A cytosolic carbonic anhydrase isoenzyme found widely distributed in cells of almost all tissues. Deficiencies of carbonic anhydrase II produce a syndrome characterized by OSTEOPETROSIS, renal tubular acidosis (ACIDOSIS, RENAL TUBULAR) and cerebral calcification. EC 4.2.1.-
A family of zinc-containing enzymes that catalyze the reversible hydration of carbon dioxide. They play an important role in the transport of CARBON DIOXIDE from the tissues to the LUNG. EC 4.2.1.1.
A class of compounds that reduces the secretion of H+ ions by the proximal kidney tubule through inhibition of CARBONIC ANHYDRASES.
A cytosolic carbonic anhydrase isoenzyme primarily expressed in skeletal muscle (MUSCLES, SKELETAL). EC 4.2.1.-
A carbonic anhydrase inhibitor used as diuretic and in glaucoma. It may cause hypokalemia.
One of the CARBONIC ANHYDRASE INHIBITORS that is sometimes effective against absence seizures. It is sometimes useful also as an adjunct in the treatment of tonic-clonic, myoclonic, and atonic seizures, particularly in women whose seizures occur or are exacerbated at specific times in the menstrual cycle. However, its usefulness is transient often because of rapid development of tolerance. Its antiepileptic effect may be due to its inhibitory effect on brain carbonic anhydrase, which leads to an increased transneuronal chloride gradient, increased chloride current, and increased inhibition. (From Smith and Reynard, Textbook of Pharmacology, 1991, p337)
A cytosolic carbonic anhydrase isoenzyme primarily expressed in ERYTHROCYTES, vascular endothelial cells, and the gastrointestinal mucosa. EC 4.2.1.-
A membrane-bound carbonic anhydrase found in lung capillaries and kidney.
A carbonic anhydrase inhibitor that is used as a diuretic and in the treatment of glaucoma.
A group of genetic disorders of the KIDNEY TUBULES characterized by the accumulation of metabolically produced acids with elevated plasma chloride, hyperchloremic metabolic ACIDOSIS. Defective renal acidification of URINE (proximal tubules) or low renal acid excretion (distal tubules) can lead to complications such as HYPOKALEMIA, hypercalcinuria with NEPHROLITHIASIS and NEPHROCALCINOSIS, and RICKETS.
Excessive formation of dense trabecular bone leading to pathological fractures; OSTEITIS; SPLENOMEGALY with infarct; ANEMIA; and extramedullary hemopoiesis (HEMATOPOIESIS, EXTRAMEDULLARY).
Inorganic salts that contain the -HCO3 radical. They are an important factor in determining the pH of the blood and the concentration of bicarbonate ions is regulated by the kidney. Levels in the blood are an index of the alkali reserve or buffering capacity.
Selective renal carbonic anhydrase inhibitor. It may also be of use in certain cases of respiratory failure.
A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.
Carbonic acid (H2C03). The hypothetical acid of carbon dioxide and water. It exists only in the form of its salts (carbonates), acid salts (hydrogen carbonates), amines (carbamic acid), and acid chlorides (carbonyl chloride). (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Compounds that contain a 1-dimethylaminonaphthalene-5-sulfonyl group.
Proteins that cotransport sodium ions and bicarbonate ions across cellular membranes.
A metallic element of atomic number 30 and atomic weight 65.38. It is a necessary trace element in the diet, forming an essential part of many enzymes, and playing an important role in protein synthesis and in cell division. Zinc deficiency is associated with ANEMIA, short stature, HYPOGONADISM, impaired WOUND HEALING, and geophagia. It is known by the symbol Zn.
The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
An essential amino acid that is required for the production of HISTAMINE.
Stable elementary particles having the smallest known positive charge, found in the nuclei of all elements. The proton mass is less than that of a neutron. A proton is the nucleus of the light hydrogen atom, i.e., the hydrogen ion.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.
The region of an enzyme that interacts with its substrate to cause the enzymatic reaction.
Acute or chronic INFLAMMATION of the PANCREAS due to excessive ALCOHOL DRINKING. Alcoholic pancreatitis usually presents as an acute episode but it is a chronic progressive disease in alcoholics.
Disruption of the non-covalent bonds and/or disulfide bonds responsible for maintaining the three-dimensional shape and activity of the native protein.
A major integral transmembrane protein of the ERYTHROCYTE MEMBRANE. It is the anion exchanger responsible for electroneutral transporting in CHLORIDE IONS in exchange of BICARBONATE IONS allowing CO2 uptake and transport from tissues to lungs by the red blood cells. Genetic mutations that result in a loss of the protein function have been associated with type 4 HEREDITARY SPHEROCYTOSIS.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
A carbonic anhydrase isoenzyme found in MITOCHONDRIA where it provides bicarbonate ions that are components in the urea cycle and in GLUCONEOGENESIS.
A group of compounds that contain the structure SO2NH2.
Transforming proteins encoded by erbA oncogenes from the avian erythroblastosis virus. They are truncated versions of c-erbA, the thyroid hormone receptor (RECEPTORS, THYROID HORMONE) that have retained both the DNA-binding and hormone-binding domains. Mutations in the hormone-binding domains abolish the transcriptional activation function. v-erbA acts as a dominant repressor of c-erbA, inducing transformation by disinhibiting proliferation.
A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A low-energy attractive force between hydrogen and another element. It plays a major role in determining the properties of water, proteins, and other compounds.
Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Processes involved in the formation of TERTIARY PROTEIN STRUCTURE.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Membrane transporters that co-transport two or more dissimilar molecules in the opposite direction across a membrane. Usually the transport of one ion or molecule is against its electrochemical gradient and is "powered" by the movement of another ion or molecule with its electrochemical gradient.
The extent to which an enzyme retains its structural conformation or its activity when subjected to storage, isolation, and purification or various other physical or chemical manipulations, including proteolytic enzymes and heat.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
A pathologic condition of acid accumulation or depletion of base in the body. The two main types are RESPIRATORY ACIDOSIS and metabolic acidosis, due to metabolic acid build up.
A bibliographic database that includes MEDLINE as its primary subset. It is produced by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), part of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. PubMed, which is searchable through NLM's Web site, also includes access to additional citations to selected life sciences journals not in MEDLINE, and links to other resources such as the full-text of articles at participating publishers' Web sites, NCBI's molecular biology databases, and PubMed Central.
A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.
A rigorously mathematical analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, temperature, and equilibrium). It describes systems whose states are determined by thermal parameters, such as temperature, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic parameters. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)
All of the divisions of the natural sciences dealing with the various aspects of the phenomena of life and vital processes. The concept includes anatomy and physiology, biochemistry and biophysics, and the biology of animals, plants, and microorganisms. It should be differentiated from BIOLOGY, one of its subdivisions, concerned specifically with the origin and life processes of living organisms.

Calcium, carbonic anhydrase and gastric acid secretion. (1/207)

Previous data concerning the action of calcium (Ca) on gastric acid secretion (GAS) indicated that calcium ions increase GAS elicited by gastrin released through a vagal mechanism, and also by a direct effect on parietal cells. Our research showed that the stimulating effect of calcium on gastric acid secretion can be antagonized by verapamil administration, which reduces gastric acid secretion . In the present study we followed the effect induced by administration of calcium and Ca-chelating agents (disodium EDTA) on gastric acid secretion and on carbonic anhydrase (CA) activity. We selected two groups of healthy volunteers: Group I (n=21) received a single i.v. dose of CaCl2 (15 mg/kg b.w.), whereas Group II (n=22) received a single i.v. dose of disodium EDTA (5 mg/kg b.w.). We determined blood calcium before and after treatment, gastric acid secretion at 2 hours. erythrocyte CA II activity, and CA IV activity in membrane parietal cells, which were isolated from gastric mucosa obtained by endoscopic biopsy. Assessment of carbonic anhydrase activity was achieved by the stopped-flow method. In Group I calcium administration increased blood calcium, HCl output, CA II and CA IV activity as compared to initial values. In Group II, disodium EDTA reduced blood calcium, HCl output, CA II and CA IV activity as compared to initial values. The results demonstrated that increased blood calcium and GAS values after calcium administration correlated with the increase of erythrocyte CA II and parietal cell CA IV activity, while disodium EDTA induced a reversed process. Our results also show that cytosolic CA II and membrane CA IV values are sensitive to calcium changes and they directly depend on these levels. Our data suggest that intra- and extracellular pH changes induced by carbonic anhydrase might account for the modulation of the physiological and pathological secretory processes in the organism.  (+info)

A transport metabolon. Functional interaction of carbonic anhydrase II and chloride/bicarbonate exchangers. (2/207)

The cytoplasmic carboxyl-terminal domain of AE1, the plasma membrane chloride/bicarbonate exchanger of erythrocytes, contains a binding site for carbonic anhydrase II (CAII). To examine the physiological role of the AE1/CAII interaction, anion exchange activity of transfected HEK293 cells was monitored by following the changes in intracellular pH associated with AE1-mediated bicarbonate transport. AE1-mediated chloride/bicarbonate exchange was reduced 50-60% by inhibition of endogenous carbonic anhydrase with acetazolamide, which indicates that CAII activity is required for full anion transport activity. AE1 mutants, unable to bind CAII, had significantly lower transport activity than wild-type AE1 (10% of wild-type activity), suggesting that a direct interaction was required. To determine the effect of displacement of endogenous wild-type CAII from its binding site on AE1, AE1-transfected HEK293 cells were co-transfected with cDNA for a functionally inactive CAII mutant, V143Y. AE1 activity was maximally inhibited 61 +/- 4% in the presence of V143Y CAII. A similar effect of V143Y CAII was found for AE2 and AE3cardiac anion exchanger isoforms. We conclude that the binding of CAII to the AE1 carboxyl-terminus potentiates anion transport activity and allows for maximal transport. The interaction of CAII with AE1 forms a transport metabolon, a membrane protein complex involved in regulation of bicarbonate metabolism and transport.  (+info)

Estrogen regulation of ion transporter messenger RNA levels in mouse efferent ductules are mediated differentially through estrogen receptor (ER) alpha and ER beta. (3/207)

Earlier studies have shown that the efferent ductules (ED) of the male mouse are a target for estrogen. The loss of estrogen receptor (ER) function through either knockout technology (alpha ERKO mouse) or chemical interference (pure antagonist, ICI 182 780) results in a failure of a major function of the ED, the reabsorption of testicular fluids. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that estrogen controls fluid (water) reabsorption in the ED by modulating ion transporters important for passive water movement through a leaky epithelium such as the ED. Northern blot analysis was used to detect the mRNA levels for key ion transporters in the following experimental groups: 1) wild-type (WT) control for the 14-day experiment, 2) ER alpha knockout (alpha ERKO) control for the 14-day experiment, 3) WT treated with ICI 182 780 (ICI) for 14 days, 4) alpha ERKO treated with ICI for 14 days, 5) WT control for the 35-day experiment, and 6) WT treated with ICI for 35 days. Estrogen differentially modulated the mRNA levels of key ion transporters. ER alpha mediated carbonic anhydrase II mRNA abundance, and there was a decrease in Na(+)/H(+) exchanger 3 mRNA levels in the alpha ERKO that appeared to be a cellular effect and not a direct estrogen effect. The loss of ER alpha control resulted in an increase in mRNA abundance for the catalytic subunit of Na(+)-K(+) ATPase alpha 1, whereas an increase in the mRNA abundance of the Cl(-)/HCO(3)(-) exchanger and the chloride channel cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator was significantly ER beta mediated. Our results indicate for the first time that estrogen acting directly and indirectly through both ER alpha and ER beta probably modulates fluid reabsorption in the adult mouse ED by regulating the expression of ion transporters involved in the movement of Na(+) and Cl(-).  (+info)

Estrogen action and male fertility: roles of the sodium/hydrogen exchanger-3 and fluid reabsorption in reproductive tract function. (4/207)

Estrogen receptor alpha (ER alpha) is essential for male fertility. Its activity is responsible for maintaining epithelial cytoarchitecture in efferent ductules and the reabsorption of fluid for concentrating sperm in the head of the epididymis. These discoveries and others have helped to establish estrogen's bisexual role in reproductive importance. Reported here is the molecular mechanism to explain estrogen's role in fluid reabsorption in the male reproductive tract. It is shown that estrogen regulates expression of the Na(+)/H(+) exchanger-3 (NHE3) and the rate of (22)Na(+) transport, sensitive to an NHE3 inhibitor. Immunohistochemical staining for NHE3, carbonic anhydrase II (CAII), and aquaporin-I (AQP1) was decreased in ER alpha knockout (alpha ERKO) efferent ductules. Targeted gene-deficient mice were compared with alpha ERKO, and the NHE3 knockout and CAII-deficient mice showed alpha ERKO-like fluid accumulation, but only the NHE3 knockout and alpha ERKO mice were infertile. Northern blot analysis showed decreases in mRNA for NHE3 in alpha ERKO and antiestrogen-treated mice. The changes in AQP1 and CAII in alpha ERKO seemed to be secondary because of the disruption of apical cytoarchitecture. Ductal epithelial ultrastructure was abnormal only in alpha ERKO mice. Thus, in the male, estrogen regulates one of the most important epithelial ion transporters and maintains epithelial morphological differentiation in efferent ductules of the male, independent of its regulation of Na(+) transport. Finally, these data raise the possibility of targeting ER alpha in developing a contraceptive for the male.  (+info)

Crystal structure of human carbonic anhydrase II complexed with an anti-convulsant sugar sulphamate. (5/207)

The fructose-based sugar sulphamate RWJ-37497, a potent analogue of the widely used anti-epileptic drug topiramate, possesses anti-convulsant and carbonic anhydrase-inhibitory activities. We have studied the binding interactions of RWJ-37497 in the active site of human carbonic anhydrase II by X-ray crystallography. The atomic positions of the enzyme inhibitor complex were refined at a resolution of 2.1 A (1 A=0.1 nm) to the final crystallographic R and R(free) values of 0.18 and 0.23, respectively. The inhibitor co-ordinates to the active-site zinc ion through its oxygen atom and the ionized nitrogen atom of the sulphamate group by replacing the metal-bound water molecules, although the sulphamoyl oxygen atom provides a rather lengthy co-ordination. The 4,5-cyclic sulphate group is positioned in a hydrophobic pocket of the active site, making contacts with the residues Phe-131, Leu-198, Pro-201 and Pro-202. Since the ligand was found to be intact, concerns about RWJ-37947 irreversibly alkylating the enzyme through its 4,5-cyclic sulphate group were dispelled.  (+info)

Combinatorial computational method gives new picomolar ligands for a known enzyme. (6/207)

Combinatorial small molecule growth algorithm was used to design inhibitors for human carbonic anhydrase II. Two enantiomeric candidate molecules were predicted to bind with high potency (with R isomer binding stronger than S), but in two distinct conformations. The experiments verified that computational predictions concerning the binding affinities and the binding modes were correct for both isomers. The designed R isomer is the best-known inhibitor (K(d) approximately 30 pM) of human carbonic anhydrase II.  (+info)

In vivo repression of an erythroid-specific gene by distinct corepressor complexes. (7/207)

To assess the mechanisms of repression of the erythroid-specific carbonic anhydrase II (CAII) locus we used chromatin immunoprecipitation and show that an NCoR-histone deacetylase (HDAC)3 complex is recruited by the nuclear receptor v-ErbA to the intronic HS2 enhancer turning it into a potent silencer. Furthermore we demonstrate that efficient CAII silencing requires binding of a MeCP2-targeted HDAC-containing corepressor complex to the hypermethylated CpG-island at the promoter. Activation of transcription by either AZAdC or thyroid hormone results in loss of one of the two corepressor complexes. Thyroid hormone further replaces the enhancer-bound NCoR-corepressor complex by the TRAP220 coactivator. Treatment with the HDAC inhibitor trichostatin A (TSA) causes activation of CAII transcription and histone H3 and H4 hyperacetylation at the enhancer, apparently without affecting binding of the two corepressor complexes. Unexpectedly, histone H3 and H4 at the fully repressed promoter are already hyperacetylated despite the close apposition of the MeCP2-targeted HDAC complex. Acetylation of histone H4, but not H3, at the promoter is moderately increased following TSA treatment. Our data suggest that the hyperacetylated but repressed CAII promoter is (partially) remodeled and primed for activation in v-ErbA-transformed cells.  (+info)

