A solvent for oils, fats, lacquers, varnishes, rubber waxes, and resins, and a starting material in the manufacturing of organic compounds. Poisoning by inhalation, ingestion or skin absorption is possible and may be fatal. (Merck Index, 11th ed)
Experimentally induced chronic injuries to the parenchymal cells in the liver to achieve a model for LIVER CIRRHOSIS.
A spectrum of clinical liver diseases ranging from mild biochemical abnormalities to ACUTE LIVER FAILURE, caused by drugs, drug metabolites, and chemicals from the environment.
A commonly used laboratory solvent. It was previously used as an anesthetic, but was banned from use in the U.S. due to its suspected carcinogenicity.
A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
Enzymes of the transferase class that catalyze the conversion of L-aspartate and 2-ketoglutarate to oxaloacetate and L-glutamate. EC 2.6.1.1.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-alanine and 2-oxoglutarate to pyruvate and L-glutamate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.6.1.2.
A phenothiazine derivative with histamine H1-blocking, antimuscarinic, and sedative properties. It is used as an antiallergic, in pruritus, for motion sickness and sedation, and also in animals.
Liver disease lasting six months or more, caused by an adverse drug effect. The adverse effect may result from a direct toxic effect of a drug or metabolite, or an idiosyncratic response to a drug or metabolite.
Perisinusoidal cells of the liver, located in the space of Disse between HEPATOCYTES and sinusoidal endothelial cells.
Liver disease in which the normal microcirculation, the gross vascular anatomy, and the hepatic architecture have been variably destroyed and altered with fibrous septa surrounding regenerated or regenerating parenchymal nodules.
Pathological processes of the LIVER.
A highly toxic gas that has been used as a chemical warfare agent. It is an insidious poison as it is not irritating immediately, even when fatal concentrations are inhaled. (From The Merck Index, 11th ed, p7304)
Synthetic or natural substances which are given to prevent a disease or disorder or are used in the process of treating a disease or injury due to a poisonous agent.
A group of compounds that contain a bivalent O-O group, i.e., the oxygen atoms are univalent. They can either be inorganic or organic in nature. Such compounds release atomic (nascent) oxygen readily. Thus they are strong oxidizing agents and fire hazards when in contact with combustible materials, especially under high-temperature conditions. The chief industrial uses of peroxides are as oxidizing agents, bleaching agents, and initiators of polymerization. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)
Carbon monoxide (CO). A poisonous colorless, odorless, tasteless gas. It combines with hemoglobin to form carboxyhemoglobin, which has no oxygen carrying capacity. The resultant oxygen deprivation causes headache, dizziness, decreased pulse and respiratory rates, unconsciousness, and death. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
Repair or renewal of hepatic tissue.
A hydroxylated form of the imino acid proline. A deficiency in ASCORBIC ACID can result in impaired hydroxyproline formation.
An ethanol-inducible cytochrome P450 enzyme that metabolizes several precarcinogens, drugs, and solvents to reactive metabolites. Substrates include ETHANOL; INHALATION ANESTHETICS; BENZENE; ACETAMINOPHEN and other low molecular weight compounds. CYP2E1 has been used as an enzyme marker in the study of alcohol abuse.
The main structural component of the LIVER. They are specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that are organized into interconnected plates called lobules.
A nitrosamine derivative with alkylating, carcinogenic, and mutagenic properties. It causes serious liver damage and is a hepatocarcinogen in rodents.
A crystalline compound used as a laboratory reagent in place of HYDROGEN SULFIDE. It is a potent hepatocarcinogen.
A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.
An effective soil fumigant, insecticide, and nematocide. In humans, it causes severe burning of skin and irritation of the eyes and respiratory tract. Prolonged inhalation may cause liver necrosis. It is also used in gasoline. Members of this group have caused liver and lung cancers in rodents. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985), 1,2-dibromoethane may reasonably be anticipated to be a carcinogen.
Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.
A species of helminth commonly called the sheep liver fluke. It occurs in the biliary passages, liver, and gallbladder during various stages of development. Snails and aquatic vegetation are the intermediate hosts. Occasionally seen in man, it is most common in sheep and cattle.
A family of 3,3-bis(p-hydroxyphenyl)phthalides. They are used as CATHARTICS, indicators, and COLORING AGENTS.
Chlorinated ethanes which are used extensively as industrial solvents. They have been utilized in numerous home-use products including spot remover preparations and inhalant decongestant sprays. These compounds cause central nervous system and cardiovascular depression and are hepatotoxic. Include 1,1,1- and 1,1,2-isomers.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
A tool for the study of liver damage which causes bile stasis and hyperbilirubinemia acutely and bile duct hyperplasia and biliary cirrhosis chronically, with changes in hepatocyte function. It may cause skin and kidney damage.
Peroxidase catalyzed oxidation of lipids using hydrogen peroxide as an electron acceptor.
Closed vesicles of fragmented endoplasmic reticulum created when liver cells or tissue are disrupted by homogenization. They may be smooth or rough.
