Carbon Tetrachloride: A solvent for oils, fats, lacquers, varnishes, rubber waxes, and resins, and a starting material in the manufacturing of organic compounds. Poisoning by inhalation, ingestion or skin absorption is possible and may be fatal. (Merck Index, 11th ed)Carbon Tetrachloride PoisoningLiver Cirrhosis, Experimental: Experimentally induced chronic injuries to the parenchymal cells in the liver to achieve a model for LIVER CIRRHOSIS.Drug-Induced Liver Injury: A spectrum of clinical liver diseases ranging from mild biochemical abnormalities to ACUTE LIVER FAILURE, caused by drugs, drug metabolites, and chemicals from the environment.Chloroform: A commonly used laboratory solvent. It was previously used as an anesthetic, but was banned from use in the U.S. due to its suspected carcinogenicity.Hydrocarbons, HalogenatedCarbon: A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Aspartate Aminotransferases: Enzymes of the transferase class that catalyze the conversion of L-aspartate and 2-ketoglutarate to oxaloacetate and L-glutamate. EC 2.6.1.1.Alanine Transaminase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-alanine and 2-oxoglutarate to pyruvate and L-glutamate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.6.1.2.Promethazine: A phenothiazine derivative with histamine H1-blocking, antimuscarinic, and sedative properties. It is used as an antiallergic, in pruritus, for motion sickness and sedation, and also in animals.Drug-Induced Liver Injury, Chronic: Liver disease lasting six months or more, caused by an adverse drug effect. The adverse effect may result from a direct toxic effect of a drug or metabolite, or an idiosyncratic response to a drug or metabolite.Hepatic Stellate Cells: Perisinusoidal cells of the liver, located in the space of Disse between HEPATOCYTES and sinusoidal endothelial cells.Liver Cirrhosis: Liver disease in which the normal microcirculation, the gross vascular anatomy, and the hepatic architecture have been variably destroyed and altered with fibrous septa surrounding regenerated or regenerating parenchymal nodules.Liver Diseases: Pathological processes of the LIVER.MalonatesPhosgene: A highly toxic gas that has been used as a chemical warfare agent. It is an insidious poison as it is not irritating immediately, even when fatal concentrations are inhaled. (From The Merck Index, 11th ed, p7304)Protective Agents: Synthetic or natural substances which are given to prevent a disease or disorder or are used in the process of treating a disease or injury due to a poisonous agent.Peroxides: A group of compounds that contain a bivalent O-O group, i.e., the oxygen atoms are univalent. They can either be inorganic or organic in nature. Such compounds release atomic (nascent) oxygen readily. Thus they are strong oxidizing agents and fire hazards when in contact with combustible materials, especially under high-temperature conditions. The chief industrial uses of peroxides are as oxidizing agents, bleaching agents, and initiators of polymerization. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)Carbon Monoxide: Carbon monoxide (CO). A poisonous colorless, odorless, tasteless gas. It combines with hemoglobin to form carboxyhemoglobin, which has no oxygen carrying capacity. The resultant oxygen deprivation causes headache, dizziness, decreased pulse and respiratory rates, unconsciousness, and death. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Liver Regeneration: Repair or renewal of hepatic tissue.Hydroxyproline: A hydroxylated form of the imino acid proline. A deficiency in ASCORBIC ACID can result in impaired hydroxyproline formation.Cytochrome P-450 CYP2E1: An ethanol-inducible cytochrome P450 enzyme that metabolizes several precarcinogens, drugs, and solvents to reactive metabolites. Substrates include ETHANOL; INHALATION ANESTHETICS; BENZENE; ACETAMINOPHEN and other low molecular weight compounds. CYP2E1 has been used as an enzyme marker in the study of alcohol abuse.Hepatocytes: The main structural component of the LIVER. They are specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that are organized into interconnected plates called lobules.Dimethylnitrosamine: A nitrosamine derivative with alkylating, carcinogenic, and mutagenic properties. It causes serious liver damage and is a hepatocarcinogen in rodents.Thioacetamide: A crystalline compound used as a laboratory reagent in place of HYDROGEN SULFIDE. It is a potent hepatocarcinogen.Carbon Dioxide: A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.Ethylene Dibromide: An effective soil fumigant, insecticide, and nematocide. In humans, it causes severe burning of skin and irritation of the eyes and respiratory tract. Prolonged inhalation may cause liver necrosis. It is also used in gasoline. Members of this group have caused liver and lung cancers in rodents. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985), 1,2-dibromoethane may reasonably be anticipated to be a carcinogen.Plant Extracts: Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.Fasciola hepatica: A species of helminth commonly called the sheep liver fluke. It occurs in the biliary passages, liver, and gallbladder during various stages of development. Snails and aquatic vegetation are the intermediate hosts. Occasionally seen in man, it is most common in sheep and cattle.Phenolphthaleins: A family of 3,3-bis(p-hydroxyphenyl)phthalides. They are used as CATHARTICS, indicators, and COLORING AGENTS.Trichloroethanes: Chlorinated ethanes which are used extensively as industrial solvents. They have been utilized in numerous home-use products including spot remover preparations and inhalant decongestant sprays. These compounds cause central nervous system and cardiovascular depression and are hepatotoxic. Include 1,1,1- and 1,1,2-isomers.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.1-Naphthylisothiocyanate: A tool for the study of liver damage which causes bile stasis and hyperbilirubinemia acutely and bile duct hyperplasia and biliary cirrhosis chronically, with changes in hepatocyte function. It may cause skin and kidney damage.EthaneLipid Peroxidation: Peroxidase catalyzed oxidation of lipids using hydrogen peroxide as an electron acceptor.Microsomes, Liver: Closed vesicles of fragmented endoplasmic reticulum created when liver cells or tissue are disrupted by homogenization. They may be smooth or rough.Viologens: A group of dipyridinium chloride derivatives that are used as oxidation-reduction indicators. The general formula is 1,1'-di-R-4,4'-bipyridinium chloride, where R = methyl, ethyl, benzyl or, betaine.Aspalathus: A plant genus of the family FABACEAE. It is the source of an herbal tea that is commonly consumed in South Africa. Members contain aspalathin and other polyphenols (PHENOLS).Trichloroethylene: A highly volatile inhalation anesthetic used mainly in short surgical procedures where light anesthesia with good analgesia is required. It is also used as an industrial solvent. Prolonged exposure to high concentrations of the vapor can lead to cardiotoxicity and neurological impairment.Nanotubes, Carbon: Nanometer-sized tubes composed mainly of CARBON. Such nanotubes are used as probes for high-resolution structural and chemical imaging of biomolecules with ATOMIC FORCE MICROSCOPY.Methylene Chloride: A chlorinated hydrocarbon that has been used as an inhalation anesthetic and acts as a narcotic in high concentrations. Its primary use is as a solvent in manufacturing and food technology.Eleusine: A plant genus of the family POACEAE. Finger millet or raggee (E. coracana) is an important food grain in southern Asia and parts of Africa.Lipid Peroxides: Peroxides produced in the presence of a free radical by the oxidation of unsaturated fatty acids in the cell in the presence of molecular oxygen. The formation of lipid peroxides results in the destruction of the original lipid leading to the loss of integrity of the membranes. They therefore cause a variety of toxic effects in vivo and their formation is considered a pathological process in biological systems. Their formation can be inhibited by antioxidants, such as vitamin E, structural separation or low oxygen tension.Necrosis: The pathological process occurring in cells that are dying from irreparable injuries. It is caused by the progressive, uncontrolled action of degradative ENZYMES, leading to MITOCHONDRIAL SWELLING, nuclear flocculation, and cell lysis. It is distinct it from APOPTOSIS, which is a normal, regulated cellular process.Chlordecone: A highly chlorinated polycyclic hydrocarbon insecticide whose large number of chlorine atoms makes it resistant to degradation. It has been shown to be toxic to mammals and causes abnormal cellular changes in laboratory animals.Solvents: Liquids that dissolve other substances (solutes), generally solids, without any change in chemical composition, as, water containing sugar. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Drugs, Chinese Herbal: Chinese herbal or plant extracts which are used as drugs to treat diseases or promote general well-being. The concept does not include synthesized compounds manufactured in China.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Bile Ducts: The channels that collect and transport the bile secretion from the BILE CANALICULI, the smallest branch of the BILIARY TRACT in the LIVER, through the bile ductules, the bile ducts out the liver, and to the GALLBLADDER for storage.Bromotrichloromethane: A potent liver poison. In rats, bromotrichloromethane produces about three times the degree of liver microsomal lipid peroxidation as does carbon tetrachloride.Carbon Isotopes: Stable carbon atoms that have the same atomic number as the element carbon, but differ in atomic weight. C-13 is a stable carbon isotope.Liver Function Tests: Blood tests that are used to evaluate how well a patient's liver is working and also to help diagnose liver conditions.Iridoids: A type of MONOTERPENES, derived from geraniol. They have the general form of cyclopentanopyran, but in some cases, one of the rings is broken as in the case of secoiridoid. They are different from the similarly named iridals (TRITERPENES).Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Free Radicals: Highly reactive molecules with an unsatisfied electron valence pair. Free radicals are produced in both normal and pathological processes. They are proven or suspected agents of tissue damage in a wide variety of circumstances including radiation, damage from environment chemicals, and aging. Natural and pharmacological prevention of free radical damage is being actively investigated.Podophyllum: A genus of poisonous American herbs, family BERBERIDACEAE. The roots yield PODOPHYLLOTOXIN and other pharmacologically important agents. The plant was formerly used as a cholagogue and cathartic. It is different from the European mandrake, MANDRAGORA.Embelia: A plant genus of the family MYRSINACEAE. Members contain embelin.Antioxidants: Naturally occurring or synthetic substances that inhibit or retard the oxidation of a substance to which it is added. They counteract the harmful and damaging effects of oxidation in animal tissues.Portal Pressure: The venous pressure measured in the PORTAL VEIN.Bromobenzenes: Derivatives of benzene in which one or more hydrogen atoms on the benzene ring are replaced by bromine atoms.Phytotherapy: Use of plants or herbs to treat diseases or to alleviate pain.Glutathione: A tripeptide with many roles in cells. It conjugates to drugs to make them more soluble for excretion, is a cofactor for some enzymes, is involved in protein disulfide bond rearrangement and reduces peroxides.Cyclooctanes: A group of compounds with an 8-carbon ring. They may be saturated or unsaturated.Methyl Chloride: A hydrocarbon used as an industrial solvent. It has been used as an aerosal propellent, as a refrigerant and as a local anesthetic. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 31st ed, p1403)Malondialdehyde: The dialdehyde of malonic acid.Glycols: A generic grouping for dihydric alcohols with the hydroxy groups (-OH) located on different carbon atoms. They are viscous liquids with high boiling points for their molecular weights.Aldehydes: Organic compounds containing a carbonyl group in the form -CHO.Nitrosamines: A class of compounds that contain a -NH2 and a -NO radical. Many members of this group have carcinogenic and mutagenic properties.Proadifen: An inhibitor of drug metabolism and CYTOCHROME P-450 ENZYME SYSTEM activity.Iridoid Glycosides: A subclass of iridoid compounds that include a glycoside moiety, usually found at the C-1 position.Acetaminophen: Analgesic antipyretic derivative of acetanilide. It has weak anti-inflammatory properties and is used as a common analgesic, but may cause liver, blood cell, and kidney damage.Lethal Dose 50: The dose amount of poisonous or toxic substance or dose of ionizing radiation required to kill 50% of the tested population.Aspartate Aminotransferase, Mitochondrial: An aspartate aminotransferase found in MITOCHONDRIA.Glucose-6-Phosphatase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of D-glucose 6-phosphate and water to D-glucose and orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.9.Transforming Growth Factor beta1: A subtype of transforming growth factor beta that is synthesized by a wide variety of cells. It is synthesized as a precursor molecule that is cleaved to form mature TGF-beta 1 and TGF-beta1 latency-associated peptide. The association of the cleavage products results in the formation a latent protein which must be activated to bind its receptor. Defects in the gene that encodes TGF-beta1 are the cause of CAMURATI-ENGELMANN SYNDROME.Diethylnitrosamine: A nitrosamine derivative with alkylating, carcinogenic, and mutagenic properties.Silymarin: A mixture of flavonoids extracted from seeds of the MILK THISTLE, Silybum marianum. It consists primarily of silybin and its isomers, silicristin and silidianin. Silymarin displays antioxidant and membrane stabilizing activity. It protects various tissues and organs against chemical injury, and shows potential as an antihepatoxic agent.Rats, Inbred F344Phenobarbital: A barbituric acid derivative that acts as a nonselective central nervous system depressant. It potentiates GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID action on GABA-A RECEPTORS, and modulates chloride currents through receptor channels. It also inhibits glutamate induced depolarizations.Lipid Metabolism: Physiological processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of LIPIDS.Biotransformation: The chemical alteration of an exogenous substance by or in a biological system. The alteration may inactivate the compound or it may result in the production of an active metabolite of an inactive parent compound. The alterations may be divided into METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE I and METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE II.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Liver Failure, Acute: A form of rapid-onset LIVER FAILURE, also known as fulminant hepatic failure, caused by severe liver injury or massive loss of HEPATOCYTES. It is characterized by sudden development of liver dysfunction and JAUNDICE. Acute liver failure may progress to exhibit cerebral dysfunction even HEPATIC COMA depending on the etiology that includes hepatic ISCHEMIA, drug toxicity, malignant infiltration, and viral hepatitis such as post-transfusion HEPATITIS B and HEPATITIS C.Carbon Monoxide Poisoning: Toxic asphyxiation due to the displacement of oxygen from oxyhemoglobin by carbon monoxide.Oxidative Stress: A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).Transaminases: A subclass of enzymes of the transferase class that catalyze the transfer of an amino group from a donor (generally an amino acid) to an acceptor (generally a 2-keto acid). Most of these enzymes are pyridoxyl phosphate proteins. (Dorland, 28th ed) EC 2.6.1.Collagen Type I: The most common form of fibrillar collagen. It is a major constituent of bone (BONE AND BONES) and SKIN and consists of a heterotrimer of two alpha1(I) and one alpha2(I) chains.GalactosamineGallic Acid: A colorless or slightly yellow crystalline compound obtained from nutgalls. It is used in photography, pharmaceuticals, and as an analytical reagent.Hydrocarbons, Chlorinated: Hydrocarbon compounds with one or more of the hydrogens replaced by CHLORINE.Arsenamide: Proposed chemotherapeutic agent against filaria and trichomonas.2-Acetylaminofluorene: A hepatic carcinogen whose mechanism of activation involves N-hydroxylation to the aryl hydroxamic acid followed by enzymatic sulfonation to sulfoxyfluorenylacetamide. It is used to study the carcinogenicity and mutagenicity of aromatic amines.gamma-Glutamyltransferase: An enzyme, sometimes called GGT, with a key role in the synthesis and degradation of GLUTATHIONE; (GSH, a tripeptide that protects cells from many toxins). It catalyzes the transfer of the gamma-glutamyl moiety to an acceptor amino acid.Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Substances: Low-molecular-weight end products, probably malondialdehyde, that are formed during the decomposition of lipid peroxidation products. These compounds react with thiobarbituric acid to form a fluorescent red adduct.Kupffer Cells: Specialized phagocytic cells of the MONONUCLEAR PHAGOCYTE SYSTEM found on the luminal surface of the hepatic sinusoids. They filter bacteria and small foreign proteins out of the blood, and dispose of worn out red blood cells.Plant Bark: The outer layer of the woody parts of plants.Salvia miltiorrhiza: A plant species which is known as an Oriental traditional medicinal plant.Ligation: Application of a ligature to tie a vessel or strangulate a part.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Aniline Hydroxylase: A drug-metabolizing, cytochrome P-450 enzyme which catalyzes the hydroxylation of aniline to hydroxyaniline in the presence of reduced flavoprotein and molecular oxygen. EC 1.14.14.-.Ethionine: 2-Amino-4-(ethylthio)butyric acid. An antimetabolite and methionine antagonist that interferes with amino acid incorporation into proteins and with cellular ATP utilization. It also produces liver neoplasms.Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System: A superfamily of hundreds of closely related HEMEPROTEINS found throughout the phylogenetic spectrum, from animals, plants, fungi, to bacteria. They include numerous complex monooxygenases (MIXED FUNCTION OXYGENASES). In animals, these P-450 enzymes serve two major functions: (1) biosynthesis of steroids, fatty acids, and bile acids; (2) metabolism of endogenous and a wide variety of exogenous substrates, such as toxins and drugs (BIOTRANSFORMATION). They are classified, according to their sequence similarities rather than functions, into CYP gene families (>40% homology) and subfamilies (>59% homology). For example, enzymes from the CYP1, CYP2, and CYP3 gene families are responsible for most drug metabolism.Mice, Inbred C57BLAlkaline Phosphatase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of an orthophosphoric monoester and water to an alcohol and orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.1.

