A solvent for oils, fats, lacquers, varnishes, rubber waxes, and resins, and a starting material in the manufacturing of organic compounds. Poisoning by inhalation, ingestion or skin absorption is possible and may be fatal. (Merck Index, 11th ed)
Experimentally induced chronic injuries to the parenchymal cells in the liver to achieve a model for LIVER CIRRHOSIS.
A spectrum of clinical liver diseases ranging from mild biochemical abnormalities to ACUTE LIVER FAILURE, caused by drugs, drug metabolites, and chemicals from the environment.
A commonly used laboratory solvent. It was previously used as an anesthetic, but was banned from use in the U.S. due to its suspected carcinogenicity.
A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
Enzymes of the transferase class that catalyze the conversion of L-aspartate and 2-ketoglutarate to oxaloacetate and L-glutamate. EC 2.6.1.1.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-alanine and 2-oxoglutarate to pyruvate and L-glutamate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.6.1.2.
A phenothiazine derivative with histamine H1-blocking, antimuscarinic, and sedative properties. It is used as an antiallergic, in pruritus, for motion sickness and sedation, and also in animals.
Liver disease lasting six months or more, caused by an adverse drug effect. The adverse effect may result from a direct toxic effect of a drug or metabolite, or an idiosyncratic response to a drug or metabolite.
Perisinusoidal cells of the liver, located in the space of Disse between HEPATOCYTES and sinusoidal endothelial cells.
Liver disease in which the normal microcirculation, the gross vascular anatomy, and the hepatic architecture have been variably destroyed and altered with fibrous septa surrounding regenerated or regenerating parenchymal nodules.
Pathological processes of the LIVER.
A highly toxic gas that has been used as a chemical warfare agent. It is an insidious poison as it is not irritating immediately, even when fatal concentrations are inhaled. (From The Merck Index, 11th ed, p7304)
Synthetic or natural substances which are given to prevent a disease or disorder or are used in the process of treating a disease or injury due to a poisonous agent.
A group of compounds that contain a bivalent O-O group, i.e., the oxygen atoms are univalent. They can either be inorganic or organic in nature. Such compounds release atomic (nascent) oxygen readily. Thus they are strong oxidizing agents and fire hazards when in contact with combustible materials, especially under high-temperature conditions. The chief industrial uses of peroxides are as oxidizing agents, bleaching agents, and initiators of polymerization. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)
Carbon monoxide (CO). A poisonous colorless, odorless, tasteless gas. It combines with hemoglobin to form carboxyhemoglobin, which has no oxygen carrying capacity. The resultant oxygen deprivation causes headache, dizziness, decreased pulse and respiratory rates, unconsciousness, and death. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
Repair or renewal of hepatic tissue.
A hydroxylated form of the imino acid proline. A deficiency in ASCORBIC ACID can result in impaired hydroxyproline formation.
An ethanol-inducible cytochrome P450 enzyme that metabolizes several precarcinogens, drugs, and solvents to reactive metabolites. Substrates include ETHANOL; INHALATION ANESTHETICS; BENZENE; ACETAMINOPHEN and other low molecular weight compounds. CYP2E1 has been used as an enzyme marker in the study of alcohol abuse.
The main structural component of the LIVER. They are specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that are organized into interconnected plates called lobules.
A nitrosamine derivative with alkylating, carcinogenic, and mutagenic properties. It causes serious liver damage and is a hepatocarcinogen in rodents.
A crystalline compound used as a laboratory reagent in place of HYDROGEN SULFIDE. It is a potent hepatocarcinogen.
A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.
An effective soil fumigant, insecticide, and nematocide. In humans, it causes severe burning of skin and irritation of the eyes and respiratory tract. Prolonged inhalation may cause liver necrosis. It is also used in gasoline. Members of this group have caused liver and lung cancers in rodents. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985), 1,2-dibromoethane may reasonably be anticipated to be a carcinogen.
Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.
A species of helminth commonly called the sheep liver fluke. It occurs in the biliary passages, liver, and gallbladder during various stages of development. Snails and aquatic vegetation are the intermediate hosts. Occasionally seen in man, it is most common in sheep and cattle.
A family of 3,3-bis(p-hydroxyphenyl)phthalides. They are used as CATHARTICS, indicators, and COLORING AGENTS.
Chlorinated ethanes which are used extensively as industrial solvents. They have been utilized in numerous home-use products including spot remover preparations and inhalant decongestant sprays. These compounds cause central nervous system and cardiovascular depression and are hepatotoxic. Include 1,1,1- and 1,1,2-isomers.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
A tool for the study of liver damage which causes bile stasis and hyperbilirubinemia acutely and bile duct hyperplasia and biliary cirrhosis chronically, with changes in hepatocyte function. It may cause skin and kidney damage.
Peroxidase catalyzed oxidation of lipids using hydrogen peroxide as an electron acceptor.
Closed vesicles of fragmented endoplasmic reticulum created when liver cells or tissue are disrupted by homogenization. They may be smooth or rough.
A group of dipyridinium chloride derivatives that are used as oxidation-reduction indicators. The general formula is 1,1'-di-R-4,4'-bipyridinium chloride, where R = methyl, ethyl, benzyl or, betaine.
A plant genus of the family FABACEAE. It is the source of an herbal tea that is commonly consumed in South Africa. Members contain aspalathin and other polyphenols (PHENOLS).
A highly volatile inhalation anesthetic used mainly in short surgical procedures where light anesthesia with good analgesia is required. It is also used as an industrial solvent. Prolonged exposure to high concentrations of the vapor can lead to cardiotoxicity and neurological impairment.
Nanometer-sized tubes composed mainly of CARBON. Such nanotubes are used as probes for high-resolution structural and chemical imaging of biomolecules with ATOMIC FORCE MICROSCOPY.
A chlorinated hydrocarbon that has been used as an inhalation anesthetic and acts as a narcotic in high concentrations. Its primary use is as a solvent in manufacturing and food technology.
A plant genus of the family POACEAE. Finger millet or raggee (E. coracana) is an important food grain in southern Asia and parts of Africa.
Peroxides produced in the presence of a free radical by the oxidation of unsaturated fatty acids in the cell in the presence of molecular oxygen. The formation of lipid peroxides results in the destruction of the original lipid leading to the loss of integrity of the membranes. They therefore cause a variety of toxic effects in vivo and their formation is considered a pathological process in biological systems. Their formation can be inhibited by antioxidants, such as vitamin E, structural separation or low oxygen tension.
The pathological process occurring in cells that are dying from irreparable injuries. It is caused by the progressive, uncontrolled action of degradative ENZYMES, leading to MITOCHONDRIAL SWELLING, nuclear flocculation, and cell lysis. It is distinct it from APOPTOSIS, which is a normal, regulated cellular process.
A highly chlorinated polycyclic hydrocarbon insecticide whose large number of chlorine atoms makes it resistant to degradation. It has been shown to be toxic to mammals and causes abnormal cellular changes in laboratory animals.
Liquids that dissolve other substances (solutes), generally solids, without any change in chemical composition, as, water containing sugar. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Chinese herbal or plant extracts which are used as drugs to treat diseases or promote general well-being. The concept does not include synthesized compounds manufactured in China.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
The channels that collect and transport the bile secretion from the BILE CANALICULI, the smallest branch of the BILIARY TRACT in the LIVER, through the bile ductules, the bile ducts out the liver, and to the GALLBLADDER for storage.
A potent liver poison. In rats, bromotrichloromethane produces about three times the degree of liver microsomal lipid peroxidation as does carbon tetrachloride.
Stable carbon atoms that have the same atomic number as the element carbon, but differ in atomic weight. C-13 is a stable carbon isotope.
Blood tests that are used to evaluate how well a patient's liver is working and also to help diagnose liver conditions.
A type of MONOTERPENES, derived from geraniol. They have the general form of cyclopentanopyran, but in some cases, one of the rings is broken as in the case of secoiridoid. They are different from the similarly named iridals (TRITERPENES).
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
Highly reactive molecules with an unsatisfied electron valence pair. Free radicals are produced in both normal and pathological processes. They are proven or suspected agents of tissue damage in a wide variety of circumstances including radiation, damage from environment chemicals, and aging. Natural and pharmacological prevention of free radical damage is being actively investigated.
A genus of poisonous American herbs, family BERBERIDACEAE. The roots yield PODOPHYLLOTOXIN and other pharmacologically important agents. The plant was formerly used as a cholagogue and cathartic. It is different from the European mandrake, MANDRAGORA.
A plant genus of the family MYRSINACEAE. Members contain embelin.
Naturally occurring or synthetic substances that inhibit or retard the oxidation of a substance to which it is added. They counteract the harmful and damaging effects of oxidation in animal tissues.
The venous pressure measured in the PORTAL VEIN.
Derivatives of benzene in which one or more hydrogen atoms on the benzene ring are replaced by bromine atoms.
Use of plants or herbs to treat diseases or to alleviate pain.
A tripeptide with many roles in cells. It conjugates to drugs to make them more soluble for excretion, is a cofactor for some enzymes, is involved in protein disulfide bond rearrangement and reduces peroxides.
A group of compounds with an 8-carbon ring. They may be saturated or unsaturated.
A hydrocarbon used as an industrial solvent. It has been used as an aerosal propellent, as a refrigerant and as a local anesthetic. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 31st ed, p1403)
The dialdehyde of malonic acid.
A generic grouping for dihydric alcohols with the hydroxy groups (-OH) located on different carbon atoms. They are viscous liquids with high boiling points for their molecular weights.
Organic compounds containing a carbonyl group in the form -CHO.
A class of compounds that contain a -NH2 and a -NO radical. Many members of this group have carcinogenic and mutagenic properties.
An inhibitor of drug metabolism and CYTOCHROME P-450 ENZYME SYSTEM activity.
A subclass of iridoid compounds that include a glycoside moiety, usually found at the C-1 position.
Analgesic antipyretic derivative of acetanilide. It has weak anti-inflammatory properties and is used as a common analgesic, but may cause liver, blood cell, and kidney damage.
The dose amount of poisonous or toxic substance or dose of ionizing radiation required to kill 50% of the tested population.
An aspartate aminotransferase found in MITOCHONDRIA.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of D-glucose 6-phosphate and water to D-glucose and orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.9.
A subtype of transforming growth factor beta that is synthesized by a wide variety of cells. It is synthesized as a precursor molecule that is cleaved to form mature TGF-beta 1 and TGF-beta1 latency-associated peptide. The association of the cleavage products results in the formation a latent protein which must be activated to bind its receptor. Defects in the gene that encodes TGF-beta1 are the cause of CAMURATI-ENGELMANN SYNDROME.
A nitrosamine derivative with alkylating, carcinogenic, and mutagenic properties.
A mixture of flavonoids extracted from seeds of the MILK THISTLE, Silybum marianum. It consists primarily of silybin and its isomers, silicristin and silidianin. Silymarin displays antioxidant and membrane stabilizing activity. It protects various tissues and organs against chemical injury, and shows potential as an antihepatoxic agent.
A barbituric acid derivative that acts as a nonselective central nervous system depressant. It potentiates GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID action on GABA-A RECEPTORS, and modulates chloride currents through receptor channels. It also inhibits glutamate induced depolarizations.
Physiological processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of LIPIDS.
The chemical alteration of an exogenous substance by or in a biological system. The alteration may inactivate the compound or it may result in the production of an active metabolite of an inactive parent compound. The alterations may be divided into METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE I and METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE II.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
A form of rapid-onset LIVER FAILURE, also known as fulminant hepatic failure, caused by severe liver injury or massive loss of HEPATOCYTES. It is characterized by sudden development of liver dysfunction and JAUNDICE. Acute liver failure may progress to exhibit cerebral dysfunction even HEPATIC COMA depending on the etiology that includes hepatic ISCHEMIA, drug toxicity, malignant infiltration, and viral hepatitis such as post-transfusion HEPATITIS B and HEPATITIS C.
Toxic asphyxiation due to the displacement of oxygen from oxyhemoglobin by carbon monoxide.
A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).
A subclass of enzymes of the transferase class that catalyze the transfer of an amino group from a donor (generally an amino acid) to an acceptor (generally a 2-keto acid). Most of these enzymes are pyridoxyl phosphate proteins. (Dorland, 28th ed) EC 2.6.1.
The most common form of fibrillar collagen. It is a major constituent of bone (BONE AND BONES) and SKIN and consists of a heterotrimer of two alpha1(I) and one alpha2(I) chains.
A colorless or slightly yellow crystalline compound obtained from nutgalls. It is used in photography, pharmaceuticals, and as an analytical reagent.
Hydrocarbon compounds with one or more of the hydrogens replaced by CHLORINE.
Proposed chemotherapeutic agent against filaria and trichomonas.
A hepatic carcinogen whose mechanism of activation involves N-hydroxylation to the aryl hydroxamic acid followed by enzymatic sulfonation to sulfoxyfluorenylacetamide. It is used to study the carcinogenicity and mutagenicity of aromatic amines.
An enzyme, sometimes called GGT, with a key role in the synthesis and degradation of GLUTATHIONE; (GSH, a tripeptide that protects cells from many toxins). It catalyzes the transfer of the gamma-glutamyl moiety to an acceptor amino acid.
Low-molecular-weight end products, probably malondialdehyde, that are formed during the decomposition of lipid peroxidation products. These compounds react with thiobarbituric acid to form a fluorescent red adduct.
Specialized phagocytic cells of the MONONUCLEAR PHAGOCYTE SYSTEM found on the luminal surface of the hepatic sinusoids. They filter bacteria and small foreign proteins out of the blood, and dispose of worn out red blood cells.
The outer layer of the woody parts of plants.
A plant species which is known as an Oriental traditional medicinal plant.
Application of a ligature to tie a vessel or strangulate a part.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A drug-metabolizing, cytochrome P-450 enzyme which catalyzes the hydroxylation of aniline to hydroxyaniline in the presence of reduced flavoprotein and molecular oxygen. EC 1.14.14.-.
2-Amino-4-(ethylthio)butyric acid. An antimetabolite and methionine antagonist that interferes with amino acid incorporation into proteins and with cellular ATP utilization. It also produces liver neoplasms.
A superfamily of hundreds of closely related HEMEPROTEINS found throughout the phylogenetic spectrum, from animals, plants, fungi, to bacteria. They include numerous complex monooxygenases (MIXED FUNCTION OXYGENASES). In animals, these P-450 enzymes serve two major functions: (1) biosynthesis of steroids, fatty acids, and bile acids; (2) metabolism of endogenous and a wide variety of exogenous substrates, such as toxins and drugs (BIOTRANSFORMATION). They are classified, according to their sequence similarities rather than functions, into CYP gene families (>40% homology) and subfamilies (>59% homology). For example, enzymes from the CYP1, CYP2, and CYP3 gene families are responsible for most drug metabolism.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of an orthophosphoric monoester and water to an alcohol and orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.1.

