Carbonic Anhydrase IV: A membrane-bound carbonic anhydrase found in lung capillaries and kidney.Carbonic Anhydrases: A family of zinc-containing enzymes that catalyze the reversible hydration of carbon dioxide. They play an important role in the transport of CARBON DIOXIDE from the tissues to the LUNG. EC 4.2.1.1.Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitors: A class of compounds that reduces the secretion of H+ ions by the proximal kidney tubule through inhibition of CARBONIC ANHYDRASES.Benzolamide: Selective renal carbonic anhydrase inhibitor. It may also be of use in certain cases of respiratory failure.Ethoxzolamide: A carbonic anhydrase inhibitor used as diuretic and in glaucoma. It may cause hypokalemia.Carbonic Anhydrase II: A cytosolic carbonic anhydrase isoenzyme found widely distributed in cells of almost all tissues. Deficiencies of carbonic anhydrase II produce a syndrome characterized by OSTEOPETROSIS, renal tubular acidosis (ACIDOSIS, RENAL TUBULAR) and cerebral calcification. EC 4.2.1.-Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).Carbonic Acid: Carbonic acid (H2C03). The hypothetical acid of carbon dioxide and water. It exists only in the form of its salts (carbonates), acid salts (hydrogen carbonates), amines (carbamic acid), and acid chlorides (carbonyl chloride). (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Collagen Type IV: A non-fibrillar collagen found in the structure of BASEMENT MEMBRANE. Collagen type IV molecules assemble to form a sheet-like network which is involved in maintaining the structural integrity of basement membranes. The predominant form of the protein is comprised of two alpha1(IV) subunits and one alpha2(IV) subunit, however, at least six different alpha subunits can be incorporated into the heterotrimer.Animals, Newborn: Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.Carbonic Anhydrase III: A cytosolic carbonic anhydrase isoenzyme primarily expressed in skeletal muscle (MUSCLES, SKELETAL). EC 4.2.1.-Phenylalanine: An essential aromatic amino acid that is a precursor of MELANIN; DOPAMINE; noradrenalin (NOREPINEPHRINE), and THYROXINE.Carbonic Anhydrase I: A cytosolic carbonic anhydrase isoenzyme primarily expressed in ERYTHROCYTES, vascular endothelial cells, and the gastrointestinal mucosa. EC 4.2.1.-Pancreatitis, Alcoholic: Acute or chronic INFLAMMATION of the PANCREAS due to excessive ALCOHOL DRINKING. Alcoholic pancreatitis usually presents as an acute episode but it is a chronic progressive disease in alcoholics.Pancreatitis: INFLAMMATION of the PANCREAS. Pancreatitis is classified as acute unless there are computed tomographic or endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatographic findings of CHRONIC PANCREATITIS (International Symposium on Acute Pancreatitis, Atlanta, 1992). The two most common forms of acute pancreatitis are ALCOHOLIC PANCREATITIS and gallstone pancreatitis.Cholangitis, Sclerosing: Chronic inflammatory disease of the BILIARY TRACT. It is characterized by fibrosis and hardening of the intrahepatic and extrahepatic biliary ductal systems leading to bile duct strictures, CHOLESTASIS, and eventual BILIARY CIRRHOSIS.Pancreatic Ducts: Ducts that collect PANCREATIC JUICE from the PANCREAS and supply it to the DUODENUM.Sjogren's Syndrome: Chronic inflammatory and autoimmune disease in which the salivary and lacrimal glands undergo progressive destruction by lymphocytes and plasma cells resulting in decreased production of saliva and tears. The primary form, often called sicca syndrome, involves both KERATOCONJUNCTIVITIS SICCA and XEROSTOMIA. The secondary form includes, in addition, the presence of a connective tissue disease, usually rheumatoid arthritis.Liver Cirrhosis, Biliary: FIBROSIS of the hepatic parenchyma due to obstruction of BILE flow (CHOLESTASIS) in the intrahepatic or extrahepatic bile ducts (BILE DUCTS, INTRAHEPATIC; BILE DUCTS, EXTRAHEPATIC). Primary biliary cirrhosis involves the destruction of small intra-hepatic bile ducts and bile secretion. Secondary biliary cirrhosis is produced by prolonged obstruction of large intrahepatic or extrahepatic bile ducts from a variety of causes.Pancreatitis, Chronic: INFLAMMATION of the PANCREAS that is characterized by recurring or persistent ABDOMINAL PAIN with or without STEATORRHEA or DIABETES MELLITUS. It is characterized by the irregular destruction of the pancreatic parenchyma which may be focal, segmental, or diffuse.Polyglactin 910: A polyester used for absorbable sutures & surgical mesh, especially in ophthalmic surgery. 2-Hydroxy-propanoic acid polymer with polymerized hydroxyacetic acid, which forms 3,6-dimethyl-1,4-dioxane-dione polymer with 1,4-dioxane-2,5-dione copolymer of molecular weight about 80,000 daltons.Syringes: Instruments used for injecting or withdrawing fluids. (Stedman, 25th ed)Jugular Veins: Veins in the neck which drain the brain, face, and neck into the brachiocephalic or subclavian veins.Xylazine: An adrenergic alpha-2 agonist used as a sedative, analgesic and centrally acting muscle relaxant in VETERINARY MEDICINE.Lycopersicon esculentum: A plant species of the family SOLANACEAE, native of South America, widely cultivated for their edible, fleshy, usually red fruit.Plant Lectins: Protein or glycoprotein substances of plant origin that bind to sugar moieties in cell walls or membranes. Some carbohydrate-metabolizing proteins (ENZYMES) from PLANTS also bind to carbohydrates, however they are not considered lectins. Many plant lectins change the physiology of the membrane of BLOOD CELLS to cause agglutination, mitosis, or other biochemical changes. They may play a role in plant defense mechanisms.Sutures: Materials used in closing a surgical or traumatic wound. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Trabecular Meshwork: A porelike structure surrounding the entire circumference of the anterior chamber through which aqueous humor circulates to the canal of Schlemm.ArchivesBiological Science Disciplines: All of the divisions of the natural sciences dealing with the various aspects of the phenomena of life and vital processes. The concept includes anatomy and physiology, biochemistry and biophysics, and the biology of animals, plants, and microorganisms. It should be differentiated from BIOLOGY, one of its subdivisions, concerned specifically with the origin and life processes of living organisms.Periodicals as Topic: A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.PubMed: A bibliographic database that includes MEDLINE as its primary subset. It is produced by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), part of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. PubMed, which is searchable through NLM's Web site, also includes access to additional citations to selected life sciences journals not in MEDLINE, and links to other resources such as the full-text of articles at participating publishers' Web sites, NCBI's molecular biology databases, and PubMed Central.Directories as Topic: Lists of persons or organizations, systematically arranged, usually in alphabetic or classed order, giving address, affiliations, etc., for individuals, and giving address, officers, functions, and similar data for organizations. (ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Receptors, Odorant: Proteins, usually projecting from the cilia of olfactory receptor neurons, that specifically bind odorant molecules and trigger responses in the neurons. The large number of different odorant receptors appears to arise from several gene families or subfamilies rather than from DNA rearrangement.Lipocalins: A diverse family of extracellular proteins that bind to small hydrophobic molecules. They were originally characterized as transport proteins, however they may have additional roles such as taking part in the formation of macromolecular complexes with other proteins and binding to CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS.Sensilla: Collective name for a group of external MECHANORECEPTORS and chemoreceptors manifesting as sensory structures in ARTHROPODS. They include cuticular projections (setae, hairs, bristles), pores, and slits.Lipocalin 1: A lipocalin that was orignally characterized from human TEARS. It is expressed primarily in the LACRIMAL GLAND and the VON EBNER GLANDS. Lipocalin 1 may play a role in olfactory transduction by concentrating and delivering odorants to the ODORANT RECEPTORS.Animal Communication: Communication between animals involving the giving off by one individual of some chemical or physical signal, that, on being received by another, influences its behavior.Pheromones: Chemical substances, excreted by an organism into the environment, that elicit behavioral or physiological responses from other organisms of the same species. Perception of these chemical signals may be olfactory or by contact.Arthropod Antennae: Paired sense organs connected to the anterior segments of ARTHROPODS that help them navigate through the environment.Sodium: A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.Disease Outbreaks: Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.Sodium Chloride Symporters: A subclass of symporters found in KIDNEY TUBULES, DISTAL that are the major pathway for salt resorption. Inhibition of these symporters by BENZOTHIADIAZINES is the basis of action of some DIURETICS.Solute Carrier Family 12, Member 3: Na-Cl cotransporter in the convoluted segments of the DISTAL KIDNEY TUBULE. It mediates active reabsorption of sodium and chloride and is inhibited by THIAZIDE DIURETICS.Action Potentials: Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.Electrophysiology: The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.Cell Aging: The decrease in the cell's ability to proliferate with the passing of time. Each cell is programmed for a certain number of cell divisions and at the end of that time proliferation halts. The cell enters a quiescent state after which it experiences CELL DEATH via the process of APOPTOSIS.Glucosylceramidase: A glycosidase that hydrolyzes a glucosylceramide to yield free ceramide plus glucose. Deficiency of this enzyme leads to abnormally high concentrations of glucosylceramide in the brain in GAUCHER DISEASE. EC 3.2.1.45.Erythrocyte Aging: The senescence of RED BLOOD CELLS. Lacking the organelles that make protein synthesis possible, the mature erythrocyte is incapable of self-repair, reproduction, and carrying out certain functions performed by other cells. This limits the average life span of an erythrocyte to 120 days.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Fibroblasts: Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.

