Salts or ions of the theoretical carbonic acid, containing the radical CO2(3-). Carbonates are readily decomposed by acids. The carbonates of the alkali metals are water-soluble; all others are insoluble. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Carbonic acid calcium salt (CaCO3). An odorless, tasteless powder or crystal that occurs in nature. It is used therapeutically as a phosphate buffer in hemodialysis patients and as a calcium supplement.
A lithium salt, classified as a mood-stabilizing agent. Lithium ion alters the metabolism of BIOGENIC MONOAMINES in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, and affects multiple neurotransmission systems.
A group of phosphate minerals that includes ten mineral species and has the general formula X5(YO4)3Z, where X is usually calcium or lead, Y is phosphorus or arsenic, and Z is chlorine, fluorine, or OH-. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Lanthanum. The prototypical element in the rare earth family of metals. It has the atomic symbol La, atomic number 57, and atomic weight 138.91. Lanthanide ion is used in experimental biology as a calcium antagonist; lanthanum oxide improves the optical properties of glass.
A condition of abnormally high level of PHOSPHATES in the blood, usually significantly above the normal range of 0.84-1.58 mmol per liter of serum.
Any solid objects moving in interplanetary space that are smaller than a planet or asteroid but larger than a molecule. Meteorites are any meteoroid that has fallen to a planetary surface. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The fourth planet in order from the sun. Its two natural satellites are Deimos and Phobos. It is one of the four inner or terrestrial planets of the solar system.
The hard rigid covering of animals including MOLLUSCS; TURTLES; INSECTS; and crustaceans.
Process by which organic tissue becomes hardened by the physiologic deposit of calcium salts.
A non-metal element that has the atomic symbol P, atomic number 15, and atomic weight 31. It is an essential element that takes part in a broad variety of biochemical reactions.
Native, inorganic or fossilized organic substances having a definite chemical composition and formed by inorganic reactions. They may occur as individual crystals or may be disseminated in some other mineral or rock. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed; McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Inorganic salts of phosphoric acid.
Substances that counteract or neutralize acidity of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT.
A class in the phylum CNIDARIA, comprised mostly of corals and anemones. All members occur only as polyps; the medusa stage is completely absent.
Disorders in the processing of phosphorus in the body: its absorption, transport, storage, and utilization.
A mass of organic or inorganic solid fragmented material, or the solid fragment itself, that comes from the weathering of rock and is carried by, suspended in, or dropped by air, water, or ice. It refers also to a mass that is accumulated by any other natural agent and that forms in layers on the earth's surface, such as sand, gravel, silt, mud, fill, or loess. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1689)
The salinated water of OCEANS AND SEAS that provides habitat for marine organisms.
A compound with many biomedical applications: as a gastric antacid, an antiperspirant, in dentifrices, as an emulsifier, as an adjuvant in bacterins and vaccines, in water purification, etc.
The interdisciplinary science that studies evolutionary biology, including the origin and evolution of the major elements required for life, their processing in the interstellar medium and in protostellar systems. This field also includes the study of chemical evolution and the subsequent interactions between evolving biota and planetary evolution as well as the field of biology that deals with the study of extraterrestrial life.
A colorless crystalline or white powdery organic, tricarboxylic acid occurring in plants, especially citrus fruits, and used as a flavoring agent, as an antioxidant in foods, and as a sequestrating agent. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Inorganic compounds that contain calcium as an integral part of the molecule.
The generic term for salts derived from silica or the silicic acids. They contain silicon, oxygen, and one or more metals, and may contain hydrogen. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th Ed)
Marine ridges composed of living CORALS, coral skeletons, calcareous algae, and other organisms, mixed with minerals and organic matter. They are found most commonly in tropical waters and support other animal and plant life.
The gaseous envelope surrounding a planet or similar body. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
Calcium salts of phosphoric acid. These compounds are frequently used as calcium supplements.
The science of the earth and other celestial bodies and their history as recorded in the rocks. It includes the study of geologic processes of an area such as rock formations, weathering and erosion, and sedimentation. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A great expanse of continuous bodies of salt water which together cover more than 70 percent of the earth's surface. Seas may be partially or entirely enclosed by land, and are smaller than the five oceans (Atlantic, Pacific, Indian, Arctic, and Antarctic).
The formation of a solid in a solution as a result of a chemical reaction or the aggregation of soluble substances into complexes large enough to fall out of solution.
A hard or leathery calciferous exterior covering of an egg.
Synthetic or natural materials for the replacement of bones or bone tissue. They include hard tissue replacement polymers, natural coral, hydroxyapatite, beta-tricalcium phosphate, and various other biomaterials. The bone substitutes as inert materials can be incorporated into surrounding tissue or gradually replaced by original tissue.
A genus of pearl oysters in the family Pteriidae, class BIVALVIA. Both cultured and natural pearls are obtained from species in the genus. They are distinct from the distantly related, edible true oysters of the family OSTREIDAE.
Inorganic salts that contain the -HCO3 radical. They are an important factor in determining the pH of the blood and the concentration of bicarbonate ions is regulated by the kidney. Levels in the blood are an index of the alkali reserve or buffering capacity.
Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.
An element in the alkali metals family. It has the atomic symbol Li, atomic number 3, and atomic weight [6.938; 6.997]. Salts of lithium are used in treating BIPOLAR DISORDER.
Stable oxygen atoms that have the same atomic number as the element oxygen, but differ in atomic weight. O-17 and 18 are stable oxygen isotopes.
A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.
Solid dosage forms, of varying weight, size, and shape, which may be molded or compressed, and which contain a medicinal substance in pure or diluted form. (Dorland, 28th ed)
A white, crystalline powder that is commonly used as a pH buffering agent, an electrolyte replenisher, systemic alkalizer and in topical cleansing solutions.
Chemicals that bind to and remove ions from solutions. Many chelating agents function through the formation of COORDINATION COMPLEXES with METALS.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A calcium salt that is used for a variety of purposes including: building materials, as a desiccant, in dentistry as an impression material, cast, or die, and in medicine for immobilizing casts and as a tablet excipient. It exists in various forms and states of hydration. Plaster of Paris is a mixture of powdered and heat-treated gypsum.
A chemical element having an atomic weight of 106.4, atomic number of 46, and the symbol Pd. It is a white, ductile metal resembling platinum, and following it in abundance and importance of applications. It is used in dentistry in the form of gold, silver, and copper alloys.
The environment outside the earth or its atmosphere. The environment may refer to a closed cabin (such as a space shuttle or space station) or to space itself, the moon, or other planets.
A polypeptide hormone (84 amino acid residues) secreted by the PARATHYROID GLANDS which performs the essential role of maintaining intracellular CALCIUM levels in the body. Parathyroid hormone increases intracellular calcium by promoting the release of CALCIUM from BONE, increases the intestinal absorption of calcium, increases the renal tubular reabsorption of calcium, and increases the renal excretion of phosphates.
Calcium compounds used as food supplements or in food to supply the body with calcium. Dietary calcium is needed during growth for bone development and for maintenance of skeletal integrity later in life to prevent osteoporosis.
A spectroscopic technique in which a range of wavelengths is presented simultaneously with an interferometer and the spectrum is mathematically derived from the pattern thus obtained.
A metallic element with the atomic symbol Ir, atomic number 77, and atomic weight 192.22.
Creation and development of bodies within solar systems, includes study of early planetary geology.
The formation of crystalline substances from solutions or melts. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
The cycle by which the element carbon is exchanged between organic matter and the earth's physical environment.

