Carbonic acid (H2C03). The hypothetical acid of carbon dioxide and water. It exists only in the form of its salts (carbonates), acid salts (hydrogen carbonates), amines (carbamic acid), and acid chlorides (carbonyl chloride). (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Drugs used for their actions on histaminergic systems. Included are drugs that act at histamine receptors, affect the life cycle of histamine, or affect the state of histaminergic cells.
Salts or ions of the theoretical carbonic acid, containing the radical CO2(3-). Carbonates are readily decomposed by acids. The carbonates of the alkali metals are water-soluble; all others are insoluble. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A family of zinc-containing enzymes that catalyze the reversible hydration of carbon dioxide. They play an important role in the transport of CARBON DIOXIDE from the tissues to the LUNG. EC 4.2.1.1.
A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.
Inorganic salts that contain the -HCO3 radical. They are an important factor in determining the pH of the blood and the concentration of bicarbonate ions is regulated by the kidney. Levels in the blood are an index of the alkali reserve or buffering capacity.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
'Blood donors' are individuals who voluntarily and safely donate a specific amount of their own blood, which can be further separated into components, to be used for transfusion purposes or for manufacturing medical products, without receiving remuneration that is intended to reward them financially.
Large natural streams of FRESH WATER formed by converging tributaries and which empty into a body of water (lake or ocean).
An aspartate aminotransferase found in MITOCHONDRIA.
White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
Centers for collecting, characterizing and storing human blood.
Reinfusion of blood or blood products derived from the patient's own circulation. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Testing erythrocytes to determine presence or absence of blood-group antigens, testing of serum to determine the presence or absence of antibodies to these antigens, and selecting biocompatible blood by crossmatching samples from the donor against samples from the recipient. Crossmatching is performed prior to transfusion.

Modifications of proteins by polyunsaturated fatty acid peroxidation products. (1/33)

The ability of unsaturated fatty acid methyl esters to modify amino acid residues in bovine serum albumin (BSA), glutamine synthetase, and insulin in the presence of a metal-catalyzed oxidation system [ascorbate/Fe(III)/O(2)] depends on the degree of unsaturation of the fatty acid. The fatty acid-dependent generation of carbonyl groups and loss of lysine residues increased in the order methyl linoleate < methyl linolenate < methyl arachidonate. The amounts of alkyl hydroperoxides, malondialdehyde, and a number of other aldehydes that accumulated when polyunsaturated fatty acids were oxidized in the presence of BSA were significantly lower than that observed in the absence of BSA. Direct treatment of proteins with various lipid hydroperoxides led to a slight increase in the formation of protein carbonyl derivatives, whereas treatment with the hydroperoxides together with Fe(II) led to a substantial increase in the formation of protein carbonyls. These results are consistent with the proposition that metal-catalyzed oxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids can contribute to the generation of protein carbonyls by direct interaction of lipid oxidation products (alpha,beta-unsaturated aldehydes) with lysine residues (Michael addition reactions) and also by interactions with alkoxyl radicals obtained by Fe(II) cleavage of lipid hydroperoxides that are formed. In addition, saturated aldehydes derived from the polyunsaturated fatty acids likely react with lysine residues to form Schiff base adducts.  (+info)

Cryopreservation reduces the ability of hamster 2-cell embryos to regulate intracellular pH. (2/33)

Vitrification of hamster 2-cell embryos impairs the activity of both the Na(+)/H(+) antiporter and HCO(3)(-)/Cl(-) exchanger; the two transport proteins responsible for the regulation of intracellular pH (pHi). The activities of both the Na(+)/H(+) antiporter and HCO(3)(-)/Cl(-) exchanger were significantly reduced at 4 h following warming compared to freshly collected embryos. Normal levels of activity of both transporters were not restored until 6 h after warming. Thus, cryopreservation of cleavage stage hamster embryos has a detrimental effect on their ability to maintain intracellular ionic homeostasis. Impairment of these pHi regulatory proteins resulted in the pHi of embryos being significantly elevated from the control values of 1.2 to 7.35 for approximately 4 h after warming. In addition, an elevated pHi value significantly impaired oxidative metabolism. Therefore, the loss in developmental competence of embryos following cryopreservation may in part be explained by a reduced ability to regulate intracellular pH that results in perturbations in metabolism and disruption of energy production.  (+info)

Extracellular HCO(3)(-) dependence of electrogenic Na/HCO(3) cotransporters cloned from salamander and rat kidney. (3/33)

We studied the extracellular [HCOabstract (3) (-)] dependence of two renal clones of the electrogenic Na/HCO(3) cotransporter (NBC) heterologously expressed in Xenopus oocytes. We used microelectrodes to measure the change in membrane potential (DeltaV(m)) elicited by the NBC cloned from the kidney of the salamander Ambystoma tigrinum (akNBC) and by the NBC cloned from the kidney of rat (rkNBC). We used a two-electrode voltage clamp to measure the change in current (DeltaI) elicited by rkNBC. Briefly exposing an NBC-expressing oocyte to HCOabstract (3 )(-)/CO(2) (0.33-99 mM HCOabstract (3)(-), pH(o) 7.5) elicited an immediate, DIDS (4, 4-diisothiocyanatostilbene-2,2-disulfonic acid)-sensitive and Na(+)-dependent hyperpolarization (or outward current). In DeltaV(m) experiments, the apparent K(m ) for HCOabstract (3)(-) of akNBC (10. 6 mM) and rkNBC (10.8 mM) were similar. However, under voltage-clamp conditions, the apparent K(m) for HCOabstract (3)(-) of rkNBC was less (6.5 mM). Because it has been reported that SOabstract (3)(=)/HSO abstract (3)(-) stimulates Na/HCO(3 ) cotransport in renal membrane vesicles (a result that supports the existence of a COabstract (3)(=) binding site with which SOabstract (3)(=) interacts), we examined the effect of SOabstract (3)(=)/HSO abstract (3)(-) on rkNBC. In voltage-clamp studies, we found that neither 33 mM SOabstract (4)(=) nor 33 mM SOabstract (3) (=)/HSOabstract (3)(-) substantially affects the apparent K(m) for HCO abstract (3)(-). We also used microelectrodes to monitor intracellular pH (pH(i)) while exposing rkNBC-expressing oocytes to 3.3 mM HCOabstract (3 )(-)/0.5% CO(2). We found that SO abstract (3)(=)/HSOabstract (3 )(-) did not significantly affect the DIDS-sensitive component of the pH(i) recovery from the initial CO(2 )-induced acidification. We also monitored the rkNBC current while simultaneously varying [CO(2)](o), pH(o), and [COabstract (3)(=)](o) at a fixed [HCOabstract (3)(-)](o) of 33 mM. A Michaelis-Menten equation poorly fitted the data expressed as current versus [COabstract (3)(=)](o ). However, a pH titration curve nicely fitted the data expressed as current versus pH(o). Thus, rkNBC expressed in Xenopus oocytes does not appear to interact with SOabstract (3 )(=), HSOabstract (3)(-), or COabstract (3)(=).  (+info)

The effect of feeding on the respiratory activity of the sloth. (4/33)