Calcium, carbonic anhydrase and gastric acid secretion. (1/40)

Previous data concerning the action of calcium (Ca) on gastric acid secretion (GAS) indicated that calcium ions increase GAS elicited by gastrin released through a vagal mechanism, and also by a direct effect on parietal cells. Our research showed that the stimulating effect of calcium on gastric acid secretion can be antagonized by verapamil administration, which reduces gastric acid secretion . In the present study we followed the effect induced by administration of calcium and Ca-chelating agents (disodium EDTA) on gastric acid secretion and on carbonic anhydrase (CA) activity. We selected two groups of healthy volunteers: Group I (n=21) received a single i.v. dose of CaCl2 (15 mg/kg b.w.), whereas Group II (n=22) received a single i.v. dose of disodium EDTA (5 mg/kg b.w.). We determined blood calcium before and after treatment, gastric acid secretion at 2 hours. erythrocyte CA II activity, and CA IV activity in membrane parietal cells, which were isolated from gastric mucosa obtained by endoscopic biopsy. Assessment of carbonic anhydrase activity was achieved by the stopped-flow method. In Group I calcium administration increased blood calcium, HCl output, CA II and CA IV activity as compared to initial values. In Group II, disodium EDTA reduced blood calcium, HCl output, CA II and CA IV activity as compared to initial values. The results demonstrated that increased blood calcium and GAS values after calcium administration correlated with the increase of erythrocyte CA II and parietal cell CA IV activity, while disodium EDTA induced a reversed process. Our results also show that cytosolic CA II and membrane CA IV values are sensitive to calcium changes and they directly depend on these levels. Our data suggest that intra- and extracellular pH changes induced by carbonic anhydrase might account for the modulation of the physiological and pathological secretory processes in the organism.  (+info)

The extracellular component of a transport metabolon. Extracellular loop 4 of the human AE1 Cl-/HCO3- exchanger binds carbonic anhydrase IV. (2/40)

Cytosolic carbonic anhydrase II (CAII) and the cytoplasmic C-terminal tails of chloride/bicarbonate anion exchange (AE) proteins associate to form a bicarbonate transport metabolon, which maximizes the bicarbonate transport rate. To determine whether cell surface-anchored carbonic anhydrase IV (CAIV) interacts with AE proteins to accelerate the bicarbonate transport rate, AE1-mediated bicarbonate transport was monitored in transfected HEK293 cells. Expression of the inactive CAII V143Y mutant blocked the interaction between endogenous cytosolic CAII and AE1, AE2, and AE3 and inhibited their transport activity (53 +/- 3, 49 +/- 10, and 35 +/- 1% inhibition, respectively). However, in the presence of V143Y CAII, expression of CAIV restored full functional activity to AE1, AE2, and AE3 (AE1, 101 +/- 3; AE2, 85 +/- 5; AE3, 108 +/- 1%). In Triton X-100 extracts of transfected HEK293 cells, resolved by sucrose gradient ultracentrifugation, CAIV recruitment to the position of AE1 suggested a physical interaction between CAIV and AE1. Gel overlay assays showed a specific interaction between CAIV and AE1, AE2, and AE3. Glutathione S-transferase pull-down assays revealed that the interaction between CAIV and AE1 occurs on the large fourth extracellular loop of AE1. We conclude that AE1 and CAIV interact on extracellular loop 4 of AE1, forming the extracellular component of a bicarbonate transport metabolon, which accelerates the rate of AE-mediated bicarbonate transport.  (+info)

Carbonic anhydrase XII mRNA encodes a hydratase that is differentially expressed along the rabbit nephron. (3/40)

Membrane-bound carbonic anhydrase (CA) facilitates acidification in the kidney. Although most hydratase activity is considered due to CA IV, some in the basolateral membranes could be attributed to CA XII. Indeed, CA IV is glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchored, connoting apical polarization, but CA IV immunoreactivity has been detected on basolateral membranes of proximal tubules. Herein, we determined whether CA XII mRNA was expressed in acidifying segments of the rabbit nephron. The open reading frame of CA XII was sequenced from a rabbit kidney cortex cDNA library; it was 83% identical to human CA XII and coded for a 355-amino acid single-pass transmembrane protein. Northern blot analysis revealed an abundant 4.5-kb message in kidney cortex, medulla, and colon. By in situ hybridization, CA XII mRNA was expressed by proximal convoluted and straight tubules, cortical and medullary collecting ducts, and papillary epithelium. By RT-PCR, CA XII mRNA was abundantly expressed in cortical and medullary collecting ducts and thick ascending limb of Henle's loop; it was also expressed in proximal convoluted and straight tubules but not in glomeruli or S3 segments. FLAG-CA XII of approximately 40 kDa expressed in Escherichia coli showed hydratase activity that was inhibited by 0.1 mM acetazolamide. Unlike CA IV, expressed CA XII activity was inhibited by 1% SDS, suggesting insufficient disulfide linkages to stabilize the molecule. Western blotting of expressed CA XII with two anti-rabbit CA IV peptide antibodies showed no cross-reactivity. Our findings indicate that CA XII may contribute to the membrane CA activity of proximal tubules and collecting ducts.  (+info)

Expression of carbonic anhydrase IV in rabbit corneal endothelial cells. (4/40)

OBJECTIVE: To demonstrate the molecular expression of carbonic anhydrase IV (CA IV) in rabbit corneal endothelium. METHODS: Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was performed using cultured and fresh rabbit corneal endothelial total RNA and specific primers for CA IV. The RT-PCR product was subcloned and sequenced. Immunoblotting and indirect immunofluorescence staining were performed to detect protein expression and distribution of CA IV using fresh and cultured rabbit corneal endothelium and rat anti-CA IV polyclonal antibody. RESULTS: RT-PCR screening gave positive bands at the predicted size for CA IV from fresh and cultured rabbit corneal endothelium. Sequencing further confirmed the identity of CA IV in corneal endothelium. Immunoblotting analysis showed a single band at 52 kDa for freshly isolated and cultured endothelial cells. Indirect immunofluorescence staining revealed an apparent positive staining in cultured endothelial cells. CONCLUSION: Carbonic anhydrase IV is expressed in rabbit corneal endothelium, which could contribute to the transendothelial HCO(3)(-) flux that is necessary to maintain corneal hydration and transparency.  (+info)

Immunocytochemical localization of Na+-HCO3- cotransporters and carbonic anhydrase dependence of fluid transport in corneal endothelial cells. (5/40)

In corneal endothelium, there is evidence for basolateral entry of HCO(3)(-) into corneal endothelial cells via Na(+)-HCO(3)(-) cotransporter (NBC) proteins and for net HCO(3)(-) flux from the basolateral to the apical side. However, how HCO(3)(-) exits the cells through the apical membrane is unclear. We determined that cultured corneal endothelial cells transport HCO(3)(-) similarly to fresh tissue. In addition, Cl(-) channel inhibitors decreased fluid transport by at most 16%, and inhibition of membrane-bound carbonic anhydrase IV by benzolamide or dextran-bound sulfonamide decreased fluid transport by at most 29%. Therefore, more than half of the fluid transport cannot be accounted for by anion transport through apical Cl(-) channels, CO(2) diffusion across the apical membrane, or a combination of these two mechanisms. However, immunocytochemistry using optical sectioning by confocal microscopy and cryosections revealed the presence of NBC transporters in both the basolateral and apical cell membranes of cultured bovine corneal endothelial cells and freshly isolated rabbit endothelia. This newly detected presence of an apical NBC transporter is consistent with its being the missing mechanism sought. We discuss discrepancies with other reports and provide a model that accounts for the experimental observations by assuming different stoichiometries of the NBC transport proteins at the basolateral and apical sides of the cells. Such functional differences might arise either from the expression of different isoforms or from regulatory factors affecting the stoichiometry of a single isoform.  (+info)

Apoptosis-inducing signal sequence mutation in carbonic anhydrase IV identified in patients with the RP17 form of retinitis pigmentosa. (6/40)

Genetic and physical mapping of the RP17 locus on 17q identified a 3.6-megabase candidate region that includes the gene encoding carbonic anhydrase IV (CA4), a glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored protein that is highly expressed in the choriocapillaris of the human eye. By sequencing candidate genes in this region, we identified a mutation that causes replacement of an arginine with a tryptophan (R14W) in the signal sequence of the CA4 gene at position -5 relative to the signal sequence cleavage site. This mutation was found to cosegregate with the disease phenotype in two large families and was not found in 36 unaffected family members or 100 controls. Expression of the mutant cDNA in COS-7 cells produced several findings, suggesting a mechanism by which the mutation can explain the autosomal dominant disease. In transfected COS-7 cells, the R14W mutation (i) reduced the steady-state level of carbonic anhydrase IV activity expressed by 28% due to a combination of decreased synthesis and accelerated turnover; (ii) led to up-regulation of immunoglobulin-binding protein, double-stranded RNA-regulated protein kinase-like ER kinase, and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein homologous protein, markers of the unfolded protein response and endoplasmic reticulum stress; and (iii) induced apoptosis, as evidenced by annexin V binding and terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling staining, in most cells expressing the mutant, but not the WT, protein. We suggest that a high level of expression of the mutant allele in the endothelial cells of the choriocapillaris leads to apoptosis, leading in turn to ischemia in the overlying retina and producing autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa.  (+info)

Chemical chaperones protect from effects of apoptosis-inducing mutation in carbonic anhydrase IV identified in retinitis pigmentosa 17. (7/40)

Carbonic anhydrase (CA) IV is a glycosylphosphotidylinositol-anchored enzyme highly expressed on the plasma face of microcapillaries and especially strongly expressed in the choriocapillaris of the human eye. In collaboration with scientists at the University of Cape Town (Rondebosch, South Africa), we recently showed that the R14W mutation in the signal sequence of CA IV, which they identified in patients with the retinitis pigmentosa (RP) 17 form of autosomal dominant RP, results in accumulation of unfolded protein in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), leading to ER stress, the unfolded protein response, and apoptosis in a large fraction of transfected COS-7 cells expressing mutant, but not wild-type, CA IV. Here we present experiments showing that several well characterized CA inhibitors largely prevent the adverse effects of expressing R14W CA IV in transfected COS-7 cells. Specifically, CA inhibitors prevent the accelerated turnover of the mutant protein, the up-regulation of Ig-binding protein, double-stranded RNA-regulated protein kinase-like ER kinase, and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein homologous protein (markers of the unfolded protein response and ER stress), the inhibition of production of other secretory proteins expressed from COS-7-transfecting plasmids, and the induction of apoptosis, all characteristics of transfected cells expressing R14W CA IV. Furthermore, treatment with 4-phenylbutyric acid, a nonspecific chemical chaperone used in other protein-folding disorders, also dramatically reduces the apoptosis-inducing effect of expressing R14W CA IV cDNA in transfected COS-7 cells. These experiments suggest a promising approach to treatment of RP17 that might delay the onset or possibly prevent this autosomal dominant form of RP.  (+info)

Mutant carbonic anhydrase 4 impairs pH regulation and causes retinal photoreceptor degeneration. (8/40)

Retina and retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) belong to the metabolically most active tissues in the human body. Efficient removal of acid load from retina and RPE is a critical function mediated by the choriocapillaris. However, the mechanism by which pH homeostasis is maintained is largely unknown. Here, we show that a functional complex of carbonic anhydrase 4 (CA4) and Na+/bicarbonate co-transporter 1 (NBC1) is specifically expressed in the choriocapillaris and that missense mutations in CA4 linked to autosomal dominant rod-cone dystrophy disrupt NBC1-mediated HCO3- transport. Our results identify a novel pathogenic pathway in which a defect in a functional complex involved in maintaining pH balances, but not expressed in retina or RPE, leads to photoreceptor degeneration. The importance of a functional CA4 for survival of photoreceptors implies that CA inhibitors, which are widely used as medications, particularly in the treatment of glaucoma, may have long-term adverse effects on vision.  (+info)

*Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor

Al-Masri, Ihab M.; Mohammad, Mohammad K.; Tahaa, Mutasem O. (2009). "Inhibition of dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP IV) is one of ... McIntosh, C; Demuth, H; Pospisilik, J; Pederson, R (2005). "Dipeptidyl peptidase IV inhibitors: How do they work as new ... DPP-IV). They can be used to treat diabetes mellitus type 2. ... 4.2 Carbonic anhydrase. Miscellaneous. *Steroidogenesis ... Development of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors. References[edit]. *^ "FDA Approves New Treatment for Diabetes" (Press release ...