European interlaboratory comparison of breath 13CO2 analysis. (1/522)

The BIOMED I programme Stable Isotopes in Gastroenterology and Nutrition (SIGN) has focused upon evaluation and standardisation of stable isotope breath tests using 13C labelled substrates. The programme dealt with comparison of 13C substrates, test meals, test conditions, analysis techniques, and calculation procedures. Analytical techniques applied for 13CO2 analysis were evaluated by taking an inventory of instrumentation, calibration protocols, and analysis procedures. Two ring tests were initiated measuring 13C abundances of carbonate materials. Evaluating the data it was found that seven different models of isotope ratio mass spectrometers (IRMS) were used by the participants applying both the dual inlet system and the continuous flow configuration. Eight different brands of certified 13C reference materials were used with a 13C abundance varying from delta 13CPDB -37.2 to +2.0/1000. CO2 was liberated from certified material by three techniques and different working standards were used varying from -47.4 to +0.4/1000 in their delta 13CPDB value. The standard deviations (SDs) found for all measurements by all participants were 0.25/1000 and 0.50/1000 for two carbonates used in the ring tests. The individual variation for the single participants varied from 0.02 /1000 (dual inlet system) to 0.14/1000 (continuous flow system). The measurement of the difference between two carbonates showed a SD of 0.33/1000 calculated for all participants. Internal precision of IRMS as indicated by the specifications of the different instrument suppliers is < 0.3/1000 for continuous flow systems. In this respect it can be concluded that all participants are working well within the instrument specifications even including sample preparation. Increased overall interlaboratory variation is therefore likely to be due to non-instrumental conditions. It is possible that consistent differences in sample handling leading to isotope fractionation are the causes for interlaboratory variation. Breath analysis does not require sample preparation. As such, interlaboratory variation will be less than observed for the carbonate samples and within the range indicated as internal precision for continuous flow instruments. From this it is concluded that pure analytical interlaboratory variation is acceptable despite the many differences in instrumentation and analytical protocols. Coordinated metabolic studies appear possible, in which different European laboratories perform 13CO2 analysis. Evaluation of compatibility of the analytical systems remains advisable, however.  (+info)

Direct EPR detection of the carbonate radical anion produced from peroxynitrite and carbon dioxide. (2/522)

The biological effects of peroxynitrite have been recently considered to be largely dependent on its reaction with carbon dioxide, which is present in high concentrations in intra- and extracellular compartments. Peroxynitrite anion (ONOO-) reacts rapidly with carbon dioxide, forming an adduct, nitrosoperoxocarboxylate (ONOOCO2-), whose decomposition has been proposed to produce reactive intermediates such as the carbonate radical (CO-3). Here, by the use of rapid mixing continuous flow electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR), we directly detected the carbonate radical in flow mixtures of peroxynitrite with bicarbonate-carbon dioxide over the pH range of 6-9. The radical was unambiguously identified by its EPR parameters (g = 2.0113; line width = 5.5 G) and by experiments with bicarbonate labeled with 13C. In this case, the singlet EPR signal obtained with 12C bicarbonate splits into the expected doublet because of 13C (a(13C)= 11.7 G). The singlet spectrum of the unlabeled radical was invariant between pH 6 and 9, confirming that in this pH range the detected radical is the carbonate radical anion (CO-3). Importantly, in addition to contributing to the understanding of nitrosoperoxocarboxylate decomposition pathways, this is the first report unambiguously demonstrating the formation of the carbonate radical anion at physiological pHs by direct EPR spectroscopy.  (+info)

Islet cell membrane antigens activate diabetogenic CD4+ T-cells in the BB/Wor rat. (3/522)

Type 1 diabetes is a major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II-associated autoimmune disease mediated by beta-cell-specific T-cells and characterized by circulating autoantibodies to beta-cell molecules. In the BB/Wor diabetes-prone (DP) rat, type 1 diabetes develops spontaneously with an incidence of >90%. BB diabetes can be adoptively transferred to naive syngeneic or MHC class II-compatible rats with islet cell-activated T-cell lines derived from diabetic BB/Wor rats. However, the target beta-cell autoantigen(s) in BB diabetes has not yet been defined. BB rat T-cell lines activated in vitro with antigen-presenting cells (APC) and BB islet cell crude membranes (CM), but not islet cell cytosol, adoptively transfer diabetes into young DP recipients. To determine if the target autoantigen is an integral or peripheral membrane protein, islet cell CM were treated with 0.5 mol/l KCl or 0.2 mol/l Na2CO3 (pH 11). Both treatments selectively extract peripheral proteins from the cell membrane without affecting the disposition of integral (transmembrane) proteins. T-cell lines activated in vitro with APC and 0.5 mol/l KCl, or pH 11 (0.2 mol/l Na2CO3)-treated islet cell CM, transferred diabetes into young DP rats. Conversely, T-cell lines activated in vitro with APC and the supernatant of 0.5 mol/l KCl-treated CM (containing extracted peripheral proteins), did not adoptively transfer diabetes. After activation in vitro with islet cell membrane antigens, the diabetes-inducing cell lines were comprised of both CD4+ CD8- T-cells and 10-30% B-cells. We conclude that a major CD4+ T-cell target autoantigen in BB diabetes is a membrane-associated beta-cell molecule with the characteristics of an integral beta-cell membrane protein. The identification of this MHC class II-restricted beta-cell target molecule will allow the design of antigen-specific intervention protocols to prevent the onset of type 1 diabetes in genetically susceptible individuals.  (+info)

A 60 kDa plasma membrane protein changes its localization to autophagosome and autolysosome membranes during induction of autophagy in rat hepatoma cell line, H-4-II-E cells. (4/522)

We previously reported the preparation and characterization of an antibody against membrane fraction of autolysosomes from rat liver (J. Histochem. Cytochem. 38, 1571-1581, 1990). Immunoblot analyses of total membrane fraction of a rat hepatoma cell line, H-4-II-E cells by this antibody suggested that H-4-II-E cells expressed several autolysosomal proteins, including a protein with apparent molecular weight of 60 kDa. It was suggested that this 60 kDa protein was a peripheral membrane protein, because it was eluted from the membrane by sodium carbonate treatment. We prepared an antibody against this 60 kDa protein by affinity purification method, and examined its behavior during induction of autophagy. Autophagy was induced by transferring the cells from Dulbecco's modified Eagle medium (DMEM) containing 12% fetal calf serum into Hanks' balance salt solution. In DMEM, the 60 kDa protein showed diffused immunofluorescence pattern, and immunoelectron microscopy suggested that this protein was located on the extracellular side of the plasma membrane. After inducing autophagy, the immunofluorescence configuration of the 60 kDa protein changed from the diffused pattern to a granulous one. Immunoelectron microscopy showed that the 60 kDa protein was localized on the luminal side of the limiting membrane of autolysosomes and endosomes. In the presence of bafilomycin A1 which prevents fusion between autophagosomes and lysosomes, the 60 kDa protein was localized on the limiting membrane of the autophagosomes and endosomes. These results suggest that the 60 kDa protein is transported from the plasma membrane to the autophagosome membrane through the endosomes.  (+info)

Degradation of polycarbonate by a polyester-degrading strain, Amycolatopsis sp. strain HT-6. (5/522)

Amycolatopsis sp. strain HT-6, a poly(tetramethylene succinate) (PTMS)-degrading actinomycete, was observed to degrade poly(tetramethylene carbonate) (PTMC). In a liquid culture with 150 mg of PTMC film, 59% degradation was achieved, but with a low yield of cell growth. On the other hand, PTMS copolymerized with a small amount of PTMC, forming a copolyester carbonate (PEC) that was completely and rapidly degraded with a high yield of cell growth.  (+info)

T-1095, an inhibitor of renal Na+-glucose cotransporters, may provide a novel approach to treating diabetes. (6/522)

