A cytosolic carbonic anhydrase isoenzyme primarily expressed in ERYTHROCYTES, vascular endothelial cells, and the gastrointestinal mucosa. EC 4.2.1.-
A family of zinc-containing enzymes that catalyze the reversible hydration of carbon dioxide. They play an important role in the transport of CARBON DIOXIDE from the tissues to the LUNG. EC 4.2.1.1.
A cytosolic carbonic anhydrase isoenzyme found widely distributed in cells of almost all tissues. Deficiencies of carbonic anhydrase II produce a syndrome characterized by OSTEOPETROSIS, renal tubular acidosis (ACIDOSIS, RENAL TUBULAR) and cerebral calcification. EC 4.2.1.-
A beta-2 adrenergic agonist used in the treatment of ASTHMA and BRONCHIAL SPASM.
A class of compounds that reduces the secretion of H+ ions by the proximal kidney tubule through inhibition of CARBONIC ANHYDRASES.
Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.
A cytosolic carbonic anhydrase isoenzyme primarily expressed in skeletal muscle (MUSCLES, SKELETAL). EC 4.2.1.-
Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.
A membrane-bound carbonic anhydrase found in lung capillaries and kidney.
One of the CARBONIC ANHYDRASE INHIBITORS that is sometimes effective against absence seizures. It is sometimes useful also as an adjunct in the treatment of tonic-clonic, myoclonic, and atonic seizures, particularly in women whose seizures occur or are exacerbated at specific times in the menstrual cycle. However, its usefulness is transient often because of rapid development of tolerance. Its antiepileptic effect may be due to its inhibitory effect on brain carbonic anhydrase, which leads to an increased transneuronal chloride gradient, increased chloride current, and increased inhibition. (From Smith and Reynard, Textbook of Pharmacology, 1991, p337)
A carbonic anhydrase inhibitor used as diuretic and in glaucoma. It may cause hypokalemia.
Selective renal carbonic anhydrase inhibitor. It may also be of use in certain cases of respiratory failure.
A carbonic anhydrase inhibitor that is used as a diuretic and in the treatment of glaucoma.

Low-avidity antibodies to carbonic anhydrase-I and -II in autoimmune chronic pancreatitis. (1/32)

Antibodies (Abs) to carbonic anhydrase (isoforms CA-I and CA-II) have been considered pathogenic factors in the development of autoimmune pancreatitis. Besides, such autoAbs might accelerate the pancreatic damage in alcoholic chronic pancreatitis (CP). The aim of the present study was to evaluate the presence of serum Abs to CA-I and CA-II in CP and the relative affinity of these Abs. Serum anti-CA-I and -CA-II Abs were measured in 89 patients with CP (48 alcoholic and 41 nonalcoholic) by an ELISA technique. The prevalence of those autoAbs in CP was compared with other autoimmune diseases where they have also been found. The presence of other serological manifestations of autoimmunity, such as hypergammaglobulinemia or antinuclear Abs, was determined in CP patients as well. Elevated serum levels of both anti-CA-I (24%) and -CA-II (18%) Abs were observed in CP, although their prevalence was lower than in autoimmune diseases like rheumatoid arthritis (44 and 25%, respectively) or systemic lupus erythematosus (39% for anti-CA-I Abs). Furthermore, these Abs were of low average avidity. On the other hand, a significantly higher proportion of nonalcoholic CP had anti-CA-II Abs with respect to alcoholic CP (15.2 vs. 2.4%, p < 0.05). Anti-CA-I and -CA-II Abs might be helpful in the diagnosis of autoimmune CP, and the detection of the latter Abs seems to discard alcoholic etiology. Although it does not discard any pathogenic role in autoimmune CP, the low-avidity of anti-CA Abs argues against such idea.  (+info)

Natural protein engineering: a uniquely salt-tolerant, but not halophilic, alpha-type carbonic anhydrase from algae proliferating in low- to hyper-saline environments. (2/32)

Dunaliella salina is a unicellular green alga thriving in environments ranging from fresh water to hyper-saline lakes, such as the Dead Sea. An unusual, internally duplicated, 60 kDa alpha-type carbonic anhydrase (dCA I), located on the surface of this alga, is expected to function over a broad range of salinities. It would therefore differ from other carbonic anhydrases that already lose activity at low salinities and also from halophilic proteins that require high salinities for conformational stability. Enzymatic analyses indeed indicated that dCA I retained activity at salt concentrations ranging from low salt to at least 1.5 M NaCl or KCl for CO(2) hydration, 2.0 M NaCl for esterase activity and 0.5 M for bicarbonate dehydration. Although measurements at higher salinities were constrained by the interference of salt in the respective assayed reactions, activity was noticeable even at 4.0 M NaCl. Comparisons of the internally duplicated dCA I to single-domain derivatives indicated that inter-domain interactions played a decisive role in the stability, activity, salt tolerance and pH responses of dCA I. Hence dCA I is a uniquely salt- tolerant protein, retaining an active conformation over a large range of salinities and, as a Zn metalloenzyme, largely immune to the specific inhibitory effects of anions. Its unique features make dCA I a useful model to understand the physico-chemical basis of halotolerance and protein-salt interactions in general.  (+info)

