A carbonic anhydrase isoenzyme found in MITOCHONDRIA where it provides bicarbonate ions that are components in the urea cycle and in GLUCONEOGENESIS.
A family of zinc-containing enzymes that catalyze the reversible hydration of carbon dioxide. They play an important role in the transport of CARBON DIOXIDE from the tissues to the LUNG. EC 4.2.1.1.
A class of compounds that reduces the secretion of H+ ions by the proximal kidney tubule through inhibition of CARBONIC ANHYDRASES.
A cytosolic carbonic anhydrase isoenzyme found widely distributed in cells of almost all tissues. Deficiencies of carbonic anhydrase II produce a syndrome characterized by OSTEOPETROSIS, renal tubular acidosis (ACIDOSIS, RENAL TUBULAR) and cerebral calcification. EC 4.2.1.-
A cytosolic carbonic anhydrase isoenzyme primarily expressed in skeletal muscle (MUSCLES, SKELETAL). EC 4.2.1.-
A cytosolic carbonic anhydrase isoenzyme primarily expressed in ERYTHROCYTES, vascular endothelial cells, and the gastrointestinal mucosa. EC 4.2.1.-
A membrane-bound carbonic anhydrase found in lung capillaries and kidney.
One of the CARBONIC ANHYDRASE INHIBITORS that is sometimes effective against absence seizures. It is sometimes useful also as an adjunct in the treatment of tonic-clonic, myoclonic, and atonic seizures, particularly in women whose seizures occur or are exacerbated at specific times in the menstrual cycle. However, its usefulness is transient often because of rapid development of tolerance. Its antiepileptic effect may be due to its inhibitory effect on brain carbonic anhydrase, which leads to an increased transneuronal chloride gradient, increased chloride current, and increased inhibition. (From Smith and Reynard, Textbook of Pharmacology, 1991, p337)
A carbonic anhydrase inhibitor used as diuretic and in glaucoma. It may cause hypokalemia.
Selective renal carbonic anhydrase inhibitor. It may also be of use in certain cases of respiratory failure.
A carbonic anhydrase inhibitor that is used as a diuretic and in the treatment of glaucoma.
A heterogeneous group of sporadic or hereditary carcinoma derived from cells of the KIDNEYS. There are several subtypes including the clear cells, the papillary, the chromophobe, the collecting duct, the spindle cells (sarcomatoid), or mixed cell-type carcinoma.
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
Tumors or cancers of the KIDNEY.
A ubiquitin-protein ligase that mediates OXYGEN-dependent polyubiquitination of HYPOXIA-INDUCIBLE FACTOR 1, ALPHA SUBUNIT. It is inactivated in VON HIPPEL-LINDAU SYNDROME.
A carbonic anhydrase inhibitor that is used in the treatment of glaucoma.
A genus of gram-negative, ellipsoidal or rod-shaped bacteria whose major source of energy and reducing power is from the oxidation of ammonia to nitrite. Its species occur in soils, oceans, lakes, rivers, and sewage disposal systems.
The type species of the genus NITROSOMONAS, a gram-negative chemolithotroph that oxidizes ammonia to nitrite. It is found in soil, sewage, freshwater, and on building walls, and especially in polluted areas where air contains high levels of nitrogen compounds.
A white, crystalline powder that is commonly used as a pH buffering agent, an electrolyte replenisher, systemic alkalizer and in topical cleansing solutions.
A colorless alkaline gas. It is formed in the body during decomposition of organic materials during a large number of metabolically important reactions. Note that the aqueous form of ammonia is referred to as AMMONIUM HYDROXIDE.
Inorganic salts that contain the -HCO3 radical. They are an important factor in determining the pH of the blood and the concentration of bicarbonate ions is regulated by the kidney. Levels in the blood are an index of the alkali reserve or buffering capacity.
A bibliographic database that includes MEDLINE as its primary subset. It is produced by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), part of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. PubMed, which is searchable through NLM's Web site, also includes access to additional citations to selected life sciences journals not in MEDLINE, and links to other resources such as the full-text of articles at participating publishers' Web sites, NCBI's molecular biology databases, and PubMed Central.
A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.
Storage-stable blood coagulation factor acting in the intrinsic pathway. Its activated form, IXa, forms a complex with factor VIII and calcium on platelet factor 3 to activate factor X to Xa. Deficiency of factor IX results in HEMOPHILIA B (Christmas Disease).
A deficiency of blood coagulation factor IX inherited as an X-linked disorder. (Also known as Christmas Disease, after the first patient studied in detail, not the holy day.) Historical and clinical features resemble those in classic hemophilia (HEMOPHILIA A), but patients present with fewer symptoms. Severity of bleeding is usually similar in members of a single family. Many patients are asymptomatic until the hemostatic system is stressed by surgery or trauma. Treatment is similar to that for hemophilia A. (From Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p1008)
Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.

Topiramate treatment protects blood-brain barrier pericytes from hyperglycemia-induced oxidative damage in diabetic mice. (1/5)

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Carbonic anhydrase 5 regulates acid-base homeostasis in zebrafish. (2/5)

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Differential gene expression analysis of peripheral blood mononuclear cells reveals novel test for early detection of pancreatic cancer. (3/5)

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Targeted mutagenesis of mitochondrial carbonic anhydrases VA and VB implicates both enzymes in ammonia detoxification and glucose metabolism. (4/5)

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Mitochondrial carbonic anhydrase VA deficiency resulting from CA5A alterations presents with hyperammonemia in early childhood. (5/5)

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TY - JOUR. T1 - Biochemical and Stone-Risk Profiles With Topiramate Treatment. AU - Welch, Brian J.. AU - Graybeal, Dion. AU - Moe, Orson W.. AU - Maalouf, Naim M.. AU - Sakhaee, Khashayar. PY - 2006/10. Y1 - 2006/10. N2 - Background: Topiramate is a novel neuromodulatory agent commonly prescribed for the treatment of seizure disorders and for migraine headache prophylaxis. Calcium phosphate kidney stones have been observed with topiramate treatment, but a comprehensive elucidation of stone-risk profile was not reported previously. This study explores the relationship between topiramate treatment and propensity for kidney stone formation. Methods: Thirty-two topiramate-treated subjects and 50 healthy volunteers participated in a cross-sectional study in which serum chemistry test and 24-hour urine collection results were evaluated for stone risk. Furthermore, a short-term longitudinal study was conducted in 7 patients to assess stone risk before and 3 months after topiramate treatment. Results: ...
Bupivacaine, ropivacaine, or mepivacaine were added to human drug-free serum (pH 7.4) at a concentration of 10 μg/ml. 20% Intralipid® or 20% Lipofundin® were added at 1, 2, or 4% of the total volume because the recommended dosage of lipid bolus to treat anesthetic overdose is 1.5 ml/kg,1213 equating to approximately 3.5% of the total serum volume of the body. Multiple concentrations were used to determine the effect with respect to the volume of lipid. Once the lipid was added to the serum containing the drug, the samples were vortexed. They were then incubated at 37°C for 5 min in a water bath, and then shaken at 37°C for 5 min to ensure adequate mixing. The contents of each tube were then subjected to ultracentrifugation at room temperature using an Airfuge® at 122,000 g under 30,000 psi to separate the serum from the lipid. Serum was transferred into a fresh tube for analysis. Bupivacaine was also added at a concentration of 100 μg/ml to human drug-free serum at pH 7.4, the lipid ...
Health and wellness is a very popular topic. There are numbers of businesses, books, movies and websites dedicated to the topic. Each doctor or wellness expert has their own research and opinions on how to achieve optimum health which can be overwhelming. Good health doesnt have to mean expensive treatments and supplements, it can be…
It has been estimated that 22 - 32% of people with mental retardation or learning disability have co-existing epilepsy. Despite such high prevalence and although there may be particular concerns over the effects of treatment on behaviour and cognition in this population, few studies have specifically addressed these concerns. Topiramate (TPM) is one of the modern antiepileptic drugs that has been approved for the treatment of a broad range of seizure types in both children and adults. There is evidence of associated improvement in behaviour with treatment but data is conflicting. The investigators aim to further study the effect of TPM on seizure control and behaviour using the Scales of Independent Behavior-Revised (SIB-R) which has been applied in similar patient populations and is widely adopted locally to assess the behaviour of people with mental retardation. This is a naturalistic, open label, single arm prospective study of 16-week in duration. Eligible adult patients will be initiated on ...
An aspartate salt of L-ornithine. L-Ornithine L-aspartate has been shown to reduce blood ammonia concentrations by increasing ammonia detoxification in the liver. For use in dietary supplements, food and beverages.. ...
L-arginine is a semi-essential amino acid involved in numerous areas of human biochemistry, including ammonia detoxification, hormone secretion, and immune modulation.
