A family of zinc-containing enzymes that catalyze the reversible hydration of carbon dioxide. They play an important role in the transport of CARBON DIOXIDE from the tissues to the LUNG. EC 4.2.1.1.
A membrane-bound carbonic anhydrase found in lung capillaries and kidney.
A cytosolic carbonic anhydrase isoenzyme found widely distributed in cells of almost all tissues. Deficiencies of carbonic anhydrase II produce a syndrome characterized by OSTEOPETROSIS, renal tubular acidosis (ACIDOSIS, RENAL TUBULAR) and cerebral calcification. EC 4.2.1.-
A cytosolic carbonic anhydrase isoenzyme primarily expressed in ERYTHROCYTES, vascular endothelial cells, and the gastrointestinal mucosa. EC 4.2.1.-
A class of compounds that reduces the secretion of H+ ions by the proximal kidney tubule through inhibition of CARBONIC ANHYDRASES.
A carbonic anhydrase isoenzyme found in MITOCHONDRIA where it provides bicarbonate ions that are components in the urea cycle and in GLUCONEOGENESIS.
Inorganic salts that contain the -HCO3 radical. They are an important factor in determining the pH of the blood and the concentration of bicarbonate ions is regulated by the kidney. Levels in the blood are an index of the alkali reserve or buffering capacity.
A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
One of the CARBONIC ANHYDRASE INHIBITORS that is sometimes effective against absence seizures. It is sometimes useful also as an adjunct in the treatment of tonic-clonic, myoclonic, and atonic seizures, particularly in women whose seizures occur or are exacerbated at specific times in the menstrual cycle. However, its usefulness is transient often because of rapid development of tolerance. Its antiepileptic effect may be due to its inhibitory effect on brain carbonic anhydrase, which leads to an increased transneuronal chloride gradient, increased chloride current, and increased inhibition. (From Smith and Reynard, Textbook of Pharmacology, 1991, p337)
A metallic element of atomic number 30 and atomic weight 65.38. It is a necessary trace element in the diet, forming an essential part of many enzymes, and playing an important role in protein synthesis and in cell division. Zinc deficiency is associated with ANEMIA, short stature, HYPOGONADISM, impaired WOUND HEALING, and geophagia. It is known by the symbol Zn.
Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
An order of fungi in the phylum ASCOMYCOTA that includes many valuable experimental organisms. There are eight families and very few anamorphic forms.
The fruiting 'heads' or 'caps' of FUNGI, which as a food item are familiarly known as MUSHROOMS, that contain the FUNGAL SPORES.
A group of compounds that contain the structure SO2NH2.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.

Does gill boundary layer carbonic anhydrase contribute to carbon dioxide excretion: a comparison between dogfish (Squalus acanthias) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). (1/1306)

In vivo experiments were conducted on spiny dogfish (Squalus acanthias) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) in sea water to determine the potential role of externally oriented or gill boundary layer carbonic anhydrase in carbon dioxide excretion. This was accomplished by assessing pH changes in expired water using a stopped-flow apparatus. In dogfish, expired water was in acid-base disequilibrium as indicated by a pronounced acidification (delta pH=-0.11+/-0.01; N=22; mean +/- s.e.m.) during the period of stopped flow; inspired water, however, was in acid-base equilibrium (delta pH=-0.002+/-0.01; N=22). The acid-base disequilibrium in expired water was abolished (delta pH=-0.005+/-0.01; N=6) by the addition of bovine carbonic anhydrase (5 mg l-1) to the external medium. Addition of the carbonic anhydrase inhibitor acetazolamide (1 mmol l-1) to the water significantly reduced the magnitude of the pH disequilibrium (from -0.133+/-0.03 to -0.063+/-0.02; N=4). However, after correcting for the increased buffering capacity of the water caused by acetazolamide, the acid-base disequilibrium during stopped flow was unaffected by this treatment (control delta [H+]=99.8+/-22.8 micromol l-1; acetazolamide delta [H+]=81.3+/-21.5 micromol l-1). In rainbow trout, expired water displayed an acid-base disequilibrium (delta pH=0.09+/-0.01; N=6) that also was abolished by the application of external carbonic anhydrase (delta pH=0.02+/-0.01). The origin of the expired water acid-base disequilibrium was investigated further in dogfish. Intravascular injection of acetazolamide (40 mg kg-1) to inhibit internal carbonic anhydrase activity non-specifically and thus CO2 excretion significantly diminished the extent of the expired water disequilibrium pH after 30 min (from -0.123+/-0.01 to -0.065+/-0.01; N=6). Selective inhibition of extracellular carbonic anhydrase activity using a low intravascular dose (1.3 mg kg-1) of the inhibitor benzolamide caused a significant reduction in the acid-base disequilibrium after 5 min (from -0.11+/-0.01 to -0.07+/-0. 01; N=14). These results demonstrate that the expired water acid-base disequilibrium originates, at least in part, from excretory CO2 and that extracellular carbonic anhydrase in dogfish may have a significant role in carbon dioxide excretion. However, externally oriented carbonic anhydrase (if present in dogfish) plays no role in catalysing the hydration of the excretory CO2 in water flowing over the gills and thus is unlikely to facilitate CO2 excretion.  (+info)

Role of a novel photosystem II-associated carbonic anhydrase in photosynthetic carbon assimilation in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. (2/1306)

Intracellular carbonic anhydrases (CA) in aquatic photosynthetic organisms are involved in the CO2-concentrating mechanism (CCM), which helps to overcome CO2 limitation in the environment. In the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, this CCM is initiated and maintained by the pH gradient created across the chloroplast thylakoid membranes by photosystem (PS) II-mediated electron transport. We show here that photosynthesis is stimulated by a novel, intracellular alpha-CA bound to the chloroplast thylakoids. It is associated with PSII on the lumenal side of the thylakoid membranes. We demonstrate that PSII in association with this lumenal CA operates to provide an ample flux of CO2 for carboxylation.  (+info)

Modulation of chloride, potassium and bicarbonate transport by muscarinic receptors in a human adenocarcinoma cell line. (3/1306)

1. Short-circuit current (I(SC)) responses to carbachol (CCh) were investigated in Colony 1 epithelia, a subpopulation of the HCA-7 adenocarcinoma cell line. In Krebs-Henseleit (KH) buffer, CCh responses consisted of three I(SC) components: an unusual rapid decrease (the 10 s spike) followed by an upward spike at 30 s and a slower transient increase (the 2 min peak). This response was not potentiated by forskolin; rather, CCh inhibited cyclic AMP-stimulated I(SC). 2. In HCO3- free buffer, the decrease in forskolin-elevated I(SC) after CCh was reduced, although the interactions between CCh and forskolin remained at best additive rather than synergistic. When Cl- anions were replaced by gluconate, both Ca2+- and cyclic AMP-mediated electrogenic responses were significantly inhibited. 3. Basolateral Ba2+ (1-10 mM) and 293B (10 microM) selectively inhibited forskolin stimulation of I(SC), without altering the effects of CCh. Under Ba2+- or 293B-treated conditions, CCh responses were potentiated by pretreatment with forskolin. 4. Basolateral charybdotoxin (50 nM) significantly increased the size of the 10 s spike of CCh responses in both KH and HCO3- free medium, without affecting the 2 min peak. The enhanced 10 s spike was inhibited by prior addition of 5 mM apical Ba2+. Charybdotoxin did not affect forskolin responses. 5. In epithelial layers prestimulated with forskolin, the muscarinic antagonists atropine and 4-diphenylacetoxy-N-methylpiperidine methiodide (4-DAMP, both at 100 nM) abolished subsequent 10 microM CCh responses. Following addition of p-fluoro hexahydro-sila-difenidol (pF-HHSiD, 10 microM) or pirenzepine (1 microM), qualitative changes in the CCh response time-profile also indicated a rightward shift of the agonist concentration-response curve; however, 1 microM gallamine had no effect. These results suggest that a single M3-like receptor subtype mediates the secretory response to CCh. 6. It is concluded that CCh and forskolin activate discrete populations of basolateral K+ channels gated by either Ca2+ or cyclic AMP, but that the Cl- permeability of the apical membrane may limit their combined effects on electrogenic Cl- secretion. In addition, CCh activates a Ba2+-sensitive apical K+ conductance leading to electrogenic K+ transport. Both agents may also modulate HCO3- secretion through a mechanism at least partially dependent on carbonic anhydrase.  (+info)

