A solvent for oils, fats, lacquers, varnishes, rubber waxes, and resins, and a starting material in the manufacturing of organic compounds. Poisoning by inhalation, ingestion or skin absorption is possible and may be fatal. (Merck Index, 11th ed)
Experimentally induced chronic injuries to the parenchymal cells in the liver to achieve a model for LIVER CIRRHOSIS.
A spectrum of clinical liver diseases ranging from mild biochemical abnormalities to ACUTE LIVER FAILURE, caused by drugs, drug metabolites, and chemicals from the environment.
A commonly used laboratory solvent. It was previously used as an anesthetic, but was banned from use in the U.S. due to its suspected carcinogenicity.
A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
Enzymes of the transferase class that catalyze the conversion of L-aspartate and 2-ketoglutarate to oxaloacetate and L-glutamate. EC 2.6.1.1.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-alanine and 2-oxoglutarate to pyruvate and L-glutamate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.6.1.2.
A phenothiazine derivative with histamine H1-blocking, antimuscarinic, and sedative properties. It is used as an antiallergic, in pruritus, for motion sickness and sedation, and also in animals.
Liver disease lasting six months or more, caused by an adverse drug effect. The adverse effect may result from a direct toxic effect of a drug or metabolite, or an idiosyncratic response to a drug or metabolite.
Perisinusoidal cells of the liver, located in the space of Disse between HEPATOCYTES and sinusoidal endothelial cells.
Liver disease in which the normal microcirculation, the gross vascular anatomy, and the hepatic architecture have been variably destroyed and altered with fibrous septa surrounding regenerated or regenerating parenchymal nodules.
Pathological processes of the LIVER.
A highly toxic gas that has been used as a chemical warfare agent. It is an insidious poison as it is not irritating immediately, even when fatal concentrations are inhaled. (From The Merck Index, 11th ed, p7304)
Synthetic or natural substances which are given to prevent a disease or disorder or are used in the process of treating a disease or injury due to a poisonous agent.
A group of compounds that contain a bivalent O-O group, i.e., the oxygen atoms are univalent. They can either be inorganic or organic in nature. Such compounds release atomic (nascent) oxygen readily. Thus they are strong oxidizing agents and fire hazards when in contact with combustible materials, especially under high-temperature conditions. The chief industrial uses of peroxides are as oxidizing agents, bleaching agents, and initiators of polymerization. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)
Carbon monoxide (CO). A poisonous colorless, odorless, tasteless gas. It combines with hemoglobin to form carboxyhemoglobin, which has no oxygen carrying capacity. The resultant oxygen deprivation causes headache, dizziness, decreased pulse and respiratory rates, unconsciousness, and death. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
Repair or renewal of hepatic tissue.
A hydroxylated form of the imino acid proline. A deficiency in ASCORBIC ACID can result in impaired hydroxyproline formation.
An ethanol-inducible cytochrome P450 enzyme that metabolizes several precarcinogens, drugs, and solvents to reactive metabolites. Substrates include ETHANOL; INHALATION ANESTHETICS; BENZENE; ACETAMINOPHEN and other low molecular weight compounds. CYP2E1 has been used as an enzyme marker in the study of alcohol abuse.
The main structural component of the LIVER. They are specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that are organized into interconnected plates called lobules.
A nitrosamine derivative with alkylating, carcinogenic, and mutagenic properties. It causes serious liver damage and is a hepatocarcinogen in rodents.
A crystalline compound used as a laboratory reagent in place of HYDROGEN SULFIDE. It is a potent hepatocarcinogen.
A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.
An effective soil fumigant, insecticide, and nematocide. In humans, it causes severe burning of skin and irritation of the eyes and respiratory tract. Prolonged inhalation may cause liver necrosis. It is also used in gasoline. Members of this group have caused liver and lung cancers in rodents. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985), 1,2-dibromoethane may reasonably be anticipated to be a carcinogen.
Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.
A species of helminth commonly called the sheep liver fluke. It occurs in the biliary passages, liver, and gallbladder during various stages of development. Snails and aquatic vegetation are the intermediate hosts. Occasionally seen in man, it is most common in sheep and cattle.
A family of 3,3-bis(p-hydroxyphenyl)phthalides. They are used as CATHARTICS, indicators, and COLORING AGENTS.
Chlorinated ethanes which are used extensively as industrial solvents. They have been utilized in numerous home-use products including spot remover preparations and inhalant decongestant sprays. These compounds cause central nervous system and cardiovascular depression and are hepatotoxic. Include 1,1,1- and 1,1,2-isomers.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
A tool for the study of liver damage which causes bile stasis and hyperbilirubinemia acutely and bile duct hyperplasia and biliary cirrhosis chronically, with changes in hepatocyte function. It may cause skin and kidney damage.
Peroxidase catalyzed oxidation of lipids using hydrogen peroxide as an electron acceptor.
Closed vesicles of fragmented endoplasmic reticulum created when liver cells or tissue are disrupted by homogenization. They may be smooth or rough.
A group of dipyridinium chloride derivatives that are used as oxidation-reduction indicators. The general formula is 1,1'-di-R-4,4'-bipyridinium chloride, where R = methyl, ethyl, benzyl or, betaine.
A plant genus of the family FABACEAE. It is the source of an herbal tea that is commonly consumed in South Africa. Members contain aspalathin and other polyphenols (PHENOLS).
A highly volatile inhalation anesthetic used mainly in short surgical procedures where light anesthesia with good analgesia is required. It is also used as an industrial solvent. Prolonged exposure to high concentrations of the vapor can lead to cardiotoxicity and neurological impairment.
Nanometer-sized tubes composed mainly of CARBON. Such nanotubes are used as probes for high-resolution structural and chemical imaging of biomolecules with ATOMIC FORCE MICROSCOPY.
A chlorinated hydrocarbon that has been used as an inhalation anesthetic and acts as a narcotic in high concentrations. Its primary use is as a solvent in manufacturing and food technology.
A plant genus of the family POACEAE. Finger millet or raggee (E. coracana) is an important food grain in southern Asia and parts of Africa.
Peroxides produced in the presence of a free radical by the oxidation of unsaturated fatty acids in the cell in the presence of molecular oxygen. The formation of lipid peroxides results in the destruction of the original lipid leading to the loss of integrity of the membranes. They therefore cause a variety of toxic effects in vivo and their formation is considered a pathological process in biological systems. Their formation can be inhibited by antioxidants, such as vitamin E, structural separation or low oxygen tension.
The pathological process occurring in cells that are dying from irreparable injuries. It is caused by the progressive, uncontrolled action of degradative ENZYMES, leading to MITOCHONDRIAL SWELLING, nuclear flocculation, and cell lysis. It is distinct it from APOPTOSIS, which is a normal, regulated cellular process.
A highly chlorinated polycyclic hydrocarbon insecticide whose large number of chlorine atoms makes it resistant to degradation. It has been shown to be toxic to mammals and causes abnormal cellular changes in laboratory animals.
Liquids that dissolve other substances (solutes), generally solids, without any change in chemical composition, as, water containing sugar. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Chinese herbal or plant extracts which are used as drugs to treat diseases or promote general well-being. The concept does not include synthesized compounds manufactured in China.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
The channels that collect and transport the bile secretion from the BILE CANALICULI, the smallest branch of the BILIARY TRACT in the LIVER, through the bile ductules, the bile ducts out the liver, and to the GALLBLADDER for storage.
A potent liver poison. In rats, bromotrichloromethane produces about three times the degree of liver microsomal lipid peroxidation as does carbon tetrachloride.
Stable carbon atoms that have the same atomic number as the element carbon, but differ in atomic weight. C-13 is a stable carbon isotope.
Blood tests that are used to evaluate how well a patient's liver is working and also to help diagnose liver conditions.
A type of MONOTERPENES, derived from geraniol. They have the general form of cyclopentanopyran, but in some cases, one of the rings is broken as in the case of secoiridoid. They are different from the similarly named iridals (TRITERPENES).
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
Highly reactive molecules with an unsatisfied electron valence pair. Free radicals are produced in both normal and pathological processes. They are proven or suspected agents of tissue damage in a wide variety of circumstances including radiation, damage from environment chemicals, and aging. Natural and pharmacological prevention of free radical damage is being actively investigated.
A genus of poisonous American herbs, family BERBERIDACEAE. The roots yield PODOPHYLLOTOXIN and other pharmacologically important agents. The plant was formerly used as a cholagogue and cathartic. It is different from the European mandrake, MANDRAGORA.
A plant genus of the family MYRSINACEAE. Members contain embelin.
Naturally occurring or synthetic substances that inhibit or retard the oxidation of a substance to which it is added. They counteract the harmful and damaging effects of oxidation in animal tissues.
The venous pressure measured in the PORTAL VEIN.
Derivatives of benzene in which one or more hydrogen atoms on the benzene ring are replaced by bromine atoms.
Use of plants or herbs to treat diseases or to alleviate pain.
A tripeptide with many roles in cells. It conjugates to drugs to make them more soluble for excretion, is a cofactor for some enzymes, is involved in protein disulfide bond rearrangement and reduces peroxides.
A group of compounds with an 8-carbon ring. They may be saturated or unsaturated.
A hydrocarbon used as an industrial solvent. It has been used as an aerosal propellent, as a refrigerant and as a local anesthetic. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 31st ed, p1403)
The dialdehyde of malonic acid.
A generic grouping for dihydric alcohols with the hydroxy groups (-OH) located on different carbon atoms. They are viscous liquids with high boiling points for their molecular weights.
Organic compounds containing a carbonyl group in the form -CHO.
A class of compounds that contain a -NH2 and a -NO radical. Many members of this group have carcinogenic and mutagenic properties.
An inhibitor of drug metabolism and CYTOCHROME P-450 ENZYME SYSTEM activity.
A subclass of iridoid compounds that include a glycoside moiety, usually found at the C-1 position.
Analgesic antipyretic derivative of acetanilide. It has weak anti-inflammatory properties and is used as a common analgesic, but may cause liver, blood cell, and kidney damage.
The dose amount of poisonous or toxic substance or dose of ionizing radiation required to kill 50% of the tested population.
An aspartate aminotransferase found in MITOCHONDRIA.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of D-glucose 6-phosphate and water to D-glucose and orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.9.
A subtype of transforming growth factor beta that is synthesized by a wide variety of cells. It is synthesized as a precursor molecule that is cleaved to form mature TGF-beta 1 and TGF-beta1 latency-associated peptide. The association of the cleavage products results in the formation a latent protein which must be activated to bind its receptor. Defects in the gene that encodes TGF-beta1 are the cause of CAMURATI-ENGELMANN SYNDROME.
A nitrosamine derivative with alkylating, carcinogenic, and mutagenic properties.
A mixture of flavonoids extracted from seeds of the MILK THISTLE, Silybum marianum. It consists primarily of silybin and its isomers, silicristin and silidianin. Silymarin displays antioxidant and membrane stabilizing activity. It protects various tissues and organs against chemical injury, and shows potential as an antihepatoxic agent.
A barbituric acid derivative that acts as a nonselective central nervous system depressant. It potentiates GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID action on GABA-A RECEPTORS, and modulates chloride currents through receptor channels. It also inhibits glutamate induced depolarizations.
Physiological processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of LIPIDS.
The chemical alteration of an exogenous substance by or in a biological system. The alteration may inactivate the compound or it may result in the production of an active metabolite of an inactive parent compound. The alterations may be divided into METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE I and METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE II.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
A form of rapid-onset LIVER FAILURE, also known as fulminant hepatic failure, caused by severe liver injury or massive loss of HEPATOCYTES. It is characterized by sudden development of liver dysfunction and JAUNDICE. Acute liver failure may progress to exhibit cerebral dysfunction even HEPATIC COMA depending on the etiology that includes hepatic ISCHEMIA, drug toxicity, malignant infiltration, and viral hepatitis such as post-transfusion HEPATITIS B and HEPATITIS C.
Toxic asphyxiation due to the displacement of oxygen from oxyhemoglobin by carbon monoxide.
A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).
A subclass of enzymes of the transferase class that catalyze the transfer of an amino group from a donor (generally an amino acid) to an acceptor (generally a 2-keto acid). Most of these enzymes are pyridoxyl phosphate proteins. (Dorland, 28th ed) EC 2.6.1.
The most common form of fibrillar collagen. It is a major constituent of bone (BONE AND BONES) and SKIN and consists of a heterotrimer of two alpha1(I) and one alpha2(I) chains.
A colorless or slightly yellow crystalline compound obtained from nutgalls. It is used in photography, pharmaceuticals, and as an analytical reagent.
Hydrocarbon compounds with one or more of the hydrogens replaced by CHLORINE.
Proposed chemotherapeutic agent against filaria and trichomonas.
A hepatic carcinogen whose mechanism of activation involves N-hydroxylation to the aryl hydroxamic acid followed by enzymatic sulfonation to sulfoxyfluorenylacetamide. It is used to study the carcinogenicity and mutagenicity of aromatic amines.
An enzyme, sometimes called GGT, with a key role in the synthesis and degradation of GLUTATHIONE; (GSH, a tripeptide that protects cells from many toxins). It catalyzes the transfer of the gamma-glutamyl moiety to an acceptor amino acid.
Low-molecular-weight end products, probably malondialdehyde, that are formed during the decomposition of lipid peroxidation products. These compounds react with thiobarbituric acid to form a fluorescent red adduct.
Specialized phagocytic cells of the MONONUCLEAR PHAGOCYTE SYSTEM found on the luminal surface of the hepatic sinusoids. They filter bacteria and small foreign proteins out of the blood, and dispose of worn out red blood cells.
The outer layer of the woody parts of plants.
A plant species which is known as an Oriental traditional medicinal plant.
Application of a ligature to tie a vessel or strangulate a part.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A drug-metabolizing, cytochrome P-450 enzyme which catalyzes the hydroxylation of aniline to hydroxyaniline in the presence of reduced flavoprotein and molecular oxygen. EC 1.14.14.-.
2-Amino-4-(ethylthio)butyric acid. An antimetabolite and methionine antagonist that interferes with amino acid incorporation into proteins and with cellular ATP utilization. It also produces liver neoplasms.
A superfamily of hundreds of closely related HEMEPROTEINS found throughout the phylogenetic spectrum, from animals, plants, fungi, to bacteria. They include numerous complex monooxygenases (MIXED FUNCTION OXYGENASES). In animals, these P-450 enzymes serve two major functions: (1) biosynthesis of steroids, fatty acids, and bile acids; (2) metabolism of endogenous and a wide variety of exogenous substrates, such as toxins and drugs (BIOTRANSFORMATION). They are classified, according to their sequence similarities rather than functions, into CYP gene families (>40% homology) and subfamilies (>59% homology). For example, enzymes from the CYP1, CYP2, and CYP3 gene families are responsible for most drug metabolism.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of an orthophosphoric monoester and water to an alcohol and orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.1.

