A solvent for oils, fats, lacquers, varnishes, rubber waxes, and resins, and a starting material in the manufacturing of organic compounds. Poisoning by inhalation, ingestion or skin absorption is possible and may be fatal. (Merck Index, 11th ed)
Carbon tetrachloride poisoning is a condition characterized by the systemic toxicity induced by exposure to carbon tetrachloride, a volatile chlorinated hydrocarbon solvent, causing central nervous system depression, cardiovascular collapse, and potentially fatal liver and kidney damage.
Experimentally induced chronic injuries to the parenchymal cells in the liver to achieve a model for LIVER CIRRHOSIS.
A spectrum of clinical liver diseases ranging from mild biochemical abnormalities to ACUTE LIVER FAILURE, caused by drugs, drug metabolites, and chemicals from the environment.
A commonly used laboratory solvent. It was previously used as an anesthetic, but was banned from use in the U.S. due to its suspected carcinogenicity.
Halogenated hydrocarbons refer to organic compounds containing carbon and hydrogen atoms, where one or more hydrogen atoms are replaced by halogens such as fluorine, chlorine, bromine, or iodine.
A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
Enzymes of the transferase class that catalyze the conversion of L-aspartate and 2-ketoglutarate to oxaloacetate and L-glutamate. EC 2.6.1.1.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-alanine and 2-oxoglutarate to pyruvate and L-glutamate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.6.1.2.
A phenothiazine derivative with histamine H1-blocking, antimuscarinic, and sedative properties. It is used as an antiallergic, in pruritus, for motion sickness and sedation, and also in animals.
Liver disease lasting six months or more, caused by an adverse drug effect. The adverse effect may result from a direct toxic effect of a drug or metabolite, or an idiosyncratic response to a drug or metabolite.
Perisinusoidal cells of the liver, located in the space of Disse between HEPATOCYTES and sinusoidal endothelial cells.
Liver disease in which the normal microcirculation, the gross vascular anatomy, and the hepatic architecture have been variably destroyed and altered with fibrous septa surrounding regenerated or regenerating parenchymal nodules.
Pathological processes of the LIVER.
Malonates are organic compounds containing a malonate group, which is a dicarboxylic acid functional group with the structure -OC(CH2COOH)2, and can form salts or esters known as malonates.
A highly toxic gas that has been used as a chemical warfare agent. It is an insidious poison as it is not irritating immediately, even when fatal concentrations are inhaled. (From The Merck Index, 11th ed, p7304)
Synthetic or natural substances which are given to prevent a disease or disorder or are used in the process of treating a disease or injury due to a poisonous agent.
A group of compounds that contain a bivalent O-O group, i.e., the oxygen atoms are univalent. They can either be inorganic or organic in nature. Such compounds release atomic (nascent) oxygen readily. Thus they are strong oxidizing agents and fire hazards when in contact with combustible materials, especially under high-temperature conditions. The chief industrial uses of peroxides are as oxidizing agents, bleaching agents, and initiators of polymerization. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)
Carbon monoxide (CO). A poisonous colorless, odorless, tasteless gas. It combines with hemoglobin to form carboxyhemoglobin, which has no oxygen carrying capacity. The resultant oxygen deprivation causes headache, dizziness, decreased pulse and respiratory rates, unconsciousness, and death. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
Repair or renewal of hepatic tissue.
A hydroxylated form of the imino acid proline. A deficiency in ASCORBIC ACID can result in impaired hydroxyproline formation.
An ethanol-inducible cytochrome P450 enzyme that metabolizes several precarcinogens, drugs, and solvents to reactive metabolites. Substrates include ETHANOL; INHALATION ANESTHETICS; BENZENE; ACETAMINOPHEN and other low molecular weight compounds. CYP2E1 has been used as an enzyme marker in the study of alcohol abuse.
The main structural component of the LIVER. They are specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that are organized into interconnected plates called lobules.
A nitrosamine derivative with alkylating, carcinogenic, and mutagenic properties. It causes serious liver damage and is a hepatocarcinogen in rodents.
A crystalline compound used as a laboratory reagent in place of HYDROGEN SULFIDE. It is a potent hepatocarcinogen.
A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.
An effective soil fumigant, insecticide, and nematocide. In humans, it causes severe burning of skin and irritation of the eyes and respiratory tract. Prolonged inhalation may cause liver necrosis. It is also used in gasoline. Members of this group have caused liver and lung cancers in rodents. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985), 1,2-dibromoethane may reasonably be anticipated to be a carcinogen.
Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.
A species of helminth commonly called the sheep liver fluke. It occurs in the biliary passages, liver, and gallbladder during various stages of development. Snails and aquatic vegetation are the intermediate hosts. Occasionally seen in man, it is most common in sheep and cattle.
A family of 3,3-bis(p-hydroxyphenyl)phthalides. They are used as CATHARTICS, indicators, and COLORING AGENTS.
Chlorinated ethanes which are used extensively as industrial solvents. They have been utilized in numerous home-use products including spot remover preparations and inhalant decongestant sprays. These compounds cause central nervous system and cardiovascular depression and are hepatotoxic. Include 1,1,1- and 1,1,2-isomers.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
A tool for the study of liver damage which causes bile stasis and hyperbilirubinemia acutely and bile duct hyperplasia and biliary cirrhosis chronically, with changes in hepatocyte function. It may cause skin and kidney damage.
Ethane is an organic compound, specifically a hydrocarbon (aliphatic alkane), with the chemical formula C2H6, which consists of two carbon atoms and six hydrogen atoms, and is the second simplest alkane after methane. However, it's important to note that ethane is not a medical term or concept; it's a basic chemistry term.
Peroxidase catalyzed oxidation of lipids using hydrogen peroxide as an electron acceptor.
Closed vesicles of fragmented endoplasmic reticulum created when liver cells or tissue are disrupted by homogenization. They may be smooth or rough.
A group of dipyridinium chloride derivatives that are used as oxidation-reduction indicators. The general formula is 1,1'-di-R-4,4'-bipyridinium chloride, where R = methyl, ethyl, benzyl or, betaine.
A plant genus of the family FABACEAE. It is the source of an herbal tea that is commonly consumed in South Africa. Members contain aspalathin and other polyphenols (PHENOLS).
A highly volatile inhalation anesthetic used mainly in short surgical procedures where light anesthesia with good analgesia is required. It is also used as an industrial solvent. Prolonged exposure to high concentrations of the vapor can lead to cardiotoxicity and neurological impairment.
Nanometer-sized tubes composed mainly of CARBON. Such nanotubes are used as probes for high-resolution structural and chemical imaging of biomolecules with ATOMIC FORCE MICROSCOPY.
A chlorinated hydrocarbon that has been used as an inhalation anesthetic and acts as a narcotic in high concentrations. Its primary use is as a solvent in manufacturing and food technology.
A plant genus of the family POACEAE. Finger millet or raggee (E. coracana) is an important food grain in southern Asia and parts of Africa.
Peroxides produced in the presence of a free radical by the oxidation of unsaturated fatty acids in the cell in the presence of molecular oxygen. The formation of lipid peroxides results in the destruction of the original lipid leading to the loss of integrity of the membranes. They therefore cause a variety of toxic effects in vivo and their formation is considered a pathological process in biological systems. Their formation can be inhibited by antioxidants, such as vitamin E, structural separation or low oxygen tension.
The pathological process occurring in cells that are dying from irreparable injuries. It is caused by the progressive, uncontrolled action of degradative ENZYMES, leading to MITOCHONDRIAL SWELLING, nuclear flocculation, and cell lysis. It is distinct it from APOPTOSIS, which is a normal, regulated cellular process.
A highly chlorinated polycyclic hydrocarbon insecticide whose large number of chlorine atoms makes it resistant to degradation. It has been shown to be toxic to mammals and causes abnormal cellular changes in laboratory animals.
Liquids that dissolve other substances (solutes), generally solids, without any change in chemical composition, as, water containing sugar. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Chinese herbal or plant extracts which are used as drugs to treat diseases or promote general well-being. The concept does not include synthesized compounds manufactured in China.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
The channels that collect and transport the bile secretion from the BILE CANALICULI, the smallest branch of the BILIARY TRACT in the LIVER, through the bile ductules, the bile ducts out the liver, and to the GALLBLADDER for storage.
A potent liver poison. In rats, bromotrichloromethane produces about three times the degree of liver microsomal lipid peroxidation as does carbon tetrachloride.
Stable carbon atoms that have the same atomic number as the element carbon, but differ in atomic weight. C-13 is a stable carbon isotope.
Blood tests that are used to evaluate how well a patient's liver is working and also to help diagnose liver conditions.
A type of MONOTERPENES, derived from geraniol. They have the general form of cyclopentanopyran, but in some cases, one of the rings is broken as in the case of secoiridoid. They are different from the similarly named iridals (TRITERPENES).
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
Highly reactive molecules with an unsatisfied electron valence pair. Free radicals are produced in both normal and pathological processes. They are proven or suspected agents of tissue damage in a wide variety of circumstances including radiation, damage from environment chemicals, and aging. Natural and pharmacological prevention of free radical damage is being actively investigated.
A genus of poisonous American herbs, family BERBERIDACEAE. The roots yield PODOPHYLLOTOXIN and other pharmacologically important agents. The plant was formerly used as a cholagogue and cathartic. It is different from the European mandrake, MANDRAGORA.
A plant genus of the family MYRSINACEAE. Members contain embelin.
Naturally occurring or synthetic substances that inhibit or retard the oxidation of a substance to which it is added. They counteract the harmful and damaging effects of oxidation in animal tissues.
The venous pressure measured in the PORTAL VEIN.
Derivatives of benzene in which one or more hydrogen atoms on the benzene ring are replaced by bromine atoms.
Use of plants or herbs to treat diseases or to alleviate pain.
A tripeptide with many roles in cells. It conjugates to drugs to make them more soluble for excretion, is a cofactor for some enzymes, is involved in protein disulfide bond rearrangement and reduces peroxides.
A group of compounds with an 8-carbon ring. They may be saturated or unsaturated.
A hydrocarbon used as an industrial solvent. It has been used as an aerosal propellent, as a refrigerant and as a local anesthetic. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 31st ed, p1403)
The dialdehyde of malonic acid.
A generic grouping for dihydric alcohols with the hydroxy groups (-OH) located on different carbon atoms. They are viscous liquids with high boiling points for their molecular weights.
Organic compounds containing a carbonyl group in the form -CHO.
A class of compounds that contain a -NH2 and a -NO radical. Many members of this group have carcinogenic and mutagenic properties.
An inhibitor of drug metabolism and CYTOCHROME P-450 ENZYME SYSTEM activity.
A subclass of iridoid compounds that include a glycoside moiety, usually found at the C-1 position.
Analgesic antipyretic derivative of acetanilide. It has weak anti-inflammatory properties and is used as a common analgesic, but may cause liver, blood cell, and kidney damage.
The dose amount of poisonous or toxic substance or dose of ionizing radiation required to kill 50% of the tested population.
An aspartate aminotransferase found in MITOCHONDRIA.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of D-glucose 6-phosphate and water to D-glucose and orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.9.
A subtype of transforming growth factor beta that is synthesized by a wide variety of cells. It is synthesized as a precursor molecule that is cleaved to form mature TGF-beta 1 and TGF-beta1 latency-associated peptide. The association of the cleavage products results in the formation a latent protein which must be activated to bind its receptor. Defects in the gene that encodes TGF-beta1 are the cause of CAMURATI-ENGELMANN SYNDROME.
A nitrosamine derivative with alkylating, carcinogenic, and mutagenic properties.
A mixture of flavonoids extracted from seeds of the MILK THISTLE, Silybum marianum. It consists primarily of silybin and its isomers, silicristin and silidianin. Silymarin displays antioxidant and membrane stabilizing activity. It protects various tissues and organs against chemical injury, and shows potential as an antihepatoxic agent.
F344 rats are an inbred strain of albino laboratory rats (Rattus norvegicus) that have been widely used in biomedical research due to their consistent and reliable genetic background, which facilitates the study of disease mechanisms and therapeutic interventions.
A barbituric acid derivative that acts as a nonselective central nervous system depressant. It potentiates GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID action on GABA-A RECEPTORS, and modulates chloride currents through receptor channels. It also inhibits glutamate induced depolarizations.
Physiological processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of LIPIDS.
The chemical alteration of an exogenous substance by or in a biological system. The alteration may inactivate the compound or it may result in the production of an active metabolite of an inactive parent compound. The alterations may be divided into METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE I and METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE II.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
A form of rapid-onset LIVER FAILURE, also known as fulminant hepatic failure, caused by severe liver injury or massive loss of HEPATOCYTES. It is characterized by sudden development of liver dysfunction and JAUNDICE. Acute liver failure may progress to exhibit cerebral dysfunction even HEPATIC COMA depending on the etiology that includes hepatic ISCHEMIA, drug toxicity, malignant infiltration, and viral hepatitis such as post-transfusion HEPATITIS B and HEPATITIS C.
Toxic asphyxiation due to the displacement of oxygen from oxyhemoglobin by carbon monoxide.
A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).
A subclass of enzymes of the transferase class that catalyze the transfer of an amino group from a donor (generally an amino acid) to an acceptor (generally a 2-keto acid). Most of these enzymes are pyridoxyl phosphate proteins. (Dorland, 28th ed) EC 2.6.1.
The most common form of fibrillar collagen. It is a major constituent of bone (BONE AND BONES) and SKIN and consists of a heterotrimer of two alpha1(I) and one alpha2(I) chains.
Galactosamine is a type of amino monosaccharide that is a key component of many glycosaminoglycans, and is commonly found in animal tissues, often used in research and pharmaceutical applications for its role in cellular metabolism and synthesis of various biological molecules.
A colorless or slightly yellow crystalline compound obtained from nutgalls. It is used in photography, pharmaceuticals, and as an analytical reagent.
Hydrocarbon compounds with one or more of the hydrogens replaced by CHLORINE.
Proposed chemotherapeutic agent against filaria and trichomonas.
A hepatic carcinogen whose mechanism of activation involves N-hydroxylation to the aryl hydroxamic acid followed by enzymatic sulfonation to sulfoxyfluorenylacetamide. It is used to study the carcinogenicity and mutagenicity of aromatic amines.
An enzyme, sometimes called GGT, with a key role in the synthesis and degradation of GLUTATHIONE; (GSH, a tripeptide that protects cells from many toxins). It catalyzes the transfer of the gamma-glutamyl moiety to an acceptor amino acid.
Low-molecular-weight end products, probably malondialdehyde, that are formed during the decomposition of lipid peroxidation products. These compounds react with thiobarbituric acid to form a fluorescent red adduct.
Specialized phagocytic cells of the MONONUCLEAR PHAGOCYTE SYSTEM found on the luminal surface of the hepatic sinusoids. They filter bacteria and small foreign proteins out of the blood, and dispose of worn out red blood cells.
The outer layer of the woody parts of plants.
A plant species which is known as an Oriental traditional medicinal plant.
Application of a ligature to tie a vessel or strangulate a part.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A drug-metabolizing, cytochrome P-450 enzyme which catalyzes the hydroxylation of aniline to hydroxyaniline in the presence of reduced flavoprotein and molecular oxygen. EC 1.14.14.-.
2-Amino-4-(ethylthio)butyric acid. An antimetabolite and methionine antagonist that interferes with amino acid incorporation into proteins and with cellular ATP utilization. It also produces liver neoplasms.
A superfamily of hundreds of closely related HEMEPROTEINS found throughout the phylogenetic spectrum, from animals, plants, fungi, to bacteria. They include numerous complex monooxygenases (MIXED FUNCTION OXYGENASES). In animals, these P-450 enzymes serve two major functions: (1) biosynthesis of steroids, fatty acids, and bile acids; (2) metabolism of endogenous and a wide variety of exogenous substrates, such as toxins and drugs (BIOTRANSFORMATION). They are classified, according to their sequence similarities rather than functions, into CYP gene families (>40% homology) and subfamilies (>59% homology). For example, enzymes from the CYP1, CYP2, and CYP3 gene families are responsible for most drug metabolism.
Inbred C57BL mice are a strain of laboratory mice that have been produced by many generations of brother-sister matings, resulting in a high degree of genetic uniformity and homozygosity, making them widely used for biomedical research, including studies on genetics, immunology, cancer, and neuroscience.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of an orthophosphoric monoester and water to an alcohol and orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.1.

