibition was assessed from the kinetics of the CAIX-catalysed reaction, using assays performed on intact cells over-expressing CAIX, and their CAIX-containing membrane fragments. Inhibition was also assessed in multi-cellular tissue-models (spheroids) from the kinetics of CO2 venting. We have identified a Fab
In this study, bovine articular and human chondrocytes from the C-20/A4 cell line were tested for the functional activity and molecular presence of the enzyme carbonic anhydrase. This enzyme is classically considered to be important in the maintenance of high cellular buffering capacity by catalysing the slow attainment of equilibrium between CO(2) and HCO(3)(-). The first functional assay measured the rate of pH equilibration after administration of a fixed dose of CO(2) solution to cell lysates. Compared to positive controls (human erythrocytes, murine M1 cells and purified carbonic anhydrase), chondrocyte lysates attained equilibrium at a significantly slower rate, similar to the rate obtained with a negative control (Xenopus oocytes). A second functional assay studied CO(2) hydration kinetics in intact C-20/A4 cells, using a pH-sensitive fluorescent dye, as the CO(2) content of the extracellular solution was changed. It was shown that C-20/A4 cells accelerate hydration only to a small degree.
ESCUDERO-ALMANZA, Dalila Jacqueline et al. Carbonic Anhydrase and Zinc in Plant Physiology. Chilean J. Agric. Res. [online]. 2012, vol.72, n.1, pp.140-146. ISSN 0718-5839. http://dx.doi.org/10.4067/S0718-58392012000100022.. Carbonic anhydrase (CA) (EC: 2.4.1.1) catalyzes the rapid conversion of carbon dioxide plus water into a proton and the bicarbonate ion (HCO3-) that can be found in prokaryotes and higher organisms; it is represented by four different families. Carbonic anhydrase is a metalloenzyme that requires Zn as a cofactor and is involved in diverse biological processes including pH regulation, CO2 transfer, ionic exchange, respiration, CO2 photosynthetic fixation, and stomatal closure. Therefore, the review includes relevant aspects about CA morphology, oligomerization, and structural differences in the active site. On the other hand, we consider the general characteristics of Zn, its geometry, reactions, and physiology. We then consider the CA catalysis mechanism that is carried out ...
Background: In HCC, hypoxia and MET can promote tumor progression and induce resistance to radiation, chemo or targeted therapies. The aim of this study was to correlate MET and hypoxia marker carbonic anhydrase 9 (CA9) expression levels by immunohistochemistry with clinicopathological characteristics and disease-free survival (DFS) in patients with HCC.. Material and methods: One-hundred HCC resection specimens were evaluated by immunohistochemistry for MET (clone sp44, Ventana) and CA9 (rabbit polyclonal) expression. For automated evaluation, we elaborated our own macro using ImageJ software, and compared it with H- and MetMab validated scores. METhigh and CA9high expression were defined as moderate to strong staining. Staining results were correlated with clinicopathological characteristics. Univariate analyses were performed using Fishers exact or chi square tests, and multivariate analyses using Cox regression model. Median DFS (mDFS) were calculated by Kaplan-Meier method. MET ...
The enzyme carbonic anhydrase has been well characterized in mammalian systems, but the structural properties of the plant isozymes remain elusive. To investigate the nature of the zinc-binding site in spinach carbonic anhydrase, we targeted potential zinc ligands for mutagenesis and examined the re …
Carbonic anhydrase IX (CAIX) is a cell surface enzyme that is over-expressed in approximately 95% of clear cell renal cell carcinomas (ccRCCs), the most common renal cancer. CAIX is also a surrogate marker of hypoxic tumors for various human cancers; however, a clinically viable molecular imaging agent targeting CAIX is not available. We have synthesized and performed in vitro and in vivo evaluation of a dual-motif, low-molecular-weight inhibitor of CAIX, [64Cu] XYIMSR-06, for imaging CAIX expression on ccRCC tumors using positron emission tomography (PET). [64Cu] XYIMSR-06 was synthesized in two steps from reported dual-motif precursor 1. Upon radiolabeling, [64Cu] XYIMSR-06 was evaluated in immunocompromised mice bearing CAIX-expressing SK-RC-52 tumors for in vivo PET imaging and biodistribution. [64Cu] XYIMSR-06 was generated in radiochemical yields of 51.0 ± 4.5% (n = 5) and specific radioactivity of 6.0 GBq/μmol (170Ci/mmol ± 70, n = 5). Tumor could be visualized on PET images by 1 h ...
Most loss-of-function diseases are caused by aberrant folding of important proteins. These proteins often misfold due to inherited mutations. The rare disease marble brain disease (MBD) also known as carbonic anhydrase II deficiency syndrome (CADS) can manifest in carriers of point mutations in the human carbonic anhydrase II (HCA II) gene. We have over the past 10-15 years studied the folding, misfolding and aggregation of the enzyme human carbonic anhydrase II. In summary our HCA II folding studies have shown that the protein folds via an intermediate of molten-globule type, which lacks enzyme activity and the molten globule state of HCA II is prone to aggregation. One mutation associated with MBD entails the His107Tyr (H107Y) substitution. We have demonstrated that the H107Y mutation is a remarkably destabilizing mutation influencing the folding behavior of HCA II. A mutational survey of position H107 and a neighboring conserved position E117 has been performed entailing the mutants H107A, ...
Looking for Carbonic anhydrase iv? Find out information about Carbonic anhydrase iv. An enzyme which aids carbon dioxide transport and release by catalyzing the synthesis, and the dehydration, of carbonic acid from, and to, carbon dioxide... Explanation of Carbonic anhydrase iv
Aryl sulfonamides are a widely used drug class for the inhibition of carbonic anhydrases. In the context of our program of photochromic pharmacophores we were interested in the exploration of azobenzene-containing sulfonamides to block the catalytic activity of human carbonic anhydrase II (hCAII). Herein, we report the synthesis and in vitro evaluation of a small library of nine photochromic sulfonamides towards hCAII. All molecules are azobenzene-4-sulfonamides, which are substituted by different functional groups in the 4 -position and were characterized by X-ray crystallography. We aimed to investigate the influence of electrondonating or electron-withdrawing substituents on the inhibitory constant Ki. With the aid of an hCAII crystal structure bound to one of the synthesized azobenzenes, we found that the electronic structure does not strongly affect inhibition. Taken together, all compounds are strong blockers of hCAII with K-i = 25-65 nM that are potentially photochromic and thus combine ...
Carbonic anhydrase-9 (CA9), a transmembrane enzyme with an extracellular active site, is involved in the reversible metabolism of the carbon dioxide to carbonic acid. Up-regulation of CA by hypoxia and the hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) pathway has been recently postulated (Wykoff et al. Cancer Res., 60: 7075-7083, 2000). In the present study we examined the expression of this enzyme in non-small cell lung cancer. Of 107 cases analyzed, 39 (36.4%) had strong membrane/cytoplasmic expression of CA9 and were grouped as positive. The staining was confined around areas of necrosis, and a significant association of CA9 expression with the extent of necrosis was noted (P = 0.004). Nevertheless, 38 of 74 cases with focal or extensive necrosis did not express CA9. CA9 expression was more frequent in the squamous cell histology (P = 0.001) and with advanced T stage (P = 0.009). A significant coexpression of CA9 with platelet-derived endothelial cell growth factor and basic fibroblast growth factor receptor
Cryptococcus neoformans, a fungal pathogen of humans, causes fatal meningitis in immunocompromised patients. Its virulence is mainly determined by the elaboration of a polysaccharide capsule surrounding its cell wall. During its life, C. neoformans is confronted with and responds to dramatic variations in CO2 concentrations; one important morphological change triggered by the shift from its natural habitat (0.033% CO2) to infected hosts (5% CO2) is the induction of capsule biosynthesis. In cells, CO2 is hydrated to bicarbonate in a spontaneous reaction that is accelerated by carbonic anhydrases. Here we show that C. neoformans contains two beta-class carbonic anhydrases, Can1 and Can2. We further demonstrate that CAN2, but not CAN1, is abundantly expressed and essential for the growth of C. neoformans in its natural environment, where CO2 concentrations are limiting. Structural studies reveal that Can2 forms a homodimer in solution. Our data reveal Can2 to be the main carbonic anhydrase and ...
BACKGROUND: Carbonic anhydrase IX (CA9) is reportedly overexpressed in several types of carcinomas, but little is known about the expression pattern of CA9 in osteosarcoma. We aimed to assess the prevalence of CA9 expression and its prognostic implications in osteosarcoma patients. METHODS: We compared immunohistochemical expression of CA9 between conventional, high-grade and low-grade, central osteosarcomas. Specimens were obtained before chemotherapy and stained with anti-human CA9 antibody. We also evaluated the histologic grade, presence of metastasis, and patient prognosis. RESULTS: Among 38 samples of conventional high-grade osteosarcoma, 22 (57.9%) tumors displayed CA9 overexpression. Twenty-five cases of low-grade central osteosarcomas were all negative (p < 0.0001). CA9 expression was significantly associated with the presence of metastasis (p = 0.0010). The overall survival rate was significantly reduced with increased CA9 expression (p = 0.0012), higher histologic grade (p < 0.0001), ...
Most loss-of-function diseases are caused by aberrant folding of important proteins. These proteins often misfold due to inherited mutations. The rare disease marble brain disease (MBD) also known as carbonic anhydrase II deficiency syndrome (CADS) can manifest in carriers of point mutations in the human carbonic anhydrase II (HCA II) gene. We have over the past 10-15 years studied the folding, misfolding and aggregation of the enzyme human carbonic anhydrase II. In summary our HCA II folding studies have shown that the protein folds via an intermediate of molten-globule type, which lacks enzyme activity and the molten globule state of HCA II is prone to aggregation. One mutation associated with MBD entails the His107Tyr (H107Y) substitution. We have demonstrated that the H107Y mutation is a remarkably destabilizing mutation influencing the folding behavior of HCA II. A mutational survey of position H107 and a neighboring conserved position E117 has been performed entailing the mutants H107A, ...
Inhibition of ammonia excretion (J(amm)) is a common response to Cu exposure in freshwater (FW) and seawater (SW) organisms. To determine the mechanism of this response, a euryhaline species of guppy (Poecilia vivipara) was exposed to 20 μg Cu/l in FW (0 ppt) and SW (25 ppt) for 96 h. In both salinities, Cu transiently inhibited ammonia excretion (J(amm)) followed by a full recovery by the end of the 96 h exposure. The activities of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase, H(+)-ATPase, and carbonic anhydrase (CA) were examined in the gills at 12 and 96 h of Cu exposure. In both salinity acclimations, CA activity was significantly inhibited following 12h of Cu exposure in P. vivipara, marking the first in vivo evidence of Cu-induced inhibition of CA in fish. Moreover, the inhibition and recovery of this enzyme were correlated with the inhibition and recovery of J(amm) in both salinity acclimations. The blockade of CA potentially acts as a common mechanism of J(amm) inhibition in FW and SW. There were no significant ...
Mono- and Stereopictres of 5.0 Angstrom coordination sphere of Zinc atom in PDB 1z9y: Carbonic Anhydrase II in Complex With Furosemide As Sulfonamide Inhibitor
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Vaida Morkūnaitė, Joana Gylytė, Asta Zubrienė, Lina Baranauskienė, Miglė Kišonaitė, Vilma Michailovienė, Vaida Juozapaitienė, Matthew J Todd, Daumantas Matulis].
Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology. ...
The plant hormone salicylic acid (SA) is required for defense responses. NON EXPRESSER OF PATHOGENESIS RELATED 1 (NPR1) and NON RECOGNITION OF BTH-4 (NRB4) are required for the response to SA in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). Here, we isolated several interactors of NRB4 using yeast two-hybrid assays. Two of these interactors, βCA1 and βCA2, are β-carbonic anhydrase family proteins. Since double mutant βca1 βca2 plants did not show any obvious phenotype, we investigated other βCAs and found that NRB4 also interacts with βCA3 and βCA4. Moreover, several βCAs interacted with NPR1 in yeast, including one that interacted in a SA-dependent manner. This interaction was abolished in loss-of-function alleles of NPR1. Interactions between βCAs and both NRB4 and NPR1 were also detected in planta, with evidence for a triple interaction, NRB4-βCA1-NPR1. The quintuple mutant βca1 βca2 βca3 βca4 βca6 showed partial insensitivity to SA. These findings suggest that one of the functions of carbonic
To further assess our results, we performed a literature review of the genes reported by at least seven studies in the cancer versus normal comparison to determine if any have been shown to have diagnostic and/or prognostic utility in colorectal cancer. The most consistently reported differentially expressed gene in our meta-analysis was carbonic anhydrase II (CA2), which was reported as down-regulated in 11 studies. Along with carbonic anhydrase I, CA2 has been shown to have prognostic significance where the expression of both enzymes was related to the metastatic aggressiveness of colorectal cancer (23). Similarly, the potential diagnostic utility of CA2 was shown in a study in which the average level of fecal CA2 in colorectal cancer patients was shown to be significantly greater than those in the control group (24). Immunohistochemistry has been done on colorectal tumor and healthy mucosa tissue to monitor the protein levels of four carbonic anhydrases, among them CA2 (25). That study showed ...
This study tests the hypothesis that the increase in blood PCO2 and associated respiratory acidosis after exhaustive exercise play an important role in stimulating ventilation during post-exercise recovery in fish. Injection of bovine carbonic anhydrase (10 mg kg-1) into the bloodstream of rainbow trout caused a persistent 40 % increase in the HCO3- dehydration capacity of the blood. The treatment was designed to increase CO2 excretion and therefore to reduce PCO2 build-up and acidosis after exercise. Aerobic and anaerobic swimming performance were not affected by carbonic anhydrase, and there were only very minor effects on arterial blood acid­base status in resting fish. However, carbonic anhydrase attenuated post-exercise increases in PaCO2 and decreases in pHa by about 50 % without altering arterial O2 variables, red cell swelling or the intracellular pH of the brain or muscle tissues. The effects on arterial pH (pHa) resulted largely from alleviation of the increase in PaCO2. In ...
In vertebrates, carbonic anhydrases (CAs) play important roles in ion transport and pH regulation in many organs, including the eyes, kidneys, central nervous system, and inner ear. In aquatic organis
Carbonic anhydrase 12 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CA12 gene. Carbonic anhydrases (CAs) are a large family of zinc metalloenzymes that catalyze the reversible hydration of carbon dioxide. They participate in a variety of biological processes, including respiration, calcification, acid-base balance, bone resorption, and the formation of aqueous humor, cerebrospinal fluid, saliva, and gastric acid. This gene product is a type I membrane protein that is highly expressed in normal tissues, such as kidney, colon and pancreas, and has been found to be overexpressed in 10% of clear cell renal carcinomas. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been identified for this gene. Loss of function mutations in the CAXII gene result in defects in fluids and carbonate secretions in the following diseases: 1) Cystic fibrosis-like syndrome with normal cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) protein levels 2) Pancreatitis 3) Sjögrens syndrome 4) Xerostomia or ...
Alfa Aesar™ 4-Nitrophenyl acetate, 98+% 10g Alfa Aesar™ 4-Nitrophenyl acetate, 98+% Nitrog to Nitrophenylacet -Organics
Hyperventilation is a difficult diagnosis to make clinically and that is why having an objective test of hyperventilation is so useful. People who hyperventilate deplete their levels of red cell carbonic anhydrase and the ratio between the activity and the protein gives us a good indication of whether or not hyperventilation is a problem. Hyperventilation is also difficult to treat and so this test tells us how much effort we have to put in to correcting this. Essentially, there is a two-pronged approach - firstly biochemical and secondly physical: Biochemically, red cell carbonic anhydrase is a zinc dependent enzyme and will be depleted simply by zinc deficiency. Furthermore, a low red cell carbonic anhydrase drives hyperventilation and so this is another example of one of the many vicious cycles seen in patients with chronic fatigue. Zinc is best absorbed at night and I recommend taking 30mg last thing at night on an empty stomach. This should be in addition to zinc taken in my physiological ...
Looking for online definition of CA-IX in the Medical Dictionary? CA-IX explanation free. What is CA-IX? Meaning of CA-IX medical term. What does CA-IX mean?
We investigated the expression of CA IX in a series of oligodendroglial brain tumors. We found that CA IX is expressed in most of these tumors and that it has an independent prognostic value, predicting a poor outcome. In addition, CA IX(+) tumors had decreased cell proliferation compared to CA IX(-) tumors.. Chromosomal loss of 1p and 19q is a common genotypic change in oligodendrogliomas. It is commonly used as a tool to make more precise decisions concerning the treatment. Recently, it has become clear, however, that defects in single chromosomes, genes, or even the sequential acquisition of mutations, are not the entire story in tumorigenesis, given that many cancer susceptibility genes show a high degree of tissue specificity in their association with neoplastic transformation. Also in oligodendrogliomas and other malignant brain tumors, the acquisition of a complete neoplastic phenotype is caused by the activation of several oncogenes and the inactivation of several growth-suppressor ...
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Santa Cruz Biotechnology, Inc. bietet eine Vielzahl an Produkten für das Genom Editing an einschließlich CRISPR/Cas9 Knockout und CRISPR Double Nickase Plasmide für das Gen Silencing. CA XIV Gen Silencer sind als CA XIV CRISPR/Cas9 Knockout Plasmide und CA XIV Double Nickase Plasmide erhältlich. CA XIV CRISPR/dCas9 Aktivierungs-Plasmide und CRISPR Lenti Aktivierungssysteme zur Aktivierung von Genen sind ebenfals verfügbar. Gen Silencer und Aktivatoren sind äußerst hilfreich bei der Untersuchung von Genen, besonders in Kombination mit Antikörpern, die für die Detektion des entsprechenden Proteins geeignet sind.
Santa Cruz Biotechnology, Inc. offre unampia gamma di prodotti per processamento genico inclusi plasmidi CRISPR/Cas9 Knockout e CRISPR Double Nickase per silenziamento genico. CA XIV silenziatori genici sono anche disponibili come CA XIV plasmidi CRISPR/Cas9 Knockout e Plasmidi CA XIV Double Nickase .Plasmidi di attivazione CRISPR/dCas9 e Sistemi CRISPR lentivirali di attivazione CA XIV per attivazione genica sono disponibili. I silenziatori genici e gli attivatori sono utili per studi genici in combinazione con anticorpi utilizzati per il rilevamento proteico.
Read Assignment of the gene determining human carbonic anhydrase, CAI, to chromosome 8, Annals of Human Genetics on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
BioAssay record AID 644085 submitted by ChEMBL: Inhibition of human carbonic anhydrase 2 using 4-nitrophenylacetate as substrate after 3 mins using spectrophotometry by Lineweaver-Burk plot analysis.
en] Acidosis, Renal Tubular/chemically induced/enzymology ; Anticonvulsants/adverse effects/therapeutic use ; Carbonic Anhydrases/metabolism ; Female ; Fructose/adverse effects/analogs & derivatives/therapeutic use ; Humans ; Kidney/drug effects/enzymology/pathology ; Middle Aged ; Migraine Disorders/drug therapy ; Models, ...
A major challenge in photodynamic cancer therapy (PDT) is avoiding PDT-induced hypoxia, which can lead to cancer recurrence and progression through activation of various angiogenic factors and significantly reduce treatment outcomes. Reported here is an acetazolamide (AZ) conjugated BODIPY photosensitizer (AZ-BPS) designed to mitigate the effects of PDT-based hypoxia by combining the benefits of anti-angiogenesis therapy with PDT. AZ-BPS showed specific affinity to aggressive cancer cells (MDA-MB-231 cells) that overexpress carbonic anhydrase IX (CAIX). It displayed enhanced photo-cytotoxicity compared to a reference compound, BPS, which is an analogous PDT agent that lacks an acetazolamide unit. AZ-BPS also displayed an enhanced in vivo efficacy in a xenograft mouse tumor regrowth model relative to BPS, an effect attributed to inhibition of tumor angiogenesis by both PDT-induced ROS generation and CAIX knockdown. AZ-BPS was evaluated successfully in clinical samples collected from breast cancer ...
Mlig034227.g3 {REF} {Length: 2733} {Pfam: Tubulin/FtsZ family, GTPase domain [PF00091.25, score=231.9]; Tubulin C-terminal domain [PF03953.17, score=146.9]; Misato Segment II tubulin-like domain [PF10644.9, score=25.7]} {Human: ENSG00000188229, TUBB4B, tubulin beta 4B class IVb, [RH, Score=920, Expect=0.0]; ENSG00000137285, TUBB2B, tubulin beta 2B class IIb, [RH, Score=908, Expect=0.0]; ENSG00000104833, TUBB4A, tubulin beta 4A class IVa, [RH, Score=905, Expect=0.0]; ENSG00000232575, TUBB, tubulin beta class I, [RH, Score=903, Expect=0.0]; ENSG00000196230, TUBB, tubulin beta class I, [RH, Score=903, Expect=0.0]; ENSG00000183311, TUBB, tubulin beta class I, [RH, Score=903, Expect=0.0]; ENSG00000227739, TUBB, tubulin beta class I, [RH, Score=903, Expect=0.0]; ENSG00000235067, TUBB, tubulin beta class I, [RH, Score=903, Expect=0.0]; ENSG00000229684, TUBB, tubulin beta class I, [RH, Score=903, Expect=0.0]; ENSG00000137267, TUBB2A, tubulin beta 2A class IIa, [RH, Score=903, Expect=0.0]; ...
Glaucoma is a serious disease associated with increased intraocular pressure which often leads to blindness. One of the ways to treat glaucoma is to reduce aqueous humour secretion in the ciliary body of the eye by suppressing (inhibiting) activity of special enzymes - carbonic anhydrases. Russian scientists from RUDN University have designed new compounds that can effectively reduce intraocular pressure by isoform selective inhibiting human carbonic anhydrase. The results of the study were published in the prestigious Bioorganic Chemistry journal.
Reactome is pathway database which provides intuitive bioinformatics tools for the visualisation, interpretation and analysis of pathway knowledge.
2foy: Ultrahigh resolution crystal structures of human carbonic anhydrases I and II complexed with two-prong inhibitors reveal the molecular basis of high affinity.