Quantitative aspects in the assessment of liver injury. (1/931)

Liver function data are usually difficult to use in their original form when one wishes to compare the hepatotoxic properties of several chemical substances. However, procedures are available for the conversion of liver function data into quantal responses. These permit the elaboration of dose-response lines for the substances in question, the calculation of median effective doses and the statistical analysis of differences in liver-damaging potency. These same procedures can be utilized for estimating the relative hazard involved if one compares the liver-damaging potency to the median effective dose for some other pharmacologie parameter. Alterations in hepatic triglycerides, lipid peroxidation, and the activities of various hepatic enzymes can also be quantitiated in a dose-related manner. This permits the selection of equitoxic doses required for certain comparative studies and the selection of doses in chemical interaction studies. The quantitative problems involved in low-frequency adverse reactions and the difficulty these present in the detection of liver injury in laboratory animals are discussed.  (+info)

Molecular dynamics study of substance P peptides in a biphasic membrane mimic. (2/931)

Two neuropeptides, substance P (SP) and SP-tyrosine-8 (SP-Y8), have been studied by molecular dynamics (MD) simulation in a TIP3P water/CCl4 biphasic solvent system as a mimic for the water-membrane system. Initially, distance restraints derived from NMR nuclear Overhauser enhancements (NOE) were incorporated in the restrained MD (RMD) in the equilibration stage of the simulation. The starting orientation/position of the peptides for the MD simulation was either parallel to the water/CCl4 interface or in a perpendicular/insertion mode. In both cases the peptides equilibrated and adopted a near-parallel orientation within approximately 250 ps. After equilibration, the conformation and orientation of the peptides, the solvation of both the backbone and the side chain of the residues, hydrogen bonding, and the dynamics of the peptides were analyzed from trajectories obtained in the RMD or the subsequent free MD (where the NOE restraints were removed). These analyses showed that the peptide backbone of nearly all residues are either solvated by water or are hydrogen-bonded. This is seen to be an important factor against the insertion mode of interaction. Most of the interactions with the hydrophobic phase come from the hydrophobic interactions of the side chains of Pro-4, Phe-7, Phe-8, Leu-10, and Met-11 for SP, and Phe-7, Leu-10, Met-11 and, to a lesser extent, Tyr-8 in SP-Y8. Concerted conformational transitions took place in the time frame of hundreds of picoseconds. The concertedness of the transition was due to the tendency of the peptide to maintain the necessary secondary structure to position the peptide properly with respect to the water/CCl4 interface.  (+info)

Molecular dynamics study of substance P peptides partitioned in a sodium dodecylsulfate micelle. (3/931)

Two neuropeptides, substance P (SP) and SP-tyrosine-8 (SP-Y8), have been studied by molecular dynamics (MD) simulation in an explicit sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS) micelle. Initially, distance restraints derived from NMR nuclear Overhauser enhancements (NOE) were incorporated in the restrained MD (RMD) during the equilibration stage of the simulation. It was shown that when SP-Y8 was initially placed in an insertion (perpendicular) configuration, the peptide equilibrated to a surface-bound (parallel) configuration in approximately 450 ps. After equilibration, the conformation and orientation of the peptides, the solvation of both the backbone and the side chain of the residues, hydrogen bonding, and the dynamics of the peptides were analyzed from trajectories obtained from the RMD or the subsequent free MD (where the NOE restraints were removed). These analyses showed that the peptide backbones of all residues are either solvated by water or are hydrogen-bonded. This is seen to be an important factor against the insertion mode of interaction. Most of the interactions come from the hydrophobic interaction between the side chains of Lys-3, Pro-4, Phe-7, Phe-8, Leu-10, and Met-11 for SP, from Lys-3, Phe-7, Leu-10, and Met-11 in SP-Y8, and the micellar interior. Significant interactions, electrostatic and hydrogen bonding, between the N-terminal residues, Arg-Pro-Lys, and the micellar headgroups were observed. These latter interactions served to affect both the structure and, especially, the flexibility, of the N-terminus. The results from simulation of the same peptides in a water/CCl4 biphasic cell were compared with the results of the present study, and the validity of using the biphasic system as an approximation for peptide-micelle or peptide-bilayer systems is discussed.  (+info)

Effect of central corticotropin-releasing factor on carbon tetrachloride-induced acute liver injury in rats. (4/931)

Central neuropeptides play important roles in many instances of physiological and pathophysiological regulation mediated through the autonomic nervous system. In regard to the hepatobiliary system, several neuropeptides act in the brain to regulate bile secretion, hepatic blood flow, and hepatic proliferation. Stressors and sympathetic nerve activation are reported to exacerbate experimental liver injury. Some stressors are known to stimulate corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) synthesis in the central nervous system and induce activation of sympathetic nerves in animal models. The effect of intracisternal CRF on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced acute liver injury was examined in rats. Intracisternal injection of CRF dose dependently enhanced elevation of the serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) level induced by CCl4. Elevations of serum aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, and total bilirubin levels by CCl4 were also enhanced by intracisternal CRF injection. Intracisternal injection of CRF also aggravated CCl4-induced hepatic histological changes. Intracisternal CRF injection alone did not modify the serum ALT level. Intravenous administration of CRF did not influence CCl4-induced acute liver injury. The aggravating effect of central CRF on CCl4-induced acute liver injury was abolished by denervation of hepatic plexus with phenol and by denervation of noradrenergic fibers with 6-hydroxydopamine treatment but not by hepatic branch vagotomy or atropine treatment. These results suggest that CRF acts in the brain to exacerbate acute liver injury through the sympathetic-noradrenergic pathways.  (+info)

Transplanted hepatocytes proliferate differently after CCl4 treatment and hepatocyte growth factor infusion. (5/931)

To understand regulation of transplanted hepatocyte proliferation in the normal liver, we used genetically marked rat or mouse cells. Hosts were subjected to liver injury by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4), to liver regeneration by a two-thirds partial hepatectomy, and to hepatocellular DNA synthesis by infusion of hepatocyte growth factor for comparative analysis. Transplanted hepatocytes were documented to integrate in periportal areas of the liver. In response to CCl4 treatments after cell transplantation, the transplanted hepatocyte mass increased incrementally, with the kinetics and magnitude of DNA synthesis being similar to those of host hepatocytes. In contrast, when cells were transplanted 24 h after CCl4 administration, transplanted hepatocytes appeared to be injured and most cells were rapidly cleared. When hepatocyte growth factor was infused into the portal circulation either subsequent to or before cell transplantation and engraftment, transplanted cell mass did not increase, although DNA synthesis rates increased in cultured primary hepatocytes as well as in intact mouse and rat livers. These data suggested that procedures causing selective ablation of host hepatocytes will be most effective in inducing transplanted cell proliferation in the normal liver. The number of transplanted hepatocytes was not increased in the liver by hepatocyte growth factor administration. Repopulation of the liver with genetically marked hepatocytes can provide effective reporters for studying liver growth control in the intact animal.  (+info)

Bone marrow as a potential source of hepatic oval cells. (6/931)

Bone marrow stem cells develop into hematopoietic and mesenchymal lineages but have not been known to participate in production of hepatocytes, biliary cells, or oval cells during liver regeneration. Cross-sex or cross-strain bone marrow and whole liver transplantation were used to trace the origin of the repopulating liver cells. Transplanted rats were treated with 2-acetylaminofluorene, to block hepatocyte proliferation, and then hepatic injury, to induce oval cell proliferation. Markers for Y chromosome, dipeptidyl peptidase IV enzyme, and L21-6 antigen were used to identify liver cells of bone marrow origin. From these cells, a proportion of the regenerated hepatic cells were shown to be donor-derived. Thus, a stem cell associated with the bone marrow has epithelial cell lineage capability.  (+info)

Acute carbon tetrachloride feeding induces damage of large but not small cholangiocytes from BDL rat liver. (7/931)

Bile duct damage and/or loss is limited to a range of duct sizes in cholangiopathies. We tested the hypothesis that CCl4 damages only large ducts. CCl4 or mineral oil was given to bile duct-ligated (BDL) rats, and 1, 2, and 7 days later small and large cholangiocytes were purified and evaluated for apoptosis, proliferation, and secretion. In situ, we measured apoptosis by morphometric and TUNEL analysis and the number of small and large ducts by morphometry. Two days after CCl4 administration, we found an increased number of small ducts and reduced number of large ducts. In vitro apoptosis was observed only in large cholangiocytes, and this was accompanied by loss of proliferation and secretion in large cholangiocytes and loss of choleretic effect of secretin. Small cholangiocytes de novo express the secretin receptor gene and secretin-induced cAMP response. Consistent with damage of large ducts, we detected cytochrome P-4502E1 (which CCl4 converts to its radicals) only in large cholangiocytes. CCl4 induces selective apoptosis of large ducts associated with loss of large cholangiocyte proliferation and secretion.  (+info)

Effect of mitogenic or regenerative cell proliferation on lacz mutant frequency in the liver of MutaTMMice treated with 5, 9-dimethyldibenzo[c,g]carbazole. (8/931)