TY - JOUR. T1 - The role of astrocytes in hepatic encephalopathy. AU - Norenberg, Michael D. PY - 1987/2/1. Y1 - 1987/2/1. N2 - The Alzheimer type II astrocyte change is the distinctive morphologic alteration in brain of humans and experimental animals succumbing to hepatic encephalopathy (HE). Whether this change is a primary event in the pathogenesis of HE or whether it is secondary to injury of some other component(s) of the CNS has not been clarified. Studies in a rat model of HE have revealed early reactive changes in astrocytes characterized by cytoplasmic hypertrophy. During the later phases, degenerative changes ensue corresponding to the Alzheimer type II change observed by light microscopy. In view of the role of astrocytes in ammonia detoxification and the importance of ammonia in the pathogenesis of HE, we have suggested that the initial astrocytic changes are the morphological correlates of ammonia detoxification. We have speculated that the later degenerative alterations could lead ...
The IUPHAR/BPS Guide to Pharmacology. carbonic anhydrase 9 - Carbonic anhydrases. Detailed annotation on the structure, function, physiology, pharmacology and clinical relevance of drug targets.
Carbonic anhydrases (CAs I-VII) are products of a gene family that encodes seven isozymes and several homologous, CA- related proteins. All seven isozymes have been cloned, sequenced, and mapped, and the intron-exon organization of five genes established. They differ in subcellular localizations, be …
FUNCTIONS OF CARBONIC ANHYDRASES. The presence of carbonic anhydrases in all living organisms probably originates because the components of the catalyzed reaction are involved in almost all metabolic processes. We suppose that the main reason for the abundance of CAs in nature is the ubiquitous involvement of bicarbonate buffers in aqueous media and then in the cytoplasm at every stage of evolution; these enzymes acceleration achieving appropriate pH, which is important for homeostasis of every living cell. The role of carbonic anhydrases in accelerating the conversion of inorganic forms of carbon was probably not their initial main function, but now it is established that these enzymes are critical regulators of the exchange of these forms in many metabolic processes.. Functions of Carbonic Anhydrases in Animals. Although the main purpose of this review is to consider the available experimental data and ideas concerning the role of CAs in higher plants, we should present, at least briefly, ...
Hakvoort, T. B. M., He, Y., Kulik, W., Vermeulen, J. L. M., Duijst, S., Ruijter, J. M., ... Lamers, W. H. (2017). Pivotal Role of Glutamine Synthetase in Ammonia Detoxification. Hepatology, 65(1), 281-293. https://doi.org/10.1002/hep.28852 ...
In her first try at college-level English composition, Olga Zaldivar skipped classes, struggled through papers and ultimately abandoned the course before taking the final exam.But she figures she
CIBA has successfully demonstrated the use of bagasse as biostimulator for ammonia removal from seven different zero-exchange shrimp aquaculture systems. Bagasse is a complex native cellulosic fibrous waste left after extraction of juice from cane sugar, and an attractive agricultural byproduct for a pond supplement because of its low cost and general availability in shrimp-growing latitudes. Bagasse provides a better surface structure and nutrients beneficial for the growth of nitrifying bacteria. Bagasse is a biodegradable substrate, which harbours higher periphytic (biofilm) biomass than non degradable ones. The very low cost of this lignocellulosic material is a real advantage that renders it a suitable alternative for the remediation of ammonia. Bagasse biostimulator technology is available for adoption by the aqua-farmers. ...
Zn(2+)-dependent carbonic anhydrases (CA) catalyse the reversible hydration of carbon dioxide to bicarbonate and participate in diverse physiological processes, hence having manifold therapeutic potentials. Among the 15 human CAs with wide-ranging sub-cellular localisation and kinetic properties, CA VI is the only secretory isoform. The 1.9Å crystal structure of the human CA VI catalytic domain reveals a prototypical mammalian CA fold, and a novel dimeric arrangement as compared to previously-reported CA structures. The active site cavity contains a cluster of non-conserved residues that may be involved in ligand binding and have significant implications for developing the next-generation of isoform-specific inhibitors.
Comprehensive review of visual defects reported with topiramate Lisa Ford,1 Jeffrey L Goldberg,2 Fred Selan,1 Howard E Greenberg,1 Yingqi Shi1 1Janssen Research & Development, LLC, Titusville, NJ, 2Byers Eye Institute, Stanford University, Palo Alto, CA, USA Objective: The objective of this study was to analyze clinical patterns of visual field defects (VFDs) reported with topiramate treatment and assess possible mechanism of action (MOA) for antiepileptic drug (AED) associated VFDs.Methods: A comprehensive topiramate database review included preclinical data, sponsor’s clinical trials database, postmarketing spontaneous reports, and medical literature. All treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs) suggestive of retinal dysfunction/damage were summarized. Relative risk (RR) was computed from topiramate double-blind, placebo-controlled trials (DBPCTs) data.Results: Preclinical studies and medical literature review suggested that despite sharing gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-ergic MOA with
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Vaida Morkūnaitė, Joana Gylytė, Asta Zubrienė, Lina Baranauskienė, Miglė Kišonaitė, Vilma Michailovienė, Vaida Juozapaitienė, Matthew J Todd, Daumantas Matulis].
Catalyzed by carbonic anhydrase, carbon dioxide (CO2) reacts with water (H2O) to form carbonic acid (H2CO3), which in turn ... Meldrum, N. U.; Roughton, F. J. W. (1933-12-05). "Carbonic anhydrase. Its preparation and properties". The Journal of ... causing carbonic anhydrase to form CO2 until all excess acid is removed. Bicarbonate concentration is also further regulated by ... are facilitated by carbonic anhydrase in both the blood and duodenum. While in the blood, bicarbonate ion serves to neutralize ...
"Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors and osmotic agents in glaucoma. Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors". The British Journal of ... Diclofenamide (or dichlorphenamide) is a sulfonamide and a carbonic anhydrase inhibitor of the meta-disulfamoylbenzene class. ...
Casini, Angela (2004). "Hypoxia activates the capacity of tumor‐associated carbonic anhydrase IX to acidify extracellular pH". ... Casini, Angela (2004). "Unexpected nanomolar inhibition of carbonic anhydrase by COX-2-selective celecoxib: new pharmacological ... "Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors". Medicinal Research Reviews. 23 (2): 146-189. doi:10.1002/med.10025. PMID 12500287. S2CID ...
... cerebral carbonic anhydrase activation has cognition-enhancing effects; but, based upon the clinical use of carbonic anhydrase ... CARBONIC ANHYDRASE INHIBITORS (CAIs). The design and development of CAIs represent the most prolific area within the CA ... Bozdag M, Altamimi AA, Vullo D, Supuran CT, Carta F (2019). "State of the Art on Carbonic Anhydrase Modulators for Biomedical ... Amphetamine also activates seven human carbonic anhydrase enzymes, several of which are expressed in the human brain. ...
It also decreases carbonic anhydrase in the CNS, increasing the seizure threshold. This reduction in carbonic anhydrase also ... Ethoxzolamide binds and inhibits carbonic anhydrase I. Carbonic anhydrase plays an essential role in facilitating the transport ... Ethoxzolamide, a sulfonamide, inhibits carbonic anhydrase activity in proximal renal tubules to decrease reabsorption of water ... Dimazole Dithiazanine iodide Gordon DM (July 1958). "Ethoxzolamide; a new carbonic anhydrase inhibitor". American Journal of ...
... forms of carbonic anhydrase. The action on carbonic anhydrase isoenzymes may contribute to the drug's side-effects, including ... As topiramate inhibits carbonic anhydrase, use with other inhibitors of carbonic anhydrase (e.g. acetazolamide) increases the ... Topiramate, sold under the brand name Topamax among others, is a carbonic anhydrase inhibitor medication used to treat epilepsy ... the inhibition of carbonic anhydrase may be strong enough to cause metabolic acidosis of clinical importance. The U.S. Food and ...
Carbonic anhydrase-related protein 11 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CA11 gene. Carbonic anhydrases (CAs) are a ... "Entrez Gene: CA11 carbonic anhydrase XI". CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) Liao W, Xiao Q, Tchikov V, Fujita K, Yang W, ... Bellingham J, Gregory-Evans K, Gregory-Evans CY (1998). "Sequence and tissue expression of a novel human carbonic anhydrase- ... Okamoto N, Fujikawa-Adachi K, Nishimori I, Taniuchi K, Onishi S (2001). "cDNA sequence of human carbonic anhydrase-related ...
Some of chlortalidone's diuretic effect is also due to this inhibition of carbonic anhydrase in the proximal tubule. Chronic ... Johnston MM, Li H, Mufson D (December 1977). "Chlorthalidone analysis using carbonic anhydrase inhibition". J Pharm Sci. 66 (12 ... it also strongly inhibits multiple isoforms of carbonic anhydrase. ...
3 A reaction similar to this is almost instantaneous with carbonic anhydrase. The structure of the active site in carbonic ... Lindskog S (1997). "Structure and mechanism of carbonic anhydrase". Pharmacology & Therapeutics. 74 (1): 1-20. doi:10.1016/ ... In aqueous solution, carbon dioxide forms carbonic acid CO2 + H2O ⇌ H2CO3 This reaction is very slow in the absence of a ... carbonic anhydride) proceeds rapidly. The catalytic cycle produces the bicarbonate ion and the hydrogen ion as the equilibrium ...