A group of dipyridinium chloride derivatives that are used as oxidation-reduction indicators. The general formula is 1,1'-di-R-4,4'-bipyridinium chloride, where R = methyl, ethyl, benzyl or, betaine.
A plant genus of the family FABACEAE. It is the source of an herbal tea that is commonly consumed in South Africa. Members contain aspalathin and other polyphenols (PHENOLS).
A highly volatile inhalation anesthetic used mainly in short surgical procedures where light anesthesia with good analgesia is required. It is also used as an industrial solvent. Prolonged exposure to high concentrations of the vapor can lead to cardiotoxicity and neurological impairment.
Nanometer-sized tubes composed mainly of CARBON. Such nanotubes are used as probes for high-resolution structural and chemical imaging of biomolecules with ATOMIC FORCE MICROSCOPY.
A chlorinated hydrocarbon that has been used as an inhalation anesthetic and acts as a narcotic in high concentrations. Its primary use is as a solvent in manufacturing and food technology.
A plant genus of the family POACEAE. Finger millet or raggee (E. coracana) is an important food grain in southern Asia and parts of Africa.
Peroxides produced in the presence of a free radical by the oxidation of unsaturated fatty acids in the cell in the presence of molecular oxygen. The formation of lipid peroxides results in the destruction of the original lipid leading to the loss of integrity of the membranes. They therefore cause a variety of toxic effects in vivo and their formation is considered a pathological process in biological systems. Their formation can be inhibited by antioxidants, such as vitamin E, structural separation or low oxygen tension.
The pathological process occurring in cells that are dying from irreparable injuries. It is caused by the progressive, uncontrolled action of degradative ENZYMES, leading to MITOCHONDRIAL SWELLING, nuclear flocculation, and cell lysis. It is distinct it from APOPTOSIS, which is a normal, regulated cellular process.
A highly chlorinated polycyclic hydrocarbon insecticide whose large number of chlorine atoms makes it resistant to degradation. It has been shown to be toxic to mammals and causes abnormal cellular changes in laboratory animals.
Liquids that dissolve other substances (solutes), generally solids, without any change in chemical composition, as, water containing sugar. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Chinese herbal or plant extracts which are used as drugs to treat diseases or promote general well-being. The concept does not include synthesized compounds manufactured in China.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
The channels that collect and transport the bile secretion from the BILE CANALICULI, the smallest branch of the BILIARY TRACT in the LIVER, through the bile ductules, the bile ducts out the liver, and to the GALLBLADDER for storage.
A potent liver poison. In rats, bromotrichloromethane produces about three times the degree of liver microsomal lipid peroxidation as does carbon tetrachloride.
Stable carbon atoms that have the same atomic number as the element carbon, but differ in atomic weight. C-13 is a stable carbon isotope.
Blood tests that are used to evaluate how well a patient's liver is working and also to help diagnose liver conditions.
A type of MONOTERPENES, derived from geraniol. They have the general form of cyclopentanopyran, but in some cases, one of the rings is broken as in the case of secoiridoid. They are different from the similarly named iridals (TRITERPENES).
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
Highly reactive molecules with an unsatisfied electron valence pair. Free radicals are produced in both normal and pathological processes. They are proven or suspected agents of tissue damage in a wide variety of circumstances including radiation, damage from environment chemicals, and aging. Natural and pharmacological prevention of free radical damage is being actively investigated.
A genus of poisonous American herbs, family BERBERIDACEAE. The roots yield PODOPHYLLOTOXIN and other pharmacologically important agents. The plant was formerly used as a cholagogue and cathartic. It is different from the European mandrake, MANDRAGORA.
A plant genus of the family MYRSINACEAE. Members contain embelin.
Naturally occurring or synthetic substances that inhibit or retard the oxidation of a substance to which it is added. They counteract the harmful and damaging effects of oxidation in animal tissues.
The venous pressure measured in the PORTAL VEIN.
Derivatives of benzene in which one or more hydrogen atoms on the benzene ring are replaced by bromine atoms.
Use of plants or herbs to treat diseases or to alleviate pain.
A tripeptide with many roles in cells. It conjugates to drugs to make them more soluble for excretion, is a cofactor for some enzymes, is involved in protein disulfide bond rearrangement and reduces peroxides.
A group of compounds with an 8-carbon ring. They may be saturated or unsaturated.
A hydrocarbon used as an industrial solvent. It has been used as an aerosal propellent, as a refrigerant and as a local anesthetic. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 31st ed, p1403)
The dialdehyde of malonic acid.
A generic grouping for dihydric alcohols with the hydroxy groups (-OH) located on different carbon atoms. They are viscous liquids with high boiling points for their molecular weights.
Organic compounds containing a carbonyl group in the form -CHO.
A class of compounds that contain a -NH2 and a -NO radical. Many members of this group have carcinogenic and mutagenic properties.
An inhibitor of drug metabolism and CYTOCHROME P-450 ENZYME SYSTEM activity.
A subclass of iridoid compounds that include a glycoside moiety, usually found at the C-1 position.
Analgesic antipyretic derivative of acetanilide. It has weak anti-inflammatory properties and is used as a common analgesic, but may cause liver, blood cell, and kidney damage.