Quantitative aspects in the assessment of liver injury. (1/931)

Liver function data are usually difficult to use in their original form when one wishes to compare the hepatotoxic properties of several chemical substances. However, procedures are available for the conversion of liver function data into quantal responses. These permit the elaboration of dose-response lines for the substances in question, the calculation of median effective doses and the statistical analysis of differences in liver-damaging potency. These same procedures can be utilized for estimating the relative hazard involved if one compares the liver-damaging potency to the median effective dose for some other pharmacologie parameter. Alterations in hepatic triglycerides, lipid peroxidation, and the activities of various hepatic enzymes can also be quantitiated in a dose-related manner. This permits the selection of equitoxic doses required for certain comparative studies and the selection of doses in chemical interaction studies. The quantitative problems involved in low-frequency adverse reactions and the difficulty these present in the detection of liver injury in laboratory animals are discussed.  (+info)

Molecular dynamics study of substance P peptides in a biphasic membrane mimic. (2/931)

Two neuropeptides, substance P (SP) and SP-tyrosine-8 (SP-Y8), have been studied by molecular dynamics (MD) simulation in a TIP3P water/CCl4 biphasic solvent system as a mimic for the water-membrane system. Initially, distance restraints derived from NMR nuclear Overhauser enhancements (NOE) were incorporated in the restrained MD (RMD) in the equilibration stage of the simulation. The starting orientation/position of the peptides for the MD simulation was either parallel to the water/CCl4 interface or in a perpendicular/insertion mode. In both cases the peptides equilibrated and adopted a near-parallel orientation within approximately 250 ps. After equilibration, the conformation and orientation of the peptides, the solvation of both the backbone and the side chain of the residues, hydrogen bonding, and the dynamics of the peptides were analyzed from trajectories obtained in the RMD or the subsequent free MD (where the NOE restraints were removed). These analyses showed that the peptide backbone of nearly all residues are either solvated by water or are hydrogen-bonded. This is seen to be an important factor against the insertion mode of interaction. Most of the interactions with the hydrophobic phase come from the hydrophobic interactions of the side chains of Pro-4, Phe-7, Phe-8, Leu-10, and Met-11 for SP, and Phe-7, Leu-10, Met-11 and, to a lesser extent, Tyr-8 in SP-Y8. Concerted conformational transitions took place in the time frame of hundreds of picoseconds. The concertedness of the transition was due to the tendency of the peptide to maintain the necessary secondary structure to position the peptide properly with respect to the water/CCl4 interface.  (+info)

Molecular dynamics study of substance P peptides partitioned in a sodium dodecylsulfate micelle. (3/931)

Two neuropeptides, substance P (SP) and SP-tyrosine-8 (SP-Y8), have been studied by molecular dynamics (MD) simulation in an explicit sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS) micelle. Initially, distance restraints derived from NMR nuclear Overhauser enhancements (NOE) were incorporated in the restrained MD (RMD) during the equilibration stage of the simulation. It was shown that when SP-Y8 was initially placed in an insertion (perpendicular) configuration, the peptide equilibrated to a surface-bound (parallel) configuration in approximately 450 ps. After equilibration, the conformation and orientation of the peptides, the solvation of both the backbone and the side chain of the residues, hydrogen bonding, and the dynamics of the peptides were analyzed from trajectories obtained from the RMD or the subsequent free MD (where the NOE restraints were removed). These analyses showed that the peptide backbones of all residues are either solvated by water or are hydrogen-bonded. This is seen to be an important factor against the insertion mode of interaction. Most of the interactions come from the hydrophobic interaction between the side chains of Lys-3, Pro-4, Phe-7, Phe-8, Leu-10, and Met-11 for SP, from Lys-3, Phe-7, Leu-10, and Met-11 in SP-Y8, and the micellar interior. Significant interactions, electrostatic and hydrogen bonding, between the N-terminal residues, Arg-Pro-Lys, and the micellar headgroups were observed. These latter interactions served to affect both the structure and, especially, the flexibility, of the N-terminus. The results from simulation of the same peptides in a water/CCl4 biphasic cell were compared with the results of the present study, and the validity of using the biphasic system as an approximation for peptide-micelle or peptide-bilayer systems is discussed.  (+info)

Effect of central corticotropin-releasing factor on carbon tetrachloride-induced acute liver injury in rats. (4/931)

Central neuropeptides play important roles in many instances of physiological and pathophysiological regulation mediated through the autonomic nervous system. In regard to the hepatobiliary system, several neuropeptides act in the brain to regulate bile secretion, hepatic blood flow, and hepatic proliferation. Stressors and sympathetic nerve activation are reported to exacerbate experimental liver injury. Some stressors are known to stimulate corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) synthesis in the central nervous system and induce activation of sympathetic nerves in animal models. The effect of intracisternal CRF on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced acute liver injury was examined in rats. Intracisternal injection of CRF dose dependently enhanced elevation of the serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) level induced by CCl4. Elevations of serum aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, and total bilirubin levels by CCl4 were also enhanced by intracisternal CRF injection. Intracisternal injection of CRF also aggravated CCl4-induced hepatic histological changes. Intracisternal CRF injection alone did not modify the serum ALT level. Intravenous administration of CRF did not influence CCl4-induced acute liver injury. The aggravating effect of central CRF on CCl4-induced acute liver injury was abolished by denervation of hepatic plexus with phenol and by denervation of noradrenergic fibers with 6-hydroxydopamine treatment but not by hepatic branch vagotomy or atropine treatment. These results suggest that CRF acts in the brain to exacerbate acute liver injury through the sympathetic-noradrenergic pathways.  (+info)

Transplanted hepatocytes proliferate differently after CCl4 treatment and hepatocyte growth factor infusion. (5/931)

To understand regulation of transplanted hepatocyte proliferation in the normal liver, we used genetically marked rat or mouse cells. Hosts were subjected to liver injury by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4), to liver regeneration by a two-thirds partial hepatectomy, and to hepatocellular DNA synthesis by infusion of hepatocyte growth factor for comparative analysis. Transplanted hepatocytes were documented to integrate in periportal areas of the liver. In response to CCl4 treatments after cell transplantation, the transplanted hepatocyte mass increased incrementally, with the kinetics and magnitude of DNA synthesis being similar to those of host hepatocytes. In contrast, when cells were transplanted 24 h after CCl4 administration, transplanted hepatocytes appeared to be injured and most cells were rapidly cleared. When hepatocyte growth factor was infused into the portal circulation either subsequent to or before cell transplantation and engraftment, transplanted cell mass did not increase, although DNA synthesis rates increased in cultured primary hepatocytes as well as in intact mouse and rat livers. These data suggested that procedures causing selective ablation of host hepatocytes will be most effective in inducing transplanted cell proliferation in the normal liver. The number of transplanted hepatocytes was not increased in the liver by hepatocyte growth factor administration. Repopulation of the liver with genetically marked hepatocytes can provide effective reporters for studying liver growth control in the intact animal.  (+info)

Bone marrow as a potential source of hepatic oval cells. (6/931)

Bone marrow stem cells develop into hematopoietic and mesenchymal lineages but have not been known to participate in production of hepatocytes, biliary cells, or oval cells during liver regeneration. Cross-sex or cross-strain bone marrow and whole liver transplantation were used to trace the origin of the repopulating liver cells. Transplanted rats were treated with 2-acetylaminofluorene, to block hepatocyte proliferation, and then hepatic injury, to induce oval cell proliferation. Markers for Y chromosome, dipeptidyl peptidase IV enzyme, and L21-6 antigen were used to identify liver cells of bone marrow origin. From these cells, a proportion of the regenerated hepatic cells were shown to be donor-derived. Thus, a stem cell associated with the bone marrow has epithelial cell lineage capability.  (+info)

Acute carbon tetrachloride feeding induces damage of large but not small cholangiocytes from BDL rat liver. (7/931)

Bile duct damage and/or loss is limited to a range of duct sizes in cholangiopathies. We tested the hypothesis that CCl4 damages only large ducts. CCl4 or mineral oil was given to bile duct-ligated (BDL) rats, and 1, 2, and 7 days later small and large cholangiocytes were purified and evaluated for apoptosis, proliferation, and secretion. In situ, we measured apoptosis by morphometric and TUNEL analysis and the number of small and large ducts by morphometry. Two days after CCl4 administration, we found an increased number of small ducts and reduced number of large ducts. In vitro apoptosis was observed only in large cholangiocytes, and this was accompanied by loss of proliferation and secretion in large cholangiocytes and loss of choleretic effect of secretin. Small cholangiocytes de novo express the secretin receptor gene and secretin-induced cAMP response. Consistent with damage of large ducts, we detected cytochrome P-4502E1 (which CCl4 converts to its radicals) only in large cholangiocytes. CCl4 induces selective apoptosis of large ducts associated with loss of large cholangiocyte proliferation and secretion.  (+info)

Effect of mitogenic or regenerative cell proliferation on lacz mutant frequency in the liver of MutaTMMice treated with 5, 9-dimethyldibenzo[c,g]carbazole. (8/931)

The purpose of this work was to investigate the impact of cell proliferation on liver mutagenesis. The genotoxic hepatocarcinogen 5, 9-dimethyldibenzo[c,g]carbazole (DMDBC) was administered to lacZ transgenic MutaTMMice at a non-hepatotoxic dose of 10 mg/kg, which induces only a slight increase in the liver lacZ mutant frequency (MF). To determine if cell proliferation stimuli enhanced DMDBC mutagenicity, MF was analyzed in mice first receiving DMDBC 10 mg/kg, then approximately 2 weeks later, either carbon tetrachloride (CCl4, a cytotoxic agent inducing regenerative cell proliferation) or phenobarbital (PB, a mitogenic agent inducing direct hyperplasia). In preliminary studies, the extent of cell proliferation induced by CCl4, PB and DMDBC was determined in non-transgenic CD2F1 mice by means of 5-bromodeoxyuridine labeling. The labeling index was significantly increased after CCl4 and PB, while no change was detected with DMDBC. MF was then determined in MutaTMMice 28 days after initial DMDBC treatment. No increase in MF was detected in mice receiving CCl4 or PB alone. A 2- to 3-fold increase in MF was detected in mice treated with 10 mg/kg DMDBC alone. In contrast, MF was markedly increased in mice receiving DMDBC followed by proliferative treatment (15-fold with CCl4 and 25-fold with PB). These results demonstrate that expression of DMDBC-induced mutations in mouse liver largely depends on the induction of cell proliferation (by a cytotoxic or mitogenic stimulus) and illustrate that MutaTMMouse is a valuable tool to investigate the early events of liver carcinogenesis.  (+info)

Carbon tetrachloride is a colorless, heavy, and nonflammable liquid with a mild ether-like odor. Its chemical formula is CCl4. It was previously used as a solvent and refrigerant, but its use has been largely phased out due to its toxicity and ozone-depleting properties.

Inhalation, ingestion, or skin contact with carbon tetrachloride can cause harmful health effects. Short-term exposure can lead to symptoms such as dizziness, headache, nausea, and vomiting. Long-term exposure has been linked to liver and kidney damage, as well as an increased risk of cancer.

Carbon tetrachloride is also a potent greenhouse gas and contributes to climate change. Its production and use are regulated by international agreements aimed at protecting human health and the environment.

Carbon tetrachloride poisoning refers to the harmful effects on the body caused by exposure to carbon tetrachloride, a volatile and toxic chemical compound. This substance has been widely used in various industrial applications, such as a solvent for fats, oils, and rubber, a fire extinguishing agent, and a refrigerant. However, due to its high toxicity, the use of carbon tetrachloride has been significantly reduced or phased out in many countries.

Ingestion, inhalation, or skin absorption of carbon tetrachloride can lead to poisoning, which may cause various symptoms depending on the severity and duration of exposure. Acute exposure to high concentrations of carbon tetrachloride can result in:

1. Central nervous system depression: Dizziness, headache, confusion, drowsiness, and, in severe cases, loss of consciousness or even death.
2. Respiratory irritation: Coughing, wheezing, shortness of breath, and pulmonary edema (fluid accumulation in the lungs).
3. Cardiovascular effects: Increased heart rate, low blood pressure, and irregular heart rhythms.
4. Gastrointestinal symptoms: Nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, and diarrhea.
5. Liver damage: Hepatitis, jaundice, and liver failure in severe cases.
6. Kidney damage: Acute kidney injury or failure.

Chronic exposure to carbon tetrachloride can lead to long-term health effects, including:

1. Liver cirrhosis (scarring of the liver) and liver cancer.
2. Kidney damage and kidney disease.
3. Peripheral neuropathy (damage to the nerves in the limbs), causing numbness, tingling, or weakness.
4. Increased risk of miscarriage and birth defects in pregnant women exposed to carbon tetrachloride.

Treatment for carbon tetrachloride poisoning typically involves supportive care, such as oxygen therapy, fluid replacement, and monitoring of vital signs. In some cases, specific treatments like activated charcoal or gastric lavage may be used to remove the substance from the body. Prevention is crucial in minimizing exposure to this harmful chemical by following safety guidelines when handling it and using appropriate personal protective equipment (PPE).

Experimental liver cirrhosis refers to a controlled research setting where various factors and substances are intentionally introduced to induce liver cirrhosis in animals or cell cultures. The purpose is to study the mechanisms, progression, potential treatments, and prevention strategies for liver cirrhosis. This could involve administering chemicals, drugs, alcohol, viruses, or manipulating genes associated with liver damage and fibrosis. It's important to note that results from experimental models may not directly translate to human conditions, but they can provide valuable insights into disease pathophysiology and therapeutic development.

Drug-Induced Liver Injury (DILI) is a medical term that refers to liver damage or injury caused by the use of medications or drugs. This condition can vary in severity, from mild abnormalities in liver function tests to severe liver failure, which may require a liver transplant.

The exact mechanism of DILI can differ depending on the drug involved, but it generally occurs when the liver metabolizes the drug into toxic compounds that damage liver cells. This can happen through various pathways, including direct toxicity to liver cells, immune-mediated reactions, or metabolic idiosyncrasies.

Symptoms of DILI may include jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes), fatigue, abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, loss of appetite, and dark urine. In severe cases, it can lead to complications such as ascites, encephalopathy, and bleeding disorders.

The diagnosis of DILI is often challenging because it requires the exclusion of other potential causes of liver injury. Liver function tests, imaging studies, and sometimes liver biopsies may be necessary to confirm the diagnosis. Treatment typically involves discontinuing the offending drug and providing supportive care until the liver recovers. In some cases, medications that protect the liver or promote its healing may be used.

Chloroform is a volatile, clear, and nonflammable liquid with a mild, sweet, and aromatic odor. Its chemical formula is CHCl3, consisting of one carbon atom, one hydrogen atom, and three chlorine atoms. Chloroform is a trihalomethane, which means it contains three halogens (chlorine) in its molecular structure.

In the medical field, chloroform has been historically used as an inhaled general anesthetic agent due to its ability to produce unconsciousness and insensibility to pain quickly. However, its use as a surgical anesthetic has largely been abandoned because of several safety concerns, including its potential to cause cardiac arrhythmias, liver and kidney damage, and a condition called "chloroform hepatopathy" with prolonged or repeated exposure.

Currently, chloroform is not used as a therapeutic agent in medicine but may still be encountered in laboratory settings for various research purposes. It's also possible to find traces of chloroform in drinking water due to its formation during the disinfection process using chlorine-based compounds.

Halogenated hydrocarbons are organic compounds containing carbon (C), hydrogen (H), and one or more halogens, such as fluorine (F), chlorine (Cl), bromine (Br), or iodine (I). These compounds are formed when halogens replace one or more hydrogen atoms in a hydrocarbon molecule.

Halogenated hydrocarbons can be further categorized into two groups:

1. Halogenated aliphatic hydrocarbons: These include alkanes, alkenes, and alkynes with halogen atoms replacing hydrogen atoms. Examples include chloroform (trichloromethane, CHCl3), methylene chloride (dichloromethane, CH2Cl2), and trichloroethylene (C2HCl3).
2. Halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons: These consist of aromatic rings, such as benzene, with halogen atoms attached. Examples include chlorobenzene (C6H5Cl), bromobenzene (C6H5Br), and polyhalogenated biphenyls like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs).

Halogenated hydrocarbons have various industrial applications, including use as solvents, refrigerants, fire extinguishing agents, and intermediates in chemical synthesis. However, some of these compounds can be toxic, environmentally persistent, and bioaccumulative, posing potential health and environmental risks.

In the context of medical definitions, 'carbon' is not typically used as a standalone term. Carbon is an element with the symbol C and atomic number 6, which is naturally abundant in the human body and the environment. It is a crucial component of all living organisms, forming the basis of organic compounds, such as proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, and nucleic acids (DNA and RNA).

Carbon forms strong covalent bonds with various elements, allowing for the creation of complex molecules that are essential to life. In this sense, carbon is a fundamental building block of life on Earth. However, it does not have a specific medical definition as an isolated term.

The liver is a large, solid organ located in the upper right portion of the abdomen, beneath the diaphragm and above the stomach. It plays a vital role in several bodily functions, including:

1. Metabolism: The liver helps to metabolize carbohydrates, fats, and proteins from the food we eat into energy and nutrients that our bodies can use.
2. Detoxification: The liver detoxifies harmful substances in the body by breaking them down into less toxic forms or excreting them through bile.
3. Synthesis: The liver synthesizes important proteins, such as albumin and clotting factors, that are necessary for proper bodily function.
4. Storage: The liver stores glucose, vitamins, and minerals that can be released when the body needs them.
5. Bile production: The liver produces bile, a digestive juice that helps to break down fats in the small intestine.
6. Immune function: The liver plays a role in the immune system by filtering out bacteria and other harmful substances from the blood.