T-1095A and T-1095 are synthetic agents derived from phlorizin, a specific inhibitor of Na+-glucose cotransporters (SGLTs). Unlike phlorizin, T-1095 is absorbed into the circulation via oral administration, is metabolized to the active form, T-1095A, and suppresses the activity of SGLTs in the kidney. Orally administered T-1095 increases urinary glucose excretion in diabetic animals, thereby decreasing blood glucose levels. Indeed, the postprandial hyperglycemia after a meal load was shown to be suppressed by this compound in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. With long-term T-1095 treatment, both blood glucose and HbA1c levels were reduced in STZ-induced diabetic rats and yellow KK mice. In addition, there was amelioration of abnormal carbohydrate metabolism, i.e., hyperinsulinemia and hypertriglyceridemia, and of the development of microalbuminuria, in yellow KK mice. Thus, T-1095 may be a useful antidiabetic drug, providing a novel therapeutic approach for diabetes.  (+info)

The age of the carbonates in martian meteorite ALH84001. (7/522)

The age of secondary carbonate mineralization in the martian meteorite ALH84001 was determined to be 3.90 +/- 0.04 billion years by rubidium-strontium (Rb-Sr) dating and 4.04 +/- 0.10 billion years by lead-lead (Pb-Pb) dating. The Rb-Sr and Pb-Pb isochrons are defined by leachates of a mixture of high-graded carbonate (visually estimated as approximately 5 percent), whitlockite (trace), and orthopyroxene (approximately 95 percent). The carbonate formation age is contemporaneous with a period in martian history when the surface is thought to have had flowing water, but also was undergoing heavy bombardment by meteorites. Therefore, this age does not distinguish between aqueous and impact origins for the carbonates.  (+info)

Antibodies against pex14p block ATP-independent binding of matrix proteins to peroxisomes in vitro. (8/522)

The membrane protein Pex14p is a key component of the protein import machinery of peroxisomes. Antibodies raised against human Pex14p recognise a 66 kDa protein in sunflower glyoxysomes (HaPex14p) and immunoprecipitate in vitro-translated Arabidopsis Pex14p (AtPex14p). These antibodies inhibit the ATP-independent binding to sunflower peroxisome membranes of peroxisome targeting signal type (PTS) 1- and PTS2-targeted matrix proteins, but not an integral membrane protein. These results suggest that Pex14p functions before the ATP-dependent step of peroxisome assembly.  (+info)

Causes of Hyperphosphatemia:

There are several possible causes of hyperphosphatemia, including:

1. Kidney disease or failure: The kidneys regulate the levels of phosphate in the blood, and if they are not functioning properly, phosphate levels can become elevated.
2. Resistance to parathyroid hormone (PTH): PTH is a hormone that helps regulate calcium and phosphate levels in the body. If there is resistance to PTH, phosphate levels can become elevated.
3. Vitamin D deficiency: Vitamin D is important for the absorption of phosphate from food in the gut. A deficiency in vitamin D can lead to an excessive amount of phosphate in the blood.
4. Certain medications: Some medications, such as certain antacids and nutritional supplements, can contain high levels of phosphate and cause hyperphosphatemia.
5. Poor dietary habits: Consuming a diet that is high in phosphate-rich foods, such as meat and processed foods, can lead to elevated phosphate levels in the blood.

Symptoms of Hyperphosphatemia:

The symptoms of hyperphosphatemia can vary depending on the severity of the condition, but may include:

1. Bone pain or weakness
2. Fatigue
3. Nausea and vomiting
4. Weakness in the muscles
5. Rickets (in children)
6. Osteoporosis (in adults)
7. Kidney damage or failure

Diagnosis of Hyperphosphatemia:

Hyperphosphatemia is typically diagnosed through blood tests that measure the level of phosphate in the blood. Other tests may also be performed to assess kidney function and rule out other potential causes of elevated phosphate levels. These tests may include:

1. Serum creatinine test: This test measures the level of creatinine, a waste product that is produced by the muscles and removed from the blood by the kidneys. Elevated levels of creatinine can indicate kidney damage or failure.
2. Urine test: A urine test may be performed to check for proteinuria (excess protein in the urine), which can be a sign of kidney damage.
3. Parathyroid hormone (PTH) test: This test measures the level of PTH, a hormone that regulates calcium and phosphate levels in the blood. Elevated levels of PTH can indicate hyperparathyroidism, a condition in which the parathyroid glands produce too much PTH.
4. 24-hour urine phosphate test: This test measures the amount of phosphate excreted in the urine over a 24-hour period.

Treatment of Hyperphosphatemia:

The treatment of hyperphosphatemia depends on the underlying cause of the condition. Here are some possible treatment options:

1. Phosphate-binding agents: These medications, such as sevelamer and lanthanum carbonate, bind to phosphate in the gut and prevent it from being absorbed into the bloodstream.
2. Calcium supplements: Calcium can help to lower phosphate levels by binding to it and removing it from the bloodstream.
3. Dietary changes: A dietitian can work with you to develop a meal plan that limits phosphate-rich foods, such as meat, dairy products, and processed foods, while emphasizing fruits, vegetables, and whole grains.
4. Dialysis: In cases where the condition is caused by kidney failure, dialysis may be necessary to remove excess phosphate from the blood.
5. Surgery: In cases where the condition is caused by a parathyroid adenoma or hyperplasia, surgery may be necessary to remove the affected gland(s).

It's important to note that hyperphosphatemia can lead to complications such as mineral bone disease, which can cause weakened bones, bone pain, and an increased risk of fractures. Therefore, it's important to work with your healthcare provider to manage the condition and prevent these complications.

There are several types of phosphorus metabolism disorders, including:

1. Hypophosphatemia: This is a condition characterized by low levels of phosphorus in the blood. It can be caused by a variety of factors, such as malnutrition, kidney disease, or hormonal imbalances. Symptoms of hypophosphatemia can include fatigue, weakness, and bone pain.
2. Hyperphosphatemia: This is a condition characterized by high levels of phosphorus in the blood. It can be caused by conditions such as kidney disease or excessive intake of phosphorus-containing foods. Symptoms of hyperphosphatemia can include nausea, vomiting, and an increased risk of kidney stones.
3. Fanconi syndrome: This is a rare genetic disorder that affects the body's ability to absorb and utilize phosphorus. It is characterized by low levels of phosphorus in the blood, as well as other symptoms such as rickets, bone pain, and an increased risk of fractures.
4. X-linked hypophosphatemic tumor-induced osteomalacia (XLH): This is a rare genetic disorder that affects males and is characterized by low levels of phosphorus in the blood and an increased risk of bone fractures. It is caused by mutations in the TNS1 gene, which codes for a protein involved in phosphorus metabolism.
5. Tumor-induced osteomalacia (TIO): This is a rare disorder that is caused by tumors that produce excessive amounts of a hormone called fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23). This hormone interferes with the body's ability to absorb phosphorus, leading to low levels of phosphorus in the blood and an increased risk of bone fractures.
6. Chronic kidney disease: In advanced stages of chronic kidney disease, the kidneys may not be able to effectively remove excess phosphorus from the blood, leading to hyperphosphatemia.
7. Heart disease: High levels of phosphorus in the blood can increase the risk of heart disease, including conditions such as atherosclerosis and heart failure.
8. Kidney damage: Prolonged exposure to high levels of phosphorus in the blood can damage the kidneys and increase the risk of kidney disease.

It is important to note that these are just a few examples of conditions that can cause hyperphosphatemia, and there may be other causes as well. If you suspect that you or someone you know has hyperphosphatemia, it is important to consult with a healthcare professional for proper diagnosis and treatment.

