Carbon Tetrachloride: A solvent for oils, fats, lacquers, varnishes, rubber waxes, and resins, and a starting material in the manufacturing of organic compounds. Poisoning by inhalation, ingestion or skin absorption is possible and may be fatal. (Merck Index, 11th ed)Carbon Tetrachloride PoisoningLiver Cirrhosis, Experimental: Experimentally induced chronic injuries to the parenchymal cells in the liver to achieve a model for LIVER CIRRHOSIS.Drug-Induced Liver Injury: A spectrum of clinical liver diseases ranging from mild biochemical abnormalities to ACUTE LIVER FAILURE, caused by drugs, drug metabolites, and chemicals from the environment.Chloroform: A commonly used laboratory solvent. It was previously used as an anesthetic, but was banned from use in the U.S. due to its suspected carcinogenicity.Hydrocarbons, HalogenatedCarbon: A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Aspartate Aminotransferases: Enzymes of the transferase class that catalyze the conversion of L-aspartate and 2-ketoglutarate to oxaloacetate and L-glutamate. EC 2.6.1.1.Alanine Transaminase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-alanine and 2-oxoglutarate to pyruvate and L-glutamate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.6.1.2.Promethazine: A phenothiazine derivative with histamine H1-blocking, antimuscarinic, and sedative properties. It is used as an antiallergic, in pruritus, for motion sickness and sedation, and also in animals.Drug-Induced Liver Injury, Chronic: Liver disease lasting six months or more, caused by an adverse drug effect. The adverse effect may result from a direct toxic effect of a drug or metabolite, or an idiosyncratic response to a drug or metabolite.Hepatic Stellate Cells: Perisinusoidal cells of the liver, located in the space of Disse between HEPATOCYTES and sinusoidal endothelial cells.Liver Cirrhosis: Liver disease in which the normal microcirculation, the gross vascular anatomy, and the hepatic architecture have been variably destroyed and altered with fibrous septa surrounding regenerated or regenerating parenchymal nodules.Liver Diseases: Pathological processes of the LIVER.MalonatesPhosgene: A highly toxic gas that has been used as a chemical warfare agent. It is an insidious poison as it is not irritating immediately, even when fatal concentrations are inhaled. (From The Merck Index, 11th ed, p7304)Protective Agents: Synthetic or natural substances which are given to prevent a disease or disorder or are used in the process of treating a disease or injury due to a poisonous agent.Peroxides: A group of compounds that contain a bivalent O-O group, i.e., the oxygen atoms are univalent. They can either be inorganic or organic in nature. Such compounds release atomic (nascent) oxygen readily. Thus they are strong oxidizing agents and fire hazards when in contact with combustible materials, especially under high-temperature conditions. The chief industrial uses of peroxides are as oxidizing agents, bleaching agents, and initiators of polymerization. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)Carbon Monoxide: Carbon monoxide (CO). A poisonous colorless, odorless, tasteless gas. It combines with hemoglobin to form carboxyhemoglobin, which has no oxygen carrying capacity. The resultant oxygen deprivation causes headache, dizziness, decreased pulse and respiratory rates, unconsciousness, and death. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Liver Regeneration: Repair or renewal of hepatic tissue.Hydroxyproline: A hydroxylated form of the imino acid proline. A deficiency in ASCORBIC ACID can result in impaired hydroxyproline formation.Cytochrome P-450 CYP2E1: An ethanol-inducible cytochrome P450 enzyme that metabolizes several precarcinogens, drugs, and solvents to reactive metabolites. Substrates include ETHANOL; INHALATION ANESTHETICS; BENZENE; ACETAMINOPHEN and other low molecular weight compounds. CYP2E1 has been used as an enzyme marker in the study of alcohol abuse.Hepatocytes: The main structural component of the LIVER. They are specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that are organized into interconnected plates called lobules.Dimethylnitrosamine: A nitrosamine derivative with alkylating, carcinogenic, and mutagenic properties. It causes serious liver damage and is a hepatocarcinogen in rodents.Thioacetamide: A crystalline compound used as a laboratory reagent in place of HYDROGEN SULFIDE. It is a potent hepatocarcinogen.Carbon Dioxide: A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.Ethylene Dibromide: An effective soil fumigant, insecticide, and nematocide. In humans, it causes severe burning of skin and irritation of the eyes and respiratory tract. Prolonged inhalation may cause liver necrosis. It is also used in gasoline. Members of this group have caused liver and lung cancers in rodents. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985), 1,2-dibromoethane may reasonably be anticipated to be a carcinogen.Plant Extracts: Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.Fasciola hepatica: A species of helminth commonly called the sheep liver fluke. It occurs in the biliary passages, liver, and gallbladder during various stages of development. Snails and aquatic vegetation are the intermediate hosts. Occasionally seen in man, it is most common in sheep and cattle.Phenolphthaleins: A family of 3,3-bis(p-hydroxyphenyl)phthalides. They are used as CATHARTICS, indicators, and COLORING AGENTS.Trichloroethanes: Chlorinated ethanes which are used extensively as industrial solvents. They have been utilized in numerous home-use products including spot remover preparations and inhalant decongestant sprays. These compounds cause central nervous system and cardiovascular depression and are hepatotoxic. Include 1,1,1- and 1,1,2-isomers.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.1-Naphthylisothiocyanate: A tool for the study of liver damage which causes bile stasis and hyperbilirubinemia acutely and bile duct hyperplasia and biliary cirrhosis chronically, with changes in hepatocyte function. It may cause skin and kidney damage.EthaneLipid Peroxidation: Peroxidase catalyzed oxidation of lipids using hydrogen peroxide as an electron acceptor.Microsomes, Liver: Closed vesicles of fragmented endoplasmic reticulum created when liver cells or tissue are disrupted by homogenization. They may be smooth or rough.Viologens: A group of dipyridinium chloride derivatives that are used as oxidation-reduction indicators. The general formula is 1,1'-di-R-4,4'-bipyridinium chloride, where R = methyl, ethyl, benzyl or, betaine.Aspalathus: A plant genus of the family FABACEAE. It is the source of an herbal tea that is commonly consumed in South Africa. Members contain aspalathin and other polyphenols (PHENOLS).Trichloroethylene: A highly volatile inhalation anesthetic used mainly in short surgical procedures where light anesthesia with good analgesia is required. It is also used as an industrial solvent. Prolonged exposure to high concentrations of the vapor can lead to cardiotoxicity and neurological impairment.Nanotubes, Carbon: Nanometer-sized tubes composed mainly of CARBON. Such nanotubes are used as probes for high-resolution structural and chemical imaging of biomolecules with ATOMIC FORCE MICROSCOPY.Methylene Chloride: A chlorinated hydrocarbon that has been used as an inhalation anesthetic and acts as a narcotic in high concentrations. Its primary use is as a solvent in manufacturing and food technology.Eleusine: A plant genus of the family POACEAE. Finger millet or raggee (E. coracana) is an important food grain in southern Asia and parts of Africa.Lipid Peroxides: Peroxides produced in the presence of a free radical by the oxidation of unsaturated fatty acids in the cell in the presence of molecular oxygen. The formation of lipid peroxides results in the destruction of the original lipid leading to the loss of integrity of the membranes. They therefore cause a variety of toxic effects in vivo and their formation is considered a pathological process in biological systems. Their formation can be inhibited by antioxidants, such as vitamin E, structural separation or low oxygen tension.Necrosis: The pathological process occurring in cells that are dying from irreparable injuries. It is caused by the progressive, uncontrolled action of degradative ENZYMES, leading to MITOCHONDRIAL SWELLING, nuclear flocculation, and cell lysis. It is distinct it from APOPTOSIS, which is a normal, regulated cellular process.Chlordecone: A highly chlorinated polycyclic hydrocarbon insecticide whose large number of chlorine atoms makes it resistant to degradation. It has been shown to be toxic to mammals and causes abnormal cellular changes in laboratory animals.Solvents: Liquids that dissolve other substances (solutes), generally solids, without any change in chemical composition, as, water containing sugar. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Drugs, Chinese Herbal: Chinese herbal or plant extracts which are used as drugs to treat diseases or promote general well-being. The concept does not include synthesized compounds manufactured in China.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Bile Ducts: The channels that collect and transport the bile secretion from the BILE CANALICULI, the smallest branch of the BILIARY TRACT in the LIVER, through the bile ductules, the bile ducts out the liver, and to the GALLBLADDER for storage.Bromotrichloromethane: A potent liver poison. In rats, bromotrichloromethane produces about three times the degree of liver microsomal lipid peroxidation as does carbon tetrachloride.Carbon Isotopes: Stable carbon atoms that have the same atomic number as the element carbon, but differ in atomic weight. C-13 is a stable carbon isotope.Liver Function Tests: Blood tests that are used to evaluate how well a patient's liver is working and also to help diagnose liver conditions.Iridoids: A type of MONOTERPENES, derived from geraniol. They have the general form of cyclopentanopyran, but in some cases, one of the rings is broken as in the case of secoiridoid. They are different from the similarly named iridals (TRITERPENES).Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Free Radicals: Highly reactive molecules with an unsatisfied electron valence pair. Free radicals are produced in both normal and pathological processes. They are proven or suspected agents of tissue damage in a wide variety of circumstances including radiation, damage from environment chemicals, and aging. Natural and pharmacological prevention of free radical damage is being actively investigated.Podophyllum: A genus of poisonous American herbs, family BERBERIDACEAE. The roots yield PODOPHYLLOTOXIN and other pharmacologically important agents. The plant was formerly used as a cholagogue and cathartic. It is different from the European mandrake, MANDRAGORA.Embelia: A plant genus of the family MYRSINACEAE. Members contain embelin.Antioxidants: Naturally occurring or synthetic substances that inhibit or retard the oxidation of a substance to which it is added. They counteract the harmful and damaging effects of oxidation in animal tissues.Portal Pressure: The venous pressure measured in the PORTAL VEIN.Bromobenzenes: Derivatives of benzene in which one or more hydrogen atoms on the benzene ring are replaced by bromine atoms.Phytotherapy: Use of plants or herbs to treat diseases or to alleviate pain.Glutathione: A tripeptide with many roles in cells. It conjugates to drugs to make them more soluble for excretion, is a cofactor for some enzymes, is involved in protein disulfide bond rearrangement and reduces peroxides.Cyclooctanes: A group of compounds with an 8-carbon ring. They may be saturated or unsaturated.Methyl Chloride: A hydrocarbon used as an industrial solvent. It has been used as an aerosal propellent, as a refrigerant and as a local anesthetic. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 31st ed, p1403)Malondialdehyde: The dialdehyde of malonic acid.Glycols: A generic grouping for dihydric alcohols with the hydroxy groups (-OH) located on different carbon atoms. They are viscous liquids with high boiling points for their molecular weights.Aldehydes: Organic compounds containing a carbonyl group in the form -CHO.Nitrosamines: A class of compounds that contain a -NH2 and a -NO radical. Many members of this group have carcinogenic and mutagenic properties.Proadifen: An inhibitor of drug metabolism and CYTOCHROME P-450 ENZYME SYSTEM activity.Iridoid Glycosides: A subclass of iridoid compounds that include a glycoside moiety, usually found at the C-1 position.Acetaminophen: Analgesic antipyretic derivative of acetanilide. It has weak anti-inflammatory properties and is used as a common analgesic, but may cause liver, blood cell, and kidney damage.Lethal Dose 50: The dose amount of poisonous or toxic substance or dose of ionizing radiation required to kill 50% of the tested population.Aspartate Aminotransferase, Mitochondrial: An aspartate aminotransferase found in MITOCHONDRIA.Glucose-6-Phosphatase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of D-glucose 6-phosphate and water to D-glucose and orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.9.Transforming Growth Factor beta1: A subtype of transforming growth factor beta that is synthesized by a wide variety of cells. It is synthesized as a precursor molecule that is cleaved to form mature TGF-beta 1 and TGF-beta1 latency-associated peptide. The association of the cleavage products results in the formation a latent protein which must be activated to bind its receptor. Defects in the gene that encodes TGF-beta1 are the cause of CAMURATI-ENGELMANN SYNDROME.Diethylnitrosamine: A nitrosamine derivative with alkylating, carcinogenic, and mutagenic properties.Silymarin: A mixture of flavonoids extracted from seeds of the MILK THISTLE, Silybum marianum. It consists primarily of silybin and its isomers, silicristin and silidianin. Silymarin displays antioxidant and membrane stabilizing activity. It protects various tissues and organs against chemical injury, and shows potential as an antihepatoxic agent.Rats, Inbred F344Phenobarbital: A barbituric acid derivative that acts as a nonselective central nervous system depressant. It potentiates GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID action on GABA-A RECEPTORS, and modulates chloride currents through receptor channels. It also inhibits glutamate induced depolarizations.Lipid Metabolism: Physiological processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of LIPIDS.Biotransformation: The chemical alteration of an exogenous substance by or in a biological system. The alteration may inactivate the compound or it may result in the production of an active metabolite of an inactive parent compound. The alterations may be divided into METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE I and METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE II.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Liver Failure, Acute: A form of rapid-onset LIVER FAILURE, also known as fulminant hepatic failure, caused by severe liver injury or massive loss of HEPATOCYTES. It is characterized by sudden development of liver dysfunction and JAUNDICE. Acute liver failure may progress to exhibit cerebral dysfunction even HEPATIC COMA depending on the etiology that includes hepatic ISCHEMIA, drug toxicity, malignant infiltration, and viral hepatitis such as post-transfusion HEPATITIS B and HEPATITIS C.Carbon Monoxide Poisoning: Toxic asphyxiation due to the displacement of oxygen from oxyhemoglobin by carbon monoxide.Oxidative Stress: A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).Transaminases: A subclass of enzymes of the transferase class that catalyze the transfer of an amino group from a donor (generally an amino acid) to an acceptor (generally a 2-keto acid). Most of these enzymes are pyridoxyl phosphate proteins. (Dorland, 28th ed) EC 2.6.1.Collagen Type I: The most common form of fibrillar collagen. It is a major constituent of bone (BONE AND BONES) and SKIN and consists of a heterotrimer of two alpha1(I) and one alpha2(I) chains.GalactosamineGallic Acid: A colorless or slightly yellow crystalline compound obtained from nutgalls. It is used in photography, pharmaceuticals, and as an analytical reagent.Hydrocarbons, Chlorinated: Hydrocarbon compounds with one or more of the hydrogens replaced by CHLORINE.Arsenamide: Proposed chemotherapeutic agent against filaria and trichomonas.2-Acetylaminofluorene: A hepatic carcinogen whose mechanism of activation involves N-hydroxylation to the aryl hydroxamic acid followed by enzymatic sulfonation to sulfoxyfluorenylacetamide. It is used to study the carcinogenicity and mutagenicity of aromatic amines.gamma-Glutamyltransferase: An enzyme, sometimes called GGT, with a key role in the synthesis and degradation of GLUTATHIONE; (GSH, a tripeptide that protects cells from many toxins). It catalyzes the transfer of the gamma-glutamyl moiety to an acceptor amino acid.Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Substances: Low-molecular-weight end products, probably malondialdehyde, that are formed during the decomposition of lipid peroxidation products. These compounds react with thiobarbituric acid to form a fluorescent red adduct.Kupffer Cells: Specialized phagocytic cells of the MONONUCLEAR PHAGOCYTE SYSTEM found on the luminal surface of the hepatic sinusoids. They filter bacteria and small foreign proteins out of the blood, and dispose of worn out red blood cells.Plant Bark: The outer layer of the woody parts of plants.Salvia miltiorrhiza: A plant species which is known as an Oriental traditional medicinal plant.Ligation: Application of a ligature to tie a vessel or strangulate a part.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Aniline Hydroxylase: A drug-metabolizing, cytochrome P-450 enzyme which catalyzes the hydroxylation of aniline to hydroxyaniline in the presence of reduced flavoprotein and molecular oxygen. EC 1.14.14.-.Ethionine: 2-Amino-4-(ethylthio)butyric acid. An antimetabolite and methionine antagonist that interferes with amino acid incorporation into proteins and with cellular ATP utilization. It also produces liver neoplasms.Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System: A superfamily of hundreds of closely related HEMEPROTEINS found throughout the phylogenetic spectrum, from animals, plants, fungi, to bacteria. They include numerous complex monooxygenases (MIXED FUNCTION OXYGENASES). In animals, these P-450 enzymes serve two major functions: (1) biosynthesis of steroids, fatty acids, and bile acids; (2) metabolism of endogenous and a wide variety of exogenous substrates, such as toxins and drugs (BIOTRANSFORMATION). They are classified, according to their sequence similarities rather than functions, into CYP gene families (>40% homology) and subfamilies (>59% homology). For example, enzymes from the CYP1, CYP2, and CYP3 gene families are responsible for most drug metabolism.Mice, Inbred C57BLAlkaline Phosphatase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of an orthophosphoric monoester and water to an alcohol and orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.1.