Structural and functional changes in acute liver injury. (1/267)

Carbon tetrachloride produces liver cell injury in a variety of animal species. The first structurally recognizable changes occur in the endoplasmic reticulum, with alteration in ribosome-membrane interactions. Later there is an increase in intracellular fat, and the formation of tangled nets of the ergastoplasm. At no time are there changes in mitochondria or single membrane limited bodies in cells with intact plasmalemma, although a relative increase in cell sap may appear. In dead cells (those with plasmalemma discontinuties) crystalline deposits of calcium phosphatase may be noted. Functional changes are related to the endoplasmic reticulum and the plasma membrane. An early decrease in protein synthesis takes place; an accumulation of neutral lipid is related to this change. Later alterations in the ergastoplasmic functions (e.g., mixed function oxidation) occurs. Carbon tetrachloride is not the active agent; rather, a product of its metabolism, probably the CC1, free radical, is. The mechanisms of injury include macromolecular adduction and peroxide propagation. A third possibility includes a cascade effect with the production of secondary and tertiary products, also toxic in nature, with the ability to produce more widespread damage to intracellular structures.  (+info)

Quantitative aspects in the assessment of liver injury. (2/267)

Liver function data are usually difficult to use in their original form when one wishes to compare the hepatotoxic properties of several chemical substances. However, procedures are available for the conversion of liver function data into quantal responses. These permit the elaboration of dose-response lines for the substances in question, the calculation of median effective doses and the statistical analysis of differences in liver-damaging potency. These same procedures can be utilized for estimating the relative hazard involved if one compares the liver-damaging potency to the median effective dose for some other pharmacologie parameter. Alterations in hepatic triglycerides, lipid peroxidation, and the activities of various hepatic enzymes can also be quantitiated in a dose-related manner. This permits the selection of equitoxic doses required for certain comparative studies and the selection of doses in chemical interaction studies. The quantitative problems involved in low-frequency adverse reactions and the difficulty these present in the detection of liver injury in laboratory animals are discussed.  (+info)

Effect of epidermal growth factor on cultured rat hepatocytes poisoned by CCl4. (3/267)

AIM: To study the effects of epidermal growth factor (EGF) on CCl4-induced primary cultured hepatocytes injury. METHODS: Alanine amino-transferase (AlaAT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AspAT) activities and K+ concentractions were determined by the Auto-biochemistry Assay System. Malondialdehyde (MDA) was determined by thiobarbituric acid method. Radioactivity was determined by liquid scintillometry. Light microscopy and electron microscopy were used. RESULTS: EGF 40 micrograms.L-1 decreased CCl4 (10 mmol.L-1)-induced damages of rat primary cultured hepatocytes by decreasing AlaAT and AspAT leakage and MDA production, and promoted RNA and DNA synthesis, with a high positive correlation between intracellular K+ leakage and DNA syntheses (r = 0.99, P < 0.01). Cytopathological study showed that EGF decreased damage of liver cells. CONCLUSION: EGF maintains the stability of cellular lipid membrane and promotes syntheses of RNA and DNA of hepatocytes, and intracellular K+ transference is a promotor of the message transmission of DNA synthesis.  (+info)

Comparison of two aquaretic drugs (niravoline and OPC-31260) in cirrhotic rats with ascites and water retention. (4/267)

kappa-Opioid receptor agonists (niravoline) or nonpeptide antidiuretic hormone (ADH) V2 receptor antagonists (OPC-31260) possess aquaretic activity in cirrhosis; however, there is no information concerning the effects induced by the chronic administration of these drugs under this condition. To compare the renal and hormonal effects induced by the long-term oral administration of niravoline, OPC-31260, or vehicle, urine volume, urinary osmolality, sodium excretion, and urinary excretion of aldosterone (ALD) and ADH were measured in basal conditions and for 10 days after the daily oral administration of niravoline, OPC-31260, or vehicle to cirrhotic rats with ascites and water retention. Creatinine clearance, serum osmolality, ADH mRNA expression, and systemic hemodynamics were also measured at the end of the study. Niravoline increased water excretion, peripheral resistance, serum osmolality, and sodium excretion and reduced creatinine clearance, ALD and ADH excretion, and mRNA expression of ADH. OPC-31260 also increased water metabolism and sodium excretion and reduced urinary ALD, although the aquaretic effect was only evident during the first 2 days, and no effects on serum osmolality, renal filtration, and systemic hemodynamics were observed. Therefore, both agents have aquaretic efficacy, but the beneficial therapeutic effects of the long-term oral administration of niravoline are more consistent than those of OPC-31260 in cirrhotic rats with ascites and water retention.  (+info)

Pharmacokinetics of flutamide and its metabolite 2-hydroxyflutamide in normal and hepatic injury rats. (5/267)

AIM: To develop a new HPLC assay to study the pharmacokinetics of flutamide (Flu) and its active metabolite 2-hydroxyflutamide (HF) in rats. METHODS: Normal or hepatic injury rats were given i.g. Flu 50 mg.kg-1. Reverse phase HPLC was developed with a mu-Bondapak C 18 column. Internal standard was methyltestosterone. The mobile phase was a mixture of methanol:acetonitrile:water:diethyl ether = 40:20:35:1 (vol). Absorbance was measured at lambda 234 nm. RESULTS: The pharmacokinetic parameters of Flu were as follows: in normal rats, K = 0.62 +/- 0.16 h-1, Cl = 6.0 +/- 1.0 L.kg-1.h-1, AUC = 8.6 +/- 1.3 mg.L-1.h, Cmax = 2.4 +/- 0.7 mg.L-1; in hepatic injury rats, K = 0.16 +/- 0.03 h-1, Cl = 0.63 +/- 0.29 L.kg-1.h-1, AUC = 100 +/- 44 mg.L-1.h, Cmax = 6.7 +/- 2.8 mg.L-1. The pharmacokinetic parameters of HF were as follows: in normal rats, K(m) = 0.07 +/- 0.01 h-1, AUC = 219 +/- 22 mg.L-1.h, Cmax = 8.6 +/- 0.6 mg.L-1; in hepatic injury rats, K(m) = 0.05 +/- 0.01 h-1, AUC = 170 +/- 42 mg.L-1.h, Cmax = 3.8 +/- 0.8 mg.L-1. There were significant differences between the parameters of normal and hepatic injury rats (P < 0.01) except AUC of HF (P > 0.05). CONCLUSION: This HPLC assay was sensitive and precise, and the elimination of Flu and HF was inhibited significantly due to hepatic injury.  (+info)

Structure-activity relationship of schisandrins in enhancing liver mitochondrial glutathione status in CCl4-poisoned mice. (6/267)

AIM: To explore whether the methylenedioxy group and cyclooctadiene ring of the dibenzocyclooctadiene skeleton of schisandrins (Sch) play a role in the liver mitochondrial glutathione status enhancing activity. METHOD: The effects of three dibenzocyclooctadiene derivatives, Sch A, Sch B, Sch C, and a synthetic intermediate of Sch C, (dimethyl biphenyl dicarboxylate, DBD) on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-hepatotoxicity and liver mitochondrial glutathione status were examined in mice. RESULTS: Pretreating mice with intragastric Sch B, Sch C, or DBD 1.mmol.kg-1.d-1 for 3 d protected against CCl4-hepatotoxicity. The hepatoprotection afforded by Sch B or Sch C pretreatment was associated with increases in liver mitochondrial reduced glutathione (mtGSH) level and glutathione reductase (mtGRD) activity, an indication of enhanced mitochondrial glutathione status. In contrast, the hepatoprotective action of DBD was not accompanied by any detectable changes in mtGSH level and mtGRD activity. CONCLUSION: Both the methylenedioxy group and the cyclooctadiene ring of the dibenzocyclooctadiene molecule are important structural determinants in the enhancement of liver mitochondrial glutathione status.  (+info)

Role of cytochrome P4502E1 in retinol's attenuation of carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity in the Swiss Webster mouse. (7/267)

In the mouse, retinol administration attenuates carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced hepatic injury. We have investigated the role of cytochrome P4502E1 (CYP2E1) in this interaction. Male Swiss Webster mice were administered retinol (75 mg/kg/d) or vehicle for 3 days prior to CCl4 (30 microl/kg, ip). Hepatotoxicity produced by CCl4 was assessed by plasma alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activity and light microscopy (ALT activity of 1391+/-430 vs. 274+/-92 IU/L for vehicle + CCl4 and retinol + CCl4 treatments respectively, p < 0.05). Retinol's attenuation of liver injury was maintained when CCl4 was administered 48 h after the conclusion of the retinol pretreatment. Aniline hydroxylation activity, an indicator of CYP2E1 catalytic activity, determined on day 4 was 33.8% of untreated control in vehicle + CCl4 treatments while the retinol + CCl4 treatment group was 94.2% of untreated control. Additionally, CYP2E1 immunoreactive protein was 78% lower in vehicle + CCl4 vs. retinol + CCl4 treatment groups. Attenuation of potentiated hepatotoxicity was also observed when CYP2E1 was induced by acetone (ALT activity of 3119+/-1066 vs. 247+/-77 IU/L for vehicle and retinol treatments respectively, p < 0.05). In the mouse, retinol itself does not alter constitutive or inducible CYP2E1 expression. However, in combination with CCl4 retinol does reduce the amount of CCl4 bioactivated to its toxic metabolite. We conclude that retinol attenuates CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity by causing a decrease in CCl4 bioactivation but does not cause a decrease in CYP2E1 expression.  (+info)

Pharmacokinetics of 2-hydroxyflutamide, a major metabolite of flutamide, in normal and CCl4-poisoned rats. (8/267)

AIM: To study the pharmacokinetics of 2-hydroxyflutamide (HF), a major active metabolite of flutamide (Flu), in normal and CCl4-poisoned rats. METHODS: Normal and CCl4-poisoned rats were given i.g. HF 25 mg.kg-1. HF concentrations of plasma were determined by HPLC with YWG C 18 column, Flu was used as an internal standard. The mobile phase was composed of methanol: water = 3:2 (vol), and absorbance was measured at lambda 295 nm. RESULTS: HF elimination was inhibited in CCl4-poisoned rats compared with normal rats. K decreased from (0.11 +/- 0.05) to (0.05 +/- 0.01) h-1 (P < 0.01), T1/2 was prolonged from (6.8 +/- 1.9) to (14 +/- 4) h (P < 0.01), Cl decreased from (0.18 +/- 0.06) to (0.12 +/- 0.02) L.kg-1.h-1 (P < 0.05), AUC increased from (149 +/- 47) to (226 +/- 54) mg.L-1.h (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: This HPLC assay was sensitive and precise, and the elimination of HF was inhibited due to CCl4 poisoning.  (+info)

