Carbonates: Salts or ions of the theoretical carbonic acid, containing the radical CO2(3-). Carbonates are readily decomposed by acids. The carbonates of the alkali metals are water-soluble; all others are insoluble. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Calcium Carbonate: Carbonic acid calcium salt (CaCO3). An odorless, tasteless powder or crystal that occurs in nature. It is used therapeutically as a phosphate buffer in hemodialysis patients and as a calcium supplement.Lithium Carbonate: A lithium salt, classified as a mood-stabilizing agent. Lithium ion alters the metabolism of BIOGENIC MONOAMINES in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, and affects multiple neurotransmission systems.Apatites: A group of phosphate minerals that includes ten mineral species and has the general formula X5(YO4)3Z, where X is usually calcium or lead, Y is phosphorus or arsenic, and Z is chlorine, fluorine, or OH-. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Lanthanum: Lanthanum. The prototypical element in the rare earth family of metals. It has the atomic symbol La, atomic number 57, and atomic weight 138.91. Lanthanide ion is used in experimental biology as a calcium antagonist; lanthanum oxide improves the optical properties of glass.Hyperphosphatemia: A condition of abnormally high level of PHOSPHATES in the blood, usually significantly above the normal range of 0.84-1.58 mmol per liter of serum.Meteoroids: Any solid objects moving in interplanetary space that are smaller than a planet or asteroid but larger than a molecule. Meteorites are any meteoroid that has fallen to a planetary surface. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Mars: The fourth planet in order from the sun. Its two natural satellites are Deimos and Phobos. It is one of the four inner or terrestrial planets of the solar system.Animal Shells: The hard rigid covering of animals including MOLLUSCS; TURTLES; INSECTS; and crustaceans.Calcification, Physiologic: Process by which organic tissue becomes hardened by the physiologic deposit of calcium salts.Phosphorus: A non-metal element that has the atomic symbol P, atomic number 15, and atomic weight 31. It is an essential element that takes part in a broad variety of biochemical reactions.Minerals: Native, inorganic or fossilized organic substances having a definite chemical composition and formed by inorganic reactions. They may occur as individual crystals or may be disseminated in some other mineral or rock. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed; McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)PolyaminesPhosphates: Inorganic salts of phosphoric acid.Antacids: Substances that counteract or neutralize acidity of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT.Anthozoa: A class in the phylum CNIDARIA, comprised mostly of corals and anemones. All members occur only as polyps; the medusa stage is completely absent.Phosphorus Metabolism Disorders: Disorders in the processing of phosphorus in the body: its absorption, transport, storage, and utilization.Geologic Sediments: A mass of organic or inorganic solid fragmented material, or the solid fragment itself, that comes from the weathering of rock and is carried by, suspended in, or dropped by air, water, or ice. It refers also to a mass that is accumulated by any other natural agent and that forms in layers on the earth's surface, such as sand, gravel, silt, mud, fill, or loess. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1689)Seawater: The salinated water of OCEANS AND SEAS that provides habitat for marine organisms.Aluminum Hydroxide: A compound with many biomedical applications: as a gastric antacid, an antiperspirant, in dentifrices, as an emulsifier, as an adjuvant in bacterins and vaccines, in water purification, etc.Exobiology: The interdisciplinary science that studies evolutionary biology, including the origin and evolution of the major elements required for life, their processing in the interstellar medium and in protostellar systems. This field also includes the study of chemical evolution and the subsequent interactions between evolving biota and planetary evolution as well as the field of biology that deals with the study of extraterrestrial life.Calcium Citrate: A colorless crystalline or white powdery organic, tricarboxylic acid occurring in plants, especially citrus fruits, and used as a flavoring agent, as an antioxidant in foods, and as a sequestrating agent. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Calcium Compounds: Inorganic compounds that contain calcium as an integral part of the molecule.Silicates: The generic term for salts derived from silica or the silicic acids. They contain silicon, oxygen, and one or more metals, and may contain hydrogen. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th Ed)Coral Reefs: Marine ridges composed of living CORALS, coral skeletons, calcareous algae, and other organisms, mixed with minerals and organic matter. They are found most commonly in tropical waters and support other animal and plant life.Atmosphere: The gaseous envelope surrounding a planet or similar body. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Calcium Phosphates: Calcium salts of phosphoric acid. These compounds are frequently used as calcium supplements.Geology: The science of the earth and other celestial bodies and their history as recorded in the rocks. It includes the study of geologic processes of an area such as rock formations, weathering and erosion, and sedimentation. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Oceans and Seas: A great expanse of continuous bodies of salt water which together cover more than 70 percent of the earth's surface. Seas may be partially or entirely enclosed by land, and are smaller than the five oceans (Atlantic, Pacific, Indian, Arctic, and Antarctic).Chemical Precipitation: The formation of a solid in a solution as a result of a chemical reaction or the aggregation of soluble substances into complexes large enough to fall out of solution.Allyl CompoundsSculptureEgg Shell: A hard or leathery calciferous exterior covering of an egg.Bone Substitutes: Synthetic or natural materials for the replacement of bones or bone tissue. They include hard tissue replacement polymers, natural coral, hydroxyapatite, beta-tricalcium phosphate, and various other biomaterials. The bone substitutes as inert materials can be incorporated into surrounding tissue or gradually replaced by original tissue.Pinctada: A genus of pearl oysters in the family Pteriidae, class BIVALVIA. Both cultured and natural pearls are obtained from species in the genus. They are distinct from the distantly related, edible true oysters of the family OSTREIDAE.Bicarbonates: Inorganic salts that contain the -HCO3 radical. They are an important factor in determining the pH of the blood and the concentration of bicarbonate ions is regulated by the kidney. Levels in the blood are an index of the alkali reserve or buffering capacity.Microscopy, Electron, Scanning: Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.Lithium: An element in the alkali metals family. It has the atomic symbol Li, atomic number 3, and atomic weight [6.938; 6.997]. Salts of lithium are used in treating BIPOLAR DISORDER.Oxygen Isotopes: Stable oxygen atoms that have the same atomic number as the element oxygen, but differ in atomic weight. O-17 and 18 are stable oxygen isotopes.Carbon Dioxide: A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.Tablets: Solid dosage forms, of varying weight, size, and shape, which may be molded or compressed, and which contain a medicinal substance in pure or diluted form. (Dorland, 28th ed)Sodium Bicarbonate: A white, crystalline powder that is commonly used as a pH buffering agent, an electrolyte replenisher, systemic alkalizer and in topical cleansing solutions.Chelating Agents: Chemicals that bind to and remove ions from solutions. Many chelating agents function through the formation of COORDINATION COMPLEXES with METALS.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Calcium Sulfate: A calcium salt that is used for a variety of purposes including: building materials, as a desiccant, in dentistry as an impression material, cast, or die, and in medicine for immobilizing casts and as a tablet excipient. It exists in various forms and states of hydration. Plaster of Paris is a mixture of powdered and heat-treated gypsum.Palladium: A chemical element having an atomic weight of 106.4, atomic number of 46, and the symbol Pd. It is a white, ductile metal resembling platinum, and following it in abundance and importance of applications. It is used in dentistry in the form of gold, silver, and copper alloys.Extraterrestrial Environment: The environment outside the earth or its atmosphere. The environment may refer to a closed cabin (such as a space shuttle or space station) or to space itself, the moon, or other planets.Parathyroid Hormone: A polypeptide hormone (84 amino acid residues) secreted by the PARATHYROID GLANDS which performs the essential role of maintaining intracellular CALCIUM levels in the body. Parathyroid hormone increases intracellular calcium by promoting the release of CALCIUM from BONE, increases the intestinal absorption of calcium, increases the renal tubular reabsorption of calcium, and increases the renal excretion of phosphates.Calcium, Dietary: Calcium compounds used as food supplements or in food to supply the body with calcium. Dietary calcium is needed during growth for bone development and for maintenance of skeletal integrity later in life to prevent osteoporosis.Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared: A spectroscopic technique in which a range of wavelengths is presented simultaneously with an interferometer and the spectrum is mathematically derived from the pattern thus obtained.Iridium: A metallic element with the atomic symbol Ir, atomic number 77, and atomic weight 192.22.Evolution, Planetary: Creation and development of bodies within solar systems, includes study of early planetary geology.Crystallization: The formation of crystalline substances from solutions or melts. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Carbon Cycle: The cycle by which the element carbon is exchanged between organic matter and the earth's physical environment.

European interlaboratory comparison of breath 13CO2 analysis. (1/522)

The BIOMED I programme Stable Isotopes in Gastroenterology and Nutrition (SIGN) has focused upon evaluation and standardisation of stable isotope breath tests using 13C labelled substrates. The programme dealt with comparison of 13C substrates, test meals, test conditions, analysis techniques, and calculation procedures. Analytical techniques applied for 13CO2 analysis were evaluated by taking an inventory of instrumentation, calibration protocols, and analysis procedures. Two ring tests were initiated measuring 13C abundances of carbonate materials. Evaluating the data it was found that seven different models of isotope ratio mass spectrometers (IRMS) were used by the participants applying both the dual inlet system and the continuous flow configuration. Eight different brands of certified 13C reference materials were used with a 13C abundance varying from delta 13CPDB -37.2 to +2.0/1000. CO2 was liberated from certified material by three techniques and different working standards were used varying from -47.4 to +0.4/1000 in their delta 13CPDB value. The standard deviations (SDs) found for all measurements by all participants were 0.25/1000 and 0.50/1000 for two carbonates used in the ring tests. The individual variation for the single participants varied from 0.02 /1000 (dual inlet system) to 0.14/1000 (continuous flow system). The measurement of the difference between two carbonates showed a SD of 0.33/1000 calculated for all participants. Internal precision of IRMS as indicated by the specifications of the different instrument suppliers is < 0.3/1000 for continuous flow systems. In this respect it can be concluded that all participants are working well within the instrument specifications even including sample preparation. Increased overall interlaboratory variation is therefore likely to be due to non-instrumental conditions. It is possible that consistent differences in sample handling leading to isotope fractionation are the causes for interlaboratory variation. Breath analysis does not require sample preparation. As such, interlaboratory variation will be less than observed for the carbonate samples and within the range indicated as internal precision for continuous flow instruments. From this it is concluded that pure analytical interlaboratory variation is acceptable despite the many differences in instrumentation and analytical protocols. Coordinated metabolic studies appear possible, in which different European laboratories perform 13CO2 analysis. Evaluation of compatibility of the analytical systems remains advisable, however.  (+info)

Direct EPR detection of the carbonate radical anion produced from peroxynitrite and carbon dioxide. (2/522)

The biological effects of peroxynitrite have been recently considered to be largely dependent on its reaction with carbon dioxide, which is present in high concentrations in intra- and extracellular compartments. Peroxynitrite anion (ONOO-) reacts rapidly with carbon dioxide, forming an adduct, nitrosoperoxocarboxylate (ONOOCO2-), whose decomposition has been proposed to produce reactive intermediates such as the carbonate radical (CO-3). Here, by the use of rapid mixing continuous flow electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR), we directly detected the carbonate radical in flow mixtures of peroxynitrite with bicarbonate-carbon dioxide over the pH range of 6-9. The radical was unambiguously identified by its EPR parameters (g = 2.0113; line width = 5.5 G) and by experiments with bicarbonate labeled with 13C. In this case, the singlet EPR signal obtained with 12C bicarbonate splits into the expected doublet because of 13C (a(13C)= 11.7 G). The singlet spectrum of the unlabeled radical was invariant between pH 6 and 9, confirming that in this pH range the detected radical is the carbonate radical anion (CO-3). Importantly, in addition to contributing to the understanding of nitrosoperoxocarboxylate decomposition pathways, this is the first report unambiguously demonstrating the formation of the carbonate radical anion at physiological pHs by direct EPR spectroscopy.  (+info)