Taste buds and nerve fibers in the rat larynx: an ultrastructural and immunohistochemical study. (3/32)

We investigated the rat laryngeal taste buds and their innervation by electron microscopy and immunohistochemical methods. Taste buds were densely arranged in the surface facing the laryngeal cavity of the epiglottis, the aryepiglottic fold, and the cuneiform process of the arytenoid cartilages. The cells of the buds were classified into types I, II, III, and basal cells, the ultrastucture of which was almost the same as that previously reported in lingual taste buds. The type III cells that had synaptic contacts with nerve fibers were considered to be sensory cells. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed thick calbindin D28k-immunoreactive fibers and thin varicose fibers immunoreactive for calcitonin gene-related peptide or substance P in and around the taste bud. Serotonin-immunoreactive cells were also observed here. The results revealed the innervation pattern of laryngeal taste buds to be the same as that in lingual taste buds. Carbonic anhydrase (CA) is known to catalyze the hydration of CO2 and dehydration of H2CO3, and seems to be essential in CO2 reception. Immunoreactivity for CAI was detected in slender cells and that for CAIII was observed in barrel-like cells in the laryngeal taste buds. The pH-sensitive inward rectifier K+ (Kir) channel in the cell membrane may be involved in CO2 reception as well. CAII-reactive cells were also reactive to Kir4.1, PGP 9.5 and serotonin. Our results indicated that CAII and Kir4.1 are located in type III cells of the laryngeal taste buds, and supported the idea that the buds may be involved in the recognition of CO2.  (+info)

Measurement of erythrocyte carbonic anhydrase isozymes (CA-I and CA-II) in racehorses and riding horses. (4/32)

Equine carbonic anhydrase isozymes (CA-I and CA-II) were purified from erythrocytes by several column chromatography. Polyclonal anti-CA-I and anti-CA-II sera were produced in rabbits. Sensitive competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) were established to determine the developmental changes in CA-I and CA-II levels in equine erythrocytes. Concentrations of CA-I and CA-II in erythrocytes from 150 clinically normal thoroughbreds (123 racehorses and 27 riding horses) were determined by ELISA. Mean (+/- SD) concentrations of CA-I and CA-II in racehorses were 1.70 +/- 0.48 and 0.94 +/- 0.13 mg/g hemoglobin (Hb), respectively. Mean concentrations of CA-I and CA-II in riding horses were 2.34 +/- 0.52 and 0.76 +/- 0.08 mg/g Hb, respectively. When the CA levels in racehorses and riding horses were compared, the CA-I level in riding horses was higher than that in racehorses (p=0.01). The CA-II level in racehorses was higher than that in riding horses (p=0.02). These data suggest that the levels of CA isozymes in erythrocytes of racehorses were influenced by chronic physical stress. The CA-I concentration in erythrocytes of 2-month-old horses was approximately 0.25 mg/g Hb. The CA-I level noticeably increased during the first year of life and approached normal adult levels by 2 years. The CA-II level decreased slightly with age, indicating different regulation of CA-I and CA-II expression during development.  (+info)

Expression of a novel carbonic anhydrase, CA XIII, in normal and neoplastic colorectal mucosa. (5/32)

BACKGROUND: Carbonic anhydrase (CA) isozymes may have an important role in cancer development. Some isozymes control pH homeostasis in tumors that appears to modulate the behaviour of cancer cells. CA XIII is the newest member of the CA gene family. It is a cytosolic isozyme which is expressed in a number of normal tissues. The present study was designed to investigate CA XIII expression in prospectively collected colorectal tumor samples. METHODS: Both neoplastic and normal tissue specimens were obtained from the same patients. The analyses were performed using CA XIII-specific antibodies and an immunohistochemical staining method. For comparison, the tissue sections were immunostained for other cytosolic isozymes, CA I and II. RESULTS: The results indicated that the expression of CA XIII is down-regulated in tumor cells compared to the normal tissue. The lowest signal was detected in carcinoma samples. This pattern of expression was quite parallel for CA I and II. CONCLUSION: The down-regulation of cytosolic CA I, II and XIII in colorectal cancer may result from reduced levels of a common transcription factor or loss of closely linked CA1, CA2 and CA13 alleles on chromosome 8. Their possible role as tumor suppressors should be further evaluated.  (+info)

Polyvinylpyrrolidone 40 assists the refolding of bovine carbonic anhydrase B by accelerating the refolding of the first molten globule intermediate. (6/32)

Protecting proteins from aggregation is one of the most important issues in both protein science and protein engineering. In this research, the mechanism of enhancing the refolding of guanidine hydrochloride-denatured carbonic anhydrase B by polyvinylpyrrolidone 40 (PVP40) was studied by both kinetic and equilibrium refolding experiments. The reactivation and refolding kinetics indicated that the rate constant of refolding the first refolding intermediate (I(1)) to the second one (I(2)) is promoted by the addition of PVP. Fluorescence quenching studies further indicated that PVP could bind to the aggregation-prone species I(1), resulting in the protection of the exposed hydrophobic surface, a minimization of the protein surface, and more importantly, an increase of the refolding rate of I(1). These properties were quite different from those of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG), which has been shown to have a strong and stoichiometric binding to I(1) and does not interfere with the refolding pathway. Unlike PEG, the binding of PVP to I(1) does not block the aggregation pathway directly but decreases the energy barrier for I(1) to refold to I(2) and thus reduces the accumulation of I(1). These results suggested that PVP works by a quite different mechanism from those well established ones in chaperones and chemical promoters. PVP is more like a folding catalyst rather than a chemical chaperone. The distinct mechanism of enhancing protein aggregation by PVP is expected to facilitate the attempt to develop new chemical compounds as well as new strategies to protect proteins from aggregation.  (+info)