*Band 3

... exchanger binds carbonic anhydrase IV". J. Biol. Chem. 277 (28): 25239-46. doi:10.1074/jbc.M202562200. PMID 11994299. Tanner MJ ... This is crucial for CO2 uptake by the red blood cell and conversion (by hydration catalysed by carbonic anhydrase) into a ... Functional interaction of carbonic anhydrase II and chloride/bicarbonate exchangers". J. Biol. Chem. 276 (51): 47886-94. doi: ... Vince JW, Reithmeier RA (October 1998). "Carbonic anhydrase II binds to the carboxyl terminus of human band 3, the erythrocyte ...

*SLC4A3

... exchanger binds carbonic anhydrase IV". J. Biol. Chem. 277 (28): 25239-46. doi:10.1074/jbc.M202562200. PMID 11994299. ... Functional interaction of carbonic anhydrase II and chloride/bicarbonate exchangers". J. Biol. Chem. 276 (51): 47886-94. doi: ... exchanger and carbonic anhydrase XIV interaction". Am. J. Physiol., Cell Physiol. 297 (5): C1091-102. doi:10.1152/ajpcell. ... Pt 4): 1137-42. PMID 8227202. Dudeja PK, Hafez N, Tyagi S, et al. (1999). "Expression of the Na+/H+ and Cl-/HCO-3 exchanger ...

*William S. Sly

Sato S, Zhu XL, Sly WS (1990). "Carbonic anhydrase isozymes IV and II in urinary membranes from carbonic anhydrase II-deficient ... "Human carbonic anhydrases and carbonic anhydrase deficiencies". Annu. Rev. Biochem. 64 (1): 375-401. doi:10.1146/annurev.bi. ... Roth DE, Venta PJ, Tashian RE, Sly WS (1992). "Molecular basis of human carbonic anhydrase II deficiency". Proc. Natl. Acad. ... Sly also identified the first inherited deficiency of a human carbonic anhydrase, CA II, and defined the biochemical and ...

*SLC4A4

2003). "Direct extracellular interaction between carbonic anhydrase IV and the human NBC1 sodium/bicarbonate co-transporter". ... 2005). "Molecular mechanism of kNBC1-carbonic anhydrase II interaction in proximal tubule cells". J. Physiol. 559 (Pt 1): 55-65 ... 2003). "Regulation of the sodium bicarbonate cotransporter kNBC1 function: role of Asp986, Asp988 and kNBC1-carbonic anhydrase ... 272 (31): 19111-4. doi:10.1074/jbc.272.31.19111. PMID 9235899. Abuladze N, Lee I, Newman D, Hwang J, Boorer K, Pushkin A, Kurtz ...

*CA8

"Entrez Gene: CA8 carbonic anhydrase VIII". Hirota J, Ando H, Hamada K, Mikoshiba K (Jun 2003). "Carbonic anhydrase-related ... continues to carry a carbonic anhydrase designation based on clear sequence identity to other members of the carbonic anhydrase ... Carbonic anhydrase-related protein is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CA8 gene. The protein encoded by this gene was ... Bergenhem NC, Sait SS, Eddy RL, Shows TB, Tashian RE (1995). "Assignment of the gene for human carbonic anhydrase VIII(CA8) to ...

*ITPR1

Hirota J, Ando H, Hamada K, Mikoshiba K (Jun 2003). "Carbonic anhydrase-related protein is a novel binding protein for inositol ... Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor type 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ITPR1 gene. ITPR1 has been shown to ... 21 (4): 717-26. doi:10.1016/S0896-6273(00)80589-9. PMID 9808459. Kiselyov K, Xu X, Mozhayeva G, Kuo T, Pessah I, Mignery G, Zhu ... 4 (1): 57-64. doi:10.2174/157016206775197583. PMID 16454711. Joseph SK, Lin C, Pierson S, Thomas AP, Maranto AR (Oct 1995). " ...

*CA4

... may refer to: Carbonic anhydrase 4, an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CA4 gene Cornu Ammonis region 4, a region in ... 4 atoms of Calcium Ca.4 may refer to: Caproni Ca.4, an Italian heavy bomber of the World War I era. ... CAC CA-4, a 1941 Australian bomber aircraft USS Pittsburgh (CA-4), a 1901 United States Navy armored cruiser California's 4th ... and Nicaragua Combretastatin A-4, a natural polyphenol Ca4 may refer to: Ca4 line, a regional Catalonia railway line connecting ...

*4-Nitrophenol

... for carbonic anhydrase), 4-nitrophenyl-β-D-glucopyranoside and other sugar derivatives which are used to assay various ... In solution, 4-nitrophenol has a dissociation constant (pKa) of 7.15 at 25 °C. 4-Nitrophenol can be used as a pH indicator. A ... Amounts of 4-nitrophenol produced by a particular enzyme in the presence of its corresponding substrate can be measured with a ... 4-Nitrophenol irritates the eyes, skin, and respiratory tract. It may also cause inflammation of those parts. It has a delayed ...

*CA12

Carbonic anhydrase 12 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CA12 gene. Carbonic anhydrases (CAs) are a large family of ... "Human carbonic anhydrase XII: cDNA cloning, expression, and chromosomal localization of a carbonic anhydrase gene that is ... "Entrez Gene: CA12 carbonic anhydrase XII". Feldshtein, M; Elkrinawi, S; Yerushalmi, B; Marcus, B; Vullo, D; Romi, H; Ofir, R; ... Tarun AS, Bryant B, Zhai W, Solomon C, Shusterman D (2004). "Gene expression for carbonic anhydrase isoenzymes in human nasal ...

*Carbonic anhydrase

The CA enzymes found in mammals are divided into four broad subgroups, which, in turn consist of several isoforms: the ... Several forms of carbonic anhydrase occur in nature. In the best-studied α-carbonic anhydrase form present in animals, the zinc ... Carbonic anhydrase inhibitor Badger MR, Price GD (1994). "The role of carbonic anhydrase in photosynthesis". Annu. Rev. Plant ... Carbonic\ anhydrase}}H_{2}CO_{3}}}} (in tissues - high CO2 concentration) The reaction rate of carbonic anhydrase is one of the ...

*Carbonic anhydrase 4

"Carbonic anhydrase IV from human lung. Purification, characterization, and comparison with membrane carbonic anhydrase from ... Mahieu I, Benjamin A, Stephens R, Walters D, Carter N (1995). "Characterization of membrane bound carbonic anhydrase IV (CA IV ... "Entrez Gene: CA4 carbonic anhydrase IV". Sterling D, Alvarez BV, Casey JR (Jul 2002). "The extracellular component of a ... Sender S, Decker B, Fenske CD, Sly WS, Carter ND, Gros G (1998). "Localization of carbonic anhydrase IV in rat and human heart ...

*Carbonic anhydrase VI

Carbonic anhydrase 6 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CA6 gene. It is also called 'gustin' because of its presence ... "Entrez Gene: CA6 carbonic anhydrase VI". Henkin RI, Mueller CW, Wolf RO (July 1975). "Estimation of zinc concentration of ... The protein encoded by this gene is one of several isozymes of carbonic anhydrase. This protein is abundantly found in salivary ... Aldred P, Fu P, Barrett G, Penschow JD, Wright RD, Coghlan JP, Fernley RT (January 1991). "Human secreted carbonic anhydrase: ...

*Carbonic anhydrase II

Sato S, Zhu XL, Sly WS (1990). "Carbonic anhydrase isozymes IV and II in urinary membranes from carbonic anhydrase II-deficient ... Carbonic anhydrase II (gene name CA2), is one of fourteen forms of human α carbonic anhydrases. Carbonic anhydrase catalyzes ... Renal carbonic anhydrase allows the reabsorption of bicarbonate ions in the proximal tubule. Carbonic anhydrase II has been ... Sly WS, Hu PY (1995). "Human carbonic anhydrases and carbonic anhydrase deficiencies". Annu. Rev. Biochem. 64 (1): 375-401. doi ...

*Carbonic anhydrase 9

... (CA9/CAIX) is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CA9 gene. Carbonic anhydrases (CAs) are a large ... "Entrez Gene: CA9 carbonic anhydrase IX". Kirkpatrick JP, Rabbani ZN, Bentley RC, Hardee ME, Karol S, Meyer J, Oosterwijk E, ... Li J, Zhang G, Wang X, Li XF (2015). "Is carbonic anhydrase IX a validated target for molecular imaging of cancer and hypoxia ... Pastoreková S, Parkkila S, Parkkila AK, Opavský R, Zelník V, Saarnio J, Pastorek J (Feb 1997). "Carbonic anhydrase IX, MN/CA IX ...

*Carbonic anhydrase inhibitor

... particularly subtypes II and IV. Whether carbonic anhydrase inhibition contributes to its clinical activity is not known. In ... Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors are a class of pharmaceuticals that suppress the activity of carbonic anhydrase. Their clinical ... are carbonic anhydrase inhibitors. Supuran CT, Scozzafava A, Conway J, eds. (2004). Carbonic anhydrase: its inhibitors and ... "Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitors and High Altitude Illnesses". In Frost, Susan C.; McKenna, Robert. Carbonic Anhydrase: Mechanism ...

*Carbonic anhydrase 7

"Entrez Gene: CA7 carbonic anhydrase VII". Sly WS, Hu PY (1995). "Human carbonic anhydrases and carbonic anhydrase deficiencies ... Carbonic anhydrase 7 (CA7) is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CA7 gene. Carbonic anhydrases are a large family of ... Vullo D, Voipio J, Innocenti A, Rivera C, Ranki H, Scozzafava A, Kaila K, Supuran CT (Feb 2005). "Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors ... Breton S (Jul 2001). "The cellular physiology of carbonic anhydrases". Jop. 2 (4 Suppl): 159-64. PMID 11875253. Rivera C, ...