The dose amount of poisonous or toxic substance or dose of ionizing radiation required to kill 50% of the tested population.
An aspartate aminotransferase found in MITOCHONDRIA.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of D-glucose 6-phosphate and water to D-glucose and orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.9.
A subtype of transforming growth factor beta that is synthesized by a wide variety of cells. It is synthesized as a precursor molecule that is cleaved to form mature TGF-beta 1 and TGF-beta1 latency-associated peptide. The association of the cleavage products results in the formation a latent protein which must be activated to bind its receptor. Defects in the gene that encodes TGF-beta1 are the cause of CAMURATI-ENGELMANN SYNDROME.
A nitrosamine derivative with alkylating, carcinogenic, and mutagenic properties.
A mixture of flavonoids extracted from seeds of the MILK THISTLE, Silybum marianum. It consists primarily of silybin and its isomers, silicristin and silidianin. Silymarin displays antioxidant and membrane stabilizing activity. It protects various tissues and organs against chemical injury, and shows potential as an antihepatoxic agent.
A barbituric acid derivative that acts as a nonselective central nervous system depressant. It potentiates GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID action on GABA-A RECEPTORS, and modulates chloride currents through receptor channels. It also inhibits glutamate induced depolarizations.
Physiological processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of LIPIDS.
The chemical alteration of an exogenous substance by or in a biological system. The alteration may inactivate the compound or it may result in the production of an active metabolite of an inactive parent compound. The alterations may be divided into METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE I and METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE II.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
A form of rapid-onset LIVER FAILURE, also known as fulminant hepatic failure, caused by severe liver injury or massive loss of HEPATOCYTES. It is characterized by sudden development of liver dysfunction and JAUNDICE. Acute liver failure may progress to exhibit cerebral dysfunction even HEPATIC COMA depending on the etiology that includes hepatic ISCHEMIA, drug toxicity, malignant infiltration, and viral hepatitis such as post-transfusion HEPATITIS B and HEPATITIS C.
Toxic asphyxiation due to the displacement of oxygen from oxyhemoglobin by carbon monoxide.
A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).
A subclass of enzymes of the transferase class that catalyze the transfer of an amino group from a donor (generally an amino acid) to an acceptor (generally a 2-keto acid). Most of these enzymes are pyridoxyl phosphate proteins. (Dorland, 28th ed) EC 2.6.1.
The most common form of fibrillar collagen. It is a major constituent of bone (BONE AND BONES) and SKIN and consists of a heterotrimer of two alpha1(I) and one alpha2(I) chains.
A colorless or slightly yellow crystalline compound obtained from nutgalls. It is used in photography, pharmaceuticals, and as an analytical reagent.
Hydrocarbon compounds with one or more of the hydrogens replaced by CHLORINE.
Proposed chemotherapeutic agent against filaria and trichomonas.
A hepatic carcinogen whose mechanism of activation involves N-hydroxylation to the aryl hydroxamic acid followed by enzymatic sulfonation to sulfoxyfluorenylacetamide. It is used to study the carcinogenicity and mutagenicity of aromatic amines.
An enzyme, sometimes called GGT, with a key role in the synthesis and degradation of GLUTATHIONE; (GSH, a tripeptide that protects cells from many toxins). It catalyzes the transfer of the gamma-glutamyl moiety to an acceptor amino acid.
Low-molecular-weight end products, probably malondialdehyde, that are formed during the decomposition of lipid peroxidation products. These compounds react with thiobarbituric acid to form a fluorescent red adduct.
Specialized phagocytic cells of the MONONUCLEAR PHAGOCYTE SYSTEM found on the luminal surface of the hepatic sinusoids. They filter bacteria and small foreign proteins out of the blood, and dispose of worn out red blood cells.
The outer layer of the woody parts of plants.
A plant species which is known as an Oriental traditional medicinal plant.
Application of a ligature to tie a vessel or strangulate a part.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A drug-metabolizing, cytochrome P-450 enzyme which catalyzes the hydroxylation of aniline to hydroxyaniline in the presence of reduced flavoprotein and molecular oxygen. EC 1.14.14.-.
2-Amino-4-(ethylthio)butyric acid. An antimetabolite and methionine antagonist that interferes with amino acid incorporation into proteins and with cellular ATP utilization. It also produces liver neoplasms.
A superfamily of hundreds of closely related HEMEPROTEINS found throughout the phylogenetic spectrum, from animals, plants, fungi, to bacteria. They include numerous complex monooxygenases (MIXED FUNCTION OXYGENASES). In animals, these P-450 enzymes serve two major functions: (1) biosynthesis of steroids, fatty acids, and bile acids; (2) metabolism of endogenous and a wide variety of exogenous substrates, such as toxins and drugs (BIOTRANSFORMATION). They are classified, according to their sequence similarities rather than functions, into CYP gene families (>40% homology) and subfamilies (>59% homology). For example, enzymes from the CYP1, CYP2, and CYP3 gene families are responsible for most drug metabolism.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of an orthophosphoric monoester and water to an alcohol and orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.1.