Ultrahigh resolution crystal structures of human carbonic anhydrases I and II complexed with "two-prong" inhibitors reveal the molecular basis of high affinity. (7/32)

The atomic-resolution crystal structures of human carbonic anhydrases I and II complexed with "two-prong" inhibitors are reported. Each inhibitor contains a benzenesulfonamide prong and a cupric iminodiacetate (IDA-Cu(2+)) prong separated by linkers of different lengths and compositions. The ionized NH(-) group of each benzenesulfonamide coordinates to the active site Zn(2+) ion; the IDA-Cu(2+) prong of the tightest-binding inhibitor, BR30, binds to H64 of CAII and H200 of CAI. This work provides the first evidence verifying the structural basis of nanomolar affinity measured for two-prong inhibitors targeting the carbonic anhydrases.  (+info)

Immunohistolocalization of carbonic anhydrase isoenzymes (CA-I, -II and -III ) in canine epididymis. (8/32)

The immunolocalization of the efferent duct and the epididymis in canine was firstly examined using an the immunohistochemical method with the canine carbonic anhydrase (CA) -I, CA-II and CA-III antisera. The efferent duct was immunonegative for all present canine CA antisera. However, some slender shaped epithelial cells in the head and body segments of the epididymal duct were intensely reacted to the CA-II antiserum. These results suggested that the CA-II might be controlled in the luminal environment in the head and body segments of the canine epididymis by the proton and bicarbonate balance for the maintenance of the spermatozoal stability and movement.  (+info)

Carbonic anhydrase I is a specific type of carbonic anhydrase, which is an enzyme that catalyzes the reversible reaction between carbon dioxide and water to form carbonic acid. This enzyme is primarily found in red blood cells and plays a crucial role in maintaining pH balance and regulating respiration.

Carbonic anhydrase I, also known as CA I or CA-I, is responsible for hydrating carbon dioxide to form bicarbonate ions and protons, which helps maintain the acid-base balance in the body. It has a relatively slower reaction rate compared to other carbonic anhydrase isoforms.

Defects or mutations in the CA I gene can lead to reduced enzymatic activity and may contribute to certain medical conditions, such as distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA), a disorder characterized by impaired kidney function and acid-base imbalances. However, other carbonic anhydrase isoforms can compensate for the loss of CA I activity in most cases, so its deficiency rarely causes severe symptoms on its own.

Carbonic anhydrases (CAs) are a group of enzymes that catalyze the reversible reaction between carbon dioxide and water to form carbonic acid, which then quickly dissociates into bicarbonate and a proton. This reaction is crucial for maintaining pH balance and regulating various physiological processes in the body, including respiration, secretion of electrolytes, and bone resorption.

There are several isoforms of carbonic anhydrases found in different tissues and organelles, each with distinct functions and properties. For example, CA I and II are primarily found in red blood cells, while CA III is present in various tissues such as the kidney, lung, and eye. CA IV is a membrane-bound enzyme that plays a role in transporting ions across cell membranes.

Carbonic anhydrases have been targeted for therapeutic interventions in several diseases, including glaucoma, epilepsy, and cancer. Inhibitors of carbonic anhydrases can reduce the production of bicarbonate and lower the pH of tumor cells, which may help to slow down their growth and proliferation. However, these inhibitors can also have side effects such as kidney stones and metabolic acidosis, so they must be used with caution.

Carbonic anhydrase II (CA-II) is a specific isoform of the carbonic anhydrase enzyme, which catalyzes the reversible reaction between carbon dioxide and water to form carbonic acid. This enzyme plays a crucial role in various physiological processes, including pH regulation, electrolyte balance, and biosynthetic reactions.

CA-II is widely distributed in the body, with high concentrations found in erythrocytes (red blood cells), the gastric mucosa, and renal tubules. In erythrocytes, CA-II facilitates the rapid conversion of carbon dioxide generated during cellular respiration to bicarbonate and protons, which can then be transported across the cell membrane for excretion or used in other metabolic processes.

In the gastric mucosa, CA-II helps regulate acid secretion by catalyzing the formation of carbonic acid from water and carbon dioxide, which subsequently dissociates into bicarbonate and a proton. The generated proton can then participate in the production of hydrochloric acid in the stomach.

In renal tubules, CA-II is involved in the reabsorption of bicarbonate ions from the filtrate back into the bloodstream, helping maintain electrolyte balance and pH homeostasis. Additionally, CA-II has been implicated in several pathological conditions, such as neurological disorders, cancer, and osteoporosis, making it a potential therapeutic target for drug development.

