A membrane-bound carbonic anhydrase found in lung capillaries and kidney.
A family of zinc-containing enzymes that catalyze the reversible hydration of carbon dioxide. They play an important role in the transport of CARBON DIOXIDE from the tissues to the LUNG. EC 4.2.1.1.
A class of compounds that reduces the secretion of H+ ions by the proximal kidney tubule through inhibition of CARBONIC ANHYDRASES.
Selective renal carbonic anhydrase inhibitor. It may also be of use in certain cases of respiratory failure.
A carbonic anhydrase inhibitor used as diuretic and in glaucoma. It may cause hypokalemia.
A cytosolic carbonic anhydrase isoenzyme found widely distributed in cells of almost all tissues. Deficiencies of carbonic anhydrase II produce a syndrome characterized by OSTEOPETROSIS, renal tubular acidosis (ACIDOSIS, RENAL TUBULAR) and cerebral calcification. EC 4.2.1.-
A cytosolic carbonic anhydrase isoenzyme primarily expressed in skeletal muscle (MUSCLES, SKELETAL). EC 4.2.1.-
A cytosolic carbonic anhydrase isoenzyme primarily expressed in ERYTHROCYTES, vascular endothelial cells, and the gastrointestinal mucosa. EC 4.2.1.-
Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.
One of the CARBONIC ANHYDRASE INHIBITORS that is sometimes effective against absence seizures. It is sometimes useful also as an adjunct in the treatment of tonic-clonic, myoclonic, and atonic seizures, particularly in women whose seizures occur or are exacerbated at specific times in the menstrual cycle. However, its usefulness is transient often because of rapid development of tolerance. Its antiepileptic effect may be due to its inhibitory effect on brain carbonic anhydrase, which leads to an increased transneuronal chloride gradient, increased chloride current, and increased inhibition. (From Smith and Reynard, Textbook of Pharmacology, 1991, p337)
A carbonic anhydrase inhibitor that is used as a diuretic and in the treatment of glaucoma.

Calcium, carbonic anhydrase and gastric acid secretion. (1/40)

Previous data concerning the action of calcium (Ca) on gastric acid secretion (GAS) indicated that calcium ions increase GAS elicited by gastrin released through a vagal mechanism, and also by a direct effect on parietal cells. Our research showed that the stimulating effect of calcium on gastric acid secretion can be antagonized by verapamil administration, which reduces gastric acid secretion . In the present study we followed the effect induced by administration of calcium and Ca-chelating agents (disodium EDTA) on gastric acid secretion and on carbonic anhydrase (CA) activity. We selected two groups of healthy volunteers: Group I (n=21) received a single i.v. dose of CaCl2 (15 mg/kg b.w.), whereas Group II (n=22) received a single i.v. dose of disodium EDTA (5 mg/kg b.w.). We determined blood calcium before and after treatment, gastric acid secretion at 2 hours. erythrocyte CA II activity, and CA IV activity in membrane parietal cells, which were isolated from gastric mucosa obtained by endoscopic biopsy. Assessment of carbonic anhydrase activity was achieved by the stopped-flow method. In Group I calcium administration increased blood calcium, HCl output, CA II and CA IV activity as compared to initial values. In Group II, disodium EDTA reduced blood calcium, HCl output, CA II and CA IV activity as compared to initial values. The results demonstrated that increased blood calcium and GAS values after calcium administration correlated with the increase of erythrocyte CA II and parietal cell CA IV activity, while disodium EDTA induced a reversed process. Our results also show that cytosolic CA II and membrane CA IV values are sensitive to calcium changes and they directly depend on these levels. Our data suggest that intra- and extracellular pH changes induced by carbonic anhydrase might account for the modulation of the physiological and pathological secretory processes in the organism.  (+info)

The extracellular component of a transport metabolon. Extracellular loop 4 of the human AE1 Cl-/HCO3- exchanger binds carbonic anhydrase IV. (2/40)

Cytosolic carbonic anhydrase II (CAII) and the cytoplasmic C-terminal tails of chloride/bicarbonate anion exchange (AE) proteins associate to form a bicarbonate transport metabolon, which maximizes the bicarbonate transport rate. To determine whether cell surface-anchored carbonic anhydrase IV (CAIV) interacts with AE proteins to accelerate the bicarbonate transport rate, AE1-mediated bicarbonate transport was monitored in transfected HEK293 cells. Expression of the inactive CAII V143Y mutant blocked the interaction between endogenous cytosolic CAII and AE1, AE2, and AE3 and inhibited their transport activity (53 +/- 3, 49 +/- 10, and 35 +/- 1% inhibition, respectively). However, in the presence of V143Y CAII, expression of CAIV restored full functional activity to AE1, AE2, and AE3 (AE1, 101 +/- 3; AE2, 85 +/- 5; AE3, 108 +/- 1%). In Triton X-100 extracts of transfected HEK293 cells, resolved by sucrose gradient ultracentrifugation, CAIV recruitment to the position of AE1 suggested a physical interaction between CAIV and AE1. Gel overlay assays showed a specific interaction between CAIV and AE1, AE2, and AE3. Glutathione S-transferase pull-down assays revealed that the interaction between CAIV and AE1 occurs on the large fourth extracellular loop of AE1. We conclude that AE1 and CAIV interact on extracellular loop 4 of AE1, forming the extracellular component of a bicarbonate transport metabolon, which accelerates the rate of AE-mediated bicarbonate transport.  (+info)

Carbonic anhydrase XII mRNA encodes a hydratase that is differentially expressed along the rabbit nephron. (3/40)

Membrane-bound carbonic anhydrase (CA) facilitates acidification in the kidney. Although most hydratase activity is considered due to CA IV, some in the basolateral membranes could be attributed to CA XII. Indeed, CA IV is glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchored, connoting apical polarization, but CA IV immunoreactivity has been detected on basolateral membranes of proximal tubules. Herein, we determined whether CA XII mRNA was expressed in acidifying segments of the rabbit nephron. The open reading frame of CA XII was sequenced from a rabbit kidney cortex cDNA library; it was 83% identical to human CA XII and coded for a 355-amino acid single-pass transmembrane protein. Northern blot analysis revealed an abundant 4.5-kb message in kidney cortex, medulla, and colon. By in situ hybridization, CA XII mRNA was expressed by proximal convoluted and straight tubules, cortical and medullary collecting ducts, and papillary epithelium. By RT-PCR, CA XII mRNA was abundantly expressed in cortical and medullary collecting ducts and thick ascending limb of Henle's loop; it was also expressed in proximal convoluted and straight tubules but not in glomeruli or S3 segments. FLAG-CA XII of approximately 40 kDa expressed in Escherichia coli showed hydratase activity that was inhibited by 0.1 mM acetazolamide. Unlike CA IV, expressed CA XII activity was inhibited by 1% SDS, suggesting insufficient disulfide linkages to stabilize the molecule. Western blotting of expressed CA XII with two anti-rabbit CA IV peptide antibodies showed no cross-reactivity. Our findings indicate that CA XII may contribute to the membrane CA activity of proximal tubules and collecting ducts.  (+info)

Expression of carbonic anhydrase IV in rabbit corneal endothelial cells. (4/40)

OBJECTIVE: To demonstrate the molecular expression of carbonic anhydrase IV (CA IV) in rabbit corneal endothelium. METHODS: Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was performed using cultured and fresh rabbit corneal endothelial total RNA and specific primers for CA IV. The RT-PCR product was subcloned and sequenced. Immunoblotting and indirect immunofluorescence staining were performed to detect protein expression and distribution of CA IV using fresh and cultured rabbit corneal endothelium and rat anti-CA IV polyclonal antibody. RESULTS: RT-PCR screening gave positive bands at the predicted size for CA IV from fresh and cultured rabbit corneal endothelium. Sequencing further confirmed the identity of CA IV in corneal endothelium. Immunoblotting analysis showed a single band at 52 kDa for freshly isolated and cultured endothelial cells. Indirect immunofluorescence staining revealed an apparent positive staining in cultured endothelial cells. CONCLUSION: Carbonic anhydrase IV is expressed in rabbit corneal endothelium, which could contribute to the transendothelial HCO(3)(-) flux that is necessary to maintain corneal hydration and transparency.  (+info)