The aim of the present study was to confirm whether feeding influences the resting breathing rate and to observe possible alterations in blood gas and pH levels produced by feeding in unanesthetized sloths (Bradypus variegatus). Five adult male sloths (4.1 +/- 0.6 kg) were placed daily in an experimental chair for a period of at least 4 h for sitting adaptation. Five measurements were made for each sloth. However, the sloths one, two and five were studied once and the sloths three and four were studied twice. Breathing rate was determined with an impedance meter and the output signal was digitized. Arterial blood samples were collected for blood gas analysis with a BGE electrolytes analyzer and adjusted for the animal's body temperature and hemoglobin content. The data are reported as mean +/- SD and were collected during the resting period (8:00-10:00 h) and during the feeding period (16:00-18:00 h). The mean breathing rate increased during mastication of ymbahuba leaves (rest: 5.0 +/- 1, feeding: 10 +/- 1 bpm). No significant alterations were observed in arterial pH (rest: 7.42 +/- 0.05, feeding: 7.45 +/- 0.03), PCO2 (rest: 35.2 +/- 5.3, feeding: 33.3 +/- 4.4 mmHg) or PO2 (rest: 77.5 +/- 8.2, feeding: 78.4 +/- 5.2 mmHg) levels. These results indicate that in unanesthetized sloths 1) feeding evokes an increase in breathing rate without a significant change in arterial pH, PCO2 or PO2 levels, and 2) the increase in breathing rate produced by feeding probably is due to the act of mastication.  (+info)

Foraminiferal calcification response to glacial-interglacial changes in atmospheric CO2. (5/33)

A record of foraminiferal shell weight across glacial-interglacial Termination I shows a response related to seawater carbonate ion concentration and allows reconstruction of a record of carbon dioxide in surface seawater that matches the atmospheric record. The results support suggestions that higher atmospheric carbon dioxide directly affects marine calcification, an effect that may be of global importance to past and future changes in atmospheric CO2. The process provides negative feedback to the influence of marine calcification on atmospheric carbon dioxide and is of practical importance to the application of paleoceanographic proxies.  (+info)

Carbon dioxide combining properties of the blood of the shore crab Carcinus maenas (L): carbon dioxide solubility coefficient and carbonic acid dissociation constants. (6/33)

The carbon dioxide solubility coefficient, alphaCO2, and the apparent carbonic acid dissociation constants, K'1 and K'2 were estimated in the serum of the crab Carcinus maenas at various temperatures and ionic strengths. At 15 degrees C, the indirectly determined alphaCO2 value is 0-0499 m-mole l-1 torr-1 for crabs living in normal sea water (salinity ca. 35 percent). It is apparently independent of the serum protein concentration and of the stage of the moulting cycle. For crabs living in undiluted sea water, the mean pK'1 value, determined either gasometrically or titrimetrically, is 6-027 at 15 degrees C. At the same temperature, pK'2=9-29. These values approximate to those of sea water at 35 percent salinity. pK'1 drops as temperature rises; the measured deltapK'1/deltat is -0-0053 pH unit degrees C-1 between 10 and 30 degrees C. PK'1 rises as the ionic strength is lowered. Alignment nomograms have been constructed for the determination of alphaCO2, pK'1 and pK'2 values in relation to various conditions of temperature and salinity.  (+info)

Oxidized tissue proteins after intestinal reperfusion injury in rats. (7/33)

PURPOSE: To analyse if the carbonyl proteins measurement could be validated as a method that allows the identification of an intestinal oxidative stress after ischemia and reperfusion injury. METHODS: Twenty-five male Wistar rats (n = 21) weighting 200 to 250 g were divided into three groups. Group I--control (n = 10). Group II--sham (n = 5) and Group III (n = 10) subjected to 60 minutes of intestinal ischemia and equal period of reperfusion. For this purpose it was clamped the superior mesenteric artery in its distal third. Histological changes and carbonyl protein levels were determined in the samples of all groups. In group III, samples of both normal and reperfused ileal segment were studied. RESULTS: All the reperfused segments showed mucosal and submucosal swelling and inflammatory infiltrate of the lamina propria. Levels of carbonyl protein rose in group III, including in the non-ischemic segments. The sensitivity and specificity of the carbonyl protein tissue levels were respectively 94% and 88%. CONCLUSION: The carbonyl protein method is a useful biologic marker of oxidative stress after the phenomenon of intestinal ischemia and reperfusion in rats. It was also noteworthy that the effects of oxidative stress could be seen far from the locus of the primary injury.  (+info)

Isolation and characterization of a novel uronic acid-containing acidic glycosphingolipid from the ascidian Halocynthia roretzi. (8/33)

A novel uronic acid-containing glycosphingolipid (UGL-1) was isolated from the ascidian Halocynthia roretzi. UGL-1 was prepared from chloroform-methanol extracts and purified by the use of successive column chromatography on DEAE-Sephadex, Florisil, and Iatrobeads. Chemical structural analysis was performed using methylation analysis, gas chromatography, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, matrix-assisted laser-desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry, and 1H-NMR spectra. The chemical structure of UGL-1 was determined to be a glucuronic acid-containing glycosphingolipid, Galbeta1-4(Fucalpha1-3)GlcAbeta1-1Cer. The ceramide component was composed of C16:0 and C18:0 acids and C16-, C17-, and C18-phytosphingosines as major components.  (+info)

Histamine agents are substances that can either increase or decrease the level or action of histamine in the body. Histamine is a chemical mediator released by mast cells and basophils in response to allergies, inflammation, or injury. It causes various symptoms such as itching, sneezing, runny nose, and wheal and flare reactions in the skin.

Histamine-releasing agents are substances that can trigger the release of histamine from mast cells and basophils. Examples include certain medications (e.g., opioids, vancomycin), physical stimuli (e.g., heat, exercise), and venoms (e.g., bee stings).

Histamine-inhibiting agents are substances that can block the action of histamine or prevent its release from mast cells and basophils. Examples include antihistamines, which bind to histamine receptors and prevent histamine from exerting its effects, and mast cell stabilizers, which prevent the degranulation of mast cells and the subsequent release of histamine and other mediators.

Histamine-enhancing agents are substances that can increase the level or action of histamine in the body. Examples include histamine agonists, which mimic the effects of histamine by binding to its receptors, and histamine precursors, which provide the building blocks for the synthesis of histamine.

Overall, histamine agents have important clinical implications in the management of allergies, inflammation, and other conditions associated with histamine release or action.

Carbonates are a class of chemical compounds that consist of a metal or metalloid combined with carbonate ions (CO32-). These compounds form when carbon dioxide (CO2) reacts with a base, such as a metal hydroxide. The reaction produces water (H2O), carbonic acid (H2CO3), and the corresponding carbonate.

Carbonates are important in many biological and geological processes. In the body, for example, calcium carbonate is a major component of bones and teeth. It also plays a role in maintaining pH balance by reacting with excess acid in the stomach to form carbon dioxide and water.

In nature, carbonates are common minerals found in rocks such as limestone and dolomite. They can also be found in mineral waters and in the shells of marine organisms. Carbonate rocks play an important role in the global carbon cycle, as they can dissolve or precipitate depending on environmental conditions, which affects the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere.