Metaproterenol is a short-acting, selective beta-2 adrenergic receptor agonist. It is primarily used as a bronchodilator to treat and prevent bronchospasms associated with reversible obstructive airway diseases such as asthma, chronic bronchitis, and emphysema. Metaproterenol works by relaxing the smooth muscles in the airways, thereby opening up the air passages and making it easier to breathe. It is available in oral (tablet or liquid) and inhalation (aerosol or solution for nebulization) forms. Common side effects include tremors, nervousness, headache, tachycardia, and palpitations.

Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors are a class of medications that work by blocking the action of carbonic anhydrase, an enzyme that is responsible for converting carbon dioxide and water into carbonic acid. This enzyme is found in various tissues throughout the body, including the eyes, kidneys, and nervous system.

By inhibiting the activity of carbonic anhydrase, these medications can reduce the production of bicarbonate ions in the body, which helps to lower the rate of fluid buildup in certain tissues. As a result, carbonic anhydrase inhibitors are often used to treat conditions such as glaucoma, epilepsy, and altitude sickness.

In glaucoma, for example, these medications can help to reduce pressure within the eye by promoting the drainage of fluid from the eye. In epilepsy, carbonic anhydrase inhibitors can help to reduce the frequency and severity of seizures by reducing the acidity of the blood and brain. And in altitude sickness, these medications can help to alleviate symptoms such as headache, nausea, and shortness of breath by reducing the buildup of fluid in the lungs.

Some common examples of carbonic anhydrase inhibitors include acetazolamide, methazolamide, and dorzolamide. These medications are available in various forms, including tablets, capsules, and eye drops, and are typically prescribed by a healthcare professional.

Erythrocytes, also known as red blood cells (RBCs), are the most common type of blood cell in circulating blood in mammals. They are responsible for transporting oxygen from the lungs to the body's tissues and carbon dioxide from the tissues to the lungs.

Erythrocytes are formed in the bone marrow and have a biconcave shape, which allows them to fold and bend easily as they pass through narrow blood vessels. They do not have a nucleus or mitochondria, which makes them more flexible but also limits their ability to reproduce or repair themselves.

In humans, erythrocytes are typically disc-shaped and measure about 7 micrometers in diameter. They contain the protein hemoglobin, which binds to oxygen and gives blood its red color. The lifespan of an erythrocyte is approximately 120 days, after which it is broken down in the liver and spleen.

Abnormalities in erythrocyte count or function can lead to various medical conditions, such as anemia, polycythemia, and sickle cell disease.

Carbonic anhydrase III (CAIII) is a member of the carbonic anhydrase enzyme family, which catalyzes the reversible reaction between carbon dioxide and water to form bicarbonate and protons. This enzyme is primarily found in muscle tissues, where it plays a role in regulating pH levels during muscle contraction and relaxation. CAIII has a lower catalytic activity compared to other carbonic anhydrase isoforms, suggesting that it may have additional functions beyond simple CO2 hydration. Additionally, CAIII has been implicated in various physiological processes such as protection against oxidative stress and regulation of muscle metabolism.

Isoenzymes, also known as isoforms, are multiple forms of an enzyme that catalyze the same chemical reaction but differ in their amino acid sequence, structure, and/or kinetic properties. They are encoded by different genes or alternative splicing of the same gene. Isoenzymes can be found in various tissues and organs, and they play a crucial role in biological processes such as metabolism, detoxification, and cell signaling. Measurement of isoenzyme levels in body fluids (such as blood) can provide valuable diagnostic information for certain medical conditions, including tissue damage, inflammation, and various diseases.

Carbonic anhydrase IV (CA-IV), also known as membrane-associated carbonic anhydrase or CA-IX, is a member of the carbonic anhydrase enzyme family. This enzyme is responsible for catalyzing the reversible reaction that converts carbon dioxide and water into bicarbonate and a proton.

CA-IV is primarily found in the plasma membrane of polarized epithelial cells, where it plays a crucial role in maintaining acid-base balance and ion transport. It is also involved in various physiological processes, including respiration, bone resorption, and pH regulation.

Abnormalities in CA-IV expression or activity have been implicated in several diseases, such as cancer, kidney stones, and osteoporosis. In particular, overexpression of CA-IV has been observed in various types of cancer, where it contributes to tumor acidification, invasion, and metastasis. Therefore, CA-IV is considered a potential therapeutic target for cancer treatment.

Acetazolamide is a medication that belongs to a class of drugs called carbonic anhydrase inhibitors. It works by decreasing the production of bicarbonate in the body, which helps to reduce the amount of fluid in the eye and brain, making it useful for treating conditions such as glaucoma and epilepsy.

In medical terms, acetazolamide can be defined as: "A carbonic anhydrase inhibitor that is used to treat glaucoma, epilepsy, altitude sickness, and other conditions. It works by decreasing the production of bicarbonate in the body, which helps to reduce the amount of fluid in the eye and brain."

Acetazolamide may also be used for other purposes not listed here, so it is important to consult with a healthcare provider for specific medical advice.

Ethoxzolamide is a carbonic anhydrase inhibitor drug that is primarily used to reduce fluid buildup in the eye (ocular pressure) caused by glaucoma or other conditions. It works by decreasing the production of fluid inside the eye, which helps lower the pressure within the eye.