Carbonic anhydrase is one of the fastest enzymes, and its rate is typically limited by the diffusion rate of its substrates. ... Lindskog S (1997). "Structure and mechanism of carbonic anhydrase". Pharmacology & Therapeutics. 74 (1): 1-20. doi:10.1016/ ...
"Carbonic anhydrase in the female reproductive tract. II. Endometrial carbonic anhydrase as indicator of luteoid potency: ...
It is a weak carbonic anhydrase inhibitor. Satomi, H.; Umemura, K.; Ueno, A.; Hatano, T.; Okuda, T.; Noro, T. (1993). "Carbonic ... anhydrase inhibitors from the pericarps of Punica granatum L". Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin. 16 (8): 787-790. doi: ...
Sato S, Zhu XL, Sly WS (1990). "Carbonic anhydrase isozymes IV and II in urinary membranes from carbonic anhydrase II-deficient ... "Human carbonic anhydrases and carbonic anhydrase deficiencies". Annu. Rev. Biochem. 64 (1): 375-401. doi:10.1146/annurev.bi. ... Roth DE, Venta PJ, Tashian RE, Sly WS (1992). "Molecular basis of human carbonic anhydrase II deficiency". Proc. Natl. Acad. ... Sly also identified the first inherited deficiency of a human carbonic anhydrase, CA II, and defined the biochemical and ...
"Carbonic anhydrase in the female reproductive tract. II. Endometrial carbonic anhydrase as indicator of luteoid potency: ... to possess similar potency to progesterone and hydroxyprogesterone caproate in the rabbit endometrial carbonic anhydrase test, ...
Cadmium Carbonic anhydrase Diatoms Cullen, Jay T.; Maldonado, Maria T. (2013). "Biogeochemistry of Cadmium and Its Release to ...
doi:10.1016/S0031-9422(00)83125-8. Satomi H, Umemura K, Ueno A, Hatano T, Okuda T, Noro T (August 1993). "Carbonic anhydrase ... It is a weak carbonic anhydrase inhibitor. Ellagic acid and corilagin inhibit TGF-β1-dependent EMT and has been shown to ...
Carbon Dioxide Removal from e.g. Blood using Membrane and Immobilized Carbonic Anhydrase; Artificial Lung for Example, US ...
It is a highly active carbonic anhydrase inhibitor. The molecule contains a gallagic acid component linked to a glucose. Zhang ... Satomi, H.; Umemura, K.; Ueno, A.; Hatano, T.; Okuda, T.; Noro, T. (1993). "Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors from the pericarps of ...
It is a highly active carbonic anhydrase inhibitor. www.chemicalbook.com Satomi, H.; Umemura, K.; Ueno, A.; Hatano, T.; Okuda, ... "Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors from the pericarps of Punica granatum L". Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin. 16 (8): 787-790. ...
... is a carbonic anhydrase inhibitor. Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors: binding of indanesulfonamides to the ...
It is a highly active carbonic anhydrase inhibitor. In some plants including oak and chestnut, the ellagitannins are formed ... "Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors from the pericarps of Punica granatum L". Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin. 16 (8): 787-790. ...
Likewise, in some cyanobacterial strains the beta-carboxysomes contain a beta-carbonic anhydrase that is not found in the ccm ... The signature proteins of the beta-carboxysome are Form IB RuBisCO and a gamma carbonic anhydrase homolog. Beta-carboxysomes ... CsoSCA is a shell-associated beta-carbonic anhydrase. Studies in Halothiobacillus neapolitanus have shown that empty shells of ... Cannon, Gordon C.; Heinhorst, Sabine; Kerfeld, Cheryl A. (2010). "Carboxysomal carbonic anhydrases: Structure and role in ...
bicarbonate derived from carbonic anhydrase (CA)-dependent hydration. CO2 metabolism Enters through membrane-transporting ... sAC inside mitochondria is activated by metabolically generated CO2 through carbonic anhydrase. Astrocytes express several sAC ...
It is a highly active carbonic anhydrase inhibitor. It is an isomer of terflavin B. It can be synthesized. Satomi, H.; Umemura ... "Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors from the pericarps of Punica granatum L". Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin. 16 (8): 787-790. ...
Davenport, Horace W. (1984-06-01). "The Early Days of Research on Carbonic Anhydrase" (PDF). Annals of the New York Academy of ... Lutwak-Mann was known for discovering that the hormone progesterone acts on the placenta to control carbonic anhydrase ... Davenport, Horace W. (1980-04-01). "Carbonic Anhydrase, or the Strange Case of the Disappearing Scientist". The Physiologist. ...
Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors also decrease fluid production. They are available as eye drops (Trusopt and Azopt) and pills ( ...
2000). "Crystal structure of S-glutathiolated carbonic anhydrase III". FEBS Lett. 482 (3): 237-41. doi:10.1016/S0014-5793(00) ...
Kivelä J, Parkkila S, Waheed A, Parkkila AK, Sly WS, Rajaniemi H (1997). "Secretory carbonic anhydrase isoenzyme (CA VI) in ...
It inhibits the enzymes carbonic anhydrase and COX-2. A study in healthy volunteers showed drug effects on urinary ... Exhibits a Drug Disposition Profile in Healthy Volunteers Compatible With High Affinity to Carbonic Anhydrase-I/II: Preliminary ...
Satomi, H.; Umemura, K.; Ueno, A.; Hatano, T.; Okuda, T.; Noro, T. (1993). "Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors from the pericarps of ... In laboratory research, punicalagins had carbonic anhydrase inhibitor activity. Marzouk, M. S. A.; El-Toumy, S. A. A.; Moharram ...
carbonic anhydrase (chloride shift). *oxyhemoglobin. *respiratory quotient. *arterial blood gas. *diffusion capacity (DLCO) ...
4.2 Carbonic anhydrase. Miscellaneous. *Steroidogenesis inhibitor. Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title= ...
Pervasive and required for several enzymes such as carboxypeptidase, liver alcohol dehydrogenase, and carbonic anhydrase ...
Carbonic anhydrase inhibitorsEdit. Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors inhibit the enzyme carbonic anhydrase which is found in the ... Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors acetazolamide,[17] dorzolamide Inhibits H+ secretion, resultant promotion of Na+ and K+ excretion ...
"Structural and kinetic characterization of active-site histidine as a proton shuttle in catalysis by human carbonic anhydrase ...
Murakami, H. and Sly, W.S. (1987). "Purification and characterization of human salivary carbonic anhydrase". J. Biol. Chem. 262 ... Keilin, D. and Mann, T. (1939). "Carbonic anhydrase". Nature 144: 442-443. ...
Anti-glaucoma: adrenergic agonists, beta-blockers, carbonic anhydrase inhibitors/hyperosmotics, cholinergics, miotics, ...
Carbonic anhydrase. *Fumarase. *Aconitase. *Enolase *Alpha. *Enolase 2. *Enoyl-CoA hydratase/3-Hydroxyacyl ACP dehydrase ...
carbonic anhydrase(英语:carbonic anhydrase) (chloride shift(英语:chloride shift)) ...
... which is rapidly converted to hydrogen and bicarbonate through the action of carbonic anhydrase.[58] When the ECF pH falls ( ... The bicarbonate buffer system regulates the ratio of carbonic acid to bicarbonate to be equal to 1:20, at which ratio the blood ... This is tightly regulated to ensure that there is no excessive build-up of carbonic acid or bicarbonate. The overall effect is ... The hydrogen ions combine with the excess bicarbonate ions in the plasma, once again forming an excess of carbonic acid which ...
... secretes carbonic anhydrase (gustin), which is thought to play a role in the development of taste buds.[9] ...
Through the enzyme carbonic anhydrase, carbon dioxide reacts with water to give carbonic acid, which decomposes into ...
Band 3 - also assembles various glycolytic enzymes, the presumptive CO2 transporter, and carbonic anhydrase into a ...
... a carbonic anhydrase inhibitor Lithium was previously used for treatment of PPD as a direct competitive ADH agonist, but is now ...
Carbonic anhydrase. DNA polymerase A simple [Fe2S2] cluster containing two iron atoms and two sulfur atoms, coordinated by four ...
The reaction catalyzed by carbonic anhydrase is: HCO3- + H+ ↽. −. ⇀. {\displaystyle {\ce {,=,,}}}. CO2 + H2O. Carbonic acid has ... Cadmium-containing carbonic anhydraseEdit. Marine diatoms have been found to express a new form of ζ carbonic anhydrase. T. ... Several forms of carbonic anhydrase occur in nature. In the best-studied α-carbonic anhydrase form present in animals, the zinc ... Differences from other carbonic anhydrasesEdit. Unlike most other carbonic anhydrases, the active site metal ion is not bound ...
