Carbonic Anhydrase I: A cytosolic carbonic anhydrase isoenzyme primarily expressed in ERYTHROCYTES, vascular endothelial cells, and the gastrointestinal mucosa. EC 4.2.1.-Carbonic Anhydrases: A family of zinc-containing enzymes that catalyze the reversible hydration of carbon dioxide. They play an important role in the transport of CARBON DIOXIDE from the tissues to the LUNG. EC 4.2.1.1.Carbonic Anhydrase II: A cytosolic carbonic anhydrase isoenzyme found widely distributed in cells of almost all tissues. Deficiencies of carbonic anhydrase II produce a syndrome characterized by OSTEOPETROSIS, renal tubular acidosis (ACIDOSIS, RENAL TUBULAR) and cerebral calcification. EC 4.2.1.-Metaproterenol: A beta-2 adrenergic agonist used in the treatment of ASTHMA and BRONCHIAL SPASM.Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitors: A class of compounds that reduces the secretion of H+ ions by the proximal kidney tubule through inhibition of CARBONIC ANHYDRASES.Erythrocytes: Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.Carbonic Anhydrase III: A cytosolic carbonic anhydrase isoenzyme primarily expressed in skeletal muscle (MUSCLES, SKELETAL). EC 4.2.1.-Isoenzymes: Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.Carbonic Anhydrase IV: A membrane-bound carbonic anhydrase found in lung capillaries and kidney.Acetazolamide: One of the CARBONIC ANHYDRASE INHIBITORS that is sometimes effective against absence seizures. It is sometimes useful also as an adjunct in the treatment of tonic-clonic, myoclonic, and atonic seizures, particularly in women whose seizures occur or are exacerbated at specific times in the menstrual cycle. However, its usefulness is transient often because of rapid development of tolerance. Its antiepileptic effect may be due to its inhibitory effect on brain carbonic anhydrase, which leads to an increased transneuronal chloride gradient, increased chloride current, and increased inhibition. (From Smith and Reynard, Textbook of Pharmacology, 1991, p337)Ethoxzolamide: A carbonic anhydrase inhibitor used as diuretic and in glaucoma. It may cause hypokalemia.Benzolamide: Selective renal carbonic anhydrase inhibitor. It may also be of use in certain cases of respiratory failure.Methazolamide: A carbonic anhydrase inhibitor that is used as a diuretic and in the treatment of glaucoma.Carcinoma, Renal Cell: A heterogeneous group of sporadic or hereditary carcinoma derived from cells of the KIDNEYS. There are several subtypes including the clear cells, the papillary, the chromophobe, the collecting duct, the spindle cells (sarcomatoid), or mixed cell-type carcinoma.Encyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Kidney Neoplasms: Tumors or cancers of the KIDNEY.Von Hippel-Lindau Tumor Suppressor Protein: A ubiquitin-protein ligase that mediates OXYGEN-dependent polyubiquitination of HYPOXIA-INDUCIBLE FACTOR 1, ALPHA SUBUNIT. It is inactivated in VON HIPPEL-LINDAU SYNDROME.Dichlorphenamide: A carbonic anhydrase inhibitor that is used in the treatment of glaucoma.Nitrosomonas: A genus of gram-negative, ellipsoidal or rod-shaped bacteria whose major source of energy and reducing power is from the oxidation of ammonia to nitrite. Its species occur in soils, oceans, lakes, rivers, and sewage disposal systems.Nitrosomonas europaea: The type species of the genus NITROSOMONAS, a gram-negative chemolithotroph that oxidizes ammonia to nitrite. It is found in soil, sewage, freshwater, and on building walls, and especially in polluted areas where air contains high levels of nitrogen compounds.Sodium Bicarbonate: A white, crystalline powder that is commonly used as a pH buffering agent, an electrolyte replenisher, systemic alkalizer and in topical cleansing solutions.Ammonia: A colorless alkaline gas. It is formed in the body during decomposition of organic materials during a large number of metabolically important reactions. Note that the aqueous form of ammonia is referred to as AMMONIUM HYDROXIDE.Bicarbonates: Inorganic salts that contain the -HCO3 radical. They are an important factor in determining the pH of the blood and the concentration of bicarbonate ions is regulated by the kidney. Levels in the blood are an index of the alkali reserve or buffering capacity.PubMed: A bibliographic database that includes MEDLINE as its primary subset. It is produced by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), part of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. PubMed, which is searchable through NLM's Web site, also includes access to additional citations to selected life sciences journals not in MEDLINE, and links to other resources such as the full-text of articles at participating publishers' Web sites, NCBI's molecular biology databases, and PubMed Central.Periodicals as Topic: A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.Factor IX: Storage-stable blood coagulation factor acting in the intrinsic pathway. Its activated form, IXa, forms a complex with factor VIII and calcium on platelet factor 3 to activate factor X to Xa. Deficiency of factor IX results in HEMOPHILIA B (Christmas Disease).Hemophilia B: A deficiency of blood coagulation factor IX inherited as an X-linked disorder. (Also known as Christmas Disease, after the first patient studied in detail, not the holy day.) Historical and clinical features resemble those in classic hemophilia (HEMOPHILIA A), but patients present with fewer symptoms. Severity of bleeding is usually similar in members of a single family. Many patients are asymptomatic until the hemostatic system is stressed by surgery or trauma. Treatment is similar to that for hemophilia A. (From Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p1008)Antigens, Neoplasm: Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.Psychrobacter: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria in the family MORAXELLACEAE, associated with processed MEAT; FISH PRODUCTS; and POULTRY PRODUCTS.Antarctic Regions: The continent lying around the South Pole and the southern waters of the Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian Oceans. It includes the Falkland Islands Dependencies. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p55)Urease: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of urea and water to carbon dioxide and ammonia. EC 3.5.1.5.Calcium Carbonate: Carbonic acid calcium salt (CaCO3). An odorless, tasteless powder or crystal that occurs in nature. It is used therapeutically as a phosphate buffer in hemodialysis patients and as a calcium supplement.Hyperventilation: A pulmonary ventilation rate faster than is metabolically necessary for the exchange of gases. It is the result of an increased frequency of breathing, an increased tidal volume, or a combination of both. It causes an excess intake of oxygen and the blowing off of carbon dioxide.Boredom: A psychological state resulting from any activity that lacks motivation, or from enforced continuance in an uninteresting situation.Molecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.Crystallography, X-Ray: The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Salicylic Acid: A compound obtained from the bark of the white willow and wintergreen leaves. It has bacteriostatic, fungicidal, and keratolytic actions.Arabidopsis Proteins: Proteins that originate from plants species belonging to the genus ARABIDOPSIS. The most intensely studied species of Arabidopsis, Arabidopsis thaliana, is commonly used in laboratory experiments.Arabidopsis: A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.Octamer Transcription Factors: A family of POU domain factors that bind the octamer motif ATTTGCAT in enhancer and PROMOTER REGIONS to regulate GENE EXPRESSION.Glaucoma, Open-Angle: Glaucoma in which the angle of the anterior chamber is open and the trabecular meshwork does not encroach on the base of the iris.Glaucoma: An ocular disease, occurring in many forms, having as its primary characteristics an unstable or a sustained increase in the intraocular pressure which the eye cannot withstand without damage to its structure or impairment of its function. The consequences of the increased pressure may be manifested in a variety of symptoms, depending upon type and severity, such as excavation of the optic disk, hardness of the eyeball, corneal anesthesia, reduced visual acuity, seeing of colored halos around lights, disturbed dark adaptation, visual field defects, and headaches. (Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)Prostanoic Acids: 2-Octylcyclopentaneheptanoic acids. The family of saturated carbon-20 cyclic fatty acids that represent the parent compounds of the prostaglandins.Nevus, Sebaceous of Jadassohn: A syndrome characterized by lesions occurring on the face, scalp, or neck which consist of congenital hypoplastic malformations of cutaneous structures and which over time undergo verrucous hyperplasia. Additionally it is associated with neurological symptoms and skeletal, ophthalmological, urogenital, and cardiovascular abnormalities.Genes, Dominant: Genes that influence the PHENOTYPE both in the homozygous and the heterozygous state.Intraocular Pressure: The pressure of the fluids in the eye.Pedigree: The record of descent or ancestry, particularly of a particular condition or trait, indicating individual family members, their relationships, and their status with respect to the trait or condition.Sarcoptidae: Family of MITES, in the superfamily Sarcoptoidea, order Astigmata. They are slow moving, obligate PARASITES that infect MAMMALS and BIRDS. The species SARCOPTES SCABIEI causes SCABIES.Carbonic Acid: Carbonic acid (H2C03). The hypothetical acid of carbon dioxide and water. It exists only in the form of its salts (carbonates), acid salts (hydrogen carbonates), amines (carbamic acid), and acid chlorides (carbonyl chloride). (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Sulfonamides: A group of compounds that contain the structure SO2NH2.Thermodynamics: A rigorously mathematical analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, temperature, and equilibrium). It describes systems whose states are determined by thermal parameters, such as temperature, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic parameters. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)

Low-avidity antibodies to carbonic anhydrase-I and -II in autoimmune chronic pancreatitis. (1/32)

Antibodies (Abs) to carbonic anhydrase (isoforms CA-I and CA-II) have been considered pathogenic factors in the development of autoimmune pancreatitis. Besides, such autoAbs might accelerate the pancreatic damage in alcoholic chronic pancreatitis (CP). The aim of the present study was to evaluate the presence of serum Abs to CA-I and CA-II in CP and the relative affinity of these Abs. Serum anti-CA-I and -CA-II Abs were measured in 89 patients with CP (48 alcoholic and 41 nonalcoholic) by an ELISA technique. The prevalence of those autoAbs in CP was compared with other autoimmune diseases where they have also been found. The presence of other serological manifestations of autoimmunity, such as hypergammaglobulinemia or antinuclear Abs, was determined in CP patients as well. Elevated serum levels of both anti-CA-I (24%) and -CA-II (18%) Abs were observed in CP, although their prevalence was lower than in autoimmune diseases like rheumatoid arthritis (44 and 25%, respectively) or systemic lupus erythematosus (39% for anti-CA-I Abs). Furthermore, these Abs were of low average avidity. On the other hand, a significantly higher proportion of nonalcoholic CP had anti-CA-II Abs with respect to alcoholic CP (15.2 vs. 2.4%, p < 0.05). Anti-CA-I and -CA-II Abs might be helpful in the diagnosis of autoimmune CP, and the detection of the latter Abs seems to discard alcoholic etiology. Although it does not discard any pathogenic role in autoimmune CP, the low-avidity of anti-CA Abs argues against such idea.  (+info)

Natural protein engineering: a uniquely salt-tolerant, but not halophilic, alpha-type carbonic anhydrase from algae proliferating in low- to hyper-saline environments. (2/32)