Islet cell membrane antigens activate diabetogenic CD4+ T-cells in the BB/Wor rat. (3/522)

Type 1 diabetes is a major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II-associated autoimmune disease mediated by beta-cell-specific T-cells and characterized by circulating autoantibodies to beta-cell molecules. In the BB/Wor diabetes-prone (DP) rat, type 1 diabetes develops spontaneously with an incidence of >90%. BB diabetes can be adoptively transferred to naive syngeneic or MHC class II-compatible rats with islet cell-activated T-cell lines derived from diabetic BB/Wor rats. However, the target beta-cell autoantigen(s) in BB diabetes has not yet been defined. BB rat T-cell lines activated in vitro with antigen-presenting cells (APC) and BB islet cell crude membranes (CM), but not islet cell cytosol, adoptively transfer diabetes into young DP recipients. To determine if the target autoantigen is an integral or peripheral membrane protein, islet cell CM were treated with 0.5 mol/l KCl or 0.2 mol/l Na2CO3 (pH 11). Both treatments selectively extract peripheral proteins from the cell membrane without affecting the disposition of integral (transmembrane) proteins. T-cell lines activated in vitro with APC and 0.5 mol/l KCl, or pH 11 (0.2 mol/l Na2CO3)-treated islet cell CM, transferred diabetes into young DP rats. Conversely, T-cell lines activated in vitro with APC and the supernatant of 0.5 mol/l KCl-treated CM (containing extracted peripheral proteins), did not adoptively transfer diabetes. After activation in vitro with islet cell membrane antigens, the diabetes-inducing cell lines were comprised of both CD4+ CD8- T-cells and 10-30% B-cells. We conclude that a major CD4+ T-cell target autoantigen in BB diabetes is a membrane-associated beta-cell molecule with the characteristics of an integral beta-cell membrane protein. The identification of this MHC class II-restricted beta-cell target molecule will allow the design of antigen-specific intervention protocols to prevent the onset of type 1 diabetes in genetically susceptible individuals.  (+info)

A 60 kDa plasma membrane protein changes its localization to autophagosome and autolysosome membranes during induction of autophagy in rat hepatoma cell line, H-4-II-E cells. (4/522)

We previously reported the preparation and characterization of an antibody against membrane fraction of autolysosomes from rat liver (J. Histochem. Cytochem. 38, 1571-1581, 1990). Immunoblot analyses of total membrane fraction of a rat hepatoma cell line, H-4-II-E cells by this antibody suggested that H-4-II-E cells expressed several autolysosomal proteins, including a protein with apparent molecular weight of 60 kDa. It was suggested that this 60 kDa protein was a peripheral membrane protein, because it was eluted from the membrane by sodium carbonate treatment. We prepared an antibody against this 60 kDa protein by affinity purification method, and examined its behavior during induction of autophagy. Autophagy was induced by transferring the cells from Dulbecco's modified Eagle medium (DMEM) containing 12% fetal calf serum into Hanks' balance salt solution. In DMEM, the 60 kDa protein showed diffused immunofluorescence pattern, and immunoelectron microscopy suggested that this protein was located on the extracellular side of the plasma membrane. After inducing autophagy, the immunofluorescence configuration of the 60 kDa protein changed from the diffused pattern to a granulous one. Immunoelectron microscopy showed that the 60 kDa protein was localized on the luminal side of the limiting membrane of autolysosomes and endosomes. In the presence of bafilomycin A1 which prevents fusion between autophagosomes and lysosomes, the 60 kDa protein was localized on the limiting membrane of the autophagosomes and endosomes. These results suggest that the 60 kDa protein is transported from the plasma membrane to the autophagosome membrane through the endosomes.  (+info)

Degradation of polycarbonate by a polyester-degrading strain, Amycolatopsis sp. strain HT-6. (5/522)

Amycolatopsis sp. strain HT-6, a poly(tetramethylene succinate) (PTMS)-degrading actinomycete, was observed to degrade poly(tetramethylene carbonate) (PTMC). In a liquid culture with 150 mg of PTMC film, 59% degradation was achieved, but with a low yield of cell growth. On the other hand, PTMS copolymerized with a small amount of PTMC, forming a copolyester carbonate (PEC) that was completely and rapidly degraded with a high yield of cell growth.  (+info)

T-1095, an inhibitor of renal Na+-glucose cotransporters, may provide a novel approach to treating diabetes. (6/522)

T-1095A and T-1095 are synthetic agents derived from phlorizin, a specific inhibitor of Na+-glucose cotransporters (SGLTs). Unlike phlorizin, T-1095 is absorbed into the circulation via oral administration, is metabolized to the active form, T-1095A, and suppresses the activity of SGLTs in the kidney. Orally administered T-1095 increases urinary glucose excretion in diabetic animals, thereby decreasing blood glucose levels. Indeed, the postprandial hyperglycemia after a meal load was shown to be suppressed by this compound in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. With long-term T-1095 treatment, both blood glucose and HbA1c levels were reduced in STZ-induced diabetic rats and yellow KK mice. In addition, there was amelioration of abnormal carbohydrate metabolism, i.e., hyperinsulinemia and hypertriglyceridemia, and of the development of microalbuminuria, in yellow KK mice. Thus, T-1095 may be a useful antidiabetic drug, providing a novel therapeutic approach for diabetes.  (+info)

The age of the carbonates in martian meteorite ALH84001. (7/522)

The age of secondary carbonate mineralization in the martian meteorite ALH84001 was determined to be 3.90 +/- 0.04 billion years by rubidium-strontium (Rb-Sr) dating and 4.04 +/- 0.10 billion years by lead-lead (Pb-Pb) dating. The Rb-Sr and Pb-Pb isochrons are defined by leachates of a mixture of high-graded carbonate (visually estimated as approximately 5 percent), whitlockite (trace), and orthopyroxene (approximately 95 percent). The carbonate formation age is contemporaneous with a period in martian history when the surface is thought to have had flowing water, but also was undergoing heavy bombardment by meteorites. Therefore, this age does not distinguish between aqueous and impact origins for the carbonates.  (+info)

Antibodies against pex14p block ATP-independent binding of matrix proteins to peroxisomes in vitro. (8/522)

The membrane protein Pex14p is a key component of the protein import machinery of peroxisomes. Antibodies raised against human Pex14p recognise a 66 kDa protein in sunflower glyoxysomes (HaPex14p) and immunoprecipitate in vitro-translated Arabidopsis Pex14p (AtPex14p). These antibodies inhibit the ATP-independent binding to sunflower peroxisome membranes of peroxisome targeting signal type (PTS) 1- and PTS2-targeted matrix proteins, but not an integral membrane protein. These results suggest that Pex14p functions before the ATP-dependent step of peroxisome assembly.  (+info)

*Carbonates on Mars

The carbonates were discovered in an outcrop of rocks called "Comanche." Carbonates (calcium or iron carbonates) were ... At that time, carbonates would have formed from water and the carbon dioxide-rich atmosphere. Later the deposits of carbonate ... Earth has vast carbonate deposits in the form of limestone. Huygens Crater - circle shows location of carbonate deposit - ... These kind of carbonates only form when there is a lot of water. They were found with the Compact Reconnaissance Imaging ...

*Carbonates and Evaporites

... is an international scientific journal published 4 times a year by Springer and provides a forum for ... This includes the origin and stratigraphy of carbonate, and evaporite rocks and issues unique to these rock types: weathering ... the exchange of concepts, research and applications on all aspects of carbonate and evaporite geology. ...

*Carbonate

In geology and mineralogy, the term "carbonate" can refer both to carbonate minerals and carbonate rock (which is made of ... Important organocarbonates include dimethyl carbonate, the cyclic compounds ethylene carbonate and propylene carbonate, and the ... a calcium-magnesium carbonate CaMg(CO3)2; and siderite, or iron(II) carbonate, FeCO3, an important iron ore. Sodium carbonate ... potassium and ammonium carbonates, as well as many uranium carbonates. In aqueous solution, carbonate, bicarbonate, carbon ...

*Carbonate ester

Ethylene carbonate, a cyclic carbonate ester Trimethylene carbonate, another cyclic carbonate ester Poly(propylene carbonate) ... Small carbonate esters like dimethyl carbonate, and ethylene and propylene carbonate are used as solvents. Dimethyl carbonate ... bisphenol A carbonate) (Lexan). Dimethyl carbonate, a representative acyclic carbonate ester Diphenyl carbonate, another ... The simplest members of these classes are dimethyl carbonate and diphenyl carbonate. Alternatively, the carbonate groups can be ...

*Uranyl carbonate

... lead uranyl carbonate) Zellerite (hydrated calcium uranyl carbonate) Znucalite (hydrated calcium zinc uranyl carbonate ... hydrated calcium uranyl carbonate) Grimselite (hydrated potassium sodium uranyl carbonate) Joliotite (hydrated uranyl carbonate ... Uranyl carbonate, UO2(CO3), is a carbonate of uranium that forms the backbone of several uranyl mineral species such as ... uranyl carbonate) Schröckingerite (hydrated sodium calcium uranyl sulfate carbonate fluoride) Shabaite (hydrated copper cerium ...

*Carbonate hardgrounds

... are surfaces of synsedimentarily cemented carbonate layers that have been exposed on the seafloor (Wilson ... Carbonate hardgrounds often host a unique fauna and flora adapted to the hard surface. Organisms usually cement themselves to ... Carbonate hardground with an encrusting bryozoan; Kanosh Formation (Middle Ordovician) of Utah; scale in mm. Cross-section of a ... Carbonate hardground; Ora Formation, Upper Cretaceous (Turonian), southern Israel. Bodenbender, B.E.; Wilson, M.A.; Palmer, T.J ...

*Lanthanum carbonate

... , La2(CO3)3, is the salt formed by lanthanum(III) cations and carbonate anions. It is an ore of lanthanum ... Lanthanum carbonate is used in medicine as a phosphate binder. As a medication it is sold under the trade name Fosrenol by the ... Lanthanum carbonate is also used for the tinting of glass, for water treatment, and as a catalyst for hydrocarbon cracking. ... Lanthanum carbonate is used as a starting material in lanthanum chemistry, particularly in forming mixed oxides, for example ...

*Strontium carbonate

... (SrCO3) is the carbonate salt of strontium that has the appearance of a white or grey powder. It occurs in ... Strontium carbonate is a white, odorless, tasteless powder. Being a carbonate, it is a weak base and therefore is reactive with ... usually sodium or ammonium carbonates). For example if sodium carbonate was used in solution with strontium nitrate: Sr(NO3)2 ( ... Strontium carbonate is also used for making some superconductors such as BSCCO and also for electroluminescent materials where ...

*Lithium carbonate

... is an inorganic compound, the lithium salt of carbonate with the formula Li 2CO 3. This white salt is widely ... Unlike sodium carbonate, which forms at least three hydrates, lithium carbonate exists only in the anhydrous form. Its ... Glasses derived from lithium carbonate are useful in ovenware. Lithium carbonate is a common ingredient in both low-fire and ... Thus, heating a saturated aqueous solution causes crystallization of Li 2CO 3. Lithium carbonate, and other carbonates of group ...