Ethoxzolamide may also be used for other medical purposes, such as treating seizure disorders and preventing altitude sickness. The drug is available in oral tablet form and is typically taken 2-3 times a day.

It's important to note that Ethoxzolamide can have side effects, including frequent urination, tingling sensations in the hands or feet, loss of appetite, and changes in taste perception. It may also interact with other medications, so it's essential to inform your healthcare provider about all the drugs you are taking before starting Ethoxzolamide therapy.

Benzolamide is not a recognized medication or pharmaceutical agent in modern medical practice. It is possible that you may have misspelled the name, and there are no direct synonyms for any known medications. If you meant to search for a different term or have more information about the context where this term was used, please let me know so I can provide a more accurate response.

Methazolamide is a sulfonamide-derived carbonic anhydrase inhibitor primarily used in the prevention and treatment of glaucoma. It works by decreasing the production of fluid inside the eye, which in turn lowers the pressure within the eye. Additionally, it has been used off-label for conditions such as altitude sickness, epilepsy, intracranial hypertension, and benign prostatic hyperplasia.

The medical definition of Methazolamide is:
A carbonic anhydrase inhibitor that reduces the secretion of aqueous humor, thereby lowering intraocular pressure; used in the treatment of glaucoma. It also has diuretic properties and has been used in the management of altitude sickness, epilepsy, intracranial hypertension, and benign prostatic hyperplasia.