Dunaliella salina is a unicellular green alga thriving in environments ranging from fresh water to hyper-saline lakes, such as the Dead Sea. An unusual, internally duplicated, 60 kDa alpha-type carbonic anhydrase (dCA I), located on the surface of this alga, is expected to function over a broad range of salinities. It would therefore differ from other carbonic anhydrases that already lose activity at low salinities and also from halophilic proteins that require high salinities for conformational stability. Enzymatic analyses indeed indicated that dCA I retained activity at salt concentrations ranging from low salt to at least 1.5 M NaCl or KCl for CO(2) hydration, 2.0 M NaCl for esterase activity and 0.5 M for bicarbonate dehydration. Although measurements at higher salinities were constrained by the interference of salt in the respective assayed reactions, activity was noticeable even at 4.0 M NaCl. Comparisons of the internally duplicated dCA I to single-domain derivatives indicated that inter-domain interactions played a decisive role in the stability, activity, salt tolerance and pH responses of dCA I. Hence dCA I is a uniquely salt- tolerant protein, retaining an active conformation over a large range of salinities and, as a Zn metalloenzyme, largely immune to the specific inhibitory effects of anions. Its unique features make dCA I a useful model to understand the physico-chemical basis of halotolerance and protein-salt interactions in general.  (+info)

Taste buds and nerve fibers in the rat larynx: an ultrastructural and immunohistochemical study. (3/32)

We investigated the rat laryngeal taste buds and their innervation by electron microscopy and immunohistochemical methods. Taste buds were densely arranged in the surface facing the laryngeal cavity of the epiglottis, the aryepiglottic fold, and the cuneiform process of the arytenoid cartilages. The cells of the buds were classified into types I, II, III, and basal cells, the ultrastucture of which was almost the same as that previously reported in lingual taste buds. The type III cells that had synaptic contacts with nerve fibers were considered to be sensory cells. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed thick calbindin D28k-immunoreactive fibers and thin varicose fibers immunoreactive for calcitonin gene-related peptide or substance P in and around the taste bud. Serotonin-immunoreactive cells were also observed here. The results revealed the innervation pattern of laryngeal taste buds to be the same as that in lingual taste buds. Carbonic anhydrase (CA) is known to catalyze the hydration of CO2 and dehydration of H2CO3, and seems to be essential in CO2 reception. Immunoreactivity for CAI was detected in slender cells and that for CAIII was observed in barrel-like cells in the laryngeal taste buds. The pH-sensitive inward rectifier K+ (Kir) channel in the cell membrane may be involved in CO2 reception as well. CAII-reactive cells were also reactive to Kir4.1, PGP 9.5 and serotonin. Our results indicated that CAII and Kir4.1 are located in type III cells of the laryngeal taste buds, and supported the idea that the buds may be involved in the recognition of CO2.  (+info)

Measurement of erythrocyte carbonic anhydrase isozymes (CA-I and CA-II) in racehorses and riding horses. (4/32)

Equine carbonic anhydrase isozymes (CA-I and CA-II) were purified from erythrocytes by several column chromatography. Polyclonal anti-CA-I and anti-CA-II sera were produced in rabbits. Sensitive competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) were established to determine the developmental changes in CA-I and CA-II levels in equine erythrocytes. Concentrations of CA-I and CA-II in erythrocytes from 150 clinically normal thoroughbreds (123 racehorses and 27 riding horses) were determined by ELISA. Mean (+/- SD) concentrations of CA-I and CA-II in racehorses were 1.70 +/- 0.48 and 0.94 +/- 0.13 mg/g hemoglobin (Hb), respectively. Mean concentrations of CA-I and CA-II in riding horses were 2.34 +/- 0.52 and 0.76 +/- 0.08 mg/g Hb, respectively. When the CA levels in racehorses and riding horses were compared, the CA-I level in riding horses was higher than that in racehorses (p=0.01). The CA-II level in racehorses was higher than that in riding horses (p=0.02). These data suggest that the levels of CA isozymes in erythrocytes of racehorses were influenced by chronic physical stress. The CA-I concentration in erythrocytes of 2-month-old horses was approximately 0.25 mg/g Hb. The CA-I level noticeably increased during the first year of life and approached normal adult levels by 2 years. The CA-II level decreased slightly with age, indicating different regulation of CA-I and CA-II expression during development.  (+info)

Expression of a novel carbonic anhydrase, CA XIII, in normal and neoplastic colorectal mucosa. (5/32)

BACKGROUND: Carbonic anhydrase (CA) isozymes may have an important role in cancer development. Some isozymes control pH homeostasis in tumors that appears to modulate the behaviour of cancer cells. CA XIII is the newest member of the CA gene family. It is a cytosolic isozyme which is expressed in a number of normal tissues. The present study was designed to investigate CA XIII expression in prospectively collected colorectal tumor samples. METHODS: Both neoplastic and normal tissue specimens were obtained from the same patients. The analyses were performed using CA XIII-specific antibodies and an immunohistochemical staining method. For comparison, the tissue sections were immunostained for other cytosolic isozymes, CA I and II. RESULTS: The results indicated that the expression of CA XIII is down-regulated in tumor cells compared to the normal tissue. The lowest signal was detected in carcinoma samples. This pattern of expression was quite parallel for CA I and II. CONCLUSION: The down-regulation of cytosolic CA I, II and XIII in colorectal cancer may result from reduced levels of a common transcription factor or loss of closely linked CA1, CA2 and CA13 alleles on chromosome 8. Their possible role as tumor suppressors should be further evaluated.  (+info)

Polyvinylpyrrolidone 40 assists the refolding of bovine carbonic anhydrase B by accelerating the refolding of the first molten globule intermediate. (6/32)

Protecting proteins from aggregation is one of the most important issues in both protein science and protein engineering. In this research, the mechanism of enhancing the refolding of guanidine hydrochloride-denatured carbonic anhydrase B by polyvinylpyrrolidone 40 (PVP40) was studied by both kinetic and equilibrium refolding experiments. The reactivation and refolding kinetics indicated that the rate constant of refolding the first refolding intermediate (I(1)) to the second one (I(2)) is promoted by the addition of PVP. Fluorescence quenching studies further indicated that PVP could bind to the aggregation-prone species I(1), resulting in the protection of the exposed hydrophobic surface, a minimization of the protein surface, and more importantly, an increase of the refolding rate of I(1). These properties were quite different from those of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG), which has been shown to have a strong and stoichiometric binding to I(1) and does not interfere with the refolding pathway. Unlike PEG, the binding of PVP to I(1) does not block the aggregation pathway directly but decreases the energy barrier for I(1) to refold to I(2) and thus reduces the accumulation of I(1). These results suggested that PVP works by a quite different mechanism from those well established ones in chaperones and chemical promoters. PVP is more like a folding catalyst rather than a chemical chaperone. The distinct mechanism of enhancing protein aggregation by PVP is expected to facilitate the attempt to develop new chemical compounds as well as new strategies to protect proteins from aggregation.  (+info)

Ultrahigh resolution crystal structures of human carbonic anhydrases I and II complexed with "two-prong" inhibitors reveal the molecular basis of high affinity. (7/32)

The atomic-resolution crystal structures of human carbonic anhydrases I and II complexed with "two-prong" inhibitors are reported. Each inhibitor contains a benzenesulfonamide prong and a cupric iminodiacetate (IDA-Cu(2+)) prong separated by linkers of different lengths and compositions. The ionized NH(-) group of each benzenesulfonamide coordinates to the active site Zn(2+) ion; the IDA-Cu(2+) prong of the tightest-binding inhibitor, BR30, binds to H64 of CAII and H200 of CAI. This work provides the first evidence verifying the structural basis of nanomolar affinity measured for two-prong inhibitors targeting the carbonic anhydrases.  (+info)

Immunohistolocalization of carbonic anhydrase isoenzymes (CA-I, -II and -III ) in canine epididymis. (8/32)

The immunolocalization of the efferent duct and the epididymis in canine was firstly examined using an the immunohistochemical method with the canine carbonic anhydrase (CA) -I, CA-II and CA-III antisera. The efferent duct was immunonegative for all present canine CA antisera. However, some slender shaped epithelial cells in the head and body segments of the epididymal duct were intensely reacted to the CA-II antiserum. These results suggested that the CA-II might be controlled in the luminal environment in the head and body segments of the canine epididymis by the proton and bicarbonate balance for the maintenance of the spermatozoal stability and movement.  (+info)

Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Vaida Morkūnaitė, Joana Gylytė, Asta Zubrienė, Lina Baranauskienė, Miglė Kišonaitė, Vilma Michailovienė, Vaida Juozapaitienė, Matthew J Todd, Daumantas Matulis].
Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology. ...
Reactome is pathway database which provides intuitive bioinformatics tools for the visualisation, interpretation and analysis of pathway knowledge.
2foy: Ultrahigh resolution crystal structures of human carbonic anhydrases I and II complexed with two-prong inhibitors reveal the molecular basis of high affinity.
To further assess our results, we performed a literature review of the genes reported by at least seven studies in the cancer versus normal comparison to determine if any have been shown to have diagnostic and/or prognostic utility in colorectal cancer. The most consistently reported differentially expressed gene in our meta-analysis was carbonic anhydrase II (CA2), which was reported as down-regulated in 11 studies. Along with carbonic anhydrase I, CA2 has been shown to have prognostic significance where the expression of both enzymes was related to the metastatic aggressiveness of colorectal cancer (23). Similarly, the potential diagnostic utility of CA2 was shown in a study in which the average level of fecal CA2 in colorectal cancer patients was shown to be significantly greater than those in the control group (24). Immunohistochemistry has been done on colorectal tumor and healthy mucosa tissue to monitor the protein levels of four carbonic anhydrases, among them CA2 (25). That study showed ...
This product was first developed in Finland by Prof Heikki Karppanen, a well-published researcher of hypertension. The use of Pan salt is common in Finland, with a popular fast food chain advertising its use as a healthier alternative.. The formula employs two-prong approach to help better control blood pressure. The actual salt(sodium) content in only 57% that of normal salt. Studies have shown that by reducing sodium, better BP control can be achieved.. Secondly, the use of mineral salts such as potassium and magnesium, both of which have been shown to reduce blood pressure, potentiates its blood pressure lowering effect.. The best part is that the formula has been specially formulated to provide the same tast as that of normal salt. Some other formulas may taste bitter as both potassium and magnesium, naturally are bitter.. ...
Leviton?s comprehensive Residential Grade Outlets portfolio includes devices rated for all residential applications in a variety of standard configurations. They are produced in an array of colors in both Decora and traditional styles. Shutter mechanism inside the Outlet blocks access to the contacts unless a two-prong plug is inserted, helping ensure hairpins, keys, etc., will be locked out TR symbol on residential Outlets assures they meet the 2008 NEC requirement Ultrasonic heavy-duty construction offers long, trouble-free service life Protects children from electrical shock injuries
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Healthy eating and exercise can help you lose weight and maintain weight, too. Being healthy requires a two-prong approach, and when you leave healthy food or exercise off of the schedule, youre simply not going to be as healthy as you "think you are.". When trying to lose weight, you need to burn more calories than you consume.. Its pure mathematics, and if you eat more calories than you consume, you can be sure that youll gain weight.. Lets take a look at a few exercise and eating tips that can help you lose or maintain your weight while being the healthiest you possible ...
Carbonic anhydrases are abundant in mammalian tissues, plants and bacteria. The several distinct classes of this enzyme (α, β, γ etc.) share little similarity in terms of structure and sequence, but they all perform the same function of catalyzing the hydration of carbon dioxide and the dehydration of bicarbonate [3]. Carbonic anhydrase B is one of the two major forms of carbonic anhydrase in human red blood cell (the other form is CA C). Like other members of the CA family, its main function is assisting the important chemical reaction that occurs in the blood. CO2 + H2O ,-----, HCO3- + H+. The above reaction is very slow in the absence of the enzyme. Hence, by assisting the inter-conversion between carbon dioxide and bicarbonate, Carbonic anhydrase B helps to maintain acid-base balance in blood, and transport carbon dioxide out of blood. Note that the carbonic acid (H2CO3) and hydrogen carbonate ions (HCO3-) is an important buffer system in the body. They equilibrate in the blood plasma to ...
Effect of Hyperglycemia on Erythrocyte Carbonic Anhydrase and Lactic Acid in Type II Diabetic Subjects. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
beta-Lactam antibiotics are a broad class of antibiotics, consisting of all antibiotic agents that contain a beta-lactam ring in their molecular structures. Synthesis of beta-lactam analogs, which are containing dichloride atoms and N-methyl, N-aromatic rings, was achieved by Schiff bases and dichloroketene compounds. All the synthesized imines and beta-lactam analogs were tested against two physiologically relevant carbonic anhydrase isozymes (hCA I and II) and acetylcholinesterase (AChE). They demponstrated effective inhibitory profiles with K-i values in ranging of 3.22-11.18 nM against hCA I, 3.74-10.41 nM against hCA II, and 0.50-1.57 nM against AChE. On the other hand, acetazolamide and dorzolamide clinically used as CA inhibitors, showed K-i value of 170.34 and 129.26nM against hCA I, and 115.43 and 135.67 nM against hCA II, respectively. Also, tacrine used as standard AChE inhibitor showed Ki value of 5.70 nM against AChE ...
Lilly is a super sweet girl in need of a loving home as a broodmare, companion, or with some time off as a light riding horse. After 3 yrs of extensive training and attempts to rehab her, she still has a very sore back, which the vet feels could be kissing spines, but feels time off will help or a new job as a broodmare. Shes gorgeous, correctly put together, with a great temperament and would make a fantastic sporthorse broodmare! Email for more info, pics, and video. ...
Ideally, a closed lumbosacral transition in neutral position ensures the work of the lines and vice versa muscular active work of the lines ensures power transfer in the lumbosacral transition. This becomes particularly clear if you look at how much the lumbosacral transition region is spanned by muscles and fasciae. My picture here is that this is only possible if the action base for forward movements is at the back and that for upward movement is at the front. Only the vigorous forward movement out of the rear action base allows the front base to have a righting, muscular dominant, supporting motion. Successful interaction preserves the physiological movement phases of the limbs. The spine and ribcage remain in balance and, as an almost "stabilizing pole", they enable balanced muscle action, in whatever form. For the transmission of motion these lead to an essential positive "stiffening" of the spine. ...
Middle Ages. In 1086 the estate at Compton was assessed at 5 hides, that at Dundon 5 hides, and that at Littleton at 3 hides, all 3 single holdings, although Littleton had been divided into 3 manors in 1066 and Compton had been shared between 2 monks. Details of demesne and tenants are not available for Compton, but both Dundon and Littleton had land for 4 teams. The demesne at Dundon measured 3 hides and ½ virgate and 4 serfs worked it with 2 teams; 5 villeins and 10 bordars worked the rest of the land with 3 teams. The demesne at Littleton also measured 3 hides (fn. 207) and 3 serfs worked it with 2 teams. Four villeins and 3 bordars with 1 team worked the rest. There were 20 a. of meadow at Compton and twice that much at both Dundon and Littleton. Stock comprised a riding horse, 2 beasts, 46 sheep, and 49 goats at Compton, 5 unbroken mares, 2 riding horses, and 9 pigs at Dundon, and 120 sheep at Littleton. (fn. 208) In 1283 the combined estates of Compton and Dundon had demesne measuring 330 ...
A two-prong approach combining ibrutinib and rituximab (Rituxin®) to treat aggressive chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) produced profound responses with minor side effects in a Phase 2 clinical trial at the University of ...
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Nacubactam (OP0595 free acid) is a potent non-β-lactam-β-lactamase inhibitor with activity against class A and class C β-lactamases. Nacubactam (OP0595 free acid) acts as a penicillin binding protein (PBP) 2-active antibacterial, and gives β-lactamase-independent potentiation of β-lactams targeting other PBPs. - Mechanism of Action & Protocol.
The 16th century was a very important period in the history of the Cossacks. At its commencement the inhabitants of the Pontic Steppe were a mix of disparate peoples living a frontier life, largely free of central control or the benefits of a settled existence, with little except their environment and the difficulties of existence in common. By its end these scattered elements had coalesced into a recognisable grouping or society which would be known as Cossack, and which increasingly cooperated and saw themselves as a distinct people with common interests and goals. As such they would achieve great fame, and be both friend and foe to those states that bordered their territory and increasingly took an interest in them.. Their lifestyle meant they were no strangers to riding horses, and while many did their fighting on foot, particularly when in the pay of outsiders, there were already those that were skilled in mounted warfare, a feature many today associate with all Cossacks. This is the first ...
The Half Saddlebred is an American crossbreed with excellent characteristics. Often used as a riding horse, it is one of the most sought-after equine breeds in the world.
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View Notes - Organic Lab Reactions 174 from CHM 2210 at University of Florida. STANNIC CHLORIDE ON THE FREE ACID 169 Other Methods The extent of consideration given to the methods of cyclization
Am zis ca-i monitorul de vina. Acum 2 saptamani..n-a mai vrut de niciun fel!Inchis-deschis..scos din prinza..nimic,nada,niente...chinuitor ptr ca aveam si de lucru.Imprumut un alt monitor si zic..gata il arunc pe cel vechi pe geam.Iete ca facea la fel!Bun...ce altceva?Placa video! Scimba placa video, la fel probleme. Schimba slotul..tot la fel.Cand inchideam monitorul in unele dati becul de power nu se stingea ci ramanea oleaca mai deschis.Un prieten mi-a zis ca poate e de la sursa.Am schimbat si sursa....La fel face..doar ca acum e mai docil si face doar o singura data ...
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BioExpress accepts no responsibility and shall not be held liable for loss, damage, expense, consequential, or accidental damage. This includes the damage to property, person, or premises resulting from these products. BioExpress MAKES NO WARRANTIES, EXPRESSED OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING, WITHOUT LIMITATION, THE WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURCHASE. BioExpress expressly disclaims all other warranties, whether express, implied or statutory, including the warranty of MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR USE. In no event will BioExpress be liable for consequential damages arising from the use of products described in this catalog.. ...
A recording liquid comprising an aqueous medium and at least one dye selected from dyes, the free acid forms of which are represented by formula (I): ##STR1## All the symbols in formula (I) are defined in the description.
The new antitumor sulfamate EMD 486019 was investigated for its interaction with twelve catalytically active mammalian carbonic anhydrase (CA, EC 4.2.1.1) isozymes, hCA I - XIV. Similarly to 667-Coumate, a structurally related compound in phase II clinical trials as steroid sulfatase/CA inhibitor with potent antitumor properties, EMD 486019 acts as a strong inhibitor of isozymes CA II, VB, VII, IX, XII, and XIV (K(I)s in the range of 13-19nM) being less effective against other isozymes (K(I)s in the range of 66-3600nM against hCA I, IV, VA, VI, and mCA XIII, respectively). The complete inhibition profile of 667-Coumate against these mammalian CAs is also reported here for the first time. Comparing the X-ray crystal structures of the two adducts of CA II with EMD 486019 and 667-Coumate, distinct orientations of the bound sulfamates within the enzyme cavity were observed, which account for their distinct inhibition profiles. CA II/IX potent inhibitors belonging to the sulfamate class are thus ...