*Carbonic anhydrase III, muscle specific

Liu C, Wei Y, Wang J, Pi L, Huang J, Wang P (Sep 2012). "Carbonic anhydrases III and IV autoantibodies in rheumatoid arthritis ... CA3 carbonic anhydrase III, muscle specific". Sly WS, Hu PY (1995). "Human carbonic anhydrases and carbonic anhydrase ... Carbonic anhydrase 3 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CA3 gene. Carbonic anhydrase III (CAIII) is a member of a ... that encode carbonic anhydrase isozymes. These carbonic anhydrases are a class of metalloenzymes that catalyze the reversible ...

*Cecilia Lutwak-Mann

Davenport, Horace W. (1984-06-01). "The Early Days of Research on Carbonic Anhydrase". Annals of the New York Academy of ... Lutwak-Mann was known for discovering that the hormone progesterone acts on the placenta to control carbonic anhydrase ... Davenport, Horace W. (1980-04-01). "Carbonic Anhydrase, or the Strange Case of the Disappearing Scientist". The Physiologist. ... 429 (1): 4-9. doi:10.1111/j.1749-6632.1984.tb12310.x. ISSN 1749-6632. Harrison, Robin (1993-12-09). "Watcher of the wriggling ...

*Holoprotein

An example of an enzyme that contains a cofactor is carbonic anhydrase, which is shown in the ribbon diagram above with a zinc ... "Structural and kinetic characterization of active-site histidine as a proton shuttle in catalysis by human carbonic anhydrase ... 44 (4): 1097-115. doi:10.1021/bi0480279. PMID 15667203. Stryer L, Berg JM, Tymoczko JL (2002). Biochemistry (5th ed.). San ...

*Osteoclast

The osteoclast releases hydrogen ions through the action of carbonic anhydrase (H2O + CO2 → HCO3− + H+) through the ruffled ... Dysfunction of the carbonic anhydrase has been documented to cause some forms of osteopetrosis. Hydrogen ions are pumped ... 4][5] The size of the multinucleated assembled osteoclast allows it to focus the ion transport, protein secretory and vesicular ... border into the resorptive cavity, acidifying and aiding dissolution of the mineralized bone matrix into Ca2+, H3PO4, H2CO3, ...

*CA1 (gene)

Carbonic anhydrase 1 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CA1 gene. Carbonic anhydrases (CAs) are a large family of ... "Entrez Gene: CA1 carbonic anhydrase I". "CA1 - Carbonic anhydrase 1 - Homo sapiens (Human) - CA1 gene & protein". www.uniprot. ... Lin KT, Deutsch HF (Mar 1973). "Human carbonic anhydrases. XI. The complete primary structure of carbonic anhydrase B". The ... Sly WS, Hu PY (1995). "Human carbonic anhydrases and carbonic anhydrase deficiencies". Annual Review of Biochemistry. 64 (1): ...

*Ribonuclease inhibitor

doi:10.1016/s0014-5793(03)00225-4. PMID 12681476.. *^ Ardelt W, Shogen K, Darzynkiewicz Z (Jun 2008). "Onconase and amphinase, ... 4] RI's affinity for ribonucleases is important, since many ribonucleases have cytotoxic and cytostatic effects that correlate ...

*5α-Reductase inhibitor

ISBN 0-9578521-4-2 *^ a b c Azzouni F, Godoy A, Li Y, Mohler J, et al. (2012). "The 5 alpha-reductase isozyme family: a review ... 11 (4): 293-295. PMID 11399532.. *^ a b Alfred Burger; Donald J. Abraham (20 February 2003). Burger's Medicinal Chemistry and ... 11 (4): 293-295. ISSN 1167-1122. PMID 11399532.. *^ Finn, Deborah A.; Beadles-Bohling, Amy S.; Beckley, Ethan H.; Ford, Matthew ... doi:10.1210/jcem-45-4-617. PMID 914969.. *^ Andersson, S. (2001). "Steroidogenic enzymes in skin". European journal of ...

*Statin

Researchers hypothesize that statins prevent cardiovascular disease via four proposed mechanisms (all subjects of a large body ... 6 (4): 390-99. doi:10.1161/CIRCOUTCOMES.111.000071. PMID 23838105.. *^ a b Abd TT, Jacobson TA (May 2011). "Statin-induced ... 4: 383-413. doi:10.2147/DDDT.S10812. PMC 3023269. PMID 21267417.. *^ Ferdinand KC (February 2011). "Are cardiovascular benefits ... 63 (4): 367-78. doi:10.2165/00003495-200363040-00003. PMID 12558459.. *^ Food and Drug Administration (1 March 2012). "Drug ...