Quantitative aspects in the assessment of liver injury. (1/931)

Liver function data are usually difficult to use in their original form when one wishes to compare the hepatotoxic properties of several chemical substances. However, procedures are available for the conversion of liver function data into quantal responses. These permit the elaboration of dose-response lines for the substances in question, the calculation of median effective doses and the statistical analysis of differences in liver-damaging potency. These same procedures can be utilized for estimating the relative hazard involved if one compares the liver-damaging potency to the median effective dose for some other pharmacologie parameter. Alterations in hepatic triglycerides, lipid peroxidation, and the activities of various hepatic enzymes can also be quantitiated in a dose-related manner. This permits the selection of equitoxic doses required for certain comparative studies and the selection of doses in chemical interaction studies. The quantitative problems involved in low-frequency adverse reactions and the difficulty these present in the detection of liver injury in laboratory animals are discussed.  (+info)

Molecular dynamics study of substance P peptides in a biphasic membrane mimic. (2/931)

Two neuropeptides, substance P (SP) and SP-tyrosine-8 (SP-Y8), have been studied by molecular dynamics (MD) simulation in a TIP3P water/CCl4 biphasic solvent system as a mimic for the water-membrane system. Initially, distance restraints derived from NMR nuclear Overhauser enhancements (NOE) were incorporated in the restrained MD (RMD) in the equilibration stage of the simulation. The starting orientation/position of the peptides for the MD simulation was either parallel to the water/CCl4 interface or in a perpendicular/insertion mode. In both cases the peptides equilibrated and adopted a near-parallel orientation within approximately 250 ps. After equilibration, the conformation and orientation of the peptides, the solvation of both the backbone and the side chain of the residues, hydrogen bonding, and the dynamics of the peptides were analyzed from trajectories obtained in the RMD or the subsequent free MD (where the NOE restraints were removed). These analyses showed that the peptide backbone of nearly all residues are either solvated by water or are hydrogen-bonded. This is seen to be an important factor against the insertion mode of interaction. Most of the interactions with the hydrophobic phase come from the hydrophobic interactions of the side chains of Pro-4, Phe-7, Phe-8, Leu-10, and Met-11 for SP, and Phe-7, Leu-10, Met-11 and, to a lesser extent, Tyr-8 in SP-Y8. Concerted conformational transitions took place in the time frame of hundreds of picoseconds. The concertedness of the transition was due to the tendency of the peptide to maintain the necessary secondary structure to position the peptide properly with respect to the water/CCl4 interface.  (+info)

Molecular dynamics study of substance P peptides partitioned in a sodium dodecylsulfate micelle. (3/931)

Two neuropeptides, substance P (SP) and SP-tyrosine-8 (SP-Y8), have been studied by molecular dynamics (MD) simulation in an explicit sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS) micelle. Initially, distance restraints derived from NMR nuclear Overhauser enhancements (NOE) were incorporated in the restrained MD (RMD) during the equilibration stage of the simulation. It was shown that when SP-Y8 was initially placed in an insertion (perpendicular) configuration, the peptide equilibrated to a surface-bound (parallel) configuration in approximately 450 ps. After equilibration, the conformation and orientation of the peptides, the solvation of both the backbone and the side chain of the residues, hydrogen bonding, and the dynamics of the peptides were analyzed from trajectories obtained from the RMD or the subsequent free MD (where the NOE restraints were removed). These analyses showed that the peptide backbones of all residues are either solvated by water or are hydrogen-bonded. This is seen to be an important factor against the insertion mode of interaction. Most of the interactions come from the hydrophobic interaction between the side chains of Lys-3, Pro-4, Phe-7, Phe-8, Leu-10, and Met-11 for SP, from Lys-3, Phe-7, Leu-10, and Met-11 in SP-Y8, and the micellar interior. Significant interactions, electrostatic and hydrogen bonding, between the N-terminal residues, Arg-Pro-Lys, and the micellar headgroups were observed. These latter interactions served to affect both the structure and, especially, the flexibility, of the N-terminus. The results from simulation of the same peptides in a water/CCl4 biphasic cell were compared with the results of the present study, and the validity of using the biphasic system as an approximation for peptide-micelle or peptide-bilayer systems is discussed.  (+info)

Effect of central corticotropin-releasing factor on carbon tetrachloride-induced acute liver injury in rats. (4/931)

Central neuropeptides play important roles in many instances of physiological and pathophysiological regulation mediated through the autonomic nervous system. In regard to the hepatobiliary system, several neuropeptides act in the brain to regulate bile secretion, hepatic blood flow, and hepatic proliferation. Stressors and sympathetic nerve activation are reported to exacerbate experimental liver injury. Some stressors are known to stimulate corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) synthesis in the central nervous system and induce activation of sympathetic nerves in animal models. The effect of intracisternal CRF on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced acute liver injury was examined in rats. Intracisternal injection of CRF dose dependently enhanced elevation of the serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) level induced by CCl4. Elevations of serum aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, and total bilirubin levels by CCl4 were also enhanced by intracisternal CRF injection. Intracisternal injection of CRF also aggravated CCl4-induced hepatic histological changes. Intracisternal CRF injection alone did not modify the serum ALT level. Intravenous administration of CRF did not influence CCl4-induced acute liver injury. The aggravating effect of central CRF on CCl4-induced acute liver injury was abolished by denervation of hepatic plexus with phenol and by denervation of noradrenergic fibers with 6-hydroxydopamine treatment but not by hepatic branch vagotomy or atropine treatment. These results suggest that CRF acts in the brain to exacerbate acute liver injury through the sympathetic-noradrenergic pathways.  (+info)

Transplanted hepatocytes proliferate differently after CCl4 treatment and hepatocyte growth factor infusion. (5/931)

To understand regulation of transplanted hepatocyte proliferation in the normal liver, we used genetically marked rat or mouse cells. Hosts were subjected to liver injury by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4), to liver regeneration by a two-thirds partial hepatectomy, and to hepatocellular DNA synthesis by infusion of hepatocyte growth factor for comparative analysis. Transplanted hepatocytes were documented to integrate in periportal areas of the liver. In response to CCl4 treatments after cell transplantation, the transplanted hepatocyte mass increased incrementally, with the kinetics and magnitude of DNA synthesis being similar to those of host hepatocytes. In contrast, when cells were transplanted 24 h after CCl4 administration, transplanted hepatocytes appeared to be injured and most cells were rapidly cleared. When hepatocyte growth factor was infused into the portal circulation either subsequent to or before cell transplantation and engraftment, transplanted cell mass did not increase, although DNA synthesis rates increased in cultured primary hepatocytes as well as in intact mouse and rat livers. These data suggested that procedures causing selective ablation of host hepatocytes will be most effective in inducing transplanted cell proliferation in the normal liver. The number of transplanted hepatocytes was not increased in the liver by hepatocyte growth factor administration. Repopulation of the liver with genetically marked hepatocytes can provide effective reporters for studying liver growth control in the intact animal.  (+info)

Bone marrow as a potential source of hepatic oval cells. (6/931)

Bone marrow stem cells develop into hematopoietic and mesenchymal lineages but have not been known to participate in production of hepatocytes, biliary cells, or oval cells during liver regeneration. Cross-sex or cross-strain bone marrow and whole liver transplantation were used to trace the origin of the repopulating liver cells. Transplanted rats were treated with 2-acetylaminofluorene, to block hepatocyte proliferation, and then hepatic injury, to induce oval cell proliferation. Markers for Y chromosome, dipeptidyl peptidase IV enzyme, and L21-6 antigen were used to identify liver cells of bone marrow origin. From these cells, a proportion of the regenerated hepatic cells were shown to be donor-derived. Thus, a stem cell associated with the bone marrow has epithelial cell lineage capability.  (+info)

Acute carbon tetrachloride feeding induces damage of large but not small cholangiocytes from BDL rat liver. (7/931)

Bile duct damage and/or loss is limited to a range of duct sizes in cholangiopathies. We tested the hypothesis that CCl4 damages only large ducts. CCl4 or mineral oil was given to bile duct-ligated (BDL) rats, and 1, 2, and 7 days later small and large cholangiocytes were purified and evaluated for apoptosis, proliferation, and secretion. In situ, we measured apoptosis by morphometric and TUNEL analysis and the number of small and large ducts by morphometry. Two days after CCl4 administration, we found an increased number of small ducts and reduced number of large ducts. In vitro apoptosis was observed only in large cholangiocytes, and this was accompanied by loss of proliferation and secretion in large cholangiocytes and loss of choleretic effect of secretin. Small cholangiocytes de novo express the secretin receptor gene and secretin-induced cAMP response. Consistent with damage of large ducts, we detected cytochrome P-4502E1 (which CCl4 converts to its radicals) only in large cholangiocytes. CCl4 induces selective apoptosis of large ducts associated with loss of large cholangiocyte proliferation and secretion.  (+info)

Effect of mitogenic or regenerative cell proliferation on lacz mutant frequency in the liver of MutaTMMice treated with 5, 9-dimethyldibenzo[c,g]carbazole. (8/931)

