Calcium, carbonic anhydrase and gastric acid secretion. (1/40)

Previous data concerning the action of calcium (Ca) on gastric acid secretion (GAS) indicated that calcium ions increase GAS elicited by gastrin released through a vagal mechanism, and also by a direct effect on parietal cells. Our research showed that the stimulating effect of calcium on gastric acid secretion can be antagonized by verapamil administration, which reduces gastric acid secretion . In the present study we followed the effect induced by administration of calcium and Ca-chelating agents (disodium EDTA) on gastric acid secretion and on carbonic anhydrase (CA) activity. We selected two groups of healthy volunteers: Group I (n=21) received a single i.v. dose of CaCl2 (15 mg/kg b.w.), whereas Group II (n=22) received a single i.v. dose of disodium EDTA (5 mg/kg b.w.). We determined blood calcium before and after treatment, gastric acid secretion at 2 hours. erythrocyte CA II activity, and CA IV activity in membrane parietal cells, which were isolated from gastric mucosa obtained by endoscopic biopsy. Assessment of carbonic anhydrase activity was achieved by the stopped-flow method. In Group I calcium administration increased blood calcium, HCl output, CA II and CA IV activity as compared to initial values. In Group II, disodium EDTA reduced blood calcium, HCl output, CA II and CA IV activity as compared to initial values. The results demonstrated that increased blood calcium and GAS values after calcium administration correlated with the increase of erythrocyte CA II and parietal cell CA IV activity, while disodium EDTA induced a reversed process. Our results also show that cytosolic CA II and membrane CA IV values are sensitive to calcium changes and they directly depend on these levels. Our data suggest that intra- and extracellular pH changes induced by carbonic anhydrase might account for the modulation of the physiological and pathological secretory processes in the organism.  (+info)

The extracellular component of a transport metabolon. Extracellular loop 4 of the human AE1 Cl-/HCO3- exchanger binds carbonic anhydrase IV. (2/40)

Cytosolic carbonic anhydrase II (CAII) and the cytoplasmic C-terminal tails of chloride/bicarbonate anion exchange (AE) proteins associate to form a bicarbonate transport metabolon, which maximizes the bicarbonate transport rate. To determine whether cell surface-anchored carbonic anhydrase IV (CAIV) interacts with AE proteins to accelerate the bicarbonate transport rate, AE1-mediated bicarbonate transport was monitored in transfected HEK293 cells. Expression of the inactive CAII V143Y mutant blocked the interaction between endogenous cytosolic CAII and AE1, AE2, and AE3 and inhibited their transport activity (53 +/- 3, 49 +/- 10, and 35 +/- 1% inhibition, respectively). However, in the presence of V143Y CAII, expression of CAIV restored full functional activity to AE1, AE2, and AE3 (AE1, 101 +/- 3; AE2, 85 +/- 5; AE3, 108 +/- 1%). In Triton X-100 extracts of transfected HEK293 cells, resolved by sucrose gradient ultracentrifugation, CAIV recruitment to the position of AE1 suggested a physical interaction between CAIV and AE1. Gel overlay assays showed a specific interaction between CAIV and AE1, AE2, and AE3. Glutathione S-transferase pull-down assays revealed that the interaction between CAIV and AE1 occurs on the large fourth extracellular loop of AE1. We conclude that AE1 and CAIV interact on extracellular loop 4 of AE1, forming the extracellular component of a bicarbonate transport metabolon, which accelerates the rate of AE-mediated bicarbonate transport.  (+info)

Carbonic anhydrase XII mRNA encodes a hydratase that is differentially expressed along the rabbit nephron. (3/40)

Membrane-bound carbonic anhydrase (CA) facilitates acidification in the kidney. Although most hydratase activity is considered due to CA IV, some in the basolateral membranes could be attributed to CA XII. Indeed, CA IV is glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchored, connoting apical polarization, but CA IV immunoreactivity has been detected on basolateral membranes of proximal tubules. Herein, we determined whether CA XII mRNA was expressed in acidifying segments of the rabbit nephron. The open reading frame of CA XII was sequenced from a rabbit kidney cortex cDNA library; it was 83% identical to human CA XII and coded for a 355-amino acid single-pass transmembrane protein. Northern blot analysis revealed an abundant 4.5-kb message in kidney cortex, medulla, and colon. By in situ hybridization, CA XII mRNA was expressed by proximal convoluted and straight tubules, cortical and medullary collecting ducts, and papillary epithelium. By RT-PCR, CA XII mRNA was abundantly expressed in cortical and medullary collecting ducts and thick ascending limb of Henle's loop; it was also expressed in proximal convoluted and straight tubules but not in glomeruli or S3 segments. FLAG-CA XII of approximately 40 kDa expressed in Escherichia coli showed hydratase activity that was inhibited by 0.1 mM acetazolamide. Unlike CA IV, expressed CA XII activity was inhibited by 1% SDS, suggesting insufficient disulfide linkages to stabilize the molecule. Western blotting of expressed CA XII with two anti-rabbit CA IV peptide antibodies showed no cross-reactivity. Our findings indicate that CA XII may contribute to the membrane CA activity of proximal tubules and collecting ducts.  (+info)

Expression of carbonic anhydrase IV in rabbit corneal endothelial cells. (4/40)

OBJECTIVE: To demonstrate the molecular expression of carbonic anhydrase IV (CA IV) in rabbit corneal endothelium. METHODS: Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was performed using cultured and fresh rabbit corneal endothelial total RNA and specific primers for CA IV. The RT-PCR product was subcloned and sequenced. Immunoblotting and indirect immunofluorescence staining were performed to detect protein expression and distribution of CA IV using fresh and cultured rabbit corneal endothelium and rat anti-CA IV polyclonal antibody. RESULTS: RT-PCR screening gave positive bands at the predicted size for CA IV from fresh and cultured rabbit corneal endothelium. Sequencing further confirmed the identity of CA IV in corneal endothelium. Immunoblotting analysis showed a single band at 52 kDa for freshly isolated and cultured endothelial cells. Indirect immunofluorescence staining revealed an apparent positive staining in cultured endothelial cells. CONCLUSION: Carbonic anhydrase IV is expressed in rabbit corneal endothelium, which could contribute to the transendothelial HCO(3)(-) flux that is necessary to maintain corneal hydration and transparency.  (+info)

Immunocytochemical localization of Na+-HCO3- cotransporters and carbonic anhydrase dependence of fluid transport in corneal endothelial cells. (5/40)

In corneal endothelium, there is evidence for basolateral entry of HCO(3)(-) into corneal endothelial cells via Na(+)-HCO(3)(-) cotransporter (NBC) proteins and for net HCO(3)(-) flux from the basolateral to the apical side. However, how HCO(3)(-) exits the cells through the apical membrane is unclear. We determined that cultured corneal endothelial cells transport HCO(3)(-) similarly to fresh tissue. In addition, Cl(-) channel inhibitors decreased fluid transport by at most 16%, and inhibition of membrane-bound carbonic anhydrase IV by benzolamide or dextran-bound sulfonamide decreased fluid transport by at most 29%. Therefore, more than half of the fluid transport cannot be accounted for by anion transport through apical Cl(-) channels, CO(2) diffusion across the apical membrane, or a combination of these two mechanisms. However, immunocytochemistry using optical sectioning by confocal microscopy and cryosections revealed the presence of NBC transporters in both the basolateral and apical cell membranes of cultured bovine corneal endothelial cells and freshly isolated rabbit endothelia. This newly detected presence of an apical NBC transporter is consistent with its being the missing mechanism sought. We discuss discrepancies with other reports and provide a model that accounts for the experimental observations by assuming different stoichiometries of the NBC transport proteins at the basolateral and apical sides of the cells. Such functional differences might arise either from the expression of different isoforms or from regulatory factors affecting the stoichiometry of a single isoform.  (+info)

Apoptosis-inducing signal sequence mutation in carbonic anhydrase IV identified in patients with the RP17 form of retinitis pigmentosa. (6/40)

Genetic and physical mapping of the RP17 locus on 17q identified a 3.6-megabase candidate region that includes the gene encoding carbonic anhydrase IV (CA4), a glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored protein that is highly expressed in the choriocapillaris of the human eye. By sequencing candidate genes in this region, we identified a mutation that causes replacement of an arginine with a tryptophan (R14W) in the signal sequence of the CA4 gene at position -5 relative to the signal sequence cleavage site. This mutation was found to cosegregate with the disease phenotype in two large families and was not found in 36 unaffected family members or 100 controls. Expression of the mutant cDNA in COS-7 cells produced several findings, suggesting a mechanism by which the mutation can explain the autosomal dominant disease. In transfected COS-7 cells, the R14W mutation (i) reduced the steady-state level of carbonic anhydrase IV activity expressed by 28% due to a combination of decreased synthesis and accelerated turnover; (ii) led to up-regulation of immunoglobulin-binding protein, double-stranded RNA-regulated protein kinase-like ER kinase, and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein homologous protein, markers of the unfolded protein response and endoplasmic reticulum stress; and (iii) induced apoptosis, as evidenced by annexin V binding and terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling staining, in most cells expressing the mutant, but not the WT, protein. We suggest that a high level of expression of the mutant allele in the endothelial cells of the choriocapillaris leads to apoptosis, leading in turn to ischemia in the overlying retina and producing autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa.  (+info)

Chemical chaperones protect from effects of apoptosis-inducing mutation in carbonic anhydrase IV identified in retinitis pigmentosa 17. (7/40)

Carbonic anhydrase (CA) IV is a glycosylphosphotidylinositol-anchored enzyme highly expressed on the plasma face of microcapillaries and especially strongly expressed in the choriocapillaris of the human eye. In collaboration with scientists at the University of Cape Town (Rondebosch, South Africa), we recently showed that the R14W mutation in the signal sequence of CA IV, which they identified in patients with the retinitis pigmentosa (RP) 17 form of autosomal dominant RP, results in accumulation of unfolded protein in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), leading to ER stress, the unfolded protein response, and apoptosis in a large fraction of transfected COS-7 cells expressing mutant, but not wild-type, CA IV. Here we present experiments showing that several well characterized CA inhibitors largely prevent the adverse effects of expressing R14W CA IV in transfected COS-7 cells. Specifically, CA inhibitors prevent the accelerated turnover of the mutant protein, the up-regulation of Ig-binding protein, double-stranded RNA-regulated protein kinase-like ER kinase, and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein homologous protein (markers of the unfolded protein response and ER stress), the inhibition of production of other secretory proteins expressed from COS-7-transfecting plasmids, and the induction of apoptosis, all characteristics of transfected cells expressing R14W CA IV. Furthermore, treatment with 4-phenylbutyric acid, a nonspecific chemical chaperone used in other protein-folding disorders, also dramatically reduces the apoptosis-inducing effect of expressing R14W CA IV cDNA in transfected COS-7 cells. These experiments suggest a promising approach to treatment of RP17 that might delay the onset or possibly prevent this autosomal dominant form of RP.  (+info)

Mutant carbonic anhydrase 4 impairs pH regulation and causes retinal photoreceptor degeneration. (8/40)

Retina and retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) belong to the metabolically most active tissues in the human body. Efficient removal of acid load from retina and RPE is a critical function mediated by the choriocapillaris. However, the mechanism by which pH homeostasis is maintained is largely unknown. Here, we show that a functional complex of carbonic anhydrase 4 (CA4) and Na+/bicarbonate co-transporter 1 (NBC1) is specifically expressed in the choriocapillaris and that missense mutations in CA4 linked to autosomal dominant rod-cone dystrophy disrupt NBC1-mediated HCO3- transport. Our results identify a novel pathogenic pathway in which a defect in a functional complex involved in maintaining pH balances, but not expressed in retina or RPE, leads to photoreceptor degeneration. The importance of a functional CA4 for survival of photoreceptors implies that CA inhibitors, which are widely used as medications, particularly in the treatment of glaucoma, may have long-term adverse effects on vision.  (+info)