*Inhalation

carbonic anhydrase (chloride shift). *oxyhemoglobin. *respiratory quotient. *arterial blood gas. *diffusion capacity (DLCO) ... This page was last edited on 4 October 2019, at 21:31 (UTC). ...
Looking for Carbonic anhydrase iv? Find out information about Carbonic anhydrase iv. An enzyme which aids carbon dioxide transport and release by catalyzing the synthesis, and the dehydration, of carbonic acid from, and to, carbon dioxide... Explanation of Carbonic anhydrase iv
Rabbit polyclonal Carbonic Anhydrase IV/CA4 antibody validated for WB, ELISA and tested in Human and Mouse. Immunogen corresponding to synthetic peptide
We have recently shown that CA IV expression in kidney cortex increased five-fold at the mRNA level (35) and 3- to 5-fold at the protein level (25) during postnatal maturation. A previous study showed a 19-fold increase in CA IV mRNA expression in rat lung between fetal day 20 and postnatal day 6, and a 40% postnatal increase to day 17, with no further increase (7). The postnatal increase was nearly comparable to what we have observed in rabbit lung (Fig. 5B). However, the increase in CA IV mRNA in kidney cortex is at least 10-fold and likely to account for the postnatal increment in protein (24). With most of the increase occurring during postnatal weeks 3-5, it is likely that the increase reflects the change in eating habits and a shift to an alkaline ash diet that requires a renal adaptation in transport. The large increase in CA IV may allow the kidney to handle the maturational increase in filtered load of bicarbonate and its proximal reabsorption.. Detailed studies of CA IX expression ...
FUNCTIONS OF CARBONIC ANHYDRASES. The presence of carbonic anhydrases in all living organisms probably originates because the components of the catalyzed reaction are involved in almost all metabolic processes. We suppose that the main reason for the abundance of CAs in nature is the ubiquitous involvement of bicarbonate buffers in aqueous media and then in the cytoplasm at every stage of evolution; these enzymes acceleration achieving appropriate pH, which is important for homeostasis of every living cell. The role of carbonic anhydrases in accelerating the conversion of inorganic forms of carbon was probably not their initial main function, but now it is established that these enzymes are critical regulators of the exchange of these forms in many metabolic processes.. Functions of Carbonic Anhydrases in Animals. Although the main purpose of this review is to consider the available experimental data and ideas concerning the role of CAs in higher plants, we should present, at least briefly, ...
Zn(2+)-dependent carbonic anhydrases (CA) catalyse the reversible hydration of carbon dioxide to bicarbonate and participate in diverse physiological processes, hence having manifold therapeutic potentials. Among the 15 human CAs with wide-ranging sub-cellular localisation and kinetic properties, CA VI is the only secretory isoform. The 1.9Å crystal structure of the human CA VI catalytic domain reveals a prototypical mammalian CA fold, and a novel dimeric arrangement as compared to previously-reported CA structures. The active site cavity contains a cluster of non-conserved residues that may be involved in ligand binding and have significant implications for developing the next-generation of isoform-specific inhibitors.
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The IUPHAR/BPS Guide to Pharmacology. carbonic anhydrase 9 - Carbonic anhydrases. Detailed annotation on the structure, function, physiology, pharmacology and clinical relevance of drug targets.
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Vaida Morkūnaitė, Joana Gylytė, Asta Zubrienė, Lina Baranauskienė, Miglė Kišonaitė, Vilma Michailovienė, Vaida Juozapaitienė, Matthew J Todd, Daumantas Matulis].
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March 14, 2001 - Number of Comments » 0. Le Jardin de Peyrou with the statue of Louix XIV and the Porte de Peyrou in the background. ...
Carbonic Anhydrase IX/CA9 Antibody Pairs available through Novus Biologicals. Browse our Carbonic Anhydrase IX/CA9 Antibody Pair catalog backed by our Guarantee+.
Carbonic Anhydrase IX/CA9 Antibody Pairs available through Novus Biologicals. Browse our Carbonic Anhydrase IX/CA9 Antibody Pair catalog backed by our Guarantee+.
The transcriptional complex hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) has emerged as an important mediator of gene expression patterns in tumors, although the range of responding genes is still incompletely defined. Here we show that the tumor-associated carbonic anhydrases (CAs) are tightly regulated by this system. Both CA9 and CA12 were strongly induced by hypoxia in a range of tumor cell lines. In renal carcinoma cells that are defective for the von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) tumor suppressor, up-regulation of these CAs is associated with loss of regulation by hypoxia, consistent with the critical function of pVHL in the regulation of HIF-1. Further studies of CA9 defined a HIF-1-dependent hypoxia response element in the minimal promoter and demonstrated that tight regulation by the HIF/pVHL system was reflected in the pattern of CA IX expression within tumors. Generalized up-regulation of CA IX in VHL-associated renal cell carcinoma contrasted with focal perinecrotic expression in a variety of non-VHL-associated
Carbonic anhydrase III (CAIII) is a member of a multigene family (at least six separate genes are known) that encodes carbonic anhydrase isozymes. These carbonic anhydrases are a class of metalloenzymes that catalyze the reversible hydration of carbon dioxide and are differentially expressed in a number of cell types. The expression of the CA3 gene is strictly tissue specific and present at high levels in skeletal muscle and much lower levels in cardiac and smooth muscle. A proportion of carriers of Duchenne muscle dystrophy have a higher CA3 level than normal. The gene spans 10.3 kb and contains seven exons and six introns. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2008 ...
Anti-human Carbonic Anhydrase IX/CA9 antibody,Rabbit MAb. Applications for ELISA,FCM, fully validated. Quality guaranteed. Buy elite antibodies at up to 60% cost saving.
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Carbonic anhydrase 12, 0.1 ml. Carbonic anhydrases (CAs) are a large family of zinc metalloenzymes that catalyze the reversible hydration of carbon dioxide.
The main findings of this study showed that the PCs exhibit OxSt and apoptosis responses when exposed to high glucose. Both high glucose-induced OxSt and apoptosis of PCs were rescued by pharmacological inhibition of mCA.. The PCs in immediate contact with the specialized EC of cerebral microvasculature comprising the BBB are vital for integrity of the latter and are especially susceptible to OxSt. Loss of PCs results in a focal increase in BBB permeability (Bonkowski et al., 2011). A close correlation between PC density and BBB permeability has been reported in PC-deficient adult mice (Armulik et al., 2010). Recently, we reported hyperglycemia-induced OxSt in the brain and cerebral PC loss in diabetic mice (Price et al., 2012). Clinical evidence suggests that diabetes-induced changes in the BBB may be a predisposing factor for Alzheimers disease (Ristow, 2004) and people suffering from both types of diabetes have an increased risk of cognitive impairment (Whitmer, 2007; Bruce et al., 2008; ...
2FMZ: Carbonic Anhydrase Activators. Activation of Isoforms I, II, IV, VA, VII, and XIV with l- and d-Phenylalanine and Crystallographic Analysis of Their Adducts with Isozyme II: Stereospecific Recognition within the Active Site of an Enzyme and Its Consequences for the Drug Design.
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ESCUDERO-ALMANZA, Dalila Jacqueline et al. Carbonic Anhydrase and Zinc in Plant Physiology. Chilean J. Agric. Res. [online]. 2012, vol.72, n.1, pp.140-146. ISSN 0718-5839. http://dx.doi.org/10.4067/S0718-58392012000100022.. Carbonic anhydrase (CA) (EC: 2.4.1.1) catalyzes the rapid conversion of carbon dioxide plus water into a proton and the bicarbonate ion (HCO3-) that can be found in prokaryotes and higher organisms; it is represented by four different families. Carbonic anhydrase is a metalloenzyme that requires Zn as a cofactor and is involved in diverse biological processes including pH regulation, CO2 transfer, ionic exchange, respiration, CO2 photosynthetic fixation, and stomatal closure. Therefore, the review includes relevant aspects about CA morphology, oligomerization, and structural differences in the active site. On the other hand, we consider the general characteristics of Zn, its geometry, reactions, and physiology. We then consider the CA catalysis mechanism that is carried out ...
To further assess our results, we performed a literature review of the genes reported by at least seven studies in the cancer versus normal comparison to determine if any have been shown to have diagnostic and/or prognostic utility in colorectal cancer. The most consistently reported differentially expressed gene in our meta-analysis was carbonic anhydrase II (CA2), which was reported as down-regulated in 11 studies. Along with carbonic anhydrase I, CA2 has been shown to have prognostic significance where the expression of both enzymes was related to the metastatic aggressiveness of colorectal cancer (23). Similarly, the potential diagnostic utility of CA2 was shown in a study in which the average level of fecal CA2 in colorectal cancer patients was shown to be significantly greater than those in the control group (24). Immunohistochemistry has been done on colorectal tumor and healthy mucosa tissue to monitor the protein levels of four carbonic anhydrases, among them CA2 (25). That study showed ...
en] Acidosis, Renal Tubular/chemically induced/enzymology ; Anticonvulsants/adverse effects/therapeutic use ; Carbonic Anhydrases/metabolism ; Female ; Fructose/adverse effects/analogs & derivatives/therapeutic use ; Humans ; Kidney/drug effects/enzymology/pathology ; Middle Aged ; Migraine Disorders/drug therapy ; Models, ...
BioAssay record AID 644085 submitted by ChEMBL: Inhibition of human carbonic anhydrase 2 using 4-nitrophenylacetate as substrate after 3 mins using spectrophotometry by Lineweaver-Burk plot analysis.
Creative Biolabs provides Lenti-Carbonic anhydrase IX (CA9) CAR (scFv-CD3ζ, G36) Viral Particle product for Biopharmaceutical research,preclinical and clinical trials.
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Cryptococcus neoformans, a fungal pathogen of humans, causes fatal meningitis in immunocompromised patients. Its virulence is mainly determined by the elaboration of a polysaccharide capsule surrounding its cell wall. During its life, C. neoformans is confronted with and responds to dramatic variations in CO2 concentrations; one important morphological change triggered by the shift from its natural habitat (0.033% CO2) to infected hosts (5% CO2) is the induction of capsule biosynthesis. In cells, CO2 is hydrated to bicarbonate in a spontaneous reaction that is accelerated by carbonic anhydrases. Here we show that C. neoformans contains two beta-class carbonic anhydrases, Can1 and Can2. We further demonstrate that CAN2, but not CAN1, is abundantly expressed and essential for the growth of C. neoformans in its natural environment, where CO2 concentrations are limiting. Structural studies reveal that Can2 forms a homodimer in solution. Our data reveal Can2 to be the main carbonic anhydrase and ...
BACKGROUND: Carbonic anhydrase IX (CA9) is reportedly overexpressed in several types of carcinomas, but little is known about the expression pattern of CA9 in osteosarcoma. We aimed to assess the prevalence of CA9 expression and its prognostic implications in osteosarcoma patients. METHODS: We compared immunohistochemical expression of CA9 between conventional, high-grade and low-grade, central osteosarcomas. Specimens were obtained before chemotherapy and stained with anti-human CA9 antibody. We also evaluated the histologic grade, presence of metastasis, and patient prognosis. RESULTS: Among 38 samples of conventional high-grade osteosarcoma, 22 (57.9%) tumors displayed CA9 overexpression. Twenty-five cases of low-grade central osteosarcomas were all negative (p < 0.0001). CA9 expression was significantly associated with the presence of metastasis (p = 0.0010). The overall survival rate was significantly reduced with increased CA9 expression (p = 0.0012), higher histologic grade (p < 0.0001), ...
Rabbit recombinant monoclonal Carbonic Anhydrase IX antibody [SP106] validated for IHC, Flow Cyt and tested in Human. Immunogen corresponding to synthetic…
Recombinant Carbonic Anhydrase VII (CA7) Protein. Species: Rat (Rattus). Source: Escherichia coli (E. coli). Order product ABIN6302725.
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Carbonic anhydrase IX (CAIX) is generally expressed in individual tumors and serves as a marker for hypoxia. Breasts. Am.J.Pathol. 2001;158:1011C1019. [PMC free of charge content] [PubMed] [10] Sowter HM, Raval R, Moore J, Ratcliffe PJ, Harris AL. Predominant Function of Hypoxia-Inducible Transcription Aspect Ednra (Hif)-1 Hif-2 in Legislation from the Transcriptional Response to Hypoxia. Cancers Res. 2003;63:6130C6134. [PubMed] [11] Chiche J, Ilc K, Laferriere J, Trottier E, Dayan F, Mazure NM, Brahimi-Horn MC, Pouyssegur J. Cyclopamine Hypoxia-Inducible Carbonic Anhydrase XII and IX Promote Tumor Cell Growth by Counteracting Acidosis coming from the Regulation from the Intracellular pH. Cancer tumor Res. 2009;69:358C368. [PubMed] [12] Swinson DEB, Jones JL, Richardson D, Wykoff C, Turley H, Pastorek J, Taub N, Harris AL, OBryne KJ. Carbonic Anhydrase IX Appearance, a Book Surrogate Marker of Tumor Hypoxia, Is normally Associated with an unhealthy Prognosis in Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancers. ...
One of the four discrete isoenzymes of carbonic anhydrase hitherto characterized, CA III, has the lowest turnover rate and the greatest resistance to inhibition by sulphonamides. Streptozotocin-induced diabetes mellitus resulted in a reduction in acetazolamide-resistant activity of carbonic anhydrase in the liver, but not in tonic skeletal muscle, of adult male rats. The hepatic activity declined with apparent first-order kinetics [calculated rate constant (k) 0.089 day-1] to a minimum of approx. 6% of control values; the reduction in activity was moderated by administration of insulin. ...
Hyperventilation is a difficult diagnosis to make clinically and that is why having an objective test of hyperventilation is so useful. People who hyperventilate deplete their levels of red cell carbonic anhydrase and the ratio between the activity and the protein gives us a good indication of whether or not hyperventilation is a problem. Hyperventilation is also difficult to treat and so this test tells us how much effort we have to put in to correcting this. Essentially, there is a two-pronged approach - firstly biochemical and secondly physical: Biochemically, red cell carbonic anhydrase is a zinc dependent enzyme and will be depleted simply by zinc deficiency. Furthermore, a low red cell carbonic anhydrase drives hyperventilation and so this is another example of one of the many vicious cycles seen in patients with chronic fatigue. Zinc is best absorbed at night and I recommend taking 30mg last thing at night on an empty stomach. This should be in addition to zinc taken in my physiological ...