Quantitative aspects in the assessment of liver injury. (1/931)

Liver function data are usually difficult to use in their original form when one wishes to compare the hepatotoxic properties of several chemical substances. However, procedures are available for the conversion of liver function data into quantal responses. These permit the elaboration of dose-response lines for the substances in question, the calculation of median effective doses and the statistical analysis of differences in liver-damaging potency. These same procedures can be utilized for estimating the relative hazard involved if one compares the liver-damaging potency to the median effective dose for some other pharmacologie parameter. Alterations in hepatic triglycerides, lipid peroxidation, and the activities of various hepatic enzymes can also be quantitiated in a dose-related manner. This permits the selection of equitoxic doses required for certain comparative studies and the selection of doses in chemical interaction studies. The quantitative problems involved in low-frequency adverse reactions and the difficulty these present in the detection of liver injury in laboratory animals are discussed.  (+info)

Molecular dynamics study of substance P peptides in a biphasic membrane mimic. (2/931)

Two neuropeptides, substance P (SP) and SP-tyrosine-8 (SP-Y8), have been studied by molecular dynamics (MD) simulation in a TIP3P water/CCl4 biphasic solvent system as a mimic for the water-membrane system. Initially, distance restraints derived from NMR nuclear Overhauser enhancements (NOE) were incorporated in the restrained MD (RMD) in the equilibration stage of the simulation. The starting orientation/position of the peptides for the MD simulation was either parallel to the water/CCl4 interface or in a perpendicular/insertion mode. In both cases the peptides equilibrated and adopted a near-parallel orientation within approximately 250 ps. After equilibration, the conformation and orientation of the peptides, the solvation of both the backbone and the side chain of the residues, hydrogen bonding, and the dynamics of the peptides were analyzed from trajectories obtained in the RMD or the subsequent free MD (where the NOE restraints were removed). These analyses showed that the peptide backbone of nearly all residues are either solvated by water or are hydrogen-bonded. This is seen to be an important factor against the insertion mode of interaction. Most of the interactions with the hydrophobic phase come from the hydrophobic interactions of the side chains of Pro-4, Phe-7, Phe-8, Leu-10, and Met-11 for SP, and Phe-7, Leu-10, Met-11 and, to a lesser extent, Tyr-8 in SP-Y8. Concerted conformational transitions took place in the time frame of hundreds of picoseconds. The concertedness of the transition was due to the tendency of the peptide to maintain the necessary secondary structure to position the peptide properly with respect to the water/CCl4 interface.  (+info)

Molecular dynamics study of substance P peptides partitioned in a sodium dodecylsulfate micelle. (3/931)

Two neuropeptides, substance P (SP) and SP-tyrosine-8 (SP-Y8), have been studied by molecular dynamics (MD) simulation in an explicit sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS) micelle. Initially, distance restraints derived from NMR nuclear Overhauser enhancements (NOE) were incorporated in the restrained MD (RMD) during the equilibration stage of the simulation. It was shown that when SP-Y8 was initially placed in an insertion (perpendicular) configuration, the peptide equilibrated to a surface-bound (parallel) configuration in approximately 450 ps. After equilibration, the conformation and orientation of the peptides, the solvation of both the backbone and the side chain of the residues, hydrogen bonding, and the dynamics of the peptides were analyzed from trajectories obtained from the RMD or the subsequent free MD (where the NOE restraints were removed). These analyses showed that the peptide backbones of all residues are either solvated by water or are hydrogen-bonded. This is seen to be an important factor against the insertion mode of interaction. Most of the interactions come from the hydrophobic interaction between the side chains of Lys-3, Pro-4, Phe-7, Phe-8, Leu-10, and Met-11 for SP, from Lys-3, Phe-7, Leu-10, and Met-11 in SP-Y8, and the micellar interior. Significant interactions, electrostatic and hydrogen bonding, between the N-terminal residues, Arg-Pro-Lys, and the micellar headgroups were observed. These latter interactions served to affect both the structure and, especially, the flexibility, of the N-terminus. The results from simulation of the same peptides in a water/CCl4 biphasic cell were compared with the results of the present study, and the validity of using the biphasic system as an approximation for peptide-micelle or peptide-bilayer systems is discussed.  (+info)

Effect of central corticotropin-releasing factor on carbon tetrachloride-induced acute liver injury in rats. (4/931)