SWISS-MODEL Template Library (SMTL) entry for 2hoc.1. Crystal structure of the human carbonic anhydrase II in complex with the 5-(4-amino-3-chloro-5-fluorophenylsulfonamido)-1,3,4-thiadiazole-2-sulfonamide inhibitor
Rabbit polyclonal Carbonic Anhydrase IV/CA4 antibody validated for WB, ELISA and tested in Human and Mouse. Immunogen corresponding to synthetic peptide
Zinc. Zinc is a component of certain important enzymes, such as carbonic anhydrase, lactic dehydrogenase, alkaline phosphatase, DNA and RNA polymerases, and d-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase. Zinc is obtained primarily through food. About 30% of that ingested is absorbed in the small intestine. About 80% of zinc in blood is found in RBCs, mostly as part of the enzyme carbonic anhydrase. Of that portion not in RBCs, about 50% is bound to albumin, about 30% is bound to alpha-2 macroglobulin or transferrin, and about 5% is bound to histidine and certain other amino acids, leaving about 15% free in plasma. Excretion occurs predominately in the stool, with a much smaller amount excreted in urine and sweat.. Zinc deficiency is usually not clinically evident until it becomes severe. Severe deficiency may produce growth retardation, delayed sexual development, acrodermatitis enterohepatica (dermatitis, diarrhea, and alopecia), decreased taste acuity, and poor wound healing. Acrodermatitis enterohepatica ...
A study of CO2 storage in excised, exsanguinated lungs revealed that CO2 stores include a compartment which reaches equilibration very rapidly (less than 3s) and a slower compartment which equilibrates with a half-time of approximately 15 s. Inhibition of carbonate dehydratase (carbonic anhydrase, EC 4.2.1.1) does not change the slope of the total CO2 dissociation curve of the lung but does increase the slow compartment at the expense of the fast. CO2 diffusion across the pleura is approximately 20 times faster than that of O2, a relationship that is not affected by inhibition of carbonate dehydratase. The role of tissue CO2 stores in limiting respiratory fluctuations of PCO2 or pH in arterial blood is only minor and may be of significance only in rapid, deep inspiration. CO2 uptake or release by the stores is out of phase with blood CO2 exchange. As a consequence, the time course of CO2 exchange at the mouth during expiration cannot be used to predict alveolar or capillary CO2 exchange. ...
Ethyl 2,2-Difluoro-2-(4-nitrophenyl)acetate; CAS Number: 243656-25-9; Linear Formula: C10H9F2NO4; find Accela ChemBio Inc.-AC5947208022 MSDS, related peer-reviewed papers, technical documents, similar products & more at Sigma-Aldrich
Recombinant Carbonic Anhydrase VII (CA7) Protein. Species: Rat (Rattus). Source: Escherichia coli (E. coli). Order product ABIN6302725.
Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors[edit]. Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors inhibit the enzyme carbonic anhydrase which is found in the ... Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors acetazolamide,[16] dorzolamide Inhibits H+ secretion, resultant promotion of Na+ and K+ excretion ...
"Entrez Gene: CA9 carbonic anhydrase IX".. *^ Kirkpatrick JP, Rabbani ZN, Bentley RC, Hardee ME, Karol S, Meyer J, Oosterwijk E ... Carbonic anhydrase 9 (CA9/CAIX) is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CA9 gene.[5][6][7] ... Nishimori I, Onishi S (2001). "Carbonic anhydrase isozymes in the human pancreas". Digestive and Liver Disease. 33 (1): 68-74. ... Carbonic anhydrases (CAs) are a large family of zinc metalloenzymes that catalyze the reversible hydration of carbon dioxide. ...
Carbonic anhydrase[edit]. Active site of carbonic anhydrase. The three coordinating histidine residues are shown in green, ... A reaction similar to this is almost instantaneous with carbonic anhydrase. The structure of the active site in carbonic ... Lindskog S (1997). "Structure and mechanism of carbonic anhydrase". Pharmacology & Therapeutics. 74 (1): 1-20. doi:10.1016/ ... favours dissociation of carbonic acid at biological pH values.[25] Vitamin B12-dependent enzymes[edit]. The cobalt-containing ...
Catalyzed by carbonic anhydrase, carbon dioxide (CO2) reacts with water (H2O) to form carbonic acid (H2CO3), which in turn ... Meldrum, N. U.; Roughton, F. J. W. (1933-12-05). "Carbonic anhydrase. Its preparation and properties". The Journal of ... causing carbonic anhydrase to form CO2 until all excess acid is removed. Bicarbonate concentration is also further regulated by ... are facilitated by carbonic anhydrase in both the blood and duodenum. While in the blood, bicarbonate ion serves to neutralize ...
"Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors and osmotic agents in glaucoma. Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors". The British Journal of ... Diclofenamide (or dichlorphenamide) is a sulfonamide and a carbonic anhydrase inhibitor of the meta-disulfamoylbenzene class. ...
Casini, Angela (2004). "Hypoxia activates the capacity of tumor‐associated carbonic anhydrase IX to acidify extracellular pH". ... Casini, Angela (2004). "Unexpected nanomolar inhibition of carbonic anhydrase by COX-2-selective celecoxib: new pharmacological ... "Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors". Medicinal Research Reviews. 23 (2): 146-189. doi:10.1002/med.10025. PMID 12500287. S2CID ...
Sato S, Zhu XL, Sly WS (1990). "Carbonic anhydrase isozymes IV and II in urinary membranes from carbonic anhydrase II-deficient ... "Human carbonic anhydrases and carbonic anhydrase deficiencies". Annu. Rev. Biochem. 64 (1): 375-401. doi:10.1146/annurev.bi. ... Roth DE, Venta PJ, Tashian RE, Sly WS (1992). "Molecular basis of human carbonic anhydrase II deficiency". Proc. Natl. Acad. ... Sly also identified the first inherited deficiency of a human carbonic anhydrase, CA II, and defined the biochemical and ...
"Heat-stable carbonic anhydrases and their use." U.S. Patent No. 7,892,814. 22 Feb. 2011. De Bruijn, F. J. "Handbook of ...
... cerebral carbonic anhydrase activation has cognition-enhancing effects; but, based upon the clinical use of carbonic anhydrase ... CARBONIC ANHYDRASE INHIBITORS (CAIs). The design and development of CAIs represent the most prolific area within the CA ... Bozdag M, Altamimi AA, Vullo D, Supuran CT, Carta F (2019). "State of the Art on Carbonic Anhydrase Modulators for Biomedical ... Amphetamine also activates seven human carbonic anhydrase enzymes, several of which are expressed in the human brain. ...
It also decreases carbonic anhydrase in the CNS, increasing the seizure threshold. This reduction in carbonic anhydrase also ... Ethoxzolamide binds and inhibits carbonic anhydrase I. Carbonic anhydrase plays an essential role in facilitating the transport ... Ethoxzolamide, a sulfonamide, inhibits carbonic anhydrase activity in proximal renal tubules to decrease reabsorption of water ... Dimazole Dithiazanine iodide Gordon DM (July 1958). "Ethoxzolamide; a new carbonic anhydrase inhibitor". American Journal of ...
... forms of carbonic anhydrase. The action on carbonic anhydrase isoenzymes may contribute to the drug's side-effects, including ... As topiramate inhibits carbonic anhydrase, use with other inhibitors of carbonic anhydrase (e.g. acetazolamide) increases the ... Topiramate, sold under the brand name Topamax among others, is a carbonic anhydrase inhibitor medication used to treat epilepsy ... the inhibition of carbonic anhydrase may be strong enough to cause metabolic acidosis of clinical importance. The U.S. Food and ...
The enzyme is similar to that of carbonic anhydrases. The enzyme monomer of CS2 hydrolase displays a typical β-carbonic ... The process is similar to the hydration of CO2 by carbonic anhydrase. This similarity points to a likely mechanism. The zinc at ... Similar ring structures have been seen in strains of carbonic anhydrases, however, in CS2 hydrolase is an enzyme consisting of ... This provides a key difference between carbonic anhydrase and CS2 hydrolase. This tunnel determines the enzyme's substrate ...
Carbonic anhydrase-related protein 11 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CA11 gene. Carbonic anhydrases (CAs) are a ... "Entrez Gene: CA11 carbonic anhydrase XI". CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) Liao W, Xiao Q, Tchikov V, Fujita K, Yang W, ... Bellingham J, Gregory-Evans K, Gregory-Evans CY (1998). "Sequence and tissue expression of a novel human carbonic anhydrase- ... Okamoto N, Fujikawa-Adachi K, Nishimori I, Taniuchi K, Onishi S (2001). "cDNA sequence of human carbonic anhydrase-related ...
Some of chlortalidone's diuretic effect is also due to this inhibition of carbonic anhydrase in the proximal tubule. Chronic ... Johnston MM, Li H, Mufson D (December 1977). "Chlorthalidone analysis using carbonic anhydrase inhibition". J Pharm Sci. 66 (12 ... it also strongly inhibits multiple isoforms of carbonic anhydrase. ...
Carbonic anhydrase is one of the fastest enzymes, and its rate is typically limited by the diffusion rate of its substrates. ... Lindskog S (1997). "Structure and mechanism of carbonic anhydrase". Pharmacology & Therapeutics. 74 (1): 1-20. doi:10.1016/ ...
Carbonic anhydrase. 2.6 × 10−2. 4.0 × 105. 1.5 × 107 Fumarase. 5.0 × 10−6. 8.0 × 102. 1.6 × 108 ...
Likewise, in some cyanobacterial strains the beta-carboxysomes contain a beta-carbonic anhydrase that is not found in the ccm ... The signature proteins of the beta-carboxysome are Form IB RuBisCO and a gamma carbonic anhydrase homolog. Beta-carboxysomes ... CsoSCA is a shell-associated beta-carbonic anhydrase. Studies in Halothiobacillus neapolitanus have shown that empty shells of ... Cannon, Gordon C.; Heinhorst, Sabine; Kerfeld, Cheryl A. (2010). "Carboxysomal carbonic anhydrases: Structure and role in ...
"Carbonic anhydrase in the female reproductive tract. II. Endometrial carbonic anhydrase as indicator of luteoid potency: ...
It is a weak carbonic anhydrase inhibitor. Satomi, H.; Umemura, K.; Ueno, A.; Hatano, T.; Okuda, T.; Noro, T. (1993). "Carbonic ... anhydrase inhibitors from the pericarps of Punica granatum L". Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin. 16 (8): 787-790. doi: ...
"Carbonic anhydrase in the female reproductive tract. II. Endometrial carbonic anhydrase as indicator of luteoid potency: ... to possess similar potency to progesterone and hydroxyprogesterone caproate in the rabbit endometrial carbonic anhydrase test, ...
Cadmium Carbonic anhydrase Diatoms Cullen, Jay T.; Maldonado, Maria T. (2013). "Biogeochemistry of Cadmium and Its Release to ...
doi:10.1016/S0031-9422(00)83125-8. Satomi H, Umemura K, Ueno A, Hatano T, Okuda T, Noro T (August 1993). "Carbonic anhydrase ... It is a weak carbonic anhydrase inhibitor. Ellagic acid and corilagin inhibit TGF-β1-dependent EMT and has been shown to ...
Carbon Dioxide Removal from e.g. Blood using Membrane and Immobilized Carbonic Anhydrase; Artificial Lung for Example, US ...
4.2 Carbonic anhydrase. Miscellaneous. *Steroidogenesis inhibitor. Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title= ...