Induction of oligodendrocyte-like properties in a primitive hypothalamic cell line by cholesterol, an eye derived growth factor and brain extract. (8/207)

A serum-free medium has been devised which permits proliferation of the mouse primitive nervous cell line F7. When cholesterol, eye-derived growth factor and brain extract are added in this medium for 48 h, 80-90% of oligodendrocyte-like cells are generated. These cells have diminished substrate adhesion. They acquire the capacity to synthesize carbonic anhydrase II and myelin basic protein, two specific proteins of oligodendrocytes. These observations suggest that F7 clonal cell line, which has been previously shown to be a neurophysin cell precursor, is also a precursor for oligodendrocytes, and represents a bipotent stem cell line for both neuronal and glial cell lineages.  (+info)

Most loss-of-function diseases are caused by aberrant folding of important proteins. These proteins often misfold due to inherited mutations. The rare disease marble brain disease (MBD) also known as carbonic anhydrase II deficiency syndrome (CADS) can manifest in carriers of point mutations in the human carbonic anhydrase II (HCA II) gene. We have over the past 10-15 years studied the folding, misfolding and aggregation of the enzyme human carbonic anhydrase II. In summary our HCA II folding studies have shown that the protein folds via an intermediate of molten-globule type, which lacks enzyme activity and the molten globule state of HCA II is prone to aggregation. One mutation associated with MBD entails the His107Tyr (H107Y) substitution. We have demonstrated that the H107Y mutation is a remarkably destabilizing mutation influencing the folding behavior of HCA II. A mutational survey of position H107 and a neighboring conserved position E117 has been performed entailing the mutants H107A, ...
Aryl sulfonamides are a widely used drug class for the inhibition of carbonic anhydrases. In the context of our program of photochromic pharmacophores we were interested in the exploration of azobenzene-containing sulfonamides to block the catalytic activity of human carbonic anhydrase II (hCAII). Herein, we report the synthesis and in vitro evaluation of a small library of nine photochromic sulfonamides towards hCAII. All molecules are azobenzene-4-sulfonamides, which are substituted by different functional groups in the 4 -position and were characterized by X-ray crystallography. We aimed to investigate the influence of electrondonating or electron-withdrawing substituents on the inhibitory constant Ki. With the aid of an hCAII crystal structure bound to one of the synthesized azobenzenes, we found that the electronic structure does not strongly affect inhibition. Taken together, all compounds are strong blockers of hCAII with K-i = 25-65 nM that are potentially photochromic and thus combine ...
2HOC: Crystal structure of the human carbonic anhydrase II in complex with the 5-(4-amino-3-chloro-5-fluorophenylsulfonamido)-1,3,4-thiadiazole-2-sulfonamide inhibitor
Most loss-of-function diseases are caused by aberrant folding of important proteins. These proteins often misfold due to inherited mutations. The rare disease marble brain disease (MBD) also known as carbonic anhydrase II deficiency syndrome (CADS) can manifest in carriers of point mutations in the human carbonic anhydrase II (HCA II) gene. We have over the past 10-15 years studied the folding, misfolding and aggregation of the enzyme human carbonic anhydrase II. In summary our HCA II folding studies have shown that the protein folds via an intermediate of molten-globule type, which lacks enzyme activity and the molten globule state of HCA II is prone to aggregation. One mutation associated with MBD entails the His107Tyr (H107Y) substitution. We have demonstrated that the H107Y mutation is a remarkably destabilizing mutation influencing the folding behavior of HCA II. A mutational survey of position H107 and a neighboring conserved position E117 has been performed entailing the mutants H107A, ...
cansSAR 3D Structure of 3DC3 | USE OF CARBONIC ANHYDRASE II, IX ACTIVE-SITE MIMIC, FOR THE PURPOSE OF SCREENING INHIBITORS FOR POSSIBLE ANTI-CANCER PROPERTIES | 3DC3_A | Carbonic anhydrase 2 - Also known as CAH2_HUMAN, CA2. Essential for bone resorption and osteoclast differentiation (By similarity). Reversible hydration of carbon dioxide. Can hydrate cyanamide to urea. Involved in the regulation of fluid secretion into the anterior chamber of the eye. Contributes to intracellular pH regulation in the duodenal upper villous epithelium during proton-coupled peptide absorption. Stimulates the chloride-bicarbonate exchange activity of SLC26A6. Interacts with SLC4A4. Interaction with SLC4A7 regulates SLC4A7 transporter activity. Interacts with SLC26A6 isoform 4 (via C-terminus cytoplasmic domain).
Osteopetrosis with renal tubular acidosis and cerebral calcification was identified as a recessively inherited syndrome in 1972. In 1983, we reported a deficiency of carbonic anhydrase II, one of the isozymes of carbonic anhydrase, in three sisters with this disorder. We now describe our study of 18 …
Mono- and Stereopictres of 5.0 Angstrom coordination sphere of Zinc atom in PDB 1z9y: Carbonic Anhydrase II in Complex With Furosemide As Sulfonamide Inhibitor
The X-ray crystal structure of the complex between human carbonic anhydrase II and the inhibitor 1,2,4-triazole has been refined at 1.9 A resolution to a final R-factor of 0.153. Triazole is an analogue of the competitive inhibitor imidazole, but the crystal structure shows a different type of binding to the enzyme. 1,2,4-Triazole is directly bound to the zinc(II) ion through the nitrogen in position 4, replacing the native water/hydroxyl (Wat263) in a distorted four-co-ordinated complex. The interaction of the inhibitor with the active site is completed by two hydrogen bonds to O gamma of Thr200 and to the amide nitrogen atom of Thr199 through the two adjacent N-1 and N-2 atoms. The binding site of triazole overlaps the proposed binding sites for the substrates, explaining the observed competitive behaviour of the inhibitor towards CO2/HCO3- under equilibrium conditions. Crystal structure of the complex between human carbonic anhydrase II and the aromatic inhibitor 1,2,4-triazole.,Mangani S, ...
12CA: Altering the mouth of a hydrophobic pocket. Structure and kinetics of human carbonic anhydrase II mutants at residue Val-121.
In the catalysis of the hydration of carbon dioxide and dehydration of bicarbonate by human carbonic anhydrase II (HCA II), a histidine residue (His64) shuttles protons between the zinc-bound solvent molecule and the bulk solution. To evaluate the effect of the position of the shuttle histidine and …
In the catalysis of the hydration of carbon dioxide and dehydration of bicarbonate by human carbonic anhydrase II (HCA II), a histidine residue (His64) shuttles protons between the zinc-bound solvent molecule and the bulk solution. To evaluate the effect of the position of the shuttle histidine and pH on proton shuttling, we have examined the catalysis and crystal structures of wild-type HCA II and two double mutants: H64A/N62H and H64A/N67H HCA II. His62 and His67 both have their side chains extending into the active-site cavity with distances from the zinc approximately equivalent to that of His64. Crystal structures were determined at pH 5.1-10.0, and the catalysis of the exchange of (18)O between CO(2) and water was assessed by mass spectrometry. Efficient proton shuttle exceeding a rate of 10(5) s(-)(1) was observed for histidine at positions 64 and 67; in contrast, relatively inefficient proton transfer at a rate near 10(3) s(-)(1) was observed for His62. The observation, in the crystal ...
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SWISS-MODEL Template Library (SMTL) entry for 1t9n.1. Effect of Shuttle Location and pH Environment on H+ Transfer in Human Carbonic Anhydrase II
SWISS-MODEL Template Library (SMTL) entry for 2hoc.1. Crystal structure of the human carbonic anhydrase II in complex with the 5-(4-amino-3-chloro-5-fluorophenylsulfonamido)-1,3,4-thiadiazole-2-sulfonamide inhibitor
BioAssay record AID 644085 submitted by ChEMBL: Inhibition of human carbonic anhydrase 2 using 4-nitrophenylacetate as substrate after 3 mins using spectrophotometry by Lineweaver-Burk plot analysis.
Read Assignment of the gene determining human carbonic anhydrase, CAI, to chromosome 8, Annals of Human Genetics on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
The HE6 receptor is expressed at high levels within the efferent ductules and the initial segment of the epididymis (32, 34), regions of the reproductive tract which are well characterized as being responsible for the absorption of ,90% of the fluid produced by the testis (4). The concentration of sperm delivered to the ductus epididymis is determined by the net fluid reabsorption across the efferent duct epithelium (4, 20). Considering the abnormal accumulation of spermatozoa within the efferent ductules observed in HE6 knockout mice, a role for this receptor in the regulation of fluid balance is suggested.. Fluid reabsorption within the efferent ductules is primarily a passive process that occurs in parallel with the establishment of an Na+ gradient across the nonciliated cells of the epithelium (17). The hydration of CO2 by carbonic anhydrase II within the nonciliated cells results in the production of H+ and HCO3−. H+ is exchanged for luminal Na+ by the apically located sodium-hydrogen ...
2h4n: Histidine --| carboxamide ligand substitutions in the zinc binding site of carbonic anhydrase II alter metal coordination geometry but retain catalytic activity.
Immunohistochemical staining of multinucleated giant bone-resorbing cells. The cells were stained green for (a) carbonic anhydrase II and (b) vitronectin recept
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Global Genomics Group and Metabolon today announced that they have entered into a collaboration agreement to investigate biological networks and pathways in order to discover novel biomarkers and pharmaceutical targets for cardiovascular diseases.
Metabolon, Inc., a world leader in metabolomics-based diagnostic tests and research services, announced today that it has raised $15 million in a Seri
Combining the power of metabolomics with the genetic blueprint created by genome-wide association studies (GWAS) has allowed Metabolon and its collaborators to create an atlas of genetic influences on human blood metabolites.
KV3.1 blockers can serve as modulators of the rate of action potential firing in neurons with high rates of firing such as those of the auditory system. We studied the effects of several bioisosteres...
A case study demonstrating how lipid profiling of macrophages revealed that palmitoleate may be buffering lipotoxicity and could be an effective strategy for the treatment of atherosclerosis.
Bromidge, SM; Clarke, SE; Gager, T; Griffith, K; Jeffrey, P; Jennings, AJ; Joiner, GF; King, FD; Lovell, PJ (2001). „Phenyl benzenesulfonamides are novel and selective 5-HT6 antagonists: identification of N-(2,5-dibromo-3-fluorophenyl)-4-methoxy-3-piperazin-1-ylbenzenesulfonamide (SB-357134). Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters. 11 (1): 55-8. PMID 11140733. doi:10.1016/S0960-894X(00)00597-7 ...
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Information, guidance and support for readers interested in applying the principles of The Blood Type Diet as outlined by The New York Times best-selling author Dr. Peter DAdamo.
This study focused on the synthesis and characterization of hydrazide ligands and their respective Pd(II) complexes and used high throughput screening to determine their α-glucosidase and carbonic anhydrase II enzyme inhibition activities. The physical, analytical (elemental analyses for C, H, N and Pd) and spectral (FT-IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, EI-mass) techniques utilized during characterization revealed the formation of square planar, neutral and 1:2 Pd(II)-hydrazide complexes with the general formula [PdL2Cl2]. In these Pd(II) complexes, the hydrazide ligands are monodentate; the terminal nitrogen is the donor atom. The uncoordinated hydrazide ligands were inactive against both α-glucosidase and carbonic anhydrase II enzymes; however, the respective Pd(II)-hydrazide complexes were approximately 300 times more potent α-glucosidase inhibitors than the standard compound, 1-deoxynojirimycin (DNJ). Some of the Pd(II) complexes also demonstrated potential carbonic anhydrase (CA) inhibition ...
The high expression of CA-II in saliva of ruminating animals may be interpreted as an adaptation to maintain a suitable environment for ruminal microbes that are essential for the digestion of tough-structured, fibrous grass diets (3, 6). This would get strong support from the expression of the identical enzyme in Colobus monkeys, known to be the only foregut-fermenting primates, as well as in termites, the hindgut of which is an insect analogue to the bovine rumen. Providing the evidence of a connection between salivary CA concentration and changing ruminal or stomach pH in fore-stomach fermenters will enable us to easily and non-invasively detect and diagnose developing acidosis in a zoo environment before it becomes serious or lethal. Thereby, the overall performance and breeding success of Colobus monkeys or zoo ruminants could be improved.. Studies following the idea and techniques presented here may help to increase our knowledge of the important role that pH regulation plays in the ...
OAK RIDGE, Tenn., Feb. 12, 2018 - New insights from neutron analysis of glaucoma drugs and their enzyme target may help scientists design drugs that more effectively target aggressive cancers. A team of researchers led by the Department of Energys Oak Ridge National Laboratory used neutron macromolecular crystallography to investigate the different states of three glaucoma drugs as they interact with the targeted enzyme, human carbonic anhydrase II (hCA II).. Our goal was to observe differences in the presentation of three clinically used glaucoma drugs while they are bound to the hCA II enzyme, said Andrey Kovalevsky, an instrument scientist at ORNL and a senior co-author of the study. By looking at how well these drugs target hCA II in protonated, neutral and deprotonated states, we hoped to obtain insights that would make it possible to improve these medicines so they can better target enzymes linked to cancer.. Protonation refers to the presence, addition or loss of a proton, which ...
Brinzolamide is a highly specific, non-competitive, reversible carbonic anhydrase inhibitor. Carbonic anhydrase (CA) is an enzyme found in many tissues of the body including the eye. It catalyzes the reversible reaction involving the hydration of carbon dioxide and the dehydration of carbonic acid. In humans, carbonic anhydrase exists as a number of isoenzymes, the most active being carbonic anhydrase II (CA-II). Inhibition of carbonic anhydrase in the ciliary processes of the eye decreases aqueous humor secretion, presumably by slowing the formation of bicarbonate ions with subsequent reduction in sodium and fluid transport. The result is a reduction in intraocular pressure. Brinzolamide is indicated in the treatment of elevated intraocular pressure in patients with ocular hypertension or open-angle glaucoma.
Dorzolamide is a sulfonamide and a highly specific carbonic anhydrase II (CA-II) inhibitor, which is the main CA isoenzyme involved in aqueous humor secretion. Inhibition of CA-II in the ciliary processes of the eye decreases aqueous humor secretion, presumably by slowing the formation of bicarbonate ions with subsequent reduction in sodium and fluid transport. Dorzolamide also accumulates in red blood cells as a result of CA-II binding, as CA-II is found predominantly in erythrocytes. However, sufficient CA-II activity remains so that adverse effects due to systemic CA inhibition are not observed ...