Immunocytochemical localization of Na+-HCO3- cotransporters and carbonic anhydrase dependence of fluid transport in corneal endothelial cells. (5/40)

In corneal endothelium, there is evidence for basolateral entry of HCO(3)(-) into corneal endothelial cells via Na(+)-HCO(3)(-) cotransporter (NBC) proteins and for net HCO(3)(-) flux from the basolateral to the apical side. However, how HCO(3)(-) exits the cells through the apical membrane is unclear. We determined that cultured corneal endothelial cells transport HCO(3)(-) similarly to fresh tissue. In addition, Cl(-) channel inhibitors decreased fluid transport by at most 16%, and inhibition of membrane-bound carbonic anhydrase IV by benzolamide or dextran-bound sulfonamide decreased fluid transport by at most 29%. Therefore, more than half of the fluid transport cannot be accounted for by anion transport through apical Cl(-) channels, CO(2) diffusion across the apical membrane, or a combination of these two mechanisms. However, immunocytochemistry using optical sectioning by confocal microscopy and cryosections revealed the presence of NBC transporters in both the basolateral and apical cell membranes of cultured bovine corneal endothelial cells and freshly isolated rabbit endothelia. This newly detected presence of an apical NBC transporter is consistent with its being the missing mechanism sought. We discuss discrepancies with other reports and provide a model that accounts for the experimental observations by assuming different stoichiometries of the NBC transport proteins at the basolateral and apical sides of the cells. Such functional differences might arise either from the expression of different isoforms or from regulatory factors affecting the stoichiometry of a single isoform.  (+info)

Apoptosis-inducing signal sequence mutation in carbonic anhydrase IV identified in patients with the RP17 form of retinitis pigmentosa. (6/40)

Genetic and physical mapping of the RP17 locus on 17q identified a 3.6-megabase candidate region that includes the gene encoding carbonic anhydrase IV (CA4), a glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored protein that is highly expressed in the choriocapillaris of the human eye. By sequencing candidate genes in this region, we identified a mutation that causes replacement of an arginine with a tryptophan (R14W) in the signal sequence of the CA4 gene at position -5 relative to the signal sequence cleavage site. This mutation was found to cosegregate with the disease phenotype in two large families and was not found in 36 unaffected family members or 100 controls. Expression of the mutant cDNA in COS-7 cells produced several findings, suggesting a mechanism by which the mutation can explain the autosomal dominant disease. In transfected COS-7 cells, the R14W mutation (i) reduced the steady-state level of carbonic anhydrase IV activity expressed by 28% due to a combination of decreased synthesis and accelerated turnover; (ii) led to up-regulation of immunoglobulin-binding protein, double-stranded RNA-regulated protein kinase-like ER kinase, and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein homologous protein, markers of the unfolded protein response and endoplasmic reticulum stress; and (iii) induced apoptosis, as evidenced by annexin V binding and terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling staining, in most cells expressing the mutant, but not the WT, protein. We suggest that a high level of expression of the mutant allele in the endothelial cells of the choriocapillaris leads to apoptosis, leading in turn to ischemia in the overlying retina and producing autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa.  (+info)

Chemical chaperones protect from effects of apoptosis-inducing mutation in carbonic anhydrase IV identified in retinitis pigmentosa 17. (7/40)

Carbonic anhydrase (CA) IV is a glycosylphosphotidylinositol-anchored enzyme highly expressed on the plasma face of microcapillaries and especially strongly expressed in the choriocapillaris of the human eye. In collaboration with scientists at the University of Cape Town (Rondebosch, South Africa), we recently showed that the R14W mutation in the signal sequence of CA IV, which they identified in patients with the retinitis pigmentosa (RP) 17 form of autosomal dominant RP, results in accumulation of unfolded protein in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), leading to ER stress, the unfolded protein response, and apoptosis in a large fraction of transfected COS-7 cells expressing mutant, but not wild-type, CA IV. Here we present experiments showing that several well characterized CA inhibitors largely prevent the adverse effects of expressing R14W CA IV in transfected COS-7 cells. Specifically, CA inhibitors prevent the accelerated turnover of the mutant protein, the up-regulation of Ig-binding protein, double-stranded RNA-regulated protein kinase-like ER kinase, and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein homologous protein (markers of the unfolded protein response and ER stress), the inhibition of production of other secretory proteins expressed from COS-7-transfecting plasmids, and the induction of apoptosis, all characteristics of transfected cells expressing R14W CA IV. Furthermore, treatment with 4-phenylbutyric acid, a nonspecific chemical chaperone used in other protein-folding disorders, also dramatically reduces the apoptosis-inducing effect of expressing R14W CA IV cDNA in transfected COS-7 cells. These experiments suggest a promising approach to treatment of RP17 that might delay the onset or possibly prevent this autosomal dominant form of RP.  (+info)

Mutant carbonic anhydrase 4 impairs pH regulation and causes retinal photoreceptor degeneration. (8/40)

Retina and retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) belong to the metabolically most active tissues in the human body. Efficient removal of acid load from retina and RPE is a critical function mediated by the choriocapillaris. However, the mechanism by which pH homeostasis is maintained is largely unknown. Here, we show that a functional complex of carbonic anhydrase 4 (CA4) and Na+/bicarbonate co-transporter 1 (NBC1) is specifically expressed in the choriocapillaris and that missense mutations in CA4 linked to autosomal dominant rod-cone dystrophy disrupt NBC1-mediated HCO3- transport. Our results identify a novel pathogenic pathway in which a defect in a functional complex involved in maintaining pH balances, but not expressed in retina or RPE, leads to photoreceptor degeneration. The importance of a functional CA4 for survival of photoreceptors implies that CA inhibitors, which are widely used as medications, particularly in the treatment of glaucoma, may have long-term adverse effects on vision.  (+info)

Carbonic anhydrase IV (CA-IV), also known as membrane-associated carbonic anhydrase or CA-IX, is a member of the carbonic anhydrase enzyme family. This enzyme is responsible for catalyzing the reversible reaction that converts carbon dioxide and water into bicarbonate and a proton.

CA-IV is primarily found in the plasma membrane of polarized epithelial cells, where it plays a crucial role in maintaining acid-base balance and ion transport. It is also involved in various physiological processes, including respiration, bone resorption, and pH regulation.

Abnormalities in CA-IV expression or activity have been implicated in several diseases, such as cancer, kidney stones, and osteoporosis. In particular, overexpression of CA-IV has been observed in various types of cancer, where it contributes to tumor acidification, invasion, and metastasis. Therefore, CA-IV is considered a potential therapeutic target for cancer treatment.

Carbonic anhydrases (CAs) are a group of enzymes that catalyze the reversible reaction between carbon dioxide and water to form carbonic acid, which then quickly dissociates into bicarbonate and a proton. This reaction is crucial for maintaining pH balance and regulating various physiological processes in the body, including respiration, secretion of electrolytes, and bone resorption.

There are several isoforms of carbonic anhydrases found in different tissues and organelles, each with distinct functions and properties. For example, CA I and II are primarily found in red blood cells, while CA III is present in various tissues such as the kidney, lung, and eye. CA IV is a membrane-bound enzyme that plays a role in transporting ions across cell membranes.