Carbonic anhydrase III protects cells from hydrogen peroxide-induced apoptosis. (4/1306)

Carbonic anhydrase III (CA III; EC 4.2.1.1) is a cytoplasmic enzyme that exhibits a relatively low carbon dioxide hydratase activity. It is expressed at a very high level in skeletal muscle, where physical exercise has been shown to increase free radical production. In this work we show the effect of overexpression of CA III on cellular response to oxidative stress. Rat CA III cDNA was transfected to NIH/3T3 cells, which have no endogenous CA III expression. The isolated clones expressed CA III mRNA and protein. The protein was localized to cytoplasm and nuclei. Compared to parental cells, transfected cells showed lower basal oxidized state as judged by measurement of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) using fluorescent dye and an image analysis system. Addition of exogenous H2O2 to cells induced a rapid increase of ROS in control but not in CA III overexpressing cells. Association of this phenomenon with CA III expression was further confirmed by showing that overexpression of CA II could not prevent H2O2-stimulated increase of ROS. In proliferation assays, CA III overexpressing cells grew faster and were more resistant to cytotoxic concentrations of H2O2 than control cells. After a 16 h exposure to oxidative stress, the number of apoptotic cells was also reduced in transfectants. Our results suggest that CA III functions as an oxyradical scavenger and thus protects cells from oxidative damage. A lower level of free radicals in CA III overexpressing cells may also affect growth signaling pathways.  (+info)

A novel role for carbonic anhydrase: cytoplasmic pH gradient dissipation in mouse small intestinal enterocytes. (5/1306)

1. The spatial and temporal distribution of intracellular H+ ions in response to activation of a proton-coupled dipeptide transporter localized at the apical pole of mouse small intestinal isolated enterocytes was investigated using intracellular carboxy-SNARF-1 fluorescence in combination with whole-cell microspectrofluorimetry or confocal microscopy. 2. In Hepes-buffered Tyrode solution, application of the dipeptide Phe-Ala (10 mM) to a single enterocyte reduced pHi locally in the apical submembranous space. After a short delay (8 s), a fall of pHi occurred more slowly at the basal pole. 3. In the presence of CO2/HCO3--buffered Tyrode solution, the apical and basal rates of acidification were not significantly different and the time delay was reduced to 1 s or less. 4. Following application of the carbonic anhydrase inhibitor acetazolamide (100 microM) in the presence of CO2/HCO3- buffer, addition of Phe-Ala once again produced a localized apical acidification that took 5 s to reach the basal pole. Basal acidification was slower than at the apical pole. 5. We conclude that acid influx due to proton-coupled dipeptide transport can lead to intracellular pH gradients and that intracellular carbonic anhydrase activity, by facilitating cytoplasmic H+ mobility, limits their magnitude and duration.  (+info)

Characterization of a molten globule state of bovine carbonic anhydrase III: loss of asymmetrical environment of the aromatic residues has a profound effect on both the near- and far-UV CD spectrum. (6/1306)

Bovine muscle carbonic anhydrase (isoenzyme III; BCAIII) exhibited a three-state unfolding process at equilibrium upon denaturation in guanidine hydrochloride (GuHCl). The stable folding intermediate appeared to be of molten globule type. The stability towards GuHCl in terms of mid-point concentrations of denaturation were very similar for BCAIII and human CAII (HCAII). It was further demonstrated that the aromatic amino acid residues contributed significantly to the circular dichroism (CD) spectrum in the far-UV wavelength region during the native-->molten globule state transition. Thus, the ellipiticity change at 218 nm was shown to monitor the loss of tertiary interactions of aromatic side chains at the first unfolding transition as well as the rupture of secondary structure at the second unfolding transition. Similar aromatic contributions to the far-UV CD spectrum, but with varying magnitudes, were also noted for BCAII and HCAII, further emphasizing that interference of aromatic residues should not be neglected at wavelengths that normally are assigned to secondary structural changes.  (+info)

Denatured states of human carbonic anhydrase II: an NMR study of hydrogen/deuterium exchange at tryptophan-indole-H(N) sites. (7/1306)

Hydrogen/deuterium (H/D) exchange measurements in low and moderate concentrations of GuHCI were conducted on the side chain H(N) atoms of the seven tryptophans of pseudo wild-type human carbonic anhydrase II. Tryptophans 5, 16 and 245, situated in or close to the N-terminal domain were found to have little protection against exchange. The H/D exchange results for Trp-123, Trp-192 and Trp-209 showed that a previously identified molten globule and the native state gave a similar protection against exchange. Global unfolding of the protein is necessary for the efficient exchange at Trp-97, which is located in the central part of the beta-sheet.  (+info)

Detection of intermediates in protein folding of carbonic anhydrase with fluorescence emission and polarization. (8/1306)

The three-dimensional structure of carbonic anhydrase is a result of specific folding of the protein chain to form a compact, globular molecule. Fluorescence measurements on the nature of the rate-limiting steps in folding from the random coil to the native structure show that each step involves an actual folding reaction of the protein chain. Emission intensity and polarization of the intrinsic fluorescence due to tryptophan residues reach a maximum during the early period of the folding process. The changes occur in at least three kinetic phases (tau1 less than 3 S, tau2 = 1 min, tau3 = 10 min, 1 M guanidinium chloride, 2 M NaC1, pH 7, 20 degrees C). None of these phases are explained by configurational changes in the fully unfolded chain. The results are consistent with a kinetic scheme that involves stepwise acquisition of the specific folded structure of the native enzyme.  (+info)

Carbonic anhydrases (CAs) are a group of enzymes that catalyze the reversible reaction between carbon dioxide and water to form carbonic acid, which then quickly dissociates into bicarbonate and a proton. This reaction is crucial for maintaining pH balance and regulating various physiological processes in the body, including respiration, secretion of electrolytes, and bone resorption.

There are several isoforms of carbonic anhydrases found in different tissues and organelles, each with distinct functions and properties. For example, CA I and II are primarily found in red blood cells, while CA III is present in various tissues such as the kidney, lung, and eye. CA IV is a membrane-bound enzyme that plays a role in transporting ions across cell membranes.

Carbonic anhydrases have been targeted for therapeutic interventions in several diseases, including glaucoma, epilepsy, and cancer. Inhibitors of carbonic anhydrases can reduce the production of bicarbonate and lower the pH of tumor cells, which may help to slow down their growth and proliferation. However, these inhibitors can also have side effects such as kidney stones and metabolic acidosis, so they must be used with caution.

Carbonic anhydrase IV (CA-IV), also known as membrane-associated carbonic anhydrase or CA-IX, is a member of the carbonic anhydrase enzyme family. This enzyme is responsible for catalyzing the reversible reaction that converts carbon dioxide and water into bicarbonate and a proton.

CA-IV is primarily found in the plasma membrane of polarized epithelial cells, where it plays a crucial role in maintaining acid-base balance and ion transport. It is also involved in various physiological processes, including respiration, bone resorption, and pH regulation.

Abnormalities in CA-IV expression or activity have been implicated in several diseases, such as cancer, kidney stones, and osteoporosis. In particular, overexpression of CA-IV has been observed in various types of cancer, where it contributes to tumor acidification, invasion, and metastasis. Therefore, CA-IV is considered a potential therapeutic target for cancer treatment.

Carbonic anhydrase II (CA-II) is a specific isoform of the carbonic anhydrase enzyme, which catalyzes the reversible reaction between carbon dioxide and water to form carbonic acid. This enzyme plays a crucial role in various physiological processes, including pH regulation, electrolyte balance, and biosynthetic reactions.

CA-II is widely distributed in the body, with high concentrations found in erythrocytes (red blood cells), the gastric mucosa, and renal tubules. In erythrocytes, CA-II facilitates the rapid conversion of carbon dioxide generated during cellular respiration to bicarbonate and protons, which can then be transported across the cell membrane for excretion or used in other metabolic processes.