Looking for Carbonic anhydrase iv? Find out information about Carbonic anhydrase iv. An enzyme which aids carbon dioxide transport and release by catalyzing the synthesis, and the dehydration, of carbonic acid from, and to, carbon dioxide... Explanation of Carbonic anhydrase iv
Rabbit polyclonal Carbonic Anhydrase IV/CA4 antibody validated for WB, ELISA and tested in Human and Mouse. Immunogen corresponding to synthetic peptide
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We have recently shown that CA IV expression in kidney cortex increased five-fold at the mRNA level (35) and 3- to 5-fold at the protein level (25) during postnatal maturation. A previous study showed a 19-fold increase in CA IV mRNA expression in rat lung between fetal day 20 and postnatal day 6, and a 40% postnatal increase to day 17, with no further increase (7). The postnatal increase was nearly comparable to what we have observed in rabbit lung (Fig. 5B). However, the increase in CA IV mRNA in kidney cortex is at least 10-fold and likely to account for the postnatal increment in protein (24). With most of the increase occurring during postnatal weeks 3-5, it is likely that the increase reflects the change in eating habits and a shift to an alkaline ash diet that requires a renal adaptation in transport. The large increase in CA IV may allow the kidney to handle the maturational increase in filtered load of bicarbonate and its proximal reabsorption.. Detailed studies of CA IX expression ...
FUNCTIONS OF CARBONIC ANHYDRASES. The presence of carbonic anhydrases in all living organisms probably originates because the components of the catalyzed reaction are involved in almost all metabolic processes. We suppose that the main reason for the abundance of CAs in nature is the ubiquitous involvement of bicarbonate buffers in aqueous media and then in the cytoplasm at every stage of evolution; these enzymes acceleration achieving appropriate pH, which is important for homeostasis of every living cell. The role of carbonic anhydrases in accelerating the conversion of inorganic forms of carbon was probably not their initial main function, but now it is established that these enzymes are critical regulators of the exchange of these forms in many metabolic processes.. Functions of Carbonic Anhydrases in Animals. Although the main purpose of this review is to consider the available experimental data and ideas concerning the role of CAs in higher plants, we should present, at least briefly, ...
Zn(2+)-dependent carbonic anhydrases (CA) catalyse the reversible hydration of carbon dioxide to bicarbonate and participate in diverse physiological processes, hence having manifold therapeutic potentials. Among the 15 human CAs with wide-ranging sub-cellular localisation and kinetic properties, CA VI is the only secretory isoform. The 1.9Å crystal structure of the human CA VI catalytic domain reveals a prototypical mammalian CA fold, and a novel dimeric arrangement as compared to previously-reported CA structures. The active site cavity contains a cluster of non-conserved residues that may be involved in ligand binding and have significant implications for developing the next-generation of isoform-specific inhibitors.
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The IUPHAR/BPS Guide to Pharmacology. carbonic anhydrase 9 - Carbonic anhydrases. Detailed annotation on the structure, function, physiology, pharmacology and clinical relevance of drug targets.
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Vaida Morkūnaitė, Joana Gylytė, Asta Zubrienė, Lina Baranauskienė, Miglė Kišonaitė, Vilma Michailovienė, Vaida Juozapaitienė, Matthew J Todd, Daumantas Matulis].
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Carbonic anhydrase IX (CAIX) is a hypoxia-induced, membrane-tethered enzyme that is highly expressed in many cancers. It catalyses the hydration of CO 2 to HCO3- and H+, and the reverse dehydration reaction. Recent studies have shown an important role for CAIX in pH regulation and it has been speculated that CAIX may play a role in supporting cancer progression towards more aggressive forms of the disease. Clinical correlative studies in many tumours have shown that high expression is related to poor outcome. In the present study, we have selected antigen-binding antibody fragments (Fab) against human CAIX by phage-display, and tested these for inhibitory potency on CAIX catalytic activity. Inhibition was assessed from the kinetics of the CAIX-catalysed reaction, using assays performed on intact cells over-expressing CAIX, and their CAIX-containing membrane fragments. Inhibition was also assessed in multi-cellular tissue-models (spheroids) from the kinetics of CO2 venting. We have identified a Fab
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Carbonic anhydrases (CAs I-VII) are products of a gene family that encodes seven isozymes and several homologous, CA- related proteins. All seven isozymes have been cloned, sequenced, and mapped, and the intron-exon organization of five genes established. They differ in subcellular localizations, be …
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Carbonic anhydrases (CAs) are ubiquitously expressed enzymes and catalyse an important physiological reaction of interconverting the hydration of carbon dioxide to bicarbonates, which is crucial for maintaining acid/base equilibrium in certain tissues. While 15 different isoforms of CAs are present in various cell types in human tissues, their expression pattern in the epidermis remains to be investigated. Here, we report the expression of 5 CA isoforms (CAII, CAIX, CAXI, CAXII and CAXIII) in human primary keratinocytes. Further, we demonstrate that the expression of CAII and CAIX in these cells is significantly up-regulated by the biologically active metabolites of vitamin A (all-trans retinoic acid) and vitamin D (1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 ), respectively. Taken together, apart from providing new information on the expression of CAs in the skin, our results highlight a previously undisclosed connection between vitamin A and CAII expression and vitamin D and CAIX expression. ...
The transcriptional complex hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) has emerged as an important mediator of gene expression patterns in tumors, although the range of responding genes is still incompletely defined. Here we show that the tumor-associated carbonic anhydrases (CAs) are tightly regulated by this system. Both CA9 and CA12 were strongly induced by hypoxia in a range of tumor cell lines. In renal carcinoma cells that are defective for the von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) tumor suppressor, up-regulation of these CAs is associated with loss of regulation by hypoxia, consistent with the critical function of pVHL in the regulation of HIF-1. Further studies of CA9 defined a HIF-1-dependent hypoxia response element in the minimal promoter and demonstrated that tight regulation by the HIF/pVHL system was reflected in the pattern of CA IX expression within tumors. Generalized up-regulation of CA IX in VHL-associated renal cell carcinoma contrasted with focal perinecrotic expression in a variety of non-VHL-associated
Carbonic anhydrase III (CAIII) is a member of a multigene family (at least six separate genes are known) that encodes carbonic anhydrase isozymes. These carbonic anhydrases are a class of metalloenzymes that catalyze the reversible hydration of carbon dioxide and are differentially expressed in a number of cell types. The expression of the CA3 gene is strictly tissue specific and present at high levels in skeletal muscle and much lower levels in cardiac and smooth muscle. A proportion of carriers of Duchenne muscle dystrophy have a higher CA3 level than normal. The gene spans 10.3 kb and contains seven exons and six introns. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2008 ...
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Carbonic anhydrase 12, 0.1 ml. Carbonic anhydrases (CAs) are a large family of zinc metalloenzymes that catalyze the reversible hydration of carbon dioxide.
Environmental stimuli, including elevated carbon dioxide levels, regulate stomatal development; however, the key mechanisms mediating the perception and relay of the CO2 signal to the stomatal development machinery remain elusive. To adapt CO2 intake to water loss, plants regulate the development of …
The main findings of this study showed that the PCs exhibit OxSt and apoptosis responses when exposed to high glucose. Both high glucose-induced OxSt and apoptosis of PCs were rescued by pharmacological inhibition of mCA.. The PCs in immediate contact with the specialized EC of cerebral microvasculature comprising the BBB are vital for integrity of the latter and are especially susceptible to OxSt. Loss of PCs results in a focal increase in BBB permeability (Bonkowski et al., 2011). A close correlation between PC density and BBB permeability has been reported in PC-deficient adult mice (Armulik et al., 2010). Recently, we reported hyperglycemia-induced OxSt in the brain and cerebral PC loss in diabetic mice (Price et al., 2012). Clinical evidence suggests that diabetes-induced changes in the BBB may be a predisposing factor for Alzheimers disease (Ristow, 2004) and people suffering from both types of diabetes have an increased risk of cognitive impairment (Whitmer, 2007; Bruce et al., 2008; ...
2FMZ: Carbonic Anhydrase Activators. Activation of Isoforms I, II, IV, VA, VII, and XIV with l- and d-Phenylalanine and Crystallographic Analysis of Their Adducts with Isozyme II: Stereospecific Recognition within the Active Site of an Enzyme and Its Consequences for the Drug Design.
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ESCUDERO-ALMANZA, Dalila Jacqueline et al. Carbonic Anhydrase and Zinc in Plant Physiology. Chilean J. Agric. Res. [online]. 2012, vol.72, n.1, pp.140-146. ISSN 0718-5839. http://dx.doi.org/10.4067/S0718-58392012000100022.. Carbonic anhydrase (CA) (EC: 2.4.1.1) catalyzes the rapid conversion of carbon dioxide plus water into a proton and the bicarbonate ion (HCO3-) that can be found in prokaryotes and higher organisms; it is represented by four different families. Carbonic anhydrase is a metalloenzyme that requires Zn as a cofactor and is involved in diverse biological processes including pH regulation, CO2 transfer, ionic exchange, respiration, CO2 photosynthetic fixation, and stomatal closure. Therefore, the review includes relevant aspects about CA morphology, oligomerization, and structural differences in the active site. On the other hand, we consider the general characteristics of Zn, its geometry, reactions, and physiology. We then consider the CA catalysis mechanism that is carried out ...
To further assess our results, we performed a literature review of the genes reported by at least seven studies in the cancer versus normal comparison to determine if any have been shown to have diagnostic and/or prognostic utility in colorectal cancer. The most consistently reported differentially expressed gene in our meta-analysis was carbonic anhydrase II (CA2), which was reported as down-regulated in 11 studies. Along with carbonic anhydrase I, CA2 has been shown to have prognostic significance where the expression of both enzymes was related to the metastatic aggressiveness of colorectal cancer (23). Similarly, the potential diagnostic utility of CA2 was shown in a study in which the average level of fecal CA2 in colorectal cancer patients was shown to be significantly greater than those in the control group (24). Immunohistochemistry has been done on colorectal tumor and healthy mucosa tissue to monitor the protein levels of four carbonic anhydrases, among them CA2 (25). That study showed ...
en] Acidosis, Renal Tubular/chemically induced/enzymology ; Anticonvulsants/adverse effects/therapeutic use ; Carbonic Anhydrases/metabolism ; Female ; Fructose/adverse effects/analogs & derivatives/therapeutic use ; Humans ; Kidney/drug effects/enzymology/pathology ; Middle Aged ; Migraine Disorders/drug therapy ; Models, ...
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BioAssay record AID 644085 submitted by ChEMBL: Inhibition of human carbonic anhydrase 2 using 4-nitrophenylacetate as substrate after 3 mins using spectrophotometry by Lineweaver-Burk plot analysis.