The IUPHAR/BPS Guide to Pharmacology. carbonic anhydrase 9 - Carbonic anhydrases. Detailed annotation on the structure, function, physiology, pharmacology and clinical relevance of drug targets.
Monocarboxylate transporter-5 (MCT5 or SLC16A4; sometimes referred to as MCT4). Lactate transport via the MCT5 is non enzymatically stimulated by carbonic anhydrase II (Becker et al., 2010). MCTs require an ancillary 1TMS glycoprotein, either Embigin (Q6PCB8; TC# 8.A.23.1.2) or basigin (P35613; TC# 8.A.23.1.1) for plasma membrane localization (Ovens et al., 2010). Upregulated in some cancers and maintains the metabolic phenotype of these cancer cells by mediating lactate efflux together with a proton, promoting pH homeostasis (Baltazar et al. 2014). Also transports the chemotheraputic agent, 3-bromopyruvate (Baltazar et al. 2014 ...
3mzc: Selective hydrophobic pocket binding observed within the carbonic anhydrase II active site accommodate different 4-substituted-ureido-benzenesulfonamides and correlate to inhibitor potency.
Carbonic anhydrases (CAs) are a large family of zinc metalloenzymes that catalyze the reversible hydration of carbon dioxide. They participate in a variety of biological processes, including respiration, calcification, acid-base balance, bone resorption, and the formation of aqueous humor, cerebrospinal fluid, saliva, and gastric acid. They show extensive diversity in tissue distribution and in their subcellular localization. CA IX is a transmembrane protein and is one of only two tumor-associated carbonic anhydrase isoenzymes known. It is expressed in all clear-cell renal cell carcinoma, but is not detected in normal kidney or most other normal tissues. It may be involved in cell proliferation and transformation. This gene was mapped to 17q21.2 by fluorescence in situ hybridization, however, radiation hybrid mapping localized it to 9p13-p12. [provided by RefSeq, Jun 2014 ...
Carbonic anhydrase 12, 0.1 ml. Carbonic anhydrases (CAs) are a large family of zinc metalloenzymes that catalyze the reversible hydration of carbon dioxide.
Zn(2+)-dependent carbonic anhydrases (CA) catalyse the reversible hydration of carbon dioxide to bicarbonate and participate in diverse physiological processes, hence having manifold therapeutic potentials. Among the 15 human CAs with wide-ranging sub-cellular localisation and kinetic properties, CA VI is the only secretory isoform. The 1.9Å crystal structure of the human CA VI catalytic domain reveals a prototypical mammalian CA fold, and a novel dimeric arrangement as compared to previously-reported CA structures. The active site cavity contains a cluster of non-conserved residues that may be involved in ligand binding and have significant implications for developing the next-generation of isoform-specific inhibitors.
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Zakšauskas, A., Čapkauskaitė, E., Jezepčikas, L., Linkuvienė, V., Paketurytė, V., Smirnov, A., Leitans, J., Kazaks, A., Dvinskis, E., Manakova, E., Gražulis, S., Tars, K., Matulis, D., 2020. Halogenated and di-substituted benzenesulfonamides as selective inhibitors of carbonic anhydrase isoforms. European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry 185:111825. Vaškevičienė, I., Paketurytė, V., Pajanok, N., Žukauskas, Š., Sapijanskaitė, B., Kantminienė, K., Mickevičius, V., Zubrienė, A., Matulis, D., 2019. Pyrrolidinone-bearing methylated and halogenated benzenesulfonamides as inhibitors of carbonic anhydrases. Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry 27:322-337. Stravinskiene, D., Imbrasaite, A., Petrikaite, V., Matulis, D., Matuliene, J., Zvirbliene, A., 2019. New Monoclonal Antibodies for a Selective Detection of Membrane-Associated and Soluble Forms of Carbonic Anhydrase IX in Human Cell Lines and Biological Samples. Biomolecules 9:304. Paketurytė, V., Linkuvienė, V., Krainer, G., Chen, W.-Y., ...
Occasional coexistence of pancreatitis with other autoimmune diseases suggests that there may be common target antigens in the pancreas and other exocrine organs, such as the salivary glands, biliary tract, and renal tubules. Several autoantibodies such as antinuclear antibody (ANA), antilactoferrin (LF) antibody (ALF), anticarbonic anhydrase II (CA-II) antibody (ACA-II), and rheumatoid factor (RF) were frequently detected in patients with AIP.12,13 CA-II and LF are distributed in the cells of several exocrine organs, including the pancreas, salivary glands, biliary duct, and distal renal tubules.12 The high prevalence of these antibodies suggests that CA-II and LF may be candidates for the target antigens in AIP. However, it was found that these autoantibodies are not necessarily specific for AIP.12 Although the majority of diabetic patients with associated AIP show type 2 diabetes mellitus, a few AIP patients with type 1A diabetes mellitus have autoantibodies against glutamic acid ...
RESEARCH TRIANGLE PARK, N.C., Jan. 26, 2017-- Metabolon, Inc., the global leader in metabolomics, announced changes today to its executive team. Prior to joining Metabolon, he was the Managing Director of Klaipeda Health, a healthcare and life sciences advisory company. He has held a variety of commercial, medical, scientific, informatics and technology leadership...
As a member of the wwPDB, the RCSB PDB curates and annotates PDB data according to agreed upon standards. The RCSB PDB also provides a variety of tools and resources. Users can perform simple and advanced searches based on annotations relating to sequence, structure and function. These molecules are visualized, downloaded, and analyzed by users who range from students to specialized scientists.
US Patent 8,131,473. Data analysis methods for locating entities of interest within large, multivariable datasets. Inventors: Marie Coffin, Keith Allen, Brian Bullard, Alan Higgins. Assignee: Metabolon
Carbon dioxide sequestration activity was compared and evaluated using bovine carbonic anhydrase (BCA), and a water soluble protein extract derived from hemocytes from diseased shell (HDS). Para-nitro
B. Żołnowska, J. Sławiński, K. Szafrański, A. Angeli, C. T. Supuran, A. Kawiak, M. Wieczór, J. Zielińska, T. Bączek, S. Bartoszewska. Novel 2-(2-arylmethylthio-4-chloro-5-methylbenzenesulfonyl)-1-(1,3,5-triazin-2-ylamino)guanidine derivatives: Inhibition of human carbonic anhydrase cytosolic isozymes I and II and the transmembrane tumor-associated isozymes IX and XII, anticancer activity, and molecular modeling studies. Eur. J. Med. Chem. 2018, 143, 1931-1941. ...
We present a fast (,,1 s per profile) inversion code for solar Ca II lines. The code uses an archive of spectra that are synthesized prior to the inversion under the assumption of local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE). We show that it can be successfully applied to spectrograph data or more sparsely sampled spectra from two-dimensional spectrometers. From a comparison to a non-LTE inversion of the same set of spectra, we derive a first-order non-LTE correction to the temperature stratifications derived in the LTE approach. The correction factor is close to unity up to log τ ∼ -3 and increases to values of 2.5 and 4 at log τ = -6 in the quiet Sun and the umbra, respectively. ...
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Synthesis, characterization, thermal stability and pyrolysis of some alkaline earth picolinates M(C H NO ) ⋅nH O (where M = Mg(II), Ca(II), Sr(II) and Ba(II ...
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At HCA Healthcare UK, we have the expertise and technology to diagnose, treat and provide ongoing support to patients with all forms and stages of cancer.
"Carbonic anhydrase in the female reproductive tract. II. Endometrial carbonic anhydrase as indicator of luteoid potency: ... Two other progestogens, pentagestrone (never marketed) and pentagestrone acetate (Gestovis, Gestovister), are the 3-cyclopentyl ... 65 (1-2): 109-114. doi:10.1016/0378-5173(90)90015-V. Wali B, Sayeed I, Guthrie DB, Natchus MG, Turan N, Liotta DC, Stein DG ( ... and 2 injections each of 125 mg. of progesterone indicate that it is not possible to obtain an increase of effect and ...
"Carbonic anhydrase in the female reproductive tract. II. Endometrial carbonic anhydrase as indicator of luteoid potency: ... to possess similar potency to progesterone and hydroxyprogesterone caproate in the rabbit endometrial carbonic anhydrase test, ...
Sato S, Zhu XL, Sly WS (1990). "Carbonic anhydrase isozymes IV and II in urinary membranes from carbonic anhydrase II-deficient ... "Human carbonic anhydrases and carbonic anhydrase deficiencies". Annu. Rev. Biochem. 64 (1): 375-401. doi:10.1146/annurev.bi. ... Roth DE, Venta PJ, Tashian RE, Sly WS (1992). "Molecular basis of human carbonic anhydrase II deficiency". Proc. Natl. Acad. ... Sly also identified the first inherited deficiency of a human carbonic anhydrase, CA II, and defined the biochemical and ...
Exhibits a Drug Disposition Profile in Healthy Volunteers Compatible With High Affinity to Carbonic Anhydrase-I/II: Preliminary ... It inhibits the enzymes carbonic anhydrase and COX-2. A study in healthy volunteers showed drug effects on urinary ... Hirankarn S, Barrett JS, Alamuddin N, FitzGerald GA, Skarke C (October 2013). "GCG100649, A Novel Cyclooxygenase-2 Inhibitor, ... 2 (4): 379-86. doi:10.1002/cpdd.47. PMID 27121942. S2CID 35992507. v t e. ...
The cause of the rapid widespread acceptance of Celebrex and Vioxx by physicians was the publication of two large trials, the ... Two of the metabolites of COX-2, prostaglandin A2 (PGA2) and A1 (PGA1), when present in high quantities bind to p53 in the ... it was discovered that prostaglandins could indeed be separated into two general classes which could loosely be regarded as " ... while prostaglandins whose synthesis involves the cyclooxygenase-II enzyme, or COX-2, are responsible for inflammation and pain ...
Functional interaction of carbonic anhydrase II and chloride/bicarbonate exchangers". J. Biol. Chem. 276 (51): 47886-94. doi: ... Vince JW, Reithmeier RA (October 1998). "Carbonic anhydrase II binds to the carboxyl terminus of human band 3, the erythrocyte ... Vince JW, Reithmeier RA (May 2000). "Identification of the carbonic anhydrase II binding site in the Cl(-)/HCO(3)(-) anion ... anion exchanger binding site to the amino-terminal region of carbonic anhydrase II". Biochemistry. 39 (44): 13344-9. doi: ...
Functional interaction of carbonic anhydrase II and chloride/bicarbonate exchangers". J. Biol. Chem. 276 (51): 47886-94. doi: ... Extracellular loop 4 of the human AE1 Cl-/HCO3- exchanger binds carbonic anhydrase IV". J. Biol. Chem. 277 (28): 25239-46. doi: ... exchanger and carbonic anhydrase XIV interaction". Am. J. Physiol., Cell Physiol. 297 (5): C1091-102. doi:10.1152/ajpcell. ... Alvarez BV, Fujinaga J, Casey JR (2002). "Molecular basis for angiotensin II-induced increase of chloride/bicarbonate exchange ...
... is a carbonic anhydrase inhibitor (specifically, carbonic anhydrase II). Carbonic anhydrase is found primarily in ... the most active of which is carbonic anhydrase II (CA-II). Use for the treatment of open-angle glaucoma and raised intraocular ... and thus exhibits carbonic anhydrase inhibitory activity (largely carbonic anhydrase-I, when in the presence of Brinzolamide) ... Inhibition of carbonic anhydrase in the ciliary processes of the eye decreases aqueous humor secretion and thus lowers the ...
Functional interaction of carbonic anhydrase II and chloride/bicarbonate exchangers". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 276 ... binds carbonic anhydrase II (CAII) forming a "transport metabolon" as CAII binding activates AE1 transport activity about 10 ... At least two genes encode these symporters in any one mammal. A 10 TMS model has been presented, but this model conflicts with ... Two others (AE4, SLC4A9 and BTR1, SLC4A11) are not characterized. Most, though not all, are inhibited by 4,4'- ...
"Differential expression of cytoplasmic carbonic anhydrases, CA I and II, and membrane-associated isozymes, CA IX and XII, in ... "Entrez Gene: CA9 carbonic anhydrase IX".. *^ Kirkpatrick JP, Rabbani ZN, Bentley RC, Hardee ME, Karol S, Meyer J, Oosterwijk E ... Carbonic anhydrase 9 (CA9/CAIX) is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CA9 gene.[5][6][7] ... Nishimori I, Onishi S (2001). "Carbonic anhydrase isozymes in the human pancreas". Digestive and Liver Disease. 33 (1): 68-74. ...
Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors: binding of indanesulfonamides to the human isoform II. ... Indane-5-sulfonamide is a carbonic anhydrase inhibitor. ...
Fathallah DM, Bejaoui M, Lepaslier D, Chater K, Sly WS, Dellagi K (May 1997). "Carbonic anhydrase II (CA II) deficiency in ... July 1985). "Carbonic anhydrase II deficiency in 12 families with the autosomal recessive syndrome of osteopetrosis with renal ... Combined dRTA and pRTA is also observed as the result of inherited carbonic anhydrase II deficiency. Mutations in the gene ... Shah GN, Bonapace G, Hu PY, Strisciuglio P, Sly WS (September 2004). "Carbonic anhydrase II deficiency syndrome (osteopetrosis ...
... has been shown to interact with carbonic anhydrase II and CHP. It is also the target of the ... Li X, Alvarez B, Casey JR, Reithmeier RA, Fliegel L (September 2002). "Carbonic anhydrase II binds to and enhances activity of ... 275 (2): C431-9. doi:10.1152/ajpcell.1998.275.2.C431. PMID 9688597. Wakabayashi S, Pang T, Su X, Shigekawa M (March 2000). "A ... 56 (2): 271-80. doi:10.1016/0092-8674(89)90901-X. PMID 2536298. S2CID 2782563. Mattei MG, Sardet C, Franchi A, Pouysségur J ( ...
2005). "Molecular mechanism of kNBC1-carbonic anhydrase II interaction in proximal tubule cells". J. Physiol. 559 (Pt 1): 55-65 ... Asp988 and kNBC1-carbonic anhydrase II binding". J. Physiol. 544 (Pt 3): 679-85. doi:10.1113/jphysiol.2002.029777. PMC 2290621 ... 2003). "Direct extracellular interaction between carbonic anhydrase IV and the human NBC1 sodium/bicarbonate co-transporter". ... 277 (6 Pt 2): F974-81. doi:10.1152/ajprenal.1999.277.6.F974. PMID 10600945. Park K, Hurley PT, Roussa E, et al. (2002). " ...
"The functional and physical relationship between the DRA bicarbonate transporter and carbonic anhydrase II". American Journal ... Sandal NN, Marcker KA (January 1994). "Similarities between a soybean nodulin, Neurospora crassa sulphate permease II and a ... "Identification of seven novel mutations including the first two genomic rearrangements in SLC26A3 mutated in congenital ... 3.0.CO;2-A. PMID 9554749. Antalis TM, Reeder JA, Gotley DC, Byeon MK, Walsh MD, Henderson KW, Papas TS, Schweinfest CW (August ...
... cotransporter by carbonic anhydrase II and PKA". Am. J. Physiol., Cell Physiol. 286 (6): C1423-33. doi:10.1152/ajpcell. ... 277 (6 Pt 2): F974-81. doi:10.1152/ajprenal.1999.277.6.F974. PMID 10600945. Park M, Ko SB, Choi JY, et al. (2003). "The cystic ... 246 (2): 535-8. doi:10.1006/bbrc.1998.8658. PMID 9610397. Pushkin A, Abuladze N, Lee I, et al. (1999). "Mapping of the human ... 57 (2): 321-2. doi:10.1006/geno.1999.5781. PMID 10198178. Pushkin A, Abuladze N, Lee I, et al. (1999). "Cloning, tissue ...
... cotransporter by carbonic anhydrase II and PKA". Am. J. Physiol., Cell Physiol. 286 (6): C1423-33. doi:10.1152/ajpcell. ... Grichtchenko II, Choi I, Zhong X, Bray-Ward P, Russell JM, Boron WF (May 2001). "Cloning, characterization, and chromosomal ... 276 (6 Pt 2): F903-13. doi:10.1152/ajprenal.1999.276.6.F903. PMID 10362779. Pushkin A, Abuladze N, Lee I, Newman D, Hwang J, ... 283 (2): G473-80. doi:10.1152/ajpgi.00421.2001. PMID 12121896. Amlal H, Burnham CE, Soleimani M (1999). "Characterization of ...
... selectively inhibits cytosolic (type II) and membrane associated (type IV) forms of carbonic anhydrase. The action ... As topiramate inhibits carbonic anhydrase, use with other inhibitors of carbonic anhydrase (e.g. acetazolamide) increases the ... Topiramate, sold under the brand name Topamax among others, is a carbonic anhydrase inhibitor medication used to treat epilepsy ... the inhibition of carbonic anhydrase may be strong enough to cause metabolic acidosis of clinical importance. The U.S. Food and ...