In the gastric mucosa, CA-II helps regulate acid secretion by catalyzing the formation of carbonic acid from water and carbon dioxide, which subsequently dissociates into bicarbonate and a proton. The generated proton can then participate in the production of hydrochloric acid in the stomach.

In renal tubules, CA-II is involved in the reabsorption of bicarbonate ions from the filtrate back into the bloodstream, helping maintain electrolyte balance and pH homeostasis. Additionally, CA-II has been implicated in several pathological conditions, such as neurological disorders, cancer, and osteoporosis, making it a potential therapeutic target for drug development.

Carbonic anhydrase I is a specific type of carbonic anhydrase, which is an enzyme that catalyzes the reversible reaction between carbon dioxide and water to form carbonic acid. This enzyme is primarily found in red blood cells and plays a crucial role in maintaining pH balance and regulating respiration.

Carbonic anhydrase I, also known as CA I or CA-I, is responsible for hydrating carbon dioxide to form bicarbonate ions and protons, which helps maintain the acid-base balance in the body. It has a relatively slower reaction rate compared to other carbonic anhydrase isoforms.

Defects or mutations in the CA I gene can lead to reduced enzymatic activity and may contribute to certain medical conditions, such as distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA), a disorder characterized by impaired kidney function and acid-base imbalances. However, other carbonic anhydrase isoforms can compensate for the loss of CA I activity in most cases, so its deficiency rarely causes severe symptoms on its own.

Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors are a class of medications that work by blocking the action of carbonic anhydrase, an enzyme that is responsible for converting carbon dioxide and water into carbonic acid. This enzyme is found in various tissues throughout the body, including the eyes, kidneys, and nervous system.

By inhibiting the activity of carbonic anhydrase, these medications can reduce the production of bicarbonate ions in the body, which helps to lower the rate of fluid buildup in certain tissues. As a result, carbonic anhydrase inhibitors are often used to treat conditions such as glaucoma, epilepsy, and altitude sickness.

In glaucoma, for example, these medications can help to reduce pressure within the eye by promoting the drainage of fluid from the eye. In epilepsy, carbonic anhydrase inhibitors can help to reduce the frequency and severity of seizures by reducing the acidity of the blood and brain. And in altitude sickness, these medications can help to alleviate symptoms such as headache, nausea, and shortness of breath by reducing the buildup of fluid in the lungs.

Some common examples of carbonic anhydrase inhibitors include acetazolamide, methazolamide, and dorzolamide. These medications are available in various forms, including tablets, capsules, and eye drops, and are typically prescribed by a healthcare professional.

I apologize, but there seems to be no medical definition for "Carbonic Anhydrase V." Carbonic anhydrases are a family of enzymes that catalyze the reversible hydration of carbon dioxide to form bicarbonate and protons. There are several isoforms of carbonic anhydrase (CA I-IV, CA VI-VIII, etc.), but as far as current scientific knowledge and literature go, there isn't a recognized or well-established isoform called Carbonic Anhydrase V.

It is possible that you may have encountered a mistake or typographical error in your source material. If you have more context or information about where you found this term, I would be happy to help you further research the topic.

Bicarbonates, also known as sodium bicarbonate or baking soda, is a chemical compound with the formula NaHCO3. In the context of medical definitions, bicarbonates refer to the bicarbonate ion (HCO3-), which is an important buffer in the body that helps maintain normal pH levels in blood and other bodily fluids.

The balance of bicarbonate and carbonic acid in the body helps regulate the acidity or alkalinity of the blood, a condition known as pH balance. Bicarbonates are produced by the body and are also found in some foods and drinking water. They work to neutralize excess acid in the body and help maintain the normal pH range of 7.35 to 7.45.

In medical testing, bicarbonate levels may be measured as part of an electrolyte panel or as a component of arterial blood gas (ABG) analysis. Low bicarbonate levels can indicate metabolic acidosis, while high levels can indicate metabolic alkalosis. Both conditions can have serious consequences if not treated promptly and appropriately.

Carbon dioxide (CO2) is a colorless, odorless gas that is naturally present in the Earth's atmosphere. It is a normal byproduct of cellular respiration in humans, animals, and plants, and is also produced through the combustion of fossil fuels such as coal, oil, and natural gas.

In medical terms, carbon dioxide is often used as a respiratory stimulant and to maintain the pH balance of blood. It is also used during certain medical procedures, such as laparoscopic surgery, to insufflate (inflate) the abdominal cavity and create a working space for the surgeon.

Elevated levels of carbon dioxide in the body can lead to respiratory acidosis, a condition characterized by an increased concentration of carbon dioxide in the blood and a decrease in pH. This can occur in conditions such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), asthma, or other lung diseases that impair breathing and gas exchange. Symptoms of respiratory acidosis may include shortness of breath, confusion, headache, and in severe cases, coma or death.

Hydrogen-ion concentration, also known as pH, is a measure of the acidity or basicity of a solution. It is defined as the negative logarithm (to the base 10) of the hydrogen ion activity in a solution. The standard unit of measurement is the pH unit. A pH of 7 is neutral, less than 7 is acidic, and greater than 7 is basic.

In medical terms, hydrogen-ion concentration is important for maintaining homeostasis within the body. For example, in the stomach, a high hydrogen-ion concentration (low pH) is necessary for the digestion of food. However, in other parts of the body such as blood, a high hydrogen-ion concentration can be harmful and lead to acidosis. Conversely, a low hydrogen-ion concentration (high pH) in the blood can lead to alkalosis. Both acidosis and alkalosis can have serious consequences on various organ systems if not corrected.

Acetazolamide is a medication that belongs to a class of drugs called carbonic anhydrase inhibitors. It works by decreasing the production of bicarbonate in the body, which helps to reduce the amount of fluid in the eye and brain, making it useful for treating conditions such as glaucoma and epilepsy.

In medical terms, acetazolamide can be defined as: "A carbonic anhydrase inhibitor that is used to treat glaucoma, epilepsy, altitude sickness, and other conditions. It works by decreasing the production of bicarbonate in the body, which helps to reduce the amount of fluid in the eye and brain."

Acetazolamide may also be used for other purposes not listed here, so it is important to consult with a healthcare provider for specific medical advice.

Zinc is an essential mineral that is vital for the functioning of over 300 enzymes and involved in various biological processes in the human body, including protein synthesis, DNA synthesis, immune function, wound healing, and cell division. It is a component of many proteins and participates in the maintenance of structural integrity and functionality of proteins. Zinc also plays a crucial role in maintaining the sense of taste and smell.

The recommended daily intake of zinc varies depending on age, sex, and life stage. Good dietary sources of zinc include red meat, poultry, seafood, beans, nuts, dairy products, and fortified cereals. Zinc deficiency can lead to various health problems, including impaired immune function, growth retardation, and developmental delays in children. On the other hand, excessive intake of zinc can also have adverse effects on health, such as nausea, vomiting, and impaired immune function.

Isoenzymes, also known as isoforms, are multiple forms of an enzyme that catalyze the same chemical reaction but differ in their amino acid sequence, structure, and/or kinetic properties. They are encoded by different genes or alternative splicing of the same gene. Isoenzymes can be found in various tissues and organs, and they play a crucial role in biological processes such as metabolism, detoxification, and cell signaling. Measurement of isoenzyme levels in body fluids (such as blood) can provide valuable diagnostic information for certain medical conditions, including tissue damage, inflammation, and various diseases.

An amino acid sequence is the specific order of amino acids in a protein or peptide molecule, formed by the linking of the amino group (-NH2) of one amino acid to the carboxyl group (-COOH) of another amino acid through a peptide bond. The sequence is determined by the genetic code and is unique to each type of protein or peptide. It plays a crucial role in determining the three-dimensional structure and function of proteins.

Molecular sequence data refers to the specific arrangement of molecules, most commonly nucleotides in DNA or RNA, or amino acids in proteins, that make up a biological macromolecule. This data is generated through laboratory techniques such as sequencing, and provides information about the exact order of the constituent molecules. This data is crucial in various fields of biology, including genetics, evolution, and molecular biology, allowing for comparisons between different organisms, identification of genetic variations, and studies of gene function and regulation.