Malotilate is a new drug suggested for use in chronic liver diseases. It is shown here to prevent liver damage caused by CCl4. The concomitant administration of malotilate with CCl4 significantly decreased hydroxyproline accumulation in the liver, liver prolyl 4-hydroxylase and liver and serum galactosylhydroxylysyl glucosyltransferase activities. However, it had no effect on the daily urinary hydroxyproline excretion or the hydroxyproline content of the skin, liver or lungs in normal young growing rats. It also had no specific inhibitory effect on hydroxyproline synthesis or secretion in fibroblast cultures, and did not affect the amount of procollagen-alpha 1(I)-specific mRNAs in these cultures. Thus it seems to have no direct inhibitory effect on collagen metabolism. In addition to inhibition of liver collagen accumulation, malotilate was also able to prevent the development of morphological changes in the liver such as focal necrosis, fatty infiltration and inflammatory changes. It also ...
I am wondering about the regression of liver fibrosis on all oral treatment. Before anyone starts reminding me that it is too early to give a definitive answer, let me say I have thought about it but ...
The role of Kupffer cells in carbon tetrachloride intoxication in mice.: Carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4))-induced acute hepatitis is assumed to involve two phases.
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1. Epidermal growth factor (EGF) is known to protect the gastrointestinal tract against various noxious agents. Its potential value in preventing/treating hepatic injury is, however, largely unexplored. We therefore examined whether EGF could influence CCl4-induced hepatic injury.. 2. Female Sprague-Dawley rats (8 per group) received saline or recombinant EGF (500 or 750 μg/kg, intraperitoneal) 30 min before CCU (20% v/v, in olive oil, intraperitoneal). Eighteen hours later, animals were killed, serum was collected for assay of biochemical markers of hepatic injury and livers were removed for histological analyses.. 3. Administration of CCl4 resulted in severe hepatic necrosis and caused a 10-fold rise in plasma alanine aminotransferase levels compared with levels seen in control animals (218 ± 15 compared with 23 ± 9 μmol/l in controls, mean ± SEM, P , 0.01). Serum malondialdehyde levels, used as a marker of lipid peroxidation, showed a 2-fold rise in response to CCl4 treatment (median ...
It was recently found that the decomposition of chlorine monoxide takes place at the same rate in solution in carbon tetrachloride as in the gaseous state. Under both conditions the reaction occurs in consecutive stages, each bimolecular. The rate of the unimolecular decomposition of nitrogen pentoxide is also uninfluenced by carbon tetrachloride. Thus this solvent appears to be established as a "normal" medium for reactions of varying kinetic type. The interest of this lies in the fact that with reactions that cannot be measured in the gaseous state at all, the rate in carbon tetrachloride can be taken as the rate which the reaction would have in the absence of a medium, and the influence of any given solvent can at once be recognised as accelerating or retarding. In this way it may be possible to obtain a deeper understanding of the effect of solvents on the rates of chemical reactions. In the meantime it is desirable to make as many direct measurements as possible on reactions which can be ...
Cirrhosis of the liver - Exposure to carbon tetrachloride Factor. Last reviewed for CCPS 12 March 2008.. Investigative Documents. Claimant Report - Exposure to Carbon Tetrachloride - Cirrhosis of the Liver [CR9116]. Preliminary questions [20508]. [79]22396. there is some evidence that exposure to carbon tetrachloride may be a factor in the development or worsening of the condition under consideration.. 20585 [80] the veteran has experienced inhalation or cutaneous contact with carbon tetrachloride at some time.. 20586 - the veteran has established the causal connection between exposure to carbon tetrachloride and VEA service for cirrhosis of the liver.. 20587 - the veteran has established the causal connection between exposure to carbon tetrachloride and VEA service for the clinical onset of cirrhosis of the liver.. 20589 - the veteran has established the causal connection between exposure to carbon tetrachloride and operational service for the clinical onset of cirrhosis of the ...
Conference Paper: Investigation on the effect of dietary omega 3-6-9 fatty acids and lard on carbon tetrachloride induced liver ...
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EWGs Tap Water Database Carbon tetrachloride results for Harris County MUD 165 | Carbon tetrachloride. Find out what is in your tap water
EWGs Tap Water Database Carbon tetrachloride results for Randolph Water System | Carbon tetrachloride. Find out what is in your tap water
NOTE: Although the toxicity values presented in these toxicity profiles were correct at the time they were produced, these values are subject to change. Users should always refer to the Toxicity Value Database for the current toxicity values.. DECEMBER 1992 Prepared by: Andrew Francis, M.S., D.A.B.T., Chemical Hazard Evaluation and Communication Group, Biomedical Environmental Information Analysis Section, Health and Safety Research Division, *, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Prepared for: Oak Ridge Reservation Environmental Restoration Program. *Managed by Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., for the U.S. Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-AC05-84OR21400.. Humans are sensitive to carbon tetrachloride intoxication by oral, inhalation and dermal routes. Oral and inhalation exposure to high concentrations of carbon tetrachloride results in acute central nervous system effects including dizziness, vertigo, headache, depression, confusion, incoordination and, in severe cases, respiratory failure, ...
No, $\ce{CCl4}$ is not an electrolye. An electrolye is a material that causes ions (charged entities) to form in the solvent. Carbon tetrachloride neither dissociates into ions nor induces ion formation in the solvent.. The reason is that the $\ce{C-Cl}$ bond is rather strong and wont break under normal solution conditions. Nor does the molecule have any net dipole moment.. ...
This assessment will help insure consistency in the Agencys consideration of the relevant scientific health data associated with carbon tetrachloride. In the development of the assessment document, the scientific literature has been inventoried, key studies have been evaluated and summary/conclusions have been prepared so that the chemicals toxicity and related characteristics are qualitatively identified. Observed effect levels and dose-response relationships are discussed, where appropriate, so that the nature of the adverse health responses are placed in perspective with observed environmental levels ...
Measurements of the viscosity of superheated carbon tetrachloride were made at various superheats ranging from 0°C superheat to 37°C superheat. The measurements were made in three groups: two isotherms at 82.4°C and 88.3°C, and one isobar at 690 mm Hg. The three major drawbacks to attaining superheated conditions are vibrations (mechanical shock), impurities, and the maintenance of large volumes of superheated liquid. While the viscometer itself was a simple capillary viscometer, the special procedures and techniques required to attain the necessary superheats entailed the use of high vacuum equipment, liquid degassing systems, a vibration free table, and controlling systems to maintain the temperatures and pressures within the desired fluctuation limits. The results obtained show that the viscosity curve for carbon tetrachloride in the superheated regime appears to be a smooth continuation of the curve below the normal boiling point. A curve fit to the experimental data gave the following ...
The residue is added to a solution of 50 g. of sodium in about a liter of 95 per cent alcohol. The solution is boiled under a reflux condenser for about one hour (Note 2) and then allowed to stand overnight. The reaction mixture is diluted with about 6 l. of water and the two layers are separated. The aqueous layer is extracted with three or four 500-cc. portions of carbon tetrachloride (Note 3), and the extracts are added to the bromomesitylene. This solution is then washed thoroughly with water. The carbon tetrachloride solution is separated, dried over calcium chloride, and distilled. After the carbon tetrachloride is removed the bromomesitylene is fractionated carefully under reduced pressure from a modified Claisen flask. The fraction boiling at 105-107°/16-17 mm. (Note 4) is bromomesitylene. The yield is 840-870 g. (79-82 per cent of the theoretical amount). There is a small low-boiling portion (about 25 g.) and also a small high-boiling residue. The bromomesitylene obtained in this way ...
Mediators of Inflammation is a peer-reviewed, Open Access journal that publishes original research and review articles on all types of inflammatory mediators, including cytokines, histamine, bradykinin, prostaglandins, leukotrienes, PAF, biological response modifiers and the family of cell adhesion-promoting molecules.
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7. The irradiation time required depends on the type of light source used and can be determined by following the progress of the reaction by infrared spectroscopy. A 10-ml. aliquot is withdrawn from the reaction mixture and evaporated to dryness under reduced pressure; the residue is dissolved in 0.5 ml. of carbon tetrachloride, and the spectrum is obtained using 0.1-mm. sodium chloride cells. A new peak appears at 899 cm.−1, and the ratio of the absorbance of the peak at 703 cm.−1 to that of the peak at 727 cm.−1 continuously decreases during the course of the reaction. Using these spectral criteria, the submitters judged the reaction to be complete after 4 hours of irradiation with the lamp described in (Note 5); however, the recrystallized products from 4-hour reactions melted about 0.4° lower than those from 5-hour reactions. The submitters found that varying the irradiation time from 4 hours to 8 hours had no significant effect on the yield of 9-phenylphenanthrene. The extent of the ...
Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine (eCAM) is an international peer-reviewed, Open Access journal that seeks to understand the sources and to encourage rigorous research in this new, yet ancient world of complementary and alternative medicine.
The hepatocurative potential of ethanolic extract (ETO) and sesquiterpene lactones enriched fraction (SL) of Taraxacum officinale roots was evaluated against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) induced...
Adult hepatocytes and liver-cell progenitors play a role in restoring liver tissue after injury. For the study of progenitor cells in liver repair, experimental models included (a) surgical removal of liver tissue by partial hepatectomy; (b) acute injury by carbontetrachloride; (c) acute injury by D-galactosamine (GalN) and N-nitrosomorpholine (NNM); and (d) chemical hepatocarcinogenesis by feeding NNM in low and high doses. Serological and immuno-histological detection of alpha-fetoprotein gene expression served to follow pathways of cellular differentiation. Stem cells were not required in models of surgical removal of parenchyma and in carbon tetrachloride intoxication of adult hepatocytes. In contrast, regeneration of liver occurred through biliary epithelial cells in injuries induced by GalN and NNM. These biliary epithelial cells, collectively called oval cells, are most probably derived from the canals of Hering. Proliferating bile duct cells reached a level of differentiation with ...
1. In cirrhosis the kidney tends to retain salt and water abnormally. Two theories have been proposed to account for this: the underfilling theory, in which sodium retention is thought to occur secondary to perceived underfilling of the circulation, and the overflow theory, in which sodium retention is considered to be due to a primary renal defect. 2. Using the model of cirrhosis produced by carbon tetrachloride administration in the rat, the ability of the kidney to excrete sodium has been examined in vivo and during isolated perfusion. 3. Cirrhotic animals demonstrated a reduced ability to excrete an acute sodium load: 6 h after 2 mmol of sodium was given by gavage, 27.5 ± 10.5% had been excreted by the cirrhotic rats and 62.5 ± 7.0% by control rats (P , 0.025). 4. In contrast, during isolated perfusion, kidneys from cirrhotic animals excreted the same amount of sodium as control animals over a range of perfusion pressures from 90 to 150 mmHg (12 to 20 kPa). 5. The data are consistent ...
in Liang, Qing; Newman, Paul A; Reimann, Stefan (Eds.) SPARC Report on the Mystery of Carbon Tetrachloride (2016). The Montreal Protocol (MP) controls the production and consumption of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 or CTC) and other ozone-depleting substances (ODSs) for emissive uses. CCl4 is a major ODS, accounting for ... [more ▼]. The Montreal Protocol (MP) controls the production and consumption of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 or CTC) and other ozone-depleting substances (ODSs) for emissive uses. CCl4 is a major ODS, accounting for about 12% of the globally averaged inorganic chlorine and bromine in the stratosphere, compared to 14% for CFC-12 in 2012. In spite of the MP controls, there are large ongoing emissions of CCl4 into the atmosphere. Estimates of emissions from various techniques ought to yield similar numbers. However, the recent WMO/UNEP Scientific Assessment of Ozone Depletion [WMO, 2014] estimated a 2007-2012 CCl4 bottom-up emission of 1-4 Gg/year (1-4 kilotonnes/year), based on ...
TITANIUM BEARING MATERIAL FLOW CONTROL IN THE MANUFACTURE OF TITIANIUM TETRACHLORIDE USING A COMBINATION OF FEEDBACK AND FEED FORWARD RESPONSES - This disclosure relates to process for controlling chlorination reactions in manufacturing titanium tetrachloride in a fluidized bed reactor, optionally followed by processing to form a titanium product comprising a minor amount of silica, the process comprising: (a) feeding carbonaceous material, titanium bearing material comprising an amount of silica, and chlorine to the fluidized bed reactor to form a gaseous stream, and condensing the gaseous stream to form titanium tetra-chloride, a non-condensed gas stream and a condensable product stream, wherein at least one of the titanium tetrachloride and the non-condensed gas stream comprise silicon tetrachloride; (b) analyzing the non-condensed gas stream, the titanium tetrachloride or both, to determine the analyzed concentration of silicon tetrachloride; (c) identifying a set point concentration of ...
Recently, the need for more standardized operation procedures in experimental liver fibrosis research was suggested due to dramatic changes in European animal welfare rules. Here, we present a short series of standard operation procedures (SOPs) summarizing the most relevant and widely accepted expe …
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If ya find exactly where to get calcium cyanimide please let us all know, I have been trying for about a year now. I have tried 3 really good ags in my area and have called several others with no luck. I asked for lime-nitrogen and also calcium cyanimide by name. One place over the phone said it was not used for fertiliser anymore and has been replaced with better nitrogen fertilisers (names not given to me). Another Ag-store said they could order it so I said OK. A few days latter they called back and said it was no longer avaible. I live in Calif.. Good luck! I really do hope you find a good source ...
Ameliorative Effects of Adansonia Digitata Leaf Extract on Carbon Tetrachloride (Ccl4) Induced Testicular Toxicity in Adult Male Wistar Rats… 481 - 487. Oyewopo Oyetunji, Ibrahim Babatunde, Saalu Chia, Osinubi Abraham, Adewale Benard, Eweoya Olugbenga, Williams Esemekiphoraro ...
ASTM Committee D28 on Activated Carbon was formed in 1962. D28 meets twice a year, usually in April and October, with about 15 members attending two days of technical meetings. The Committee, with a current membership of approximately 35, has jurisdiction of 27 standards, published in the Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Volume 15.01. D28 has 3 technical subcommittees that maintain jurisdiction over these standards. These standards have and continue to play a preeminent role in determining acid extractable content in activated carbon by ashing, moisture in activated carbon, carbon tetrachloride activity, total ash content, ball-pan hardness, iodine number and pH of activated carbon.. ...
SiCl4 is silicon tetrachloride, which is a non-polar molecule. Silicon tetrachloride is non-polar because the four chemical bonds between silicon and chlorine are equally distributed. The even...
Background: Hypericum is a well-known plant genus in herbal medicine. Hypericum mysorense (Family: Hypericaceae), a plant belonging to the same genus, is well known in folklore medicine for its varied therapeutic potential. Objective: The aim of the present study was to investigate the different parts of the plant for antioxidant and hepatoprotective properties. Materials and Methods: The methanol extracts of Hypericum mysorense prepared from various parts of the plant were tested in vitro for their free radical scavenging activity against ABTS• (diammonium salt), DPPH• (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl), NO•, O2•− and •OH radicals, using standard systems of assays. The total antioxidant capacity, total phenolic and total flavonoid content of the extracts were analyzed. Further, the leaf and flowering top extracts were tested for their in vivo antioxidant and hepatoprotective activities on Wistar rats using a carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatic injury model. Results: The leaf and flowering
The uses of carbon tetrachloride have diminished lately because it is known to be damage peoples health. People think it might damage the ozone layer. Today, it is rarely used for anything.. Previously, was used in fire extinguishers. It was also used to make freon, used in dry cleaning and as a refrigerant.. ...
Liver fibrosis is a feature in the majority of chronic liver diseases and oxidative stress is considered to be its main pathogenic mechanism. Antioxidants including vitamin E, are effective in preventing liver fibrogenesis. Several plant-drived antioxidants, such as silymarin, baicalin, beicalein, quercetin, apigenin, were shown to interfere with liver fibrogenesis. The antioxidans above are polyphenols, flavonoids or structurally related compounds which are the main chemical components of Pomegranate peels and seeds, and the antioxidant activity of Pomegranate peels and seeds have been verified. Here we investigated whether the extracts of pomegranate peels (EPP) and seeds (EPS) have preventive efficacy on liver fibrosis induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) in rats and explored its possible mechanisms. The animal model was established by injection with 50 % CCl4 subcutaneously in male wistar rats twice a week for four weeks. Meanwhile, EPP and EPS were administered orally every day for 4 weeks,