The COX-2 enzyme was discovered in 1988 by Daniel Simmons, a Brigham Young University researcher.[23] The mouse COX-2 gene was cloned by UCLA scientist Dr. Harvey Herschman, a finding published in 1991.[24]. The basic research leading to the discovery of COX-2 inhibitors has been the subject of at least two lawsuits. Brigham Young University has sued Pfizer, alleging breach of contract from relations BYU had with the company at the time of Dr. Simmons's work.[25][26] A settlement was reached in April 2012 in which Pfizer agreed to pay $450 million.[27][28] The other litigation is based on United States Pat. No. 6,048,850[29] owned by University of Rochester, which claimed a method to treat pain without causing gastro-intestinal distress by selectively inhibiting COX-2. When the patent issued, the university sued Searle (later Pfizer) in a case called, University of Rochester v. G.D. Searle & Co., 358 F.3d 916 (Fed. Cir. 2004). The court ruled in favor of Searle in 2004, holding in essence that ...
A 2017 population-based, matched-cohort study of 93,197 men aged 66 years and older with BPH found that finasteride and dutasteride were associated with a significantly increased risk of depression (HR, 1.94; 95% CI, 1.73-2.16) and self-harm (HR, 1.88; 95% CI, 1.34-2.64) during the first 18 months of treatment, but were not associated with an increased risk of suicide (HR, 0.88; 95% CI, 0.53-1.45).[31][32][33][21] After the initial 18 months of therapy, the risk of self-harm was no longer heightened, whereas the elevation in risk of depression lessened but remained marginally increased (HR, 1.22; 95% CI, 1.08-1.37).[31][32][21] The absolute increase in the rate of depression was 247 per 100,000 patient-years and of self-harm was 17 per 100,000 patient-years.[21][34] As such, on the basis of these findings, it has been stated that cases of depression in patients that are attributable to 5-ARIs will be encountered on occasion, while cases of self-harm attributable to 5-ARIs will be encountered ...
The affinity of RI for ribonucleases is among the highest for any protein-protein interaction; the dissociation constant of the RI-RNase A complex is in the femtomolar (fM) range under physiological conditions while that for the RI-angiogenin complex is less than 1 fM. Despite this high affinity, RI is able to bind a wide variety of RNases A despite their relatively low sequence identity. Both biochemical studies and crystallographic structures of RI-RNase A complexes suggest that the interaction is governed largely by electrostatic interactions, but also involves substantial buried surface area.[3][4] RI's affinity for ribonucleases is important, since many ribonucleases have cytotoxic and cytostatic effects that correlate well with ability to bind RI.[5] Mammalian RIs are unable to bind certain pancreatic ribonuclease family members from other species. In particular, amphibian RNases, such ranpirnase and amphinase from the Northern leopard frog, escape mammalian RI and have been noted to have ...
Beyond being a catalyst in the rate-limiting step in testosterone reduction, 5α-reductase isoforms I and II reduce progesterone to 5α-dihydroprogesterone (5α-DHP) and deoxycorticosterone to dihydrodeoxycorticosterone (DHDOC). In vitro and animal models suggest subsequent 3α-reduction of DHT, 5α-DHP and DHDOC lead to neurosteroid metabolites with effect on cerebral function. These neurosteroids, which include allopregnanolone, tetrahydrodeoxycorticosterone (THDOC), and 3α-androstanediol, act as potent positive allosteric modulators of GABAA receptors, and have antidepressant, anxiolytic, prosexual, and anticonvulsant effects.[33] 5α-Dihydrocortisol is present in the aqueous humor of the eye, is synthesized in the lens, and might help make the aqueous humor itself.[34] 5α-Dihydroaldosterone is a potent antinatriuretic agent, although different from aldosterone. Its formation in the kidney is enhanced by restriction of dietary salt, suggesting it may help retain sodium.[35] 5α-DHP is a ...
The role of cholesterol in the development of cardiovascular disease was elucidated in the second half of the 20th century.[138] This lipid hypothesis prompted attempts to reduce cardiovascular disease burden by lowering cholesterol. Treatment consisted mainly of dietary measures, such as a low-fat diet, and poorly tolerated medicines, such as clofibrate, cholestyramine, and nicotinic acid. Cholesterol researcher Daniel Steinberg writes that while the Coronary Primary Prevention Trial of 1984 demonstrated cholesterol lowering could significantly reduce the risk of heart attacks and angina, physicians, including cardiologists, remained largely unconvinced.[139] Scientists in academic settings and the pharmaceutical industry began trying to develop a drug to reduce cholesterol more effectively. There were several potential targets, with 30 steps in the synthesis of cholesterol from acetyl-coenzyme A.[140] In 1971, Akira Endo, a Japanese biochemist working for the pharmaceutical company Sankyo, ...
carbonic anhydrase (chloride shift). *oxyhemoglobin. *respiratory quotient. *arterial blood gas. *diffusion capacity (DLCO) ...
Pervasive and required for several enzymes such as carboxypeptidase, liver alcohol dehydrogenase, and carbonic anhydrase ...
Carbonic anhydrase inhibitorsEdit. Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors inhibit the enzyme carbonic anhydrase which is found in the ... Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors acetazolamide,[17] dorzolamide Inhibits H+ secretion, resultant promotion of Na+ and K+ excretion ...
"Structural and kinetic characterization of active-site histidine as a proton shuttle in catalysis by human carbonic anhydrase ...
Murakami, H. and Sly, W.S. (1987). "Purification and characterization of human salivary carbonic anhydrase". J. Biol. Chem. 262 ... Keilin, D. and Mann, T. (1939). "Carbonic anhydrase". Nature 144: 442-443. ...
Anti-glaucoma: adrenergic agonists, beta-blockers, carbonic anhydrase inhibitors/hyperosmotics, cholinergics, miotics, ...
Carbonic anhydrase. *Fumarase. *Aconitase. *Enolase *Alpha. *Enolase 2. *Enoyl-CoA hydratase/3-Hydroxyacyl ACP dehydrase ...
carbonic anhydrase(英语:carbonic anhydrase) (chloride shift(英语:chloride shift)) ...
... which is rapidly converted to hydrogen and bicarbonate through the action of carbonic anhydrase.[58] When the ECF pH falls ( ... The bicarbonate buffer system regulates the ratio of carbonic acid to bicarbonate to be equal to 1:20, at which ratio the blood ... This is tightly regulated to ensure that there is no excessive build-up of carbonic acid or bicarbonate. The overall effect is ... The hydrogen ions combine with the excess bicarbonate ions in the plasma, once again forming an excess of carbonic acid which ...
... secretes carbonic anhydrase (gustin), which is thought to play a role in the development of taste buds.[9] ...
Through the enzyme carbonic anhydrase, carbon dioxide reacts with water to give carbonic acid, which decomposes into ...
Band 3 - also assembles various glycolytic enzymes, the presumptive CO2 transporter, and carbonic anhydrase into a ...
... a carbonic anhydrase inhibitor Lithium was previously used for treatment of PPD as a direct competitive ADH agonist, but is now ...
Carbonic anhydrase. DNA polymerase A simple [Fe2S2] cluster containing two iron atoms and two sulfur atoms, coordinated by four ...
The reaction catalyzed by carbonic anhydrase is: HCO3- + H+ ↽. −. ⇀. {\displaystyle {\ce {,=,,}}}. CO2 + H2O. Carbonic acid has ... Cadmium-containing carbonic anhydraseEdit. Marine diatoms have been found to express a new form of ζ carbonic anhydrase. T. ... Several forms of carbonic anhydrase occur in nature. In the best-studied α-carbonic anhydrase form present in animals, the zinc ... Differences from other carbonic anhydrasesEdit. Unlike most other carbonic anhydrases, the active site metal ion is not bound ...
An enzyme, carbonic anhydrase, located within the carboxysome releases CO2 from the dissolved hydrocarbonate ions (HCO−. 3). ... 3 ions are made from CO2 outside the cell by another carbonic anhydrase and are actively pumped into the cell by a membrane ... and within the cytosol they turn back into CO2 very slowly without the help of carbonic anhydrase. This causes the HCO−. 3 ions ... for the biological process of synthesis of complex carbon compounds out of carbonic acid, in the presence of chlorophyll, under ...
... which acts by inhibiting the enzyme carbonic anhydrase, and it reduces CSF production by six to 57 percent. It can cause the ...
1995). «The carbonic anhydrase domain of receptor tyrosine phosphatase beta is a functional ligand for the axonal cell ...
"The carbonic anhydrase domain of receptor tyrosine phosphatase beta is a functional ligand for the axonal cell recognition ...
Zinc required for several enzymes such as carboxypeptidase, liver alcohol dehydrogenase, and carbonic anhydrase ...
Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors/. (sulfonamides). *Acetazolamide. *Brinzolamide (+timolol). *Diclofenamide. *Dorzolamide (+ ...
carbonic anhydrase (chloride shift). *oxyhemoglobin. *respiratory quotient. *arterial blood gas. *diffusion capacity (DLCO) ... Only CO2 levels affect this as it can diffuse across, reacting with H2O to form carbonic acid and thus decrease pH. Central ...
Fluid production can be decreased by beta blockers, alpha2-agonists, and carbonic anhydrase inhibitors.[7] ...
carbonic anhydrase (chloride shift). *oxyhemoglobin. *respiratory quotient. *arterial blood gas. *diffusion capacity (DLCO) ...
... or direct vasodilator actions either through inhibition of carbonic anhydrase or by desensitizing the vascular smooth muscle ...
Raymond H & Swenson E (2000). "The distribution and physiological significance of carbonic anhydrase in vertebrate gas exchange ...
The reaction is therefore catalyzed by carbonic anhydrase, an enzyme inside the red blood cells.[21] The reaction can go in ... Henry RP, Swenson ER (June 2000). "The distribution and physiological significance of carbonic anhydrase in vertebrate gas ...
Carbohydrate deficient glycoprotein syndrome Carbon baby syndrome Carbonic anhydrase II deficiency Carcinoid syndrome Carcinoma ...
"Entrez Gene: CA9 carbonic anhydrase IX".. *^ Kirkpatrick JP, Rabbani ZN, Bentley RC, Hardee ME, Karol S, Meyer J, Oosterwijk E ... Carbonic anhydrase 9 (CA9/CAIX) is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CA9 gene.[5][6][7] ... Nishimori I, Onishi S (2001). "Carbonic anhydrase isozymes in the human pancreas". Digestive and Liver Disease. 33 (1): 68-74. ... Carbonic anhydrases (CAs) are a large family of zinc metalloenzymes that catalyze the reversible hydration of carbon dioxide. ...
Carbonic anhydrase (CA) is a seemingly ubiquitous enzyme of profound physiological importance, which plays essential roles in ... Carbonic anhydrase inhibition in ophthalmology: Carbonic anhydrases in cornea, lens, retina and lacrimal gland ... The Carbonic Anhydrases. New Horizons. Editors: Chegwidden, W.R., Carter, N.D., Edwards, Y.H. (Eds.) ... Carbonic anhydrase (CA) is a seemingly ubiquitous enzyme of profound physiological importance, which plays essential roles in ...
Carbonic anhydrases (CAs, EC 4.2.1.1) are zinc enzymes acting as efficient catalysts for the reversible hydration of carbon ... Carbonic anhydrases as targets for medicinal chemistry.. Supuran CT1, Scozzafava A. ...
Carbonic anhydrases in anthozoan corals-A review.. Bertucci A1, Moya A, Tambutté S, Allemand D, Supuran CT, Zoccola D. ... Carbonic anhydrases play major roles in those two essential processes of corals physiology: they are involved in the carbon ... Here, we review the current understanding of diversity and function of carbonic anhydrases in corals and discuss the ... Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitors/chemistry. *Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitors/metabolism. *Carbonic Anhydrases/chemistry. *Carbonic ...
