Body Mass Index
Caffeine content of beverages as consumed. (1/259)Quantitative analysis of beverages prepared at home by staff of the Addiction Research Foundation revealed a lower and much more variable caffeine content of both tea and coffee than had been reported in earlier studies, most of which were based on analysis of laboratory-prepared beverages. Median caffeine concentration of 37 home-prepared samples of tea was 27 mg per cup (range, 8 to 91 mg); for 46 coffee samples the median concentration was 74 mg per cup (range, 29 to 176 mg). If tea and coffee as drunk contain less caffeine than generally supposed, the potency of caffeine may be greater than commonly realized, as may the relative caffeine content of certain commercial preparations, including chocolate and colas. The substantial variation in caffeine content emphasizes the need to establish actual caffeine intake in clinical, epidemiologic and experimental investigations of caffeine effects. (+info)
Neurobiological and psychophysical mechanisms underlying the oral sensation produced by carbonated water. (2/259)Carbonated drinks elicit a sensation that is highly sought after, yet the underlying neural mechanisms are ill-defined. We hypothesize that CO(2) is converted via carbonic anhydrase into carbonic acid, which excites lingual nociceptors that project to the trigeminal nuclei. We investigated this hypothesis using three methodological approaches. Electrophysiological methods were used to record responses of single units located in superficial laminae of the dorsomedial aspect of trigeminal subnucleus caudalis (Vc) evoked by lingual application of carbonated water in anesthetized rats. After pretreatment of the tongue with the carbonic anhydrase inhibitor dorzolamide, neuronal responses to carbonated water were significantly attenuated, followed by recovery. Using c-Fos immunohistochemistry, we investigated the distribution of brainstem neurons activated by intraoral carbonated water. Fos-like immunoreactivity (FLI) was significantly higher in the superficial laminae of dorsomedial and ventrolateral Vc in animals treated with carbonated water versus controls. Dorzolamide pretreatment significantly reduced FLI in dorsomedial Vc. We also examined the sensation elicited by carbonated water in human psychophysical studies. When one side of the tongue was pretreated with dorzolamide, followed by bilateral application of carbonated water, a significant majority of subjects chose the untreated side as having a stronger sensation and assigned significantly higher intensity ratings to that side. Dorzolamide did not reduce irritation elicited by pentanoic acid. The present data support the hypothesis that carbonated water excites lingual nociceptors via a carbonic anhydrase-dependent process, in turn exciting neurons in Vc that are presumably involved in signaling oral irritant sensations. (+info)
An experimental investigation of the influence of health information on children's taste preferences. (3/259)Promotion of healthy diets often involves provision of information about which food types are most favourable for health. This is based on the assumption that the rational consumer will, other things being equal, choose the food that they know is healthier. However, health information may not always have a positive effect, since there is evidence that some people, particularly children, believe that healthiness and tastiness are mutually exclusive characteristics. To the extent that taste governs preferences and consumption, the characterization of a food as healthy could reduce its anticipated pleasantness. The present study tested the idea that a 'healthy' label would reduce liking for a novel drink. The results showed that the children rated a 'healthy labelled' drink as less pleasant and said they would be less likely to ask their parents to buy it than the same drink presented with control information. These results suggest that care may need to be exercised in promoting foods to children through an emphasis on health, unless the implications of healthiness can be rendered more positive. (+info)
Small taxes on soft drinks and snack foods to promote health. (4/259)Health officials often wish to sponsor nutrition and other health promotion programs but are hampered by lack of funding. One source of funding is suggested by the fact that 18 states and 1 major city levy special taxes on soft drinks, candy, chewing gum, or snack foods. The tax rates may be too small to affect sales, but in some jurisdictions, the revenues generated are substantial. Nationally, about $1 billion is raised annually from these taxes. The authors propose that state and local governments levy taxes on foods of low nutritional value and use the revenues to fund health promotion programs. (+info)