Overall, the liver is an essential organ that plays a critical role in maintaining overall health and well-being.

Aspartate aminotransferases (ASTs) are a group of enzymes found in various tissues throughout the body, including the heart, liver, and muscles. They play a crucial role in the metabolic process of transferring amino groups between different molecules.

In medical terms, AST is often used as a blood test to measure the level of this enzyme in the serum. Elevated levels of AST can indicate damage or injury to tissues that contain this enzyme, such as the liver or heart. For example, liver disease, including hepatitis and cirrhosis, can cause elevated AST levels due to damage to liver cells. Similarly, heart attacks can also result in increased AST levels due to damage to heart muscle tissue.

It is important to note that an AST test alone cannot diagnose a specific medical condition, but it can provide valuable information when used in conjunction with other diagnostic tests and clinical evaluation.

Alanine transaminase (ALT) is a type of enzyme found primarily in the cells of the liver and, to a lesser extent, in the cells of other tissues such as the heart, muscles, and kidneys. Its primary function is to catalyze the reversible transfer of an amino group from alanine to another alpha-keto acid, usually pyruvate, to form pyruvate and another amino acid, usually glutamate. This process is known as the transamination reaction.

When liver cells are damaged or destroyed due to various reasons such as hepatitis, alcohol abuse, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, or drug-induced liver injury, ALT is released into the bloodstream. Therefore, measuring the level of ALT in the blood is a useful diagnostic tool for evaluating liver function and detecting liver damage. Normal ALT levels vary depending on the laboratory, but typically range from 7 to 56 units per liter (U/L) for men and 6 to 45 U/L for women. Elevated ALT levels may indicate liver injury or disease, although other factors such as muscle damage or heart disease can also cause elevations in ALT.

Promethazine is an antihistamine and phenothiazine derivative, which is commonly used for its sedative, anti-emetic (prevents vomiting), and anti-allergic properties. It works by blocking the action of histamine, a substance in the body that causes allergic symptoms, and by blocking the action of dopamine, a neurotransmitter in the brain that helps transmit signals.

Promethazine is used to treat various conditions such as allergies, motion sickness, nausea and vomiting, and as a sedative before and after surgery or medical procedures. It may also be used for its calming effects in children with certain behavioral disorders.

Like all medications, promethazine can have side effects, including drowsiness, dry mouth, blurred vision, and dizziness. More serious side effects may include seizures, irregular heartbeat, and difficulty breathing. It is important to follow the instructions of a healthcare provider when taking promethazine and to report any unusual symptoms or side effects promptly.

Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is a broad term that refers to liver damage or inflammation caused by medications or drugs. When this condition persists for more than three months, it is referred to as chronic DILI. This type of liver injury can be caused by both prescription and over-the-counter medications, as well as herbal supplements and recreational drugs.

Chronic DILI can present with a variety of symptoms, including fatigue, weakness, loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes), dark urine, and light-colored stools. In some cases, chronic DILI may lead to scarring of the liver (cirrhosis) and liver failure.

The diagnosis of chronic DILI is often challenging, as it requires a thorough evaluation of the patient's medical history, medication use, and laboratory test results. A liver biopsy may be necessary to confirm the diagnosis and assess the severity of the injury. Treatment typically involves discontinuing the offending drug or medication and providing supportive care to manage symptoms and prevent complications. In severe cases, a liver transplant may be necessary.

Hepatic stellate cells, also known as Ito cells or lipocytes, are specialized perisinusoidal cells located in the space of Disse in the liver. They play a crucial role in maintaining the normal architecture and function of the liver. In response to liver injury or disease, these cells can become activated and transform into myofibroblasts, which produce extracellular matrix components and contribute to fibrosis and scarring in the liver. This activation process is regulated by various signaling pathways and mediators, including cytokines, growth factors, and oxidative stress. Hepatic stellate cells also have the ability to store vitamin A and lipids, which they can release during activation to support hepatocyte function and regeneration.

Liver cirrhosis is a chronic, progressive disease characterized by the replacement of normal liver tissue with scarred (fibrotic) tissue, leading to loss of function. The scarring is caused by long-term damage from various sources such as hepatitis, alcohol abuse, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, and other causes. As the disease advances, it can lead to complications like portal hypertension, fluid accumulation in the abdomen (ascites), impaired brain function (hepatic encephalopathy), and increased risk of liver cancer. It is generally irreversible, but early detection and treatment of underlying causes may help slow down its progression.

Liver diseases refer to a wide range of conditions that affect the normal functioning of the liver. The liver is a vital organ responsible for various critical functions such as detoxification, protein synthesis, and production of biochemicals necessary for digestion.

Liver diseases can be categorized into acute and chronic forms. Acute liver disease comes on rapidly and can be caused by factors like viral infections (hepatitis A, B, C, D, E), drug-induced liver injury, or exposure to toxic substances. Chronic liver disease develops slowly over time, often due to long-term exposure to harmful agents or inherent disorders of the liver.

Common examples of liver diseases include hepatitis, cirrhosis (scarring of the liver tissue), fatty liver disease, alcoholic liver disease, autoimmune liver diseases, genetic/hereditary liver disorders (like Wilson's disease and hemochromatosis), and liver cancers. Symptoms may vary widely depending on the type and stage of the disease but could include jaundice, abdominal pain, fatigue, loss of appetite, nausea, and weight loss.

Early diagnosis and treatment are essential to prevent progression and potential complications associated with liver diseases.

"Malonates" is not a recognized medical term. However, in chemistry, malonates refer to salts or esters of malonic acid, a dicarboxylic acid with the formula CH2(COOH)2. Malonic acid and its derivatives have been used in the synthesis of various pharmaceuticals and chemicals, but they are not typically associated with any specific medical condition or treatment. If you have encountered the term "malonates" in a medical context, it may be helpful to provide more information or seek clarification from the source.

Phosgene is not a medical condition, but it is an important chemical compound with significant medical implications. Medically, phosgene is most relevant as a potent chemical warfare agent and a severe pulmonary irritant. Here's the medical definition of phosgene:

Phosgene (COCl2): A highly toxic and reactive gas at room temperature with a characteristic odor reminiscent of freshly cut hay or grass. It is denser than air, allowing it to accumulate in low-lying areas. Exposure to phosgene primarily affects the respiratory system, causing symptoms ranging from mild irritation to severe pulmonary edema and potentially fatal respiratory failure.

Inhaling high concentrations of phosgene can lead to immediate choking sensations, coughing, chest pain, and difficulty breathing. Delayed symptoms may include fever, cyanosis (bluish discoloration of the skin due to insufficient oxygen), and pulmonary edema (fluid accumulation in the lungs). The onset of these severe symptoms can be rapid or take up to 48 hours after exposure.

Medical management of phosgene exposure primarily focuses on supportive care, including administering supplemental oxygen, bronchodilators, and corticosteroids to reduce inflammation. In severe cases, mechanical ventilation may be necessary to maintain adequate gas exchange in the lungs.

In the context of medicine and toxicology, protective agents are substances that provide protection against harmful or damaging effects of other substances. They can work in several ways, such as:

1. Binding to toxic substances: Protective agents can bind to toxic substances, rendering them inactive or less active, and preventing them from causing harm. For example, activated charcoal is sometimes used in the emergency treatment of certain types of poisoning because it can bind to certain toxins in the stomach and intestines and prevent their absorption into the body.
2. Increasing elimination: Protective agents can increase the elimination of toxic substances from the body, for example by promoting urinary or biliary excretion.
3. Reducing oxidative stress: Antioxidants are a type of protective agent that can reduce oxidative stress caused by free radicals and reactive oxygen species (ROS). These agents can protect cells and tissues from damage caused by oxidation.
4. Supporting organ function: Protective agents can support the function of organs that have been damaged by toxic substances, for example by improving blood flow or reducing inflammation.

Examples of protective agents include chelating agents, antidotes, free radical scavengers, and anti-inflammatory drugs.

Peroxides, in a medical context, most commonly refer to chemical compounds that contain the peroxide ion (O2−2). Peroxides are characterized by the presence of an oxygen-oxygen single bond and can be found in various substances.

In dentistry, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is a widely used agent for teeth whitening or bleaching due to its oxidizing properties. It can help remove stains and discoloration on the tooth surface by breaking down into water and oxygen-free radicals, which react with the stain molecules, ultimately leading to their oxidation and elimination.

However, it is essential to note that high concentrations of hydrogen peroxide or prolonged exposure can cause tooth sensitivity, irritation to the oral soft tissues, and potential damage to the dental pulp. Therefore, professional supervision and appropriate concentration control are crucial when using peroxides for dental treatments.

Carbon monoxide (CO) is a colorless, odorless, and tasteless gas that is slightly less dense than air. It is toxic to hemoglobic animals when encountered in concentrations above about 35 ppm. This compound is a product of incomplete combustion of organic matter, and is a major component of automobile exhaust.

Carbon monoxide is poisonous because it binds to hemoglobin in red blood cells much more strongly than oxygen does, forming carboxyhemoglobin. This prevents the transport of oxygen throughout the body, which can lead to suffocation and death. Symptoms of carbon monoxide poisoning include headache, dizziness, weakness, nausea, vomiting, confusion, and disorientation. Prolonged exposure can lead to unconsciousness and death.

Carbon monoxide detectors are commonly used in homes and other buildings to alert occupants to the presence of this dangerous gas. It is important to ensure that these devices are functioning properly and that they are placed in appropriate locations throughout the building. Additionally, it is essential to maintain appliances and heating systems to prevent the release of carbon monoxide into living spaces.

Liver regeneration is the ability of the liver to restore its original mass and function after injury or surgical resection. This complex process involves the proliferation and differentiation of mature hepatocytes, as well as the activation and transdifferentiation of various types of stem and progenitor cells located in the liver. The mechanisms that regulate liver regeneration include a variety of growth factors, hormones, and cytokines, which act in a coordinated manner to ensure the restoration of normal liver architecture and function. Liver regeneration is essential for the survival of individuals who have undergone partial hepatectomy or who have suffered liver damage due to various causes, such as viral hepatitis, alcohol abuse, or drug-induced liver injury.

Hydroxyproline is not a medical term per se, but it is a significant component in the medical field, particularly in the study of connective tissues and collagen. Here's a scientific definition:

Hydroxyproline is a modified amino acid that is formed by the post-translational modification of the amino acid proline in collagen and some other proteins. This process involves the addition of a hydroxyl group (-OH) to the proline residue, which alters its chemical properties and contributes to the stability and structure of collagen fibers. Collagen is the most abundant protein in the human body and is a crucial component of connective tissues such as tendons, ligaments, skin, and bones. The presence and quantity of hydroxyproline can serve as a marker for collagen turnover and degradation, making it relevant to various medical and research contexts, including the study of diseases affecting connective tissues like osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, and Ehlers-Danlos syndrome.

Cytochrome P-450 CYP2E1 is a specific isoform of the cytochrome P-450 enzyme system, which is involved in the metabolism of various xenobiotics and endogenous compounds. This enzyme is primarily located in the liver and to some extent in other organs such as the lungs, brain, and kidneys.

CYP2E1 plays a significant role in the metabolic activation of several procarcinogens, including nitrosamines, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and certain solvents. It also contributes to the oxidation of various therapeutic drugs, such as acetaminophen, anesthetics, and anticonvulsants. Overexpression or induction of CYP2E1 has been linked to increased susceptibility to chemical-induced toxicity, carcinogenesis, and alcohol-related liver damage.

The activity of CYP2E1 can be influenced by various factors, including genetic polymorphisms, age, sex, smoking status, and exposure to certain chemicals or drugs. Understanding the regulation and function of this enzyme is crucial for predicting individual susceptibility to chemical-induced toxicities and diseases, as well as for optimizing drug therapy and minimizing adverse effects.

Hepatocytes are the predominant type of cells in the liver, accounting for about 80% of its cytoplasmic mass. They play a key role in protein synthesis, protein storage, transformation of carbohydrates, synthesis of cholesterol, bile salts and phospholipids, detoxification, modification, and excretion of exogenous and endogenous substances, initiation of formation and secretion of bile, and enzyme production. Hepatocytes are essential for the maintenance of homeostasis in the body.

Dimethylnitrosamine is a chemical compound with the formula (CH3)2NNO. It is a potent carcinogen, and is classified as a Class 1 carcinogen by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). It is known to cause cancer in various organs, including the liver, kidney, and lungs.

Dimethylnitrosamine is formed when nitrogen oxides react with secondary amines under conditions that are commonly encountered in industrial processes or in certain food preservation methods. It can also be found as a contaminant in some foods and cosmetics.

Exposure to dimethylnitrosamine can occur through inhalation, ingestion, or skin contact. The toxic effects of this compound are due to its ability to form DNA adducts, which can lead to mutations and cancer. It is important to minimize exposure to this compound and to take appropriate safety measures when working with it.

Thioacetamide is not a medical term, but a chemical compound with the formula TAA or CH3CSNH2. It's used in research and industry, and can be harmful or fatal if swallowed, inhaled, or absorbed through the skin. It can cause damage to the eyes, skin, respiratory system, and digestive tract, and may be harmful to the liver and kidneys with long-term exposure.

However, in a medical context, thioacetamide is sometimes used as a laboratory animal model of hepatotoxicity (liver toxicity) because it can cause centrilobular necrosis (death of cells in the center of liver lobules) and other liver damage when given repeatedly in small doses.

Carbon dioxide (CO2) is a colorless, odorless gas that is naturally present in the Earth's atmosphere. It is a normal byproduct of cellular respiration in humans, animals, and plants, and is also produced through the combustion of fossil fuels such as coal, oil, and natural gas.

In medical terms, carbon dioxide is often used as a respiratory stimulant and to maintain the pH balance of blood. It is also used during certain medical procedures, such as laparoscopic surgery, to insufflate (inflate) the abdominal cavity and create a working space for the surgeon.

Elevated levels of carbon dioxide in the body can lead to respiratory acidosis, a condition characterized by an increased concentration of carbon dioxide in the blood and a decrease in pH. This can occur in conditions such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), asthma, or other lung diseases that impair breathing and gas exchange. Symptoms of respiratory acidosis may include shortness of breath, confusion, headache, and in severe cases, coma or death.

Ethylene dibromide (EDB) is an organic compound with the formula C2H4Br2. It is a colorless, volatile liquid with a chloroform-like odor. Ethylene dibromide is a member of the family of organobromine compounds.

Ethylene dibromide has been used as a pesticide, a fumigant, and a lead scavenger in gasoline. However, due to its toxicity and environmental persistence, its use has been largely phased out in many countries. It is still used in some industrial applications, such as the production of other chemicals.

Ethylene dibromide is a known human carcinogen and can cause a variety of health effects, including respiratory irritation, nausea, vomiting, and damage to the nervous system. Long-term exposure has been linked to an increased risk of cancer, particularly of the liver and kidneys. Therefore, it is important to handle this chemical with care and to use appropriate personal protective equipment when working with it.

A plant extract is a preparation containing chemical constituents that have been extracted from a plant using a solvent. The resulting extract may contain a single compound or a mixture of several compounds, depending on the extraction process and the specific plant material used. These extracts are often used in various industries including pharmaceuticals, nutraceuticals, cosmetics, and food and beverage, due to their potential therapeutic or beneficial properties. The composition of plant extracts can vary widely, and it is important to ensure their quality, safety, and efficacy before use in any application.

'Fasciola hepatica' is a medical term that refers to a type of flatworm, specifically a liver fluke, which is a parasitic flatworm that infects the livers of various animals, including sheep, cattle, and humans. The parasite has a complex life cycle involving aquatic snails as an intermediate host and can cause significant damage to the liver and bile ducts in its definitive host. Infection with Fasciola hepatica is known as fascioliasis, which can lead to symptoms such as abdominal pain, fever, and jaundice.

Phenolphthalein is not strictly a medical term, but it is a chemical compound that has been used in medical contexts. It's primarily known for its use as an acid-base indicator in chemistry and medical laboratory tests. Here's the general definition:

Phenolphthalein is a crystalline compound, commonly available as a colorless powder or clear liquid. It is used as a pH indicator, turning pink to purple in basic solutions (pH above 8.2) and colorless in acidic solutions (pH below 8.2). This property makes it useful in various applications, such as titrations and monitoring the pH of chemical reactions or solutions.

In a medical context, phenolphthalein has historically been used as an active ingredient in certain over-the-counter laxatives. However, due to concerns about potential carcinogenicity and other side effects, its use in pharmaceuticals has been largely discontinued or restricted in many countries, including the United States.

Trichloroethanes are not a medical term, but rather a group of chemical compounds that include 1,1,1-trichloroethane and 1,1,2-trichloroethane. These chemicals have been used as solvents, degreasing agents, and refrigerants.

1,1,1-Trichloroethane, also known as methyl chloroform, is a colorless liquid with a sweet, mild odor. It has been used as a solvent for cleaning electronic components, removing adhesives, and degreasing metals. It can also be found in some consumer products such as spray paints, aerosol cleaners, and spot removers.