Sordariales is an order of fungi in the class Sordariomycetes, which are characterized by their perithecial ascomata (sexual fruiting bodies) with cylindrical to allantoid (sausage-shaped) asci (ascus = sac-like structure containing ascospores). The order includes both saprobic and pathogenic species. Some notable members of Sordariales are:

1. Neurospora crassa - A model organism used in genetics, molecular biology, and biochemistry research. It is a filamentous ascomycete fungus with a worldwide distribution and is commonly found on decaying plant material.
2. Sordaria fimicola - Another model organism for genetic studies, particularly in the field of meiosis and genetics of sexual reproduction.
3. Chaetomium globosum - A saprobic fungus that can be isolated from various substrates such as soil, dung, and decaying plant material. It is also known to cause opportunistic infections in humans.
4. Xylaria hypoxylon - A wood-decay fungus commonly found on dead or dying trees and branches. Some species are capable of causing rot in living plants.
5. Graphostroma platystomum - A pathogenic fungus that causes canker diseases in various tree species, such as oak, beech, and chestnut.

The order Sordariales is primarily defined by its unique ascus morphology and the presence of certain molecular markers, such as specific genes related to the sexual reproduction process.

A fruiting body, in the context of mycology (the study of fungi), refers to the part of a fungus that produces spores for sexual or asexual reproduction. These structures are often what we typically think of as mushrooms or toadstools, although not all fungal fruiting bodies resemble these familiar forms.

Fungal fruiting bodies can vary greatly in size, shape, and color, depending on the species of fungus. They may be aboveground, like the caps and stalks of mushrooms, or underground, like the tiny, thread-like structures known as "corals" in some species.

The primary function of a fruiting body is to produce and disperse spores, which can give rise to new individuals when they germinate under favorable conditions. The development of a fruiting body is often triggered by environmental factors such as moisture, temperature, and nutrient availability.

Sulfonamides are a group of synthetic antibacterial drugs that contain the sulfonamide group (SO2NH2) in their chemical structure. They are bacteriostatic agents, meaning they inhibit bacterial growth rather than killing them outright. Sulfonamides work by preventing the bacteria from synthesizing folic acid, which is essential for their survival.

The first sulfonamide drug was introduced in the 1930s and since then, many different sulfonamides have been developed with varying chemical structures and pharmacological properties. They are used to treat a wide range of bacterial infections, including urinary tract infections, respiratory tract infections, skin and soft tissue infections, and ear infections.

Some common sulfonamide drugs include sulfisoxazole, sulfamethoxazole, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (a combination of a sulfonamide and another antibiotic called trimethoprim). While sulfonamides are generally safe and effective when used as directed, they can cause side effects such as rash, nausea, and allergic reactions. It is important to follow the prescribing physician's instructions carefully and to report any unusual symptoms or side effects promptly.

Sequence homology, amino acid, refers to the similarity in the order of amino acids in a protein or a portion of a protein between two or more species. This similarity can be used to infer evolutionary relationships and functional similarities between proteins. The higher the degree of sequence homology, the more likely it is that the proteins are related and have similar functions. Sequence homology can be determined through various methods such as pairwise alignment or multiple sequence alignment, which compare the sequences and calculate a score based on the number and type of matching amino acids.

Molecular models are three-dimensional representations of molecular structures that are used in the field of molecular biology and chemistry to visualize and understand the spatial arrangement of atoms and bonds within a molecule. These models can be physical or computer-generated and allow researchers to study the shape, size, and behavior of molecules, which is crucial for understanding their function and interactions with other molecules.

Physical molecular models are often made up of balls (representing atoms) connected by rods or sticks (representing bonds). These models can be constructed manually using materials such as plastic or wooden balls and rods, or they can be created using 3D printing technology.

Computer-generated molecular models, on the other hand, are created using specialized software that allows researchers to visualize and manipulate molecular structures in three dimensions. These models can be used to simulate molecular interactions, predict molecular behavior, and design new drugs or chemicals with specific properties. Overall, molecular models play a critical role in advancing our understanding of molecular structures and their functions.

X-ray crystallography is a technique used in structural biology to determine the three-dimensional arrangement of atoms in a crystal lattice. In this method, a beam of X-rays is directed at a crystal and diffracts, or spreads out, into a pattern of spots called reflections. The intensity and angle of each reflection are measured and used to create an electron density map, which reveals the position and type of atoms in the crystal. This information can be used to determine the molecular structure of a compound, including its shape, size, and chemical bonds. X-ray crystallography is a powerful tool for understanding the structure and function of biological macromolecules such as proteins and nucleic acids.

In the context of medicine and pharmacology, "kinetics" refers to the study of how a drug moves throughout the body, including its absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (often abbreviated as ADME). This field is called "pharmacokinetics."

1. Absorption: This is the process of a drug moving from its site of administration into the bloodstream. Factors such as the route of administration (e.g., oral, intravenous, etc.), formulation, and individual physiological differences can affect absorption.

2. Distribution: Once a drug is in the bloodstream, it gets distributed throughout the body to various tissues and organs. This process is influenced by factors like blood flow, protein binding, and lipid solubility of the drug.

3. Metabolism: Drugs are often chemically modified in the body, typically in the liver, through processes known as metabolism. These changes can lead to the formation of active or inactive metabolites, which may then be further distributed, excreted, or undergo additional metabolic transformations.

4. Excretion: This is the process by which drugs and their metabolites are eliminated from the body, primarily through the kidneys (urine) and the liver (bile).

Understanding the kinetics of a drug is crucial for determining its optimal dosing regimen, potential interactions with other medications or foods, and any necessary adjustments for special populations like pediatric or geriatric patients, or those with impaired renal or hepatic function.

Phylogeny is the evolutionary history and relationship among biological entities, such as species or genes, based on their shared characteristics. In other words, it refers to the branching pattern of evolution that shows how various organisms have descended from a common ancestor over time. Phylogenetic analysis involves constructing a tree-like diagram called a phylogenetic tree, which depicts the inferred evolutionary relationships among organisms or genes based on molecular sequence data or other types of characters. This information is crucial for understanding the diversity and distribution of life on Earth, as well as for studying the emergence and spread of diseases.