1. INTRODUCTION. Free radicals in the form of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species are an integral part of normal physiology. Over-production of these reactive species can occur, due to oxidative stress brought about by the imbalance of the bodily antioxidant defense system and free radical formation. These reactive species can react with biomolecules, causing cellular injury and even death. They can lead to the development of chronic diseases such as cancers and those that involve the cardio-and cerebrovascular systems (Gurdip et al., 2007). The consumption of fruits and vegetables (Peschel et al., 2006) containing antioxidants has been found to offer protection against these diseases. Antioxidants are often added to foods to prevent the radical chain reactions of oxidation, and they act by inhibiting the initiation and propagation step leading to the termination of the reaction and delay the oxidation process (Shahidi et al., 1992). Cinnamon is a popular flavoring ingredient, widely used in ...
The Effects of Carbon Tetrachloride (CCl_4 ) Induced Experimental Acute and Chronic Intoxication on Hystological Structure of Liver and Some Hematological Values and Electrocardiogram in Rabbits ...
Harvest cowpea plants about 2 weeks after inoculation, then homogenize at 4°C in two volumes of 0.5 M citrate buffer (pH 7.0) containing 0.1% thioglycollic acid. Express juice through cheesecloth, and add 20 ml carbon tetrachloride to every 100 ml extract. Shake the extract for 15 min, and clarify by low-speed centrifugation. Concentrate the virus by three cycles of differential centrifugation. Resuspend the pellets from high speed centrifugation in 0.01 M citrate buffer. Purify further by sucrose density-gradient centrifugation (Tsuchizaki et al., 1971).. ...
Titanium tetrachloride is a colorless, fuming liquid that is decomposed by moisture to hydrochloric acid, titanium dioxide, and heat. The toxicity of this agent is likely due to the release of hydrochloric acid. Titanium tetrachloride is corrosive to tissues ...
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Alfa Aesar™ Platinum, 5% on carbon, dry 5g Alfa Aesar™ Platinum, 5% on carbon, dry Piperie to Pras -Organics
1. Wilcken DEL, Dudman NPB, Tyrrell PA. Homocystinuria due to cystathionine beta-synthase deficiency-the effects of betaine treatment in pyridoxine-responsive patients. Metabolism. 1985;34:1115-1121. 2. Barak AJ, Beckenhauer HC, Tuma DJ. Betaine, ethanol and the liver: a review. Alcohol. 1996;13:395-398. 3. Barak AJ, Beckenhauer HC, Junnila M, et al. Dietary betaine promotes generation of hepatic S-adenosylmethionine and protects the liver from ethanol-induced fatty infiltration. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 1993;17:552-555. 4. Murakami T, Nagamura Y, Hirano K. The recovering effect of betaine on carbon tetrachloride-induced liver injury. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol. 1998;44:249-255. 5. Gray ME, Titlow LW. The effect of pangamic acid on maximal treadmill performance. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1982;14:424-427. 6. Mangoni AA, Jackson SH. Homocysteine and cardiovascular disease: current evidence and future prospects. Am J Med. 2002;112:556-565. 7. Kanbak G, Inal M, Baycu C. Ethanol-induced hepatotoxicity and ...
Semantic Scholar extracted view of Studies on fatty liver with isolated hepatocytes. II. The action of carbon tetrachloride on lipid peroxidation, protein, and triglyceride synthesis and secretion. by Giuseppe Poli et al.
Objective: The leaves of Caesalpinia bonduc (CB) have been used against various disorders in folk medicine including the liver disorders. Earlier, we have shown the hepatoprotective effect of CB in acute hepatotoxicity model. The present study was designed to evaluate the anti-hepatotoxic and anti-fibrotic effect of the aqueous leaf extract of CB on CCl4 (carbon tetrachloride) induced chronic hepatotoxicity/fibrosis in Wistar rats.Methods: Animals were divided into three groups namely; preventive, curative and prophylactic, which was further subdivided into four groups each: Group I-untreated control, group II-CCl4 control, group III-CB+CCl4 and group IV-silymarin+CCl4. The aqueous extract of CB/silymarin was administered orally once, daily for eight weeks in the curative group and for four weeks in preventive and prophylactic groups respectively. The chronic liver damage/fibrosis was induced by intraperitoneal injection of CCl4 twice a week, for four weeks in preventive and prophylactic groups ...
The berries of Seabuckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.) are traditional medicinal foods that have been used by Tibetans and Mongolians for thousands of years. The polysaccharides are the main components of Seabuckthorn berries, possessing immune stimulating, anti-cancer and anti-fatigue activities. The present
Styrene is homopolymerized or copolymerized with alpha methyl styrene, preferably in the presence of limonene, with or without t-butyl styrene, using zirconium tetrachloride as the catalyst. The light colored resins formed are useful as .[.drying.]. .Iadd.dry .Iaddend.cleaning sizing agents and in hot melt adhesives.
Lin S.C., Lin C.H., Lin C.C., Lin Y.H., Chen C.F., Chen I.C., Wang L.Y. Hepatoprotective effects of Arctium lappa Linne on liver injuries induced by chronic ethanol consumption and potentiated by carbon tetrachloride. Journal of biomedical science 2002 9:5 (401-409) ...
Alexander Zlotnik is the author of these articles in the Journal of Visualized Experiments: Inducing Acute Liver Injury in Rats via Carbon Tetrachloride (CCl4) Exposure Through an Orogastric Tube, A Middle Cerebral Artery Occlusion Technique for Inducing Post-stroke Depression in Rats, A New Method for Inducing a Depression-Like Behavior in Rats
Abstract: Lipofuscin-like pigments (LFPs) are highly oxidized cross-linked aggregates of oxidized protein and lipids which are formed under oxidative state conditions by free radicals produced. The present study aimed to evaluate the probable ameliorative effects of some of the Mn-salens namely EUKs 8, 134, 15, 115, 122 and 132 (compounds 1-6) and vitamin C against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced acute damage on rats livers and brains. Exposure to CCl4 is believed to induce oxidative stress and cause tissue damage due to the formation of trichloromethyl (·CCl3) and peroxy trichloromethyl (·OOCCl3) radicals. In this study, 54 rats were randomly divided into 9 groups of six each: normal group received only vehicle (olive oil; 2 ml/kg b.w.) for 6 consecutive days; CCl4- intoxicated group received the vehicle and CCl4 (50% solution of CCl4 in olive oil, 2 ml/kg b.w.) on the first and second days and the vehicle on the third to sixth days; test rats received Mn-salens or vitamin C (20 mg/kg ...
THE ALE/GAGE/AGAGE NETWORK (Last revision-August 2014, Last data update-May 2014) The following material provides a brief history of the ALE/GAGE/AGAGE program, which has consisted of 3 stages corresponding to major advances and upgrades in instrumentation and resulting increases in measurement frequency, precision, and number of gaseous species that could be measured. The first stage, ALE(Atmospheric Lifetime Experiment), began in 1978 using Hewlett-Packard (HP) 5840 gas chromatographs (gc) with an electron-capture detector (ECD) to measure five species (CFC-11 (CCl3F), CFC-12 (CCl2F2), methyl chloroform (CH3CCl3), carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) and nitrous oxide (N2O)) 4 times daily. In the 1981-1985 time frame, ALE was phased into GAGE (Global Atmospheric Gases Experiment) which used HP 5880 chromatographs and flame ionization detectors (FIDs) to measure the original suite of gases plus chloroform (CHCl3), CFC-113 (CCl2FCClF2 ) and methane (CH4). During GAGE the frequency of measurement was also ...
The reaction of titanium tetrachloride withN-phenyl benzalaldimine and some of its monomethylated and dimethylated derivatives, L, yields complexes of gene
Phytoconstituents like many polyphenols are poorly absorbed either due to their multiple-ring large size molecules which cannot be absorbed by simple diffusion, or due to their poor miscibility with oils and other lipids, severely limiting their ability to pass across the lipid-rich outer membranes of the enterocytes of the small intestine. Water-soluble phytoconstituent molecules (mainly polyphenols) can be converted into lipid-compatible molecular complexes, which are called Phytosomes. Gallic acid (GA, 3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoic acid), a naturally occurring plant phenol. So the following study was undertaken to evaluate the protective effects of gallic acid and gallic acid Phytosomes (GAP) at different doses against CCl4 induced hepatic and renal damage in albino rats. Liver damage was induced in Wister albino rats by administering CCl4 (1.5 ml/kg, i.p) once only. Simultaneously, GAP (40, 60 mg/kg, p.o.), GA (100 and 200 mg/kg, p.o.), and the reference drug silymarin (50 mg/kg b.w.).were administered
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Morbid obesity (MO) is associated with an increase in circulating levels of systemic acute phase proteins such as C-reactive protein (CRP). Toll-like receptor is possible candidate for inflammatory responses which is mainly mediated by NFKB1. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between NFKB1 and Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2 polymorphisms and the risk of MO in a Turkish population in the context of CRP serum levels which may contribute to susceptibility to the disease. We analysed the distribution of NFKB1-94 ins/del ATTG rs28362491 and TLR2 Arg753Gln rs5743708 polymorphisms using PCR-RFLP method and CRP serum levels using ELISA method in 213 MO and 200 healthy controls ...
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1. In most rat liver cells, no special topographical relationship between mitochondria and ergastoplasmic lamellae is to be observed. In some cells, nevertheless, the two organelles are grouped together in dense zones clearly separated from the hyaloplasm.. 2. Such an association can be produced at will in the livers of animals refed after prolonged fasting, or in the regenerative phases after partial hepatectomy and intoxication with carbon tetrachloride. In all these cells, the ergastoplasm, after having disappeared, suddenly reappears in the cytoplasm, either along the nucleus or cell membranes, where the mitochondria are grouped.. 3. It may be supposed that these topographical relationships between mitochondria and ergastoplasm during a definite period of cellular activity indicate a close functional link between chondrioma and basophilic structures. Mitochondria seem to play an important part in the elaboration of hepatic ergastoplasm.. ...
We have examined the cell-specific expression of two fibronectin isoforms, EIIIA and EIIIB, during experimental hepatic fibrosis induced by ligation of the biliary duct. AT the mRNA level, EIIIA and EIIIB were undetectable in normal liver but expressed early injury, preceding fibrosis. The cellular sources of these changes were determined by fractionating the liver at various time points after bile duct ligation into its constituent cell populations and extracting RNA from the fresh isolates. EIIIA-containing fibronectin mRNA was undetectable in normal sinusoidal endothelial cells but increased rapidly within 12 h of injury. By contrast, the EIIIB form was restricted to hepatic lipocytes (Ito or fat-storing cells) and appeared only after a lag of 12-24 h: it was minimal in sinusoidal endothelial cells. Both forms were minimal in hepatocytes. At the protein level, EIIIA-containing fibronectin was markedly increased within two days of injury and exhibited a sinusoidal distribution. Secretion of ...
Have plenty of water available to fight fires. An accessible pond or water holding tank will augment available water from your well and tank trucks.. Many fires cannot be classified strictly as one type. They may involve a variety of flammable materials. For this reason, multirated extinguishers have been developed.. Owing to the variety of work conditions that exist on the farm, farmers are advised to use an all-purpose, ABC rated extinguisher. This extinguisher uses a dry chemical agent and is capable of extinguishing Class A, B or C fires. The extinguisher is available in a variety of sizes and is not susceptible to temperature extremes. All portable extinguishing equipment should be strategically located on the farm and checked regularly. Everyone on the farm should be trained in the safe us of extinguishers.. For many years, carbon tetrachloride (CC14) was a common type of extinguishing agent. Research has shown that CC14 is not a safe extinguishing agent because when it comes in contact ...
If somebody has toxic hepatitis, the drug(s) need to be quickly discontinued and even more exposure towards the offending chemical prevented. Elimination on the offending chemical or drug contributes to fast advancement generally in days but in some cases various months could elapse prior to advancement is mentioned, even when Serious liver ailment has now formulated. No other particular therapy is necessary ...
Page contains details about hierarchical NiCo2O4 nanostructures on carbon cloth . It has composition images, properties, Characterization methods, synthesis, applications and reference articles : nano.nature.com
The natural cleanse of a healthy liver is efficient. However having a toxic liver today with so many pollutants surrounding us, compromises it. Thankfully you can help your liver!
Hazards: Bromine is corrosive and toxic.. Carbon tetrachloride is a cancer suspect agent. Toluene is flammable and toxic. Chemicals and Solutions: Materials: Two vials of toluene (about 10 ml each). 5% bromine in carbon tetrachloride solution. Plastic eyedropper Procedure: Add a few drops of the bromine solution rapidly to each of the vials of toluene. Show the class the orange solution produced. Place one of the vials on the overhead projector and watch this solution decolorize rapidly. The vial not placed on the overhead will decolorize much more slowly. This demo can be scaled up to be done in small hydrometer cylinders. Students will be able to see the the bromine fading out starting from the bottom and moving up the cylinder. Hint: Discussion: The halogenation reaction is a substitution reaction that takes place by a free radical mechanism.. ...
Lithospermic acid ((+)-Lithospermic acid) is a plant-derived polycyclic phenolic carboxylic acid isolated from Salvia miltiorrhiza, and has the anti-oxidative and hepatoprotective activity on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced acute liver damage in vitro and in vivo. - Mechanism of Action & Protocol.
BMP-9 interferes with liver regeneration and promotes liver fibrosis.. BMP9 is constitutively produced in the liver. Systemic levels act on many organs and tissues including bone and endothelium, but little is known about its hepatic functions in health and disease. Levels of BMP-9 and its receptors were analysed in primary liver cells. We investigated direct effects of BMP-9 on hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) and hepatocytes in vitro, and in acute and chronic liver injury models in mice. Quiescent and activated HSCs were identified as major BMP-9 producing liver cell type. BMP-9 stimulation of cultured hepatocytes inhibited proliferation, epithelial to mesenchymal transition and preserved expression of important metabolic enzymes such as cytochrome P450. Acute liver injury caused by partial hepatectomy or single injections of carbon tetrachloride (CCl 4 ) or lipopolysaccharide (LPS) into mice resulted in transient downregulation of hepatic BMP-9 mRNA expression. Correspondingly, LPS stimulation ...
Looking for online definition of crystal-associated hepatopathy in the Medical Dictionary? crystal-associated hepatopathy explanation free. What is crystal-associated hepatopathy? Meaning of crystal-associated hepatopathy medical term. What does crystal-associated hepatopathy mean?
The ProHealth Milk thistle supplement is a natural liver detoxifier that contains a powerful compound called silymarin, which has been found to defend the liver from many industrial toxins such as carbon tetrachloride, and more common agents like alc
Properties: Bright red acicular crystals from toluene. mp 289 ± 2°. d 1.60. Moderately sol in toluene, chloroform, alcohol, other hydroxylic solvents; sparingly sol in water, petr ether, benzene, ether, carbon disulfide, carbon tetrachloride. ...
A process for phosphonylating the surface of an organic polymeric preform and the surface-phosphonylated preforms produced thereby are provided. Organic polymeric preforms made from various polymers including polyethylene, polyetheretherketone, polypropylene, polymethylmethacrylate, polyamides, and polyester, and formed into blocks, films, and fibers may have their surfaces phosphonylated according to the present inventive process. The process involves the use of a solvent that does not dissolve the organic polymeric preform but does dissolve a phosphorus halide such as phosphorus trichloride. The solvent chosen must also be nonreactive with the phosphorus halide. Such solvents available for use in the present process include the fully-halogenated liquid solvents such as carbon tetrachloride, carbon tetrabromide, and the like. The inventive process allows for surface phosphonylation of the organic polymeric preform such that up to about 30 percent, but preferably up to about 20 percent, of the
In a method for the Friedel-Crafts-type insertion reaction of acetylene with acid chlorides in chloroaluminate ionic liquids, the use of ionic liquids not only serves to avoid the use of carbon tetrachloride or 1,2-dichloroethane but also suppresses side reactions, and enables a simpler purification procedure, giving a range of aromatic and aliphatic β-chlorovinyl ketones in high yield and purity ...
This study provides an information about the mechanisms of liver injury induced by CCl4, and determines the influence of administration of L-carnitine or/and CoQ10 as prophylactic agents against CCl4 deteriorative effect. The study was carried out on 80 adult male albino rats divided into eight groups, 10 animals each, as follows: four normal groups (control, treated with L-carnitine, treated with CoQ10, and treated with a combination of Lcarnitine and CoQ10) and four liver injury groups treated with CCl4 (control, treated with L-carnitine, treated with CoQ10, and treated with a combination of L-carnitine and CoQ10). Liver injury was induced by s.c. injection of a single dose of CCl4 (1 ml/kg). L-carnitine (50 mg/kg/day) was given i.p. for four successive days 24 hours before CCl4 injection, and CoQ10 (200 mg/kg) was given as a single i.p. dose 24 hours before CCl4 injection. Animals were sacrificed 24 hours after CCl4 injection, blood samples were withdrawn and liver tissue samples were
Oxidative stress and inflammatory response are well known to be involved in the pathogenesis of acute liver injury. This study was performed to examine the hepatoprotective effect of ginsenoside Rg1 (Rg1) against CCl₄‐induced acute liver injury, and further to elucidate the involvement of Nrf2 signaling pathway in vivo and in vitro. Mice were orally administered Rg1 (15, 30, and 60 mg/kg) or sulfo ...
Molina Maria Francisca , Sanchez-Reus Isabel , Iglesias Irene , BENEDI Juana Biological & pharmaceutical bulletin 26(10), 1398-1402, 2003-10-01 J-STAGE 医中誌Web 参考文献41件 被引用文献5件 ...