Structural and functional changes in acute liver injury. (1/267)

Carbon tetrachloride produces liver cell injury in a variety of animal species. The first structurally recognizable changes occur in the endoplasmic reticulum, with alteration in ribosome-membrane interactions. Later there is an increase in intracellular fat, and the formation of tangled nets of the ergastoplasm. At no time are there changes in mitochondria or single membrane limited bodies in cells with intact plasmalemma, although a relative increase in cell sap may appear. In dead cells (those with plasmalemma discontinuties) crystalline deposits of calcium phosphatase may be noted. Functional changes are related to the endoplasmic reticulum and the plasma membrane. An early decrease in protein synthesis takes place; an accumulation of neutral lipid is related to this change. Later alterations in the ergastoplasmic functions (e.g., mixed function oxidation) occurs. Carbon tetrachloride is not the active agent; rather, a product of its metabolism, probably the CC1, free radical, is. The mechanisms of injury include macromolecular adduction and peroxide propagation. A third possibility includes a cascade effect with the production of secondary and tertiary products, also toxic in nature, with the ability to produce more widespread damage to intracellular structures.  (+info)

Quantitative aspects in the assessment of liver injury. (2/267)

Liver function data are usually difficult to use in their original form when one wishes to compare the hepatotoxic properties of several chemical substances. However, procedures are available for the conversion of liver function data into quantal responses. These permit the elaboration of dose-response lines for the substances in question, the calculation of median effective doses and the statistical analysis of differences in liver-damaging potency. These same procedures can be utilized for estimating the relative hazard involved if one compares the liver-damaging potency to the median effective dose for some other pharmacologie parameter. Alterations in hepatic triglycerides, lipid peroxidation, and the activities of various hepatic enzymes can also be quantitiated in a dose-related manner. This permits the selection of equitoxic doses required for certain comparative studies and the selection of doses in chemical interaction studies. The quantitative problems involved in low-frequency adverse reactions and the difficulty these present in the detection of liver injury in laboratory animals are discussed.  (+info)

Effect of epidermal growth factor on cultured rat hepatocytes poisoned by CCl4. (3/267)

AIM: To study the effects of epidermal growth factor (EGF) on CCl4-induced primary cultured hepatocytes injury. METHODS: Alanine amino-transferase (AlaAT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AspAT) activities and K+ concentractions were determined by the Auto-biochemistry Assay System. Malondialdehyde (MDA) was determined by thiobarbituric acid method. Radioactivity was determined by liquid scintillometry. Light microscopy and electron microscopy were used. RESULTS: EGF 40 micrograms.L-1 decreased CCl4 (10 mmol.L-1)-induced damages of rat primary cultured hepatocytes by decreasing AlaAT and AspAT leakage and MDA production, and promoted RNA and DNA synthesis, with a high positive correlation between intracellular K+ leakage and DNA syntheses (r = 0.99, P < 0.01). Cytopathological study showed that EGF decreased damage of liver cells. CONCLUSION: EGF maintains the stability of cellular lipid membrane and promotes syntheses of RNA and DNA of hepatocytes, and intracellular K+ transference is a promotor of the message transmission of DNA synthesis.  (+info)

Comparison of two aquaretic drugs (niravoline and OPC-31260) in cirrhotic rats with ascites and water retention. (4/267)

kappa-Opioid receptor agonists (niravoline) or nonpeptide antidiuretic hormone (ADH) V2 receptor antagonists (OPC-31260) possess aquaretic activity in cirrhosis; however, there is no information concerning the effects induced by the chronic administration of these drugs under this condition. To compare the renal and hormonal effects induced by the long-term oral administration of niravoline, OPC-31260, or vehicle, urine volume, urinary osmolality, sodium excretion, and urinary excretion of aldosterone (ALD) and ADH were measured in basal conditions and for 10 days after the daily oral administration of niravoline, OPC-31260, or vehicle to cirrhotic rats with ascites and water retention. Creatinine clearance, serum osmolality, ADH mRNA expression, and systemic hemodynamics were also measured at the end of the study. Niravoline increased water excretion, peripheral resistance, serum osmolality, and sodium excretion and reduced creatinine clearance, ALD and ADH excretion, and mRNA expression of ADH. OPC-31260 also increased water metabolism and sodium excretion and reduced urinary ALD, although the aquaretic effect was only evident during the first 2 days, and no effects on serum osmolality, renal filtration, and systemic hemodynamics were observed. Therefore, both agents have aquaretic efficacy, but the beneficial therapeutic effects of the long-term oral administration of niravoline are more consistent than those of OPC-31260 in cirrhotic rats with ascites and water retention.  (+info)

Pharmacokinetics of flutamide and its metabolite 2-hydroxyflutamide in normal and hepatic injury rats. (5/267)

AIM: To develop a new HPLC assay to study the pharmacokinetics of flutamide (Flu) and its active metabolite 2-hydroxyflutamide (HF) in rats. METHODS: Normal or hepatic injury rats were given i.g. Flu 50 mg.kg-1. Reverse phase HPLC was developed with a mu-Bondapak C 18 column. Internal standard was methyltestosterone. The mobile phase was a mixture of methanol:acetonitrile:water:diethyl ether = 40:20:35:1 (vol). Absorbance was measured at lambda 234 nm. RESULTS: The pharmacokinetic parameters of Flu were as follows: in normal rats, K = 0.62 +/- 0.16 h-1, Cl = 6.0 +/- 1.0 L.kg-1.h-1, AUC = 8.6 +/- 1.3 mg.L-1.h, Cmax = 2.4 +/- 0.7 mg.L-1; in hepatic injury rats, K = 0.16 +/- 0.03 h-1, Cl = 0.63 +/- 0.29 L.kg-1.h-1, AUC = 100 +/- 44 mg.L-1.h, Cmax = 6.7 +/- 2.8 mg.L-1. The pharmacokinetic parameters of HF were as follows: in normal rats, K(m) = 0.07 +/- 0.01 h-1, AUC = 219 +/- 22 mg.L-1.h, Cmax = 8.6 +/- 0.6 mg.L-1; in hepatic injury rats, K(m) = 0.05 +/- 0.01 h-1, AUC = 170 +/- 42 mg.L-1.h, Cmax = 3.8 +/- 0.8 mg.L-1. There were significant differences between the parameters of normal and hepatic injury rats (P < 0.01) except AUC of HF (P > 0.05). CONCLUSION: This HPLC assay was sensitive and precise, and the elimination of Flu and HF was inhibited significantly due to hepatic injury.  (+info)

Structure-activity relationship of schisandrins in enhancing liver mitochondrial glutathione status in CCl4-poisoned mice. (6/267)

AIM: To explore whether the methylenedioxy group and cyclooctadiene ring of the dibenzocyclooctadiene skeleton of schisandrins (Sch) play a role in the liver mitochondrial glutathione status enhancing activity. METHOD: The effects of three dibenzocyclooctadiene derivatives, Sch A, Sch B, Sch C, and a synthetic intermediate of Sch C, (dimethyl biphenyl dicarboxylate, DBD) on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-hepatotoxicity and liver mitochondrial glutathione status were examined in mice. RESULTS: Pretreating mice with intragastric Sch B, Sch C, or DBD 1.mmol.kg-1.d-1 for 3 d protected against CCl4-hepatotoxicity. The hepatoprotection afforded by Sch B or Sch C pretreatment was associated with increases in liver mitochondrial reduced glutathione (mtGSH) level and glutathione reductase (mtGRD) activity, an indication of enhanced mitochondrial glutathione status. In contrast, the hepatoprotective action of DBD was not accompanied by any detectable changes in mtGSH level and mtGRD activity. CONCLUSION: Both the methylenedioxy group and the cyclooctadiene ring of the dibenzocyclooctadiene molecule are important structural determinants in the enhancement of liver mitochondrial glutathione status.  (+info)

Role of cytochrome P4502E1 in retinol's attenuation of carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity in the Swiss Webster mouse. (7/267)

In the mouse, retinol administration attenuates carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced hepatic injury. We have investigated the role of cytochrome P4502E1 (CYP2E1) in this interaction. Male Swiss Webster mice were administered retinol (75 mg/kg/d) or vehicle for 3 days prior to CCl4 (30 microl/kg, ip). Hepatotoxicity produced by CCl4 was assessed by plasma alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activity and light microscopy (ALT activity of 1391+/-430 vs. 274+/-92 IU/L for vehicle + CCl4 and retinol + CCl4 treatments respectively, p < 0.05). Retinol's attenuation of liver injury was maintained when CCl4 was administered 48 h after the conclusion of the retinol pretreatment. Aniline hydroxylation activity, an indicator of CYP2E1 catalytic activity, determined on day 4 was 33.8% of untreated control in vehicle + CCl4 treatments while the retinol + CCl4 treatment group was 94.2% of untreated control. Additionally, CYP2E1 immunoreactive protein was 78% lower in vehicle + CCl4 vs. retinol + CCl4 treatment groups. Attenuation of potentiated hepatotoxicity was also observed when CYP2E1 was induced by acetone (ALT activity of 3119+/-1066 vs. 247+/-77 IU/L for vehicle and retinol treatments respectively, p < 0.05). In the mouse, retinol itself does not alter constitutive or inducible CYP2E1 expression. However, in combination with CCl4 retinol does reduce the amount of CCl4 bioactivated to its toxic metabolite. We conclude that retinol attenuates CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity by causing a decrease in CCl4 bioactivation but does not cause a decrease in CYP2E1 expression.  (+info)

Pharmacokinetics of 2-hydroxyflutamide, a major metabolite of flutamide, in normal and CCl4-poisoned rats. (8/267)