The purpose of this work was to investigate the impact of cell proliferation on liver mutagenesis. The genotoxic hepatocarcinogen 5, 9-dimethyldibenzo[c,g]carbazole (DMDBC) was administered to lacZ transgenic MutaTMMice at a non-hepatotoxic dose of 10 mg/kg, which induces only a slight increase in the liver lacZ mutant frequency (MF). To determine if cell proliferation stimuli enhanced DMDBC mutagenicity, MF was analyzed in mice first receiving DMDBC 10 mg/kg, then approximately 2 weeks later, either carbon tetrachloride (CCl4, a cytotoxic agent inducing regenerative cell proliferation) or phenobarbital (PB, a mitogenic agent inducing direct hyperplasia). In preliminary studies, the extent of cell proliferation induced by CCl4, PB and DMDBC was determined in non-transgenic CD2F1 mice by means of 5-bromodeoxyuridine labeling. The labeling index was significantly increased after CCl4 and PB, while no change was detected with DMDBC. MF was then determined in MutaTMMice 28 days after initial DMDBC treatment. No increase in MF was detected in mice receiving CCl4 or PB alone. A 2- to 3-fold increase in MF was detected in mice treated with 10 mg/kg DMDBC alone. In contrast, MF was markedly increased in mice receiving DMDBC followed by proliferative treatment (15-fold with CCl4 and 25-fold with PB). These results demonstrate that expression of DMDBC-induced mutations in mouse liver largely depends on the induction of cell proliferation (by a cytotoxic or mitogenic stimulus) and illustrate that MutaTMMouse is a valuable tool to investigate the early events of liver carcinogenesis.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - Isolation of hydroxy fatty acids from livers of carbon tetrachloride-treated rats by thin-layer chromatography. AU - Bandi, Z. L.. AU - Ansari, G. A.S.. PY - 1989. Y1 - 1989. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0024358754&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0024358754&partnerID=8YFLogxK. U2 - 10.1016/S0021-9673(01)89705-3. DO - 10.1016/S0021-9673(01)89705-3. M3 - Article. C2 - 2777965. AN - SCOPUS:0024358754. VL - 475. SP - 461. EP - 466. JO - Journal of Chromatography A. JF - Journal of Chromatography A. SN - 0021-9673. IS - 2. ER - ...
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Semantic Scholar extracted view of Studies on fatty liver with isolated hepatocytes. II. The action of carbon tetrachloride on lipid peroxidation, protein, and triglyceride synthesis and secretion. by Giuseppe Poli et al.
Coexpression of Smad7 and UPA attenuates carbon tetrachloride-induced rat liver fibrosis - Get your full text copy in PDF #883479
The role of Kupffer cells in carbon tetrachloride intoxication in mice.: Carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4))-induced acute hepatitis is assumed to involve two phases.
It was recently found that the decomposition of chlorine monoxide takes place at the same rate in solution in carbon tetrachloride as in the gaseous state. Under both conditions the reaction occurs in consecutive stages, each bimolecular. The rate of the unimolecular decomposition of nitrogen pentoxide is also uninfluenced by carbon tetrachloride. Thus this solvent appears to be established as a normal medium for reactions of varying kinetic type. The interest of this lies in the fact that with reactions that cannot be measured in the gaseous state at all, the rate in carbon tetrachloride can be taken as the rate which the reaction would have in the absence of a medium, and the influence of any given solvent can at once be recognised as accelerating or retarding. In this way it may be possible to obtain a deeper understanding of the effect of solvents on the rates of chemical reactions. In the meantime it is desirable to make as many direct measurements as possible on reactions which can be ...
Cirrhosis of the liver - Exposure to carbon tetrachloride Factor. Last reviewed for CCPS 12 March 2008.. Investigative Documents. Claimant Report - Exposure to Carbon Tetrachloride - Cirrhosis of the Liver [CR9116]. Preliminary questions [20508]. [79]22396. there is some evidence that exposure to carbon tetrachloride may be a factor in the development or worsening of the condition under consideration.. 20585 [80] the veteran has experienced inhalation or cutaneous contact with carbon tetrachloride at some time.. 20586 - the veteran has established the causal connection between exposure to carbon tetrachloride and VEA service for cirrhosis of the liver.. 20587 - the veteran has established the causal connection between exposure to carbon tetrachloride and VEA service for the clinical onset of cirrhosis of the liver.. 20589 - the veteran has established the causal connection between exposure to carbon tetrachloride and operational service for the clinical onset of cirrhosis of the ...
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1. Epidermal growth factor (EGF) is known to protect the gastrointestinal tract against various noxious agents. Its potential value in preventing/treating hepatic injury is, however, largely unexplored. We therefore examined whether EGF could influence CCl4-induced hepatic injury.. 2. Female Sprague-Dawley rats (8 per group) received saline or recombinant EGF (500 or 750 μg/kg, intraperitoneal) 30 min before CCU (20% v/v, in olive oil, intraperitoneal). Eighteen hours later, animals were killed, serum was collected for assay of biochemical markers of hepatic injury and livers were removed for histological analyses.. 3. Administration of CCl4 resulted in severe hepatic necrosis and caused a 10-fold rise in plasma alanine aminotransferase levels compared with levels seen in control animals (218 ± 15 compared with 23 ± 9 μmol/l in controls, mean ± SEM, P , 0.01). Serum malondialdehyde levels, used as a marker of lipid peroxidation, showed a 2-fold rise in response to CCl4 treatment (median ...
Conference Paper: Investigation on the effect of dietary omega 3-6-9 fatty acids and lard on carbon tetrachloride induced liver ...
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No, $\ce{CCl4}$ is not an electrolye. An electrolye is a material that causes ions (charged entities) to form in the solvent. Carbon tetrachloride neither dissociates into ions nor induces ion formation in the solvent.. The reason is that the $\ce{C-Cl}$ bond is rather strong and wont break under normal solution conditions. Nor does the molecule have any net dipole moment.. ...
Intermolecular associations in liquid systems of non-polar and slightly polar compounds were studied through excess molar volumes, and excess dielectric properties for mixtures of carbon tetrachloride with benzene, toluene and p-xylene. These excess properties were calculated from measurements of density, static permittivity and refractive index over the whole range of concentrations, at 298.15K. The values of the excess dielectric properties for these mixtures were fitted in two different ways, one through least squares using the Redlich-Kister equation and the other using a model developed to explain deviations from ideality. The first fit was found to be descriptive while the second gave the equilibrium constant values for the interaction products actually formed in the mixtures and the respective electronic polarizabilities and dipole moments, indicating the existence of interaction products ...
This assessment will help insure consistency in the Agencys consideration of the relevant scientific health data associated with carbon tetrachloride. In the development of the assessment document, the scientific literature has been inventoried, key studies have been evaluated and summary/conclusions have been prepared so that the chemicals toxicity and related characteristics are qualitatively identified. Observed effect levels and dose-response relationships are discussed, where appropriate, so that the nature of the adverse health responses are placed in perspective with observed environmental levels ...
Find suppliers and manufacturers of SOLVENTS, Carbon Tetrachloride used in the formulation and manufacture of adhesives and sealants.
Measurements of the viscosity of superheated carbon tetrachloride were made at various superheats ranging from 0°C superheat to 37°C superheat. The measurements were made in three groups: two isotherms at 82.4°C and 88.3°C, and one isobar at 690 mm Hg. The three major drawbacks to attaining superheated conditions are vibrations (mechanical shock), impurities, and the maintenance of large volumes of superheated liquid. While the viscometer itself was a simple capillary viscometer, the special procedures and techniques required to attain the necessary superheats entailed the use of high vacuum equipment, liquid degassing systems, a vibration free table, and controlling systems to maintain the temperatures and pressures within the desired fluctuation limits. The results obtained show that the viscosity curve for carbon tetrachloride in the superheated regime appears to be a smooth continuation of the curve below the normal boiling point. A curve fit to the experimental data gave the following ...
NOTE: Although the toxicity values presented in these toxicity profiles were correct at the time they were produced, these values are subject to change. Users should always refer to the Toxicity Value Database for the current toxicity values.. DECEMBER 1992 Prepared by: Andrew Francis, M.S., D.A.B.T., Chemical Hazard Evaluation and Communication Group, Biomedical Environmental Information Analysis Section, Health and Safety Research Division, *, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Prepared for: Oak Ridge Reservation Environmental Restoration Program. *Managed by Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., for the U.S. Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-AC05-84OR21400.. Humans are sensitive to carbon tetrachloride intoxication by oral, inhalation and dermal routes. Oral and inhalation exposure to high concentrations of carbon tetrachloride results in acute central nervous system effects including dizziness, vertigo, headache, depression, confusion, incoordination and, in severe cases, respiratory failure, ...
1. In cirrhosis the kidney tends to retain salt and water abnormally. Two theories have been proposed to account for this: the underfilling theory, in which sodium retention is thought to occur secondary to perceived underfilling of the circulation, and the overflow theory, in which sodium retention is considered to be due to a primary renal defect. 2. Using the model of cirrhosis produced by carbon tetrachloride administration in the rat, the ability of the kidney to excrete sodium has been examined in vivo and during isolated perfusion. 3. Cirrhotic animals demonstrated a reduced ability to excrete an acute sodium load: 6 h after 2 mmol of sodium was given by gavage, 27.5 ± 10.5% had been excreted by the cirrhotic rats and 62.5 ± 7.0% by control rats (P , 0.025). 4. In contrast, during isolated perfusion, kidneys from cirrhotic animals excreted the same amount of sodium as control animals over a range of perfusion pressures from 90 to 150 mmHg (12 to 20 kPa). 5. The data are consistent ...
The residue is added to a solution of 50 g. of sodium in about a liter of 95 per cent alcohol. The solution is boiled under a reflux condenser for about one hour (Note 2) and then allowed to stand overnight. The reaction mixture is diluted with about 6 l. of water and the two layers are separated. The aqueous layer is extracted with three or four 500-cc. portions of carbon tetrachloride (Note 3), and the extracts are added to the bromomesitylene. This solution is then washed thoroughly with water. The carbon tetrachloride solution is separated, dried over calcium chloride, and distilled. After the carbon tetrachloride is removed the bromomesitylene is fractionated carefully under reduced pressure from a modified Claisen flask. The fraction boiling at 105-107°/16-17 mm. (Note 4) is bromomesitylene. The yield is 840-870 g. (79-82 per cent of the theoretical amount). There is a small low-boiling portion (about 25 g.) and also a small high-boiling residue. The bromomesitylene obtained in this way ...
In a 1-l. three-necked flask, fitted with a thermometer, a reflux condenser, and an inlet tube extending to the bottom of the flask and drawn out to a small opening, are placed 600 cc. of dry carbon tetrachloride, 154 g. (0.5 mole) of di-o-nitrophenyl disulfide, m.p. 193-195° (Org. Syn. Coll. Vol. I, 1941, 220), and 0.25 g. of iodine. To the upper end of the condenser is attached a glass tube which dips below the surface of a little carbon tetrachloride contained in a test tube. A current of chlorine, dried with sulfuric acid, is passed into the reaction mixture, the temperature of which is maintained at 50-60°. The rate of flow of the chlorine (about 16-17 g. per hour) is regulated so that little or no gas escapes through the carbon tetrachloride trap. The yellow di-o-nitrophenyl disulfide gradually disappears, and after two to two and one-half hours a homogeneous, dark yellow solution is obtained (Note 1). The warm solution is filtered from a small amount of dark residue through a warm ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - CD11b+ Gr1+ bone marrow cells ameliorate liver fibrosis by producing interleukin-10 in mice. AU - Suh, Yang Gun. AU - Kim, Ja Kyung. AU - Byun, Jin Seok. AU - Yi, Hyon Seung. AU - Lee, Young Sun. AU - Eun, Hyuk Soo. AU - Kim, So Yeon. AU - Han, Kwang Hyub. AU - Lee, Kwan Sik. AU - Duester, Gregg. AU - Friedman, Scott L.. AU - Jeong, Won Il. PY - 2012/11. Y1 - 2012/11. N2 - Clinical trials and animal models suggest that infusion of bone marrow cells (BMCs) is effective therapy for liver fibrosis, but the underlying mechanisms are obscure, especially those associated with early effects of BMCs. Here, we analyzed the early impact of BMC infusion and identified the subsets of BMCs showing antifibrotic effects in mice with carbon tetrachloride-induced liver fibrosis. An interaction between BMCs and activated hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) was investigated using an in vitro coculturing system. Within 24 hours, infused BMCs were in close contact with activated HSCs, which was associated ...
Recently, the need for more standardized operation procedures in experimental liver fibrosis research was suggested due to dramatic changes in European animal welfare rules. Here, we present a short series of standard operation procedures (SOPs) summarizing the most relevant and widely accepted expe …
Fluctuations in serum autofluorescence (AF) intensity have recently been widely used as markers of certain diseases such as cancer. To determine the diagnostic value of serum AF intensity for liver fibrosis in rats, we induced liver fibrosis by subcutaneous injection of carbon tetrachloride into rats. The rat serum AF intensities were detected at the excitation wavelength of 337 nm and the emission wavelength of 512 nm. The degree of liver fibrosis was evaluated by Van Giesons staining. The relationship between serum AF intensity and the degree of liver fibrosis was analyzed by Spearman and Pearson Correlation. The diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of the serum AF was determined by analyzing the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. Our results show that the serum AF intensity in the rat liver fibrosis model increased when compared with control rats eight weeks and twelve weeks post induction of liver fibrosis. However, there was no significant difference in serum AF intensity between
Mediators of Inflammation is a peer-reviewed, Open Access journal that publishes original research and review articles on all types of inflammatory mediators, including cytokines, histamine, bradykinin, prostaglandins, leukotrienes, PAF, biological response modifiers and the family of cell adhesion-promoting molecules.
Calculate the pressure that ccl4 will exert at 40 of 1.00 mol occupies 28.0 L, assuming that (a) CCl4 obeys the ideal-gas equation (b) CCl4 obeys the Van der Waals equation. (a) PV = nRT P = nRT / V (b) (P + n^2a/V^2)(V - nb) = ...
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Avoid open handling. Whenever possible, keep the substance in closed systems and apply closed loop re-filling with vapour return lines and dry-break couplings. Use only at well-ventilated places (e.g. in a fume hood) or with extract ventilation at points where emissions occur. Avoid inhalation of va-pours and skin contact with the liquid. Wear suitable personal protective equipment if exposure is likely. Limit the quantity of product in the work area for the work in hand. Do not use the substance in the vicinity of fire, hot/glowing objects or welding & cutting operations ...