Rhabdomyolysis-related ATN was induced in female nu/nu mice [Jackson Laboratories] by intramuscular injection with 50% hypertonic glycerol solution in water (10 ml/kg body/wt) [Sigma-Aldrich] following deprivation of water for 22 hours ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Impaired metabolomics of sulfur-containing substances in rats acutely treated with carbon tetrachloride. AU - Kim, Sun Ju. AU - Kwon, Do Young. AU - Choi, Kwon Hee. AU - Choi, DalWoong. AU - Kim, Young Chul. PY - 2008/12/1. Y1 - 2008/12/1. N2 - Impairment of hepatic metabolism of sulfur-containing amino acids has been known to be linked with induction of liver injury. We determined the early changes in the transsulfuration reactions in liver of rats challenged with a toxic dose of CCl4 (2 mmol/kg, ip). Both hepatic methionine concentration and methionine adenosyltransferase activity were increased, but S-adenosylmethionine level did not change. Hepatic cysteine was increased significantly from 4 h after CCl4 treatment. Glutathione (GSH) concentration in liver was elevated in 4̃8 h and then returned to normal in accordance with the changes in glutamate cysteine ligase activity. Cysteine dioxygenase activity and hypotaurine concentration were also elevated from 4 h after the ...
Abstract The alcoholic extract of fruits of the plant Luffa acutangula previously reported for is hepatoprotective activity was fractionated into three parts to chemically identify the most potent bioactive fraction. The hepatoprotective potential of the fraction prepared from extract was studied in vivo in rats as well as ex vivo in isolated hepatocytes against paracetamol induced hepatotoxicity. The hepatoprotective activity was determined on the basis of their effects on parameters like direct bilirubin, serum aspartate transaminase, serum alanine transaminase and alakaline phasphatase. Ethyl acetate fraction (EAF) of alcoholic extract 100 mg/kg, p.o.) exhibited maximum hepatoprotective activity and is the active fraction for hepatoprotective activity of L. acutangula fruit.. ...
Saputri, F. C., Astari, C., Janatry, D. A., ., A., & Kusmana, D. (2018). HEPATOPROTECTIVE EFFECT OF BELLAMYA JAVANICA: ASPARTATE TRANSAMINASE, ALANINE AMINOTRANSFERASE, AND ALKALINE PHOSPHATASE ACTIVITY, AND LIVER HISTOPATHOLOGY IN MICE INDUCED WITH CARBON TETRACHLORIDE. International Journal of Applied Pharmaceutics, 10(1), 203-207. https://doi.org/10.22159/ijap.2018. ...
PubMed Central Canada (PMC Canada) provides free access to a stable and permanent online digital archive of full-text, peer-reviewed health and life sciences research publications. It builds on PubMed Central (PMC), the U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH) free digital archive of biomedical and life sciences journal literature and is a member of the broader PMC International (PMCI) network of e-repositories.
Activation of the adiponectin (APN) signaling axis retards liver fibrosis. However, understanding of the role of AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 in mediating this response is still rudimentary. Here, we sought to elucidate the APN receptor responsible for limiting liver fibrosis by employing AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 knock-out mice in the carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) model of liver fibrosis. In addition, we knocked down receptor function in primary hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) in vitro. Following the development of fibrosis, AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 KO mice had no quantitative difference in fibrosis by Sirius red staining. However, AdipoR2 KO mice had an enhanced fibrotic signature with increased Col1-α1, TGFß-1, TIMP-1, IL-10, MMP-2 and MMP-9. Knockdown of AdipoR1 or AdipoR2 in HSCs followed by APN treatment demonstrated that AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 did not affect proliferation or TIMP-1 gene expression, while AdipoR2 modulated Col1-α1 and α-SMA gene expression, HSC migration, and AMPK activity. These finding suggest ...
Clove contains significant amounts of an active component called eugenol, which has made it the subject of numerous health studies, including studies on the prevention of toxicity from environmental pollutants like carbon tetrachloride, digestive tract cancers, and joint inflammation. In the United States, eugenol extracts from clove have often been used in dentistry in conjunction with root canal therapy, temporary fillings, and general gum pain, since eugenol and other components of clove (including beta-caryophyllene) combine to make clove a mild anaesthetic as well as an anti-bacterial agent. For these beneficial effects, youll also find clove oil in some over-the-counter sore throat sprays and mouth washes. ...
Pure petroleum distillates - gastric decontamination is not indicated in the majority of accidental ingestions, since systemic toxicity is unlikely from a pure petroleum distillate. Other hydrocarbons - gastric decontamination may be indicated if a large amount of a toxic hydrocarbon has been ingested (e.G., Suicide attempt) and if spontaneous vomiting has not occurred. Decontamination may also be indicated for ingestions of highly toxic hydrocarbons (e.G., Halogenated hydrocarbons, carbon tetrachloride) and for hydrocarbons which contain very toxic additives (e.G., Heavy metals, pesticides). The decision to decontaminate should be based on the toxicity of the agent, the volume ingested, time of ingestion and patients clinical status. The potential for rapid cns depression, with seizures and/or respiratory depression, must be considered ...
You may also wish to search for items by Morcom, K. and Morcom. 34 matching references were found. Morcom, K.W.; Travers, D.N., Heats of mixing of some pyridine bases with carbon tetrachloride., Trans. Faraday Soc., 1966, 62, 2063. [all data] Morcom, K.W.; Travers, D.N., Heat of Mixing of the System Acetone+Chloroform Temperature Dependence and Deuterium Isotope Effect., Trans. Faraday Soc., 1965, 61, 230-4. [all data] McGlashan, M.L.; Morcom, K.W., Heats of mixing of some n-alkanes, Trans. Faraday Soc., 1961, 57, 907-13. [all data] McGlashan, M.L.; Morcom, K.W., Thermodynamics of mixtures of n-hexane + n-hexadecane: 1 heats of mixing ) h2p, Trans. Faraday Soc., 1961, 57, 581-7. [all data] McGlashan, M.L.; Morcom, K.W.; Williamson, A.G., Thermodynamics of mixtures of n-hexane + n-hexadecane part 3 comparison of results with lattice theory, Trans. Faraday Soc., 1961, 57, 601-10. [all data] Blandamer, M.J.; Burgess, J.; Cooney, A.; Cowles, H.J.; Horn, I.M.; Martin, K.J.; Morcom, K.W.; Warrick, P., ...
Protective Effect of 6 Food Mixed-Extract on the CCl4-Induced Hepatic Damage in Rats liver;hematological;tetrachlorid;biochemical;hepatic damage;immunological; The objective of this study was to examine the biochemical parameters of hepatic function such as serum level of ALT (alanine aminotransferase), AST (aspartate aminotransferase), ALP (alkaline phosphatase), LDH (lactate dehydrogenase), and content of TG (triglyceride) and cholesterol, and tissue immunological changes of the $CCl_4$-treated rats with administration of the mixed sample extract (MSE). The liver weight in $CCl_4$-administered experimental control group (EC) was slightly higher than that of normal control (NC) group. Hepatic damage parameters (ALT, AST, ALP, LDH & TG) in serum of the EC group were significantly higher than those in serum of the NC and silymarin-treated positive control (PC) group. On the other hand, these hepatic damage parameters of MSE-treated experimental (E1 & E2) groups were significantly lower than
A component of a polymerization catalyst is prepared by reacting an organo-magnesium compound, or a complex with an organo-aluminium compound, with an halogenating agent such as silicon tetrachloride or hydrogen chloride, and then reacting the product with a Lewis Base compound, particularly an ester and finally with titanium tetrachloride. The product obtained is combined with an organo-aluminium compound preferably together with a Lewis Base and used to polymerize an olefine monomer. The catalyst has a high activity and is stereospecific.
UN/SCETDG/46/INF.65 - (Austria) Transition period for amendments relevant to Ammunition, Smoke, containing titanium tetrachloride; relating to documents ST/SG/AC.10/C.3/2014/67, ST/SG/AC.10/C.3/2014/105, UN/SCETDG/46/INF.55 and related documents Wording of SP ...
Page contains details about carbon nanotube-coated tin nanopillars on carbon paper . It has composition images, properties, Characterization methods, synthesis, applications and reference articles : nano.nature.com
Orally-Administered Caspase Inhibitor PF-03491390 Is Retained in the Liver for Prolonged Periods With Low Systemic Exposure, Exerting a Hepatoprotective Effect Against α-Fas-Induced Liver Injury in a Mouse Model (2007 ...
1,1,1-Trichloroethane is one of a group of halogenated hydrocarbons selected for testing in the Carcinogenesis Bioassay Program. The rationale for its selection included its structural relationship to carbon tetrachloride, its wide use in industry, its extensive exposure of humans, and the incomplete knowledge of its carcinogenic potential. In 1959, Browning reported that 1,1,2-trichloroethane was replacing the more toxic industrial solvents: trichloroethylene, tetrachloroethylene, and carbon tetrachloride. The Environmental Protection Agency permits 1,1,1-trichloroethane to be used as a solvent or cosolvent in pesticide formulations for the postharvest fumigation of citrus fruits.. The carcinogenesis bioassay of technical grade 1,1,1-trichloroethane was conducted using Osborne-Mendel rats and B6C3F1 mice. 1,1,1-Trichloroethane was administered orally by gavage in corn oil to 50 animals of each sex and species at two dose levels 5 days per week for 78 weeks.. Rats: The experiment was originally ...
Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) signalling is induced in liver as a consequence of damage and contributes to wound healing with transient activation, whereas it mediates fibrogenesis with long-term up-regulation in chronic disease. Smad-dependent TGF-beta effects are blunted by antagonistic Smad7, which is transcriptionally activated as an immediate early response upon initiation of TGF-beta signalling in most cell types, thereby providing negative feedback regulation. Smad7 can be induced by other cytokines, e.g. IFN-gamma, leading to a crosstalk of these signalling pathways. Here we report on a novel mouse strain, denoted S7DeltaE1, with a deletion of exon I from the endogenous smad7 gene. The mice were viable and exhibited normal adult liver architecture. To obtain insight into Smad7-depend-ent protective effects, chronic liver damage was induced in mice by carbon tetrachloride (CCI4) administration. Subsequent treatment, elevated serum liver enzymes indicated enhanced liver damage ...
Effect and mechanism of methyl helicterate isolated from Helicteres angustifolia (Sterculiaceae) on hepatic fibrosis induced by carbon tetrachloride in rats. - Quanfang Huang, Yongwen Li, Shijun Zhang, Renbin Huang, Li Zheng, Ling Wei, Min He, Ming Liao, Li Li, Lang Zhuo, Xing Lin
Adsorption isotherms of carbon tetrachloride, chloroform and fiuorotrichloromethane on a substrate of graphitized carbon are reported at temperatures between 200 and 300 °K. Evidence is presented that at these temperatures the residual heterogeneity of the substrate is not observed: under these conditions the true equation of state of the adsorbed film can be deduced directly from the measured adsorption isotherms. All the data reported are described by the adsorption isotherm equation corresponding to a two-dimensional van der Waals gas; this description continues to apply at temperatures where the isotherms show discontinuities characteristic of first-order phase changes. The two-dimensional critical temperature of each of the adsorbed films is rather less than the value predicted by the two dimensional van der Waals equation; this is taken as evidence for the polarization of the adsorbate molecules by an electric field present at the graphite surface. The results obtained with the isotropic ...
Near rhymes (words that almost rhyme) with tetrachloride: hexachloride, hydrochloride, chloride, dichloride... Find more near rhymes/false rhymes at B-Rhymes.com
TY - JOUR. T1 - Plasmacytoid dendritic cells protect against immune-mediated acute liver injury via IL-35. AU - Koda, Yuzo. AU - Nakamoto, Nobuhiro. AU - Chu, Po Sung. AU - Ugamura, Aya. AU - Mikami, Yohei. AU - Teratani, Toshiaki. AU - Tsujikawa, Hanako. AU - Shiba, Shunsuke. AU - Taniki, Nobuhito. AU - Sujino, Tomohisa. AU - Miyamoto, Kentaro. AU - Suzuki, Takahiro. AU - Yamaguchi, Akihiro. AU - Morikawa, Rei. AU - Sato, Katsuaki. AU - Sakamoto, Michiie. AU - Yoshimoto, Takayuki. AU - Kanai, Takanori. PY - 2019/7/2. Y1 - 2019/7/2. N2 - Acute liver failure (ALF) is a life-threatening condition, and liver transplantation is the only therapeutic option. Although immune dysregulation is central to its pathogenesis, the precise mechanism remains unclear. Here, we show that the number of peripheral and hepatic plasmacytoid DCs (pDCs) decrease during acute liver injury in both humans and mice. Selective depletion of pDCs in Siglechdtr/+ mice exacerbated concanavalin A-induced acute liver injury. In ...
1. The purpose of the present investigation was to determine whether an abnormality of the renal papillary circulation is present in a well-established model of cirrhosis without ascites (carbon tetrachloride/phenobarbital).. 2. Compared with the control animals, cirrhotic rats showed a reduced diuretic (61.0 ±5.1 versus 18.0 ±2.5%) and natriuretic (67.8 ±8.3 versus 29.6 ±3.6%) response to a volume expansion (3% body weight infusion of 0.9% NaCl). The volume expansion-induced increase in renal interstitial hydrostatic pressure was also blunted in the cirrhotic rats (control 9.3 ±0.9 versus cirrhotic 6.1±1.0 mmHg) and there were no differences in mean arterial blood pressure, renal blood flow or glomerular filtration rate between control and cirrhotic animals.. 3. Papillary plasma flow was determined by the 125I-albumin accumulation technique and expressed as mlmin−1100 g−1. In the basal state, papillary plasma flow was significantly lower in cirrhotic rats (59.1 ±4.4, n = 9) than in ...
This study was designed to evaluate the hepatoprotective activity of aqueous extract and isolated flavone (5-hydroxy, 7, 8, 2trimethoxy flavone) compound of Andrographis alata against CCl4 induced hepatotoxicity. The hepatotoxicity was induced in albino rats CCl4 (i.p.). Analysis of serum ALT, AST and alkaline phosphatase activities with the concentrations of albumin, total protein and bilirubin was carried out. The activities of all the marker enzymes reported a significant elevation in CCl4 treated rats, which were significantly recovered towards an almost normal level in animals simultaneously administered with aqueous extract and flavone compound. This work suggests that aqueous extract and isolated flavone compound of A. alata exert significant therapeutic effect on CCl4 induced hepatotoxicity in rats.
Oxidative stress plays a critical role in the hepatotoxicity of tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα), a carbon tetrachloride (CCl4), and acetaminophen (APAP). Glutathione (GSH) is a major free radical scavenger and an important factor in detoxification of reactive oxygen species and xenobiotics. The rate-limiting enzyme in the synthesis of GSH is glutamate-cysteine ligase (GCL) which consists of two subunits: GCLC and GCLM. We have generated transgenic mice that conditionally express GCLC and GCLM in the liver using a mifepristone (RU486)-responsive transactivator. To test the hypothesis that enhanced GSH synthesis would prevent oxidative stress-medicated hepacellular injury, GCL transgenic mice and their non-transgenic littermate controls were treated with TNFα, CCl4, and APAP. GCLM protein levels and GCL activities were significantly increased in GCL transgenic mice with RU486 induction as revealed by Western Blotting and biochemical assay. GCL transgene induction attenuated TNFα and ...
The change in rheological and mechanical properties for some ionotropic cross-linked metal-alginate hydrogel complexes in particularly copper-alginate membranes in the presence of some organic solvents (benzene, toluene, xylene, carbon tetrachloride, ace-tone, chloroform, dichloroethane, isobutyl alcohol and ethyl alcohol) or buffer solutions (acetates, borates and universal buffers) have been investigated. The experimental results showed a remarkable tendency of the studied hydrogels for shrinking in polar solvents, whereas no influence was observed for the hydrogels in non-polar solvents. On the other hand, the gels were found to swell or shrink in the buffer solutions depending on the pH of the buffer used. The swelling extent for hydrogel spheres was found to decrease in the order Cu > Ba ≈ Ca > Zn > Pb-alginates in universal buffers of pH = 5.33. The factors affected this behavior have been examined and discussed.
Organotellurium chemistry in chemistry describes the synthesis and properties of chemical compounds containing a carbon to tellurium chemical bond. Organotellurium chemistry was developed in the wake of organoselenium chemistry and, sharing the same group in the periodic table, both chemistries have much in common. The Te analogues of common organosulfur functional groups are known. Tellurols are unstable. Diorganomono- and ditellurides are the most commonly encountered organotellurium compounds. Telluroxides (R2TeO) are also known. Commonly used tellurium based reagents are hydrogen telluride, NaHTe, sodium telluride, and PhTeLi. Because Te is insoluble and polymeric, it is often not a useful precursor to organotellurium compounds, but it is attacked by hydride reducing agents: Te + 2LiBHEt3 → Li2Te + H2 + 2 BEt3 and organolithium compounds: Te + RLi → RTeLi One departure from S and Se chemistry, is the availability of the tetrachloride TeCl4. Tellurium tetrachloride reacts with alkenes and ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Thermodynamic study of the discrimination between uridine and thymidine derivatives by hydrophobic, stacking, and intercalating interactions. AU - Rekharsky, M. V.. AU - Nakamura, Asao. AU - Hembury, G. A.. AU - Inoue, Y.. PY - 2001/3. Y1 - 2001/3. N2 - Thermodynamic parameters for the complexation reactions of uridine/thymidine nucleobases and related compounds, with hosts of differing binding modes and properties (natural cyclodextrins, 5,10,15,20-tetrakis (1-methlpyridinium-4-yl) porphyrin tetrachloride and bis-intercaland macrocycle) have been determined by titration microcalorimetry and/or fluorometry, in an aqueous buffer. For each of these hosts the effect of the 5-methyl group on the binding affinities was investigated. Although the affinities of uridine and thymidine towards cyclodextrins and 5,10,15,20-tetrakis(1-methylpyridinium-4-yl)porphyrin tetrachloride are very similar, the intercalation of these compounds into the bis-intercaland macrocycle has been shown to ...
The only thing i noticed going from aluminium to carbon MTB rim was the stiffness. Ran aluminium rims for well over 15 years, no issues with any of them BTW. Bike came stock with carbon wheels, you can feel the stiffness when hitting corners or going through slower technical sections. Bike seems to track a little better all around. Worth it if you can swing it. Durability has been fine so far. They are the Bontrager kovee pro boost wheels. They are on the heavy size ...
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*Headache attributed to a substance or its withdrawal