Glaucoma is a serious disease associated with increased intraocular pressure which often leads to blindness. One of the ways to treat glaucoma is to reduce aqueous humour secretion in the ciliary body of the eye by suppressing (inhibiting) activity of special enzymes - carbonic anhydrases. Russian scientists from RUDN University have designed new compounds that can effectively reduce intraocular pressure by isoform selective inhibiting human carbonic anhydrase. The results of the study were published in the prestigious Bioorganic Chemistry journal.
Coumarins were recently shown to constitute a novel class of mechanism-based carbonic anhydrase (CA, EC 4.2.1.1) inhibitors. We demonstrate that sulfocoumarins (1,2-benzoxathiine 2,2-dioxides) possess a similar mechanism of action, acting as effective CA inhibitors. The sulfocoumarins were hydrolyzed by the esterase CA activity to 2-hydroxyphenyl-vinylsulfonic acids, which thereafter bind to the enzyme in a region rarely occupied by other classes of inhibitors. The X-ray structure of one of these compounds in adduct with a modified CA II enzyme possessing two amino acid residues from the CA IX active site, allowed us to decipher the inhibition mechanism. The sulfonic acid was observed anchored to the zinc-coordinated water molecule, making favorable interactions with Thr200 and Pro201. Some other sulfocoumarins incorporating substituted-1,2,3-triazole moieties were prepared by using click chemistry and showed low nanomolar inhibitory action against the tumor-associated isoforms CA IX and XII, ...
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I tiazidici, come lidroclorotiazide favorire la perdita di acqua dal corpo (diuretici). Essi inibiscono la Na + / Cl-riassorbimento da parte del tubulo contorto distale nei reni. I diuretici tiazidici anche causare la perdita di potassio e un aumento di livelli sierici di acido urico. I diuretici tiazidici sono spesso usati per trattare lipertensione, ma i loro effetti ipotensivi non sono necessariamente a causa della loro attività diuretica. I diuretici tiazidici hanno dimostrato di prevenire ipertensione correlata morbilità e mortalità anche se il meccanismo non è completamente nota. I diuretici tiazidici provocare vasodilatazione mediante lattivazione canali del potassio calcio-attivata (conduttanza di grandi dimensioni) in vascolare muscolatura liscia e inibendo vari carbonica anhydrases nel tessuto vascolare ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Carbonic anhydrase IX expression in renal neoplasms. T2 - Correlation with tumor type and grade. AU - Genega, Elizabeth M.. AU - Ghebremichael, Musie. AU - Najarian, Robert. AU - Fu, Yineng. AU - Wang, Yihong. AU - Argani, Pedram. AU - Grisanzio, Chiara. AU - Signoretti, Sabina. PY - 2010/12. Y1 - 2010/12. N2 - Carbonic anhydrase IX (CAIX), a hypoxia-induced protein, is expressed in some renal tumors. We evaluated its immunohistochemical expression in 317 primary and 42 metastatic renal neoplasms (186 clear cell, 52 papillary, 35 chromophobe, 47 unclassified, and 15 Xp11.2 translocation renal cell carcinomas [RCCs]; 26 oncocytomas; 2 metanephric adenomas; 1 urothelial carcinoma; 1 mixed epithelial and stromal tumor; and 1 angiomyolipoma); 7 neoplasms were unknown as to whether they were primary or metastatic. We also correlated expression with tumor type and grade. Variable staining was seen in clear cell, papillary, unclassified, and Xp11.2 translocation carcinomas. One ...
Carbonic anhydrases (CAs) are a large family of zinc metalloenzymes that catalyze the reversible hydration of carbon dioxide. They participate in a variety of biological processes, including respiration, calcification, acid-base balance, bone resorption, and the formation of aqueous humor, cerebrospinal fluid, saliva, and gastric acid. They show extensive diversity in tissue distribution and in their subcellular localization. CA IX is a transmembrane protein and is one of only two tumor-associated carbonic anhydrase isoenzymes known. It is expressed in all clear-cell renal cell carcinoma, but is not detected in normal kidney or most other normal tissues. It may be involved in cell proliferation and transformation. This gene was mapped to 17q21.2 by fluorescence in situ hybridization, however, radiation hybrid mapping localized it to 9p13-p12. [provided by RefSeq, Jun 2014 ...
The plant hormone salicylic acid (SA) is required for defense responses. NON EXPRESSER OF PATHOGENESIS RELATED 1 (NPR1) and NON RECOGNITION OF BTH-4 (NRB4) are required for the response to SA in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). Here, we isolated several interactors of NRB4 using yeast two-hybrid assays. Two of these interactors, βCA1 and βCA2, are β-carbonic anhydrase family proteins. Since double mutant βca1 βca2 plants did not show any obvious phenotype, we investigated other βCAs and found that NRB4 also interacts with βCA3 and βCA4. Moreover, several βCAs interacted with NPR1 in yeast, including one that interacted in a SA-dependent manner. This interaction was abolished in loss-of-function alleles of NPR1. Interactions between βCAs and both NRB4 and NPR1 were also detected in planta, with evidence for a triple interaction, NRB4-βCA1-NPR1. The quintuple mutant βca1 βca2 βca3 βca4 βca6 showed partial insensitivity to SA. These findings suggest that one of the functions of carbonic
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We report the cloning, purification and characterization of the full domain of carbonic anhydrase (CA, EC 4.2.1.1) from Plasmodium falciparum, which incorporates 358 amino acid residues (from 181 to 538, in the sequence of this 600 amino acid long protein), called PfCAdom. The enzyme, which belongs to the η-CA class showed the following kinetic parameters: kcat of 3.8×10(5)s(-1) and kcat/Km of 7.2×10(7)M(-1)×s(-1), being 13.3 times more effective as a catalyst compared to the truncated form PfCA. PfCAdom is more effective than the human (h) isoform hCA I, being around 50% less effective compared to hCA II, one of the most catalytically efficient enzymes known so far. Intriguingly, the sulfonamides CA inhibitors generally showed much weaker inhibitory activity against PfCAdom compared to PfCA, prompting us to hypothesize that the 69 amino acid residues insertion present in the active site of this η-CA is crucial for the active site architecture. The best sulfonamide inhibitors for PfCAdom ...
Carbonic anhydrase (CA; EC 4.2.1.1) is a zinc containing enzyme which catalyzes a reversible reaction to form bicarbonate from carbon dioxide and water [1, 2]. By facilitating the interconversion between CO2 and bicarbonate in vivo, CA activity was proposed to be required to ensure adequate level of CO2or HCO3- as the substrates for other enzymes [3]. Therefore, CAs have been found to play an essential role in a series of fundamental biological processes such as photosynthesis, respiration, pH homeostasis and ion transport [4]. Based on the origins and structural features, CAs are divided into six classes, termed α, β, γ, δ, ε and ζ, respectively [5]. The α-CAs were found in mammals, algae and prokaryotes to facilitate the exchange of CO2 in the respiratory cycle. The β-CAs were characterized in higher plants, algae and prokaryotes, and those in higher plants have been reported to play a critical role during photosynthesis [6]. The γ-class was first identified in the thermophilic ...
Trithiocarbonate (CS32-) inhibits with low micromolar affinities several mammalian carbonic anhydrases, CAs, EC 4.2.1.1 [Innocenti et al., Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett. 2009, 19, 1855]. Here we report the X-ray crystal structure of the hCA II-trithiocarbonate adduct. Trithiocarbonate is monodentately bound to the Zn(II) ion and makes several hydrogen bonds with Thr199 and two water molecules from the enzyme active site. Its binding is different from that of ureate, another small inhibitor isosteric with trithiocarbonate but somehow mimicks the binding of the SO(2)NH moiety present in the sulfonamide inhibitors and is similar to that of bicarbonate. Compounds incorporating this new zinc-binding group, CS2-, may thus lead to new classes of potent inhibitors. Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors. X-ray crystal studies of the carbonic anhydrase II-trithiocarbonate adduct--an inhibitor mimicking the sulfonamide and urea binding to the enzyme.,Temperini C, Scozzafava A, Supuran CT Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2010 Jan ...
We have studied lactic acid transport in the fast mouse extensor digitorum longus muscles (EDL) by intracellular and cell surface pH microelectrodes. The role of membrane-bound carbonic anhydrases (CA) of EDL in lactic ...
Question 10: This is the reaction that integrates CO2 into ________ sugars during photosynthesis, and can use only the CO2 form of carbon, not carbonic acid or bicarbonate. ...
Carbonic anhydrases are abundant in mammalian tissues, plants and bacteria. The several distinct classes of this enzyme (α, β, γ etc.) share little similarity in terms of structure and sequence, but they all perform the same function of catalyzing the hydration of carbon dioxide and the dehydration of bicarbonate [3]. Carbonic anhydrase B is one of the two major forms of carbonic anhydrase in human red blood cell (the other form is CA C). Like other members of the CA family, its main function is assisting the important chemical reaction that occurs in the blood. CO2 + H2O ,-----, HCO3- + H+. The above reaction is very slow in the absence of the enzyme. Hence, by assisting the inter-conversion between carbon dioxide and bicarbonate, Carbonic anhydrase B helps to maintain acid-base balance in blood, and transport carbon dioxide out of blood. Note that the carbonic acid (H2CO3) and hydrogen carbonate ions (HCO3-) is an important buffer system in the body. They equilibrate in the blood plasma to ...
Carbonic anhydrase (CA) is a zinc containing metalloenzyme that catalyzes the reversible interconversion of CO2 and HCO3-. There are three evolutionarily unrelated CA families designated alpha, beta and gamma CA. Vertebrates have members of the alpha CA family, while higher plants, algae and cyanobacteria have members belonging to all three CA families. In the green alga, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, five CAs have previously been identified including three alpha CAs and two beta CAs. This dissertation describes the identification and characterization of new CA genes from C. reinhardtii. Four new CA or CA like genes have been discovered including two beta CAs and two gamma CAs. Three CAs were investigated further including the alpha CA Cah3, one of the new beta CAs, Cah6; and a new gamma CA designated Gclp1 for gamma CA like protein. Cah3 is an alpha CA located in the thylakoid. Past studies with two Cah3 mutants, ca-1 and cia3 have shown that Cah3 plays an important role in the CO2 concentrating ...
A major challenge in photodynamic cancer therapy (PDT) is avoiding PDT-induced hypoxia, which can lead to cancer recurrence and progression through activation of various angiogenic factors and significantly reduce treatment outcomes. Reported here is an acetazolamide (AZ) conjugated BODIPY photosensitizer (AZ-BPS) designed to mitigate the effects of PDT-based hypoxia by combining the benefits of anti-angiogenesis therapy with PDT. AZ-BPS showed specific affinity to aggressive cancer cells (MDA-MB-231 cells) that overexpress carbonic anhydrase IX (CAIX). It displayed enhanced photo-cytotoxicity compared to a reference compound, BPS, which is an analogous PDT agent that lacks an acetazolamide unit. AZ-BPS also displayed an enhanced in vivo efficacy in a xenograft mouse tumor regrowth model relative to BPS, an effect attributed to inhibition of tumor angiogenesis by both PDT-induced ROS generation and CAIX knockdown. AZ-BPS was evaluated successfully in clinical samples collected from breast cancer ...
We investigated the expression of CA IX in a series of oligodendroglial brain tumors. We found that CA IX is expressed in most of these tumors and that it has an independent prognostic value, predicting a poor outcome. In addition, CA IX(+) tumors had decreased cell proliferation compared to CA IX(-) tumors.. Chromosomal loss of 1p and 19q is a common genotypic change in oligodendrogliomas. It is commonly used as a tool to make more precise decisions concerning the treatment. Recently, it has become clear, however, that defects in single chromosomes, genes, or even the sequential acquisition of mutations, are not the entire story in tumorigenesis, given that many cancer susceptibility genes show a high degree of tissue specificity in their association with neoplastic transformation. Also in oligodendrogliomas and other malignant brain tumors, the acquisition of a complete neoplastic phenotype is caused by the activation of several oncogenes and the inactivation of several growth-suppressor ...
Carbonic anhydrase (CA) from erythrocytes of the pink salmon, Onchorhyncus gorbushka, was purified using chloroform-ethanol extraction and Sephadex G-75 gel filtration. A single, high specific-activity CA isozyme having a molecular weight of 29,000 was found. The enzyme sedimented as a ...read more ...
The IUPHAR/BPS Guide to Pharmacology. carbonic anhydrase 12 - 4.2.1.1 Carbonate dehydratases. Detailed annotation on the structure, function, physiology, pharmacology and clinical relevance of drug targets.
Gill cytoplasmic carbonic anhydrase of the haemoglobinless Antarctic icefish Chionodraco hamatus (Ice-CA) was directly sequenced and consists in 259 residues with an acetylated N-terminus. The molecul
Mono- and Stereopictres of 5.0 Angstrom coordination sphere of Zinc atom in PDB 1z9y: Carbonic Anhydrase II in Complex With Furosemide As Sulfonamide Inhibitor
The 2016 Spring Meeting of the Japan Poultry Science Association was held at Nippon Veterinary and Life Science University at Musashino, Tokyo, on March 30. The meeting included a total of 58 paper presentations and luncheon seminars as well as council and general meetings.. During the Spring Meeting, four awards were given under the category of students or members aged 30 or below for the following excellent presentations: 1) Biochemical and functional analysis of membrane rafts in chicken sperm by Ai Ushiyama (Tsukuba University); 2) Dynamics of L cells along the crypt-villous axis in the chicken ileum by Kei Nishimura (Shinshu University); 3) Effects of trehalose added feed on cooked odors in broiler thigh meat by Shoji Kakuta (Hayashibara Co., Ltd.); and 4) Characteristic expression on carbonic anhydrases 4 in the eggshell gland of laying hens under heat stress conditions by Yuuki Hosokawa (Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology). JPSA congratulated the presenters who ...
Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology. ...
1ZSA: Reversal of the hydrogen bond to zinc ligand histidine-119 dramatically diminishes catalysis and enhances metal equilibration kinetics in carbonic anhydrase II.
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Lookup HS Codes for Taiwan xiv 71.02.10 Diamond, unsorted. Avalara LandedCosts helps determine your duty rates and other import taxes for Taiwan.
Mentos brand mints cause the carbonation in soda to very rapidly come out of solution. You can find plenty of photos and videos of it online, and Ive...