Creative Biolabs provides Lenti-Carbonic anhydrase IX (CA9) CAR (scFv-CD3ζ, G36) Viral Particle product for Biopharmaceutical research,preclinical and clinical trials.
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Cryptococcus neoformans, a fungal pathogen of humans, causes fatal meningitis in immunocompromised patients. Its virulence is mainly determined by the elaboration of a polysaccharide capsule surrounding its cell wall. During its life, C. neoformans is confronted with and responds to dramatic variations in CO2 concentrations; one important morphological change triggered by the shift from its natural habitat (0.033% CO2) to infected hosts (5% CO2) is the induction of capsule biosynthesis. In cells, CO2 is hydrated to bicarbonate in a spontaneous reaction that is accelerated by carbonic anhydrases. Here we show that C. neoformans contains two beta-class carbonic anhydrases, Can1 and Can2. We further demonstrate that CAN2, but not CAN1, is abundantly expressed and essential for the growth of C. neoformans in its natural environment, where CO2 concentrations are limiting. Structural studies reveal that Can2 forms a homodimer in solution. Our data reveal Can2 to be the main carbonic anhydrase and ...
BACKGROUND: Carbonic anhydrase IX (CA9) is reportedly overexpressed in several types of carcinomas, but little is known about the expression pattern of CA9 in osteosarcoma. We aimed to assess the prevalence of CA9 expression and its prognostic implications in osteosarcoma patients. METHODS: We compared immunohistochemical expression of CA9 between conventional, high-grade and low-grade, central osteosarcomas. Specimens were obtained before chemotherapy and stained with anti-human CA9 antibody. We also evaluated the histologic grade, presence of metastasis, and patient prognosis. RESULTS: Among 38 samples of conventional high-grade osteosarcoma, 22 (57.9%) tumors displayed CA9 overexpression. Twenty-five cases of low-grade central osteosarcomas were all negative (p < 0.0001). CA9 expression was significantly associated with the presence of metastasis (p = 0.0010). The overall survival rate was significantly reduced with increased CA9 expression (p = 0.0012), higher histologic grade (p < 0.0001), ...
In this study, bovine articular and human chondrocytes from the C-20/A4 cell line were tested for the functional activity and molecular presence of the enzyme carbonic anhydrase. This enzyme is classically considered to be important in the maintenance of high cellular buffering capacity by catalysing the slow attainment of equilibrium between CO(2) and HCO(3)(-). The first functional assay measured the rate of pH equilibration after administration of a fixed dose of CO(2) solution to cell lysates. Compared to positive controls (human erythrocytes, murine M1 cells and purified carbonic anhydrase), chondrocyte lysates attained equilibrium at a significantly slower rate, similar to the rate obtained with a negative control (Xenopus oocytes). A second functional assay studied CO(2) hydration kinetics in intact C-20/A4 cells, using a pH-sensitive fluorescent dye, as the CO(2) content of the extracellular solution was changed. It was shown that C-20/A4 cells accelerate hydration only to a small degree.
Rabbit recombinant monoclonal Carbonic Anhydrase IX antibody [SP106] validated for IHC, Flow Cyt and tested in Human. Immunogen corresponding to synthetic…
Recombinant Carbonic Anhydrase VII (CA7) Protein. Species: Rat (Rattus). Source: Escherichia coli (E. coli). Order product ABIN6302725.
Read Assignment of the gene determining human carbonic anhydrase, CAI, to chromosome 8, Annals of Human Genetics on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
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Carbonic anhydrase IX (CAIX) is generally expressed in individual tumors and serves as a marker for hypoxia. Breasts. Am.J.Pathol. 2001;158:1011C1019. [PMC free of charge content] [PubMed] [10] Sowter HM, Raval R, Moore J, Ratcliffe PJ, Harris AL. Predominant Function of Hypoxia-Inducible Transcription Aspect Ednra (Hif)-1 Hif-2 in Legislation from the Transcriptional Response to Hypoxia. Cancers Res. 2003;63:6130C6134. [PubMed] [11] Chiche J, Ilc K, Laferriere J, Trottier E, Dayan F, Mazure NM, Brahimi-Horn MC, Pouyssegur J. Cyclopamine Hypoxia-Inducible Carbonic Anhydrase XII and IX Promote Tumor Cell Growth by Counteracting Acidosis coming from the Regulation from the Intracellular pH. Cancer tumor Res. 2009;69:358C368. [PubMed] [12] Swinson DEB, Jones JL, Richardson D, Wykoff C, Turley H, Pastorek J, Taub N, Harris AL, OBryne KJ. Carbonic Anhydrase IX Appearance, a Book Surrogate Marker of Tumor Hypoxia, Is normally Associated with an unhealthy Prognosis in Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancers. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Association of the gross appearance of intratumoral vascularity at MDCT with the carbonic anhydrase IX score in clear cell renal cell carcinoma. AU - Young, Jonathan R. AU - Coy, Heidi. AU - Kim, Hyun J.. AU - Douek, Michael. AU - Sisk, Anthony. AU - Pantuck, Allan J.. AU - Raman, Steven S.. PY - 2018/12/1. Y1 - 2018/12/1. N2 - OBJECTIVE. The purpose of this study was to determine whether qualitative MDCT features are associated with the carbonic anhydrase IX (CAIX) score of clear cell renal cell carcinoma (RCC). The CAIX score has been previously found to have prognostic significance for disease-free survival, overall survival, and lymph node involvement. MATERIALS AND METHODS. A cohort of 105 histologically proven clear cell RCCs in patients who underwent preoperative four-phase renal mass MDCT was derived from 2001 to 2013. Two genitourinary radiologists evaluated each lesion for the gross appearance of intratumoral vascularity, calcification, enhancement pattern, necrosis, ...
One of the four discrete isoenzymes of carbonic anhydrase hitherto characterized, CA III, has the lowest turnover rate and the greatest resistance to inhibition by sulphonamides. Streptozotocin-induced diabetes mellitus resulted in a reduction in acetazolamide-resistant activity of carbonic anhydrase in the liver, but not in tonic skeletal muscle, of adult male rats. The hepatic activity declined with apparent first-order kinetics [calculated rate constant (k) 0.089 day-1] to a minimum of approx. 6% of control values; the reduction in activity was moderated by administration of insulin. ...
The hydration rate of CO2 catalyzed by human red cell carbonic anhydrase B is 92 percent reduced by the normal concentrations of chloride and bicarbonate in red cells. This reflects a general sensitivity of this reaction to halides and other anions, up to 87 times greater than the effect on red cell carbonic anhydrase C. The catalytic hydration of CO2 is generally more (up to 24 times) sensitive to inhibition by anions and sulfonamides than the dehydration of HCO3-, probably reflecting different mechanisms. The sensitivity of enzyme B to anion inhibition also depends upon the substrate, being much greater for CO2 than for certain esters. On the basis of the very low catalytic activity of B for CO2 in the presence of physiological concentration of chloride, and the fact that carbonic anhydrase C is effective for CO2 hydration (in the presence of chloride) at a rate 340 times greater than that of CO2 output from tissues, it appears that the biological role of enzyme B is not that of a carbonic ...
Hyperventilation is a difficult diagnosis to make clinically and that is why having an objective test of hyperventilation is so useful. People who hyperventilate deplete their levels of red cell carbonic anhydrase and the ratio between the activity and the protein gives us a good indication of whether or not hyperventilation is a problem. Hyperventilation is also difficult to treat and so this test tells us how much effort we have to put in to correcting this. Essentially, there is a two-pronged approach - firstly biochemical and secondly physical: Biochemically, red cell carbonic anhydrase is a zinc dependent enzyme and will be depleted simply by zinc deficiency. Furthermore, a low red cell carbonic anhydrase drives hyperventilation and so this is another example of one of the many vicious cycles seen in patients with chronic fatigue. Zinc is best absorbed at night and I recommend taking 30mg last thing at night on an empty stomach. This should be in addition to zinc taken in my physiological ...
Glaucoma is a serious disease associated with increased intraocular pressure which often leads to blindness. One of the ways to treat glaucoma is to reduce aqueous humour secretion in the ciliary body of the eye by suppressing (inhibiting) activity of special enzymes - carbonic anhydrases. Russian scientists from RUDN University have designed new compounds that can effectively reduce intraocular pressure by isoform selective inhibiting human carbonic anhydrase. The results of the study were published in the prestigious Bioorganic Chemistry journal.
Coumarins were recently shown to constitute a novel class of mechanism-based carbonic anhydrase (CA, EC 4.2.1.1) inhibitors. We demonstrate that sulfocoumarins (1,2-benzoxathiine 2,2-dioxides) possess a similar mechanism of action, acting as effective CA inhibitors. The sulfocoumarins were hydrolyzed by the esterase CA activity to 2-hydroxyphenyl-vinylsulfonic acids, which thereafter bind to the enzyme in a region rarely occupied by other classes of inhibitors. The X-ray structure of one of these compounds in adduct with a modified CA II enzyme possessing two amino acid residues from the CA IX active site, allowed us to decipher the inhibition mechanism. The sulfonic acid was observed anchored to the zinc-coordinated water molecule, making favorable interactions with Thr200 and Pro201. Some other sulfocoumarins incorporating substituted-1,2,3-triazole moieties were prepared by using click chemistry and showed low nanomolar inhibitory action against the tumor-associated isoforms CA IX and XII, ...
Contact Us. Tel:732-484-9848. Fax:888-484-5008. Email:[email protected]. Add:1 Deer Park Dr, Suite Q,. Monmouth Junction, NJ 08852, USA. ...
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I tiazidici, come lidroclorotiazide favorire la perdita di acqua dal corpo (diuretici). Essi inibiscono la Na + / Cl-riassorbimento da parte del tubulo contorto distale nei reni. I diuretici tiazidici anche causare la perdita di potassio e un aumento di livelli sierici di acido urico. I diuretici tiazidici sono spesso usati per trattare lipertensione, ma i loro effetti ipotensivi non sono necessariamente a causa della loro attività diuretica. I diuretici tiazidici hanno dimostrato di prevenire ipertensione correlata morbilità e mortalità anche se il meccanismo non è completamente nota. I diuretici tiazidici provocare vasodilatazione mediante lattivazione canali del potassio calcio-attivata (conduttanza di grandi dimensioni) in vascolare muscolatura liscia e inibendo vari carbonica anhydrases nel tessuto vascolare ...
Al-Masri, Ihab M.; Mohammad, Mohammad K.; Tahaa, Mutasem O. (2009). "Inhibition of dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP IV) is one of ... McIntosh, C; Demuth, H; Pospisilik, J; Pederson, R (2005). "Dipeptidyl peptidase IV inhibitors: How do they work as new ... DPP-IV). They can be used to treat diabetes mellitus type 2. ... 4.2 Carbonic anhydrase. Miscellaneous. *Steroidogenesis ... Development of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors. References[edit]. *^ "FDA Approves New Treatment for Diabetes" (Press release ...
... exchanger binds carbonic anhydrase IV". J. Biol. Chem. 277 (28): 25239-46. doi:10.1074/jbc.M202562200. PMID 11994299. Alberts, ... This is crucial for CO2 uptake by the red blood cell and conversion (by hydration catalysed by carbonic anhydrase) into a ... Functional interaction of carbonic anhydrase II and chloride/bicarbonate exchangers". J. Biol. Chem. 276 (51): 47886-94. doi: ... Vince JW, Reithmeier RA (October 1998). "Carbonic anhydrase II binds to the carboxyl terminus of human band 3, the erythrocyte ...
... exchanger binds carbonic anhydrase IV". J. Biol. Chem. 277 (28): 25239-46. doi:10.1074/jbc.M202562200. PMID 11994299. ... Functional interaction of carbonic anhydrase II and chloride/bicarbonate exchangers". J. Biol. Chem. 276 (51): 47886-94. doi: ... exchanger and carbonic anhydrase XIV interaction". Am. J. Physiol., Cell Physiol. 297 (5): C1091-102. doi:10.1152/ajpcell. ... Pt 4): 1137-42. PMID 8227202. Dudeja PK, Hafez N, Tyagi S, et al. (1999). "Expression of the Na+/H+ and Cl-/HCO-3 exchanger ...