Maternal milk consumption predicts the tradeoff between milk and soft drinks in young girls' diets. (5/259)Milk intake constitutes an important source of dietary calcium for young girls but declines throughout childhood. Recent work shows that the intake of soft drinks may contribute to this decline. Influences on the apparent tradeoff between soft drinks and milk in young girls' diets are not well described. The objective of this research was to test a model depicting maternal beverage choices as predictors of their daughters' milk and soft drink intake. A structural equation model describing maternal influences on daughters' milk, soft drink and calcium intakes was tested using data from 180 non-Hispanic, white families with 5-y-old daughters. Mothers' calcium, milk and soft drink intakes were evaluated as predictors of their daughters' intakes. Mothers' and daughters' soft drink intakes were also examined as predictors of their own milk and calcium intakes. The model provided a good fit to the data, revealing mother-daughter similarities in beverage intake. Mothers who drank milk more frequently had daughters who drank milk more frequently and drank fewer soft drinks. For both mothers and daughters, soft drink consumption was negatively related to both milk and calcium intake. This research provides evidence that mothers' beverage choices influence the tradeoff between milk and soft drinks in their daughters' diets. In particular, mothers' milk and soft drink intakes may affect their daughters' calcium adequacy in early childhood by influencing the frequency with which their daughters consume those beverages. (+info)
Dental erosion in a group of British 14-year-old school children. Part II: Influence of dietary intake. (6/259)OBJECTIVES: The aims of the present study were first to investigate the dietary intake pattern of UK teenagers and secondly to determine the relationship, if any, between dental erosion and dietary intake in these children. METHODS: The study group consisted of a cluster random sample of 14-year-old school children in Birmingham, UK: 418 children were examined from 12 different schools; 209 were male and 209 female. Data on the rate and frequency of consumption of drinks, foods, and fruits were obtained from a self-reported questionnaire supplemented by a structured interview. The data were analysed using SPSS with Chi-square, and Spearman correlation analysis. RESULTS: Over 80% of the teenagers regularly consumed soft drinks but approximately half of these children had a relatively low weekly consumption. However, 13% and 10% respectively had more than 22 intakes per week of cola and other carbonated drinks. Almost a quarter of these 14-year-olds had alcoholic drinks, with significantly more males than females involved (Chi-square P < 0.05) . Girls had a greater intake of fruits. Statistically significant correlations were found between the prevalence of erosion and the consumption of soft drinks, carbonated beverages, alcohol drinks, fresh fruits, Vitamin-C tablets and foodstuffs (Spearman correlation analysis P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: It was concluded that consumption particularly of soft drinks was high and common in teenage school children in Birmingham, UK. In addition there was a relationship between dental erosion and acidic dietary intake. Further investigation of the erosive potential of these drinks and foods is required. (+info)
The oral sensation of carbonated water: cross-desensitization by capsaicin and potentiation by amiloride. (7/259)The oral sensation elicited by carbonated water is reduced by capsaicin and by blockers of carbonic anhydrase. We have investigated the temporal profile of this sensation and its cross-desensitization by capsaicin. We additionally tested if the sensation is influenced by amiloride. Following pretreatment of half of the dorsal tongue with 33 p.p.m. capsaicin, carbonated water was flowed over the tongue bilaterally for 5, 15 or 60 s. Subjects then performed a two-alternative forced choice test by indicating which side of the tongue had a stronger sensation and separately rated the sensory intensity on each side. Capsaicin significantly reduced the intensity of sensation elicited by carbonated water, consistent with cross-desensitization. This effect was weaker at 60 s because of a significant decline (desensitization) in ratings of the intensity of carbonated water on both sides of the tongue. Pretreatment with amiloride resulted in a small but significant increase in the intensity of the sensation elicited by the 15 s carbonated water stimulus, suggesting an amiloride-sensitive transduction mechanism. (+info)