1,1,2-Trichloroethane, also known as aerothane, is a colorless liquid with a mild sweet odor. It has been used as a solvent for cleaning and degreasing metals, plastics, and other surfaces. It can also be found in some consumer products such as typewriter correction fluids and spot removers.

Exposure to trichloroethanes can occur through inhalation, skin contact, or ingestion. Short-term exposure to high levels of these chemicals can cause irritation of the eyes, nose, throat, and lungs, dizziness, headache, and nausea. Long-term exposure to lower levels can lead to liver and kidney damage, neurological effects, and an increased risk of cancer.

It is important to handle trichloroethanes with care and follow proper safety precautions, including using appropriate personal protective equipment (PPE) such as gloves, goggles, and respirators, and ensuring adequate ventilation in the work area.

"Wistar rats" are a strain of albino rats that are widely used in laboratory research. They were developed at the Wistar Institute in Philadelphia, USA, and were first introduced in 1906. Wistar rats are outbred, which means that they are genetically diverse and do not have a fixed set of genetic characteristics like inbred strains.

Wistar rats are commonly used as animal models in biomedical research because of their size, ease of handling, and relatively low cost. They are used in a wide range of research areas, including toxicology, pharmacology, nutrition, cancer, cardiovascular disease, and behavioral studies. Wistar rats are also used in safety testing of drugs, medical devices, and other products.

Wistar rats are typically larger than many other rat strains, with males weighing between 500-700 grams and females weighing between 250-350 grams. They have a lifespan of approximately 2-3 years. Wistar rats are also known for their docile and friendly nature, making them easy to handle and work with in the laboratory setting.

1-Naphthylisothiocyanate (also known as 1-NIT or ANS) is a chemical compound that is used in research and scientific studies. It is an isothiocyanate derivative of 1-naphthol, which means it has a molecular structure containing a naphthalene ring with an isothiocyanate functional group attached to it.

In medical and biological research, 1-Naphthylisothiocyanate has been used as a tool for studying various cellular processes, including the regulation of calcium signaling and the activation of certain enzymes. It can also act as an irritant and may cause respiratory and skin irritation in humans.

It is important to note that 1-Naphthylisothiocyanate is not a drug or medication, and it should only be used under controlled laboratory conditions by trained professionals.

Ethane is not a medical term, but it is a chemical compound that is part of the human environment. Ethane is a hydrocarbon, which means it contains only hydrogen and carbon atoms. Specifically, ethane is made up of two carbon atoms and six hydrogen atoms (C2H6). It is a colorless gas at room temperature and has no smell or taste.

In the context of human health, ethane is not considered to be harmful in small amounts. However, exposure to high levels of ethane can cause respiratory irritation and other symptoms. Ethane is also a greenhouse gas, which means that it contributes to global warming when released into the atmosphere.

Ethane is produced naturally during the breakdown of organic matter, such as plants and animals. It is also produced in small amounts during the digestion of food in the human body. However, most ethane used in industry is extracted from natural gas and petroleum deposits. Ethane is used as a fuel and as a raw material in the production of plastics and other chemicals.

Lipid peroxidation is a process in which free radicals, such as reactive oxygen species (ROS), steal electrons from lipids containing carbon-carbon double bonds, particularly polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). This results in the formation of lipid hydroperoxides, which can decompose to form a variety of compounds including reactive carbonyl compounds, aldehydes, and ketones.

Malondialdehyde (MDA) is one such compound that is commonly used as a marker for lipid peroxidation. Lipid peroxidation can cause damage to cell membranes, leading to changes in their fluidity and permeability, and can also result in the modification of proteins and DNA, contributing to cellular dysfunction and ultimately cell death. It is associated with various pathological conditions such as atherosclerosis, neurodegenerative diseases, and cancer.

Microsomes, liver refers to a subcellular fraction of liver cells (hepatocytes) that are obtained during tissue homogenization and subsequent centrifugation. These microsomal fractions are rich in membranous structures known as the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), particularly the rough ER. They are involved in various important cellular processes, most notably the metabolism of xenobiotics (foreign substances) including drugs, toxins, and carcinogens.

The liver microsomes contain a variety of enzymes, such as cytochrome P450 monooxygenases, that are crucial for phase I drug metabolism. These enzymes help in the oxidation, reduction, or hydrolysis of xenobiotics, making them more water-soluble and facilitating their excretion from the body. Additionally, liver microsomes also host other enzymes involved in phase II conjugation reactions, where the metabolites from phase I are further modified by adding polar molecules like glucuronic acid, sulfate, or acetyl groups.

In summary, liver microsomes are a subcellular fraction of liver cells that play a significant role in the metabolism and detoxification of xenobiotics, contributing to the overall protection and maintenance of cellular homeostasis within the body.

Viologens, also known as methylviologen dyes or paraquat salts, are a group of chemical compounds that have the general structure of bis(dimethylpyridinium). They are widely used in research as electron acceptors and in commercial applications such as herbicides. Viologens can undergo redox reactions, which make them useful for studies involving electron transfer. However, they can also be toxic to living organisms, including humans, due to their ability to generate reactive oxygen species that damage cells.

"Aspalathus" is a genus name in botany, which refers to a group of plants that belong to the family Fabaceae. This genus includes several species, the most well-known of which is Aspalathus linearis, commonly known as rooibos or red bush. Rooibos is a shrub native to South Africa, and its leaves are used to make a popular herbal tea that is caffeine-free and rich in antioxidants.

While "Aspalathus" itself is not a medical term, rooibos tea made from the leaves of Aspalathus linearis has been studied for its potential health benefits. Some research suggests that rooibos may have anti-inflammatory, antimutagenic, and antioxidant properties, although more studies are needed to confirm these effects and establish recommended dosages. It's important to note that herbal remedies can interact with medications and have side effects, so it's always a good idea to consult with a healthcare provider before incorporating them into your health routine.

Trichloroethylene (TCE) is a volatile, colorless liquid with a chloroform-like odor. In the medical field, it is primarily used as a surgical anesthetic and an analgesic. However, its use in medicine has significantly decreased due to the availability of safer alternatives.

In a broader context, TCE is widely used in various industries as a solvent for cleaning metal parts, degreasing fabrics and other materials, and as a refrigerant. It's also present in some consumer products like paint removers, adhesives, and typewriter correction fluids.

Prolonged or repeated exposure to TCE can lead to various health issues, including neurological problems, liver and kidney damage, and an increased risk of certain cancers. Therefore, its use is regulated by environmental and occupational safety agencies worldwide.

Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are defined in medical literature as hollow, cylindrical structures composed of rolled graphene sheets, with diameters typically measuring on the nanoscale (ranging from 1 to several tens of nanometers) and lengths that can reach several micrometers. They can be single-walled (SWCNTs), consisting of a single layer of graphene, or multi-walled (MWCNTs), composed of multiple concentric layers of graphene.

Carbon nanotubes have unique mechanical, electrical, and thermal properties that make them promising for various biomedical applications, such as drug delivery systems, biosensors, and tissue engineering scaffolds. However, their potential toxicity and long-term effects on human health are still under investigation, particularly concerning their ability to induce oxidative stress, inflammation, and genotoxicity in certain experimental settings.

Methylene chloride, also known as dichloromethane, is an organic compound with the formula CH2Cl2. It is a colorless, volatile liquid with a mild sweet aroma. In terms of medical definitions, methylene chloride is not typically included due to its primarily industrial uses. However, it is important to note that exposure to high levels of methylene chloride can cause harmful health effects, including irritation to the eyes, skin, and respiratory tract; headaches; dizziness; and, at very high concentrations, unconsciousness and death. Chronic exposure to methylene chloride has been linked to liver toxicity, and it is considered a possible human carcinogen by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC).

"Eleusine" is the genus name for a group of plants that includes several species of grasses, some of which are known as "goosegrass." It does not have a specific medical definition, but certain species of Eleusine may have medicinal or therapeutic uses. For example, in traditional medicine, the leaves and seeds of some Eleusine species have been used to treat various conditions such as diarrhea, dysentery, and skin diseases. However, it is important to note that these uses have not been extensively studied or proven in clinical trials, so they should not be considered medical facts. Always consult with a healthcare provider for medical advice.

Lipid peroxides are chemical compounds that form when lipids (fats or fat-like substances) oxidize. This process, known as lipid peroxidation, involves the reaction of lipids with oxygen in a way that leads to the formation of hydroperoxides and various aldehydes, such as malondialdehyde.

Lipid peroxidation is a naturally occurring process that can also be accelerated by factors such as exposure to radiation, certain chemicals, or enzymatic reactions. It plays a role in many biological processes, including cell signaling and regulation of gene expression, but it can also contribute to the development of various diseases when it becomes excessive.

Examples of lipid peroxides include phospholipid hydroperoxides, cholesteryl ester hydroperoxides, and triglyceride hydroperoxides. These compounds are often used as markers of oxidative stress in biological systems and have been implicated in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, cancer, neurodegenerative diseases, and other conditions associated with oxidative damage.

Necrosis is the premature death of cells or tissues due to damage or injury, such as from infection, trauma, infarction (lack of blood supply), or toxic substances. It's a pathological process that results in the uncontrolled and passive degradation of cellular components, ultimately leading to the release of intracellular contents into the extracellular space. This can cause local inflammation and may lead to further tissue damage if not treated promptly.

There are different types of necrosis, including coagulative, liquefactive, caseous, fat, fibrinoid, and gangrenous necrosis, each with distinct histological features depending on the underlying cause and the affected tissues or organs.

Chlordecone is a synthetic chlorinated hydrocarbon insecticide that was widely used in the past for agricultural purposes, particularly in banana plantations. It has been banned in many countries due to its persistence in the environment and its potential negative effects on human health.

Chlordecone is classified as a possible human carcinogen by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). Exposure to this chemical can occur through contaminated food, water, or air, and it has been linked to various health problems, including neurological effects, endocrine disruption, and an increased risk of certain cancers.

In the medical field, chlordecone exposure is often evaluated in patients who have been exposed to this chemical through environmental contamination or occupational exposure. Medical professionals may use various tests, such as blood or urine tests, to measure the levels of chlordecone in a patient's body and assess any potential health risks.

Solvents, in a medical context, are substances that are capable of dissolving or dispersing other materials, often used in the preparation of medications and solutions. They are commonly organic chemicals that can liquefy various substances, making it possible to administer them in different forms, such as oral solutions, topical creams, or injectable drugs.

However, it is essential to recognize that solvents may pose health risks if mishandled or misused, particularly when they contain volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Prolonged exposure to these VOCs can lead to adverse health effects, including respiratory issues, neurological damage, and even cancer. Therefore, it is crucial to handle solvents with care and follow safety guidelines to minimize potential health hazards.

Chinese herbal drugs, also known as traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), refer to a system of medicine that has been practiced in China for thousands of years. It is based on the belief that the body's vital energy, called Qi, must be balanced and flowing freely for good health. TCM uses various techniques such as herbal therapy, acupuncture, dietary therapy, and exercise to restore balance and promote healing.

Chinese herbal drugs are usually prescribed in the form of teas, powders, pills, or tinctures and may contain one or a combination of herbs. The herbs used in Chinese medicine are typically derived from plants, minerals, or animal products. Some commonly used Chinese herbs include ginseng, astragalus, licorice root, and cinnamon bark.

It is important to note that the use of Chinese herbal drugs should be under the guidance of a qualified practitioner, as some herbs can interact with prescription medications or have side effects. Additionally, the quality and safety of Chinese herbal products can vary widely depending on the source and manufacturing process.

Sprague-Dawley rats are a strain of albino laboratory rats that are widely used in scientific research. They were first developed by researchers H.H. Sprague and R.C. Dawley in the early 20th century, and have since become one of the most commonly used rat strains in biomedical research due to their relatively large size, ease of handling, and consistent genetic background.

Sprague-Dawley rats are outbred, which means that they are genetically diverse and do not suffer from the same limitations as inbred strains, which can have reduced fertility and increased susceptibility to certain diseases. They are also characterized by their docile nature and low levels of aggression, making them easier to handle and study than some other rat strains.

These rats are used in a wide variety of research areas, including toxicology, pharmacology, nutrition, cancer, and behavioral studies. Because they are genetically diverse, Sprague-Dawley rats can be used to model a range of human diseases and conditions, making them an important tool in the development of new drugs and therapies.

Bile ducts are tubular structures that carry bile from the liver to the gallbladder for storage or directly to the small intestine to aid in digestion. There are two types of bile ducts: intrahepatic and extrahepatic. Intrahepatic bile ducts are located within the liver and drain bile from liver cells, while extrahepatic bile ducts are outside the liver and include the common hepatic duct, cystic duct, and common bile duct. These ducts can become obstructed or inflamed, leading to various medical conditions such as cholestasis, cholecystitis, and gallstones.

Bromotrichloromethane is a type of halomethane, which is a class of chemicals containing carbon and halogen atoms. Specifically, bromotrichloromethane is a colorless liquid with the chemical formula CBrCl3. It has been used as a fire extinguishing agent, a refrigerant, and an intermediate in the production of other chemicals.

In medical terms, bromotrichloromethane may be encountered in the context of occupational health and safety or environmental exposure assessment. Exposure to high levels of this chemical can cause irritation to the eyes, skin, and respiratory tract, as well as potential neurological effects such as headache, dizziness, and loss of consciousness. Long-term exposure has been linked to liver and kidney damage in animal studies.

It is important to note that bromotrichloromethane is not used in medical treatments or procedures. Its use in industrial applications has been largely phased out due to its ozone-depleting properties and potential health hazards.

Carbon isotopes are variants of the chemical element carbon that have different numbers of neutrons in their atomic nuclei. The most common and stable isotope of carbon is carbon-12 (^{12}C), which contains six protons and six neutrons. However, carbon can also come in other forms, known as isotopes, which contain different numbers of neutrons.

Carbon-13 (^{13}C) is a stable isotope of carbon that contains seven neutrons in its nucleus. It makes up about 1.1% of all carbon found on Earth and is used in various scientific applications, such as in tracing the metabolic pathways of organisms or in studying the age of fossilized materials.

Carbon-14 (^{14}C), also known as radiocarbon, is a radioactive isotope of carbon that contains eight neutrons in its nucleus. It is produced naturally in the atmosphere through the interaction of cosmic rays with nitrogen gas. Carbon-14 has a half-life of about 5,730 years, which makes it useful for dating organic materials, such as archaeological artifacts or fossils, up to around 60,000 years old.

Carbon isotopes are important in many scientific fields, including geology, biology, and medicine, and are used in a variety of applications, from studying the Earth's climate history to diagnosing medical conditions.

Liver function tests (LFTs) are a group of blood tests that are used to assess the functioning and health of the liver. These tests measure the levels of various enzymes, proteins, and waste products that are produced or metabolized by the liver. Some common LFTs include:

1. Alanine aminotransferase (ALT): An enzyme found primarily in the liver, ALT is released into the bloodstream in response to liver cell damage. Elevated levels of ALT may indicate liver injury or disease.
2. Aspartate aminotransferase (AST): Another enzyme found in various tissues, including the liver, heart, and muscles. Like ALT, AST is released into the bloodstream following tissue damage. High AST levels can be a sign of liver damage or other medical conditions.
3. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP): An enzyme found in several organs, including the liver, bile ducts, and bones. Elevated ALP levels may indicate a blockage in the bile ducts, liver disease, or bone disorders.
4. Gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT): An enzyme found mainly in the liver, pancreas, and biliary system. Increased GGT levels can suggest liver disease, alcohol consumption, or the use of certain medications.
5. Bilirubin: A yellowish pigment produced when hemoglobin from red blood cells is broken down. Bilirubin is processed by the liver and excreted through bile. High bilirubin levels can indicate liver dysfunction, bile duct obstruction, or certain types of anemia.
6. Albumin: A protein produced by the liver that helps maintain fluid balance in the body and transports various substances in the blood. Low albumin levels may suggest liver damage, malnutrition, or kidney disease.
7. Total protein: A measure of all proteins present in the blood, including albumin and other types of proteins produced by the liver. Decreased total protein levels can indicate liver dysfunction or other medical conditions.

These tests are often ordered together as part of a routine health checkup or when evaluating symptoms related to liver function or disease. The results should be interpreted in conjunction with clinical findings, medical history, and other diagnostic tests.

Iridoids are a type of naturally occurring compounds that are widely distributed in the plant kingdom. They are characterized by the presence of a cyclopentanoid structure fused to a monoterpene unit. Iridoids have a wide range of biological activities, including anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and antioxidant effects. Some iridoids also have potential therapeutic benefits in the treatment of various diseases, such as cancer and neurodegenerative disorders.

In a medical context, iridoids may be mentioned in relation to their presence in certain medicinal plants or herbs used in traditional medicine, or in research investigating their potential pharmacological properties. However, it is important to note that the use of iridoid-containing plants or supplements should only be done under the guidance of a qualified healthcare professional, as with any medical treatment.