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Information on Registered Substances comes from registration dossiers which have been assigned a registration number. The assignment of a registration number does however not guarantee that the information in the dossier is correct or that the dossier is compliant with Regulation (EC) No 1907/2006 (the REACH Regulation). This information has not been reviewed or verified by the Agency or any other authority. The content is subject to change without prior notice ...
BMP-9 interferes with liver regeneration and promotes liver fibrosis.. BMP9 is constitutively produced in the liver. Systemic levels act on many organs and tissues including bone and endothelium, but little is known about its hepatic functions in health and disease. Levels of BMP-9 and its receptors were analysed in primary liver cells. We investigated direct effects of BMP-9 on hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) and hepatocytes in vitro, and in acute and chronic liver injury models in mice. Quiescent and activated HSCs were identified as major BMP-9 producing liver cell type. BMP-9 stimulation of cultured hepatocytes inhibited proliferation, epithelial to mesenchymal transition and preserved expression of important metabolic enzymes such as cytochrome P450. Acute liver injury caused by partial hepatectomy or single injections of carbon tetrachloride (CCl 4 ) or lipopolysaccharide (LPS) into mice resulted in transient downregulation of hepatic BMP-9 mRNA expression. Correspondingly, LPS stimulation ...
The cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) selective inhibitor celecoxib is widely used in the treatment of pain and inflammation. Celecoxib has been explored as a possible treatment of liver fibrosis with contradictory results, depending on the model. The present study reports the effect of celecoxib in a 5-week …
ASTM Committee D28 on Activated Carbon was formed in 1962. D28 meets twice a year, usually in April and October, with about 15 members attending two days of technical meetings. The Committee, with a current membership of approximately 35, has jurisdiction of 27 standards, published in the Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Volume 15.01. D28 has 3 technical subcommittees that maintain jurisdiction over these standards. These standards have and continue to play a preeminent role in determining acid extractable content in activated carbon by ashing, moisture in activated carbon, carbon tetrachloride activity, total ash content, ball-pan hardness, iodine number and pH of activated carbon.. ...
The purpose. To study the effect of partial hepatectomy (PH) on the main ways of ammonia detoxication in the liver (synthesis of urea and glutamine) in chronic tetrachlorcarbon (CCl4) hepatitis. Methods. The experiments were performed on 165 white outbred rats (females) weighing 180-220 g Chronic CCl4-hepatitis was reproduced by subcutaneous injection of 50% CCl4 solution in olive oil (0.1 ml/100g of body weight,65 days, through the day with two two-week breaks between 6-7 and 13-14 injections). PH conducted electrocautery, removing part of the left lobe of the liver (15-20% by weight of the body) to 65th (and last) day of the introduction of the CCl4 ...
Artichoke is a plant with antioxidant properties. In this study, we investigated the effect of artichoke extract pretreatment on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced oxidative stress and hepatotoxicity. Rats were given artichoke leaf extract (1.5 g/kg/day) by gavage for 2 weeks and after then CCl4 (1 ml/kg; i.p.) was applied. All rats were killed 24 11 after the CCl4 injection. CCl4 administration resulted in hepatic necrosis and significant increases in plasma transaminase activities as well as hepatic malondialdehyde (MDA) and diene conjugate (DC) levels in the liver of rats. Glutathione (GSH) and vitamin C levels decreased, but vitamin E levels increased in the liver Of CCl4-treated rats. Hepatic Superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities remained unchanged, but glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and glutathione transferase (GST) activities decreased following CCl4 treatment. In rats pretreated with artichoke extract, significant decreases in plasma transaminase activities and amelioration in ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - [The study of susceptibility to carbon tetrachloride and benzene in offspring of expanded simple tandem repeats mutation mice exposed to formaldehyde].. AU - Wang, Chao. AU - Liu, Yun ru. AU - Zhou, Yin. AU - Li, Ai ping. AU - Zhou, Jian wei. PY - 2011/1/1. Y1 - 2011/1/1. N2 - To investigate the susceptibility to carbon tetrachloride and benzene in offspring of expanded simple tandem repeats (ESTR) mutation mice exposed to formaldehyde (FA). F5 and F10 offspring (200 mg/m3 x 2 hours) served as H group and ICR mice were used as control group (group C). The F5 and F10 offspring were exposed to 10 ml/kg carbon tetrachloride at the doses of 0.05%, 0.50% or 5.00% for 24 hours, respectively or 500 or 1000 mg/kg benzene for 24 hours, respectively by intraperitoneal injection. Serum alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST) and the hepatic superoxide dismutase (SOD) or malondialdehyde (MDA) were detected; also the hepatic pathological changes were observed under light ...
The berries of Seabuckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.) are traditional medicinal foods that have been used by Tibetans and Mongolians for thousands of years. The polysaccharides are the main components of Seabuckthorn berries, possessing immune stimulating, anti-cancer and anti-fatigue activities. The present
Malotilate is a new drug suggested for use in chronic liver diseases. It is shown here to prevent liver damage caused by CCl4. The concomitant administration of malotilate with CCl4 significantly decreased hydroxyproline accumulation in the liver, liver prolyl 4-hydroxylase and liver and serum galactosylhydroxylysyl glucosyltransferase activities. However, it had no effect on the daily urinary hydroxyproline excretion or the hydroxyproline content of the skin, liver or lungs in normal young growing rats. It also had no specific inhibitory effect on hydroxyproline synthesis or secretion in fibroblast cultures, and did not affect the amount of procollagen-alpha 1(I)-specific mRNAs in these cultures. Thus it seems to have no direct inhibitory effect on collagen metabolism. In addition to inhibition of liver collagen accumulation, malotilate was also able to prevent the development of morphological changes in the liver such as focal necrosis, fatty infiltration and inflammatory changes. It also ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - α-Melanocyte-stimulating hormone gene therapy reverses carbon tetrachloride induced liver fibrosis in mice. AU - Lee, Tsung Hsing. AU - Jawan, Bruno. AU - Chou, Wen-Ying. AU - Lu, Cheng Nan. AU - Wu, Chia Ling. AU - Kuo, Hsiao Mei. AU - Concejero, Allan M.. AU - Wang, Cheng Haung. PY - 2006/6/1. Y1 - 2006/6/1. N2 - Background: Hepatic fibrosis represents a process of healing and scarring in response to chronic liver injury. Effective therapies are lacking. We have previously demonstrated that α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH) gene therapy protects against thioacetamide-induced acute liver failure in mice. Recent reports showed that collagen metabolism is a novel target of α-MSH. Therefore, the aim of this study is to investigate whether α-MSH gene therapy possesses anti-hepatic fibrogenic effect in mice. Methods: Liver fibrosis was induced in mice by administering carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) continuously for 10 weeks. α-MSH expression plasmid was delivered via ...
Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine (eCAM) is an international peer-reviewed, Open Access journal that seeks to understand the sources and to encourage rigorous research in this new, yet ancient world of complementary and alternative medicine.
The hepatocurative potential of ethanolic extract (ETO) and sesquiterpene lactones enriched fraction (SL) of Taraxacum officinale roots was evaluated against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) induced...
The uses of carbon tetrachloride have diminished lately because it is known to be damage peoples health. People think it might damage the ozone layer. Today, it is rarely used for anything.. Previously, was used in fire extinguishers. It was also used to make freon, used in dry cleaning and as a refrigerant.. ...
2,4-BIS(TRICHLOROMETHYL)QUINOLINE 203506-37-0 NMR spectrum, 2,4-BIS(TRICHLOROMETHYL)QUINOLINE H-NMR spectral analysis, 2,4-BIS(TRICHLOROMETHYL)QUINOLINE C-NMR spectral analysis ect.
Liver fibrosis is a feature in the majority of chronic liver diseases and oxidative stress is considered to be its main pathogenic mechanism. Antioxidants including vitamin E, are effective in preventing liver fibrogenesis. Several plant-drived antioxidants, such as silymarin, baicalin, beicalein, quercetin, apigenin, were shown to interfere with liver fibrogenesis. The antioxidans above are polyphenols, flavonoids or structurally related compounds which are the main chemical components of Pomegranate peels and seeds, and the antioxidant activity of Pomegranate peels and seeds have been verified. Here we investigated whether the extracts of pomegranate peels (EPP) and seeds (EPS) have preventive efficacy on liver fibrosis induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) in rats and explored its possible mechanisms. The animal model was established by injection with 50 % CCl4 subcutaneously in male wistar rats twice a week for four weeks. Meanwhile, EPP and EPS were administered orally every day for 4 weeks,
in Liang, Qing; Newman, Paul A; Reimann, Stefan (Eds.) SPARC Report on the Mystery of Carbon Tetrachloride (2016). The Montreal Protocol (MP) controls the production and consumption of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 or CTC) and other ozone-depleting substances (ODSs) for emissive uses. CCl4 is a major ODS, accounting for ... [more ▼]. The Montreal Protocol (MP) controls the production and consumption of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 or CTC) and other ozone-depleting substances (ODSs) for emissive uses. CCl4 is a major ODS, accounting for about 12% of the globally averaged inorganic chlorine and bromine in the stratosphere, compared to 14% for CFC-12 in 2012. In spite of the MP controls, there are large ongoing emissions of CCl4 into the atmosphere. Estimates of emissions from various techniques ought to yield similar numbers. However, the recent WMO/UNEP Scientific Assessment of Ozone Depletion [WMO, 2014] estimated a 2007-2012 CCl4 bottom-up emission of 1-4 Gg/year (1-4 kilotonnes/year), based on ...
Introduction : We explored the protective effects of total glucosides of paeony (TGP) and the underlying mechanisms in carbon tetrachloride (CCl 4 )-induced experimental liver injury in mice. Material and methods : Chronic liver damage was induced by intraperitoneal injection of CCl 4...
TITANIUM BEARING MATERIAL FLOW CONTROL IN THE MANUFACTURE OF TITIANIUM TETRACHLORIDE USING A COMBINATION OF FEEDBACK AND FEED FORWARD RESPONSES - This disclosure relates to process for controlling chlorination reactions in manufacturing titanium tetrachloride in a fluidized bed reactor, optionally followed by processing to form a titanium product comprising a minor amount of silica, the process comprising: (a) feeding carbonaceous material, titanium bearing material comprising an amount of silica, and chlorine to the fluidized bed reactor to form a gaseous stream, and condensing the gaseous stream to form titanium tetra-chloride, a non-condensed gas stream and a condensable product stream, wherein at least one of the titanium tetrachloride and the non-condensed gas stream comprise silicon tetrachloride; (b) analyzing the non-condensed gas stream, the titanium tetrachloride or both, to determine the analyzed concentration of silicon tetrachloride; (c) identifying a set point concentration of ...
Germanium tetrachloride Germanium tetrachloride IUPAC name Germanium(IV) chloride Other names Germanium chloride Tetrachlorogermane Identifiers CAS number
Adult hepatocytes and liver-cell progenitors play a role in restoring liver tissue after injury. For the study of progenitor cells in liver repair, experimental models included (a) surgical removal of liver tissue by partial hepatectomy; (b) acute injury by carbontetrachloride; (c) acute injury by D-galactosamine (GalN) and N-nitrosomorpholine (NNM); and (d) chemical hepatocarcinogenesis by feeding NNM in low and high doses. Serological and immuno-histological detection of alpha-fetoprotein gene expression served to follow pathways of cellular differentiation. Stem cells were not required in models of surgical removal of parenchyma and in carbon tetrachloride intoxication of adult hepatocytes. In contrast, regeneration of liver occurred through biliary epithelial cells in injuries induced by GalN and NNM. These biliary epithelial cells, collectively called oval cells, are most probably derived from the canals of Hering. Proliferating bile duct cells reached a level of differentiation with ...
Phytoconstituents like many polyphenols are poorly absorbed either due to their multiple-ring large size molecules which cannot be absorbed by simple diffusion, or due to their poor miscibility with oils and other lipids, severely limiting their ability to pass across the lipid-rich outer membranes of the enterocytes of the small intestine. Water-soluble phytoconstituent molecules (mainly polyphenols) can be converted into lipid-compatible molecular complexes, which are called Phytosomes. Gallic acid (GA, 3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoic acid), a naturally occurring plant phenol. So the following study was undertaken to evaluate the protective effects of gallic acid and gallic acid Phytosomes (GAP) at different doses against CCl4 induced hepatic and renal damage in albino rats. Liver damage was induced in Wister albino rats by administering CCl4 (1.5 ml/kg, i.p) once only. Simultaneously, GAP (40, 60 mg/kg, p.o.), GA (100 and 200 mg/kg, p.o.), and the reference drug silymarin (50 mg/kg b.w.).were administered
1. INTRODUCTION. Free radicals in the form of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species are an integral part of normal physiology. Over-production of these reactive species can occur, due to oxidative stress brought about by the imbalance of the bodily antioxidant defense system and free radical formation. These reactive species can react with biomolecules, causing cellular injury and even death. They can lead to the development of chronic diseases such as cancers and those that involve the cardio-and cerebrovascular systems (Gurdip et al., 2007). The consumption of fruits and vegetables (Peschel et al., 2006) containing antioxidants has been found to offer protection against these diseases. Antioxidants are often added to foods to prevent the radical chain reactions of oxidation, and they act by inhibiting the initiation and propagation step leading to the termination of the reaction and delay the oxidation process (Shahidi et al., 1992). Cinnamon is a popular flavoring ingredient, widely used in ...
Natural products serve as lead molecules for development for the many popular drugs. Herbal drugs are having fewer side effects than the other class o..
If ya find exactly where to get calcium cyanimide please let us all know, I have been trying for about a year now. I have tried 3 really good ags in my area and have called several others with no luck. I asked for lime-nitrogen and also calcium cyanimide by name. One place over the phone said it was not used for fertiliser anymore and has been replaced with better nitrogen fertilisers (names not given to me). Another Ag-store said they could order it so I said OK. A few days latter they called back and said it was no longer avaible. I live in Calif.. Good luck! I really do hope you find a good source ...