Carbonic anhydrase 4 - WikipediaCarbonic anhydrase 4 - Wikipedia

"Carbonic anhydrase IV from human lung. Purification, characterization, and comparison with membrane carbonic anhydrase from ... Mahieu I, Benjamin A, Stephens R, Walters D, Carter N (1995). "Characterization of membrane bound carbonic anhydrase IV (CA IV ... "Entrez Gene: CA4 carbonic anhydrase IV". Sterling D, Alvarez BV, Casey JR (Jul 2002). "The extracellular component of a ... Sender S, Decker B, Fenske CD, Sly WS, Carter ND, Gros G (1998). "Localization of carbonic anhydrase IV in rat and human heart ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carbonic_anhydrase_4

Mutant carbonic anhydrase 4 impairs pH regulation and causes retinal photoreceptor degeneration.  - PubMed - NCBIMutant carbonic anhydrase 4 impairs pH regulation and causes retinal photoreceptor degeneration. - PubMed - NCBI

Mutant carbonic anhydrase 4 impairs pH regulation and causes retinal photoreceptor degeneration.. Yang Z1, Alvarez BV, ... Here, we show that a functional complex of carbonic anhydrase 4 (CA4) and Na+/bicarbonate co-transporter 1 (NBC1) is ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=15563508

Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors: inhibition of the membrane-bound human isozyme IV with anions.  - PubMed - NCBICarbonic anhydrase inhibitors: inhibition of the membrane-bound human isozyme IV with anions. - PubMed - NCBI

Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors: inhibition of the membrane-bound human isozyme IV with anions.. Innocenti A1, Firnges MA, Antel ... The membrane-associated human isozyme of carbonic anhydrase, hCA IV, has been investigated for its interaction with anion ... Excellent hCA IV inhibitory properties showed sulfamic acid, sulfamide, phenylboronic acid and phenylarsonic acid, with K(i)s ... Surprisingly, halides were observed to act as potent hCA IV inhibitors, with inhibition constants in the range of 70-90 microM ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15501038

CA4 - Carbonic anhydrase 4 precursor - Homo sapiens (Human) - CA4 gene & proteinCA4 - Carbonic anhydrase 4 precursor - Homo sapiens (Human) - CA4 gene & protein

IPR023561 Carbonic_anhydrase_a-class. IPR018338 Carbonic_anhydrase_a-class_CS. IPR018343 Carbonic_anhydrase_CA4. ... IPR023561 Carbonic_anhydrase_a-class. IPR018338 Carbonic_anhydrase_a-class_CS. IPR018343 Carbonic_anhydrase_CA4. ... "Carbonic anhydrase IV from human lung. Purification, characterization, and comparison with membrane carbonic anhydrase from ... "Screening for the carbonic anhydrase IV gene mutations in Chinese retinitis pigmentosa patients.". Tian Y., Tang L., Cui J., ...
more infohttps://www.uniprot.org/uniprot/P22748

Recombinant Human Carbonic Anhydrase 4/CA4 protein (ab151908) | AbcamRecombinant Human Carbonic Anhydrase 4/CA4 protein (ab151908) | Abcam

Recombinant Human Carbonic Anhydrase 4/CA4 protein is an Escherichia coli Full length protein 19 to 283 aa range, , 95% purity ... Shipped at 4°C. Upon delivery aliquot. Store at -20°C or -80°C. Avoid freeze / thaw cycle. ...
more infohttps://www.abcam.com/recombinant-human-carbonic-anhydrase-4ca4-protein-ab151908.html

Anti-Carbonic Anhydrase IV/CA4 antibody - C-terminal (ab85225)Anti-Carbonic Anhydrase IV/CA4 antibody - C-terminal (ab85225)

Rabbit polyclonal Carbonic Anhydrase IV/CA4 antibody validated for WB, ELISA and tested in Human and Mouse. Immunogen ... Anti-Carbonic Anhydrase IV antibody - C-terminal. See all Carbonic Anhydrase IV primary antibodies. ... Anti-Carbonic Anhydrase IV antibody - C-terminal (ab85225) at 1/50 dilution + mouse lung tissue lysate at 35 µg. Predicted band ... Synthetic peptide selected from the C terminal region of Human Carbonic Anhydrase IV, conjugated to KLH (NP_000708). ...
more infohttp://www.abcam.com/carbonic-anhydrase-iv-antibody-c-terminal-ab85225.html

RCSB PDB - 2FMG: Carbonic anhydrase activators. Activation of isoforms I, II, IV, VA, VII and XIV with L- and D- phenylalanine...RCSB PDB - 2FMG: Carbonic anhydrase activators. Activation of isoforms I, II, IV, VA, VII and XIV with L- and D- phenylalanine...

Activation of isoforms I, II, IV, VA, VII and XIV with L- and D- phenylalanine and crystallographic analysis of their adducts ... Carbonic anhydrase activators. Activation of isoforms I, II, IV, VA, VII and XIV with L- and D- phenylalanine and ... Carbonic Anhydrase Activators. Activation of Isoforms I, II, IV, VA, VII, and XIV with l- and d-Phenylalanine and ... Activation of six human brain carbonic anhydrases (hCAs, EC 4.2.1.1), hCA I, II, IV, VA, VII, and XIV, with l-/d-phenylalanine ...
more infohttps://www.rcsb.org/structure/2FMG

Sequence Similarity 









- 2FMZ: Carbonic anhydrase activators. Activation of isoforms I, II, IV, VA, VII and XIV with L-...Sequence Similarity - 2FMZ: Carbonic anhydrase activators. Activation of isoforms I, II, IV, VA, VII and XIV with L-...

Activation of Isoforms I, II, IV, VA, VII, and XIV with l- and d-Phenylalanine and Crystallographic Analysis of Their Adducts ... Carbonic anhydrase activators. Activation of isoforms I, II, IV, VA, VII and XIV with L- and D- phenylalanine, structure with D ... Carbonic anhydrase 2 protein, length: 260 (BLAST) Sequence Similarity Cutoff. Rank. Chains in Cluster. Cluster ID / Name. ...
more infohttp://www.rcsb.org/pdb/explore/sequenceCluster.do?structureId=2FMZ

Complexes With Biologically Active Ligands. Part 4. Coordination
Compounds of Chlorothiazide With Transition Metal Ions Behave...Complexes With Biologically Active Ligands. Part 4. Coordination Compounds of Chlorothiazide With Transition Metal Ions Behave...

Coordination Compounds of Chlorothiazide With Transition Metal Ions Behave as Strong Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitors. Claudiu T. ... Coordination Compounds of Chlorothiazide With Transition Metal Ions Behave as Strong Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitors," Metal- ...
more infohttps://www.hindawi.com/journals/mbd/1996/215475/cta/

Carbonic anhydrase iv | definition of Carbonic anhydrase iv by Medical dictionaryCarbonic anhydrase iv | definition of Carbonic anhydrase iv by Medical dictionary

What is Carbonic anhydrase iv? Meaning of Carbonic anhydrase iv medical term. What does Carbonic anhydrase iv mean? ... Looking for online definition of Carbonic anhydrase iv in the Medical Dictionary? Carbonic anhydrase iv explanation free. ... Related to Carbonic anhydrase iv: Carbonic anhydrase inhibitor, Carbonic anhydrase ii, carbonic anhydrase IX ... carbonic anhydrase. (redirected from Carbonic anhydrase iv). Also found in: Dictionary, Encyclopedia. ...
more infohttps://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/Carbonic+anhydrase+iv

Carbonic anhydrase iv | Article about Carbonic anhydrase iv by The Free DictionaryCarbonic anhydrase iv | Article about Carbonic anhydrase iv by The Free Dictionary

Find out information about Carbonic anhydrase iv. An enzyme which aids carbon dioxide transport and release by catalyzing the ... synthesis, and the dehydration, of carbonic acid from, and to, carbon dioxide... Explanation of Carbonic anhydrase iv ... Related to Carbonic anhydrase iv: Carbonic anhydrase inhibitor, Carbonic anhydrase ii, carbonic anhydrase IX ... Carbonic Anhydrase. (redirected from Carbonic anhydrase iv). Also found in: Dictionary, Medical. ...
more infohttp://encyclopedia2.thefreedictionary.com/Carbonic+anhydrase+iv

A Patients Guide to Glaucoma: Section 7-C-4: Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitors (CAIs)A Patients Guide to Glaucoma: Section 7-C-4: Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitors (CAIs)

The CAIs inhibit the enzyme carbonic anhydrase, which in turn, reduces aqueous humor formation. Patients are typically placed ... Combination beta-blocker and carbonic anhydrase inhibitor: timolol maleate/dorzolamide hydrochloride (Cosopt, Merck Co., ... Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitors (CAIs) The topical CAIs include dorzolamide (Trusopt) and brinzolamide (Azopt). Both are much ...
more infohttp://www.medrounds.org/glaucoma-guide/2006/10/section-7-c-4-carbonic-anhydrase.html

Expression of membrane-associated carbonic anhydrase isoforms IV, IX, XII, and XIV in the rabbit: induction of CA IV and IX...Expression of membrane-associated carbonic anhydrase isoforms IV, IX, XII, and XIV in the rabbit: induction of CA IV and IX...