... is an international scientific journal published 4 times a year by Springer and provides a forum for ... This includes the origin and stratigraphy of carbonate, and evaporite rocks and issues unique to these rock types: weathering ... the exchange of concepts, research and applications on all aspects of carbonate and evaporite geology. ...
The carbonates were discovered in an outcrop of rocks called "Comanche." Carbonates (calcium or iron carbonates) were ... At that time, carbonates would have formed from water and the carbon dioxide-rich atmosphere. Later the deposits of carbonate ... Earth has vast carbonate deposits in the form of limestone. Huygens Crater - circle shows location of carbonate deposit - ... These kind of carbonates only form when there is a lot of water. They were found with the Compact Reconnaissance Imaging ...
In geology and mineralogy, the term "carbonate" can refer both to carbonate minerals and carbonate rock (which is made of ... Important organocarbonates include dimethyl carbonate, the cyclic compounds ethylene carbonate and propylene carbonate, and the ... The word carbonate may also refer to a carbonate ester, an organic compound containing the carbonate group C(=O)(O-)2. The term ... a calcium-magnesium carbonate CaMg(CO3)2; and siderite, or iron(II) carbonate, FeCO3, an important iron ore. Sodium carbonate ...
... is the organic compound with the formula (C6H5O)2CO. It is classified as an acyclic carbonate ester. It is a ... Despite this, diphenyl carbonate made from non-phosgene sources has become a widely used raw material for the synthesis of ... World production capacity of diphenyl carbonate was 254,000 tonnes in 2002, and phosgenation of phenol is the most significant ... Polycarbonates can be prepared by transesterifying diphenyl carbonate with bisphenol A. Phenol is a co-product. These ...
... expressed in ppm does not necessarily equal carbonate alkalinity expressed in ppm. Carbonate Alkalinity CA ( ... meaning the concentration of carbonate expressed as if calcium carbonate were the sole source of carbonate ions. An aqueous ... Carbonate hardness, is a measure of the water hardness caused by the presence of carbonate (CO2− 3) and bicarbonate (HCO− 3) ... Carbonate hardness should not be confused with a similar measure Carbonate Alkalinity which is expressed in either [milli[ ...
... , Rb2CO3, is a convenient compound of rubidium; it is stable, not particularly reactive, and readily soluble ... This salt can be prepared by adding ammonium carbonate to rubidium hydroxide. It is used in some kinds of glass-making by ... Carbonates, Rubidium compounds, All stub articles, Inorganic compound stubs). ...
... is mainly used in the production of soap and glass. Potassium carbonate is the primary component of potash ... Use of potassium carbonate must be limited to a certain amount to prevent harm, and should not be used without guidance. in the ... Potassium carbonate is the inorganic compound with the formula K2CO3. It is a white salt, which is soluble in water. It is ... Potassium carbonate is prepared commercially by the reaction potassium hydroxide with carbon dioxide: 2 KOH + CO2 → K2CO3 + H2O ...
Basic beryllium carbonate is a mixed salt, which can be prepared by the reaction of beryllium sulfate and ammonium carbonate, ... No purely beryllium carbonate is known to occur naturally. The only Be-rich carbonate mineral currently known is niveolanite. " ... Beryllium carbonate is a chemical compound with the chemical formula BeCO3. There are three forms reported, anhydrous, a ... "Beryllium carbonate". NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards. "#0054". National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health ( ...
What are Cap Carbonates? at v t e (Carbonate rocks, Glaciology, All stub articles, Geology stubs). ... Cap carbonates are layers of distinctively textured carbonate rocks (either limestone or dolomite) that occur at the uppermost ... A third theory for cap carbonate formation is that methane hydrate destabilization results in the formation of cap carbonate ... Cap carbonates are found on most continents. They are typically 3-30 meters thick, laminated structures. They are depleted in ...
The carbonate centers are bonded to bidentate to a single Pb and bridge to five other Pb sites. Lead carbonate is manufactured ... Like all metal carbonates, lead(II) carbonate adopts a dense, highly crosslinked structure consisting of intact CO2−3 and metal ... A number of lead carbonates are known: White lead, a basic lead carbonate, 2PbCO3·Pb(OH)2 Shannonite, PbCO3·PbO Plumbonacrite, ... salt more soluble than the carbonate with ammonium carbonate at a low temperature to avoid formation of basic lead carbonate. ...
... is the inorganic compound with the formula BaCO3. Like most alkaline earth metal carbonates, it is a white ... Barium carbonate is made commercially from barium sulfide by treatment with sodium carbonate at 60 to 70 °C (soda ash method) ... Wikimedia Commons has media related to Barium carbonate. "Preparation and Characterization of Barium Carbonate Nanoparticles - ... an aqueous solution of barium sulfide is treated with sodium carbonate: BaS + H2O + CO2 → BaCO3 + H2S Barium carbonate reacts ...
... , or 1,3-propylene carbonate, is a 6-membered cyclic carbonate ester. It is a colourless solid that upon ... C3H6O2CO This cyclic carbonate undergoes ring-opening polymerization to give poly(trimethylene carbonate), abbreviated PTMC. ... Ethylene carbonate Chan, J. M. W.; Zhang, X.; Sardon, H.; Engler, A. C.; Fox, C. H.; Frank, C. W.; Waymouth, R. M.; Hedrick, J ... A block copolymer of glycolic acid and trimethylene carbonate (TMC) is the material of the Maxon suture, a monofilament ...
... adopts the same structure as calcium carbonate. Zinc is octahedral and each carbonate is bonded to six Zn ... Zinc carbonate is the inorganic compound with the formula ZnCO3. It is a white solid that is insoluble in water. It exists in ... Upon warming, it converts to basic zinc carbonate (Zn5(CO3)2(OH)6). ... "Zinc carbonate". In G. Brauer (ed.). Handbook of Preparative Inorganic Chemistry, 2nd Ed. Vol. 2. NY, NY: Academic Press. p. ...
The sulfate carbonates are a compound carbonates, or mixed anion compounds that contain sulfate and carbonate ions. Sulfate ... In some structures carbonate and sulfate can substitute for each other. For example a range from 1.4 to 2.2 Na2SO4•Na2CO3 is ... Silvialite can substitute about half its sulfate with carbonate and the high temperature hexagonal form of sodium sulfate (I) ... They may be formed by crystallization from a water solution, or by melting a carbonate and sulfate together. ...
Ethylene carbonate "DIETHYL CARBONATE". Retrieved 2010-02-01. Ding, Michael (2001). "Liquid/Solid Phase Diagrams of Binary ... diethyl carbonate is a colorless liquid with a low flash point. Diethyl carbonate is used as a solvent such as in erythromycin ... Diethyl carbonate (sometimes abbreviated DEC) is an ester of carbonic acid and ethanol with the formula OC(OCH2CH3)2. At room ... Another method is transesterification from dimethyl carbonate. Yet another method is from the reaction of ethyl nitrite and ...
... is an inorganic compound, the lithium salt of carbonate with the formula Li 2CO 3. This white salt is widely ... Lithium carbonate is used to impart a red color to fireworks. Unlike sodium carbonate, which forms at least three hydrates, ... Prescription lithium carbonate from a pharmacy is suitable for use as medicine in humans while industrial lithium carbonate is ... Lithium carbonate may be converted into lithium hydroxide before conversion to the compounds above. In 1843, lithium carbonate ...
2-Butylene carbonate, but it may also refer to: cis-2,3-Butylene carbonate trans-2,3-Butylene carbonate Propylene carbonate ... Ethylene carbonate, or dioxolan-2-one This set index page lists chemical compounds articles associated with the same name. If ...