Carbonated beverages and urinary calcium excretion. (8/259)BACKGROUND: Intake of carbonated beverages has been associated with increased fracture risk in observational studies. The usual explanation given is that one or more of the beverage constituents increase urinary calcium. OBJECTIVE: We assessed the short-term effects on urinary calcium excretion of carbonated beverages of various compositions. DESIGN: An incomplete random block design was used to study 20-40-y-old women who customarily consumed > or =680 mL carbonated beverages daily. Four carbonated beverages were tested: 2 with caffeine and 2 without. Two contained phosphoric acid as the acidulant and 2 contained citric acid. The study included one neutral control (water) and one positive control (skim or chocolate milk). Serving size was 567 mL for the carbonated beverages and water and 340 mL for the milks. Beverages were consumed with a light breakfast after an overnight fast; no other foods were ingested until urine collection was complete. pH, titratable and total acidity, sodium, creatinine, and calcium were measured in 2-h (morning) fasting and 5-h postbeverage urine specimens. RESULTS: Relative to water, urinary calcium rose significantly only with the milks and the 2 caffeine-containing beverages. The excess calciuria was approximately 0.25 mmol, about the same as previously reported for caffeine alone. Phosphoric acid without caffeine produced no excess calciuria; nor did it augment the calciuria of caffeine. CONCLUSIONS: The excess calciuria associated with consumption of carbonated beverages is confined to caffeinated beverages. Acidulant type has no acute effect. Because the caffeine effect is known to be compensated for by reduced calciuria later in the day, we conclude that the net effect of carbonated beverage constituents on calcium economy is negligible. The skeletal effects of carbonated beverage consumption are likely due primarily to milk displacement. (+info)
Dietary sucrose refers to the consumption of table sugar, which is a type of carbohydrate that is commonly added to food and beverages. Sucrose is made up of two molecules of glucose and one molecule of fructose, and it is a source of energy for the body. In the medical field, dietary sucrose is often discussed in the context of its potential health effects, such as its role in the development of obesity, type 2 diabetes, and other chronic diseases. Some studies have suggested that reducing or eliminating dietary sucrose from the diet may be beneficial for improving health outcomes in certain populations. However, more research is needed to fully understand the relationship between dietary sucrose and health.
In the medical field, "tea" typically refers to a beverage made by steeping dried leaves, flowers, or herbs in hot water. While tea is consumed for its flavor and potential health benefits, it is not typically used as a medical treatment or therapy. However, some types of tea, such as green tea and black tea, contain compounds that have been studied for their potential health benefits, including reducing the risk of certain diseases such as heart disease, stroke, and cancer. Additionally, some teas, such as chamomile tea, are used for their potential calming effects and to aid in sleep. It is important to note that while tea may have potential health benefits, it should not be used as a substitute for medical treatment or advice. If you have a medical condition, it is important to consult with a healthcare professional before using any herbal remedies or supplements.
In the medical field, "coffee" refers to a beverage made from roasted coffee beans that contains caffeine, a stimulant that can have various effects on the body. Caffeine is a central nervous system stimulant that can increase alertness, improve mood, and enhance cognitive function. It is also a diuretic, meaning it can increase urine production and potentially lead to dehydration if consumed in large amounts. While moderate coffee consumption is generally considered safe for most people, excessive caffeine intake can lead to negative side effects such as anxiety, insomnia, and increased heart rate. In some cases, individuals may be advised to limit or avoid coffee consumption due to underlying health conditions or medications that interact with caffeine.
Tooth erosion is a dental condition that occurs when the hard outer layer of the tooth, called the enamel, is worn away by acids. This can happen due to various factors, including exposure to acidic foods and drinks, frequent vomiting or regurgitation, certain medical conditions, and certain habits such as teeth grinding or clenching. Tooth erosion can cause a number of problems, including sensitivity to hot and cold, difficulty chewing, and an unattractive appearance of the teeth. In severe cases, it can lead to tooth decay and even tooth loss. Treatment for tooth erosion depends on the severity of the condition. In mild cases, simply changing one's diet and avoiding acidic foods and drinks may be enough to slow or stop the erosion. In more severe cases, a dentist may recommend fluoride treatments, dental bonding, or other restorative procedures to repair the damaged teeth.
