Carbonic Anhydrase III: A cytosolic carbonic anhydrase isoenzyme primarily expressed in skeletal muscle (MUSCLES, SKELETAL). EC 4.2.1.-Carbonic Anhydrases: A family of zinc-containing enzymes that catalyze the reversible hydration of carbon dioxide. They play an important role in the transport of CARBON DIOXIDE from the tissues to the LUNG. EC 4.2.1.1.Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitors: A class of compounds that reduces the secretion of H+ ions by the proximal kidney tubule through inhibition of CARBONIC ANHYDRASES.Carbonic Anhydrase II: A cytosolic carbonic anhydrase isoenzyme found widely distributed in cells of almost all tissues. Deficiencies of carbonic anhydrase II produce a syndrome characterized by OSTEOPETROSIS, renal tubular acidosis (ACIDOSIS, RENAL TUBULAR) and cerebral calcification. EC 4.2.1.-Growth and Development: The series of changes to the shape, size, components, and functions of an individual organism that occur over time as the organism progresses from its initial form to full size and maturity.Carbonic Anhydrase I: A cytosolic carbonic anhydrase isoenzyme primarily expressed in ERYTHROCYTES, vascular endothelial cells, and the gastrointestinal mucosa. EC 4.2.1.-Carbon Dioxide: A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.Carbonic Anhydrase IV: A membrane-bound carbonic anhydrase found in lung capillaries and kidney.Isoenzymes: Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.Muscles: Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Acetazolamide: One of the CARBONIC ANHYDRASE INHIBITORS that is sometimes effective against absence seizures. It is sometimes useful also as an adjunct in the treatment of tonic-clonic, myoclonic, and atonic seizures, particularly in women whose seizures occur or are exacerbated at specific times in the menstrual cycle. However, its usefulness is transient often because of rapid development of tolerance. Its antiepileptic effect may be due to its inhibitory effect on brain carbonic anhydrase, which leads to an increased transneuronal chloride gradient, increased chloride current, and increased inhibition. (From Smith and Reynard, Textbook of Pharmacology, 1991, p337)Ethoxzolamide: A carbonic anhydrase inhibitor used as diuretic and in glaucoma. It may cause hypokalemia.Benzolamide: Selective renal carbonic anhydrase inhibitor. It may also be of use in certain cases of respiratory failure.Methazolamide: A carbonic anhydrase inhibitor that is used as a diuretic and in the treatment of glaucoma.

Detection and identification of subcutaneous adipose tissue protein related to obesity in New Zealand obese mouse. (1/32)

New Zealand obese (NZO) mouse, a genetic model of obesity, shows hyperphagia, hyperinsulinemia and leptin resistance. We analyzed subcutaneous adipose tissue proteins in NZO mice with a two-dimensional gel electrophoresis technique followed by protein sequence analysis. NZO mice showed hyperinsulinemia and hyperleptinemia. Abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue was inspected in NZO and C57BL/6J lean mice. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis detected 4 spots which were obviously reduced in NZO mice. Those spots were p26, p19, p18 and p15. Internal sequences of the p26 and p15 protein were homologous with those of carbonic anhydrase III, p19 was cytochrome b5, p18 was superoxide dismutase. Serum arachidonic acid level in NZO mice was lower by 80% of C57BL/6J mice. The present study demonstrated the reduction of several enzymes related to lipid metabolism in NZO mice. These data raises the hypothesis that the supposed changes of membrane fluidity caused by altered membrane lipid content may involve central leptin resistance of this model of obesity.  (+info)

Kinetic analysis of multiple proton shuttles in the active site of human carbonic anhydrase. (2/32)

We have prepared a site-specific mutant of human carbonic anhydrase (HCA) II with histidine residues at positions 7 and 64 in the active site cavity. Using a different isozyme, we have placed histidine residues in HCA III at positions 64 and 67 and in another mutant at positions 64 and 7. Each of these histidine residues can act as a proton transfer group in catalysis when it is the only nonliganding histidine in the active site cavity, except His(7) in HCA III. Using an (18)O exchange method to measure rate constants for intramolecular proton transfer, we have found that inserting two histidine residues into the active site cavity of either isozyme II or III of carbonic anhydrase results in rates of proton transfer to the zinc-bound hydroxide that are antagonistic or suppressive with respect to the corresponding single mutants. The crystal structure of Y7H HCA II, which contains both His(7) and His(64) within the active site cavity, shows the conformation of the side chain of His(64) moved from its position in the wild type and hydrogen-bonded through an intervening water molecule with the side chain of His(7). This suggests a cause of decreased proton transfer in catalysis.  (+info)

Patterns of gene expression in atrophying skeletal muscles: response to food deprivation. (3/32)

During fasting and many systemic diseases, muscle undergoes rapid loss of protein and functional capacity. To define the transcriptional changes triggering muscle atrophy and energy conservation in fasting, we used cDNA microarrays to compare mRNAs from muscles of control and food-deprived mice. Expression of >94% of genes did not change, but interesting patterns emerged among genes that were differentially expressed: 1) mRNAs encoding polyubiquitin, ubiquitin extension proteins, and many (but not all) proteasome subunits increased, which presumably contributes to accelerated protein breakdown; 2) a dramatic increase in mRNA for the ubiquitin ligase, atrogin-1, but not most E3s; 3) a significant suppression of mRNA for myosin binding protein H (but not other myofibrillar proteins) and IGF binding protein 5, which may favor cell protein loss; 4) decreases in mRNAs for several glycolytic enzymes and phosphorylase kinase subunits, and dramatic increases in mRNAs for pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 4 and glutamine synthase, which should promote glucose sparing and gluconeogenesis. During fasting, metallothionein mRNA increased dramatically, mRNAs for extracellular matrix components fell, and mRNAs that may favor cap-independent mRNA translation rose. Significant changes occurred in mRNAs for many growth-related proteins and transcriptional regulators. These transcriptional changes indicate a complex adaptive program that should favor protein degradation and suppress glucose oxidation in muscle. Similar analysis of muscles atrophying for other causes is allowing us to identify a set of atrophy-specific changes in gene expression.  (+info)

Studies of proton translocations in biological systems: simulating proton transport in carbonic anhydrase by EVB-based models. (4/32)

Proton transport (PTR) processes play a major role in bioenergetics and thus it is important to gain a molecular understanding of these processes. At present the detailed description of PTR in proteins is somewhat unclear and it is important to examine different models by using well-defined experimental systems. One of the best benchmarks is provided by carbonic anhydrase III (CA III), because this is one of the few systems where we have a clear molecular knowledge of the rate constant of the PTR process and its variation upon mutations. Furthermore, this system transfers a proton between several water molecules, thus making it highly relevant to a careful examination of the "proton wire" concept. Obtaining a correlation between the structure of this protein and the rate of the PTR process should help to discriminate between alternative models and to give useful clues about PTR processes in other systems. Obviously, obtaining such a correlation requires a correct representation of the "chemistry" of PTR between different donors and acceptors, as well as the ability to evaluate the free energy barriers of charge transfer in proteins, and to simulate long-time kinetic processes. The microscopic empirical valence bond (Warshel, A., and R. M. Weiss. 1980. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 102:6218-6226; and Aqvist, J., and A. Warshel. 1993. Chem. Rev. 93:2523-2544) provides a powerful way for representing the chemistry and evaluating the free energy barriers, but it cannot be used with the currently available computer times in direct simulation of PTR with significant activation barriers. Alternatively, one can reduce the empirical valence bond (EVB) to the modified Marcus' relationship and use semimacroscopic electrostatic calculations plus a master equation to determine the PTR kinetics (Sham, Y., I. Muegge, and A. Warshel. 1999. Proteins. 36:484-500). However, such an approximation does not provide a rigorous multisite kinetic treatment. Here we combine the useful ingredients of both approaches and develop a simplified EVB effective potential that treats explicitly the chain of donors and acceptors while considering implicitly the rest of the protein/solvent system. This approach can be used in Langevin dynamics simulations of long-time PTR processes. The validity of our new simplified approach is demonstrated first by comparing its Langevin dynamics results for a PTR along a chain of water molecules in water to the corresponding molecular dynamics simulations of the fully microscopic EVB model. This study examines dynamics of both models in cases of low activation barriers and the dependence of the rate on the energetics for cases with moderate barriers. The study of the dependence on the activation barrier is next extended to the range of higher barriers, demonstrating a clear correlation between the barrier height and the rate constant. The simplified EVB model is then examined in studies of the PTR in carbonic anhydrase III, where it reproduces the relevant experimental results without the use of any parameter that is specifically adjusted to fit the energetics or dynamics of the reaction in the protein. We also validate the conclusions obtained previously from the EVB-based modified Marcus' relationship. It is concluded that this approach and the EVB-based model provide a reliable, effective, and general tool for studies of PTR in proteins. Finally in view of the behavior of the simulated result, in both water and the CA III, we conclude that the rate of PTR in proteins is determined by the electrostatic energy of the transferred proton as long as this energy is higher than a few kcal/mol.  (+info)

Carbonic anhydrase III is not required in the mouse for normal growth, development, and life span. (5/32)

Carbonic anhydrase III is a cytosolic protein which is particularly abundant in skeletal muscle, adipocytes, and liver. The specific activity of this isozyme is quite low, suggesting that its physiological function is not that of hydrating carbon dioxide. To understand the cellular roles of carbonic anhydrase III, we inactivated the Car3 gene. Mice lacking carbonic anhydrase III were viable and fertile and had normal life spans. Carbonic anhydrase III has also been implicated in the response to oxidative stress. We found that mice lacking the protein had the same response to a hyperoxic challenge as did their wild-type siblings. No anatomic alterations were noted in the mice lacking carbonic anhydrase III. They had normal amounts and distribution of fat, despite the fact that carbonic anhydrase III constitutes about 30% of the soluble protein in adipocytes. We conclude that carbonic anhydrase III is dispensable for mice living under standard laboratory husbandry conditions.  (+info)

Evaluation of hypoxia in an experimental rat tumour model by [(18)F]fluoromisonidazole PET and immunohistochemistry. (6/32)

This study aimed to evaluate tumour hypoxia by comparing [(18)F]Fluoromisonidazole uptake measured using positron emission tomography ([(18)F]FMISO-PET) with immunohistochemical (IHC) staining techniques. Syngeneic rhabdomyosarcoma (R1) tumour pieces were transplanted subcutaneously in the flanks of WAG/Rij rats. Tumours were analysed at volumes between 0.9 and 7.3 cm(3). Hypoxic volumes were defined using a 3D region of interest on 2 h postinjection [(18)F]FMISO-PET images, applying different thresholds (1.2-3.0). Monoclonal antibodies to pimonidazole (PIMO) and carbonic anhydrase IX (CA IX), exogenous and endogenous markers of hypoxia, respectively, were used for IHC staining. Marker-positive fractions were microscopically measured for each tumour, and hypoxic volumes were calculated. A heterogeneous distribution of hypoxia was observed both with histology and [(18)F]FMISO autoradiography. A statistically significant correlation (P<0.05) was obtained between the hypoxic volumes defined with [(18)F]FMISO-PET and the volumes derived from the PIMO-stained tumour sections (r=0.9066; P=0.0001), regardless of the selected threshold between 1.4 and 2.2. A similar observation was made with the CA IX staining (r=0.8636; P=0.0006). The relationship found between [(18)F]FMISO-PET and PIMO- and additionally CA IX-derived hypoxic volumes in rat rhabdomyosarcomas indicates the value of the noninvasive imaging method to measure hypoxia in whole tumours.  (+info)

Taste buds and nerve fibers in the rat larynx: an ultrastructural and immunohistochemical study. (7/32)