*Polypropylene carbonate

... (PPC), a copolymer of carbon dioxide and propylene oxide, is a thermoplastic material. Catalysts like ... Composites of polypropylene carbonate with starch (PPC/starch) are used as biodegradable plastics. One of the largest ... Polypropylene carbonate is soluble in polar solvents like lower ketones, ethyl acetate, dichloromethane and chlorinated ... The glass temperature of PPC is slightly greater than polyethylene carbonate (PEC). Its refractive index is 1.46 while its ...

*Copper carbonate

Copper(II) carbonate proper, CuCO 3 (neutral copper carbonate): a rarely seen moisture-sensitive compound. Copper(I) carbonate ... It may be any of several substances: Basic copper carbonate (the "copper carbonate" of commerce), actually a copper carbonate ... Copper carbonate generally means a compound containing copper and carbonate ions. ...

*Magnesium carbonate

... is treated with aqueous sodium carbonate, a precipitate of basic magnesium carbonate-a hydrated complex of magnesium carbonate ... Magnesium carbonate is non-toxic. British Pharmacopoeia Japanese Pharmacopoeia Calcium acetate/magnesium carbonate Upsalite, a ... Several hydrated and basic forms of magnesium carbonate also exist as minerals. The most common magnesium carbonate forms are ... All forms of magnesium carbonate react in acids. Magnesium carbonate crystallizes in the calcite structure where in Mg2+ is ...

*Carbonate, Lombardy

Carbonate is a comune (municipality) in the Province of Como in the Italian region Lombardy, located about 30 kilometres (19 mi ... Carbonate borders the following municipalities: Appiano Gentile, Gorla Maggiore, Locate Varesino, Lurago Marinone, Mozzate, ... The municipality of Carbonate contains the frazioni (subdivisions, mainly villages and hamlets) Cascina Cipollina, Cascina ...

*Carbonate rock

... s are a class of sedimentary rocks composed primarily of carbonate minerals. The two major types are limestone, ... Rare igneous carbonate rocks exist as intrusive carbonatites and even rarer volcanic carbonate lava. Dunham classification Folk ... Karst topography and caves develop in carbonate rocks because of their solubility in dilute acidic groundwater. Cooling ...

*Diethyl carbonate

... (sometimes abbreviated DEC) is a carbonate ester of carbonic acid and ethanol with the formula OC(OCH2CH3)2. ... 2 CH3CH2OH + COCl2 → CO3(CH2CH3)2 + 2HCl Ethylene carbonate "DIETHYL CARBONATE". Retrieved 2010-02-01. Ding, Michael (2001). " ... At room temperature (25 °C) diethyl carbonate is a clear liquid with a low flash point. Diethyl carbonate is used as a solvent ... "Liquid/Solid Phase Diagrams of Binary Carbonates for Lithium Batteries". Journal of The Electrochemical Society. 148: A299-A304 ...

*Diphenyl carbonate

... is an acyclic carbonate ester. It is both as a monomer in combination with bisphenol A in the production of ... World production capacity of diphenyl carbonate was 254,000 tonnes in 2002, and phosgenation of phenol is the most significant ... Polycarbonates can be prepared by transesterifying diphenyl carbonate with bisphenol A, and phenol is a co-product. Phosgene is ... H2O Dimethyl carbonate can also be transesterified with phenol: CH3OCO2CH3 + 2 PhOH → PhOCO2Ph + 2 MeOH The kinetics and ...

*Dimethyl carbonate

... is often considered to be a green reagent. Dimethyl carbonate can be prepared by the reaction of phosgene ... Production of dimethyl carbonate worldwide is limited to Asia, the middle east and Europe. Dimethyl carbonate methylates ... A very large captive use of dimethyl carbonate is for the production of diphenyl carbonate through transesterification with ... It is produced industrially by a transesterification of ethylene carbonate or propylene carbonate and methanol, which also ...

*Silver carbonate

... is the chemical compound with the formula Ag2CO3. Silver carbonate is yellow but typical samples are grayish ... Silver carbonate can be prepared by combining aqueous solutions of sodium carbonate with a deficiency of silver nitrate. 2 ... Silver carbonate reacts with ammonia to give the explosive silver fulminate. With hydrofluoric acid, it gives silver fluoride. ... "Use of Silver Carbonate in the Wittig Reaction." The Journal of Organic Chemistry 78.23 (2013): 12224-12228... ...

*Lead carbonate

There are a number of basic lead carbonates and related compounds, including: White lead, a basic lead carbonate, 2PbCO3·Pb(OH) ... salt more soluble than the carbonate with ammonium carbonate at a low temperature to avoid formation of basic lead carbonate. ... Lead(II) carbonate is the chemical compound PbCO3. It is prepared industrially from lead(II) acetate and carbon dioxide. It ... 2 Lead carbonate is manufactured by passing carbon dioxide into a cold dilute solution of lead(II) acetate, or by shaking a ...

*Trimethylene carbonate

... or 1,3-propylene carbonate is a 6-membered cyclic carbonate ester. It is a colourless solid that upon ... C3H6O2CO This cyclic carbonate undergoes ring-opening polymerization to give poly(trimethylene carbonate), abbreviated PTC. The ... An isomeric derivative is propylene carbonate, a colourless liquid that does not spontaneously polymerize. This compound may be ... "Cyclic carbonates as monomers for phosgene- and isocyanate-free polyurethanes and polycarbonates". Pure Appl. Chem. 84 (3): 637 ...

*Rubidium carbonate

... , Rb2CO3, is a convenient compound of rubidium; it is stable, not particularly reactive, and readily soluble ... It can be prepared by adding ammonium carbonate to rubidium hydroxide. It is used in some kinds of glass-making by enhancing ...

*Propylene carbonate

... product may be converted to other carbonate esters by transesterification as well (see Carbonate ester# ... Propylene carbonate (often abbreviated PC) is an organic compound with the formula CH3C2H3O2CO. It is a carbonate ester derived ... Propylene carbonate is chiral but is used exclusively as the racemic mixture. Although many organic carbonates are produced ... Ethylene carbonate Trimethylene carbonate Haynes, William M., ed. (2011). CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (92nd ed.). ...

*Cap carbonate

Cap carbonates are layers of distinctively textured carbonate rocks which typically form the uppermost layer of sedimentary ... A heavily debated cap carbonate appears at the top of the Gaskiers glaciation, believed by many to be global in extent. ... Marinoan glaciation Sturtian glaciation Boundaries of the Ediacaran Period What are Cap Carbonates? at www.snowballearth.org. ... This would weather exposed silicate and carbonate rock, including readily-attacked glacial debris, which would release large ...

*Aluminium carbonate

... (Al2(CO3)3), is a carbonate of aluminium. It is not well characterized; one authority says that simple ... Basic aluminium carbonate, the mineral dawsonite, is a known compound. There is no evidence that aluminium carbonate is formed ... Aluminium carbonate, along with aluminium hydroxide and aluminium oxide, is a phosphate-binding drug that is sometimes ... in double decomposition reactions; soluble carbonates are sufficiently alkaline to precipitate aluminium hydroxide and produce ...