Carbonic anhydrase VA deficiency is an inherited disorder characterized by episodes during which the balance of certain ... Human carbonic anhydrases and carbonic anhydrase deficiencies. Annu Rev Biochem. 1995;64:375-401. Review. Citation on PubMed ... Hyperammonemia due to carbonic anhydrase VA deficiency. *Hyperammonemic encephalopathy due to carbonic anhydrase VA deficiency ... medlineplus.gov/genetics/condition/carbonic-anhydrase-va-deficiency/ Carbonic anhydrase VA deficiency. ...
... people with carbonic anhydrase VA deficiency have excess ammonia in the blood (hyperammonemia), problems with acid-base balance ... Carbonic anhydrase VA deficiency is an inherited disorder characterized by episodes during which the balance of certain ... Human carbonic anhydrases and carbonic anhydrase deficiencies. Annu Rev Biochem. 1995;64:375-401. Review. Citation on PubMed ... Hyperammonemia due to carbonic anhydrase VA deficiency. *Hyperammonemic encephalopathy due to carbonic anhydrase VA deficiency ...
Carbonic anhydrase superfamily (IPR036874). Short name: Carbonic_anhydrase_sf Overlapping entries *Carbonic anhydrase ( ... Carbonic anhydrases (EC:4.2.1.1) (CA) are zinc metalloenzymes which catalyze the reversible hydration of carbon dioxide. In ... Carbonic anhydrase in Escherichia coli. A product of the cyn operon.. J. Biol. Chem. 267 3731-4 1992 ... A gene homologous to chloroplast carbonic anhydrase (icfA) is essential to photosynthetic carbon dioxide fixation by ...
Alpha carbonic anhydrase domain (IPR001148). Short name: CA_dom Overlapping homologous superfamilies *Alpha carbonic anhydrase ... Carbonic anhydrases--an overview.. Curr. Pharm. Des. 14 603-14 2008. Smith KS, Ferry JG. Prokaryotic carbonic anhydrases.. FEMS ... A carbonic anhydrase-like domain with striking homology to that of the alpha class carbonic anhydrases is also found in ... Carbonic anhydrases (CA: EC:4.2.1.1) are zinc metalloenzymes which catalyse the reversible hydration of carbon dioxide to ...
... have been demonstrated to physically and/or functionally interact with isoforms of carbonic anhydrase (CA) to form a transport ... monocarboxylate transporter MCT2 is enhanced by extracellular carbonic anhydrase IV but not by intracellular carbonic anhydrase ... Extracellular loop 4 of the human AE1 Cl−/HCO−3 exchanger binds carbonic anhydrase IV. J. Biol. Chem. 277, 25239-25246. doi: ... Not only that most of the H+ and HCO−3 carrying transporters interact with one or several isoforms of carbonic anhydrase, the ...
Several forms of carbonic anhydrase occur in nature. In the best-studied α-carbonic anhydrase form present in animals, the zinc ... Carbonic anhydrase inhibitor Badger MR, Price GD (1994). "The role of carbonic anhydrase in photosynthesis". Annu. Rev. Plant ... Carbonic anhydrase could in principle prove relevant to carbon capture. Some carbonic anhydrases can withstand temperatures up ... Class one being alpha carbonic anhydrase which is found in mammals, class two being beta carbonic anhydrase which is found in ...
A carbonic anhydrase from the archaeon Methanosarcina thermophila. B E Alber and J G Ferry ... Carbonic anhydrase (CA) from acetate-grown Methanosarcina thermophila was purified , 10,000-fold (22% recovery) to apparent ...
Structural analysis of inhibitor binding to human carbonic anhydrase II.. Boriack-Sjodin, P.A., Zeitlin, S., Chen, H.H., ... X-ray crystal structures of carbonic anhydrase II (CAII) complexed with sulfonamide inhibitors illuminate the structural ... X-ray crystal structures of carbonic anhydrase II (CAII) complexed with sulfonamide inhibitors illuminate the structural ... the newest carbonic anhydrase inhibitor approved for the treatment of glaucoma.. Organizational Affiliation: Department of ...
... carbonic anhydrase has not only been found in virtually all mammalian tissues but is also … ... Carbonic anhydrases catalyze the reversible hydration of CO(2) [CO(2)+H(2)Oright harpoon over left harpoon HCO(3)(-)+H(+)]. ... Prokaryotic Carbonic Anhydrases FEMS Microbiol Rev. 2000 Oct;24(4):335-66. doi: 10.1111/j.1574-6976.2000.tb00546.x. ... some prokaryotes contain multiple genes encoding carbonic anhydrases from the same class. The presence of multiple carbonic ...
The reaction catalyzed by carbonic anhydrase is: HCO3- + H+ ↽. −. ⇀. {\displaystyle {\ce {,=,,}}}. CO2 + H2O. Carbonic acid has ... Cadmium-containing carbonic anhydraseEdit. Marine diatoms have been found to express a new form of ζ carbonic anhydrase. T. ... Several forms of carbonic anhydrase occur in nature. In the best-studied α-carbonic anhydrase form present in animals, the zinc ... Differences from other carbonic anhydrasesEdit. Unlike most other carbonic anhydrases, the active site metal ion is not bound ...
Carbonic anhydrase 4 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CA4 gene. Carbonic anhydrases (CAs) are a large family of ... "Carbonic anhydrase IV from human lung. Purification, characterization, and comparison with membrane carbonic anhydrase from ... Other forms of carbonic anhydrase enzyme are not present in the plasma, restricting the equilibrium reaction of CO2+H2O = H2CO3 ... "Entrez Gene: CA4 carbonic anhydrase IV". Sterling D, Alvarez BV, Casey JR (Jul 2002). "The extracellular component of a ...
Carbonic anhydrase 2. A. 260. Homo sapiens. Mutation(s): 0 Gene Names: CA2. EC: 4.2.1.1. ... which have been investigated for the inhibition of five physiologically relevant human carbonic anhydrase (hCA, EC 4.2.1.1) ... which have been investigated for the inhibition of five physiologically relevant human carbonic a ... ...
Compare carbonic anhydrase inhibitor anticonvulsants. View important safety information, ratings, user reviews, popularity and ... Carbonic anhydrase inhibitor anticonvulsants. What are Carbonic anhydrase inhibitor anticonvulsants. Carbonic anhydrase ... inhibitor anticonvulsants inhibit the enzyme carbonic anhydrase. Generally carbonic anhydrase inhibitors are used to treat ... Home › Drug Classes › Central Nervous System Agents › Anticonvulsants › Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitor Anticonvulsants ...
Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors decrease aqueous production by inhibiting ion transport associated with the secretion of aqueous ... Adequate inhibition of carbonic anhydrase with systemic administration has been shown to cause a decrease in aqueous humor ... Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors decrease aqueous production by inhibiting ion transport associated with the secretion of aqueous ...
Helping you find trustworthy answers on Intraocular Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitor , Latest evidence made easy ... Find all the evidence you need on Intraocular Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitor via the Trip Database. ... steroids, carbonic anhydrase inhibitors, or warfarin/heparin within 1 month prior to the Screening visit or anticipated use at ... If intraocular pressure is still elevated, a topical carbonic anhydrase inhibitor should be added. In patients with sickle cell ...
Carbonic anhydrases (CAs I-VII) are products of a gene family that encodes seven isozymes and several homologous, CA- related ... Human carbonic anhydrases and carbonic anhydrase deficiencies Annu Rev Biochem. 1995;64:375-401. doi: 10.1146/annurev.bi. ... Carbonic anhydrases (CAs I-VII) are products of a gene family that encodes seven isozymes and several homologous, CA- related ...
Carbonic anhydrases (CAs, EC 4.2.1.1) are metalloenzymes which catalyze the hydration of carbon dioxide to bicarbonate and ... carbonic anhydrase; bacteria; inhibitor; antibiotic; virulence factor; sulfonamide Legionella pneumophila; carbonic anhydrase; ... Carbonic anhydrases (CAs, EC 4.2.1.1) are metalloenzymes which catalyze the hydration of carbon dioxide to bicarbonate and ... Supuran, C.T. Legionella pneumophila Carbonic Anhydrases: Underexplored Antibacterial Drug Targets. Pathogens 2016, 5, 44. ...
Carbonic anhydrase II (CAII)-deficient mice were created to study the syndrome of CAII deficiency in humans including ... Expression of carbonic anhydrase IV in carbonic anhydrase II-deficient mice. Am J Physiol 42:F234-F245Google Scholar ... Carbonic anhydrase II Osteopetrosis Renal tubular acidosis Osteoclast Osteoblast This is a preview of subscription content, log ... Whyte MP (1993) Carbonic anhydrase-II deficiency. Clin Orthop Relat Res 294:52-63PubMedGoogle Scholar ...
Romanova AK, Rusinova NG, Kornitskaya VM (1972) Participation of carbonic anhydrase in chemosynthetic assimilation of carbonic ... Graham D (1982) Carbonic anhydrases (carbonate dehydratases) from plants. In: Mitsui A, Black CC (eds) CRC handbook of biosolar ... Hogetsu D, Miyachi S (1979) Role of carbonic anhydrase in photosynthetic CO2 fixation in Chlorella. Pl Cell Physiol 220:747-756 ... Graham D, Reed M (1971) Carbonic anhydrase and the regulation of photosynthesis. Nature (New Biol) 231:81-83Google Scholar ...
ESCUDERO-ALMANZA, Dalila Jacqueline et al. Carbonic Anhydrase and Zinc in Plant Physiology. Chilean J. Agric. Res. [online]. ... Carbonic anhydrase (CA) (EC: 2.4.1.1) catalyzes the rapid conversion of carbon dioxide plus water into a proton and the ... Carbonic anhydrase is a metalloenzyme that requires Zn as a cofactor and is involved in diverse biological processes including ...
W. S. Sly and P. Y. Hu, "Human carbonic anhydrases and carbonic anhydrase deficiencies," Annual Review of Biochemistry, vol. 64 ... Carbonic anhydrase isoforms I, II, VII, XII, and XIII were expressed and purified as previously described: CA I in [28], CA II ... C. T. Supuran, "Carbonic anhydrases: novel therapeutic applications for inhibitors and activators," Nature Reviews Drug ... Saccharin Sulfonamides as Inhibitors of Carbonic Anhydrases I, II, VII, XII, and XIII. Vaida Morkūnaitė,1 Lina Baranauskienė,1 ...
Carbonic Anhydrase I from human erythrocytes for your research needs. Find product specific information including CAS, MSDS, ... Carbonic Anhydrase I from human erythrocytes Synonym: Carbonate Dehydratase, Carbonate Hydrolyase, Carbonic Anhydrase Isozyme I ... Carbonic Anhydrase, Cell Signaling Enzymes, Enzyme Class Index, Enzymes, Inhibitors, and Substrates, Human Carbonic Anhydrase, ... Carbonic anhydrase from human erythrocytes (HCA) has been used to study the molten-globule state of carbonic anhydrase (CA). ...