Carbonic anhydrases (CAs) are a group of enzymes that catalyze the reversible reaction between carbon dioxide and water to form carbonic acid, which then quickly dissociates into bicarbonate and a proton. This reaction is crucial for maintaining pH balance and regulating various physiological processes in the body, including respiration, secretion of electrolytes, and bone resorption.

There are several isoforms of carbonic anhydrases found in different tissues and organelles, each with distinct functions and properties. For example, CA I and II are primarily found in red blood cells, while CA III is present in various tissues such as the kidney, lung, and eye. CA IV is a membrane-bound enzyme that plays a role in transporting ions across cell membranes.

Carbonic anhydrases have been targeted for therapeutic interventions in several diseases, including glaucoma, epilepsy, and cancer. Inhibitors of carbonic anhydrases can reduce the production of bicarbonate and lower the pH of tumor cells, which may help to slow down their growth and proliferation. However, these inhibitors can also have side effects such as kidney stones and metabolic acidosis, so they must be used with caution.

Carbon dioxide (CO2) is a colorless, odorless gas that is naturally present in the Earth's atmosphere. It is a normal byproduct of cellular respiration in humans, animals, and plants, and is also produced through the combustion of fossil fuels such as coal, oil, and natural gas.

In medical terms, carbon dioxide is often used as a respiratory stimulant and to maintain the pH balance of blood. It is also used during certain medical procedures, such as laparoscopic surgery, to insufflate (inflate) the abdominal cavity and create a working space for the surgeon.

Elevated levels of carbon dioxide in the body can lead to respiratory acidosis, a condition characterized by an increased concentration of carbon dioxide in the blood and a decrease in pH. This can occur in conditions such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), asthma, or other lung diseases that impair breathing and gas exchange. Symptoms of respiratory acidosis may include shortness of breath, confusion, headache, and in severe cases, coma or death.

Bicarbonates, also known as sodium bicarbonate or baking soda, is a chemical compound with the formula NaHCO3. In the context of medical definitions, bicarbonates refer to the bicarbonate ion (HCO3-), which is an important buffer in the body that helps maintain normal pH levels in blood and other bodily fluids.

The balance of bicarbonate and carbonic acid in the body helps regulate the acidity or alkalinity of the blood, a condition known as pH balance. Bicarbonates are produced by the body and are also found in some foods and drinking water. They work to neutralize excess acid in the body and help maintain the normal pH range of 7.35 to 7.45.

In medical testing, bicarbonate levels may be measured as part of an electrolyte panel or as a component of arterial blood gas (ABG) analysis. Low bicarbonate levels can indicate metabolic acidosis, while high levels can indicate metabolic alkalosis. Both conditions can have serious consequences if not treated promptly and appropriately.

Hydrogen-ion concentration, also known as pH, is a measure of the acidity or basicity of a solution. It is defined as the negative logarithm (to the base 10) of the hydrogen ion activity in a solution. The standard unit of measurement is the pH unit. A pH of 7 is neutral, less than 7 is acidic, and greater than 7 is basic.

In medical terms, hydrogen-ion concentration is important for maintaining homeostasis within the body. For example, in the stomach, a high hydrogen-ion concentration (low pH) is necessary for the digestion of food. However, in other parts of the body such as blood, a high hydrogen-ion concentration can be harmful and lead to acidosis. Conversely, a low hydrogen-ion concentration (high pH) in the blood can lead to alkalosis. Both acidosis and alkalosis can have serious consequences on various organ systems if not corrected.

A blood donor is a person who voluntarily gives their own blood or blood components to be used for the benefit of another person in need. The blood donation process involves collecting the donor's blood, testing it for infectious diseases, and then storing it until it is needed by a patient. There are several types of blood donations, including:

1. Whole blood donation: This is the most common type of blood donation, where a donor gives one unit (about 450-500 milliliters) of whole blood. The blood is then separated into its components (red cells, plasma, and platelets) for transfusion to patients with different needs.
2. Double red cell donation: In this type of donation, the donor's blood is collected using a special machine that separates two units of red cells from the whole blood. The remaining plasma and platelets are returned to the donor during the donation process. This type of donation can be done every 112 days.
3. Platelet donation: A donor's blood is collected using a special machine that separates platelets from the whole blood. The red cells and plasma are then returned to the donor during the donation process. This type of donation can be done every seven days, up to 24 times a year.
4. Plasma donation: A donor's blood is collected using a special machine that separates plasma from the whole blood. The red cells and platelets are then returned to the donor during the donation process. This type of donation can be done every 28 days, up to 13 times a year.

Blood donors must meet certain eligibility criteria, such as being in good health, aged between 18 and 65 (in some countries, the upper age limit may vary), and weighing over 50 kg (110 lbs). Donors are also required to answer medical questionnaires and undergo a mini-physical examination before each donation. The frequency of blood donations varies depending on the type of donation and the donor's health status.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Rivers" is not a medical term or concept. It is a geographical term referring to large, flowing bodies of water that usually empty into a sea or an ocean. If you have any medical questions or terms you would like defined, I'd be happy to help!

Aspartate aminotransferase (AST), mitochondrial isoform, is an enzyme found primarily in the mitochondria of cells. It is involved in the transfer of an amino group from aspartic acid to alpha-ketoglutarate, resulting in the formation of oxaloacetate and glutamate. This enzyme plays a crucial role in the cellular energy production process, particularly within the mitochondria.

Elevated levels of AST, mitochondrial isoform, can be found in various medical conditions, including liver disease, muscle damage, and heart injury. However, it's important to note that most clinical laboratories measure a combined level of both cytosolic and mitochondrial AST isoforms when testing for this enzyme. Therefore, the specific contribution of the mitochondrial isoform may not be easily discernible in routine medical tests.

Lymphocytes are a type of white blood cell that is an essential part of the immune system. They are responsible for recognizing and responding to potentially harmful substances such as viruses, bacteria, and other foreign invaders. There are two main types of lymphocytes: B-lymphocytes (B-cells) and T-lymphocytes (T-cells).

B-lymphocytes produce antibodies, which are proteins that help to neutralize or destroy foreign substances. When a B-cell encounters a foreign substance, it becomes activated and begins to divide and differentiate into plasma cells, which produce and secrete large amounts of antibodies. These antibodies bind to the foreign substance, marking it for destruction by other immune cells.

T-lymphocytes, on the other hand, are involved in cell-mediated immunity. They directly attack and destroy infected cells or cancerous cells. T-cells can also help to regulate the immune response by producing chemical signals that activate or inhibit other immune cells.

Lymphocytes are produced in the bone marrow and mature in either the bone marrow (B-cells) or the thymus gland (T-cells). They circulate throughout the body in the blood and lymphatic system, where they can be found in high concentrations in lymph nodes, the spleen, and other lymphoid organs.

Abnormalities in the number or function of lymphocytes can lead to a variety of immune-related disorders, including immunodeficiency diseases, autoimmune disorders, and cancer.