Effect and mechanism of methyl helicterate isolated from Helicteres angustifolia (Sterculiaceae) on hepatic fibrosis induced by carbon tetrachloride in rats. - Quanfang Huang, Yongwen Li, Shijun Zhang, Renbin Huang, Li Zheng, Ling Wei, Min He, Ming Liao, Li Li, Lang Zhuo, Xing Lin
73790-71-3 - GYIYKXRSUWXOKK-UHFFFAOYSA-N - Piperidine, 1-(o-chloro-alpha-(trichloromethyl)benzyl)-, hydrochloride - Similar structures search, synonyms, formulas, resource links, and other chemical information.
Ameliorative Effects of Adansonia Digitata Leaf Extract on Carbon Tetrachloride (Ccl4) Induced Testicular Toxicity in Adult Male Wistar Rats… 481 - 487. Oyewopo Oyetunji, Ibrahim Babatunde, Saalu Chia, Osinubi Abraham, Adewale Benard, Eweoya Olugbenga, Williams Esemekiphoraro ...
CCl4 administration leads to the infiltration of inflammatory cells and subsequent liver damage leads to the development of fibrosis. In order to investigate the lncRNAs and mRNAs involved in the progression of liver fibrosis, an animal model of liver injury and fibrosis was constructed using male Sprague-Dawley rats treated with CCl4. The predominant biological processes and pathways enriched in the overlapping differentially expressed mRNAs were revealed. Following this, the differentially expressed lncRNAs were analyzed and their expression levels were verified using RT-qPCR. Finally, one of the most significant differentially expressed lncRNAs, NR_002155.1, was investigated further in order to determine its role in liver fibrosis.. The results of the present study revealed that liver tissues from rats in the CCl4-treated group exhibited signs of inflammation and the occurrence of fibrosis. The body weight and liver/body weight ratio of the rats were decreased following CCl4 treatment for 8 ...
Lin S.C., Lin C.H., Lin C.C., Lin Y.H., Chen C.F., Chen I.C., Wang L.Y. Hepatoprotective effects of Arctium lappa Linne on liver injuries induced by chronic ethanol consumption and potentiated by carbon tetrachloride. Journal of biomedical science 2002 9:5 (401-409) ...
Lin S.C., Lin C.H., Lin C.C., Lin Y.H., Chen C.F., Chen I.C., Wang L.Y. Hepatoprotective effects of Arctium lappa Linne on liver injuries induced by chronic ethanol consumption and potentiated by carbon tetrachloride. Journal of biomedical science 2002 9:5 (401-409) ...
Alexander Zlotnik is the author of these articles in the Journal of Visualized Experiments: Inducing Acute Liver Injury in Rats via Carbon Tetrachloride (CCl4) Exposure Through an Orogastric Tube, A Middle Cerebral Artery Occlusion Technique for Inducing Post-stroke Depression in Rats, A New Method for Inducing a Depression-Like Behavior in Rats
Many potentially toxic substances enter the body via the gastrointestinal tract (gut). As the blood supply from the gastrointestinal tract (through the portal vein) drains into the liver, the liver comes into contact with the potentially toxic substances, and this exposure will often be at a higher concentration than in other tissues. The liver is essential for the metabolic disposal of virtually all xenobiotics (foreign substances). This process is mostly achieved without injury to the liver itself or to other organs. A few compounds such as carbon tetrachloride are toxic themselves or produce metabolites that cause liver injury in a dose-dependent fashion. However, most agents cause liver injury only under special circumstances when toxic substances accumulate.
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SiCl4 is silicon tetrachloride, which is a non-polar molecule. Silicon tetrachloride is non-polar because the four chemical bonds between silicon and chlorine are equally distributed. The even...
Can the Liver Repair Itself? - One of the primary adverse health effects of excessive drinking is damage to the liver, a bodily organ...
Platinum(IV) chloride 96%; CAS Number: 13454-96-1; EC Number: 236-645-1; Synonym: Platinum tetrachloride; Linear Formula: Cl4Pt; find Sigma-Aldrich-206113 MSDS, related peer-reviewed papers, technical documents, similar products & more at Sigma-Aldrich.
Strain KC was isolated from an aquifer and it is able to transform carbon tetrachloride to carbon dioxide, formate, and other ... strain KC can mineralize carbon tetrachloride, which is useful for in situremediation of aquifers contaminated with carbon ... Carbon tetrachloride can be a pollutant in soils and groundwater, and according to the Center for Disease Control and ... "Carbon tetrachloride". Stringfellow WT, Aitken MD (June 1994). "Comparative physiology of phenanthrene degradation by two ...
Side products include carbon tetrachloride, hydrogen chloride, and hexachlorobutadiene. Several other methods have been ... Doherty, R.E. (2000). "A History of the Production and Use of Carbon Tetrachloride, Tetrachloroethylene, Trichloroethylene and ... Carbon Tetrachloride and Tetrachloroethylene". Environmental Forensics. 1 (2): 69-81. doi:10.1006/enfo.2000.0010. S2CID ... Degradation products observed in a laboratory include phosgene, trichloroacetyl chloride, hydrogen chloride, carbon dioxide, ...
"Reactions of the α-methoxybenzyl radical in carbon tetrachloride and in other solvents. Carbon tetrachloride as a chlorinating ...
The more volatile byproducts such as carbon tetrachloride and sulfur dichloride can be removed by distillation. The separation ... It reacts with iron, evolving carbon tetrachloride. Perchloromethyl mercaptan is oxidized by nitric acid to ... the chlorination gives carbon tetrachloride and additional sulfur chlorides. The formation of byproducts can be suppressed by ... Carbon disulfide is chlorinated using an iodine catalyst. The following equations operate most efficiently at temperatures ...
It is soluble in carbon tetrachloride (CCl4). Compared to the other uranium halides, little is known about UCl6. Uranium ...
Carbon tetrachloride is commonly used to induce acute type A liver injury in animal models. Idiosyncratic (type B) injury ... Examples include arsenic, carbon tetrachloride, and vinyl chloride. Drugs continue to be taken off the market due to late ... Causes include: Paracetamol, carbon tetrachloride In this pattern, hepatocellular necrosis is associated with infiltration of ... Recnagal, R. (1983). Carbon tetrachloride hepatotoxicity, status quo and future prospects. Trends in Pharmacological Science 4 ...
The Reimer-Tiemann reaction can be altered to yield phenolic acids by substituting the chloroform with carbon tetrachloride. ... Gaonkar, A.V.; Kirtany, J.K. (2010). "ChemInform Abstract: Reimer-Tiemann Reaction Using Carbon Tetrachloride". ChemInform. 22 ...
The other major contaminant is carbon tetrachloride (CCl4). Both of these substances affected areas adjacent to the site. In ...
Examples of organohalides are carbon tetrachloride and chloroform. The addition is an anti-Markovnikov addition. Early work ... "Addition of Carbon Tetrachloride and Chloroform to Olefins". Science. 102 (2640): 128. Bibcode:1945Sci...102..128K. doi:10.1126 ...
Solvents include dichloromethane, nitromethane, carbon tetrachloride, cyclohexane, trichlorofluoromethane. It is probably ...
The experimental evidence, a strong peak at 720 atomic mass units, indicated that a carbon molecule with 60 carbon atoms was ... carbon tetrachloride. 0.447. chloroform. 0.25. n-hexane. 0.046. cyclohexane. 0.035. tetrahydrofuran. 0.006. ... A carbon atom in the C. 60 molecule can be substituted by a nitrogen or boron atom yielding a C. 59N or C59B respectively.[26] ... Solid C60 - a new form of carbon.. *^ Girolami, G. S.; Rauchfuss, T. B.; Angelici, R. J. (1999). Synthesis and Technique in ...
... forms a yellow solution in carbon tetrachloride. The solid can be obtained at liquid nitrogen temperatures, ...
Jena, P. K.; Brocchi, E. A.; Garcia, R. I. (1997). "Kinetics of chlorination of niobium pentoxide by carbon tetrachloride". ... as a major side-product in the reaction of niobium pentoxide with various chlorinating agents such as carbon tetrachloride and ...
... against carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatic damage in albino rats". Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 91 (1): 61-64. doi:10.1016/j ...
Effect of iron and copper salts and carbon tetrachloride". J. Biol. Chem. 265 (5): 2684-91. PMID 2303421. Welch CL, Xia YR, ...
Carbon tetrachloride is an example of a probable nongenotoxic carcinogen to aquatic vertebrates. Historically, carbon ... carbon tetrachloride could potentially be linked to liver cancer. Experimental cancer studies have shown that carbon ... Postulated Carbon Tetrachloride Mode of Action: A Review. J Environ Sci Health C Environ Carcinog Ecotoxicol Rev. 25(3): 185- ... carbon tetrachloride works as a nongenotoxic carcinogen by formulating free radicals which induce oxidative stress. It has been ...
... and carbon tetrachloride. The International Joint Commission has identified areas where pollution is particularly intense ( ...
Williamson, D. G.; Cvetanovic, R. J. (1968). "Rates of ozone-olefin reactions in carbon tetrachloride solutions". Journal of ... The carbon of diazomethane bears the largest HOMO, while the end olefinic carbons of methyl acrylate and styrene bear the ... However, the synthesis of α-halocarbonyl ylides can also undesirably lead to the loss of carbon monoxide and the generation of ... The carboxyl is the better electron-withdrawing group, causing the β-carbon to be most electrophilic. Thus, cycloaddition ...
Carbon tetrachloride (CCl. 4). 85 ppt /. 83 ppt. 0.0143 Sulfur hexafluoride (SF. 6). 7.79 ppt /[65]. 7.39 ppt[65]. 0.0043 ... "Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center.. *^ ESRL Web Team (14 January 2008). "Trends in carbon dioxide". Esrl.noaa.gov. ... "International Carbon Flows". Carbon Trust. May 2011. Retrieved 12 November 2012.. *^ e.g., Gupta et al. (2007) assessed the ... "Executive summary". The Carbon Cycle and Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide. Archived from the original on 7 December 2009.. , in IPCC ...
Carbon tetrachloride Liquid CCl4 −135.4 Carbon tetrachloride Gas CCl4 −95.98 ... For instance, carbon and hydrogen will not directly react to form methane (CH4), so that the standard enthalpy of formation ... All elements in their standard states (oxygen gas, solid carbon in the form of graphite, etc.) have a standard enthalpy of ... For example, the standard enthalpy of formation of carbon dioxide would be the enthalpy of the following reaction under the ...
Marshall Space Flight Center, Two Methods for Purifying Carbon Tetrachloride. Accessed 27 Oct 2006.. ...
Siegers CP, Pauli V, Korb G, Younes M (August 1986). "Hepatoprotection by malotilate against carbon tetrachloride-alcohol- ...
... is inert towards carbon tetrachloride, chloroform, and dimethylformamide. Zirconium perchlorate reacts ... It can be formed by reacting zirconium tetrachloride with dry perchloric acid at liquid nitrogen temperatures. Zr(ClO4)4 ...
"Hispidin analogue davallialactone attenuates carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity in mice". Journal of Natural Products ...
Trinitroethanol reacts with carbon tetrachloride under a catalyst of FeCl3. CCl 4 Carbon tetrachloride + 4 HOCH 2 C ( NO 2 ) 3 ... Trinitroethanol → FeCl 3 TNEOC + 4 HCl {\displaystyle {\ce {{\underset {Carbon\ tetrachloride}{CCl4}}+{\underset { ...
The same geometry seems to persist in carbon tetrachloride solution. Cobalt(III) nitrate can be prepared by the reaction of ... Cobalt(III) nitrate can be intercalated in graphite, in the ratio of 1 molecule for each 12 carbon atoms. Cobalt(III) fluoride ...
Carbon tetrachloride was suitable for liquid and electrical fires and the extinguishers were fitted to motor vehicles. Carbon ... Another type of carbon tetrachloride extinguisher was the fire grenade. This consisted of a glass sphere filled with CTC, that ... It was more effective and slightly less toxic than carbon tetrachloride and was used until 1969. Methyl bromide was discovered ... In 1910, The Pyrene Manufacturing Company of Delaware filed a patent for using carbon tetrachloride (CTC, or CCl4) to ...
A laboratory route involves the reaction of benzene with carbon tetrachloride followed by hydrolysis of the resulting ... Azizian, Saeid; Haydarpour, Afshin (November 2003). "Solubility of Benzophenone in Binary Alkane + Carbon Tetrachloride Solvent ...
Doherty, R.E. (2000). "A History of the Production and Use of Carbon Tetrachloride, Tetrachloroethylene, Trichloroethylene and ... Carbon Tetrachloride and Tetrachloroethylene". Environmental Forensics. 1 (2): 69-81. doi:10.1006/enfo.2000.0010.. ... Side products include carbon tetrachloride, hydrogen chloride, and hexachlorobutadiene.. Several other methods have been ... This reaction can be catalyzed by a mixture of potassium chloride and aluminium chloride or by activated carbon. ...
Manjunatha, B. K. (2008). "Hepatoprotective activity of Vitex trifolia against carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatic damage". ...
The use of this method is becoming less common, due to carbon tetrachloride being restricted under the Montreal protocol. ...
They also react with carbon dioxide and carbon tetrachloride, so that normal fire extinguishers are counterproductive when used ... Reaction with carbon Lithium is the only metal that reacts directly with carbon to give dilithium acetylide. Na and K can react ... Lithium and sodium react with carbon to form acetylides, Li2C2 and Na2C2, which can also be obtained by reaction of the metal ... They easily react with carbon dioxide to form carbonates or bicarbonates, or with hydrogen sulfide to form sulfides or ...
Carbon tetrachloride activity[edit]. Measurement of the porosity of an activated carbon by the adsorption of saturated carbon ... Woven carbon[edit]. There is a technology of processing technical rayon fiber into activated carbon cloth for carbon filtering ... Extruded activated carbon (EAC)[edit]. Extruded activated carbon (EAC) combines powdered activated carbon with a binder, which ... Polymer coated carbon[edit]. This is a process by which a porous carbon can be coated with a biocompatible polymer to give a ...
Carbon tetrabromide - CBr4. *Carbon tetrachloride - CCl4. *Carbon tetrafluoride - CF4 ...
soluble in hydrogen chloride, ethanol, chloroform, carbon tetrachloride slightly soluble in benzene ...
Silicon tetrachloride. Germanium tetrachloride. Tin tetrachloride. Lead tetrachloride. Related chloromethanes. Chloromethane. ... Carbon tetrachloride, also known as carbon tet or Freon 10, is a chemical compound. Its chemical formula is CCl4. It contains ... Tetrachloromethane, Benziform, Benzinoform, Carbon chloride, Carbon tet, Freon 10, Halon 104, Methane tetrachloride, ... Carbon tetrachloride is very poisonous to the liver, the kidneys and the nervous system; it might also cause cancer. ...
The trichlorosilane is then converted to a mixture of silane and silicon tetrachloride. This redistribution reaction requires a ... and silicon tetrachloride and involves a complex series of redistribution reactions (producing byproducts that are recycled in ... Protonated carbon dioxide. *Protonated hydrogen cyanide. *Silicon tricarbide. *Thioformaldehyde. *Tricarbon monoxide. * ...
Carbon tetrachloride. *Diesel fuel[10]. Classification of flammability[edit]. The US Government uses the Hazardous Materials ... as well as other carbon-based dusts.[11] There are at least a 140 known substances that produce combustible dust.[12]:38[13] ... carbon dioxide, and other gases). Antoine Lavoisier, one of the pioneers in these early insights, stated that Nothing is lost, ...
The loss of HCl results in a double bond on the central (previously quaternary) carbon atoms. ...
... and carbon tetrachloride". Journal of Geophysical Research. 105: 14285. Bibcode:2000JGR...10514285W. doi:10.1029/1999JC900273. ... An ancient carbon mystery". Science. 314 (5805): 1556-1557. doi:10.1126/science.1136110. ISSN 0036-8075. PMID 17158314.. ( ... In the 2000s, he proposed a method of climate engineering to restore carbon dioxide-consuming algae. He has been an outspoken ... You can't win people round by saying they are guilty for putting (carbon dioxide) in the air.[40] ...
... carbon tetrachloride and trichloroethylene, cause considerable hypomethylation of DNA, some through the activation of oxidative ...
Many of its applications previously used carbon tetrachloride (which was banned in US consumer products in 1970). In turn, 1,1, ... Doherty, R.E. (2000). "A History of the Production and Use of Carbon Tetrachloride, Tetrachloroethylene, Trichloroethylene and ...