Sato S, Zhu XL, Sly WS (1990). "Carbonic anhydrase isozymes IV and II in urinary membranes from carbonic anhydrase II-deficient ... "Human carbonic anhydrases and carbonic anhydrase deficiencies". Annu. Rev. Biochem. 64 (1): 375-401. doi:10.1146/annurev.bi. ... Roth DE, Venta PJ, Tashian RE, Sly WS (1992). "Molecular basis of human carbonic anhydrase II deficiency". Proc. Natl. Acad. ... Sly also identified the first inherited deficiency of a human carbonic anhydrase, CA II, and defined the biochemical and ...
... selectively inhibits cytosolic (type II) and membrane associated (type IV) forms of carbonic anhydrase. The action ... As topiramate inhibits carbonic anhydrase, use with other inhibitors of carbonic anhydrase (e.g. acetazolamide) increases the ... Topiramate, sold under the brand name Topamax among others, is a carbonic anhydrase inhibitor medication used to treat epilepsy ... the inhibition of carbonic anhydrase may be strong enough to cause metabolic acidosis of clinical importance. The U.S. Food and ...
2003). "Direct extracellular interaction between carbonic anhydrase IV and the human NBC1 sodium/bicarbonate co-transporter". ... 2005). "Molecular mechanism of kNBC1-carbonic anhydrase II interaction in proximal tubule cells". J. Physiol. 559 (Pt 1): 55-65 ... 2003). "Regulation of the sodium bicarbonate cotransporter kNBC1 function: role of Asp986, Asp988 and kNBC1-carbonic anhydrase ... 272 (31): 19111-4. doi:10.1074/jbc.272.31.19111. PMID 9235899. Abuladze N, Lee I, Newman D, Hwang J, Boorer K, Pushkin A, Kurtz ...
Hirota J, Ando H, Hamada K, Mikoshiba K (Jun 2003). "Carbonic anhydrase-related protein is a novel binding protein for inositol ... Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor type 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ITPR1 gene. ITPR1 has been shown to ... 21 (4): 717-26. doi:10.1016/S0896-6273(00)80589-9. PMID 9808459. S2CID 2851554. Kiselyov K, Xu X, Mozhayeva G, Kuo T, Pessah I ... 4 (1): 57-64. doi:10.2174/157016206775197583. PMID 16454711. Joseph SK, Lin C, Pierson S, Thomas AP, Maranto AR (Oct 1995). " ...
Carbonic anhydrase inhibitorsEdit. Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors inhibit the enzyme carbonic anhydrase which is found in the ... Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors acetazolamide,[17] dorzolamide Inhibits H+ secretion, resultant promotion of Na+ and K+ excretion ... 4. distal convoluted tubules Xanthines caffeine, theophylline, theobromine Inhibits reabsorption of Na+, increase glomerular ...
... continues to carry a carbonic anhydrase designation based on clear sequence identity to other members of the carbonic anhydrase ... Carbonic anhydrase-related protein is an protein that in humans is encoded by the CA8 gene. The CA8 protein lacks the catalytic ... Bergenhem NC, Sait SS, Eddy RL, Shows TB, Tashian RE (1995). "Assignment of the gene for human carbonic anhydrase VIII(CA8) to ... "Entrez Gene: CA8 carbonic anhydrase VIII". UniProt accession number: P35219; Retrieved 27 December 2019 Online Mendelian ...
... may refer to: Carbonic anhydrase 4, an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CA4 gene Cornu Ammonis region 4, a region of ... 4 atoms of Calcium Ca.4 may refer to: Caproni Ca.4, an Italian heavy bomber of the World War I era This disambiguation page ... CAC CA-4, a 1941 Australian bomber aircraft USS Pittsburgh (CA-4), a 1901 United States Navy armored cruiser California's 4th ... and Nicaragua Combretastatin A-4, a natural polyphenol Ca4 may refer to: Ca4 line, a regional Catalonia railway line connecting ...
... for carbonic anhydrase), 4-nitrophenyl-β-D-glucopyranoside and other sugar derivatives which are used to assay various ... In solution, 4-nitrophenol has a dissociation constant (pKa) of 7.15 at 25 °C. 4-Nitrophenol can be used as a pH indicator. A ... Amounts of 4-nitrophenol produced by a particular enzyme in the presence of its corresponding substrate can be measured with a ... 4-Nitrophenol irritates the eyes, skin, and respiratory tract. It may also cause inflammation of those parts. It has a delayed ...
... for example in carbonic anhydrase), copper (for example in complex IV of the respiratory chain) and molybdenum (for example in ... 280 (5725): 843-4. doi:10.1038/280843a0. PMID 471057. S2CID 3094647.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link) PMID 471057 ... 4 (3): 217-29. doi:10.2174/1389203033487199. PMID 12769720. Banerjee R, Ragsdale SW (2003). "The many faces of vitamin B12: ...
"Discovery of a new family of carbonic anhydrases in the malaria pathogen Plasmodium falciparum--the η-carbonic anhydrases". ... "Non-zinc mediated inhibition of carbonic anhydrases: coumarins are a new class of suicide inhibitors". Journal of the American ... During her bachelor's degree she started to study pyrazolo [3,4-d] pyrimidines. As an undergraduate student, Poulsen was part ... Poulsen, Sally-Ann (1992). Synthesis and structure-activity studies of pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidines binding to adenosine ...
10.329 In organisms carbonic acid production is catalysed by the enzyme, carbonic anhydrase. CO2 is a potent electrophile ... As a linear triatomic molecule, CO2 has four vibrational modes as shown in the diagram. However, the symmetric stretching mode ... Carbonic anhydrase 4 converts to carbonic acid leading to a sour taste, and also the dissolved carbon dioxide induces a ... 3 by the enzyme carbonic anhydrase in the red blood cells, by the reaction CO2 + H 2O → H 2CO 3 → H+ + HCO− 3. 5-10% is ...
"Structural and kinetic characterization of active-site histidine as a proton shuttle in catalysis by human carbonic anhydrase ... Shevelev IV, Hübscher U (May 2002). "The 3' 5' exonucleases". 》Nature Reviews Molecular Cell Biology》 3 (5): 364-76. doi: ... Volume IV: Modern Development of the Chemical and Biological Sciences》. Harper and Brothers.. ... 효소의 크기는 단지 62개의 아미노산 잔기를 가지고 있는 단량체인 4-옥살로크로톤산 호변이성질화효소[26]로부터 2,500개가 넘는 아미노산 잔기를 가지고 있는 동물의 지방산 생성효소까지 다양하다.[27] 효소 구조의 작은 부분 ...
It also decreases carbonic anhydrase in the CNS, increasing the seizure threshold. This reduction in carbonic anhydrase also ... Ethoxzolamide binds and inhibits carbonic anhydrase I. Carbonic anhydrase plays an essential role in facilitating the transport ... Ethoxzolamide, a sulfonamide, inhibits carbonic anhydrase activity in proximal renal tubules to decrease reabsorption of water ... Dimazole Dithiazanine iodide Gordon DM (July 1958). "Ethoxzolamide; a new carbonic anhydrase inhibitor". American Journal of ...
CA-IV, CA-IX, CA-XII, CA-XIV and CA-XV) (CA4, CA9, CA12, CA14) There are three additional "acatalytic" human carbonic anhydrase ... Several forms of carbonic anhydrase occur in nature. In the best-studied α-carbonic anhydrase form present in animals, the zinc ... Carbonic anhydrase inhibitor Badger MR, Price GD (1994). "The role of carbonic anhydrase in photosynthesis". Annu. Rev. Plant ... Carbonic anhydrase could in principle prove relevant to carbon capture. Some carbonic anhydrases can withstand temperatures up ...
"Carbonic anhydrase IV from human lung. Purification, characterization, and comparison with membrane carbonic anhydrase from ... Mahieu I, Benjamin A, Stephens R, Walters D, Carter N (1995). "Characterization of membrane bound carbonic anhydrase IV (CA IV ... "Entrez Gene: CA4 carbonic anhydrase IV". Sterling D, Alvarez BV, Casey JR (Jul 2002). "The extracellular component of a ... Sender S, Decker B, Fenske CD, Sly WS, Carter ND, Gros G (1998). "Localization of carbonic anhydrase IV in rat and human heart ...
... is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CA13 gene. Carbonic anhydrases (CAs) are a family of zinc ... "Entrez Gene: Carbonic anhydrase 13". Retrieved 2019-12-31. Badger MR, Price GD (1994). "The role of carbonic anhydrase in ... Overview of all the structural information available in the PDB for UniProt: Q8N1Q1 (Human Carbonic anhydrase 13) at the PDBe- ... January 2004). "Characterization of CA XIII, a novel member of the carbonic anhydrase isozyme family". The Journal of ...
Carbonic anhydrase 6 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CA6 gene. It is also called 'gustin' because of its presence ... "Entrez Gene: CA6 carbonic anhydrase VI". Henkin RI, Mueller CW, Wolf RO (July 1975). "Estimation of zinc concentration of ... The protein encoded by this gene is one of several isozymes of carbonic anhydrase. This protein is abundantly found in salivary ... Aldred P, Fu P, Barrett G, Penschow JD, Wright RD, Coghlan JP, Fernley RT (January 1991). "Human secreted carbonic anhydrase: ...
Sato S, Zhu XL, Sly WS (1990). "Carbonic anhydrase isozymes IV and II in urinary membranes from carbonic anhydrase II-deficient ... Carbonic anhydrase II (gene name CA2), is one of sixteen forms of human α carbonic anhydrases. Carbonic anhydrase catalyzes ... Renal carbonic anhydrase allows the reabsorption of bicarbonate ions in the proximal tubule. Loss of carbonic anhydrase ... Sly WS, Hu PY (1995). "Human carbonic anhydrases and carbonic anhydrase deficiencies". Annu. Rev. Biochem. 64 (1): 375-401. doi ...
... is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CA12 gene. Carbonic anhydrases (CAs) are a large family of ... "Human carbonic anhydrase XII: cDNA cloning, expression, and chromosomal localization of a carbonic anhydrase gene that is ... "Entrez Gene: CA12 carbonic anhydrase XII". CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) Feldshtein, M; Elkrinawi, S; Yerushalmi, B; ... Tarun AS, Bryant B, Zhai W, Solomon C, Shusterman D (2004). "Gene expression for carbonic anhydrase isoenzymes in human nasal ...
"Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors. Inhibition of isozymes I, II, IV, V, and IX with anions isosteric and isoelectronic with sulfate ... Carbonic anhydrase IX (CA9/CA IX) is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CA9 gene. It is one of the 14 carbonic ... "Carbonic anhydrase IX as an imaging and therapeutic target for tumors and metastases". Sub-Cellular Biochemistry. Carbonic ... "Entrez Gene: CA9 carbonic anhydrase IX". Morgan PE, Pastoreková S, Stuart-Tilley AK, Alper SL, Casey JR (August 2007). " ...
... particularly subtypes II and IV. Whether carbonic anhydrase inhibition contributes to its clinical activity is not known. In ... Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors are a class of pharmaceuticals that suppress the activity of carbonic anhydrase. Their clinical ... are carbonic anhydrase inhibitors. Supuran CT, Scozzafava A, Conway J, eds. (2004). Carbonic anhydrase: its inhibitors and ... "Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitors and High Altitude Illnesses". In Frost, Susan C.; McKenna, Robert (eds.). Carbonic Anhydrase: ...
... is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CA14 gene. Carbonic anhydrases (CAs) are a large family of ... "Entrez Gene: CA14 carbonic anhydrase XIV". Hoek KS, Schlegel NC, Eichhoff OM, et al. (2008). "Novel MITF targets identified ... 2002). "Carbonic anhydrase XIV: luminal expression suggests key role in renal acidification". Kidney Int. 61 (6): 2111-8. doi: ... Fujikawa-Adachi K, Nishimori I, Taguchi T, Onishi S (Nov 1999). "Human carbonic anhydrase XIV (CA14): cDNA cloning, mRNA ...
"Entrez Gene: CA7 carbonic anhydrase VII". Sly WS, Hu PY (1995). "Human carbonic anhydrases and carbonic anhydrase deficiencies ... Carbonic anhydrase 7 (CA7) is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CA7 gene. Carbonic anhydrases are a large family of ... PDBe-KB provides an overview of all the structure information available in the PDB for Human Carbonic anhydrase 7 v t e. ... Vullo D, Voipio J, Innocenti A, Rivera C, Ranki H, Scozzafava A, Kaila K, Supuran CT (Feb 2005). "Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors ...
... is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CA5B gene. Carbonic anhydrases (CAs) are a ... Sly WS, Hu PY (1995). "Human carbonic anhydrases and carbonic anhydrase deficiencies". Annu. Rev. Biochem. 64: 375-401. doi: ... "Entrez Gene: CA5B carbonic anhydrase VB, mitochondrial". Human CA5B genome location and CA5B gene details page in the UCSC ... 2007). "Carbonic anhydrase activators: an activation study of the human mitochondrial isoforms VA and VB with amino acids and ...