A blood bank is a facility that collects, tests, stores, and distributes blood and blood components for transfusion purposes. It is a crucial part of the healthcare system, as it ensures a safe and adequate supply of blood products to meet the needs of patients undergoing various medical procedures or treatments. The term "blood bank" comes from the idea that collected blood is "stored" or "banked" until it is needed for transfusion.

The primary function of a blood bank is to ensure the safety and quality of the blood supply. This involves rigorous screening and testing of donated blood to detect any infectious diseases, such as HIV, hepatitis B and C, syphilis, and West Nile virus. Blood banks also perform compatibility tests between donor and recipient blood types to minimize the risk of transfusion reactions.

Blood banks offer various blood products, including whole blood, red blood cells, platelets, plasma, and cryoprecipitate. These products can be used to treat a wide range of medical conditions, such as anemia, bleeding disorders, cancer, and trauma. In addition, some blood banks may also provide specialized services, such as apheresis (a procedure that separates specific blood components) and therapeutic phlebotomy (the removal of excess blood).

Blood banks operate under strict regulations and guidelines to ensure the safety and quality of their products and services. These regulations are established by national and international organizations, such as the American Association of Blood Banks (AABB), the World Health Organization (WHO), and the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA).

Autologous blood transfusion is a medical procedure in which a patient receives their own blood that has been collected and stored prior to surgery or a medical treatment that may cause significant blood loss. The blood is drawn from the patient, typically in the days or weeks leading up to the scheduled procedure, and then stored until it is needed during or after the surgery.

The primary advantage of autologous blood transfusion is that it eliminates the risk of transfusion reactions, infectious disease transmission, and immunomodulation associated with allogeneic (donor) blood transfusions. However, not all patients are candidates for this type of transfusion due to various factors such as medical conditions, low hemoglobin levels, or insufficient time to collect and store the blood before the procedure.

Autologous blood transfusion can be performed using several methods, including preoperative blood donation, acute normovolemic hemodilution, intraoperative cell salvage, and postoperative blood collection. The choice of method depends on various factors, such as the patient's medical condition, the type and extent of surgery, and the availability of resources.

In summary, autologous blood transfusion is a safe and effective way to reduce the need for allogeneic blood transfusions during or after surgical procedures, but it may not be suitable for all patients.

Blood grouping, also known as blood typing, is the process of determining a person's ABO and Rh (Rhesus) blood type. The ABO blood group system includes four main blood types: A, B, AB, and O, based on the presence or absence of antigens A and B on the surface of red blood cells. The Rh blood group system is another important classification system that determines whether the Rh factor (a protein also found on the surface of red blood cells) is present or absent.

Knowing a person's blood type is crucial in transfusion medicine to ensure compatibility between donor and recipient blood. If a patient receives an incompatible blood type, it can trigger an immune response leading to serious complications such as hemolysis (destruction of red blood cells), kidney failure, or even death.

Crossmatching is a laboratory test performed before a blood transfusion to determine the compatibility between the donor's and recipient's blood. It involves mixing a small sample of the donor's red blood cells with the recipient's serum (the liquid portion of the blood containing antibodies) and observing for any agglutination (clumping) or hemolysis. If there is no reaction, the blood is considered compatible, and the transfusion can proceed.

In summary, blood grouping and crossmatching are essential tests in transfusion medicine to ensure compatibility between donor and recipient blood and prevent adverse reactions that could harm the patient's health.