Several forms of carbonic anhydrase occur in nature. In the best-studied α-carbonic anhydrase form present in animals, the zinc ... Carbonic anhydrase inhibitor Badger MR, Price GD (1994). "The role of carbonic anhydrase in photosynthesis". Annu. Rev. Plant ... Carbonic anhydrase could in principle prove relevant to carbon capture. Some carbonic anhydrases can withstand temperatures up ... Class one being alpha carbonic anhydrase which is found in mammals, class two being beta carbonic anhydrase which is found in ...
... is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CA4 gene. Carbonic anhydrases (CAs) are a large family of ... "Carbonic anhydrase IV from human lung. Purification, characterization, and comparison with membrane carbonic anhydrase from ... Other forms of carbonic anhydrase enzyme are not present in the plasma, restricting the equilibrium reaction of CO2+H2O = H 2CO ... "Entrez Gene: CA4 carbonic anhydrase IV". Sterling D, Alvarez BV, Casey JR (Jul 2002). "The extracellular component of a ...
... is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CA13 gene. Carbonic anhydrases (CAs) are a family of zinc ... "Entrez Gene: Carbonic anhydrase 13". Retrieved 2019-12-31. Badger MR, Price GD (1994). "The role of carbonic anhydrase in ... Overview of all the structural information available in the PDB for UniProt: Q8N1Q1 (Human Carbonic anhydrase 13) at the PDBe- ... January 2004). "Characterization of CA XIII, a novel member of the carbonic anhydrase isozyme family". The Journal of ...
Carbonic anhydrase 6 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CA6 gene. It is also called 'gustin' because of its presence ... "Entrez Gene: CA6 carbonic anhydrase VI". Henkin RI, Mueller CW, Wolf RO (July 1975). "Estimation of zinc concentration of ... The protein encoded by this gene is one of several isozymes of carbonic anhydrase. This protein is abundantly found in salivary ... Aldred P, Fu P, Barrett G, Penschow JD, Wright RD, Coghlan JP, Fernley RT (January 1991). "Human secreted carbonic anhydrase: ...
... (gene name CA2), is one of sixteen forms of human α carbonic anhydrases. Carbonic anhydrase catalyzes ... Renal carbonic anhydrase allows the reabsorption of bicarbonate ions in the proximal tubule. Loss of carbonic anhydrase ... Sato S, Zhu XL, Sly WS (1990). "Carbonic anhydrase isozymes IV and II in urinary membranes from carbonic anhydrase II-deficient ... Sly WS, Hu PY (1995). "Human carbonic anhydrases and carbonic anhydrase deficiencies". Annu. Rev. Biochem. 64 (1): 375-401. doi ...
... is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CA12 gene. Carbonic anhydrases (CAs) are a large family of ... "Human carbonic anhydrase XII: cDNA cloning, expression, and chromosomal localization of a carbonic anhydrase gene that is ... "Entrez Gene: CA12 carbonic anhydrase XII". Feldshtein, M; Elkrinawi, S; Yerushalmi, B; Marcus, B; Vullo, D; Romi, H; Ofir, R; ... Tarun AS, Bryant B, Zhai W, Solomon C, Shusterman D (2004). "Gene expression for carbonic anhydrase isoenzymes in human nasal ...
Carbonic anhydrase IX (CA9/CA IX) is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CA9 gene. It is one of the 14 carbonic ... "Carbonic anhydrase IX as an imaging and therapeutic target for tumors and metastases". Sub-Cellular Biochemistry. Carbonic ... "Entrez Gene: CA9 carbonic anhydrase IX". Morgan PE, Pastoreková S, Stuart-Tilley AK, Alper SL, Casey JR (August 2007). " ... Carbonic anhydrases (CAs) are a large family of zinc metalloenzymes that catalyze the reversible hydration of carbon dioxide. ...
... s are a class of pharmaceuticals that suppress the activity of carbonic anhydrase. Their clinical ... are carbonic anhydrase inhibitors. Supuran CT, Scozzafava A, Conway J, eds. (2004). Carbonic anhydrase: its inhibitors and ... "Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitors and High Altitude Illnesses". In Frost, Susan C.; McKenna, Robert (eds.). Carbonic Anhydrase: ... Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors are primarily used for the treatment of glaucoma. They may also be used to treat seizure disorder ...
... is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CA14 gene. Carbonic anhydrases (CAs) are a large family of ... "Entrez Gene: CA14 carbonic anhydrase XIV". Hoek KS, Schlegel NC, Eichhoff OM, et al. (2008). "Novel MITF targets identified ... 2002). "Carbonic anhydrase XIV: luminal expression suggests key role in renal acidification". Kidney Int. 61 (6): 2111-8. doi: ... Fujikawa-Adachi K, Nishimori I, Taguchi T, Onishi S (Nov 1999). "Human carbonic anhydrase XIV (CA14): cDNA cloning, mRNA ...
"Entrez Gene: CA7 carbonic anhydrase VII". Sly WS, Hu PY (1995). "Human carbonic anhydrases and carbonic anhydrase deficiencies ... Carbonic anhydrase 7 (CA7) is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CA7 gene. Carbonic anhydrases are a large family of ... PDBe-KB provides an overview of all the structure information available in the PDB for Human Carbonic anhydrase 7 v t e ( ... Vullo D, Voipio J, Innocenti A, Rivera C, Ranki H, Scozzafava A, Kaila K, Supuran CT (Feb 2005). "Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors ...
... is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CA5B gene. Carbonic anhydrases (CAs) are a ... Sly WS, Hu PY (1995). "Human carbonic anhydrases and carbonic anhydrase deficiencies". Annu. Rev. Biochem. 64: 375-401. doi: ... "Entrez Gene: CA5B carbonic anhydrase VB, mitochondrial". Human CA5B genome location and CA5B gene details page in the UCSC ... 2007). "Carbonic anhydrase activators: an activation study of the human mitochondrial isoforms VA and VB with amino acids and ...
... is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CA5A gene. Carbonic anhydrases (CAs) are a ... "Entrez Gene: Carbonic anhydrase 5A". Retrieved 2019-12-31. Vullo D, Nishimori I, Innocenti A, Scozzafava A, Supuran CT (March ... March 2014). "Mitochondrial carbonic anhydrase VA deficiency resulting from CA5A alterations presents with hyperammonemia in ... "Carbonic anhydrase activators: an activation study of the human mitochondrial isoforms VA and VB with amino acids and amines". ...
CA3 carbonic anhydrase III, muscle specific". Sly WS, Hu PY (1995). "Human carbonic anhydrases and carbonic anhydrase ... Carbonic anhydrase 3 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CA3 gene. Carbonic anhydrase III (CAIII) is a member of a ... that encode carbonic anhydrase isozymes. These carbonic anhydrases are a class of metalloenzymes that catalyze the reversible ... Du AL, Ren HM, Lu CZ, Tu JL, Xu CF, Sun YA (Mar 2009). "Carbonic anhydrase III is insufficient in muscles of myasthenia gravis ...
Rickli, E E; Edsall, J. T.; Ghazanfar, A S S; Gibbons, B H (1964). "Carbonic anhydrases from human erythrocytes". J. Biol. Chem ... and carbonic anhydrase. In 1944 John Edsall was a founding co-editor of the journal Advances in Protein Chemistry. He was ...
Catalyzed by carbonic anhydrase, carbon dioxide (CO2) reacts with water (H2O) to form carbonic acid (H2CO3), which in turn ... Meldrum, N. U.; Roughton, F. J. W. (1933-12-05). "Carbonic anhydrase. Its preparation and properties". The Journal of ... causing carbonic anhydrase to form CO2 until all excess protons are removed. Bicarbonate concentration is also further ... are facilitated by carbonic anhydrase in both the blood and duodenum. While in the blood, bicarbonate ion serves to neutralize ...
Imidazole binding to human carbonic anhydrase B and the mechanism of action of carbonic anhydrases". FEBS Letters. 73 (1): 115- ... The team managed to determine the three-dimensional structure of carbonic anhydrase and a particular structure of G-actin ... Kannan, K. K.; Petef, M.; Fridborg, K.; Cid-Dresdner, H.; Lövgren, S. (15 January 1977). "Structure and function of carbonic ...
"Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors and osmotic agents in glaucoma. Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors". The British Journal of ... is a sulfonamide and a carbonic anhydrase inhibitor of the meta-disulfamoylbenzene class. Dichlorphenamide as a carbonic ... it falls under the class of a first generation carbonic anhydrase Inhibitor. Diclofenamide was approved in the United States in ... Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors, Sulfonamides, Chlorobenzenes, Ophthalmology drugs, All stub articles, Antihypertensive agent ...