Davenport, Horace W. (1984-06-01). "The Early Days of Research on Carbonic Anhydrase" (PDF). Annals of the New York Academy of ... Lutwak-Mann was known for discovering that the hormone progesterone acts on the placenta to control carbonic anhydrase ... Davenport, Horace W. (1980-04-01). "Carbonic Anhydrase, or the Strange Case of the Disappearing Scientist". The Physiologist. ... 429 (1): 4-9. Bibcode:1984NYASA.429....4D. doi:10.1111/j.1749-6632.1984.tb12310.x. ISSN 1749-6632. PMID 6430175. Harrison, ...
Liu C, Wei Y, Wang J, Pi L, Huang J, Wang P (Sep 2012). "Carbonic anhydrases III and IV autoantibodies in rheumatoid arthritis ... CA3 carbonic anhydrase III, muscle specific". Sly WS, Hu PY (1995). "Human carbonic anhydrases and carbonic anhydrase ... Carbonic anhydrase 3 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CA3 gene. Carbonic anhydrase III (CAIII) is a member of a ... that encode carbonic anhydrase isozymes. These carbonic anhydrases are a class of metalloenzymes that catalyze the reversible ...
An example of an enzyme that contains a cofactor is carbonic anhydrase, which has a zinc cofactor bound as part of its active ... "Structural and kinetic characterization of active-site histidine as a proton shuttle in catalysis by human carbonic anhydrase ... 44 (4): 1097-115. doi:10.1021/bi0480279. PMID 15667203. Stryer L, Berg JM, Tymoczko JL (2002). Biochemistry (5th ed.). San ...
carbonic anhydrase (chloride shift). *oxyhemoglobin. *respiratory quotient. *arterial blood gas. *diffusion capacity (DLCO) ... This page was last edited on 4 October 2019, at 21:31 (UTC). ...
Substituting equation (5) into equation (4), we have. 0. =. k. 3. [. I. ]. K. m. [. ES. ]. [. S. ]. −. k. −. 3. [. EI. ]. {\ ... "Competitive Inhibition of Mushroom Tyrosinase by 4-Substituted Benzaldehydes". Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 49 ( ... After an accidental ingestion of a contaminated opioid drug desmethylprodine, the neurotoxic effect of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3, ... Cells in the central nervous system (astrocytes) include MAO-B that oxidizes MPTP to 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+), which ...
Pervasive and required for several enzymes such as carboxypeptidase, liver alcohol dehydrogenase, and carbonic anhydrase ... Possibly important to basement membrane architecture and tissue development, as a needed catalyst to make collagen IV.[37] ... minerals are one of the four groups of essential nutrients, the others of which are vitamins, essential fatty acids, and ... Retrieved 4 July 2016.. *^ Nielsen, Forrest H. (1997). "Boron in human and animal nutrition". Plant and Soil. 193 (2): 199-208 ...
carbonic anhydrase (chloride shift). *oxyhemoglobin. *respiratory quotient. *arterial blood gas. *diffusion capacity (DLCO) ... to diagnose or manage asthma[2][3][4]. *to detect respiratory disease in patients presenting with symptoms of breathlessness, ... according to a study in the United States 2007 of 3,600 subjects aged 4-80 years.[9] Y-axis is expressed in litres for FVC and ... "Performance of maximum inspiratory pressure tests and maximum inspiratory pressure reference equations for 4 race/ethnic ...
Murakami, H. and Sly, W.S. (1987). "Purification and characterization of human salivary carbonic anhydrase". J. Biol. Chem. 262 ... B enzm: 1.1/2/3/4/5/6/7/8/10/11/13/14/15-18, 2.1/2/3/4/5/6/7/8, 2.7.10, 2.7.11-12, 3.1/2/3/4/5/6/7, 3.1.3.48, 3.4.21/22/23/24, ... Keilin, D. and Mann, T. (1939). "Carbonic anhydrase". Nature 144: 442-443. ...
Anti-glaucoma: adrenergic agonists, beta-blockers, carbonic anhydrase inhibitors/hyperosmotics, cholinergics, miotics, ... 24 (4): 223-229. doi:10.1007/bf03256820.. *^ Gina Kolata for the New York Times. 12 September 1994 F.D.A. Debate on Speedy ... 1-4. ISBN 978-0-7817-7155-9. .. *^ Anson, Blake D.; Ma, Junyi; He, Jia-Qiang (1 May 2009). "Identifying Cardiotoxic Compounds" ... 914: 4. Other outstanding technical issues: 4.2 Description of essential medicines". Apps.who.int. 14 April 2016. Retrieved 25 ...
carbonic anhydrase(英语:carbonic anhydrase) (chloride shift(英语:chloride shift)) ... 2003, 4 (3): 234-237 [2008-09-28].. *^ Smerz, RW. Incidence of oxygen toxicity during the treatment of dysbarism. Undersea and ... 1954, 179 (3): 410-4. PMID 13228600.. *^ Edstrom, JE; Rockert, H. The effect of oxygen at high pressure on the histology of the ... 1996, 23 (4): 215-9 [2008-04-29]. PMID 8989851. (原始内容存档于2011-05-14).. ...
... which is rapidly converted to hydrogen and bicarbonate through the action of carbonic anhydrase.[58] When the ECF pH falls ( ... The bicarbonate buffer system regulates the ratio of carbonic acid to bicarbonate to be equal to 1:20, at which ratio the blood ... This is tightly regulated to ensure that there is no excessive build-up of carbonic acid or bicarbonate. The overall effect is ... The hydrogen ions combine with the excess bicarbonate ions in the plasma, once again forming an excess of carbonic acid which ...
... secretes carbonic anhydrase (gustin), which is thought to play a role in the development of taste buds.[9] ... ISBN 0-904588-87-4.. *^ Marcone, Massimo F. (2005). "Characterization of the edible bird's nest the "Caviar of the East"". Food ... Aerodramus nests form the basis of bird's nest soup.[4] Cobras, vipers, and certain other members of the venom clade hunt with ...
Through the enzyme carbonic anhydrase, carbon dioxide reacts with water to give carbonic acid, which decomposes into ... The four polypeptide chains are bound to each other by salt bridges, hydrogen bonds, and the hydrophobic effect. ... For example, in the upper-left of the four hemes shown, oxygen binds at the left of the iron atom shown in the upper-left of ... In adult humans, the most common hemoglobin type is a tetramer (which contains four subunit proteins) called hemoglobin A, ...
Band 3 - also assembles various glycolytic enzymes, the presumptive CO2 transporter, and carbonic anhydrase into a ... Each hemoglobin molecule carries four heme groups; hemoglobin constitutes about a third of the total cell volume. Hemoglobin is ... 252 (4 Pt 2): H857-66. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.1000.348. doi:10.1152/ajpheart.1987.252.4.H857. PMID 3565597.. CS1 maint: Uses authors ... 6 (4): 156-9. doi:10.7150/ijms.6.156. PMC 2677714. PMID 19421340.. CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link). ...
... a carbonic anhydrase inhibitor Lithium was previously used for treatment of PPD as a direct competitive ADH agonist, but is now ... 18 (4): 272-281. doi:10.1016/S0893-133X(97)00159-0. ISSN 0893-133X. PMID 9509495. Shevitz, S. A.; Jameison, R. C.; Petrie, W. M ... 29 (4): 548-9. doi:10.1136/gut.29.4.548. PMC 1433532 . PMID 3371724. Falk, John L. (1969-05-01). "Conditions Producing ... 168 (4): 246-248. doi:10.1097/00005053-198004000-00011. ISSN 0022-3018. PMID 7365485. Douglas, Ivor (2006-09-01). "Hyponatremia ...
iv use. Skin pop scar. Skin track. Slap mark. Pseudoacanthosis nigricans. Narcotic dermopathy. ... carbonic anhydrase (chloride shift). *oxyhemoglobin. *respiratory quotient. *arterial blood gas. *diffusion capacity (DLCO) ... 20 (4): 247-55. doi:10.1111/jtm.12017. PMID 23809076.. *^ Staff, US Navy (2006). "15". US Navy Diving Manual, 6th revision. ... 4-5. ISBN 978-1461475422. .. *^ Michiels, Carine (2004). "Physiological and Pathological Responses to Hypoxia". The American ...
Carbonic anhydrase. DNA polymerase A simple [Fe2S2] cluster containing two iron atoms and two sulfur atoms, coordinated by four ...
membrane-associated CAs (CA-IV, CA-IX, CA-XII, CA-XIV and CA-XV) (CA4, CA9, CA12, CA14) ... The reaction catalyzed by carbonic anhydrase is: HCO3- + H+ ↽. −. ⇀. {\displaystyle {\ce {,=,,}}}. CO2 + H2O. Carbonic acid has ... Cadmium-containing carbonic anhydraseEdit. Marine diatoms have been found to express a new form of ζ carbonic anhydrase. T. ... Several forms of carbonic anhydrase occur in nature. In the best-studied α-carbonic anhydrase form present in animals, the zinc ...
An enzyme, carbonic anhydrase, located within the carboxysome releases CO2 from the dissolved hydrocarbonate ions (HCO−. 3). ... IV. Light studies with individual corn leaves". Crop Sci. 2 (4): 311-315. doi:10.2135/cropsci1962.0011183x000200040011x. S2CID ... 3 ions are made from CO2 outside the cell by another carbonic anhydrase and are actively pumped into the cell by a membrane ... and within the cytosol they turn back into CO2 very slowly without the help of carbonic anhydrase. This causes the HCO−. 3 ions ...
... which acts by inhibiting the enzyme carbonic anhydrase, and it reduces CSF production by six to 57 percent. It can cause the ... IIH occurs predominantly in women, especially in the ages 20 to 45, who are four to eight times more likely than men to be ... 19 (4): 472-7. PMID 9661757.. *^ a b c d e f g Soler D, Cox T, Bullock P, Calver DM, Robinson RO (January 1998). "Diagnosis and ... 4 Normal CT/MRI findings without evidence of thrombosis 5 LP opening pressure of ,25 cmH2O and normal biochemical and ...
1995). «The carbonic anhydrase domain of receptor tyrosine phosphatase beta is a functional ligand for the axonal cell ... 1996). «Overlapping and differential expression of BIG-2, BIG-1, TAG-1, and F3: four members of an axon-associated cell ... 136 (4): 907-18. PMC 2132488. . PMID 9049255. doi:10.1083/jcb.136.4.907. !CS1 manut: Uso explícito de et al. (link) !CS1 manut ... 8 (4): 766-82. PMID 9081628. doi:10.1111/j.1460-9568.1996.tb01262.x. !CS1 manut: Uso explícito de et al. (link) !CS1 manut: ...
carbonic anhydrase (chloride shift). *oxyhemoglobin. *respiratory quotient. *arterial blood gas. *diffusion capacity (DLCO) ... 11-. ISBN 978-1-4051-3448-4. Retrieved 26 April 2010.. *^ Sabyasachi Sircar (2008). Principles of medical physiology. Thieme. ... 169 (1): 120-4. doi:10.1164/rccm.200308-1107OC. PMID 14512270.. CS1 maint: Explicit use of et al. (link) ... 4] The larynx is also called the voice box and has the associated cartilage that produces sound. The tract consists of the ...
"The carbonic anhydrase domain of receptor tyrosine phosphatase beta is a functional ligand for the axonal cell recognition ... four members of an axon-associated cell adhesion molecule subgroup of the immunoglobulin superfamily". Journal of Neurobiology ... 8 (4): 766-82. doi:10.1111/j.1460-9568.1996.tb01262.x. PMID 9081628.. ... 14 (4): 645-56. doi:10.1046/j.0953-816x.2001.01682.x. PMID 11556889.. ...
Zinc required for several enzymes such as carboxypeptidase, liver alcohol dehydrogenase, and carbonic anhydrase ... Four elements (earth, air, fire and water) combine into "complexion", which combines into states (the four temperaments: ... In humans, the four dominant phyla are Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria, and Proteobacteria.[83] They are essential to ... In 1992, The U.S. Department of Agriculture introduced the Food Guide Pyramid.[48] This replaced the Four Food Groups (1956- ...
Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors/. (sulfonamides). *Acetazolamide. *Brinzolamide (+timolol). *Diclofenamide. *Dorzolamide (+ ... InChI=1S/C17H25NO3/c1-17(2,3)18-10-12(19)11-21-16-9-5-6-13-14(16)7-4-8-15(13)20/h5-6,9,12,18-19H,4,7-8,10-11H2,1-3H3/t12-/m0/s1 ... S)-5-{[3-(tert-Butylamino)-2-hydroxypropyl]oxy}-3,4-dihydronaphthalen-1(2H)-one ...
carbonic anhydrase (chloride shift). *oxyhemoglobin. *respiratory quotient. *arterial blood gas. *diffusion capacity (DLCO) ... Only CO2 levels affect this as it can diffuse across, reacting with H2O to form carbonic acid and thus decrease pH. Central ... "Section 4/4ch6/s4ch6_21". Essentials of Human Physiology. Archived from the original on 2016-03-24.. .mw-parser-output cite. ...
Fluid production can be decreased by beta blockers, alpha2-agonists, and carbonic anhydrase inhibitors.[7] ...
"Entrez Gene: CA9 carbonic anhydrase IX".. *^ Kirkpatrick JP, Rabbani ZN, Bentley RC, Hardee ME, Karol S, Meyer J, Oosterwijk E ... Carbonic anhydrase 9 (CA9/CAIX) is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CA9 gene.[5][6][7] ... Nishimori I, Onishi S (2001). "Carbonic anhydrase isozymes in the human pancreas". Digestive and Liver Disease. 33 (1): 68-74. ... Carbonic anhydrases (CAs) are a large family of zinc metalloenzymes that catalyze the reversible hydration of carbon dioxide. ...