The purpose of this work was to investigate the impact of cell proliferation on liver mutagenesis. The genotoxic hepatocarcinogen 5, 9-dimethyldibenzo[c,g]carbazole (DMDBC) was administered to lacZ transgenic MutaTMMice at a non-hepatotoxic dose of 10 mg/kg, which induces only a slight increase in the liver lacZ mutant frequency (MF). To determine if cell proliferation stimuli enhanced DMDBC mutagenicity, MF was analyzed in mice first receiving DMDBC 10 mg/kg, then approximately 2 weeks later, either carbon tetrachloride (CCl4, a cytotoxic agent inducing regenerative cell proliferation) or phenobarbital (PB, a mitogenic agent inducing direct hyperplasia). In preliminary studies, the extent of cell proliferation induced by CCl4, PB and DMDBC was determined in non-transgenic CD2F1 mice by means of 5-bromodeoxyuridine labeling. The labeling index was significantly increased after CCl4 and PB, while no change was detected with DMDBC. MF was then determined in MutaTMMice 28 days after initial DMDBC treatment. No increase in MF was detected in mice receiving CCl4 or PB alone. A 2- to 3-fold increase in MF was detected in mice treated with 10 mg/kg DMDBC alone. In contrast, MF was markedly increased in mice receiving DMDBC followed by proliferative treatment (15-fold with CCl4 and 25-fold with PB). These results demonstrate that expression of DMDBC-induced mutations in mouse liver largely depends on the induction of cell proliferation (by a cytotoxic or mitogenic stimulus) and illustrate that MutaTMMouse is a valuable tool to investigate the early events of liver carcinogenesis.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - Isolation of hydroxy fatty acids from livers of carbon tetrachloride-treated rats by thin-layer chromatography. AU - Bandi, Z. L.. AU - Ansari, G. A.S.. PY - 1989. Y1 - 1989. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0024358754&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0024358754&partnerID=8YFLogxK. U2 - 10.1016/S0021-9673(01)89705-3. DO - 10.1016/S0021-9673(01)89705-3. M3 - Article. C2 - 2777965. AN - SCOPUS:0024358754. VL - 475. SP - 461. EP - 466. JO - Journal of Chromatography A. JF - Journal of Chromatography A. SN - 0021-9673. IS - 2. ER - ...
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Semantic Scholar extracted view of Studies on fatty liver with isolated hepatocytes. II. The action of carbon tetrachloride on lipid peroxidation, protein, and triglyceride synthesis and secretion. by Giuseppe Poli et al.
The role of Kupffer cells in carbon tetrachloride intoxication in mice.: Carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4))-induced acute hepatitis is assumed to involve two phases.
It was recently found that the decomposition of chlorine monoxide takes place at the same rate in solution in carbon tetrachloride as in the gaseous state. Under both conditions the reaction occurs in consecutive stages, each bimolecular. The rate of the unimolecular decomposition of nitrogen pentoxide is also uninfluenced by carbon tetrachloride. Thus this solvent appears to be established as a "normal" medium for reactions of varying kinetic type. The interest of this lies in the fact that with reactions that cannot be measured in the gaseous state at all, the rate in carbon tetrachloride can be taken as the rate which the reaction would have in the absence of a medium, and the influence of any given solvent can at once be recognised as accelerating or retarding. In this way it may be possible to obtain a deeper understanding of the effect of solvents on the rates of chemical reactions. In the meantime it is desirable to make as many direct measurements as possible on reactions which can be ...
Cirrhosis of the liver - Exposure to carbon tetrachloride Factor. Last reviewed for CCPS 12 March 2008.. Investigative Documents. Claimant Report - Exposure to Carbon Tetrachloride - Cirrhosis of the Liver [CR9116]. Preliminary questions [20508]. [79]22396. there is some evidence that exposure to carbon tetrachloride may be a factor in the development or worsening of the condition under consideration.. 20585 [80] the veteran has experienced inhalation or cutaneous contact with carbon tetrachloride at some time.. 20586 - the veteran has established the causal connection between exposure to carbon tetrachloride and VEA service for cirrhosis of the liver.. 20587 - the veteran has established the causal connection between exposure to carbon tetrachloride and VEA service for the clinical onset of cirrhosis of the liver.. 20589 - the veteran has established the causal connection between exposure to carbon tetrachloride and operational service for the clinical onset of cirrhosis of the ...
EWGs Tap Water Database Carbon tetrachloride results for Randolph Water System | Carbon tetrachloride. Find out what is in your tap water
EWGs Tap Water Database Carbon tetrachloride results for City of Gulfport | Carbon tetrachloride. Find out what is in your tap water
1. Epidermal growth factor (EGF) is known to protect the gastrointestinal tract against various noxious agents. Its potential value in preventing/treating hepatic injury is, however, largely unexplored. We therefore examined whether EGF could influence CCl4-induced hepatic injury.. 2. Female Sprague-Dawley rats (8 per group) received saline or recombinant EGF (500 or 750 μg/kg, intraperitoneal) 30 min before CCU (20% v/v, in olive oil, intraperitoneal). Eighteen hours later, animals were killed, serum was collected for assay of biochemical markers of hepatic injury and livers were removed for histological analyses.. 3. Administration of CCl4 resulted in severe hepatic necrosis and caused a 10-fold rise in plasma alanine aminotransferase levels compared with levels seen in control animals (218 ± 15 compared with 23 ± 9 μmol/l in controls, mean ± SEM, P , 0.01). Serum malondialdehyde levels, used as a marker of lipid peroxidation, showed a 2-fold rise in response to CCl4 treatment (median ...
Conference Paper: Investigation on the effect of dietary omega 3-6-9 fatty acids and lard on carbon tetrachloride induced liver ...
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No, $\ce{CCl4}$ is not an electrolye. An electrolye is a material that causes ions (charged entities) to form in the solvent. Carbon tetrachloride neither dissociates into ions nor induces ion formation in the solvent.. The reason is that the $\ce{C-Cl}$ bond is rather strong and wont break under normal solution conditions. Nor does the molecule have any net dipole moment.. ...
This assessment will help insure consistency in the Agencys consideration of the relevant scientific health data associated with carbon tetrachloride. In the development of the assessment document, the scientific literature has been inventoried, key studies have been evaluated and summary/conclusions have been prepared so that the chemicals toxicity and related characteristics are qualitatively identified. Observed effect levels and dose-response relationships are discussed, where appropriate, so that the nature of the adverse health responses are placed in perspective with observed environmental levels ...
Measurements of the viscosity of superheated carbon tetrachloride were made at various superheats ranging from 0°C superheat to 37°C superheat. The measurements were made in three groups: two isotherms at 82.4°C and 88.3°C, and one isobar at 690 mm Hg. The three major drawbacks to attaining superheated conditions are vibrations (mechanical shock), impurities, and the maintenance of large volumes of superheated liquid. While the viscometer itself was a simple capillary viscometer, the special procedures and techniques required to attain the necessary superheats entailed the use of high vacuum equipment, liquid degassing systems, a vibration free table, and controlling systems to maintain the temperatures and pressures within the desired fluctuation limits. The results obtained show that the viscosity curve for carbon tetrachloride in the superheated regime appears to be a smooth continuation of the curve below the normal boiling point. A curve fit to the experimental data gave the following ...
NOTE: Although the toxicity values presented in these toxicity profiles were correct at the time they were produced, these values are subject to change. Users should always refer to the Toxicity Value Database for the current toxicity values.. DECEMBER 1992 Prepared by: Andrew Francis, M.S., D.A.B.T., Chemical Hazard Evaluation and Communication Group, Biomedical Environmental Information Analysis Section, Health and Safety Research Division, *, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Prepared for: Oak Ridge Reservation Environmental Restoration Program. *Managed by Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., for the U.S. Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-AC05-84OR21400.. Humans are sensitive to carbon tetrachloride intoxication by oral, inhalation and dermal routes. Oral and inhalation exposure to high concentrations of carbon tetrachloride results in acute central nervous system effects including dizziness, vertigo, headache, depression, confusion, incoordination and, in severe cases, respiratory failure, ...
1. In cirrhosis the kidney tends to retain salt and water abnormally. Two theories have been proposed to account for this: the underfilling theory, in which sodium retention is thought to occur secondary to perceived underfilling of the circulation, and the overflow theory, in which sodium retention is considered to be due to a primary renal defect. 2. Using the model of cirrhosis produced by carbon tetrachloride administration in the rat, the ability of the kidney to excrete sodium has been examined in vivo and during isolated perfusion. 3. Cirrhotic animals demonstrated a reduced ability to excrete an acute sodium load: 6 h after 2 mmol of sodium was given by gavage, 27.5 ± 10.5% had been excreted by the cirrhotic rats and 62.5 ± 7.0% by control rats (P , 0.025). 4. In contrast, during isolated perfusion, kidneys from cirrhotic animals excreted the same amount of sodium as control animals over a range of perfusion pressures from 90 to 150 mmHg (12 to 20 kPa). 5. The data are consistent ...
The residue is added to a solution of 50 g. of sodium in about a liter of 95 per cent alcohol. The solution is boiled under a reflux condenser for about one hour (Note 2) and then allowed to stand overnight. The reaction mixture is diluted with about 6 l. of water and the two layers are separated. The aqueous layer is extracted with three or four 500-cc. portions of carbon tetrachloride (Note 3), and the extracts are added to the bromomesitylene. This solution is then washed thoroughly with water. The carbon tetrachloride solution is separated, dried over calcium chloride, and distilled. After the carbon tetrachloride is removed the bromomesitylene is fractionated carefully under reduced pressure from a modified Claisen flask. The fraction boiling at 105-107°/16-17 mm. (Note 4) is bromomesitylene. The yield is 840-870 g. (79-82 per cent of the theoretical amount). There is a small low-boiling portion (about 25 g.) and also a small high-boiling residue. The bromomesitylene obtained in this way ...
In a 1-l. three-necked flask, fitted with a thermometer, a reflux condenser, and an inlet tube extending to the bottom of the flask and drawn out to a small opening, are placed 600 cc. of dry carbon tetrachloride, 154 g. (0.5 mole) of di-o-nitrophenyl disulfide, m.p. 193-195° (Org. Syn. Coll. Vol. I, 1941, 220), and 0.25 g. of iodine. To the upper end of the condenser is attached a glass tube which dips below the surface of a little carbon tetrachloride contained in a test tube. A current of chlorine, dried with sulfuric acid, is passed into the reaction mixture, the temperature of which is maintained at 50-60°. The rate of flow of the chlorine (about 16-17 g. per hour) is regulated so that little or no gas escapes through the carbon tetrachloride trap. The yellow di-o-nitrophenyl disulfide gradually disappears, and after two to two and one-half hours a homogeneous, dark yellow solution is obtained (Note 1). The warm solution is filtered from a small amount of dark residue through a warm ...
Recently, the need for more standardized operation procedures in experimental liver fibrosis research was suggested due to dramatic changes in European animal welfare rules. Here, we present a short series of standard operation procedures (SOPs) summarizing the most relevant and widely accepted expe …
Fluctuations in serum autofluorescence (AF) intensity have recently been widely used as markers of certain diseases such as cancer. To determine the diagnostic value of serum AF intensity for liver fibrosis in rats, we induced liver fibrosis by subcutaneous injection of carbon tetrachloride into rats. The rat serum AF intensities were detected at the excitation wavelength of 337 nm and the emission wavelength of 512 nm. The degree of liver fibrosis was evaluated by Van Giesons staining. The relationship between serum AF intensity and the degree of liver fibrosis was analyzed by Spearman and Pearson Correlation. The diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of the serum AF was determined by analyzing the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. Our results show that the serum AF intensity in the rat liver fibrosis model increased when compared with control rats eight weeks and twelve weeks post induction of liver fibrosis. However, there was no significant difference in serum AF intensity between
Mediators of Inflammation is a peer-reviewed, Open Access journal that publishes original research and review articles on all types of inflammatory mediators, including cytokines, histamine, bradykinin, prostaglandins, leukotrienes, PAF, biological response modifiers and the family of cell adhesion-promoting molecules.