Casini, Angela (2004). "Hypoxia activates the capacity of tumor‐associated carbonic anhydrase IX to acidify extracellular pH". ... Casini, Angela (2004). "Unexpected nanomolar inhibition of carbonic anhydrase by COX-2-selective celecoxib: new pharmacological ... "Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors". Medicinal Research Reviews. 23 (2): 146-189. doi:10.1002/med.10025. PMID 12500287. S2CID ...
Sato S, Zhu XL, Sly WS (1990). "Carbonic anhydrase isozymes IV and II in urinary membranes from carbonic anhydrase II-deficient ... "Human carbonic anhydrases and carbonic anhydrase deficiencies". Annu. Rev. Biochem. 64 (1): 375-401. doi:10.1146/annurev.bi. ... Roth DE, Venta PJ, Tashian RE, Sly WS (1992). "Molecular basis of human carbonic anhydrase II deficiency". Proc. Natl. Acad. ... Sly also identified the first inherited deficiency of a human carbonic anhydrase, CA II, and defined the biochemical and ...
"Heat-stable carbonic anhydrases and their use." U.S. Patent No. 7,892,814. 22 Feb. 2011. De Bruijn, F. J. "Handbook of ...
... cerebral carbonic anhydrase activation has cognition-enhancing effects; but, based upon the clinical use of carbonic anhydrase ... CARBONIC ANHYDRASE INHIBITORS (CAIs). The design and development of CAIs represent the most prolific area within the CA ... Bozdag M, Altamimi AA, Vullo D, Supuran CT, Carta F (2019). "State of the Art on Carbonic Anhydrase Modulators for Biomedical ... Amphetamine also activates seven human carbonic anhydrase enzymes, several of which are expressed in the human brain. ...
... forms of carbonic anhydrase. The action on carbonic anhydrase isoenzymes may contribute to the drug's side-effects, including ... As topiramate inhibits carbonic anhydrase, use with other inhibitors of carbonic anhydrase (e.g. acetazolamide) increases the ... the inhibition of carbonic anhydrase may be strong enough to cause metabolic acidosis of clinical importance. The U.S. Food and ... carbonic anhydrase isoenzymes. There is evidence that topiramate may alter the activity of its targets by modifying their ...
The enzyme is similar to that of carbonic anhydrases. The enzyme monomer of CS2 hydrolase displays a typical β-carbonic ... The process is similar to the hydration of CO2 by carbonic anhydrase. This similarity points to a likely mechanism. The zinc at ... Similar ring structures have been seen in strains of carbonic anhydrases, however, in CS2 hydrolase is an enzyme consisting of ... This provides a key difference between carbonic anhydrase and CS2 hydrolase. This tunnel determines the enzyme's substrate ...
These enzymes are carbonic anhydrase, carbonic disulfide hydrolase, nitrogenase, carbon monoxide, and RuBisCO. The enzymes ... Haritos VS, Dojchinov G (January 2005). "Carbonic anhydrase metabolism is a key factor in the toxicity of CO2 and COS but not ... March 2013). "Carbonyl sulfide hydrolase from Thiobacillus thioparus strain THI115 is one of the β-carbonic anhydrase family ... Supuran CT (February 2008). "Carbonic anhydrases: novel therapeutic applications for inhibitors and activators". Nature Reviews ...
Dimario, R. J.; Clayton, H.; Mukherjee, A.; Ludwig, M.; Moroney, J. V. (2017). "Plant Carbonic Anhydrases: Structures, ...
"Carbonic Anhydrase Related Proteins: Molecular Biology and Evolution". Carbonic Anhydrase: Mechanism, Regulation, Links to ... Among these genes, members of the alpha carbonic anhydrase gene family (CAs) are essential for biomineralization. CAs are zinc- ... Tripp, Brian C.; Smith, Kerry; Ferry, James G. (2001). "Carbonic Anhydrase: New Insights for an Ancient Enzyme". Journal of ... Supuran, Claudiu T. (2016). "Structure and function of carbonic anhydrases". Biochemical Journal. 473 (14): 2023-2032. doi: ...
Carbonic anhydrase-related protein 11 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CA11 gene. Carbonic anhydrases (CAs) are a ... "Entrez Gene: CA11 carbonic anhydrase XI". Liao W, Xiao Q, Tchikov V, Fujita K, Yang W, Wincovitch S, Garfield S, Conze D, El- ... Bellingham J, Gregory-Evans K, Gregory-Evans CY (1998). "Sequence and tissue expression of a novel human carbonic anhydrase- ... Okamoto N, Fujikawa-Adachi K, Nishimori I, Taniuchi K, Onishi S (2001). "cDNA sequence of human carbonic anhydrase-related ...
Some of chlortalidone's diuretic effect is also due to this inhibition of carbonic anhydrase in the proximal tubule. Chronic ... Johnston MM, Li H, Mufson D (December 1977). "Chlorthalidone analysis using carbonic anhydrase inhibition". J Pharm Sci. 66 (12 ... Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors, World Anti-Doping Agency prohibited substances). ... it also strongly inhibits multiple isoforms of carbonic anhydrase. ...
3 A reaction similar to this is almost instantaneous with carbonic anhydrase. The structure of the active site in carbonic ... Lindskog S (1997). "Structure and mechanism of carbonic anhydrase". Pharmacology & Therapeutics. 74 (1): 1-20. doi:10.1016/ ... In aqueous solution, carbon dioxide forms carbonic acid CO2 + H2O ⇌ H2CO3 This reaction is very slow in the absence of a ... H+ favours dissociation of carbonic acid at biological pH values. The cobalt-containing Vitamin B12 (also known as cobalamin) ...
In the presence of the enzyme carbonic anhydrase, equilibrium is instead reached rapidly, and the following reaction takes ... doi:10.1016/S0304-4203(02)00010-5. Lindskog S (1997). "Structure and mechanism of carbonic anhydrase". Pharmacology & ... At ambient temperatures, pure carbonic acid is a stable gas. There are two main methods to produce anhydrous carbonic acid: ... Evidence for Carbonic Acid Ice: Evidence for Carbonic Acid". Spectrochimica Acta. 47A (2): 255-262. Bibcode:1991AcSpA..47..255M ...
Several forms of carbonic anhydrase occur in nature. In the best-studied α-carbonic anhydrase form present in animals, the zinc ... Carbonic anhydrase inhibitor Badger MR, Price GD (1994). "The role of carbonic anhydrase in photosynthesis". Annu. Rev. Plant ... Carbonic anhydrase could in principle prove relevant to carbon capture. Some carbonic anhydrases can withstand temperatures up ... Class one being alpha carbonic anhydrase which is found in mammals, class two being beta carbonic anhydrase which is found in ...
Antiglaucoma, Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitors. Class Summary. Carbonic anhydrase (CA) is an enzyme found in many tissues. It ... Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors (eg, acetazolamide) and loop diuretics (eg, furosemide) are thought to exert their effect on ICP ... inhibition of the carbonic anhydrase enzyme, particularly isozymes II and IV. Topiramate is also an excellent choice, in that ... catalyzes a reversible reaction whereby carbon dioxide becomes hydrated and carbonic acid becomes dehydrated. These changes may ...
Two approaches were used to design inhibitors of the metalloenzyme carbonic anhydrase (CA, EC 4.2.1.1): the tail and the ring ... Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors. Comparison of aliphatic sulfamate/bis-sulfamate adducts with isozymes II and IX as a platform ... Two approaches were used to design inhibitors of the metalloenzyme carbonic anhydrase (CA, EC 4.2.1.1): the tail and the ring ... Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitors / chemistry* * Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitors / pharmacology * Carbonic Anhydrases / drug effects ...
Identification of specific carbonic anhydrase inhibitors via in situ click chemistry, phage-display and synthetic peptide ... Identification of specific carbonic anhydrase inhibitors via in situ click chemistry, phage-display and synthetic peptide ... compare three such selection strategies with the aim of identifying potent and selective inhibitors of human carbonic anhydrase ...
... ratio of acetazolamide Ki to compound Ki for Malassezia globosa beta carbonic anhydrase. ...
The protein encoded by this gene is an acatalytic member of the alpha-carbonic anhydrase subgroup, and it is thought to play a ... This gene encodes a protein that belongs to the carbonic anhydrase family of zinc metalloenzymes, which catalyze the reversible ... carbonic anhydrase X; carbonic anhydrase-related protein 10; CA RPX; CARPX; HUCEP 15; CA 10; CA-RP X; CAH10_HUMAN; Carbonic ... The protein encoded by this gene is an acatalytic member of the alpha-carbonic anhydrase subgroup, and it is thought to play a ...