  • Inhibitors of carbonic anhydrase are used to treat glaucoma, the excessive build-up of water in the eyes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors (eg, acetazolamide) and loop diuretics (eg, furosemide) are thought to exert their effect on ICP by reducing cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) production at the choroid plexus. (medscape.com)
  • The method is suitable for estimating the activity of carbonic anhydrase inhibitors and for their determination in biological material. (aspetjournals.org)
  • This paper describes the use of electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) to screen two libraries of soluble compounds to search for tight binding inhibitors for carbonic anhydrase II (EC 4.2.1.1). (figshare.com)
  • Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors have been proposed as a potential treatment for gaseous exophthalmia in fish by modifying gas exchange between the pseudobranch and the eye. (vin.com)
  • 1,8 However, carbonic anhydrase inhibitors may cause buoyancy disorders through their effects on swim bladder function, 3 and there are some anecdotal reports of fatal treatment outcomes, though fish may have been compromised by systemic disease prior to treatment. (vin.com)
  • One mechanism by which carbonic anhydrase inhibitors could cause adverse effects in fish is by inducing plasma electrolyte imbalances, as has been reported in alewife. (vin.com)
  • Carbonic anhydrase (CA) inhibitors are active over a number of CA isozymes. (guidetopharmacology.org)
  • 2013) Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors: synthesis and inhibition of the human carbonic anhydrase isoforms I, II, VII, IX and XII with benzene sulfonamides incorporating 4,5,6,7-tetrabromophthalimide moiety. (guidetopharmacology.org)
  • In this paper we have represented "Three Dimensional Quantitative Structure Activity Relationship" study to characterize structural features of Sulfamide derivative [RRNSO2NH2] as inhibitors, that are required for selective binding of carbonic anhydrase isozymes (CAI and CAII). (eurekaselect.com)
  • I had a look at the hits on PDB, and a huge number are of inhibitors of CA. I searched for 'Carbonic Hydrase Inhibitors' and found a short piece on this topic on NCBI Bookshelf that starts: 'Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors are a medication used to manage and treat glaucoma, idiopathic intracranial hypertension, altitude sickness, congestive heart failure, and epilepsy, among other diseases. (stackexchange.com)
  • Topical β-blockers, topical carbonic anhydrase inhibitors (CAIs), and prostaglandin analogues are reasonable first-line agents in children. (aao.org)
  • These compounds were very effective inhibitors (low nanomolar) of the human mitochondrial carbonic anhydrase isozymes VA and VB. (edu.au)
  • A series of sulfenimide derivatives (1a-i) were investigated as inhibitors of human (hCA-I, hCA-II) and bovine (bCA) carbonic anhydrase enzymes. (ogu.edu.tr)
  • Results of our study will make valuable contributions to carbonic anhydrase inhibition studies for further investigations since inhibitors of this enzyme are important molecules for medicinal chemistry. (ogu.edu.tr)
  • Comment: Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors (CAIs) and salicylates inhibit each other's renal tubular secretion, resulting in increased plasma levels. (medscape.com)
  • The nature of carbonic anhydrase inhibition by aromatic sulfonamides is briefly discussed, as it may relate to certain variables in the analytical method. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Due to characteristic physicochemical properties of sulphonamide (Inhibition of Carbonic Anhydrase), they are clinically effective against glaucoma. (eurekaselect.com)
  • In this research, we determined the inhibition property of rosmarinic acid on carbonic anhydrase isoenzymes I and II (hCA I and II) puri ed from human erythrocytes by using Sepharose-4B a nity column chromatography. (gumushane.edu.tr)
  • U-104 is a potent carbonic anhydrase (CA) inhibitor for CA IX and CA XII with K i of 45.1 nM and 4.5 nM, respectively, very low inhibition for CA I and CA II. (abmole.com)
  • A class of compounds that reduces the secretion of H+ ions by the proximal kidney tubule through inhibition of CARBONIC ANHYDRASES. (bvsalud.org)
  • 2 We hypothesized that 1) IOPs would differ between fish species, 2) the ophthalmic carbonic anhydrase inhibitor dorzolamide (Trusopt®) would reduce intraocular pressure in normal eyes, and 3) IOPs of exophthalmic eyes would differ from normal eyes. (vin.com)
  • A single application of the carbonic anhydrase inhibitor did not reduce IOP at either 4 h or 24 h, but neither were any adverse effects of treatment noted by visual examination or plasma electrolytes. (vin.com)
  • Inhibitor (green) bound in the active site of carbonic anhydrase. (rcsb.org)
  • Dorzolamide HCl is a water-soluble, potent inhibitor of human carbonic anhydrase II and IV with Ki of 1.9 nM and 31 nM, respectively, used as anti-glaucoma agent. (abmole.com)
  • Acetazolamide is a carbonic anhydrase (CA) IX inhibitor with an IC50 of 30 nM. (abmole.com)
  • Dichlorphenamide is a sulfonamide and a carbonic anhydrase inhibitor of the meta-Disulfamoylbenzene class. (abmole.com)
  • Tioxolone is a metalloenzyme carbonic anhydrase I inhibitor with a Ki of 91 nM. (abmole.com)
  • Methazolamide is a carbonic anhydrase inhibitor with K i of 50 nM, 14 nM and 36 nM for hCA I, hCA II and bCA IV isoforms, respectively. (abmole.com)
  • Ethoxzolamide is an inhibitor of the metalloenzyme carbonic anhydrase, which inhibits hCA I, hCA II, hCA IV, hCA VI and hCA VII with K i of 25 nM, 8 nM, 93 nM, 43 nM and 0.8 nM, respectively. (abmole.com)
  • hCAI/II-IN-6 is an orally active human carbonic anhydrase (CA) inhibitor. (abmole.com)
  • Sultiame is a carbonic anhydrase inhibitor, widely used as an antiepileptic agent. (abmole.com)
  • Benzenesulfonamide ia an inhibitor of carbonic anhydrases. (abmole.com)
  • The protein encoded by this gene is one of several isozymes of carbonic anhydrase, which catalyzes reversible hydration of carbon dioxide. (nih.gov)
  • CA2 is one of several (at least 7) isozymes of carbonic anhydrase. (thermofisher.com)
  • Reversibly inhibits carbonic anhydrase, reducing hydrogen ion secretion at renal tubule and increasing renal excretion of sodium, potassium bicarbonate, and water to decrease production of aqueous humor. (medscape.com)