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BMP-9 interferes with liver regeneration and promotes liver fibrosis.. BMP9 is constitutively produced in the liver. Systemic levels act on many organs and tissues including bone and endothelium, but little is known about its hepatic functions in health and disease. Levels of BMP-9 and its receptors were analysed in primary liver cells. We investigated direct effects of BMP-9 on hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) and hepatocytes in vitro, and in acute and chronic liver injury models in mice. Quiescent and activated HSCs were identified as major BMP-9 producing liver cell type. BMP-9 stimulation of cultured hepatocytes inhibited proliferation, epithelial to mesenchymal transition and preserved expression of important metabolic enzymes such as cytochrome P450. Acute liver injury caused by partial hepatectomy or single injections of carbon tetrachloride (CCl 4 ) or lipopolysaccharide (LPS) into mice resulted in transient downregulation of hepatic BMP-9 mRNA expression. Correspondingly, LPS stimulation ...
ASTM Committee D28 on Activated Carbon was formed in 1962. D28 meets twice a year, usually in April and October, with about 15 members attending two days of technical meetings. The Committee, with a current membership of approximately 35, has jurisdiction of 27 standards, published in the Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Volume 15.01. D28 has 3 technical subcommittees that maintain jurisdiction over these standards. These standards have and continue to play a preeminent role in determining acid extractable content in activated carbon by ashing, moisture in activated carbon, carbon tetrachloride activity, total ash content, ball-pan hardness, iodine number and pH of activated carbon.. ...
The purpose. To study the effect of partial hepatectomy (PH) on the main ways of ammonia detoxication in the liver (synthesis of urea and glutamine) in chronic tetrachlorcarbon (CCl4) hepatitis. Methods. The experiments were performed on 165 white outbred rats (females) weighing 180-220 g Chronic CCl4-hepatitis was reproduced by subcutaneous injection of 50% CCl4 solution in olive oil (0.1 ml/100g of body weight,65 days, through the day with two two-week breaks between 6-7 and 13-14 injections). PH conducted electrocautery, removing part of the left lobe of the liver (15-20% by weight of the body) to 65th (and last) day of the introduction of the CCl4 ...
The berries of Seabuckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.) are traditional medicinal foods that have been used by Tibetans and Mongolians for thousands of years. The polysaccharides are the main components of Seabuckthorn berries, possessing immune stimulating, anti-cancer and anti-fatigue activities. The present
Malotilate is a new drug suggested for use in chronic liver diseases. It is shown here to prevent liver damage caused by CCl4. The concomitant administration of malotilate with CCl4 significantly decreased hydroxyproline accumulation in the liver, liver prolyl 4-hydroxylase and liver and serum galactosylhydroxylysyl glucosyltransferase activities. However, it had no effect on the daily urinary hydroxyproline excretion or the hydroxyproline content of the skin, liver or lungs in normal young growing rats. It also had no specific inhibitory effect on hydroxyproline synthesis or secretion in fibroblast cultures, and did not affect the amount of procollagen-alpha 1(I)-specific mRNAs in these cultures. Thus it seems to have no direct inhibitory effect on collagen metabolism. In addition to inhibition of liver collagen accumulation, malotilate was also able to prevent the development of morphological changes in the liver such as focal necrosis, fatty infiltration and inflammatory changes. It also ...
Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine (eCAM) is an international peer-reviewed, Open Access journal that seeks to understand the sources and to encourage rigorous research in this new, yet ancient world of complementary and alternative medicine.
The hepatocurative potential of ethanolic extract (ETO) and sesquiterpene lactones enriched fraction (SL) of Taraxacum officinale roots was evaluated against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) induced...
The uses of carbon tetrachloride have diminished lately because it is known to be damage peoples health. People think it might damage the ozone layer. Today, it is rarely used for anything.. Previously, was used in fire extinguishers. It was also used to make freon, used in dry cleaning and as a refrigerant.. ...
2,4-BIS(TRICHLOROMETHYL)QUINOLINE 203506-37-0 NMR spectrum, 2,4-BIS(TRICHLOROMETHYL)QUINOLINE H-NMR spectral analysis, 2,4-BIS(TRICHLOROMETHYL)QUINOLINE C-NMR spectral analysis ect.
Liver fibrosis is a feature in the majority of chronic liver diseases and oxidative stress is considered to be its main pathogenic mechanism. Antioxidants including vitamin E, are effective in preventing liver fibrogenesis. Several plant-drived antioxidants, such as silymarin, baicalin, beicalein, quercetin, apigenin, were shown to interfere with liver fibrogenesis. The antioxidans above are polyphenols, flavonoids or structurally related compounds which are the main chemical components of Pomegranate peels and seeds, and the antioxidant activity of Pomegranate peels and seeds have been verified. Here we investigated whether the extracts of pomegranate peels (EPP) and seeds (EPS) have preventive efficacy on liver fibrosis induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) in rats and explored its possible mechanisms. The animal model was established by injection with 50 % CCl4 subcutaneously in male wistar rats twice a week for four weeks. Meanwhile, EPP and EPS were administered orally every day for 4 weeks,
in Liang, Qing; Newman, Paul A; Reimann, Stefan (Eds.) SPARC Report on the Mystery of Carbon Tetrachloride (2016). The Montreal Protocol (MP) controls the production and consumption of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 or CTC) and other ozone-depleting substances (ODSs) for emissive uses. CCl4 is a major ODS, accounting for ... [more ▼]. The Montreal Protocol (MP) controls the production and consumption of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 or CTC) and other ozone-depleting substances (ODSs) for emissive uses. CCl4 is a major ODS, accounting for about 12% of the globally averaged inorganic chlorine and bromine in the stratosphere, compared to 14% for CFC-12 in 2012. In spite of the MP controls, there are large ongoing emissions of CCl4 into the atmosphere. Estimates of emissions from various techniques ought to yield similar numbers. However, the recent WMO/UNEP Scientific Assessment of Ozone Depletion [WMO, 2014] estimated a 2007-2012 CCl4 bottom-up emission of 1-4 Gg/year (1-4 kilotonnes/year), based on ...
TITANIUM BEARING MATERIAL FLOW CONTROL IN THE MANUFACTURE OF TITIANIUM TETRACHLORIDE USING A COMBINATION OF FEEDBACK AND FEED FORWARD RESPONSES - This disclosure relates to process for controlling chlorination reactions in manufacturing titanium tetrachloride in a fluidized bed reactor, optionally followed by processing to form a titanium product comprising a minor amount of silica, the process comprising: (a) feeding carbonaceous material, titanium bearing material comprising an amount of silica, and chlorine to the fluidized bed reactor to form a gaseous stream, and condensing the gaseous stream to form titanium tetra-chloride, a non-condensed gas stream and a condensable product stream, wherein at least one of the titanium tetrachloride and the non-condensed gas stream comprise silicon tetrachloride; (b) analyzing the non-condensed gas stream, the titanium tetrachloride or both, to determine the analyzed concentration of silicon tetrachloride; (c) identifying a set point concentration of ...
Adult hepatocytes and liver-cell progenitors play a role in restoring liver tissue after injury. For the study of progenitor cells in liver repair, experimental models included (a) surgical removal of liver tissue by partial hepatectomy; (b) acute injury by carbontetrachloride; (c) acute injury by D-galactosamine (GalN) and N-nitrosomorpholine (NNM); and (d) chemical hepatocarcinogenesis by feeding NNM in low and high doses. Serological and immuno-histological detection of alpha-fetoprotein gene expression served to follow pathways of cellular differentiation. Stem cells were not required in models of surgical removal of parenchyma and in carbon tetrachloride intoxication of adult hepatocytes. In contrast, regeneration of liver occurred through biliary epithelial cells in injuries induced by GalN and NNM. These biliary epithelial cells, collectively called oval cells, are most probably derived from the canals of Hering. Proliferating bile duct cells reached a level of differentiation with ...
Phytoconstituents like many polyphenols are poorly absorbed either due to their multiple-ring large size molecules which cannot be absorbed by simple diffusion, or due to their poor miscibility with oils and other lipids, severely limiting their ability to pass across the lipid-rich outer membranes of the enterocytes of the small intestine. Water-soluble phytoconstituent molecules (mainly polyphenols) can be converted into lipid-compatible molecular complexes, which are called Phytosomes. Gallic acid (GA, 3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoic acid), a naturally occurring plant phenol. So the following study was undertaken to evaluate the protective effects of gallic acid and gallic acid Phytosomes (GAP) at different doses against CCl4 induced hepatic and renal damage in albino rats. Liver damage was induced in Wister albino rats by administering CCl4 (1.5 ml/kg, i.p) once only. Simultaneously, GAP (40, 60 mg/kg, p.o.), GA (100 and 200 mg/kg, p.o.), and the reference drug silymarin (50 mg/kg b.w.).were administered
1. INTRODUCTION. Free radicals in the form of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species are an integral part of normal physiology. Over-production of these reactive species can occur, due to oxidative stress brought about by the imbalance of the bodily antioxidant defense system and free radical formation. These reactive species can react with biomolecules, causing cellular injury and even death. They can lead to the development of chronic diseases such as cancers and those that involve the cardio-and cerebrovascular systems (Gurdip et al., 2007). The consumption of fruits and vegetables (Peschel et al., 2006) containing antioxidants has been found to offer protection against these diseases. Antioxidants are often added to foods to prevent the radical chain reactions of oxidation, and they act by inhibiting the initiation and propagation step leading to the termination of the reaction and delay the oxidation process (Shahidi et al., 1992). Cinnamon is a popular flavoring ingredient, widely used in ...
Natural products serve as lead molecules for development for the many popular drugs. Herbal drugs are having fewer side effects than the other class o..
If ya find exactly where to get calcium cyanimide please let us all know, I have been trying for about a year now. I have tried 3 really good ags in my area and have called several others with no luck. I asked for lime-nitrogen and also calcium cyanimide by name. One place over the phone said it was not used for fertiliser anymore and has been replaced with better nitrogen fertilisers (names not given to me). Another Ag-store said they could order it so I said OK. A few days latter they called back and said it was no longer avaible. I live in Calif.. Good luck! I really do hope you find a good source ...
Effect and mechanism of methyl helicterate isolated from Helicteres angustifolia (Sterculiaceae) on hepatic fibrosis induced by carbon tetrachloride in rats. - Quanfang Huang, Yongwen Li, Shijun Zhang, Renbin Huang, Li Zheng, Ling Wei, Min He, Ming Liao, Li Li, Lang Zhuo, Xing Lin
73790-71-3 - GYIYKXRSUWXOKK-UHFFFAOYSA-N - Piperidine, 1-(o-chloro-alpha-(trichloromethyl)benzyl)-, hydrochloride - Similar structures search, synonyms, formulas, resource links, and other chemical information.
Ameliorative Effects of Adansonia Digitata Leaf Extract on Carbon Tetrachloride (Ccl4) Induced Testicular Toxicity in Adult Male Wistar Rats… 481 - 487. Oyewopo Oyetunji, Ibrahim Babatunde, Saalu Chia, Osinubi Abraham, Adewale Benard, Eweoya Olugbenga, Williams Esemekiphoraro ...
Lin S.C., Lin C.H., Lin C.C., Lin Y.H., Chen C.F., Chen I.C., Wang L.Y. Hepatoprotective effects of Arctium lappa Linne on liver injuries induced by chronic ethanol consumption and potentiated by carbon tetrachloride. Journal of biomedical science 2002 9:5 (401-409) ...
Lin S.C., Lin C.H., Lin C.C., Lin Y.H., Chen C.F., Chen I.C., Wang L.Y. Hepatoprotective effects of Arctium lappa Linne on liver injuries induced by chronic ethanol consumption and potentiated by carbon tetrachloride. Journal of biomedical science 2002 9:5 (401-409) ...
Alexander Zlotnik is the author of these articles in the Journal of Visualized Experiments: Inducing Acute Liver Injury in Rats via Carbon Tetrachloride (CCl4) Exposure Through an Orogastric Tube, A Middle Cerebral Artery Occlusion Technique for Inducing Post-stroke Depression in Rats, A New Method for Inducing a Depression-Like Behavior in Rats
The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) uses its best efforts to deliver a high quality copy of the Database and to verify that the data contained therein have been selected on the basis of sound scientific judgment. However, NIST makes no warranties to that effect, and NIST shall not be liable for any damage that may result from errors or omissions in the Database ...
SiCl4 is silicon tetrachloride, which is a non-polar molecule. Silicon tetrachloride is non-polar because the four chemical bonds between silicon and chlorine are equally distributed. The even...
These findings confirm percolation as a potential mechanism to explain AF in humans and give new insights into dynamics underlying conduction distortions and fractionated signals in excitable media, which correlate well with the experimental findings in fibrotic regions. The greater understanding of …