Acetaldehyde from alcohol may also cause a headache either acutely or after a number of hours (hangover). Poisons, like carbon ... tetrachloride found in insecticides and lead can also cause headaches with repeated exposure. Ingesting lead paint or having ... Headaches are also a symptom of carbon monoxide poisoning. Drugs such as amphetamines can cause headaches as a side effect. ... Some of these include alcohol, NO, carbon monoxide poisoning, cocaine, caffeine and monosodium glutamate. Chronic use of ...

*List of ICD-9 codes 800-999: injury and poisoning

Toxic effect of carbon tetrachloride (982.2) Toxic effect of carbon disulfide (982.3) Toxic effect of other chlorinated ... Poisoning by other anti-infectives (962) Poisoning by hormones and synthetic substitutes (963) Poisoning by primarily systemic ... Poisoning by anticonvulsants and anti-Parkinsonism drugs (967) Poisoning by sedatives and hypnotics (968) Poisoning by other ... Poisoning by other and unspecified drugs and medicinal substances (978) Poisoning by bacterial vaccines (979) Poisoning by ...

*ICD-10 Chapter XIX: Injury, poisoning and certain other consequences of external causes

Carbon tetrachloride Tetrachloromethane (T53.1) Chloroform Trichloromethane (T53.2) Trichloroethylene Trichloroethene (T53.3) ... Poisoning by agents primarily acting on smooth and skeletal muscles and the respiratory system (T49) Poisoning by topical ... Ciguatera fish poisoning (T61.1) Scombroid fish poisoning (T62) Toxic effect of others noxious substances eaten as food (T62.0 ... Poisoning by hormones and their synthetic substitutes and antagonists, not elsewhere classified (T39) Poisoning by nonopiod ...