Carbonic anhydrase. *CO dehydrogenase [18]. *Cytochrome c peroxidase. *Fumarase. *Superoxide dismutase. *Triosephosphate ... 62 (2): 154-9. doi:10.1021/j150560a005.. *^ a b c Eigen, Manfred; Hammes, Gordon G. (2006). "Elementary Steps in Enzyme ... 8 (2): 46. doi:10.1016/0968-0004(83)90382-1.. *^ Zhou, Guozhi; Wong, Ming-Tat; Zhou, Guo-Qiang (1983). "Diffusion-controlled ... In 1972, it was observed that in the dehydration of H2CO3 catalyzed by carbonic anhydrase, the second-order rate constant ...
It has been determined that this is due to binding of E2MATE to carbonic anhydrase II in erythrocytes (red blood cells), which ... The X-ray crystal structure of EMATE in complex with carbonic anhydrase II has been determined. However, it has been found that ... "Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors: X-ray crystallographic structure of the adduct of human isozyme II with EMATE, a dual inhibitor ... or carbonic anhydrases and steroid sulfatase". Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 14: 231-234. doi:10.1016/j.bmcl.2003.09.064. Michael ...
Poulsen, S.-A.; Bornaghi, L. F. (May 2006). "Fragment-based drug discovery of carbonic anhydrase II inhibitors by dynamic ... II. Nickel(II) Complexes of Some Novel Tetradentate Ligands". Journal of the American Chemical Society. 84 (9): 1762-1763. doi: ... Metal Ion Control in the Synthesis of Planar Nickel(II) Complexes of α-Diketo-bis-mercaptoimines". Journal of the American ... Valade, A.; Urban, D.; Beau, J.-M. (Jan-Feb 2007). "Two galatosyltransferases' selection of different binders from the same ...
An enzyme, carbonic anhydrase, located within the carboxysome releases CO2 from the dissolved hydrocarbonate ions (HCO−. 3). ... Two water molecules are oxidized by four successive charge-separation reactions by photosystem II to yield a molecule of ... whose electrons come from electron transport through photosystem II. Photosystem II, as the first step of the Z-scheme, ... Photosynthesis occurs in two stages. In the first stage, light-dependent reactions or light reactions capture the energy of ...
... make it unlikely that it has carbonic anhydrase activity. It shares properties in common with two other acatalytic CA isoforms ... Carbonic anhydrase-related protein 11 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CA11 gene. Carbonic anhydrases (CAs) are a ... "Entrez Gene: CA11 carbonic anhydrase XI". CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) Liao W, Xiao Q, Tchikov V, Fujita K, Yang W, ... Bellingham J, Gregory-Evans K, Gregory-Evans CY (1998). "Sequence and tissue expression of a novel human carbonic anhydrase- ...
Felce J, Saier MH (2004-01-01). "Carbonic anhydrases fused to anion transporters of the SulP family: evidence for a novel type ... Jiang Z, Grichtchenko II, Boron WF, Aronson PS (September 2002). "Specificity of anion exchange mediated by mouse Slc26a6". The ... Some of these fused proteins have SulP homologues fused to carbonic anhydrase homologues (TC# 2.A.53.8.1). These are also ... where two subunits do not function independently. The dimeric structure probably represents the native state of SulP ...
One gene is carbonic anhydrase II (CAII), which, when mutated, causes osteopetrosis with renal tubular acidosis(type 3). ... Sly WS, Hewett-Emmett D, Whyte MP, Yu YS, Tashian RE (May 1983). "Carbonic anhydrase II deficiency identified as the primary ... Two of the three proteins, Vma12p and Vma22p, form a complex that binds transiently to Vph1p (subunit a) to aid its assembly ... There are two versions of this subunit in eukaryotes, d/d1 and d2. In mammals, d1 (ATP6V0D1) is the ubiquitously expressed ...
... is a carbonic anhydrase inhibitor, hence causing the accumulation of carbonic acid. Carbonic anhydrase is an ... Other carbonic anhydrase inhibitors - potential for additive inhibitory effects on carbonic anhydrase and hence potential for ... The enzyme carbonic anhydrase is found here, allowing the reabsorption of bicarbonate, sodium, and chloride. By inhibiting this ... Larsen, D. "Carbonic Anhydrase 2". UC Davis Chemwiki. University of California. Retrieved 10 April 2014. "Archived copy" (PDF ...
... and kinetic characterization of active-site histidine as a proton shuttle in catalysis by human carbonic anhydrase II". ... An example of an enzyme that contains a cofactor is carbonic anhydrase, which has a zinc cofactor bound as part of its active ...
... and kinetic characterization of active-site histidine as a proton shuttle in catalysis by human carbonic anhydrase II". ... For example, carbonic anhydrase catalyzes its reaction in either direction depending on the concentration of its reactants: The ... Example of such enzymes are triose-phosphate isomerase, carbonic anhydrase, acetylcholinesterase, catalase, fumarase, β- ... An example of an enzyme that contains a cofactor is carbonic anhydrase, which uses a zinc cofactor bound as part of its active ...
Casini, Angela (2004). "Hypoxia activates the capacity of tumor‐associated carbonic anhydrase IX to acidify extracellular pH". ... Casini, Angela (2004). "Unexpected nanomolar inhibition of carbonic anhydrase by COX-2-selective celecoxib: new pharmacological ... "Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors". Medicinal Research Reviews. 23 (2): 146-189. doi:10.1002/med.10025. PMID 12500287. S2CID ...
carbonic anhydrase (chloride shift). *oxyhemoglobin. *respiratory quotient. *arterial blood gas. *diffusion capacity (DLCO) ...
The active site will only allow one of the two complexes to bind to the site therefore either allowing for a reaction to occur ... 2. [. ES. ]. =. k. 2. K. i. [. S. ]. [. E. ]. 0. K. m. K. i. +. K. i. [. S. ]. +. K. m. [. I. ]. {\displaystyle V_{0}=k_{2}[{\ ... 2. [. E. ]. 0. [. S. ]. K. m. +. [. S. ]. +. K. m. [. I. ]. K. i. {\displaystyle V_{0}={\frac {k_{2}[{\ce {E}}]_{0}[{\ce {S ... 2. [. ES. ]. −. k. 3. [. E. ]. [. I. ]. +. k. −. 3. [. EI. ]. {\displaystyle {\frac {d[{\ce {E}}]}{dt}}=0=-k_{1}[{\ce {E}}][{\ ...
Pervasive and required for several enzymes such as carboxypeptidase, liver alcohol dehydrogenase, and carbonic anhydrase ... 193 (2): 199-208. doi:10.1023/A:1004276311956. ISSN 0032-079X.. *^ "Some Facts about Lithium". ENC Labs. Retrieved 2010-10-15. ... 2; 0.6 Trace The oxidases xanthine oxidase, aldehyde oxidase, and sulfite oxidase[31] Legumes, whole grains, nuts[25] ... 2 December 2016. Retrieved 24 December 2016.. *^ Chromium. IN: Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, ...
carbonic anhydrase (chloride shift). *oxyhemoglobin. *respiratory quotient. *arterial blood gas. *diffusion capacity (DLCO) ... 5 (2): 65-69. doi:10.1016/j.osfp.2012.09.003.. *^ a b c d LUNGFUNKTION - Practice compendium for semester 6. Department of ... 127 (2): 549-549. doi:10.1016/j.jaci.2010.10.053.. *^ Pellegrino R, Viegi G, Brusasco V, Crapo RO, Burgos F, Casaburi R, Coates ... ISBN 978-0-7817-5273-2.. *^ Sud, A.; Gupta, D.; Wanchu, A.; Jindal, S. K.; Bambery, P. (2001). "Static lung compliance as an ...
Carbonic anhydrase inhibitorsEdit. Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors inhibit the enzyme carbonic anhydrase which is found in the ... Ballew JR, Fink GD (September 2001). "Characterization of the antihypertensive effect of a thiazide diuretic in angiotensin II- ... Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors acetazolamide,[17] dorzolamide Inhibits H+ secretion, resultant promotion of Na+ and K+ excretion ... 2. proximal tubule Loop diuretics bumetanide,[17] ethacrynic acid,[17] furosemide,[17] torsemide Inhibits the Na-K-2Cl ...
... and kinetic characterization of active-site histidine as a proton shuttle in catalysis by human carbonic anhydrase II". 》 ... 2. +. H. 2. O. →. 탄산무수화효소. H. 2. CO. 3. {\displaystyle {\ce {CO2{}+H2O-,[{\text{탄산무수화효소}}]H2CO3}}}. (조직에서 CO2 농도가 높을 때) ... 2. +. H. 2. O. ←. 탄산무수화효소. H. 2. CO. 3. {\displaystyle {\ce {CO2{}+H2O,-[{\text{탄산무수화효소}}]H2CO3}}}. (폐에서 CO2 농도가 낮을 때) ... 2] 그러나 대부분의 효소들은 촉매적으로 완벽한 상태와는 거리가 멀다. 일반적인 효소들의 k. c. a. t. /. K. m. {\displaystyle k_{\rm {cat}}/K_{\rm {m}}}. 의 평균값은 약 10. ...
Murakami, H. and Sly, W.S. (1987). "Purification and characterization of human salivary carbonic anhydrase". J. Biol. Chem. 262 ... B enzm: 1.1/2/3/4/5/6/7/8/10/11/13/14/15-18, 2.1/2/3/4/5/6/7/8, 2.7.10, 2.7.11-12, 3.1/2/3/4/5/6/7, 3.1.3.48, 3.4.21/22/23/24, ... Keilin, D. and Mann, T. (1939). "Carbonic anhydrase". Nature 144: 442-443. ... CO2 +H2O. Ovaj enzim sadrži cink.. Reference[uredi - уреди , uredi izvor]. *↑ ...
Anti-glaucoma: adrenergic agonists, beta-blockers, carbonic anhydrase inhibitors/hyperosmotics, cholinergics, miotics, ... The drug requires very expensive Phase I, II and III clinical trials, and most of them fail. Small companies have a critical ... The popularity of meprobamate paved the way for Librium and Valium, two minor tranquilizers that belonged to a new chemical ... 2.. *^ S., Van Wormer, Katherine (18 March 2015). Social welfare policy for a sustainable future : the U.S. in global context. ...
Hence, this enzyme has one substrate, 6-phospho-D-gluconate, and two products, 2-dehydro-3-deoxy-6-phospho-D-gluconate and H2O ... Carbonic anhydrase. *Fumarase. *Aconitase. *Enolase *Alpha. *Enolase 2. *Enoyl-CoA hydratase/3-Hydroxyacyl ACP dehydrase ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is 6-phospho-D-gluconate hydro-lyase (2-dehydro-3-deoxy-6-phospho-D-gluconate-forming) ... 2-keto-3-deoxy-6-phosphogluconate, a product of the reaction catalysed by phosphogluconate dehydratase ...
carbonic anhydrase(英语:carbonic anhydrase) (chloride shift(英语:chloride shift)) ... Donald, Kenneth W. Oxygen Poisoning in Man: Part II. British Medical Journal. 1947, 1 (4507): 712-717. PMC 2053400. PMID ... 人体内的任何细胞都可能发生氧化损伤,但其主要影响上述三者。红细胞也可能发生氧化损伤,从而引发溶血反應[5][6]。肝臟[7]、心肌[8]、内分泌腺(腎上腺、生殖腺和甲状腺)[9][10][11]和腎[
... which is rapidly converted to hydrogen and bicarbonate through the action of carbonic anhydrase.[58] When the ECF pH falls ( ... cleaves a further two amino acids from angiotensin I to form an octapeptide known as angiotensin II. Angiotensin II is a ... The two homeostatic mechanisms working through PTH on the one hand, and calcitonin on the other can very rapidly correct any ... The angiotensin II-stimulated aldosterone released from the zona glomerulosa of the adrenal glands has an effect on ...
... secretes carbonic anhydrase (gustin), which is thought to play a role in the development of taste buds.[9] ... Two species of swifts in the genus Aerodramus build their nests using only their saliva, the base for bird's nest soup.[14] ... 20 (2): 119-134. doi:10.1177/026010600902000204. PMID 19835108.. *^ Essentials of Human Physiology by Thomas M. Nosek. Section ... 106 (2): 159-165. doi:10.1677/joe.0.1060159. PMID 2991413.. *. Banerjee, R. K.; Datta, A. G. (1986). "Salivary peroxidases". ...
Through the enzyme carbonic anhydrase, carbon dioxide reacts with water to give carbonic acid, which decomposes into ... consisting of two α and two β subunits non-covalently bound, each made of 141 and 146 amino acid residues, respectively. This ... Hemoglobin exists in two forms, a taut (tense) form (T) and a relaxed form (R). Various factors such as low pH, high CO2 and ... The two logical possibilities to produce diamagnetic (no net spin) Hb-O2 are: *Low-spin Fe2+ binds to singlet oxygen. Both low- ...
... and carbonic anhydrase into a macromolecular complex termed a "metabolon," which may play a key role in regulating red cell ... Two drops of blood are shown with a bright red oxygenated drop on the left and a deoxygenated drop on the right. ... The last two shapes are due to water being transported into, and out of, the cells, by osmosis. ... A year later Alfred von Decastello and Adriano Sturli, two colleagues of Landsteiner, identified a fourth blood group-AB. ...
... a carbonic anhydrase inhibitor Lithium was previously used for treatment of PPD as a direct competitive ADH agonist, but is now ... an angiotensin II receptor antagonist Propranolol, a sympatholytic beta blocker Vasopressin receptor antagonists, such as ... and the effects of an adjunctive angiotensin-II receptor blocking drug (irbesartan)". The Australian and New Zealand Journal of ... 66 (2): 283-286. ISSN 1534-7796. PMID 15039516. (subscription required) Lee, H. S.; Kwon, K. Y.; Alphs, L. D.; Meltzer, H. Y. ( ...
carbonic anhydrase (chloride shift). *oxyhemoglobin. *respiratory quotient. *arterial blood gas. *diffusion capacity (DLCO) ... Continental Shelf Station Two. *Helgoland Habitat. *Jules' Undersea Lodge. *Scott Carpenter Space Analog Station ... 36 (2). doi:10.1210/endo-meetings.2015.. *^ a b c Martin, Lawrence (1999). All you really need to know to interpret arterial ... 8 (1): 2-7. doi:10.23907/2018.001. PMC 6474450. PMID 31240022.. *^ Roueché, Berton (1953) Eleven blue men, and other narratives ...
Carbonic anhydrase. DNA polymerase A simple [Fe2S2] cluster containing two iron atoms and two sulfur atoms, coordinated by four ... If so, the cofactors are also called coenzymes.[1] [2]. Cofactors which are complex organic molecules are often called ...
Ribbon diagram of human carbonic anhydrase II. Active site zinc ion visible at center. From PDB: 1CA2​. ... Cadmium-containing carbonic anhydraseEdit. Marine diatoms have been found to express a new form of ζ carbonic anhydrase. T. ... Several forms of carbonic anhydrase occur in nature. In the best-studied α-carbonic anhydrase form present in animals, the zinc ... Differences from other carbonic anhydrasesEdit. Unlike most other carbonic anhydrases, the active site metal ion is not bound ...
... which acts by inhibiting the enzyme carbonic anhydrase, and it reduces CSF production by six to 57 percent. It can cause the ... Two main surgical procedures exist in the treatment of IIH: optic nerve sheath decompression and fenestration and shunting. ... 11 (2): 1-9. doi:10.3171/foc.2001.11.2.3. PMID 16602675.. *^ Symonds CP (1931). "Otitic hydrocephalus". Brain. 54: 55-71. doi: ... The choice between these two procedures depends on the predominant problem in IIH. Neither procedure is perfect: both may cause ...
1995). «The carbonic anhydrase domain of receptor tyrosine phosphatase beta is a functional ligand for the axonal cell ... 82 (2): 251-60. PMID 7628014. doi:10.1016/0092-8674(95)90312-7. !CS1 manut: Uso explícito de et al. (link) !CS1 manut: Nomes ... 21 (1-2): 1-8. PMID 8164510. doi:10.1016/0169-328X(94)90372-7. !CS1 manut: Nomes múltiplos: lista de autores (link) ... doi:10.1002/(SICI)1097-4547(19970915)49:6,698::AID-JNR4,3.0.CO;2-2. !CS1 manut: Uso explícito de et al. (link) !CS1 manut: ...
carbonic anhydrase (chloride shift). *oxyhemoglobin. *respiratory quotient. *arterial blood gas. *diffusion capacity (DLCO) ... There are two types of COPD: primary and secondary. Primary COPD can be found in younger adults. This type of COPD deteriorates ... The lungs are made up of thirteen different kinds of cells, eleven types of epithelial cell and two types of mesenchymal cell.[ ... The lungs are encased in a serous membrane that folds in on itself to form the pleurae - a two-layered protective barrier. The ...
"The carbonic anhydrase domain of receptor tyrosine phosphatase beta is a functional ligand for the axonal cell recognition ... doi:10.1002/(SICI)1097-4547(19970915)49:6,698::AID-JNR4,3.0.CO;2-2. PMID 9335257.. ... "Overlapping and differential expression of BIG-2, BIG-1, TAG-1, and F3: four members of an axon-associated cell adhesion ...
Zinc required for several enzymes such as carboxypeptidase, liver alcohol dehydrogenase, and carbonic anhydrase ... There are two subcategories: soluble and insoluble fiber. Whole grains, fruits (especially plums, prunes, and figs), and ... Over two decades later, nutritionists learned that the outer rice bran contains vitamin B1, also known as thiamine. ... Between 1500 and 1800, an estimated two million sailors had died of scurvy.[27] The discovery was ignored for forty years, ...
Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors/. (sulfonamides). *Acetazolamide. *Brinzolamide (+timolol). *Diclofenamide. *Dorzolamide (+ ... The drug starts to lower intraocular pressure within an hour, reaches its maximum effect after two to six hours, and remains ... Rarer adverse effects include keratitis, edema and increased lacrimation.[2][3] Allergies are rare, but seem to be more common ... InChI=1S/C17H25NO3/c1-17(2,3)18-10-12(19)11-21-16-9-5-6-13-14(16)7-4-8-15(13)20/h5-6,9,12,18-19H,4,7-8,10-11H2,1-3H3/t12-/m0/s1 ...
carbonic anhydrase (chloride shift). *oxyhemoglobin. *respiratory quotient. *arterial blood gas. *diffusion capacity (DLCO) ... Only CO2 levels affect this as it can diffuse across, reacting with H2O to form carbonic acid and thus decrease pH. Central ... An increase in carbon dioxide causes tension of the arteries, often resulting from decreased CO2 output (hypercapnia), ... The central chemoreception system has also been shown experimentally to respond to hypercapnic hypoxia (elevated CO2, decreased ...
Fluid production can be decreased by beta blockers, alpha2-agonists, and carbonic anhydrase inhibitors.[7] ... Tao, Le (2017-11-13). First aid for the USMLE Step 2 CS. Bhushan, Vikas., Lee, Kachiu., Deol, Maniver. (Sixth ed.). New York. p ...
carbonic anhydrase (chloride shift). *oxyhemoglobin. *respiratory quotient. *arterial blood gas. *diffusion capacity (DLCO) ... in 1964,[1] but was actually proposed two years earlier by Permutt et al.[2] In this article, Permutt suggests "The pressure in ... Zone 2 is the part of the lungs about 3 cm above the heart. In this region blood flows in pulses. At first there is no flow ... plus or minus 2 cm H2O (1.5 mmHg) throughout the lung. On the other hand, gravity causes a gradient in blood pressure between ...
... or direct vasodilator actions either through inhibition of carbonic anhydrase or by desensitizing the vascular smooth muscle ... Hypokalemia - Thiazide diuretics reduces potassium concentration in blood through two indirect mechanisms: inhibition of sodium ... 45 (2): 233-9. doi:10.1161/01.HYP.0000152701.97426.5f. PMID 15611360. Aung K, Htay T. Thiazide diuretics and the risk of hip ... 2. New York: McGraw-Hill. p. 3109. ISBN 978-0-07-174887-2. thiazide receptor at the US National Library of Medicine Medical ...
Structural analysis of inhibitor binding to human carbonic anhydrase II.. Boriack-Sjodin, P.A., Zeitlin, S., Chen, H.H., ... X-ray crystal structures of carbonic anhydrase II (CAII) complexed with sulfonamide inhibitors illuminate the structural ... X-ray crystal structures of carbonic anhydrase II (CAII) complexed with sulfonamide inhibitors illuminate the structural ... the newest carbonic anhydrase inhibitor approved for the treatment of glaucoma.. Organizational Affiliation: Department of ...
RCSB PDB (citation) is managed by two members of the Research Collaboratory for Structural Bioinformatics: Rutgers and UCSD/ ... Synonyms : Car2, CA-II, CAII Previous Names: "carbonic anhydrase II" HgncId : HGNC:1373 Omim: 611492 ...
Carbonic anhydrase II (CAII)-deficient mice were created to study the syndrome of CAII deficiency in humans including ... Expression of carbonic anhydrase IV in carbonic anhydrase II-deficient mice. Am J Physiol 42:F234-F245Google Scholar ... Carbonic anhydrase II Osteopetrosis Renal tubular acidosis Osteoclast Osteoblast This is a preview of subscription content, log ... Whyte MP (1993) Carbonic anhydrase-II deficiency. Clin Orthop Relat Res 294:52-63PubMedGoogle Scholar ...
Elevated serum anti-carbonic anhydrase II antibodies in patients with ulcerative colitis ... The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence of anti-carbonic anhydrase (CA) I and anti-CA II antibodies in a series of ... Serum anti-CA I and anti-CA II antibodies were quantified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Anti-CA II antibody was ... In CD patients and non-IBD diarrheal patients, there were no significant increase in positive rate of either anti-CA I or II ...
Rabbit polyclonal Carbonic Anhydrase II antibody validated for WB, IP, ELISA, Conjugation, Dot and tested in Cow. Immunogen ... Anti-Carbonic Anhydrase II antibody. See all Carbonic Anhydrase II primary antibodies. ... carbonic anhydrase II deficiency syndrome, Guibaud-Vainsel syndrome or marble brain disease. Osteopetrosis is a rare genetic ... The disorder occurs in two forms: a severe autosomal recessive form occurring in utero, infancy, or childhood, and a benign ...
Carbonic Anhydrase (CA) 2 preserves the acid-base balance in tissues and blood and is part of the enzyme family that can ... Carbonic anhydrases exist in areas of life. Mammalian carbonic anhydrase is monomeric and is a part of the alpha class. ... CA-II, CAC, Carbonic anhydrase 2, Carbonate dehydratase 2, can, cynT2, yadF, b0126, JW0122, Carbonic Anhydrase II. ... The majority of carbonic anhydrases enclose a zinc ion in their active site and thus is categorized as metalloenzymes. The most ...
... M. Jakubowski,1 J. Dębski,2 E. ... M. Jakubowski, J. Dębski, E. Szahidewicz-Krupska, et al., "Platelet Carbonic Anhydrase II, a Forgotten Enzyme, May Be ... 2Institute of Biochemistry and Biophysics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warszawa, Poland. 3Division of Respiratory, Critical ...
The platelet carbonic anhydrase II (CAII) was described for the first time in the 80s of the last century. Nevertheless, its ... Carbonic anhydrases constitute a group of enzymes that catalyse reversible hydration of carbon dioxide leading to the formation ... Carbonic Anhydrase II. Carbonic anhydrase II (CAII) is a cytoplasmic enzyme with a very high affinity for sulphonamides and ... the autoantibodies against carbonic anhydrase II might be produced in humans due to cross-reactivity with carbonic anhydrase of ...
... studies were performed for a series of carbonic anhydrase inhibitors using comparative molecular field analysis (CoMFA) and ... 3D-QSAR study of benzene sulfonamide analogs as carbonic anhydrase II inhibitors Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2010 May 15;20(10):3089- ... The large set of 37 different aromatic/heterocyclic sulfonamides carbonic anhydrase (CA, EC 4.2.1.1) inhibitors, such as CA II ... Carbonic Anhydrase II / antagonists & inhibitors* * Carbonic Anhydrase II / metabolism * Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitors / ...
Knockout Tested Rabbit recombinant monoclonal Carbonic Anhydrase II antibody [EPR5195]. Validated in WB, IHC and tested in ... Anti-Carbonic Anhydrase II antibody [EPR5195]. See all Carbonic Anhydrase II primary antibodies. ... ab124687 was shown to specifically react with Carbonic Anhydrase II when Carbonic Anhydrase II knockout samples were used. Wild ... All lanes : Anti-Carbonic Anhydrase II antibody [EPR5195] (ab124687) at 1/1000 dilution. Lane 1 : Human fetal brain tissue ...
... the severity of which may be asymmetric in the two eyes. This article reviews glaucoma associated with increased episcleral v ... Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors. Class Summary. Enzyme found in many tissues of the body, including the eye. Catalyzes a ... Medications used to decrease aqueous production include beta-blockers (topical), carbonic anhydrase inhibitors (topical and/or ... Catalyzes reversible reaction involving hydration of carbon dioxide and dehydration of carbonic acid. May use concomitantly ...
... In: Beilstein Journal of Organic Chemistry, Vol. 11: pp. 1129-1135 ... Aryl sulfonamides are a widely used drug class for the inhibition of carbonic anhydrases. In the context of our program of ... in the exploration of azobenzene-containing sulfonamides to block the catalytic activity of human carbonic anhydrase II (hCAII ...
Invitrogen Anti-Carbonic Anhydrase II Recombinant Monoclonal (2), Catalog # MA5-30206. Tested in Western Blot (WB) and ELISA ( ... Protein Aliases: CA II; CA-II; Carbonate dehydratase II; Carbonic anhydrase 2; Carbonic anhydrase II ... CA2 is one of several (at least 7) isozymes of carbonic anhydrase. Carbonic anhydrase catalyzes reversible hydration of carbon ... Carbonic Anhydrase II Recombinant Rabbit Monoclonal Antibody (2). Advanced Verification This Antibody was verified by Relative ...
Renal tubular acidosis with osteopetrosis is an autosomal recessive disorder due to deficiency of carbonic anhydrase II (CAII ... Renal tubular acidosis and osteopetrosis with carbonic anhydrase II deficiency: pathogenesis of impaired acidification Pediatr ... Renal tubular acidosis with osteopetrosis is an autosomal recessive disorder due to deficiency of carbonic anhydrase II (CAII ...
Kinetically Selective Inhibitors of Human Carbonic Anhydrase Isozymes I, II, VII, IX, XII, and XIII.. Talibov VO1, Linkuvienė V ... To get a better understanding of the possibility of developing selective carbonic anhydrase (CA) inhibitors, interactions ... Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitors/chemical synthesis. *Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitors/chemistry. *Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitors/ ... between 17 benzenesulphonamide ligands and 6 human CAs (full-length CA I, II, VII, and XIII and catalytic domains of CA IX and ...
... as a method to determine fluorine positions of high affinity ligands bound within the drug target human carbonic anhydrase II ... Localization of ligands within human carbonic anhydrase II using 19F pseudocontact shift analysis K. Zimmermann, D. Joss, T. ... Localization of ligands within human carbonic anhydrase II using 19F pseudocontact shift analysis ... as a method to determine fluorine positions of high affinity ligands bound within the drug target human carbonic anhydrase II ...
What is carbonic anhydrase II deficiency syndrome? Meaning of carbonic anhydrase II deficiency syndrome medical term. What does ... Looking for online definition of carbonic anhydrase II deficiency syndrome in the Medical Dictionary? carbonic anhydrase II ... Carbonic anhydrase II deficiency syndrome , definition of carbonic anhydrase II deficiency syndrome by Medical dictionary https ... a href=https://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/carbonic+anhydrase+II+deficiency+syndrome,carbonic anhydrase II ...
Carbonic anhydrase II (CA II) expression in characteristic for the early stage of osteoclast differentiation. To study how CA ... Carbonic anhydrase II plays a major role in osteoclast differentiation and bone resorption by effecting the steady state ... Addition of CA II antisense oligonucleotides into the cultures reduced the pHi increase significantly. CA II inhibition was ... In both processes, however, the crucial role of CA II is at least partially due to the effect on the osteoclast pHi regulation. ...
Carbonic Anhydrase Isozyme II human, ≥80%, powder, ≥3,000 W-A units/mg protein pricing ... Human carbonic anhydrase (CA) I and II are cytosolic proteins, where their expression disorders can cause diseases such as ... Intrinsic thermodynamics of sulfonamide inhibitor binding to human carbonic anhydrases I and II.. [Vaida Morkūnaitė, Joana ... Intrinsic thermodynamic binding parameters to CA I and II were determined for such widely studied drugs as acetazolamide, ...
Verification with MS and immunoblotting data revealed carbonic anhydrase 2 to be a novel, potential biomarker worthy of future ... SWATH-based Proteomics Identified Carbonic Anhydrase 2 as a Potential Diagnosis Biomarker for Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma. Luo, Y ... To that end, Luo and colleagues used a SILAC-labeled spike-in standard (consisting of 13C6,15N2-Lys and13C6,15N4-Arg) for a ...
2-Mercaptobenzoxazole is a widely used organic scaffold in medicinal chemistry. By means of kinetic and structural studies, we ... a class of carbonic anhydrase inhibitors with a novel binding mode to the enzyme active site M. Bozdag, C. T. Supuran, D. ... a class of carbonic anhydrase inhibitors with a novel binding mode to the enzyme active site† ... 2-Mercaptobenzoxazole is a widely used organic scaffold in medicinal chemistry. By means of kinetic and structural studies, we ...
... can manifest in carriers of point mutations in the human carbonic anhydrase II (HCA II) gene. We have over the past 10-15 years ... is caused by autosomal recessive mutations in the human carbonic anhydrase II (HCA II) gene. Here we report a small-molecule ... misfolding and aggregation of the enzyme human carbonic anhydrase II. In summary our HCA II folding studies have shown that the ... Small-Molecule Suppression of Misfolding of Mutated Human Carbonic Anhydrase II Linked to Marble Brain Disease. Almstedt, Karin ...
Survival in astrocytomas by endothelial carbonic anhydrase isozyme II (CA II) expression. The patients with CA II-ve tumors had ... Carbonic anhydrase isozyme II (CA II) is a cytosolic enzyme that is highly expressed in most organs, including the brain, where ... Expression of carbonic anhydrase isozyme II (CA II) in astrocytomas. (A) There was no endothelial (arrows showing capillaries) ... Expression of carbonic anhydrase isozyme II (CA II) in oligodendroglial tumors. The endothelial expression was generally ...
... on human carbonic anhydrase II (CA-II) by electrochemical and chemometrical approaches. To achieve this goal, a glassy carbon ... and their inhibitory effects on human carbonic anhydrase (hCA) I and II were studied. Spectral data an... ... investigation for comparing inhibitory effects of quercetin and its sulfonamide derivative on human carbonic anhydrase II: ... investigation for comparing inhibitory effects of quercetin and its sulfonamide derivative on human carbonic anhydrase II: ...
Compound was tested for the binding affinity towards Carbonic anhydrase II by competitive fluorescence assay with dansylamide. ...
The aim of the current study was to investigate carbonic anhydrase I and II (CA I... ... Sly WS, Hu PY (1995): Human carbonic anhydrases and carbonic anhydrase deficiencies. Annu Rev Biochem 64: 375-401. 21. Boztas M ... 2013): Serum anti-carbonic anhydrase I and II antibodies and polycystic ovary syndrome. Turk J Biochem 38: 43-48. 12. Kivela AJ ... Detection of autoantibodies against carbonic anhydrase I and II in the plasma of patients with gastric cancer. Ahmet Mentese ...
Background Carbonic anhydrase IX (CAIX), a transmembrane glycoprotein, seems to play a key role in the adaption of tumor cells ... Carbonic anhydrase 9 as an endogenous marker for hypoxic cells in cervical cancer. Cancer Res. 2001;61:8924-9.PubMedGoogle ... Carbonic anhydrases: novel therapeutic applications for inhibitors and activators. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2008;7:168-81.PubMed ... Carbonic anhydrase IX (CAIX), a transmembrane glycoprotein, seems to play a key role in the adaption of tumor cells to hypoxia ...
A variety of tumors in humans show overexpression of human carbonic anhydrase II (HCA II) leading to an acidic breakdown of ... Impacts of Tertiary Ligands in Catalysis in Thermostable Human Carbonic Anhydrase II by Site-directed Mutagenesis and Genetic ... Carbonic anhydrases are ubiquitous enzymes that catalyze the reverse hydration and dehydration of carbon dioxide and ... Finally, the stability of pBrF mutant is comparable or even slightly higher than wild-type HCA II in pH conditions ranging from ...
Carbonic anhydrase II (gene name CA2), is one of sixteen forms of human α carbonic anhydrases. Carbonic anhydrase catalyzes ... Sato S, Zhu XL, Sly WS (1990). "Carbonic anhydrase isozymes IV and II in urinary membranes from carbonic anhydrase II-deficient ... Renal carbonic anhydrase allows the reabsorption of bicarbonate ions in the proximal tubule. Loss of carbonic anhydrase ... Sly WS, Hu PY (1995). "Human carbonic anhydrases and carbonic anhydrase deficiencies". Annu. Rev. Biochem. 64 (1): 375-401. doi ...
Reactome is pathway database which provides intuitive bioinformatics tools for the visualisation, interpretation and analysis of pathway knowledge.
  • X-ray crystal structures of carbonic anhydrase II (CAII) complexed with sulfonamide inhibitors illuminate the structural determinants of high affinity binding in the nanomolar regime. (rcsb.org)