AIM: To study the pharmacokinetics of 2-hydroxyflutamide (HF), a major active metabolite of flutamide (Flu), in normal and CCl4-poisoned rats. METHODS: Normal and CCl4-poisoned rats were given i.g. HF 25 mg.kg-1. HF concentrations of plasma were determined by HPLC with YWG C 18 column, Flu was used as an internal standard. The mobile phase was composed of methanol: water = 3:2 (vol), and absorbance was measured at lambda 295 nm. RESULTS: HF elimination was inhibited in CCl4-poisoned rats compared with normal rats. K decreased from (0.11 +/- 0.05) to (0.05 +/- 0.01) h-1 (P < 0.01), T1/2 was prolonged from (6.8 +/- 1.9) to (14 +/- 4) h (P < 0.01), Cl decreased from (0.18 +/- 0.06) to (0.12 +/- 0.02) L.kg-1.h-1 (P < 0.05), AUC increased from (149 +/- 47) to (226 +/- 54) mg.L-1.h (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: This HPLC assay was sensitive and precise, and the elimination of HF was inhibited due to CCl4 poisoning.  (+info)

Malotilate is a new drug suggested for use in chronic liver diseases. It is shown here to prevent liver damage caused by CCl4. The concomitant administration of malotilate with CCl4 significantly decreased hydroxyproline accumulation in the liver, liver prolyl 4-hydroxylase and liver and serum galactosylhydroxylysyl glucosyltransferase activities. However, it had no effect on the daily urinary hydroxyproline excretion or the hydroxyproline content of the skin, liver or lungs in normal young growing rats. It also had no specific inhibitory effect on hydroxyproline synthesis or secretion in fibroblast cultures, and did not affect the amount of procollagen-alpha 1(I)-specific mRNAs in these cultures. Thus it seems to have no direct inhibitory effect on collagen metabolism. In addition to inhibition of liver collagen accumulation, malotilate was also able to prevent the development of morphological changes in the liver such as focal necrosis, fatty infiltration and inflammatory changes. It also ...
I am wondering about the regression of liver fibrosis on all oral treatment. Before anyone starts reminding me that it is too early to give a definitive answer, let me say I have thought about it but ...
The role of Kupffer cells in carbon tetrachloride intoxication in mice.: Carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4))-induced acute hepatitis is assumed to involve two phases.
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1. Epidermal growth factor (EGF) is known to protect the gastrointestinal tract against various noxious agents. Its potential value in preventing/treating hepatic injury is, however, largely unexplored. We therefore examined whether EGF could influence CCl4-induced hepatic injury.. 2. Female Sprague-Dawley rats (8 per group) received saline or recombinant EGF (500 or 750 μg/kg, intraperitoneal) 30 min before CCU (20% v/v, in olive oil, intraperitoneal). Eighteen hours later, animals were killed, serum was collected for assay of biochemical markers of hepatic injury and livers were removed for histological analyses.. 3. Administration of CCl4 resulted in severe hepatic necrosis and caused a 10-fold rise in plasma alanine aminotransferase levels compared with levels seen in control animals (218 ± 15 compared with 23 ± 9 μmol/l in controls, mean ± SEM, P , 0.01). Serum malondialdehyde levels, used as a marker of lipid peroxidation, showed a 2-fold rise in response to CCl4 treatment (median ...
It was recently found that the decomposition of chlorine monoxide takes place at the same rate in solution in carbon tetrachloride as in the gaseous state. Under both conditions the reaction occurs in consecutive stages, each bimolecular. The rate of the unimolecular decomposition of nitrogen pentoxide is also uninfluenced by carbon tetrachloride. Thus this solvent appears to be established as a normal medium for reactions of varying kinetic type. The interest of this lies in the fact that with reactions that cannot be measured in the gaseous state at all, the rate in carbon tetrachloride can be taken as the rate which the reaction would have in the absence of a medium, and the influence of any given solvent can at once be recognised as accelerating or retarding. In this way it may be possible to obtain a deeper understanding of the effect of solvents on the rates of chemical reactions. In the meantime it is desirable to make as many direct measurements as possible on reactions which can be ...
Cirrhosis of the liver - Exposure to carbon tetrachloride Factor. Last reviewed for CCPS 12 March 2008.. Investigative Documents. Claimant Report - Exposure to Carbon Tetrachloride - Cirrhosis of the Liver [CR9116]. Preliminary questions [20508]. [79]22396. there is some evidence that exposure to carbon tetrachloride may be a factor in the development or worsening of the condition under consideration.. 20585 [80] the veteran has experienced inhalation or cutaneous contact with carbon tetrachloride at some time.. 20586 - the veteran has established the causal connection between exposure to carbon tetrachloride and VEA service for cirrhosis of the liver.. 20587 - the veteran has established the causal connection between exposure to carbon tetrachloride and VEA service for the clinical onset of cirrhosis of the liver.. 20589 - the veteran has established the causal connection between exposure to carbon tetrachloride and operational service for the clinical onset of cirrhosis of the ...
Conference Paper: Investigation on the effect of dietary omega 3-6-9 fatty acids and lard on carbon tetrachloride induced liver ...
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NOTE: Although the toxicity values presented in these toxicity profiles were correct at the time they were produced, these values are subject to change. Users should always refer to the Toxicity Value Database for the current toxicity values.. DECEMBER 1992 Prepared by: Andrew Francis, M.S., D.A.B.T., Chemical Hazard Evaluation and Communication Group, Biomedical Environmental Information Analysis Section, Health and Safety Research Division, *, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Prepared for: Oak Ridge Reservation Environmental Restoration Program. *Managed by Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., for the U.S. Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-AC05-84OR21400.. Humans are sensitive to carbon tetrachloride intoxication by oral, inhalation and dermal routes. Oral and inhalation exposure to high concentrations of carbon tetrachloride results in acute central nervous system effects including dizziness, vertigo, headache, depression, confusion, incoordination and, in severe cases, respiratory failure, ...
Coexpression of Smad7 and UPA attenuates carbon tetrachloride-induced rat liver fibrosis - Get your full text copy in PDF #883479
No, $\ce{CCl4}$ is not an electrolye. An electrolye is a material that causes ions (charged entities) to form in the solvent. Carbon tetrachloride neither dissociates into ions nor induces ion formation in the solvent.. The reason is that the $\ce{C-Cl}$ bond is rather strong and wont break under normal solution conditions. Nor does the molecule have any net dipole moment.. ...
Intermolecular associations in liquid systems of non-polar and slightly polar compounds were studied through excess molar volumes, and excess dielectric properties for mixtures of carbon tetrachloride with benzene, toluene and p-xylene. These excess properties were calculated from measurements of density, static permittivity and refractive index over the whole range of concentrations, at 298.15K. The values of the excess dielectric properties for these mixtures were fitted in two different ways, one through least squares using the Redlich-Kister equation and the other using a model developed to explain deviations from ideality. The first fit was found to be descriptive while the second gave the equilibrium constant values for the interaction products actually formed in the mixtures and the respective electronic polarizabilities and dipole moments, indicating the existence of interaction products ...
This assessment will help insure consistency in the Agencys consideration of the relevant scientific health data associated with carbon tetrachloride. In the development of the assessment document, the scientific literature has been inventoried, key studies have been evaluated and summary/conclusions have been prepared so that the chemicals toxicity and related characteristics are qualitatively identified. Observed effect levels and dose-response relationships are discussed, where appropriate, so that the nature of the adverse health responses are placed in perspective with observed environmental levels ...
Find suppliers and manufacturers of SOLVENTS, Carbon Tetrachloride used in the formulation and manufacture of adhesives and sealants.
Measurements of the viscosity of superheated carbon tetrachloride were made at various superheats ranging from 0°C superheat to 37°C superheat. The measurements were made in three groups: two isotherms at 82.4°C and 88.3°C, and one isobar at 690 mm Hg. The three major drawbacks to attaining superheated conditions are vibrations (mechanical shock), impurities, and the maintenance of large volumes of superheated liquid. While the viscometer itself was a simple capillary viscometer, the special procedures and techniques required to attain the necessary superheats entailed the use of high vacuum equipment, liquid degassing systems, a vibration free table, and controlling systems to maintain the temperatures and pressures within the desired fluctuation limits. The results obtained show that the viscosity curve for carbon tetrachloride in the superheated regime appears to be a smooth continuation of the curve below the normal boiling point. A curve fit to the experimental data gave the following ...
The residue is added to a solution of 50 g. of sodium in about a liter of 95 per cent alcohol. The solution is boiled under a reflux condenser for about one hour (Note 2) and then allowed to stand overnight. The reaction mixture is diluted with about 6 l. of water and the two layers are separated. The aqueous layer is extracted with three or four 500-cc. portions of carbon tetrachloride (Note 3), and the extracts are added to the bromomesitylene. This solution is then washed thoroughly with water. The carbon tetrachloride solution is separated, dried over calcium chloride, and distilled. After the carbon tetrachloride is removed the bromomesitylene is fractionated carefully under reduced pressure from a modified Claisen flask. The fraction boiling at 105-107°/16-17 mm. (Note 4) is bromomesitylene. The yield is 840-870 g. (79-82 per cent of the theoretical amount). There is a small low-boiling portion (about 25 g.) and also a small high-boiling residue. The bromomesitylene obtained in this way ...
The cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) selective inhibitor celecoxib is widely used in the treatment of pain and inflammation. Celecoxib has been explored as a possible treatment of liver fibrosis with contradictory results, depending on the model. The present study reports the effect of celecoxib in a 5-week …
Mediators of Inflammation is a peer-reviewed, Open Access journal that publishes original research and review articles on all types of inflammatory mediators, including cytokines, histamine, bradykinin, prostaglandins, leukotrienes, PAF, biological response modifiers and the family of cell adhesion-promoting molecules.
Calculate the pressure that ccl4 will exert at 40 of 1.00 mol occupies 28.0 L, assuming that (a) CCl4 obeys the ideal-gas equation (b) CCl4 obeys the Van der Waals equation. (a) PV = nRT P = nRT / V (b) (P + n^2a/V^2)(V - nb) = ...
Avoid open handling. Whenever possible, keep the substance in closed systems and apply closed loop re-filling with vapour return lines and dry-break couplings. Use only at well-ventilated places (e.g. in a fume hood) or with extract ventilation at points where emissions occur. Avoid inhalation of va-pours and skin contact with the liquid. Wear suitable personal protective equipment if exposure is likely. Limit the quantity of product in the work area for the work in hand. Do not use the substance in the vicinity of fire, hot/glowing objects or welding & cutting operations ...
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Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of MR imaging assessment of experimental hepatic dysfunction with mn‐DPDP. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
7. The irradiation time required depends on the type of light source used and can be determined by following the progress of the reaction by infrared spectroscopy. A 10-ml. aliquot is withdrawn from the reaction mixture and evaporated to dryness under reduced pressure; the residue is dissolved in 0.5 ml. of carbon tetrachloride, and the spectrum is obtained using 0.1-mm. sodium chloride cells. A new peak appears at 899 cm.−1, and the ratio of the absorbance of the peak at 703 cm.−1 to that of the peak at 727 cm.−1 continuously decreases during the course of the reaction. Using these spectral criteria, the submitters judged the reaction to be complete after 4 hours of irradiation with the lamp described in (Note 5); however, the recrystallized products from 4-hour reactions melted about 0.4° lower than those from 5-hour reactions. The submitters found that varying the irradiation time from 4 hours to 8 hours had no significant effect on the yield of 9-phenylphenanthrene. The extent of the ...