At ambient temperatures, pure carbonic acid is a stable gas. There are two main methods to produce anhydrous carbonic acid: ... solid carbonic acid is amorphous and lacks Bragg peaks in X-ray diffraction. But at high pressure, carbonic acid crystallizes, ... Evidence for Carbonic Acid Ice: Evidence for Carbonic Acid". Spectrochimica Acta. 47A (2): 255-262. Bibcode:1991AcSpA..47..255M ... Carbonic acid is the formal Brønsted-Lowry conjugate acid of the bicarbonate anion, stable in alkaline solution. The ...
... reaction that gives carbonic anhydrase its name, because it removes a water molecule from carbonic acid. In the lungs carbonic ... The enzyme maintains acid-base balance and helps transport carbon dioxide. Carbonic anhydrase helps maintain acid-base ... The main role of carbonic anhydrase in humans is to catalyze the conversion of carbon dioxide to carbonic acid and back again. ... The reaction catalyzed by carbonic anhydrase is: HCO− 3 + H+ ⇌ CO2 + H2O Carbonic acid has a pKa of around 6.36 (the exact ...
Leuchs, H. (1906). "Glycine-carbonic acid". Berichte der Deutschen Chemischen Gesellschaft. 39: 857. doi:10.1002/cber. ... The monomers can be activated by Bronsted acids, carbenium ions, onium ions, and metal cations. CROP can be a living ... Kricheldorf, H. R. (2006). "Polypeptides and 100 Years of Chemistry of Α-Amino Acid N-Carboxyanhydrides". Angewandte Chemie ... Libiszowski, Jan; Kałużynski, Krzysztof; Penczek, Stanisław (June 1978). "Polymerization of cyclic esters of phosphoric acid. ...
ISBN 978-0-306-47277-0. J. C. Goosmann (1900). The carbonic acid industry. Nickerson & Collins Co. v t e (Articles with short ... for experiments creating liquid carbonic acid. Ebbe Almqvist (2003). History of industrial gases (illustrated, annotated ed.). ...
Carbonic anhydrase 4 converts to carbonic acid leading to a sour taste, and also the dissolved carbon dioxide induces a ... Being diprotic, carbonic acid has two acid dissociation constants, the first one for the dissociation into the bicarbonate ( ... carbonic acid), which is a weak acid since its ionization in water is incomplete. CO2 + H2O ⇌ H2CO3 The hydration equilibrium ... carbonic acid production is catalysed by the enzyme known as carbonic anhydrase. CO2 is a potent electrophile having an ...
Notably it reacts with acids, releasing carbonic acid which quickly disintegrates into carbon dioxide and water: CaCO 3 ( s ... For the same total acid concentration, the initial pH of the weak acid is less acid than the one of the strong acid; however, ... Mook, W. (2000). "Chemistry of carbonic acid in water". Environmental Isotopes in the Hydrological Cycle: Principles and ... His hope was that the calcium carbonate would counter the acid in the stream from acid rain and save the trout that had ceased ...
Carbonic Acid Revisited: Carbonic Acid Monomethyl Ester as a Solid and its Conformational Isomerism in the Gas Phase". Chem. ... He soon moved on to experiments where he advanced the field of amorphous ices, ice polymorphs and carbonic acid over the course ... E (1993). "Carbonic acid: synthesis by protonation of bicarbonate and FTIR spectroscopic characterization via a new cryogenic ... Bernard, J.; Köck, E.-M..; Huber, R. G.; Liedl, K. R.; Call, L.; Schlögl, R.; Grothe, H.; Loerting, T. (2017). "Carbonic acid ...
Only a small fraction of dissolved CO2 is present in water as carbonic acid so, even though H2CO3 is a medium-strong acid, ... Its oxide CO2 forms carbonic acid H2CO3. Aluminium is ordinarily classified as a metal. It is lustrous, malleable and ductile, ... In its hydrated form (as H3BO3, boric acid) it reacts with sulfur trioxide, the anhydride of sulfuric acid, to form a bisulfate ... Arsenic is attacked by nitric acid and concentrated sulfuric acid. It reacts with fused caustic soda to give the arsenate ...
Taylor, Alfred S. (October 1832). "An Account of the Grotta del Cane; With Remarks Upon Suffocation by Carbonic Acid". The ...
Carbonic acid includes both carbonates and bicarbonates. The graph provides a good visual aid to understanding how more than ... Hence, CO2 rich groundwater or rainwater would form carbonic acid (H2CO3) (≈pH 7.5 - 8.5) and leach Ca2+ from the structure as ... Maekawa et al., (2009) p. 230, provides an excellent graph showing the relationship between equilibrium of carbonic acids ( ... however the presence of carbonic acid (H2CO3) and other species are omitted. The chemical formula [Equation 9] is usually ...
A notable exception is carbonic acid, (H2CO3). Commonly seen as the "fizz" in carbonated beverages, carbonic acid will ... "Decomposition Reactions". ibburke (2011-03-27). "Decomposition of Carbonic Acid Culminating by Elizabeth Burke". ibburke. ...
Acetic acid is the primary volatile acid in wine, but smaller amounts of lactic, formic, butyric, propionic acid, carbonic acid ... Carbonic acid is the only physiologically volatile acid; all other acids are physiologically nonvolatile acids (also known as a ... In physiology, volatile acid (or respiratory acid) refers to carbonic acid, a product of dissolved carbon dioxide. In this ... and sorbic acids. Other acids present in wine, including malic and tartaric acid are considered non-volatile or fixed acids. ...
Carbon dioxide forms conductive carbonic acid in water. For this reason, conductivity probes are most often permanently ... Typical semiconductor plants have only two drain systems for all of these rinses which are also combined with acid waste and ... Those forms of silica that are molybdate-reactive include dissolved simple silicates, monomeric silica and silicic acid, and an ... This method allows for identification of biopolymers, humics, low molecular weight acids and neutrals, and more, while ...
Alexander, S.C.; R. Gelfand; C.J. Lambertsen (February 1961). "The pK' of carbonic acid in cerebrospinal fluid". J. Biol. Chem ... Takano N, Lever MJ, Lambertsen CJ (February 1979). "Acid-base curve nomogram for chimpanzee blood and comparison with human ... Alexander, S.C.; R.D. Workman; C.J. Lambertsen (June 1962). "Hyperthermia, lactic acid infusion, and the composition of ... Lambertsen, C.J. (1960). "Carbon dioxide and respiration in acid-base homeostasis". Anesthesiology. 21 (6): 642-51. doi:10.1097 ...
Joseph Black, Scottish chemist, discovers carbonic acid gas. Albert Brahms, Frisian Dijkgraaf, begins publication of ...
... see Carbonic acid for values and details). At neutral or acid pH, the reaction is slow, but is catalyzed by the enzyme carbonic ... Other silicic acids such as metasilicic acid (H2SiO3), disilicic acid (H2Si2O5), and pyrosilicic acid (H6Si2O7) have been ... Chromic acid H2CrO4, has similarities with sulfuric acid H2SO4; for example, both form acid salts A+[HMO4]−. Some metals, e.g. ... meaning that it forms by dehydration of carbonic acid H2CO3 (OC(OH)2). Silicic acid is the name given to a variety of compounds ...
... is highly unstable. Calculations show that it decomposes spontaneously into carbonic acid and water: H 4 CO ... Pentaerythritol Silicic acid or Si(OH) 4 Carbonic acid or H 2CO 3 "Methanetetrol - PubChem Public Chemical Database". The ... Orthocarbonic acid is one of the group of ortho acids that have the general structure of RC(OH)3.The term ortho acid is also ... Bohm S.; Antipova D.; Kuthan J. (1997). "A Study of Methanetetraol Dehydration to Carbonic Acid". International Journal of ...
... creates carbonic acid (H2CO3) according to the following reaction: H 2O (l) + CO 2 (g) ⇌ H 2CO 3 (aq) The acid gives carbonated ... Carbonic acid, britannica.com Funston, Lindsay (April 27, 2018). "What Is Seltzer - Is Seltzer Bad For You". Delish. Retrieved ... to offset the acidic 5-6 pH carbonic acid created when carbon dioxide is dissolved in water). In the 1950s the term club soda ... which creates high 8-10 pH carbonic acid-bicarbonate buffer solution when dissolved in water). The gas dissolves in the water, ...
"Towards the Experimental Decomposition Rate of Carbonic Acid (H2CO3) in Aqueous Solution". Chemistry - A European Journal. 8 (1 ... "On the Surprising Kinetic Stability of Carbonic Acid (H2CO3)". Angewandte Chemie International Edition. 39 (5): 891-894. doi: ...