  • Fluorometholone acetate potently inhibits carbonic anhydrase (CA) with IC50s of 2.18 μM and 17.5 μM for hCA-I and hCA-II, respectively. (abmole.com)
  • Carbonic anhydrase is a very ancient enzyme found in both domains of prokaryotes that exists in six different classes among most of the living organisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • Carbonic anhydrase is one important enzyme that is found in red blood cells, gastric mucosa, pancreatic cells, and even renal tubules. (wikipedia.org)
  • Carbonic anhydrase (CA) is an enzyme found in many tissues. (medscape.com)
  • Here, a systematic approach to investigate the effect of an active-site-residue mutation on a model enzyme, human carbonic anhydrase II (CA II), is described. (iucr.org)
  • In this study, we describe the effect of a single amino-acid variation on a prototypical enzyme, human carbonic anhydrase II (CA II), by correlating its high-resolution reaction-intermediate structures with the measured kinetic parameters. (iucr.org)
  • And in the middle of that process our tiny protagonist, the enzyme carbonic anhydrase, makes its wonder. (phylomedb.org)
  • This seems surprising to me, as carbonic anhydrase is a zinc-containing enzyme which catalyses a really simple reaction, and doesn't seem to be part of any key signalling pathways. (stackexchange.com)
  • An enzyme present in red blood cells, carbonic anhydrase, aids in the conversion of carbon dioxide to carbonic acid and bicarbonate ions. (rcsb.org)
  • Although these reactions can occur even without the enzyme, carbonic anhydrase can increase the rate of these conversions up to a million fold. (rcsb.org)
  • Carbonic anhydrase is an enzyme that assists rapid inter-conversion of carbon dioxide and water into carbonic acid, protons and bicarbonate ions. (rcsb.org)
  • This ancient enzyme has three distinct classes (called alpha, beta and gamma carbonic anhydrase). (rcsb.org)
  • Carbonic anhydrase from mammals belong to the alpha class, the plant enzymes belong to the beta class, while the enzyme from methane-producing archaea that grow in hot springs forms the gamma class. (rcsb.org)
  • Since this enzyme produces and uses protons and bicarbonate ions, carbonic anhydrase plays a key role in the regulation of pH and fluid balance in different parts of our body. (rcsb.org)
  • This radiolabeled monoclonal antibody from Telix Pharmaceuticals targets carbonic anhydrase IX (CAIX), an enzyme that regulates cell proliferation and is highly expressed in many tumor types. (medscape.com)
  • The following product was used in this experiment: Carbonic Anhydrase II Recombinant Rabbit Monoclonal Antibody (ARC1451) from Thermo Fisher Scientific, catalog # MA5-38188, RRID AB_2898105. (thermofisher.com)
  • Samples were incubated with Carbonic Anhydrase II Monoclonal antibody (Product # MA5-38188) using a dilution of 1:1,000, followed by HRP Goat Anti-Rabbit IgG (H+L) at a dilution of 1:10,000. (thermofisher.com)
  • Girentuximab (G250) is a chimeric monoclonal antibody that binds carbonic anhydrase IX (CAIX), a cell surface glycoprotein ubiquitously expressed in clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC). (abmole.com)
  • Relating the Bohr effect to carbonic anhydrase is simple: carbonic anhydrase speeds up the reaction of carbon dioxide reacting with water to produce hydrogen ions (protons) and bicarbonate ions. (wikipedia.org)
  • By slowing the formation of bicarbonate ions with subsequent reduction in sodium and fluid transport, may inhibit carbonic anhydrase in the ciliary processes of the eye. (medscape.com)
  • In both land and water plants, carbonic anhydrase plays a role in converting bicarbonate ions back to carbon dioxide for photosynthesis. (rcsb.org)
  • Overview of analysis favours substituents with high electronegativity and less bulk at R and R positions of the parent nucleus, provides a basis to design new Sulfamide derivatives possessing potent and selective carbonic anhydrase-II inhibitory activity. (eurekaselect.com)
  • Carbonic anhydrase IX (CAIX) is a membrane-associated carbonic anhydrase (CA), strongly induced by hypoxia. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Thyroxine modifies expressions of KSPG synthesis and carbonic anhydrase genes. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Carbonic anhydrase is critical to hemoglobin function via the Bohr effect which catalyzes the hydration of carbon dioxide to form carbonic acid and rapidly dissociate into water. (wikipedia.org)
  • These carbonic anhydrases are a class of metalloenzymes that catalyze the reversible hydration of carbon dioxide and are differentially expressed in a number of cell types. (nih.gov)
  • Carbonic anhydrase, a zinc metalloenzyme, catalyzes the reversible hydration of carbon dioxide to bicarbonate. (rcsb.org)
  • Carbonic anhydrase catalyzes reversible hydration of carbon dioxide. (thermofisher.com)
  • Found in virtually all living organisms and ubiquitous throughout human tissues, carbonic anhydrases catalyze the reversible hydration of carbon dioxide to bicarbonate. (sandra.black)
  • Mass spectrometry-based proteomic analysis of middle-aged vs. aged vastus lateralis reveals increased levels of carbonic anhydrase isoform 3 in senescent human skeletal muscle. (nih.gov)
  • Study of glycation process of human carbonic anhydrase II as well as investigation concerning inhibitory influence of 3-beta-hydroxybutyrate on it. (nih.gov)
  • More than 100 distinct human carbonic anhydrase II (HCAII) 3D structures have been generated in last 3 decades [Liljas A, et al. (rcsb.org)
  • Carbonic Anhydrase I from human erythrocytes has been used as a pI (isoelectric point) marker in two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Carbonic Anhydrase I from human erythrocytes is a protein which is used as a standard pI (isoelectric point) marker for isoelectric focussing experiments. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • A synthetic peptide corresponding to amino acids 161-260 of human Carbonic Anhydrase II. (thermofisher.com)
  • I've been looking through PDB - the Protein Data Bank - and I noticed that the protein with the most structures is human carbonic anhydrase II ( UniProt: P00918 ), with over a thousand X-ray structures. (stackexchange.com)
  • Role of carbonic anhydrase IX in human tumor cell growth, survival, and invasion. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Proton Transfer in A THR200HIS Mutant of Human Carbonic Anhydrase II Proteins V. 61 239 2005 . (atomistry.com)