0036] Examples of such acid generators in a first aspect include halogen-containing triazine compounds such as 2,4-bis(trichloromethyl)-6-piperonyl-1,3,5-triazine, 2,4-bis(trichloromethyl)-6-[2-(2-furyl)ethenyl]-s-triazine, 2,4-bis(trichloromethyl)-6-[2-(5-methyl-2-furyl)ethenyl]-s-triazine, 2,4-bis(trichloromethyl)-6-[2-(5-ethyl-2-furyl)ethenyl]-s-triazine, 2,4-bis(trichloromethyl)-6-[2-(5-propyl-2-furyl)ethenyl]-s-triazine, 2,4-bis(trichloromethyl)-6-[2-(3,5-dimethoxyphenyl)ethenyl]-s-triazine, 2,4-bis(trichloromethyl)-6-[2-(3,5-diethoxyphenyl)ethenyl]-s-triazine, 2,4-bis(trichloromethyl)-6-[2-(3,5-dipropoxyphenyl)ethenyl]-s-triazine, 2,4-bis(trichloromethyl)-6-[2-(3-methoxy-5-ethoxyphenyl)ethenyl]-s-triazi- ne, 2,4-bis(trichloromethyl)-6-[2-(3-methoxy-5-propoxyphenyl)ethenyl]-s-tr- iazine, 2,4-bis(trichloromethyl)-6-[2-(3,4-methylenedioxyphenyl)ethenyl]-s- -triazine, 2,4-bis(trichloromethyl)-6-(3,4-methylenedioxyphenyl)-s-triazin- e, ...
1. Wilcken DEL, Dudman NPB, Tyrrell PA. Homocystinuria due to cystathionine beta-synthase deficiency-the effects of betaine treatment in pyridoxine-responsive patients. Metabolism. 1985;34:1115-1121. 2. Barak AJ, Beckenhauer HC, Tuma DJ. Betaine, ethanol and the liver: a review. Alcohol. 1996;13:395-398. 3. Barak AJ, Beckenhauer HC, Junnila M, et al. Dietary betaine promotes generation of hepatic S-adenosylmethionine and protects the liver from ethanol-induced fatty infiltration. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 1993;17:552-555. 4. Murakami T, Nagamura Y, Hirano K. The recovering effect of betaine on carbon tetrachloride-induced liver injury. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol. 1998;44:249-255. 5. Gray ME, Titlow LW. The effect of pangamic acid on maximal treadmill performance. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1982;14:424-427. 6. Mangoni AA, Jackson SH. Homocysteine and cardiovascular disease: current evidence and future prospects. Am J Med. 2002;112:556-565. 7. Kanbak G, Inal M, Baycu C. Ethanol-induced hepatotoxicity and ...
2-[2-(2,4-dimethoxyphenyl)ethenyl]-4,6-bis(trichloromethyl)-1,3,5-triazine 42880-08-0 Precursor and Downstream products, 2-[2-(2,4-dimethoxyphenyl)ethenyl]-4,6-bis(trichloromethyl)-1,3,5-triazine Precursor products, 2-[2-(2,4-dimethoxyphenyl)ethenyl]-4,6-bis(trichloromethyl)-1,3,5-triazine Downstream products ect.
Background: Hypericum is a well-known plant genus in herbal medicine. Hypericum mysorense (Family: Hypericaceae), a plant belonging to the same genus, is well known in folklore medicine for its varied therapeutic potential. Objective: The aim of the present study was to investigate the different parts of the plant for antioxidant and hepatoprotective properties. Materials and Methods: The methanol extracts of Hypericum mysorense prepared from various parts of the plant were tested in vitro for their free radical scavenging activity against ABTS• (diammonium salt), DPPH• (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl), NO•, O2•− and •OH radicals, using standard systems of assays. The total antioxidant capacity, total phenolic and total flavonoid content of the extracts were analyzed. Further, the leaf and flowering top extracts were tested for their in vivo antioxidant and hepatoprotective activities on Wistar rats using a carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatic injury model. Results: The leaf and flowering
Objective: The leaves of Caesalpinia bonduc (CB) have been used against various disorders in folk medicine including the liver disorders. Earlier, we have shown the hepatoprotective effect of CB in acute hepatotoxicity model. The present study was designed to evaluate the anti-hepatotoxic and anti-fibrotic effect of the aqueous leaf extract of CB on CCl4 (carbon tetrachloride) induced chronic hepatotoxicity/fibrosis in Wistar rats.Methods: Animals were divided into three groups namely; preventive, curative and prophylactic, which was further subdivided into four groups each: Group I-untreated control, group II-CCl4 control, group III-CB+CCl4 and group IV-silymarin+CCl4. The aqueous extract of CB/silymarin was administered orally once, daily for eight weeks in the curative group and for four weeks in preventive and prophylactic groups respectively. The chronic liver damage/fibrosis was induced by intraperitoneal injection of CCl4 twice a week, for four weeks in preventive and prophylactic groups ...
Abstract: Lipofuscin-like pigments (LFPs) are highly oxidized cross-linked aggregates of oxidized protein and lipids which are formed under oxidative state conditions by free radicals produced. The present study aimed to evaluate the probable ameliorative effects of some of the Mn-salens namely EUKs 8, 134, 15, 115, 122 and 132 (compounds 1-6) and vitamin C against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced acute damage on rats livers and brains. Exposure to CCl4 is believed to induce oxidative stress and cause tissue damage due to the formation of trichloromethyl (·CCl3) and peroxy trichloromethyl (·OOCCl3) radicals. In this study, 54 rats were randomly divided into 9 groups of six each: normal group received only vehicle (olive oil; 2 ml/kg b.w.) for 6 consecutive days; CCl4- intoxicated group received the vehicle and CCl4 (50% solution of CCl4 in olive oil, 2 ml/kg b.w.) on the first and second days and the vehicle on the third to sixth days; test rats received Mn-salens or vitamin C (20 mg/kg ...
Saputri, F. C., Astari, C., Janatry, D. A., ., A., & Kusmana, D. (2018). HEPATOPROTECTIVE EFFECT OF BELLAMYA JAVANICA: ASPARTATE TRANSAMINASE, ALANINE AMINOTRANSFERASE, AND ALKALINE PHOSPHATASE ACTIVITY, AND LIVER HISTOPATHOLOGY IN MICE INDUCED WITH CARBON TETRACHLORIDE. International Journal of Applied Pharmaceutics, 10(1), 203-207. https://doi.org/10.22159/ijap.2018. ...
Our recent finding suggests that B cells contribute to liver fibrosis through hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) activation. While antibodies produced by the activated intrahepatic B cells contribute to autoimmunity is not known, mixed cryoglobulinemia and other B cell disorders are the leading extrahepatic manifestations of advanced liver diseases in humans. Here, our aim was to determine whether increased antibody production during liver fibrosis could potentially lead to systemic autoimmunity by production of autoantibodies and immune complexes (IC). We studied the role of B cells in autoimmunity using a carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced mouse model of fibrosis and a genetically engineered multidrug resistance gene 2 knock out (Mdr2-/-) mice, which constitutively develop progressive liver fibrosis. In both fibrosis models, the frequency of B cells in the liver was elevated and B cells exhibited increased state of activation as measured by CD44 and CD86 expressions, constitutive IgG production ...
2-(4-methoxyphenyl)-4-phenyl-6-(trichloromethyl)-1,3,5-triazine | C17H12Cl3N3O | CID 19207 - structure, chemical names, physical and chemical properties, classification, patents, literature, biological activities, safety/hazards/toxicity information, supplier lists, and more.
diethyl 6-(trichloromethyl)-1,3,5-triazine-2,4-dicarboxylate | C10H10Cl3N3O4 | CID 35555 - structure, chemical names, physical and chemical properties, classification, patents, literature, biological activities, safety/hazards/toxicity information, supplier lists, and more.
Activation of the adiponectin (APN) signaling axis retards liver fibrosis. However, understanding of the role of AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 in mediating this response is still rudimentary. Here, we sought to elucidate the APN receptor responsible for limiting liver fibrosis by employing AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 knock-out mice in the carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) model of liver fibrosis. In addition, we knocked down receptor function in primary hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) in vitro. Following the development of fibrosis, AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 KO mice had no quantitative difference in fibrosis by Sirius red staining. However, AdipoR2 KO mice had an enhanced fibrotic signature with increased Col1-α1, TGFß-1, TIMP-1, IL-10, MMP-2 and MMP-9. Knockdown of AdipoR1 or AdipoR2 in HSCs followed by APN treatment demonstrated that AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 did not affect proliferation or TIMP-1 gene expression, while AdipoR2 modulated Col1-α1 and α-SMA gene expression, HSC migration, and AMPK activity. These finding suggest ...
1. In most rat liver cells, no special topographical relationship between mitochondria and ergastoplasmic lamellae is to be observed. In some cells, nevertheless, the two organelles are grouped together in dense zones clearly separated from the hyaloplasm.. 2. Such an association can be produced at will in the livers of animals refed after prolonged fasting, or in the regenerative phases after partial hepatectomy and intoxication with carbon tetrachloride. In all these cells, the ergastoplasm, after having disappeared, suddenly reappears in the cytoplasm, either along the nucleus or cell membranes, where the mitochondria are grouped.. 3. It may be supposed that these topographical relationships between mitochondria and ergastoplasm during a definite period of cellular activity indicate a close functional link between chondrioma and basophilic structures. Mitochondria seem to play an important part in the elaboration of hepatic ergastoplasm.. ...
Oxidative stress plays a critical role in the hepatotoxicity of tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα), a carbon tetrachloride (CCl4), and acetaminophen (APAP). Glutathione (GSH) is a major free radical scavenger and an important factor in detoxification of reactive oxygen species and xenobiotics. The rate-limiting enzyme in the synthesis of GSH is glutamate-cysteine ligase (GCL) which consists of two subunits: GCLC and GCLM. We have generated transgenic mice that conditionally express GCLC and GCLM in the liver using a mifepristone (RU486)-responsive transactivator. To test the hypothesis that enhanced GSH synthesis would prevent oxidative stress-medicated hepacellular injury, GCL transgenic mice and their non-transgenic littermate controls were treated with TNFα, CCl4, and APAP. GCLM protein levels and GCL activities were significantly increased in GCL transgenic mice with RU486 induction as revealed by Western Blotting and biochemical assay. GCL transgene induction attenuated TNFα and ...
Adsorption isotherms of carbon tetrachloride, chloroform and fiuorotrichloromethane on a substrate of graphitized carbon are reported at temperatures between 200 and 300 °K. Evidence is presented that at these temperatures the residual heterogeneity of the substrate is not observed: under these conditions the true equation of state of the adsorbed film can be deduced directly from the measured adsorption isotherms. All the data reported are described by the adsorption isotherm equation corresponding to a two-dimensional van der Waals gas; this description continues to apply at temperatures where the isotherms show discontinuities characteristic of first-order phase changes. The two-dimensional critical temperature of each of the adsorbed films is rather less than the value predicted by the two dimensional van der Waals equation; this is taken as evidence for the polarization of the adsorbate molecules by an electric field present at the graphite surface. The results obtained with the isotropic ...
The Effects of Carbon Tetrachloride (CCl_4 ) Induced Experimental Acute and Chronic Intoxication on Hystological Structure of Liver and Some Hematological Values and Electrocardiogram in Rabbits ...
A process for phosphonylating the surface of an organic polymeric preform and the surface-phosphonylated preforms produced thereby are provided. Organic polymeric preforms made from various polymers including polyethylene, polyetheretherketone, polypropylene, polymethylmethacrylate, polyamides, and polyester, and formed into blocks, films, and fibers may have their surfaces phosphonylated according to the present inventive process. The process involves the use of a solvent that does not dissolve the organic polymeric preform but does dissolve a phosphorus halide such as phosphorus trichloride. The solvent chosen must also be nonreactive with the phosphorus halide. Such solvents available for use in the present process include the fully-halogenated liquid solvents such as carbon tetrachloride, carbon tetrabromide, and the like. The inventive process allows for surface phosphonylation of the organic polymeric preform such that up to about 30 percent, but preferably up to about 20 percent, of the
Harvest cowpea plants about 2 weeks after inoculation, then homogenize at 4°C in two volumes of 0.5 M citrate buffer (pH 7.0) containing 0.1% thioglycollic acid. Express juice through cheesecloth, and add 20 ml carbon tetrachloride to every 100 ml extract. Shake the extract for 15 min, and clarify by low-speed centrifugation. Concentrate the virus by three cycles of differential centrifugation. Resuspend the pellets from high speed centrifugation in 0.01 M citrate buffer. Purify further by sucrose density-gradient centrifugation (Tsuchizaki et al., 1971).. ...
This page contains information on the chemical 2-Propenoic acid, ethyl ester, telomer with tetrachloromethane including: 2 synonyms/identifiers.
The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) uses its best efforts to deliver a high quality copy of the Database and to verify that the data contained therein have been selected on the basis of sound scientific judgment. However, NIST makes no warranties to that effect, and NIST shall not be liable for any damage that may result from errors or omissions in the Database ...
Titanium tetrachloride is a colorless, fuming liquid that is decomposed by moisture to hydrochloric acid, titanium dioxide, and heat. The toxicity of this agent is likely due to the release of hydrochloric acid. Titanium tetrachloride is corrosive to tissues ...