We investigated the rat laryngeal taste buds and their innervation by electron microscopy and immunohistochemical methods. Taste buds were densely arranged in the surface facing the laryngeal cavity of the epiglottis, the aryepiglottic fold, and the cuneiform process of the arytenoid cartilages. The cells of the buds were classified into types I, II, III, and basal cells, the ultrastucture of which was almost the same as that previously reported in lingual taste buds. The type III cells that had synaptic contacts with nerve fibers were considered to be sensory cells. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed thick calbindin D28k-immunoreactive fibers and thin varicose fibers immunoreactive for calcitonin gene-related peptide or substance P in and around the taste bud. Serotonin-immunoreactive cells were also observed here. The results revealed the innervation pattern of laryngeal taste buds to be the same as that in lingual taste buds. Carbonic anhydrase (CA) is known to catalyze the hydration of CO2 and dehydration of H2CO3, and seems to be essential in CO2 reception. Immunoreactivity for CAI was detected in slender cells and that for CAIII was observed in barrel-like cells in the laryngeal taste buds. The pH-sensitive inward rectifier K+ (Kir) channel in the cell membrane may be involved in CO2 reception as well. CAII-reactive cells were also reactive to Kir4.1, PGP 9.5 and serotonin. Our results indicated that CAII and Kir4.1 are located in type III cells of the laryngeal taste buds, and supported the idea that the buds may be involved in the recognition of CO2.  (+info)

Suppression of carbonic anhydrase III mRNA level by an aryl hydrocarbon receptor ligand in primary cultured hepatocytes of rat. (8/32)

The effect of an aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) ligand on the carbonic anhydrase III (CAIII) mRNA level was studied using primary cultured hepatocytes of rats. CAIII gene which is highly suppressible by dioxins in vivo, was also suppressible in primary cultured hepatocytes of rats by an AhR ligand, 3-methylchlanthrene (3MC). The suppression of CAIII by 3MC was observed in a dose-dependent fashion. The suppression was marked at 10 microM MC. It is likely that AhR is involved in the suppression of the CAIII gene. The transcriptional regulation region of rat CAIII gene was cloned by polymerase chain reaction on the basis of the similarity to the mouse and human CAIII genes. A 1.5 kb section upstream of rat CAIII was sequenced and the transcription initiation site of this gene was mapped to 58 bases upstream of the initiation codon. A xenobiotic responsive element (XRE)-like sequence was found at -555 to -549 bp of the transcription initiation site. The location of XRE-like element was conserved between rats and mice those CAIIIs in liver were shown as dioxins-suppressible. Although the roles of the XRE have not been clarified, these results suggest that the AhR ligands could elicit the suppressive effect on hepatic CAIII and the effect on the factors from extrahepatic tissues is not required for the suppression.  (+info)

*Carbonic anhydrase 9

"Entrez Gene: CA9 carbonic anhydrase IX".. *^ Kirkpatrick JP, Rabbani ZN, Bentley RC, Hardee ME, Karol S, Meyer J, Oosterwijk E ... Carbonic anhydrase 9 (CA9/CAIX) is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CA9 gene.[5][6][7] ... Nishimori I, Onishi S (2001). "Carbonic anhydrase isozymes in the human pancreas". Digestive and Liver Disease. 33 (1): 68-74. ... Carbonic anhydrases (CAs) are a large family of zinc metalloenzymes that catalyze the reversible hydration of carbon dioxide. ...

*Pepsin

Johnston N, Knight J, Dettmar PW, Lively MO, Koufman J (Dec 2004). "Pepsin and carbonic anhydrase isoenzyme III as diagnostic ... Pepsin has a three-dimensional structure, of which one or more polypeptide chains twist and fold, bringing together a small ... It is one of three principal proteases in the human digestive system, the other two being chymotrypsin and trypsin. During the ... 126 (3): 405-9. doi:10.1001/archotol.126.3.405. PMID 10722017.. *^ Knight J, Lively MO, Johnston N, Dettmar PW, Koufman JA (Aug ...

*GLRX

2000). "Crystal structure of S-glutathiolated carbonic anhydrase III". FEBS Lett. 482 (3): 237-41. doi:10.1016/S0014-5793(00) ... 72 (3): 1170-8. doi:10.1046/j.1471-4159.1999.0721170.x. PMID 10037490. Barrett WC, DeGnore JP, König S, et al. (1999). " ... 3 (3): 428-34. doi:10.1002/pro.5560030307. PMC 2142694 . PMID 8019414. Padilla CA, Spyrou G, Holmgren A (1996). "High-level ... Pt 3): 931-8. PMC 1217296 . PMID 8645179. Davis DA, Newcomb FM, Starke DW, et al. (1997). "Thioltransferase (glutaredoxin) is ...

*Diffusion limited enzyme

Carbonic anhydrase. *CO dehydrogenase [18]. *Cytochrome c peroxidase. *Fumarase. *Superoxide dismutase. *Triosephosphate ... In 1972, it was observed that in the dehydration of H2CO3 catalyzed by carbonic anhydrase, the second-order rate constant ... "H2CO3 as Substrate for Carbonic Anhydrase in the Dehydration of HCO3−". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the ... 3][4] According to their estimation,[3][4] the upper limit of enzyme-substrate reaction was 109 M−1 s−1. ...

*Diffusion limited enzyme

Carbonic anhydrase. *Carbon monoxide dehydrogenase [18]. *Cytochrome c peroxidase. *Fumarase. *Superoxide dismutase ... In 1972, it was observed that in the dehydration of H2CO3 catalyzed by carbonic anhydrase, the second-order rate constant ... "H2CO3 as Substrate for Carbonic Anhydrase in the Dehydration of HCO3−". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the ... 3][4] According to their estimation,[3][4] the upper limit of enzyme-substrate reaction was 109 M−1 s−1. ...

*Red blood cell - Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Carbon dioxide (CO2) is carried in blood in three different ways. The exact percentages vary depending whether it is arterial ... 3 by the enzyme carbonic anhydrase in the red blood cells.[6] by the reaction CO2 + H2O → H2CO3 → H+ + HCO−. 3. ... In men, there are 5.4 million red blood cells per microliter of blood.[3] Red blood cells are red because they have hemoglobin ...

*Metalloprotein

Carbonic anhydrase[edit]. Active site of carbonic anhydrase. The three coordinating histidine residues are shown in green, ... A reaction similar to this is almost instantaneous with carbonic anhydrase. The structure of the active site in carbonic ... Lindskog S (1997). "Structure and mechanism of carbonic anhydrase". Pharmacology & Therapeutics. 74 (1): 1-20. doi:10.1016/ ... It consists of a zinc ion coordinated by three imidazole nitrogen atoms from three histidine units. The fourth coordination ...

*Reduced muscle mass, strength and performance in space

"Effect of immobilization on carbonic anhydrase III and myoglobin content in human leg muscle". Acta physiologica Scandinavica. ... Three sessions were completed before launch (L-21, L-14 and L-8 days) and three after landing (R+0, R+2 and R+7 to R+10 days). ... such as carbonic anhydrase II and myoglobin, over that predicted by the overall decrease in muscle protein synthesis. In ... The three subsequent orbital missions were termed Skylab 2, 3 and 4. These three long-duration mission were 28, 56 and 84 days ...

*Compounds of zinc

In the active site of resting carbonic anhydrase a zinc ion is coordinated by three histidine residues. The fourth position is ... The polarizing effect of Zn2+ is part of the reason why zinc is found in enzymes such as carbonic anhydrase. No fluoro ... Tetrahedrally coordinated zinc is found in metallo-enzymes such as carbonic anhydrase. Six-coordinate octahedral complexes are ... The zinc ion is invariably 4-coordinate with at least three ligands that are amino-acid side-chains. The imidazole nitrogen of ...

*Chloride shift

... where carbonic anhydrase catalyzes its hydration to carbonic acid (H2CO3). Carbonic acid then spontaneously dissociates to form ... The underlying properties creating the chloride shift are the presence of carbonic anhydrase within the RBCs but not the plasma ... Continuous process of carbonic acid dissociation and outflow of bicarbonate ions would eventually lead to a change of ... Inward movement of bicarbonate via the Band 3 exchanger allows carbonic anhydrase to convert it to CO2 for expiration. The ...

*Acid-base homeostasis

... is the molar concentration of carbonic acid in the ECF. However, since the carbonic acid concentration is directly proportional ... In humans and many other animals, acid-base homeostasis is maintained by multiple mechanisms involved in three lines of defence ... The carbonic acid spontaneously dissociates into hydrogen ions and bicarbonate ions. When the pH in the ECF tends to fall (i.e ... If the one cancels the other out (i.e. the ratio of carbonic acid to bicarbonate is returned to 1:20) then there is neither an ...

*Carboxysome

A full length CcmM protein consists of a gamma-carbonic anhydrase domain on and three to five small subunit-like domains (SSLDs ... Likewise, in some cyanobacterial strains the beta-carboxysomes contain a beta-carbonic anhydrase that is not found in the ccm ... The signature proteins of the beta-carboxysome are Form IB RuBisCO and a gamma carbonic anhydrase homolog. Beta-carboxysomes ... CsoSCA is a shell-associated beta-carbonic anhydrase. Studies in Halothiobacillus neapolitanus have shown that empty shells of ...

*CA1 (gene)

III. Identification of the carbonic anhydrase-1 variant with CA1 Guam". American Journal of Human Genetics. 33 (1): 105-11. PMC ... Carbonic anhydrase 1 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CA1 gene. Carbonic anhydrases (CAs) are a large family of ... "Entrez Gene: CA1 carbonic anhydrase I". "CA1 - Carbonic anhydrase 1 - Homo sapiens (Human) - CA1 gene & protein". www.uniprot. ... Lin KT, Deutsch HF (Mar 1973). "Human carbonic anhydrases. XI. The complete primary structure of carbonic anhydrase B". The ...

*Band 3

This is crucial for CO2 uptake by the red blood cell and conversion (by hydration catalysed by carbonic anhydrase) into a ... Functional interaction of carbonic anhydrase II and chloride/bicarbonate exchangers". J. Biol. Chem. 276 (51): 47886-94. doi: ... Extracellular loop 4 of the human AE1 Cl-/HCO3- exchanger binds carbonic anhydrase IV". J. Biol. Chem. 277 (28): 25239-46. doi: ... Vince JW, Reithmeier RA (October 1998). "Carbonic anhydrase II binds to the carboxyl terminus of human band 3, the erythrocyte ...

*Rhabdomyolysis

Other markers of muscle damage, such as aldolase, troponin, carbonic anhydrase type 3 and fatty acid-binding protein (FABP), ... Three main modalities of RRT are available: hemodialysis, continuous hemofiltration and peritoneal dialysis. The former two ... 25 (3): 332-47. doi:10.1002/mus.10053. PMID 11870710. Elsayed EF; Reilly RF (2010). "Rhabdomyolysis: a review, with emphasis on ... CK concentrations rise steadily for 12 hours after the original muscle injury, remain elevated for 1-3 days and then fall ...

*Bacterial microcompartment

CcmM has two domains: an N-terminal gamma-carbonic anhydrase domain followed by a domain consisting of three to five repeats of ... Bicarbonate is pumped into the cytosol and diffuses into the carboxysome, where carbonic anhydrase converts it to carbon ... G. D. Price & M. R. Badger (October 1989). "Expression of Human Carbonic Anhydrase in the Cyanobacterium Synechococcus PCC7942 ... and carbonic anhydrase in carbon-fixing bacteria as part of a carbon concentrating mechanism. ...

*Progesterone 3-acetyl enol ether

Lutwak-Mann C, Adams CE (April 1957). "Carbonic anhydrase in the female reproductive tract. II. Endometrial carbonic anhydrase ... to possess similar potency to progesterone and hydroxyprogesterone caproate in the rabbit endometrial carbonic anhydrase test, ... Progesterone 3-acetyl enol ether, also known as progesterone acetate,[1] as well as 3-acetoxypregna-3,5-dien-20-one, is a ... 8S,9S,10R,13S,14S,17S)-17-Acetyl-10,13-dimethyl-2,7,8,9,11,12,14,15,16,17-decahydro-1H-cyclopenta[a]phenanthren-3-yl] acetate ...