*Barium carbonate

... is made commercially from barium sulfide either by treatment with sodium carbonate at 60 to 70 °C (soda ash ... and the barium carbonate precipitate is filtered, washed and dried. Barium carbonate reacts with acids such as hydrochloric ... Barium carbonate is widely used in the ceramics industry as an ingredient in glazes. It acts as a flux, a matting and ... Barium carbonate (BaCO3), also known as witherite, is a chemical compound used in rat poison, bricks, ceramic glazes and cement ...
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Methods of treating a carbonate formation are provided. The methods include introducing a nanoparticle gel system into the carbonate formation at a rate and pressure sufficient to create or enhance at least one fracture in the carbonate formation. The nanoparticle gel system includes a gelling agent, a nanoparticle-size clay, and a proppant. The methods further include allowing a portion of the proppant to deposit in the at least one fracture, pumping an acidic fluid into the carbonate formation, and allowing a portion of the acidic fluid to at least partially reduce a viscosity of the nanoparticle gel system and to react with the carbonate formation.
Sodium carbonate peroxide breaks down into sodium carbonate and hydrogen peroxide. The hydrogen peroxide acts as a bleach, and as an anti-microbial agent. The high alkalinity of the sodium carbonate boosts the bleaching effect of hydrogen peroxide. ...
SODIUM CARBONATE, MONOHYDRATE 5968-11-6 NMR spectrum, SODIUM CARBONATE, MONOHYDRATE H-NMR spectral analysis, SODIUM CARBONATE, MONOHYDRATE C-NMR spectral analysis ect.
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Global Sodium Percarbonate Industry Report 2015 ​is a new market research publication announced by Reportstack. This report is a professional and in-depth study on the current state of the Sodium Percarbonate industry.. The report provides a basic overview of the industry including definitions, classifications, applications and industry chain structure. The Sodium Percarbonate market analysis is provided for the international markets including development trends, competitive landscape analysis, and key regions development status.. Development policies and plans are discussed as well as manufacturing processes and cost structures are also analyzed. This report also states import/export consumption, supply and demand figures, cost price and production value gross margins.. To access full report with TOC, please visit Global Sodium Percarbonate Industry Report 2015. The report focuses on global major leading industry players providing information such as company profiles, product picture and ...
Anhydrous sodium carbonate is the waterless crystalline form of sodium carbonate, the sodium salt of carbonic acid. Its chemical formula is Na2CO3, and its molar mass is 105.988 grams per mole. Its...
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Seaweed ashes were an early source of sodium carbonate, which gave it the name soda ash. Pure sodium carbonate is a white, odorless powder and is one of the fundamental industrial chemicals.
Sodium carbonate is not only used by industry but is also used by consumers. It may be used directly in solutions of sodium carbonate for soaking of clothes, dishwashing, floor washing and for degreasing operations but it is also present in a large number of consumer products like cosmetics, soaps, scouring powders, soaking and washing powders.. ...
[117 Pages Report] Check for Discount on Global Sodium Carbonate Market Professional Survey Report 2017 report by QYResearch Group. This report studies Sodium Carbonate in Global market, especially in...
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Sodium carbonate is a sodium salt of carbonic acid. It usually comes in the form of a white crystalline powder. It can be extracted from the ashes of many plants, which is why it is also known as soda ash, and can be synthetically produced in a process involving salt brine from ocean water and limestone. | eBay!
sodium carbonate: used topically for dermatitides, mouthwash, vaginal douche; veterinary use as emergency emetic; RN given refers to carbonic acid, di-Na salt; structure
2013 U.S. Sodium carbonate (soda ash) (58 percent Na2O) materials used by the Soap & Cleaning Products Mfg. Industry-Materials & Manufacturing Report The 2013 U.S. - Market research report and industry analysis - 7529584
... or Soda Ash is an antacid and absorbs water from the air. It is often used in permanent wave solutions, shampoos, soaps, mouthwashes, and bath salts. Can be irritating to those with hypersensitive skin.
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North America Soda Ash (Sodium Carbonate) Market provides pictorial methodology along with detailed sizing by capturing all dependent markets
An economical method of lactulose production from cheese whey was developed using sodium carbonate (Na2CO3). Three parameters such as temperature, reaction time, and Na2CO3 concentration were identified as experimental factors, and yield was selected as a response parameter. The experimental factors were optimised employing Response Surface Methodology (RSM). Maximum yield of 29.6% was obtained at reaction time of 20.41 min, Na2CO3 of 0.51% at 90 °C. To overcome this limited lactulose yield, due to the conversion of lactulose to galactose, fed batch system was applied using dried cheese whey as lactose source. By this system, limit was broken, and 15.8 g/L of lactulose is produced in hour.
Sodium carbonate is used in detergent formulas as a water softener, to lock up calcium and magnesium from the water. Calcium and magnesium would otherwise combine with the soap or detergents and form an insoluble scum that would stick to the clothes and the washing machine. ...
Sodium carbonate, or washing soda, is a natural disinfectant. Use it to clean a variety of surfaces, from kitchen counters to toilet bowls. Although it should not be consumed in great amounts, washing soda is a common ingredient in many foods, serving as a neutralizer and thickener.
Sodium carbonate is more commonly known as washing soda. Like the similar-sounding compound sodium bicarbonate-baking soda-its basic, and...
Instead of looking in the laundry aisle, wander over to the pool supply store (or hardware store) and pick up some pH UP - 100% sodium carbonate, no fragrances or other additives ...
Press Release issued May 21, 2015: Reportstack, provider of premium market research reports announces the addition of Global Ceftazidime with Sodium carbonate sterile Industry 2015 Market Research Report market report to its offering.
Dihydroxyaluminum Sodium Carbonate USP Grade Manuacturers, SDS MSDS Sheet, Exporters to USA Canada Tanzania Egypt Turkey Mexico Argentina UAE
A bis(cyclic carbonate) was obtained via glycidylation of lignin-based bisphenol followed by cycloaddition with CO2. Further polyaddition between the bis(cyclic carbonate) and diamines led to the synthesis of polyurethanes. The structure and thermal properties of these polyurethane materials were elucidated
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Oxidation of guanine by carbonate radicals derived from photolysis of carbonatotetramminecobalt(III) complexes and the pH dependence of intrastrand DNA cross-links mediated by guanine radical reactions. AU - Crean, Conor. AU - Lee, Young Ae. AU - Yun, Byeong Hwa. AU - Geacintov, Nicholas. AU - Shafirovich, Vladimir. PY - 2008/8/12. Y1 - 2008/8/12. N2 - The carbonate radical anion CO3•- is a decomposition product of nitrosoperoxycarbonate derived from the combination of carbon dioxide and peroxynitrite, an important biological by product of the inflammatory response. The selective oxidation of guanine in DNA by CO3• radicals is known to yield spiroiminodihydantoin (Sp) and guanidinohydantoin (Gh) products, and also a novel intrastrand cross-linked product: 5′-d(CCATCG*CT*ACC), featuring a linkage between guanine C8 (G*) and thymine N3 (T*) atoms in the oligonucleotide (Crean et al., Nucleic Acids Res. 2008, 36, 742-755). Involvement of the T-N3 (pKa of N3-H is 9.67) suggests ...
Ceria based catalysts are very effective for the synthesis of cyclic carbonate such as ethylene carbonate (EC) and propylene carbonate (PC) by the reaction of CO2 with ethylene glycol and propylene glycol. In these reactions, polycarbonate and ethers (diethylene glycol and dipropylene glycol) were not detect
Koeve, Wolfgang; Oschlies, Andreas (2014): Potential impact of DOM accumulation on fCO2 and carbonate ion computations in ocean acidification experiments. PANGAEA, https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.829379, Supplement to: Koeve, W; Oschlies, A (2012): Potential impact of DOM accumulation on fCO2 and carbonate ion computations in ocean acidification experiments. Biogeosciences, 9(10), 3787-3798, https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-9-3787-2012
Apolipoprotein B-100 (apoB-100) appears in three forms in the endoplasmic reticulum of Hep G2 cells: (1) tightly bound to the membrane, ie, not extractable by sodium carbonate. This form is glycosylated but protease sensitive when present in intact microsomes, suggesting that it is only partially translocated to the microsomal lumen; (2) extractable by sodium carbonate and present on low-density lipoprotein-very-low-density lipoprotein (LDL-VLDL)-like particles. This form is glycosylated and secreted into the medium; and (3) extractable by sodium carbonate but having a higher density than the LDL-VLDL-like particles. This form, referred to as Fraction I, is glycosylated and protected against proteases when present in intact microsomal vesicles, indicating that it is completely translocated to the luminal side of the microsomal membrane. Fraction I is not secreted into the medium, but it disappears with time from the cell, suggesting that it is degraded. Oleic acid induced a 2.7-fold increase in ...
これ等の方法は、いずれも特定の薬剤を被覆することによって、洗剤成分との接触を避け、過炭酸ナトリウムを安定化する方法であるが、これ等従来の方法では、高湿条件での保存時や洗剤配合時の安定化効果がいずれも不充分であり、実用上到底満足し得るものではない。 The method of this like, by any coating the particular drug, avoid contact with detergent ingredients, is a method for stabilizing sodium percarbonate, in which like conventional methods, storage at high humidity conditions stabilizing effect during time and detergent formulations are insufficient both, do not be practically far from satisfactory. (問題を解決するための手段) ...
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GRECIAN MAGNESITEs natural magnesium carbonate products (also called crude or raw Magnesite) are of cryptocrystalline form exhibiting extremely low amounts of Fe and Mn dissolved in their structure and are white in color. Furthermore, due to their cryptocrystalline form, our magnesium carbonate products are more porous with very small sized crystals of a few microns leading to products with higher specific surface area (SSA) and reactivity.. The main advantages of cryptocrystalline Magnesite versus Macrocrystalline Magnesite (more than 80% of global natural MgO production comes from Macrocrystalline Magnesite deposits i.e. China, Russia, N. Korea, Spain, Austria, Brazil) are the higher achievable MgO activity, the controlled microstructure, the higher mechanical strength and the higher beneficiation efficiency in terms of Ca, Fe impurities (mainly present as mechanical admixtures and not dissolved in the magnesite structure).. By far the major quantity of Grecian Magnesites magnesium carbonate ...
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Silicate weathering is a primary control on the carbon cycle and therefore long-term climate. Tracing silicate weathering in the geological record has been a challenge for decades, with a number of proxies proposed and their limits determined. Recently lithium isotopes in marine carbonates have emerged as a potential tracer. Bulk carbonates are increasingly being used as a Li isotope archive, though with limited tests thus far of the robustness of this approach in the modern ocean. As the bulk composition of marine pelagic carbonates has changed through time and geographically, assessing the fidelity of bulk carbonate as proxy carrier is fundamental. To address the impact of compositional variability in bulk carbonate on Li isotopes, we examine 27 Bahamian aragonitic bulk carbonates and 16 Atlantic largely calcitic core-top sediment samples. Two core-tops only have trace (,10 %) carbonate, and are analysed to test whether carbonates in such sections are still a viable archive. We selectively ...
a. Metallurgical process for dissolution of metal values by means of a sodium carbonate solution. Used on high-lime ores. Ballard b. Dissolution of uranium with an aqueous solution of sodium carbonate in the presence of sufficient oxygen to render uranium hexavalent. Pryor, 1 c. Tungsten autoclave dissolution. Source: Dictionary of Mining, Mineral, and Related Terms
The Mn-0-Mn bond angle (120.7) is considerably smaller than that measured for (amorphous?) Mn207 fiims.[61However, it is possible that the two findings are not in contradiction. In the crystal, the small angle leads to the intramolecular formation of a nido-octahedral arrangement for the bridging and the four terminal 0 atoms (cf. Fig. 2b), which is augmented to form an octahedron by a further 0 atom from a n adjacent molecule. This indicates that the Mn,O, molecules are packed in a way to yield a close-packed arrangement of all 0 atoms. Indeed, the Mn,O, structure can be described in terms of an fcc lattice of the 0 atoms; the actual positions of the 0 atoms deviate, on the average, by 2 4 f 5 pm (contraction of the neighboring tetrahedral voids occupied by Mn) from the ideal lattice positions. The formation of a close-packed structure explains the unusual increase in the density of Mn,O, upon crystallization. Comparison of the crystal structures of Mn207,Tc207, and Re20, reveals interesting ...
Stains are not welcome whether on cloth or skin. When you get a stain in a treasured quilt, it is important to try to figure what caused the stain (blood, coffee, grease, etc). Some stains are better off left alone. Keep in mind you may damage your item irrevocably. It is recommended that products containing the ingredient Sodium Percarbonate be used. This is a white, free flowing granular chemical used in the formulation of laundry products and many other cleaning products. Sodium Percarbonate consists mainly of hydrogen peroxide and soda, and functions as a bleaching agent, alkali provider and water softener at the same time. It contains a high percentage of active oxygen which provides an excellent washing and bleaching effect. It is environmentally compatible as it will break down into water, oxygen, and soda ash. Unlike chlorine based bleaches, sodium percarbonate is non-toxic and biodegradable. For a complete guide see: Stain Removal Guidelines for Textiles and Other Items by Kris Driessen ...
[128 Pages Report] Check for Discount on Global Calcium Magnesium Carbonate Sales Market Report 2017 report by QYResearch Group. In this report, the global Calcium Magnesium Carbonate market is...
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Since the molar concentration of total DIC in seawater is only ~2.3 mmol / liter to begin with, the concentration of carbonate ions in seawater at pH 7 would be an extremely low 23 μmol / liter. With such a low concentration, the rate at which paired calcium and carbonate ions at the CaCO₃crystal surface escape into solution will be very much greater than the rate at which calcium and carbonate ions from solution will pair up on the surface; the solid CaCO₃ will dissolve.. The chief advantage of this approach to carbon mitigation is that it combines capture and storage. It is energy-efficient and doesnt present a significant parasitic load on the power plants output. Also, the seawater used to irrigate the limestone bed and capture CO₂ can be the same water that was used for cooling. On the downside, the process consumes limestone at a high rate, and is practical only for coastal power plants located close to sizable limestone deposits.. To see that in quantitative terms, consider the ...