*Activated carbon

Carbon tetrachloride activityEdit. Measurement of the porosity of an activated carbon by the adsorption of saturated carbon ... Activated carbon is used to treat poisonings and overdoses following oral ingestion. Tablets or capsules of activated carbon ... Woven carbonEdit. There is a technology of processing technical rayon fiber into activated carbon cloth for carbon filtering. ... Extruded activated carbonEdit. Extruded activated carbon (EAC) combines powdered activated carbon with a binder, which are ...

*Tommy Tucker (singer)

Tucker died in 1982 at the age of 48 at College Hospital in Newark, New Jersey, from inhaling carbon tetrachloride while ... refinishing the hardwood floors of his home; though his death has been alternatively attributed to food poisoning. "The dead ...

*Acute liver failure

Zone 3 (centrilobular) occurs with ischemic injury, toxic effects, carbon tetrachloride exposure, or chloroform ingestion. In ... Zone 1 (periportal) occurs in phosphorus poisoning or eclampsia. Zone 2 (mid-zonal), although rare, is seen in yellow fever. ...

*Lead tetrachloride

2SO4 Unlike carbon tetrachloride, another group IV (IUPAC: group 14) chloride, lead tetrachloride reacts with water. This is ... Lead is a cumulative poison. Only limited evidence have been shown of lead's carcinogenic effect, but lead tetrachloride, as ... Thus while carbon tetrachloride is a stable compound, with lead the oxidation state +2 is favored and PbCl4 quickly becomes ... "Raman Spectra of Germanium Tetrachloride and Lead Tetrachloride". ACS. 70 (10): 3464-3465. doi:10.1021/ja01190a073. Retrieved ...

*Methacrylonitrile

It has been shown that treatment of mice with carbon tetrachloride, which acts on the mixed function oxygenase system, results ... This is based on another sign of methacrylonitrile poisoning; urine retention, with 58% of rats showing bladder distention at ... Studies using radiolabeled carbon point out that the primary route by which methacrylonitrile left the body is the urine, at 43 ... Inversely, reactions that form a positive charge on said carbon (i.g. Cytochrome-P450 oxidation of the double bond), are faster ...

*Activated carbon

... is used to treat poisonings and overdoses following oral ingestion. Tablets or capsules of activated carbon ... Measurement of the porosity of an activated carbon by the adsorption of saturated carbon tetrachloride vapour. The finer the ... "Effect of steam and carbon dioxide activation in the micropore size distribution of activated carbon". Carbon. 34 (4): 505-509 ... "Thermal regeneration of activated carbon saturated with p-nitrophenol". Carbon. 42 (11): 2285-2293. doi:10.1016/j.carbon. ...

*1,1,1-Trichloroethane

Many of its applications previously used carbon tetrachloride (which was banned in US consumer products in 1970). In turn, 1,1, ... Fatal poisonings and illnesses linked to intentional inhalation of trichloroethane have been reported.[7][8][9][10] The removal ... Doherty, R.E. (2000). "A History of the Production and Use of Carbon Tetrachloride, Tetrachloroethylene, Trichloroethylene and ...

*Soil contamination

... carbon tetrachloride, 1,2-dichloroethane, trichloroethene and xylene. The SGVs for ethyl benzene, phenol and toluene are ... the issue of Uranium poisoning in Punjab attracted press coverage. It was alleged to be caused by fly ash ponds of thermal ... dependent on the soil organic matter (SOM) content (which can be calculated from the total organic carbon (TOC) content). As an ...

*Kloroform - Wikipedija, prosta enciklopedija

M.S. Kharasch, E.V. Jensen, W.H. Urry (1945). Addition of Carbon Tetrachloride and Chloroform to Olefins. Science 102 (2640): ... Poisoning and Toxicology Handbook. 4. izdaja. Informa. Str. 774 *↑ M. Srebnik, E. Laloë (2001). Chloroform. Encyclopedia of ...

*Sayers, Allport & Potter

... carbon tetrachloride, for use against worms and liver fluke), and "Phenmix" (phenothiazine, for stomach and intestinal worms). ... The advantage of phosphorus as a poison is that, in dry weather and if not strewn as clumps, it has degraded to innocuous ... "Poison in Bodies Analyst Says". Illawarra Daily Mercury. New South Wales, Australia. 17 June 1952. p. 3. Retrieved 18 April ... "Poison Still Missing". The Sydney Morning Herald (31,237). New South Wales, Australia. 12 February 1938. p. 11. Retrieved 18 ...

*Lake Ontario

... and carbon tetrachloride. The International Joint Commission has identified areas where pollution is particularly intense ( ... Fish eating birds such as osprey, bald eagle and cormorant were being poisoned by contaminated fish. Since the 1960s and 1970s ... Lamprey are being controlled by poisoning in the juvenile stage in the streams where they breed. Zebra mussels in particular ...

*Ricinus

"Studies on the protective effect of Ricinus communis leaves extract on carbon tetrachloride hepatotoxicity in albino rats". ... However, the poison can be extracted from castor by concentrating it with a fairly complicated process similar to that used for ... Poisoning occurs when animals, including humans, ingest broken seeds or break the seed by chewing: intact seeds may pass ... ISBN 0-89672-614-2. Ricinus at Curlie (based on DMOZ) A Bean Called Castor Can Cut Carbon & Fuel the Future Ricinus communis L ...

*Polyyne

"Dietary diacetylene falcarindiol induces phase 2 drug-metabolizing enzymes andblocks carbon tetrachloride-induced ... Ichthyothere terminalis leaves have traditionally been used to make poisoned bait by indigenous peoples of the lower Amazon ... Zhao, C.; Shinohara, H. (2011). "Growth of Linear Carbon Chains inside Thin Double-Wall Carbon Nanotubes". Journal of Physical ... 1995). "Synthesis of linear acetylenic carbon: The "sp" carbon allotrope". Science. 267 (5196): 362-7. Bibcode:1995Sci...267.. ...

*Reductive dechlorination

This reductive destruction method works for many organochlorine compounds, for instance carbon tetrachloride when irradiated ... As catalysts are depleted, chlorine poisoning on surfaces can sometimes be observed, and on rare occasions, metal sintering and ... leading to the formation of an additional carbon-carbon bond. Biological reductive dechlorination is often catalyzed by certain ... Additionally, high inorganic carbon levels do not affect dechlorination rates in low PCB concentration environments. Another ...

*Hydrocarbon

CH4 + Cl2 → CH3Cl + HCl CH3Cl + Cl2 → CH2Cl2 + HCl all the way to CCl4 (carbon tetrachloride) C2H6 + Cl2 → C2H5Cl + HCl C2H4Cl2 ... Hydrocarbon poisoning such as that of benzene and petroleum usually occurs accidentally by inhalation or ingestion of these ... single carbon-carbon bonds). In this reaction, an alkane reacts with a chlorine molecule. One of the chlorine atoms displaces a ... Because carbon has 4 electrons in its outermost shell (and because each covalent bond requires a donation of 1 electron, per ...

*Environmental disease

... carbon tetrachloride, and the chlorinated naphthalenes. Also included are glycols: ethylene chlorhydrin and diethylene dioxide ... Poisoning by lead and mercury has been know since antiquity. Other toxic metals or metals that are known to evoke adverse ... The simple asphixiants are nitrogen, methane, and carbon dioxide. The chemical asphyxiants are carbon monoxide, sulfuretted ... The aliphatic carbon compounds can also cause environmental disease. Included in these are methanol, nitroglycerine, ...

*Petroleum ether

Fires should be fought with foam, carbon dioxide, dry chemical or carbon tetrachloride. The naphtha mixtures that are distilled ... 2008), "Petroleum Distillates - Naphtha", Poisoning and Toxicology Handbook (4th ed.), Informa, pp. 836-837 ...

*Self-experimentation in medicine

Carbon tetrachloride has since been found to cause acute liver failure. In 1925, Hall ingested tetrachloroethylene (once the ... Joseph Barcroft, in 1917, tested hydrogen cyanide on himself as part of research into poison gas in World War I. He was shut in ... In 1921, Maurice Crowther Hall ingested carbon tetrachloride to test its safety with a view to its possible use as a treatment ... G. R. Cameron, W. A. E. Karunaratne, "Carbon tetrachloride cirrhosis in relation to liver regeneration", The Journal of ...

*Hexaethyl tetraphosphate

These include acetone, ether, alcohol, carbon tetrachloride, chloroform, ethyl acetate, glycerol, benzene, diacetone alcohol, ... Mites, aphids, thrips, leafhoppers, and some types of caterpillars are highly susceptible to being poisoned by hexaethyl ... Poison], retrieved 2013 Check date values in: ,access-date= (help) A digest of information on hexaethyl tetraphosphate, 1947, ...

*Nitrogen

... and explosive liquid whose physical properties are similar to those of carbon tetrachloride, although one difference is that ... It has a disagreeable and irritating smell and is a potentially lethal (but not cumulative) poison. It may be considered the ... Like carbon tetrafluoride, it is not at all reactive and is stable in water or dilute aqueous acids or alkalis. Only when ... In particular, since the B-N unit is isoelectronic to C-C, and carbon is essentially intermediate in size between boron and ...

*Tetrahydropalmatine

"Protective effect of dl-tetrahydropalmatine on liver injury induced by carbon tetrachloride in mice". Zhongguo Zhong yao za zhi ... Several cases of poisoning related to THP have been reported. These cases involved negative effects on respiration, cardiac ... "Tetrahydropalmatine Poisoning: Diagnoses of Nine Adult Overdoses Based on Toxicology Screens by HPLC with Diode-Array Detection ...

*Ames Project

The major problem was impurities in the uranium oxide, which could act as neutron poisons and prevent a nuclear chain reaction ... In June 1942 they then tried reducing the uranium with carbon in a hydrogen atmosphere, with only moderate success. They then ... This involved mixing uranium tetrachloride and calcium metal in a calcium oxide-lined steel pressure vessel (known as a "bomb ... Unfortunately, the calcium hydride contained unacceptable amounts of boron, a neutron poison, making the metal unsuitable for ...

*Alkali metal

They also react with carbon dioxide and carbon tetrachloride, so that normal fire extinguishers are counterproductive when used ... Excessive ingestion of lithium causes drowsiness, slurred speech and vomiting, among other symptoms, and poisons the central ... Lithium and sodium react with carbon to form acetylides, Li2C2 and Na2C2, which can also be obtained by reaction of the metal ... As the electropositive nature of lithium puts most of the charge density of the bond on the carbon atom, effectively creating a ...

*Alkali metal

They also react with carbon dioxide and carbon tetrachloride, so that normal fire extinguishers are counterproductive when used ... and poisons the central nervous system,[219] which is dangerous as the required dosage of lithium to treat bipolar disorder is ... Reaction with carbon Lithium is the only metal that reacts directly with carbon to give dilithium acetylide. Na and K can react ... Lithium and sodium react with carbon to form acetylides, Li2C2 and Na2C2, which can also be obtained by reaction of the metal ...

*نیتروژن - ویکی‌پدیا، دانشنامهٔ آزاد

... and explosive liquid whose physical properties are similar to those of carbon tetrachloride, although one difference is that ... It has a disagreeable and irritating smell and is a potentially lethal (but not cumulative) poison. It may be considered the ... Like carbon tetrafluoride, it is not at all reactive and is stable in water or dilute aqueous acids or alkalis. Only when ... Many organic functional groups involve a carbon-nitrogen bond, such as amides (RCONR2), amines (R3N), imines (RC(=NR)R), imides ...

CISDOC - Acute renal failure in carbon tetrachloride poisoningCISDOC - Acute renal failure in carbon tetrachloride poisoning

Acute renal failure in carbon tetrachloride poisoning. Original title. Fracaso renal agudo en la intoxicaci n por tetracloruro ... acute poisoning; renal dysfunction; organic solvents; painting; carbon tetrachloride. Descriptors (secondary). literature ... The literature on acute renal failure in carbon tetrachloride poisoning, and the clinical and histological features of this ... Description of a case of acute renal failure in a house painter due to massive exposure to carbon tetrachloride, with ...
more infohttp://www.ilo.org/dyn/cisdoc2/cismain.details?p_lang=en&p_doc_id=39643

Quinine Oxidase in Liver and Blood Plasma of Rabbits poisoned with Carbon Tetrachloride | NatureQuinine Oxidase in Liver and Blood Plasma of Rabbits poisoned with Carbon Tetrachloride | Nature

Quinine Oxidase in Liver and Blood Plasma of Rabbits poisoned with Carbon Tetrachloride. *GILBERTO G. VILLELA1. ... VILLELA, G. Quinine Oxidase in Liver and Blood Plasma of Rabbits poisoned with Carbon Tetrachloride. Nature 190, 807-808 (1961 ... Microsomal enzymes inducers and serum minerals in carbon-tetrachloride hepatotoxicity *R. Awadallah ...
more infohttps://www.nature.com/articles/190807a0?error=cookies_not_supported&code=241f0e1f-6854-4276-85f2-eb9df10cf9ff

CARBON TETRACHLORIDE POISONING; A REPORT OF ONE CASE WITH NECROPSY AND ONE NONFATAL CASE WITH CLINICAL LABORATORY STUDIES* |...CARBON TETRACHLORIDE POISONING; A REPORT OF ONE CASE WITH NECROPSY AND ONE NONFATAL CASE WITH CLINICAL LABORATORY STUDIES* |...