Central neuropeptides play important roles in many instances of physiological and pathophysiological regulation mediated through the autonomic nervous system. In regard to the hepatobiliary system, several neuropeptides act in the brain to regulate bile secretion, hepatic blood flow, and hepatic proliferation. Stressors and sympathetic nerve activation are reported to exacerbate experimental liver injury. Some stressors are known to stimulate corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) synthesis in the central nervous system and induce activation of sympathetic nerves in animal models. The effect of intracisternal CRF on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced acute liver injury was examined in rats. Intracisternal injection of CRF dose dependently enhanced elevation of the serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) level induced by CCl4. Elevations of serum aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, and total bilirubin levels by CCl4 were also enhanced by intracisternal CRF injection. Intracisternal injection of CRF also aggravated CCl4-induced hepatic histological changes. Intracisternal CRF injection alone did not modify the serum ALT level. Intravenous administration of CRF did not influence CCl4-induced acute liver injury. The aggravating effect of central CRF on CCl4-induced acute liver injury was abolished by denervation of hepatic plexus with phenol and by denervation of noradrenergic fibers with 6-hydroxydopamine treatment but not by hepatic branch vagotomy or atropine treatment. These results suggest that CRF acts in the brain to exacerbate acute liver injury through the sympathetic-noradrenergic pathways.  (+info)

Transplanted hepatocytes proliferate differently after CCl4 treatment and hepatocyte growth factor infusion. (5/931)

To understand regulation of transplanted hepatocyte proliferation in the normal liver, we used genetically marked rat or mouse cells. Hosts were subjected to liver injury by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4), to liver regeneration by a two-thirds partial hepatectomy, and to hepatocellular DNA synthesis by infusion of hepatocyte growth factor for comparative analysis. Transplanted hepatocytes were documented to integrate in periportal areas of the liver. In response to CCl4 treatments after cell transplantation, the transplanted hepatocyte mass increased incrementally, with the kinetics and magnitude of DNA synthesis being similar to those of host hepatocytes. In contrast, when cells were transplanted 24 h after CCl4 administration, transplanted hepatocytes appeared to be injured and most cells were rapidly cleared. When hepatocyte growth factor was infused into the portal circulation either subsequent to or before cell transplantation and engraftment, transplanted cell mass did not increase, although DNA synthesis rates increased in cultured primary hepatocytes as well as in intact mouse and rat livers. These data suggested that procedures causing selective ablation of host hepatocytes will be most effective in inducing transplanted cell proliferation in the normal liver. The number of transplanted hepatocytes was not increased in the liver by hepatocyte growth factor administration. Repopulation of the liver with genetically marked hepatocytes can provide effective reporters for studying liver growth control in the intact animal.  (+info)

Bone marrow as a potential source of hepatic oval cells. (6/931)

Bone marrow stem cells develop into hematopoietic and mesenchymal lineages but have not been known to participate in production of hepatocytes, biliary cells, or oval cells during liver regeneration. Cross-sex or cross-strain bone marrow and whole liver transplantation were used to trace the origin of the repopulating liver cells. Transplanted rats were treated with 2-acetylaminofluorene, to block hepatocyte proliferation, and then hepatic injury, to induce oval cell proliferation. Markers for Y chromosome, dipeptidyl peptidase IV enzyme, and L21-6 antigen were used to identify liver cells of bone marrow origin. From these cells, a proportion of the regenerated hepatic cells were shown to be donor-derived. Thus, a stem cell associated with the bone marrow has epithelial cell lineage capability.  (+info)

Acute carbon tetrachloride feeding induces damage of large but not small cholangiocytes from BDL rat liver. (7/931)

Bile duct damage and/or loss is limited to a range of duct sizes in cholangiopathies. We tested the hypothesis that CCl4 damages only large ducts. CCl4 or mineral oil was given to bile duct-ligated (BDL) rats, and 1, 2, and 7 days later small and large cholangiocytes were purified and evaluated for apoptosis, proliferation, and secretion. In situ, we measured apoptosis by morphometric and TUNEL analysis and the number of small and large ducts by morphometry. Two days after CCl4 administration, we found an increased number of small ducts and reduced number of large ducts. In vitro apoptosis was observed only in large cholangiocytes, and this was accompanied by loss of proliferation and secretion in large cholangiocytes and loss of choleretic effect of secretin. Small cholangiocytes de novo express the secretin receptor gene and secretin-induced cAMP response. Consistent with damage of large ducts, we detected cytochrome P-4502E1 (which CCl4 converts to its radicals) only in large cholangiocytes. CCl4 induces selective apoptosis of large ducts associated with loss of large cholangiocyte proliferation and secretion.  (+info)

Effect of mitogenic or regenerative cell proliferation on lacz mutant frequency in the liver of MutaTMMice treated with 5, 9-dimethyldibenzo[c,g]carbazole. (8/931)