*V-ATPase

One gene is carbonic anhydrase II (CAII), which, when mutated, causes osteopetrosis with renal tubular acidosis(type 3) {Sly, ... with three copies of the catalytic A and B subunits, three copies of the stator subunits E and G, and one copy of the ... "Carbonic anhydrase II deficiency identified as the primary defect in the autosomal recessive syndrome of osteopetrosis with ... Two of the three proteins, Vma12p and Vma22p, form a complex that binds transiently to Vph1p (subunit a) to aid its assembly ...

*PTPRZ1

... an alpha-carbonic anhydrase domain and a fibronectin type III domain. Alternative splice variants that encode different protein ... is expressed in brain and has an N-terminal receptor domain homologous to carbonic anhydrases". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. ... Kaplan R, Morse B, Huebner K, Croce C, Howk R, Ravera M, Ricca G, Jaye M, Schlessinger J (1990). "Cloning of three human ... 32 (3): 411-4. doi:10.1038/ng1004. PMID 12355066. Müller S, Kunkel P, Lamszus K, Ulbricht U, Lorente GA, Nelson AM, von Schack ...

*CA3

... may refer to: Carbonic anhydrase III, muscle specific, a human gene Cornu Ammonis region 3, one of the hippocampal ... Buhl-Verville CA-3 Airster Buhl CA-3 Airsedan CAC CA-3 Wirraway California's 3rd congressional district California State Route ... Caproni Ca.3, an Italian heavy bomber of World War I and the post-war era. ...

*Blood

CO2 is carried in blood in three different ways. (The exact percentages vary depending whether it is arterial or venous blood ... This is derived from the statement in the Qur'an, sura Al-Ma'ida (5:3): "Forbidden to you (for food) are: dead meat, blood, the ... In Judaism, animal blood may not be consumed even in the smallest quantity (Leviticus 3:17 and elsewhere); this is reflected in ... Taboo food and drink: Blood Oct-1-en-3-one ("Smell" of blood) "Definition of BLOOD". Retrieved 4 March 2017. The Franklin ...

*Sulfonamide (medicine)

... class III antiarrhythmic) Dorzolamide (anti-glaucoma carbonic anhydrase inhibitor) Dronedarone (class III antiarrhythmic) ... carbonic anhydrase inhibitor for glaucoma) Celecoxib (COX-2 inhibitor) Dofetilide ( ... Ibutilide (class III antiarrhythmic) Parecoxib (COX-2 inhibitor) Probenecid (uricosuric) Sotalol (β blocker) Sulfasalazine ( ... 24 (3): 477-490, vii. doi:10.1016/j.iac.2004.03.011. PMID 15242722. Knowles S, Shapiro L, Shear NH (2001). "Should Celecoxib Be ...

*Protein tyrosine phosphatase

FN-III) repeats, immunoglobulin-like domains, MAM domains, or carbonic anhydrase-like domains in their extracellular region. In ... The Class III PTPs contains three members, CDC25 A, B, and C These are members of the HAD fold and superfamily, and include ... This class has a distinct catalytic mechanism from the other three classes. Based on their cellular localization, PTPases are ... Some of the receptor PTPases contain fibronectin type III ( ... 3 (7): 739-48. PMID 12678841. Alonso A, Sasin J, et al. (2004 ...

*CA8

"Entrez Gene: CA8 carbonic anhydrase VIII". Hirota J, Ando H, Hamada K, Mikoshiba K (Jun 2003). "Carbonic anhydrase-related ... continues to carry a carbonic anhydrase designation based on clear sequence identity to other members of the carbonic anhydrase ... Carbonic anhydrase-related protein is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CA8 gene. The protein encoded by this gene was ... Bergenhem NC, Sait SS, Eddy RL, Shows TB, Tashian RE (1995). "Assignment of the gene for human carbonic anhydrase VIII(CA8) to ...

*Carbonic anhydrase

Unlike most other carbonic anhydrases, the active site metal ion is not bound by three histidine residues and a hydroxide ion. ... Several forms of carbonic anhydrase occur in nature. In the best-studied α-carbonic anhydrase form present in animals, the zinc ... Carbonic anhydrase inhibitor Badger MR, Price GD (1994). "The role of carbonic anhydrase in photosynthesis". Annu. Rev. Plant ... The mechanism of cadmium carbonic anhydrase (CDCA) is essentially the same as that of other carbonic anhydrases in its ...

*Carbonic anhydrase 4

... is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CA4 gene. Carbonic anhydrases (CAs) are a large family of ... "Carbonic anhydrase IV from human lung. Purification, characterization, and comparison with membrane carbonic anhydrase from ... Other forms of carbonic anhydrase enzyme are not present in the plasma, restricting the equilibrium reaction of CO2+H2O = H2CO3 ... "Entrez Gene: CA4 carbonic anhydrase IV". Sterling D, Alvarez BV, Casey JR (Jul 2002). "The extracellular component of a ...

*Inhalation

carbonic anhydrase (chloride shift). *oxyhemoglobin. *respiratory quotient. *arterial blood gas. *diffusion capacity (DLCO) ...