Artichoke is a plant with antioxidant properties. In this study, we investigated the effect of artichoke extract pretreatment on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced oxidative stress and hepatotoxicity. Rats were given artichoke leaf extract (1.5 g/kg/day) by gavage for 2 weeks and after then CCl4 (1 ml/kg; i.p.) was applied. All rats were killed 24 11 after the CCl4 injection. CCl4 administration resulted in hepatic necrosis and significant increases in plasma transaminase activities as well as hepatic malondialdehyde (MDA) and diene conjugate (DC) levels in the liver of rats. Glutathione (GSH) and vitamin C levels decreased, but vitamin E levels increased in the liver Of CCl4-treated rats. Hepatic Superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities remained unchanged, but glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and glutathione transferase (GST) activities decreased following CCl4 treatment. In rats pretreated with artichoke extract, significant decreases in plasma transaminase activities and amelioration in ...
Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine (eCAM) is an international peer-reviewed, Open Access journal that seeks to understand the sources and to encourage rigorous research in this new, yet ancient world of complementary and alternative medicine.
TY - JOUR. T1 - [The study of susceptibility to carbon tetrachloride and benzene in offspring of expanded simple tandem repeats mutation mice exposed to formaldehyde].. AU - Wang, Chao. AU - Liu, Yun ru. AU - Zhou, Yin. AU - Li, Ai ping. AU - Zhou, Jian wei. PY - 2011/1/1. Y1 - 2011/1/1. N2 - To investigate the susceptibility to carbon tetrachloride and benzene in offspring of expanded simple tandem repeats (ESTR) mutation mice exposed to formaldehyde (FA). F5 and F10 offspring (200 mg/m3 x 2 hours) served as H group and ICR mice were used as control group (group C). The F5 and F10 offspring were exposed to 10 ml/kg carbon tetrachloride at the doses of 0.05%, 0.50% or 5.00% for 24 hours, respectively or 500 or 1000 mg/kg benzene for 24 hours, respectively by intraperitoneal injection. Serum alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST) and the hepatic superoxide dismutase (SOD) or malondialdehyde (MDA) were detected; also the hepatic pathological changes were observed under light ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - α-Melanocyte-stimulating hormone gene therapy reverses carbon tetrachloride induced liver fibrosis in mice. AU - Lee, Tsung Hsing. AU - Jawan, Bruno. AU - Chou, Wen-Ying. AU - Lu, Cheng Nan. AU - Wu, Chia Ling. AU - Kuo, Hsiao Mei. AU - Concejero, Allan M.. AU - Wang, Cheng Haung. PY - 2006/6/1. Y1 - 2006/6/1. N2 - Background: Hepatic fibrosis represents a process of healing and scarring in response to chronic liver injury. Effective therapies are lacking. We have previously demonstrated that α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH) gene therapy protects against thioacetamide-induced acute liver failure in mice. Recent reports showed that collagen metabolism is a novel target of α-MSH. Therefore, the aim of this study is to investigate whether α-MSH gene therapy possesses anti-hepatic fibrogenic effect in mice. Methods: Liver fibrosis was induced in mice by administering carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) continuously for 10 weeks. α-MSH expression plasmid was delivered via ...
The hepatocurative potential of ethanolic extract (ETO) and sesquiterpene lactones enriched fraction (SL) of Taraxacum officinale roots was evaluated against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) induced...
Adult hepatocytes and liver-cell progenitors play a role in restoring liver tissue after injury. For the study of progenitor cells in liver repair, experimental models included (a) surgical removal of liver tissue by partial hepatectomy; (b) acute injury by carbontetrachloride; (c) acute injury by D-galactosamine (GalN) and N-nitrosomorpholine (NNM); and (d) chemical hepatocarcinogenesis by feeding NNM in low and high doses. Serological and immuno-histological detection of alpha-fetoprotein gene expression served to follow pathways of cellular differentiation. Stem cells were not required in models of surgical removal of parenchyma and in carbon tetrachloride intoxication of adult hepatocytes. In contrast, regeneration of liver occurred through biliary epithelial cells in injuries induced by GalN and NNM. These biliary epithelial cells, collectively called oval cells, are most probably derived from the canals of Hering. Proliferating bile duct cells reached a level of differentiation with ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - CD11b+ Gr1+ bone marrow cells ameliorate liver fibrosis by producing interleukin-10 in mice. AU - Suh, Yang Gun. AU - Kim, Ja Kyung. AU - Byun, Jin Seok. AU - Yi, Hyon Seung. AU - Lee, Young Sun. AU - Eun, Hyuk Soo. AU - Kim, So Yeon. AU - Han, Kwang Hyub. AU - Lee, Kwan Sik. AU - Duester, Gregg. AU - Friedman, Scott L.. AU - Jeong, Won Il. PY - 2012/11. Y1 - 2012/11. N2 - Clinical trials and animal models suggest that infusion of bone marrow cells (BMCs) is effective therapy for liver fibrosis, but the underlying mechanisms are obscure, especially those associated with early effects of BMCs. Here, we analyzed the early impact of BMC infusion and identified the subsets of BMCs showing antifibrotic effects in mice with carbon tetrachloride-induced liver fibrosis. An interaction between BMCs and activated hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) was investigated using an in vitro coculturing system. Within 24 hours, infused BMCs were in close contact with activated HSCs, which was associated ...
1. In cirrhosis the kidney tends to retain salt and water abnormally. Two theories have been proposed to account for this: the underfilling theory, in which sodium retention is thought to occur secondary to perceived underfilling of the circulation, and the overflow theory, in which sodium retention is considered to be due to a primary renal defect. 2. Using the model of cirrhosis produced by carbon tetrachloride administration in the rat, the ability of the kidney to excrete sodium has been examined in vivo and during isolated perfusion. 3. Cirrhotic animals demonstrated a reduced ability to excrete an acute sodium load: 6 h after 2 mmol of sodium was given by gavage, 27.5 ± 10.5% had been excreted by the cirrhotic rats and 62.5 ± 7.0% by control rats (P , 0.025). 4. In contrast, during isolated perfusion, kidneys from cirrhotic animals excreted the same amount of sodium as control animals over a range of perfusion pressures from 90 to 150 mmHg (12 to 20 kPa). 5. The data are consistent ...
in Liang, Qing; Newman, Paul A; Reimann, Stefan (Eds.) SPARC Report on the Mystery of Carbon Tetrachloride (2016). The Montreal Protocol (MP) controls the production and consumption of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 or CTC) and other ozone-depleting substances (ODSs) for emissive uses. CCl4 is a major ODS, accounting for ... [more ▼]. The Montreal Protocol (MP) controls the production and consumption of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 or CTC) and other ozone-depleting substances (ODSs) for emissive uses. CCl4 is a major ODS, accounting for about 12% of the globally averaged inorganic chlorine and bromine in the stratosphere, compared to 14% for CFC-12 in 2012. In spite of the MP controls, there are large ongoing emissions of CCl4 into the atmosphere. Estimates of emissions from various techniques ought to yield similar numbers. However, the recent WMO/UNEP Scientific Assessment of Ozone Depletion [WMO, 2014] estimated a 2007-2012 CCl4 bottom-up emission of 1-4 Gg/year (1-4 kilotonnes/year), based on ...
TITANIUM BEARING MATERIAL FLOW CONTROL IN THE MANUFACTURE OF TITIANIUM TETRACHLORIDE USING A COMBINATION OF FEEDBACK AND FEED FORWARD RESPONSES - This disclosure relates to process for controlling chlorination reactions in manufacturing titanium tetrachloride in a fluidized bed reactor, optionally followed by processing to form a titanium product comprising a minor amount of silica, the process comprising: (a) feeding carbonaceous material, titanium bearing material comprising an amount of silica, and chlorine to the fluidized bed reactor to form a gaseous stream, and condensing the gaseous stream to form titanium tetra-chloride, a non-condensed gas stream and a condensable product stream, wherein at least one of the titanium tetrachloride and the non-condensed gas stream comprise silicon tetrachloride; (b) analyzing the non-condensed gas stream, the titanium tetrachloride or both, to determine the analyzed concentration of silicon tetrachloride; (c) identifying a set point concentration of ...
Germanium tetrachloride Germanium tetrachloride IUPAC name Germanium(IV) chloride Other names Germanium chloride Tetrachlorogermane Identifiers CAS number
Natural products serve as lead molecules for development for the many popular drugs. Herbal drugs are having fewer side effects than the other class o..
Recently, the need for more standardized operation procedures in experimental liver fibrosis research was suggested due to dramatic changes in European animal welfare rules. Here, we present a short series of standard operation procedures (SOPs) summarizing the most relevant and widely accepted expe …
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If ya find exactly where to get calcium cyanimide please let us all know, I have been trying for about a year now. I have tried 3 really good ags in my area and have called several others with no luck. I asked for lime-nitrogen and also calcium cyanimide by name. One place over the phone said it was not used for fertiliser anymore and has been replaced with better nitrogen fertilisers (names not given to me). Another Ag-store said they could order it so I said OK. A few days latter they called back and said it was no longer avaible. I live in Calif.. Good luck! I really do hope you find a good source ...
Information on Registered Substances comes from registration dossiers which have been assigned a registration number. The assignment of a registration number does however not guarantee that the information in the dossier is correct or that the dossier is compliant with Regulation (EC) No 1907/2006 (the REACH Regulation). This information has not been reviewed or verified by the Agency or any other authority. The content is subject to change without prior notice ...
Ameliorative Effects of Adansonia Digitata Leaf Extract on Carbon Tetrachloride (Ccl4) Induced Testicular Toxicity in Adult Male Wistar Rats… 481 - 487. Oyewopo Oyetunji, Ibrahim Babatunde, Saalu Chia, Osinubi Abraham, Adewale Benard, Eweoya Olugbenga, Williams Esemekiphoraro ...
ASTM Committee D28 on Activated Carbon was formed in 1962. D28 meets twice a year, usually in April and October, with about 15 members attending two days of technical meetings. The Committee, with a current membership of approximately 35, has jurisdiction of 27 standards, published in the Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Volume 15.01. D28 has 3 technical subcommittees that maintain jurisdiction over these standards. These standards have and continue to play a preeminent role in determining acid extractable content in activated carbon by ashing, moisture in activated carbon, carbon tetrachloride activity, total ash content, ball-pan hardness, iodine number and pH of activated carbon.. ...
SiCl4 is silicon tetrachloride, which is a non-polar molecule. Silicon tetrachloride is non-polar because the four chemical bonds between silicon and chlorine are equally distributed. The even...
Background: Hypericum is a well-known plant genus in herbal medicine. Hypericum mysorense (Family: Hypericaceae), a plant belonging to the same genus, is well known in folklore medicine for its varied therapeutic potential. Objective: The aim of the present study was to investigate the different parts of the plant for antioxidant and hepatoprotective properties. Materials and Methods: The methanol extracts of Hypericum mysorense prepared from various parts of the plant were tested in vitro for their free radical scavenging activity against ABTS• (diammonium salt), DPPH• (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl), NO•, O2•− and •OH radicals, using standard systems of assays. The total antioxidant capacity, total phenolic and total flavonoid content of the extracts were analyzed. Further, the leaf and flowering top extracts were tested for their in vivo antioxidant and hepatoprotective activities on Wistar rats using a carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatic injury model. Results: The leaf and flowering
The uses of carbon tetrachloride have diminished lately because it is known to be damage peoples health. People think it might damage the ozone layer. Today, it is rarely used for anything.. Previously, was used in fire extinguishers. It was also used to make freon, used in dry cleaning and as a refrigerant.. ...