An enzyme, carbonic anhydrase, located within the carboxysome releases CO2 from the dissolved hydrocarbonate ions (HCO−. 3). ... 3 ions are made from CO2 outside the cell by another carbonic anhydrase and are actively pumped into the cell by a membrane ... and within the cytosol they turn back into CO2 very slowly without the help of carbonic anhydrase. This causes the HCO−. 3 ions ... for the biological process of synthesis of complex carbon compounds out of carbonic acid, in the presence of chlorophyll, under ...
... which acts by inhibiting the enzyme carbonic anhydrase, and it reduces CSF production by six to 57 percent. It can cause the ...
1995). «The carbonic anhydrase domain of receptor tyrosine phosphatase beta is a functional ligand for the axonal cell ...
"The carbonic anhydrase domain of receptor tyrosine phosphatase beta is a functional ligand for the axonal cell recognition ...
Zinc required for several enzymes such as carboxypeptidase, liver alcohol dehydrogenase, and carbonic anhydrase ...
Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors/. (sulfonamides). *Acetazolamide. *Brinzolamide (+timolol). *Diclofenamide. *Dorzolamide (+ ...
carbonic anhydrase (chloride shift). *oxyhemoglobin. *respiratory quotient. *arterial blood gas. *diffusion capacity (DLCO) ... Only CO2 levels affect this as it can diffuse across, reacting with H2O to form carbonic acid and thus decrease pH. Central ...
Fluid production can be decreased by beta blockers, alpha2-agonists, and carbonic anhydrase inhibitors.[7] ...
"Entrez Gene: CA9 carbonic anhydrase IX".. *^ Kirkpatrick JP, Rabbani ZN, Bentley RC, Hardee ME, Karol S, Meyer J, Oosterwijk E ... Carbonic anhydrase 9 (CA9/CAIX) is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CA9 gene.[5][6][7] ... Nishimori I, Onishi S (2001). "Carbonic anhydrase isozymes in the human pancreas". Digestive and Liver Disease. 33 (1): 68-74. ... Carbonic anhydrases (CAs) are a large family of zinc metalloenzymes that catalyze the reversible hydration of carbon dioxide. ...
carbonic anhydrase (chloride shift). *oxyhemoglobin. *respiratory quotient. *arterial blood gas. *diffusion capacity (DLCO) ...
... or direct vasodilator actions either through inhibition of carbonic anhydrase or by desensitizing the vascular smooth muscle ...
Raymond H & Swenson E (2000). "The distribution and physiological significance of carbonic anhydrase in vertebrate gas exchange ...
The reaction is therefore catalyzed by carbonic anhydrase, an enzyme inside the red blood cells.[21] The reaction can go in ... Henry RP, Swenson ER (June 2000). "The distribution and physiological significance of carbonic anhydrase in vertebrate gas ...
Carbohydrate deficient glycoprotein syndrome Carbon baby syndrome Carbonic anhydrase II deficiency Carcinoid syndrome Carcinoma ...
Several forms of carbonic anhydrase occur in nature. In the best-studied α-carbonic anhydrase form present in animals, the zinc ... Carbonic anhydrase inhibitor Badger MR, Price GD (1994). "The role of carbonic anhydrase in photosynthesis". Annu. Rev. Plant ... Carbonic anhydrase could in principle prove relevant to carbon capture. Some carbonic anhydrases can withstand temperatures up ... Class one being alpha carbonic anhydrase which is found in mammals, class two being beta carbonic anhydrase which is found in ...
Carbonic anhydrase 4 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CA4 gene. Carbonic anhydrases (CAs) are a large family of ... "Carbonic anhydrase IV from human lung. Purification, characterization, and comparison with membrane carbonic anhydrase from ... Other forms of carbonic anhydrase enzyme are not present in the plasma, restricting the equilibrium reaction of CO2+H2O = H2CO3 ... "Entrez Gene: CA4 carbonic anhydrase IV". Sterling D, Alvarez BV, Casey JR (Jul 2002). "The extracellular component of a ...
"Entrez Gene: CA9 carbonic anhydrase IX".. *^ Kirkpatrick JP, Rabbani ZN, Bentley RC, Hardee ME, Karol S, Meyer J, Oosterwijk E ... Carbonic anhydrase 9 (CA9/CAIX) is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CA9 gene.[5][6][7] ... Nishimori I, Onishi S (2001). "Carbonic anhydrase isozymes in the human pancreas". Digestive and Liver Disease. 33 (1): 68-74. ... Carbonic anhydrases (CAs) are a large family of zinc metalloenzymes that catalyze the reversible hydration of carbon dioxide. ...
... people with carbonic anhydrase VA deficiency have excess ammonia in the blood (hyperammonemia), problems with acid-base balance ... Carbonic anhydrase VA deficiency is an inherited disorder characterized by episodes during which the balance of certain ... Human carbonic anhydrases and carbonic anhydrase deficiencies. Annu Rev Biochem. 1995;64:375-401. Review. Citation on PubMed ... Hyperammonemia due to carbonic anhydrase VA deficiency. *Hyperammonemic encephalopathy due to carbonic anhydrase VA deficiency ...
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
Carbonic anhydrase superfamily (IPR036874). Short name: Carbonic_anhydrase_sf Overlapping entries *Carbonic anhydrase ( ... Carbonic anhydrases (EC:4.2.1.1) (CA) are zinc metalloenzymes which catalyze the reversible hydration of carbon dioxide. In ... Carbonic anhydrase in Escherichia coli. A product of the cyn operon.. J. Biol. Chem. 267 3731-4 1992 ... A gene homologous to chloroplast carbonic anhydrase (icfA) is essential to photosynthetic carbon dioxide fixation by ...
Alpha carbonic anhydrase domain (IPR001148). Short name: CA_dom Overlapping homologous superfamilies *Alpha carbonic anhydrase ... Carbonic anhydrases--an overview.. Curr. Pharm. Des. 14 603-14 2008. Smith KS, Ferry JG. Prokaryotic carbonic anhydrases.. FEMS ... A carbonic anhydrase-like domain with striking homology to that of the alpha class carbonic anhydrases is also found in ... Carbonic anhydrases (CA: EC:4.2.1.1) are zinc metalloenzymes which catalyse the reversible hydration of carbon dioxide to ...
A carbonic anhydrase from the archaeon Methanosarcina thermophila. B E Alber and J G Ferry ... Carbonic anhydrase (CA) from acetate-grown Methanosarcina thermophila was purified , 10,000-fold (22% recovery) to apparent ...
Structural analysis of inhibitor binding to human carbonic anhydrase II.. Boriack-Sjodin, P.A., Zeitlin, S., Chen, H.H., ... X-ray crystal structures of carbonic anhydrase II (CAII) complexed with sulfonamide inhibitors illuminate the structural ... X-ray crystal structures of carbonic anhydrase II (CAII) complexed with sulfonamide inhibitors illuminate the structural ... the newest carbonic anhydrase inhibitor approved for the treatment of glaucoma.. Organizational Affiliation: Department of ...
The reaction catalyzed by carbonic anhydrase is: HCO3- + H+ ↽. −. ⇀. {\displaystyle {\ce {,=,,}}}. CO2 + H2O. Carbonic acid has ... Cadmium-containing carbonic anhydraseEdit. Marine diatoms have been found to express a new form of ζ carbonic anhydrase. T. ... Several forms of carbonic anhydrase occur in nature. In the best-studied α-carbonic anhydrase form present in animals, the zinc ... Differences from other carbonic anhydrasesEdit. Unlike most other carbonic anhydrases, the active site metal ion is not bound ...
Carbonic anhydrase 2. A. 260. Homo sapiens. Mutation(s): 0 Gene Names: CA2. EC: 4.2.1.1. ... which have been investigated for the inhibition of five physiologically relevant human carbonic anhydrase (hCA, EC 4.2.1.1) ... which have been investigated for the inhibition of five physiologically relevant human carbonic a ... ...
Compare carbonic anhydrase inhibitor anticonvulsants. View important safety information, ratings, user reviews, popularity and ... Carbonic anhydrase inhibitor anticonvulsants. What are Carbonic anhydrase inhibitor anticonvulsants. Carbonic anhydrase ... inhibitor anticonvulsants inhibit the enzyme carbonic anhydrase. Generally carbonic anhydrase inhibitors are used to treat ... Home › Drug Classes › Central Nervous System Agents › Anticonvulsants › Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitor Anticonvulsants ...
Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors decrease aqueous production by inhibiting ion transport associated with the secretion of aqueous ... Adequate inhibition of carbonic anhydrase with systemic administration has been shown to cause a decrease in aqueous humor ... Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors decrease aqueous production by inhibiting ion transport associated with the secretion of aqueous ...
Helping you find trustworthy answers on Intraocular Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitor , Latest evidence made easy ... Find all the evidence you need on Intraocular Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitor via the Trip Database. ... steroids, carbonic anhydrase inhibitors, or warfarin/heparin within 1 month prior to the Screening visit or anticipated use at ... If intraocular pressure is still elevated, a topical carbonic anhydrase inhibitor should be added. In patients with sickle cell ...