Cosmetic Analysis has rated Klar Powder Detergent. Category: Bath Additives. Ingredients: Sodium Carbonate, Zeolite, Sodium Bicarbonate, Sodium Carbonate...
I know there has been a lot written about the use of lye/baking soda/soda ash (sodium carbonate) when making pretzels and bagels. I think I understand the pros and cons of each, and for better or worse Ive settled on soda ash (sodium carbonate). I dont mean to reignite the debate on these options. However, I still find conflicting information on how soda ash should be used. Specifically, how much soda ash should be used in the dipping solution? (Ive seen recommendations from a tablespoon per quart of water to 2/3 cup per 2 quarts.) Hot or cold wa
Experiment 10 - Acid-Base Titrimetry Procedure: Part A - A Standard Sodium Carbonate, Na2CO3, Solution A solution of sodium carbonate of exact known concentration is provided. Obtain about 75 mL of it in a clean and dry beaker and cover with a watch glass. Transfer the concentration of the solution to the data sheet. ...
Introduction. To determine the enthalpy changes of reaction for some reactive metals, with hydrochloric acid. Sodium carbonate can be used as a standard to determine acid concentration, because it is readily available in a pure and dry form. Here 7.5g is used to make up a 250cm solution with a concentration of 0.283 moldm .The calculations show this; The exact concentration of hydrocloric acid, is found by titrating it against the standard solution. Apparatus Chemicals 2 decimal place balance; HCl (exact weighing jar; concentration not known teat pipette; between 2.0 and 2.5moldm); pipette; burette; screened methyl orange; conical flask; anhydrous sodium carbonate. 250cm measuring flask and bung; 100cm measuring cylinder; white tile; clamp stand. Safety points. Solutions of HCl greater than or equal to 2moldm are irritant to the skin and eyes. A lab coat should be worn and direct contact with acid avoided. Na CO is also irritant, same preucautions should be taken. ...read more. Middle. Repeat ...
Students simulate the spread of a virus such as HIV through a population by "sharing" (but not drinking) the water in a plastic cup with several classmates. Although invisible, the water in a few of the cups will already be tainted with the "virus" (sodium carbonate). After all the students have shared their liquids, the contents of the cups will be tested for the virus with phenolphthalein, a chemical that causes a striking color change in the presence of sodium carbonate. Students will then se ...
Students simulate the spread of a virus such as HIV through a population by "sharing" (but not drinking) the water in a plastic cup with several classmates. Although invisible, the water in a few of the cups has already be tainted with the "virus" (sodium carbonate). After all the students have shared their liquids, the contents of the cups are tested for the virus with phenolphthalein, a chemical that causes a striking color change in the presence of sodium carbonate. Students then set about trying to determine which of their classmates were the ones originally infected with the virus. Each student will keep track of the number of students they interact with, and write their number on their cups at the end of the activity. They will then estimate who is more infected and why. ...
 Ethanolamine, also called 2- aminoethanol or monoethanolamine, is an organic chemical compound that is both a primary amine and a primary alcohol. Like other amines, monoethanolamine acts as a weak base.
About the ratings: EWG provides information on cleaning product ingredients from the published scientific literature, to supplement incomplete data available from companies and the government. The ratings indicate the relative level of concern posed by exposure to the ingredients in this product - not the product itself - compared to other product formulations. The ratings reflect potential health hazards but do not account for the level of exposure or individual susceptibility, factors which determine actual health risks, if any ...
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Copyright The Student Room 2017 all rights reserved The Student Room, Get Revising and Marked by Teachers are trading names of The Student Room Group Ltd.. Register Number: 04666380 (England and Wales), VAT No. 806 8067 22 Registered Office: International House, Queens Road, Brighton, BN1 3XE ...
The involvement of prokaryotic and eukaryotic algae in the formation of diverse types of sedimentary carbonates is important to the sequestration of inorganic carbon for very long periods of time (Graham et al. 2009). Cyanobacteria are thought to have generated the earliest algal carbonate deposits in the form of layered stromatolites, clotted thrombolites, and other formations collectively known as microbially induced sedimentary structures or microbialites (Burne and Moore 1987). Most microbialite formations are largely composed of carbonates, although other mineral types occur (Riding 2011).. Cyanobacterial photosynthesis plays a role in microbialite formation by increasing ambient pH (Garcia-Pichel et al. 2004), thereby fostering carbonate precipitation, and extracellular polymeric substances produced by cyanobacteria and associated bacteria are thought to aid carbonate formation by binding Ca2+ (Van Lith et al. 2003, Braissant et al. 2007). Sulfate reducing bacteria may also be crucial to ...
There is a growing interest in sustainable heterogeneous catalysts based on organic polymers. Here, we describe a series of polyimidazolium salt catalysts, prepared from the direct reaction of arene- bridged bis- and tris-alkyl halides with trimethylsilylimidazole. The polyimidazolium salts were characterized by spectroscopic and analytical techniques and it was found that their morphology and porosity could be controlled by adjusting the steric parameters of the spacer in the alkyl-halide starting materials. Moreover, the polymers are excellent heterogeneous organocatalysts for the cycloaddition of CO2 to epoxides to afford cyclic carbonates at atmospheric pressure under solvent-free conditions. The polymer catalysts exhibit long-term stability and may be recycled and reused at least.. Keywords: carbon dioxide ; cyclic carbonates ; cycloaddition ; organocatalysis ; polyimidazolium. ...
... -raises carbonate hardness (KH)increases potassium2000 meq/L (5600 dKH)Description Carbonate hardness, (KH), is a measure of the bicarbonate & carbonate content of the water. Carbonate hardness contributes
KS4,3 Acidity is also known as m-Alkalinity, Total Alkalinity, Hydrogen Carbonate Hardness, Acid Buffering Power, Temporary Hardness, … Alkalinity describes the ability of water to buffer the increase of ph value influencing chemicals (flocculants, disinfection media - e.g. chlorine products - lowering or raising pH). To provide a sufficient buffering effect, alkalinity should amount to at least 0.7 mol/m3 and/or mmol/l. This value represents the hydrogen carbonated materials dissolved in water. The buffering effect in the 4.2 - 8.2 pH range relies on a balance between hydrogen carbonate ions and carbon dioxide dissolved in water. Should chemicals that lower the pH value of water be added (acids), then the hydrogen carbonate ion combines with these to form carbonic acid (which in turn dissolves into carbon dioxide and water) and water. At a 4.3 pH value all hydrogen carbonate ions are depleted; thus the KS4,3 Acidity designation. Should in contrast chemicals be added that raise the pH value ...
The Seachem Reef Status Magnesium Carbonate Test Kit tests for magnesium through a titration based procedure in increments of 12.5 mg/L. Tests for carbonate alkalinity, borate alkalintiy and total alkalinity in 0.1 meq/L resolution through a titration
DIRECTIONS. Add Sodasan Machine Dishwashing Agent into the compartment for the main wash of your dishwasher. For normally dirty dishes: 1 tablespoon (15g). For very dirty dishes: 2 tablespoons (30g).. INGREDIENTS Trisodium Citrate, Sodium Carbonate, Silicates, Sodium Percarbonate, Nonionic Surfactant, Water, Natural Perfume Oil, Citral. ...
Synonyms for potassium carbonate in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for potassium carbonate. 2 words related to potassium carbonate: carbonate, pearl ash. What are synonyms for potassium carbonate?
Carbonate concretions and host shales from the Cretaceous Northern Shimanto Belt in southwestern Japan were studied. There are three types of carbonate concretions: spherical micritic, lenticular micritic, and lenticular crystalline. They contain calcite, clay minerals, framboidal pyrite, and detrital quartz and feldspar. The concretions have carbon isotopic compositions between -17.3 per thousand and -6.6 per thousand (PDB), reflecting the contribution of light carbon derived from organic matter. Distribution patterns of elements in the histogram of Al 2 O 3 /TiO 2 , and in the diagrams of Zr-TiO 2 , SiO 2 /TiO 2 -Al 2 O 3 /TiO 2 , and Zr-K 2 O-Rb suggest that the concretions contain more acidic tuff than do the host shales. Supply of acidic tuff to the site of deposition is also suggested by the presence of arcuate or cuspate detrital quartz grains in the samples. The formation of authigenic carbonates was probably related to an increase in influx of acidic tuff. In particular, the formation ...
Ocean acidification is the multidecadal decrease in ocean pH and change in seawater inorganic carbon chemistry caused primarily by uptake of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) from the atmosphere. Global surface ocean mean pH has decreased from 8.2 to 8.1 over the past two centuries; the current pH decrease is about 10-100 times faster than past trends observed in the recent geological record. As CO2 dissolves into the ocean, it decreases pH as well as carbonate ion concentrations (CO32−). Carbonate ions are required for the hard calcium carbonate (CaCO3) shells and skeletons that many marine organisms create. Many organisms decrease their rate of CaCO3 production in response to ocean acidification. Other biological responses to ocean acidification include changes in photosynthesis and respiration, alterations in behavior, and shifts in intracellular chemistry. Ocean acidification may also alter the biogeochemical cycling of nitrogen, carbon, and micronutrients. Direct impacts on individual ...
Xenolith DU-1 contains heterogeneous domains of ilmenite-rich breccia surrounded by spinel harzburgite wall rock. The breccia domains also host resorbed Cr-diopside porphyroclasts and occasional Fe-Ni-Co sulphides segregations. Ilmenite occurs as large (up to 5 cm), chemically zoned lenses, associated with minor rutile. The ilmenite has Hf isotope values (initial εHf=2.1-3.0) in the range of South African Group I kimberlites and associated megacrysts. The ilmenite lenses host primary multiphase carbonate-rich, olivine-dominated, phlogopite-dominated and sulphide mineral inclusions. Carbonate-rich inclusions host abundant magnesite and dolomite, with subordinate kalsilite, phlogopite, alkali-carbonates, phosphates and chlorides. The occurrence of carbonate-rich inclusions suggests entrapment of a Ca-Mg-rich alkali-carbonate melt during ilmenite growth. However, geochemical modelling indicates that this melt was not parental to the ilmenite. Instead, it is suggested that the ilmenite (and other ...
Accumulation of carbonate mud is minor on the Northwest Shelf (Western Australia), a broad (, 200-300 km wide), distally steepened, tropical carbonate ramp. It is negligible along most of the inner ramp (0 to 50 m water depth) owing to siliciclastic (riverine) input. It is also negligible along the mid (from 50 to 120 m) ramp, and where the entire ramp narrows to , 100 km, owing to constant reworking by storm waves and ocean swell. In these areas, carbonate mud is derived mostly from mechanical degradation of skeletal fragments, but this does not include calcified remains of calcareous green algae (e.g., Halimeda) although these plants grow locally. Only along the outer (120 to 200 m water depth) ramp and slope is there any relatively abundant accumulation of carbonate mud. Here the sediment consists of modern pelagic (foraminifer, pteropod, and nannoplantkon) ooze and aragonitic needle-rich (, 2 μm) micrite, the latter having an age (based on AMS 14C) of ~ 19 ka. Distribution of aragonite ...
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This is probably due the carbonate radical production from hydroxyl radical and bicarbonate with a second order. rate constant of 8.5 × 106 M−1 s− 1 [22] and posterior probe oxidation by both carbonate and hydroxyl radical, as they are not specific MK-2206 solubility dmso [50]. In the case of DHR, hydroxyl radicals are the most reactive but least efficient in generating fluorescent products, probably because of lower selectivity of attack than carbonate radical [50]. In the case of NADH oxidation, the observed higher oxidation when bicarbonate is present probably reside in the fact that hydroxyl radical can either add or oxidize targets, whereas carbonate radical only oxidize the biomolecule, a direct observation derived from their different redox potential and chemical reactivity [22]. In order to confirm the results obtained, the TBARs method was used to assess the rate of oxidation of 2-deoxy-d-ribose mediated by Cu(II) sulphate and Cu(II) complexes with imines. or Gly-derived Y-27632 ...
0045]Next, an electrolyte is prepared. The electrolyte may be an organic electrolytic solution. Alternatively, the electrolyte may be in the form of a gel or a solid. The organic electrolytic solution may be prepared by dissolving a salt in a solvent. The solvent can be selected from the group consisting of propylene carbonate, ethylene carbonate, fluoroethylene carbonate, diethyl carbonate, methylethyl carbonate, methylpropyl carbonate, butylene carbonate, benzonitrile, acetonitrile, tetrahydrofuran, 2-methyltetrahydrofuran, γ-butyrolactone, dioxorane, 4-methyldioxorane, N,N-dimethyl formamide, dimethyl acetamide, dimethylsulfoxide, dioxane, 1,2-dimethoxyethane, sulforane, dichloroethane, chlorobenzene, nitrobenzene, dimethyl carbonate, methylisopropyl carbonate, ethylpropyl carbonate, dipropyl carbonate, dibutyl carbonate, diethylene glycol, dimethyl ether, and a mixture thereof. The salt may be a lithium salt, such as LiPF6, LiBF4, LiSbF6, LiAsF6, LiClO4, LiCF3SO3, Li(CF3SO2)2N, LiC4F9SO3, ...
Synonyms for Calcium bi carbonate in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for Calcium bi carbonate. 2 words related to calcium bicarbonate: bicarbonate, hydrogen carbonate. What are synonyms for Calcium bi carbonate?
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A competitively priced comprehensive overview of the Carbonates market.. Key Findings. Why was the report written?. Available in over 80 country combinations the 2015 Carbonates Category Profile reports provide a comprehensive overview of the Carbonates markets. Compiled from Canadeans Global Soft Drinks report series, the reports offer a cost effective way of quickly gaining an understanding of industry dynamics and structure.. What is the current market landscape and what is changing?. The Carbonates Category Profiles report series provides an analysis of category trends in the current landscape-looking at both the key current and emerging trends.. What are the key drivers behind recent market changes?. The Carbonates Category Profiles report series provide an analysis of the drivers behind category performance in the respective markets, covering for example the impact of the economic environment, rising/falling consumer disposable income levels, pricing challenges, environmental issues ...