  • Carbonic anhydrase II (CAII)-deficient mice were created to study the syndrome of CAII deficiency in humans including osteopetrosis, renal tubular acidosis, and cerebral calcification. (springer.com)
  • The platelet carbonic anhydrase II (CAII) was described for the first time in the '80s of the last century. (hindawi.com)
  • Renal tubular acidosis with osteopetrosis is an autosomal recessive disorder due to deficiency of carbonic anhydrase II (CAII). (nih.gov)
  • When we expressed SNAT3 in frog oocytes, the glutamine-induced membrane conductance was suppressed, when carbonic anhydrase isoform II (CAII) had been injected into the oocytes. (rupress.org)
  • The reduction of the membrane conductance by CAII was dependent on the presence of CO 2 /HCO 3 − , and could be reversed by blocking the catalytic activity of CAII by ethoxyzolamide (10 μM). (rupress.org)
  • The hypertrophic transport metabolon consists of membrane transporters implicated in hypertrophy, and substrates for these transporters are provided by the catalytic action of carbonic anhydrase II (CAII). (ualberta.ca)
  • The catalytic zinc ion of human carbonic anhydrase II (CAII) is coordinated by three histidine ligands (H94, H96, and H119) and a hydroxide ion with tetrahedral geometry. (proteopedia.org)
  • These data were confirmed by affinity blotting and a solid phase binding assay with CAII and a GST fusion protein of the AE1 C-terminal, which showed saturable binding of CAII with a K 1/2 of 20 nM ( Vince and Reithmeier, 1998 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • This suggests a hydrophobic amino acid followed by at least two acidic amino acids as the CAII binding motif. (frontiersin.org)
  • This location may ideally position CAII to hydrate incoming CO 2 and directly supply the AE1 transporter with a localized substrate pool ( Vince and Reithmeier, 2000 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Carbonic anhydrase II (CAII) was purified from erythrocytes of male Sprague-Dawley rats, and its localization in rat maxillary incisor epithelial cells at various stages of amelogenesis was studied by means of immunoperoxidase staining using a rat CAII-specific monoclonal antibody. (naver.com)
  • Aryl sulfonamides are a widely used drug class for the inhibition of carbonic anhydrases. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • CA II inhibition was also found to neutralize the intracellular vesicles at extracellular pH (pHe) of 7.4, but at less extent at pHe 7.0. (nih.gov)
  • Similarly to the clinically used drugs acetazolamide, methazolamide and topiramate, E7070 showed inhibition constants in the range of 15-31nM against isozymes I, II and IX, being slightly less effective as a CA IV inhibitor (K(i) of 65nM). (semanticscholar.org)
  • Anion inhibition of CO2 hydration catalyzed by human carbonic anhydrase II. (reactome.org)
  • The docking scores are compared with the inhibition of hCA II and show good correlation with biological activity. (ox.ac.uk)
  • hCA I was efficiently inhibited by compounds 2-13 with inhibition constants (KIs) ranging from 57.8-740.2 nM. (bvsalud.org)
  • CA IX exhibited significant sensitivity to inhibition by derivatives 2-13 with KI values ranging from 7.1 to 93.6 nM. (bvsalud.org)
  • How many carbonic anhydrase inhibition mechanisms exist? (ebi.ac.uk)
  • This study focused on the synthesis and characterization of hydrazide ligands and their respective Pd(II) complexes and used high throughput screening to determine their α-glucosidase and carbonic anhydrase II enzyme inhibition activities. (edu.qa)
  • Some of the Pd(II) complexes also demonstrated potential carbonic anhydrase (CA) inhibition properties comparable to the standard compound, acetazolamide (ACZ). (edu.qa)
  • The results of this study mainly confirms the implication of CA II and CA IV in the mechanism of gastric acid secretion also explaining the beneficial effects of combination therapy in the treatment of H. pylori infection as a result of gastric mucosa CA isoenzymes inhibition. (studiauniversitatis.ro)
  • Against hCA II, all the compounds showed excellent to moderate inhibition with Ki values of compounds 5a, 5d, 5f, 6a-6f, 8d and 8f lower than 12nM (Ki of AZA). (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Inhibition of cytosolic isozymes I and II and transmembrane, cancer-associated isozyme IX with lipophilic sulfonamides. (wizdom.ai)
  • Inhibition of human erythrocyte isozymes I and II with a series of antioxidant phenols. (unifi.it)
  • The inhibition of two human cytosolic carbonic anhydrase (hCA, EC 4.2.1.1) isozymes I and II, with a series of phenol derivatives was investigated by using the esterase assay, with 4-nitrophenyl acetate as substrate. (unifi.it)
  • Mechanistically, LCN2 inhibited the cell motility of OSCC cells through hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α-dependent transcriptional inhibition of the carbonic anhydrase IX (CAIX). (elsevier.com)
  • Carbonic anhydrase catalyzes reversible hydration of carbon dioxide. (wikipedia.org)
  • The enzyme Carbonic anhydrase 2 (CA2) belongs to the enzyme group that catalyzes rapid inter-conversion of carbon dioxide and water to carbonic acid, bicarbonate, and protons (CO 2 + H 2 O to HCO 3 + H), a reaction that takes place rather gradually in the absence of a catalyst. (news-medical.net)
  • The most critical function of Carbonic anhydrase is said to preserve acid-base balance in blood and other tissues, and to help convey carbon dioxide of tissues. (news-medical.net)
  • Carbonic anhydrases constitute a group of enzymes that catalyse reversible hydration of carbon dioxide leading to the formation of bicarbonate and proton. (hindawi.com)
  • Catalyzes a reversible reaction where carbon dioxide becomes hydrated and carbonic acid dehydrated. (medscape.com)
  • Catalyzes reversible reaction involving hydration of carbon dioxide and dehydration of carbonic acid. (medscape.com)
  • Carbonic anhydrase (CA) is a metalloenzyme, which catalyzes the reversible hydration of carbon dioxide to bicarbonate. (termedia.pl)
  • Carbonic anhydrases are ubiquitous enzymes that catalyze the reverse hydration and dehydration of carbon dioxide and bicarbonate respectively. (oregonstate.edu)
  • A variety of tumors in humans show overexpression of human carbonic anhydrase II (HCA II) leading to an acidic breakdown of carbon dioxide into bicarbonate. (oregonstate.edu)
  • The carbon dioxide hydration activity of carbonic anhydrase. (reactome.org)
  • The carbonic anhydrases (or carbonate dehydratases) are classified as metalloenzyme for its zinc ion prosthetic group and form a family of enzymes that catalyze the rapid interconversion of carbon dioxide and water to bicarbonate and protons, a reversible reaction that takes part in maintaining acid-base balance in blood and other tissues. (sinobiological.com)
  • The protein encoded by this gene is one of several isozymes of carbonic anhydrase, which catalyzes reversible hydration of carbon dioxide. (nih.gov)
  • The carbonic anhydrases (or carbonate dehydratases) form a family of enzymes that catalyze the interconversion between carbon dioxide and water and the dissociated ions of carbonic acid (i.e. bicarbonate and hydrogen ions). (wikipedia.org)
  • Relating the Bohr Effect to carbonic anhydrase is simple: carbonic anhydrase speeds up the reaction of carbon dioxide reacting with water to produce hydrogen ions (protons) and bicarbonate ions. (wikipedia.org)
  • The main role of carbonic anhydrase in humans is to catalyze the conversion of carbon dioxide to carbonic acid and back again. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the lungs carbonic anhydrase converts bicarbonate to carbon dioxide, suited for exhalation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Carbonic anhydrase, a zinc enzyme catalyzing the interconversion of carbon dioxide and bicarbonate, is nearly ubiquitous in the tissues of highly evolved eukaryotes. (asm.org)
  • Carbonic anhydrase (CA) catalyzes the reversible hydration of carbon dioxide to hydrogen carbonate, and its role in maintaining pH balance has made it an attractive drug target. (ox.ac.uk)
  • abstract = "Catalysis of18O exchange between CO2 and water catalyzed by a Co(II)-substituted mutant of human carbonic anhydrase II is analyzed to show the rate of release of H218O from the active site. (elsevier.com)
  • abstract = "Topical carbonic anhydrase inhibitors MK-507 and sezolamide hydrochloride (previously known as MK-417) were compared in a double-masked, randomized, placebo-controlled study in 82 patients with bilateral primary openangle glaucoma or ocular hypertension. (nyu.edu)
  • abstract = "On the basis of equilibrium isotopic distribution experiments using 18O-labeled water, it is generally accepted that water is the sole substrate for O2 production by photosystem II (PSII). (elsevier.com)
  • Serum anti-CA I and anti-CA II antibodies were quantified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • Carbonic anhydrases constitute a group of zinc containing lyases, classified, according to the Enzyme Catalogue to EC 4.2.1.1. (hindawi.com)
  • We have over the past 10-15 years studied the folding, misfolding and aggregation of the enzyme human carbonic anhydrase II. (diva-portal.org)
  • In summary our HCA II folding studies have shown that the protein folds via an intermediate of molten-globule type, which lacks enzyme activity and the molten globule state of HCA II is prone to aggregation. (diva-portal.org)
  • Carbonic anhydrase isozyme II (CA II) is a cytosolic enzyme that is highly expressed in most organs, including the brain, where it is mainly located in the oligodendrocytes. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • 5 Only few studies have been conducted on the CA II enzyme in tumors, however, and this isoform has not been considered very attractive because most results regarding epithelial tumors have indicated that malignant cells contain no CA II or only low levels. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Synthesis of carbazole bearing pyridopyrimidine-substituted sulfonamide derivatives and studies their carbonic anhydrase enzyme activity. (bioportfolio.com)
  • The same mutant of carbonic anhydrase containing Zn(II) had the rate of release of H 2 18 O smaller by 10-fold, but rate of interconversion of CO 2 and HCO 3 - about the same as the Co(II)-containing enzyme. (elsevier.com)
  • The enhancement of 18 O exchange caused by increasing bicarbonate concentration during catalysis by the Zn(II)-containing carbonic anhydrase from the archaeon Methanosarcina thermophila suggests that a very similar mechanism for proton donation by bicarbonate occurs with this wild-type enzyme. (elsevier.com)
  • The same mutant of carbonic anhydrase containing Zn(II) had the rate of release of H218O smaller by 10-fold, but rate of interconversion of CO2 and HCO3- about the same as the Co(II)-containing enzyme. (elsevier.com)
  • The enhancement of 18O exchange caused by increasing bicarbonate concentration during catalysis by the Zn(II)-containing carbonic anhydrase from the archaeon Methanosarcina thermophila suggests that a very similar mechanism for proton donation by bicarbonate occurs with this wild-type enzyme. (elsevier.com)
  • Carbonic anhydrase (CA) is a seemingly ubiquitous enzyme of profound physiological importance, which plays essential roles in respiration, acid-base homeostasis, bone resorption, calcification, photosynthesis, several biosynthetic pathways and a variety of processes involving ion, gas and fluid transfer. (springer.com)
  • Carbonic anhydrase is one important enzyme that is found in red blood cells, gastric mucosa, pancreatic cells, and even renal tubules. (wikipedia.org)
  • An anhydrase is defined as an enzyme that catalyzes the removal of a water molecule from a compound, and so it is this "reverse" reaction that gives carbonic anhydrase its name, because it removes a water molecule from carbonic acid. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Carbonic Anhydrase 2 enzyme is supplied in 20mM Tris pH-8 and 1mM DTT. (promab.com)
  • We here report that, in colon cancer cells, the expression of the pro-inflammatory enzyme cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) associates with that of the hypoxia response gene carbonic anhydrase-IX (CA-IX). (unibo.it)
  • Background: Carbonic anhydrase CA is a ubiquitous enzyme catalyzing thereversible hydration of CO2 to and H+. (duhnnae.com)
  • Method: Red blood cell carbonicanhydrase activity was determined in washed lysed-hemolysate by the action ofthe enzyme on the substrate p-nitrophenyl acetate. (duhnnae.com)
  • Carbonic anhydrase is a zinc-containing enzyme that catalyzes the reversible hydration of CO 2 (CO 2 + H 2 O ⇋ HCO 3 − + H + ). In eukaryotes, the enzyme participates in various physiological functions, which include the interconversion of CO 2 and HCO 3 − during photosynthesis and intermediary metabolism, facilitated diffusion of CO 2 , pH homeostasis, and ion transport ( 5 , 45 ). (asm.org)
  • Carbonic anhydrase is nearly ubquitous in highly evolved eukaryotes, but until recently the enzyme was thought to play a minor role in prokaryotic physiology ( 48 ). (asm.org)
  • Crystal structures have been determined for five isozymes (CA I to CA V) of the monomeric human carbonic anhydrase ( 9 , 14 , 21 , 28 , 51 ) and the Neisseria gonorrhoeae enzyme ( 25 ) belonging to the α class. (asm.org)
  • The enzyme is a trimer with three zinc-containing active sites, each located at the interface between two monomers. (asm.org)
  • Although a three-dimensional structure has yet to be determined for a β carbonic anhydrase, extended X-ray absorption fine structure and circular dichroism of the plant enzyme indicate that the zinc coordination and overall structure are quite different from those for either the α- or γ-class enzymes ( 10 , 42 ). (asm.org)
  • Some antioxidant phenol derivatives investigated here showed effective hCA II inhibitory effects, in the same range as the clinically used sulfonamide acetazolamide, and might be used as leads for generating enzyme inhibitors possibly targeting other CA isoforms which have not been yet assayed for their interactions with such agents. (unifi.it)
  • One such enzyme is the secreted salivary CA-II, which is abundant in cattle and other ruminating animals such as camels or goats, whereas animals not necessarily relying on cellulosefermentation like baboons and humans have only small amounts of CA-II in their saliva (6). (hypothesisjournal.com)
  • Indeed, several unprecedented strong hydrogen bonds involving the imino nitrogen, carbonyl oxygen, a fluorine atom in the ortho position of the inhibitor, and two water molecules, as well as Gln 92 of the enzyme active site were seen. (cf.ac.uk)
  • The acquisition of CO 2 in diatoms is sustained by a CO 2 -concentrating mechanism ( CCM ), which works to supply high concentration of CO 2 to the carbon-fixation enzyme, Rubisco in diatoms. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Renal carbonic anhydrase allows the reabsorption of bicarbonate ions in the proximal tubule. (wikipedia.org)
  • This study also emphasizes the importance of carbonic anhydrase activity and the presence of CO 2 -bicarbonate buffers for membrane transport processes. (rupress.org)
  • Upon increasing the concentration of bicarbonate, the rate of release of H 2 18 O increased in a saturable manner to a maximum of 4 × 10 5 s -1 consistent with proton transfer from bicarbonate to the Co(II)-bound hydroxide. (elsevier.com)
  • Upon increasing the concentration of bicarbonate, the rate of release of H218O increased in a saturable manner to a maximum of 4 × 105 s-1 consistent with proton transfer from bicarbonate to the Co(II)-bound hydroxide. (elsevier.com)
  • CO2 + H2O Carbonic acid has a pKa of around 6.36 (the exact value depends on the medium), so at pH 7 a small percentage of the bicarbonate is protonated. (wikipedia.org)
  • A fourth histidine is close to the water ligand, facilitating formation of Zn-OH center, which binds CO 2 to give a zinc bicarbonate. (wikipedia.org)