"Inbred strains of rats" are genetically identical rodents that have been produced through many generations of brother-sister mating. This results in a high degree of homozygosity, where the genes at any particular locus in the genome are identical in all members of the strain.

Inbred strains of rats are widely used in biomedical research because they provide a consistent and reproducible genetic background for studying various biological phenomena, including the effects of drugs, environmental factors, and genetic mutations on health and disease. Additionally, inbred strains can be used to create genetically modified models of human diseases by introducing specific mutations into their genomes.

Some commonly used inbred strains of rats include the Wistar Kyoto (WKY), Sprague-Dawley (SD), and Fischer 344 (F344) rat strains. Each strain has its own unique genetic characteristics, making them suitable for different types of research.

Free radicals are molecules or atoms that have one or more unpaired electrons in their outermost shell, making them highly reactive. They can be formed naturally in the body through processes such as metabolism and exercise, or they can come from external sources like pollution, radiation, and certain chemicals. Free radicals can cause damage to cells and contribute to the development of various diseases, including cancer, cardiovascular disease, and neurodegenerative disorders. Antioxidants are substances that can neutralize free radicals and help protect against their harmful effects.

Podophyllum is a botanical name that refers to a genus of plants in the family Berberidaceae. It's commonly known as Mayapple or American mandrake. The dried rhizome (underground stem) of Podophyllum peltatum, also known as Podophyllin, contains podophyllotoxin and other aryltetralin lignans, which have been used in medical preparations for their antineoplastic (anti-cancer) properties.

In modern medicine, podophyllotoxin is obtained through semi-synthesis and is used as a topical treatment for genital warts. It works by inhibiting the formation of microtubules, which are necessary for cell division, leading to the death of the infected cells.

Please note that Podophyllum products should only be used under the supervision of a healthcare professional due to their potential toxicity.

'Embelia' is a genus of plants in the family Myrsinaceae, and it includes several species that are native to tropical regions of Asia and Africa. One of the most well-known species is Embelia ribes, which is commonly known as false black pepper or vidanga. The fruits and roots of this plant have been used in traditional Ayurvedic medicine for various purposes, such as treating digestive disorders, fever, and skin diseases. However, it's important to note that the use of these plants as medicines should be done under the guidance of a qualified healthcare provider, as they can interact with other medications and have potential side effects.

Antioxidants are substances that can prevent or slow damage to cells caused by free radicals, which are unstable molecules that the body produces as a reaction to environmental and other pressures. Antioxidants are able to neutralize free radicals by donating an electron to them, thus stabilizing them and preventing them from causing further damage to the cells.

Antioxidants can be found in a variety of foods, including fruits, vegetables, nuts, and grains. Some common antioxidants include vitamins C and E, beta-carotene, and selenium. Antioxidants are also available as dietary supplements.

In addition to their role in protecting cells from damage, antioxidants have been studied for their potential to prevent or treat a number of health conditions, including cancer, heart disease, and age-related macular degeneration. However, more research is needed to fully understand the potential benefits and risks of using antioxidant supplements.

Portal pressure, also known as portal hypertension, refers to an increase in the pressure within the portal vein, which is the large blood vessel that carries blood from the gastrointestinal tract and spleen to the liver. Normal portal pressure is usually between 5-10 mmHg.

Portal hypertension can occur as a result of various conditions that cause obstruction or narrowing of the portal vein, or increased resistance to blood flow within the liver. This can lead to the development of collateral vessels, which are abnormal blood vessels that form to bypass the blocked or narrowed vessel, and can result in complications such as variceal bleeding, ascites, and encephalopathy.

The measurement of portal pressure is often used in the diagnosis and management of patients with liver disease and portal hypertension.

Bromobenzenes are a group of chemical compounds that consist of a benzene ring (a cyclic structure with six carbon atoms and alternating double bonds) substituted with one or more bromine atoms. The simplest and most common member of this group is bromobenzene itself, which contains a single bromine atom attached to a benzene ring.

Other members of the bromobenzenes family include dibromobenzene (with two bromine atoms), tribromobenzene (with three bromine atoms), and tetrabromobenzene (with four bromine atoms). These compounds are used in various industrial applications, such as in the production of flame retardants, dyes, pharmaceuticals, and agrochemicals.

It is important to note that bromobenzenes can be harmful or toxic to humans and other organisms, and should be handled with care. Exposure to high levels of these compounds can cause a range of health effects, including irritation of the skin, eyes, and respiratory tract, headaches, dizziness, nausea, and damage to the liver and kidneys.

Phytotherapy is the use of extracts of natural origin, especially plants or plant parts, for therapeutic purposes. It is also known as herbal medicine and is a traditional practice in many cultures. The active compounds in these plant extracts are believed to have various medicinal properties, such as anti-inflammatory, analgesic, or sedative effects. Practitioners of phytotherapy may use the whole plant, dried parts, or concentrated extracts to prepare teas, capsules, tinctures, or ointments for therapeutic use. It is important to note that the effectiveness and safety of phytotherapy are not always supported by scientific evidence, and it should be used with caution and preferably under the guidance of a healthcare professional.

Glutathione is a tripeptide composed of three amino acids: cysteine, glutamic acid, and glycine. It is a vital antioxidant that plays an essential role in maintaining cellular health and function. Glutathione helps protect cells from oxidative stress by neutralizing free radicals, which are unstable molecules that can damage cells and contribute to aging and diseases such as cancer, heart disease, and dementia. It also supports the immune system, detoxifies harmful substances, and regulates various cellular processes, including DNA synthesis and repair.

Glutathione is found in every cell of the body, with particularly high concentrations in the liver, lungs, and eyes. The body can produce its own glutathione, but levels may decline with age, illness, or exposure to toxins. As such, maintaining optimal glutathione levels through diet, supplementation, or other means is essential for overall health and well-being.

Cyclooctanes are a class of organic compounds that contain a cyclic octane structure, which is an eight-carbon ring. These molecules can exist in various conformations, including "crowded" or "eclipsed" conformations, where the carbon-hydrogen bonds are arranged in a way that leads to steric strain. This strain makes cyclooctanes less stable than other cycloalkanes, such as cyclohexane. The properties and behavior of cyclooctanes can be studied and applied in fields like chemistry, biochemistry, and materials science.

Methyl chloride, also known as methyl chloride or chloromethane, is not typically considered a medical term. However, it is a chemical compound with the formula CH3Cl. It is a colorless and extremely volatile liquid that easily evaporates at room temperature.

In terms of potential health impacts, methyl chloride can be harmful if inhaled, swallowed, or comes into contact with the skin. Exposure to high levels can cause symptoms such as headache, dizziness, irritation of the eyes, nose, and throat, nausea, vomiting, and difficulty breathing. Prolonged exposure or significant inhalation can lead to more severe health effects, including damage to the nervous system, liver, and kidneys.

It is essential to handle methyl chloride with care, following appropriate safety measures and guidelines, to minimize potential health risks.

Malondialdehyde (MDA) is a naturally occurring organic compound that is formed as a byproduct of lipid peroxidation, a process in which free radicals or reactive oxygen species react with polyunsaturated fatty acids. MDA is a highly reactive aldehyde that can modify proteins, DNA, and other biomolecules, leading to cellular damage and dysfunction. It is often used as a marker of oxidative stress in biological systems and has been implicated in the development of various diseases, including cancer, cardiovascular disease, and neurodegenerative disorders.

Glycols are a type of organic compound that contain two hydroxyl (OH) groups attached to adjacent carbon atoms. They are colorless, odorless, and have a sweet taste. The most common glycols are ethylene glycol and propylene glycol. Ethylene glycol is widely used as an automotive antifreeze and in the manufacture of polyester fibers and resins, while propylene glycol is used as a food additive, in pharmaceuticals, and as a solvent in various industries. Glycols are also used as a coolant, humectant, and in the production of unsaturated polyester resins. Exposure to high levels of glycols can cause irritation to the eyes, skin, and respiratory tract, and ingestion can be harmful or fatal.

Aldehydes are a class of organic compounds characterized by the presence of a functional group consisting of a carbon atom bonded to a hydrogen atom and a double bonded oxygen atom, also known as a formyl or aldehyde group. The general chemical structure of an aldehyde is R-CHO, where R represents a hydrocarbon chain.

Aldehydes are important in biochemistry and medicine as they are involved in various metabolic processes and are found in many biological molecules. For example, glucose is converted to pyruvate through a series of reactions that involve aldehyde intermediates. Additionally, some aldehydes have been identified as toxicants or environmental pollutants, such as formaldehyde, which is a known carcinogen and respiratory irritant.

Formaldehyde is also commonly used in medical and laboratory settings for its disinfectant properties and as a fixative for tissue samples. However, exposure to high levels of formaldehyde can be harmful to human health, causing symptoms such as coughing, wheezing, and irritation of the eyes, nose, and throat. Therefore, appropriate safety measures must be taken when handling aldehydes in medical and laboratory settings.

Nitrosamines are a type of chemical compound that are formed by the reaction between nitrous acid (or any nitrogen oxide) and secondary amines. They are often found in certain types of food, such as cured meats and cheeses, as well as in tobacco products and cosmetics.

Nitrosamines have been classified as probable human carcinogens by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). Exposure to high levels of nitrosamines has been linked to an increased risk of cancer, particularly in the digestive tract. They can also cause DNA damage and interfere with the normal functioning of cells.

In the medical field, nitrosamines have been a topic of concern due to their potential presence as contaminants in certain medications. For example, some drugs that contain nitrofurantoin, a medication used to treat urinary tract infections, have been found to contain low levels of nitrosamines. While the risk associated with these low levels is not well understood, efforts are underway to minimize the presence of nitrosamines in medications and other products.

Proadifen is not typically referred to as a medical term or definition in modern medicine. However, it is an old antihistamine drug that was used in the past for its properties as a monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI). MAOIs were used primarily in the treatment of depression but have largely been replaced by newer classes of drugs due to their potential for serious side effects.

Here is a brief medical definition of Proadifen as an MAOI:

Proadifen (SKF-525A): An older, nonselective and irreversible monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI) that was used in the past for its antidepressant effects. Its use has been largely discontinued due to the risk of serious adverse reactions, such as hypertensive crises, when combined with certain foods or medications containing tyramine.

Iridoid glycosides are a type of naturally occurring compounds that are found in various plants, including the Lamiaceae (mint) family and the Plantaginaceae (plantain) family. These compounds consist of an iridoid moiety, which is a cyclic molecule derived from the terpene iridodial, linked to a sugar group. Iridoid glycosides have been studied for their potential medicinal properties, including anti-inflammatory, antispasmodic, and analgesic effects. Some examples of plants that contain iridoid glycosides include gardenia, olive, and valerian. It is important to note that while some iridoid glycosides have been found to have medicinal benefits, others may be toxic in high concentrations, so it is essential to use them under the guidance of a healthcare professional.

Acetaminophen is a medication used to relieve pain and reduce fever. It is a commonly used over-the-counter drug and is also available in prescription-strength formulations. Acetaminophen works by inhibiting the production of prostaglandins, chemicals in the body that cause inflammation and trigger pain signals.

Acetaminophen is available in many different forms, including tablets, capsules, liquids, and suppositories. It is often found in combination with other medications, such as cough and cold products, sleep aids, and opioid pain relievers.

While acetaminophen is generally considered safe when used as directed, it can cause serious liver damage or even death if taken in excessive amounts. It is important to follow the dosing instructions carefully and avoid taking more than the recommended dose, especially if you are also taking other medications that contain acetaminophen.

If you have any questions about using acetaminophen or are concerned about potential side effects, it is always best to consult with a healthcare professional.

Medical Definition:

Lethal Dose 50 (LD50) is a standard measurement in toxicology that refers to the estimated amount or dose of a substance, which if ingested, injected, inhaled, or absorbed through the skin by either human or animal, would cause death in 50% of the test population. It is expressed as the mass of a substance per unit of body weight (mg/kg, μg/kg, etc.). LD50 values are often used to compare the toxicity of different substances and help determine safe dosage levels.

Aspartate aminotransferase (AST), mitochondrial isoform, is an enzyme found primarily in the mitochondria of cells. It is involved in the transfer of an amino group from aspartic acid to alpha-ketoglutarate, resulting in the formation of oxaloacetate and glutamate. This enzyme plays a crucial role in the cellular energy production process, particularly within the mitochondria.

Elevated levels of AST, mitochondrial isoform, can be found in various medical conditions, including liver disease, muscle damage, and heart injury. However, it's important to note that most clinical laboratories measure a combined level of both cytosolic and mitochondrial AST isoforms when testing for this enzyme. Therefore, the specific contribution of the mitochondrial isoform may not be easily discernible in routine medical tests.

Glucose-6-phosphatase is an enzyme that plays a crucial role in the regulation of glucose metabolism. It is primarily located in the endoplasmic reticulum of cells in liver, kidney, and intestinal mucosa. The main function of this enzyme is to remove the phosphate group from glucose-6-phosphate (G6P), converting it into free glucose, which can then be released into the bloodstream and used as a source of energy by cells throughout the body.

The reaction catalyzed by glucose-6-phosphatase is as follows:

Glucose-6-phosphate + H2O → Glucose + Pi (inorganic phosphate)

This enzyme is essential for maintaining normal blood glucose levels, particularly during periods of fasting or starvation. In these situations, the body needs to break down stored glycogen in the liver and convert it into glucose to supply energy to the brain and other vital organs. Glucose-6-phosphatase is a key enzyme in this process, allowing for the release of free glucose into the bloodstream.

Deficiencies or mutations in the gene encoding glucose-6-phosphatase can lead to several metabolic disorders, such as glycogen storage disease type I (von Gierke's disease) and other related conditions. These disorders are characterized by an accumulation of glycogen and/or fat in various organs, leading to impaired glucose metabolism, growth retardation, and increased risk of infection and liver dysfunction.

Transforming Growth Factor-beta 1 (TGF-β1) is a cytokine that belongs to the TGF-β superfamily. It is a multifunctional protein involved in various cellular processes, including cell growth, differentiation, apoptosis, and extracellular matrix production. TGF-β1 plays crucial roles in embryonic development, tissue homeostasis, and repair, as well as in pathological conditions such as fibrosis and cancer. It signals through a heteromeric complex of type I and type II serine/threonine kinase receptors, leading to the activation of intracellular signaling pathways, primarily the Smad-dependent pathway. TGF-β1 has context-dependent functions, acting as a tumor suppressor in normal and early-stage cancer cells but promoting tumor progression and metastasis in advanced cancers.

Diethylnitrosamine (DEN) is a potent chemical carcinogen that belongs to the class of nitrosamines. It is known to induce tumors in various organs, including the liver, kidney, and lungs, in different animal species. Diethylnitrosamine requires metabolic activation by enzymes such as cytochrome P450 to exert its carcinogenic effects.

Diethylnitrosamine is not typically used for medical purposes but may be employed in laboratory research to study the mechanisms of chemical carcinogenesis and cancer development. It is essential to handle this compound with care, following appropriate safety protocols, due to its potential hazards.

Silymarin is not a medical term itself, but it's the active compound found in the milk thistle plant (Silybum marianum). Medically, silymarin is often referred to as a standardized extract from the seeds of the milk thistle plant. It is a complex mixture of flavonolignans, mainly consisting of silybin, isosilybin, silychristin, and silydianin.

Silymarin has been reported to have various biological activities, including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and hepatoprotective effects. It is commonly used in complementary and alternative medicine for the treatment of liver diseases such as hepatitis, cirrhosis, and toxic liver damage due to alcohol or drug abuse. However, its clinical efficacy remains a subject of ongoing research and debate among medical professionals.

F344 is a strain code used to designate an outbred stock of rats that has been inbreeded for over 100 generations. The F344 rats, also known as Fischer 344 rats, were originally developed at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) and are now widely used in biomedical research due to their consistent and reliable genetic background.

Inbred strains, like the F344, are created by mating genetically identical individuals (siblings or parents and offspring) for many generations until a state of complete homozygosity is reached, meaning that all members of the strain have identical genomes. This genetic uniformity makes inbred strains ideal for use in studies where consistent and reproducible results are important.

F344 rats are known for their longevity, with a median lifespan of around 27-31 months, making them useful for aging research. They also have a relatively low incidence of spontaneous tumors compared to other rat strains. However, they may be more susceptible to certain types of cancer and other diseases due to their inbred status.

It's important to note that while F344 rats are often used as a standard laboratory rat strain, there can still be some genetic variation between individual animals within the same strain, particularly if they come from different suppliers or breeding colonies. Therefore, it's always important to consider the source and history of any animal model when designing experiments and interpreting results.

Phenobarbital is a barbiturate medication that is primarily used for the treatment of seizures and convulsions. It works by suppressing the abnormal electrical activity in the brain that leads to seizures. In addition to its anticonvulsant properties, phenobarbital also has sedative and hypnotic effects, which can be useful for treating anxiety, insomnia, and agitation.