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Calcium acetate/magnesium carbonate is a fixed-dose combination drug that contains 110 mg calcium and 60 mg magnesium ions and is indicated as a phosphate binder for dialysis patients suffering from hyperphosphataemia (abnormal high serum phosphorus levels). It is registered by Fresenius Medical Care under the trade names Renepho (Belgium) and OsvaRen (a number of other European countries). Phosphorus is contained in food with high protein content as well as in processed food. It is absorbed by the small intestine. Healthy kidneys remove excess phosphorus from the body. One of the consequences of renal failure is inadequate removal of phosphorus resulting in increased serum phosphorus levels. This may worsen the overproduction of parathyroid hormone (hyperparathyroidism), and may lead to renal osteodystrophy, calcification of blood vessels and is associated with cardiovascular mortality (the so-called chronic kidney disease-mineral and bone disorder, CKD-MBD). In addition to dialysis therapy and ...
Magnesium carbonate/ACM13717005 can be provided in Alfa Chemistry. We are dedicated to provide our customers the best products and services.
Pure Grade Magnesium Carbonate Gym Chalk, perfect for solidifying your grip during weight lifting and body weight training. This 1 lb box contains 8 individually wrapped 2 oz blocks, available at The Treadmill Factory Fitness Equipment Superstores, Canada
A week or so ago our 10 year old heater gave out -- it started leaking a noticeable amount of water, and a technician opened it up, showed me part of the disintegrating core, and said it was not worth repairing and should be replaced, so we did. Previous to this I had noticed the ph was very low, perhaps close to 6.0, and subsequently it of course remained so. After the new heater was installed, over the course of a few days I dumped 4-5 lbs of sodium carbonate based ph+ into the pool,
Schrockingerite, in addition to having a uranyl (UO2) group in its chemistry, has a sulfate ion. Schrockingerite could be classified as a sulfate, but is here classified as a carbonate due to the greater number and therefore greater significance of the carbonate ions. Other sulfate carbonates include susannite, leadhillite, hanksite, macphersonite ...
This is packed full of electrolytes and is designed for athletes with high sweat sodium losses to use when competing, or for athletes with average sodium losses under more extreme conditions.. View your hydration plan, or take our Sweat Test for your personalised recommendation.. Ingredients Citric Acid; Sodium Carbonate; Potassium Carbonate; Sodium Chloride; Trimagnesium citrate anhydrous; Calcium carbonate; Maltodextrine; Flavours; Sweeteners; Sucrose and Sorbitol.. Electrolyte content (per 1l / 32oz - when mixed as directed). Sodium: 1500mg Potassium: 600mg. Calcium: 200mg. Magnesium: 100mg. -. Nutritional info. Energy: 9.4 Kcal / 40.8 Kj per tablet (1.9 Kcal / 8.2 Kj per 100ml*) Protein: 0g. Fats: 0g. Carbohydrates: 0.17g per tablet (0.3g per 100ml*). *after dilution of 1 tablet per 500ml of water. Do not exceed the recommended daily dose ...
CO2 is carried 70% under the form of sodium carbonate and potasium carbonate(in some books none of these is mentioned but a calcium carbonate is mentioned- THIS IS NOT TRUE- CaHCO3 can not be in the blood-the body does not allow this). 23% is disolved in the blood and 7% is in the red blood cells as carbohemoglobine(carboaminohemoglobine- it is the same thing ...
Because of their economic importance as hydrocarbon reservoirs, the Upper Devonian dolomitized carbonate reefs in southwest Alberta have been the subject of several studies. Still, there is no consensus on the process of matrix dolomitization and furthermore, the process of vug development is not often addressed. The studied outcrops show features of an early diagenetic matrix-selective dolomitization by a Late Devonian seawater-derived fluid. Seepage reflux dolomitization combined with latent reflux is proposed, which best explains most chemical characteristics. The cements in the vugs are precipitated from warm saline, Sr-87-enriched fluids and testify to thermogenic sulphate reduction based on the presence of sulphur, CO2 and H2S in inclusions, relatively high homogenization temperatures and depleted delta C-13 values, which sets constraints on the timing of vug formation. Secondary porosity may be created by the mixing of formation water with a tectonically and topographically driven fluid ...
Looking for diethyl carbonate? Find out information about diethyl carbonate. 2CO3 Stable, colorless liquid with mild aroma, boiling at 126°C; soluble with most organic solvents; used as a solvent and for chemical synthesis. Explanation of diethyl carbonate
China Potassium Carbonate with Heavy Density, Find details about China Potassium, Carbonate from Potassium Carbonate with Heavy Density - NANJING GUOCHEN CHEMICALS CO., LTD.
Looking for diphenyl carbonate? Find out information about diphenyl carbonate. 2CO Easily hydrolyzed, white crystals, melting at 78°C; soluble in organic solvents, insoluble in water; used as a solvent, plasticizer, and chemical... Explanation of diphenyl carbonate
Site Info CARBONATES (CARBONATES.US). Only real reviews from consumers of the website CARBONATES. Add your review at the Free-Comment
No, its fine, but tricky to figure out how much to add. If you need to raise both the pH and the alkalinity, then you can use pH Up or Arm & Hammer Super Washing Soda (careful: not the laundry detergent) since these are both Sodium Carbonate. If you post a full set of water chemistry numbers, especially pH, Total Alkalinity (TA), Cyanuric Acid (CYA) as well as the pool water volume, I can tell you exactly how much you need to add ...
Understanding the controlling factors and elucidating the requirements and conditions necessary for carbon dioxide (CO2) storage by mineral trapping (or carbonation) is of paramount interest for any technical application as a means for carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS). The effect of pH, supersaturation and substrate has been studied using non-stirred batch reactors at initial constant temperature of 150 oC. These conditions are relevant for mineral trapping. A set of experiments was conducted, where solid carbonate were precipitated from a range of solution compositions. Saturation state and composition of experimental solutions were calculated using the numerical code PHREEQC-2. Two main aqueous inlet solutions containing MgCl2 and Mg(CH3COO)2 with incremental changes in concentration were reacted on feldspar and basalt separately. The substrates used in the experiment, as well as secondary mineral phases that were formed from the experiments were identified using Raman spectroscopy ...
There is described a process for producing polyester foam fiber where sodium carbonate and citric acid are added as blowing agent before spinning together with polycarbonate. The proportion of blowing agent is from 0.15 to 0.80 percent by weight of the polyester and the proportion of polycarbonate is from 0.5 to 2 percent by weight of the polyester. The process of the invention makes it possible to produce foam fiber, i.e. filament or staple fiber with discontinuous voids, which may be used for example as carpet fiber and filling fiber for blankets and cushions or as a lining material for winter clothing.
What Ingredients Do You Need?. You will need 3 basic ingredients; a soap of some sort, washing soda and borax. The Soap: The most typical type of soap to use is Fels Naptha. It is an old-fashioned type of soap usually found in the laundry aisle. The other options for soap are Ivory or another brand called, Zote. Any of these will work. I use my own homemade soap and find it works quite well and I do have this for sale in my Country Store. If you use Ivory or your own homemade soap you will need to use the whole bar. Washing Soda: This is not to be confused with baking soda. They are not the same thing. Washing soda is sodium carbonate or soda ash (baking soda is sodium bicarbonate). It is a white powder. Its purpose is to help remove dirt and orders. The brand to look for is Arm & Hammer Washing Soda. I find it in the laundry section of my grocery store. Many people have a hard time finding this locally. I know you can purchase it on-line, even through Amazon.com. I would also suggest asking ...
The Sua Pan or Sowa Pan is a large natural topographic depression within the Makgadikgadi region of Botswana. It is located near the village of Sowa, whose name means salt in the language of the San.[1][2] The Sua salt pan is one of three large pans within the Makgadikgadi, the other two being Nxai Pan and Nwetwe Pan.[3] The Sua Pan was first described to the European world by David Livingstone, pursuant to his explorations in this region.[4] Significant archaeological recoveries have been made within the Nwetwe Pan, featuring stone-age tools from peoples who lived in this area[5] when a large year-round lake occupied the Sua and Nwetwe Pans.[6] The Brines of Sua Pan being one of the largest playa lakes in the world spans approximately 24000 square kilometers. While sodium chloride is the prime constituent, there are many other salts found within this area such as sodium carbonate, sodium bicarbonate, sodium sulfate, and minor amounts of potassium chloride (potash).[7] Currently, Sua Pan is a ...
You can get a pretty good indicator of when the Ca(EtSO4)2 is neutralized when adding sodium carbonate solution does not produce a precipitate. Mix thoroughly and check the pH... I had the best luck with a pH of about 9... there was a lot of decomposition when evaporating the water with lower pH for some reason. I concentrated it on a hotplate, filtering any salts that precipitated out (calcium bicarbonate seems to be problematic here). Then I heated it on a hot water bath until the liquid hardened like rock candy when removed on a spatula and decanted onto a surface and allowed it to cool. Its somewhat easier to remove from aluminum foil than a glass plate. ...
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This is a Phase II Screening study. There is no placebo (inactive or fake drug) in this study, meaning that all participants will be taking lithium carbonate. The purpose of this study is to find out if lithium carbonate is safe to be used in people with ALS and if it can slow the progression of the disease.. A recent article was published in a highly regarded medical journal that showed a positive effect of lithium carbonate on an ALS type mouse. The researchers then studied a very small number of people with ALS, giving 16 people lithium carbonate with riluzole and giving 28 people only riluzole. The people who took lithium remained stronger for a considerably longer period of time. However, the study was very small and we cannot really tell if lithium works unless a larger study is performed. It is not well understood why lithium carbonate might be helpful but it is believed that it may play a role in protecting the motor nerves from the damage of ALS.. If you choose to participate, you ...
Genzymes sevelamer carbonate (Renvela) successfully and significantly reduced serum phosphorus for hyperphosphalemic patients who have chronic kidney disease but are not on dialysis. This was the primary end point for the study, which also showed that sevelamer carbonate significantly reduced calcium phosphorus product and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Sevelamer carbonate was welltolerated and exhibited a safety profile similar to sevelamer hydrochloride (Renagel). The multicenter, open-label study included 49 patients in Europe and Australia. In the United States, sevelamer hydrochloride is the most prescribed phosphate binder; sevelamer carbonate is a buffered form of sevelamer hydrochloride that is calcium-free and metal-free. Once FDA-approved, sevelamer carbonate will be available in 800-mg tablets.. ...
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Spill Response Guide: Corrosive Acids. or calcium carbonate.Carbonate Hydrochloric Acid Calcium Carbonate Casein Wood Flour.. In addition to the natural processes that form small amounts of nitric acid. acid (the primary acid component of acid rain). calcium carbonate and sulfuric acid.Reaction of aqueous solutions of nitric acid with. calcium carbonate reacts with.HORMEEL aquilegia vulgaris and origanum majorana whole and nitric acid and nutmeg and oyster shell calcium carbonate, crude and cypripedium parvifolum root and conyza ...
According to one version of the "panspermia" theory, life on Earth could originally have arrived here by way of meteorites from Mars, where conditions early in the history of the solar system are thought to have been more favorable for the creation of life from nonliving ingredients. The only problem has been how a meteorite could get blasted off of Mars without frying any microbial life hitching a ride.. But new research on the celebrated Martian meteorite ALH84001 shows that the rock never got hotter than 105 degrees Fahrenheit during its journey from the Red Planet to Earth, even during the impact that ejected it from Mars, or while plunging through Earths atmosphere before landing on Antarctic ice thousands of years ago.. In the October 27 issue of the journal Science, Caltech graduate student Benjamin Weiss, undergraduate student Francis Macdonald, geobiology professor Joseph Kirschvink, and their collaborators at Vanderbilt and McGill universities explain results they obtained when ...
NOW Xyliwhite Neem & Tea Tree Toothpaste Gel 6.4 oz. Fluoride-Free SLS-Free Gluten-Free Paraben-Free Reduces Plaque Whitens Fresh Taste The XyliWhite Advantage - XyliWhite is a remarkable fluoride-free toothpaste gel that uses natural Xylitol as its main ingredient. Formulated with the purest ingredients Free of SLS (sodium lauryl sulfate) Vegetarian/vegan ingredients Cool, minty, refreshing taste Whiter, stronger teeth Contains 25% Xylitol, one of the highest contents available For adults and children Functional Ingredients: xylitol (25%), papain (whitening) Ingredients: water, xylitol (25%), hydrated silica, glycerin, sorbitol, sodium bicarbonate, calcium carbonate, sodium carbonate, melia azadirachta extract (neem), melaleuca alternifolia (tea tree) leaf oil, gaultheria procumbens (wintergreen) leaf oil, natural mint flavor, papain, xanthan gum, sodium coco-sulfate. Directions: Adults and children 2 years and older: Apply XyliWhite toothpaste gel on to a
We have developed a novel nanostructured calcium silicate - calcium carbonate composite material with excellent whiteness, chemical reactivity and physical absorbent properties, from the problematic silica contained in separated geothermal water. It is an environmentally attractive material produced from a natural silica source with a very low manufacturing energy footprint. Potential applications of this naturally-sourced composite material which we are developing include its use: as a functional filler in tyres, plastics, paper, concrete and thermal insulation; in the recovery of dissolved phosphate from waterways and lakes, and base metals from mine waters; as a general absorbent and soil conditioning agent. Geothermal energy is a significant renewable energy resource worldwide. In geothermal electricity generation, sub-surface superheated geothermal water at about 250-350 oC, saturated in dissolved silica, is piped to the surface where the pressure is reduced and some 30 % of the water is flashed
acidifying agents (examples include but are not limited to acetic acid, citric acid, fumaric acid, hydrochloric acid, nitric acid); alkalinizing agents (examples include but are not limited to ammonia solution, ammonium carbonate, diethanolamine, monoethanolamine, potassium hydroxide, sodium borate, sodium carbonate, sodium hydroxide, triethanolamine, trolamine); adsorbents (examples include but are not limited to powdered cellulose and activated charcoal); aerosol propellants (examples include but are not limited to carbon dioxide, CCl2F2, F2ClC-CClF2 and CClF3) air displacement agents (examples include but are not limited to nitrogen and argon); antifungal preservatives (examples include but are not limited to benzoic acid, butylparaben, ethylparaben, methylparaben, propylparaben, sodium benzoate); antimicrobial preservatives (examples include but are not limited to benzalkonium chloride, benzethonium chloride, benzyl alcohol, cetylpyridinium chloride, chlorobutanol, phenol, phenylethyl ...