  • To test out this hypothesis and to determine whether contemporary oxygenic organisms have the capacity to oxidize bicarbonate, we employed special rapid-mixing isotopic experiments using 18 O/ 13 C-labeled bicarbonate to quantify the inherent carbonic anhydrase activity in PSII samples and the potential flux of oxygen from bicarbonate into the photosynthetically produced O 2 . (elsevier.com)
  • The results reveal that bicarbonate is not the substrate for O 2 production in these contemporary oxygenic photoautotrophs when assayed under single turnover conditions. (elsevier.com)
  • To test out this hypothesis and to determine whether contemporary oxygenic organisms have the capacity to oxidize bicarbonate, we employed special rapid-mixing isotopic experiments using 18O/13C-labeled bicarbonate to quantify the inherent carbonic anhydrase activity in PSII samples and the potential flux of oxygen from bicarbonate into the photosynthetically produced O2. (elsevier.com)
  • CA-VI and the recently described CA-II) are prominently expressed in the saliva of ruminating animals, suggesting that the enzymatic production of bicarbonate is basic for the regulation of oral pH and for maintaining a consistent milieu in the alimentary tract allowing microbial digestion of cellulose. (hypothesisjournal.com)
  • In fact, almost half of the bicarbonate entering the rumen comes from saliva (5), where it is most likely produced by active carbonic anhydrases. (hypothesisjournal.com)
  • The availability of 13 C-enriched CO 2 and bicarbonate and of NMR spectrometers capable of studying the 13 C signals makes it convenient to reexamine the roles of these important interacting species in certain metal-protein systems of unquestionable importance. (springer.com)
  • The defect may be a consequence of diminished bicarbonate (HCO 3 − ) reabsorption in the renal proximal tubules, reduced excretion of hydrogen ion (H + ) in the renal distal tubules, or both ( 2 , 3 ). (asnjournals.org)
  • Proximal RTA (pRTA or type 2 RTA) is caused by an impairment of bicarbonate reabsorption in the proximal tubules and is characterized by a decreased renal HCO 3 − threshold ( 4 ). (asnjournals.org)
  • Loss of carbonic anhydrase activity in bones impairs the ability of osteoclasts to promote bone resorption, leading to osteopetrosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sly WS, Whyte MP, Hewettemmett D, Yu YSL, Tashian RE (1983) Carbonic anhydrase-II deficiency identified as the primary defect in four kindreds with the syndrome of osteopetrosis-renal tubular-acidosis-basal ganglia calcification. (springer.com)
  • Ohlsson A, Cumming WA, Paul A, Sly WS (1986) Carbonic anhydrase-II deficiency syndrome -recessive osteopetrosis with renal tubular-acidosis and cerebral calcification. (springer.com)
  • also known as osteopetrosis with renal tubular acidosis, carbonic anhydrase II deficiency syndrome, Guibaud-Vainsel syndrome or marble brain disease. (abcam.com)
  • an inherited deficiency of carbonic anhydrase II that results in osteopetrosis and metabolic acidosis. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Carbonic anhydrase II deficiency syndrome (osteopetrosis with renal tubular acidosis and brain calcifications): Novel mutations in CA2 identified by direct sequencing expand the opportunity for genotype-phenotype correlation. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Carbonic anhydrase II (CA II) deficiency is an extremely rare autosomal recessive disorder, characterised by a triad of osteopetrosis, renal tubular acidosis and cerebral calcifications. (who.int)
  • The classification of osteopetrosis shown above is purely clinical and must be supplemented by the molecular insights gained from animal models (see Table 2, in Etiology). (medscape.com)
  • A distinct form of osteopetrosis occurs in association with renal tubular acidosis and cerebral calcification due to carbonic anhydrase isoenzyme II deficiency. (medscape.com)
  • There are 15 carbonic anhydrase isoforms in humans (belonging to the α subgroup) [ 5 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • 2 , 3 The functional involvement of CAs in cancer has become evident after the identification of two membrane-bound isoforms, CA IX and XII, that are overexpressed in several types of cancer. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. (nih.gov)
  • Inhibitory action of newly synthesised 4-(2-(2-substituted-thio-4-oxoquinazolin-3(4H)-yl)ethyl)benzenesulfonamides compounds 2-13 against human carbonic anhydrase (CA, EC 4.2.1.1) (hCA) isoforms I, II, IX, and XII, was evaluated. (bvsalud.org)
  • Molecular docking studies for the most potent compounds 2 and 3 were conducted to exhibit the binding mode towards hCA isoforms as a promising step for SAR analyses which showed similar interaction with co-crystallized ligands . (bvsalud.org)
  • Carbonic anhydrases from mammals (including the 10 active human isoforms) ( 22 , 39 ) together with the two periplasmic enzymes from the unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii ( 16 , 17 ) belong to the α class. (asm.org)
  • Band3), the Na + /H + exchanger NHE1, the Na + /HCO − 3 cotransporter NBCe1, and various monocarboxylate transporters (MCTs) have been demonstrated to physically and/or functionally interact with isoforms of carbonic anhydrase (CA) to form a "transport metabolon. (frontiersin.org)
  • TY - JOUR T1 - 4-Functionalized 1,3-diarylpyrazoles bearing 6-aminosulfonylbenzothiazole moiety as potent inhibitors of carbonic anhydrase isoforms hCA I, II, IX and XII. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • The separation of the CA II and CA IV (both of which are catalytically active isoforms, highly sensitive to sulfonamide-type inhibitors) is particularly remarkable and is adding significantly to the global body of data on the chemical biology of carbonic anhydrases. (edu.au)
  • Several carbonic anhydrase (CA) isoforms are associated with plasma membranes. (physiology.org)
  • Structure-activity relationships rationalize affinity trends observed during the development of brinzolamide (Azopt), the newest carbonic anhydrase inhibitor approved for the treatment of glaucoma. (rcsb.org)
  • Intrinsic thermodynamics of sulfonamide inhibitor binding to human carbonic anhydrases I and II. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • We prove here that this compound also acts as a potent carbonic anhydrase (CA) inhibitor. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Mercury in the structure of Crystallographic Studies Of Inhibitor Binding Sites in Human Carbonic Anhydrase II. (atomistry.com)
  • Structures of human carbonic anhydrase II/inhibitor complexes reveal a second binding site for steroidal and nonsteroidal inhibitors. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Inhibitor 3 interacts with the active site Zn(II) ion through the 3-O-sulfamate, while inhibitors 4 and 5 bind through their 17-O-sulfamate. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Our aim was to investigate whether carbonic anhydrases (CAs), enzymes commonly overexpressed in various tumours including glioblastomas and oligodendrogliomas, are present in MBs and PNETs, and whether their expression can be correlated with patient prognosis. (uta.fi)
  • Carbonic anhydrase is one of the fastest enzymes, and its rate is typically limited by the diffusion rate of its substrates. (wikipedia.org)
  • The structure of the prototype γ carbonic anhydrase from M. thermophila has recently been solved and found to be entirely different from those of the α-class enzymes ( 31 ). (asm.org)
  • Here, we provide an overview of the role of spatially arranged enzymatic networks, catalyzed by creatine kinase, adenylate kinase, carbonic anhydrase and glycolytic enzymes, in efficient high-energy phosphoryl transfer and signal communication in the cell. (biologists.org)
  • Human MN/CA9 gene, a novel member of the carbonic anhydrase family: structure and exon to protein domain relationships. (springer.com)
  • Cloning and characterization of MN, a human tumor-associated protein with a domain homologous to carbonic anhydrase and a putative helix-loop-helix DNA binding segment. (springer.com)
  • The goal of this study was to better understand the catalytic flexibility and efficiency of HCA II without compromising protein stability. (oregonstate.edu)
  • In addition, stability of pNO2F mutant protein is significantly increased in pH conditions ranging from 7.4 to 9.4 compared to wild-type HCA II. (oregonstate.edu)
  • Native Carbonic Anhydrase II (CA2) Protein was purified from Canis familiaris / Canine (Dog). (creativebiomart.net)
  • Four protein bands, with apparent molecular masses of 52, 47, 28 and 27 kDa, were evident in western blot analyses of crude extracts of maize leaf tissue prepared in the absence of Triton X-100 and two protein bands, with apparent molecular masses of 27 and 28 kDa, were detected in western blots of crude extracts prepared in the presence of Triton X-100. (edu.au)
  • Human Carbonic Anhydrase 2 protein Carbonic anhydrase Human Recombinant protein produced in E.coli containing 260 amino acids (1-260) and having a molecular mass of 29.2 kDa. (antibody-antibodies.com)
  • Human Carbonic Anhydrase III His tag protein Carbonic anhydrase III Human Recombinant produced in E.coli, and having a molecular mass of 33.9 kDa. (antibody-antibodies.com)
  • There are two options in terms of protein production services: Option 1): 3-5mg purified protein with 75% purity will be GUARANTEED. (promab.com)
  • Option 2): You will get whatever amount of protein purified from 2 liters of culture with our best-optimized procedure. (promab.com)
  • However, we are making a recombinant protein, with 2 tags, and in yeast cells. (promab.com)
  • In human colon cancer tissues, COX-2/CA-IX protein expression levels, assessed by Western blot and immunohistochemistry, correlate each other and increase with tumour stage. (unibo.it)
  • moreover, a protein cross-reacting to antiserum raised against the γ carbonic anhydrase from Methanosarcina thermophila was detected. (asm.org)
  • Western blot analysis demonstrated that CA II protein, ~30 kDa at molecular mass, was abundantly expressed in normal group. (bvsalud.org)
  • All potassium -depleted groups showed slightly increased CA II protein compared to normal group. (bvsalud.org)
  • In control group , immunoreactivity of CA II protein was detected in the entire collecting duct. (bvsalud.org)
  • In potassium -depleted groups, the pattern of cellular labeling of CA II protein was identical to that of normal group, but the signal intensity was decreased in cortical collecting duct, markedly increased in the inner stripe of outer medullary and inner medullary collecting ducts, and unchanged in the outer stripe of outer medullary collecting duct. (bvsalud.org)
  • These results suggest that chronic hypokalemia impact the expression pattern of CA II protein depending the portion of the collecting duct. (bvsalud.org)
  • However, it remains a mystery how aquaporin-2 (an integral membrane protein) and other apical transporters are delivered to the urine. (pnas.org)
  • We offer Carbonic Anhydrase VB/CA5B Peptides and Carbonic Anhydrase VB/CA5B Proteins for use in common research applications: ELISA, Protein Array, Western Blot. (novusbio.com)
  • Each Carbonic Anhydrase VB/CA5B Peptide and Carbonic Anhydrase VB/CA5B Protein is fully covered by our Guarantee+, to give you complete peace of mind and the support when you need it. (novusbio.com)
  • Carbonic anhydrase II (gene name CA2), is one of sixteen forms of human α carbonic anhydrases. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lai LW, Chan DM, Erickson RP, Hsu SJ, Lien YHH (1998) Correction of renal tubular acidosis in carbonic anhydrase II-deficient mice with gene therapy. (springer.com)
  • Carbonic anhydrase II deficiency syndrome or Marble brain disease (MBD) is caused by autosomal recessive mutations in the human carbonic anhydrase II (HCA II) gene. (diva-portal.org)
  • The rare disease marble brain disease (MBD) also known as carbonic anhydrase II deficiency syndrome (CADS) can manifest in carriers of point mutations in the human carbonic anhydrase II (HCA II) gene. (diva-portal.org)
  • A 12-year-old boy with classical features of CA II deficiency is reported who was found to be homozygous for the mutation in CA II gene and parents were heterozygous for the same mutation .To the best of our knowledge this is the first case report of mutation proven CA II deficiency from India. (who.int)
  • The COX-2 knockdown, achieved by the stable infection of a COX-2 specific short harpin RNA interference (shCOX-2), down-regulates CA-IX gene expression. (unibo.it)
  • In colorectal cancer (CRC) cells, PGE2, the main COX-2 gene products, promotes CA-IX gene expression by ERK1/2 activation. (unibo.it)
  • In presence of hypoxia, COX-2 gene expression and PGE2 production increase. (unibo.it)
  • The purpose of the present study was to screen for mutations in the AE1 gene in 2 brothers (10 and 15 years of age) with familial distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA), nephrocalcinosis, and failure to thrive. (aappublications.org)
  • Our previous study showed that three CO 2 /cAMP-responsive elements ( CCRE ) CCRE 1, CCRE 2, and CCRE 3 in the promoter of the chloroplastic β - carbonic anhydrase 1 gene in the marine diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum (P ptca1 ) were critical for the cAMP-mediated transcriptional response to ambient CO 2 concentration. (plantphysiol.org)
  • The paralogous chloroplastic carbonic anhydrase gene, ptca2 was also CO 2 /cAMP-responsive. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Therefore, the role of carbonic anhydrase depends on where it is found in the body. (wikipedia.org)
  • H+/K+ ATPase discovery resulted in the re-evaluation of the role of carbonic anhydrase (CA) in acid secretion. (studiauniversitatis.ro)
  • CA2 is one of several (at least 7) isozymes of carbonic anhydrase. (thermofisher.com)
  • Immunohistochemical localization of human carbonic anhydrase isoenzyme C.". Histochemistry. (wikipedia.org)
  • Immunohistochemical localization of carbonic anhydrase isozyme II in rat incisor epithelial cells at various stages of amelogenesis. (naver.com)
  • Human carbonic anhydrase (CA) I and II are cytosolic proteins, where their expression disorders can cause diseases such as glaucoma, edema, epilepsy or cancer. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors: E7070, a sulfonamide anticancer agent, potently inhibits cytosolic isozymes I and II, and transmembrane, tumor-associated isozyme IX. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Class one being alpha carbonic anhydrase which is found in mammals, class two being beta carbonic anhydrase which is found in bacteria and plants and lastly, class three which is gamma carbonic anhydrase which is found in methanogen bacteria in hot springs. (wikipedia.org)
  • A series of novel benzene sulfonamides (previously evaluated as selective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors) has been profiled against human carbonic anhydrases I, II, IV and VII in an attempt to observe the manifestation of the well established "tail" approach for designing potent, isoform-selective inhibitors of carbonic anhydrases (CAs, EC 4.2.1.1). (edu.au)
  • A recent study on dendritic cell therapy for melanoma patients identified carbonic anhydrase isozyme II (CA II) as a potential target antigen. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • 2004) Characterization of CA XIII, a Novel Member of the Carbonic Anhydrase Isozyme Family. (sinobiological.com)
  • Structural aspects of isozyme selectivity in the binding of inhibitors to carbonic anhydrases II and IV. (proteopedia.org)
  • Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors: X-ray crystallographic structure of the adduct of human isozyme II with the perfluorobenzoyl analogue of methazolamide. (cf.ac.uk)
  • Belongs to the alpha-carbonic anhydrase family. (abcam.com)