carbonic anhydrase (chloride shift). *oxyhemoglobin. *respiratory quotient. *arterial blood gas. *diffusion capacity (DLCO) ... The zones of the lung divide the lung into four vertical regions, based upon the relationship between the pressure in the ... Zone 4: Pa , Pi , Pv , PA. This concept is generally attributed to an article by West et al. in 1964,[1] but was actually ... Zone 4 can be seen at the lung bases at low lung volumes or in pulmonary oedema. Pulmonary interstitial pressure (Pi) rises as ...
... or direct vasodilator actions either through inhibition of carbonic anhydrase or by desensitizing the vascular smooth muscle ... 5 (4): 155-60. doi:10.3317/jraas.2004.034. PMID 15803433. Zhu Z, Zhu S, Liu D, Cao T, Wang L, Tepel M (2005). "Thiazide-like ... Retrieved 4 November 2017. "[email protected]: FDA Approved Drug Products". "The Lasker Foundation - Awards". ... Retrieved 4 November 2017. "escardio.org". Retrieved 2007-08-30. National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) ...
Zinc required for several enzymes such as carboxypeptidase, liver alcohol dehydrogenase, carbonic anhydrase ... Some are heavier than the four just mentioned - including several metals, which often occur as ions in the body. Some ... That likelihood doubles to four times in Peru." Concurrently, the greatest increase in childhood obesity has been seen in the ... Dietary minerals are the chemical elements required by living organisms, other than the four elements carbon, hydrogen, ...
"Carbonic anhydrase IV from human lung. Purification, characterization, and comparison with membrane carbonic anhydrase from ... Mahieu I, Benjamin A, Stephens R, Walters D, Carter N (1995). "Characterization of membrane bound carbonic anhydrase IV (CA IV ... "Entrez Gene: CA4 carbonic anhydrase IV". Sterling D, Alvarez BV, Casey JR (Jul 2002). "The extracellular component of a ... Sender S, Decker B, Fenske CD, Sly WS, Carter ND, Gros G (1998). "Localization of carbonic anhydrase IV in rat and human heart ...
Carbonic Anhydrase II. A. 259. Homo sapiens. Mutation(s): 0 Gene Names: CA2. EC: 4.2.1.1. ... Binding of Fluorine Substituted Benzenesulfonamides to Carbonic Anhydrase II. Kim, C.-Y., Christianson, D.W.. To be published. ... 4-FLUOROBENZENESULFONAMIDE. C6 H6 F N O2 S. LFLSATHZMYYIAQ-UHFFFAOYSA-N. Ligand Interaction. ...
Mutant carbonic anhydrase 4 impairs pH regulation and causes retinal photoreceptor degeneration.. Yang Z1, Alvarez BV, ... Here, we show that a functional complex of carbonic anhydrase 4 (CA4) and Na+/bicarbonate co-transporter 1 (NBC1) is ...
Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors: inhibition of the membrane-bound human isozyme IV with anions.. Innocenti A1, Firnges MA, Antel ... The membrane-associated human isozyme of carbonic anhydrase, hCA IV, has been investigated for its interaction with anion ... Excellent hCA IV inhibitory properties showed sulfamic acid, sulfamide, phenylboronic acid and phenylarsonic acid, with K(i)s ... Surprisingly, halides were observed to act as potent hCA IV inhibitors, with inhibition constants in the range of 70-90 microM ...
IPR023561 Carbonic_anhydrase_a-class. IPR018338 Carbonic_anhydrase_a-class_CS. IPR018343 Carbonic_anhydrase_CA4. ... IPR023561 Carbonic_anhydrase_a-class. IPR018338 Carbonic_anhydrase_a-class_CS. IPR018343 Carbonic_anhydrase_CA4. ... "Carbonic anhydrase IV from human lung. Purification, characterization, and comparison with membrane carbonic anhydrase from ... "Screening for the carbonic anhydrase IV gene mutations in Chinese retinitis pigmentosa patients.". Tian Y., Tang L., Cui J., ...
Recombinant Human Carbonic Anhydrase 4/CA4 protein is an Escherichia coli Full length protein 19 to 283 aa range, , 95% purity ... Shipped at 4°C. Upon delivery aliquot. Store at -20°C or -80°C. Avoid freeze / thaw cycle. ...
Rabbit polyclonal Carbonic Anhydrase IV/CA4 antibody validated for WB, ELISA and tested in Human and Mouse. Immunogen ... Anti-Carbonic Anhydrase IV antibody - C-terminal. See all Carbonic Anhydrase IV primary antibodies. ... Anti-Carbonic Anhydrase IV antibody - C-terminal (ab85225) at 1/50 dilution + mouse lung tissue lysate at 35 µg. Predicted band ... Synthetic peptide selected from the C terminal region of Human Carbonic Anhydrase IV, conjugated to KLH (NP_000708). ...
Carbonic anhydrase 2. A. 260. Homo sapiens. Mutation(s): 0 Gene Names: CA2. EC: 4.2.1.1. ... Human Carbonic Anhydrase II complexed with an inhibitor with a benzenesulfonamide group (4).. *DOI: 10.2210/pdb4YXU/pdb ... The binding of sulfonamides to human carbonic anhydrase II (hCAII) is a complex and long-debated example of protein-ligand ... The binding of sulfonamides to human carbonic anhydrase II (hCAII) is a complex and long-debated example of protein-ligand ...
Coordination Compounds of Chlorothiazide With Transition Metal Ions Behave as Strong Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitors. Claudiu T. ... Coordination Compounds of Chlorothiazide With Transition Metal Ions Behave as Strong Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitors," Metal- ...
What is Carbonic anhydrase iv? Meaning of Carbonic anhydrase iv medical term. What does Carbonic anhydrase iv mean? ... Looking for online definition of Carbonic anhydrase iv in the Medical Dictionary? Carbonic anhydrase iv explanation free. ... Related to Carbonic anhydrase iv: Carbonic anhydrase inhibitor, Carbonic anhydrase ii, carbonic anhydrase IX ... carbonic anhydrase. (redirected from Carbonic anhydrase iv). Also found in: Dictionary, Encyclopedia. ...
Find out information about Carbonic anhydrase iv. An enzyme which aids carbon dioxide transport and release by catalyzing the ... synthesis, and the dehydration, of carbonic acid from, and to, carbon dioxide... Explanation of Carbonic anhydrase iv ... Related to Carbonic anhydrase iv: Carbonic anhydrase inhibitor, Carbonic anhydrase ii, carbonic anhydrase IX ... Carbonic Anhydrase. (redirected from Carbonic anhydrase iv). Also found in: Dictionary, Medical. ...
3-diarylpyrazoles bearing 6-aminosulfonylbenzothiazole moiety as potent inhibitors of carbonic anhydrase isoforms hCA I, II, IX ... BenzothiazolesCarbonic Anhydrase ICarbonic Anhydrase IICarbonic Anhydrase IXCarbonic Anhydrase InhibitorsCarbonic Anhydrases ... 3-triazoles as potent human carbonic anhydrase isoforms I, II, IV and IX inhibitors. ... Inhibition of carbonic anhydrase isoforms I, II, IX and XII with novel Schiff bases: identification of selective inhibitors for ...
The CAIs inhibit the enzyme carbonic anhydrase, which in turn, reduces aqueous humor formation. Patients are typically placed ... Combination beta-blocker and carbonic anhydrase inhibitor: timolol maleate/dorzolamide hydrochloride (Cosopt, Merck Co., ... Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitors (CAIs) The topical CAIs include dorzolamide (Trusopt) and brinzolamide (Azopt). Both are much ...
Carbonic anhydrase IV from human lung: purification, characterization, and comparison with membrane carbonic anhydrase from ... Expression of membrane-associated carbonic anhydrase isoforms IV, IX, XII, and XIV in the rabbit: induction of CA IV and IX ... Expression of membrane-associated carbonic anhydrase isoforms IV, IX, XII, and XIV in the rabbit: induction of CA IV and IX ... Expression of membrane-associated carbonic anhydrase isoforms IV, IX, XII, and XIV in the rabbit: induction of CA IV and IX ...
"Effect of knockout of α-carbonic anhydrase 4 gene on photosynthetic characteristics and starch accumulation in leaves of ... Effect of knockout of α-carbonic anhydrase 4 gene on photosynthetic characteristics and starch... Zhurikova, E.; Ignatova, L.; ... Involvement of carbonic anhydrase in inhibition of photosynthesis of pea protoplasts by CO2 excess ... Specific reduction of chloroplast carbonic anhydrase activity by antisense RNA in transgenic tobacco plants has a minor effect ...
Inhibition of human carbonic anhydrase 2 using 4-nitrophenylacetate as substrate after 3 mins using spectrophotometry by ...
... have been demonstrated to physically and/or functionally interact with isoforms of carbonic anhydrase (CA) to form a transport ... monocarboxylate transporter MCT2 is enhanced by extracellular carbonic anhydrase IV but not by intracellular carbonic anhydrase ... Hurt, J. D., Tu, C., Laipis, P. J., and Silverman, D. N. (1997). Catalytic properties of murine carbonic anhydrase IV. J. Biol ... 3 exchanger binds carbonic anhydrase IV. J. Biol. Chem. 277, 25239-25246. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M202562200 ...
1990). Carbonic anhydrase IV from human lung. Purification, characterization, and comparison with membrane carbonic anhydrase ... 1991). Techniques for measuring carbonic anhydrase activity in vitro. In The Carbonic Anhydrases: Cellular Physiology and ... 1998). Localization of carbonic anhydrase IV in rat and human heart muscle. J. Histochem. Cytochem. 46, 855-861. doi:10.1177/ ... 2013). GPI-anchored carbonic anhydrase IV displays both intra- and extracellular activity in cRNA-injected oocytes and in mouse ...
Carbonic Anhydrase 4, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene ... Carbonic anhydrase IV (CAH4_HUMAN). *cDNA FLJ76600, highly similar to Homo sapiens carbonic anhydrase IV (CA4), mRNA (Q6FHI7_ ... R&D Systems Antibodies for CA4 (Carbonic Anhydrase IV/CA4). *R&D Systems Proteins and Enzymes for CA4 (Carbonic Anhydrase IV/ ... Screening for the carbonic anhydrase IV gene mutations in Chinese retinitis pigmentosa patients. (PMID: 20450258) Tian Y … Zhu ...
Sato S, Zhu XL, Sly WS (1990). "Carbonic anhydrase isozymes IV and II in urinary membranes from carbonic anhydrase II-deficient ... Carbonic anhydrase II (gene name CA2), is one of sixteen forms of human α carbonic anhydrases. Carbonic anhydrase catalyzes ... Renal carbonic anhydrase allows the reabsorption of bicarbonate ions in the proximal tubule. Loss of carbonic anhydrase ... Sly WS, Hu PY (1995). "Human carbonic anhydrases and carbonic anhydrase deficiencies". Annu. Rev. Biochem. 64 (1): 375-401. doi ...
EXPRESSION OF CARBONIC ANHYDRASE (CA) II AND IV mRNA ALONG THE NEPHRON. STIMULATION BY METABOLIC ACIDOSIS • 1697 *Shuichi ... Rights & permissionsfor article EXPRESSION OF CARBONIC ANHYDRASE (CA) II AND IV mRNA ALONG THE NEPHRON. STIMULATION BY ...
Carbonic anhydrase IV Homo sapiens 0.914 CHEMBL2326 Carbonic anhydrase VII Homo sapiens 0.880 ... Carbonic anhydrase VA Homo sapiens 0.506 Show More. Calculated Compound Parent Properties. Mol. Weight. Mol. Weight ... Carbonic anhydrase XIV Homo sapiens 0.981 CHEMBL3471 Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 integrase Human immunodeficiency virus ... Carbonic anhydrase 15 Mus musculus 0.669 CHEMBL5508 Dual specificity tyrosine-phosphorylation-regulated kinase 1A Rattus ...
2. Neuron-Specific Enolase (NSE). 3. Carbonic Anhydrase. 4. Lysozome. 5. Prolactin. Section 5: Growth Factors. 1. Epidermal ... 4. Involucrin. 5. S-100 Protein. 6. Laminin. Section 3: Proteinase Inhibitor. 1. 1-Antitrypsin ( 1-AT). 2. 1-Antichymotrypsin ... 4. Gilial Fibrillary Acidic Proteins. Section 2: Tissue and Plasma Proteins. 1. Epithelial Membrane Antigen. 2. ...
Carbonic anhydrase IV Homo sapiens 0.996 CHEMBL2568 Liver glycogen phosphorylase Homo sapiens 0.993 ... Carbonic anhydrase Candida albicans (strain SC5314 / ATCC MYA-2876) (Yeast) 0.936 CHEMBL6152 Alpha-synuclein Homo sapiens 0.912 ...
Recombinant Protein and Alpha carbonic anhydrase Antibody at MyBioSource. Custom ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Antibody ... Alpha carbonic anhydrase 1. Alpha carbonic anhydrase 1 ELISA Kit. Alpha carbonic anhydrase 1 Recombinant. Alpha carbonic ... Alpha carbonic anhydrase 2. Alpha carbonic anhydrase 2 ELISA Kit. Alpha carbonic anhydrase 2 Recombinant. Alpha carbonic ... Alpha carbonic anhydrase 3. Alpha carbonic anhydrase 3 ELISA Kit. Alpha carbonic anhydrase 3 Recombinant. Alpha carbonic ...
Four plants were measured for the wild type and ca1ca2, and three plants were measured for ca1 and ca2 single mutants. ... 2010) Carbonic anhydrases are upstream regulators of CO2-controlled stomatal movements in guard cells. Nat Cell Biol 12: 87-93 ... 2014) Carbonic anhydrases, EPF2 and a novel protease mediate CO2 control of stomatal development. Nature 513: 246-250. ... Carbonic Anhydrase Mutants in Zea mays Have Altered Stomatal Responses to Environmental Signals. Allison R. Kolbe, Thomas P. ...