Ethanol, also known as ethyl alcohol, is a type of alcohol that is commonly used in the medical field as a disinfectant and antiseptic. It is a clear, colorless liquid that is flammable and has a distinctive odor. Ethanol is effective at killing a wide range of microorganisms, including bacteria, viruses, and fungi, and is often used to clean surfaces and equipment in healthcare settings to prevent the spread of infection. In addition to its use as a disinfectant, ethanol is also used as a solvent for medications and other substances, and as a fuel for medical devices such as inhalers and nebulizers. It is also used as a preservative in some medications and vaccines to prevent the growth of microorganisms. Ethanol can be toxic if consumed in large amounts, and can cause a range of symptoms including dizziness, nausea, vomiting, and even death. It is important to use ethanol and other disinfectants and antiseptics safely and according to the instructions provided, to avoid accidental exposure or injury.
Polyphenols are a group of naturally occurring compounds found in plants that have antioxidant properties. They are classified as secondary metabolites, which are compounds produced by plants as a defense mechanism against environmental stressors such as UV radiation, pathogens, and herbivores. In the medical field, polyphenols have been studied for their potential health benefits, including their ability to reduce inflammation, prevent oxidative stress, and lower the risk of chronic diseases such as cancer, cardiovascular disease, and diabetes. Some polyphenols, such as flavonoids and stilbenes, have been shown to have specific biological activities, such as improving blood flow and reducing blood pressure. Polyphenols are found in a wide variety of plant-based foods, including fruits, vegetables, tea, coffee, and wine. They are also available as dietary supplements, although the quality and bioavailability of these supplements can vary widely.
Fructose is a simple sugar that is found naturally in many fruits, honey, and some vegetables. It is also added to many processed foods as a sweetener. In the medical field, fructose is often used as a source of energy for the body and is an important component of the diet for people with certain medical conditions, such as diabetes. However, excessive consumption of fructose has been linked to a number of health problems, including obesity, type 2 diabetes, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. As a result, many healthcare professionals recommend limiting the amount of fructose in the diet.
Aspartame is an artificial sweetener that is used as a low-calorie alternative to sugar in a variety of food and beverage products. It is made by combining two amino acids, aspartic acid and phenylalanine, with methanol. Aspartame is about 200 times sweeter than sugar, so it is used in very small amounts to provide a sweet taste. In the medical field, aspartame is often used as a dietary supplement for people who are trying to lose weight or manage their blood sugar levels. It is also used in some medications to sweeten the taste of tablets or capsules. However, aspartame has been the subject of controversy and debate in the medical community. Some studies have suggested that aspartame may have negative health effects, such as headaches, dizziness, and seizures. Other studies have found no evidence of harm from aspartame consumption. The safety of aspartame is still being studied, and more research is needed to fully understand its potential risks and benefits.
Caffeine is a naturally occurring stimulant that is found in many plants, including coffee beans, tea leaves, and cocoa beans. It is also added to many foods and beverages, such as coffee, tea, soda, and energy drinks, to enhance their flavor and provide a boost of energy. In the medical field, caffeine is used as a medication to treat a variety of conditions, including: 1. Sleep disorders: Caffeine is a stimulant that can help people stay awake and alert, making it useful for treating conditions such as insomnia and sleep apnea. 2. Headaches: Caffeine is a common ingredient in over-the-counter pain relievers, such as aspirin and ibuprofen, and is also used to treat migraines and tension headaches. 3. Fatigue: Caffeine can help to reduce fatigue and increase alertness, making it useful for people who work long hours or have trouble staying awake. 4. Parkinson's disease: Caffeine has been shown to improve symptoms of Parkinson's disease, including tremors and stiffness. 5. Asthma: Caffeine can help to relax the muscles in the airways, making it useful for people with asthma. It is important to note that caffeine can have side effects, including jitters, anxiety, and insomnia, and can interact with other medications. As with any medication, it is important to talk to a healthcare provider before using caffeine to treat a medical condition.