*Carbonic anhydrase VI

Carbonic anhydrase 6 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CA6 gene. It is also called 'gustin' because of its presence ... "Entrez Gene: CA6 carbonic anhydrase VI". Henkin RI, Mueller CW, Wolf RO (July 1975). "Estimation of zinc concentration of ... The protein encoded by this gene is one of several isozymes of carbonic anhydrase. This protein is abundantly found in salivary ... Aldred P, Fu P, Barrett G, Penschow JD, Wright RD, Coghlan JP, Fernley RT (January 1991). "Human secreted carbonic anhydrase: ...
Mouse Monoclonal Anti-Carbonic Anhydrase III/CA3 Antibody (4A12-1A3). Validated: WB, ELISA, IHC-P. Tested Reactivity: Human. 100% Guaranteed.
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Measuring proteins involved in glucose and fatty acid metabolism before and after an 8-wk VLED reflects the metabolic adaptations occurring in adipose tissue linked to energy expenditure. More specifically, the decrease of AldoC, an enzyme of glycolysis, is correlated with the decrease in AEE, and the non-significant change HADHsc, a crucial enzyme for mitochondrial beta-oxidation, is negatively correlated with the adaptation in REE. Furthermore, there is a correlation between the increase in FABP4, the intracellular fatty acid transporter, and the decrease in fat mass, and a correlation between the decrease in AldoC and the decrease in fat free mass. FABP4, AldoC and HADHsc are all positively correlated.. The increased FABP4 after the VLED weight loss is in accordance with previous results in obese subjects [11, 12, 44]. It is in line with an elevation in intracellular trafficking of fatty acids, which is expected during a negative energy balance when lipolysis is stimulated, with the release ...
Carbonic anhydrase III (CAIII) is a member of a multigene family (at least six separate genes are known) that encodes carbonic anhydrase isozymes. These carbonic anhydrases are a class of metalloenzymes that catalyze the reversible hydration of carbon dioxide and are differentially expressed in a number of cell types. The expression of the CA3 gene is strictly tissue specific and present at high levels in skeletal muscle and much lower levels in cardiac and smooth muscle. A proportion of carriers of Duchenne muscle dystrophy have a higher CA3 level than normal. The gene spans 10.3 kb and contains seven exons and six introns. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2008 ...
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Close The Infona portal uses cookies, i.e. strings of text saved by a browser on the users device. The portal can access those files and use them to remember the users data, such as their chosen settings (screen view, interface language, etc.), or their login data. By using the Infona portal the user accepts automatic saving and using this information for portal operation purposes. More information on the subject can be found in the Privacy Policy and Terms of Service. By closing this window the user confirms that they have read the information on cookie usage, and they accept the privacy policy and the way cookies are used by the portal. You can change the cookie settings in your browser. ...
Centos all-natural, authentically prepared tomato paste is 100% Italian and a favorite of ours for years. We love the innovative packaging that makes using and sto...
1E9O: Conformational Variability of the Cu Site in One Subunit of Bovine Cuzn Superoxide Dismutase: The Importance of Mobility in the Glu119-Leu142 Loop Region for Catalytic Function
UV and IR photochemistries of malonaldehyde, the simplest molecule exhibiting an intramolecular proton exchange, have been studied in four cryogenic matrices at 4.3 K, N2, Ne, Ar and Xe. Samples have been irradiated using a UV and IR OPO type tunable laser, and with a broad band UV mercury lamp. UV and IR spectra have been recorded and compared with theoretical calculations carried out at the SAC-CI/6-31++G(d,p) (UV transitions) and B3LYP/6-311++G(2d,2p) (IR spectra) levels of theory. After de- position, the intramolecularly H-bonded form is found exclusively, while several open forms are formed upon UV irradiation ...
See all results for Spaghetti Casserole No Null No (tomato Paste) Recipes. Find more recipes at Foodily.com - the largest recipe search site - and see the ones your friends like.
In addition to the Steered MD (SMD) approach described starting on page 108 of the manual, a new set of Adaptively Biased MD and related methods has been introduced for Amber10 (See page 121 and also be aware that this tutorial uses an Amber11 addition, LCOD, to these methods. Adding LCOD capabilities to Amber10 is described below). The whole Adaptively Biased MD section (4.6) should be studied for background to this tutorial. The new implementation of the SMD method specifically is described starting on page 125. The tutorial is a brief test case using steered MD to force an intramolecular proton transfer (PT) in malonaldehyde (pictured). The simulation was carried out in vacuum with the QMMM DFTB Hamiltonian using the LCOD (linear combination of distances) reaction coordinate. The QM region consisted of the whole molecule. These results should be compared with the Empirical Valence Bond (EVB) section, specifically to Figure 3.4 (page 77, closed triangles). As indicated above the LCOD reaction ...
1TG3: Structural and Kinetic Characterization of Active-Site Histidine as a Proton Shuttle in Catalysis by Human Carbonic Anhydrase II
为解决新疆番茄酱加工废水排放量大、处理效果参差不齐的情况,在SBR(序批式反应器)中接种絮体污泥,以人工合成番茄酱加工废水为基质成功培养出粒径为0.50~1.61 mm的好氧颗粒污泥,并采用扫描电镜、三维荧光光谱(3D EEM)、激光共聚焦(CLSM)、死活细菌染色以及高通量测序等技术表征活性污泥的颗粒化过程.结果表明,颗粒污泥沉降性能良好,CODCr、NH4+-N、PO43--P的平均去除率分别为90%、85%、45%.扫描电镜下,椭球状的颗粒污泥轮廓清晰,结构密实.蛋白质在颗粒化过程中逐渐增加,α-多糖、β-多糖和蛋白质贯穿整个颗粒截面,在颗粒中分布广泛,构成了颗粒的骨架.颗粒内部的孔隙为溶解氧和营养物质传递提供了条件,因此活细菌则更多地靠近颗粒边缘及内部的孔隙周围,并包裹着死细菌.颗粒化过程中
Most loss-of-function diseases are caused by aberrant folding of important proteins. These proteins often misfold due to inherited mutations. The rare disease marble brain disease (MBD) also known as carbonic anhydrase II deficiency syndrome (CADS) can manifest in carriers of point mutations in the human carbonic anhydrase II (HCA II) gene. We have over the past 10-15 years studied the folding, misfolding and aggregation of the enzyme human carbonic anhydrase II. In summary our HCA II folding studies have shown that the protein folds via an intermediate of molten-globule type, which lacks enzyme activity and the molten globule state of HCA II is prone to aggregation. One mutation associated with MBD entails the His107Tyr (H107Y) substitution. We have demonstrated that the H107Y mutation is a remarkably destabilizing mutation influencing the folding behavior of HCA II. A mutational survey of position H107 and a neighboring conserved position E117 has been performed entailing the mutants H107A, ...
Entrepreneurs say the crisis has been worsened by the central banks decision to keep an artificially high exchange rate, which has dried up dollar supplies, forcing firms to buy them on the black market at a 40 per cent premium."Where the foreign exchange is not available, we are cutting down our operations. For example, we had a tomato-based processing plant, we have shut it down," Tomato paste is a staple food in Nigeria but the country imports much of its supplies from China. Dangotes plant opened only last year amid much talk from officials predicting a new era of Nigeria producing its own tomato paste, displacing costly imports ...
ESCUDERO-ALMANZA, Dalila Jacqueline et al. Carbonic Anhydrase and Zinc in Plant Physiology. Chilean J. Agric. Res. [online]. 2012, vol.72, n.1, pp.140-146. ISSN 0718-5839. http://dx.doi.org/10.4067/S0718-58392012000100022.. Carbonic anhydrase (CA) (EC: 2.4.1.1) catalyzes the rapid conversion of carbon dioxide plus water into a proton and the bicarbonate ion (HCO3-) that can be found in prokaryotes and higher organisms; it is represented by four different families. Carbonic anhydrase is a metalloenzyme that requires Zn as a cofactor and is involved in diverse biological processes including pH regulation, CO2 transfer, ionic exchange, respiration, CO2 photosynthetic fixation, and stomatal closure. Therefore, the review includes relevant aspects about CA morphology, oligomerization, and structural differences in the active site. On the other hand, we consider the general characteristics of Zn, its geometry, reactions, and physiology. We then consider the CA catalysis mechanism that is carried out ...
MediSavvy has been developed as an educational platform and learning resource for health professionals, as well as patients that are keen to learn more about their conditions. ...
5315 K-ras is mutated in many lung adenocarcinomas, but the nature of its contribution to the development and maintenance of these cancers is poorly understood. Generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is proposed to be part of its mechanism of action. We pursued this hypothesis in 12 lung adenocarcinoma cell lines expressing mutant K-ras and 8 lines with only wildtype K-ras. K-ras total protein showed a 14-fold variation in amount among the cell lines and was as high on average in cells with wildtype K-ras, as in those with mutant protein. As expected K-ras activity was much higher in lines with mutant K-ras, varied 6-fold among these, and correlated strongly with protein levels. Mn and CuZn superoxide dismutase (SOD) protein levels varied approximately 2-fold among the cell lines. Only MnSOD varied significantly with the parameters measured, and showed a weak positive correlation with levels of superoxide (as measured by reduction of nitroblue tetrazolium) and a strong negative correlation ...
Protein S-glutathionylation is a reversible post-translational modification regulating sulfhydryl homeostasis. However, little is known about the proteins and pathways regulated by S-glutathionylation in whole organisms and current approaches lack the sensitivity to examine this modification under basal conditions. We now report the quantification and identification of S-glutathionylated proteins from animal tissue, using a highly sensitive methodology combining high-accuracy proteomics with Tandem Mass Tagging to provide precise, extensive coverage of S-glutathionylated targets in mouse liver. Critically, we show significant enrichment of S-glutathionylated mitochondrial and Krebs cycle proteins, identifying that S-glutathionylation is heavily involved in energy metabolism processes in vivo . Furthermore, using mice nulled for glutathione S-transferase Pi (GSTP) we address the potential for S-glutathionylation to be mediated enzymatically. The data demonstrate the impact of S-glutathionylation ...
Arteriosclerosis obliterans is an occlusive arterial disease most prominently affecting the abdominal aorta and the small- and medium-sized arteries of the lower extremities, which may lead to absent dorsalis pedis, posterior tibial, and/or popliteal artery pulses. It is characterized by fibrosis of the tunica intima and calcification of the tunica media. Arteriosclerosis Monckebergs arteriosclerosis Skin lesion James, William D.; Berger, Timothy G.; et al. (2006). Andrews Diseases of the Skin: clinical Dermatology. Saunders Elsevier. ISBN 0-7216-2921-0 ...
In the catalysis of the hydration of carbon dioxide and dehydration of bicarbonate by human carbonic anhydrase II (HCA II), a histidine residue (His64) shuttles protons between the zinc-bound solvent molecule and the bulk solution. To evaluate the effect of the position of the shuttle histidine and …
SLC4A5 is a sodium-bicarbonate co-transporter involved with sodium homeostasis. Based on unpublished data, two SLC4A5 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs rs1017783 and rs7571842) have been highly associated with an individuals salt-sensitivity status. Since the renal proximal tubule (RPT) regulates a large percentage of renal sodium transport, we investigated whether SLC4A5 was present in this nephron segment. Using confocal immunofluorescence microscopy, we found expression of SLC4A5 in human RPT cell plasma membrane and intracellular membrane vesicles. We then examined the physiologic implications of the SLC4A5 SNPs in human RPT cells. Using immunoblotting and RT-PCR, we found no significant differences in basal SLC4A5 expression in RPT cells between individuals that are homozygous variant at both SNPs and individuals that are wild-type (WT) for both alleles. Stimulation of the dopaminergic system with 1μM fenoldopam, or the renin-angiotensin system with 10 nM angiotensin II or 10 nM ...
The photophysics of the fluorescent probe Lucifer yellow CH has been investigated using fluorescence spectroscopic and computational techniques. The nonradiative rate is found to pass through a minimum in solvents of intermediate empirical polarity. This apparently anomalous behavior is rationalized by considering the possibility of predominance of different kinds of nonradiative processes, viz. intersystem crossing (ISC) and excited-state proton transfer (ESPT), in solvents of low and high empirical polarity, respectively. The feasibility of the proton transfer is examined by the structure determined by the density functional theory (DFT) calculations. The predicted energy levels based on the time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) method in the gas phase identifies the energy gap between the S-1 and nearest triplet state to be close enough to facilitate ISC. Photophysical investigation in solvent mixtures and in deuterated solvents clearly indicates the predominance of the ...
cansSAR 3D Structure of 3DC3 | USE OF CARBONIC ANHYDRASE II, IX ACTIVE-SITE MIMIC, FOR THE PURPOSE OF SCREENING INHIBITORS FOR POSSIBLE ANTI-CANCER PROPERTIES | 3DC3_A | Carbonic anhydrase 2 - Also known as CAH2_HUMAN, CA2. Essential for bone resorption and osteoclast differentiation (By similarity). Reversible hydration of carbon dioxide. Can hydrate cyanamide to urea. Involved in the regulation of fluid secretion into the anterior chamber of the eye. Contributes to intracellular pH regulation in the duodenal upper villous epithelium during proton-coupled peptide absorption. Stimulates the chloride-bicarbonate exchange activity of SLC26A6. Interacts with SLC4A4. Interaction with SLC4A7 regulates SLC4A7 transporter activity. Interacts with SLC26A6 isoform 4 (via C-terminus cytoplasmic domain).
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BioAssay record AID 644085 submitted by ChEMBL: Inhibition of human carbonic anhydrase 2 using 4-nitrophenylacetate as substrate after 3 mins using spectrophotometry by Lineweaver-Burk plot analysis.