Carbonic anhydrases have been targeted for therapeutic interventions in several diseases, including glaucoma, epilepsy, and cancer. Inhibitors of carbonic anhydrases can reduce the production of bicarbonate and lower the pH of tumor cells, which may help to slow down their growth and proliferation. However, these inhibitors can also have side effects such as kidney stones and metabolic acidosis, so they must be used with caution.

Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors are a class of medications that work by blocking the action of carbonic anhydrase, an enzyme that is responsible for converting carbon dioxide and water into carbonic acid. This enzyme is found in various tissues throughout the body, including the eyes, kidneys, and nervous system.

By inhibiting the activity of carbonic anhydrase, these medications can reduce the production of bicarbonate ions in the body, which helps to lower the rate of fluid buildup in certain tissues. As a result, carbonic anhydrase inhibitors are often used to treat conditions such as glaucoma, epilepsy, and altitude sickness.

In glaucoma, for example, these medications can help to reduce pressure within the eye by promoting the drainage of fluid from the eye. In epilepsy, carbonic anhydrase inhibitors can help to reduce the frequency and severity of seizures by reducing the acidity of the blood and brain. And in altitude sickness, these medications can help to alleviate symptoms such as headache, nausea, and shortness of breath by reducing the buildup of fluid in the lungs.

Some common examples of carbonic anhydrase inhibitors include acetazolamide, methazolamide, and dorzolamide. These medications are available in various forms, including tablets, capsules, and eye drops, and are typically prescribed by a healthcare professional.

Benzolamide is not a recognized medication or pharmaceutical agent in modern medical practice. It is possible that you may have misspelled the name, and there are no direct synonyms for any known medications. If you meant to search for a different term or have more information about the context where this term was used, please let me know so I can provide a more accurate response.

Ethoxzolamide is a carbonic anhydrase inhibitor drug that is primarily used to reduce fluid buildup in the eye (ocular pressure) caused by glaucoma or other conditions. It works by decreasing the production of fluid inside the eye, which helps lower the pressure within the eye.

Ethoxzolamide may also be used for other medical purposes, such as treating seizure disorders and preventing altitude sickness. The drug is available in oral tablet form and is typically taken 2-3 times a day.

It's important to note that Ethoxzolamide can have side effects, including frequent urination, tingling sensations in the hands or feet, loss of appetite, and changes in taste perception. It may also interact with other medications, so it's essential to inform your healthcare provider about all the drugs you are taking before starting Ethoxzolamide therapy.

Carbonic anhydrase II (CA-II) is a specific isoform of the carbonic anhydrase enzyme, which catalyzes the reversible reaction between carbon dioxide and water to form carbonic acid. This enzyme plays a crucial role in various physiological processes, including pH regulation, electrolyte balance, and biosynthetic reactions.

CA-II is widely distributed in the body, with high concentrations found in erythrocytes (red blood cells), the gastric mucosa, and renal tubules. In erythrocytes, CA-II facilitates the rapid conversion of carbon dioxide generated during cellular respiration to bicarbonate and protons, which can then be transported across the cell membrane for excretion or used in other metabolic processes.

In the gastric mucosa, CA-II helps regulate acid secretion by catalyzing the formation of carbonic acid from water and carbon dioxide, which subsequently dissociates into bicarbonate and a proton. The generated proton can then participate in the production of hydrochloric acid in the stomach.

In renal tubules, CA-II is involved in the reabsorption of bicarbonate ions from the filtrate back into the bloodstream, helping maintain electrolyte balance and pH homeostasis. Additionally, CA-II has been implicated in several pathological conditions, such as neurological disorders, cancer, and osteoporosis, making it a potential therapeutic target for drug development.

Carbonic anhydrase III (CAIII) is a member of the carbonic anhydrase enzyme family, which catalyzes the reversible reaction between carbon dioxide and water to form bicarbonate and protons. This enzyme is primarily found in muscle tissues, where it plays a role in regulating pH levels during muscle contraction and relaxation. CAIII has a lower catalytic activity compared to other carbonic anhydrase isoforms, suggesting that it may have additional functions beyond simple CO2 hydration. Additionally, CAIII has been implicated in various physiological processes such as protection against oxidative stress and regulation of muscle metabolism.

Carbonic anhydrase I is a specific type of carbonic anhydrase, which is an enzyme that catalyzes the reversible reaction between carbon dioxide and water to form carbonic acid. This enzyme is primarily found in red blood cells and plays a crucial role in maintaining pH balance and regulating respiration.

Carbonic anhydrase I, also known as CA I or CA-I, is responsible for hydrating carbon dioxide to form bicarbonate ions and protons, which helps maintain the acid-base balance in the body. It has a relatively slower reaction rate compared to other carbonic anhydrase isoforms.

Defects or mutations in the CA I gene can lead to reduced enzymatic activity and may contribute to certain medical conditions, such as distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA), a disorder characterized by impaired kidney function and acid-base imbalances. However, other carbonic anhydrase isoforms can compensate for the loss of CA I activity in most cases, so its deficiency rarely causes severe symptoms on its own.

Isoenzymes, also known as isoforms, are multiple forms of an enzyme that catalyze the same chemical reaction but differ in their amino acid sequence, structure, and/or kinetic properties. They are encoded by different genes or alternative splicing of the same gene. Isoenzymes can be found in various tissues and organs, and they play a crucial role in biological processes such as metabolism, detoxification, and cell signaling. Measurement of isoenzyme levels in body fluids (such as blood) can provide valuable diagnostic information for certain medical conditions, including tissue damage, inflammation, and various diseases.

Acetazolamide is a medication that belongs to a class of drugs called carbonic anhydrase inhibitors. It works by decreasing the production of bicarbonate in the body, which helps to reduce the amount of fluid in the eye and brain, making it useful for treating conditions such as glaucoma and epilepsy.

In medical terms, acetazolamide can be defined as: "A carbonic anhydrase inhibitor that is used to treat glaucoma, epilepsy, altitude sickness, and other conditions. It works by decreasing the production of bicarbonate in the body, which helps to reduce the amount of fluid in the eye and brain."

Acetazolamide may also be used for other purposes not listed here, so it is important to consult with a healthcare provider for specific medical advice.

Methazolamide is a sulfonamide-derived carbonic anhydrase inhibitor primarily used in the prevention and treatment of glaucoma. It works by decreasing the production of fluid inside the eye, which in turn lowers the pressure within the eye. Additionally, it has been used off-label for conditions such as altitude sickness, epilepsy, intracranial hypertension, and benign prostatic hyperplasia.

The medical definition of Methazolamide is:
A carbonic anhydrase inhibitor that reduces the secretion of aqueous humor, thereby lowering intraocular pressure; used in the treatment of glaucoma. It also has diuretic properties and has been used in the management of altitude sickness, epilepsy, intracranial hypertension, and benign prostatic hyperplasia.