Liver fibrosis is a feature in the majority of chronic liver diseases and oxidative stress is considered to be its main pathogenic mechanism. Antioxidants including vitamin E, are effective in preventing liver fibrogenesis. Several plant-drived antioxidants, such as silymarin, baicalin, beicalein, quercetin, apigenin, were shown to interfere with liver fibrogenesis. The antioxidans above are polyphenols, flavonoids or structurally related compounds which are the main chemical components of Pomegranate peels and seeds, and the antioxidant activity of Pomegranate peels and seeds have been verified. Here we investigated whether the extracts of pomegranate peels (EPP) and seeds (EPS) have preventive efficacy on liver fibrosis induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) in rats and explored its possible mechanisms. The animal model was established by injection with 50 % CCl4 subcutaneously in male wistar rats twice a week for four weeks. Meanwhile, EPP and EPS were administered orally every day for 4 weeks,
1. INTRODUCTION. Free radicals in the form of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species are an integral part of normal physiology. Over-production of these reactive species can occur, due to oxidative stress brought about by the imbalance of the bodily antioxidant defense system and free radical formation. These reactive species can react with biomolecules, causing cellular injury and even death. They can lead to the development of chronic diseases such as cancers and those that involve the cardio-and cerebrovascular systems (Gurdip et al., 2007). The consumption of fruits and vegetables (Peschel et al., 2006) containing antioxidants has been found to offer protection against these diseases. Antioxidants are often added to foods to prevent the radical chain reactions of oxidation, and they act by inhibiting the initiation and propagation step leading to the termination of the reaction and delay the oxidation process (Shahidi et al., 1992). Cinnamon is a popular flavoring ingredient, widely used in ...
Introduction : We explored the protective effects of total glucosides of paeony (TGP) and the underlying mechanisms in carbon tetrachloride (CCl 4 )-induced experimental liver injury in mice. Material and methods : Chronic liver damage was induced by intraperitoneal injection of CCl 4...
Many potentially toxic substances enter the body via the gastrointestinal tract (gut). As the blood supply from the gastrointestinal tract (through the portal vein) drains into the liver, the liver comes into contact with the potentially toxic substances, and this exposure will often be at a higher concentration than in other tissues. The liver is essential for the metabolic disposal of virtually all xenobiotics (foreign substances). This process is mostly achieved without injury to the liver itself or to other organs. A few compounds such as carbon tetrachloride are toxic themselves or produce metabolites that cause liver injury in a dose-dependent fashion. However, most agents cause liver injury only under special circumstances when toxic substances accumulate.
The Effects of Carbon Tetrachloride (CCl_4 ) Induced Experimental Acute and Chronic Intoxication on Hystological Structure of Liver and Some Hematological Values and Electrocardiogram in Rabbits ...
Harvest cowpea plants about 2 weeks after inoculation, then homogenize at 4°C in two volumes of 0.5 M citrate buffer (pH 7.0) containing 0.1% thioglycollic acid. Express juice through cheesecloth, and add 20 ml carbon tetrachloride to every 100 ml extract. Shake the extract for 15 min, and clarify by low-speed centrifugation. Concentrate the virus by three cycles of differential centrifugation. Resuspend the pellets from high speed centrifugation in 0.01 M citrate buffer. Purify further by sucrose density-gradient centrifugation (Tsuchizaki et al., 1971).. ...
Titanium tetrachloride is a colorless, fuming liquid that is decomposed by moisture to hydrochloric acid, titanium dioxide, and heat. The toxicity of this agent is likely due to the release of hydrochloric acid. Titanium tetrachloride is corrosive to tissues ...
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Alfa Aesar™ Platinum, 5% on carbon, dry 5g Alfa Aesar™ Platinum, 5% on carbon, dry Piperie to Pras -Organics
The coroner's court recorded a verdict of accidental death due to corrosive poisoning by carbon tetrachloride. Kenneth believed ... On 14 October 1962, Kenneth's father, Charlie Williams, was taken to hospital after drinking carbon tetrachloride that had been ... the suspicion being that he had poisoned his father. Williams insisted that he was celibate and his diaries appear to ... his father had committed suicide, as the circumstances leading to the poisoning seemed unlikely to have happened by bad luck. ...
Minot, A. S. (October 1931). "The mechanism of the hypoglycemia produced by guanidine and carbon tetrachloride poisoning and ... "Studies of the response to calcium medication in the hypoglycemia of carbon tetrachloride poisoning". American Journal of ... "Guanidine retention and calcium reserve as antagonistic factors in carbon tetrachloride and chloroform poisoning". Proceedings ... Minot, A. S. (1927). "The Relation of Calcium to the Toxicity of Carbon Tetrachloride in Dogs". Proceedings of the Society for ...
Acetaldehyde from alcohol may also cause a headache either acutely or after a number of hours (hangover). Poisons, like carbon ... tetrachloride found in insecticides and lead can also cause headaches with repeated exposure. Ingesting lead paint or having ... Headaches are also a symptom of carbon monoxide poisoning. Drugs such as amphetamines can cause headaches as a side effect. ... Some of these include alcohol, NO, carbon monoxide poisoning, cocaine, caffeine and monosodium glutamate. Chronic use of ...
Shortly after directing his first television production, Edwards died in Los Angeles of carbon tetrachloride poisoning on May ...
... biotransformation of hexobarbital in rats of different ages after induction with barbital and carbon tetrachloride poisoning ...
... pancreatitis Alcoholic liver disease Prolonged corticosteriod therapy Sickle cell disease Carbon tetrachloride poisoning ...
Carbon tetrachloride activity[edit]. Measurement of the porosity of an activated carbon by the adsorption of saturated carbon ... Activated carbon is used to treat poisonings and overdoses following oral ingestion. Tablets or capsules of activated carbon ... Woven carbon[edit]. There is a technology of processing technical rayon fiber into activated carbon cloth for carbon filtering ... Extruded activated carbon (EAC)[edit]. Extruded activated carbon (EAC) combines powdered activated carbon with a binder, which ...
... based 982.0 Toxic effect of benzene and homologues 982.1 Toxic effect of carbon tetrachloride 982.2 Toxic effect of carbon ... 969.7 Poisoning by psychostimulants 969.8 Poisoning by other specified psychotropic agents 969.9 Poisoning by unspecified ... 959.13 Fracture of corpus cavernosum penis 960 Poisoning by antibiotics 961 Poisoning by other anti-infectives 962 Poisoning by ... 966 Poisoning by anticonvulsants and anti-Parkinsonism drugs 967 Poisoning by sedatives and hypnotics 968 Poisoning by other ...
Zone 3 (centrilobular) occurs with ischemic injury, toxic effects, carbon tetrachloride exposure, or chloroform ingestion. In ... 2004). "News on cereulide, the emetic toxin of Bacillus Cereus". Takabe F, Oya M (1976). "An autopsy case of food poisoning ... Certain strains of Bacillus cereus - a common species of bacterium implicated as a frequent cause of food poisoning - can cause ... Acute liver failure also results from poisoning by the death cap mushroom (Amanita phalloides) as well as other amatoxin- ...
... from inhaling carbon tetrachloride while refinishing the hardwood floors of his home, though his death has been alternatively ... attributed to food poisoning. On June 25, 2019, The New York Times Magazine listed Tommy Tucker among hundreds of artists whose ...
2SO4 Unlike carbon tetrachloride, another group IV (IUPAC: group 14) chloride, lead tetrachloride reacts with water. This is ... Lead is a cumulative poison. Only limited evidence have been shown of lead's carcinogenic effect, but lead tetrachloride, as ... Thus while carbon tetrachloride is a stable compound, with lead the oxidation state +2 is favored and PbCl4 quickly becomes ... "Raman Spectra of Germanium Tetrachloride and Lead Tetrachloride". Journal of the American Chemical Society. 70 (10): 3464-3465 ...
Methylene chloride, after being metabolized, can cause carbon monoxide poisoning. Gasoline sniffing can cause lead poisoning, ... Carbon tetrachloride can cause significant damage to multiple systems, but its association with liver damage is so strong that ... Yu C, Wang F, Jin C, Wu X, Chan WK, McKeehan WL (December 2002). "Increased carbon tetrachloride-induced liver injury and ... Fagin J, Bradley J, Williams D (November 1980). "Carbon monoxide poisoning secondary to inhaling methylene chloride". Br Med J ...
It has been shown that treatment of mice with carbon tetrachloride, which acts on the mixed function oxygenase system, results ... This is based on another sign of methacrylonitrile poisoning; urine retention, with 58% of rats showing bladder distention at ... Studies using radiolabeled carbon point out that the primary route by which methacrylonitrile left the body is the urine, at 43 ... Inversely, reactions that form a positive charge on said carbon (i.g. Cytochrome-P450 oxidation of the double bond), are faster ...
... and in the making of many important compounds including chloroform and carbon tetrachloride. It was used as a poison gas in ...
... is used to treat poisonings and overdoses following oral ingestion. Tablets or capsules of activated carbon ... Measurement of the porosity of an activated carbon by the adsorption of saturated carbon tetrachloride vapour. The finer the ... Activated carbon can interact with chlorine, bromine and fluorine. Surface of activated carbon, like other carbon materials can ... forming carbon dioxide (CO2). Activated carbon is carbon produced from carbonaceous source materials such as bamboo, coconut ...
Carbon fixation Carbon flux Carbon footprint Carbon intensity Carbon offset Carbon sequestering Carbon tax Carbon tetrachloride ... Cadmium poisoning Callendar effect Calnev Pipeline Cancer Cancer Alley Car Free Days Carbofuran Carbon audit regime Carbon ... credit Carbon cycle Carbon dioxide sink Carbon emissions trading ... of Mother Earth Le Peuple Migrateur Lead paint Lead poisoning ... Pest control Pesticide Pesticide misuse Pesticide poisoning Pesticide side effects Pesticide toxicity to bees Pesticides Phagy ...
Many of its applications previously used carbon tetrachloride (which was banned in US consumer products in 1970). In turn, 1,1, ... Fatal poisonings and illnesses linked to intentional inhalation of trichloroethane have been reported. The removal of the ... Doherty, R.E. (2000). "A History of the Production and Use of Carbon Tetrachloride, Tetrachloroethylene, Trichloroethylene and ...
... has been linked to both acute and chronic forms of poisoning, with a diverse range of symptoms. Typical ... It is also a valued intermediate in chemical synthesis of carbon tetrachloride. It is widely used in the synthesis of ... Carbon monosulfide Carbon subsulfide Carbon diselenide 1949 Holland Tunnel fire, accident with truck carrying carbon disulfide ... in 1915,...[of 16] carbon disulfide poisoning cases....one worker had been briefly committed to an asylum and several others ...
M.S. Kharasch, E.V. Jensen, W.H. Urry (1945). Addition of Carbon Tetrachloride and Chloroform to Olefins. Science 102 (2640): ... Poisoning and Toxicology Handbook. 4. izdaja. Informa. Str. 774 *↑ M. Srebnik, E. Laloë (2001). Chloroform. Encyclopedia of ...
... carbon tetrachloride, for use against worms and liver fluke), and "Phenmix" (phenothiazine, for stomach and intestinal worms). ... The advantage of phosphorus as a poison is that, in dry weather and if not strewn as clumps, it has degraded to innocuous ... "Poison in Bodies Analyst Says". Illawarra Daily Mercury. New South Wales, Australia. 17 June 1952. p. 3. Retrieved 18 April ... "Poison Still Missing". The Sydney Morning Herald (31, 237). New South Wales, Australia. 12 February 1938. p. 11. Retrieved 18 ...
... and carbon tetrachloride. The International Joint Commission has identified areas where pollution is particularly intense ( ... Fish-eating birds such as osprey, bald eagle and cormorant were being poisoned by contaminated fish. Since the 1960s and 1970s ... Lamprey are being controlled by poisoning in the juvenile stage in the streams where they breed. Zebra mussels in particular ...
"Dietary diacetylene falcarindiol induces phase 2 drug-metabolizing enzymes andblocks carbon tetrachloride-induced ... Ichthyothere terminalis leaves have traditionally been used to make poisoned bait by indigenous peoples of the lower Amazon ... Zhao, C.; Shinohara, H. (2011). "Growth of Linear Carbon Chains inside Thin Double-Wall Carbon Nanotubes". Journal of Physical ... 1995). "Synthesis of linear acetylenic carbon: The "sp" carbon allotrope". Science. 267 (5196): 362-7. Bibcode:1995Sci...267.. ...
... carbon tetrachloride, 1,2-dichloroethane, trichloroethene and xylene. The SGVs for ethyl benzene, phenol and toluene are ... In March 2009, the issue of Uranium poisoning in Punjab attracted press coverage. It was alleged to be caused by fly ash ponds ... dependent on the soil organic matter (SOM) content (which can be calculated from the total organic carbon (TOC) content). As an ...