A key component to this tumor microenvironment is carbonic anhydrase IX (CA IX). Knockdown of CA IX expression or inhibition of ... Keywords: carbonic anhydrase IX; tumor hypoxia; prodrug; sulfonamide; RNAi-technology; cancer carbonic anhydrase IX; tumor ... Mahon, B.P.; Pinard, M.A.; McKenna, R. Targeting Carbonic Anhydrase IX Activity and Expression. Molecules 2015, 20, 2323-2348. ... A key component to this tumor microenvironment is carbonic anhydrase IX (CA IX). Knockdown of CA IX expression or inhibition of ...
Elevated serum anti-carbonic anhydrase II antibodies in patients with ulcerative colitis ... The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence of anti-carbonic anhydrase (CA) I and anti-CA II antibodies in a series of ...
Two of these interactors, βCA1 and βCA2, are β-carbonic anhydrase family proteins. Since double mutant βca1 βca2 plants did not ... These findings suggest that one of the functions of carbonic anhydrases is to modulate the perception of SA in plants. ...
... of carbonic anhydrase. The closing chapter discusses carbonic anhydrases in chloroplasts, especially their location in the ... Carbonic Anhydrases: Biochemistry, Mechanism of Action and Therapeutic Applications. Joni Penttinen(Editor) ... Chapter 1. Carbonic Anhydrase IX and Hypoxia. (Ingeborg Rezuchova and Jaromir Pastorek, Institute of Virology, Biomedical ... In this compilation, the authors address the relationship between carbonic anhydrase IX and hypoxia. Hypoxia is a key factor ...
  • Inhibitors of carbonic anhydrase are used to treat glaucoma, the excessive build up of water in the eyes. (wikipedia.org)
  • X-ray crystal structures of carbonic anhydrase II (CAII) complexed with sulfonamide inhibitors illuminate the structural determinants of high affinity binding in the nanomolar regime. (rcsb.org)
  • Generally carbonic anhydrase inhibitors are used to treat epilepsy , glaucoma , mountain sickness, and is used as a diuretic. (drugs.com)
  • Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors decrease aqueous production by inhibiting ion transport associated with the secretion of aqueous humor. (aao.org)
  • Osmotic agents and carbonic anhydrase inhibitors are part of established protocols at many centers. (tripdatabase.com)
  • Müller cells have bicarbonate-related transport mechanisms that control movement of potassium and sodium ions (and thus fluid), partly explaining the role for carbonic anhydrase inhibitors such as acetazolamide in the treatment of cystoid macular edema. (tripdatabase.com)
  • A series of modified saccharin sulfonamides have been designed as carbonic anhydrase (CA) inhibitors and synthesized. (hindawi.com)
  • 1.Cowan RA, Hartnell GG, Lowdell CP, Baird IM, Leak AM. Metabolic acidosis induced by carbonic anhydrase inhibitors and salicylates in patients with normal renal function. (webmd.com)
  • Toxicity of combined therapy with carbonic anhydrase inhibitors and aspirin. (webmd.com)
  • Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors are used to treat glaucoma. (mayoclinic.org)
  • Medications used to decrease aqueous production include beta-blockers (topical), carbonic anhydrase inhibitors (topical and/or oral), and alpha 2-agonists. (medscape.com)
  • Zinc Binding Functions in the Design of Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitors (Jean-Yves Winum, Jean-Louis Montero, Andrea Scozzafava, and Claudiu T. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • X-Ray Crystallography of Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitors and Its Importance in Drug Design (Vincenzo Alterio, Anna Di Fiore, Katia D'Ambrosio, Claudiu T. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Topical carbonic anhydrase inhibitors (dorzolamide, brinzolamide) are used as second-line therapy in the treatment of POAG. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Many current treatments to lower intraocular pressure (IOP) associated with glaucoma -- beta blockers and carbonic anhydrase inhibitors --work by suppressing the production or inflow of fluid (aqueous humor). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Glaucoma Pharmaceuticals Markets, forecasts the market and identifies key issues, trends, and competitive analysis for such products as: pilocarpine drugs, andrenergic agonists, beta blockers, carbonic anhydrase inhibitors (CAI) and prostaglandin analogues. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Which medications in the drug class Antiglaucoma, Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitors are used in the treatment of Sturge-Weber Syndrome? (medscape.com)
  • Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors typically have a weaker effect than beta blockers. (medscape.com)
  • Carborane-based compounds have emerged as promising lead structures for the development of carbonic anhydrase (CA) inhibitors. (linkos.cz)
  • Diamox (acetazolamide), Pentazane (methazolamide), and other agents used in the treatment of glaucoma and diseases of the retina and nervous system are examples of especially active carbonic anhydrase inhibitors. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Water permeability of AQP1 cRNA injected oocytes was inhibited by three different carbonic anhydrase inhibitors. (arvojournals.org)
  • TY - JOUR T1 - 4-Functionalized 1,3-diarylpyrazoles bearing 6-aminosulfonylbenzothiazole moiety as potent inhibitors of carbonic anhydrase isoforms hCA I, II, IX and XII. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Structure-activity relationships rationalize affinity trends observed during the development of brinzolamide (Azopt), the newest carbonic anhydrase inhibitor approved for the treatment of glaucoma. (rcsb.org)
  • Carbonic anhydrase inhibitor anticonvulsants inhibit the enzyme carbonic anhydrase. (drugs.com)
  • dorzolamide/timolol) Alpha agonist/ carbonic anhydrase inhibitor (eg, brimonidine/brinzolamide) Laser therapy Laser can be used as primary or adjunctive treatment. (tripdatabase.com)
  • This book offers deep insights into the thermodynamics and molecular structures of the twelve catalytically active isoforms of human carbonic anhydrase (CA) with a particular focus on inhibitor binding for drug design. (springer.com)
  • Intrinsic thermodynamics of sulfonamide inhibitor binding to human carbonic anhydrases I and II. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Dorzolamide is a reversible carbonic anhydrase inhibitor that may decrease aqueous humor secretion, causing a decrease in IOP. (medscape.com)
  • The purpose of this paper is to present a novel ophthalmic composition comprising a hyperbranched polymer with carbonic anhydrase inhibitor (CAI). (arvojournals.org)
  • Earlier reports have claimed that acetazolamide, a carbonic anhydrase (CA) inhibitor, inhibits AQP1 activity. (arvojournals.org)
  • The carbonic anhydrases (or carbonate dehydratases) form a family of enzymes that catalyze the interconversion between carbon dioxide and water and the dissociated ions of carbonic acid (i.e. bicarbonate and hydrogen ions). (wikipedia.org)
  • Relating the Bohr Effect to carbonic anhydrase is simple: carbonic anhydrase speeds up the reaction of carbon dioxide reacting with water to produce hydrogen ions (protons) and bicarbonate ions. (wikipedia.org)
  • CO2 + H2O Carbonic acid has a pKa of around 6.36 (the exact value depends on the medium), so at pH 7 a small percentage of the bicarbonate is protonated. (wikipedia.org)
  • Carbonic anhydrases (CAs, EC 4.2.1.1) are zinc enzymes acting as efficient catalysts for the reversible hydration of carbon dioxide to bicarbonate. (nih.gov)
  • During an episode, people with carbonic anhydrase VA deficiency have excess ammonia in the blood (hyperammonemia), problems with acid-base balance in the blood (metabolic acidosis and respiratory alkalosis), low glucose in the blood (hypoglycemia), and reduced production of a substance called bicarbonate in the liver. (medlineplus.gov)
  • This gene provides instructions for making the carbonic anhydrase VA enzyme, which helps convert carbon dioxide to a substance called bicarbonate. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The carbonic anhydrase VA enzyme is particularly important in the liver, where it provides bicarbonate needed by four enzymes in the energy-producing centers of cells (mitochondria). (medlineplus.gov)
  • Mutations in the CA5A gene result in absent or impaired carbonic anhydrase VA enzyme function, leading to reduced bicarbonate production. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Insufficient bicarbonate results in impaired control of acid-base balance and reduces the activity of the four affected mitochondrial enzymes, resulting in the various biochemical abnormalities associated with carbonic anhydrase VA deficiency. (medlineplus.gov)
  • In the lungs carbonic anhydrase converts bicarbonate to carbon dioxide, suited for exhalation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Carbonic anhydrases (CAs, EC 4.2.1.1) are metalloenzymes which catalyze the hydration of carbon dioxide to bicarbonate and protons. (mdpi.com)
  • Carbonic anhydrases (CAs) belong to the lyase family of enzymes and catalyze the reversible reaction of carbon dioxide hydration to bicarbonate ion and proton. (hindawi.com)
  • The enzyme Carbonic anhydrase 2 (CA2) belongs to the enzyme group that catalyzes rapid inter-conversion of carbon dioxide and water to carbonic acid, bicarbonate, and protons (CO 2 + H 2 O to HCO 3 + H), a reaction that takes place rather gradually in the absence of a catalyst. (news-medical.net)
  • Carbonic anhydrase (CA) are enzymes which catalyze the interconversion of CO2 and water to bicarbonate and proton. (proteopedia.org)
  • it was proposed that carbonic anhydrase prevents depletion of bicarbonate during cyanate decomposition due to loss of CO2 by diffusion out of the cell (M. B. Guilloton, J. J. Korte, A. F. Lamblin, J. A. Fuchs, and P. M. Anderson, J. Biol. (asm.org)
  • The carbonic anhydrases (CAs) are a family of metalloenzymes that catalyze the reversible hydration of carbon dioxide to bicarbonate and a proton. (coronetbooks.com)
  • By slowing the formation of bicarbonate ions, causing a reduction in sodium and fluid transport, these agents may inhibit carbonic anhydrase in the ciliary processes of the eye. (medscape.com)
  • Systemic absorption can affect carbonic anhydrase in the kidney, reducing hydrogen ion secretion at the renal tubule and increasing renal excretion of sodium, potassium bicarbonate, and water. (medscape.com)
  • The CA8 gene encodes carbonic anhydrase VIII (CARP VIII), which is part of a family of zinc metalloenzymes that catalyze the reversible hydration of bicarbonate. (cags.org.ae)
  • CA, also known as carbonic anhydrase is an enzyme that functions around the involvement of CO2 + H2O to HCO3- + H+ (conversion of CO2 to bicarbonate & protons). (prospecbio.com)
  • Carbonic anhydrase, a zinc enzyme catalyzing the interconversion of carbon dioxide and bicarbonate, is nearly ubiquitous in the tissues of highly evolved eukaryotes. (asm.org)
  • Carbonic anhydrase (carbonate dehydratase) is a family of metalloenzymes (enzymes that contain one or more metal atoms as a functional component of the enzyme) that catalyze the rapid (and reversible) conversion of carbon dioxide to bicarbonate and protons, a reaction that occurs rather slowly in the absence of a catalyst. (prospecbio.com)
  • This is the reaction that integrates CO 2 into ________ sugars during photosynthesis , and can use only the CO 2 form of carbon, not carbonic acid or bicarbonate. (thefullwiki.org)
  • Carbonic anhydrase (CA) is an enzyme that assists rapid interconversion of carbon dioxide and water into carbonic acid, protons, and bicarbonate ions. (ihcworld.com)
  • In C 4 photosynthesis, the enzyme carbonic anhydrase (CA) hydrates CO 2 to form bicarbonate, which is the first catalyzed step in the C 4 photosynthetic pathway ( Badger, 1994 ). (plantphysiol.org)
  • Carbonic anhydrase 9 (CA9/CAIX) is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CA9 gene . (wikipedia.org)