As demonstrated in the accompanying figures, use a two-prong retractor and the middle finger of the nondominant hand to expose the lower lateral cartilage
The report generally describes linoleoyl coenzyme a, free acid, examines its uses, production methods, patents. Linoleoyl Coenzyme A, Free Acid market
1. I love to read and write, but to me theyre one in the same. 2. Ive been riding horses for 11 years. 3. I love medieval things and I am the proud owner of 2 small swords and 1 dagger. 4. I absolutely LOVE dragons! & 5. I love when it rains.
April 27, 2012. Washington, April 27, 2012 -- Health workers are walking, pedaling bicycles, driving cars, rowing boats and riding horses to reach remote areas, urban fringes and displaced communities, where they are giving vaccines against diseases like measles and polio as part of the first World Immunization Week taking place in 180 countries this week. ...
Okadaic Acid, Free Acid, |98%, CAS#78111-17-8, More than 1,000 labs worldwide have purchased Okadaic Acid or its salts from LC Labs, either directly from us or from our distributors and resellers (the latter resell under their own labels).
BioAssay record AID 644085 submitted by ChEMBL: Inhibition of human carbonic anhydrase 2 using 4-nitrophenylacetate as substrate after 3 mins using spectrophotometry by Lineweaver-Burk plot analysis.
FUNCTIONS OF CARBONIC ANHYDRASES. The presence of carbonic anhydrases in all living organisms probably originates because the components of the catalyzed reaction are involved in almost all metabolic processes. We suppose that the main reason for the abundance of CAs in nature is the ubiquitous involvement of bicarbonate buffers in aqueous media and then in the cytoplasm at every stage of evolution; these enzymes acceleration achieving appropriate pH, which is important for homeostasis of every living cell. The role of carbonic anhydrases in accelerating the conversion of inorganic forms of carbon was probably not their initial main function, but now it is established that these enzymes are critical regulators of the exchange of these forms in many metabolic processes.. Functions of Carbonic Anhydrases in Animals. Although the main purpose of this review is to consider the available experimental data and ideas concerning the role of CAs in higher plants, we should present, at least briefly, ...
We report the cloning, purification and characterization of the full domain of carbonic anhydrase (CA, EC 4.2.1.1) from Plasmodium falciparum, which incorporates 358 amino acid residues (from 181 to 538, in the sequence of this 600 amino acid long protein), called PfCAdom. The enzyme, which belongs to the η-CA class showed the following kinetic parameters: kcat of 3.8×10(5)s(-1) and kcat/Km of 7.2×10(7)M(-1)×s(-1), being 13.3 times more effective as a catalyst compared to the truncated form PfCA. PfCAdom is more effective than the human (h) isoform hCA I, being around 50% less effective compared to hCA II, one of the most catalytically efficient enzymes known so far. Intriguingly, the sulfonamides CA inhibitors generally showed much weaker inhibitory activity against PfCAdom compared to PfCA, prompting us to hypothesize that the 69 amino acid residues insertion present in the active site of this η-CA is crucial for the active site architecture. The best sulfonamide inhibitors for PfCAdom ...
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Continuation of an article by ©2005 By Deb Bennett, Ph.D.:. What Does it Mean to "Start" a Young Horse?. Let us now turn to the second discussion, which is what I mean by "starting" and the whole history of that. Many people today - at least in our privileged country - do not realize how hard you can actually work a mature horse - which is very, very hard. But before you can do that without significantly damaging the animal, you have to wait for him to mature, which means - waiting until he is four to six years old before asking him to carry you on his back.. What bad will happen if you put him to work as a riding horse before that? Two important things - and probably not what youre thinking of. What is very unlikely to happen is that youll damage the growth plates in his legs. At the worst, there may be some crushing of the cartilages, but the number of cases of deformed limbs due to early use is tiny. The cutting-horse futurity people, who are big into riding horses as young as a year and a ...
View and buy high quality Janelia Fluor 646, free acid from Tocris Bioscience. Red dye (Reactive group: free acid). Applications: super resolution microscopy e.g. dSTORM & STED, confocal, flow and live cell imaging.
Stunning true black kind and loving girl. She immediately wanted me to give her a scratch when I met her. I love doing this, I get to meet so many wonderful horses.She needs time before being a riding horse. She has a fractured sesamoid, but is nearly sound. See her pictures at www.LeightonFarm.com or call me for more information! ...
A blog about farming and ranching in Southwest Virginia. Training horses, riding horses, showing horses, raising cattle, beef cattle and goats.
Howdy,, hows the world treating you? Going good here,,no big complaints, we have been doing fall clean up,,the garden is stripped and all we have are a few tomatoes and peppers,, oh yes butternut squash,, we ended up with over 75 of them , trying to figure out what to do with all of them ! Grandkids are here, riding horses, and doing the youth deer hunting with grandpa,,so far the deer is winning,, Weather is finally cooling down ,, oh on a cuteness note,, I tried to get a picture
My greatest accomplishment is being a MOM! After that nothing is really important if you take that away.... However, in the quiet moments, before the roosters crow, and the sun begins to peek above the trees, I love to sit and scrapbook and work on my family heritage. Since discovering Scrapbooking two years ago, I have also rediscovered my camera.... looking through the lens at the world gives new meaning and light to everything I see. Everything is a moment to capture and create. When spending time with family and friends, I love to spend time outdoors, riding horses, playing in the mud, hunting and fishing and doing whatever our hearts desire...the smallest of moments are my greates joys. "Life is not measured by the number of breaths we take, but instead by the number of moments that take our breath away ...
My greatest accomplishment is being a MOM! After that nothing is really important if you take that away.... However, in the quiet moments, before the roosters crow, and the sun begins to peek above the trees, I love to sit and scrapbook and work on my family heritage. Since discovering Scrapbooking two years ago, I have also rediscovered my camera.... looking through the lens at the world gives new meaning and light to everything I see. Everything is a moment to capture and create. When spending time with family and friends, I love to spend time outdoors, riding horses, playing in the mud, hunting and fishing and doing whatever our hearts desire...the smallest of moments are my greates joys. "Life is not measured by the number of breaths we take, but instead by the number of moments that take our breath away ...
Im a recent graduate from the Microbial Biology program at University of California, Berkeley. I originally started in the lab as an undergraduate researcher, summer 2015. I work on a variety of projects in the Brem lab, including understanding the genetics of interspecies trait differences in saccharomyces and yeast replicative lifespan studies. Outside of lab, you can usually find me hiking or riding horses or trying new craft beers. ...
Its time to add another riding horse to the farm anyhow, so Ive been looking for a gelding that does well with both mares and colts. The right gelding hasnt come along... BUT... Ive found a mare that had a double oophorectomy (aka ovariectomy or spaying) completed. Im wondering if anyone has any experience with spayed mares interacting with uncut colts ...
I like writing, drawing, riding horses, playing sports,and just getting outside. My first books were 20 post-it notes stuck together when I was about six years old. i survive off my friends, writing and music. I also read a lot.
It is important to see the needs of the racehorse as being different from horses kept for any other sporting purpose. Its management, feeding, training and stabling are all critical and unique. Peter Gray (European Trainer - issue 21 - Spring 2008)
Information on how you can help us care for, rehabilitate and retrain retired racehorses or adopt a horse of your own. 817-689-1214
At CIL, reference standards with concentration based on gravimetry are carefully weighed, dissolved and diluted by weight, then packaged. The Concentration Based on Gravimetry is given in mass of compound per volume of solvent using the density of the solvent and is adjusted for the purity of the neat material. If the compound dissolved is a salt, the concentration by gravimetry is based on the mass of the salt form.
A study designed to investigate the behaviour of specific horse immune receptors, and how their activity may be changed with drugs. ...
Laura Corbin, Sarah Blott, June Swinburne, Charlene Sibbons, Laura Fox-Clipsham, Maud Helwegen Tim Parkin, Richard Newton, Lawrence Bramlage, Wayne McIlwraith, Stephen Bishop, John Woolliams, Mark Vaudin ...
A site devoted to treating and racing the racehorse with herbal and other holistic remedies with this page devoted to the health of the racehorse.
The IUPHAR/BPS Guide to Pharmacology. carbonic anhydrase 9 - Carbonic anhydrases. Detailed annotation on the structure, function, physiology, pharmacology and clinical relevance of drug targets.
Aryl sulfonamides are a widely used drug class for the inhibition of carbonic anhydrases. In the context of our program of photochromic pharmacophores we were interested in the exploration of azobenzene-containing sulfonamides to block the catalytic activity of human carbonic anhydrase II (hCAII). Herein, we report the synthesis and in vitro evaluation of a small library of nine photochromic sulfonamides towards hCAII. All molecules are azobenzene-4-sulfonamides, which are substituted by different functional groups in the 4 -position and were characterized by X-ray crystallography. We aimed to investigate the influence of electrondonating or electron-withdrawing substituents on the inhibitory constant Ki. With the aid of an hCAII crystal structure bound to one of the synthesized azobenzenes, we found that the electronic structure does not strongly affect inhibition. Taken together, all compounds are strong blockers of hCAII with K-i = 25-65 nM that are potentially photochromic and thus combine ...
Zn(2+)-dependent carbonic anhydrases (CA) catalyse the reversible hydration of carbon dioxide to bicarbonate and participate in diverse physiological processes, hence having manifold therapeutic potentials. Among the 15 human CAs with wide-ranging sub-cellular localisation and kinetic properties, CA VI is the only secretory isoform. The 1.9Å crystal structure of the human CA VI catalytic domain reveals a prototypical mammalian CA fold, and a novel dimeric arrangement as compared to previously-reported CA structures. The active site cavity contains a cluster of non-conserved residues that may be involved in ligand binding and have significant implications for developing the next-generation of isoform-specific inhibitors.
ESCUDERO-ALMANZA, Dalila Jacqueline et al. Carbonic Anhydrase and Zinc in Plant Physiology. Chilean J. Agric. Res. [online]. 2012, vol.72, n.1, pp.140-146. ISSN 0718-5839. http://dx.doi.org/10.4067/S0718-58392012000100022.. Carbonic anhydrase (CA) (EC: 2.4.1.1) catalyzes the rapid conversion of carbon dioxide plus water into a proton and the bicarbonate ion (HCO3-) that can be found in prokaryotes and higher organisms; it is represented by four different families. Carbonic anhydrase is a metalloenzyme that requires Zn as a cofactor and is involved in diverse biological processes including pH regulation, CO2 transfer, ionic exchange, respiration, CO2 photosynthetic fixation, and stomatal closure. Therefore, the review includes relevant aspects about CA morphology, oligomerization, and structural differences in the active site. On the other hand, we consider the general characteristics of Zn, its geometry, reactions, and physiology. We then consider the CA catalysis mechanism that is carried out ...