Lithium Carbonate Pharmaceutical, Lithium Carbonate Pharmaceutical Suppliers and Manufacturers at Alibaba.comLithium Carbonate Pharmaceutical, Lithium Carbonate Pharmaceutical Suppliers and Manufacturers at Alibaba.com

Quality Lithium Carbonate Pharmaceutical Products from Global Lithium Carbonate Pharmaceutical Suppliers and Lithium Carbonate ... Tags: Calcium Carbonate Grinding Mill , Calcium Carbonate Powder Grinding , Calcium Carbonate Powder Grinding Mill , View ... Tags: Dimethyl Carbonate , Dimethyl Carbonate For Battery , Dimethyl Carbonate Dmc For Lithium Battery Electrolyte , View ... Tags: Lithium Carbonate Price , Pharmaceutical Grade Lithium Carbonate Price , Lithium Carbonate For The Lithium Battery ...
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2014 Market Research Report on Global Industrial-grade Lithium Carbonate Industry: 9Dimen Research2014 Market Research Report on Global Industrial-grade Lithium Carbonate Industry: 9Dimen Research

1.6.1 Industrial-grade Lithium Carbonate Global Import Market Analysis. 1.6.2 Industrial-grade Lithium Carbonate Global Export ... 1.6.3 Industrial-grade Lithium Carbonate Global Main Region Market Analysis. 1.6.4 Industrial-grade Lithium Carbonate Global ... 3.3 Asia Industrial-grade Lithium Carbonate Industry Policy and Plan Analysis. 3.4 Asia Industrial-grade Lithium Carbonate ... 1.3.1 Industrial-grade Lithium Carbonate Main Application Analysis. 1.3.2 Industrial-grade Lithium Carbonate Main Application ...
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Lithium carbonate capsules (Lithium carbonate) dosage, indication, interactions, side effects | EMPR - ONALithium carbonate capsules (Lithium carbonate) dosage, indication, interactions, side effects | EMPR - ONA

Lithium carbonate) drug information & product resources from MPR including dosage information, educational materials, & patient ... Indications for Lithium carbonate capsules:. Mania in bipolar disorder.. Adult:. Individualize. Acute mania: 600mg 3 times ...
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Calcium Carbonate: MedlinePlus Drug InformationCalcium Carbonate: MedlinePlus Drug Information

Calcium Carbonate: learn about side effects, dosage, special precautions, and more on MedlinePlus ... Before taking calcium carbonate,. *tell your doctor and pharmacist if you are allergic to calcium carbonate or any other drugs. ... Gas-X® with Maalox® (containing Calcium Carbonate, Simethicone). *Rolaids® Plus Gas Relief (containing Calcium Carbonate, ... Take calcium carbonate exactly as directed. Do not take more or less of it or take it more often than prescribed by your doctor ...
more infohttps://medlineplus.gov/druginfo/meds/a601032.html

Carbonates on Mars - WikipediaCarbonates on Mars - Wikipedia

The carbonates were discovered in an outcrop of rocks called "Comanche." Carbonates (calcium or iron carbonates) were ... At that time, carbonates would have formed from water and the carbon dioxide-rich atmosphere. Later the deposits of carbonate ... Earth has vast carbonate deposits in the form of limestone. Huygens Crater - circle shows location of carbonate deposit - ... These kind of carbonates only form when there is a lot of water. They were found with the Compact Reconnaissance Imaging ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carbonates_on_Mars

Carbonates and Evaporites - WikipediaCarbonates and Evaporites - Wikipedia

Carbonates and Evaporites is an international scientific journal published 4 times a year by Springer and provides a forum for ... This includes the origin and stratigraphy of carbonate, and evaporite rocks and issues unique to these rock types: weathering ... the exchange of concepts, research and applications on all aspects of carbonate and evaporite geology. ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carbonates_and_Evaporites

Strontium carbonate - WikipediaStrontium carbonate - Wikipedia

Magnesium carbonate. Calcium carbonate. Barium carbonate Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their ... Strontium carbonate (SrCO3) is the carbonate salt of strontium that has the appearance of a white or grey powder. It occurs in ... Strontium carbonate is a white, odorless, tasteless powder. Being a carbonate, it is a weak base and therefore is reactive with ... usually sodium or ammonium carbonates). For example if sodium carbonate was used in solution with strontium nitrate: Sr(NO3)2 ( ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Strontium_carbonate

sodium carbonate | Infopleasesodium carbonate | Infoplease

Pure sodium carbonate is a white, odorless powder that absorbs moisture from the air, has an alkaline taste, and forms a ... sodium carbonate, chemical compound, Na 2CO 3, soluble in water and very slightly soluble in alcohol. Pure sodium carbonate is ... Sodium carbonate decahydrate, Na 2CO 3·10H 2O, is a colorless, transparent crystalline compound commonly called sal soda or ... The principal uses of sodium carbonate are in the manufacture of glass and the production of chemicals. It is also used in ...
more infohttps://www.infoplease.com/encyclopedia/science/chemistry/elements/sodium-carbonate

Aims and Scope: Carbonates and EvaporitesAims and Scope: Carbonates and Evaporites

... Established in 1979, the international journal Carbonates and Evaporites provides a ... This includes the origin and stratigraphy of carbonate and evaporite rocks and issues unique to these rock types: weathering ... forum for the exchange of concepts, research and applications on all aspects of carbonate and evaporite geology. ...
more infohttp://www.springer.com/earth+sciences+and+geography/geology?SGWID=0-10007-9-13146-print_view=aimsAndScopes

carbonatess CAPS Pagecarbonates's CAPS Page

carbonates Houston, carbonates says:. I am an exploration geologist, which requires me to be tolerant of risk and able to ... carbonates is outperforming , 20% of all CAPS players. A players score is the total percentage return of all his picks ...
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Carbonates in ItalyCarbonates in Italy

Carbonates in Germany. - Carbonates in Estonia. - Carbonates in Indonesia. - Carbonates in the Philippines. - Carbonates in ... Carbonates Market in Asia to 2019: Market Guide. - Carbonates Market in MENA to 2019: Market Guide. - Carbonates Market in East ... Carbonates Market in Latin America to 2019: Market Guide. - Carbonates Market in West Europe to 2019: Market Guide. - ... Report Published: Carbonates in Italy. Fast Market Research recommends Carbonates in Italy from Euromonitor International, ...
more infohttp://www.sbwire.com/press-releases/report-published-carbonates-in-italy-519835.htm

Carbonates in IndonesiaCarbonates in Indonesia

Carbonates continued to perform well in 2013, with total value sales recording 12% growth, due to the continued success of the ... Carbonates in Germany. - Carbonates in Estonia. - Carbonates in the Philippines. - Carbonates in Kazakhstan. - Carbonates in ... Carbonates Market in Asia to 2019: Market Guide. - Carbonates Market in MENA to 2019: Market Guide. - Carbonates Market in East ... Carbonates Market in Latin America to 2019: Market Guide. - Carbonates Market in West Europe to 2019: Market Guide. - ...
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Thermal decomposition of metal carbonates- Learn ChemistryThermal decomposition of metal carbonates- Learn Chemistry

... and the carbonates of less reactive metals, such as lead and copper. ... This experiment involves a comparison between the thermal stabilities of carbonates of reactive metals, such as sodium and ... Potassium carbonate, K2CO3(s), (IRRITANT) - see CLEAPSS Hazcard.. Sodium carbonate, anhydrous, Na2CO3(s), (IRRITANT) - see ... Those metal carbonates which do decompose leave a residue of the metal oxide and evolve carbon dioxide in the process:. ...
more infohttp://www.rsc.org/learn-chemistry/resource/res00000450/thermal-decomposition-of-metal-carbonates