  • Carbonic anhydrase VA deficiency is caused by mutations in the CA5A gene. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Studies suggest that a related enzyme produced from the CA5B gene may increasingly compensate for the lack of carbonic anhydrase VA as affected individuals mature, which may result in a reduced risk of metabolic crisis and acute encephalopathy after childhood. (medlineplus.gov)
  • A gene homologous to chloroplast carbonic anhydrase (icfA) is essential to photosynthetic carbon dioxide fixation by Synechococcus PCC7942. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Functional diversity, conservation, and convergence in the evolution of the alpha-, beta-, and gamma-carbonic anhydrase gene families. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Carbonic anhydrases (CAs I-VII) are products of a gene family that encodes seven isozymes and several homologous, CA- related proteins. (nih.gov)
  • Lai LW, Chan DM, Erickson RP, Hsu SJ, Lien YHH (1998) Correction of renal tubular acidosis in carbonic anhydrase II-deficient mice with gene therapy. (springer.com)
  • SHUES1 was the presence of carbonic anhydrase gene in it. (frontiersin.org)
  • A gene on chromosome 16q22.1 that encodes a carbonic anhydrase, a zinc metalloenzyme that catalyses the reversible hydration of carbon dioxide. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The protein encoded by this gene is one of several isozymes of carbonic anhydrase. (thermofisher.com)
  • Using a paleogenomics approach, including gene- and protein-expression techniques and phylogenetic reconstruction, we show that a molecular component of this toolkit was the precursor to the α-carbonic anhydrases (α-CAs), a gene family used by extant animals in a variety of fundamental physiological processes. (sciencemag.org)
  • Nonetheless, the gene product continues to carry a carbonic anhydrase designation because it showed a clear sequence identity to other members of the carbonic anhydrase gene family. (cags.org.ae)
  • Carbonic anhydrase II deficiency syndrome or Marble brain disease (MBD) is caused by autosomal recessive mutations in the human carbonic anhydrase II (HCA II) gene. (diva-portal.org)
  • The rare disease marble brain disease (MBD) also known as carbonic anhydrase II deficiency syndrome (CADS) can manifest in carriers of point mutations in the human carbonic anhydrase II (HCA II) gene. (diva-portal.org)
  • Girentuximab , an antibody to carbonic anhydrase IX, is an investigational agent in clinical trials for renal cell carcinoma . (wikipedia.org)
  • Flow cytometric analysis of rabbit anti-Carbonic Anhydrase IX (SP106) antibody ab105226 (1/100) in HT29 cells (green) compared to negative control of rabbit IgG (blue). (abcam.com)
  • We offer Carbonic Anhydrase IX/CA9 Antibody Pairs for use in common research applications: Sandwich ELISA. (novusbio.com)
  • Each Carbonic Anhydrase IX/CA9 Antibody Pair is fully covered by our Guarantee+, to give you complete peace of mind and the support when you need it. (novusbio.com)
  • Our Carbonic Anhydrase IX/CA9 Antibody Pairs can be used in a variety of model species: Human. (novusbio.com)
  • Choose from our Carbonic Anhydrase IX/CA9 Antibody Pairs. (novusbio.com)
  • Carbonic Anhydrase VB/CA5B Polyclonal antibody specifically detects Carbonic Anhydrase VB/CA5B in Human samples. (fishersci.com)
  • The following product was used in this experiment: Carbonic Anhydrase VI Monoclonal Antibody (401809) from Thermo Fisher Scientific, catalog # MA5-24136, RRID AB_2609157. (thermofisher.com)
  • The following product was used in this experiment: Carbonic Anhydrase II Recombinant Rabbit Monoclonal Antibody (2) from Thermo Fisher Scientific, catalog # MA5-30206, RRID AB_2785968. (thermofisher.com)
  • This antibody has specificity for Mouse Carbonic Anhydrase II/CA2. (thermofisher.com)
  • IHC-P analysis of human spleen using GTX88385 Carbonic Anhydrase 1 antibody, Internal. (genetex.com)
  • WB analysis of human liver lysate using GTX88385 Carbonic Anhydrase 1 antibody, Internal. (genetex.com)
  • The most critical function of Carbonic anhydrase is said to preserve acid-base balance in blood and other tissues, and to help convey carbon dioxide of tissues. (news-medical.net)
  • CAIX is a transmembrane protein and is a tumor-associated carbonic anhydrase isoenzyme. (wikipedia.org)
  • This superfamily also includes the Bacillus subtilis protein YbcF that does not seem to be able to bind zinc, which all carbonic anhydrases are thought to require, and a carbon disulfide hydrolase from acidothermophilic archaeon Acidianus, which has a typical carbonic anhydrase fold and active site but does not use CO(2) as a substrate [ PMID: 22012399 ]. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • A carbonic anhydrase-like domain with striking homology to that of the alpha class carbonic anhydrases is also found in receptor-type tyrosine-protein phosphatase gamma and zeta. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Crystal structure of the dimeric extracellular domain of human carbonic anhydrase XII, a bitopic membrane protein overexpressed in certain cancer tumor cells. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • In every living organism, the protein family of carbonic anhydrases regulate a broad variety of homeostatic processes. (biomedsearch.com)
  • People who hyperventilate deplete their levels of red cell carbonic anhydrase and the ratio between the activity and the protein gives us a good indication of whether or not hyperventilation is a problem. (drmyhill.co.uk)
  • moreover, a protein cross-reacting to antiserum raised against the γ carbonic anhydrase from Methanosarcina thermophila was detected. (asm.org)
  • Carbonic anhydrase is one of the fastest enzymes, and its rate is typically limited by the diffusion rate of its substrates. (wikipedia.org)
  • Here, we review the current understanding of diversity and function of carbonic anhydrases in corals and discuss the perspective of theses enzymes as a key to understanding impacts of environmental changes on coral reefs. (nih.gov)
  • There are two enzymes, urease, and carbonic anhydrase, that play an important role in the MICP process. (frontiersin.org)
  • Carbonic anhydrases from mammals (including the 10 active human isoforms) ( 22 , 39 ) together with the two periplasmic enzymes from the unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii ( 16 , 17 ) belong to the α class. (asm.org)
  • The structure of the prototype γ carbonic anhydrase from M. thermophila has recently been solved and found to be entirely different from those of the α-class enzymes ( 31 ). (asm.org)
  • Although a three-dimensional structure has yet to be determined for a β carbonic anhydrase, extended X-ray absorption fine structure and circular dichroism of the plant enzyme indicate that the zinc coordination and overall structure are quite different from those for either the α- or γ-class enzymes ( 10 , 42 ). (asm.org)
  • Carbonic anhydrase (CA) (EC 4.2.1.1) enzymes catalyze the reversible hydration of CO 2 , a reaction that is important in many physiological processes. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Carbonic anhydrases (CAs, EC 4.2.1.1) are ubiquitous enzymes that catalyze the reversible hydration reaction of carbon dioxide. (uta.fi)
  • The effect of carbonic anhydrase inhibition with acetazolamide (Acz, 10 mg/kg) on the ventilatory response to an abrupt switch into hyperoxia (end-tidal PO2 = 450 Torr) and hypoxia (end-tidal PO2 = 50 Torr) was examined in five male subjects [30 +/- 3 (SE) yr]. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The CAIs inhibit the enzyme carbonic anhydrase, which in turn, reduces aqueous humor formation. (medrounds.org)
  • Dorzolamide inhibits carbonic anhydrase in the ciliary processes, which decreases aqueous humor formation. (medscape.com)
  • An enzyme which aids carbon dioxide transport and release by catalyzing the synthesis, and the dehydration, of carbonic acid from, and to, carbon dioxide and water. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • carboanhydrase, carbonate hydrolase, an enzyme of the lyase class that catalyzes the reversible formation of carbonic acid from carbon dioxide and water: CO 2 + H 2 O ⇄H 2 CO 3 . (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Human carbonic anhydrase (CA) I and II are cytosolic proteins, where their expression disorders can cause diseases such as glaucoma, edema, epilepsy or cancer. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • The Arabidopsis CAH1 alpha-type carbonic anhydrase is one of the few plant proteins known to be targeted to the chloroplast through the secretory pathway. (diva-portal.org)
  • Carbonic anhydrase isozyme CA3 protects cells against oxidative stress. (scirp.org)
  • By this second component of the mechanism, the same stimulus directly acts on the carbonic anhydrase I isozyme (that might be functionally coupled with adrenergic receptors), so that its activation ensures an adequate pH for stimulus-receptor coupling for signal transduction into the cell, resulting in vasoconstriction. (scielo.br)
  • Carbonic anhydrase isozyme II (CA II) is a cytosolic enzyme that is highly expressed in most organs, including the brain, where it is mainly located in the oligodendrocytes. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • A recent study on dendritic cell therapy for melanoma patients identified carbonic anhydrase isozyme II (CA II) as a potential target antigen. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Structure and mechanism of carbonic anhydrase. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • A review is provided focusing on the sequence of elementary reactions ensuing a catalytic reaction (catalytic mechanism) of carbonic anhydrase. (novapublishers.com)
  • Lindskog S. Structure and mechanism of carbonic anhydrase. (proteopedia.org)
  • Ingle R, Colman B (1976) The relationship between carbonic anhydrase activity and glycolate excretion in the blue-green alga Coccochloris peniocystis . (springer.com)
  • In this compilation, the authors address the relationship between carbonic anhydrase IX and hypoxia. (novapublishers.com)
  • Carbonic anhydrase is a zinc metalloenzyme that has a molecular weight of approximately 30,000 Da. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • La cuticule de l'écrevisse Procambarus clarkii (Girard, 1852) contient plusieurs isoenzymes extracellulaires de l'anhydrase carbonique (CA), qui ont été isolées et purifiées par chromatographie. (brillonline.com)
  • Les poids moléculaires estimées en utilisant PAGE, ont révélé une isoenzyme avec un poids moléculaire de 29 kDa, qui est analogue à celle trouvée chez les Vertébrés, et deux plus grands isoenzymes (53 et 66 kDa). (brillonline.com)
  • In addition, there are given some chemical and kinetic basis and technical details related to phenolic antioxidant compounds and carbonic anhydrase isoenzymes. (eurekaselect.com)
  • Several aromatic/heterocyclic sulfonamide scaffolds have been used to synthesize compounds incorporating NO-donating moieties of the nitrate ester type, which have been investigated for the inhibition of five physiologically relevant human carbonic anhydrase (hCA, EC 4.2.1.1) isoforms: hCA I (offtarget), II, IV and XII (antiglaucoma targets) and IX (antitumor target). (rcsb.org)
  • Inhibition studies of physiologically relevant human carbonic anhydrase (CA, EC 4.2.1.1) isoforms, such as CA I, II, IX, XII and XIV with these compounds are reported. (nih.gov)
  • Carbonic anhydrases catalyze the reversible hydration of CO(2) [CO(2)+H(2)Oright harpoon over left harpoon HCO(3)(-)+H(+)]. Since the discovery of this zinc (Zn) metalloenzyme in erythrocytes over 65 years ago, carbonic anhydrase has not only been found in virtually all mammalian tissues but is also abundant in plants and green unicellular algae. (nih.gov)
  • Carbonic anhydrase is a metalloenzyme that requires Zn as a cofactor and is involved in diverse biological processes including pH regulation, CO 2 transfer, ionic exchange, respiration, CO 2 photosynthetic fixation, and stomatal closure. (scielo.cl)