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UN/SCETDG/46/INF.65 - (Austria) Transition period for amendments relevant to Ammunition, Smoke, containing titanium tetrachloride; relating to documents ST/SG/AC.10/C.3/2014/67, ST/SG/AC.10/C.3/2014/105, UN/SCETDG/46/INF.55 and related documents Wording of SP ...
The reaction of titanium tetrachloride withN-phenyl benzalaldimine and some of its monomethylated and dimethylated derivatives, L, yields complexes of gene
Hazards: Bromine is corrosive and toxic.. Carbon tetrachloride is a cancer suspect agent. Toluene is flammable and toxic. Chemicals and Solutions: Materials: Two vials of toluene (about 10 ml each). 5% bromine in carbon tetrachloride solution. Plastic eyedropper Procedure: Add a few drops of the bromine solution rapidly to each of the vials of toluene. Show the class the orange solution produced. Place one of the vials on the overhead projector and watch this solution decolorize rapidly. The vial not placed on the overhead will decolorize much more slowly. This demo can be scaled up to be done in small hydrometer cylinders. Students will be able to see the the bromine fading out starting from the bottom and moving up the cylinder. Hint: Discussion: The halogenation reaction is a substitution reaction that takes place by a free radical mechanism.. ...
You can now access full text articles from research journals published by CSIR-NISCAIR! Full text facility is provided for all nineteen research journals viz. ALIS, AIR, BVAAP, IJBB, IJBT, IJCA, IJCB, IJCT, IJEB, IJEMS, IJFTR, IJMS, IJNPR, IJPAP, IJRSP, IJTK, JIPR, JSIR & JST. NOPR also hosts three Popular Science Magazines viz. Science Reporter (SR), Vigyan Pragati (VP) & Science Ki Duniya (SKD) and a Natural Products Repository (NPARR ...
1. The purpose of the present investigation was to determine whether an abnormality of the renal papillary circulation is present in a well-established model of cirrhosis without ascites (carbon tetrachloride/phenobarbital).. 2. Compared with the control animals, cirrhotic rats showed a reduced diuretic (61.0 ±5.1 versus 18.0 ±2.5%) and natriuretic (67.8 ±8.3 versus 29.6 ±3.6%) response to a volume expansion (3% body weight infusion of 0.9% NaCl). The volume expansion-induced increase in renal interstitial hydrostatic pressure was also blunted in the cirrhotic rats (control 9.3 ±0.9 versus cirrhotic 6.1±1.0 mmHg) and there were no differences in mean arterial blood pressure, renal blood flow or glomerular filtration rate between control and cirrhotic animals.. 3. Papillary plasma flow was determined by the 125I-albumin accumulation technique and expressed as mlmin−1100 g−1. In the basal state, papillary plasma flow was significantly lower in cirrhotic rats (59.1 ±4.4, n = 9) than in ...
91696-36-5 - Benzenamine, 3-methyl-, reaction products with chlorobenzene and 1-chloro-4-(trichloromethyl)benzene, disulfo derivs., sodium salts - Searchable synonyms, formulas, resource links, and other chemical information.
Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) signalling is induced in liver as a consequence of damage and contributes to wound healing with transient activation, whereas it mediates fibrogenesis with long-term up-regulation in chronic disease. Smad-dependent TGF-beta effects are blunted by antagonistic Smad7, which is transcriptionally activated as an immediate early response upon initiation of TGF-beta signalling in most cell types, thereby providing negative feedback regulation. Smad7 can be induced by other cytokines, e.g. IFN-gamma, leading to a crosstalk of these signalling pathways. Here we report on a novel mouse strain, denoted S7DeltaE1, with a deletion of exon I from the endogenous smad7 gene. The mice were viable and exhibited normal adult liver architecture. To obtain insight into Smad7-depend-ent protective effects, chronic liver damage was induced in mice by carbon tetrachloride (CCI4) administration. Subsequent treatment, elevated serum liver enzymes indicated enhanced liver damage ...
Styrene is homopolymerized or copolymerized with alpha methyl styrene, preferably in the presence of limonene, with or without t-butyl styrene, using zirconium tetrachloride as the catalyst. The light colored resins formed are useful as .[.drying.]. .Iadd.dry .Iaddend.cleaning sizing agents and in hot melt adhesives.
Morbid obesity (MO) is associated with an increase in circulating levels of systemic acute phase proteins such as C-reactive protein (CRP). Toll-like receptor is possible candidate for inflammatory responses which is mainly mediated by NFKB1. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between NFKB1 and Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2 polymorphisms and the risk of MO in a Turkish population in the context of CRP serum levels which may contribute to susceptibility to the disease. We analysed the distribution of NFKB1-94 ins/del ATTG rs28362491 and TLR2 Arg753Gln rs5743708 polymorphisms using PCR-RFLP method and CRP serum levels using ELISA method in 213 MO and 200 healthy controls ...
This study analyzes the relationship of plasmatic colloid osmotic pressure (P(CO)) and viscosity with the different hyperlipidemic stages observed in rats with acute liver damage induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) and in rats with nephrotic syndrome induced by puromycin amino nucleoside (PAN). In both animal models viscosity increases were associated with the induction of the hyperlipidemic stage characterized by an increase of high density lipoproteins (HDL) and steady-state levels (SSL) of apo A-1 mRNA. In both animal models P(CO) decreased at early stages of the disease when hyperlipidemia was characterized principally by an increase of total cholesterol and triacylglycerols, but was not associated with the induction of HDL and apo A-1 mRNA. To confirm the in vivo findings, we studied the effect of viscosity on apo A-1 gene expression in an in vitro model using cultured hepatocytes. When medium viscosity was maintained below physiological values, an induction of the SSL of apo A-1 mRNA ...
THE ALE/GAGE/AGAGE NETWORK (Last revision-August 2014, Last data update-May 2014) The following material provides a brief history of the ALE/GAGE/AGAGE program, which has consisted of 3 stages corresponding to major advances and upgrades in instrumentation and resulting increases in measurement frequency, precision, and number of gaseous species that could be measured. The first stage, ALE(Atmospheric Lifetime Experiment), began in 1978 using Hewlett-Packard (HP) 5840 gas chromatographs (gc) with an electron-capture detector (ECD) to measure five species (CFC-11 (CCl3F), CFC-12 (CCl2F2), methyl chloroform (CH3CCl3), carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) and nitrous oxide (N2O)) 4 times daily. In the 1981-1985 time frame, ALE was phased into GAGE (Global Atmospheric Gases Experiment) which used HP 5880 chromatographs and flame ionization detectors (FIDs) to measure the original suite of gases plus chloroform (CHCl3), CFC-113 (CCl2FCClF2 ) and methane (CH4). During GAGE the frequency of measurement was also ...
The ProHealth Milk thistle supplement is a natural liver detoxifier that contains a powerful compound called silymarin, which has been found to defend the liver from many industrial toxins such as carbon tetrachloride, and more common agents like alc
Properties: Bright red acicular crystals from toluene. mp 289 ± 2°. d 1.60. Moderately sol in toluene, chloroform, alcohol, other hydroxylic solvents; sparingly sol in water, petr ether, benzene, ether, carbon disulfide, carbon tetrachloride. ...
Presumably after the phenyl group migrates and expels the cyanate, it then attacks the nitrillium ion formed. In carbon tetrachloride the isocyanate can be isolated, whereas in ethanol the urethane is formed after solvolysis of the isocyanate. One computational study has established the mechanism accounting for solvent molecules and substituents.[6] The rearrangement of acetone oxime in the Beckmann solution involved three acetic acid molecules and one proton (present as an oxonium ion). In the transition state leading to the iminium ion (σ-complex), the methyl group migrates to the nitrogen atom in a concerted reaction as the hydroxyl group is expelled. The oxygen atom in the hydroxyl group is stabilized by three acetic acid molecules. In the next step the electrophilic carbon atom in the nitrilium ion is attacked by water and a proton is donated back to acetic acid. In the transition state leading to the imidate, the water oxygen atom is coordinated to 4 other atoms. In the third step, an ...
Al2Br6 dissociates readily to give the strong Lewis acid, AlBr3. Regarding the tendency of Al2Br6 to dimerize, it is common for heavier main group halides to exist as aggregates larger than implied by their empirical formulae. Lighter main group halides such as boron tribromide do not show this tendency, in part due to the smaller size of the central atom. Consistent with its Lewis acidic character, water hydrolizes Al2Br6 with evolution of HBr and formation of Al-OH-Br species. Similarly, it also reacts quickly with alcohols and carboxylic acids, although less vigorously than with water. With simple Lewis bases (L), Al2Br6 forms adducts, such as AlBr3L. Aluminium tribromide reacts with carbon tetrachloride at 100 °C to form carbon tetrabromide: ...
This improved version of the Trends Analysis is based on an interactive Flash module using a map-based interface, and it provides more precise year-wise data to the user. Based on official data reported by Governments to the Ozone Secretariat under Article 7 of the Montreal Protocol, the module presents country-wise analyses for the main substances controlled under the Protocol, i.e. chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), hydrofluorocarbons (HCFCs), halons, methyl bromide, carbon tetrachloride (CTC), methyl chloroform (MCF). The graphics can be exported by the user for use in publications and presentations. The graphs include some or all of the following lines or data points: Consumption level: This appears for all countries. Production level: This appears only if the country is or was a producer of the specific ODS. Montreal Protocol reduction targets: The respective freeze or reduction target dates are included on the graph for reference.. Note that for HCFCs, since Article 5 countries have not yet ...
Have plenty of water available to fight fires. An accessible pond or water holding tank will augment available water from your well and tank trucks.. Many fires cannot be classified strictly as one type. They may involve a variety of flammable materials. For this reason, multirated extinguishers have been developed.. Owing to the variety of work conditions that exist on the farm, farmers are advised to use an all-purpose, ABC rated extinguisher. This extinguisher uses a dry chemical agent and is capable of extinguishing Class A, B or C fires. The extinguisher is available in a variety of sizes and is not susceptible to temperature extremes. All portable extinguishing equipment should be strategically located on the farm and checked regularly. Everyone on the farm should be trained in the safe us of extinguishers.. For many years, carbon tetrachloride (CC14) was a common type of extinguishing agent. Research has shown that CC14 is not a safe extinguishing agent because when it comes in contact ...
Oxidative stress and inflammatory response are well known to be involved in the pathogenesis of acute liver injury. This study was performed to examine the hepatoprotective effect of ginsenoside Rg1 (Rg1) against CCl₄‐induced acute liver injury, and further to elucidate the involvement of Nrf2 signaling pathway in vivo and in vitro. Mice were orally administered Rg1 (15, 30, and 60 mg/kg) or sulfo ...
Cirrhosis of the liver is a serious condition that results from chronic liver damage caused by various diseases of the liver. Prevention and early treatment of liver disease may help reduce the risk of developing this irreversible and life-threatening condition.
3853-3856. Key Words Jocic Reaction, Carboxylic Acids ... ) see article for more reactions Abstract The reaction of ... trichloromethyl carbinols with various nucleophiles under protic basic conditions reveals ... ...
Near rhymes (words that almost rhyme) with tetrachloride: hexachloride, hydrochloride, chloride, dichloride... Find more near rhymes/false rhymes at B-Rhymes.com
If somebody has toxic hepatitis, the drug(s) need to be quickly discontinued and even more exposure towards the offending chemical prevented. Elimination on the offending chemical or drug contributes to fast advancement generally in days but in some cases various months could elapse prior to advancement is mentioned, even when Serious liver ailment has now formulated. No other particular therapy is necessary ...
isolated perfused cirrhotic rat liver. J Hepatol. 2008 Nov;49(5):739-45. Zipprich A, Loureiro-Silva MR, DSilva I, Groszmann RJ. The role of ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Impaired metabolomics of sulfur-containing substances in rats acutely treated with carbon tetrachloride. AU - Kim, Sun Ju. AU - Kwon, Do Young. AU - Choi, Kwon Hee. AU - Choi, DalWoong. AU - Kim, Young Chul. PY - 2008/12/1. Y1 - 2008/12/1. N2 - Impairment of hepatic metabolism of sulfur-containing amino acids has been known to be linked with induction of liver injury. We determined the early changes in the transsulfuration reactions in liver of rats challenged with a toxic dose of CCl4 (2 mmol/kg, ip). Both hepatic methionine concentration and methionine adenosyltransferase activity were increased, but S-adenosylmethionine level did not change. Hepatic cysteine was increased significantly from 4 h after CCl4 treatment. Glutathione (GSH) concentration in liver was elevated in 4̃8 h and then returned to normal in accordance with the changes in glutamate cysteine ligase activity. Cysteine dioxygenase activity and hypotaurine concentration were also elevated from 4 h after the ...