Small carbonate esters like dimethyl carbonate, ethylene carbonate, propylene carbonate are used as solvents, dimethyl ... a cyclic carbonate ester Trimethylene carbonate, another cyclic carbonate ester Poly(propylene carbonate) Poly(bisphenol A ... A third family of carbonates are the polymers, such as poly(propylene carbonate) and poly(bisphenol A carbonate) (e.g. Makrolon ... Diphenyl carbonate, a representative acyclic carbonate ester Dimethyl dicarbonate, a preservative Ethylene carbonate, ...
... (Al2(CO3)3), is a carbonate of aluminium. It is not well characterized; one authority says that simple ... Although aluminium carbonate is highly unstable, carbonate species readily form on the surface of aluminium oxide when exposed ... There is no evidence that aluminium carbonate is formed in double displacement reactions; soluble carbonates are sufficiently ... Aluminium carbonate, along with aluminium hydroxide and aluminium oxide, is a phosphate-binding drug that is sometimes ...
The carbonate chlorides are double salts containing both carbonate and chloride anions. Quite a few minerals are known. Several ... The carbonate chlorides do not have a bond from chlorine to carbon, however "chlorocarbonate" has also been used to refer to ... Wang, Yanyan; Han, Tian; Ding, You-Song; Zheng, Zhiping; Zheng, Yan-Zhen (2016). "Sodalite-like rare-earth carbonates: a study ... Some complexes have both carbonate and chloride ligands. They are part of the family of halocarbonates. In turn these ...
C2Cl4O2CO → C2O2Cl2 + COCl2 Propylene carbonate Vinylene carbonate Diethyl carbonate Trimethylene carbonate Carbonate ester ... Other components like diethyl carbonate, ethyl methyl carbonate, dimethyl carbonate and methyl acetate can be added to those ... 2 NH3 Ethylene carbonate (and propylene carbonate) may be converted to dimethyl carbonate (a useful solvent and a mild ... Oxalyl chloride is produced commercially from ethylene carbonate. Photochlorination gives the tetrachloroethylene carbonate: ...
... can be prepared by combining aqueous solutions of sodium carbonate with a deficiency of silver nitrate. 2 AgNO ... Freshly prepared silver carbonate is colourless, but the solid quickly turns yellow. Silver carbonate reacts with ammonia to ... Silver carbonate is the chemical compound with the formula Ag2CO3. This salt is yellow but typical samples are grayish due to ... "Silver Carbonate MSDS". Salt Lake City, Utah: Salt Lake Metals. Retrieved 2021-08-05. Sigma-Aldrich Co., ...
... lead uranyl carbonate) Zellerite (hydrated calcium uranyl carbonate) Znucalite (hydrated calcium zinc uranyl carbonate ... hydrated calcium uranyl carbonate) Grimselite (hydrated potassium sodium uranyl carbonate) Joliotite (hydrated uranyl carbonate ... Many uranyl carbonates exist, rutherfordine being the simplest stoichiometry. Most uranyl carbonates additional components ... Uranyl carbonates include: Andersonite (hydrated sodium calcium uranyl carbonate) Astrocyanite-(Ce) (hydrated copper cerium ...
... talc and the carbonate mineral magnesite. Talc carbonate mineral assemblages are controlled by temperature and pressure of ... Talc carbonates are a suite of rock and mineral compositions found in metamorphosed ultramafic rocks. The term refers to the ... Talc carbonate is present in many of the ultramafic bodies of the Archaean Yilgarn Craton, Western Australia. Notably, the ... Carbon dioxide has less severe impacts on mafic, felsic and rocks of other composition, such as carbonate rocks, chemical ...
... s are those minerals containing the carbonate ion, CO2− 3. Calcite group: trigonal Calcite CaCO3 Gaspéite (Ni, ... x add-on letter 05.A Carbonates without additional anions, without H2O 05.AA Alkali carbonates: 05 Zabuyelite; 10 Gregoryite, ... Media related to Carbonates (minerals) at Wikimedia Commons (Articles with short description, Short description is different ... 2 Carbonate with hydroxide: monoclinic Azurite Cu3(CO3)2(OH)2 Hydrocerussite Pb3(CO3)2(OH)2 Malachite Cu2CO3(OH)2 Rosasite (Cu, ...
... can also be thought of as the cyclic carbonate of the hypothetical (Z)-ethene-1,2-diol. The activated double ... Since its first description in 1953, ethylene carbonate has been commonly used as starting material for vinylene carbonate. In ... diethyl carbonate and the like. The first publication on vinylene carbonate described its Diels-Alder reaction using the ... vinylene carbonate), Chinese J. Polym. Sci., 8(3), 197-203 (1990). US 3332894, P.A. Cantor, R.E. Kesting, "Polyvinyl carbonate ...
Production of dimethyl carbonate worldwide is limited to Asia, the Middle East, and Europe. Dimethyl carbonate is traditionally ... A large captive use of dimethyl carbonate is for the production of diphenyl carbonate through transesterification with phenol. ... Dimethyl carbonate has solubility profile similar to common glycol ethers, meaning dimethyl carbonate can dissolve most common ... H2O It can also be produced industrially by a transesterification of ethylene carbonate or propylene carbonate and methanol, ...
... are surfaces of synsedimentarily cemented carbonate layers that have been exposed on the seafloor (Wilson ... Carbonate hardgrounds often host a unique fauna and flora adapted to the hard surface. Organisms usually cement themselves to ... Carbonate hardground with an encrusting bryozoan; Kanosh Formation (Middle Ordovician) of Utah; scale in mm. Cross-section of a ... Carbonate hardground; Ora Formation, Upper Cretaceous (Turonian), southern Israel. Bodenbender, B.E.; Wilson, M.A.; Palmer, T.J ...
... (PPC), a copolymer of carbon dioxide and propylene oxide, is a thermoplastic material. Catalysts like ... Composites of polypropylene carbonate with starch (PPC/starch) are used as biodegradable plastics. One of the largest ... Polypropylene carbonate is soluble in polar solvents like lower ketones, ethyl acetate, dichloromethane and chlorinated ... The glass temperature of PPC is slightly greater than polyethylene carbonate (PEC). Its refractive index is 1.46 while its ...
The carbonate oxalates are mixed anion compounds that contain both carbonate (CO3) and oxalate (C2O4) anions. Most compounds ... Some carbonate oxalate compounds of variable composition are formed by heating oxalates. One method to form carbonate oxalates ... When heated, oxalate carbonates decompose to carbon monoxide and carbonates, which form oxides at higher temperatures. Cindrić ... Romero, S (1997). "A new family of lanthanide oxalate carbonate, [Ln(H2O)]2(C2O4)(CO3)2 with Ln = Eu...Ho, presenting a ...
Students Launch Web-Based Forum on Carbonates A pair of students in Norway have taken the initiative to start-up a Web-based ... Tethyan Carbonates - Linking Tropical Seas and Crashing Plates to Some of the Largest Oil and Gas Fields in the World ... The carbonate sequences that were deposited in the now exhumed Tethyan Ocean influence many aspects of our lives today, either ... The first order control on growth patterns and carbonate platform development by the regional plate-tectonic setting, ...
Calcium salt of carbonic acid [Note: Occurs in nature as as limestone, chalk, marble, dolomite, aragonite, calcite and oyster shells.] White, odorless powder or colorless crystals.
LITHIUM CARBONATE (UNII: 2BMD2GNA4V) (LITHIUM CATION - UNII:8H8Z5UER66) LITHIUM CARBONATE. 150 mg. ... LITHIUM CARBONATE (UNII: 2BMD2GNA4V) (LITHIUM CATION - UNII:8H8Z5UER66) LITHIUM CARBONATE. 300 mg. ... LITHIUM CARBONATE capsule. To receive this label RSS feed. Copy the URL below and paste it into your RSS Reader application. ... Lithium Carbonate 150 mg Capsules are White/White size 4 hard gelatin capsules, imprinted with 97 on body and H on cap, ...
Sodium carbonate is also used a food additive. ... Sodium carbonate is known as soda ash. It plays a role in glass ... Uses of Sodium Carbonate The National Library of Medicine Toxicology Data Network explains that sodium carbonate has a vast ... About Sodium Carbonate Sodium carbonate occurs naturally on earth, but may also be manufactured by mixing sodium chloride (salt ... What Is Sodium Carbonate? By Andrea Boldt Updated Sep 4, 2019 Reviewed by Claudia Thompson, PhD, RD ...