... carbon tetrachloride, and benzene. Urushiol is a mixture of several closely related organic compounds. Each consists of a ... e.g., poison oak, Chinese lacquer tree, poison ivy, poison sumac) and also in parts of the mango tree. In most individuals, ... Whereas western poison oak urushiol contains chiefly catechols with C17 side-chains, poison ivy and poison sumac contain mostly ... "Slideshow: Images of Poison Ivy, Poison Oak, Poison Sumac". WebMD. Retrieved 2020-04-27. Gober, D. Michael; et al. (2008). " ...
This reaction sequence consisted of chlorination of carbon disulfide to carbon tetrachloride, followed by pyrolysis to ... which contributed to lead poisoning among the Roman aristocracy. In the 16th-century German alchemist Andreas Libavius ... carbon monoxide, or a mixture of carbon dioxide and hydrogen: 2 CO2 + 4 H2 → CH3COOH + 2 H2O This ability of Clostridium to ... When heated above 440 °C (824 °F), acetic acid decomposes to produce carbon dioxide and methane, or to produce ketene and water ...
Ram VS (2012). A Deterministic and Probabilistic Analyses of the Carbon Tetrachloride Contaminant Plume in Groundwater at the ... Vickers, Paul (14 November 2004). "Bhopal 'faces risk of poisoning'". BBC Radio 5 website. Archived from the original on 6 ... During 1983 and 1984, there were leaks of MIC, chlorine, monomethylamine, phosgene, and carbon tetrachloride, sometimes in ... was found to contain 1,000 times the World Health Organization's recommended maximum amount of carbon tetrachloride, a ...
... carbon tetrachloride, and the chlorinated naphthalenes. Also included are glycols: ethylene chlorhydrin and diethylene dioxide ... Poisoning by lead and mercury has been known since antiquity. Other toxic metals or metals that are known to evoke adverse ... The simple asphixiants are nitrogen, methane, and carbon dioxide. The chemical asphyxiants are carbon monoxide, sulfuretted ... The aliphatic carbon compounds can also cause environmental disease. Included in these are methanol, nitroglycerine, ...
However, a Petro dumpsite overflowed, "flooding 500 acres with waste", including carbon tetrachloride and hexachlorobutadiene. ... So, finding more sites where people are being poisoned, could contribute, in their mind, to their fight against inflation. A ...
Fires should be fought with foam, carbon dioxide, dry chemical or carbon tetrachloride. The naphtha mixtures that are distilled ... 2008), "Petroleum Distillates - Naphtha", Poisoning and Toxicology Handbook (4th ed.), Informa, pp. 836-837. ...
Protective effect of dl-tetrahydropalmatine on liver injury induced by carbon tetrachloride in mice]". Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za ... Several cases of poisoning related to THP have been reported. These cases involved negative effects on respiration, cardiac ... Lai CK, Chan AY (February 1999). "Tetrahydropalmatine poisoning: diagnoses of nine adult overdoses based on toxicology screens ...
They also react with carbon dioxide and carbon tetrachloride, so that normal fire extinguishers are counterproductive when used ... and poisons the central nervous system,[219] which is dangerous as the required dosage of lithium to treat bipolar disorder is ... Reaction with carbon Lithium is the only metal that reacts directly with carbon to give dilithium acetylide. Na and K can react ... Lithium and sodium react with carbon to form acetylides, Li2C2 and Na2C2, which can also be obtained by reaction of the metal ...
... and carbon tetrachloride". Journal of Geophysical Research. 105: 14285. Bibcode:2000JGR...10514285W. doi:10.1029/1999JC900273. ... A television interviewer once asked me, "But what about nuclear waste? Will it not poison the whole biosphere and persist for ... An ancient carbon mystery". Science. 314 (5805): 1556-1557. doi:10.1126/science.1136110. ISSN 0036-8075. PMID 17158314.. ( ... In the 2000s, he proposed a method of climate engineering to restore carbon dioxide-consuming algae. He has been an outspoken ...
... undergoes further chlorination to yield carbon tetrachloride (CCl4): CHCl3 + Cl2 → CCl4 + HCl. The output of this ... 2008). "Chloroform". Poisoning and Toxicology Handbook (4th ed.). Informa. p. 774.. *^ Srebnik, M.; Laloë, E. (2001). " ... carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and hydrogen chloride. Its half-life in air ranges from 55 to 620 days. Biodegradation in ... and carbon tetrachloride), which can then be separated by distillation.[7] ...
Thus it is a neutron poison: instead of rapidly decaying to the useful 233U, a significant amount of 233Pa converts to 234U and ... It can be prepared by reacting K2C8H8 with thorium tetrachloride in tetrahydrofuran (THF) at the temperature of dry ice, or by ... carbon arc lamps, heat-resistant crucibles, and as catalysts for industrial chemical reactions such as the oxidation of ammonia ... is prepared by heating thorium tetrachloride with limiting K(C5H5) used (other univalent metal cyclopentadienyls can also be ...
Paracetamol, carbon tetrachloride. Hepatitis[edit]. In this pattern, hepatocellular necrosis is associated with infiltration of ... Hepatogenous poisoning Subordinate terms Toxic hepatitis. Toxin induced hepatitis. Drug induced hepatitis. Drug-induced hepatic ...
Carbon steel contains 2.0% carbon or less,[125] with small amounts of manganese, sulfur, phosphorus, and silicon. Alloy steels ... Tenenbein, M. (1996). "Benefits of parenteral deferoxamine for acute iron poisoning". J Toxicol Clin Toxicol. 34 (5): 485-89. ... tetrachloride (II)". Inorganica Chimica Acta. 247 (2): 169-74. doi:10.1016/0020-1693(95)04955-X.. ... The high level of carbon makes it relatively weak and brittle. Reducing the amount of carbon to 0.002-2.1% by mass produces ...
Klaassen, editor, Curtis D. (2001). Casarett and Doull's toxicology : the basic science of poisons (6th. ed.). New York: McGraw ... Carbon tetrachloride. *Chlordane. *Cyclodiene. *1,2-DCB. *1,4-DCB. *1,1-DCE ...
Exposure to pyrethroid-derived drugs such as permethrin requires treatment by a veterinarian, otherwise the poisoning is often ... Carbon tetrachloride. *Chlordane. *Cyclodiene. *1,2-DCB. *1,4-DCB. *1,1-DCE ...
... and carbon tetrachloride have been isolated from marine algae.[54] A majority of the chloromethane in the environment is ... "Weapons of War: Poison Gas". First World War.com. Archived from the original on 2007-08-21. Retrieved 2007-08-12.. ... Due to the difference of electronegativity between chlorine (3.16) and carbon (2.55), the carbon in a C-Cl bond is electron- ... carbon tetrachloride, or an organic chloride. For instance, zirconium dioxide reacts with chlorine at standard conditions to ...
... especially carbon tetrachloride and chloroform) indicate that the bleach use may be a source that could be important in terms ... "April 22, 1915: Germans introduce poison gas". This Day In History. Retrieved 14 April 2017.. ... but identified compounds include chloroform and carbon tetrachloride.[38] The estimated exposure to these chemicals from use is ... 8-52 times for chloroform and 1-1170 times for carbon tetrachloride, respectively, above baseline quantities in the household) ...
In contact with hydrochloric acid, it releases the volatile and corrosive germanium tetrachloride. ... High doses of these resulted in several cases of germanium poisonings. ... Carbon suboxide (C3O2). *Mellitic anhydride (C12O9) ... Carbon dioxide. Silicon dioxide. Tin dioxide. Lead dioxide ...
... though it can be made by the reversible direct reaction of its elements in the gas phase or in carbon tetrachloride.[25] ... Olson, Kent R. (1 November 2003). Poisoning & drug overdose (4th ed.). Appleton & Lange. pp. 140-141. ISBN 978-0-8385-8172-8. . ... Due to the difference of electronegativity between bromine (2.96) and carbon (2.55), the carbon in a C-Br bond is electron- ... carbon tetrabromide, or an organic bromide. For example, niobium(V) oxide reacts with carbon tetrabromide at 370 °C to form ...
The book argued that pesticides, including DDT, were poisoning both wildlife and the environment and were endangering human ... Carbon tetrachloride. *Chlordane. *Cyclodiene. *1,2-DCB. *1,4-DCB. *1,1-DCE ... Before DDT, eliminating mosquito breeding grounds by drainage or poisoning with Paris green or pyrethrum was sometimes ... Before DDT, malaria was successfully eliminated or curtailed in several tropical areas by removing or poisoning mosquito ...
... where the alcohol carbon atom is attached to two other carbon atoms. It is a structural isomer of 1-propanol and ethyl methyl ... Slaughter RJ, Mason RW, Beasley DM, Vale JA, Schep LJ (2014). "Isopropanol poisoning". Clinical Toxicology. 52 (5): 470-8. doi: ... Isopropyl alcohol reacts with titanium tetrachloride and aluminium metal to give titanium and aluminium isopropoxides, ... It reacts with carbon disulfide and sodium hydroxide to give sodium isopropylxanthate, an herbicide[20] and an ore flotation ...
"Carbon-doped titanium dioxide is an effective photocatalyst". Advanced Ceramics Report. 1 December 2003. Archived from the ... An alternative process, known as the Chloride process converts ilmenite or other titanium sources to Titanium tetrachloride via ... Kurtoglu M. E.; Longenbach T.; Gogotsi Y. (2011). "Preventing Sodium Poisoning of Photocatalytic TiO2 Films on Glass by Metal ... This carbon-doped titanium dioxide is highly efficient; under artificial visible light, it breaks down chlorophenol five times ...
For example, birds may be poisoned when they eat food that was recently sprayed with insecticides or when they mistake an ... Carbon tetrachloride. *Chlordane. *Cyclodiene. *1,2-DCB. *1,4-DCB. *1,1-DCE ...
As an undergraduate, Spedding took issue with the prevailing explanation by Friedrich August Kekulé of how the six carbon atoms ... This involved mixing uranium tetrachloride and calcium metal in a calcium oxide-lined steel pressure vessel (known as a "bomb ... Impurities could act as neutron poisons and prevent a nuclear reactor from working, but the uranium oxide that Fermi wanted for ...
... carbonate (3ZrO2·CO2·H2O) was used in lotions to treat poison ivy but was discontinued because it occasionally caused ... This application exploits the ability of zirconium to reversibly form bonds to carbon. Most complexes of Zr(II) are derivatives ... Fractional distillation of the tetrachlorides, also called extractive distillation, is used primarily in Europe. ... Organozirconium chemistry is the study of compounds containing a carbon-zirconium bond. The first such compound was zirconocene ...
2 are formed by adding carbon to molten uranium or by exposing the metal to carbon monoxide at high temperatures. Stable below ... One method of preparing uranium tetrachloride (UCl. 4) is to directly combine chlorine with either uranium metal or uranium ... In a nuclear reactor, such a chain reaction is slowed and controlled by a neutron poison, absorbing some of the free neutrons. ... isolated the first sample of uranium metal by heating uranium tetrachloride with potassium.[26][29] ...
四氯化碳 (Carbon Tetrachloride) 大鼠, 吸入 8,000 ppm (50,330 mg/m³)/ 4時 [39]. 200 ppm (1,258 mg/m³) ... IPCS; Poisons Information Monograph 354. Mustard Gas. (September 1996) *^ Marrs TC, Maynard, RL, Sidell FR, eds; Chemical ... 一氧化碳 (Carbon Monoxide) 大鼠, 吸入 5,207 ppm (5,965 mg/m³)/ 30分 [35]. 1,200 ppm (1,375 mg/m³) ... Daly J, Witkop B. Batrachotoxin, an extremely active cardio- and neurotoxin from the Colombian arrow poison frog Phyllobates ...
... and explosive liquid whose physical properties are similar to those of carbon tetrachloride, although one difference is that ... It has a disagreeable and irritating smell and is a potentially lethal (but not cumulative) poison. It may be considered the ... Nitrogen does not share the proclivity of carbon for catenation. Like carbon, nitrogen tends to form ionic or metallic ... Like carbon tetrafluoride, it is not at all reactive and is stable in water or dilute aqueous acids or alkalis. Only when ...
... and carbon tetrachloride. The International Joint Commission has identified areas where pollution is particularly intense ( ... Fish eating birds such as osprey, bald eagle and cormorant were being poisoned by contaminated fish. Since the 1960s and 1970s ... Lamprey are being controlled by poisoning in the juvenile stage in the streams where they breed. Zebra mussels in particular ...
OsO4 is 518 times more soluble in carbon tetrachloride than in water. ... Label with poison warning. OsO4 is highly poisonous, even at low exposure levels, and must be handled with appropriate ... OsO4 allowed for the confirmation of the soccer ball model of buckminsterfullerene, a 60 atom carbon allotrope. The adduct, ... OsO4 undergoes "reductive carbonylation" with carbon monoxide in methanol at 400 K and 200 sbar to produce the triangular ...
... and explosive liquid whose physical properties are similar to those of carbon tetrachloride, although one difference is that ... It has a disagreeable and irritating smell and is a potentially lethal (but not cumulative) poison. It may be considered the ... Like carbon tetrafluoride, it is not at all reactive and is stable in water or dilute aqueous acids or alkalis. Only when ... Many organic functional groups involve a carbon-nitrogen bond, such as amides (RCONR2), amines (R3N), imines (RC(=NR)R), imides ...