The purpose of this work was to investigate the impact of cell proliferation on liver mutagenesis. The genotoxic hepatocarcinogen 5, 9-dimethyldibenzo[c,g]carbazole (DMDBC) was administered to lacZ transgenic MutaTMMice at a non-hepatotoxic dose of 10 mg/kg, which induces only a slight increase in the liver lacZ mutant frequency (MF). To determine if cell proliferation stimuli enhanced DMDBC mutagenicity, MF was analyzed in mice first receiving DMDBC 10 mg/kg, then approximately 2 weeks later, either carbon tetrachloride (CCl4, a cytotoxic agent inducing regenerative cell proliferation) or phenobarbital (PB, a mitogenic agent inducing direct hyperplasia). In preliminary studies, the extent of cell proliferation induced by CCl4, PB and DMDBC was determined in non-transgenic CD2F1 mice by means of 5-bromodeoxyuridine labeling. The labeling index was significantly increased after CCl4 and PB, while no change was detected with DMDBC. MF was then determined in MutaTMMice 28 days after initial DMDBC treatment. No increase in MF was detected in mice receiving CCl4 or PB alone. A 2- to 3-fold increase in MF was detected in mice treated with 10 mg/kg DMDBC alone. In contrast, MF was markedly increased in mice receiving DMDBC followed by proliferative treatment (15-fold with CCl4 and 25-fold with PB). These results demonstrate that expression of DMDBC-induced mutations in mouse liver largely depends on the induction of cell proliferation (by a cytotoxic or mitogenic stimulus) and illustrate that MutaTMMouse is a valuable tool to investigate the early events of liver carcinogenesis.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - Isolation of hydroxy fatty acids from livers of carbon tetrachloride-treated rats by thin-layer chromatography. AU - Bandi, Z. L.. AU - Ansari, G. A.S.. PY - 1989. Y1 - 1989. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0024358754&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0024358754&partnerID=8YFLogxK. U2 - 10.1016/S0021-9673(01)89705-3. DO - 10.1016/S0021-9673(01)89705-3. M3 - Article. C2 - 2777965. AN - SCOPUS:0024358754. VL - 475. SP - 461. EP - 466. JO - Journal of Chromatography A. JF - Journal of Chromatography A. SN - 0021-9673. IS - 2. ER - ...
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The role of Kupffer cells in carbon tetrachloride intoxication in mice.: Carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4))-induced acute hepatitis is assumed to involve two phases.
It was recently found that the decomposition of chlorine monoxide takes place at the same rate in solution in carbon tetrachloride as in the gaseous state. Under both conditions the reaction occurs in consecutive stages, each bimolecular. The rate of the unimolecular decomposition of nitrogen pentoxide is also uninfluenced by carbon tetrachloride. Thus this solvent appears to be established as a normal medium for reactions of varying kinetic type. The interest of this lies in the fact that with reactions that cannot be measured in the gaseous state at all, the rate in carbon tetrachloride can be taken as the rate which the reaction would have in the absence of a medium, and the influence of any given solvent can at once be recognised as accelerating or retarding. In this way it may be possible to obtain a deeper understanding of the effect of solvents on the rates of chemical reactions. In the meantime it is desirable to make as many direct measurements as possible on reactions which can be ...
Cirrhosis of the liver - Exposure to carbon tetrachloride Factor. Last reviewed for CCPS 12 March 2008.. Investigative Documents. Claimant Report - Exposure to Carbon Tetrachloride - Cirrhosis of the Liver [CR9116]. Preliminary questions [20508]. [79]22396. there is some evidence that exposure to carbon tetrachloride may be a factor in the development or worsening of the condition under consideration.. 20585 [80] the veteran has experienced inhalation or cutaneous contact with carbon tetrachloride at some time.. 20586 - the veteran has established the causal connection between exposure to carbon tetrachloride and VEA service for cirrhosis of the liver.. 20587 - the veteran has established the causal connection between exposure to carbon tetrachloride and VEA service for the clinical onset of cirrhosis of the liver.. 20589 - the veteran has established the causal connection between exposure to carbon tetrachloride and operational service for the clinical onset of cirrhosis of the ...
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1. Epidermal growth factor (EGF) is known to protect the gastrointestinal tract against various noxious agents. Its potential value in preventing/treating hepatic injury is, however, largely unexplored. We therefore examined whether EGF could influence CCl4-induced hepatic injury.. 2. Female Sprague-Dawley rats (8 per group) received saline or recombinant EGF (500 or 750 μg/kg, intraperitoneal) 30 min before CCU (20% v/v, in olive oil, intraperitoneal). Eighteen hours later, animals were killed, serum was collected for assay of biochemical markers of hepatic injury and livers were removed for histological analyses.. 3. Administration of CCl4 resulted in severe hepatic necrosis and caused a 10-fold rise in plasma alanine aminotransferase levels compared with levels seen in control animals (218 ± 15 compared with 23 ± 9 μmol/l in controls, mean ± SEM, P , 0.01). Serum malondialdehyde levels, used as a marker of lipid peroxidation, showed a 2-fold rise in response to CCl4 treatment (median ...
Conference Paper: Investigation on the effect of dietary omega 3-6-9 fatty acids and lard on carbon tetrachloride induced liver ...