"Carbonic anhydrase IV from human lung. Purification, characterization, and comparison with membrane carbonic anhydrase from ... Mahieu I, Benjamin A, Stephens R, Walters D, Carter N (1995). "Characterization of membrane bound carbonic anhydrase IV (CA IV ... "Entrez Gene: CA4 carbonic anhydrase IV". Sterling D, Alvarez BV, Casey JR (Jul 2002). "The extracellular component of a ... Sender S, Decker B, Fenske CD, Sly WS, Carter ND, Gros G (1998). "Localization of carbonic anhydrase IV in rat and human heart ...
Sato S, Zhu XL, Sly WS (1990). "Carbonic anhydrase isozymes IV and II in urinary membranes from carbonic anhydrase II-deficient ... Carbonic anhydrase II (gene name CA2), is one of sixteen forms of human α carbonic anhydrases. Carbonic anhydrase catalyzes ... Renal carbonic anhydrase allows the reabsorption of bicarbonate ions in the proximal tubule. Loss of carbonic anhydrase ... Sly WS, Hu PY (1995). "Human carbonic anhydrases and carbonic anhydrase deficiencies". Annu. Rev. Biochem. 64 (1): 375-401. doi ...
Liu C, Wei Y, Wang J, Pi L, Huang J, Wang P (Sep 2012). "Carbonic anhydrases III and IV autoantibodies in rheumatoid arthritis ... CA3 carbonic anhydrase III, muscle specific". Sly WS, Hu PY (1995). "Human carbonic anhydrases and carbonic anhydrase ... Carbonic anhydrase 3 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CA3 gene. Carbonic anhydrase III (CAIII) is a member of a ... that encode carbonic anhydrase isozymes. These carbonic anhydrases are a class of metalloenzymes that catalyze the reversible ...
... exchanger binds carbonic anhydrase IV". J. Biol. Chem. 277 (28): 25239-46. doi:10.1074/jbc.M202562200. PMID 11994299. Alberts, ... This is crucial for CO2 uptake by the red blood cell and conversion (by hydration catalysed by carbonic anhydrase) into a ... Functional interaction of carbonic anhydrase II and chloride/bicarbonate exchangers". J. Biol. Chem. 276 (51): 47886-94. doi: ... Vince JW, Reithmeier RA (October 1998). "Carbonic anhydrase II binds to the carboxyl terminus of human band 3, the erythrocyte ...
... exchanger binds carbonic anhydrase IV". J. Biol. Chem. 277 (28): 25239-46. doi:10.1074/jbc.M202562200. PMID 11994299. ... Functional interaction of carbonic anhydrase II and chloride/bicarbonate exchangers". J. Biol. Chem. 276 (51): 47886-94. doi: ... exchanger and carbonic anhydrase XIV interaction". Am. J. Physiol., Cell Physiol. 297 (5): C1091-102. doi:10.1152/ajpcell. ... Pt 4) (4): 1137-42. doi:10.1242/jcs.105.4.1137. PMID 8227202. Dudeja PK, Hafez N, Tyagi S, et al. (1999). "Expression of the ...
Sato S, Zhu XL, Sly WS (1990). "Carbonic anhydrase isozymes IV and II in urinary membranes from carbonic anhydrase II-deficient ... "Human carbonic anhydrases and carbonic anhydrase deficiencies". Annu. Rev. Biochem. 64 (1): 375-401. doi:10.1146/annurev.bi. ... Roth DE, Venta PJ, Tashian RE, Sly WS (1992). "Molecular basis of human carbonic anhydrase II deficiency". Proc. Natl. Acad. ... Sly also identified the first inherited deficiency of a human carbonic anhydrase, CA II, and defined the biochemical and ...
... selectively inhibits cytosolic (type II) and membrane associated (type IV) forms of carbonic anhydrase. The action ... As topiramate inhibits carbonic anhydrase, use with other inhibitors of carbonic anhydrase (e.g. acetazolamide) increases the ... the inhibition of carbonic anhydrase may be strong enough to cause metabolic acidosis of clinical importance. The U.S. Food and ... carbonic anhydrase isoenzymes. There is evidence that topiramate may alter the activity of its targets by modifying their ...
... particularly subtypes II and IV. Whether carbonic anhydrase inhibition contributes to its clinical activity is not known. In ... Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors are a class of pharmaceuticals that suppress the activity of carbonic anhydrase. Their clinical ... are carbonic anhydrase inhibitors. Supuran CT, Scozzafava A, Conway J, eds. (2004). Carbonic anhydrase: its inhibitors and ... "Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitors and High Altitude Illnesses". In Frost, Susan C.; McKenna, Robert (eds.). Carbonic Anhydrase: ...
2003). "Direct extracellular interaction between carbonic anhydrase IV and the human NBC1 sodium/bicarbonate co-transporter". ... 2005). "Molecular mechanism of kNBC1-carbonic anhydrase II interaction in proximal tubule cells". J. Physiol. 559 (Pt 1): 55-65 ... 2003). "Regulation of the sodium bicarbonate cotransporter kNBC1 function: role of Asp986, Asp988 and kNBC1-carbonic anhydrase ... 272 (31): 19111-4. doi:10.1074/jbc.272.31.19111. PMID 9235899. Abuladze N, Lee I, Newman D, Hwang J, Boorer K, Pushkin A, Kurtz ...
Carbonic anhydrase 6 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CA6 gene. It is also called 'gustin' because of its presence ... "Entrez Gene: CA6 carbonic anhydrase VI". Henkin RI, Mueller CW, Wolf RO (July 1975). "Estimation of zinc concentration of ... The protein encoded by this gene is one of several isozymes of carbonic anhydrase. This protein is abundantly found in salivary ... Aldred P, Fu P, Barrett G, Penschow JD, Wright RD, Coghlan JP, Fernley RT (January 1991). "Human secreted carbonic anhydrase: ...
CA-IV, CA-IX, CA-XII, CA-XIV and CA-XV) (CA4, CA9, CA12, CA14) There are three additional "acatalytic" human carbonic anhydrase ... Several forms of carbonic anhydrase occur in nature. In the best-studied α-carbonic anhydrase form present in animals, the zinc ... Carbonic anhydrase inhibitor Badger MR, Price GD (1994). "The role of carbonic anhydrase in photosynthesis". Annu. Rev. Plant ... Carbonic anhydrase could in principle prove relevant to carbon capture. Some carbonic anhydrases can withstand temperatures up ...
... is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CA13 gene. Carbonic anhydrases (CAs) are a family of zinc ... "Entrez Gene: Carbonic anhydrase 13". Retrieved 2019-12-31. Badger MR, Price GD (1994). "The role of carbonic anhydrase in ... Overview of all the structural information available in the PDB for UniProt: Q8N1Q1 (Human Carbonic anhydrase 13) at the PDBe- ... January 2004). "Characterization of CA XIII, a novel member of the carbonic anhydrase isozyme family". The Journal of ...
... is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CA12 gene. Carbonic anhydrases (CAs) are a large family of ... "Human carbonic anhydrase XII: cDNA cloning, expression, and chromosomal localization of a carbonic anhydrase gene that is ... "Entrez Gene: CA12 carbonic anhydrase XII". Feldshtein, M; Elkrinawi, S; Yerushalmi, B; Marcus, B; Vullo, D; Romi, H; Ofir, R; ... Tarun AS, Bryant B, Zhai W, Solomon C, Shusterman D (2004). "Gene expression for carbonic anhydrase isoenzymes in human nasal ...
"Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors. Inhibition of isozymes I, II, IV, V, and IX with anions isosteric and isoelectronic with sulfate ... Carbonic anhydrase IX (CA9/CA IX) is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CA9 gene. It is one of the 14 carbonic ... "Carbonic anhydrase IX as an imaging and therapeutic target for tumors and metastases". Sub-Cellular Biochemistry. Carbonic ... "Entrez Gene: CA9 carbonic anhydrase IX". Morgan PE, Pastoreková S, Stuart-Tilley AK, Alper SL, Casey JR (August 2007). " ...