Carbonic anhydrase IV from human lung: purification, characterization, and comparison with membrane carbonic anhydrase from ... Expression of membrane-associated carbonic anhydrase isoforms IV, IX, XII, and XIV in the rabbit: induction of CA IV and IX ... Expression of membrane-associated carbonic anhydrase isoforms IV, IX, XII, and XIV in the rabbit: induction of CA IV and IX ... Expression of membrane-associated carbonic anhydrase isoforms IV, IX, XII, and XIV in the rabbit: induction of CA IV and IX ...
more infohttp://ajpregu.physiology.org/content/288/5/R1256.long

Effect of knockout of α-carbonic anhydrase 4 gene on photosynthetic characteristics and starch accumulation in leaves of...Effect of knockout of α-carbonic anhydrase 4 gene on photosynthetic characteristics and starch accumulation in leaves of...

"Effect of knockout of α-carbonic anhydrase 4 gene on photosynthetic characteristics and starch accumulation in leaves of ... Effect of knockout of α-carbonic anhydrase 4 gene on photosynthetic characteristics and starch... Zhurikova, E.; Ignatova, L.; ... Involvement of carbonic anhydrase in inhibition of photosynthesis of pea protoplasts by CO2 excess ... Specific reduction of chloroplast carbonic anhydrase activity by antisense RNA in transgenic tobacco plants has a minor effect ...
more infohttps://www.deepdyve.com/lp/springer_journal/effect-of-knockout-of-carbonic-anhydrase-4-gene-on-photosynthetic-sIkoeCtnZp

AID 644085 - Inhibition of human carbonic anhydrase 2 using 4-nitrophenylacetate as substrate after 3 mins using...AID 644085 - Inhibition of human carbonic anhydrase 2 using 4-nitrophenylacetate as substrate after 3 mins using...

Inhibition of human carbonic anhydrase 2 using 4-nitrophenylacetate as substrate after 3 mins using spectrophotometry by ...
more infohttps://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/bioassay/644085

CA4 Gene - GeneCards | CAH4 Protein | CAH4 AntibodyCA4 Gene - GeneCards | CAH4 Protein | CAH4 Antibody

Carbonic Anhydrase 4, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene ... Carbonic anhydrase IV (CAH4_HUMAN). *cDNA FLJ76600, highly similar to Homo sapiens carbonic anhydrase IV (CA4), mRNA (Q6FHI7_ ... R&D Systems Antibodies for CA4 (Carbonic Anhydrase IV/CA4). *R&D Systems Proteins and Enzymes for CA4 (Carbonic Anhydrase IV/ ... Screening for the carbonic anhydrase IV gene mutations in Chinese retinitis pigmentosa patients. (PMID: 20450258) Tian Y … Zhu ...
more infohttps://www.genecards.org/cgi-bin/carddisp.pl?gene=CA4&keywords=Retinitis+Pigmentosa&prefilter=publications

CA4 Gene - GeneCards | CAH4 Protein | CAH4 AntibodyCA4 Gene - GeneCards | CAH4 Protein | CAH4 Antibody

Carbonic Anhydrase 4, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene ... Carbonic anhydrase IV (CAH4_HUMAN). *cDNA FLJ76600, highly similar to Homo sapiens carbonic anhydrase IV (CA4), mRNA (Q6FHI7_ ... R&D Systems Antibodies for CA4 (Carbonic Anhydrase IV/CA4). *R&D Systems Proteins and Enzymes for CA4 (Carbonic Anhydrase IV/ ... Screening for the carbonic anhydrase IV gene mutations in Chinese retinitis pigmentosa patients. (PMID: 20450258) Tian Y … Zhu ...
more infohttps://www.genecards.org/cgi-bin/carddisp.pl?gene=CA4

nature.com searchnature.com search

EXPRESSION OF CARBONIC ANHYDRASE (CA) II AND IV mRNA ALONG THE NEPHRON. STIMULATION BY METABOLIC ACIDOSIS • 1697 *Shuichi ... Rights & permissionsfor article EXPRESSION OF CARBONIC ANHYDRASE (CA) II AND IV mRNA ALONG THE NEPHRON. STIMULATION BY ...
more infohttps://www.nature.com/search?author=%22J.%20George%22&error=cookies_not_supported&code=a932c867-f10b-4e66-8560-9d2a57e3b413

Compound Report CardCompound Report Card

Carbonic anhydrase IV Homo sapiens 0.914 CHEMBL2326 Carbonic anhydrase VII Homo sapiens 0.880 ... Carbonic anhydrase VA Homo sapiens 0.506 Show More. Calculated Compound Parent Properties. Mol. Weight. Mol. Weight ... Carbonic anhydrase XIV Homo sapiens 0.981 CHEMBL3471 Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 integrase Human immunodeficiency virus ... Carbonic anhydrase 15 Mus musculus 0.669 CHEMBL5508 Dual specificity tyrosine-phosphorylation-regulated kinase 1A Rattus ...
more infohttps://www.ebi.ac.uk/chembldb/index.php/compound/inspect/CHEMBL704

HISTOCHEMISTRY OF THE SALIVARY GLANDS (eBook, 2019) [WorldCat.org]HISTOCHEMISTRY OF THE SALIVARY GLANDS (eBook, 2019) [WorldCat.org]

2. Neuron-Specific Enolase (NSE). 3. Carbonic Anhydrase. 4. Lysozome. 5. Prolactin. Section 5: Growth Factors. 1. Epidermal ... 4. Involucrin. 5. S-100 Protein. 6. Laminin. Section 3: Proteinase Inhibitor. 1. 1-Antitrypsin ( 1-AT). 2. 1-Antichymotrypsin ... 4. Gilial Fibrillary Acidic Proteins. Section 2: Tissue and Plasma Proteins. 1. Epithelial Membrane Antigen. 2. ...
more infohttps://www.worldcat.org/title/histochemistry-of-the-salivary-glands/oclc/1104070967

Compound Report CardCompound Report Card

Carbonic anhydrase IV Homo sapiens 0.996 CHEMBL2568 Liver glycogen phosphorylase Homo sapiens 0.993 ... Carbonic anhydrase Candida albicans (strain SC5314 / ATCC MYA-2876) (Yeast) 0.936 CHEMBL6152 Alpha-synuclein Homo sapiens 0.912 ...
more infohttps://www.ebi.ac.uk/chembl/compound/inspect/CHEMBL1448

In vitro studies on the relationship between anti Helicobacter pylori therapy and carbonic anhydrase isoenzymes II and IVIn vitro studies on the relationship between anti Helicobacter pylori therapy and carbonic anhydrase isoenzymes II and IV

... ... In vitro studies on the relationship between anti Helicobacter pylori therapy and carbonic anhydrase isoenzymes II and IV. ... H+/K+ ATPase discovery resulted in the re-evaluation of the role of carbonic anhydrase (CA) in acid secretion. In addition to ... The results of this study mainly confirms the implication of CA II and CA IV in the mechanism of gastric acid secretion also ...
more infohttp://www.studiauniversitatis.ro/vol-25-iss-1-2015/1074-in-vitro-studies-on-the-relationship-between-anti-helicobacter-pylori-therapy-and-carbonic-anhydrase-isoenzymes-ii-and-iv.html?tmpl=component&print=1&page=

1if4 - Proteopedia, life in 3D1if4 - Proteopedia, life in 3D

Structural aspects of isozyme selectivity in the binding of inhibitors to carbonic anhydrases II and IV. J Med Chem. 2002 Feb ... Carbonic anhydrase References *↑ Venta PJ, Welty RJ, Johnson TM, Sly WS, Tashian RE. Carbonic anhydrase II deficiency syndrome ... Carbonic anhydrase catalyzes cyanamide hydration to urea: is it mimicking the physiological reaction? J Biol Inorg Chem. 1999 ... Molecular basis of human carbonic anhydrase II deficiency. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1992 Mar 1;89(5):1804-8. PMID:1542674 ...
more infohttp://proteopedia.org/wiki/index.php/1if4

Identification and proteomic profiling of exosomes in human urine | PNASIdentification and proteomic profiling of exosomes in human urine | PNAS

... demonstrated that urinary membranes of normal subjects contain both carbonic anhydrase II and carbonic anhydrase IV (as ... type IV carbonic anhydrase, and γ-glutamyltransferase), the thick ascending limb of Henle (e.g., THP, CD9, and the type 2 Na-K- ... carbonic anhydrase type IV; CD9; CLIC1, chloride intracellular channel-1; αENaC, epithelial sodium channel α; βENaC, epithelial ... One example is carbonic anhydrase type II. As early as 1990, Sato et al. (36) ...
more infohttp://www.pnas.org/content/101/36/13368

Medical Genetics Test Details - Baylor Genetics Laboratories - Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TexasMedical Genetics Test Details - Baylor Genetics Laboratories - Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas

Carbonic anhydrase 4. Test Type:. Sequence Analysis. Sample & Shipping Information. Test Requisition:. Inherited Eye Disorders ...
more infohttps://www.bcm.edu/research/medical-genetics-labs/test_detail.cfm?testcode=2761&show=1
  • Carbonic anhydrases (EC 4.2.1.1) are zinc-containing enzymes belonging to the lyases family, and are primarily responsible for catalyzing the reversible hydration of carbon dioxide to form bicarbonate (HCO3-) and hydrogen (H+) ions. (genecards.org)
  • Indeed, we have recently identified a direct interaction between CA IV and NBC1, the sodium/bicarbonate cotransporter ( 1 ). (physiology.org)
  • l-Phe was a potent activator of isozymes I, II, and XIV (K(A)s of 13-240 nM), a weaker activator of hCA VA and VII (K(A)s of 9.8-10.9 microM), and a quite inefficient hCA IV activator (K(A) of 52 microM). (rcsb.org)
  • Using a truncated and, hence, soluble CA IV antigen allowed the authors to perform an ELISA assay which showed 40% of cases with definite AIP and 40% of those with Sjogren's had antibodies to CA IV but no controls. (bmj.com)
  • Sulfate was a good hCA IV inhibitor (K(i) of 9 mM), although it is a much weaker inhibitor of isozymes I, II, V and IX. (nih.gov)
  • d-Phe showed good hCA II activatory properties (K(A) of 35 nM), being a moderate hCA VA, VII, and XIV (K(A)s of 4.6-9.7 microM) and a weak hCA I and IV activator (K(A)s of 63-86 microM). (rcsb.org)
  • Given that plasma-accessible carbonic anhydrase (CA) in red muscle of rainbow trout has recently been shown to facilitate oxygen unloading from arterial blood under certain physiological conditions, we tested the hypothesis that plasma-accessible CA is present in the lumen of coho salmon ( Oncorhynchus kisutch ) hearts, and may therefore assist in the luminal oxygen supply to the spongy myocardium, which has no coronary circulation. (biologists.org)
  • Membrane bound CA (CA IV) on the luminal side of the pulmonary membrane would have direct contact with plasma HCO3- and would enzimatically convert HCO3- to CO2 in the area immediately proximal to the exchange membrane, greatly increasing the concentration gradient for exchange. (wikipedia.org)