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No, $\ce{CCl4}$ is not an electrolye. An electrolye is a material that causes ions (charged entities) to form in the solvent. Carbon tetrachloride neither dissociates into ions nor induces ion formation in the solvent.. The reason is that the $\ce{C-Cl}$ bond is rather strong and wont break under normal solution conditions. Nor does the molecule have any net dipole moment.. ...
Intermolecular associations in liquid systems of non-polar and slightly polar compounds were studied through excess molar volumes, and excess dielectric properties for mixtures of carbon tetrachloride with benzene, toluene and p-xylene. These excess properties were calculated from measurements of density, static permittivity and refractive index over the whole range of concentrations, at 298.15K. The values of the excess dielectric properties for these mixtures were fitted in two different ways, one through least squares using the Redlich-Kister equation and the other using a model developed to explain deviations from ideality. The first fit was found to be descriptive while the second gave the equilibrium constant values for the interaction products actually formed in the mixtures and the respective electronic polarizabilities and dipole moments, indicating the existence of interaction products ...
This assessment will help insure consistency in the Agencys consideration of the relevant scientific health data associated with carbon tetrachloride. In the development of the assessment document, the scientific literature has been inventoried, key studies have been evaluated and summary/conclusions have been prepared so that the chemicals toxicity and related characteristics are qualitatively identified. Observed effect levels and dose-response relationships are discussed, where appropriate, so that the nature of the adverse health responses are placed in perspective with observed environmental levels ...
Find suppliers and manufacturers of SOLVENTS, Carbon Tetrachloride used in the formulation and manufacture of adhesives and sealants.
Measurements of the viscosity of superheated carbon tetrachloride were made at various superheats ranging from 0°C superheat to 37°C superheat. The measurements were made in three groups: two isotherms at 82.4°C and 88.3°C, and one isobar at 690 mm Hg. The three major drawbacks to attaining superheated conditions are vibrations (mechanical shock), impurities, and the maintenance of large volumes of superheated liquid. While the viscometer itself was a simple capillary viscometer, the special procedures and techniques required to attain the necessary superheats entailed the use of high vacuum equipment, liquid degassing systems, a vibration free table, and controlling systems to maintain the temperatures and pressures within the desired fluctuation limits. The results obtained show that the viscosity curve for carbon tetrachloride in the superheated regime appears to be a smooth continuation of the curve below the normal boiling point. A curve fit to the experimental data gave the following ...
NOTE: Although the toxicity values presented in these toxicity profiles were correct at the time they were produced, these values are subject to change. Users should always refer to the Toxicity Value Database for the current toxicity values.. DECEMBER 1992 Prepared by: Andrew Francis, M.S., D.A.B.T., Chemical Hazard Evaluation and Communication Group, Biomedical Environmental Information Analysis Section, Health and Safety Research Division, *, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Prepared for: Oak Ridge Reservation Environmental Restoration Program. *Managed by Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., for the U.S. Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-AC05-84OR21400.. Humans are sensitive to carbon tetrachloride intoxication by oral, inhalation and dermal routes. Oral and inhalation exposure to high concentrations of carbon tetrachloride results in acute central nervous system effects including dizziness, vertigo, headache, depression, confusion, incoordination and, in severe cases, respiratory failure, ...
1. In cirrhosis the kidney tends to retain salt and water abnormally. Two theories have been proposed to account for this: the underfilling theory, in which sodium retention is thought to occur secondary to perceived underfilling of the circulation, and the overflow theory, in which sodium retention is considered to be due to a primary renal defect. 2. Using the model of cirrhosis produced by carbon tetrachloride administration in the rat, the ability of the kidney to excrete sodium has been examined in vivo and during isolated perfusion. 3. Cirrhotic animals demonstrated a reduced ability to excrete an acute sodium load: 6 h after 2 mmol of sodium was given by gavage, 27.5 ± 10.5% had been excreted by the cirrhotic rats and 62.5 ± 7.0% by control rats (P , 0.025). 4. In contrast, during isolated perfusion, kidneys from cirrhotic animals excreted the same amount of sodium as control animals over a range of perfusion pressures from 90 to 150 mmHg (12 to 20 kPa). 5. The data are consistent ...
The residue is added to a solution of 50 g. of sodium in about a liter of 95 per cent alcohol. The solution is boiled under a reflux condenser for about one hour (Note 2) and then allowed to stand overnight. The reaction mixture is diluted with about 6 l. of water and the two layers are separated. The aqueous layer is extracted with three or four 500-cc. portions of carbon tetrachloride (Note 3), and the extracts are added to the bromomesitylene. This solution is then washed thoroughly with water. The carbon tetrachloride solution is separated, dried over calcium chloride, and distilled. After the carbon tetrachloride is removed the bromomesitylene is fractionated carefully under reduced pressure from a modified Claisen flask. The fraction boiling at 105-107°/16-17 mm. (Note 4) is bromomesitylene. The yield is 840-870 g. (79-82 per cent of the theoretical amount). There is a small low-boiling portion (about 25 g.) and also a small high-boiling residue. The bromomesitylene obtained in this way ...