A recent market study published by FMI on Nickel Carbonate offers a global industry analysis for 2017-2021 and opportunity ... The global Nickel Carbonate Market is segmented in detail to cover every aspect of the market and present complete market ... This chapter includes a detailed analysis of the growth of Nickel Carbonate in the East Asia Region, along with a country-wise ... This chapter includes a detailed analysis of the growth of Nickel Carbonate in the South Asia Region, along with a country-wise ...
Calcium Carbonate: learn about side effects, dosage, special precautions, and more on MedlinePlus ... Before taking calcium carbonate,. *tell your doctor and pharmacist if you are allergic to calcium carbonate or any other drugs. ... Gas-X® with Maalox® (containing Calcium Carbonate, Simethicone). *Rolaids® Plus Gas Relief (containing Calcium Carbonate, ... Take calcium carbonate exactly as directed. Do not take more or less of it or take it more often than prescribed by your doctor ...
T 0056/08 (Epoxidation with palladium and carbonates/LYONDELL) of 3.3.2011. European Case Law Identifier:. ECLI:EP:BA:2011: ... Auxiliary request II differs from the main request in that the respective amounts of calcium carbonate, carbon dioxide and ... Since the promoter metal compound is contacted in water with sodium carbonate during preparation, the Opposition Division came ... the dependent claims 2-7 and 10 have been deleted and the respective amounts of calcium carbonate, carbon dioxide and ammonium ...
Salt from potassium carbonate and water from the dihydrate are mixed into a deliquescent (wet salt). It is a strong alkaline ... Potassium carbonate dihydrate is generally used as a nutritional supplement in ... Potassium carbonate dihydrate (K2CO3.2H2O) is a white chemical. ... Potassium carbonate is also known as:. *Carbonate of Potash. * ... Potassium Carbonate Uses. Since potassium carbonate is so versatile, it can be used in food, the lab, fire control, etc. ...
pms-Lithium Carbonate: Lithium is used to treat manic episodes of bipolar disorder. It helps to control the symptoms of mania, ... 02216159 pms-Lithium Carbonate 600 mg Capsule. 02216140 pms-Lithium Carbonate 300 mg Capsule. 02216132 pms-Lithium Carbonate ... There may be an interaction between lithium carbonate and any of the following: ... contains 150 mg of lithium carbonate. Nonmedicinal ingredients: talc; capsule shell: D&C Red No. 28, D&C Yellow No. 10, FD&C ...
This new planet-wide animated map, based on a decade of space agency research, shows where water can be found on Mars.. ...
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... is a synthetic analog of rhombohedral carbonate minerals like calcite and dolomite that is disordered on both the cation and ... Balcite (BaxCa1−xCO3) is a synthetic analog of rhombohedral carbonate minerals like calcite and dolomite that is disordered on ... Superlattice ordering transitions driven by short-range structure in barium calcium carbonates Michael. L. Whittaker, E. Pri- ... Many of the exotic high temperature carbonate structures are unstable, but may participate in transformation pathways between ...
Calcium Carbonate online with Swanson Health Products, where unparalleled quality meets unbeatable prices. ...
... potassium carbonates, calcium carbonate, barium carbonate, lithium carbonates, strontium carbonate, carbonates of magnesium and ... disodium carbonate, sodium hydrogencarbonate sodium bicarbonate, potassium carbonates, calcium carbonate, barium carbonate, ... Carbonates; commercial ammonium carbonate containing ammonium carbamate (excl. disodium carbonate, sodium hydrogencarbonate ... Carbonates; peroxocarbonates percarbonates; commercial ammonium carbonate containing ammonium carbamate Commodity code: 28 36 ...
This week I want to expand on the potential role of carbonate minerals for fighting rising CO₂ levels in the atmosphere. ... There are several ways that carbonate chemistry could be exploited to use calcium carbonate in chalk and limestone for CCS. One ... Calcium carbonate, however, is not soluble in plain seawater. In that sense, the answer would be "no, they cant be used" - at ... The Carbonate Solution, Part 1: Brute Force. By PI News Feed on June 28, 2016. ...
Netherlands Carbonates Category Profile 2014 - Nicaragua Carbonates Category Profile 2014 - Switzerland Carbonates Category ... The Saudi Arabia Carbonates Category Profile 2014 from Canadean provides a comprehensive overview of the Carbonates market in ... Global Carbonates Report 2014 - Comprehensive Analysis of Trends in the Global Carbonates Market Including Long-term Forecasts ... Indonesia Carbonates Category Profile 2014 Company: Fast Market Research, Inc.. Contact Name: Bill Thompson. Contact Email: ...
Homewater carbonating machine. water carbonating machine. Info about SodaStream including Sugar free soda syrup that taste as ...
With numerous carbonate bioherms having already been depleted across the Permian Basin they are excellent candidates for future ... Carbonate Facies in the Good Field, Borden County, Texas. Jesse Garnett White ... Insight into the exact nature of a carbonate bioherm has implications for geologic modeling and proper well placement for ... Reviewing cores to maximize geologic understanding of carbonate bioherm reservoirs, their lithofacies distribution, ...
2025 Copper Ammonium Carbonate Market Outlook and Growth Opportunities 2019- 2025 Copper Ammonium Carbonate market report - - ... Copper Ammonium Carbonate Market Outlook and Growth Opportunities 2019- ... 4. Global Copper Ammonium Carbonate Market Outlook and Growth Opportunities by Type. 5. Global Copper Ammonium Carbonate Market ... Copper Ammonium Carbonate Market Outlook and Growth Opportunities 2019- 2025. Copper Ammonium Carbonate market report - 9th ...
... the pH Scale and Carbonic Acid Formation to Understand the Effect of Ocean Acidification on Organisms with Calcium Carbonate ... the pH Scale and Carbonic Acid Formation to Understand the Effect of Ocean Acidification on Organisms with Calcium Carbonate ... dioxide and ocean acidification and that ocean acidification may have an effect on marine organisms with calcium carbonate ...
Carbonate hydrothermal vein mineralization in granitoid rocks of the Central Bohemian Pluton at the Mokrsko-West gold deposit, ...
The particle size of the slaked lime is a key parameter for the precipitation of calcium carbonate. ... Production of Precipitated Calcium Carbonate (PCC). Raw ingredient in production of PCC ... paper plant or when producing precipitated production carbonate (PCC). ... paper plant or when producing precipitated production carbonate (PCC). ...
The carbonates are therefore more than a million years older than comparable carbonates in other types of carbonaceous ... 6 Comments on Oldest Carbonates in the Solar System - Heidelberg Ion Probe Used to Date Flensburg Meteorite * The 10th Man , ... Carbonates are ubiquitous rocks on Earth. They can be found in the mountain ranges of the Dolomites, the chalk cliffs on the ... Oldest Carbonates in the Solar System - Heidelberg Ion Probe Used to Date Flensburg Meteorite TOPICS:GeologyGeophysics ...
Propylene Carbonate Market. Propylene Carbonate Market Share & Trends Analysis, By Application (Solvent, Electrolyte, Additive ...
EP-0012578-B1 chemical patent summary.
3.7.1 Carbonates. The most common carbonate mineral is calcite (CaCO3) (Figure 61a). Calcite is one polymorph of CaCO3. Another ... Dolomite (CaMg(CO3)2) is another carbonate mineral that is found in many limestones. Dolomite rocks form when there is an ... provides a good test for calcium carbonate in hand specimen. A few drops, carefully applied, will fizz, giving off carbon ...
... calcium carbonate), frequency-based adverse effects, comprehensive interactions, contraindications, pregnancy & lactation ... encoded search term (calcium carbonate (calcium carbonate)) and calcium carbonate (calcium carbonate) What to Read Next on ... lanthanum carbonate. Monitor Closely (1)lanthanum carbonate, calcium carbonate. cation binding in GI tract. Use Caution/Monitor ... lanthanum carbonate. lanthanum carbonate, calcium carbonate. cation binding in GI tract. Use Caution/Monitor. Administer ...