In the catalysis of the hydration of carbon dioxide and dehydration of bicarbonate by human carbonic anhydrase II (HCA II), a histidine residue (His64) shuttles protons between the zinc-bound solvent molecule and the bulk solution. To evaluate the effect of the position of the shuttle histidine and pH on proton shuttling, we have examined the catalysis and crystal structures of wild-type HCA II and two double mutants: H64A/N62H and H64A/N67H HCA II. His62 and His67 both have their side chains extending into the active-site cavity with distances from the zinc approximately equivalent to that of His64. Crystal structures were determined at pH 5.1-10.0, and the catalysis of the exchange of (18)O between CO(2) and water was assessed by mass spectrometry. Efficient proton shuttle exceeding a rate of 10(5) s(-)(1) was observed for histidine at positions 64 and 67; in contrast, relatively inefficient proton transfer at a rate near 10(3) s(-)(1) was observed for His62. The observation, in the crystal ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Absence of host NF-κB p50 induces murine glioblastoma tumor regression, increases survival, and decreases T-cell induction of tumor-associated macrophage M2 polarization. AU - Barberi, Theresa. AU - Martin, Allison. AU - Suresh, Rahul. AU - Barakat, David J.. AU - Harris-Bookman, Sarah. AU - Drake, Charles G.. AU - Lim, Michael. AU - Friedman, Alan David. PY - 2018/1/1. Y1 - 2018/1/1. N2 - High-grade gliomas harbor abundant myeloid cells that suppress anti-tumor immunity and support tumor growth. Targeting transcription factors, such as NF-κB p50, that mediate suppressive myeloid M2 polarization may prove therapeutic. GL261-Luc glioblastoma cells were inoculated into wild-type and p50−/− mice, followed by analysis of tumor growth, survival, tumor myeloid cells, and T cells. The absence of host p50 slows tumor growth and enables regression in 30% of recipients, leading to prolonged survival. Tumors developing in p50−/− mice possess a greater concentration of ...
Recombinant Carbonic Anhydrase VII (CA7) Protein. Species: Rat (Rattus). Source: Escherichia coli (E. coli). Order product ABIN6302725.
The cytosolic isoform XIII is a recently discovered member of the human carbonic anhydrase (hCA, EC 4.2.1.1) family. It is selectively expressed among other tissues in the reproductive organs, where it may control pH and ion balance regulation, ensuring thus proper fertilization conditions. The authors report here the X-ray crystallographic structure of this isozyme in the unbound state and in complex with a classical sulfonamide inhibitor, namely acetazolamide. A detailed comparison of the obtained structural data with those already reported for other CA isozymes provides novel insights into the catalytic properties of the members of this protein family. On the basis of the inhibitory properties of acetazolamide against various cytosolic/transmembrane isoforms and the structural differences detected within the active site of the various CA isoforms, further prospects for the design of isozyme-specific CA inhibitors are here proposed. Proteins 2008. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. Crystal structure of ...
Rafael MS, Laizé V, Bensimon-Brito A, Leite RB, Schüle R, M. Cancela L. Four-and-a-half LIM domains protein 2 (FHL2) is associated with the development of craniofacial musculature in the teleost fish Sparus aurata. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2012;69(3):423-34. doi:10.1007/s00018-011-0754-y ...
Who knew that a Mao-era Chinese agricultural conglomerate dominates the African tomato market and supplies global food companies? A hundred (...)
SWISS-MODEL Template Library (SMTL) entry for 1t9n.1. Effect of Shuttle Location and pH Environment on H+ Transfer in Human Carbonic Anhydrase II
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This story was pencilled, inked and lettered in four-and-a-half hours, in front of a watching audience, at a charity work-in which took place at UK Comic Art Convention 1988 ...
Well you run and you run to catch up with the Sun but its sinking, racing around to come up behind you again. The Sun is the same in a relative way but youre older, shorter of breath and one day closer to death. -Pink Floyd For the last four-and-a-half billion years, the Earth has spun on its axis, orbiting its parent star: our Sun. Today, our home planet looks something like this.
Take pleasure in contemporary-baked lasagna in lower than forty five minutes with our Lasagna Little Massive Meal. I let the lasagna sit at room temp about an hour before I baked it and then upped the cooking time by quarter-hour, including a few minutes under broil, to brown the cheese a bit. Primarily as a result of I like the style of the tomato paste, but additionally because the recipe my mother used known as for it. It helps thicken it up. I am going to let you understand how it turns out. Alternately, if fresh pasta is difficult to seek out the place you are, replenish on no-boil (entire wheat, if attainable) lasagna sheets.. Oh yeah, I also wanted to say that my lasagna was a tad soupy, and I imagine that it might have been worse had I not put it in the fridge in a single day (the place everyrhing had a chance to attract up among the juices. Individuals like it their manner, and will struggle to the demise for it. Im not going to sit down right here and lecture you on the price of ...
China Stainless Steel Tomato Paste Dual Screw Pump, Find details about China Screw Pump, Dual Screw Pump from Stainless Steel Tomato Paste Dual Screw Pump - Wenzhou Flowtam Light Industry Machinery Co., Ltd.
Most loss-of-function diseases are caused by aberrant folding of important proteins. These proteins often misfold due to inherited mutations. The rare disease marble brain disease (MBD) also known as carbonic anhydrase II deficiency syndrome (CADS) can manifest in carriers of point mutations in the human carbonic anhydrase II (HCA II) gene. We have over the past 10-15 years studied the folding, misfolding and aggregation of the enzyme human carbonic anhydrase II. In summary our HCA II folding studies have shown that the protein folds via an intermediate of molten-globule type, which lacks enzyme activity and the molten globule state of HCA II is prone to aggregation. One mutation associated with MBD entails the His107Tyr (H107Y) substitution. We have demonstrated that the H107Y mutation is a remarkably destabilizing mutation influencing the folding behavior of HCA II. A mutational survey of position H107 and a neighboring conserved position E117 has been performed entailing the mutants H107A, ...
Gill cytoplasmic carbonic anhydrase of the haemoglobinless Antarctic icefish Chionodraco hamatus (Ice-CA) was directly sequenced and consists in 259 residues with an acetylated N-terminus. The molecul
Hyperventilation is a difficult diagnosis to make clinically and that is why having an objective test of hyperventilation is so useful. People who hyperventilate deplete their levels of red cell carbonic anhydrase and the ratio between the activity and the protein gives us a good indication of whether or not hyperventilation is a problem. Hyperventilation is also difficult to treat and so this test tells us how much effort we have to put in to correcting this. Essentially, there is a two-pronged approach - firstly biochemical and secondly physical: Biochemically, red cell carbonic anhydrase is a zinc dependent enzyme and will be depleted simply by zinc deficiency. Furthermore, a low red cell carbonic anhydrase drives hyperventilation and so this is another example of one of the many vicious cycles seen in patients with chronic fatigue. Zinc is best absorbed at night and I recommend taking 30mg last thing at night on an empty stomach. This should be in addition to zinc taken in my physiological ...
Mono- and Stereopictres of 5.0 Angstrom coordination sphere of Zinc atom in PDB 1z9y: Carbonic Anhydrase II in Complex With Furosemide As Sulfonamide Inhibitor
The sauce is a manner of personal taste, of course, but here is what I do. First, put a big pot of salted water on to boil. Itll take longer than you think, and the sauce happens pretty quickly. Dice an onion, and chop up 2 cloves of garlic. Put the onion in the bowl that held the herby oil mixture, because that way the flavors from the eggplant will be echoed in the sauce. Toss the onion bits around, and then put them in a saute pan with a tablespoon or 2 of oil. Sprinkle with salt, and cook on medium-low heat until the onions start releasing their liquid. Then, add in the garlic, and some tomato paste. Stir to combine, and once the tomato paste has cooked for a few minutes, add the can of tomatoes and smash with a masher. You COULD use crushed tomatoes, but I prefer the whole ones for this situation. Season with a little salt and pepper, but be careful because tomato paste is salty. Let simmer while youre staring at your watch waiting for the pasta water to boil, stir frequently so the sauce ...
The tomato paste actually worked pretty well. A lot like Prell. A little goes a long way. Of course, I didnt know that right away and plopped a big old tablespoon of tomato paste right on the top of his head and lathered it in. I eventually covered him with about a half a can, which made him look like he had tried the mud bath at the "Red Clay of Georgia Spa." Gradually, it started to cover up (absorb?) his manly, skunk odor. ...
Question 10: This is the reaction that integrates CO2 into ________ sugars during photosynthesis, and can use only the CO2 form of carbon, not carbonic acid or bicarbonate. ...
Contact Us. Tel:732-484-9848. Fax:888-484-5008. Email:[email protected]. Add:1 Deer Park Dr, Suite Q,. Monmouth Junction, NJ 08852, USA. ...
Reactome is pathway database which provides intuitive bioinformatics tools for the visualisation, interpretation and analysis of pathway knowledge.
One of the four discrete isoenzymes of carbonic anhydrase hitherto characterized, CA III, has the lowest turnover rate and the greatest resistance to inhibition by sulphonamides. Streptozotocin-induced diabetes mellitus resulted in a reduction in acetazolamide-resistant activity of carbonic anhydrase in the liver, but not in tonic skeletal muscle, of adult male rats. The hepatic activity declined with apparent first-order kinetics [calculated rate constant (k) 0.089 day-1] to a minimum of approx. 6% of control values; the reduction in activity was moderated by administration of insulin. ...
Nestler EJ (August 2016). "Reflections on: "A general role for adaptations in G-Proteins and the cyclic AMP system in mediating the chronic actions of morphine and cocaine on neuronal function"". Brain Research. 1645: 71-4. doi:10.1016/j.brainres.2015.12.039. PMC 4927417. PMID 26740398. These findings led us to hypothesize that a concerted upregulation of the cAMP pathway is a general mechanism of opiate tolerance and dependence. ... We thus extended our hypothesis to suggest that, particularly within brain reward regions such as NAc, cAMP pathway upregulation represents a common mechanism of reward tolerance and dependence shared by several classes of drugs of abuse. Research since that time, by many laboratories, has provided substantial support for these hypotheses. Specifically, opiates in several CNS regions including NAc, and cocaine more selectively in NAc induce expression of certain adenylyl cyclase isoforms and PKA subunits via the transcription factor, CREB, and these transcriptional ...
The IUPHAR/BPS Guide to Pharmacology. carbonic anhydrase 12 - 4.2.1.1 Carbonate dehydratases. Detailed annotation on the structure, function, physiology, pharmacology and clinical relevance of drug targets.
The IUPHAR/BPS Guide to Pharmacology. carbonic anhydrase 13 - 4.2.1.1 Carbonate dehydratases. Detailed annotation on the structure, function, physiology, pharmacology and clinical relevance of drug targets.
Four-and-a-half LIM domain protein 1 isoform A (FHL1A) is predominantly expressed in skeletal and cardiac muscle. Mutations in the FHL1 gene are causative for several types of hereditary myopathies including X-linked myopathy with postural muscle atrophy (XMPMA). We here studied myoblasts from XMPMA patients. We found that functional FHL1A protein is completely absent in patient myoblasts. In parallel, expression of FHL1C is either unaffected or increased. Furthermore, a decreased proliferation rate of XMPMA myoblasts compared to controls was observed but an increased number of XMPMA myoblasts was found in the G(0)/G(1) phase. Furthermore, low expression of K(v1.5), a voltage-gated potassium channel known to alter myoblast proliferation during the G(1) phase and to control repolarization of action potential, was detected. In order to substantiate a possible relation between K(v1.5) and FHL1C, a pull-down assay was performed. A physical and direct interaction of both proteins was observed in ...
Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology. ...
Full nutritional breakdown of the calories in Yummy Tomato Sauce based on the calories and nutrition in each ingredient, including Olive Oil, Tomato Paste, Onions, raw, Canned Tomatoes, Garlic and the other ingredients in this recipe.
They contain the pigment lycopene which makes them red reduces the risk of cancer. This antioxidant also can be found in melons and apricots. It neutralises oxygen free radicals that cause cancer. Low content of lycopene in the blood indicates an increased risk of pancreatic cancer. Lycopene is found in all products made from tomato, including sauces, tomato paste and ketchup.. ...
Full nutritional breakdown of the calories in LaRaines Chili Mac based on the calories and nutrition in each ingredient, including Tinkyada Brown Rice Pasta-dry, Beans, pinto, Honeysuckle White Extra Lean Ground Turkey 99%fat free, Tomato Paste, Tomatoes, red, ripe, canned, with green chilies and the other ingredients in this recipe.
Carbonic anhydrase (CA) is a zinc containing metalloenzyme that catalyzes the reversible interconversion of CO2 and HCO3-. There are three evolutionarily unrelated CA families designated alpha, beta and gamma CA. Vertebrates have members of the alpha CA family, while higher plants, algae and cyanobacteria have members belonging to all three CA families. In the green alga, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, five CAs have previously been identified including three alpha CAs and two beta CAs. This dissertation describes the identification and characterization of new CA genes from C. reinhardtii. Four new CA or CA like genes have been discovered including two beta CAs and two gamma CAs. Three CAs were investigated further including the alpha CA Cah3, one of the new beta CAs, Cah6; and a new gamma CA designated Gclp1 for gamma CA like protein. Cah3 is an alpha CA located in the thylakoid. Past studies with two Cah3 mutants, ca-1 and cia3 have shown that Cah3 plays an important role in the CO2 concentrating ...
Carbonic Anhydrase IX/CA9 Antibody Pairs available through Novus Biologicals. Browse our Carbonic Anhydrase IX/CA9 Antibody Pair catalog backed by our Guarantee+.
Proton channels facilitate the movement of protons over large distances and are critical in many reactions, from controlling proton delivery in metalloenzymes[1] to moving protons through PEM fuel cells.[2] Hydrogenases are enzymes that use proton channels to deliver protons to or from the enzyme active site to achieve high rates of hydrogen production and oxidation at low overpotentials.[3] The [Ni(PR2NR2)2]2+ series of complexes, which are functional mimics of the [FeFe]-hydrogenase active site, utilize pendant amines to move the proton to or from the Ni, resulting in some of the fastest synthetic catalysts for hydrogen production and oxidation reported.[4] While intramolecular proton movement has been shown to be facile,[5] deprotonation of hydrogen oxidation catalysts can be a slow step for catalysis.[6] Additionally, a stable H2 adduct (endo-endo) is formed which, if bypassed, could contribute to an overall enhanced rate (Figure 1). A proton channel may aid in addressing these outstanding ...