Obesity is a medical condition characterized by an excessive accumulation of body fat, which increases the risk of various health problems. The World Health Organization (WHO) defines obesity as a body mass index (BMI) of 30 or higher, where BMI is calculated as a person's weight in kilograms divided by their height in meters squared. Obesity is a complex condition that results from a combination of genetic, environmental, and behavioral factors. It can lead to a range of health problems, including type 2 diabetes, heart disease, stroke, certain types of cancer, and respiratory problems. In the medical field, obesity is often treated through a combination of lifestyle changes, such as diet and exercise, and medical interventions, such as medications or bariatric surgery. The goal of treatment is to help individuals achieve and maintain a healthy weight, reduce their risk of health problems, and improve their overall quality of life.
Alcoholic intoxication is a state of physical and mental impairment caused by the consumption of excessive amounts of alcohol. It is characterized by a range of symptoms, including slurred speech, impaired judgment, loss of coordination, and altered consciousness. In severe cases, alcoholic intoxication can lead to coma, respiratory failure, and even death. It is a common problem in many societies and can have serious social, economic, and health consequences. Treatment typically involves supportive care, such as hydration and monitoring for complications, as well as addressing any underlying issues that may have contributed to the intoxication.
In the medical field, dietary carbohydrates refer to the carbohydrates that are consumed as part of a person's diet. Carbohydrates are one of the three macronutrients (along with protein and fat) that provide energy to the body. They are found in a variety of foods, including grains, fruits, vegetables, and dairy products. Dietary carbohydrates are classified into two main types: simple carbohydrates and complex carbohydrates. Simple carbohydrates, also known as sugars, are made up of one or two sugar molecules and are quickly digested and absorbed by the body. Examples of simple carbohydrates include table sugar, honey, and fruit juice. Complex carbohydrates, on the other hand, are made up of long chains of sugar molecules and take longer to digest and absorb. Examples of complex carbohydrates include whole grains, legumes, and starchy vegetables. The amount and type of carbohydrates that a person consumes can have a significant impact on their health. Consuming too many simple carbohydrates, particularly those that are high in added sugars, can contribute to weight gain and an increased risk of chronic diseases such as type 2 diabetes and heart disease. On the other hand, consuming adequate amounts of complex carbohydrates can provide important nutrients and fiber that are essential for good health.
Phenols are a class of organic compounds that contain a hydroxyl (-OH) group attached to an aromatic ring. In the medical field, phenols are commonly used as antiseptics and disinfectants due to their ability to kill bacteria, viruses, and fungi. They are also used as topical anesthetics and as ingredients in certain medications. Phenols can be found naturally in many plants and fruits, such as cloves, cinnamon, and citrus fruits. They are also used in the production of a variety of consumer products, including soaps, shampoos, and cleaning agents. However, some phenols can be toxic and can cause skin irritation, respiratory problems, and other health issues if they are not used properly. Therefore, it is important to follow proper safety guidelines when handling and using phenols in the medical field.
In the medical field, mineral waters are defined as natural water that contains dissolved minerals and trace elements in significant concentrations. These minerals and trace elements can include calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, bicarbonate, and others, and are believed to have potential health benefits when consumed in appropriate amounts. Mineral waters are often classified based on their mineral content, with some waters containing high levels of a particular mineral or a combination of minerals. For example, some mineral waters are classified as "carbonated" because they contain high levels of carbon dioxide, while others are classified as "sulfate" or "chloride" because they contain high levels of those minerals. In medical settings, mineral waters may be used as a source of hydration or as a treatment for certain conditions. For example, mineral waters that are high in bicarbonate may be used to treat acidosis, while those that are high in calcium and magnesium may be used to treat osteoporosis or other bone-related conditions. However, it is important to note that the use of mineral waters for medical purposes should be done under the guidance of a healthcare professional.