This short article discusses how to use a carbonation stone for quickly force carbonating beer or other beverages. ... Some people like to speed up the process of force carbonating beer by putting extra high pressure on the keg, but a more ... A better solution for speeding up carbonation would be to use a Carbonating Stone, also known as a diffusion stone. This is a ... Carbonation should be virtually instantaneous, though the manufacturer recommends carbonating your beer at least a few hours ...
PH+ US Made Calcium Carbonate re-mineralization filter for ROES-PH75 ... 6th Stage: 10" High Purity pH+ Calcium Carbonate Re-mineralization Inline Filters w/ Quick Connect. Recommend changing every 6- ... This mineral cartridge adds only high-purity calcium carbonate to effectively neutralize acidity and raise pH in the water. ... 6th stage 10" High Purity pH+ Calcium Carbonate Re-mineralization Inline Filters w/ Quick Connect ...
These carbonates were deposited on the margin of the Arabian Plate and rest on the Kazhdumi Formation, which is one of the ... Shallow-marine carbonates of the mid-Cretaceous Sarvak Formation are important reservoir rocks in southern Iran and the Persian ... Diagenetic history and reservoir properties of the Cenomanian-Turonian carbonates in southwestern Iran and the Persian Gulf. ... Various types of calcite cements were identified as the main cause for porosity loss in these carbonates. Their diagenetic ...
  • No information is available on the use of lanthanum carbonate during breastfeeding in humans. (
  • Lanthanum carbonate should not be used in nursing mothers. (
  • Lanthanum carbonate, a potent and selective phosphate binder, is transported and absorbed mainly via M cells in gastrointestinal tract. (
  • Pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic profile of lanthanum carbonate]. (
  • Assessment of the application for renewal of authorisation of Lantharenol ® (lanthanum carbonate octahydrate) for cats. (
  • Lanthanum carbonate (Fosrenol) efficacy and tolerability in the treatment of hyperphosphatemic patients with end-stage renal disease. (
  • Lanthanum carbonate is used to lower phosphate levels in patients with end stage kidney disease. (
  • Lanthanum carbonate may also be used for purposes not listed in this medication guide. (
  • What is Lanthanum Carbonate (Fosrenol) used for? (
  • If you need to have any type of x-ray of your stomach area , tell the doctor ahead of time that you are using lanthanum carbonate. (
  • Can I take Lanthanum Carbonate (Fosrenol) if I'm pregnant or breastfeeding? (
  • Lanthanum carbonate can make it harder for your body to absorb other medicines you take by mouth. (
  • Use Lanthanum Carbonate (Fosrenol) exactly as directed on the label, or as prescribed by your doctor. (
  • Take lanthanum carbonate with food or immediately after eating. (
  • If you have tooth problems or cannot chew easily, crush the chewable tablet before swallowing, or ask your doctor about using the oral powder form of lanthanum carbonate. (
  • While using lanthanum carbonate, you may need frequent blood tests. (
  • Lanthanum carbonate is a noncalcium, nonaluminum phosphate binder indicated for the reduction of high phosphorus levels in patients with end-stage renal disease. (
  • Managing chronic kidney disease (CKD) and slowing the decline in kidney function: Advanced CKD requires drugs to maintain electrolyte levels (eg, calcium carbonate, calcium acetate, sevelamer, lanthanum carbonate, calcitriol, diuretics. (
  • tell your doctor and pharmacist if you are allergic to calcium carbonate or any other drugs. (
  • 1. A process for producing an epoxide comprising reacting an olefin, oxygen, and hydrogen in the presence of a modifier and a catalyst comprising palladium and titanium zeolite, wherein the modifier is (a) calcium carbonate in the presence of carbon dioxide or (b) ammonium bicarbonate. (
  • 14. A process comprising reacting propylene, hydrogen and oxygen in a solvent in the presence of a modifier and a catalyst comprising palladium and a titanium silicalite, wherein the modifier is calcium carbonate in the presence of carbon dioxide. (
  • Auxiliary request II differs from the main request in that the respective amounts of calcium carbonate, carbon dioxide and ammonium bicarbonate have been added to the independent claims. (
  • the dependent claims 2-7 and 10 have been deleted and the respective amounts of calcium carbonate, carbon dioxide and ammonium bicarbonate have been added to the independent claims. (
  • Auxiliary request V is based on auxiliary request IV with the addition of the respective amounts of ammonium bicarbonate, calcium carbonate and carbon dioxide to the independent claims. (
  • The process creates a byproduct of potassium hydroxide, which is then mixed with carbon dioxide to produce potassium carbonate and water. (
  • What Is Sodium Carbonate? (
  • Sodium carbonate is in soap. (
  • Don't confuse sodium carbonate with sodium bicarbonate. (
  • The latter is the standard baking soda you'd find in your cupboard, while sodium carbonate is an ingredient in dish soap, glass products and floor cleaners. (
  • Sodium carbonate is also a food additive recognized as generally recognized as safe by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. (
  • Sodium carbonate is sometimes called soda ash or disodium carbonate. (
  • Sodium carbonate, or soda ash, is a common ingredient in many manufacturing processes and is also a food additive. (
  • Sodium carbonate occurs naturally on earth, but may also be manufactured by mixing sodium chloride (salt) with ammonia. (
  • Pick up sodium carbonate at grocery stores or at swimming pool supply stores as well as hardware stores. (
  • What Are Sodium Carbonate & Sodium Percarbonate? (
  • For the most part, however, sodium carbonate has a low risk of toxicity . (
  • Sodium carbonate is approved as a food additive according to the Food and Drug Administration . (
  • If you ingest sodium carbonate, you won't get a load of sodium (despite the compound's name. (
  • Oral consumption of sodium carbonate dissolved in water could act as an antacid. (
  • The National Library of Medicine Toxicology Data Network explains that sodium carbonate has a vast number of uses. (
  • You may encounter sodium carbonate in laundry and dish washing detergent, floor cleaners, degreasers, cosmetics, scouring powders and soaps. (
  • Toothpaste often includes sodium carbonate to help raise mouth pH and act as a foaming agent, explains UC Davis . (
  • As a food additive, sodium carbonate is commonly included in ramen noodles to give them a springy texture. (
  • Sodium bicarbonate is a similar compound, but isn't the same thing as sodium carbonate. (
  • Although sodium carbonate has antacid properties, sodium bicarbonate is actually a prescribed medication to relieve heartburn and acid indigestion, according to Medline Plus . (
  • Sodium bicarbonate, not sodium carbonate, has solid research behind its ability to boost exercise performance too. (
  • Sodium carbonate (known as washing soda or soda ash) is a chemical found in many household and industrial products. (
  • Calcium carbonate is a dietary supplement used when the amount of calcium taken in the diet is not enough. (
  • Calcium carbonate is commonly found in antacids (for heartburn) and some dietary supplements. (
  • forms of calcium in dietary supplements are calcium carbonate and calcium citrate. (
  • Calcium carbonate combines with dietary phosphate to form insoluble calcium phosphate, which is excreted in feces. (
  • Lithium Carbonate is a white, light, alkaline powder with molecular formula Li 2 CO 3 and molecular weight 73.89. (
  • Potassium carbonate is a white powder used to make soap, glass, and other items. (
  • Each hard gelatin capsule with a yellow opaque body and an orange cap, with 'pms' and '150' printed on the cap in blue ink, and 'LITH' imprinted on the body in blue ink, containing a fine white-to-off-white powder, contains 150 mg of lithium carbonate. (
  • Calcium carbonate also is used as an antacid to relieve heartburn, acid indigestion, and upset stomach. (
  • Do not take calcium carbonate as an antacid for more than 2 weeks unless your doctor tells you to. (