"Entrez Gene: CA7 carbonic anhydrase VII". Sly WS, Hu PY (1995). "Human carbonic anhydrases and carbonic anhydrase deficiencies ... Carbonic anhydrase 7 (CA7) is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CA7 gene. Carbonic anhydrases are a large family of ... PDBe-KB provides an overview of all the structure information available in the PDB for Human Carbonic anhydrase 7 v t e ( ... Vullo D, Voipio J, Innocenti A, Rivera C, Ranki H, Scozzafava A, Kaila K, Supuran CT (Feb 2005). "Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors ...
Hirota J, Ando H, Hamada K, Mikoshiba K (Jun 2003). "Carbonic anhydrase-related protein is a novel binding protein for inositol ... Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor type 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ITPR1 gene. ITPR1 has been shown to ... 21 (4): 717-26. doi:10.1016/S0896-6273(00)80589-9. PMID 9808459. S2CID 2851554. Kiselyov K, Xu X, Mozhayeva G, Kuo T, Pessah I ... 4 (1): 57-64. doi:10.2174/157016206775197583. PMID 16454711. Joseph SK, Lin C, Pierson S, Thomas AP, Maranto AR (Oct 1995). " ...
... carbonic acid production is catalysed by the enzyme known as carbonic anhydrase. CO2 is a potent electrophile having an ... As a linear triatomic molecule, CO2 has four vibrational modes as shown in the diagram. In the symmetric and the antisymmetric ... Carbonic anhydrase 4 converts to carbonic acid leading to a sour taste, and also the dissolved carbon dioxide induces a ... 3 by the enzyme carbonic anhydrase in the red blood cells, by the reaction: CO2 + H2O → H2CO3 → H+ + HCO−3 5-10% is dissolved ...
... is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CA14 gene. Carbonic anhydrases (CAs) are a large family of ... "Entrez Gene: CA14 carbonic anhydrase XIV". Hoek KS, Schlegel NC, Eichhoff OM, et al. (2008). "Novel MITF targets identified ... 2002). "Carbonic anhydrase XIV: luminal expression suggests key role in renal acidification". Kidney Int. 61 (6): 2111-8. doi: ... Fujikawa-Adachi K, Nishimori I, Taguchi T, Onishi S (Nov 1999). "Human carbonic anhydrase XIV (CA14): cDNA cloning, mRNA ...
... is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CA5B gene. Carbonic anhydrases (CAs) are a ... Sly WS, Hu PY (1995). "Human carbonic anhydrases and carbonic anhydrase deficiencies". Annu. Rev. Biochem. 64: 375-401. doi: ... "Entrez Gene: CA5B carbonic anhydrase VB, mitochondrial". Human CA5B genome location and CA5B gene details page in the UCSC ... 2007). "Carbonic anhydrase activators: an activation study of the human mitochondrial isoforms VA and VB with amino acids and ...
... continues to carry a carbonic anhydrase designation based on clear sequence identity to other members of the carbonic anhydrase ... Carbonic anhydrase-related protein is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CA8 gene. The CA8 protein lacks the catalytic ... Bergenhem NC, Sait SS, Eddy RL, Shows TB, Tashian RE (1995). "Assignment of the gene for human carbonic anhydrase VIII(CA8) to ... "Entrez Gene: CA8 carbonic anhydrase VIII". UniProt accession number: P35219; Retrieved 27 December 2019 Online Mendelian ...
Carbonic anhydrase 4, an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CA4 gene Cornu Ammonis region 4, a region of the hippocampus ... 4 atoms of Calcium Ca.4 may refer to: Caproni Ca.4, an Italian heavy bomber of the World War I era This disambiguation page ... CAC CA-4, a 1941 Australian bomber aircraft USS Pittsburgh (CA-4), a 1901 United States Navy armored cruiser California's 4th ... and Nicaragua Combretastatin A-4, a natural polyphenol Ca4 may refer to: Ca4 line, a regional Catalonia railway line connecting ...
... for example in carbonic anhydrase), copper (for example in complex IV of the respiratory chain) and molybdenum (for example in ... 4 (3): 217-29. doi:10.2174/1389203033487199. PMID 12769720. Banerjee R, Ragsdale SW (2003). "The many faces of vitamin B12: ... 280 (5725): 843-4. Bibcode:1979Natur.280..843S. doi:10.1038/280843a0. PMID 471057. S2CID 3094647.{{cite journal}}: CS1 maint: ...
"Discovery of a new family of carbonic anhydrases in the malaria pathogen Plasmodium falciparum--the η-carbonic anhydrases". ... "Non-zinc mediated inhibition of carbonic anhydrases: coumarins are a new class of suicide inhibitors". Journal of the American ... During her bachelor's degree she started to study pyrazolo [3,4-d] pyrimidines. As an undergraduate student, Poulsen was part ... Poulsen, Sally-Ann (1992). Synthesis and structure-activity studies of pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidines binding to adenosine ...
Davenport, Horace W. (1 June 1984). "The Early Days of Research on Carbonic Anhydrase" (PDF). Annals of the New York Academy of ... Lutwak-Mann was known for discovering that the hormone progesterone acts on the placenta to control carbonic anhydrase ... Davenport, Horace W. (1 April 1980). "Carbonic Anhydrase, or the Strange Case of the Disappearing Scientist". The Physiologist ... 429 (1): 4-9. Bibcode:1984NYASA.429....4D. doi:10.1111/j.1749-6632.1984.tb12310.x. hdl:2027.42/73862. ISSN 1749-6632. PMID ...
"The substrate-binding site in Cu nitrite reductase and its similarity to Zn carbonic anhydrase". Nature Structural & Molecular ... 328 (4): 877-891. doi:10.1016/S0022-2836(03)00355-3. PMID 12729761. Antonyuk, S. V.; Trevitt, C. R.; Strange, R. W.; Jackson, G ... 2 (4): 287-292. doi:10.1038/nsb0495-287. PMID 7796265. S2CID 21986822. Vanadium K-edge X-ray absorption spectrum of the VFe ... Samantha, Price (4 March 2014). "TDP-43: A protein that lingers on." (Web page). Proceedings of the National Academy of ...
An example of an enzyme that contains a cofactor is carbonic anhydrase, which has a zinc cofactor bound as part of its active ... "Structural and kinetic characterization of active-site histidine as a proton shuttle in catalysis by human carbonic anhydrase ... 44 (4): 1097-115. doi:10.1021/bi0480279. PMID 15667203. Stryer L, Berg JM, Tymoczko JL (2002). Biochemistry (5th ed.). San ...
Example of such enzymes are triose-phosphate isomerase, carbonic anhydrase, acetylcholinesterase, catalase, fumarase, β- ... Volume IV: Modern Development of the Chemical and Biological Sciences. Harper and Brothers. Payen A, Persoz JF (1833). "Mémoire ... carbonic anhydrase catalyzes its reaction in either direction depending on the concentration of its reactants: The rate of a ... An example of an enzyme that contains a cofactor is carbonic anhydrase, which uses a zinc cofactor bound as part of its active ...
Carbonic anhydrase 1 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CA1 gene. Carbonic anhydrases (CAs) are a large family of ... "Entrez Gene: CA1 carbonic anhydrase I". "CA1 - Carbonic anhydrase 1 - Homo sapiens (Human) - CA1 gene & protein". www.uniprot. ... The reaction catalyzed by CA1 is the same as other carbonic anhydrase family proteins: CO 2 + H 2 O → Carbonic anhydrase H 2 CO ... Lin KT, Deutsch HF (Mar 1973). "Human carbonic anhydrases. XI. The complete primary structure of carbonic anhydrase B". The ...
... and carbonic anhydrase inhibitors. Antibiotics and steroid drops for 4 weeks post surgery. Complications of surgical procedures ...