The Tennessee Walking Horse or Tennessee Walker is a breed of gaited horse known for its unique four-beat running-walk and flashy movement. It was originally developed in the southern United States for use on farms and plantations. It is a popular riding horse due to its calm disposition, smooth gaits and sure-footedness. The Tennessee Walking Horse is often seen in the show ring, but is also popular as a pleasure and trail riding horse using both English and Western equipment. Tennessee Walkers are also seen in movies, television shows and other performances. The breed first developed in the late 18th century when Narragansett Pacers and Canadian Pacers from the eastern United States crossed with gaited Spanish Mustangs from Texas. Other breeds were later added, and in 1886 a foal named Black Allan, now considered the foundation sire of the breed, was born. In 1935 the Tennessee Walking Horse Breeders Association was formed, and the studbook closed in 1947. In 1939, the first Tennessee Walking ...
In 1959, Guillerm and Badre 15 demonstrated that aerosols can be diffused in the sinuses by adding a sound. The theory is based on the principle of the Helmholtz resonator, whereby the sinus with its ostium resonates at a natural frequency when the air is excited (like air in a bottle). Outside air acts like a piston and increases the ventilation and penetration of aerosol into the sinus to target the local infection (Figure 1). Durand et al 16 demonstrated that 100Hz is the optimal frequency for delivering drugs to the maxillary sinuses in a nasal cast model (Figure 2). The Atomisor NL11SN®, a sonic nebuliser developed by DTF Medical, uses this 100Hz sound with a jet nebuliser generating the aerosol (Figure 3). It is a breath-enhanced nasal jet nebuliser improving drug administration during patient inspiration and reducing drug leakage in ambient air during exhalation. It uses a two-prong nasal plug in a soft material allowing an airtight seal with the nostrils, ensuring good aerosol delivery, ...
The pheromone solution to achieve this identical success is to wear a high quality product that contains both male and female pheromones. This has a two-prong approach to increase acceptance by both sexes. The male pheromone will subconsciously suggest to other men that you will be a winner and stand out from the crowd. The female pheromone will help boost the male wearers psyche and help make him more confident. The theory is the old adage, "behind every successful man is a woman and the other way around, behind every successful woman is a man." Feminine wearers will of course have a similar reaction ...
12CA: Altering the mouth of a hydrophobic pocket. Structure and kinetics of human carbonic anhydrase II mutants at residue Val-121.
The November/December 2014 issue of American Racehorse magazine features articles on buying and selling at public auction, tips for safe equine transport, the spirit of competition in horse racing, Centurion Stud in Texas and year-end tax advice. Get...
The latest issue of Southern Racehorse covering the Thoroughbred racing industry in Texas and Oklahoma. This issue features a look at foal growth rates, a profile of Oklahoma trainer Joe Offolter, a recap of stakes races from Lone Star Park, Sam Hous...
I agree but do not feel that all riding should be stopped horses enjoy doing things with their owners and its part of their quality of life with many horses. The horse owner needs to become the sensory apparatus that protects the hoof that know cannot be felt by the horse. Horses should generally be retired from any competitive athletic endeavors following nerving but many seem to do well as light trail riding horses if the owner watches out for any rocks or sticks in the trail that they may not feel and trip over or can work in well groomed arenas as theraputic horses that work with special needs patients mostly at a walk, where the horse and client have 2 coaches walk along. Easy kind of jobs that do not put the horse and rider at risk once the horse cannot feel his feet and the ground underneath ...
A guest of the Copacabana can decide how to fill the day. Many chose to spend it in relaxation, either by pool and the pool bar, or on the beach, or in the Copacabanas unique hammock area. The hammock area is like an outdoor reading room, set in a tropical garden, with hammocks and loungers instead of chairs. It is a cool and quiet refuge for reading, relaxation and even napping. Other guests will want to fill the day with organized outings for sightseeing, shopping, sport, hiking or riding horses. The concierge desk can handle all the details. During high season and on weekends, the Kids Club "Copalandia" is an available childrens program, including supervised activities and games, both outdoors and in a large play room, outfitted with lots of things to stimulate a childs interest, including books, video games and crafts. The Copacabana also provides guests a game room that looks out to the bay. It is set up for pool, ping-pong, fussball (futbolito), darts, chess, dominos, backgammon and ...
HEPES is a zwitterionic organic chemical buffering agent. HEPES is commonly added to media at concentrations ranging from 10 mM to 25 mM. Concentrations greater than 50 mM are not recommended since it can result in cell toxicity. Depending on your application the use of HEPES with Cu(II) should be carefully considered as a possible interaction may occur1.. Recently, HEPES has found an increasing role outside the area of biochemisty such as in the field of nanoparticles2,3,4,5.. Buffering pH range 6.8 - 8.2.. Free Shipping within the Continental USA. ...
Despite its national and international scope, modern horse racing is still being conducted under outdated state-by-state drug and medication rules. This endangers the horses and allows unscrupulous owners and trainers to simply move the animals to a jurisdiction with fewer restrictions to continue doping and avoid penalties. Its clear that when it comes to medication, the horse racing industry cant both promote and police the sport.
In the catalysis of the hydration of carbon dioxide and dehydration of bicarbonate by human carbonic anhydrase II (HCA II), a histidine residue (His64) shuttles protons between the zinc-bound solvent molecule and the bulk solution. To evaluate the effect of the position of the shuttle histidine and …
Carbonic anhydrase III (CAIII) is a member of a multigene family (at least six separate genes are known) that encodes carbonic anhydrase isozymes. These carbonic anhydrases are a class of metalloenzymes that catalyze the reversible hydration of carbon dioxide and are differentially expressed in a number of cell types. The expression of the CA3 gene is strictly tissue specific and present at high levels in skeletal muscle and much lower levels in cardiac and smooth muscle. A proportion of carriers of Duchenne muscle dystrophy have a higher CA3 level than normal. The gene spans 10.3 kb and contains seven exons and six introns. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2008 ...
Carbonic anhydrase 12, 0.1 ml. Carbonic anhydrases (CAs) are a large family of zinc metalloenzymes that catalyze the reversible hydration of carbon dioxide.
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
Recombinant Carbonic Anhydrase VII (CA7) Protein. Species: Rat (Rattus). Source: Escherichia coli (E. coli). Order product ABIN6302725.
This article is about a breed of horse. See also Wielkopolska (region of Poland) and Wielkopolska National Park. The Wielkopolski is a breed of horse that was originated in Central and Western Poland in 1964, and is occasionally known as Mazursko-Poznanski. Its name derives from Wielkopolska ("Great Poland"), a region in west central Poland centred on Poznań. The Wielkopolski was developed by crossing two now extinct Polish breeds, the Pozan and the Mazury, so it is also referred to as the Mazursko-Poznanski. The Pozan or Poznan horse was developed in Poland. This breed was extremely rare, and was bred at the studs at Posadowo, Racot, and Gogolewo. The Pozan was a mixture of Arabian, Thoroughbred, Trakehner, and Hanoverian bloodlines. It was a middleweight farm horse, very versatile, used for riding and agricultural work. The Mazury, also known as the Masuren was developed in Poland as a riding horse. It mainly stemmed from the Trakehner breed and when crossed with the Pozan went on to develop ...
I come from a family of proud stockmen and when I was younger my weekends and school holidays where always filled with riding horses and mustering cattle. There isnt a job I would rather be doing. There are not too many jobs where you learn something new every day. I have struck a good balance in Mackay and I love that I can work at the busy newspaper and I still have time to compete at Campdrafts on the weekends. I am still a country girl at heart and I think Mackay still feels that little bit country as well.. ...
Hunting wild boar while riding horses and using only spears is a practice that dates back at least 2,000 years - and now its making a comeback in Spain.
3MHL: 4-[N-(Substituted 4-pyrimidinyl)amino]benzenesulfonamides as inhibitors of carbonic anhydrase isozymes I, II, VII, and XIII
Products in this category are pain supplements for the treatment of pain and inflammation in racehorses, dogs (greyhounds), camels and other performance animals.. ...
Products in this category are bleeding supplements and medications to improve the performance of Racehorses, Dogs (Greyhounds), Camels, Alpacas and Racing Pigeons. ...
He was Britains best-loved racehorse, a brave and charismatic champion who touched all who saw him run. The death of Desert Orchid at the age of 27 has sent a wave of emotion far beyond the world of racing
Composition of (1X) TBE Buffer is 0.089M Tris Base; 0.089M Boric Acid; 0.002M EDTA, Free Acid; Final pH 8.3. Made using EDTA, Free Acid. DNase, Protease, RNase free ...
Creative-Proteomics offer cas 65-47-4 (Free Acid) CYTIDINE 5-TRIPHOSPHATE, NH4 SALT (13C9, 99%; 15N3, 96-98%) CP >90% (IN SOLN). We are specialized in manufacturing Stabel Isotope Labeled Analytical Standard products.
Does HMB have any Side Effects? HMB, Calcium HMB, HMB Free Acid and Hydroxymethylbutyrate Negative Side Effects. HMB is an great supplement for muscle growt...
Solved: Just wondering if anyone has ever bought anything from Newegg.ca I was looking at a phone the ZTE Axon 7, they are a Canadian site. Wondering
Most loss-of-function diseases are caused by aberrant folding of important proteins. These proteins often misfold due to inherited mutations. The rare disease marble brain disease (MBD) also known as carbonic anhydrase II deficiency syndrome (CADS) can manifest in carriers of point mutations in the human carbonic anhydrase II (HCA II) gene. We have over the past 10-15 years studied the folding, misfolding and aggregation of the enzyme human carbonic anhydrase II. In summary our HCA II folding studies have shown that the protein folds via an intermediate of molten-globule type, which lacks enzyme activity and the molten globule state of HCA II is prone to aggregation. One mutation associated with MBD entails the His107Tyr (H107Y) substitution. We have demonstrated that the H107Y mutation is a remarkably destabilizing mutation influencing the folding behavior of HCA II. A mutational survey of position H107 and a neighboring conserved position E117 has been performed entailing the mutants H107A, ...
Hyperventilation is a difficult diagnosis to make clinically and that is why having an objective test of hyperventilation is so useful. People who hyperventilate deplete their levels of red cell carbonic anhydrase and the ratio between the activity and the protein gives us a good indication of whether or not hyperventilation is a problem. Hyperventilation is also difficult to treat and so this test tells us how much effort we have to put in to correcting this. Essentially, there is a two-pronged approach - firstly biochemical and secondly physical: Biochemically, red cell carbonic anhydrase is a zinc dependent enzyme and will be depleted simply by zinc deficiency. Furthermore, a low red cell carbonic anhydrase drives hyperventilation and so this is another example of one of the many vicious cycles seen in patients with chronic fatigue. Zinc is best absorbed at night and I recommend taking 30mg last thing at night on an empty stomach. This should be in addition to zinc taken in my physiological ...
Glaucoma is a serious disease associated with increased intraocular pressure which often leads to blindness. One of the ways to treat glaucoma is to reduce aqueous humour secretion in the ciliary body of the eye by suppressing (inhibiting) activity of special enzymes - carbonic anhydrases. Russian scientists from RUDN University have designed new compounds that can effectively reduce intraocular pressure by isoform selective inhibiting human carbonic anhydrase. The results of the study were published in the prestigious Bioorganic Chemistry journal.