  • In the presence of carbonic anhydrase activators, comicrostimulation of cholinergic inputs from stratum oriens and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic inputs from stratum pyramidale at low intensities switched the hyperpolarizing GABA-mediated inhibitory postsynaptic potentials to depolarizing responses. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Intralateral ventricular administration of these same carbonic anhydrase activators caused the rats to exhibit superior learning of the Morris water maze task, suggesting that the GABAergic synaptic switch is critical for gating the synaptic plasticity that underlies spatial memory formation. (aspetjournals.org)
  • 3. Tanini D, Capperucci A, Supuran CT, Angeli A. (2019) Sulfur, selenium and tellurium containing amines act as effective carbonic anhydrase activators. (guidetopharmacology.org)
  • 2006) Carbonic anhydrase activators. (guidetopharmacology.org)
  • Four isoenzymes of carbonic anhydrase (CA) were purified from Elephas Irogontherii (steppe elephant) bone (approx 0.3-0.5 million years old) from different locations (outer peripheral, cytosolic, inner peripheral and integral) using Sepharose 4B-L-tyrosine sulphanilamide affinity chromatography and their kinetics properties were investigated and compared with known CA isoenzymes. (elephant-news.com)
  • Hiroshi Miyamoto , Fumiko Miyoshi , and Jun Kohno "The Carbonic Anhydrase Domain Protein Nacrein is Expressed in the Epithelial Cells of the Mantle and Acts as a Negative Regulator in Calcification in the Mollusc Pinctada fucata ," Zoological Science 22(3), 311-315, (1 March 2005). (bioone.org)
  • Carbonic anhydrase is not an obscure protein. (phylomedb.org)
  • Why are there so many carbonic anhydrase structures in the Protein Data Bank? (stackexchange.com)
  • Carbonic Anhydrase VA encoded by the CA5A gene is a mitochondrial protein (2, 3). (bio-techne.com)
  • For a deeper look at carbonic anhydrase from a genomic perspective, please visit the Protein of the Month feature at the European Bioinformatics Institute. (rcsb.org)
  • Increased carbonic anhydrase activity might, therefore, also enhance perception, processing, and storing of temporally associated relevant signals and represents an important therapeutic target in learning and memory pharmacology. (aspetjournals.org)
  • The carbonic anhydrases (or carbonate dehydratases) (EC 4.2.1.1) form a family of enzymes that catalyze the interconversion between carbon dioxide and water and the dissociated ions of carbonic acid (i.e. bicarbonate and hydrogen ions). (wikipedia.org)
  • Carbonic anhydrase 2 (CAII) supports tumor blood endothelial cell survival under lactic acidosis in the tumor microenvironment. (nih.gov)
  • Mitochondrial carbonic anhydrases are potential targets for anti-obesity therapies, acting to reduce lipogenesis through a novel mechanism of action. (edu.au)
  • It catalyzes a reversible reaction whereby carbon dioxide becomes hydrated and carbonic acid becomes dehydrated. (medscape.com)
  • Carbonic Anhydrase catalyzes the reversible reaction of CO 2 + H 2 O = HCO 3 - + H + , which is fundamental to many processes such as respiration, renal tubular acidification and bone resorption (1). (bio-techne.com)
  • Carbonic anhydrase was initially found in the red blood cells of cows in 1933 and was simultaneously discovered by Rougton in Cambridge and Meldrum in Philadelphia who were searching for a catalytic factor. (wikipedia.org)
  • The main form for eggshell formation in chicken is carbonic anhydrase 2 (CAH2), that, as it happens with their mammalian homologs, is also required for bone mineralization and general carbonate homeostasis. (phylomedb.org)
  • Mammalian carbonic anhydrases occur in about 10 slightly different forms depending upon the tissue or cellular compartment they are located in. (rcsb.org)
  • A, p.W123X) linked to carbonic anhydrase II deficiency syndrome in a Chinese family. (nih.gov)
  • Carbonic anhydrase prevents both the pH drop caused by high soluble carbon dioxide and the formation of solid precipitates in the body fluids of vertebrates, but it also uses that same principle to precipitate calcium carbonate in the eggshell. (phylomedb.org)
  • While most carbonic anhydrase isozymes are soluble and secreted, some are bound to the membranes of specific epithelial cells. (rcsb.org)
  • The active site of most carbonic anhydrases contains a zinc ion. (wikipedia.org)
  • Therefore, carbonic anhydrase helps with the H+ secretion into the lumen of the kidney renal tubule and the reabsorption of HCO3- in the kidneys. (wikipedia.org)
  • Class one being alpha carbonic anhydrase which is found in mammals, class two being beta carbonic anhydrase which is found in bacteria and plants and lastly, class three which is gamma carbonic anhydrase which is found in methanogen bacteria in hot springs. (wikipedia.org)
  • Carbonic anhydrases (CAs, EC 4.2.1.1) are widespread metalloenzymes all over the phylogenetic tree, with 16 different isoforms present in mammals. (pharmadvances.com)
  • The first activation study of a η-class carbonic anhydrase (CAs, EC 4.2.1.1) is reported. (unifi.it)
  • Carbonic anhydrase III (CAIII) is a member of a multigene family (at least six separate genes are known) that encodes carbonic anhydrase isozymes. (nih.gov)
  • Carbonic Anhydrase-II is an excellent approach in reducing elevated intraocular pressure, thus treating glaucoma. (eurekaselect.com)
  • Carbonic anhydrase helps maintain acid-base homeostasis, regulate pH, and fluid balance. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, carbonic anhydrase produces acid in the stomach lining. (wikipedia.org)
  • The main role of carbonic anhydrase in humans is to catalyze the conversion of carbon dioxide to carbonic acid and back again. (wikipedia.org)
  • Carbon dioxide diffuses out of cells and is transported in blood in a few different ways: less than 10% dissolves in the blood plasma, about 20% binds to hemoglobin, while the majority of it (70%) is converted to carbonic acid to be carried to the lungs. (rcsb.org)
  • This paper presents a systematic literature review on a biocementation pathway, which uses the carbonic anhydrase (CA) activity of microorganisms that sequester CO2 to produce biocement. (lsbu.ac.uk)
  • Primary Duodenal Adenocarcinoma Expressing Carbonic Anhydrase IX. (bvsalud.org)
  • Primary duodenal adenocarcinoma is a rare malignancy whose carbonic anhydrase IX (CA9) expression remains poorly understood. (bvsalud.org)
  • Anti-carbonic anhydrase III autoantibodies in vasculitis syndrome. (nih.gov)

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