As of 1994, not all the byproducts had been identified, but identified compounds include chloroform and carbon tetrachloride. ... "April 22, 1915: Germans introduce poison gas". This Day In History. Retrieved 14 April 2017. Gross, Daniel A. (Spring 2015). " ... especially carbon tetrachloride and chloroform) indicate that the bleach use may be a source that could be important in terms ... 8-52 times for chloroform and 1-1170 times for carbon tetrachloride, respectively, above baseline quantities in the household) ...
Acute renal failure in carbon tetrachloride poisoning. Original title. Fracaso renal agudo en la intoxicaci n por tetracloruro ... acute poisoning; renal dysfunction; organic solvents; painting; carbon tetrachloride. Descriptors (secondary). literature ... The literature on acute renal failure in carbon tetrachloride poisoning, and the clinical and histological features of this ... Description of a case of acute renal failure in a house painter due to massive exposure to carbon tetrachloride, with ...
Quinine Oxidase in Liver and Blood Plasma of Rabbits poisoned with Carbon Tetrachloride. *GILBERTO G. VILLELA1. ... VILLELA, G. Quinine Oxidase in Liver and Blood Plasma of Rabbits poisoned with Carbon Tetrachloride. Nature 190, 807-808 (1961 ... Microsomal enzymes inducers and serum minerals in carbon-tetrachloride hepatotoxicity *R. Awadallah ...
CARBON TETRACHLORIDE POISONING; A REPORT OF ONE CASE WITH NECROPSY AND ONE NONFATAL CASE WITH CLINICAL LABORATORY STUDIES1 ... CARBON TETRACHLORIDE POISONING; A REPORT OF ONE CASE WITH NECROPSY AND ONE NONFATAL CASE WITH CLINICAL LABORATORY STUDIES1. Ann ... That physicians generally are not sufficiently aware of the dangers of exposure to carbon tetrachloride is evidenced by the ... attest to the medical importance of carbon tetrachloride intoxication. As will be mentioned later in the reports of cases, both ...
Kinetics of biliary excretion of bromosulfonphthalein in carbon tetrachloride poisoning in the rabbit]. Arch Ital Sci Farmacol ... Kinetics of biliary excretion of bromosulfonphthalein in carbon tetrachloride poisoning in the rabbit]. ... Kinetics of biliary excretion of bromosulfonphthalein in carbon tetrachloride poisoning in the rabbit].. ...
4. Barnes R, Jones RC [1967]. Carbon tetrachloride poisoning. Am Ind Hyg Assoc J 29:557-560. ... 2. ACGIH [1971]. Carbon tetrachloride. In: Documentation of the threshold limit values for substances in workroom air. 3rd ed. ... From: AIHA [1961]. Carbon tetrachloride (revised 1961). In: Hygienic guide series. Am Ind Hyg Assoc J 22:507-509.] ... 3. AIHA [1961]. Carbon tetrachloride (revised 1961). In: Hygienic guide series. Am Ind Hyg Assoc J 22:507-509. ...
Literature Cited in the case study for Carbon Tetrachloride Toxicity: ... Carbon tetrachloride and chloroform. In: Olsen, KR, et al., editors. Poisoning and drug overdose. 5th ed. New York, NY: Lange ... Acute carbon tetrachloride poisoning in 19 patients: implications for diagnosis and management. Lancet 1(8436):1027-9. ... Fatal poisoning by inhalation of carbon tetrachloride (thawpit). Lancet 1(6668):1306-7. ...
Reference: Grebennukova A.E., Activity of the acetylation enzyme in the liver in carbon tetrachloride poisoning, Voprosy ... Activity of the acetylation enzyme in the liver in carbon tetrachloride poisoning. ...
Carbon Tetrachloride Toxicity: People are increasingly concerned about potential environmental health hazards and often ask the ... Acute carbon tetrachloride poisoning in 19 patients: implications for diagnosis and treatment. Lancet 1985;8436:1027-9. ... Synonyms for carbon tetrachloride include tetrachloromethane, carbon tet, carbona, tetrasol, and carbon chloride. ... Carbon tetrachloride poisoning-a review. Ind Med Surg 1954;23:93-105. ...
GUANIDINE RETENTION AND CALCIUM RESERVE AS ANTAGONISTIC FACTORS IN CARBON TETRACHLORIDE AND CHLOROFORM POISONING. ... GUANIDINE RETENTION AND CALCIUM RESERVE AS ANTAGONISTIC FACTORS IN CARBON TETRACHLORIDE AND CHLOROFORM POISONING. ...
Carbon tetrachloride poisoning; a fatal case following accidental ingestion of carbon tetrachloride. ...
Describe treatment strategies for patients with carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) poisoning.. 12. What Instructions Should be Given ... Who is at Risk for Exposure to Carbon Tetrachloride? *Identify who is at risk for exposure to carbon tetrachloride (CCl4). ... What is the Biologic Fate of Carbon Tetrachloride in the Body? *Describe the characteristics of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) ... What is the Biologic Fate of Carbon Tetrachloride in the Body? *Describe the characteristics of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) ...
... ... Liver and serum N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase isoenzymes of normal rats and rats with acute carbon tetrachloride poisoning, ...
Lipid peroxidation and covalent binding in the early functional impairment of liver Golgi apparatus by carbon tetrachloride. - ... Both lipid transit through the apparatus and hexosylation of the lipoprotein are markedly inhibited 5-15 min after poisoning. ... Lipid peroxidation and covalent binding in the early functional impairment of liver Golgi apparatus by carbon tetrachloride.. ... protection against fatty liver afforded at 24 h after CCl4 poisoning by supplementation of the membrane with alpha-tocopherol. ...
Carbon Tetrachloride poisoning (TOPNOTCH) 96 ATN morphology: marked ballooning and hydrophic or vacuolar degeneration of ...
Carbon Tetrachloride poisoning (TOPNOTCH) 96 ATN morphology: marked ballooning and hydrophic or vacuolar degeneration of ...
... we examined the effects of known mediators of stellate cell contraction on portal pressure in rat livers after carbon ... tetrachloride induced injury (including cirrhosis) and investigated the c … ... Carbon Tetrachloride Poisoning / pathology * Carbon Tetrachloride Poisoning / physiopathology * Endothelins / metabolism * ... the effects of known mediators of stellate cell contraction on portal pressure in rat livers after carbon tetrachloride induced ...
A case of acute carbon tetrachloride poisoning caused by contact with carburetor cleaning agent]. ...
Carbon tetrachloride poisoning. Confirmatory tests. There are no laboratory tests to confirm the diagnosis of fat embolism or ...
Chemical poisoning -- Carbon Disulfide ... liver damage*Chemical poisoning -- Carbon Tetrachloride ... jaundice, liver damage* ... Occupational liver damage -- Carbon Disulfide ... liver failure*Occupational liver damage -- Carbon tetrachloride ... liver ... Chemical poisoning -- DDD ... liver damage*Chemical poisoning -- DDT ... liver damage*Chemical poisoning -- Diethylene Glycol ... Chemical poisoning -- Aniline ... liver damage*Chemical poisoning -- Anti-rust products ... liver damage*Chemical poisoning -- ...
Carbon monoxide poisoning and smoke inhalation *Carbon tetrachloride poisoning *Crush injuries *Decompression sickness ... Elevated levels of oxygen at a high pressure can also purge toxins including carbon monoxide, and shrink gas bubbles, this is ...
What is aminophylline poisoning? Meaning of aminophylline poisoning medical term. What does aminophylline poisoning mean? ... Looking for online definition of aminophylline poisoning in the Medical Dictionary? aminophylline poisoning explanation free. ... carbon tetrachloride poisoning. Poisoning caused by prolonged inhalation of carbon tetrachloride. Consequences include ... Iodine poisoning.. toadstool poisoning. Mushroom poisoning.. toluene poisoning. turpentine poisoning. Poisoning usually caused ...
Carbon tetrachloride poisoning. Best Tests. Subscription Required. Management Pearls. Subscription Required. Therapy. ...
... and carbon tetrachloride poisoning [12]. Glutathione has been implicated in the prevention of hepatotoxicity of these compounds ... carbon tetrachloride, and acetaminophen [12]. There is evidence that curcumin enhanced liver detoxification activity and ...
Transformation of the hepatic vasculature of rats following protacted experimental poisoning with carbon tetrachloride; its ...
SEGRE G. [BLOOD KINETICS OF DIBROMOSULFONPHTHALEIN AND TETRABROMOSULFONPHTHALEIN IN CARBON TETRACHLORIDE POISONING]. Arch Ital ... Skin absorption of carbon disulfide vapor in rabbits. I. Associated changes in blood protein and zinc. AMA Arch Ind Health. ...
The coroners court recorded a verdict of accidental death due to corrosive poisoning by carbon tetrachloride. Kenneth believed ... On 14 October 1962, Kenneths father, Charlie Williams, was taken to hospital after drinking carbon tetrachloride that had been ... the suspicion being that he had poisoned his father. Williams insisted that he was celibate and his diaries appear to ... his father had committed suicide, as the circumstances leading to the poisoning seemed unlikely to have happened by bad luck. ...
Headache can also result from exposure to poisons, even common household varieties like insecticides, carbon tetrachloride, and ...
Minot, A. S. (October 1931). "The mechanism of the hypoglycemia produced by guanidine and carbon tetrachloride poisoning and ... "Studies of the response to calcium medication in the hypoglycemia of carbon tetrachloride poisoning". American Journal of ... "Guanidine retention and calcium reserve as antagonistic factors in carbon tetrachloride and chloroform poisoning". Proceedings ... Minot, A. S. (1927). "The Relation of Calcium to the Toxicity of Carbon Tetrachloride in Dogs". Proceedings of the Society for ...
THE INFLUENCE OF DEPLETION UPON IRON METABOLISM OF NORMAL RABBITS AND THE RABBITS POISONED WITH CARBON TETRACHLORIDE ...
  • Grebennukova A.E., Activity of the acetylation enzyme in the liver in carbon tetrachloride poisoning, Voprosy meditsinskoi khimii, 1965, vol: 11(3), 17-19. (msk.ru)
  • Loginov A.S., Privalenko M.N., Belokopytova M.V., Liver and serum N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase isoenzymes of normal rats and rats with acute carbon tetrachloride poisoning, Voprosy meditsinskoi khimii, 1980, vol: 26(6), 800-802. (msk.ru)
  • Lipid peroxidation and covalent binding in the early functional impairment of liver Golgi apparatus by carbon tetrachloride. (curehunter.com)
  • In this study, we examined the effects of known mediators of stellate cell contraction on portal pressure in rat livers after carbon tetrachloride induced injury (including cirrhosis) and investigated the contractility of stellate cells as a function of liver injury. (nih.gov)
  • Poisoning resulting from an overdose of acetaminophen, causing injury to or necrosis of the liver, or liver failure. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Curcumin is known to protect liver against the toxic effects of agents such as galactosamine, carbon tetrachloride, and acetaminophen [ 12 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Comparative changes in serum enzyme levels in beryllium- or carbontetrachloride-induced liver necrosis. (cdc.gov)
  • The serum enzymes isocitric-dehydrogenase, lactic dehydrogenase, glutamic-pyruvic-transaminase, and glutamic-oxaloacetic- transaminase, and the liver enzyme acid phosphatase are used to evaluate the difference in the rat response to beryllium induced midzonal liver necrosis and carbon-tetrachloride induced centrilobular necrosis. (cdc.gov)
  • Beryllium induced liver necrosis appears in many respects to be different from necrosis induced by carbon- tetrachloride, with a much longer time required for beryllium injected animals to exhibit a serum enzyme elevation. (cdc.gov)
  • Reishi, when fed to rats, helps protect liver cells from damage induced by carbon tetrachloride poisoning. (anniesremedy.com)
  • It powerfully protects the liver from the effects of environmental toxins (such as carbon tetrachloride, acetaminophen, iron overload, mushroom poisoning). (drmyattswellnessclub.com)
  • Superimposed acute liver injury due to drugs (eg, acetaminophen), dietary supplements, herbal preparations, viral hepatitis, or toxins (eg, Amanita toxin with mushroom poisoning carbon tetrachloride), with the exception of acute alcoholic hepatitis. (mayo.edu)
  • Ancient writings recommend milk thistle not only for liver and gall bladder disorders, but for poisoning of all kinds including from toxic mushrooms and snakebites. (dremilykane.com)
  • The modern use of milk thistle extract began in 1949 when animal studies showed that it could protect the liver against carbon tetrachloride poisoning. (dremilykane.com)
  • Silymarin counteracts the toxic effects of a wide variety of liver poisons, including alcohol, carbon tetrachloride (used widely in the dry-cleaning industry) acetaminophen and the death cap mushroom, which can cause death within a day. (rxmed.com)
  • Milk thistle also reduces the effects of many toxins in the liver, including the toxins of the Amanita mushroom and carbon tetrachloride (dry-cleaning fluid) poisoning. (natmedtalk.com)
  • Sprague-Dawley' male rats were used as experimental systems and were fed with TCMGARs extracts at doses of 30, 100, 300mg/kg body weight for two weeks to test the effect on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) induced acute liver damage. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • What caused swollen liver/ spleen in a child with history of lead poisoning upto 15? (healthcaremagic.com)
  • A potent liver poison. (nih.gov)
  • In rats, bromotrichloromethane produces about three times the degree of liver microsomal lipid peroxidation as does carbon tetrachloride. (nih.gov)