Rickli, E E; Edsall, J. T.; Ghazanfar, A S S; Gibbons, B H (1964). "Carbonic anhydrases from human erythrocytes". J. Biol. Chem ... and carbonic anhydrase. In 1944 John Edsall was a founding co-editor of the journal Advances in Protein Chemistry. He was ... 239 (4): 1065-1078. doi:10.1016/S0021-9258(18)91392-X. Klotz, I.M. (2003). "John T. Edsall: an appreciation". Biophysical ... doi:10.1016/S0301-4622(02)00259-4. PMID 12646346. "A tribute to John T. Edsall. Editor 1958-1967". Journal of Biological ...
"Carbonic anhydrase IV from human lung. Purification, characterization, and comparison with membrane carbonic anhydrase from ... Mahieu I, Benjamin A, Stephens R, Walters D, Carter N (1995). "Characterization of membrane bound carbonic anhydrase IV (CA IV ... "Entrez Gene: CA4 carbonic anhydrase IV". Sterling D, Alvarez BV, Casey JR (Jul 2002). "The extracellular component of a ... Sender S, Decker B, Fenske CD, Sly WS, Carter ND, Gros G (1998). "Localization of carbonic anhydrase IV in rat and human heart ...
carbonic anhydrase 4 - Carbonic anhydrases. Detailed annotation on the structure, function, physiology, pharmacology and ... Carbonic anhydrases: carbonic anhydrase 4. Last modified on 16/01/2024. Accessed on 22/04/2024. IUPHAR/BPS Guide to ... IV and XIV, but has 10-fold lower affinity for XIV.Bbr>Methazolamide inhibits carbonic anhydrases I, IV and XIV with similar ... 2005) Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors: inhibition of the transmembrane isozyme XIV with sulfonamides. Bioorg Med Chem Lett, 15 ( ...
Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitors (CAIs). *Trusopt (Dorzolamide). *Azopt (Brinzolamide). 5. Rho Kinase Inhibitors. *Rocklatan ( ... 4. Practice Good Hygiene. Practicing good hygiene is essential to prevent eye infections and maintain eye health. Some ...
CRYSTAL STRUCTURE OF CHIMERIC CARBONIC ANHYDRASE VI WITH 3- (CYCLOOCTYLAMINO)-2,5,6-TRIFLUORO-4-[(2-HYDROXYETHYL) SULFONYL] ... CRYSTAL STRUCTURE OF CHIMERIC CARBONIC ANHYDRASE VI WITH 3- (CYCLOOCTYLAMINO)-2,5,6-TRIFLUORO-4-[(2-HYDROXYETHYL) SULFONYL] ... CRYSTAL STRUCTURE OF CHIMERIC CARBONIC ANHYDRASE VI WITH 3- (CYCLOOCTYLAMINO)-2,5,6-TRIFLUORO-4-[(2-HYDROXYETHYL) SULFONYL] ...
Carbonic Anhydrase IV, Bovin. 1,350. 130. 16. 18. CAH4_HUMAN. P22748. CHEMBL3729. Carbonic Anhydrase IV, Human. 223. 84. 54. 59 ... Carbonic Anhydrase IV (cluster #6 Of 16), Eukaryotic (5 Compounds) Code:. CAH4-6-E. Compound Summary. Annotation Type. ... Carbonic Anhydrase IV (cluster #1 Of 16), Eukaryotic. 1,087. 118. 20. 25. ... CAH4-4-E. Carbonic Anhydrase IV (cluster #4 Of 16), Eukaryotic. 2. 2. 0. 0. ...
CARBONIC ANHYDRASE II (F131V) COMPLEXED WITH 4-(AMINOSULFONYL)-N-[(2,5-DIFLUOROPHENYL)METHYL]-BENZAMIDE ... CARBONIC ANHYDRASE II (F131V) COMPLEXED WITH 4-(AMINOSULFONYL)-N-[(2,5-DIFLUOROPHENYL)METHYL]-BENZAMIDE Coordinates. PDB Format ... Fluoroaromatic-fluoroaromatic interactions between inhibitors bound in the crystal lattice of human carbonic anhydrase II. J.Am ... 1 x IOA: 4-(AMINOSULFONYL)-N-[(2,5-DIFLUOROPHENYL)METHYL]-BENZAMIDE(Non-covalent). IOA.3: 15 residues within 4Å:*. Chain A: Q. ...
Mutant carbonic anhydrase 4 impairs pH regulation and causes retinal photoreceptor degeneration. Z Yang, BV Alvarez, C ...
GluK1 antagonist; inhibits carbonic anhydrase (CA) II and IV; also positive allosteric modulator of GABAA receptors ...
... were synthesized and tested for their inhibitory activity against four human carbonic anhydrase (hCA) isoforms. All compounds ... were synthesized and tested for their inhibitory activity against four human carbonic anhydrase (hCA) isoforms. All compounds ... Supuran, C.T. Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibition and the Management of Hypoxic Tumors. Metabolites 2017, 7, 48. [Google Scholar] [ ... Supuran, C.T. Carbonic anhydrases: Novel therapeutic applications for inhibitors and activators. Nat. Rev. Drug Discov. 2008, 7 ...
13] "Direct extracellular interaction between carbonic anhydrase IV and the human NBC1 sodium/bicarbonate co-transporter." ... 18] "Mutant carbonic anhydrase 4 impairs pH regulation and causes retinal photoreceptor degeneration." Yang Z.et.al. 15563508. ... 17] "Molecular mechanism of kNBC1-carbonic anhydrase II interaction in proximal tubule cells." Pushkin A.et.al. 15218065. [ ... 9] "Regulation of the sodium bicarbonate cotransporter kNBC1 function: role of Asp(986), Asp(988) and kNBC1-carbonic anhydrase ...
Exosomes expressing carbonic anhydrase 9 promote angiogenesis. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications. 2017;. 492 ... carbonic anhydrase 9; DLL4: delta-like 4; ECs: endothelial cells; EVs: extracellular vesicles; ESCRT: endosomal sorting complex ... 4):373-383. *12. Xie C, Ji N, Tang Z, Li J, Chen Q. The role of extracellular vesicles from different origin in the ... 4):1091-1101. *27. Sheldon H, Heikamp E, Turley H, Dragovic R, Thomas P, Oon CE, et al. New mechanism for Notch signaling to ...
Carbonic anhydrase activators: high affinity isozymes I, II, and IV activators, incorporating a beta-alanyl-histidine scaffold ... Klebanov GI, Teselkin YuO, Babenkova IV et al. Evidence for a direct interaction of superoxide anion radical with carnosine. ... Klebanov GI, Teselkin YO, Babenkova IV. Effect of carnosine and its components on freeradical reactions. Membr Cell Biol 1998; ... Pristupljeno 4. 7. 2013. [mrtav link] *↑ „Katarakta i glaukom". karnozin.rs. Arhivirano iz originala na datum 2015-02-20. ...
... Systematic name carbonate hydrolyase Other names carbonate dehydratase;carbonate ... CA-IV CA4 35 kDa extracellularily GPI-linked Widely distributed, e.g. acid-transporting epithelium ~100% moderate ... See Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors References. *^ Badger MR, Price GD (1994). "The role of carbonic anhydrase in photosynthesis ... Reaction catalyzed by carbonic anhydrase: [3] (in tissues - high CO2 concentration) The reaction rate of carbonic anhydrase is ...
... inhibition of the carbonic anhydrase enzyme, particularly isozymes II and IV. Topiramate is also an excellent choice, in that ... Antiglaucoma, Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitors. Class Summary. Carbonic anhydrase (CA) is an enzyme found in many tissues. It ... Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors (eg, acetazolamide) and loop diuretics (eg, furosemide) are thought to exert their effect on ICP ... Few patients tolerate dosages higher than 2 g/day, but 4 g/day may be required to produce a measurable pressure-lowering effect ...
Allosteric site variants of Haemophilus influenzae beta-carbonic anhydrase.. Rowlett, R.S., Tu, C., Lee, J., Herman, A.G., ... Haemophilus influenzae beta-carbonic anhydrase (HICA) is hypothesized to be an allosteric protein that is regulated by the ... H. influenzae beta-carbonic anhydrase, variant W39F. *PDB DOI: https://doi.org/10.2210/pdb3E24/pdb ... reveals that it has adopted an active-site conformation nearly identical to that of non-allosteric beta-carbonic anhydrases. We ...
Carbonic anhydrases, EPF2 and a novel protease mediate CO2 control of stomatal development. Nature 513(7517):246-250. doi: ... Glycine residues in potassium channel-like selectivity filters determine potassium selectivity in four-loop-per-subunit HKT ... Reconstitution of CO2 regulation of SLAC1 anion channel and function of CO2-permeable PIP2;1 aquaporin as carbonic anhydrase 4 ... Elife 4:doi:10.7554/eLife.03599 PMID:26192964 PMCID:PMC4507714 *Keinath NF, Waadt R, Brugman R, Schroeder JI, Grossmann G, ...