Lettington, Alan H. (1998). "Applications of diamond-like carbon thin films". Carbon. 36 (5-6): 555-560. doi:10.1016/S0008-6223 ... Germanium tetrachloride is either hydrolyzed to the oxide (GeO2) or purified by fractional distillation and then hydrolyzed.[59 ... It is a lustrous, hard, grayish-white metalloid in the carbon group, chemically similar to its group neighbors tin and silicon ... For example, germanium tetrachloride, GeCl4, is obtained as a colorless fuming liquid boiling at 83.1 °C by heating the metal ...
in carbon tetrachloride induced renal injured Wistar rats: a dose- and time-dependent study" (PDF). Retrieved 19 November 2009. ...
"Chemical Sampling Information: Carbon Tetrachloride". OSHA. 16 June 2004. Retrieved 4 December 2009.. ... The highest level cited for concentration of carbon tetrachloride (seemingly of highest concern) is 459 micrograms per cubic ... especially carbon tetrachloride and chloroform) indicate that the bleach use may be a source that could be important in terms ... 8-52 times for chloroform and 1-1170 times for carbon tetrachloride, respectively, above baseline quantities in the household) ...
Carbon tetrachloride. *Chlordane. *Cyclodiene. *1,2-DCB. *1,4-DCB. *1,1-DCE ...
For instance, carbon tetrachloride (CCl. 4) etches silicon and aluminium, and trifluoromethane etches silicon dioxide and ...
Palladium on carbon hydrogenation removed the benzyl protecting group allowing the Swern oxidation of 2.10 to ketone 2.11 ... diol in 2.3 was protected as the boronic ester 2.4 preparing the molecule for upper part ring closure with tin tetrachloride to ... The 20 carbon frame is constructed from several pieces: propargyl alcohol (C1, C2, C14), propionaldehyde (C13, C12, C18), ...
... carbon tetrachloride, 1,2-dichloroethane, trichloroethene and xylene. The SGVs for ethyl benzene, phenol and toluene are ... dependent on the soil organic matter (SOM) content (which can be calculated from the total organic carbon (TOC) content). As an ...
Gases such as silicon tetrachloride (SiCl4) or germanium tetrachloride (GeCl4) are injected with oxygen in the end of the tube ... Carbon dioxide sensor. *Carbon monoxide detector. *Catalytic bead sensor. *Chemical field-effect transistor ... a reaction in which silicon tetrachloride and germanium tetrachloride are oxidized by reaction with water (H2O) in an ... where the tetrachlorides react with oxygen to produce silica or germania (germanium dioxide) particles. When the reaction ...
... undergoes further chlorination to yield carbon tetrachloride (CCl4): CHCl3 + Cl2 → CCl4 + HCl. The output of this ... carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and hydrogen chloride. Its half-life in air ranges from 55 to 620 days. Biodegradation in ... and carbon tetrachloride), which can then be separated by distillation.[7] ... The hydrogen attached to carbon in chloroform participates in hydrogen bonding.[28][29] Worldwide, chloroform is also used in ...
It can be prepared by reacting K2C8H8 with thorium tetrachloride in tetrahydrofuran (THF) at the temperature of dry ice, or by ... carbon arc lamps, heat-resistant crucibles, and as catalysts for industrial chemical reactions such as the oxidation of ammonia ... is prepared by heating thorium tetrachloride with limiting K(C5H5) used (other univalent metal cyclopentadienyls can also be ... which has a piano-stool structure and is made by reacting thorocene with thorium tetrachloride in tetrahydrofuran.[34] ...
Sources of carbon nucleophiles, e.g., Grignard reagents and organolithium compounds, add readily to the carbonyl. ... "Reduction of carboxylic esters to ethers with triethyl silane in the combined use of titanium tetrachloride and trimethylsilyl ... As for aldehydes, the hydrogen atoms on the carbon adjacent ("α to") the carboxyl group in esters are sufficiently acidic to ... Esters react with nucleophiles at the carbonyl carbon. The carbonyl is weakly electrophilic but is attacked by strong ...
M.S. Kharasch, E.V. Jensen, W.H. Urry (1945). Addition of Carbon Tetrachloride and Chloroform to Olefins. Science 102 (2640): ...
In physiological literature, GLA is designated as 18:3 (n−6). GLA is a carboxylic acid with an 18-carbon chain and three cis ... an enzyme that allows the creation of a double bond on the sixth carbon counting from the carboxyl terminus. LA is consumed ...
Carbon tetrachloride. Classification of flammabilityEdit. The US Government uses the Hazardous Materials Identification System ... The mass of the remains (ash, water, carbon dioxide, and other gases) is the same as it was prior to the burning of the matter ... as well as other carbon-based dusts.[10] There are at least a 140 known substances that produce combustible dust.[11]:38[12] ...
Strain KC of P. stutzeri, which is able to degrade carbon tetrachloride.[36] ... and initial characterization of Pseudomonas stutzeri KC mutants with impaired ability to degrade carbon tetrachloride". Arch ...
"Hepatoprotective effect of the natural fruit juice from Aronia melanocarpa on carbon tetrachloride-induced acute liver damage ...
Carbon tetrachloride has caused cancer in animals. Carbon tetrachloride has been found in at least 423 of the 1,636 National ... Exposure to very high amounts of carbon tetrachloride can damage the liver, kidneys, and nervous system. ... Carbon tetrachloride does not occur naturally. Exposure to this substance results mostly from breathing air, drinking water, or ... What is carbon tetrachloride?. Carbon tetrachloride is a manufactured chemical that does not occur naturally. It is a clear ...
carbon tetrachloride (tĕ´trəklôr´īd) or tetrachloromethane (tĕ´trəklôr´əmĕth´ān), CCl4, colorless, poisonous, liquid organic ... Carbon Tetrachloride Chemical Compounds COPYRIGHT 2006 Thomson Gale. Carbon Tetrachloride. OVERVIEW. Carbon tetrachloride (CAR- ... Carbon tetrachloride. Carbon tetrachloride is an organic chemical that is commonly used as a solvent. It is also called tetra ... Carbon tetrachloride. Carbon tetrachloride is an organic chemical that was commonly used as a solvent before it was determned ...
Personal protection: complete protective clothing including self-contained breathing apparatus. Do NOT let this chemical enter the environment. Collect leaking and spilled liquid in covered containers as far as possible. Absorb remaining liquid in sand or inert absorbent. Then store and dispose of according to local regulations ...
Carbon tetrachloride. CAS No: 56-23-5. NOTE:. (1) Efficacy of Medical Tests has not been evaluated.. (2) NIOSH references ... Carbon tetrachloride. Editor(s). /Author(s). Specific Medical Test(s) or Examination(s). Reference(s). ...
Toxicological profile for carbon tetrachloride Environmental health criteria for carbon tetrachloride Carbon tetrachloride MSDS ... Carbon tetrachloride is still used to manufacture less destructive refrigerants. Carbon tetrachloride made from heavy chlorine- ... "Environmental Health Criteria 208: CARBON TETRACHLORIDE" (PDF). who.int. "Public Health Statement for Carbon Tetrachloride ( ... carbon tetrachloride serves as a source of chlorine in the Appel reaction. One specialty use of carbon tetrachloride is in ...
Toxicological profile for Carbon Tetrachloride. Atlanta, GA: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health ...
MSDS for carbon tetrachloride is available at Fisher Scientific. Table data obtained from CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics ... This page provides supplementary chemical data on carbon tetrachloride. The handling of this chemical may incur notable safety ...
Recommendations for a Carbon Tetrachloride Standard. 76-133R.PDF (6 pages, 368K)pdf icon. ...
Acute renal failure in carbon tetrachloride poisoning. Original title. Fracaso renal agudo en la intoxicaci n por tetracloruro ... Description of a case of acute renal failure in a house painter due to massive exposure to carbon tetrachloride, with ... The literature on acute renal failure in carbon tetrachloride poisoning, and the clinical and histological features of this ... acute poisoning; renal dysfunction; organic solvents; painting; carbon tetrachloride. Descriptors (secondary). literature ...
... usually produced by the reaction of chlorine with carbon disulfide, methane, or other carbon-containing compounds: used mainly ... Carbon tetrachloride definition, a colorless, nonflammable, vaporous, toxic liquid, CCl4, ... carbon sink, carbon star, carbon steel, carbon tax, carbon tetrachloride, carbon tissue, carbon trading, carbon value, carbon ... a colorless, nonflammable, vaporous, toxic liquid, CCl4, usually produced by the reaction of chlorine with carbon disulfide, ...
Carbon tetrachloride. Find out what is in your tap water ... EWGs Tap Water Database Carbon tetrachloride results for Town ... Carbon tetrachloride. Town of Delmar. Carbon tetrachloride, a volatile carcinogenic solvent, has been used in industrial ... Carbon tetrachloride is no longer permitted in products intended for home use in the U.S. In the past, it was widely used as a ... Carbon tetrachloride does not break down easily and can remain in groundwater for years. In addition to increasing cancer risk ...
THE ACTION OF CARBON TETRACHLORIDE ON THE LIVER Br Med J 1922; 2 :907 ... THE ACTION OF CARBON TETRACHLORIDE ON THE LIVER. Br Med J 1922; 2 doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.2.3228.907 (Published 11 ...
... New research shows increased imports of dangerous chemicals groups call on EPA for action to protect ... Filed Under: Policy & Regulation Tagged With: 1-bromopropane, asbestos, carbon tetrachloride, chemical industry, CTC, DCM, EPA ... Filed Under: Policy & Regulation Tagged With: 1-bromopropane, Alaska Community Action on Toxics, carbon tetrachloride, ... Filed Under: Policy & Regulation Tagged With: 1-bromopropane, asbestos, carbon tetrachloride, Environmental Health Strategy ...
carbon tetrachloride (overall material) clear (overall color) Measurements. overall: 14.5 cm x 4.7 cm x 3.2 cm; 5 23/32 in x 1 ...
Information on Registered Substances comes from registration dossiers which have been assigned a registration number. The assignment of a registration number does however not guarantee that the information in the dossier is correct or that the dossier is compliant with Regulation (EC) No 1907/2006 (the REACH Regulation). This information has not been reviewed or verified by the Agency or any other authority. The content is subject to change without prior notice ...
Several experimental determinations of BCF have been carried out on freshwater fish species. Of them 2 studies are reported in substantiated enough in their reporting to be used in this assessment. Brosier et al. reported a study in 1972 on rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). BCF was calculated according to the kinetic model (ratio of uptake and clearance kinetics) as being 40 (dimensionless). In a study on bluegill sunfish (Lepomis macrochirus) Barrows et al. (1980) register a BCF of 30. In both studies, a rapid clearance is observed (half-life , 1 day). Other data exist on fish or algae but too few experimental information is available to use these studies in the present assessment. ...
From ATSDR toxicological profile (2005): Studies in rodents have shown significant suppression of immune function following exposure to CTC, but only at doses well above those causing liver effects: "suppression of immune function (reductions in IgM antibody-forming cell activity, T-cell activity, lymphocyte counts, or host resistance to bacteria) has been observed in animals exposed short-term to oral doses of CTC higher than those causing liver effects. Studies in rodents have shown significant suppression of immune function following exposure to CTC. Exposure of female mice to CTC orally at 500 mg/kg/day for 7 consecutive days caused suppression of T-cell-dependent humoral responses to sheep red blood cells. Exposure of rats up to 160 mg/kg/day for 10 days by oral gavage did not alter the primary antibody response to SRBC, natural killer cell activity, or cytotoxic T-lymphocyte responses; also, spleen and thymus weights were comparable to controls. In female mice exposed to daily gavage doses ...
Carbon tetrachloride. Chemical name:. Carbon tetrachloride. Class:. 6.1. Packaging group:. II. EmS code:. F-A, S-A. Labels:. ... Carbon tetrachloride. Chemical name:. Carbon tetrachloride. Class:. 6.1. Packaging group:. II. Labels:. 6.1. Remarksopen all ... Carbon tetrachloride. Chemical name:. Carbon tetrachloride. Language:. English. Class:. 6.1. Classification code:. T1. ... Carbon tetrachloride. Chemical name:. Carbon tetrachloride. Language:. English. Class:. 6.1. Classification code:. T1. ...
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Enhanced carbon tetrachloride-induced liver fibrosis in mice lacking adiponectin.. Kamada Y1, Tamura S, Kiso S, Matsumoto H, ... The role of adiponectin on liver fibrosis induced by the administration of carbon tetrachloride twice a week for 12 weeks was ... When mice were administered carbon tetrachloride (300 microL/kg body weight) twice a week for 12 weeks, knockout mice showed ... before carbon tetrachloride (1000 microL/kg body weight) treatment prevented liver fibrosis in wild-type mice (P , 0.001). ...
Quinine Oxidase in Liver and Blood Plasma of Rabbits poisoned with Carbon Tetrachloride. *GILBERTO G. VILLELA1. ... VILLELA, G. Quinine Oxidase in Liver and Blood Plasma of Rabbits poisoned with Carbon Tetrachloride. Nature 190, 807-808 (1961 ... Microsomal enzymes inducers and serum minerals in carbon-tetrachloride hepatotoxicity *R. Awadallah ...
Silicon tetrachloride. Germanium tetrachloride. Tin tetrachloride. Lead tetrachloride. Related chloromethanes. Chloromethane. ... Carbon tetrachloride, also known as carbon tet or Freon 10, is a chemical compound. Its chemical formula is CCl4. It contains ... Tetrachloromethane, Benziform, Benzinoform, Carbon chloride, Carbon tet, Freon 10, Halon 104, Methane tetrachloride, ... Carbon tetrachloride is very poisonous to the liver, the kidneys and the nervous system; it might also cause cancer. ...
Carbon Tetrachloride (EHC 208, 1999) Carbon Tetrachloride (HSG 108, 1998) Carbon tetrachloride (ICSC) Carbon tetrachloride (FAO ... Carbon tetrachloride (FAO/PL:1968/M/9/1) Carbon tetrachloride (WHO Pesticide Residues Series 1) Carbon tetrachloride (Pesticide ... including carbon tetrachloride. An electron-capture gas chromatographic method for detecting carbon tetrachloride residues in ... An aeration for four hours after fumigation at atmospheric pressure decreased the amount of carbon tetrachloride found to 9.6 ...
... Nalan Kuzu,1 Kerem Metin,2 Adile Ferda ...
Carbon Tetrachloride (HSG 108, 1998) Carbon tetrachloride (ICSC) Carbon tetrachloride (FAO/PL:1967/M/11/1) Carbon tetrachloride ... CARBON TETRACHLORIDE Compound Carbon tetrachloride Chemical name Carbon tetrachloride Synonym Tetrachloromethane Empirical ... rate of carbon tetrachloride:carbon disulfide mixture (80:20) had the following residues of carbon tetrachloride: original ... No carbon tetrachloride was found in bread baked with flour containing 5.7 ppm carbon tetrachloride. 4. Although it dissolves ...
A solvent for oils, fats, lacquers, varnishes, rubber waxes, and resins, and a starting material in the manufacturing of organic compounds. Poisoning by inhalation, ingestion or skin absorption is possible and may be fatal. (Merck Index, 11th ed ...
Carbon tetrachloride. CASRN 56-23-5. *Toxicological Review (PDF) (473 pp, 3.04 M) ... Health Assessment Document for Carbon Tetrachloride (External Review Draft,1982). Notice - This site contains archived material ... Sonich, C. Health Assessment Document for Carbon Tetrachloride (External Review Draft,1982). U.S. Environmental Protection ... has prepared this Health Assessment on Carbon Tetrachloride to serve as a Source Document for Agency-wide use. Originally the ...
This property makes carbon tetrachloride very useful for cleaning manufactured parts. Carbon tetrachloride was once used ... Since carbon tetrachloride is a good solvent, it is used to dissolve things like oils, fragrances, and colors from flowers and ... Carbon tetrachloride is an organic chemical that is commonly used as a solvent. It is also called tetra chloromethane and is ... Carbon tetrachloride is not flammable, so it can be used in fire extinguishers or as an additive to make other chemicals ...