Phenobarbital is available in various forms, including tablets, capsules, and elixirs, and it is typically taken orally. The medication works by binding to specific receptors in the brain called gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptors, which help to regulate nerve impulses in the brain. By increasing the activity of GABA, phenobarbital can help to reduce excessive neural activity and prevent seizures.

While phenobarbital is an effective medication for treating seizures and other conditions, it can also be habit-forming and carries a risk of dependence and addiction. Long-term use of the medication can lead to tolerance, meaning that higher doses may be needed to achieve the same effects. Abruptly stopping the medication can also lead to withdrawal symptoms, such as anxiety, restlessness, and seizures.

Like all medications, phenobarbital can have side effects, including dizziness, drowsiness, and impaired coordination. It can also interact with other medications, such as certain antidepressants and sedatives, so it is important to inform your healthcare provider of all medications you are taking before starting phenobarbital.

In summary, phenobarbital is a barbiturate medication used primarily for the treatment of seizures and convulsions. It works by binding to GABA receptors in the brain and increasing their activity, which helps to reduce excessive neural activity and prevent seizures. While phenobarbital can be effective, it carries a risk of dependence and addiction and can have side effects and drug interactions.

Lipid metabolism is the process by which the body breaks down and utilizes lipids (fats) for various functions, such as energy production, cell membrane formation, and hormone synthesis. This complex process involves several enzymes and pathways that regulate the digestion, absorption, transport, storage, and consumption of fats in the body.

The main types of lipids involved in metabolism include triglycerides, cholesterol, phospholipids, and fatty acids. The breakdown of these lipids begins in the digestive system, where enzymes called lipases break down dietary fats into smaller molecules called fatty acids and glycerol. These molecules are then absorbed into the bloodstream and transported to the liver, which is the main site of lipid metabolism.

In the liver, fatty acids may be further broken down for energy production or used to synthesize new lipids. Excess fatty acids may be stored as triglycerides in specialized cells called adipocytes (fat cells) for later use. Cholesterol is also metabolized in the liver, where it may be used to synthesize bile acids, steroid hormones, and other important molecules.

Disorders of lipid metabolism can lead to a range of health problems, including obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). These conditions may be caused by genetic factors, lifestyle habits, or a combination of both. Proper diagnosis and management of lipid metabolism disorders typically involves a combination of dietary changes, exercise, and medication.

Biotransformation is the metabolic modification of a chemical compound, typically a xenobiotic (a foreign chemical substance found within an living organism), by a biological system. This process often involves enzymatic conversion of the parent compound to one or more metabolites, which may be more or less active, toxic, or mutagenic than the original substance.

In the context of pharmacology and toxicology, biotransformation is an important aspect of drug metabolism and elimination from the body. The liver is the primary site of biotransformation, but other organs such as the kidneys, lungs, and gastrointestinal tract can also play a role.

Biotransformation can occur in two phases: phase I reactions involve functionalization of the parent compound through oxidation, reduction, or hydrolysis, while phase II reactions involve conjugation of the metabolite with endogenous molecules such as glucuronic acid, sulfate, or acetate to increase its water solubility and facilitate excretion.

Animal disease models are specialized animals, typically rodents such as mice or rats, that have been genetically engineered or exposed to certain conditions to develop symptoms and physiological changes similar to those seen in human diseases. These models are used in medical research to study the pathophysiology of diseases, identify potential therapeutic targets, test drug efficacy and safety, and understand disease mechanisms.

The genetic modifications can include knockout or knock-in mutations, transgenic expression of specific genes, or RNA interference techniques. The animals may also be exposed to environmental factors such as chemicals, radiation, or infectious agents to induce the disease state.

Examples of animal disease models include:

1. Mouse models of cancer: Genetically engineered mice that develop various types of tumors, allowing researchers to study cancer initiation, progression, and metastasis.
2. Alzheimer's disease models: Transgenic mice expressing mutant human genes associated with Alzheimer's disease, which exhibit amyloid plaque formation and cognitive decline.
3. Diabetes models: Obese and diabetic mouse strains like the NOD (non-obese diabetic) or db/db mice, used to study the development of type 1 and type 2 diabetes, respectively.
4. Cardiovascular disease models: Atherosclerosis-prone mice, such as ApoE-deficient or LDLR-deficient mice, that develop plaque buildup in their arteries when fed a high-fat diet.
5. Inflammatory bowel disease models: Mice with genetic mutations affecting intestinal barrier function and immune response, such as IL-10 knockout or SAMP1/YitFc mice, which develop colitis.

Animal disease models are essential tools in preclinical research, but it is important to recognize their limitations. Differences between species can affect the translatability of results from animal studies to human patients. Therefore, researchers must carefully consider the choice of model and interpret findings cautiously when applying them to human diseases.

Acute liver failure is a sudden and severe loss of liver function that occurs within a few days or weeks. It can be caused by various factors such as drug-induced liver injury, viral hepatitis, or metabolic disorders. In acute liver failure, the liver cannot perform its vital functions, including protein synthesis, detoxification, and metabolism of carbohydrates, fats, and proteins.

The symptoms of acute liver failure include jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes), coagulopathy (bleeding disorders), hepatic encephalopathy (neurological symptoms such as confusion, disorientation, and coma), and elevated levels of liver enzymes in the blood. Acute liver failure is a medical emergency that requires immediate hospitalization and treatment, which may include medications, supportive care, and liver transplantation.

Carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning is a medical condition that occurs when carbon monoxide gas is inhaled, leading to the accumulation of this toxic gas in the bloodstream. Carbon monoxide is a colorless, odorless, and tasteless gas produced by the incomplete combustion of fossil fuels such as natural gas, propane, oil, wood, or coal.

When carbon monoxide is inhaled, it binds to hemoglobin, the protein in red blood cells responsible for carrying oxygen throughout the body. This binding forms carboxyhemoglobin (COHb), which reduces the oxygen-carrying capacity of the blood and leads to hypoxia, or insufficient oxygen supply to the body's tissues and organs.

The symptoms of carbon monoxide poisoning can vary depending on the level of exposure and the duration of exposure. Mild to moderate CO poisoning may cause symptoms such as headache, dizziness, weakness, nausea, vomiting, chest pain, and confusion. Severe CO poisoning can lead to loss of consciousness, seizures, heart failure, respiratory failure, and even death.

Carbon monoxide poisoning is a medical emergency that requires immediate treatment. Treatment typically involves administering high-flow oxygen therapy to help eliminate carbon monoxide from the body and prevent further damage to tissues and organs. In some cases, hyperbaric oxygen therapy may be used to accelerate the elimination of CO from the body.

Prevention is key in avoiding carbon monoxide poisoning. It is essential to ensure that all fuel-burning appliances are properly maintained and ventilated, and that carbon monoxide detectors are installed and functioning correctly in homes and other enclosed spaces.

Oxidative stress is defined as an imbalance between the production of reactive oxygen species (free radicals) and the body's ability to detoxify them or repair the damage they cause. This imbalance can lead to cellular damage, oxidation of proteins, lipids, and DNA, disruption of cellular functions, and activation of inflammatory responses. Prolonged or excessive oxidative stress has been linked to various health conditions, including cancer, cardiovascular diseases, neurodegenerative disorders, and aging-related diseases.

Transaminases, also known as aminotransferases, are a group of enzymes found in various tissues of the body, particularly in the liver, heart, muscle, and kidneys. They play a crucial role in the metabolism of amino acids, the building blocks of proteins.

There are two major types of transaminases: aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT). Both enzymes are normally present in low concentrations in the bloodstream. However, when tissues that contain these enzymes are damaged or injured, such as during liver disease or muscle damage, the levels of AST and ALT in the blood may significantly increase.

Measurement of serum transaminase levels is a common laboratory test used to assess liver function and detect liver injury or damage. Increased levels of these enzymes in the blood can indicate conditions such as hepatitis, liver cirrhosis, drug-induced liver injury, heart attack, and muscle disorders. It's important to note that while elevated transaminase levels may suggest liver disease, they do not specify the type or cause of the condition, and further diagnostic tests are often required for accurate diagnosis and treatment.

Collagen Type I is the most abundant form of collagen in the human body, found in various connective tissues such as tendons, ligaments, skin, and bones. It is a structural protein that provides strength and integrity to these tissues. Collagen Type I is composed of three alpha chains, two alpha-1(I) chains, and one alpha-2(I) chain, arranged in a triple helix structure. This type of collagen is often used in medical research and clinical applications, such as tissue engineering and regenerative medicine, due to its excellent mechanical properties and biocompatibility.

Galactosamine is not a medical condition but a chemical compound. Medically, it might be referred to in the context of certain medical tests or treatments. Here's the scientific definition:

Galactosamine is an amino sugar, a type of monosaccharide (simple sugar) that contains a functional amino group (-NH2) as well as a hydroxyl group (-OH). More specifically, galactosamine is a derivative of galactose, with the chemical formula C6H13NO5. It is an important component of many glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), which are complex carbohydrates found in animal tissues, particularly in connective tissue and cartilage.

In some medical applications, galactosamine has been used as a building block for the synthesis of GAG analogs or as a component of substrates for enzyme assays. It is also used in research to study various biological processes, such as cell growth and differentiation.

Gallic acid is an organic compound that is widely found in nature. It's a type of phenolic acid, which means it contains a hydroxyl group (-OH) attached to an aromatic ring. Gallic acid is a white crystalline solid that is soluble in water and alcohol.

In the medical field, gallic acid is known for its antioxidant properties. It has been shown to neutralize free radicals, which are unstable molecules that can damage cells and contribute to aging and diseases such as cancer and heart disease. Gallic acid also has anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, and antifungal properties.

Gallic acid is found in a variety of plants, including tea leaves, grapes, oak bark, and sumac. It can be extracted from these plants and used in the production of pharmaceuticals, food additives, and cosmetics. In some cases, gallic acid may be used as a marker for the identification and authentication of plant-based materials.

It's important to note that while gallic acid has potential health benefits, it should not be taken as a substitute for medical treatment or advice from a healthcare professional.

Chlorinated hydrocarbons are a group of organic compounds that contain carbon (C), hydrogen (H), and chlorine (Cl) atoms. These chemicals are formed by replacing one or more hydrogen atoms in a hydrocarbon molecule with chlorine atoms. The properties of chlorinated hydrocarbons can vary widely, depending on the number and arrangement of chlorine and hydrogen atoms in the molecule.

Chlorinated hydrocarbons have been widely used in various industrial applications, including as solvents, refrigerants, pesticides, and chemical intermediates. Some well-known examples of chlorinated hydrocarbons are:

1. Methylene chloride (dichloromethane) - a colorless liquid with a mild sweet odor, used as a solvent in various industrial applications, including the production of pharmaceuticals and photographic films.
2. Chloroform - a heavy, volatile, and sweet-smelling liquid, used as an anesthetic in the past but now mainly used in chemical synthesis.
3. Carbon tetrachloride - a colorless, heavy, and nonflammable liquid with a mildly sweet odor, once widely used as a solvent and fire extinguishing agent but now largely phased out due to its ozone-depleting properties.
4. Vinyl chloride - a flammable, colorless gas, used primarily in the production of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) plastic and other synthetic materials.
5. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) - a group of highly stable and persistent organic compounds that were widely used as coolants and insulating fluids in electrical equipment but are now banned due to their toxicity and environmental persistence.

Exposure to chlorinated hydrocarbons can occur through inhalation, skin contact, or ingestion, depending on the specific compound and its physical state. Some chlorinated hydrocarbons have been linked to various health effects, including liver and kidney damage, neurological disorders, reproductive issues, and cancer. Therefore, proper handling, use, and disposal of these chemicals are essential to minimize potential health risks.

I apologize for the confusion, but "Arsenamide" is not a recognized medical term or a medication in modern medicine. It's possible that it may have been used in historical context, but I cannot find any reliable sources that support its use as a medical treatment. Arsenic compounds have been used in medicine in the past, but due to their high toxicity, they are no longer in use today. If you have more information or context about this term, I'd be happy to help further if I can.

2-Acetylaminofluorene (2-AAF) is a chemical compound that has been used in research to study the mechanisms of carcinogenesis. It is an aromatic amine and a derivative of fluorene, with the chemical formula C14H11NO.

2-AAF is not naturally occurring and is synthesized in the laboratory. It has been found to be carcinogenic in animal studies, causing tumors in various organs including the liver, lung, and bladder. The compound is metabolically activated in the body to form reactive intermediates that can bind to DNA and other cellular components, leading to mutations and cancer.

2-AAF has been used as a tool in research to investigate the mechanisms of chemical carcinogenesis and the role of metabolic activation in the process. It is not used in medical treatments or therapies.

Gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT), also known as gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase, is an enzyme found in many tissues, including the liver, bile ducts, and pancreas. GGT is involved in the metabolism of certain amino acids and plays a role in the detoxification of various substances in the body.

GGT is often measured as a part of a panel of tests used to evaluate liver function. Elevated levels of GGT in the blood may indicate liver disease or injury, bile duct obstruction, or alcohol consumption. However, it's important to note that several other factors can also affect GGT levels, so abnormal results should be interpreted in conjunction with other clinical findings and diagnostic tests.

Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) is not a medical term per se, but rather a method used to measure lipid peroxidation in biological samples. Lipid peroxidation is a process by which free radicals steal electrons from lipids, leading to cellular damage and potential disease progression.

The TBARS assay measures the amount of malondialdehyde (MDA), a byproduct of lipid peroxidation, that reacts with thiobarbituric acid (TBA) to produce a pink-colored complex. The concentration of this complex is then measured and used as an indicator of lipid peroxidation in the sample.

While TBARS has been widely used as a measure of oxidative stress, it has limitations, including potential interference from other compounds that can react with TBA and produce similar-colored complexes. Therefore, more specific and sensitive methods for measuring lipid peroxidation have since been developed.

Kupffer cells are specialized macrophages that reside in the liver, particularly in the sinusoids of the liver's blood circulation system. They play a crucial role in the immune system by engulfing and destroying bacteria, microorganisms, and other particles that enter the liver via the portal vein. Kupffer cells also contribute to the clearance of damaged red blood cells, iron metabolism, and the regulation of inflammation in the liver. They are named after the German pathologist Karl Wilhelm von Kupffer who first described them in 1876.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Plant Bark" is not a term with a specific medical definition. In general, the bark refers to the outermost covering of a tree or other plant, which serves as protection and provides a barrier against external threats. It is composed of layers including the inner bark (phloem), which transports nutrients throughout the plant, and the outer bark (periderm), which is made up of dead cells that form a protective layer.

While some plants or plant parts do have medicinal properties and are used in various forms of traditional or alternative medicine, "Plant Bark" by itself does not have any specific medical connotations. If you're referring to a specific type of plant bark with potential medicinal uses, please provide more details so I can give a more accurate response.

Salvia miltiorrhiza, also known as Danshen in Traditional Chinese Medicine, is a plant species native to China. It has been used in traditional medicine for centuries for its potential health benefits. The dried root of Salvia miltiorrhiza is used to make various medicinal preparations.

The medical definition of Salvia miltiorrhiza refers to the pharmacological properties and chemical constituents of this plant. The roots of Salvia miltiorrhiza contain compounds such as tanshinones, salvianolic acids, and phenolic acids, which have been studied for their potential therapeutic effects on various health conditions.

Tanshinones are abietane-type diterpenoids that have been found to possess anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and antitumor properties. Salvianolic acids are phenolic acids with antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and neuroprotective effects. Phenolic acids such as rosmarinic acid and lithospermic acid have been found to possess antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties.

Salvia miltiorrhiza has been used in traditional Chinese medicine for treating various conditions, including cardiovascular diseases, cerebrovascular diseases, liver diseases, and diabetes. However, more research is needed to fully understand the medical benefits and potential risks of Salvia miltiorrhiza use.

Ligation, in the context of medical terminology, refers to the process of tying off a part of the body, usually blood vessels or tissue, with a surgical suture or another device. The goal is to stop the flow of fluids such as blood or other substances within the body. It is commonly used during surgeries to control bleeding or to block the passage of fluids, gases, or solids in various parts of the body.

In the field of medicine, "time factors" refer to the duration of symptoms or time elapsed since the onset of a medical condition, which can have significant implications for diagnosis and treatment. Understanding time factors is crucial in determining the progression of a disease, evaluating the effectiveness of treatments, and making critical decisions regarding patient care.

For example, in stroke management, "time is brain," meaning that rapid intervention within a specific time frame (usually within 4.5 hours) is essential to administering tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), a clot-busting drug that can minimize brain damage and improve patient outcomes. Similarly, in trauma care, the "golden hour" concept emphasizes the importance of providing definitive care within the first 60 minutes after injury to increase survival rates and reduce morbidity.

Time factors also play a role in monitoring the progression of chronic conditions like diabetes or heart disease, where regular follow-ups and assessments help determine appropriate treatment adjustments and prevent complications. In infectious diseases, time factors are crucial for initiating antibiotic therapy and identifying potential outbreaks to control their spread.

Overall, "time factors" encompass the significance of recognizing and acting promptly in various medical scenarios to optimize patient outcomes and provide effective care.