Compare Carbonic anhydrase 5B ELISA Kits from LifeSpan BioSciences from leading suppliers on Biocompare. View specifications, ... Carbonic anhydrase 5B ELISA Kits from LifeSpan BioSciences. The ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) is a well-established ... Your search returned 4 Carbonic anhydrase 5B ELISA ELISA Kit across 1 supplier. ...
... ... In vitro studies on the relationship between anti Helicobacter pylori therapy and carbonic anhydrase isoenzymes II and IV. ... H+/K+ ATPase discovery resulted in the re-evaluation of the role of carbonic anhydrase (CA) in acid secretion. In addition to ... The results of this study mainly confirms the implication of CA II and CA IV in the mechanism of gastric acid secretion also ...
Structural aspects of isozyme selectivity in the binding of inhibitors to carbonic anhydrases II and IV. J Med Chem. 2002 Feb ... Carbonic anhydrase References *↑ Venta PJ, Welty RJ, Johnson TM, Sly WS, Tashian RE. Carbonic anhydrase II deficiency syndrome ... Carbonic anhydrase catalyzes cyanamide hydration to urea: is it mimicking the physiological reaction? J Biol Inorg Chem. 1999 ... Molecular basis of human carbonic anhydrase II deficiency. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1992 Mar 1;89(5):1804-8. PMID:1542674 ...
... demonstrated that urinary membranes of normal subjects contain both carbonic anhydrase II and carbonic anhydrase IV (as ... type IV carbonic anhydrase, and γ-glutamyltransferase), the thick ascending limb of Henle (e.g., THP, CD9, and the type 2 Na-K- ... carbonic anhydrase type IV; CD9; CLIC1, chloride intracellular channel-1; αENaC, epithelial sodium channel α; βENaC, epithelial ... One example is carbonic anhydrase type II. As early as 1990, Sato et al. (36) ...
  • Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors: inhibition of the membrane-bound human isozyme IV with anions. (nih.gov)
  • The membrane-associated human isozyme of carbonic anhydrase, hCA IV, has been investigated for its interaction with anion inhibitors, for the CO(2) hydration reaction catalyzed by this enzyme. (nih.gov)
  • Coordination Compounds of Chlorothiazide With Transition Metal Ions Behave as Strong Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitors," Metal-Based Drugs , vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 79-83, 1996. (hindawi.com)
  • Diamox (acetazolamide), Pentazane (methazolamide), and other agents used in the treatment of glaucoma and diseases of the retina and nervous system are examples of especially active carbonic anhydrase inhibitors. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • TY - JOUR T1 - 4-Functionalized 1,3-diarylpyrazoles bearing 6-aminosulfonylbenzothiazole moiety as potent inhibitors of carbonic anhydrase isoforms hCA I, II, IX and XII. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Structural aspects of isozyme selectivity in the binding of inhibitors to carbonic anhydrases II and IV. (proteopedia.org)
  • Discovery of Potent Dual-Tailed Benzenesulfonamide Inhibitors of Human Carbonic Anhydrases Implicated in Glaucoma and in Vivo Profiling of Their Intraocular Pressure-Lowering Action. (expasy.org)
  • Inhibitors of dipeptidyl peptidase 4 , also DPP-4 inhibitors or gliptins , are a class of oral hypoglycemics that block DPP-4 (DPP-IV). (wikipedia.org)
  • Glucagon increases blood glucose levels, and DPP-4 inhibitors reduce glucagon and blood glucose levels. (wikipedia.org)
  • A 2014 meta analysis found no favorable or harmful effect of DPP-4 inhibitors on all-cause mortality, cardiovascular mortality, or stroke, but a marginally statistically significant increase in heart failure. (wikipedia.org)
  • FDA has added a new Warning and Precaution about this risk to the labels of all medicines in this drug class, called dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors. (wikipedia.org)
  • In response to a report of precancerous changes in the pancreases of rats and organ donors treated with the DPP-4 inhibitor sitagliptin, [21] [22] the United States FDA and the European Medicines Agency each undertook independent reviews of all clinical and preclinical data related to the possible association of DPP-4 inhibitors with pancreatic cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • A 2014 meta-analysis found no evidence for increased pancreatic cancer risk in people treated with DPP-4 inhibitors, but owing to the modest amount of data available, was not able to completely exclude possible risk. (wikipedia.org)
  • Dipeptidyl peptidase IV inhibitors: How do they work as new antidiabetic agents? (wikipedia.org)
  • Non-zinc mediated inhibition of carbonic anhydrases: coumarins are a new class of suicide inhibitors. (openaire.eu)
  • Generally carbonic anhydrase inhibitors are used to treat epilepsy , glaucoma , mountain sickness, and is used as a diuretic. (drugs.com)
  • In addition, there is still mild effect of carbonic anhydrase inhibitors. (chemicalbook.com)
  • Sulfate was a good hCA IV inhibitor (K(i) of 9 mM), although it is a much weaker inhibitor of isozymes I, II, V and IX. (nih.gov)
  • 4YXU: Human Carbonic Anhydrase II complexed with an inhibitor with a benzenesulfonamide group (4). (rcsb.org)
  • The X-ray crystal structure of the complex between human carbonic anhydrase II and the inhibitor 1,2,4-triazole has been refined at 1.9 A resolution to a final R-factor of 0.153. (proteopedia.org)
  • Dorzolamide is a carbonic anhydrase (CA) inhibitor. (drugbank.ca)
  • Some of the DPP-4 inhibitor drugs have gotten approval from the FDA to be used with metformin concomitantly with additive effect to increase glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) which also decrease hepatic glucose production. (wikipedia.org)
  • Carbonic anhydrase inhibitor anticonvulsants inhibit the enzyme carbonic anhydrase. (drugs.com)
  • All were under treatment with fixed combination of carbonic anhydrase inhibitor and beta-blocker for 4 years approximately. (escrs.org)
  • Dorzolamide hydrochloride is a water-soluble potent inhibitor of human carbonic anhydrase (CA) isoenzymes II and IV. (elsevier.com)
  • Dorzolamide is metabolized in the liver by N-deethylation and N- deethyldorzolamide is an inhibitor of CA isoenzymes I, II and IV. (elsevier.com)
  • Carbonic anhydrases (CAs) are a large family of zinc metalloenzymes that catalyze the reversible hydration of carbon dioxide. (wikipedia.org)
  • Carbonic anhydrases (EC 4.2.1.1) are zinc-containing enzymes belonging to the lyases family, and are primarily responsible for catalyzing the reversible hydration of carbon dioxide to form bicarbonate (HCO3-) and hydrogen (H+) ions. (genecards.org)
  • Carbonic anhydrase catalyzes reversible hydration of carbon dioxide. (wikipedia.org)
  • Carbonic anhydrases constitute a group of enzymes that catalyse reversible hydration of carbon dioxide leading to the formation of bicarbonate and proton. (hindawi.com)
  • The enzyme catalyzes the hydration of carbon dioxide to carbonic acid. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • The binding of sulfonamides to human carbonic anhydrase II (hCAII) is a complex and long-debated example of protein-ligand recognition and interaction. (rcsb.org)
  • Carbonicanhydrase is a metallo-protein containing zinc. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Maturational studies showed that the expression of CA IX mRNA and protein increased markedly with weaning (∼3-4 postnatal wk) and was well correlated with the maturational expression of the α-subunit of the gastric H + ,K + -ATPase, suggesting that function of CA IX and the gastric H + pump might be linked in the digestion of adult foodstuffs. (physiology.org)
  • CA4 (Carbonic Anhydrase 4) is a Protein Coding gene. (genecards.org)
  • Blood was collected to determine variations at the Albumin and Carbonic Anhydrase (CA) structural protein loci using cellulose acetate electrophoresis. (agriscitech.eu)
  • All tested loci were polymorphic yielding four allelic variants (CAF, CAS, AlbA, and AlbB) at the two protein loci. (agriscitech.eu)
  • In every living organism, the protein family of carbonic anhydrases regulate a broad variety of homeostatic processes. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Hydrogen (H)-bonds are ubiquitous in nature and play an important role in protein folding ( 1 ), protein-ligand interactions ( 2 ), and catalysis ( 3 , 4 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • The protein encoded by this gene is one of several isozymes of carbonic anhydrase. (thermofisher.com)
  • Carbonic anhydrase IX (CAIX), a hypoxia-induced protein, is expressed in some renal tumors. (elsevier.com)
  • The CAIs inhibit the enzyme carbonic anhydrase, which in turn, reduces aqueous humor formation. (medrounds.org)
  • CA IV is a glycosylphosphatidyl-inositol-anchored membrane isozyme expressed on the luminal surfaces of pulmonary (and certain other) capillaries and of proximal renal tubules. (wikipedia.org)
  • By this second component of the mechanism, the same stimulus directly acts on the carbonic anhydrase I isozyme (that might be functionally coupled with adrenergic receptors), so that its activation ensures an adequate pH for stimulus-receptor coupling for signal transduction into the cell, resulting in vasoconstriction. (scielo.br)
  • Carbonic anhydrase isozyme CA3 protects cells against oxidative stress. (scirp.org)
  • Renal carbonic anhydrase allows the reabsorption of bicarbonate ions in the proximal tubule. (wikipedia.org)
  • also known as osteopetrosis with renal tubular acidosis, carbonic anhydrase II deficiency syndrome, Guibaud-Vainsel syndrome or marble brain disease. (proteopedia.org)
  • Carbonic anhydrase II deficiency syndrome (osteopetrosis with renal tubular acidosis and brain calcification): novel mutations in CA2 identified by direct sequencing expand the opportunity for genotype-phenotype correlation. (proteopedia.org)
  • Carbonic anhydrase II (CAII)-deficient mice were created to study the syndrome of CAII deficiency in humans including osteopetrosis, renal tubular acidosis, and cerebral calcification. (springer.com)
  • Sly WS, Whyte MP, Hewettemmett D, Yu YSL, Tashian RE (1983) Carbonic anhydrase-II deficiency identified as the primary defect in four kindreds with the syndrome of osteopetrosis-renal tubular-acidosis-basal ganglia calcification. (springer.com)
  • Ohlsson A, Cumming WA, Paul A, Sly WS (1986) Carbonic anhydrase-II deficiency syndrome -recessive osteopetrosis with renal tubular-acidosis and cerebral calcification. (springer.com)
  • Lai LW, Chan DM, Erickson RP, Hsu SJ, Lien YHH (1998) Correction of renal tubular acidosis in carbonic anhydrase II-deficient mice with gene therapy. (springer.com)
  • Proximal RTA (pRTA or type 2 RTA) is caused by an impairment of bicarbonate reabsorption in the proximal tubules and is characterized by a decreased renal HCO 3 − threshold ( 4 ). (asnjournals.org)
  • The current study by Hishimori et al shows that the key antigen may be CA IV, found in pancreatic ductal cells as well as bilary, renal, and intestinal epithelia. (bmj.com)
  • As Faculty at the Albert Einstein College of Medicine in New York (AECOM), he was funded for years by the NIH, American Heart Association, Genentech Foundation, and Pharmacia for basic sciences research in developmental nephrology, specifically renal acid secretion, carbonic anhydrase, pathophysiological effects of acidosis and growth. (utsouthwestern.edu)
  • The results of this study mainly confirms the implication of CA II and CA IV in the mechanism of gastric acid secretion also explaining the beneficial effects of combination therapy in the treatment of H. pylori infection as a result of gastric mucosa CA isoenzymes inhibition. (studiauniversitatis.ro)
  • An effect on carbonic anhydrase isoenzymes II and IV, reducing cerebrospinal fluid production, could potentially explain the beneficial effect of topiramate in intracranial hypertension. (wiley.com)
  • The genes for 10 different CA isoforms have been detected by RT-PCR in the human olfactory mucosa, and two of the isoenzymes, CA II and CA type IV (CA IV), were also described by immunohistochemistry ( 40 ). (physiology.org)
  • Band3), the Na + /H + exchanger NHE1, the Na + /HCO − 3 cotransporter NBCe1, and various monocarboxylate transporters (MCTs) have been demonstrated to physically and/or functionally interact with isoforms of carbonic anhydrase (CA) to form a "transport metabolon. (frontiersin.org)