  • Carbon tetrachloride, also known by many other names (such as tetrachloromethane, also recognised by the IUPAC, carbon tet in the cleaning industry, Halon-104 in firefighting, and Refrigerant-10 in HVACR) is an organic compound with the chemical formula CCl4. (wikipedia.org)
  • Carbon tetrachloride was originally synthesized by the French chemist Henri Victor Regnault in 1839 by the reaction of chloroform with chlorine, but now it is mainly produced from methane: CH4 + 4 Cl2 → CCl4 + 4 HCl The production often utilizes by-products of other chlorination reactions, such as from the syntheses of dichloromethane and chloroform. (wikipedia.org)
  • Higher chlorocarbons are also subjected to "chlorinolysis": C2Cl6 + Cl2 → 2 CCl4 Prior to the 1950s, carbon tetrachloride was manufactured by the chlorination of carbon disulfide at 105 to 130 °C: CS2 + 3Cl2 → CCl4 + S2Cl2 The production of carbon tetrachloride has steeply declined since the 1980s due to environmental concerns and the decreased demand for CFCs, which were derived from carbon tetrachloride. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the first section we focus on the carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) model in mice, which is the toxic model of liver fibrosis induction most commonly used worldwide. (nih.gov)
  • Hepatoprotective effects of momordin Ic and oleanolic acid obtained from Kochiae Fructus (KF), the fruit of a traditional Oriental medicinal plant, were evaluated against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced liver damage in rats. (biomedsearch.com)
  • In the present study, we reported the protective effect of DHA on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) induced hepatic fibrosis. (ovid.com)
  • To evaluate the hepatoprotective activity of total flavonoids (TFs) obtained from C. glandulosum seeds against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced liver damage in vitro and in vivo. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Sprague-Dawley' male rats were used as experimental systems and were fed with TCMGARs extracts at doses of 30, 100, 300mg/kg body weight for two weeks to test the effect on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) induced acute liver damage. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) and benzene (C6H6) form ideal solutions. (jiskha.com)
  • H(f) Cl= 121.3 kj H(f) C= 716.7 H(f) CCl4= -95.7 calculate the average molar bond enthalpy of the carbon-chlorine bond in a CCl4 molecule. (jiskha.com)
  • How many carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) molecules are in 3.00 mol of CCl4? (jiskha.com)
  • When 7.50 grams of iodine (I2) is added to 48.7 grams of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4), the iodine dissolves and a solution is formed. (jiskha.com)
  • Objective] To study the effects of the combination of emodin and tanshinol in hepatic fibrosis rats with carbon tetrachloride(CCl4). (cnki.com.cn)
  • Liver toxins, alpha-naphthylisothiocyanate (ANIT), and carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) were used to induce acute liver injury. (chinaphar.com)
  • Methods: Liver fibrosis was induced in rats by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) 1 ml/kg intraperitoneally twice a week for 28 days and cisplatin 3mg/kg intraperitoneally at 0, 1, 3 week for 4 weeks. (scopemed.org)
  • This study was carried out to comparatively evaluate the hepatoprotective and antioxidant effects of S. mombin leaf and stem (SML and SMS) methanolic extracts in a rat model of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced hepatotoxicity. (nottingham.ac.uk)
  • This study investigated the effects of ginsenosides on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced hepatitis and liver fibrosis in rats. (altmetric.com)
  • The present study investigated the effects of recombinant truncated transforming growth factor‑ß receptor II (rtTGFβRII) on EMT and liver fibrosis in a carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)‑induced rat model. (antibody-antibodies.com)
  • There have been no studies of the effects of carbon tetrachloride on reproduction in humans, but studies in rats showed that long-term inhalation may cause decreased fertility. (cdc.gov)
  • World Health Organization reports, carbon tetrachloride can induce hepatomas and hepatocellular carcinomas in mice and rats. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sprague Dawley rats were used for experiment and hepatotoxicity was induced by carbon tetrachloride. (ijpsonline.com)
  • against carbon tetrachloride induced hepatic damage in albino rats. (springer.com)
  • Jeon, T. I., Hwang, S. G., Lim, B. O. (2003) Extract of Phellinus linteus grown on germinated brown rice suppress liver damage induced by carbon tetrachloride in rats. (springer.com)
  • Momordin Ic and oleanolic acid from Kochiae Fructus reduce carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Hepatic fibrosis was induced in rats via carbon tetrachloride (CCl 4 ) treatment. (springer.com)
  • Protective effect of cimetidine in carbon tetrachloride-treated rats. (alliedacademies.org)
  • In the present study, the ethanolic extract of propolis (50, 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg, p.o. ) was studied for its hepatoprotective activity against carbon tetrachloride (CC1 4 , 1.5 ml/kg, i.p. ) induced liver damage in rats. (niscair.res.in)
  • In this study, the hepatoprotective effects of the methanol extract of SAME was evaluated against carbon tetrachloride (CCl 4 )-induced liver injuries in rats. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The effects of exogenous oestradiol administration were examined in a carbon tetrachloride (CCl 4 ) induced model of liver fibrosis in rats. (bmj.com)
  • Effect and mechanism of methyl helicterate isolated from Helicteres angustifolia (Sterculiaceae) on hepatic fibrosis induced by carbon tetrachloride in rats. (curehunter.com)
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of methyl helicterate (MH) on liver fibrosis in rats induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4)) and to explore its underlying mechanism. (curehunter.com)
  • The objective of the present study was to evaluate the hepatoprotective and curative potential of the aqueous extract of the stem bark of Spathodea Campanulata (SCE) in a carbon tetrachloride-induced model of hepatotoxicity in rats. (thescipub.com)
  • Here we investigated whether the extracts of pomegranate peels (EPP) and seeds (EPS) have preventive efficacy on liver fibrosis induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl 4 ) in rats and explored its possible mechanisms. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Lactobacillus johnsonii La1 without antioxidants does not decrease bacterial translocation in rats with carbon tetrachloride-induced cirrhosis. (semanticscholar.org)
  • VSL#3 probiotic treatment decreases bacterial translocation in rats with carbon tetrachloride-induced cirrhosis. (semanticscholar.org)
  • De Wilde bark by carbon tetrachloride induced liver damage in rats. (batteraaf.be)
  • GENTAUR antibody-antibodies.com The Marketplace for Antibodies : Recombinant truncated TGF‑β receptor II attenuates carbon tetrachloride‑induced epithelial‑mesenchymal transition and liver fibrosis in rats. (antibody-antibodies.com)
  • Recombinant truncated TGF‑β receptor II attenuates carbon tetrachloride‑induced epithelial‑mesenchymal transition and liver fibrosis in rats. (antibody-antibodies.com)
  • The present study investigated whether the ethyl acetate (EtOAc) fraction of I. okamurae (EFIO) could ameliorate carbon tetrachloride ( $CCl_{4}$ )-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. (koreascience.or.kr)
  • carbon tetrachloride (tĕ´trəklôr´īd) or tetrachloromethane (tĕ´trəklôr´əmĕth´ān) , CCl 4 , colorless, poisonous, liquid organic compound that boils at 76.8°C. It is toxic when absorbed through the skin or when inhaled. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Carbon tetrachloride , also known as tetrachloromethane or carbon tet , is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula CCl 4 . (sciencemadness.org)
  • Carbon tetrachloride, also known by many other names such as tetrachloromethane is a clear, colorless, non-flammable and very stable chlorinated hydrocarbon. (researchandmarkets.com)
  • Exposure to very high amounts of carbon tetrachloride can damage the liver, kidneys, and nervous system. (cdc.gov)
  • The general population is not likely to be exposed to large amounts of carbon tetrachloride. (cdc.gov)
  • Ground wheat absorbs additional amounts of carbon tetrachloride evidently not held in solution (Pepper et al. (inchem.org)
  • Effects of carbon tetrachloride are more severe in persons who drink large amounts of alcohol. (cdc.gov)
  • The effects of carbon tetrachloride on human health and the environment have been assessed under REACH in 2012 in the context of the substance evaluation by France. (wikipedia.org)
  • Effects of carbon tetrachloride on isolated rat hepatocytes. (portlandpress.com)
  • Carbon tetrachloride was widely used as a dry cleaning solvent, as a refrigerant, and in lava lamps. (wikipedia.org)
  • Carbon tetrachloride is a solvent that has been used in the past as a cleaning fluid or degreasing agent, as a grain fumigant, and industrially in the synthesis of refrigeration fluid and propellants for aerosol cans. (cdc.gov)
  • Carbon tetrachloride, a volatile carcinogenic solvent, has been used in industrial chemical production and as a dry cleaning ingredient. (ewg.org)
  • Carbon tetrachloride is an organic chemical that is commonly used as a solvent. (jrank.org)
  • Since carbon tetrachloride is a good solvent, it is used to dissolve things like oils, fragrances, and colors from flowers and seeds . (jrank.org)
  • Carbon tetrachloride (CCl 4 ) is a toxic, carcinogenic compound which is used as a general solvent in industrial degreasing operations. (ethz.ch)
  • Carbon tetrachloride is a very good solvent and being a non-polar compound, it readily dissolves with other non-polar compounds such as oil, fat and iodine. (researchandmarkets.com)
  • The interest of this lies in the fact that with reactions that cannot be measured in the gaseous state at all, the rate in carbon tetrachloride can be taken as the rate which the reaction would have in the absence of a medium, and the influence of any given solvent can at once be recognised as accelerating or retarding. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • In the early 20th century, carbon tetrachloride was widely used as a dry cleaning solvent , as a refrigerant , and in fire extinguishers [5] . (chemeurope.com)
  • Therefore, carbon tetrachloride is a non-polar solvent , best at dissolving other non-polar compounds . (academickids.com)
  • Carbon tetrachloride is not highly toxic to insects but since it penetrates to great depths is used for the treatment of grain in deep silo storages where the disadvantage of its relatively low toxicity can be overcome by a long exposure period, e.g., of seven or even 14 days. (inchem.org)
  • Scorzonera species displayed moderate hepatoprotective activities against carbon tetrachloride induced acute toxicity. (ijpsonline.com)
  • Eisisi, A. E., Earnest, D. L., Sipes, I. G. (1993) Vitamin A potentiation of carbon tetrachloride hepa-toxicity: Role of liver macrophages and active oxygen species. (springer.com)
  • Hence, Aloe vera was evaluated for its protective effect against carbon tetrachloride (CCl 4 ) induced liver toxicity in wistar albino mice and rabbits. (scialert.net)
  • Carbon tetrachloride (CCl 4 ) is a synthetic chemical compound formerly widely used in fire extinguishers and refrigeration , but now largely abandoned due to its toxicity. (academickids.com)
  • The involvement of Kupffer cells in carbon tetrachloride toxicity. (koreascience.or.kr)
  • High exposure to carbon tetrachloride can cause liver, kidney, and central nervous system damage. (cdc.gov)
  • These effects can occur after ingestion or breathing carbon tetrachloride, and possibly from exposure to the skin. (cdc.gov)
  • Studies in humans have not been able to determine whether or not carbon tetrachloride can cause cancer because usually there has been exposure to other chemicals at the same time. (cdc.gov)
  • Exposure to high concentrations of carbon tetrachloride (including vapor) can affect the central nervous system and degenerate the liver and kidneys. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chronic exposure to carbon tetrachloride can cause liver and kidney damage and could result in cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • Populations living within or very near waste sites, or areas of heavy carbon tetrachloride use would have an increased risk of exposure from contaminated media (air, water, or soil). (cdc.gov)
  • Those likely to receive the highest levels of exposure are those who are involved in the production, formulation, handling, and application of carbon tetrachloride. (cdc.gov)
  • Inhalation appears to be the major route of exposure for workers and also for the general population, which may be exposed to carbon tetrachloride in ambient air and from volatilization of contaminated water during showering or bathing. (cdc.gov)
  • Ingestion via contaminated drinking water is an important route of exposure for the general population not living in areas where carbon tetrachloride is extensively used. (cdc.gov)
  • Dermal contact from showering or bathing has not been shown to be a significant route of exposure to carbon tetrachloride. (cdc.gov)
  • 2. RELEVANCE TO PUBLIC HEALTH tetrachloride has a low affinity for adsorption onto soil and dust particles, the risk of exposure for small children from ingesting soil or dust is likely to be low. (cdc.gov)
  • The average daily intake of carbon tetrachloride for the general population is estimated as 0.1 µg/kg/day from inhalation exposure and 0.01 µg/kg/day from ingesting drinking water containing typical low concentrations of the chemical. (cdc.gov)
  • As a volatile halogenated alkane, carbon tetrachloride has depressant effects on the central nervous system that are most significant at high exposure levels. (cdc.gov)
  • Carbon tetrachloride has been shown to be carcinogenic in animals following chronic inhalation or oral exposure. (cdc.gov)
  • Alcohol consumption is an important risk factor for the development of serious toxicological effects following exposure to carbon tetrachloride, since alcohol induces CYP2E1, leading to increased production of reactive metabolites. (cdc.gov)
  • Studies in animals, combined with limited observations in humans, indicate that the principal adverse health effects associated with inhalation exposure to carbon tetrachloride are central nervous system depression, liver damage, and kidney damage. (cdc.gov)
  • Description of a case of acute renal failure in a house painter due to massive exposure to carbon tetrachloride, with favourable course following haemodialysis. (ilo.org)
  • The literature on acute renal failure in carbon tetrachloride poisoning, and the clinical and histological features of this disease entity are analysed with special reference to the combination of carbon tetrachloride exposure and alcohol consumption. (ilo.org)
  • Maternal exposure to carbon tetrachloride in drinking water has been associated with a risk of birth defects. (ewg.org)
  • This limit does not fully protect against the risk of cancer due to carbon tetrachloride exposure. (ewg.org)
  • Because of the health hazards of long-term exposure to carbon tetrachloride, it should only be used where there is adequate ventilation present. (jrank.org)
  • However, once it became apparent that carbon tetrachloride exposure had severe adverse health effects, safer alternatives such as tetrachloroethylene were found for these applications, and its use in these roles declined from about 1940 onward. (chemeurope.com)
  • Measurement of carbon tetrachloride and its metabolites in expired air has been the most convenient way to determine exposure (ATSDR, 1994). (drdarrinlew.us)
  • Carbon tetrachloride can also be detected by gas chromatography in blood and serum, which may also be used as an indicator of exposure. (drdarrinlew.us)
  • There is limited information on the effects of acute carbon disulphide exposure. (vertigoexercises.us)