  • In this study, considering that Rdh13 is highly expressed in mouse liver, we further evaluated the potential effect of Rdh13 on liver injury induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl). (bvsalud.org)
  • Carbon tetrachloride (CCL4) is used as a solvent for oils and fats, as a refrigerant, and as a dry-cleaning agent. (springeropen.com)
  • Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) is an agent that is commonly used in the dry-cleaning industry, is well known as a typical toxic agent, used to induce oxidative stress in experimental models (Nabeshima et al. (springeropen.com)
  • The objective of the present work is to develop carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced chronic hepatotoxicity model in rats and its applicationin evaluation of hepatoprotective activity of silymarin. (innovareacademics.in)
  • A review is presented of the history, use, properties, and toxicity of carbon tetrachloride, with emphasis on the need for preventive steps against poisoning by the compound. (cdc.gov)
  • Scientists have found a number of ways to measure the strength, or toxicity, of various poisons. (britannica.com)
  • Another measure of toxicity is the lethal dose of a poison, or the amount required to kill 50 percent of a group of laboratory animals. (britannica.com)
  • In a phenomenon called synergism, toxicity is increased if a poison is combined with another agent. (britannica.com)
  • The aim of this study was to investigate whether N -acetyl cysteine (NAC) has a protective effect on the toxicity caused by carbon tetrachloride. (springeropen.com)
  • 1999. Oxidative damage to the lipids and proteins of the lungs, testis and kidney of rats during carbon tetrachloride intoxication. (cdc.gov)
  • Arequipa 2014 / Hepatoprotective effect of the aqueous extract of Ocimum basilicum L. purple basil in Rattus novergicus variety Sprague Dawley rats intoxicated with carbon tetrachloride. (bvsalud.org)
  • Elevated levels of oxygen at a high pressure can also purge toxins including carbon monoxide, and shrink gas bubbles, this is important in the treatment of arterial gas embolism and decompression sickness. (henryspink.org)
  • Milk thistle has successfully saved lives by reversing acetaminophen (Tylenol) and Amanita mushroom (one of the most deadly) poisoning. (dremilykane.com)
  • Two recent cases in which the patients were admitted to the United States Naval Hospital, Oakland, California, and in one of which the termination was fatal, attest to the medical importance of carbon tetrachloride intoxication. (annals.org)
  • Central nervous system in carbon tetrachloride intoxication. (cdc.gov)
  • This paper reports a fetal death due to accidental nonlethal maternal carbon monoxide intoxication in which both maternal and fetal carboxyhemoglobin concentrations were obtained. (nap.edu)
  • When the poison is unidentified or when rescuers are uncertain about its cause, it is safest to test blood and urine for acetaminophen, aspirin, and commonly abused drugs. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Because acetaminophen is one of the most commonly used over-the-counter pain relievers and prescription drugs, this is one of the most common poisonings encountered in emergency departments and hospitals. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Silymarin has also been used in death angel or death cap mushroom poisoning, and fatal outcome can be prevented if treatment is begun at an early stage. (rxmed.com)
  • Carbon monoxide poisoning (resulting from natural gas, automobile exhasust or other). (willcountyillinois.com)
  • Fetal death due to acute carbon monoxide poisoning is rarely reported in the medical literature. (nap.edu)
  • Carbon monoxide poisoning (resulting from natural gas, automobile exhaust or other). (dupageco.org)
  • Some research indications -where HBOT is performed on a more experimental basis-include acute carbon tetrachloride poisoning, cerebral palsy, cerebrovascular accident (acute-thrombotic or embolic), fracture healing and bone grafting, hydrogen sulfide poisoning, invasive aspergillosis, sickle cell anemia crises, brown recluse spider bites, and acute spinal cord injuries. (anh-usa.org)
  • There is limited information on the effects of acute carbon disulphide exposure. (vertigoexercises.us)
  • Poisoning by various substances - certain mushrooms and chemicals or chemical compounds such as phosphorus and carbon tetrachloride. (topquoteonline.co.uk)
  • Headaches can also result from exposure to poisons, even common household varieties like insecticides, carbon tetrachloride, and lead. (themediapush.com)
  • These types of injuries been described after poisoning with halogenated hydrocarbons, especially carbon tetrachloride. (healthtap.com)
  • The large energy of the carbon-carbon bond makes activation energy requirements for the reaction so high that direct reduction of carbon-e.g., to methane (formula CH 4 )-is impractical. (britannica.com)
  • 1986. Hyperbaric oxygen protection against carbon tetrachloride hepatotoxicity in the rat. (cdc.gov)
  • 2017. Carbon Tetrachloride. (cdc.gov)
  • The literature on acute renal failure in carbon tetrachloride poisoning, and the clinical and histological features of this disease entity are analysed with special reference to the combination of carbon tetrachloride exposure and alcohol consumption. (ilo.org)
  • Both lipid transit through the apparatus and hexosylation of the lipoprotein are markedly inhibited 5-15 min after poisoning . (curehunter.com)
  • At ordinary temperatures, carbon is very unreactive-it is difficult to oxidize-and it does not react with acids or alkalies . (britannica.com)
  • Poisoning by inhalation, ingestion or skin absorption is possible and may be fatal. (mdibl.org)
  • This paper describes the pathology and clinical pathology of experimental N. gariepina poisoning in cattle. (scielo.org.za)
  • ACGIH [1971] reported that a severe case of human poisoning has been observed after a 3-hour exposure to concentrations ranging from 75 to 600 ppm and averaging about 210 ppm [Barnes and Jones 1967]. (cdc.gov)
  • Severe poisoning that occurs soon after a single dose of a toxic agent is called acute poisoning. (britannica.com)
  • AAPCC] American Association of Poison Control Centers. (cdc.gov)
  • 2015. 2015 annual report of the American Association of Poison Control Centers' National Poison Data System (NPDS): 33rd annual report. (cdc.gov)
  • Alexandria, VA: American Association of Poison Control Centers. (cdc.gov)
  • If the poison can be identified, reference texts or local poison control centers should be contacted to determine specific antidotes or treatments. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Hydrogen cyanide (HCN) and its derivatives (cyanogen compounds, cyanides) are all very toxic as protoplasmic poisons through the inhibition of tissue oxidation. (britannica.com)
  • Description of a case of acute renal failure in a house painter due to massive exposure to carbon tetrachloride, with favourable course following haemodialysis. (ilo.org)
  • Skin absorption of carbon disulfide vapor in rabbits. (harvard.edu)
  • 11. The apparatus of claim 10, wherein said end-tidal capnometer further comprises an alarm and automatic shutoff that prevents the flow of oxygen to said patient, both of which activate when said capnometer sensor means detects expiratory partial pressure of arterial carbon dioxide (paCO 2 ) levels of greater than 40 mm Hg or greater than 10% or more of baseline values. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Carbon is present as carbon dioxide in Earth's atmosphere at a concentration of about 0.04 percent by volume, an amount that is increasing. (britannica.com)
  • Carbon dioxide is a greenhouse gas , and it is dissolved in all natural waters . (britannica.com)
  • The Keeling Curve, named after American climate scientist Charles David Keeling, tracks changes in the concentration of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) in Earth's atmosphere at a research station on Mauna Loa in Hawaii. (britannica.com)
  • At high temperatures it combines with sulfur vapour to form carbon disulfide , with silicon and certain metals to form carbides , and with oxygen to form oxides, of which the most important are carbon monoxide , CO, and carbon dioxide, CO 2 . (britannica.com)
  • Reduction of carbon monoxide to elemental carbon and oxidation of carbon monoxide to carbon dioxide are both feasible but impractical in solution. (britannica.com)
  • As much information as possible about the underlying cause and, if paracetamol poisoning is the likely cause, as much information as possible about the psychiatric history and precipitating event. (docplayer.net)
  • NIOSH considers carbon tetrachloride to be a potential occupational carcinogen as defined by the OSHA carcinogen policy [29 CFR 1990]. (cdc.gov)
  • Poisoning (food poisoning, occupational or other). (willcountyillinois.com)
  • The word toxin generally refers to poisons of plant or animal origin. (britannica.com)
  • Fetal death due to maternal CO poisoning has only rarely been reported. (nap.edu)
  • We present the circumstances of another fetal death due to a nonlethal maternal CO poisoning in which COHb levels were obtained for both mother and fetus. (nap.edu)
  • Toxicology is the study of poisons, regardless of origin, and their injurious effects on living organisms. (britannica.com)
  • During the fifties, when my brother and I started chasing butterflies, potassium cyanide was still in use as well, but because it is a deadly poison, Professor Klots recommended liquid carbon tetrachloride, which is "not very poisonous unless inhaled deeply," and which we persuaded our parents was as innocuous as smelling salts. (npr.org)
  • For information on plant and bacterial poisons see plants, poisonous . (britannica.com)
  • Kinetics of biliary excretion of bromosulfonphthalein in carbon tetrachloride poisoning in the rabbit]. (harvard.edu)
  • The destruction and pulmonary excretion of paraldehyde by normal and carbon tetrachloride mice have been studied, and data covering the range from the largest tolerated dose to the smallest after which any excretion could be detected have been presented. (aspetjournals.org)
  • It was found that the rate of pulmonary excretion is a function of the dose, and that the rate of destruction by normal mice is a function of the dose at lower levels, but is constant at higher ones, while the destruction is constant and much lower in mice which have been poisoned with carbon tetrachloride. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Further, it was found that the rate of destruction and excretion of acetaldehyde is unaffected by the previous administration of carbon tetrachloride. (aspetjournals.org)
  • One useful way to categorize poisons is by the bodily part upon which they exert their primary toxic effect. (britannica.com)
  • A poison is a substance that, when swallowed or absorbed, is capable of producing injury or death. (britannica.com)
  • Many factors influence the capacity of a poison to cause injury. (britannica.com)
  • Although most poisons affect many parts, injury or death is usually the result of damage to a single, or target, organ or system. (britannica.com)
  • Can an injury from rusted bed frame cause lead poisoning? (healthcaremagic.com)
  • The International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS) and the Commission of the European Communities (CEC) (ILO/UNEP/WHO) have jointly undertaken a major programme to evaluate antidotes used clinically in the treatment of poisoning. (inchem.org)
  • More than one million carbon compounds have been described in chemical literature, and chemists synthesize many new ones each year. (britannica.com)
  • A type of chemical reaction in which one substance (an oxidizing agent) accepts electrons from another substance (a reducing agent) and is thereby reduced (while the reducing agent is oxidized) is frequently observed with carbon and its compounds. (britannica.com)
  • Also this may indicate the feeding of a dogCarbohydrate feeds (fruits and cereals, dry food with a low content of animal protein) or poisoning with chemicals. (bryceresorts.com)
  • Household cleaning products containing bleach can produce volatile organic compounds, including chloroform and carbon tetrachloride. (cdc.gov)
  • All organic compounds, such as proteins , carbohydrates , and fats , contain carbon, and all plant and animal cells consist of carbon compounds and their polymers . (britannica.com)
  • Human beings are surrounded by poisons, though not all of these poisons are deadly. (britannica.com)
  • The symptoms of poisoning are due to a critical accumulation of the toxic substance in the body or to damage inflicted gradually on the body. (britannica.com)
  • The quantities excreted vary from about fourteen per cent to very small fractions of the administered dose, being, for any particular dose, greater in the mice given carbon tetrachloride than in the normals. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Milk thistle is thought to work in three main ways: first as an antioxidant, "quenching" free radicals created from poisoning or environmental pollution. (dremilykane.com)
  • The problem with chloroform, as with potassium cyanide and carbon tetrachloride, is that these poisons freeze the butterfly's muscles into an extreme version of rigor mortis, and the wings cannot be spread. (npr.org)