en] Acidosis, Renal Tubular/chemically induced/enzymology ; Anticonvulsants/adverse effects/therapeutic use ; Carbonic Anhydrases/metabolism ; Female ; Fructose/adverse effects/analogs & derivatives/therapeutic use ; Humans ; Kidney/drug effects/enzymology/pathology ; Middle Aged ; Migraine Disorders/drug therapy ; Models, ...
Dutch based Australian trainer Will Rogers and his Swedish Grand Prix wife Anna Blomgren have developed their own Response Training method, starting up horses from the ground first and using different tools, such liberty training and exercises, to prepare the horses in the best possible way for what they will experience as a riding horses in the human environment. The couple is aware that many horses face extreme situations at big shows and events, which lead to stress. Aside from their training techniques, they rely on Equine 74 Gastric for ulcer prevention and gastric relief for their horses. Dressage News at eurodressage.com
Learn more about D-Luciferin, Free Acid and get the best prices in the life science marketplace at AG Scientific, Inc. We have over 20 years of experience with biochemical supplies that were excited to share with you!
B. Żołnowska, J. Sławiński, K. Szafrański, A. Angeli, C. T. Supuran, A. Kawiak, M. Wieczór, J. Zielińska, T. Bączek, S. Bartoszewska. Novel 2-(2-arylmethylthio-4-chloro-5-methylbenzenesulfonyl)-1-(1,3,5-triazin-2-ylamino)guanidine derivatives: Inhibition of human carbonic anhydrase cytosolic isozymes I and II and the transmembrane tumor-associated isozymes IX and XII, anticancer activity, and molecular modeling studies. Eur. J. Med. Chem. 2018, 143, 1931-1941. ...
Sure the video does not support the statement (although he does himself say the racehorse thing, and I suspect theres a tie to something attributed to his dad). But the bizarre thing is all the video of him bragging about his smarts. I cant ever remember a presidential nominee who talked this way. Even Rhodes scholar clinton. And of course its the polar opposite of way of the wasp Bush senior. The only candidates on this subject maybe were expert self deprecators Bush junior and McCain. No one videos me but if they did they could not put together a clip like that. Dont we recoil from those types in our daily dealings? The only thing that doesnt belong in the clip is the reference to his German heritage. Who isnt proud of his heritage? Just because Germans want overboard on master race thing.... ...
Question 10: This is the reaction that integrates CO2 into ________ sugars during photosynthesis, and can use only the CO2 form of carbon, not carbonic acid or bicarbonate. ...
Contact Us. Tel:732-484-9848. Fax:888-484-5008. Email:[email protected]. Add:1 Deer Park Dr, Suite Q,. Monmouth Junction, NJ 08852, USA. ...
In the good old days, only the aristocracy and assorted members of the Royal family bred racehorses. They gambled, drank and generally frittered their lives away. But they were jolly good at breeding racehorses. Then the merchants and socially ambitious spivs got into the sport of kings, and it all started to go wrong.
Hi teachers, According to the question, are all the answers correct? What did he do yesterday? a) He went jogging. b) He went swimming. c) He went riding. Thanks in advance.
I only get 5 days supply at a time - to get me over the chemo treatment - and I take them about 10pm. I have to confess, I was actually looking forward to taking them by day 3. Mainly because it mean outtahere for 10 hours. I didnt get up to be sick, go to the toilet or have a drink. This is a miracle - normally during chemo, I am very restless during the night - sweating, or thinking, or drinking, or itching, or pissing like a racehorse or staring vacantly into a fridge at 3:00am wondering, expressed as a percentage, exactly how much of the contents of the fruit and vegetable compartment is now over 3 weeks past its sell by date ...
Cryptococcus neoformans, a fungal pathogen of humans, causes fatal meningitis in immunocompromised patients. Its virulence is mainly determined by the elaboration of a polysaccharide capsule surrounding its cell wall. During its life, C. neoformans is confronted with and responds to dramatic variations in CO2 concentrations; one important morphological change triggered by the shift from its natural habitat (0.033% CO2) to infected hosts (5% CO2) is the induction of capsule biosynthesis. In cells, CO2 is hydrated to bicarbonate in a spontaneous reaction that is accelerated by carbonic anhydrases. Here we show that C. neoformans contains two beta-class carbonic anhydrases, Can1 and Can2. We further demonstrate that CAN2, but not CAN1, is abundantly expressed and essential for the growth of C. neoformans in its natural environment, where CO2 concentrations are limiting. Structural studies reveal that Can2 forms a homodimer in solution. Our data reveal Can2 to be the main carbonic anhydrase and ...
Occasional coexistence of pancreatitis with other autoimmune diseases suggests that there may be common target antigens in the pancreas and other exocrine organs, such as the salivary glands, biliary tract, and renal tubules. Several autoantibodies such as antinuclear antibody (ANA), antilactoferrin (LF) antibody (ALF), anticarbonic anhydrase II (CA-II) antibody (ACA-II), and rheumatoid factor (RF) were frequently detected in patients with AIP.12,13 CA-II and LF are distributed in the cells of several exocrine organs, including the pancreas, salivary glands, biliary duct, and distal renal tubules.12 The high prevalence of these antibodies suggests that CA-II and LF may be candidates for the target antigens in AIP. However, it was found that these autoantibodies are not necessarily specific for AIP.12 Although the majority of diabetic patients with associated AIP show type 2 diabetes mellitus, a few AIP patients with type 1A diabetes mellitus have autoantibodies against glutamic acid ...
OCEAN CITY - State environmental officials this week announced a dramatic change in horseshoe crab harvest regulations along the Atlantic coast of Maryland including Ocean City and its coastal bays in a two-prong effort to preserve the prehistoric crabs and the migratory birds that feed off their eggs.. Maryland Department of Natural Resources (DNR) fisheries service officials this week announced they are implementing new horseshoe crab regulations including a two-to-one, male to female harvest ratio, which will become effective April 1. Prior to the action taken by the DNR announced on Tuesday, there was no sex ratio limit.. While the action taken Tuesday does create new limitations on horseshoe crabs, it does avoid a more draconian solution. DNR officials are implementing the harvest ratio limit after conducting a technical analysis and reviewing public input on a range of management options including a closure of the entire horseshoe crab fishery. As a result, commercial watermen throughout ...
Most loss-of-function diseases are caused by aberrant folding of important proteins. These proteins often misfold due to inherited mutations. The rare disease marble brain disease (MBD) also known as carbonic anhydrase II deficiency syndrome (CADS) can manifest in carriers of point mutations in the human carbonic anhydrase II (HCA II) gene. We have over the past 10-15 years studied the folding, misfolding and aggregation of the enzyme human carbonic anhydrase II. In summary our HCA II folding studies have shown that the protein folds via an intermediate of molten-globule type, which lacks enzyme activity and the molten globule state of HCA II is prone to aggregation. One mutation associated with MBD entails the His107Tyr (H107Y) substitution. We have demonstrated that the H107Y mutation is a remarkably destabilizing mutation influencing the folding behavior of HCA II. A mutational survey of position H107 and a neighboring conserved position E117 has been performed entailing the mutants H107A, ...
The transcriptional complex hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) has emerged as an important mediator of gene expression patterns in tumors, although the range of responding genes is still incompletely defined. Here we show that the tumor-associated carbonic anhydrases (CAs) are tightly regulated by this system. Both CA9 and CA12 were strongly induced by hypoxia in a range of tumor cell lines. In renal carcinoma cells that are defective for the von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) tumor suppressor, up-regulation of these CAs is associated with loss of regulation by hypoxia, consistent with the critical function of pVHL in the regulation of HIF-1. Further studies of CA9 defined a HIF-1-dependent hypoxia response element in the minimal promoter and demonstrated that tight regulation by the HIF/pVHL system was reflected in the pattern of CA IX expression within tumors. Generalized up-regulation of CA IX in VHL-associated renal cell carcinoma contrasted with focal perinecrotic expression in a variety of non-VHL-associated
Looking for Carbonic anhydrase iv? Find out information about Carbonic anhydrase iv. An enzyme which aids carbon dioxide transport and release by catalyzing the synthesis, and the dehydration, of carbonic acid from, and to, carbon dioxide... Explanation of Carbonic anhydrase iv
"Entrez Gene: CA9 carbonic anhydrase IX".. *^ Kirkpatrick JP, Rabbani ZN, Bentley RC, Hardee ME, Karol S, Meyer J, Oosterwijk E ... Carbonic anhydrase 9 (CA9/CAIX) is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CA9 gene.[5][6][7] ... Nishimori I, Onishi S (2001). "Carbonic anhydrase isozymes in the human pancreas". Digestive and Liver Disease. 33 (1): 68-74. ... Carbonic anhydrases (CAs) are a large family of zinc metalloenzymes that catalyze the reversible hydration of carbon dioxide. ...
Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors[edit]. Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors inhibit the enzyme carbonic anhydrase which is found in the ... Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors acetazolamide,[16] dorzolamide Inhibits H+ secretion, resultant promotion of Na+ and K+ excretion ...
Carbonic anhydrase[edit]. Active site of carbonic anhydrase. The three coordinating histidine residues are shown in green, ... A reaction similar to this is almost instantaneous with carbonic anhydrase. The structure of the active site in carbonic ... Lindskog S (1997). "Structure and mechanism of carbonic anhydrase". Pharmacology & Therapeutics. 74 (1): 1-20. doi:10.1016/ ... favours dissociation of carbonic acid at biological pH values.[25] Vitamin B12-dependent enzymes[edit]. The cobalt-containing ...
Carbonic anhydrase. 2.6 × 10−2. 4.0 × 105. 1.5 × 107 Fumarase. 5.0 × 10−6. 8.0 × 102. 1.6 × 108 ...
4.2 Carbonic anhydrase. Miscellaneous. *Steroidogenesis inhibitor. Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title= ...
The COX-2 enzyme was discovered in 1988 by Daniel Simmons, a Brigham Young University researcher.[23] The mouse COX-2 gene was cloned by UCLA scientist Dr. Harvey Herschman, a finding published in 1991.[24]. The basic research leading to the discovery of COX-2 inhibitors has been the subject of at least two lawsuits. Brigham Young University has sued Pfizer, alleging breach of contract from relations BYU had with the company at the time of Dr. Simmons's work.[25][26] A settlement was reached in April 2012 in which Pfizer agreed to pay $450 million.[27][28] The other litigation is based on United States Pat. No. 6,048,850[29] owned by University of Rochester, which claimed a method to treat pain without causing gastro-intestinal distress by selectively inhibiting COX-2. When the patent issued, the university sued Searle (later Pfizer) in a case called, University of Rochester v. G.D. Searle & Co., 358 F.3d 916 (Fed. Cir. 2004). The court ruled in favor of Searle in 2004, holding in essence that ...
The affinity of RI for ribonucleases is among the highest for any protein-protein interaction; the dissociation constant of the RI-RNase A complex is in the femtomolar (fM) range under physiological conditions while that for the RI-angiogenin complex is less than 1 fM. Despite this high affinity, RI is able to bind a wide variety of RNases A despite their relatively low sequence identity. Both biochemical studies and crystallographic structures of RI-RNase A complexes suggest that the interaction is governed largely by electrostatic interactions, but also involves substantial buried surface area.[3][4] RI's affinity for ribonucleases is important, since many ribonucleases have cytotoxic and cytostatic effects that correlate well with ability to bind RI.[5] Mammalian RIs are unable to bind certain pancreatic ribonuclease family members from other species. In particular, amphibian RNases, such ranpirnase and amphinase from the Northern leopard frog, escape mammalian RI and have been noted to have ...