... aims at providing comprehensive data on 4,6-bis-(trichloromethyl)-2-(4-methoxyphenyl)-1,3,5-triazine
Lithospermic acid ((+)-Lithospermic acid) is a plant-derived polycyclic phenolic carboxylic acid isolated from Salvia miltiorrhiza, and has the anti-oxidative and hepatoprotective activity on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced acute liver damage in vitro and in vivo. - Mechanism of Action & Protocol.
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Chemoprevention represents a technique made to protect cells or cells against various carcinogens and carcinogenic metabolites produced from exogenous or endogenous resources. mainly because promising applicants in the chemotherapeutic and chemopreventive strategies. and L. The anti-inflammatory aftereffect of OA was reported in 1969, when Gupta and coworkers demonstrated its inhibitory impact in carrageenan-induced rat paw edema and formaldehyde-induced joint disease (Gupta (2011) possess recently found that OA inhibited the proliferation of human being glioblastoma cells via inhibition of sign transducer and activator of transcription-3 (STAT3). From anti-tumorigenic and anti-inflammatory activity broadly referred to in the books Aside, OA offers documented hepatoprotective properties. In animal versions, it shields against selection of hepatotoxicants, for instance carbon tetrachloride, cadmium and bromobenzene (sources in: Liu and triggered significant inhibition of endothelial cell ...
In a method for the Friedel-Crafts-type insertion reaction of acetylene with acid chlorides in chloroaluminate ionic liquids, the use of ionic liquids not only serves to avoid the use of carbon tetrachloride or 1,2-dichloroethane but also suppresses side reactions, and enables a simpler purification procedure, giving a range of aromatic and aliphatic β-chlorovinyl ketones in high yield and purity ...
We have examined the cell-specific expression of two fibronectin isoforms, EIIIA and EIIIB, during experimental hepatic fibrosis induced by ligation of the biliary duct. AT the mRNA level, EIIIA and EIIIB were undetectable in normal liver but expressed early injury, preceding fibrosis. The cellular sources of these changes were determined by fractionating the liver at various time points after bile duct ligation into its constituent cell populations and extracting RNA from the fresh isolates. EIIIA-containing fibronectin mRNA was undetectable in normal sinusoidal endothelial cells but increased rapidly within 12 h of injury. By contrast, the EIIIB form was restricted to hepatic lipocytes (Ito or fat-storing cells) and appeared only after a lag of 12-24 h: it was minimal in sinusoidal endothelial cells. Both forms were minimal in hepatocytes. At the protein level, EIIIA-containing fibronectin was markedly increased within two days of injury and exhibited a sinusoidal distribution. Secretion of ...
The experimental evidence, a strong peak at 720 atomic mass units, indicated that a carbon molecule with 60 carbon atoms was ... carbon tetrachloride. 0.447. chloroform. 0.25. n-hexane. 0.046. cyclohexane. 0.035. tetrahydrofuran. 0.006. ... A carbon atom in the C. 60 molecule can be substituted by a nitrogen or boron atom yielding a C. 59N or C59B respectively.[26] ... Solid C60 - a new form of carbon.. *^ Girolami, G. S.; Rauchfuss, T. B.; Angelici, R. J. (1999). Synthesis and Technique in ...
Carbon tetrachloride (CCl. 4). 85 ppt /. 83 ppt. 0.0143 Sulfur hexafluoride (SF. 6). 7.79 ppt /[60]. 7.39 ppt[60]. 0.0043 ... "International Carbon Flows". Carbon Trust. May 2011. Retrieved 12 November 2012.. *^ e.g., Gupta et al. (2007) assessed the ... "Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center.. *^ ESRL Web Team (14 January 2008). "Trends in carbon dioxide". Esrl.noaa.gov. ... "Executive summary". The Carbon Cycle and Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide. Archived from the original on 7 December 2009.. , in IPCC ...
Doherty, R.E. (2000). "A History of the Production and Use of Carbon Tetrachloride, Tetrachloroethylene, Trichloroethylene and ... Carbon Tetrachloride and Tetrachloroethylene". Environmental Forensics. 1 (2): 69-81. doi:10.1006/enfo.2000.0010.. ... Side products include carbon tetrachloride, hydrogen chloride, and hexachlorobutadiene.. Several other methods have been ... This reaction can be catalyzed by a mixture of potassium chloride and aluminium chloride or by activated carbon. ...
"Chemical Sampling Information: Carbon Tetrachloride". OSHA. 16 June 2004. Retrieved 4 December 2009.. ... The highest level cited for concentration of carbon tetrachloride (seemingly of highest concern) is 459 micrograms per cubic ... especially carbon tetrachloride and chloroform) indicate that the bleach use may be a source that could be important in terms ... 8-52 times for chloroform and 1-1170 times for carbon tetrachloride, respectively, above baseline quantities in the household) ...
For instance, carbon tetrachloride (CCl. 4) etches silicon and aluminium, and trifluoromethane etches silicon dioxide and ...
Carbon tetrachloride 4μg/l. *1,2-Dichlorobenzene 1000μg/l. *1,4-Dichlorobenzene 300μg/l ...
7) Carbon tetrachloride. (8) Chloroform. (9) Ethylene oxide. (10) Nitilotriacetic acid. (11) Butyl benzyl phthalate. (12) Butyl ...
Carbon tetrachloride Liquid CCl4 −135.4 Carbon tetrachloride Gas CCl4 −95.98 ... For instance, carbon and hydrogen will not directly react to form methane (CH4), so that the standard enthalpy of formation ... All elements in their standard states (oxygen gas, solid carbon in the form of graphite, etc.) have a standard enthalpy of ... For example, the standard enthalpy of formation of carbon dioxide would be the enthalpy of the following reaction under the ...
Side products include carbon tetrachloride, hydrogen chloride, and hexachlorobutadiene. Several other methods have been ... Doherty, R.E. (2000). "A History of the Production and Use of Carbon Tetrachloride, Tetrachloroethylene, Trichloroethylene and ... Carbon Tetrachloride and Tetrachloroethylene". Environmental Forensics. 1 (2): 69-81. doi:10.1006/enfo.2000.0010. ATSDR Case ... Degradation products observed in a laboratory include phosgene, trichloroacetyl chloride, hydrogen chloride, carbon dioxide, ...
The more volatile byproducts such as carbon tetrachloride and sulfur dichloride can be removed by distillation. The separation ... It reacts with iron, evolving carbon tetrachloride. Perchloromethyl mercaptan is oxidized by nitric acid to ... the chlorination gives carbon tetrachloride and additional sulfur chlorides. The formation of byproducts can be suppressed by ... Carbon disulfide is chlorinated using an iodine catalyst. The following equations operate most efficiently at temperatures ...
It is soluble in carbon tetrachloride (CCl4). Compared to the other uranium halides, little is known about UCl6. Uranium ...
Carbon Tetrachloride 0.88 Ethanol 1.06 Water 1 to 5 Mercury 1.55 Pentane 2.24 ...
Carbon tetrachloride. 589.29. 1.461. [1]. Silicone oil (nD25). 589.29. 1.393-1.403. [6]. ...
Examples include arsenic, carbon tetrachloride, and vinyl chloride. Examples include: Ackee fruit, Bajiaolian, Camphor, ... Causes include: Paracetamol, carbon tetrachloride Hepatitis In this pattern, hepatocellular necrosis is associated with ...
The Reimer-Tiemann reaction can be altered to yield phenolic acids by substituting the chloroform with carbon tetrachloride. ... Gaonkar, A.V.; Kirtany, J.K. (2010). "ChemInform Abstract: Reimer-Tiemann Reaction Using Carbon Tetrachloride". ChemInform. 22 ...
Examples of organohalides are carbon tetrachloride and chloroform. The addition is an anti-Markovnikov addition. Early work ... "ADDITION OF CARBON TETRACHLORIDE AND CHLOROFORM TO OLEFINS". Science. 102 (2640): 128. Bibcode:1945Sci...102..128K. doi:10.1126 ...
Solvents include dichloromethane, nitromethane, carbon tetrachloride, cyclohexane, trichlorofluoromethane. It is probably ...
... forms a yellow solution in carbon tetrachloride. The solid can be obtained at liquid nitrogen temperatures, ...
Jena, P. K.; Brocchi, E. A.; Garcia, R. I. (1997). "Kinetics of chlorination of niobium pentoxide by carbon tetrachloride". ... as a major side-product in the reaction of niobium pentoxide with various chlorinating agents such as carbon tetrachloride and ...
... against carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatic damage in albino rats". Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 91 (1): 61-64. doi:10.1016/j ...
Effect of iron and copper salts and carbon tetrachloride". J. Biol. Chem. 265 (5): 2684-91. PMID 2303421. Welch CL, Xia YR, ...
Carbon tetrachloride is an example of a probable nongenotoxic carcinogen to aquatic vertebrates. Historically, carbon ... carbon tetrachloride could potentially be linked to liver cancer. Experimental cancer studies have shown that carbon ... Postulated Carbon Tetrachloride Mode of Action: A Review. J Environ Sci Health C Environ Carcinog Ecotoxicol Rev. 25(3): 185- ... carbon tetrachloride works as a nongenotoxic carcinogen by formulating free radicals which induce oxidative stress. It has been ...
... and carbon tetrachloride. The International Joint Commission has identified areas where pollution is particularly intense ( ...
Williamson, D. G.; Cvetanovic, R. J. (1968). "Rates of ozone-olefin reactions in carbon tetrachloride solutions". Journal of ... The carbon of diazomethane bears the largest HOMO orbital, while the terminal olefinic carbons of methyl acrylate and styrene ... However, the synthesis of α-halocarbonyl ylides can also undesirably lead to the loss of carbon monoxide and the generation of ... The carboxyl is the better electron-withdrawing group, causing the β-carbon to be most electrophilic. Thus, cycloaddition ...
Marshall Space Flight Center, Two Methods for Purifying Carbon Tetrachloride. Accessed 27 Oct 2006.. ...
The use of this method is becoming less common, due to carbon tetrachloride being restricted under the Montreal protocol. ...
carbon tetrachloride (tĕ´trəklôr´īd) or tetrachloromethane (tĕ´trəklôr´əmĕth´ān), CCl4, colorless, poisonous, liquid organic ... Carbon Tetrachloride Chemical Compounds COPYRIGHT 2006 Thomson Gale. Carbon Tetrachloride. OVERVIEW. Carbon tetrachloride (CAR- ... Carbon tetrachloride. Carbon tetrachloride is an organic chemical that is commonly used as a solvent. It is also called tetra ... Carbon tetrachloride. Carbon tetrachloride is an organic chemical that was commonly used as a solvent before it was determned ...
Carbon tetrachloride has caused cancer in animals. Carbon tetrachloride has been found in at least 423 of the 1,636 National ... Exposure to very high amounts of carbon tetrachloride can damage the liver, kidneys, and nervous system. ... Carbon tetrachloride does not occur naturally. Exposure to this substance results mostly from breathing air, drinking water, or ... What is carbon tetrachloride?. Carbon tetrachloride is a manufactured chemical that does not occur naturally. It is a clear ...
Toxicological profile for Carbon Tetrachloride. Atlanta, GA: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health ...
It is also called carbon chloride, methane tetrachloride, perchloromethane, tetrachloroethane, or benziform. Carbon ... tetrachloride is most often found in the air as a colorless gas. It is not flammable and does not dissolve in water very easily ... Carbon tetrachloride is a manufactured chemical that does not occur naturally. It is a clear liquid with a sweet smell that can ... It is also called carbon chloride, methane tetrachloride, perchloromethane, tetrachloroethane, or benziform. Carbon ...
Acute renal failure in carbon tetrachloride poisoning. Original title. Fracaso renal agudo en la intoxicaci n por tetracloruro ... Description of a case of acute renal failure in a house painter due to massive exposure to carbon tetrachloride, with ... The literature on acute renal failure in carbon tetrachloride poisoning, and the clinical and histological features of this ... acute poisoning; renal dysfunction; organic solvents; painting; carbon tetrachloride. Descriptors (secondary). literature ...
Carbon tetrachloride does not easily burn. Carbon tetrachloride has a sweet odor, and most people can begin to smell it in air ... Most carbon tetrachloride that escapes to the environment is found as a gas in the atmosphere. ... when concentration reaches 10 parts carbon tetrachloride per million parts of air (ppm). It is not known whether people can ... Carbon tetrachloride is a clear liquid that evaporates very easily. ...
... usually produced by the reaction of chlorine with carbon disulfide, methane, or other carbon-containing compounds: used mainly ... Carbon tetrachloride definition, a colorless, nonflammable, vaporous, toxic liquid, CCl4, ... carbon sink, carbon star, carbon steel, carbon tax, carbon tetrachloride, carbon tissue, carbon trading, carbon value, carbon ... a colorless, nonflammable, vaporous, toxic liquid, CCl4, usually produced by the reaction of chlorine with carbon disulfide, ...
Carbon tetrachloride. Find out what is in your tap water ... EWGs Tap Water Database Carbon tetrachloride results for City ... Carbon tetrachloride. City of Houston. Carbon tetrachloride, a volatile carcinogenic solvent, has been used in industrial ... Carbon tetrachloride is no longer permitted in products intended for home use in the U.S. In the past, it was widely used as a ... Carbon tetrachloride does not break down easily and can remain in groundwater for years. In addition to increasing cancer risk ...
THE ACTION OF CARBON TETRACHLORIDE ON THE LIVER Br Med J 1922; 2 :907 ... THE ACTION OF CARBON TETRACHLORIDE ON THE LIVER. Br Med J 1922; 2 doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.2.3228.907 (Published 11 ...