While studying carbonic acid, Wróblewski discovered the CO2 hydrate. He reported this finding in 1882. On 29 March 1883 ... S. Wroblewski (1882 c), "On the laws of solubility of carbonic acid in water at high pressures" (in French), Acad. Sci. Paris, ... S. Wroblewski (1882 b), "On the composition of the hydrate of carbonic acid" (in French), Acad. Sci. Paris, ibid., pp. 954-958 ... "On the combination of carbonic acid and water" (in French), Acad. Sci. Paris, Comptes rendus, 94, pp. 212-213. ...
Dhar, N.R.; Ram, A. (1932). "Photoreduction of carbonic acid, bicarbonates, and carbonates to formaldehyde". Nature. 129 (3249 ... "Photosensitized reduction of nitrogen dioxide on humic acid as a source of nitrous acid". Nature. 440 (7081): 195-198. Bibcode: ... As another example, the observation that the amount of nitrous acid in the atmosphere greatly increases during the day lead to ... Photoreduction of carbon dioxide on zinc sulfide to give four-carbon and two-carbon acids. Journal of the Chemical Society, ...
Acid rain increases weathering of the lithosphere through sulfuric acid weathering instead of the usual carbonic acid ... The secondary mineral, kaolinite, forms from carbonic acid weathering. Other secondary minerals include hydroxyaluminosilicates ... This alters the aluminum cycle by reducing the availability of silicic acid and lowering the pH of the environment. The ... Aluminum is usually physically weathered and remains in a stable state, acid rain chemically weathers aluminum deposits. This ...
July 2023). "Discovery of the Elusive Carbonic Acid (HOCOOH) in Space". The Astrophysical Journal. 954 (1): 3. arXiv:2307.08644 ... 9 May 2016). "The ALMA-PILS survey: First detections of deuterated formamide and deuterated isocyanic acid in the interstellar ... 2009), "Discovery of fulminic acid, HCNO, in dark clouds", Astrophysical Journal, 690 (1): L27-L30, arXiv:0811.2679, Bibcode: ... Frerking, M. A.; Linke, R. A.; Thaddeus, P. (1979), "Interstellar isothiocyanic acid", Astrophysical Journal Letters, 234: L143 ...
Nitrates are among the nitrogen compounds present; there is little carbonic acid and no hydrogen sulfide. Oligosaprobic ...
... where the polyprotic acid is carbonic acid (a diprotic acid), and the different species are dissolved carbon dioxide, carbonic ... the first acid dissociation constant for carbonic acid), K2 is the equilibrium constant for the reaction HCO− 3 ⇌ H+ + CO2− 3 ( ... sulfuric and phosphoric acids, are other commonly used examples. If carbon dioxide, carbonic acid, hydrogen ions, bicarbonate ... i.e. the second acid dissociation constant for carbonic acid), and DIC is the (unchanging) total concentration of dissolved ...
FitzGerald, MP; Haldane, JS (1905). "The normal alveolar carbonic acid pressure in man" (PDF). The Journal of Physiology. 32 (5 ... There, she modified the histological method and proved the origin of hydrochloric acid in the parietal cells of gastric tubules ...
Dissolved in water, it forms carbonic acid (H 2CO 3), but as most compounds with multiple single-bonded oxygens on a single ... 2001). "On the Surprising Kinetic Stability of Carbonic Acid". Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 39 (5): 891-895. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1521- ... For example, graphite can be oxidised by hot concentrated nitric acid at standard conditions to mellitic acid, C6(CO2H)6, which ... It does not react with sulfuric acid, hydrochloric acid, chlorine or any alkalis. At elevated temperatures, carbon reacts with ...
Surface water containing natural carbonic acid moves down into small fissures in limestone. This carbonic acid gradually ...
The urease hydrolyzes urea to produce ammonia and carbonic acid. As the bacteria are localized to the stomach ammonia produced ... The carbamate spontaneously and rapidly hydrolyzes to ammonia and carbonic acid. Urease activity increases the pH of its ... The carbamate produced then spontaneously degrades to produce another ammonia and carbonic acid. The mechanism proposed by ... Some amino acid residues are proposed to form mobile flap of the site, which gate for the substrate. Cysteine residues are ...
"Carbonic acid gas" is today understood to be carbon dioxide. Afterdamp is largely carbon monoxide and that may be what is ...
At ambient temperatures, pure carbonic acid is a stable gas. There are two main methods to produce anhydrous carbonic acid: ... solid carbonic acid is amorphous and lacks Bragg peaks in X-ray diffraction. But at high pressure, carbonic acid crystallizes, ... Evidence for Carbonic Acid Ice: Evidence for Carbonic Acid". Spectrochimica Acta. 47A (2): 255-262. Bibcode:1991AcSpA..47..255M ... Carbonic acid is the formal Brønsted-Lowry conjugate acid of the bicarbonate anion, stable in alkaline solution. The ...
1 Why H2CO3 is acid?. What has carbonic acid?. Carbonic acid is present in blood in the human body. It is formed in the human ... What Is The Formula For Carbonic Acid? Detailed Solution Carbonic acid is a chemical compound with the chemical formula H2CO3 ( ... What does the formula for carbonic acid? Detailed Solution Carbonic acid is a chemical compound with the chemical formula H2CO3 ... Why is H2CO3 an acid? H2CO3 is considered an acid. Because on dissolving in an aqueous solution, it dissociates into two ions ( ...
Carbonic Acid. Carbonic acid is a compound with the chemical formula H2CO3. It is a weak acid that forms when carbon dioxide ... Carbonic Acid. In the Lewis structure of carbonic acid, the central carbon atom is surrounded by four electron density regions ... Carbonic Acid. In the Lewis structure of carbonic acid, the electrons are distributed unequally between the carbon and oxygen ... Carbonic Acid and Their Valence Electrons. Carbonic acid contains three elemental atoms: carbon, oxygen, and hydrogen. Lets ...
Carbonic acid, compound with 2-aminoethanol (1:2). *. *. EC number: 244-600-2 , CAS number: 21829-52-7 ...
Carbonic dichloride. *Carbon dichloride oxide. *Carbon oxychloride. *Carbone (oxychlorure de) (French). *Carbonic acid ... A NIOSH-certified CBRN PAPR with a loose-fitting face-piece, hood, or helmet and a filter or a combination organic vapor, acid ... Phosgene (CG) exerts its toxicity by its action on the bodys proteins, as well as through the production of hydrochloric acid ... Above 572°F (300°C), phosgene (CG) decomposes in the presence of moisture to form hydrochloric acid and carbon dioxide. ...
It catalyzes a reversible reaction whereby carbon dioxide becomes hydrated and carbonic acid becomes dehydrated. These changes ... Antiglaucoma, Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitors. Class Summary. Carbonic anhydrase (CA) is an enzyme found in many tissues. ... Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors (eg, acetazolamide) and loop diuretics (eg, furosemide) are thought to exert their effect on ICP ... inhibition of the carbonic anhydrase enzyme, particularly isozymes II and IV. Topiramate is also an excellent choice, in that ...
Sal soda poisoning; Soda ash poisoning; Disodium salt poisoning; Carbonic acid poisoning; Washing soda poisoning ...
For years, hyperuricemia has been identified with or thought to be the same as gout, but uric acid has now been identified as a ... Despite the fact that uric acid was first identified approximately 2 centuries ago, certain pathophysiologic aspects of ... Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitors. Class Summary. Decrease solubility of uric acid. Adequate hydration recommended to maintain high ... Selective Uric acid Reabsorption Inhibitor (SURI). Lesinurad (Zurampic). Lesinurad is the first selective uric acid ...
Carbonic acid after force carbonation *Latest: day_trippr. *. Today at 12:21 AM. ...
carbon dioxide + water ==, carbonic acid + hydrogen ion + bicarbonate ion The hydrogen ions then combine with hemoglobin and ... RBCs contain an enzyme called carbonic anhydrase which helps the reaction of carbon dioxide (CO2) and water (H2O) to occur ... Carbonic Anhydrase CO2 + H2O ===, H2CO3 + H+ + HCO3- ... Carbonic acid is formed, which then separates into hydrogen ...