Carbonic anhydrase (CA; EC 4.2.1.1) is a zinc containing enzyme which catalyzes a reversible reaction to form bicarbonate from carbon dioxide and water [1, 2]. By facilitating the interconversion between CO2 and bicarbonate in vivo, CA activity was proposed to be required to ensure adequate level of CO2or HCO3- as the substrates for other enzymes [3]. Therefore, CAs have been found to play an essential role in a series of fundamental biological processes such as photosynthesis, respiration, pH homeostasis and ion transport [4]. Based on the origins and structural features, CAs are divided into six classes, termed α, β, γ, δ, ε and ζ, respectively [5]. The α-CAs were found in mammals, algae and prokaryotes to facilitate the exchange of CO2 in the respiratory cycle. The β-CAs were characterized in higher plants, algae and prokaryotes, and those in higher plants have been reported to play a critical role during photosynthesis [6]. The γ-class was first identified in the thermophilic ...
Anti-human Carbonic Anhydrase IX/CA9 antibody,Rabbit MAb. Applications for ELISA,FCM, fully validated. Quality guaranteed. Buy elite antibodies at up to 60% cost saving.
Anti-human Carbonic Anhydrase IX/CA9 antibody,Rabbit MAb. Applications for ELISA,IHC-P, fully validated. Quality guaranteed. Buy elite antibodies at up to 60% cost saving.
Carbonic anhydrase (CA) from erythrocytes of the pink salmon, Onchorhyncus gorbushka, was purified using chloroform-ethanol extraction and Sephadex G-75 gel filtration. A single, high specific-activity CA isozyme having a molecular weight of 29,000 was found. The enzyme sedimented as a ...read more ...
Carbonic anhydrase 12, 0.1 ml. Carbonic anhydrases (CAs) are a large family of zinc metalloenzymes that catalyze the reversible hydration of carbon dioxide.
To further assess our results, we performed a literature review of the genes reported by at least seven studies in the cancer versus normal comparison to determine if any have been shown to have diagnostic and/or prognostic utility in colorectal cancer. The most consistently reported differentially expressed gene in our meta-analysis was carbonic anhydrase II (CA2), which was reported as down-regulated in 11 studies. Along with carbonic anhydrase I, CA2 has been shown to have prognostic significance where the expression of both enzymes was related to the metastatic aggressiveness of colorectal cancer (23). Similarly, the potential diagnostic utility of CA2 was shown in a study in which the average level of fecal CA2 in colorectal cancer patients was shown to be significantly greater than those in the control group (24). Immunohistochemistry has been done on colorectal tumor and healthy mucosa tissue to monitor the protein levels of four carbonic anhydrases, among them CA2 (25). That study showed ...
Rabbit polyclonal Carbonic Anhydrase IV/CA4 antibody validated for WB, ELISA and tested in Human and Mouse. Immunogen corresponding to synthetic peptide
3mzc: Selective hydrophobic pocket binding observed within the carbonic anhydrase II active site accommodate different 4-substituted-ureido-benzenesulfonamides and correlate to inhibitor potency.
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As those numbers suggest, the scale of American decay is entirely different: a trillion-and-three-quarter dollars in regulatory costs, a trillion dollars in college debt, four-and-a-half billion dollars spent by Washington every single day that we dont have, 70 percent of which the United States government
L-arginine, Disease, Patients, Arginine, Nitric Oxide, Carbonic Anhydrase, Isoforms, Inhibition, Sulfonamides, Active Site, Heart, and Concentrations
Full text of Epidemiology : Beyond the Basics 3rd ed. (2014) Author: Moyses Szklo, MD, DrPH, F. Nieto, MD, PhD is part of the R2 Library Collection. For USC users only. Requires USC network connection. Allows limited number of simultaneous connections.. ...
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Looking for Carbonic anhydrase iv? Find out information about Carbonic anhydrase iv. An enzyme which aids carbon dioxide transport and release by catalyzing the synthesis, and the dehydration, of carbonic acid from, and to, carbon dioxide... Explanation of Carbonic anhydrase iv
This study tests the hypothesis that the increase in blood PCO2 and associated respiratory acidosis after exhaustive exercise play an important role in stimulating ventilation during post-exercise recovery in fish. Injection of bovine carbonic anhydrase (10 mg kg-1) into the bloodstream of rainbow trout caused a persistent 40 % increase in the HCO3- dehydration capacity of the blood. The treatment was designed to increase CO2 excretion and therefore to reduce PCO2 build-up and acidosis after exercise. Aerobic and anaerobic swimming performance were not affected by carbonic anhydrase, and there were only very minor effects on arterial blood acid­base status in resting fish. However, carbonic anhydrase attenuated post-exercise increases in PaCO2 and decreases in pHa by about 50 % without altering arterial O2 variables, red cell swelling or the intracellular pH of the brain or muscle tissues. The effects on arterial pH (pHa) resulted largely from alleviation of the increase in PaCO2. In ...
The high metabolic rate required for tumor growth often leads to hypoxia in poorly-perfused regions. Hypoxia activates a complex gene expression program, mediated by hypoxia inducible factor 1 (HIF1alpha). One of the consequences of HIF1alpha activation is up-regulation of glycolysis and hence the production of lactic acid. In addition to the lactic acid-output, intracellular titration of acid with bicarbonate and the engagement of the pentose phosphate shunt release CO(2) from cells. Expression of the enzyme carbonic anhydrase 9 on the tumor cell surface catalyses the extracellular trapping of acid by hydrating cell-generated CO(2) into [see text] and H(+). These mechanisms contribute towards an acidic extracellular milieu favoring tumor growth, invasion and development. The lactic acid released by tumor cells is further metabolized by the tumor stroma. Low extracellular pH may adversely affect the intracellular milieu, possibly triggering apoptosis. Therefore, primary and secondary active transporters
Read "Effect of knockout of α-carbonic anhydrase 4 gene on photosynthetic characteristics and starch accumulation in leaves of Arabidopsis thaliana, Russian Journal of Plant Physiology" on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
PubMed Central Canada (PMC Canada) provides free access to a stable and permanent online digital archive of full-text, peer-reviewed health and life sciences research publications. It builds on PubMed Central (PMC), the U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH) free digital archive of biomedical and life sciences journal literature and is a member of the broader PMC International (PMCI) network of e-repositories.
The high expression of CA-II in saliva of ruminating animals may be interpreted as an adaptation to maintain a suitable environment for ruminal microbes that are essential for the digestion of tough-structured, fibrous grass diets (3, 6). This would get strong support from the expression of the identical enzyme in Colobus monkeys, known to be the only foregut-fermenting primates, as well as in termites, the hindgut of which is an insect analogue to the bovine rumen. Providing the evidence of a connection between salivary CA concentration and changing ruminal or stomach pH in fore-stomach fermenters will enable us to easily and non-invasively detect and diagnose developing acidosis in a zoo environment before it becomes serious or lethal. Thereby, the overall performance and breeding success of Colobus monkeys or zoo ruminants could be improved.. Studies following the idea and techniques presented here may help to increase our knowledge of the important role that pH regulation plays in the ...
A wonderful BBQ sauce that has evolved over the years. Super easy - should make it more often - everyone loves it! Great on pork, chicken, beef, etc!....
A few years ago, researchers at the National Institute of Health and Nutrition in Japan put rats through a series of swim tests with surprising results. They had one group of rodents paddle in a small pool for six hours, this long workout broken into two sessions of three hours each. A second group of rats were made to stroke furiously through short, intense bouts of swimming, while carrying ballast to increase their workload. After 20 seconds, the weighted rats were scooped out of the water and allowed to rest for 10 seconds, before being placed back in the pool for another 20 seconds of exertion. The scientists had the rats repeat these brief, strenuous swims 14 times, for a total of about four-and-a-half minutes of swimming. Afterward, the researchers tested each rats muscle fibers and found that, as expected, the rats that had gone for the six-hour swim showed preliminary molecular changes that would increase endurance. But the second rodent group, which exercised for less than five minutes ...
General Guidance. The greater the number of basic math and science courses you can complete at UW Oshkosh before transferring, the quicker you will be able to take the specialized upper level classes offered only at the engineering schools. If your expectation is to graduate in four or four-and-a-half years, you will need to enroll in the calculus and physics sequences in your first semester. This "hit the ground running" advice also applies to the chemistry sequence if your interest lies with biomedical or chemical engineering. The entry-level math, physics and chemistry sequences are prerequisites for most of the 200-level classes that you will take in your second year. A willingness to spend more time at UW Oshkosh gives you greater flexibility with your schedule and a chance to pick up additional classes that interest you, but it will almost always take longer to graduate.. Entry level math preparation is the most common reason for having to extend your time as a pre-engineering student. ...
San Franciscos most expensive home ever sold in 2017 for a whopping $38 million. The house at 2712 Broadway was newly built and listed for a price of $40 million. Seven bedrooms, eight bathrooms and four-and-a-half baths, a gourmet kitchen, two kitchenettes, a spa with a gym and massage room, a media room and two wine rooms are spread across 11,400 square feet.. less ...
But It is also true the amounts of alkaloids present in nightshade foods are very well-tolerated by many individuals in diets around the world. For more on nightshades, be sure to see our article "What exactly are nightshades and wherein foods are they observed?") Right now tomatoes are appreciated throughout the world-to your tune of about one hundred thirty million tons per annum. The biggest tomato-making state is China (with about 34 million lots of generation), accompanied by The usa, Turkey, India, and Italy. While in the U.S., cultivation of tomato kinds will likely be determined by their last vacation spot: (1) website consumption in contemporary type by people or (two) use in processing by companies of tomato merchandise. Tomato processors require kinds that have a larger proportion of soluble solids so as to make merchandise like tomato paste much more effectively. In between eighty-ninety% of all commercial tomato cultivation during the U.S. is cultivation for eventual use in ...
Ingredients: Brown sugar (sugar, molasses), distilled vinegar, tomato paste (concentrated tomatoes, citric acid), tart cherries, chocolate syrup (high fructose
I was reading on minerals and trace minerals that our bodies need and checked food source for potassium. The only food we are allowed to eat that contains high levels of potassium is spinach and tomato (they do mention tomato paste). Yogurt is listed but I am unable to take it at the moment (purchased one doesnt agree with me and dont have culture to make it so I stick to kefir for now). Does anyone know if kefir contains potassium as well? If not, perhaps it should be added to the vitamins list? What amount to take? ...
2. Lower the heat to medium and add remaining 1 tablespoon oil. Add onions, carrot, and celery; cook 4 or 5 minutes, then add garlic, stir well, and cook until fragrant, 1 to 2 minutes. Stir in tomato paste and cook 1 to 2 minutes. Add wine, vinegar, and sugar, scraping up any browned bits from thebottom of the pan and stirring until sugar is dissolved. Return shanks to the pan with any accumulated juices. Shanks should be covered with liquid; add water if needed to fully submerge. Cover pan and bake for 2 1/2 to 3 hours. Turn the shanks halfway through cooking. Meat should be very tender andeasy to pull away from the bone ...
Creative Biolabs provides Lenti-Carbonic anhydrase IX (CA9) CAR (scFv-CD3ζ, G36) Viral Particle product for Biopharmaceutical research,preclinical and clinical trials.
Monocarboxylate transporter-5 (MCT5 or SLC16A4; sometimes referred to as MCT4). Lactate transport via the MCT5 is non enzymatically stimulated by carbonic anhydrase II (Becker et al., 2010). MCTs require an ancillary 1TMS glycoprotein, either Embigin (Q6PCB8; TC# 8.A.23.1.2) or basigin (P35613; TC# 8.A.23.1.1) for plasma membrane localization (Ovens et al., 2010). Upregulated in some cancers and maintains the metabolic phenotype of these cancer cells by mediating lactate efflux together with a proton, promoting pH homeostasis (Baltazar et al. 2014). Also transports the chemotheraputic agent, 3-bromopyruvate (Baltazar et al. 2014 ...
It also is a nanomolar inhibitor of carbonic anhydrase ii [44] and exhibits in vitro and in vivo inhibition of 5-lipoxygenase (5-lo), though at a micromolar potency [45]. It will bring these young people together to celebrate the contributions and sacrifices their communities made to the preservation of freedom. This process is independent of knowing the existence of a particular marker in the diseased sample. From the opening quarter until the last buzzer has sounded it was also beermen. By that time, minsk had become an important economic and cultural center, with its population already in excess of ten billion by 1597. Molina scored 46 goals and was the clubs leading provider of assists in each of his four seasons at the club. Pricing begins at $24 a day for small kennels and goes up to $28 for the larger kennels. At unadjusted completely free cheapest dating online websites for women in canada logistic regression analysis age (p = 0.86), gender (p = 0.72), los (p = 0.34) and sofa score (p = ...
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Wolverhampton Wanderers have signed striker Rafa Mir from Valencia on a four-and-a-half year contract, the English Championship club said.
B. Żołnowska, J. Sławiński, K. Szafrański, A. Angeli, C. T. Supuran, A. Kawiak, M. Wieczór, J. Zielińska, T. Bączek, S. Bartoszewska. Novel 2-(2-arylmethylthio-4-chloro-5-methylbenzenesulfonyl)-1-(1,3,5-triazin-2-ylamino)guanidine derivatives: Inhibition of human carbonic anhydrase cytosolic isozymes I and II and the transmembrane tumor-associated isozymes IX and XII, anticancer activity, and molecular modeling studies. Eur. J. Med. Chem. 2018, 143, 1931-1941. ...