Carbonic Anhydrase II antibody LS-C302061 is an FITC-conjugated guinea pig polyclonal antibody to rabbit Carbonic Anhydrase II ... Carbonic anhydrase C , Carbonic anhydrase II , Carbonic dehydratase , Carbonic anhydrase 2 , Carbonic anhydrase B ... Carbonic Anhydrase II antibody LS-C302061 is an FITC-conjugated guinea pig polyclonal antibody to rabbit Carbonic Anhydrase II ... Polyclonal Guinea pig anti‑Rabbit CA2 / Carbonic Anhydrase II Antibody (FITC, WB) LS‑C302061 ...
Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors are additive to other drugs e.g. dorzolamide only needs to be taken twice daily when used in ... Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors used in the management of open angle glaucoma include dorzolamide (a topical agent) and ... Oral carbonic anhydrase inhibitors are generally used only in acute management of raised intraocular pressure but, occasionally ... Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors in glaucoma. Last reviewed dd mmm yyyy. Last edited dd mmm yyyy ...
Watson SK, Han Z, Su WW, Deshusses MA, Kan E. Carbon dioxide capture using Escherichia coli expressing carbonic anhydrase in a ... Watson SK, Han Z, Su WW, Deshusses MA, Kan E. Carbon dioxide capture using Escherichia coli expressing carbonic anhydrase in a ... Carbon dioxide capture using Escherichia coli expressing carbonic anhydrase in a foam bioreactor.. Publication , Journal ... "Carbon dioxide capture using Escherichia coli expressing carbonic anhydrase in a foam bioreactor." Environmental Technology 37 ...
The gene encoding carbonic anhydrase IX (CA9) is transcribed to yield mRNA and the mRNA is translated to yield protein. Hypoxia ... Hypoxia-inducible expression of tumor-associated carbonic anhydrases Maxwell, PH, Harris, AL, Wykoff, CC, Turner, KJ, Pugh, CW ...
Keywords: Carbonic anhydrase, enzyme inhibitor, sulfonamide, triazole, IN-VITRO INHIBITION, ISOFORMS I, SULFONAMIDE INHIBITORS ... compounds were synthesized and their inhibitory effects on the activity of purified human carbonic anhydrase (hCA) I and II ...
There are 17 sequences with this label.. ...
The Carbonic Anhydrase II Library - The Carbonic Anhydrase II Library is a comprehensive collection of structural and chemical ... Understanding Carbonic Anhydrase II - Carbonic anhydrase II is an enzyme that catalyzes the reversible conversion of carbon ... Carbonic anhydrase II (CA II) is a vital enzyme that plays a critical role in various biological processes. Its importance in ... The Carbonic Anhydrase II Library provides a wealth of information on the structure and function of this enzyme, enabling ...
carbonic anhydrase 4 - Carbonic anhydrases. Detailed annotation on the structure, function, physiology, pharmacology and ... Carbonic anhydrases: carbonic anhydrase 4. Last modified on 16/01/2024. Accessed on 22/04/2024. IUPHAR/BPS Guide to ... 2005) Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors: inhibition of the transmembrane isozyme XIV with sulfonamides. Bioorg Med Chem Lett, 15 ( ... Acetazolamide inhibits carbonic anhydrases I, IV and XIV, but has 10-fold lower affinity for XIV.Bbr>Methazolamide inhibits ...
Clinical resource with information about CA5A, Hyperammonemic encephalopathy due to carbonic anhydrase VA deficiency, and ... Expression of carbonic anhydrase V in pancreatic beta cells suggests role for mitochondrial carbonic anhydrase in insulin ... Hyperammonemic encephalopathy due to carbonic anhydrase VA deficiency. MedGen: C3810404OMIM: 615751GeneReviews: Carbonic ... CA5A carbonic anhydrase 5A. Gene ID: 763, updated on 3-Apr-2024. Gene type: protein coding. Also known as: CA5; CAV; CAVA; ...
Isolated Carbonic Anhydrase Defect. An isolated acquired proximal tubular acid-base defect (RTA type 2) can be caused by ... Oosterwijk E: Carbonic anhydrase expression in kidney and renal cancer: implications for diagnosis and treatment. Subcell ... Aggarwal M, McKenna R: Update on carbonic anhydrase inhibitors: a patent review (2008-2011). Expert Opin Ther Pat 2012;22:903- ... Supuran CT: How many carbonic anhydrase inhibition mechanisms exist? J Enzyme Inhib Med Chem 2016;31:345-360. ...
Carbonic anhydrase IX (CA-IX), a hypoxia marker, correlates with tumor progression in a variety of human cancers. However, the ...
Human CA6(Carbonic Anhydrase VI) ELISA Kit. Human CA6(Carbonic Anhydrase VI) ELISA Kit. Order Now: [email protected] ... Description: A sandwich ELISA kit for detection of Carbonic Anhydrase VI from Human in samples from blood, serum, plasma, cell ... Description: A sandwich quantitative ELISA assay kit for detection of Human Carbonic Anhydrase VI (CA6) in samples from serum, ... Description: A sandwich quantitative ELISA assay kit for detection of Human Carbonic Anhydrase VI (CA6) in samples from serum, ...
Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitors. Class Summary. Agents in this class may be used to induce alkaline diuresis. ...
... and carbonic anhydrases (hCAs; hCA I and hCA II) isoenzymes were screened as in vitro. These series compounds have been ... Design and Synthesis of Pyrazole Carboxamide Derivatives as Selective Cholinesterase and Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitors: ... and carbonic anhydrases (hCAs; hCA I and hCA II) isoenzymes were screened as in vitro. These series compounds have been ...
Carbonic Anhydrases: An Overview (326 views). Carbonic Anhydrases As Biocatalysts, 2015 Jan 08; N/D: 3-13.. Impact Factor: 0. ... Human Carbonic Anhydrases: Catalytic Properties, Structural Features, and Tissue Distribution (356 views). Carbonic Anhydrases ... S-dioxide analog strongly inhibit carbonic anhydrases: solution and X-ray crystallographic studies. ▼ Carbonic Anhydrase family ... Carbonic anhydrases--an overview (386 views). Curr Pharm Des, 2008; 14(7): 603-614.. Impact Factor: 0. View Export to BibTeX ...
... carbonic anhydrase (CA) enzyme, expressed mainly at the external surface of cells, that catalyzes reversible CO(2) hydration. ... Antigens, Neoplasm, Apoptosis, Carbon Dioxide, Carbonic Anhydrase IX, Carbonic Anhydrases, Cell Line, Tumor, Cell Membrane, ... Tumor-associated carbonic anhydrase 9 spatially coordinates intracellular pH in three-dimensional multicellular growths. ... CA9 is a membrane-tethered, carbonic anhydrase (CA) enzyme, expressed mainly at the external surface of cells, that catalyzes ...
Primary Duodenal Adenocarcinoma Expressing Carbonic Anhydrase IX. Primary Duodenal Adenocarcinoma Expressing Carbonic Anhydrase ... Primary duodenal adenocarcinoma is a rare malignancy whose carbonic anhydrase IX (CA9) expression remains poorly understood. A ...
Smith, K. S., and Ferry, J. G. (2000). Prokaryotic carbonic anhydrases. FEMS Microbiol. Rev. 24, 335-366. doi: 10.1111/j.1574- ... However, the annotation of carbonic anhydrase (converts CO2 to H2CO3) (Smith and Ferry, 2000), carbamoyl-phosphate synthase ( ... due to elevated levels of carbonic acid). Second, a subpopulation of acclimated spores may germinate stochastically and ...
Tumour carbonic anhydrase IX (CAIX), a hypoxia-inducible tumour-associated cell surface enzyme, is thought to acidify the ... Carbonic anhydrase IX is a pH-stat that sets an acidic tumour extracellular pH in vivo. ... BACKGROUND: Tumour carbonic anhydrase IX (CAIX), a hypoxia-inducible tumour-associated cell surface enzyme, is thought to ... Carbonic anhydrase IX is a pH-stat that sets an acidic tumour extracellular pH in vivo. ...
CA12: carbonic anhydrase 12. *CACNA1A: calcium voltage-gated channel subunit alpha1 A ...
Keilin, D.; Mann, T. Carbonic anhydrase. Purification and nature of the enzyme. Biochem. J. 1940, 34, 1163-1176. [Google ... The physiological function of zinc was first identified in the study of carbonic anhydrase [61]. Currently, more than 300 zinc- ...
  • Inhibitors of carbonic anhydrase are used to treat glaucoma, the excessive build-up of water in the eyes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors (eg, acetazolamide) and loop diuretics (eg, furosemide) are thought to exert their effect on ICP by reducing cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) production at the choroid plexus. (medscape.com)
  • Two approaches were used to design inhibitors of the metalloenzyme carbonic anhydrase (CA, EC 4.2.1.1): the tail and the ring approaches. (nih.gov)
  • Herein, we compare three such selection strategies with the aim of identifying potent and selective inhibitors of human carbonic anhydrase II. (rsc.org)
  • Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors used in the management of open angle glaucoma include dorzolamide (a topical agent) and acetazolamide (oral and intravenous preparation). (gpnotebook.com)