  • Anti-CA II antibody was detected in 27.8% of UC patients, whereas anti-CA I antibody was detected in only 5.6% of UC patients. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • Positive rate of anti-CA II antibody was significantly higher in UC patients as compared to the control. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • In CD patients and non-IBD diarrheal patients, there were no significant increase in positive rate of either anti-CA I or II antibody. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • The following product was used in this experiment: Carbonic Anhydrase II Recombinant Rabbit Monoclonal Antibody (2) from Thermo Fisher Scientific, catalog # MA5-30206, RRID AB_2785968. (thermofisher.com)
  • This antibody has specificity for Mouse Carbonic Anhydrase II/CA2. (thermofisher.com)
  • 1 Half of the patients exhibited anti-CA II autoantibodies either before or after therapy, and 3 of 10 patients had posttherapy antibody levels that were higher than the pretherapy levels. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • GENTAUR antibody-antibodies.com The Marketplace for Antibodies : Atomic crystal and molecular dynamics simulation structures of human carbonic anhydrase II: insights into the proton transfer mechanism. (antibody-antibodies.com)
  • Context A serum antibody to carbonic anhydrase II has been reported in patients with Sjögren's syndrome and idiopathic chronic pancreatitis. (imedpub.com)
  • Serum antibody to carbonic anhydrase II may be detected in these patients as a consequence of the immune reaction against other antigens which mimic carbonic anhydrase II. (imedpub.com)
  • It has been reported that patients with SjS showed serum antibody reactive to carbonic anhydrase (CA) II [ 15 , 16 ]. (imedpub.com)
  • We, and other investigators, reported that the serum anti-CA II antibody was observed in patients with idiopathic CP [ 17 , 18 , 19 ] and autoimmune cholangitis [ 20 ]. (imedpub.com)
  • The main causes of NC in pediatric patients are long-term furosemide treatment in neonates 1 , 2 and renal tubular acidosis during childhood. (aappublications.org)
  • The majority of carbonic anhydrases enclose a zinc ion in their active site and thus is categorized as metalloenzymes. (news-medical.net)
  • The active site of most carbonic anhydrases contains a zinc ion. (proteinkinase.biz)
  • Close-up rendering of active site of human carbonic anhydrase II, showing three histidine residues and a hydroxide group coordinating (dashed lines) the zinc ion at center. (wikipedia.org)
  • The carbonic anhydrasekl (CA) family consists of at least 11 enzymatically active members and a few inactive homologous proteins. (sinobiological.com)
  • This report deals with the prospects for 13 C NMR in defining the interactions of CO 2 and its hydrated derivatives with small molecules and various proteins. (springer.com)
  • Our Carbonic Anhydrase VB/CA5B Peptides and Carbonic Anhydrase VB/CA5B Proteins can be used in a variety of model species: Human. (novusbio.com)
  • Choose from our Carbonic Anhydrase VB/CA5B Peptides and Proteins. (novusbio.com)
  • Moreover, autoantibodies against carbonic anhydrase II were proved to play an important role in pathogenesis of retinopathy [ 25 ] and these against CAVI seem to induce dry eye syndrome in Sjögren's syndrome [ 26 , 27 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Interestingly, the autoantibodies against carbonic anhydrase II might be produced in humans due to cross-reactivity with carbonic anhydrase of Helicobacter pylori [ 28 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Autoantibodies Against Carbonic Anhydras. (ktu.edu.tr)
  • Inhibitors of carbonic anhydrase are used to treat glaucoma, the excessive build up of water in the eyes. (wikipedia.org)
  • These results suggest that autoimmune responses against CA II may be involved in the pathogenesis of UC, and similar mechanism may participate in the development of pancreatic lesions in UC patients. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • Lindskog S. (1997) Structure and mechanism of carbonic anhydrase. (sinobiological.com)
  • Atomic crystal and molecular dynamics simulation structures of human carbonic anhydrase II: insights into the proton transfer mechanism. (antibody-antibodies.com)
  • In order to fully characterize the active site structural features implicated in the proton transfer mechanism, the refined X-ray crystal structure of uncomplexed wild type HCA II to 1.05 A resolution with an Rcryst value of 12.0% and an Rfree value of 15.1% has been elucidated. (antibody-antibodies.com)
  • The presence of CA II in the tumor endothelium suggests that it may play an important functional role in tumor metabolism. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • 1. Carbonic anhydrase activity and 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (2,3-DPG) concentration were determined in whole blood from humans (Homo sapiens), rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus), eastern grey kangaroos (Macropus giganteus), pademelons (Thylogale billardierii) and brush-tailed possums (Trichosurus vulpecula). (meta.org)
  • Topical carbonic anhydrase inhibitors (dorzolamide, brinzolamide) are used as second-line therapy in the treatment of POAG. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • To study how CA II, which is crucial in proton generation in mature osteoclasts, influences the osteoclast differentiation process we performed rat bone marrow cultures. (nih.gov)
  • Proton magnetic resonance studies of carbonic anhydrase. (reactome.org)
  • This rate, measured by mass spectrometry, is dependent on proton transfer to the metal-bound 18 O-labeled hydroxide, and was observed in a site-specific mutant of carbonic anhydrase II in which a prominent proton shuttle residue His64 was replaced by alanine, which does not support proton transport. (elsevier.com)
  • This rate, measured by mass spectrometry, is dependent on proton transfer to the metal-bound 18O-labeled hydroxide, and was observed in a site-specific mutant of carbonic anhydrase II in which a prominent proton shuttle residue His64 was replaced by alanine, which does not support proton transport. (elsevier.com)
  • Histidine at position 64 (His64) in human carbonic anhydrase II (HCA II) is believed to be the proton acceptor in the hydration direction and the proton donor in the dehydration direction for the rate-limiting proton transfer (PT) event. (uchicago.edu)
  • In the present work, classical molecular dynamics simulations have been conducted to elucidate the role that the His64 orientation may play in its ability to act as a proton donor/acceptor in HCA II. (uchicago.edu)
  • Structural and Kinetic Characterization of Active-Site Histidine as a Proton Shuttle in Catalysis by Human Carbonic Anhydrase II. (expasy.org)
  • One of the possible defects resulting in dRTA may affect the anion exchanger, vital to tubular acid secretion because loss of its function in the presence of continuing H + secretion by the luminal proton pumps would lead to excessive accumulation of HCO 3 − within the cell, with a consequent reduction in the dissociation of CA II and hence reduced availability of protons for secretion into the tubular lumen. (aappublications.org)
  • carbonic anhydrase (ca) catalyzes the reversible hydration of CO 2 and dehydration of carbonic acid. (physiology.org)
  • Immunological studies further indicate that CA II represents a major target antigen stimulating an autoantibody response in melanoma patients. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Based on these results, the authors suggested that CA II is a tumor vessel endothelium- associated antigen, and that elicitation of an anti-CA II autoantibody response by dendritic cell therapy could be associated with a more favorable clinical outcome. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Carbonic anhydrase IX antigen differentiates between preneoplastic malignant lesions in non-small cell lung carcinoma. (springer.com)
  • Conclusion Carbonic anhydrase II may not be a major target antigen for the immunological process in the pathogenesis of Sjögren's syndrome and idiopathic chronic pancreatitis. (imedpub.com)
  • Chemometrical-electrochemical investigation for comparing inhibitory effects of quercetin and its sulfonamide derivative on human carbonic anhydrase II: Theoretical and experimental evidence. (bioportfolio.com)
  • This paper reports results of a valuable study on investigation of inhibitory effects of the sulfonamide derivative of quercetin (QD) on human carbonic anhydrase II (CA-II) by electrochemical and chemometrical approaches. (bioportfolio.com)
  • To achieve this goal, a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) was chosen as the sensing platform and different electrochemical techniques such as cyclic voltammetry (CV), differential pulse voltammetry (DPV), linear sweep voltammetry (LSV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) were used to investigate and comparing inhibitory effects of quercetin (Q) and QD on CA-II. (bioportfolio.com)
  • The synthesis of carbazole containing pyridopyrimidine-substituted sulfonamide derivatives (3a-i) and their inhibitory effects on human carbonic anhydrase (hCA) I and II were studied. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Compounds 2, 3, 4, and 12 showed inhibitory action against hCA II with KIs between 6.4 and 14.2 nM. (bvsalud.org)
  • Compounds 2, 3, 4, 8, 9, and 12 also exerted potent inhibitory action against hCA XII (KIs ranging from 3.1 to 20.2 nM). (bvsalud.org)
  • The disorder occurs in two forms: a severe autosomal recessive form occurring in utero, infancy, or childhood, and a benign autosomal dominant form occurring in adolescence or adulthood. (abcam.com)
  • Effect of Hyperglycemia on Erythrocyte Carbonic Anhydrase and Lactic Acid in Type II Diabetic Subjects - Descarga este documento en PDF. (duhnnae.com)
  • The study aimed to investigate theinfluence of hyperglycemia on erythrocyte carbonic anhydrase activity andlactic acid in type II diabetic patients. (duhnnae.com)
  • Tashian RE (1992) Genetics of the mammalian carbonic-anhydrases. (springer.com)
  • Mammalian carbonic anhydrase is monomeric and is a part of the alpha class. (news-medical.net)
  • of which carbonic anhydrase 2 (CA2) is the most ubiquitous and involved in many biological processes. (figshare.com)
  • The other cDNA, CA2, which has a 5´-leader sequence containing a 276 bp insert compared to CA1, two repeat sequences and a 3´-non-coding region, is predicted to encode an open reading frame for a polypeptide of 59.2 kDa. (edu.au)
  • Cloning, expression, and sequence homologies of cDNA for human carbonic anhydrase II. (elsevier.com)
  • Intrinsic thermodynamic binding parameters to CA I and II were determined for such widely studied drugs as acetazolamide, ethoxzolamide, methazolamide, trifluoromethanesulfonamide and dichlorophenamide. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Carbonic anhydrase catalyzes cyanamide hydration to urea: is it mimicking the physiological reaction? (proteopedia.org)
  • Selective alpha 2-receptor that reduces aqueous humor formation and increases uveoscleral outflow. (medscape.com)
  • To get a better understanding of the possibility of developing selective carbonic anhydrase (CA) inhibitors, interactions between 17 benzenesulphonamide ligands and 6 human CAs (full-length CA I, II, VII, and XIII and catalytic domains of CA IX and XII) were characterized using surface plasmon resonance and fluorescent-based thermal shift assays. (nih.gov)
  • As such, a subset of these mercaptoquinazolin-4(3H)-one compounds represented interesting leads for developing new efficient and selective carbonic anhydrase inhibitors (CAIs) for the management of a variety of diseases including glaucoma , epilepsy , arthritis and cancer . (bvsalud.org)
  • The Human Recombinant Carbonic Anhydrase (CA) 2 preserves acid-base balance in blood and other tissues. (news-medical.net)
  • Here we report a small-molecule stabilization study of the exceptionally destabilized HCA II mutant H107Y employing inhibitors based on p-aminobenzoyisulfonamide compounds and 1,3,4-thiadiazolylsulfonamides as well as amino acid activators. (diva-portal.org)
  • Carbonic anhydrase helps maintain acid-base homeostasis, regulate pH, and fluid balance. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, carbonic anhydrase produces acid in the stomach lining. (wikipedia.org)
  • In our study we observed the effect of anti H. pylori therapy on the two isoenzymes of CA involved in acid secretion changes. (studiauniversitatis.ro)
  • demonstrated in 1991 that anti-carbonic anhydrase autoantibodies (aCAAs) are present in serum of 32% patients with systemic lupus erythematosus, in 21% of patients with Sjögren's syndrome, but not in healthy volunteers. (hindawi.com)
  • Moreover, in 2007, it was presented that also in rheumatoid arthritis there are present aCAAs in serum, showing affinity to bind to carbonic anhydrase III in synovial membranes [ 16 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Description: A sandwich quantitative ELISA assay kit for detection of Human Carbonic Anhydrase II (CA2) in samples from serum, plasma, tissue homogenates, cell lysates, cell culture supernates or other biological fluids. (bestpractice-life.pl)
  • The ASCs were then subcultured in reduced-serum (2 %) MesenPRO RS? (technumber.com)
  • Catalysis of 18 O exchange between CO 2 and water catalyzed by a Co(II)-substituted mutant of human carbonic anhydrase II is analyzed to show the rate of release of H 2 18 O from the active site. (elsevier.com)
  • In the context of our program of photochromic pharmacophores we were interested in the exploration of azobenzene-containing sulfonamides to block the catalytic activity of human carbonic anhydrase II (hCAII). (uni-muenchen.de)
  • carboxamide ligand substitutions in the zinc binding site of carbonic anhydrase II alter metal coordination geometry but retain catalytic activity. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Three-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationship (3D-QSAR) studies were performed for a series of carbonic anhydrase inhibitors using comparative molecular field analysis (CoMFA) and comparative molecular similarity indices analysis (CoMSIA) techniques. (nih.gov)
  • The structure is compared with molecular dynamics (MD) simulation calculations of the Zn-bound hydroxyl/His64+ (charged) and the Zn-bound water/His64 (uncharged) HCA II states. (antibody-antibodies.com)
  • Moreover, CA II binds to and enhances the activity of the Na + /H + antiporter, NHE1 ( 14 ). (physiology.org)
  • No significant cross-reactivity or interference between Carbonic Anhydrase II (CA2) and analogues was observed. (antibodies-online.com)
  • We report here the use of 19 F pseudocontact shift (PCS) NMR as a method to determine fluorine positions of high affinity ligands bound within the drug target human carbonic anhydrase II with high accuracy. (rsc.org)
  • For two out of three ligands, the determined position closely matched the X-ray coordinates. (rsc.org)
  • The zinc is coordinated in a tetrahedral geometry with three histidines and two to three putative water molecules serving as ligands ( 1 ). (asm.org)
  • Inhibitors 2, 5, and 6 showed binding to a second adjacent site that is capable of binding both steroidal and nonsteroidal ligands. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Immunohistochemical analysis further revealed that CA II is expressed in the endothelium of neovessels in some cancer tissues, including melanoma and esophageal, renal, and lung cancer. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Nucleotide sequence alignment analysis indicates that the two repeat sequences of CA2 are homologous with repeat sequences 1 and 3 of CA1, respectively. (edu.au)
  • however, the respective Pd(II)-hydrazide complexes were approximately 300 times more potent α-glucosidase inhibitors than the standard compound, 1-deoxynojirimycin (DNJ). (edu.qa)