Synonyms: Potassium Hydrogen Carbonate; Carbonic Acid Monopotassium Salt. TEST. MIN. MAX. ASSAY (KHCO3; DRIED BASIS). 99.7%. ...
This causes the rainwater to be slightly acidic due to carbonic acid. The rain physically erodes the rock and the acids ... This causes the rainwater to be slightly acidic due to carbonic acid. The rain physically erodes the rock and the acids ...
The formation of carbonic acid, H2CO3, when CO2 dissolves in water: CO2 + H2O forms carbonic acid H2CO3. But there are three ... CO2 forms carbonic acid, a serious threat to the base of the food chain, especially on shellfish of all sizes. Carbonic acid ... The chemistry of carbonic acid does not support the claim that adding CO2 to water differs in its effect from adding acid to ... which combines with water molecules to form carbonic acid. This is not the same as adding acid to the water, because the H+ ...
... carbonic acid; mine gas infiltration ... acid mine drainage reactions with limestone, and emissions from ...
2004). Carbon dioxide dissolves in water to form carbonic acid. Carbonic acid decreases the pH of the ocean and makes it more ...
When respiration stops, carbonic acid is not formed. When carbonic acid is not formed, ions necessary for the absorption ... When nitrogen enters a root as nitrate anion, an anion of bicarbonate ion from carbonic acid exits. The bicarbonate ion is ...
It is said to contain carbonic acid and be good for curing herpes. The water is used for domestic purposes in local farmhouses ...
Synonyms include carbonic acid dichloride, carbonic dichloride, carbon oxychloride, carbonyl chloride, and chloroformyl ... Phosgene is slightly soluble in water and is hydrolyzed slowly by moisture to form hydrochloric acid. It is soluble in most ... Hydrochloric acid release into the mucosa triggers a systemic inflammatory response. Phosgene stimulates the synthesis of ... In the presence of water (sweat, saliva, tears), the liquid or gas slowly hydrolyzes to hydrochloric acid, which can irritate ...
Acid-base disturbances have been reported with oral carbonic anhydrase inhibitors. Use with caution in patients with risk of ... Acid-base disturbances have been reported with oral carbonic anhydrase inhibitors. The potential for interactions must be ... Carbonic anhydrase (CA) is an enzyme found in many tissues of the body, including the eye. Carbonic anhydrase catalyses the ... Brinzolamide, an inhibitor of carbonic anhydrase II (CA-II), the predominant iso-enzyme in the eye, with an in vitro IC50 of ...
I am always looking for ways to use one product for more than one purpose, thereby saving storage space in our motorhome. There was an interesting article...
The Determination of Carbonic Acid in the Beer.*The Determination of Sugar and Dextrine in the Beer.*Examination of the Beer ... Bacteria of Acetic Acid, Magnified.*Lactic Acid Fermentation.*Lactic Acid Bacteria, Magnified.*Butyric Acid Fermentation. ... Carbonic Acid Ice Machine, the Amonia Ice Machine, Carrés Ice Machine, improved by Vass and Littmann.*Vaas and Littmanns ... Percentage of Dry Extract and Acids in Kiln-Dried Malt.*The Malting or Germinating Floor -- the Malt Cellar. *Treatment of the ...
That creates carbonic acid-the stuff in soda pop that gives it that zing. ... That creates carbonic acid-the stuff in soda pop that gives it that zing. ... Categories FeaturesTags acid, acidification, acidity, carbon, change, clam, clams, climate, decline, dioxide, fish, global, ...
It has many different chemical properties like it forms carbonic acid when it interacts with water. ... Being able to dissolve in water and help to generate carbonic acid ... And that is the reason why CO2 is responsible for acid rain and climate change. But, it is essential for the survival of plants ...
2014) Carbonic anhydrases and their interplay with acid/base-coupled membrane transporters Subcell Biochem 75:105-134. ... Attempts to analyze Tret1-1 levels in larvae fed on a protein-only diet to study the influence of dietary amino acids were ... like amino acids, are not important for Tret1-1 upregulation. ...
The carbonic acid formed as a result of the first reaction immediately begins to decompose into water and carbon dioxide gas. ... Just like carbon dioxide bubbles in a carbonated drink, the carbon dioxide (that formed as the carbonic acid decomposed) rises ... The result of this initial reaction is two new chemicals: carbonic acid and sodium acetate. ... The acid/base does neutralize one another--but not before they have a bubbly reaction! This is how vinegar and baking soda can ...
Personally, I wouldnt touch Pepsi or Coca Cola with a barge pole, as theyre both made from carbonic acid + coloring + ...
Carbonic acid detected JUL 2023 First detection of benzene and diacetylene in protoplanetary disk (2) (3) (4) JUN 2023 JWST ... Amino acid detected in space Apr 2002 Discovery of interstellar antifreeze Mar 2002 Amino acids formed in photoprocessed ices ( ... Non-racemic amino acid production in ice Dec 2010 H2C3 DIB assignment Nov 2010 Oxygen on Rhea Jul 2010 Interstellar buckyball, ...
  • Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors (eg, acetazolamide) and loop diuretics (eg, furosemide) are thought to exert their effect on ICP by reducing cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) production at the choroid plexus. (medscape.com)
  • Carbonic anhydrase (CA) is an enzyme found in many tissues. (medscape.com)
  • Brinzolamide is a sulphonamide inhibitor of carbonic anhydrase and, although administered topically, is absorbed systemically. (medicines.org.uk)
  • Carbonic anhydrase is by far the most studied enzyme, as it catalyses the inter-conversion between CO2 and hydrogencarbonate in an effective mode. (intechopen.com)
  • The interconversion of carbon dioxide and carbonic acid is related to the breathing cycle of animals and the acidification of natural waters. (wikipedia.org)
  • In biochemistry and physiology, the name "carbonic acid" is sometimes applied to aqueous solutions of carbon dioxide. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some biochemistry literature effaces the distinction between carbonic acid and carbon dioxide dissolved in extracellular fluid. (wikipedia.org)
  • In physiology, carbon dioxide excreted by the lungs may be called volatile acid or respiratory acid. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are two main methods to produce anhydrous carbonic acid: reaction of hydrogen chloride and potassium bicarbonate at 100 K in methanol and proton irradiation of pure solid carbon dioxide. (wikipedia.org)
  • In even a slight presence of water, carbonic acid dehydrates to carbon dioxide and water, which then catalyzes further decomposition. (wikipedia.org)
  • For this reason, carbon dioxide can be considered the carbonic acid anhydride. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hence the majority of carbon dioxide at geophysical or biological air-water interfaces does not convert to carbonic acid, remaining dissolved CO2 gas. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is a weak acid that forms when carbon dioxide dissolves in water. (chemexplorers.com)
  • Carbonic acid contains one carbon atom, two hydrogen atoms, and three oxygen atoms. (chemexplorers.com)
  • In carbonic acid, carbon is the central atom since it forms two single bonds with two oxygen atoms. (chemexplorers.com)
  • Carbonic acid contains three elemental atoms: carbon, oxygen, and hydrogen. (chemexplorers.com)
  • Carbon is a crucial element in life on Earth, as it forms the backbone of many biological molecules, such as proteins, carbohydrates, and nucleic acids. (chemexplorers.com)
  • Water: Phosgene is unlikely to contaminate water because it breaks down rapidly upon contact with water to produce hydrochloric acid and carbon dioxide. (cdc.gov)
  • It catalyzes a reversible reaction whereby carbon dioxide becomes hydrated and carbonic acid becomes dehydrated. (medscape.com)
  • 2004). Carbon dioxide dissolves in water to form carbonic acid. (ufl.edu)
  • The carbonic acid formed as a result of the first reaction immediately begins to decompose into water and carbon dioxide gas. (wonderopolis.org)