Carbonic anhydrase II (CAII)-deficient mice were created to study the syndrome of CAII deficiency in humans including ... Expression of carbonic anhydrase IV in carbonic anhydrase II-deficient mice. Am J Physiol 42:F234-F245Google Scholar ... Carbonic anhydrase II Osteopetrosis Renal tubular acidosis Osteoclast Osteoblast This is a preview of subscription content, log ... Whyte MP (1993) Carbonic anhydrase-II deficiency. Clin Orthop Relat Res 294:52-63PubMedGoogle Scholar ...
Romanova AK, Rusinova NG, Kornitskaya VM (1972) Participation of carbonic anhydrase in chemosynthetic assimilation of carbonic ... Graham D (1982) Carbonic anhydrases (carbonate dehydratases) from plants. In: Mitsui A, Black CC (eds) CRC handbook of biosolar ... Hogetsu D, Miyachi S (1979) Role of carbonic anhydrase in photosynthetic CO2 fixation in Chlorella. Pl Cell Physiol 220:747-756 ... Graham D, Reed M (1971) Carbonic anhydrase and the regulation of photosynthesis. Nature (New Biol) 231:81-83Google Scholar ...
ESCUDERO-ALMANZA, Dalila Jacqueline et al. Carbonic Anhydrase and Zinc in Plant Physiology. Chilean J. Agric. Res. [online]. ... Carbonic anhydrase (CA) (EC: 2.4.1.1) catalyzes the rapid conversion of carbon dioxide plus water into a proton and the ... Carbonic anhydrase is a metalloenzyme that requires Zn as a cofactor and is involved in diverse biological processes including ...
Carbonic anhydrase (CA) is a seemingly ubiquitous enzyme of profound physiological importance, which plays essential roles in ... Carbonic anhydrase inhibition in ophthalmology: Carbonic anhydrases in cornea, lens, retina and lacrimal gland ... The Carbonic Anhydrases. New Horizons. Editors: Chegwidden, W.R., Carter, N.D., Edwards, Y.H. (Eds.) ... Carbonic anhydrase (CA) is a seemingly ubiquitous enzyme of profound physiological importance, which plays essential roles in ...
Carbonic anhydrases (CAs, EC 4.2.1.1) are zinc enzymes acting as efficient catalysts for the reversible hydration of carbon ... Carbonic anhydrases as targets for medicinal chemistry.. Supuran CT1, Scozzafava A. ...
Carbonic Anhydrase I from human erythrocytes for your research needs. Find product specific information including CAS, MSDS, ... Carbonic Anhydrase I from human erythrocytes Synonym: Carbonate Dehydratase, Carbonate Hydrolyase, Carbonic Anhydrase Isozyme I ... Carbonic Anhydrase, Cell Signaling Enzymes, Enzyme Class Index, Enzymes, Inhibitors, and Substrates, Human Carbonic Anhydrase, ... Carbonic anhydrase from human erythrocytes (HCA) has been used to study the molten-globule state of carbonic anhydrase (CA). ...
A key component to this tumor microenvironment is carbonic anhydrase IX (CA IX). Knockdown of CA IX expression or inhibition of ... Keywords: carbonic anhydrase IX; tumor hypoxia; prodrug; sulfonamide; RNAi-technology; cancer carbonic anhydrase IX; tumor ... Mahon, B.P.; Pinard, M.A.; McKenna, R. Targeting Carbonic Anhydrase IX Activity and Expression. Molecules 2015, 20, 2323-2348. ... A key component to this tumor microenvironment is carbonic anhydrase IX (CA IX). Knockdown of CA IX expression or inhibition of ...
... such as the Carbonic Anhydrases (CAs, EC 4.2.1.1). CAs reversibly catalyze the fundamental reaction of CO2 hydration to ... Keywords: carbonic anhydrase inhibitors (CAIs); metalloenzymes; phenols; polyphenols; flavonoids carbonic anhydrase inhibitors ... Phenols and Polyphenols as Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitors by Anastasia Karioti 1,*, Fabrizio Carta 2. and Claudiu T. Supuran 2,* ... Karioti, A.; Carta, F.; Supuran, C.T. Phenols and Polyphenols as Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitors. Molecules 2016, 21, 1649. ...
Elevated serum anti-carbonic anhydrase II antibodies in patients with ulcerative colitis ... The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence of anti-carbonic anhydrase (CA) I and anti-CA II antibodies in a series of ...
Rabbit recombinant monoclonal Carbonic Anhydrase IX antibody [SP106] validated for IHC, Flow Cyt and tested in Human. Immunogen ... Anti-Carbonic Anhydrase IX antibody [SP106]. See all Carbonic Anhydrase IX primary antibodies. ... Belongs to the alpha-carbonic anhydrase family.. Contains 1 alpha-carbonic anhydrase domain. ... Flow cytometric analysis of rabbit anti-Carbonic Anhydrase IX (SP106) antibody ab105226 (1/100) in HT29 cells (green) compared ...
Carbonic anhydrases (CAs I-VII) are products of a gene family that encodes seven isozymes and several homologous, CA- related ... Human carbonic anhydrases and carbonic anhydrase deficiencies Annu Rev Biochem. 1995;64:375-401. doi: 10.1146/annurev.bi. ... Carbonic anhydrases (CAs I-VII) are products of a gene family that encodes seven isozymes and several homologous, CA- related ...
References for Abcams Anti-Carbonic Anhydrase IX antibody (ab10471). Please let us know if you have used this product in your ...
Compare carbonic anhydrase 8 ELISA Kits from leading suppliers on Biocompare. View specifications, prices, citations, reviews, ... carbonic anhydrase 8 ELISA Kits. The ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) is a well-established antibody-based tool for ... Your search returned 19 carbonic anhydrase 8 ELISA ELISA Kit across 5 suppliers. ...
WebMD provides information about interactions between Excedrin Extra Strength Oral and aspirin-81-mg-salicylates-carbonic- ... Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitors/Aspirin (, 81 mg); Salicylates Interactions. This information is generalized and not intended as ... Metabolic acidosis induced by carbonic anhydrase inhibitors and salicylates in patients with normal renal function. Br Med J ( ... Toxicity of combined therapy with carbonic anhydrase inhibitors and aspirin. Am J Ophthalmol 1978 Oct; 86(4):516-9. ...
... into the thermodynamics and molecular structures of the twelve catalytically active isoforms of human carbonic anhydrase (CA) ... Carbonic Anhydrase as Drug Target. Book Subtitle. Thermodynamics and Structure of Inhibitor Binding. Editors. * Daumantas ... Carbonic Anhydrase as Drug Target. Thermodynamics and Structure of Inhibitor Binding. Editors: Matulis, Daumantas (Ed.) ... Use of Carbonic Anhydrase IX Inhibitors for Selective Delivery of Attached Drugs to Solid Tumors ...
Carbonic Anhydrase (CA) 2 preserves the acid-base balance in tissues and blood and is part of the enzyme family that can ... Carbonic anhydrases exist in areas of life. Mammalian carbonic anhydrase is monomeric and is a part of the alpha class. ... CA-II, CAC, Carbonic anhydrase 2, Carbonate dehydratase 2, can, cynT2, yadF, b0126, JW0122, Carbonic Anhydrase II. ... The majority of carbonic anhydrases enclose a zinc ion in their active site and thus is categorized as metalloenzymes. The most ...