... can be caused by failing of the enzyme carbonic anhydrase (CA) IV by enzyme blockers like acetazolamide and topiramate. CAs are ... Isolated Carbonic Anhydrase Defect. An isolated acquired proximal tubular acid-base defect (RTA type 2) ... Oosterwijk E: Carbonic anhydrase expression in kidney and renal cancer: implications for diagnosis and treatment. Subcell ... Four different CAs are expressed in the human nephron and two isoforms of CA deficiency have been described (CA II and CA IV) [ ...
Membrane carbonic anhydrase (IV) and ciliary epithelium: carbonic anhydrase activity is present in the basolateral membranes of ... lessons from cultured cells and proposed role of the carbonic anhydrase.BotreF GrossG StoreyBT eds. Carbonic Anhydrase. 1991; ... Cytoplasmic pH responses to carbonic anhydrase inhibitors in cultured rabbit nonpigmented ciliary epithelium. J Membr Biol. ... a proposed role for the isoenzymes of carbonic anhydrase. Curr Eye Res. 1989;8:1111-1119. [CrossRef] [PubMed] ...
Insights into bacterial CO2 metabolism revealed by the characterization of four carbonic anhydrases in Ralstonia eutropha H16 ... Are there any differences between the requirements for 2-3 fragmentassemblies versus 4-6? ...
Top, unreacted carbonic anhydrase (10 μM). Bottom, number of ON 01910 molecules attached to carbonic anhydrase (intact enzyme- ... 6B) containing four bound drug molecules. Similar calculations were used to determine the number of ON 01910 molecules bound to ... Comparable complex protein-drug patterns were obtained for several enzymes, e.g., carbonic anhydrase. Intact albumin-ON 01910 ... Number of ON 01910 molecules simultaneously present in intact complexes with carbonic anhydrase, papain, trypsin, and elastase ...
... and carbonic anhydrase 2. Th2 cytokines inhibited the synthesis of palmitate and caused a depletion of triglycerides. This ... Samples were obtained twenty-four hours and four days following a daily application of the skincare products versus control ... Bacterial diversity and abundance were not affected by the products either twenty-four hours or four days after application, as ... Four randomly selected health facilities were used for the study. A questionnaire was used to determine the risk factors in the ...
Expression of cell surface transmembrane carbonic anhydrase genes CA9 and CA12 in the human eye: overexpression of CA12 (CAXII ... Expression of cell surface transmembrane carbonic anhydrase genes CA9 and CA12 in the human eye: overexpression of CA12 (CAXII ...
... carbonic anhydrase IV, Ulex europeus agglutinin I and take up acetylated low-density lipoprotein (AcLDL) demonstrating their ... Figure 4. Cancer cell transversal of the in vitro blood-brain barrier model. 50,000 BMEC were plated on 6.5 mm ø transwells ... 4]. While advances in cancer therapy have translated into longer survival for patients with extraneural disease, these advances ... were sacrificed and the brains removed and fixed in 4% paraformaldehyde overnight. The brains were cut in 2 mm slices embedded ...
... kinetic and in silico evaluation as carbonic anhydrase isoforms I, II, IV, and IX inhibitors 1-gen-2020 Nocentini, Alessio; Moi ... kinetic and in silico evaluation as carbonic anhydrase isoforms I, II, IV, and IX inhibitors. ... Investigation on Hydrazonobenzenesulfonamides as Human Carbonic Anhydrase I, II, IX and XII Inhibitors 1-gen-2023 Moi, Davide; ... Structure-activity relationship with pyrazoline-based aromatic sulfamates as carbonic anhydrase isoforms I, II, IX and XII ...
Cultured cells were identified by immunocytochemistry using antibodies against vimentin, carbonic anhydrase II, and glutamine ... The bFGF mRNA level was elevated by 2-fold at 1 ng/ml of bFGF, 2.8-fold at 5 ng/ml, and reached a peak of 4-fold at 10 ng/ml ... The bFGF mRNA level continued to increase to 3.7-fold by 4 hours, and reached a maximum of 4.4-fold by 8 hours. A slow decline ... Cells of passages 1 through 4 were treated with bFGF, the protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor, H-7; calphostin C, or the PKC ...
The synthesis and study of carbonic anhydrase activity of sulfonamide-containing dibenzo[1,4]thiazepines. Research output: ...
Carbonic Anhydrase II antibody LS-C302061 is an FITC-conjugated guinea pig polyclonal antibody to rabbit Carbonic Anhydrase II ... Carbonic anhydrase C , Carbonic anhydrase II , Carbonic dehydratase , Carbonic anhydrase 2 , Carbonic anhydrase B ... Carbonic Anhydrase II antibody LS-C302061 is an FITC-conjugated guinea pig polyclonal antibody to rabbit Carbonic Anhydrase II ... Polyclonal Guinea pig anti‑Rabbit CA2 / Carbonic Anhydrase II Antibody (FITC, WB) LS‑C302061 ...
Temperini C, Cecchi A, Scozzafava A, Supuran CT: Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors. Sulfonamide diuretics revisited--old leads for ... Supuran CT: Diuretics: from classical carbonic anhydrase inhibitors to novel applications of the sulfonamides. Curr Pharm Des. ... Temperini C, Cecchi A, Scozzafava A, Supuran CT: Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors. Sulfonamide diuretics revisited--old leads for ... Supuran CT: Diuretics: from classical carbonic anhydrase inhibitors to novel applications of the sulfonamides. Curr Pharm Des. ...
a, c) Autocorrelation curves of carbonic anhydrase (CA) and bovine serum albumin (BSA). (b, d) The estimated relative ... The four programs use a regularization approach for data fitting, but CONTIN and SEDFIT only allow a single curve to be fitted ... Carbonic anhydrase (CA) from bovine erythrocytes (CAS 9001-03-0), monomeric bovine albumin (BSA; CAS 9048-46-8) and gold ... carbonic anhydrase (CA) and bovine serum albumin (BSA) (Fig. 4. ). The estimated Rh values for CA and BSA were 2.3 ± 0.06 and ...
  • 2006) Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors: clash with Ala65 as a means for designing inhibitors with low affinity for the ubiquitous isozyme II, exemplified by the crystal structure of the topiramate sulfamide analogue. (guidetopharmacology.org)
  • Other forms of carbonic anhydrase enzyme are not present in the plasma, restricting the equilibrium reaction of CO2+H2O = H 2CO 3 = H+ HCO− 3. (wikipedia.org)
  • Several forms of carbonic anhydrase occur in nature. (bionity.com)
  • Acetazolamide inhibits carbonic anhydrases I, IV and XIV, but has 10-fold lower affinity for XIV.Bbr>Methazolamide inhibits carbonic anhydrases I, IV and XIV with similar affinity. (guidetopharmacology.org)
  • A novel series of 8-substituted coumarin-based compounds, characterized by the presence of alkylpiperazine and arylpiperazine chains, were synthesized and tested for their inhibitory activity against four human carbonic anhydrase ( h CA) isoforms. (mdpi.com)
  • 2019) Synthesis and Evaluation of Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitors with Carbon Monoxide Releasing Properties for the Management of Rheumatoid Arthritis. (guidetopharmacology.org)
  • Carbonic anhydrase 4 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CA4 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Carbonic anhydrase (carbonate dehydratase) is a family of metalloenzymes (enzymes that contain one or more metal atoms as a functional component of the enzyme) that catalyze the rapid conversion of carbon dioxide to bicarbonate and protons, a reaction that occurs rather slowly in the absence of a catalyst. (bionity.com)