  • Carbonate rocks commonly grade naturally into siliciclastic sedimentary rocks as the proportion of terrigenous grains of varying size and mineralogy increases. (
  • The combination of calcium carbonate and magnesium is commonly found in antacids. (
  • Potassium carbonate is still commonly used as a baking ingredient in thick breads such as gingerbread. (
  • Calcium carbonate comes as a tablet, chewable tablet, capsule, and liquid to take by mouth. (
  • Oöids develop today on shallow shelf areas where strong bottom currents can wash the various kinds of material that form oöid nuclei back and forth in well-agitated, warm water that is supersaturated with calcium carbonate. (
  • Lithium Carbonate is also known as Lithobid or also Eskalith. (
  • Each capsule for oral administration contains 150 mg, 300 mg or 600 mg of Lithium Carbonate USP. (
  • Lithium Carbonate Capsule USP is indicated in the treatment of manic episodes of Bipolar Disorder. (
  • Lithium Carbonate Capsule USP is also indicated as a maintenance treatment for individuals with a diagnosis of Bipolar Disorder. (
  • How are changing demographics (for example, an ageing or predominantly young population) determining consumption of Carbonates in Nigeria? (
  • Limestones and dolomites are collectively referred to as carbonates because they consist predominantly of the carbonate minerals calcite (CaCO 3 ) and dolomite (CaMg[CO 3 ] 2 ). (
  • Potassium carbonate dihydrate (K2CO3.2H2O) is a white chemical. (
  • Salt from potassium carbonate and water from the dihydrate are mixed into a deliquescent (wet salt). (
  • Potassium carbonate dihydrate is generally used as a nutritional supplement in livestock feed. (
  • It has several other uses when the water molecules are removed from the potassium carbonate dihydrate. (
  • When more water is added to potassium carbonate dihydrate, it dissolves into a solution. (
  • In its near dry state, potassium carbonate dihydrate can be used to produce soaps and glass. (
  • In 1742, Antonio Campanella discovered potassium carbonate and found it to be the primary component of potash. (
  • Producing potassium carbonate is simple enough and can be done via electrolysis. (
  • Electrolysis produces potassium carbonate in commercial quantities by running an electrical current through potassium chloride. (
  • When potassium carbonate is mixed with water, there is an exothermic reaction that causes it to heat up. (
  • Potassium carbonate dihydrate is a suitable electrolyte replacement when used in generators and other devices that run on the electrolyte solution processes. (
  • Potassium carbonate can be used in food production. (
  • A common Asian cuisine that uses potassium carbonate is grass jelly. (
  • Potassium carbonate can be used as a buffering agent to produce mead or wines. (
  • Potassium carbonate is a suitable replacement for calcium chloride and magnesium sulfate when used as a drying agent in the lab. (
  • The organic drying phase can be done with the potassium carbonate to carefully remove small traces of acidic impurities for better preservation of dried specimens. (
  • In the nuclear fusion field, potassium carbonate can be formed into an electrolyte that aids in cold fusion experiments. (
  • Potassium carbonate is used to maintain the anhydrous (without water) conditions possible when used in a way that will not react with other reactants or any products that are formed from the processing of said reactants. (
  • Potassium carbonate can also be used to dry ketones, alcohols, and amines before they are distilled. (
  • Potassium carbonate can be used in extinguishers to out high heat flame fires (such as oil fires and other types of class B fires). (
  • The medication that we will be talking about is Lithium Carbonate. (
  • Lithium Carbonate is a mood stabilizer. (
  • D.B. has been taking Lithium Carbonate for about 5 years. (
  • Learning about Lithium Carbonate I needed do my own research on learning about this drug. (
  • Lithium Carbonate is not typically prescribed to many people. (
  • In order to be prescribed Lithium Carbonate you have to be seen someone in behavioral health vs. by your family doctor. (
  • Spatially Ordered Arrangement of Multifunctional Sites at Molecule Level in a Single Catalyst for Tandem Synthesis of Cyclic Carbonates. (
  • Some liquid forms of calcium carbonate must be shaken well before use. (
  • The texture , sedimentary structures, composition , and organic content of carbonates provide numerous insights into the environment of deposition and regional paleogeography . (
  • In this regard, the selective and efficient conversion of light olefins with CO2 into high-value-added organic cyclic carbonates (OCCs) is of great significance owing to their high atom economy and absence of the isolation of intermediates. (
  • Carbonate minerals present in ancient limestones and dolomites occur in one of three textural forms: (1) discrete silt to sand to coarser carbonate grains, or allochems , such as oöids or skeletal fragments, (2) mud-size interstitial calcium carbonate matrix called microcrystalline calcite or micrite, and (3) interlocking, 0.02- to 0.1-millimetre-diameter crystals of clear interstitial calcium carbonate cement or spar. (
  • Do not take calcium carbonate within 1-2 hours of taking other medicines. (
  • Black crystals of Robertsite on pink carbonate-hydroxylapatite. (
  • Modern carbonate sediments are composed almost entirely of metastable aragonite (CaCO 3 ) and magnesium-rich calcite, both of which readily recrystallize during diagenesis to form calcite. (
  • Ingestion of certain forms of barium (e.g., barium carbonate or barium fluoride) in toxic amounts can lead to gastrointestinal signs and symptoms (e.g., vomiting, abdominal pain, and watery diarrhea). (
  • To what extent are health considerations impacting consumption of Carbonates in Nigeria? (
  • Calcium carbonate is available by tablet for chewing or swallowing and is sold in many sizes (250-1000 mg). (
  • Most are marine, and thick sequences of carbonate rocks occur in all the continental blocks, a surviving record of the transgressions and regressions of shallow marine (epeiric) seas that repeatedly blanketed the stable continental cratonic areas from time to time mainly during the late Precambrian , Paleozoic, and Mesozoic eras. (
  • Many important oil reservoirs of the world, especially those of the Middle East , occur in carbonate rocks. (
  • 0.7% calcium carbonate agar plates illness and death ( 8 ). (
  • If you become pregnant while taking calcium carbonate, call your doctor. (
  • Other non-cola carbonates is expected to see the best performance in total volume terms over the forecast period. (
  • The cobalt hydroxide carbonate synthesized with 10 h reaction time showed the highest specific capacitance (1381 F g −1 at a current density of 2 A g −1 ) and excellent cycling stability (92% capacitance retention after 5000 cycles). (
  • How are products distributed in Carbonates in Nigeria? (
  • CSPI's report, Carbonating the World , finds that companies are spending billions of dollars a year in countries such as Brazil, China, India, and Mexico to build bottling plants, create distribution networks, and advertise their products. (
  • Modern marine carbonate sediments, whose formation is favoured by warm, shallow water , are presently being deposited in a broad band straddling the Equator. (
  • 3. Aspirate supernatant and resuspend remaining pel et with 250 µl of 0.1M Na-Carbonate extraction buffer (this is usual y a 1:10 dilution of a 1M Na-Carbonate buffer stock with water). (
  • Calcium carbonate is absorbed best when taken with food. (
  • Carbonates posted solid retail volume growth in 2022 largely due to price competition and aggressive marketing which helped to drive growth despite the economic challenges facing manufacturers. (
  • These carbonates are more solid and even heavier than the tarry oil sands. (
  • However, the relative success of carbonates in this year may easily be eroded in the forthcoming years if economic conditions persist. (

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