  • Structure-activity relationships rationalize affinity trends observed during the development of brinzolamide (Azopt), the newest carbonic anhydrase inhibitor approved for the treatment of glaucoma. (rcsb.org)
  • Carbonic anhydrase inhibitor anticonvulsants inhibit the enzyme carbonic anhydrase. (drugs.com)
  • dorzolamide/timolol) Alpha agonist/ carbonic anhydrase inhibitor (eg, brimonidine/brinzolamide) Laser therapy Laser can be used as primary or adjunctive treatment. (tripdatabase.com)
  • This book offers deep insights into the thermodynamics and molecular structures of the twelve catalytically active isoforms of human carbonic anhydrase (CA) with a particular focus on inhibitor binding for drug design. (springer.com)
  • Dorzolamide is a reversible carbonic anhydrase inhibitor that may decrease aqueous humor secretion, causing a decrease in IOP. (medscape.com)
  • Intrinsic thermodynamics of sulfonamide inhibitor binding to human carbonic anhydrases I and II. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • The purpose of this paper is to present a novel ophthalmic composition comprising a hyperbranched polymer with carbonic anhydrase inhibitor (CAI). (arvojournals.org)
  • Earlier reports have claimed that acetazolamide, a carbonic anhydrase (CA) inhibitor, inhibits AQP1 activity. (arvojournals.org)
  • Carbonic anhydrase 4 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CA4 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Carbonic anhydrase VA deficiency is caused by mutations in the CA5A gene. (medlineplus.gov)
  • This gene provides instructions for making the carbonic anhydrase VA enzyme, which helps convert carbon dioxide to a substance called bicarbonate. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Mutations in the CA5A gene result in absent or impaired carbonic anhydrase VA enzyme function, leading to reduced bicarbonate production. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Studies suggest that a related enzyme produced from the CA5B gene may increasingly compensate for the lack of carbonic anhydrase VA as affected individuals mature, which may result in a reduced risk of metabolic crisis and acute encephalopathy after childhood. (medlineplus.gov)
  • A gene homologous to chloroplast carbonic anhydrase (icfA) is essential to photosynthetic carbon dioxide fixation by Synechococcus PCC7942. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Functional diversity, conservation, and convergence in the evolution of the alpha-, beta-, and gamma-carbonic anhydrase gene families. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Lai LW, Chan DM, Erickson RP, Hsu SJ, Lien YHH (1998) Correction of renal tubular acidosis in carbonic anhydrase II-deficient mice with gene therapy. (springer.com)
  • Carbonic anhydrases (CAs I-VII) are products of a gene family that encodes seven isozymes and several homologous, CA- related proteins. (nih.gov)
  • SHUES1 was the presence of carbonic anhydrase gene in it. (frontiersin.org)
  • A gene on chromosome 16q22.1 that encodes a carbonic anhydrase, a zinc metalloenzyme that catalyses the reversible hydration of carbon dioxide. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The protein encoded by this gene is one of several isozymes of carbonic anhydrase. (thermofisher.com)
  • The CA8 gene encodes carbonic anhydrase VIII (CARP VIII), which is part of a family of zinc metalloenzymes that catalyze the reversible hydration of bicarbonate. (cags.org.ae)
  • Nonetheless, the gene product continues to carry a carbonic anhydrase designation because it showed a clear sequence identity to other members of the carbonic anhydrase gene family. (cags.org.ae)
  • Carbonic anhydrase II deficiency syndrome or Marble brain disease (MBD) is caused by autosomal recessive mutations in the human carbonic anhydrase II (HCA II) gene. (diva-portal.org)
  • The rare disease marble brain disease (MBD) also known as carbonic anhydrase II deficiency syndrome (CADS) can manifest in carriers of point mutations in the human carbonic anhydrase II (HCA II) gene. (diva-portal.org)
  • Girentuximab , an antibody to carbonic anhydrase IX, is an investigational agent in clinical trials for renal cell carcinoma . (wikipedia.org)
  • Flow cytometric analysis of rabbit anti-Carbonic Anhydrase IX (SP106) antibody ab105226 (1/100) in HT29 cells (green) compared to negative control of rabbit IgG (blue). (abcam.com)
  • We offer Carbonic Anhydrase IX/CA9 Antibody Pairs for use in common research applications: Sandwich ELISA. (novusbio.com)
  • Each Carbonic Anhydrase IX/CA9 Antibody Pair is fully covered by our Guarantee+, to give you complete peace of mind and the support when you need it. (novusbio.com)
  • Our Carbonic Anhydrase IX/CA9 Antibody Pairs can be used in a variety of model species: Human. (novusbio.com)
  • Choose from our Carbonic Anhydrase IX/CA9 Antibody Pairs. (novusbio.com)
  • Carbonic Anhydrase VB/CA5B Polyclonal antibody specifically detects Carbonic Anhydrase VB/CA5B in Human samples. (fishersci.com)
  • The following product was used in this experiment: Carbonic Anhydrase VI Monoclonal Antibody (401809) from Thermo Fisher Scientific, catalog # MA5-24136, RRID AB_2609157. (thermofisher.com)
  • The following product was used in this experiment: Carbonic Anhydrase II Recombinant Rabbit Monoclonal Antibody (2) from Thermo Fisher Scientific, catalog # MA5-30206, RRID AB_2785968. (thermofisher.com)
  • This antibody has specificity for Mouse Carbonic Anhydrase II/CA2. (thermofisher.com)
  • IHC-P analysis of human spleen using GTX88385 Carbonic Anhydrase 1 antibody, Internal. (genetex.com)
  • WB analysis of human liver lysate using GTX88385 Carbonic Anhydrase 1 antibody, Internal. (genetex.com)
  • Several aromatic/heterocyclic sulfonamide scaffolds have been used to synthesize compounds incorporating NO-donating moieties of the nitrate ester type, which have been investigated for the inhibition of five physiologically relevant human carbonic anhydrase (hCA, EC 4.2.1.1) isoforms: hCA I (offtarget), II, IV and XII (antiglaucoma targets) and IX (antitumor target). (rcsb.org)
  • Band3), the Na + /H + exchanger NHE1, the Na + /HCO − 3 cotransporter NBCe1, and various monocarboxylate transporters (MCTs) have been demonstrated to physically and/or functionally interact with isoforms of carbonic anhydrase (CA) to form a "transport metabolon. (frontiersin.org)
  • There are 15 carbonic anhydrase isoforms in humans (belonging to the α subgroup) [ 5 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Carbonic anhydrases from mammals (including the 10 active human isoforms) ( 22 , 39 ) together with the two periplasmic enzymes from the unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii ( 16 , 17 ) belong to the α class. (asm.org)
  • Sulfonamides incorporating 1,3,5-triazine moieties selectively and potently inhibit carbonic anhydrase transmembrane isoforms IX, XII and XIV over cytosolic isoforms I and II: Solution and X-ray crystallographic studies. (nih.gov)
  • Inhibition studies of physiologically relevant human carbonic anhydrase (CA, EC 4.2.1.1) isoforms, such as CA I, II, IX, XII and XIV with these compounds are reported. (nih.gov)
  • TY - JOUR T1 - 4-Functionalized 1,3-diarylpyrazoles bearing 6-aminosulfonylbenzothiazole moiety as potent inhibitors of carbonic anhydrase isoforms hCA I, II, IX and XII. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Several carbonic anhydrase (CA) isoforms are associated with plasma membranes. (physiology.org)
  • The most critical function of Carbonic anhydrase is said to preserve acid-base balance in blood and other tissues, and to help convey carbon dioxide of tissues. (news-medical.net)
  • Müller cells have bicarbonate-related transport mechanisms that control movement of potassium and sodium ions (and thus fluid), partly explaining the role for carbonic anhydrase inhibitors such as acetazolamide in the treatment of cystoid macular edema. (tripdatabase.com)
  • The effect of carbonic anhydrase inhibition with acetazolamide (Acz, 10 mg/kg) on the ventilatory response to an abrupt switch into hyperoxia (end-tidal PO2 = 450 Torr) and hypoxia (end-tidal PO2 = 50 Torr) was examined in five male subjects [30 +/- 3 (SE) yr]. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Diamox (acetazolamide), Pentazane (methazolamide), and other agents used in the treatment of glaucoma and diseases of the retina and nervous system are examples of especially active carbonic anhydrase inhibitors. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • CAIX is a transmembrane protein and is a tumor-associated carbonic anhydrase isoenzyme. (wikipedia.org)
  • This superfamily also includes the Bacillus subtilis protein YbcF that does not seem to be able to bind zinc, which all carbonic anhydrases are thought to require, and a carbon disulfide hydrolase from acidothermophilic archaeon Acidianus, which has a typical carbonic anhydrase fold and active site but does not use CO(2) as a substrate [ PMID: 22012399 ]. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • A carbonic anhydrase-like domain with striking homology to that of the alpha class carbonic anhydrases is also found in receptor-type tyrosine-protein phosphatase gamma and zeta. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Crystal structure of the dimeric extracellular domain of human carbonic anhydrase XII, a bitopic membrane protein overexpressed in certain cancer tumor cells. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • In every living organism, the protein family of carbonic anhydrases regulate a broad variety of homeostatic processes. (biomedsearch.com)
  • People who hyperventilate deplete their levels of red cell carbonic anhydrase and the ratio between the activity and the protein gives us a good indication of whether or not hyperventilation is a problem. (drmyhill.co.uk)
  • moreover, a protein cross-reacting to antiserum raised against the γ carbonic anhydrase from Methanosarcina thermophila was detected. (asm.org)