  • Just like carbon dioxide bubbles in a carbonated drink, the carbon dioxide (that formed as the carbonic acid decomposed) rises to the top of the mixture. (wonderopolis.org)
  • Acid-Base Disorders Acid-base disorders are pathologic changes in carbon dioxide partial pressure (Pco2) or serum bicarbonate (HCO3 − ) that typically produce abnormal arterial pH values. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Normally, blood pH depends on the balance or ratio between the concentration of bases, mainly bicarbonate HCO3−, which increases the pH, and acids, mainly carbon dioxide CO2, which decrease the pH. (msdmanuals.com)
  • In this case, the bicarbonate HCO3− ion concentration decreases by binding of bicarbonate HCO3− ions and protons H+, which results in the formation of H2CO3 carbonic acid, which subsequently breaks down into carbon dioxide CO2 and water H2O. (msdmanuals.com)
  • In chemistry, carbonic acid is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula H2CO3. (wikipedia.org)
  • These chemical species play an important role in the bicarbonate buffer system, used to maintain acid-base homeostasis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Carbonic acid is the formal Brønsted-Lowry conjugate acid of the bicarbonate anion, stable in alkaline solution. (wikipedia.org)
  • When nitrogen enters a root as nitrate anion, an anion of bicarbonate ion from carbonic acid exits. (treehelp.com)
  • Primary metabolic acidoses that occur as a result of a marked increase in endogenous acid production (eg, lactic or keto acids) or progressive accumulation of endogenous acids when excretion is impaired by renal insufficiency are characterized by decreased plasma bicarbonate concentration and increased anion gap without hyperchloremia. (medscape.com)
  • The kidneys maintain acid-base balance by bicarbonate reclamation and acid excretion. (medscape.com)
  • So, basically, metabolic acidosis arises either from the buildup of acid in our blood, which could be because it's produced or ingested in increased amounts, or because the body can't get rid of it, or from excessive bicarbonate HCO3− loss from the kidneys or gastrointestinal tract. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Inhibit the enzyme cyclooxygenase, thus inhibiting biosynthesis of prostaglandins and thromboxanes from arachidonic acid. (medscape.com)
  • Inhibits xanthine oxidase, the enzyme that synthesizes uric acid from hypoxanthine. (medscape.com)
  • In the presence of water (sweat, saliva, tears), the liquid or gas slowly hydrolyzes to hydrochloric acid, which can irritate and damage cells. (cdc.gov)
  • Phosgene is slightly soluble in water and is hydrolyzed slowly by moisture to form hydrochloric acid. (cdc.gov)
  • Carbonic acid dissolves calcium carbonate, an essential component of any life form with an exoskeleton. (nakedcapitalism.com)
  • Prevent recurrent uric acid nephrolithiasis. (medscape.com)
  • Reduces synthesis of uric acid without disrupting biosynthesis of vital purines. (medscape.com)
  • Prevents uric acid production and lowers elevated serum uric acid levels. (medscape.com)
  • Lesinurad is the first selective uric acid reabsorption inhibitor to be approved in the United States. (medscape.com)
  • It acts by inhibiting the urate transporter, URAT1, which is responsible for the majority of the renal reabsorption of uric acid. (medscape.com)
  • It also inhibits organic anion transporter 4 (OAT4), a uric acid transporter associated with diuretic-induced hyperuricemia. (medscape.com)
  • It is indicated in combination with a xanthine oxidase inhibitor for hyperuricemia associated with gout in patients who have not achieved target serum uric acid levels with a xanthine oxidase inhibitor alone. (medscape.com)
  • Competitively inhibit reabsorption of uric acid in proximal renal tubule. (medscape.com)
  • This promotes excretion of uric acid and lowers serum uric acid levels. (medscape.com)
  • also decreases uric acid levels in blood. (medscape.com)
  • Decrease solubility of uric acid. (medscape.com)
  • Used to further enhance uric acid elimination. (medscape.com)
  • A 3-step approach is used to assess the acid-base disorder: (1) establishment of a primary disturbance, (2) determination of the serum anion gap, and (3) evaluation of compensation. (medscape.com)
  • The anion gap represents the "unmeasured" anions in the blood, which are formed from organic acids that have dissociated in blood. (medscape.com)
  • Causes include accumulation of ketones and lactic acid, renal failure, and drug or toxin ingestion (high anion gap) and gastrointestinal or renal HCO 3 − loss (normal anion gap). (msdmanuals.com)
  • Loss of glomerular function (associated with decreased glomerular filtration rate [GRF]) results in the retention of many end products of metabolism, including the anions of various organic and inorganic acids and urea. (medscape.com)
  • To this end, bio-inspired systems will be presented, starting from the use of compounds from the chiral pool, such as amino acids, saccharides and related bio-polymers, involved in the physical and chemical capture, sequestration and/or utilization of CO2. (intechopen.com)
  • According to neutron diffraction of dideuterated carbonic acid (D 2CO 3) in a hybrid clamped cell (Russian alloy/copper-beryllium) at 1.85 GPa, the molecules are planar and form dimers joined by pairs of hydrogen bonds. (wikipedia.org)
  • Longer O-O distances are observed in strong intramolecular hydrogen bonds, e.g. in oxalic acid, where the distances exceed 2.4 Å. (wikipedia.org)
  • Carbonic acid decreases the pH of the ocean and makes it more acidic. (ufl.edu)
  • This causes the rainwater to be slightly acidic due to carbonic acid. (usgs.gov)
  • These protons can come from organic acids which have accumulated in the blood, but they can also come from increased production in our body. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Chemically, it behaves as a diprotic Brønsted acid. (wikipedia.org)
  • The rain physically erodes the rock and the acids chemically break down the rocks and carries salts and minerals along in a dissolved state as ions. (usgs.gov)
  • Baking soda and vinegar react chemically because one is a base and the other is an acid . (wonderopolis.org)
  • In chemistry, the term "carbonic acid" strictly refers to the chemical compound with the formula H 2CO 3. (wikipedia.org)
  • The result of this initial reaction is two new chemicals: carbonic acid and sodium acetate. (wonderopolis.org)
  • It has many different chemical properties like it forms carbonic acid when it interacts with water. (wxresearch.org)
  • In the oceans, CO2 forms carbonic acid, a serious threat to the base of the food chain, especially on shellfish of all sizes. (nakedcapitalism.com)
  • At ambient temperatures, pure carbonic acid is a stable gas. (wikipedia.org)
  • This results in a stable Lewis structure of carbonic acid. (chemexplorers.com)
  • Acid-Base Regulation Metabolic processes in the human body continually produce acid and, to a lesser degree, base. (msdmanuals.com)
  • The formation of carbonic acid does not depend upon temperature. (nakedcapitalism.com)
  • He does not believe that it is carbonic acid gas, because he has been able to detect the slightest traces of this acid in blood either by means of a high temperature, or the vacuum of an airpump, and because blood contains alkali not saturated with this acid, and is able, in consequence, to combine with an additional portion of it. (google.com.ph)
  • But at high pressure, carbonic acid crystallizes, and modern analytical spectroscopy can measure its geometry. (wikipedia.org)
  • acidemia results when an acid-generating process, known as an acidosis, creates an excess of H + ions. (medscape.com)
  • And that is the reason why CO2 is responsible for acid rain and climate change. (wxresearch.org)
  • The pH, obtained from arterial blood gas (ABG), should be the first value analyzed upon suspicion of an acid-base disorder. (medscape.com)
  • Pure carbonic acid, being denser, is expected to have sunk under the ice layers and separate them from the rocky cores of these moons. (wikipedia.org)