  • [1] Carbonic anhydrase greatly increases the rate of the reaction, with typical catalytic rates of the different forms of this enzyme ranging between 10 4 and 10 6 reactions per second. (bionity.com)
  • Plants contain a different form called β-carbonic anhydrase , which, from an evolutionary standpoint, is a distinct enzyme, but participates in the same reaction and also uses a zinc ion in its active site. (bionity.com)
  • In plants, carbonic anhydrase helps raise the concentration of CO 2 within the chloroplast in order to increase the carboxylation rate of the enzyme Rubisco . (bionity.com)
  • Carbonic anhydrase (CA) is an enzyme found in many tissues. (medscape.com)
  • While the structures of W39F and Y181F are very similar to the wild-type enzyme, the X-ray crystal structure of the D44N variant reveals that it has adopted an active-site conformation nearly identical to that of non-allosteric beta-carbonic anhydrases. (rcsb.org)
  • This radiolabeled monoclonal antibody from Telix Pharmaceuticals targets carbonic anhydrase IX (CAIX), an enzyme that regulates cell proliferation and is highly expressed in many tumor types. (medscape.com)
  • Comment: Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors (CAIs) and salicylates inhibit each other's renal tubular secretion, resulting in increased plasma levels. (medscape.com)
  • Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors (eg, acetazolamide) and loop diuretics (eg, furosemide) are thought to exert their effect on ICP by reducing cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) production at the choroid plexus. (medscape.com)
  • Cultured cells were identified by immunocytochemistry using antibodies against vimentin, carbonic anhydrase II, and glutamine synthetase. (nih.gov)
  • 2005) Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors: inhibition of the transmembrane isozyme XIV with sulfonamides. (guidetopharmacology.org)
  • 9] "Regulation of the sodium bicarbonate cotransporter kNBC1 function: role of Asp(986), Asp(988) and kNBC1-carbonic anhydrase II binding. (tcdb.org)
  • 13] "Direct extracellular interaction between carbonic anhydrase IV and the human NBC1 sodium/bicarbonate co-transporter. (tcdb.org)
  • This is the reaction that integrates CO 2 into organic carbon sugars during photosynthesis , and can use only the CO 2 form of carbon, not carbonic acid or bicarbonate. (bionity.com)
  • Haemophilus influenzae beta-carbonic anhydrase (HICA) is hypothesized to be an allosteric protein that is regulated by the binding of bicarbonate ion to a non-catalytic (inhibitory) site that controls the ligation of Asp44 to the catalytically essential zinc ion. (rcsb.org)
  • Risk factors for metformin-associated lactic acidosis include renal impairment, concomitant use of certain drugs (eg, carbonic anhydrase inhibitors such as topiramate ), age 65 years old or greater, having a radiological study with contrast, surgery and other procedures, hypoxic states (eg, acute congestive heart failure), excessive alcohol intake, and hepatic impairment. (medscape.com)
  • 4] "Identification and cloning of the Na/HCO3- cotransporter (NBC) in human corneal endothelium. (tcdb.org)
  • It catalyzes a reversible reaction whereby carbon dioxide becomes hydrated and carbonic acid becomes dehydrated. (medscape.com)
  • For more than 40 years, clinicians have used the anion gap (AG) as a major tool to evaluate acid-base disorders [ 1,2,3,4,5 ]. (karger.com)
  • The effects of the bathing anion substitution (Cl − and HCO 3 − ) and transport inhibitors including bumetanide, 4,4′-diisothiocyanatostilbene-2,2′-disulfonic acid disodium salt (DIDS), heptanol, and two chloride channel inhibitors, 5-nitro-2-(3-phenylpropylamino)-benzoic acid (NPPB), and niflumic acid, on the electrical properties and transepithelial Cl − transport were investigated. (arvojournals.org)
  • Carbonic anhydrases (CAs) are a large family of zinc metalloenzymes that catalyze the reversible hydration of carbon dioxide. (wikipedia.org)
  • CA IV is a glycosylphosphatidyl-inositol-anchored membrane isozyme expressed on the luminal surfaces of pulmonary (and certain other) capillaries and of proximal renal tubules. (wikipedia.org)
  • In patients with significant hyperkalemia one should evaluate for RTA type 4, especially in diabetic patients, with a relatively conserved renal function. (karger.com)
  • [2] The active site of most carbonic anhydrases contains a zinc ion. (bionity.com)
  • In the best-studied α-carbonic anhydrase form present in animals, the zinc ion is coordinated by the imidazole rings of 3 histidine residues, His94, His96 and His119. (bionity.com)
  • 17] "Molecular mechanism of kNBC1-carbonic anhydrase II interaction in proximal tubule cells. (tcdb.org)
  • Sodium ( E )-{ N -[2-methyloxy-5-(2′,4′,6′-trimethoxy-styrylsulfonyl) methylenephenyl]amino}acetate (C 21 H 24 NNaO 8 S, ON 01910.Na) is a novel, synthetic benzyl styryl sulfone, currently in phase I clinical trials in cancer patients. (aspetjournals.org)
  • CA IV has been identified in pulmonary epithelium of many mammalian species and may be uniquely adaptive for gas exchange necessary for the high metabolic requirements of mammals. (wikipedia.org)
  • As of 2005, this peculiar carbonic anhydrase form hosts the only known beneficial cadmium-dependent biological reaction. (bionity.com)
  • A complete description of the NHAMCS is contained in the publication entitled, 'Plan and Operation of the National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey' (reference 4). (cdc.gov)
  • In 2000, a cadmium-containing carbonic anhydrase was found to be expressed in marine diatoms during zinc limitation. (bionity.com)
  • Fluoroaromatic-fluoroaromatic interactions between inhibitors bound in the crystal lattice of human carbonic anhydrase II. (expasy.org)
  • The bFGF mRNA level continued to increase to 3.7-fold by 4 hours, and reached a maximum of 4.4-fold by 8 hours. (nih.gov)
  • The efficacy of sumatriptan is 82% at 20 minutes when administered by injection, 52-62% at 2 hours when administered intranasally, and 67-79% at 4 hours when administered orally. (medscape.com)
  • Pain relief is experienced by 60-68% of patients within 4 hours of treatment and maintained for up to 24 hours in 49-67% of patients. (medscape.com)
  • It has an efficacy of 62% at 2 hours and of 75-78% within 4 hours. (medscape.com)
  • Few patients tolerate dosages higher than 2 g/day, but 4 g/day may be required to produce a measurable pressure-lowering effect. (medscape.com)
  • Initiation of AVANDAMET in patients with established NYHA Class III or IV heart failure is contraindicated. (medscape.com)
  • Short term: store at 4°C for up to 4 weeks. (lsbio.com)
  • In the trial, one group of participants will receive subcutaneous injections of the TriAd5-N803 combination at baseline and at 4, 8, and 52 weeks thereafter. (medscape.com)
  • The NHAMCS used a four-stage probability design with samples of primary sampling units (PSUs), hospitals within PSUs, clinics within hospitals, and patient visits within clinics. (cdc.gov)