  • Carbonicanhydrase is a metallo-protein containing zinc. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The CAIs inhibit the enzyme carbonic anhydrase, which in turn, reduces aqueous humor formation. (medrounds.org)
  • The carbonic anhydrases (or carbonate dehydratases) form a family of enzymes that catalyze the interconversion between carbon dioxide and water and the dissociated ions of carbonic acid (i.e. bicarbonate and hydrogen ions). (wikipedia.org)
  • Carbonic anhydrase is one of the fastest enzymes, and its rate is typically limited by the diffusion rate of its substrates. (wikipedia.org)
  • The carbonic anhydrase VA enzyme is particularly important in the liver, where it provides bicarbonate needed by four enzymes in the energy-producing centers of cells (mitochondria). (medlineplus.gov)
  • Insufficient bicarbonate results in impaired control of acid-base balance and reduces the activity of the four affected mitochondrial enzymes, resulting in the various biochemical abnormalities associated with carbonic anhydrase VA deficiency. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Carbonic anhydrases (CAs, EC 4.2.1.1) are zinc enzymes acting as efficient catalysts for the reversible hydration of carbon dioxide to bicarbonate. (nih.gov)
  • Carbonic anhydrases constitute a group of enzymes that catalyse reversible hydration of carbon dioxide leading to the formation of bicarbonate and proton. (hindawi.com)
  • Carbonic anhydrase (CA) are enzymes which catalyze the interconversion of CO2 and water to bicarbonate and proton. (proteopedia.org)
  • There are two enzymes, urease, and carbonic anhydrase, that play an important role in the MICP process. (frontiersin.org)
  • The structure of the prototype γ carbonic anhydrase from M. thermophila has recently been solved and found to be entirely different from those of the α-class enzymes ( 31 ). (asm.org)
  • Although a three-dimensional structure has yet to be determined for a β carbonic anhydrase, extended X-ray absorption fine structure and circular dichroism of the plant enzyme indicate that the zinc coordination and overall structure are quite different from those for either the α- or γ-class enzymes ( 10 , 42 ). (asm.org)
  • Carbonic anhydrase (CA) (EC 4.2.1.1) enzymes catalyze the reversible hydration of CO 2 , a reaction that is important in many physiological processes. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Carbonic anhydrases (CAs, EC 4.2.1.1) are ubiquitous enzymes that catalyze the reversible hydration reaction of carbon dioxide. (uta.fi)
  • Topical carbonic anhydrase inhibitors (dorzolamide, brinzolamide) are used as second-line therapy in the treatment of POAG. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Dorzolamide inhibits carbonic anhydrase in the ciliary processes, which decreases aqueous humor formation. (medscape.com)
  • The enzyme Carbonic anhydrase 2 (CA2) belongs to the enzyme group that catalyzes rapid inter-conversion of carbon dioxide and water to carbonic acid, bicarbonate, and protons (CO 2 + H 2 O to HCO 3 + H), a reaction that takes place rather gradually in the absence of a catalyst. (news-medical.net)
  • In C 4 photosynthesis, the enzyme carbonic anhydrase (CA) hydrates CO 2 to form bicarbonate, which is the first catalyzed step in the C 4 photosynthetic pathway ( Badger, 1994 ). (plantphysiol.org)
  • Carbonic anhydrase (CA) is an enzyme that assists rapid interconversion of carbon dioxide and water into carbonic acid, protons, and bicarbonate ions. (ihcworld.com)
  • An enzyme which aids carbon dioxide transport and release by catalyzing the synthesis, and the dehydration, of carbonic acid from, and to, carbon dioxide and water. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • carboanhydrase, carbonate hydrolase, an enzyme of the lyase class that catalyzes the reversible formation of carbonic acid from carbon dioxide and water: CO 2 + H 2 O ⇄H 2 CO 3 . (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Human carbonic anhydrase (CA) I and II are cytosolic proteins, where their expression disorders can cause diseases such as glaucoma, edema, epilepsy or cancer. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • The Arabidopsis CAH1 alpha-type carbonic anhydrase is one of the few plant proteins known to be targeted to the chloroplast through the secretory pathway. (diva-portal.org)
  • Carbonic anhydrase isozyme CA3 protects cells against oxidative stress. (scirp.org)
  • By this second component of the mechanism, the same stimulus directly acts on the carbonic anhydrase I isozyme (that might be functionally coupled with adrenergic receptors), so that its activation ensures an adequate pH for stimulus-receptor coupling for signal transduction into the cell, resulting in vasoconstriction. (scielo.br)
  • Carbonic anhydrase isozyme II (CA II) is a cytosolic enzyme that is highly expressed in most organs, including the brain, where it is mainly located in the oligodendrocytes. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • A recent study on dendritic cell therapy for melanoma patients identified carbonic anhydrase isozyme II (CA II) as a potential target antigen. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Structure and mechanism of carbonic anhydrase. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Lindskog S. Structure and mechanism of carbonic anhydrase. (proteopedia.org)
  • A review is provided focusing on the sequence of elementary reactions ensuing a catalytic reaction (catalytic mechanism) of carbonic anhydrase. (novapublishers.com)
  • Inhibitors of carbonic anhydrase are used to treat glaucoma, the excessive build up of water in the eyes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ingle R, Colman B (1976) The relationship between carbonic anhydrase activity and glycolate excretion in the blue-green alga Coccochloris peniocystis . (springer.com)
  • In this compilation, the authors address the relationship between carbonic anhydrase IX and hypoxia. (novapublishers.com)
  • Generally carbonic anhydrase inhibitors are used to treat epilepsy , glaucoma , mountain sickness, and is used as a diuretic. (drugs.com)
  • Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors are used to treat glaucoma. (mayoclinic.org)
  • Many current treatments to lower intraocular pressure (IOP) associated with glaucoma -- beta blockers and carbonic anhydrase inhibitors --work by suppressing the production or inflow of fluid (aqueous humor). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Glaucoma Pharmaceuticals Markets, forecasts the market and identifies key issues, trends, and competitive analysis for such products as: pilocarpine drugs, andrenergic agonists, beta blockers, carbonic anhydrase inhibitors (CAI) and prostaglandin analogues. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Carbonic anhydrases (CAs) are a large family of zinc metalloenzymes that catalyze the reversible hydration of carbon dioxide. (wikipedia.org)
  • Carbonic anhydrases ( EC:4.2.1.1 ) (CA) are zinc metalloenzymes which catalyze the reversible hydration of carbon dioxide. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • The majority of carbonic anhydrases enclose a zinc ion in their active site and thus is categorized as metalloenzymes. (news-medical.net)
  • Carbonic anhydrases (CA) are zinc metalloenzymes that are present in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The carbonic anhydrases (CAs) are a family of metalloenzymes that catalyze the reversible hydration of carbon dioxide to bicarbonate and a proton. (coronetbooks.com)
  • La cuticule de l'écrevisse Procambarus clarkii (Girard, 1852) contient plusieurs isoenzymes extracellulaires de l'anhydrase carbonique (CA), qui ont été isolées et purifiées par chromatographie. (brillonline.com)
  • Les poids moléculaires estimées en utilisant PAGE, ont révélé une isoenzyme avec un poids moléculaire de 29 kDa, qui est analogue à celle trouvée chez les Vertébrés, et deux plus grands isoenzymes (53 et 66 kDa). (brillonline.com)
  • In addition, there are given some chemical and kinetic basis and technical details related to phenolic antioxidant compounds and carbonic anhydrase isoenzymes. (eurekaselect.com)
  • Class one being alpha carbonic anhydrase which is found in mammals, class two being beta carbonic anhydrase which is found in bacteria and plants and lastly, class three which is gamma carbonic anhydrase which is found in methanogen bacteria in hot springs. (wikipedia.org)
  • For full entry on γ-carbonic anhydrase see Gamma Carbonic Anhydrase . (proteopedia.org)
  • Belongs to the alpha-carbonic anhydrase family. (abcam.com)
  • Contains 1 alpha-carbonic anhydrase domain. (abcam.com)
  • Carbonic anhydrase helps maintain acid-base homeostasis, regulate pH, and fluid balance. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, carbonic anhydrase produces acid in the stomach lining. (wikipedia.org)
  • The main role of carbonic anhydrase in humans is to catalyze the conversion of carbon dioxide to carbonic acid and back again. (wikipedia.org)
  • CO2 + H2O Carbonic acid has a pKa of around 6.36 (the exact value depends on the medium), so at pH 7 a small percentage of the bicarbonate is protonated. (wikipedia.org)
  • An anhydrase is defined as an enzyme that catalyzes the removal of a water molecule from a compound, and so it is this "reverse" reaction that gives carbonic anhydrase its name, because it removes a water molecule from carbonic acid. (wikipedia.org)
  • During an episode, people with carbonic anhydrase VA deficiency have excess ammonia in the blood (hyperammonemia), problems with acid-base balance in the blood (metabolic acidosis and respiratory alkalosis), low glucose in the blood (hypoglycemia), and reduced production of a substance called bicarbonate in the liver. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Romanova AK, Rusinova NG, Kornitskaya VM (1972) Participation of carbonic anhydrase in chemosynthetic assimilation of carbonic acid in Thiobacillus thiooxidans 58R. (springer.com)