  • For this reason, a small library of natural and synthetic nitrogen containing cyclic derivatives was assayed as activators of four human isoforms of carbonic anhydrase (hCA I, II, IV and VII). (mdpi.com)
  • Dorzolamide or placebo was administered t.i.d. for 4 weeks. (elsevier.com)
  • Here, we show that a functional complex of carbonic anhydrase 4 (CA4) and Na+/bicarbonate co-transporter 1 (NBC1) is specifically expressed in the choriocapillaris and that missense mutations in CA4 linked to autosomal dominant rod-cone dystrophy disrupt NBC1-mediated HCO3- transport. (nih.gov)
  • Indeed, we have recently identified a direct interaction between CA IV and NBC1, the sodium/bicarbonate cotransporter ( 1 ). (physiology.org)
  • In C 4 photosynthesis, the enzyme carbonic anhydrase (CA) hydrates CO 2 to form bicarbonate, which is the first catalyzed step in the C 4 photosynthetic pathway ( Badger, 1994 ). (plantphysiol.org)
  • Bicarbonate and phospho enol pyruvate are converted into oxaloacetic acid by phospho enol pyruvate carboxylase (PEPC), the primary carboxylating enzyme of C 4 plants. (plantphysiol.org)
  • In C 4 plants carbonic anhydrase catalyzes the critical first step of C 4 photosynthesis, the hydration of CO 2 to bicarbonate. (plantphysiol.org)
  • The bicarbonate ion carries a negative one formal charge and is the conjugate base of carbonic acid, H2CO3. (hmdb.ca)
  • This study also emphasizes the importance of carbonic anhydrase activity and the presence of CO 2 -bicarbonate buffers for membrane transport processes. (rupress.org)
  • Carbonic anhydrase (CA) classically catalyses the reversible hydration of dissolved CO 2 to form bicarbonate ions and protons. (biomedcentral.com)
  • A screen for genes specifically expressed in these cells revealed the gene encoding carbonic anhydrase 4, which catalyzes hydration of CO 2 to form bicarbonate and free protons. (sciencemag.org)
  • The inhibition of carbonic anhydrase IV and possibly carbonic anhydrase II by sulfonamides is a current therapy in the treatment of glaucoma. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Numerous diseases result from inappropriate function of carbonic anhydrases. (hindawi.com)
  • Section 4: Enzymes and Hormones. (worldcat.org)
  • Here, we provide an overview of the role of spatially arranged enzymatic networks, catalyzed by creatine kinase, adenylate kinase, carbonic anhydrase and glycolytic enzymes, in efficient high-energy phosphoryl transfer and signal communication in the cell. (biologists.org)
  • 4 patients (2 men, 67 and 75 years old/2 women, 70 and 74 years) who suffered from primary open-angle glaucoma for an average period of 7 years participated in the study. (escrs.org)
  • A deficiency of carbonic anhydrase II can result in osteopetrosis and metabolic acidosis. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Loss of carbonic anhydrase activity in bones impairs the ability of osteoclasts to promote bone resorption, leading to osteopetrosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Carbonic anhydrase (CA) is a zinc-enzyme discovered by Meldrum and Roughton in 1932 which catalyzes the reversible hydration reaction of CO 2 , having a main role in the maintenance of acid-basic equilibrium (7). (scielo.br)
  • 1,2,4-Triazole is directly bound to the zinc(II) ion through the nitrogen in position 4, replacing the native water/hydroxyl (Wat263) in a distorted four-co-ordinated complex. (proteopedia.org)
  • Carbonic anhydrases constitute a group of zinc containing lyases, classified, according to the Enzyme Catalogue to EC 4.2.1.1. (hindawi.com)
  • Carbonic anhydrases (CA) are zinc metalloenzymes that are present in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Carbonic anhydrase is a zinc metalloenzyme that has a molecular weight of approximately 30,000 Da. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • carboanhydrase, carbonate hydrolase, an enzyme of the lyase class that catalyzes the reversible formation of carbonic acid from carbon dioxide and water: CO 2 + H 2 O ⇄H 2 CO 3 . (thefreedictionary.com)
  • carbonic anhydrase (ca) catalyzes the reversible hydration of CO 2 and dehydration of carbonic acid. (physiology.org)
  • An enzyme which aids carbon dioxide transport and release by catalyzing the synthesis, and the dehydration, of carbonic acid from, and to, carbon dioxide and water. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Carbonic anhydrase is specifically and strongly inhibited by sulfonamides, which contain an aromatic group. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Immunohistochemical localization of human carbonic anhydrase isoenzyme C.". Histochemistry. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1990 ). Localization of membrane-associated carbonic anhydrase type IV in kidney epithelial cells. (biologists.org)
  • B1 localizes to the microvilli of the apical plasma membrane of sustentacular cells and to the lateral membrane in a subset of olfactory sensory cells, which also express carbonic anhydrase type IV, whereas B2 expression is stronger in the subapical domain of sustentacular cells. (physiology.org)
  • Seven novel mutations in carbonic anhydrase II deficiency syndrome identified by SSCP and direct sequencing analysis. (proteopedia.org)
  • Lewis SE, Erickson RP, Barnett LB, Venta PJ, Tashian RE (1988) N-Ethyl-N-nitrosourea induced null mutation at the mouse car-2 locus-an animal-model for human carbonic anhydrase-II deficiency syndrome. (springer.com)
  • Jepsen KJ, Goldstein SA, Biesecker LG, Spicer SS, Erickson RP (1990) The mechanical properties of cortical bone from carbonic anhydrase II deficient mice. (springer.com)
  • The platelet carbonic anhydrase II (CAII) was described for the first time in the '80s of the last century. (hindawi.com)
  • When we expressed SNAT3 in frog oocytes, the glutamine-induced membrane conductance was suppressed, when carbonic anhydrase isoform II (CAII) had been injected into the oocytes. (rupress.org)
  • demonstrated in 1991 that anti-carbonic anhydrase autoantibodies (aCAAs) are present in serum of 32% patients with systemic lupus erythematosus, in 21% of patients with Sjögren's syndrome, but not in healthy volunteers. (hindawi.com)
  • These studies have also demonstrated the involvement of carbonic anhydrase in the regulation of vascular and secretory processes in the organism (14). (scielo.br)
  • Carbonic anhydrase IV from human lung. (wikipedia.org)
  • Synthetic peptide selected from the C terminal region of Human Carbonic Anhydrase IV, conjugated to KLH (NP_000708). (abcam.com)
  • Carbonic anhydrase II (gene name CA2), is one of sixteen forms of human α carbonic anhydrases. (wikipedia.org)
  • Primary structure of human carbonic anhydrase C.". J. Biol. (wikipedia.org)
  • Carbonic anhydrases (CAs) are almost ubiquitously present in human cells. (hindawi.com)
  • It has been proven that specific isoforms of human carbonic anhydrase (hCA) are able to fine-tune physiological pathways connected to signal processing, and that decreased CAs expression negatively influences cognition, leading to mental retardation, Alzheimer's disease, and aging-related cognitive dysfunctions. (mdpi.com)
  • Carbonic anhydrase from human erythrocytes (HCA) has been used to study the molten-globule state of carbonic anhydrase (CA). Chaperone-like α-crystallin binds to this state of the enzyme and prevents its aggregation. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • The following product was used in this experiment: Carbonic Anhydrase VI Monoclonal Antibody (401809) from Thermo Fisher Scientific, catalog # MA5-24136, RRID AB_2609157. (thermofisher.com)
  • H+/K+ ATPase discovery resulted in the re-evaluation of the role of carbonic anhydrase (CA) in acid secretion. (studiauniversitatis.ro)
  • Interestingly, the autoantibodies against carbonic anhydrase II might be produced in humans due to cross-reactivity with carbonic anhydrase of Helicobacter pylori [ 28 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Tashian RE (1992) Genetics of the mammalian carbonic-anhydrases. (springer.com)
  • We studied the relationship between alpha- and beta-adrenergic agonists and the activity of carbonic anhydrase I and II in erythrocyte, clinical and vessel studies. (scielo.br)
  • carbonic anhydrase an enzyme that catalyzes the decomposition of carbonic acid into carbon dioxide and water, facilitating transfer of carbon dioxide from tissues to blood and from blood to alveolar air. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Also known as Alpha carbonic anhydrase 1, chloroplastic (AtaCA1) (AtalphaCA1) (Alpha carbonate dehydratase 1). (mybiosource.com)
  • Also known as Alpha carbonic anhydrase 2 (AtaCA2) (AtalphaCA2) (Alpha carbonate dehydratase 2). (mybiosource.com)
  • Also known as Alpha carbonic anhydrase 3 (AtaCA3) (AtalphaCA3) (Alpha carbonate dehydratase 3). (mybiosource.com)
  • Also known as Alpha carbonic anhydrase 4 (AtaCA4) (AtalphaCA4) (Alpha carbonate dehydratase 4). (mybiosource.com)
  • Also known as Alpha carbonic anhydrase 5 (AtaCA5) (AtalphaCA5) (Alpha carbonate dehydratase 5). (mybiosource.com)
  • Also known as Alpha carbonic anhydrase 6 (AtaCA6) (AtalphaCA6) (Alpha carbonate dehydratase 6). (mybiosource.com)
  • Also known as Alpha carbonic anhydrase 7 (AtaCA7) (AtalphaCA7) (Alpha carbonate dehydratase 7). (mybiosource.com)
  • Also known as Alpha carbonic anhydrase 8 (AtaCA8) (AtalphaCA8) (Alpha carbonate dehydratase 8). (mybiosource.com)
  • Regarding the physiological role of CA isozymes, our studies have shown that CA I is involved in the vascular changes (9) while CA II and CA IV are isozymes involved in the secretory processes (10). (scielo.br)
  • Excellent hCA IV inhibitory properties showed sulfamic acid, sulfamide, phenylboronic acid and phenylarsonic acid, with K(i)'s in the range of 0.87-0.93 microM, whereas their affinities for the other investigated isozymes were in the millimolar range. (nih.gov)
  • Mutant carbonic anhydrase 4 impairs pH regulation and causes retinal photoreceptor degeneration. (nih.gov)
  • Carbonic anhydrase (CA) catalyzes the hydration of CO 2 , and its activity has been linked to stomatal aperture regulation in eudicots. (plantphysiol.org)
  • CA IV has been identified in pulmonary epithelium of many mammalian species and may be uniquely adaptive for gas exchange necessary for the high metabolic requirements of mammals. (wikipedia.org)
  • numerous studies have reported the expression of carbonic anhydrase (CA) in specific cells of the mammalian olfactory epithelium (OE) ( 6 , 10 , 11 , 29 ). (physiology.org)
  • Membrane bound CA (CA IV) on the luminal side of the pulmonary membrane would have direct contact with plasma HCO3- and would enzimatically convert HCO3- to CO2 in the area immediately proximal to the exchange membrane, greatly increasing the concentration gradient for exchange. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because the carbon-concentrating mechanism of C 4 species enables a lower intercellular CO 2 concentration compared with C 3 plants with typically greater photosynthetic efficiency ( von Caemmerer, 2000 ), it is possible that stomata of C 4 plants are not as sensitive to changes in CO 2 conditions. (plantphysiol.org)
  • The target blood serum concentration range is 4-12 mg/L. (medscape.com)
  • There are important differences of affinity for anions between the two membrane-associated isozymes, hCA IV and hCA IX. (nih.gov)
  • Each of the membrane-associated forms exhibits exceptionally high catalytic rates of CO 2 hydration, particularly CAs IV, IX, and XIV ( 2 , 14 , 15 , 32 , 33 ). (physiology.org)
  • an enzyme that accelerates the reaction between carbon dioxide and water to form carbonic acid in the red blood cells. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • This C 4 acid is used in the carbon-concentrating mechanism that allows C 4 species to have reduced stomatal aperture while maintaining carbon flux for photosynthesis ( Sage, 2004 ). (plantphysiol.org)
  • Moreover, autoantibodies against carbonic anhydrase II were proved to play an important role in pathogenesis of retinopathy [ 25 ] and these against CAVI seem to induce dry eye syndrome in Sjögren's syndrome [ 26 , 27 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Moreover, in 2007, it was presented that also in rheumatoid arthritis there are present aCAAs in serum, showing affinity to bind to carbonic anhydrase III in synovial membranes [ 16 ]. (hindawi.com)