Calcium Carbonate | Encyclopedia.comCalcium Carbonate | Encyclopedia.com

calcium carbonate, CaCO3, white chemical compound that is the most common nonsiliceous mineral. It occurs in two crystal forms ... Calcium carbonate. Calcium carbonate, CaCO3, is one of the most common compounds on Earth, making up about 7% of Earths crust ... Calcium carbonate. Calcium carbonate, CaCO3, is one of the most common compounds on Earth , making up about 7% of Earths crust ... Calcium carbonate has two major crystalline forms-two different geometric arrangements of the calcium ions and carbonate ions ...
more infohttps://www.encyclopedia.com/science-and-technology/chemistry/compounds-and-elements/calcium-carbonate

potassium carbonate | FactMonsterpotassium carbonate | FactMonster

potassium carbonate, chemical compound, K 2CO 3, white, crystalline, deliquescent substance that forms a strongly alkaline ...
more infohttps://www.factmonster.com/encyclopedia/science/chemistry/elements/potassium-carbonate

Adcal (calcium carbonate)Adcal (calcium carbonate)

Adcal tablets are a calcium supplement containing calcium carbonate, information about taking adcal tablets, including adcal ... Adcal (calcium carbonate). Adcal chewable tablets contain the active ingredient calcium carbonate, which is a calcium salt used ... Calcichew Forte (calcium carbonate). Everything you need to know about taking this calcium supplement By Helen Marshall ... Calcium carbonate is also used in people with kidney failure to bind to phosphate consumed in the diet. Its needed because in ...
more infohttp://www.netdoctor.co.uk/medicines/diet-and-nutrition/a8328/adcal-calcium-carbonate/

Freshwater Carbonate Sedimentation | SpringerLinkFreshwater Carbonate Sedimentation | SpringerLink

Carbonate minerals are a common constituent of lacustrine sediments. The great variability with respect to geological setting, ... Plummer, L. N. (1975). Mixing of seawater with calcium carbonate ground water. Mem. Geol. Soc. Am., 142: 219-236.Google Scholar ... Ball, M. M. (1967). Carbonate sand bodies of Florida and the Bahamas. J. Sed. Petrol., 37: 556-591.Google Scholar ... Lalou, C. (1957). Studies on bacterial precipitation of carbonates in sea water. J. Sed. Petrol., 27: 190-195.Google Scholar ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-1-4757-1152-3_9

Diphenyl carbonateDiphenyl carbonate

The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) uses its best efforts to deliver a high quality copy of the Database and to verify that the data contained therein have been selected on the basis of sound scientific judgment. However, NIST makes no warranties to that effect, and NIST shall not be liable for any damage that may result from errors or omissions in the Database ...
more infohttps://webbook.nist.gov/cgi/inchi/InChI%3D1S/C13H10O3/c14-13

Diethyl carbonateDiethyl carbonate

Other names: Carbonic acid, diethyl ester; Ethyl carbonate; Diatol; Ethyl carbonate ((EtO)2CO); Eufin; C2H5OC(O)OC2H5; ...
more infohttps://webbook.nist.gov/cgi/cbook.cgi?ID=C105588&Units=SI&Mask=1EFF&Type=ANTOINE&Plot=on

Carbonates in VietnamCarbonates in Vietnam

Table 1 Off-trade vs On-trade Sales of Carbonates: Volume 2011-2016. Table 2 Off-trade vs On-trade Sales of Carbonates: Value ... Table 3 Off-trade vs On-trade Sales of Carbonates: % Volume Growth 2011-2016. Table 4 Off-trade vs On-trade Sales of Carbonates ... Table 5 Off-trade Sales of Carbonates by Category: Volume 2011-2016. Table 6 Off-trade Sales of Carbonates by Category: Value ... Table 8 Off-trade Sales of Carbonates by Category: % Value Growth 2011-2016. Table 9 Total Sales of Carbonates by Fountain On- ...
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Lithium carbonate - Everything2.comLithium carbonate - Everything2.com

Lithium Carbonate (LiCO3) is a compound often used in psychiatric medicine for the treatment of bipolar disorder,Bipolar ... Lithium carbonate. Confirm. Do you really want to send cpt_ahab a message saying you like their work? ... Lithium Carbonate (LiCO3) is a compound often used in psychiatric medicine for the treatment of Bipolar Personality Disorder ( ... What is known is that Lithium Carbonate reduces the action of Norepinephrine and Serotonin in the brain, and inhibits the ...
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Manufacturing sodium carbonate- Learn ChemistryManufacturing sodium carbonate- Learn Chemistry

This resource is part of the Sodium carbonate - a versatile material resources collection, which presents learning material ... based on the manufacture and uses of sodium carbonate made by the Solvay (ammonia-soda) process. ... Manufacturing sodium carbonate Handout Sodium carbonate - introduction and teachers notes Handout Buy Sodium Carbonate booklet ... Manufacturing sodium carbonate Description. A worksheet with an account of the Solvay process and questions on the process and ...
more infohttp://www.rsc.org/learn-chemistry/resource/res00002214/manufacturing-sodium-carbonate?cmpid=CMP00007520

Sodium carbonate  - SWPPSodium carbonate - SWPP

Glossary of terms for the photographic industry Sodium carbonate An alkaline accelerator used in many general purpose and print ... Sodium carbonate An alkaline accelerator used in many general purpose and print developers. Search SWPP. ...
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East Europe Carbonates Analysis Report 2013: ResearchMozEast Europe Carbonates Analysis Report 2013: ResearchMoz

The East Europe Carbonates Report 2013 is an essential guide for anyone with an interest in the carbonated soft drinks market ... Published by Canadean, the East Europe Carbonates Report 2013 provides a detailed analysis of the carbonated soft drinks market ... the report provides an invaluable guide to the latest trends and forecasts in the carbonates category. ... Browse Detail Report With TOC @ http://www.researchmoz.us/east-europe-carbonates-report-2013-report.html ...
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Macedonia Carbonates Category Profile - 2015Macedonia Carbonates Category Profile - 2015

SummaryA competitively priced comprehensive overview of the Carbonates market.Key FindingsWhy was the - Market Research Reports ... 1.1 Macedonia Carbonates Key Facts 2014. 1.2 Macedonia Carbonates Commentary. 1.3 Macedonia Carbonates Data Tables. 2 Appendix ... Figure 2: Macedonia Carbonates Consumption and Growth Chart, 2009-2018F Carbonates in Egypt. Mar, 2018 , Published by: ... Carbonates in Uruguay. Mar, 2018 , Published by: Euromonitor. Carbonates in Uruguay report offers a comprehensive guide to the ...
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  • Nevertheless, the morphology was distinct from typical terrestrial sedimentary carbonate layers suggesting formation from local aqueous alteration of olivine and other igneous minerals. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, key implications were that the alteration would have occurred under moderate pH and that the resulting carbonates were not exposed to sustained low pH aqueous conditions even as recently as the Hesperian. (wikipedia.org)
  • As of 2012[update], the absence of more extensive carbonate deposits on Mars was thought by some scientists to be due to global dominance of low pH aqueous environments. (wikipedia.org)
  • Two distinctly different geological settings can be recognized: (1) carbonate and evaporite deposition in brine lakes or on playas in arid regions (see Chap. 8, this volume), and (2) carbonate sedimentation in fresh- and brackish-water lakes in humid regions. (springer.com)
  • On the whole, in constrast to an oceanic environment, the bulk of primary lacustrine carbonates are inorganic chemical precipitates. (springer.com)
  • The Macedonia Carbonates Category Profile 2015 from Canadean provides a comprehensive overview of the Carbonates market in Macedonia. (bharatbook.com)
  • Lemonade and orange carbonates each registered rising volume sales over the course of 2019. (euromonitor.com)
  • Pepsi Taiwan Co ranked fourth in carbonates in Taiwan in 2019 and this represents a relatively poor position for the global player, which is generally ranked either first or second in carbonates in most countries. (euromonitor.com)
  • The great variability with respect to geological setting, climatic environment, water chemistry, and biological activity limits generalizations about mechanisms of carbonate sedimentation. (springer.com)
  • Carbonates are widely used in industry, e.g. in iron smelting, as a raw material for Portland cement and lime manufacture, in the composition of ceramic glazes , and more. (thefullwiki.org)
  • Because of its status as a weak Lewis base , strontium carbonate can be used to produce many different strontium compounds by simple use of the corresponding acid. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because of the toxicity of lead compounds, it may be best to leave lead carbonate out with less reliable classes. (rsc.org)
  • At an elementary level, the relative thermal stability of the carbonates of the metals cannot easily be explained in terms of simple ideas of bonding in these compounds. (rsc.org)
  • A simple relationship between the reactivity of the metal and the stability of its compounds, such as the carbonate here, will have to suffice. (rsc.org)
  • g Wash your hands thoroughly at the end of these experiments, since some of the metal carbonates are toxic. (rsc.org)
  • The East Europe Carbonates Report 2013 is an essential guide for anyone with an interest in the carbonated soft drinks market and forms part of Canadean's best selling series of global soft drinks reports. (pitchengine.com)
  • Discover the latest market trends and uncover sources of future market growth for the Carbonates industry in Israel with research from Euromonitor's team of in-country analysts. (sbwire.com)
  • Boston, MA -- ( SBWIRE ) -- 06/13/2014 -- Carbonates continued to perform well in 2013, with total value sales recording 12% growth, due to the continued success of the PET 350ml pack size. (sbwire.com)
  • The Carbonates Category Profiles report series provides an analysis of category trends in the current landscape looking at both the key current and emerging trends. (bharatbook.com)
  • Jafora markets the RC cola carbonate, which is priced lower than Coca-Cola and is well known among consumers for its refreshing taste. (sbwire.com)
  • Domestic players with local brands remain very strong in carbonates in Taiwan, with local name Hey-Song Corp for instance the only company currently capable of presenting a credible challenge to category leader Swire Coca-Cola. (euromonitor.com)
  • Previously, most remote sensing instruments such as OMEGA and THEMIS-sensitive to infrared emissivity spectral features of carbonates-had not suggested the presence of carbonate outcrops, at least at the 100 m or coarser spatial scales available from the returned data. (wikipedia.org)
  • After Spirit Rover stopped working scientists studied old data from the Miniature Thermal Emission Spectrometer, or Mini-TES and confirmed the presence of large amounts of carbonate-rich rocks, which means that regions of the planet may have once harbored water. (wikipedia.org)
  • They are most readily identifiable by the presence of the carbonate ion. (reference.com)
  • Being a carbonate , it is a weak base and therefore is reactive with acids. (wikipedia.org)
  • The relative ease with which the carbonates of some of the less reactive metals are decomposed has been used in the extraction of these metals from ores that contain the metal as a carbonate, for example zinc carbonate (calamine). (rsc.org)
  • Comprising of 18 individual country profiles and a regional overview, the report provides an invaluable guide to the latest trends and forecasts in the carbonates category. (pitchengine.com)
  • The Carbonates Category Profiles report series provide an analysis of the drivers behind category performance in the respective markets, covering for example the impact of the economic environment, rising/falling consumer disposable income levels, pricing challenges, environmental issues etc. (bharatbook.com)
  • In strongly basic conditions, the carbonate ion predominates, while in weakly basic conditions, the bicarbonate ion is prevalent. (thefullwiki.org)
  • As in the review period, carbonates manufacturers and distributors will continue to invest in marketing and advertising campaigns as these have proven effective in driving sales. (sbwire.com)