  • Carbonic anhydrase (CA) is a seemingly ubiquitous enzyme of profound physiological importance, which plays essential roles in respiration, acid-base homeostasis, bone resorption, calcification, photosynthesis, several biosynthetic pathways and a variety of processes involving ion, gas and fluid transfer. (springer.com)
  • The enzyme catalyzes the hydration of carbon dioxide to carbonic acid. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • The Human Recombinant Carbonic Anhydrase (CA) 2 preserves acid-base balance in blood and other tissues. (news-medical.net)
  • Carbonic anhydrase 5 regulates acid-base homeostasis in zebrafish. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Carbonic anhydrase (CA) is a zinc-enzyme discovered by Meldrum and Roughton in 1932 which catalyzes the reversible hydration reaction of CO 2 , having a main role in the maintenance of acid-basic equilibrium (7). (scielo.br)
  • Catalyzes a reversible reaction where carbon dioxide becomes hydrated and carbonic acid dehydrated. (medscape.com)
  • Catalyzes reversible reaction involving hydration of carbon dioxide and dehydration of carbonic acid. (medscape.com)
  • Carbonic anhydrases participate in various biological processes, including respiration, calcification, maintaining acid-base balance and bone resorption, as well as producing aqueous humour, cerebrospinal fluid, saliva and gastric acid. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • This is the reaction that integrates CO 2 into ________ sugars during photosynthesis , and can use only the CO 2 form of carbon, not carbonic acid or bicarbonate. (thefullwiki.org)
  • Carbonic anhydrase makes for the formation of acid urine in the kidney, hydrochloric acid in the gastric mucosa, bicarbonates of pancreatic juice in the pancreas, and eggshells (containing CaCO 3 ) in the oviducts of birds. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Aerobic and anaerobic swimming performance were not affected by carbonic anhydrase, and there were only very minor effects on arterial blood acid-base status in resting fish. (biologists.org)
  • carbonic anhydrase (ca) catalyzes the reversible hydration of CO 2 and dehydration of carbonic acid. (physiology.org)
  • CAs catalyze the reversible hydration of carbon dioxide to carbonic acid (2) and, therefore, play a role in pH regulation. (aacrjournals.org)
  • During the past 10 years, immunocytochemical methods have been used for localization of carbonic anhydrase (CA) in glial cells and myelin in the mammalian central nervous system. (springer.com)
  • Graham D, Reed M (1971) Carbonic anhydrase and the regulation of photosynthesis. (springer.com)
  • Carbonic anhydrase is a metalloenzyme that requires Zn as a cofactor and is involved in diverse biological processes including pH regulation, CO 2 transfer, ionic exchange, respiration, CO 2 photosynthetic fixation, and stomatal closure. (scielo.cl)
  • These studies have also demonstrated the involvement of carbonic anhydrase in the regulation of vascular and secretory processes in the organism (14). (scielo.br)
  • cDNA cloning, sequence, and expression of carbonic anhydrase in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii: regulation by environmental CO2 concentration. (pnas.org)
  • Carbonic anhydrase (CA) catalyzes the hydration of CO 2 , and its activity has been linked to stomatal aperture regulation in eudicots. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Carbonic anhydrase is a zinc-containing enzyme that catalyzes the reversible hydration of CO 2 (CO 2 + H 2 O ⇋ HCO 3 − + H + ). In eukaryotes, the enzyme participates in various physiological functions, which include the interconversion of CO 2 and HCO 3 − during photosynthesis and intermediary metabolism, facilitated diffusion of CO 2 , pH homeostasis, and ion transport ( 5 , 45 ). (asm.org)
  • Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors decrease aqueous production by inhibiting ion transport associated with the secretion of aqueous humor. (aao.org)
  • Medications used to decrease aqueous production include beta-blockers (topical), carbonic anhydrase inhibitors (topical and/or oral), and alpha 2-agonists. (medscape.com)
  • CAIX is a transmembrane isoform of carbonic anhydrase with an extracellular-facing catalytic site and therefore is well positioned to act in the control of tumor pH, and is overexpressed in various solid tumors. (linkos.cz)
  • Carbonic anhydrase 9 (CAIX, carbonic anhydrase 9) is a cell surface glycoprotein that is expressed in many different tumors and yet restricted in normal tissues to the gastrointestinal tract. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Among these genes, carbonic anhydrase isoform 9 (CA9) is highly overexpressed in many types of cancer especially in high grade brain cancer like GBM. (nih.gov)
  • X-ray crystal structures of carbonic anhydrase II (CAII) complexed with sulfonamide inhibitors illuminate the structural determinants of high affinity binding in the nanomolar regime. (rcsb.org)
  • Carbonic anhydrase II (CAII)-deficient mice were created to study the syndrome of CAII deficiency in humans including osteopetrosis, renal tubular acidosis, and cerebral calcification. (springer.com)
  • The platelet carbonic anhydrase II (CAII) was described for the first time in the '80s of the last century. (hindawi.com)
  • Ohlsson A, Cumming WA, Paul A, Sly WS (1986) Carbonic anhydrase-II deficiency syndrome -recessive osteopetrosis with renal tubular-acidosis and cerebral calcification. (springer.com)
  • Lewis SE, Erickson RP, Barnett LB, Venta PJ, Tashian RE (1988) N-Ethyl-N-nitrosourea induced null mutation at the mouse car-2 locus-an animal-model for human carbonic anhydrase-II deficiency syndrome. (springer.com)
  • Carbonic anhydrase II deficiency syndrome is a recessive disorder that causes osteopetrosis, renal acidosis and cerebral calcification. (proteopedia.org)
  • The delta cynT chromosomal mutant expressed an active cyanase but no active carbonic anhydrase. (asm.org)
  • Therefore, the role of carbonic anhydrase depends on where it is found in the body. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hogetsu D, Miyachi S (1979) Role of carbonic anhydrase in photosynthetic CO 2 fixation in Chlorella . (springer.com)
  • Tashian RE (1992) Genetics of the mammalian carbonic-anhydrases. (springer.com)
  • Mammalian carbonic anhydrase is monomeric and is a part of the alpha class. (news-medical.net)
  • Prokaryotic carbonic anhydrases. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Carbonic anhydrase is present in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. (hindawi.com)
  • Carbonic anhydrase is nearly ubquitous in highly evolved eukaryotes, but until recently the enzyme was thought to play a minor role in prokaryotic physiology ( 48 ). (asm.org)
  • Four prokaryotic carbonic anhydrases from species in the Bacteria domain, two belonging to the α class and two belonging to the β class, have been described ( 13 , 20 , 49 , 50 ). (asm.org)
  • A key component to this tumor microenvironment is carbonic anhydrase IX (CA IX). (mdpi.com)
  • Recently, it has emerged that certain tumor-associated carbonic anhydrases (CAs) can be added to the list of known hypoxia-inducible factor-responsive genes. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Chemometrical-electrochemical investigation for comparing inhibitory effects of quercetin and its sulfonamide derivative on human carbonic anhydrase II: Theoretical and experimental evidence. (bioportfolio.com)
  • This paper reports results of a valuable study on investigation of inhibitory effects of the sulfonamide derivative of quercetin (QD) on human carbonic anhydrase II (CA-II) by electrochemical and chemometrical approaches. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Synthesis of carbazole bearing pyridopyrimidine-substituted sulfonamide derivatives and studies their carbonic anhydrase enzyme activity. (bioportfolio.com)
  • The synthesis of carbazole containing pyridopyrimidine-substituted sulfonamide derivatives (3a-i) and their inhibitory effects on human carbonic anhydrase (hCA) I and II were studied. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Moreover, in 2007, it was presented that also in rheumatoid arthritis there are present aCAAs in serum, showing affinity to bind to carbonic anhydrase III in synovial membranes [ 16 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • We report here the use of 19 F pseudocontact shift (PCS) NMR as a method to determine fluorine positions of high affinity ligands bound within the drug target human carbonic anhydrase II with high accuracy. (rsc.org)
  • The cuticle of the freshwater crayfish, Procambarus clarkii (Girard, 1852), has several extracellular, cuticular isozymes for carbonic anhydrase (CA) which were isolated and purified via affinity chromatography. (brillonline.com)
  • Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors typically have a weaker effect than beta blockers. (medscape.com)
  • β-carbonic anhydrase are found in prokaryotes. (proteopedia.org)
  • These results show that β-class carbonic anhydrases extend not only into the Archaea domain but also into the thermophilic prokaryotes. (asm.org)
  • Interestingly, the autoantibodies against carbonic anhydrase II might be produced in humans due to cross-reactivity with carbonic anhydrase of Helicobacter pylori [ 28 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Carbonic anhydrase in bacteria. (nih.gov)
  • γ-carbonic anhydrase are found in methane-producing bacteria. (proteopedia.org)
  • demonstrated in 1991 that anti-carbonic anhydrase autoantibodies (aCAAs) are present in serum of 32% patients with systemic lupus erythematosus, in 21% of patients with Sjögren's syndrome, but not in healthy volunteers. (hindawi.com)
  • Systemic absorption can affect carbonic anhydrase in the kidney, reducing hydrogen ion secretion at the renal tubule and increasing renal excretion of sodium, potassium bicarbonate, and water. (medscape.com)
  • We studied the relationship between alpha- and beta-adrenergic agonists and the activity of carbonic anhydrase I and II in erythrocyte, clinical and vessel studies. (scielo.br)