Aniline hydroxylase is an enzyme that is involved in the metabolism of aromatic compounds, including aniline and other related substances. The enzyme catalyzes the addition of a hydroxyl group (-OH) to the aromatic ring of these compounds, which helps to make them more water-soluble and facilitates their excretion from the body.

Aniline hydroxylase is found in various tissues throughout the body, including the liver, lung, and kidney. It is a member of the cytochrome P450 family of enzymes, which are known for their role in drug metabolism and other xenobiotic-metabolizing reactions.

It's important to note that exposure to aniline and its derivatives can be harmful and may cause various health effects, including damage to the liver and other organs. Therefore, it is essential to handle these substances with care and follow appropriate safety precautions.

Ethionine is a toxic, synthetic analog of the amino acid methionine. It is an antimetabolite that inhibits the enzyme methionine adenosyltransferase, which plays a crucial role in methionine metabolism. Ethionine is often used in research to study the effects of methionine deficiency and to create animal models of various human diseases. It is not a natural component of human nutrition and has no known medical uses. Prolonged exposure or high levels of ethionine can lead to liver damage, growth impairment, and other harmful health effects.

The Cytochrome P-450 (CYP450) enzyme system is a group of enzymes found primarily in the liver, but also in other organs such as the intestines, lungs, and skin. These enzymes play a crucial role in the metabolism and biotransformation of various substances, including drugs, environmental toxins, and endogenous compounds like hormones and fatty acids.

The name "Cytochrome P-450" refers to the unique property of these enzymes to bind to carbon monoxide (CO) and form a complex that absorbs light at a wavelength of 450 nm, which can be detected spectrophotometrically.

The CYP450 enzyme system is involved in Phase I metabolism of xenobiotics, where it catalyzes oxidation reactions such as hydroxylation, dealkylation, and epoxidation. These reactions introduce functional groups into the substrate molecule, which can then undergo further modifications by other enzymes during Phase II metabolism.

There are several families and subfamilies of CYP450 enzymes, each with distinct substrate specificities and functions. Some of the most important CYP450 enzymes include:

1. CYP3A4: This is the most abundant CYP450 enzyme in the human liver and is involved in the metabolism of approximately 50% of all drugs. It also metabolizes various endogenous compounds like steroids, bile acids, and vitamin D.
2. CYP2D6: This enzyme is responsible for the metabolism of many psychotropic drugs, including antidepressants, antipsychotics, and beta-blockers. It also metabolizes some endogenous compounds like dopamine and serotonin.
3. CYP2C9: This enzyme plays a significant role in the metabolism of warfarin, phenytoin, and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs).
4. CYP2C19: This enzyme is involved in the metabolism of proton pump inhibitors, antidepressants, and clopidogrel.
5. CYP2E1: This enzyme metabolizes various xenobiotics like alcohol, acetaminophen, and carbon tetrachloride, as well as some endogenous compounds like fatty acids and prostaglandins.

Genetic polymorphisms in CYP450 enzymes can significantly affect drug metabolism and response, leading to interindividual variability in drug efficacy and toxicity. Understanding the role of CYP450 enzymes in drug metabolism is crucial for optimizing pharmacotherapy and minimizing adverse effects.

C57BL/6 (C57 Black 6) is an inbred strain of laboratory mouse that is widely used in biomedical research. The term "inbred" refers to a strain of animals where matings have been carried out between siblings or other closely related individuals for many generations, resulting in a population that is highly homozygous at most genetic loci.

The C57BL/6 strain was established in 1920 by crossing a female mouse from the dilute brown (DBA) strain with a male mouse from the black strain. The resulting offspring were then interbred for many generations to create the inbred C57BL/6 strain.

C57BL/6 mice are known for their robust health, longevity, and ease of handling, making them a popular choice for researchers. They have been used in a wide range of biomedical research areas, including studies of cancer, immunology, neuroscience, cardiovascular disease, and metabolism.

One of the most notable features of the C57BL/6 strain is its sensitivity to certain genetic modifications, such as the introduction of mutations that lead to obesity or impaired glucose tolerance. This has made it a valuable tool for studying the genetic basis of complex diseases and traits.

Overall, the C57BL/6 inbred mouse strain is an important model organism in biomedical research, providing a valuable resource for understanding the genetic and molecular mechanisms underlying human health and disease.

Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) is an enzyme found in various body tissues, including the liver, bile ducts, digestive system, bones, and kidneys. It plays a role in breaking down proteins and minerals, such as phosphate, in the body.

The medical definition of alkaline phosphatase refers to its function as a hydrolase enzyme that removes phosphate groups from molecules at an alkaline pH level. In clinical settings, ALP is often measured through blood tests as a biomarker for various health conditions.

Elevated levels of ALP in the blood may indicate liver or bone diseases, such as hepatitis, cirrhosis, bone fractures, or cancer. Therefore, physicians may order an alkaline phosphatase test to help diagnose and monitor these conditions. However, it is essential to interpret ALP results in conjunction with other diagnostic tests and clinical findings for accurate diagnosis and treatment.