CARBON TETRACHLORIDE POISONING; A REPORT OF ONE CASE WITH NECROPSY AND ONE NONFATAL CASE WITH CLINICAL LABORATORY STUDIES1 ... CARBON TETRACHLORIDE POISONING; A REPORT OF ONE CASE WITH NECROPSY AND ONE NONFATAL CASE WITH CLINICAL LABORATORY STUDIES1. Ann ... That physicians generally are not sufficiently aware of the dangers of exposure to carbon tetrachloride is evidenced by the ... attest to the medical importance of carbon tetrachloride intoxication. As will be mentioned later in the reports of cases, both ...
more infohttps://annals.org/aim/article-abstract/673435/carbon-tetrachloride-poisoning-report-one-case-necropsy-one-nonfatal-case

CDC - Immediately Dangerous to Life or Health Concentrations (IDLH):  Carbon tetrachloride -  NIOSH Publications and ProductsCDC - Immediately Dangerous to Life or Health Concentrations (IDLH): Carbon tetrachloride - NIOSH Publications and Products

4. Barnes R, Jones RC [1967]. Carbon tetrachloride poisoning. Am Ind Hyg Assoc J 29:557-560. ... 2. ACGIH [1971]. Carbon tetrachloride. In: Documentation of the threshold limit values for substances in workroom air. 3rd ed. ... From: AIHA [1961]. Carbon tetrachloride (revised 1961). In: Hygienic guide series. Am Ind Hyg Assoc J 22:507-509.] ... 3. AIHA [1961]. Carbon tetrachloride (revised 1961). In: Hygienic guide series. Am Ind Hyg Assoc J 22:507-509. ...
more infohttps://www.cdc.gov/niosh/idlh/56235.html

Activity of the acetylation enzyme in the liver in carbon tetrachloride poisoningActivity of the acetylation enzyme in the liver in carbon tetrachloride poisoning

Reference: Grebennukova A.E., Activity of the acetylation enzyme in the liver in carbon tetrachloride poisoning, Voprosy ... Activity of the acetylation enzyme in the liver in carbon tetrachloride poisoning. ...
more infohttp://pbmc.ibmc.msk.ru/index.php/en/article/PBMC-1965-11-3-17-en

Case Study 8: Carbon Tetrachloride Toxicity | Environmental Medicine: Integrating a Missing Element into Medical Education |...Case Study 8: Carbon Tetrachloride Toxicity | Environmental Medicine: Integrating a Missing Element into Medical Education |...

Carbon Tetrachloride Toxicity: People are increasingly concerned about potential environmental health hazards and often ask the ... Acute carbon tetrachloride poisoning in 19 patients: implications for diagnosis and treatment. Lancet 1985;8436:1027-9. ... Synonyms for carbon tetrachloride include tetrachloromethane, carbon tet, carbona, tetrasol, and carbon chloride. ... Carbon tetrachloride poisoning-a review. Ind Med Surg 1954;23:93-105. ...
more infohttps://www.nap.edu/read/4795/chapter/20

JCI -
GUANIDINE RETENTION AND CALCIUM RESERVE AS ANTAGONISTIC FACTORS IN CARBON TETRACHLORIDE AND CHLOROFORM POISONINGJCI - GUANIDINE RETENTION AND CALCIUM RESERVE AS ANTAGONISTIC FACTORS IN CARBON TETRACHLORIDE AND CHLOROFORM POISONING

GUANIDINE RETENTION AND CALCIUM RESERVE AS ANTAGONISTIC FACTORS IN CARBON TETRACHLORIDE AND CHLOROFORM POISONING. ... GUANIDINE RETENTION AND CALCIUM RESERVE AS ANTAGONISTIC FACTORS IN CARBON TETRACHLORIDE AND CHLOROFORM POISONING. ...
more infohttps://9iyoo.org.mobile.jci.org/articles/view/100204/scanned-page/395

Cairns F[au] - PubMed - NCBICairns F[au] - PubMed - NCBI

Carbon tetrachloride poisoning; a fatal case following accidental ingestion of carbon tetrachloride. ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?cmd=search&term=Cairns+F%5Bau%5D&dispmax=50

Liver and serum N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase isoenzymes of normal rats and rats with acute carbon tetrachloride poisoningLiver and serum N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase isoenzymes of normal rats and rats with acute carbon tetrachloride poisoning

... ... Liver and serum N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase isoenzymes of normal rats and rats with acute carbon tetrachloride poisoning, ...
more infohttp://pbmc.ibmc.msk.ru/index.php/en/article/PBMC-1980-26-6-800-en

Lipid peroxidation and covalent binding in the early functional impairment of liver Golgi apparatus by carbon tetrachloride. |...Lipid peroxidation and covalent binding in the early functional impairment of liver Golgi apparatus by carbon tetrachloride. |...

Lipid peroxidation and covalent binding in the early functional impairment of liver Golgi apparatus by carbon tetrachloride. - ... Both lipid transit through the apparatus and hexosylation of the lipoprotein are markedly inhibited 5-15 min after poisoning. ... Lipid peroxidation and covalent binding in the early functional impairment of liver Golgi apparatus by carbon tetrachloride.. ... protection against fatty liver afforded at 24 h after CCl4 poisoning by supplementation of the membrane with alpha-tocopherol. ...
more infohttp://www.curehunter.com/public/pubmed2111233.do

XIV-Kidneys & Collecting System Flashcards by PerfumeHub Designerperfumes | BrainscapeXIV-Kidneys & Collecting System Flashcards by PerfumeHub Designerperfumes | Brainscape

Carbon Tetrachloride poisoning (TOPNOTCH) 96 ATN morphology: marked ballooning and hydrophic or vacuolar degeneration of ...
more infohttps://www.brainscape.com/flashcards/xiv-kidneys-amp-collecting-system-2399973/packs/4249015

XIV - The Kidneys and Its Collecting System Flashcards by Pia Debuque | BrainscapeXIV - The Kidneys and Its Collecting System Flashcards by Pia Debuque | Brainscape

Carbon Tetrachloride poisoning (TOPNOTCH) 96 ATN morphology: marked ballooning and hydrophic or vacuolar degeneration of ...
more infohttps://www.brainscape.com/flashcards/xiv-the-kidneys-and-its-collecting-system-3821241/packs/5677841

Wu D[au] - PubMed - NCBIWu D[au] - PubMed - NCBI

A case of acute carbon tetrachloride poisoning caused by contact with carburetor cleaning agent]. ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?cmd=search&term=Wu+D%5Bau%5D&dispmax=50

Fat embolism - ONAFat embolism - ONA

Carbon tetrachloride poisoning. Confirmatory tests. There are no laboratory tests to confirm the diagnosis of fat embolism or ...
more infohttps://www.oncologynurseadvisor.com/critical-care-medicine/fat-embolism/article/586012/

Liver symptoms - RightDiagnosis.comLiver symptoms - RightDiagnosis.com

Chemical poisoning -- Carbon Disulfide ... liver damage*Chemical poisoning -- Carbon Tetrachloride ... jaundice, liver damage* ... Occupational liver damage -- Carbon Disulfide ... liver failure*Occupational liver damage -- Carbon tetrachloride ... liver ... Chemical poisoning -- DDD ... liver damage*Chemical poisoning -- DDT ... liver damage*Chemical poisoning -- Diethylene Glycol ... Chemical poisoning -- Aniline ... liver damage*Chemical poisoning -- Anti-rust products ... liver damage*Chemical poisoning -- ...
more infohttps://www.rightdiagnosis.com/sym/liver_symptoms.htm

Yellow feverYellow fever

Carbon tetrachloride poisoning. Best Tests. Subscription Required. Management Pearls. Subscription Required. Therapy. ...
more infohttps://www.visualdx.com/visualdx/diagnosis/yellow%20fever?diagnosisId=52548&moduleId=16

Aminophylline poisoning | definition of aminophylline poisoning by Medical dictionaryAminophylline poisoning | definition of aminophylline poisoning by Medical dictionary

What is aminophylline poisoning? Meaning of aminophylline poisoning medical term. What does aminophylline poisoning mean? ... Looking for online definition of aminophylline poisoning in the Medical Dictionary? aminophylline poisoning explanation free. ... carbon tetrachloride poisoning. Poisoning caused by prolonged inhalation of carbon tetrachloride. Consequences include ... Iodine poisoning.. toadstool poisoning. Mushroom poisoning.. toluene poisoning. turpentine poisoning. Poisoning usually caused ...
more infohttp://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/aminophylline+poisoning

Effects of Cytochrome P450 Inhibitors on Itraconazole and Fluconazole Induced Cytotoxicity in HepatocytesEffects of Cytochrome P450 Inhibitors on Itraconazole and Fluconazole Induced Cytotoxicity in Hepatocytes

... and carbon tetrachloride poisoning [12]. Glutathione has been implicated in the prevention of hepatotoxicity of these compounds ... carbon tetrachloride, and acetaminophen [12]. There is evidence that curcumin enhanced liver detoxification activity and ...
more infohttps://www.hindawi.com/journals/jt/2009/912320/

Die Erzeugung von Harnsteinen im Tierversuch | SpringerLinkDie Erzeugung von Harnsteinen im Tierversuch | SpringerLink

Transformation of the hepatic vasculature of rats following protacted experimental poisoning with carbon tetrachloride; its ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-662-22225-6_2

General Information about Headaches - HealingWell.comGeneral Information about Headaches - HealingWell.com

Headache can also result from exposure to poisons, even common household varieties like insecticides, carbon tetrachloride, and ...
more infohttps://www.healingwell.com/library/migraines/info1.aspx

Headache attributed to a substance or its withdrawal - WikipediaHeadache attributed to a substance or its withdrawal - Wikipedia

Acetaldehyde from alcohol may also cause a headache either acutely or after a number of hours (hangover). Poisons, like carbon ... tetrachloride found in insecticides and lead can also cause headaches with repeated exposure. Ingesting lead paint or having ... Headaches are also a symptom of carbon monoxide poisoning. Drugs such as amphetamines can cause headaches as a side effect. ... Some of these include alcohol, NO, carbon monoxide poisoning, cocaine, caffeine and monosodium glutamate. Chronic use of ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Headache_attributed_to_a_substance_or_its_withdrawal

N-Acetylcysteine (NAC): An Old Nutrient Attracts New Research - Healthy.netN-Acetylcysteine (NAC): An Old Nutrient Attracts New Research - Healthy.net

64. Acute carbon tetrachloride poisoning in 19 patients:Implications for. diagnosis and treatment.Ruprah, M., Mant, T. G. and ... effects of carbon tetrachloride, chloroform and carbon monoxide. [9] NAC. can also reduce the side effects of drugs such as ... 63. Allopurinol/N-acetylcysteine for carbon monoxide poisoning.Howard, R.. J. M. W., et al,Lancet II 628-9 (1987). ... herbicides such as paraquat [62], environmental pollutants such as carbon. tetrachloride and urethane [63-67], and ...
more infohttps://healthy.net/2000/12/06/n-acetylcysteine-nac-an-old-nutrient-attracts-new-research-2/

CiNii Articles - NAKATA KatsujiCiNii Articles - NAKATA Katsuji

Relationship between liver cell injury and circulatory disturbance in the development of carbon tetrachloride poisoning (A ...
more infohttps://ci.nii.ac.jp/author?q=NAKATA+Katsuji
  • The large energy of the carbon-carbon bond makes activation energy requirements for the reaction so high that direct reduction of carbon-e.g., to methane (formula CH 4 )-is impractical. (britannica.com)
  • At ordinary temperatures, carbon is very unreactive-it is difficult to oxidize-and it does not react with acids or alkalies . (britannica.com)
  • As much information as possible about the underlying cause and, if paracetamol poisoning is the likely cause, as much information as possible about the psychiatric history and precipitating event. (docplayer.net)
  • During the fifties, when my brother and I started chasing butterflies, potassium cyanide was still in use as well, but because it is a deadly poison, Professor Klots recommended liquid carbon tetrachloride, which is "not very poisonous unless inhaled deeply," and which we persuaded our parents was as innocuous as smelling salts. (npr.org)
  • Deaths from drugs and poisons. (nih.gov)
  • They reportedly had total success in warding off septic poisoning and gangrene when penicillin and sulfa drugs were in short supply. (innvista.com)
  • Poisoning by inhalation, ingestion or skin absorption is possible and may be fatal. (mdibl.org)
  • The List of ICD-9 codes 800-999: injury and poisoning is one of the ranges International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems codes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some research indications -where HBOT is performed on a more experimental basis-include acute carbon tetrachloride poisoning, cerebral palsy, cerebrovascular accident (acute-thrombotic or embolic), fracture healing and bone grafting, hydrogen sulfide poisoning, invasive aspergillosis, sickle cell anemia crises, brown recluse spider bites, and acute spinal cord injuries. (anh-usa.org)
  • All organic compounds, such as proteins , carbohydrates , and fats , contain carbon, and all plant and animal cells consist of carbon compounds and their polymers . (britannica.com)
  • More than one million carbon compounds have been described in chemical literature, and chemists synthesize many new ones each year. (britannica.com)
  • A type of chemical reaction in which one substance (an oxidizing agent) accepts electrons from another substance (a reducing agent) and is thereby reduced (while the reducing agent is oxidized) is frequently observed with carbon and its compounds. (britannica.com)
  • The destruction and pulmonary excretion of paraldehyde by normal and carbon tetrachloride mice have been studied, and data covering the range from the largest tolerated dose to the smallest after which any excretion could be detected have been presented. (aspetjournals.org)
  • The quantities excreted vary from about fourteen per cent to very small fractions of the administered dose, being, for any particular dose, greater in the mice given carbon tetrachloride than in the normals. (aspetjournals.org)
  • It was found that the rate of pulmonary excretion is a function of the dose, and that the rate of destruction by normal mice is a function of the dose at lower levels, but is constant at higher ones, while the destruction is constant and much lower in mice which have been poisoned with carbon tetrachloride. (aspetjournals.org)