To access the CSEM Carbon Tetrachloride Toxicity, please visit Carbon Tetrachloride Toxicity case study pdf icon[PDF - 463 KB] ... To access the CSEM Carbon Tetrachloride Toxicity, please visit the Carbon Tetrachloride Toxicity case study pdf icon[PDF - 463 ... To access the CSEM Carbon Tetrachloride Toxicity, please visit the Carbon Tetrachloride Toxicity case study pdf icon[PDF - 463 ... In order to receive continuing education (CE) for WB2888 Case Study in Environmental Medicine: Carbon Tetrachloride Toxicity, ...
Recommendations for a Carbon Tetrachloride Standard. 76-133R.PDF (6 pages, 368K)Cdc-pdf. ...
MSDS for carbon tetrachloride is available at Fisher Scientific. Table data obtained from CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics ... This page provides supplementary chemical data on carbon tetrachloride. The handling of this chemical may incur notable safety ...
... New research shows increased imports of dangerous chemicals groups call on EPA for action to protect ... Filed Under: Policy & Regulation Tagged With: 1-bromopropane, asbestos, carbon tetrachloride, chemical industry, CTC, DCM, EPA ... Filed Under: Policy & Regulation Tagged With: 1-bromopropane, Alaska Community Action on Toxics, carbon tetrachloride, ... Filed Under: Policy & Regulation Tagged With: 1-bromopropane, asbestos, carbon tetrachloride, Environmental Health Strategy ...
Information on Registered Substances comes from registration dossiers which have been assigned a registration number. The assignment of a registration number does however not guarantee that the information in the dossier is correct or that the dossier is compliant with Regulation (EC) No 1907/2006 (the REACH Regulation). This information has not been reviewed or verified by the Agency or any other authority. The content is subject to change without prior notice ...
  • In the first section we focus on the carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) model in mice, which is the toxic model of liver fibrosis induction most commonly used worldwide. (nih.gov)
  • Hepatoprotective effects of momordin Ic and oleanolic acid obtained from Kochiae Fructus (KF), the fruit of a traditional Oriental medicinal plant, were evaluated against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced liver damage in rats. (biomedsearch.com)
  • In the present study, we reported the protective effect of DHA on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) induced hepatic fibrosis. (ovid.com)
  • Chlorinated solvents such as trichloroethene (TCE, C2HCl3) and carbon tetrachloride (CT, CCl4) are priority groundwater contaminants at many EPA field sites. (epa.gov)
  • To evaluate the hepatoprotective activity of total flavonoids (TFs) obtained from C. glandulosum seeds against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced liver damage in vitro and in vivo. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Sprague-Dawley' male rats were used as experimental systems and were fed with TCMGARs extracts at doses of 30, 100, 300mg/kg body weight for two weeks to test the effect on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) induced acute liver damage. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • It is soluble in carbon tetrachloride (CCl4). (wikipedia.org)
  • These categories include toxicants such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAHs) and carbon tetrachloride (CCl4). (wikipedia.org)
  • Some binary phases compounds are molecular, e.g. carbon tetrachloride (CCl4). (wikipedia.org)
  • HfO2 + 2 CCl4 → HfCl4 + 2 COCl2 Chlorination of a mixture of HfO2 and carbon above 600 °C using chlorine gas or sulfur monochloride: HfO2 + 2 Cl2 + C → HfCl4 + CO2 Chlorination of hafnium carbide above 250 °C. Hafnium and zirconium occur together in minerals such as zircon, cyrtolite and baddeleyite. (wikipedia.org)
  • The molar solubility of chlorine in HCBD at 0 °C is around 34% (2.17 mol/L). The solubility of another chlorine solvent, carbon tetrachloride, at 0 °C is about 30% (3.11 mol/L). One mole of C4Cl6 can dissolve more chlorine than one mole of CCl4, but the molecular weight difference between the two solvents is such that per liter of solvent, more chlorine can be dissolved in carbon tetrachloride. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hexachlorobutadiene is used exclusively over carbon tetrachloride in this reaction because ferric chloride (FeCl3) is insoluble in CCl4. (wikipedia.org)
  • Detection methods involve several hundred thousand liters of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) or tetrachloroethylene (C2Cl4) stored in underground tanks. (wikipedia.org)
  • It reacts with iron, evolving carbon tetrachloride. (wikipedia.org)
  • Trinitroethanol reacts with carbon tetrachloride under a catalyst of FeCl3. (wikipedia.org)
  • This series of reactions is conducted at 0 °C. The following equations illustrate the reaction: PbCl2 + 2HCl + Cl2 → H2PbCl6 H2PbCl6 + 2 NH4Cl → (NH4)2PbCl6 + 2HCl (NH4)2PbCl6 + H2SO4 → PbCl4+ 2HCl + (NH4)2SO4 Unlike carbon tetrachloride, another group IV (IUPAC: group 14) chloride, lead tetrachloride reacts with water. (wikipedia.org)
  • Like other chlorosilanes, silicon tetrachloride reacts readily with water: SiCl4 + 2 H2O → SiO2 + 4 HCl In contrast, carbon tetrachloride does not hydrolyze readily. (wikipedia.org)
  • With alcohols and ethanol it reacts to give tetramethyl orthosilicate and tetraethyl orthosilicate: SiCl4 + 4 ROH → Si(OR)4 + 4 HCl At higher temperatures homologues of silicon tetrachloride can be prepared by the reaction: Si + 2 SiCl4 → Si3Cl8 In fact, the chlorination of silicon is accompanied by the formation of Si2Cl6. (wikipedia.org)
  • At elevated temperatures, it reacts with chlorine in the presence of graphite or carbon tetrachloride to give hafnium tetrachloride. (wikipedia.org)
  • Dichlorine heptoxide reacts with primary and secondary amines in carbon tetrachloride solution to yield N-perchloryls: 2 RNH 2 + Cl 2O 7 → 2 RNHClO 3 + H 2O 2 R 2NH + Cl 2O 7 → 2 R 2NClO 3 + H 2O It also reacts with alkenes to give alkyl perchlorates. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, it reacts with propene in carbon tetrachloride solution to yield isopropyl perchlorate and 1-chloro-2-propyl perchlorate. (wikipedia.org)
  • Carbon tetrachloride is a manufactured chemical that does not occur naturally. (cdc.gov)
  • The health effects of carbon tetrachloride have not been studied in children, but they are likely to be similar to those seen in adults exposed to the chemical. (cdc.gov)
  • Adsorption Coefficient (Koc)-- The ratio of the amount of a chemical adsorbed per unit weight of organic carbon in the soil or sediment to the concentration of the chemical in solution at equilibrium. (cdc.gov)
  • Degradation of carbon tetrachloride occurs slowly in the environment, which contributes to the accumulation of the chemical in the atmosphere as well as the groundwater. (cdc.gov)
  • As a volatile organic compound of relatively low water solubility, carbon tetrachloride is easily lost from biological and environmental samples, so appropriate care must be exercised in handling and storing such samples for chemical analysis. (cdc.gov)
  • Information regarding the chemical identity of carbon tetrachloride is located in Table 4-1. (cdc.gov)
  • The EPA allocated a baseline production allowance of about 138 million pounds (63,000 metric tons) of carbon tetrachloride, apportioned among the eight U.S. companies producing the chemical in 1989 (EPA 1991a). (cdc.gov)
  • Carbon tetrachloride is a manufactured chemical and does not occur naturally in the environment, Carbon tetrachloride has been produced in large quantities to make refrigeration fluid and propellants for aerosol cans. (cdc.gov)
  • Carbon tetrachloride is no longer permitted in products intended for home use in the U.S. In the past, it was widely used as a dry cleaning ingredient, fire extinguishing chemical, pesticide and chemical intermediate for manufacturing refrigerants. (ewg.org)
  • Carbon tetrachloride , also known as carbon tet or Freon 10 , is a chemical compound . (wikipedia.org)
  • This page provides supplementary chemical data on carbon tetrachloride. (wikipedia.org)
  • Residues Carbon tetrachloride is taken up physically and without chemical action. (inchem.org)
  • An organic compound is any member of a large class of gaseous, liquid, or solid chemical compounds whose molecules contain carbon. (absoluteastronomy.com)
  • Carbon tetrachloride (CCl 4 ) is a hepatotoxic chemical that has been widely used to induce experimental liver injury models [ 4 - 6 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Fires should be fought with foam, carbon dioxide, dry chemical or carbon tetrachloride. (wikipedia.org)
  • Application to the Preparation of Carbon Tetraiodide and Related Halides" Journal of the American Chemical Society 1945, 67, 1643. (wikipedia.org)
  • Activated carbon, also called activated charcoal, is a form of carbon processed to have small, low-volume pores that increase the surface area available for adsorption or chemical reactions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Effects of carbon tetrachloride are more severe in persons who drink large amounts of alcohol. (cdc.gov)
  • Effects of carbon tetrachloride on isolated rat hepatocytes. (portlandpress.com)
  • Following this, the growth rate for the production of carbon tetrachloride averaged 10.7% per year from 1960 to 1970 (Holbrook 1991). (cdc.gov)
  • Hexachlorobutadiene, or HCBD, is primarily produced in chlorinolysis plants as a by-product in the production of carbon tetrachloride and tetrachloroethene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Analytical methods for the determination of carbon tetrachloride in biological samples are summarized in Table 7-1. (cdc.gov)
  • In a chain reaction step of a Br radical reacting with a hydrogen on a secondary carbon to cleave the H−C bond requires 397 kJ/mol and an H−Br is formed. (wikipedia.org)
  • A single carbon only has four bonds, all of which are taken by the halogen atoms, so there is no hydrogen. (wikipedia.org)
  • Vapor phase epitaxy of reducing silicon tetrachloride with hydrogen at approximately 1250oC was done: SiCl 4(g) + 2 H 2(g) → Si(s) + 4 HCl(g) at 1250oC The produced polysilicon is used as wafers in large amounts by the photovoltaic industry for conventional solar cells made of crystalline silicon and also by the semiconductor industry. (wikipedia.org)
  • A hydrogen that is not attached to a carbon can be identified because it does not have a crosspeak in the HSQC spectrum. (wikipedia.org)
  • A special numbering system is used for fluorinated alkanes, prefixed with Freon-, R-, CFC- and HCFC-, where the rightmost value indicates the number of fluorine atoms, the next value to the left is the number of hydrogen atoms plus 1, and the next value to the left is the number of carbon atoms less one (zeroes are not stated), and the remaining atoms are chlorine. (wikipedia.org)
  • The hafnium tetrachloride remains substantially unchanged during the reduction and may be recovered readily from the zirconium subhalides. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hafnium tetrachloride is the precursor to highly active catalysts for the Ziegler-Natta polymerization of alkenes, especially propylene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Adipose Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Efficiently Rescue Carbon Tetrachloride-Induced Acute Liver Failure in Mouse," The Scientific World Journal , vol. 2014, Article ID 103643, 8 pages, 2014. (hindawi.com)
  • reaction of polonium metal with dry chlorine gas in 200 °C. Polonium tetrachloride forms a complex with two moles of tributyl phosphate. (wikipedia.org)
  • The overall reaction is thus as follow: PbCl4 + 2H2O → PbO2(s) + 4HCl(g) Lead tetrachloride tends to decompose further into lead dichloride and chlorine gas: PbCl4 → PbCl2 + Cl2(g) There are reports that this reaction can proceed explosively and that the compound is best stored under pure sulfuric acid at -80C in the dark. (wikipedia.org)
  • Protocol) to reduce environmental concentrations of ozone-depleting chemicals (including carbon tetrachloride), and to the provisions of Title VI of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 addressing these chemicals. (cdc.gov)
  • Carbon tetrachloride is not flammable, so it can be used in fire extinguishers or as an additive to make other chemicals nonflammable. (jrank.org)
  • In addition to increasing cancer risk, carbon tetrachloride harms the liver and causes central nervous system depression, irregular heart rate, and kidney damage. (ewg.org)
  • 1957). BIOLOGICAL DATA Biochemical aspects Carbon tetrachloride causes widespread liver damage. (inchem.org)
  • However histopathological results have revealed that all tested groups have less damage when compared to carbon tetrachloride group except scorzotomentosin-4'-O-β-glucoside and hydrangenol-8-O-β-glucoside groups. (ijpsonline.com)
  • Carbon Tetrachloride-Induced Liver Damage in Asialoglycoprotein Recept" by Shana R. Dalton, Serene M.L. Lee et al. (unl.edu)
  • Cystamine has also been studied as a potential medicinal compound in the case of Huntington's disease, Alzheimer's disease and carbon tetrachloride liver damage Cystamine has been shown to interact with DNA and reversibly bind to it. (wikipedia.org)
  • Carbon tetrachloride produced significant changes in biochemical parameters (increases in serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT), Serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT), alanine phosphatase (ALP) and serum bilirubin. (academicjournals.org)
  • The following equations operate most efficiently at temperatures below about 30 °C: CS2 + 3 Cl2 → CCl3SCl + SCl2 2CS2 + 5 Cl2 → 2 CCl3SCl + S2Cl2 At higher temperatures, the chlorination gives carbon tetrachloride and additional sulfur chlorides. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chlorination via carbon skeleton cleavage is thermodynamically preferred, whereas chlorinated C4 products are favored at lower temperatures and pressures. (wikipedia.org)