Toxicological profile for carbon tetrachloride Environmental health criteria for carbon tetrachloride Carbon tetrachloride MSDS ... In organic chemistry, carbon tetrachloride serves as a source of chlorine in the Appel reaction. Carbon tetrachloride made from ... Since carbon tetrachloride freezes at -23 °C, the fire extinguishers would contain only 89-90% carbon tetrachloride and 10% ... Carbon tetrachloride is still used to manufacture less destructive refrigerants. Carbon tetrachloride was widely used as a ...
MSDS for carbon tetrachloride is available at Fisher Scientific. Table data obtained from CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics ... This page provides supplementary chemical data on carbon tetrachloride. The handling of this chemical may incur notable safety ...
Strain KC was isolated from an aquifer and it is able to transform carbon tetrachloride to carbon dioxide, formate, and other ... strain KC can mineralize carbon tetrachloride, which is useful for in situremediation of aquifers contaminated with carbon ... Carbon tetrachloride can be a pollutant in soils and groundwater, and according to the Center for Disease Control and ... "Carbon tetrachloride". Stringfellow WT, Aitken MD (June 1994). "Comparative physiology of phenanthrene degradation by two ...
C in carbon tetrachloride vapour; reaction of polonium metal with dry chlorine gas in 200 °C. Polonium tetrachloride forms a ... Like selenium tetrachloride and tellurium tetrachloride, polonium tetrachloride forms PoCl− 5 and PoCl2− 6 halogen complexes. ... similar to selenium tetrachloride and tellurium tetrachloride. Polonium tetrachloride is either monoclinic or triclinic. ... Polonium tetrachloride (also known as polonium(IV) chloride) is a chemical compound with the formula PoCl4. The salt is a ...
... was carbon tetrachloride. While trying to make Faraday's "protochloride of carbon", Regnault found that his compound was ... Side products include carbon tetrachloride, hydrogen chloride, and hexachlorobutadiene. Several other methods have been ... Doherty, R.E. (2000). "A History of the Production and Use of Carbon Tetrachloride, Tetrachloroethylene, Trichloroethylene and ... carbon tetrachloride). C2Cl6 → C2Cl4 + Cl2 Faraday was previously falsely credited for the synthesis of tetrachloroethylene, ...
Exposure to carbon tetrachloride has shown to cause liver and kidney damage. Exposure to benzene has been linked to leukemia. ... "1988 OSHA PEL Project - Carbon Tetrachloride , NIOSH , CDC". www.cdc.gov. 2020-02-25. Retrieved 2022-04-14. "CDC , Facts About ...
"Reactions of the α-methoxybenzyl radical in carbon tetrachloride and in other solvents. Carbon tetrachloride as a chlorinating ...
"Reactions of the α-methoxybenzyl radical in carbon tetrachloride and in other solvents. Carbon tetrachloride as a chlorinating ...
... especially carbon tetrachloride and chloroform) indicate that bleach use may be a source that could be important in terms of ... Carbon Tetrachloride". OSHA. 16 June 2004. Archived from the original on 14 November 2009. Retrieved 4 December 2009. Dvorak, ... The highest level cited for a concentration of carbon tetrachloride (seemingly of highest concern) is 459 micrograms per cubic ... 8-52 times for chloroform and 1-1170 times for carbon tetrachloride, respectively, above baseline quantities in the household) ...
The more volatile byproducts such as carbon tetrachloride and sulfur dichloride can be removed by distillation. The separation ... It reacts with iron, evolving carbon tetrachloride. Perchloromethyl mercaptan is oxidized by nitric acid to ... the chlorination gives carbon tetrachloride and additional sulfur chlorides. The formation of byproducts can be suppressed by ... Carbon disulfide is chlorinated using an iodine catalyst. The following equations operate most efficiently at temperatures ...
Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) can turn into phosgene when exposed to heat in air. This was a problem as carbon tetrachloride is ... Carbon tetrachloride's generation of phosgene and its own toxicity mean it is no longer used for this purpose. Phosgene is also ... "Poisonous gases from carbon tetrachloride fire extinguishers". Journal of the Franklin Institute. 190 (4): 543-565. doi:10.1016 ... phosgene is produced by passing purified carbon monoxide and chlorine gas through a bed of porous activated carbon, which ...
It is soluble in carbon tetrachloride (CCl4). Compared to the other uranium halides, little is known about UCl6. Uranium ...
Carbon tetrachloride is commonly used to induce acute type A liver injury in animal models. Idiosyncratic (type B) injury ... Examples include arsenic, carbon tetrachloride, and vinyl chloride. Drugs continue to be taken off the market due to late ... Causes include: Paracetamol, carbon tetrachloride In this pattern, hepatocellular necrosis is associated with infiltration of ...
The Reimer-Tiemann reaction can be altered to yield phenolic acids by substituting the chloroform with carbon tetrachloride. ... Gaonkar, A.V.; Kirtany, J.K. (2010). "ChemInform Abstract: Reimer-Tiemann Reaction Using Carbon Tetrachloride". ChemInform. 22 ... Carbon-carbon bond forming reactions, Name reactions, Formylation reactions). ...
... against carbon tetrachloride-induced oxidative stress in rats. Molecular Biology Reports, 45(5), 787-797. https://doi.org/ ...
The other major contaminant is carbon tetrachloride (CCl4). Both of these substances affected areas adjacent to the site. In ...
Examples of organohalides are carbon tetrachloride and chloroform. Radicals are often generated by abstraction of a halide ... Kharasch, M.; Jensen, E.; Urry, W. (1945). "Addition of Carbon Tetrachloride and Chloroform to Olefins". Science. 102 (2640): ...
Carbon tetrachloride has since been found to cause acute liver failure. In 1925, Hall ingested tetrachloroethylene (the most ... In 1921, Maurice Crowther Hall ingested carbon tetrachloride to test its safety with a view to its possible use as a treatment ... Cameron, G. R.; Karunaratne, W. a. E. (1936). "Carbon tetrachloride cirrhosis in relation to liver regeneration". The Journal ...
Jena, P. K.; Brocchi, E. A.; Garcia, R. I. (1997). "Kinetics of chlorination of niobium pentoxide by carbon tetrachloride". ... as a major side-product in the reaction of niobium pentoxide with various chlorinating agents such as carbon tetrachloride and ...
... against carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatic damage in albino rats". Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 91 (1): 61-64. doi:10.1016/j ...
Effect of iron and copper salts and carbon tetrachloride". J. Biol. Chem. 265 (5): 2684-91. doi:10.1016/S0021-9258(19)39856-4. ...
Carbon tetrachloride is an example of a probable nongenotoxic carcinogen to aquatic vertebrates. Historically, carbon ... carbon tetrachloride could potentially be linked to liver cancer. Experimental cancer studies have shown that carbon ... Postulated Carbon Tetrachloride Mode of Action: A Review. J Environ Sci Health C Environ Carcinog Ecotoxicol Rev. 25(3): 185- ... carbon tetrachloride works as a nongenotoxic carcinogen by formulating free radicals which induce oxidative stress. It has been ...
Williamson, D. G.; Cvetanovic, R. J. (1968). "Rates of ozone-olefin reactions in carbon tetrachloride solutions". Journal of ... The carbon of diazomethane bears the largest HOMO, while the end olefinic carbons of methyl acrylate and styrene bear the ... However, the synthesis of α-halocarbonyl ylides can also undesirably lead to the loss of carbon monoxide and the generation of ... The carboxyl is the better electron-withdrawing group, causing the β-carbon to be most electrophilic. Thus, cycloaddition ...
Marshall Space Flight Center, Two Methods for Purifying Carbon Tetrachloride. Accessed 27 Oct 2006. (Articles with short ...
Siegers CP, Pauli V, Korb G, Younes M (August 1986). "Hepatoprotection by malotilate against carbon tetrachloride-alcohol- ...
... is inert towards carbon tetrachloride, chloroform, and dimethylformamide. Zirconium perchlorate reacts ... It can be formed by reacting zirconium tetrachloride with dry perchloric acid at liquid nitrogen temperatures. Zr(ClO4)4 ...
"Hispidin analogue davallialactone attenuates carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity in mice". Journal of Natural Products ...
Trinitroethanol reacts with carbon tetrachloride under a catalyst of FeCl3. CCl 4 Carbon tetrachloride + 4 HOCH 2 C ( NO 2 ) 3 ... Trinitroethanol → FeCl 3 TNEOC + 4 HCl {\displaystyle {\ce {{\underset {Carbon\ tetrachloride}{CCl4}}+{\underset { ...
The same geometry seems to persist in carbon tetrachloride solution. Cobalt(III) nitrate can be prepared by the reaction of ... Cobalt(III) nitrate can be intercalated in graphite, in the ratio of 1 molecule for each 12 carbon atoms. Cobalt(III) fluoride ...
Carbon tetrachloride was suitable for liquid and electrical fires and the extinguishers were fitted to motor vehicles. Carbon ... Another type of carbon tetrachloride extinguisher was the fire grenade. This consisted of a glass sphere filled with CTC, that ... It was more effective and slightly less toxic than carbon tetrachloride and was used until 1969. Methyl bromide was discovered ... In 1910, The Pyrene Manufacturing Company of Delaware filed a patent for using carbon tetrachloride (CTC, or CCl4) to ...
Toxicological profile for carbon tetrachloride Environmental health criteria for carbon tetrachloride Carbon tetrachloride MSDS ... In organic chemistry, carbon tetrachloride serves as a source of chlorine in the Appel reaction. Carbon tetrachloride made from ... Since carbon tetrachloride freezes at -23 °C, the fire extinguishers would contain only 89-90% carbon tetrachloride and 10% ... Carbon tetrachloride is still used to manufacture less destructive refrigerants. Carbon tetrachloride was widely used as a ...
Carbon tetrachloride has caused cancer in animals. Carbon tetrachloride has been found in at least 423 of the 1,636 National ... Exposure to very high amounts of carbon tetrachloride can damage the liver, kidneys, and nervous system. ... Carbon tetrachloride does not occur naturally. Exposure to this substance results mostly from breathing air, drinking water, or ... What is carbon tetrachloride?. Carbon tetrachloride is a manufactured chemical that does not occur naturally. It is a clear ...
Carbon tetrachloride. Find out what is in your tap water ... EWGs Tap Water Database Carbon tetrachloride results for La ... Carbon tetrachloride. La Jara Water Users Association. Carbon tetrachloride, a volatile carcinogenic solvent, has been used in ... Carbon tetrachloride is no longer permitted in products intended for home use in the U.S. In the past, it was widely used as a ... Carbon tetrachloride does not break down easily and can remain in groundwater for years. In addition to increasing cancer risk ...
Uncertainties in the atmospheric lifetime of carbon tetrachloride;. *Carbon tetrachloride from unreported or underestimated ... Decision XXIII/8: Investigation of carbon tetrachloride discrepancy The Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone ... Decision XXIII/8: Investigation of carbon tetrachloride discrepancy. Taking note of the report from the Technology and Economic ... Incomplete or inaccurate historical reporting of carbon tetrachloride produced;. * ...
Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) induces liver damage, apparently through the formation of free-radical metabolites. Molecular ... Induction of molecular chaperones in carbon tetrachloride-treated rat liver: implications in protection against liver damage. ... "Induction of molecular chaperones in carbon tetrachloride-treated rat liver: implications in protection against liver damage," ... "Induction of molecular chaperones in carbon tetrachloride-treated rat liver: implications in protection against liver damage," ...
... Hepatology. 2009 ... Here we show that iNKT-deficient mice are more susceptible to carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4))-induced acute liver injury and ...
An intriguing energy-transfer experiment was recently carried out in methanol/carbon tetrachloride solutions. It turned out to ... The workings of a molecular thermometer: the vibrational excitation of carbon tetrachloride by a solvent ... the vibrational excitation of carbon tetrachloride by a solvent. Journal of Chemical Physics, 121 (11). pp. 5348-5355. ISSN ... be possible to watch vibrational energy accumulating in three of carbon tetrachlorides modes following initial excitation of O ...
Sciencemadness Discussion Board » Special topics » Prepublication » How to make Carbon Tetrachloride. Select A Forum. ... Sciencemadness Discussion Board » Special topics » Prepublication » How to make Carbon Tetrachloride. Select A Forum. ...
... in carbon tetrachloride-induced liver injury in rats, B Antony1, G Santhakumari1, B Merina1, V Sheeba1, J Mukkadan2 ... Carbon tetrachloride is metabolized in the liver to toxic-free radical CCl3, which affects cellular permeability of hepatocytes ... Carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxic effects were evident by a significant (p , 0.05) increase in the serum marker enzymes ... Hepatic steatosis, hydropic degeneration and necrosis were observed in carbon tetrachloride-treated group, while these were ...
EPA Issues Draft Revision to Risk Determination for Carbon Tetrachloride and Finds Carbon Tetrachloride, as a Whole Chemical ... Comments Off on EPA Issues Draft Revision to Risk Determination for Carbon Tetrachloride and Finds Carbon Tetrachloride, as a ... In the draft revision, EPA finds that carbon tetrachloride, as a whole chemical substance, presents an unreasonable risk of ... EPA states that the draft revision to the carbon tetrachloride risk determination reflects its announced policy changes to ...
Effect of whey protein against fluvastatin and carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Author(s): Ezz El-Din S. ... and carbon tetrachloride (CCl4); and to investigate the hepatoprotective effect of Whey protein isolate (WPI) in F+ CCl4- ...
These corrosion data are mainly based on results of general corrosion laboratory tests , carried out with pure chemicals and water solutions nearly saturated with air (the corrosion rate can be quite different if the solution is free from oxygen). All concentrations are given in weight-% and the solvent is water if nothing else is shown. The corrosion data apply to annealed materials with normal microstructure and clean surfaces, throughout.
Carbon tetrachloride. more about. this contaminant. Carbon tetrachloride, a volatile carcinogenic solvent, has been used in ... The EWG Health Guideline of 0.1 ppb for carbon tetrachloride was defined by the California Office of Environmental Health ...
Carbon Tetrachloride. … billion by volume (ppbv). The action level is considered to be protective of public health. Breathing ... of carbon tet for 30 minutes or drinking as … ... carbon tet for a lifetime at 0.64 ppbv is very unlikely to be ...
Carbon Tetrachloride Vapor Monitor (OV-20). $60.00. Carbon Tetrachloride Vapor Monitor (OV-20) quantity. ...
Information on Registered Substances comes from registration dossiers which have been assigned a registration number. The assignment of a registration number does however not guarantee that the information in the dossier is correct or that the dossier is compliant with Regulation (EC) No 1907/2006 (the REACH Regulation). This information has not been reviewed or verified by the Agency or any other authority. The content is subject to change without prior notice ...
The carbon atom in CTC is in its most oxidized state, therefore it is much more likely to undergo reductive degradation. It may ...
Transplanted hepatocytes engraft, survive, and proliferate in the liver of rats with carbon tetrachloride-induced cirrhosis. ... Transplanted hepatocytes engraft, survive, and proliferate in the liver of rats with carbon tetrachloride-induced cirrhosis. / ... Transplanted hepatocytes engraft, survive, and proliferate in the liver of rats with carbon tetrachloride-induced cirrhosis. In ... Cirrhosis was induced by administration of carbon tetrachloride with phenobarbitone and these drugs were withdrawn prior to ...
... group II received carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) (IP, 1 mL/kg) on day 21, group III and group IV received S. pachycarpa seed ... seed extract against carbon tetrachloride-induced toxicity on body organs, blood, and biochemical factors. In this ... Protective effect of Sophora pachycarpa seed extract on carbon tetrachloride-induced toxicity in rats. *Hamed Aramjoo1, ... Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) is a toxic, colorless, volatile, and non-flammable liquid. The name of this chlorinated hydrocarbon ...
Carbon tetrabromide. 56-23-5. Carbon tetrachloride. 563-12-2. Ethion. 563-80-4. Methyl isopropyl ketone. ...
Biodegradation of Carbon Tetrachloride in Simulated Groundwater Flow Channels. July 2014 · Environmental Progress & Sustainable ... Remediation feasibility studies were conducted in simulated groundwater flow channels for carbon tetrachloride (CT). CT was ...
As in the end carbon tetrachloride is formed, it means that $\ce{CCl4}$ is more stable than $\ce{CH4}$. ... It is impossible to compare the stability of methane and carbon tetrachloride directly as the do not have a common frame of ... The major product of radical halogenation: Why is it a halogen attached to a primary carbon and not a tertiary carbon in the ...
Cardenuto, MH, Castet, F & Champagne, B 2016, Investigating the first hyperpolarizability of liquid carbon tetrachloride, RSC ... Investigating the first hyperpolarizability of liquid carbon tetrachloride. In: RSC Advances. 2016 ; Vol. 6, No. 101. pp. 99558 ... Investigating the first hyperpolarizability of liquid carbon tetrachloride. Marcelo Hidalgo Cardenuto, Frédéric Castet, Benoît ... Investigating the first hyperpolarizability of liquid carbon tetrachloride. RSC Advances. 2016;6(101):99558-99563. doi: 10.1039 ...
Carbon tetrachloride; other halogenated compounds when in contact with iron; strong oxidizers; alkyl aluminums; inorganic ...
Nephroprotective Effect of Hertiacheirifolia Polar Fraction with Selenium against Carbon Tetrachloride in Rats Download ...
Carbon tetrachloride. 0.55 1. 5 gal. 14. More often used in combination. ...
Pokrovskiĭ A.A. et al., Effect of promazine on the activity of some liver and blood enzymes in carbon tetrachloride poisoning ... Effect of promazine on the activity of some liver and blood enzymes in carbon tetrachloride poisoning // Voprosy Meditsinskoi ... Effect of promazine on the activity of some liver and blood enzymes in carbon tetrachloride poisoning. ... Effect of promazine on the activity of some liver and blood enzymes in carbon tetrachloride poisoning. Voprosy Meditsinskoi ...
  • Carbon tetrachloride, also known by many other names (such as carbon tet for short and tetrachloromethane, also recognised by the IUPAC) is a chemical compound with the chemical formula CCl4. (wikipedia.org)
  • It turned out to be possible to watch vibrational energy accumulating in three of carbon tetrachloride's modes following initial excitation of O-H and C-H stretches in methanol, in effect making those CCl4 modes "molecular thermometers" reporting on methanol's relaxation. (lse.ac.uk)
  • begingroup$ Then by the law of mass action, en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Law_of_mass_action , the reaction is forced towards CCl4. (stackexchange.com)
  • Sofosbuvir and Velpatasvir, per se and in combination against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced fibrosis in rats. (bvsalud.org)
  • There have been no studies of the effects of carbon tetrachloride on reproduction in humans, but studies in rats showed that long-term inhalation may cause decreased fertility. (cdc.gov)
  • The present study was conducted to evaluate the hepatoprotective effects of the Centella asiatica extract in carbon tetrachloride-induced liver injury in rats. (ijpsonline.com)
  • Sprague Dawley rats were treated with alcohol extract of Centella asiatica orally in two doses (20 and 40 mg/kg/day) for 3 mo along with intraperitoneal injection of carbon tetrachloride (1 ml/kg). (ijpsonline.com)
  • Aqueous extract Volvariella volvacea (500, 1000 mg/kg, p.o) showed significant hepatoprotective activity against carbontetrachloride induced hepatotoxicity in rats by normalizing the levels of serum AST, ALT, ALP, LDH and total bilirubin. (ijpsr.com)
  • Henri Victor Regnault developed another method to synthesise carbon tetrachloride from chloroform, chloroethane or methanol with excess chlorine in 1839. (wikipedia.org)
  • An intriguing energy-transfer experiment was recently carried out in methanol/carbon tetrachloride solutions. (lse.ac.uk)
  • Methane gas has the same structure, making carbon tetrachloride a halomethane. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hydrogen or an acid in presence of an iron catalyst can reduce carbon tetrachloride to chloroform, dichloromethane, chloromethane and even methane. (wikipedia.org)
  • Why is carbon tetrachloride more stable than methane? (stackexchange.com)
  • It is impossible to compare the stability of methane and carbon tetrachloride directly as the do not have a common frame of reference. (stackexchange.com)
  • Most anthropogenic (human-generated) emissions of greenhouse gases are either carbon dioxide released by the burning of fossil fuels , or methane released from the handling of natural gas or from agriculture. (wikipedia.org)
  • The current study aimed at exploring the ability of zein (ZN) nanospheres to improve the liver targeting and antifibrotic activity of CUR in a mouse model of carbon tetrachloride (CCl 4 )-induced liver fibrosis. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • carbon tetrachloride and chloroform, respectively, are much greater than that of the average human. (cdc.gov)
  • tetrachloride induces central nervous evaporates easily. (cdc.gov)
  • Carbon tetrachloride (CCl 4 ) induces liver damage, apparently through the formation of free-radical metabolites. (bioone.org)
  • In the carbon tetrachloride molecule, four chlorine atoms are positioned symmetrically as corners in a tetrahedral configuration joined to a central carbon atom by single covalent bonds. (wikipedia.org)
  • Centella asiatica extract exhibited hepatoprotective action against carbon tetrachloride-induced liver injury. (ijpsonline.com)
  • Mice that breathed carbon tetrachloride also developed tumors of the adrenal gland. (cdc.gov)
  • Here we show that iNKT-deficient mice are more susceptible to carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4))-induced acute liver injury and inflammation. (nih.gov)
  • After injecting carbon tetrachloride (CCl 4 ), the mice were injected with syngenic BMCs or normal saline. (ewha.ac.kr)
  • Hepatic steatosis, hydropic degeneration and necrosis were observed in carbon tetrachloride-treated group, while these were completely absent in the treatment group. (ijpsonline.com)
  • Kolbe made carbon tetrachloride in 1845 by passing chlorine over carbon disulfide through a porcelain tube. (wikipedia.org)
  • Personal air samples were analyzed for carbon-disulfide (75150), ethylene-dibromide (106934), carbon-tetrachloride (56235), and grain dust at grain elevators (SIC-5153) located at Superior, Wisconsin and Duluth, Minnesota in May, 1984. (cdc.gov)
  • All concentrations of carbon-disulfide, carbon-tetrachloride, and ethylene-dibromide were below the detection limit. (cdc.gov)
  • Exposure to high concentrations of carbon tetrachloride can affect the central nervous system and degenerate the liver and kidneys. (wikipedia.org)
  • C-Cl4 waste sites or areas of heavy carbon is distributed to all major organs, with tetrachloride in the United States is tetrachloride use may have increased risk highest concentrations in the fat, liver, 0.168 ppb (1.1 µg/m3). (cdc.gov)
  • The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has determined that carbon tetrachloride is possibly carcinogenic to humans, whereas the EPA determined that carbon tetrachloride is a probable human carcinogen. (cdc.gov)
  • 3ZnCl2 + COCl2 + CO2}}} Carbon tetrachloride was originally synthesized in 1820 by Michael Faraday, who named it "protochloride of carbon", by decomposition of hexachloroethane ("perchloride of carbon") which he synthesized by chlorination of ethylene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Unsaturated hydrocarbons , which have one or more double or triple bonds between carbon atoms. (wikipedia.org)
  • High exposure to carbon tetrachloride can cause liver, kidney, and central nervous system damage. (cdc.gov)
  • These effects can occur after ingestion or breathing carbon tetrachloride, and possibly from exposure to the skin. (cdc.gov)
  • Studies in humans have not been able to determine whether or not carbon tetrachloride can cause cancer because usually there has been exposure to other chemicals at the same time. (cdc.gov)
  • Inhalation of ingested leaves the body quickly and can tetrachloride in expired air can be used to contaminated air and ingestion of be found in the breath within a few quantify exposure. (cdc.gov)
  • Carbon tetrachloride is a Inhalation - Predominant route of Health effects are determined Health Effects liquid exposure for general population. (cdc.gov)
  • exposure to carbon tetrachloride can pol ution. (cdc.gov)
  • Maternal exposure to carbon tetrachloride in drinking water has been associated with a risk of birth defects. (ewg.org)
  • This limit does not fully protect against the risk of cancer due to carbon tetrachloride exposure. (ewg.org)
  • tional exposure standards (OESs) and maximum expo- (mouse and human) and carbon tetrachloride (rat and sure limits (MELs) (Ogden and Topping, 1997). (cdc.gov)
  • Carbon tetrachloride, a volatile carcinogenic solvent, has been used in industrial chemical production and as a dry cleaning ingredient. (ewg.org)
  • The aim of the present study was to investigate the protective effect of the Sophora pachycarpa (S. pachycarpa) seed extract against carbon tetrachloride-induced toxicity on body organs, blood, and biochemical factors. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Carbon tetrachloride is currently banned enzymes. (cdc.gov)
  • Swallowing or breathing carbon tetrachloride for years caused liver tumors in animals. (cdc.gov)
  • Breathing carbon tet for a lifetime at 0.64 ppbv is very unlikely to be harmful to people. (wisconsin.gov)
  • In addition to increasing cancer risk, carbon tetrachloride harms the liver and causes central nervous system depression, irregular heart rate, and kidney damage. (ewg.org)
  • In organic chemistry , a hydrocarbon is an organic compound consisting entirely of hydrogen and carbon . (wikipedia.org)
  • Carbon tetrachloride is a manufactured chemical that does not occur naturally. (cdc.gov)
  • Carbon tetrachloride is no longer permitted in products intended for home use in the U.S. In the past, it was widely used as a dry cleaning ingredient, fire extinguishing chemical, pesticide and chemical intermediate for manufacturing refrigerants. (ewg.org)
  • In the draft revision, EPA finds that carbon tetrachloride, as a whole chemical substance, presents an unreasonable risk of injury to health when evaluated under its conditions of use (COU). (ihmm.org)
  • Carbon tetrachloride does not break down easily and can remain in groundwater for years. (ewg.org)
  • Carbon tetrachloride is a xenobiotic that produces hepatotoxicity. (ijpsr.com)
  • Carbon tetrachloride (CCl 4 ) is a xenobiotic producing hepatotoxicity in human beings and animals 2 . (ijpsr.com)
  • The liver is especially sensitive to carbon tetrachloride because it enlarges and cells are damaged or destroyed. (cdc.gov)
  • Carbon tetrachloride in the derived for carbon tetracholoride vomiting and neurological effects in cleaners, and as a pesticide. (cdc.gov)
  • 10% of total nonmethane organic carbon emission are aromatic hydrocarbons from the exhaust of gasoline-powered vehicles. (wikipedia.org)
  • Effects of carbon tetrachloride are more severe in persons who drink large amounts of alcohol. (cdc.gov)
  • The general public is not likely to be from the gastrointestinal and respiratory exposed to large amounts of carbon tracts, and more slowly through the skin. (cdc.gov)
  • Carbon tetrachloride can cause cancer in animals. (cdc.gov)
  • How likely is carbon tetrachloride to cause cancer? (cdc.gov)
  • Carbon tetrachloride has been found in at least 425 of the 1,662 National Priority List sites identified by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). (cdc.gov)
  • The EWG Health Guideline of 0.1 ppb for carbon tetrachloride was defined by the California Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment as a public health goal, the level of a drinking water contaminant that does not pose a significant health risk. (ewg.org)
  • On August 29, 2022, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) announced the availability of and requested public comment on a draft revision to the risk determination for the carbon tetrachloride risk evaluation issued under the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA). (ihmm.org)
  • Carbon tetrachloride does not occur naturally. (cdc.gov)
  • The legal limit for carbon tetrachloride, established in 1987, was based on analytical detection limits at the time that the standard was set. (ewg.org)
  • The Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) has determined that carbon tetrachloride may reasonably be anticipated to be a carcinogen. (cdc.gov)
  • EPA states that the draft revision to the carbon tetrachloride risk determination reflects its announced policy changes to ensure the public is protected from unreasonable risks from chemicals in a way that is supported by science and the law. (ihmm.org)
  • EPA held a public meeting of the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) Science Advisory Committee on Chemicals (SACC) on February 25-26, 2020, to review the draft risk evaluation for carbon tetrachloride. (epa.gov)
  • Measurement of parent carbon water and soil. (cdc.gov)
  • The Carbon Tetrachloride (CTC) research report studies primary and secondary research in order to analyze the data effectively. (openpr.com)
  • How can carbon tetrachloride affect my health? (cdc.gov)
  • Tradenames include: Carbon-Tet, Katharin (Germany, 1890s), Benzinoform, Carbona and Thawpit in the cleaning industry, Halon-104 in firefighting, Refrigerant-10 in HVACR, and Necatorina and Seretin as a medication. (wikipedia.org)
  • With a specific gravity greater than 1, carbon tetrachloride will be present as a dense nonaqueous phase liquid if sufficient quantities are spilled in the environment. (wikipedia.org)
  • What happens to carbon tetrachloride when it enters the environment? (cdc.gov)
  • Cirrhosis was induced by administration of carbon tetrachloride with phenobarbitone and these drugs were withdrawn prior to cell transplantation. (elsevierpure.com)