  • It is not known if breathing carbon tetrachloride vapors causes cancer in animals, or if carbon tetrachloride exposure causes cancer in humans. (academickids.com)
  • It used to be made by reacting carbon disulfide with chlorine. (wikipedia.org)
  • Maximum levels of carbon tetrachloride in 30 bushel-batches of wheat after treatment with normal and triple USDA dosage levels of carbon tetrachloride: carbon disulfide mixture (80:20) were 15 and 25 ppm respectively. (inchem.org)
  • It is made by combining elemental chlorine with simple carbon compounds like methane or carbon disulfide. (jrank.org)
  • It is insoluble in water, but soluble in many organic solvents, such as benzene , carbon disulfide , chloroform , diethyl ether , ethanol , formic acid and naphtha. (sciencemadness.org)
  • Most carbon tetrachloride is produced by reacting carbon disulfide with chlorine . (academickids.com)
  • Enhanced carbon tetrachloride-induced liver fibrosis in mice lacking adiponectin. (nih.gov)
  • The role of adiponectin on liver fibrosis induced by the administration of carbon tetrachloride twice a week for 12 weeks was tested by using adiponectin-knockout mice and an adenovirus-mediated adiponectin-expression system. (nih.gov)
  • Injection of AdADN at 6 weeks attenuated liver fibrosis even though carbon tetrachloride was given for an additional 6 weeks (total of 12 weeks). (nih.gov)
  • Synergism between ethanol and carbon tetrachloride in the generation of liver fibrosis. (nih.gov)
  • The present study reports the effect of celecoxib in a 5-week carbon tetrachloride (CCl 4 )-induced liver fibrosis mouse model. (nih.gov)
  • During the establishment of fibrosis using carbon tetrachloride (CCl 4 ), acupuncture at LR3, LR14, BL18 and ST36 and/or curcumin treatment by mouth were performed simultaneously. (bmj.com)
  • Mice that breathed carbon tetrachloride also developed tumors of the adrenal gland. (cdc.gov)
  • Hepatoprotective effect of pinoresinol on carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatic damage in mice. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • In this study, we performed an in vivo study to investigate the protective effect of eckol and its possible mechanisms on the carbon tetrachloride (CCl 4 )-induced acute liver injury model in mice. (mdpi.com)
  • Li S, Liu J, Zhang M, Chen Y, Zhu T, Wang J. Protective Effect of Eckol against Acute Hepatic Injury Induced by Carbon Tetrachloride in Mice. (mdpi.com)
  • The hepatocurative potential of ethanolic extract (ETO) and sesquiterpene lactones enriched fraction (SL) of Taraxacum officinale roots was evaluated against carbon tetrachloride (CCl 4 ) induced hepatotoxicity in mice. (springer.com)
  • The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects and underlying mechanisms of diallyl sulfide (DAS), an organosulfur compound extracted from garlic, on drug-induced or chemical-induced liver injury caused by acetaminophen (APAP) or carbon tetrachloride (CCl 4 ) in mice. (rsc.org)
  • Two species of the animals (rabbit and mice) were used to evaluate Aloe vera for its effects on histopathology, biochemistry and mortality induced by carbon tetrachloride in experimental setup. (scialert.net)
  • The administration of carbon tetrachloride (CCl 4 ) to mice produced hepatotoxicity, showing a significant increase in the serum levels of alanine transaminase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST). (scialert.net)
  • In 2008, a study of common cleaning products found the presence of carbon tetrachloride in "very high concentrations" (up to 101 mg/m3) as a result of manufacturers' mixing of surfactants or soap with sodium hypochlorite (bleach). (wikipedia.org)
  • Indoor concentrations in indoor air were thought to be higher than in outdoor air because of the presence of carbon tetrachloride in building materials or household products. (cdc.gov)
  • 1996 Methanol potentiation of carbon tetrachloride hepatotoxicity the central role of cytochrome P450. (drdarrinlew.us)
  • Vitamin A potentiation of carbon tetrachloride hepatotoxicity: role of liver macrophages and active oxygen species. (koreascience.or.kr)
  • Outdoor measurements in several areas of the United States have reported average concentrations of carbon tetrachloride in air between 0.6 and 1.0 µg/m3 (0.1-0.16 pp b). (cdc.gov)
  • See Chapter 6 for more detailed information regarding concentrations of carbon tetrachloride in environmental media. (cdc.gov)
  • The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has determined that carbon tetrachloride is possibly carcinogenic to humans, whereas the EPA determined that carbon tetrachloride is a probable human carcinogen. (cdc.gov)
  • Consequently, carbon tetrachloride is in IARC group 2B and considered possibly carcinogenic to humans (IARC, 1999). (drdarrinlew.us)
  • EVALUATION FOR TOLERANCES RESIDUES RESULTING FROM SUPERVISED TRIALS The sorption of carbon tetrachloride by cereals and cereal products is less than that of some other fumigants used in the mixtures (ethylene dichloride, ethylene dibromide). (inchem.org)
  • Berck, B. (1965a) Sorption of ethylene dibromide, ethylene dichloride and carbon tetrachloride by cereal products. (inchem.org)
  • Wheat fumigated with carbon tetrachloride: ethylene dichloride mixture (25:75) showed an average residue of 200 ppm of carbon tetrachloride 24 hours after fumigation. (inchem.org)
  • Carbon tetrachloride has practically no flammability at lower temperatures, but will oxidize at high temperatures in air to yield poisonous phosgene . (sciencemadness.org)
  • Carbon tetrachloride is used in the production of Freon refrigerants, e.g. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Carbon tetrachloride is no longer permitted in products intended for home use in the U.S. In the past, it was widely used as a dry cleaning ingredient, fire extinguishing chemical, pesticide and chemical intermediate for manufacturing refrigerants. (ewg.org)
  • Prior to the Montreal Protocol, large quantities of carbon tetrachloride were used to produce the freon refrigerants R-11 (trichlorofluoromethane) and R-12 ( dichlorodifluoromethane ). (chemeurope.com)
  • Carbon tetrachloride is still used to manufacture less destructive refrigerants. (chemeurope.com)
  • Carbon tetrachloride is degraded to chloroform, dichoromethane, chloromethane and ultimately methane by hydrogenolytic dechlorinations. (ethz.ch)
  • Abiotic degradation rates for carbon tetrachloride and chloroform: Final report. (unt.edu)
  • Leaves powder of Morus alba was successively extracted with petroleum ether extract (PEE), chloroform extract (CHE), alcoholic extract (ALE) and water extract (AQE) against carbon tetrachloride (CCl 4 ) induced hepatotoxicity using Standard drug Liv-52. (academicjournals.org)
  • A smaller quantity of carbon tetrachloride is produced as a byproduct in the synthesis of methylene chloride and chloroform . (academickids.com)
  • Carbon tetrachloride, like chloroform , is a useful source of chlorine in the Appel reaction . (academickids.com)
  • Carbon tetrachloride , also known as carbon tet or Freon 10 , is a chemical compound . (wikipedia.org)
  • Degradation of carbon tetrachloride occurs slowly in the environment, which contributes to the accumulation of the chemical in the atmosphere as well as the groundwater. (cdc.gov)
  • Hepatoprotective activity of flavonoids from Cichorium glandulosum seeds in vitro and in vivo carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • rum Aureum, Hill-Growing Saltwort Herb, Fumaria Schleicheri and Cynara scolymus on carbon tetrachloride-induced oxidative stress in vitro and in vivo. (batteraaf.be)
  • Kinetics of biliary excretion of bromosulfonphthalein in carbon tetrachloride poisoning in the rabbit]. (harvard.edu)
  • Prevention of acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity by acute ethanol administration in the rat: comparison with carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatoxicity. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Activated carbon, in 50% w/w combination with celite , is used as stationary phase in low-pressure chromatographic separation of carbohydrates (mono-, di-, tri- saccharides ) using ethanol solutions (5-50%) as mobile phase in analytical or preparative protocols. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Kirkwood correlation factor (g) of binary mixtures of amyl acetate and isoamyl acetate with in benzene, carbon tetrachloride and acetone were obtained from a measurement of dielectric constant, density and refractive index at 301 K. The fluid structure of amyl acetate and isoamyl acetate is discussed. (e-journals.in)
  • In amyl acetate and isoamyl acetate in carbon tetrachloride, benzene and acetone, a dimeric linear chain with the individual dipoles more or less parallel orientation is preferred. (e-journals.in)
  • In organic chemistry, carbon tetrachloride serves as a source of chlorine in the Appel reaction. (wikipedia.org)
  • Adsorption Coefficient (Koc)-- The ratio of the amount of a chemical adsorbed per unit weight of organic carbon in the soil or sediment to the concentration of the chemical in solution at equilibrium. (cdc.gov)
  • It is a liquid at room temperature , with a freezing point of -9.4°F (-23°C) and a boiling point of 170.6°F (77°C). Carbon tetrachloride dissolves other organic materials such as oils, fats, and grease very well. (jrank.org)
  • An organic compound is any member of a large class of gaseous, liquid, or solid chemical compounds whose molecules contain carbon. (absoluteastronomy.com)
  • It can be seen as either inorganic (halide of carbon) or organic (the simplest perchlorocarbon). (sciencemadness.org)
  • This is a simple test to determine whether organic oxygen compounds are present in propylene dichloride (1,2-dichloropropane) and carbon tetrachloride in concentrations greater or less than 0.1 wt-% organic oxygen, using propylene glycol as the organic oxygen reference. (bsigroup.com)
  • It is also reported that adsorption of carbon tetrachloride would occur drastically on charged ice surface while almost no adsorption was observed on uncharged ice surface at low temperature. (uwaterloo.ca)
  • Activated carbon , also called activated charcoal , is a form of carbon processed to have small, low-volume pores that increase the surface area [1] [2] available for adsorption or chemical reactions . (wikipedia.org)
  • 1957). BIOLOGICAL DATA Biochemical aspects Carbon tetrachloride causes widespread liver damage. (inchem.org)
  • Carbon tetrachloride produced significant changes in biochemical parameters (increases in serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT), Serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT), alanine phosphatase (ALP) and serum bilirubin. (academicjournals.org)
  • Carbon tetrachloride is a colourless liquid with a strong ether-like smell. (sciencemadness.org)
  • Carbon tetrachloride used to be available in the past, but today it's hard to find, due to being toxic and carcinogenic. (sciencemadness.org)
  • Carbon tetrachloride is a toxic and carcinogenic compound, and is one of the most potent hepatotoxins (toxic to the liver). (sciencemadness.org)
  • [1] Perform this process outside or in a fumehood to avoid aerosolizing carbon tet, which is toxic and carcinogenic. (sciencemadness.org)
  • For historical reasons discussed below, a few types of carbon-containing compounds such as carbides, carbonates, simple oxides of carbon, and cyanides, as well as the. (absoluteastronomy.com)
  • These are not serious limitations, since none of these classes of compounds is likely to be present in commercial propylene dichloride or carbon tetrachloride. (bsigroup.com)
  • Adipose Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Efficiently Rescue Carbon Tetrachloride-Induced Acute Liver Failure in Mouse," The Scientific World Journal , vol. 2014, Article ID 103643, 8 pages, 2014. (hindawi.com)
  • Carbon tetrachloride is a manufactured chemical that does not occur naturally. (cdc.gov)
  • This page provides supplementary chemical data on carbon tetrachloride. (wikipedia.org)
  • Residues Carbon tetrachloride is taken up physically and without chemical action. (inchem.org)
  • Thus we have evidence that the several different chemical changes involved in these reactions are all almost unaffected by the carbon tetrachloride. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Carbon tetrachloride , also known by many other names (see Table) is the chemical compound with the formula CCl 4 . (chemeurope.com)
  • Carbon tetrachloride is most often found in the air as a colorless gas. (cdc.gov)
  • Shelled walnuts, in 55-pound batches, were fumigated with 3 ml of a carbon tetrachloride-acrylonitrile mixture (34 : 66 by volume). (inchem.org)
  • REFERENCES PERTINENT TO EVALUATION FOR TOLERANCES Berck, B. (1960) Retention of acrylonitrile and carbon tetrachloride by shelled walnuts fumigated with acrylon. (inchem.org)
  • In the carbon tetrachloride molecule, four chlorine atoms are positioned symmetrically as corners in a tetrahedral configuration joined to a central carbon atom by single covalent bonds. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is also called tetra chloromethane and is composed of molecules that have one carbon atom and four chlorine atoms bonded together in the shape of a tetrahedron . (jrank.org)
  • Carbon tetrachloride is a suspected human carcinogen based on sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity from studies in experimental animals. (wikipedia.org)
  • Carbon tetrachloride is a suspected human carcinogen that has been found at about 20% of the waste sites on the Superfund program's National Priority List. (nih.gov)
  • Basil, S. (2003) Carbon tetrachloride-induced lipid peroxidation: Eicosanoid formation and their regulation by antioxidant nutrients. (springer.com)
  • Lipid peroxidation and covalent binding in the early functional impairment of liver Golgi apparatus by carbon tetrachloride. (curehunter.com)
  • The extent of lipid peroxidation assayed showed that TBA reactive substances increased significantly (six fold) in the carbon tetrachloride treated animals compared to the control. (thescipub.com)
  • Carbon tetrachloride molecules contains only one carbon atom which is surrounded by four chloride atoms. (researchandmarkets.com)
  • Most other toxic effects of absorbed carbon tetrachloride are related to its metabolism by mixed function cytochrome P-450 oxygenases (in humans, primarily CYP2E1, but also CYP3A). (cdc.gov)
  • There is no conclusive evidence from epidemiological studies of workers or the general population that carbon tetrachloride is carcinogenic in humans. (cdc.gov)
  • To protect humans from the potential health risks of carbon tetrachloride and prevent further migration of contamination, environmental scientists have been challenged to devise ways to cleanup affected groundwater. (nih.gov)
  • There is inadequate evidence in humans but sufficient evidence in experimental animals for the carcinogenicity of carbon tetrachloride. (drdarrinlew.us)
  • Fumigation (3 hr) under reduced pressure, followed by storage for 30 days resulted in carbon tetrachloride residues (5.3 ppm) which were lover than those (23.1 ppm) obtained by fumigation (48 hr) at atmospheric pressure. (inchem.org)
  • RESIDUES IN FOOD MOVING IN COMMERCE The Netherlands Government has analysed a number of imported cereals and has found that nearly half of the samples investigated (276 samples from all over the world) contained a detectable amount of carbon tetrachloride. (inchem.org)
  • An electron-capture gas chromatographic method for detecting carbon tetrachloride residues in the ppb range has been described (Bielorai and Alumot, 1966). (inchem.org)
  • During shipment, residues of carbon tetrachloride in flour decreased from 1.5 ppm to 0.7 ppm. (inchem.org)
  • The highest persistent residues of carbon tetrachloride in commercial usage would be about 130 ppm. (inchem.org)
  • Carbon tetrachloride is not flammable, so it can be used in fire extinguishers or as an additive to make other chemicals nonflammable. (jrank.org)
  • [6] Activated carbon will not prevent these chemicals from being absorbed into the human body. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many chemicals used for industrial and commercial purposessuch as dioxins, dibenzofurans, and carbon tetrachlorideact like poisons in the liver. (batteraaf.be)