  • Class one being alpha carbonic anhydrase which is found in mammals, class two being beta carbonic anhydrase which is found in bacteria and plants and lastly, class three which is gamma carbonic anhydrase which is found in methanogen bacteria in hot springs. (wikipedia.org)
  • For full entry on γ-carbonic anhydrase see Gamma Carbonic Anhydrase . (proteopedia.org)
  • Belongs to the alpha-carbonic anhydrase family. (abcam.com)
  • Contains 1 alpha-carbonic anhydrase domain. (abcam.com)
  • In addition, some prokaryotes contain multiple genes encoding carbonic anhydrases from the same class. (nih.gov)
  • Investigations into prokaryotic carbonic anhydrase have already led to the identification of a new class (gamma) and future research will undoubtedly reveal novel functions for carbonic anhydrase in prokaryotes. (nih.gov)
  • β-carbonic anhydrase are found in prokaryotes. (proteopedia.org)
  • Carbonic anhydrases (CA) are zinc metalloenzymes that are present in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. (biomedsearch.com)
  • These results show that β-class carbonic anhydrases extend not only into the Archaea domain but also into the thermophilic prokaryotes. (asm.org)
  • The binding of four saccharin sulfonamides (including saccharin itself, chemical structures shown in Figure 1 ) to five isoforms of human recombinant catalytic domains of carbonic anhydrases (CAs) was determined by the fluorescent thermal shift assay (FTSA) and isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC). (hindawi.com)
  • The Human Recombinant Carbonic Anhydrase (CA) 2 preserves acid-base balance in blood and other tissues. (news-medical.net)
  • Carbonic anhydrase III Human Recombinant produced in E.Coli, and having a molecular mass of 33.9 kDa. (prospecbio.com)
  • During the past 10 years, immunocytochemical methods have been used for localization of carbonic anhydrase (CA) in glial cells and myelin in the mammalian central nervous system. (springer.com)
  • Graham D, Reed M (1971) Carbonic anhydrase and the regulation of photosynthesis. (springer.com)
  • These studies have also demonstrated the involvement of carbonic anhydrase in the regulation of vascular and secretory processes in the organism (14). (scielo.br)
  • cDNA cloning, sequence, and expression of carbonic anhydrase in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii: regulation by environmental CO2 concentration. (pnas.org)
  • Carbonic anhydrase (CA) catalyzes the hydration of CO 2 , and its activity has been linked to stomatal aperture regulation in eudicots. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Tashian RE (1992) Genetics of the mammalian carbonic-anhydrases. (springer.com)
  • Chemometrical-electrochemical investigation for comparing inhibitory effects of quercetin and its sulfonamide derivative on human carbonic anhydrase II: Theoretical and experimental evidence. (bioportfolio.com)
  • This paper reports results of a valuable study on investigation of inhibitory effects of the sulfonamide derivative of quercetin (QD) on human carbonic anhydrase II (CA-II) by electrochemical and chemometrical approaches. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Synthesis of carbazole bearing pyridopyrimidine-substituted sulfonamide derivatives and studies their carbonic anhydrase enzyme activity. (bioportfolio.com)
  • The synthesis of carbazole containing pyridopyrimidine-substituted sulfonamide derivatives (3a-i) and their inhibitory effects on human carbonic anhydrase (hCA) I and II were studied. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Carbonic anhydrases (CAs) are a large family of zinc metalloenzymes that catalyze the reversible hydration of carbon dioxide. (wikipedia.org)
  • Carbonic anhydrases ( EC:4.2.1.1 ) (CA) are zinc metalloenzymes which catalyze the reversible hydration of carbon dioxide. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • The majority of carbonic anhydrases enclose a zinc ion in their active site and thus is categorized as metalloenzymes. (news-medical.net)
  • Prokaryotic carbonic anhydrases. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Recent work has shown that carbonic anhydrase is widespread in metabolically diverse species from both the Archaea and Bacteria domains indicating that the enzyme has a more extensive and fundamental role in prokaryotic biology than previously recognized. (nih.gov)
  • Even though most of the information known about the function(s) of carbonic anhydrase primarily relates to its role in cyanobacterial CO(2) fixation, the prokaryotic enzyme has also been shown to function in cyanate degradation and the survival of intracellular pathogens within their host. (nih.gov)
  • Carbonic anhydrase is nearly ubquitous in highly evolved eukaryotes, but until recently the enzyme was thought to play a minor role in prokaryotic physiology ( 48 ). (asm.org)
  • Four prokaryotic carbonic anhydrases from species in the Bacteria domain, two belonging to the α class and two belonging to the β class, have been described ( 13 , 20 , 49 , 50 ). (asm.org)
  • Carbonic anhydrase is a zinc-containing enzyme that catalyzes the reversible hydration of CO 2 (CO 2 + H 2 O ⇋ HCO 3 − + H + ). In eukaryotes, the enzyme participates in various physiological functions, which include the interconversion of CO 2 and HCO 3 − during photosynthesis and intermediary metabolism, facilitated diffusion of CO 2 , pH homeostasis, and ion transport ( 5 , 45 ). (asm.org)
  • CAIX is a transmembrane isoform of carbonic anhydrase with an extracellular-facing catalytic site and therefore is well positioned to act in the control of tumor pH, and is overexpressed in various solid tumors. (linkos.cz)
  • Sulfonamides incorporating 1,3,5-triazine moieties selectively and potently inhibit carbonic anhydrase transmembrane isoforms IX, XII and XIV over cytosolic isoforms I and II: Solution and X-ray crystallographic studies. (nih.gov)
  • Carbonic anhydrases play major roles in those two essential processes of coral's physiology: they are involved in the carbon supply for calcium carbonate precipitation as well as in carbon-concentrating mechanisms for symbiont photosynthesis. (nih.gov)
  • Ohlsson A, Cumming WA, Paul A, Sly WS (1986) Carbonic anhydrase-II deficiency syndrome -recessive osteopetrosis with renal tubular-acidosis and cerebral calcification. (springer.com)
  • Lewis SE, Erickson RP, Barnett LB, Venta PJ, Tashian RE (1988) N-Ethyl-N-nitrosourea induced null mutation at the mouse car-2 locus-an animal-model for human carbonic anhydrase-II deficiency syndrome. (springer.com)
  • Carbonic anhydrase II deficiency syndrome is a recessive disorder that causes osteopetrosis, renal acidosis and cerebral calcification. (proteopedia.org)
  • The delta cynT chromosomal mutant expressed an active cyanase but no active carbonic anhydrase. (asm.org)
  • The main role of carbonic anhydrase in humans is to catalyze the conversion of carbon dioxide to carbonic acid and back again. (wikipedia.org)
  • Therefore, the role of carbonic anhydrase depends on where it is found in the body. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hogetsu D, Miyachi S (1979) Role of carbonic anhydrase in photosynthetic CO 2 fixation in Chlorella . (springer.com)
  • Mammalian carbonic anhydrase is monomeric and is a part of the alpha class. (news-medical.net)
  • however, only nine alpha class carbonic anhydrase genes have thus far been found in the Bacteria domain and none in the Archaea domain. (nih.gov)
  • γ-carbonic anhydrase are found in methane-producing bacteria. (proteopedia.org)
  • A key component to this tumor microenvironment is carbonic anhydrase IX (CA IX). (mdpi.com)
  • Carbonic anhydrase helps maintain acid-base homeostasis, regulate pH, and fluid balance. (wikipedia.org)
  • Carbonic anhydrase (CA) is a seemingly ubiquitous enzyme of profound physiological importance, which plays essential roles in respiration, acid-base homeostasis, bone resorption, calcification, photosynthesis, several biosynthetic pathways and a variety of processes involving ion, gas and fluid transfer. (springer.com)
  • Carbonic anhydrase 5 regulates acid-base homeostasis in zebrafish. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Carbonic anhydrase (CA) is a zinc-enzyme discovered by Meldrum and Roughton in 1932 which catalyzes the reversible hydration reaction of CO 2 , having a main role in the maintenance of acid-basic equilibrium (7). (scielo.br)
  • Catalyzes a reversible reaction where carbon dioxide becomes hydrated and carbonic acid dehydrated. (medscape.com)
  • Catalyzes reversible reaction involving hydration of carbon dioxide and dehydration of carbonic acid. (medscape.com)
  • Carbonic anhydrase catalyzes reversible hydration of carbon dioxide. (thermofisher.com)
  • Although CA8 has a central carbonic anhydrase motif, it lacks classical carbonic anhydrase activity (i.e., the reversible hydration of carbon dioxide) due to the absence of one or more histidine residues required for binding to the zinc ion, which is critical for CO2 hydration activity. (cags.org.ae)
  • Carbonic anhydrase (CA) is an enzyme that rapidly catalyzes the reversible hydration of carbon dioxide (CO2) in aqueous solutions. (genscript.com)
  • carbonic anhydrase assists Carbonic Anhydrase I to move CO2 to and from tissues. (prospecbio.com)
  • Carbonic anhydrases have a widespread role in regulating pH in normal tissues, by regulating hydrogen ion (H+) flux. (ihcworld.com)
  • Erythrocytic carbonic anhydrase provides for the bonding of CO 2 with blood in the tissues and for its rapid release in the lungs or branchia. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • However, carbonic anhydrase attenuated post-exercise increases in PaCO2 and decreases in pHa by about 50 % without altering arterial O2 variables, red cell swelling or the intracellular pH of the brain or muscle tissues. (biologists.org)
  • Carbonic anhydrase in Escherichia coli. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • A physiological role for cyanate-induced carbonic anhydrase in Escherichia coli. (asm.org)
  • Rickli E, Ghazanfar S, Gibbons B, Edsall J (1964) Carbonic anhydrases from human erythrocytes. (springer.com)
  • Carbonic anhydrase from human erythrocytes (HCA) has been used to study the molten-globule state of carbonic anhydrase (CA). Chaperone-like α-crystallin binds to this state of the enzyme and prevents its aggregation. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • A cytosolic carbonic anhydrase isoenzyme primarily expressed in Erythrocytes , vascular endothelial cells, and the gastrointestinal mucosa. (jove.com)
  • In clinical studies carbonic anhydrase I from erythrocytes increased by 87% after noradrenaline administration, by 71% after orciprenaline and by 82% after isoprenaline. (scielo.br)
  • Carbonic anhydrase is found in erythrocytes and in cells of the kidneys, the gastric mucosa, and the retina of the eye. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The enzyme catalyzes the hydration of carbon dioxide to carbonic acid. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Identification of a carbonic anhydrase-like domain in the extracellular region of RPTP gamma defines a new subfamily of receptor tyrosine phosphatases. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • In the CA1 region of the hippocampus, stimulation of the Schaffer collaterals elicits an alkaline pH e transient in stratum radiatum that is limited by extracellular carbonic anhydrase (ECA). (jneurosci.org)
  • This form of alkalosis increases when extracellular carbonic anhydrase (ECA) is inhibited by drugs such as benzolamide ( Chen and Chesler, 1992b ). (jneurosci.org)
  • The cuticle of the freshwater crayfish, Procambarus clarkii (Girard, 1852), has several extracellular, cuticular isozymes for carbonic anhydrase (CA) which were isolated and purified via affinity chromatography. (brillonline.com)
  • We have hypothesized that carbonic anhydrases (CAs) play a role in stabilizing both intracellular and extracellular pH to favor cancer progression and metastasis. (portlandpress.com)