  • Oral carbonic anhydrase inhibitors are generally used only in acute management of raised intraocular pressure but, occasionally, can be used chronically as a last resort. (gpnotebook.com)
  • Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors are additive to other drugs e.g. dorzolamide only needs to be taken twice daily when used in combination with a beta-blocker (1). (gpnotebook.com)
  • 2019) Synthesis and Evaluation of Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitors with Carbon Monoxide Releasing Properties for the Management of Rheumatoid Arthritis. (guidetopharmacology.org)
  • 2015) New natural product carbonic anhydrase inhibitors incorporating phenol moieties. (guidetopharmacology.org)
  • 2005) Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors: inhibition of the transmembrane isozyme XIV with sulfonamides. (guidetopharmacology.org)
  • 2006) Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors: clash with Ala65 as a means for designing inhibitors with low affinity for the ubiquitous isozyme II, exemplified by the crystal structure of the topiramate sulfamide analogue. (guidetopharmacology.org)
  • Comment: Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors (CAIs) and salicylates inhibit each other's renal tubular secretion, resulting in increased plasma levels. (medscape.com)
  • Class one being alpha carbonic anhydrase which is found in mammals, class two being beta carbonic anhydrase which is found in bacteria and plants and lastly, class three which is gamma carbonic anhydrase which is found in methanogen bacteria in hot springs. (wikipedia.org)
  • The protein encoded by this gene is an acatalytic member of the alpha-carbonic anhydrase subgroup, and it is thought to play a role in the central nervous system, especially in brain development. (creativebiomart.net)
  • Acetazolamide inhibits carbonic anhydrases I, IV and XIV, but has 10-fold lower affinity for XIV.Bbr>Methazolamide inhibits carbonic anhydrases I, IV and XIV with similar affinity. (guidetopharmacology.org)
  • This gene encodes a protein that belongs to the carbonic anhydrase family of zinc metalloenzymes, which catalyze the reversible hydration of carbon dioxide in various biological processes. (creativebiomart.net)
  • The gene encoding carbonic anhydrase IX (CA9) is transcribed to yield mRNA and the mRNA is translated to yield protein. (reactome.org)
  • BACKGROUND: Tumour carbonic anhydrase IX (CAIX), a hypoxia-inducible tumour-associated cell surface enzyme, is thought to acidify the tumour microenvironment by hydrating CO2 to form protons and bicarbonate, but there is no definitive evidence for this in solid tumours in vivo. (ox.ac.uk)
  • The carbonic anhydrases (or carbonate dehydratases) (EC 4.2.1.1) form a family of enzymes that catalyze the interconversion between carbon dioxide and water and the dissociated ions of carbonic acid (i.e. bicarbonate and hydrogen ions). (wikipedia.org)
  • Relating the Bohr effect to carbonic anhydrase is simple: carbonic anhydrase speeds up the reaction of carbon dioxide reacting with water to produce hydrogen ions (protons) and bicarbonate ions. (wikipedia.org)
  • These agents act on carbonic anhydrase isoenzyme II in the ciliary body and result in a reduction in aqueous production by decreasing bicarbonate secretion into the posterior chamber by ciliary epithelial cells. (gpnotebook.com)
  • The present study reports CO2 capture and conversion to bicarbonate using Escherichia coli expressing carbonic anhydrase (CA) on its cell surface in a novel foam bioreactor. (duke.edu)
  • Understanding Carbonic Anhydrase II - Carbonic anhydrase II is an enzyme that catalyzes the reversible conversion of carbon dioxide and water to bicarbonate and protons. (discoveryoutsource.com)
  • Carbonic anhydrase IX is a pH-stat that sets an acidic tumour extracellular pH in vivo. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Mitochondrial carbonic anhydrase VA deficiency resulting from CA5A alterations presents with hyperammonemia in early childhood. (nih.gov)
  • The active site of most carbonic anhydrases contains a zinc ion. (wikipedia.org)
  • Carbonic anhydrases (CAs) are a large family of zinc metalloenzymes that catalyze the reversible hydration of carbon dioxide. (nih.gov)
  • Therefore, carbonic anhydrase helps with the H+ secretion into the lumen of the kidney renal tubule and the reabsorption of HCO3- in the kidneys. (wikipedia.org)
  • Expression of carbonic anhydrase V in pancreatic beta cells suggests role for mitochondrial carbonic anhydrase in insulin secretion. (nih.gov)
  • Carbonic anhydrase is a very ancient enzyme found in both domains of prokaryotes that exists in six different classes among most of the living organisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • Carbonic anhydrase (CA) is an enzyme found in many tissues. (medscape.com)
  • A new series of N-heteroarylsubstituted triazolosulfonamide compounds were synthesized and their inhibitory effects on the activity of purified human carbonic anhydrase (hCA) I and II were evaluated. (yildiz.edu.tr)
  • Cell-specific expression of mitochondrial carbonic anhydrase in the human and rat gastrointestinal tract. (nih.gov)
  • Human mitochondrial carbonic anhydrase: cDNA cloning, expression, subcellular localization, and mapping to chromosome 16. (nih.gov)
  • Carbonic anhydrase IX (CA-IX), a hypoxia marker, correlates with tumor progression in a variety of human cancers. (erdogan.edu.tr)
  • Description: A sandwich quantitative ELISA assay kit for detection of Human Carbonic Anhydrase VI (CA6) in samples from serum, plasma, saliva or other biological fluids. (kits-elisa.com)
  • Description: This is Double-antibody Sandwich Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of Human Carbonic Anhydrase VI (CA6) in serum, plasma, saliva and other biological fluids. (kits-elisa.com)
  • Primary duodenal adenocarcinoma is a rare malignancy whose carbonic anhydrase IX (CA9) expression remains poorly understood. (bvsalud.org)
  • JNJ-26990990 ((benzo[b]thien-3-yl)methyl)sulfamide, a sulfamide derivative structurally related to the antiepileptic drug zonisamide, was reported to be devoid of carbonic anhydrase (CA, EC 4.2.1.1) inhibitory properties. (cnr.it)
  • Carbonic anhydrase is critical to hemoglobin function via the Bohr effect which catalyzes the hydration of carbon dioxide to form carbonic acid and rapidly dissociate into water. (wikipedia.org)
  • The main role of carbonic anhydrase in humans is to catalyze the conversion of carbon dioxide to carbonic acid and back again. (wikipedia.org)
  • It catalyzes a reversible reaction whereby carbon dioxide becomes hydrated and carbonic acid becomes dehydrated. (medscape.com)
  • Scholars@Duke publication: Carbon dioxide capture using Escherichia coli expressing carbonic anhydrase in a foam bioreactor. (duke.edu)
  • CA9 is a membrane-tethered, carbonic anhydrase (CA) enzyme, expressed mainly at the external surface of cells, that catalyzes reversible CO(2) hydration. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Carbonic anhydrase is one important enzyme that is found in red blood cells, gastric mucosa, pancreatic cells, and even renal tubules. (wikipedia.org)
  • Carbonic anhydrase helps maintain acid-base homeostasis, regulate pH, and fluid balance. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, carbonic anhydrase produces acid in the stomach lining. (wikipedia.org)
  • To describe equilibrium in the carbonic anhydrase reaction, Le Chatelier's principle is used. (wikipedia.org)
  • Carbonic anhydrase II (CA II) is a vital enzyme that plays a critical role in various biological processes. (discoveryoutsource.com)
  • Drug Discovery and Development - The Carbonic Anhydrase II Library plays a significant role in drug discovery and development. (discoveryoutsource.com)
  • The summary of product characteristics should be consulted before prescribing a topical carbonic anhydrase inhibitor. (gpnotebook.com)
  • Carbonic anhydrase was initially found in the red blood cells of cows in 1933 and was simultaneously discovered by Rougton in Cambridge and Meldrum in Philadelphia who were searching for a catalytic factor. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Carbonic Anhydrase II Library - The Carbonic Anhydrase II Library is a comprehensive collection of structural and chemical data related to CA II. (discoveryoutsource.com)