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- The variables studied were related to 7-day recall of intake of several types of commonly available fast food meals such as beef burger meal with French fries and a choice of either sugar-sweetened or diet carbonated beverage, chicken burger meal, chicken nugget meal or fried chicken meal. (medscape.com)
- Longitudinal analysis for the risk of depression according to the consumption of sugar-sweetened carbonated beverage in non-diabetic and diabetic population. (bvsalud.org)
- Studies have presented that high intake of sugar -sweetened carbonated beverage (SSCB) was more associated with the prevalence of depression . (bvsalud.org)
- One of these covers the formulation and performance characteristics of sports drinks which have undergone rapid growth in recent years and now feature in beverage markets worldwide. (chipsbooks.com)
- CachedBeer filler machine is suitable for the production of glass bottle beer and carbonated beverages (carbonated drinks), such as beer, Coca-Cola, Fanta. (liquidfillingsolution.com)
- This can filling and sealing machine adpots graviity filling principle, can be applied to carbonated drinks, juice and other drinks in can. (whsfjx.net)
- The My First Tervis™ sippy cup is intended for non-carbonated drinks such as water, milk and pulp-free juice. (tervis.com)
- Okay, it's not a food, but you should still avoid this beverage. (smartertravel.com)
- Should not consume carbonated or high-calorie sugary beverages. (apollohospitals.com)
- CachedCarbonated Beverage Filler Equipment are manufactured by advanced technology, and we have completely filling equipment, so they enjoy fast sales. (liquidfillingsolution.com)
- We provide seris carbonated drink filling machine, csd filling machine, csd filler for the carbonated soft drink ( CSD ) plant for bottle filling machine, Carbonated Drink Filling Machine, CSD Filling Line, CSD Filling Equipment. (bottlewaterfillingmachine.com)
- Many changes have occurred in the fruit juice and beverage markets since the first edition of this book appeared, and these are reflected in a substantial revision of the original text, together with three new chapters. (chipsbooks.com)
- The second new chapter on water and effluent treatment in juice processing addresses the concern of the beverage industry to obtain water of a suitable standard, despite the deterioration in water quality which has occurred in many countries. (chipsbooks.com)
- CachedThe beverage filling machinery is suitable for PTE bottled juice beverages and carbonated beverages, and realizes washing, filling and capping on one machine. (liquidfillingsolution.com)
- 1. The machine design and manufacture of cans filling sealing equipment can be widely used juice cans and other beverage filling and sealing. (whsfjx.net)
- fruit juice or carbonated beverages interfere with absorption. (healthychildren.org)
- SodaStream Diet Drink Mixes create a better-for-you beverage when compared to other sodas because they are aspartame-free. (frysfood.com)
- 7.It is suitable for packing carbonated soft drink ,beverage containing gas.Its performance is as following all parts,for instance,filling valve,which directly contact medium are made of stainless steel or harmless material.So it conforms to the requirements of Food sanitation.Sealing parts are made of heart-proofing rubber from JST company,in order to meet the technique requirements of users to sterilization at high temperature. (bottlewaterfillingmachine.com)
- Beverage intake among preschool children and its effect on weight status. (nih.gov)
- few juices, coffee, and no carbonated beverages. (cancer.org)
- There was an association between FI and increasing total carbonated fluid intake (P = 0.009) and decreasing water intake (P = 0.009). (nih.gov)
- The carbonated beverage filling machine combines rinsing bottles, filling bottles and capping bottles together with PLC control. (liquidfillingsolution.com)
- 8.Filling machine,using programmable controller to realize fully automatic control from bottles entering to finishing packing.Using transducer as speed regulator from JST company,so the user can regulate the machine easily to suit different power requirements.Adopting equal pressure filling principle and current spring valves in order to assure beverage quality.Using advanced magnetic coupler to regulate cap- screwing torque,in order to assure capping quality. (bottlewaterfillingmachine.com)
- Carbonated beverage mixing machine structure reasonable, the mix precision is high, CO 2 mixes fully, has two times of cooling, two carbonation merits. (ncfilling.com)
- Do not drink any carbonated beverages. (naturalcures.com)
- Fruit Beverage Production and Packaging Book from C.H.I.P.S. (chipsbooks.com)
- Other items included as independent variables based on their possible relationship with beverage intake were donuts, muffin/cake, ice cream, and savory snacks such as potato crisps and popcorn). (medscape.com)
- A recent study suggested that carbonated beverages might stimulate food intake and weight gain. (weightology.net)
- These types of beverages may impede performance of the lid valve. (tervis.com)