Beyond being a catalyst in the rate-limiting step in testosterone reduction, 5α-reductase isoforms I and II reduce progesterone to 5α-dihydroprogesterone (5α-DHP) and deoxycorticosterone to dihydrodeoxycorticosterone (DHDOC). In vitro and animal models suggest subsequent 3α-reduction of DHT, 5α-DHP and DHDOC lead to neurosteroid metabolites with effect on cerebral function. These neurosteroids, which include allopregnanolone, tetrahydrodeoxycorticosterone (THDOC), and 3α-androstanediol, act as potent positive allosteric modulators of GABAA receptors, and have antidepressant, anxiolytic, prosexual, and anticonvulsant effects.[33] 5α-Dihydrocortisol is present in the aqueous humor of the eye, is synthesized in the lens, and might help make the aqueous humor itself.[34] 5α-Dihydroaldosterone is a potent antinatriuretic agent, although different from aldosterone. Its formation in the kidney is enhanced by restriction of dietary salt, suggesting it may help retain sodium.[35] 5α-DHP is a ...
The role of cholesterol in the development of cardiovascular disease was elucidated in the second half of the 20th century.[138] This lipid hypothesis prompted attempts to reduce cardiovascular disease burden by lowering cholesterol. Treatment consisted mainly of dietary measures, such as a low-fat diet, and poorly tolerated medicines, such as clofibrate, cholestyramine, and nicotinic acid. Cholesterol researcher Daniel Steinberg writes that while the Coronary Primary Prevention Trial of 1984 demonstrated cholesterol lowering could significantly reduce the risk of heart attacks and angina, physicians, including cardiologists, remained largely unconvinced.[139] Scientists in academic settings and the pharmaceutical industry began trying to develop a drug to reduce cholesterol more effectively. There were several potential targets, with 30 steps in the synthesis of cholesterol from acetyl-coenzyme A.[140] In 1971, Akira Endo, a Japanese biochemist working for the pharmaceutical company Sankyo, ...
When used in the central nervous system to alleviate neurological symptoms, such as rivastigmine in Alzheimer's disease, all cholinesterase inhibitors require doses to be increased gradually over several weeks, and this is usually referred to as the titration phase. Many other types drug treatments may require a titration or stepping up phase. This strategy is used to build tolerance to adverse events or to reach a desired clinical effect.[12] This also prevents accidental overdose and is therefore recommended when initiating treatment with drugs that are extremely potent and/or toxic (drugs with a low therapeutic index). ...
4.2 Carbonic anhydrase. Miscellaneous. *Steroidogenesis inhibitor. Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title= ...
As enzymes have evolved to bind their substrates tightly, and most reversible inhibitors bind in the active site of enzymes, it is unsurprising that some of these inhibitors are strikingly similar in structure to the substrates of their targets. An example of these substrate mimics are the protease inhibitors, a very successful class of antiretroviral drugs used to treat HIV.[19] The structure of ritonavir, a protease inhibitor based on a peptide and containing three peptide bonds, is shown on the right. As this drug resembles the protein that is the substrate of the HIV protease, it competes with this substrate in the enzyme's active site. Enzyme inhibitors are often designed to mimic the transition state or intermediate of an enzyme-catalyzed reaction. This ensures that the inhibitor exploits the transition state stabilising effect of the enzyme, resulting in a better binding affinity (lower Ki) than substrate-based designs. An example of such a transition state inhibitor is the antiviral drug ...
A trypsin inhibitor (TI) is a protein and a type of serine protease inhibitor (serpin) that reduces the biological activity of trypsin by controlling the activation and catalytic reactions of proteins.[1] Trypsin is an enzyme involved in the breakdown of many different proteins, primarily as part of digestion in humans and other animals such as monogastrics and young ruminants. When trypsin inhibitor is consumed it acts as an irreversible and competitive substrate.[2] It competes with proteins to bind to trypsin and therefore renders it unavailable to bind with proteins for the digestion process.[1] As a result, protease inhibitors that interfere with digestion activity have an antinutritional effect. Therefore, trypsin inhibitor is considered an anti-nutritional factor or ANF.[3] Additionally, trypsin inhibitor partially interferes with chymotrypsin function. Trypsinogen is an inactive form of trypsin, its inactive form ensures protein aspects of the body, such as the pancreas and muscles, are ...
Researchers are investigating whether protease inhibitors could possibly be used to treat cancer. For example, nelfinavir and atazanavir are able to kill tumor cells in culture (in a Petri dish).[11][12] This effect has not yet been examined in humans; but studies in laboratory mice have shown that nelfinavir is able to suppress the growth of tumors in these animals, which represents a promising lead towards testing this drug in humans as well.[12] Inhibitors of the proteasome, such as bortezomib are now front-line drugs for the treatment of multiple myeloma. Tanomastat is one of the matrix metalloproteinase inhibitors that can be used to treat cancer. ...
Numerous TKIs aiming at various tyrosine kinases have been generated by the originators of these compounds and proven to be effective anti-tumor agents and anti-leukemic agents.[4][5] Based on this work imatinib was developed against chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML)[6] and later gefitinib and erlotinib aiming at the EGF receptor. Sunitinib, an inhibitor of the receptors for FGF, PDGF and VEGF is also based on early studies on TKIs aiming at VEGF receptors.[7] Adavosertib is a Wee1 kinase inhibitor that is undergoing numerous clinical trials in the treatment of refractory solid tumors.[8] However, toxicities such as myelosuppression, diarrhea, and supraventricular tachyarrhythmia have arisen while attempting to determine the toxicity and effectiveness of the drug.[9] Lapatinib, FDA approved for treatment in conjunction with chemotherapy or hormone therapy, is also currently undergoing clinical trials in the treatment of HER2-overexpressing breast cancers as it is suggested intermittent ...
3 through the action of carbonic anhydrase.[5][8][9] When the extracellular fluids tend towards acidity, the renal tubular ... These combine with the bicarbonate ions in the plasma to form carbonic acid (H+ + HCO−. 3 = H2CO3), thus raising the carbonic ... However, since the carbonic acid concentration is directly proportional to the partial pressure of carbon dioxide (. P. C. O. 2 ... ions in the solution carbonic acid partially neutralizes them by forming H2O and bicarbonate (HCO−. 3) ions.[5][13] Similarly ...
Lutwak-Mann C, Adams CE (April 1957). "Carbonic anhydrase in the female reproductive tract. II. Endometrial carbonic anhydrase ... to possess similar potency to progesterone and hydroxyprogesterone caproate in the rabbit endometrial carbonic anhydrase test, ...
Kivelä J, Parkkila S, Waheed A, Parkkila AK, Sly WS, Rajaniemi H (1997). "Secretory carbonic anhydrase isoenzyme (CA VI) in ...
مهارکننده (inhibitor) آنزیم به مولکول هایی خطاب می‌شود که با اتصال به آنزیم ها، کاهش فعالیت آنها را در پی دارند. [۱] خیلی از داروها از این روش تاثیر میکنند مانند سولفونامید ، فیناستراید ، نئوستیگمین و بازدارنده‌های آنزیم مبدل آنژیوتانسین. این مهار میتواند قابل برگشت یا غیرقابل برگشت باشد. ...
Carbonic anhydrase 12 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CA12 gene. Carbonic anhydrases (CAs) are a large family of ... "Human carbonic anhydrase XII: cDNA cloning, expression, and chromosomal localization of a carbonic anhydrase gene that is ... "Entrez Gene: CA12 carbonic anhydrase XII". Feldshtein, M; Elkrinawi, S; Yerushalmi, B; Marcus, B; Vullo, D; Romi, H; Ofir, R; ... Tarun AS, Bryant B, Zhai W, Solomon C, Shusterman D (2004). "Gene expression for carbonic anhydrase isoenzymes in human nasal ...
Catalyzed by carbonic anhydrase, carbon dioxide (CO2) reacts with water (H2O) to form carbonic acid (H2CO3), which in turn ... Meldrum, N. U.; Roughton, F. J. W. (1933-12-05). "Carbonic anhydrase. Its preparation and properties". The Journal of ... causing carbonic anhydrase to form CO2 until all excess acid is removed. Bicarbonate concentration is also further regulated by ... are facilitated by carbonic anhydrase in both the blood and duodenum. While in the blood, bicarbonate ion serves to neutralize ...
"Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors and osmotic agents in glaucoma. Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors". The British journal of ... Diclofenamide (or dichlorphenamide) is a sulfonamide and a carbonic anhydrase inhibitor of the meta-disulfamoylbenzene class. ...
Carbonic anhydrase serves a role in mineralization in sponges, as well as metazoans, implying an ancestral role.[44] Far from ... "Sponge paleogenomics reveals an ancient role for carbonic anhydrase in skeletogenesis". Science. 316 (5833): 1893-1895. Bibcode ...
Carbonic anhydrase 5B, mitochondrial is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CA5B gene. Carbonic anhydrases (CAs) are a ... Sly WS, Hu PY (1995). "Human carbonic anhydrases and carbonic anhydrase deficiencies". Annu. Rev. Biochem. 64: 375-401. doi: ... "Entrez Gene: CA5B carbonic anhydrase VB, mitochondrial". Human CA5B genome location and CA5B gene details page in the UCSC ... 2007). "Carbonic anhydrase activators: an activation study of the human mitochondrial isoforms VA and VB with amino acids and ...
The reaction is therefore catalyzed by carbonic anhydrase, an enzyme inside the red blood cells.[21] The reaction can go in ... Henry RP, Swenson ER (June 2000). "The distribution and physiological significance of carbonic anhydrase in vertebrate gas ...
Satomi, H.; Umemura, K.; Ueno, A.; Hatano, T.; Okuda, T.; Noro, T. (1993). "Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors from the pericarps of ...
carbonic anhydrase (chloride shift). *oxyhemoglobin. *respiratory quotient. *arterial blood gas. *diffusion capacity (DLCO) ...
Johnston N, Knight J, Dettmar PW, Lively MO, Koufman J (Dec 2004). "Pepsin and carbonic anhydrase isoenzyme III as diagnostic ...
Aryl sulfonamides are a widely used drug class for the inhibition of carbonic anhydrases. In the context of our program of ... Azobenzene-based inhibitors of human carbonic anhydrase II. In: Beilstein Journal of Organic Chemistry, Vol. 11: pp. 1129-1135 ... interested in the exploration of azobenzene-containing sulfonamides to block the catalytic activity of human carbonic anhydrase ...
We report here the identification of a new T. gondii carbonic anhydrase-related protein (TgCA_RP), which localizes to rhoptries ... A Glycosylphosphatidylinositol-Anchored Carbonic Anhydrase-Related Protein of Toxoplasma gondii Is Important for Rhoptry ... Carbonic anhydrase-related proteins (CARPs) have previously been described as catalytically inactive proteins closely related ... A Glycosylphosphatidylinositol-Anchored Carbonic Anhydrase-Related Protein of Toxoplasma gondii Is Important for Rhoptry ...
The carbonic anhydrase inhibitors act by a noncompetitive, reversible inhibition of the enzyme carbonic anhydrase. This reduces ... This medication, a type of carbonic anhydrase inhibitor, works by lowering pressure in the eye, called aintraocular pressure, ... coma and death have been reported with concomitant use of high-dose aspirin and carbonic anhydrase inhibitors. Precautions: ...
"Entrez Gene: CA9 carbonic anhydrase IX".. *^ Kirkpatrick JP, Rabbani ZN, Bentley RC, Hardee ME, Karol S, Meyer J, Oosterwijk E ... Carbonic anhydrase 9 (CA9/CAIX) is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CA9 gene.[5][6][7] ... Nishimori I, Onishi S (2001). "Carbonic anhydrase isozymes in the human pancreas". Digestive and Liver Disease. 33 (1): 68-74. ... Carbonic anhydrases (CAs) are a large family of zinc metalloenzymes that catalyze the reversible hydration of carbon dioxide. ...
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