Carbonic Anhydrase III/CA3 Antibody (4A12-1A3) (H00000761-M02): Novus BiologicalsCarbonic Anhydrase III/CA3 Antibody (4A12-1A3) (H00000761-M02): Novus Biologicals

Mouse Monoclonal Anti-Carbonic Anhydrase III/CA3 Antibody (4A12-1A3). Validated: WB, ELISA, IHC-P. Tested Reactivity: Human. ... Additional Carbonic Anhydrase III/CA3 Products. Carbonic Anhydrase III/CA3 H00000761-M02 * Carbonic Anhydrase III/CA3 ... Home » Carbonic Anhydrase III/CA3 » Carbonic Anhydrase III/CA3 Antibodies » Carbonic Anhydrase III/CA3 Antibody (4A12-1A3) ... Blogs on Carbonic Anhydrase III/CA3. There are no specific blogs for Carbonic Anhydrase III/CA3, but you can read our latest ...
more infohttps://www.novusbio.com/products/carbonic-anhydrase-iii-ca3-antibody-4a12-1a3_h00000761-m02

Carbonic anhydrase 3Carbonic anhydrase 3

Carbonic anhydrase III (CAIII) is a member of a multigene family (at least six separate genes are known) that encodes carbonic ... Carbonic anhydrase III is insufficient in muscles of myasthenia gravis patients.. 19206230. 2009. Non-zinc mediated inhibition ... Anti-carbonic anhydrase III autoantibodies in vasculitis syndrome.. 23720494. 2013. Genome-wide association study identifies ... myoglobin/carbonic anhydrase III ratio in the blood proved to be a more specific indicator for myocardial damage than myoglobin ...
more infohttps://pharos.nih.gov/idg/targets/P07451

Carbonic Anhydrase III Overexpression Lysate (Adult Normal), Novus Biologicals (NBL1-08616) | VWRCarbonic Anhydrase III Overexpression Lysate (Adult Normal), Novus Biologicals (NBL1-08616) | VWR

Carbonic Anhydrase III Overexpression Lysate (Adult Normal), Novus Biologicals (NBL1-08616). Carbonic Anhydrase III ... 3. Upload files that contain software or other material protected by intellectual property laws (or by rights of privacy of ... To compare product details, select up to 3 alternatives below and click Compare Selected. To add items to your basket, enter a ...
more infohttps://us.vwr.com/store/product/9696669/carbonic-anhydrase-iii-overexpression-lysate-adult-normal-novus-biologicals-nbl1-08616

List of Carbonic anhydrase inhibitor anticonvulsants - Drugs.comList of Carbonic anhydrase inhibitor anticonvulsants - Drugs.com

Compare carbonic anhydrase inhibitor anticonvulsants. View important safety information, ratings, user reviews, popularity and ... Carbonic anhydrase inhibitor anticonvulsants. What are Carbonic anhydrase inhibitor anticonvulsants. Carbonic anhydrase ... inhibitor anticonvulsants inhibit the enzyme carbonic anhydrase. Generally carbonic anhydrase inhibitors are used to treat ... Home › Drug Classes › Central Nervous System Agents › Anticonvulsants › Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitor Anticonvulsants ...
more infohttps://www.drugs.com/drug-class/carbonic-anhydrase-inhibitor-anticonvulsants.html

Human Erythrocyte Carbonic Anhydrase B. - Chemistry LibreTextsHuman Erythrocyte Carbonic Anhydrase B. - Chemistry LibreTexts

Symmetry of human erythrocyte Carbonic anhydrase B. 1). Geometry of the metal: The metal is liganded to the protein by three ... Structure of human erythrocyte Carbonic anhydrase B. Like all other forms of carbonic anhydrase, CA B. consists of protein and ... Biological importance of human erythrocyte Carbonic anhydrase B. Carbonic anhydrases are abundant in mammalian tissues, plants ... Carbonic anhydrase B is one of the two major forms of carbonic anhydrase in human red blood cell (the other form is CA C). Like ...
more infohttps://chem.libretexts.org/LibreTexts/University_of_California_Davis/UCD_Chem_124A%3A_Berben/Carbonic_Anhydrase/Carbonic_Anhydrase_3

THE ANTICONVULSANT ACTION OF CARBON DIOXIDE: INTERACTION WITH RESERPINE AND INHIBITORS OF CARBONIC ANHYDRASE | Journal of...THE ANTICONVULSANT ACTION OF CARBON DIOXIDE: INTERACTION WITH RESERPINE AND INHIBITORS OF CARBONIC ANHYDRASE | Journal of...

THE ANTICONVULSANT ACTION OF CARBON DIOXIDE: INTERACTION WITH RESERPINE AND INHIBITORS OF CARBONIC ANHYDRASE. WILLIAM D. GRAY ... THE ANTICONVULSANT ACTION OF CARBON DIOXIDE: INTERACTION WITH RESERPINE AND INHIBITORS OF CARBONIC ANHYDRASE. WILLIAM D. GRAY ... THE ANTICONVULSANT ACTION OF CARBON DIOXIDE: INTERACTION WITH RESERPINE AND INHIBITORS OF CARBONIC ANHYDRASE. WILLIAM D. GRAY ... The two agents differ in their anticonvulsant effect in mice ; antagonism by reserpine is insurmountable by carbonic anhydrase ...
more infohttp://jpet.aspetjournals.org/content/163/2/431

Structural and Kinetic Characterization of Active-Site Histidine as a Proton Shuttle in Catalysis by Human Carbonic Anhydrase...Structural and Kinetic Characterization of Active-Site Histidine as a Proton Shuttle in Catalysis by Human Carbonic Anhydrase...

In the catalysis of the hydration of carbon dioxide and dehydration of bicarbonate by human carbonic anhydrase II (HCA II), a ... Carbonic Anhydrase II Does Not Regulate Nitrite-Dependent Nitric Oxide Formation and Vasodilation L Wang et al. Br J Pharmacol ... Proton Transfer in a Thr200His Mutant of Human Carbonic Anhydrase II D Bhatt et al. Proteins 61 (2), 239-45. 2005. PMID ... Kinetic Analysis of Multiple Proton Shuttles in the Active Site of Human Carbonic Anhydrase C Tu et al. J Biol Chem 277 (41), ...
more infohttps://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/15667203/

Reactome | Carbonic anhydrase I/II hydrates carbon dioxideReactome | Carbonic anhydrase I/II hydrates carbon dioxide

Carbonic anhydrase I/II hydrates carbon dioxide (Canis familiaris) Carbonic anhydrase I/II hydrates carbon dioxide (Danio rerio ... Carbonic anhydrase I/II hydrates carbon dioxide (Rattus norvegicus) Carbonic anhydrase I/II hydrates carbon dioxide (Sus scrofa ... Carbonic anhydrase I/II hydrates carbon dioxide (Bos taurus) Carbonic anhydrase I/II hydrates carbon dioxide (Caenorhabditis ... Carbonic anhydrase I/II hydrates carbon dioxide (Mus musculus) Carbonic anhydrase I/II hydrates carbon dioxide (Plasmodium ...
more infohttp://www.reactome.org/content/detail/R-HSA-1475435.1

Carbonic anhydrase iv | Article about Carbonic anhydrase iv by The Free DictionaryCarbonic anhydrase iv | Article about Carbonic anhydrase iv by The Free Dictionary

Find out information about Carbonic anhydrase iv. An enzyme which aids carbon dioxide transport and release by catalyzing the ... synthesis, and the dehydration, of carbonic acid from, and to, carbon dioxide... Explanation of Carbonic anhydrase iv ... Carbonic anhydrase iii. *Carbonic anhydrase iii. *Carbonic anhydrase iii. *Carbonic anhydrase iii ... Related to Carbonic anhydrase iv: Carbonic anhydrase inhibitor, Carbonic anhydrase ii, carbonic anhydrase IX ...
more infohttp://encyclopedia2.thefreedictionary.com/Carbonic+anhydrase+iv

carbonic anhydrase 9 | Carbonic anhydrases | IUPHAR/BPS Guide to PHARMACOLOGYcarbonic anhydrase 9 | Carbonic anhydrases | IUPHAR/BPS Guide to PHARMACOLOGY

carbonic anhydrase 9 - Carbonic anhydrases. Detailed annotation on the structure, function, physiology, pharmacology and ... Carbonic anhydrases: carbonic anhydrase 9. Last modified on 24/07/2019. Accessed on 01/04/2020. IUPHAR/BPS Guide to ... CA IX is a membrane anchored carbonic anhydrase, and is one of two known tumour-associated carbonic anhydrase isoenzymes, the ... CA IX is one of two known tumour-associated carbonic anhydrase isoenzymes, the other being CA XII, where it is associated with ...
more infohttps://www.guidetopharmacology.org/GRAC/ObjectDisplayForward?objectId=3055

Induction and regulation of expression of a low-CO2-induced mitochondrial carbonic anhydrase in Chlamydomonas reinhardtiiInduction and regulation of expression of a low-CO2-induced mitochondrial carbonic anhydrase in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii

... ... time course of and the influence of light intensity and light quality on the induction of a mitochondrial carbonic anhydrase ( ... the mRNA disappeared within 1 h and the polypeptide was degraded within 3 d. Photosynthesis was required for the induction in ...
more infohttp://umu.diva-portal.org/smash/record.jsf?pid=diva2:434814

A Glycosylphosphatidylinositol-Anchored Carbonic Anhydrase-Related Protein of Toxoplasma gondii Is Important for Rhoptry...A Glycosylphosphatidylinositol-Anchored Carbonic Anhydrase-Related Protein of Toxoplasma gondii Is Important for Rhoptry...

We report here the identification of a new T. gondii carbonic anhydrase-related protein (TgCA_RP), which localizes to rhoptries ... A Glycosylphosphatidylinositol-Anchored Carbonic Anhydrase-Related Protein of Toxoplasma gondii Is Important for Rhoptry ... Carbonic anhydrase-related proteins (CARPs) have previously been described as catalytically inactive proteins closely related ... A Glycosylphosphatidylinositol-Anchored Carbonic Anhydrase-Related Protein of Toxoplasma gondii Is Important for Rhoptry ...
more infohttps://msphere.asm.org/content/2/3/e00027-17.abstract

ArticleArticle

Carbonic anhydrase in mitochondria. After three genes that code γ-CAs from A. thaliana were inserted into the E. coli genome, ... Functions of Carbonic Anhydrases in Higher Plants. Plasma membrane carbonic anhydrase. One of the authors of this review, using ... FUNCTIONS OF CARBONIC ANHYDRASES. The presence of carbonic anhydrases in all living organisms probably originates because the ... KEY WORDS: carbonic anhydrase, carbonic anhydrase families, plants, photosynthesis, chloroplasts, thylakoids. DOI: 10.1134/ ...
more infohttp://protein.bio.msu.ru/biokhimiya/contents/v80/full/80060798.html

Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitor Kidney 2019 • Kidney TreatmentCarbonic Anhydrase Inhibitor Kidney 2019 • Kidney Treatment

Carbonic anhydrase II (gene name CA2), is one of fourteen forms of human α carbonic anhydrases. Carbonic anhydrase catalyzes ... Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors.. CARBONIC ANHYDRASE INHIBITORS. Acetazolamide exerts its diuretic effect by inhi- bition of ... Carbonic anhydrase inhibitor ( acetazolamide). Proximal. Acetazolamide is a carbonic anhydrase (CA) inhibitor. ... Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors have not been studied in pregnant women. Kidney disease or stones-Higher blood levels of carbonic ...
more infohttps://kidneytreatment.site/carbonic-anhydrase-inhibitor-kidney

Experience with carbonic anhydrase inhibitors? | Phoenix Rising ME / CFS ForumsExperience with carbonic anhydrase inhibitors? | Phoenix Rising ME / CFS Forums

In Vitro inhibition of human carbonic anhydrase I and II isozymes with natural phenolic compounds.. Sentürk M, Gülçin I, ... Experience with carbonic anhydrase inhibitors?. Discussion in General ME/CFS Discussion started by anciendaze, Sep 15, 2015. ... There are natural sources of carbonic anhydrase inhibitors:. Chem Biol Drug Des. 2011 Jun;77(6):494-9. ... As far back as the 60s, one paper suggests inhibition of carbonic anhydrase with Diamox induces a mild or moderate degree of ...
more infohttp://forums.phoenixrising.me/index.php?threads/experience-with-carbonic-anhydrase-inhibitors.39902/

Effect of Acetazolamide on Regional Cerebral Oxygen Saturation and Regional Cerebral Blood Flow | StrokeEffect of Acetazolamide on Regional Cerebral Oxygen Saturation and Regional Cerebral Blood Flow | Stroke

ACZ, a selective inhibitor of carbonic anhydrase, has been shown to increase CBF markedly without any change of CMRO2.10 We did ... Figure 3. Plot shows side-to-side asymmetry in responses of rSO2 and rCBF to ACZ. The relationship between AI(rSO2) and AI(rCBF ... In this study, a significant rise of rSO2 was observed after ACZ administration, and the results (Figs 2⇑ and 3⇑) indicated a ... However, in this study, Fig 3⇑ demonstrated that AI(rSO2) significantly correlated with AI(rCBF) in wide ranges of rCBF ...
more infohttp://stroke.ahajournals.org/content/26/12/2358

Carbonic anhydrase IX promotes tumor growth and necrosis in vivo and inhibition enhances anti-VEGF therapy. - Physiology,...Carbonic anhydrase IX promotes tumor growth and necrosis in vivo and inhibition enhances anti-VEGF therapy. - Physiology,...