Carbonic anhydrase superfamily (IPR036874). Short name: Carbonic_anhydrase_sf Overlapping entries *Carbonic anhydrase ( ... Carbonic anhydrases (EC:4.2.1.1) (CA) are zinc metalloenzymes which catalyze the reversible hydration of carbon dioxide. In ... Carbonic anhydrase in Escherichia coli. A product of the cyn operon.. J. Biol. Chem. 267 3731-4 1992 ... A gene homologous to chloroplast carbonic anhydrase (icfA) is essential to photosynthetic carbon dioxide fixation by ...
Alpha carbonic anhydrase domain (IPR001148). Short name: CA_dom Overlapping homologous superfamilies *Alpha carbonic anhydrase ... Carbonic anhydrases--an overview.. Curr. Pharm. Des. 14 603-14 2008. Smith KS, Ferry JG. Prokaryotic carbonic anhydrases.. FEMS ... A carbonic anhydrase-like domain with striking homology to that of the alpha class carbonic anhydrases is also found in ... Carbonic anhydrases (CA: EC:4.2.1.1) are zinc metalloenzymes which catalyse the reversible hydration of carbon dioxide to ...
A carbonic anhydrase from the archaeon Methanosarcina thermophila. B E Alber and J G Ferry ... Carbonic anhydrase (CA) from acetate-grown Methanosarcina thermophila was purified , 10,000-fold (22% recovery) to apparent ...
The reaction catalyzed by carbonic anhydrase is: HCO3- + H+ ↽. −. ⇀. {\displaystyle {\ce {,=,,}}}. CO2 + H2O. Carbonic acid has ... Cadmium-containing carbonic anhydraseEdit. Marine diatoms have been found to express a new form of ζ carbonic anhydrase. T. ... Several forms of carbonic anhydrase occur in nature. In the best-studied α-carbonic anhydrase form present in animals, the zinc ... Differences from other carbonic anhydrasesEdit. Unlike most other carbonic anhydrases, the active site metal ion is not bound ...
Compare carbonic anhydrase inhibitor anticonvulsants. View important safety information, ratings, user reviews, popularity and ... Carbonic anhydrase inhibitor anticonvulsants. What are Carbonic anhydrase inhibitor anticonvulsants. Carbonic anhydrase ... inhibitor anticonvulsants inhibit the enzyme carbonic anhydrase. Generally carbonic anhydrase inhibitors are used to treat ... Home › Drug Classes › Central Nervous System Agents › Anticonvulsants › Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitor Anticonvulsants ...
Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors decrease aqueous production by inhibiting ion transport associated with the secretion of aqueous ... Adequate inhibition of carbonic anhydrase with systemic administration has been shown to cause a decrease in aqueous humor ... Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors decrease aqueous production by inhibiting ion transport associated with the secretion of aqueous ...
The PDB archive contains information about experimentally-determined structures of proteins, nucleic acids, and complex assemblies. As a member of the wwPDB, the RCSB PDB curates and annotates PDB data according to agreed upon standards. The RCSB PDB also provides a variety of tools and resources. Users can perform simple and advanced searches based on annotations relating to sequence, structure and function. These molecules are visualized, downloaded, and analyzed by users who range from students to specialized scientists.
Helping you find trustworthy answers on Intraocular Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitor , Latest evidence made easy ... Find all the evidence you need on Intraocular Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitor via the Trip Database. ... steroids, carbonic anhydrase inhibitors, or warfarin/heparin within 1 month prior to the Screening visit or anticipated use at ... If intraocular pressure is still elevated, a topical carbonic anhydrase inhibitor should be added. In patients with sickle cell ...
Carbonic anhydrase II (CAII)-deficient mice were created to study the syndrome of CAII deficiency in humans including ... Expression of carbonic anhydrase IV in carbonic anhydrase II-deficient mice. Am J Physiol 42:F234-F245Google Scholar ... Carbonic anhydrase II Osteopetrosis Renal tubular acidosis Osteoclast Osteoblast This is a preview of subscription content, log ... Whyte MP (1993) Carbonic anhydrase-II deficiency. Clin Orthop Relat Res 294:52-63PubMedGoogle Scholar ...
Romanova AK, Rusinova NG, Kornitskaya VM (1972) Participation of carbonic anhydrase in chemosynthetic assimilation of carbonic ... Graham D (1982) Carbonic anhydrases (carbonate dehydratases) from plants. In: Mitsui A, Black CC (eds) CRC handbook of biosolar ... Hogetsu D, Miyachi S (1979) Role of carbonic anhydrase in photosynthetic CO2 fixation in Chlorella. Pl Cell Physiol 220:747-756 ... Graham D, Reed M (1971) Carbonic anhydrase and the regulation of photosynthesis. Nature (New Biol) 231:81-83Google Scholar ...
Several forms of carbonic anhydrase occur in nature. In the best-studied α-carbonic anhydrase form present in animals, the zinc ... Carbonic anhydrase inhibitor Badger MR, Price GD (1994). "The role of carbonic anhydrase in photosynthesis". Annu. Rev. Plant ... Carbonic\ anhydrase}}H_{2}CO_{3}}}} (in tissues - high CO2 concentration) The reaction rate of carbonic anhydrase is one of the ... The mechanism of cadmium carbonic anhydrase (CDCA) is essentially the same as that of other carbonic anhydrases in its ...
ESCUDERO-ALMANZA, Dalila Jacqueline et al. Carbonic Anhydrase and Zinc in Plant Physiology. Chilean J. Agric. Res. [online]. ... Carbonic anhydrase (CA) (EC: 2.4.1.1) catalyzes the rapid conversion of carbon dioxide plus water into a proton and the ... Carbonic anhydrase is a metalloenzyme that requires Zn as a cofactor and is involved in diverse biological processes including ...
Carbonic anhydrases (CAs, EC 4.2.1.1) are zinc enzymes acting as efficient catalysts for the reversible hydration of carbon ... Carbonic anhydrases as targets for medicinal chemistry.. Supuran CT1, Scozzafava A. ...
Carbonic anhydrase 4 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CA4 gene. Carbonic anhydrases (CAs) are a large family of ... "Carbonic anhydrase IV from human lung. Purification, characterization, and comparison with membrane carbonic anhydrase from ... Other forms of carbonic anhydrase enzyme are not present in the plasma, restricting the equilibrium reaction of CO2+H2O = H2CO3 ... "Entrez Gene: CA4 carbonic anhydrase IV". Sterling D, Alvarez BV, Casey JR (Jul 2002). "The extracellular component of a ...
Carbonic Anhydrase I from human erythrocytes for your research needs. Find product specific information including CAS, MSDS, ... Carbonic Anhydrase I from human erythrocytes Synonym: Carbonate Dehydratase, Carbonate Hydrolyase, Carbonic Anhydrase Isozyme I ... Carbonic Anhydrase, Cell Signaling Enzymes, Enzyme Class Index, Enzymes, Inhibitors, and Substrates, Human Carbonic Anhydrase, ... Carbonic anhydrase from human erythrocytes (HCA) has been used to study the molten-globule state of carbonic anhydrase (CA). ...
... such as the Carbonic Anhydrases (CAs, EC 4.2.1.1). CAs reversibly catalyze the fundamental reaction of CO2 hydration to ... Keywords: carbonic anhydrase inhibitors (CAIs); metalloenzymes; phenols; polyphenols; flavonoids carbonic anhydrase inhibitors ... Phenols and Polyphenols as Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitors by Anastasia Karioti 1,*, Fabrizio Carta 2. and Claudiu T. Supuran 2,* ... Karioti, A.; Carta, F.; Supuran, C.T. Phenols and Polyphenols as Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitors. Molecules 2016, 21, 1649. ...
Elevated serum anti-carbonic anhydrase II antibodies in patients with ulcerative colitis ... The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence of anti-carbonic anhydrase (CA) I and anti-CA II antibodies in a series of ...
Rabbit recombinant monoclonal Carbonic Anhydrase IX antibody [SP106] validated for IHC, Flow Cyt and tested in Human. Immunogen ... Anti-Carbonic Anhydrase IX antibody [SP106]. See all Carbonic Anhydrase IX primary antibodies. ... Belongs to the alpha-carbonic anhydrase family.. Contains 1 alpha-carbonic anhydrase domain. ... Flow cytometric analysis of rabbit anti-Carbonic Anhydrase IX (SP106) antibody ab105226 (1/100) in HT29 cells (green) compared ...
References for Abcams Anti-Carbonic Anhydrase IX antibody (ab10471). Please let us know if you have used this product in your ...
Compare carbonic anhydrase 8 ELISA Kits from leading suppliers on Biocompare. View specifications, prices, citations, reviews, ... carbonic anhydrase 8 ELISA Kits. The ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) is a well-established antibody-based tool for ... Your search returned 19 carbonic anhydrase 8 ELISA ELISA Kit across 5 suppliers. ...
  • Even though most of the information known about the function(s) of carbonic anhydrase primarily relates to its role in cyanobacterial CO(2) fixation, the prokaryotic enzyme has also been shown to function in cyanate degradation and the survival of intracellular pathogens within their host. (nih.gov)
  • The development of a simple method for the isolation of purified carboxysomes from the cyanobacterium Synechococcus PCC7942 has made it possible to identify a specific and inducible, intracellular carbonic anhydrase (CA) activity that is strongly associated with carboxysomes. (plantphysiol.org)
  • However, carbonic anhydrase attenuated post-exercise increases in PaCO2 and decreases in pHa by about 50 % without altering arterial O2 variables, red cell swelling or the intracellular pH of the brain or muscle tissues. (biologists.org)
  • We have hypothesized that carbonic anhydrases (CAs) play a role in stabilizing both intracellular and extracellular pH to favor cancer progression and metastasis. (portlandpress.com)
  • Zavarzin, G. 2004-10-11 00:00:00 The activity and intracellular partition of carbonic anhydrase (CA) were studied in alkalophilic cyanobacteria, an inhabitant of soda lakes at pH 9-10. (deepdyve.com)
  • These studies have also demonstrated the involvement of carbonic anhydrase in the regulation of vascular and secretory processes in the organism (14). (scielo.br)
  • This study aimed to explore the involvement of carbonic anhydrase 9 (CA9) single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the development of invasive cancer of uterine cervix for Taiwanese women. (medsci.org)
  • Expression of Cah1 , encoding a periplasmic carbonic anhydrase in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii Dangeard, is activated when cells are exposed to low-CO 2 conditions (0.04% [v/v]) in light. (plantphysiol.org)
  • From this two different cDNA clones, denoted CA1a and CA1b, encoding a chloroplastic carbonic anhydrase (CA) were isolated and DNA sequenced. (deepdyve.com)
  • Nelson EB, Cenedella A, Tolbert NE (1969) Carbonic anhydrase levels in Chlamydomonas . (springer.com)
  • cDNA cloning, sequence, and expression of carbonic anhydrase in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii: regulation by environmental CO2 concentration. (pnas.org)
  • The time course of and the influence of light intensity and light quality on the induction of a mitochondrial carbonic anhydrase (CA) in the unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii was characterized using western and northern blots. (diva-portal.org)
  • Moreover, autoantibodies against carbonic anhydrase II were proved to play an important role in pathogenesis of retinopathy [ 25 ] and these against CAVI seem to induce dry eye syndrome in Sjögren's syndrome [ 26 , 27 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Interestingly, the autoantibodies against carbonic anhydrase II might be produced in humans due to cross-reactivity with carbonic anhydrase of Helicobacter pylori [ 28 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • The cuticle of the freshwater crayfish, Procambarus clarkii (Girard, 1852), has several extracellular, cuticular isozymes for carbonic anhydrase (CA) which were isolated and purified via affinity chromatography. (brillonline.com)
  • Six carbonic anhydrase (CA) isozymes (CA I-VI) in mammals and other amniotes have been described. (uniprot.org)
  • Moreover, in 2007, it was presented that also in rheumatoid arthritis there are present aCAAs in serum, showing affinity to bind to carbonic anhydrase III in synovial membranes [ 16 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • La cuticule de l'écrevisse Procambarus clarkii (Girard, 1852) contient plusieurs isoenzymes extracellulaires de l'anhydrase carbonique (CA), qui ont été isolées et purifiées par chromatographie. (brillonline.com)
  • Les poids moléculaires estimées en utilisant PAGE, ont révélé une isoenzyme avec un poids moléculaire de 29 kDa, qui est analogue à celle trouvée chez les Vertébrés, et deux plus grands isoenzymes (53 et 66 kDa). (brillonline.com)
  • One of the four discrete isoenzymes of carbonic anhydrase hitherto characterized, CA III, has the lowest turnover rate and the greatest resistance to inhibition by sulphonamides. (biochemj.org)