We investigated the effect on growth rate in three-dimensional (3D) culture and in vivo, and examined the effect of CAIX ... including carbonic anhydrase IX (CAIX), in response to bevacizumab treatment in xenografts. CAIX expression correlates with ... Carbonic Anhydrase IX, Carbonic Anhydrases, Cell Line, Tumor, Cell Proliferation, Female, Gene Knockdown Techniques, ... Carbonic anhydrase IX promotes tumor growth and necrosis in vivo and inhibition enhances anti-VEGF therapy. ...
more infohttps://www.dpag.ox.ac.uk/publications/323067

Carbonic anhydrase IX (CAIX) is generally expressed in individual tumors and - Fatty Acid Synthase Inhibitors Induce ApoptosisCarbonic anhydrase IX (CAIX) is generally expressed in individual tumors and - Fatty Acid Synthase Inhibitors Induce Apoptosis

Carbonic anhydrase IX (CAIX) is generally expressed in individual tumors and. Carbonic anhydrase IX (CAIX) is generally ... Carbonic Anhydrase IX Appearance, a Book Surrogate Marker of Tumor Hypoxia, Is normally Associated with an unhealthy Prognosis ... Immunohistochemistry of Carbonic Anhydrase Isozyme IX (MN/CA IX) in Individual Gut Reveals Polarized Appearance in Epithelial ... PubMed] [15] Pastorekova S, Parkkila S, Parkkila A, Opavsky R, Zelnik V, Saarnio J, Pastorek J. Carbonic Anhydrase IX, MN/CAIX ...
more infohttp://aksumuniversity.org/carbonic-anhydrase-ix-caix-is-generally-expressed-in-individual-tumors-and/

Acetazolamide treatment prevents in vitro endotoxin-stimulated tumor necrosis factor release in mouse macrophages<...Acetazolamide treatment prevents in vitro endotoxin-stimulated tumor necrosis factor release in mouse macrophages<...

We sought to determine whether carbonic anhydrase inhibition with acetazolamide would prevent CO2-mediated inhibition of LPS- ... We sought to determine whether carbonic anhydrase inhibition with acetazolamide would prevent CO2-mediated inhibition of LPS- ... We sought to determine whether carbonic anhydrase inhibition with acetazolamide would prevent CO2-mediated inhibition of LPS- ... We sought to determine whether carbonic anhydrase inhibition with acetazolamide would prevent CO2-mediated inhibition of LPS- ...
more infohttps://jhu.pure.elsevier.com/en/publications/acetazolamide-treatment-prevents-in-vitro-endotoxin-stimulated-tu-3

Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors. Inhibition of the human cytosolic isozyme VII with aromatic and heterocyclic sulfonamides. |...Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors. Inhibition of the human cytosolic isozyme VII with aromatic and heterocyclic sulfonamides. |...

The inhibition of a newly cloned human carbonic anhydrase (CA, EC 4.2.1.1), isozyme VII (hCA VII), has been investigated with a ... The inhibition of a newly cloned human carbonic anhydrase (CA, EC 4.2.1.1), isozyme VII (hCA VII), has been investigated with a ... Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors. Inhibition of the human cytosolic isozyme VII with aromatic and heterocyclic sulfonamides. ... Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors. Inhibition of the human cytosolic isozyme VII with aromatic and heterocyclic sulfonamides. ...
more infohttps://flore.unifi.it/handle/2158/775917

Carbonic anhydrase III, muscle specific - WikipediaCarbonic anhydrase III, muscle specific - Wikipedia

CA3 carbonic anhydrase III, muscle specific". Sly WS, Hu PY (1995). "Human carbonic anhydrases and carbonic anhydrase ... Carbonic anhydrase III (CAIII) is a member of a multigene family (at least six separate genes are known) that encode carbonic ... Du AL, Ren HM, Lu CZ, Tu JL, Xu CF, Sun YA (Mar 2009). "Carbonic anhydrase III is insufficient in muscles of myasthenia gravis ... Liu C, Wei Y, Wang J, Pi L, Huang J, Wang P (Sep 2012). "Carbonic anhydrases III and IV autoantibodies in rheumatoid arthritis ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carbonic_anhydrase_III,_muscle_specific

WikiGenes - CA3 - carbonic anhydrase IIIWikiGenes - CA3 - carbonic anhydrase III

Purified carbonic anhydrase isozymes I, II, and III (CA I, CA II, CA III) from various sources were treated with 2,3- ... Expression of carbonic anhydrase isozyme III in the ciliary processes and lens. Jampel, H.D., Chen, X., Chue, C., Zack, D.J. ... Serum myoglobin/carbonic anhydrase III ratio as a marker of reperfusion after myocardial infarction. Vuotikka, P., Uusimaa, P ... Dual-label time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay for simultaneous detection of myoglobin and carbonic anhydrase III in serum. Vuori, ...
more infohttps://www.wikigenes.org/e/gene/e/761.html

Sulfonamides incorporating 1,3,5-triazine moieties selectively and potently inhibit carbonic anhydrase transmembrane isoforms...Sulfonamides incorporating 1,3,5-triazine moieties selectively and potently inhibit carbonic anhydrase transmembrane isoforms...

Inhibition studies of physiologically relevant human carbonic anhydrase (CA, EC 4.2.1.1) isoforms, such as CA I, II, IX, XII ... 5-triazine moieties selectively and potently inhibit carbonic anhydrase transmembrane isoforms IX, XII and XIV over cytosolic ... The 1,3,5-triazinyl-substituted benzenesulfonamides constitute thus a class of compounds with great potential for obtaining ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21515057

RCSB PDB - 4RH2: Crystal structure of human carbonic anhydrase II in complex with 2-(6-hydroxy-3-Oxo-3H-xanthen-9-yl)-5-{3-1-(4...RCSB PDB - 4RH2: Crystal structure of human carbonic anhydrase II in complex with 2-(6-hydroxy-3-Oxo-3H-xanthen-9-yl)-5-{3-1-(4...

6-hydroxy-3-Oxo-3H-xanthen-9-yl)-5-{3-1-(4-sulfamoyl-phenyl)-1h-[1,2,3]triazol-4-ylmethyl-thioureido}-benzoic acid ... Crystal structure of human carbonic anhydrase II in complex with 2-( ... New classes of carbonic anhydrase inhibitors. Ferraroni, M., Supuran, C.T., Carta, F., Bozdag, M., Scozzafava, A.. To be ... Crystal structure of human carbonic anhydrase II in complex with 2-(6-hydroxy-3-Oxo-3H-xanthen-9-yl)-5-{3-1-(4-sulfamoyl-phenyl ...
more infohttps://www.rcsb.org/structure/4RH2

RCSB PDB - 5AML: Three dimensional structure of human carbonic anhydrase II in complex with 2-(But-2-yn-1-ylsulfamoyl)-4...RCSB PDB - 5AML: Three dimensional structure of human carbonic anhydrase II in complex with 2-(But-2-yn-1-ylsulfamoyl)-4...

Three dimensional structure of human carbonic anhydrase II in complex with 2-(But-2-yn-1-ylsulfamoyl)-4-sulfamoylbenzoic acid ... Three dimensional structure of human carbonic anhydrase II in complex with 2-(But-2-yn-1-ylsulfamoyl)-4-sulfamoylbenzoic acid. ... X-Ray Crystallography-Promoted Drug Design of Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitors.. Ivanova, J., Leitans, J., Tanc, M., Kazaks, A., ... 1-N-Alkylated-6-sulfamoyl saccharin derivatives were prepared and assayed as carbonic anhydrase inhibitors (CAIs). During X-ray ...
more infohttps://www.rcsb.org/structure/5AML
  • Western Blot: Carbonic Anhydrase III/CA3 Antibody (4A12-1A3) [H00000761-M- CA3 monoclonal antibody (M02), clone 4A12-1A3 Analysis of CA3 expression in K-562. (novusbio.com)
  • Immunohistochemistry-Paraffin: Carbonic Anhydrase III/CA3 Antibody (4A12-1A3) [H00000761-M- Analysis of monoclonal antibody to CA3 on formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded human skeletal muscle. (novusbio.com)
  • Sandwich ELISA: Carbonic Anhydrase III/CA3 Antibody (4A12-1A3) [H00000761-M- Detection limit for recombinant GST tagged CA3 is approximately 1ng/ml as a capture antibody. (novusbio.com)
  • Data show that inserting histidine residues into the active site cavity of carbonic anhydrase II or III results in rates of proton transfer to the zinc-bound hydroxide that are antagonistic or suppressive with respect to the corresponding single mutants. (nih.gov)
  • Like all other forms of carbonic anhydrase, CA B. consists of protein and one zinc ion at the bottom of the active site near the center of the molecule . (libretexts.org)
  • In addition, three different clusters of aromatic residues of about same distance from the zinc ion have been observed in the molecule. (libretexts.org)
  • Experiments have shown that the activity of carbonic anhydrase B can be restored when zinc ions are added in 1:1 molar ratio. (libretexts.org)
  • We have prepared a site-specific mutant of human carbonic anhydrase (HCA) II with histidine residues at positions 7 and 64 in the active site cavity. (nih.gov)
  • Antiangiogenic therapy induces hypoxia and we observed increased expression of hypoxia-regulated genes, including carbonic anhydrase IX (CAIX), in response to bevacizumab treatment in xenografts. (ox.ac.uk)
  • We investigated the effect on growth rate in three-dimensional (3D) culture and in vivo, and examined the effect of CAIX knockdown in combination with bevacizumab. (ox.ac.uk)
  • 1). Geometry of the metal: The metal is liganded to the protein by three histidyl ligands, and the fourth ligand site is open to surrounding medium and possibly filled by a water molecule or OH ion. (libretexts.org)
  • 4. Opavský R, Pastoreková S, Zelník V, Gibadulinová A, Stanbridge EJ, Závada J, Kettmann R, Pastorek J. (1996) Human MN/CA9 gene, a novel member of the carbonic anhydrase family: structure and exon to protein domain relationships. (guidetopharmacology.org)
  • We report here the identification of a new T. gondii carbonic anhydrase-related protein (TgCA_RP), which localizes to rhoptries of mature tachyzoites. (asm.org)
  • The carbonic anhydrase CA3 isoform displayed an increased abundance during muscle aging, which was independently verified by immunoblotting of differently aged human skeletal muscle samples. (nih.gov)
  • The generation of CA III and IV autoantibodies, antioxidant enzymes, and cytokines might influence each other. (nih.gov)
  • Anti-carbonic anhydrase III autoantibodies in vasculitis syndrome. (nih.gov)
  • Carbonic anhydrases III and IV autoantibodies in rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, diabetes, hypertensive renal disease, and heart failure. (nih.gov)
  • myoglobin/carbonic anhydrase III ratio in the blood proved to be a more specific indicator for myocardial damage than myoglobin alone after myocardial infarction. (nih.gov)
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