In a 1-l. three-necked flask, fitted with a thermometer, a reflux condenser, and an inlet tube extending to the bottom of the flask and drawn out to a small opening, are placed 600 cc. of dry carbon tetrachloride, 154 g. (0.5 mole) of di-o-nitrophenyl disulfide, m.p. 193-195° (Org. Syn. Coll. Vol. I, 1941, 220), and 0.25 g. of iodine. To the upper end of the condenser is attached a glass tube which dips below the surface of a little carbon tetrachloride contained in a test tube. A current of chlorine, dried with sulfuric acid, is passed into the reaction mixture, the temperature of which is maintained at 50-60°. The rate of flow of the chlorine (about 16-17 g. per hour) is regulated so that little or no gas escapes through the carbon tetrachloride trap. The yellow di-o-nitrophenyl disulfide gradually disappears, and after two to two and one-half hours a homogeneous, dark yellow solution is obtained (Note 1). The warm solution is filtered from a small amount of dark residue through a warm ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - CD11b+ Gr1+ bone marrow cells ameliorate liver fibrosis by producing interleukin-10 in mice. AU - Suh, Yang Gun. AU - Kim, Ja Kyung. AU - Byun, Jin Seok. AU - Yi, Hyon Seung. AU - Lee, Young Sun. AU - Eun, Hyuk Soo. AU - Kim, So Yeon. AU - Han, Kwang Hyub. AU - Lee, Kwan Sik. AU - Duester, Gregg. AU - Friedman, Scott L.. AU - Jeong, Won Il. PY - 2012/11. Y1 - 2012/11. N2 - Clinical trials and animal models suggest that infusion of bone marrow cells (BMCs) is effective therapy for liver fibrosis, but the underlying mechanisms are obscure, especially those associated with early effects of BMCs. Here, we analyzed the early impact of BMC infusion and identified the subsets of BMCs showing antifibrotic effects in mice with carbon tetrachloride-induced liver fibrosis. An interaction between BMCs and activated hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) was investigated using an in vitro coculturing system. Within 24 hours, infused BMCs were in close contact with activated HSCs, which was associated ...
Recently, the need for more standardized operation procedures in experimental liver fibrosis research was suggested due to dramatic changes in European animal welfare rules. Here, we present a short series of standard operation procedures (SOPs) summarizing the most relevant and widely accepted expe …
Fluctuations in serum autofluorescence (AF) intensity have recently been widely used as markers of certain diseases such as cancer. To determine the diagnostic value of serum AF intensity for liver fibrosis in rats, we induced liver fibrosis by subcutaneous injection of carbon tetrachloride into rats. The rat serum AF intensities were detected at the excitation wavelength of 337 nm and the emission wavelength of 512 nm. The degree of liver fibrosis was evaluated by Van Giesons staining. The relationship between serum AF intensity and the degree of liver fibrosis was analyzed by Spearman and Pearson Correlation. The diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of the serum AF was determined by analyzing the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. Our results show that the serum AF intensity in the rat liver fibrosis model increased when compared with control rats eight weeks and twelve weeks post induction of liver fibrosis. However, there was no significant difference in serum AF intensity between
Mediators of Inflammation is a peer-reviewed, Open Access journal that publishes original research and review articles on all types of inflammatory mediators, including cytokines, histamine, bradykinin, prostaglandins, leukotrienes, PAF, biological response modifiers and the family of cell adhesion-promoting molecules.
Calculate the pressure that ccl4 will exert at 40 of 1.00 mol occupies 28.0 L, assuming that (a) CCl4 obeys the ideal-gas equation (b) CCl4 obeys the Van der Waals equation. (a) PV = nRT P = nRT / V (b) (P + n^2a/V^2)(V - nb) = ...
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Avoid open handling. Whenever possible, keep the substance in closed systems and apply closed loop re-filling with vapour return lines and dry-break couplings. Use only at well-ventilated places (e.g. in a fume hood) or with extract ventilation at points where emissions occur. Avoid inhalation of va-pours and skin contact with the liquid. Wear suitable personal protective equipment if exposure is likely. Limit the quantity of product in the work area for the work in hand. Do not use the substance in the vicinity of fire, hot/glowing objects or welding & cutting operations ...
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BMP-9 interferes with liver regeneration and promotes liver fibrosis.. BMP9 is constitutively produced in the liver. Systemic levels act on many organs and tissues including bone and endothelium, but little is known about its hepatic functions in health and disease. Levels of BMP-9 and its receptors were analysed in primary liver cells. We investigated direct effects of BMP-9 on hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) and hepatocytes in vitro, and in acute and chronic liver injury models in mice. Quiescent and activated HSCs were identified as major BMP-9 producing liver cell type. BMP-9 stimulation of cultured hepatocytes inhibited proliferation, epithelial to mesenchymal transition and preserved expression of important metabolic enzymes such as cytochrome P450. Acute liver injury caused by partial hepatectomy or single injections of carbon tetrachloride (CCl 4 ) or lipopolysaccharide (LPS) into mice resulted in transient downregulation of hepatic BMP-9 mRNA expression. Correspondingly, LPS stimulation ...
The cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) selective inhibitor celecoxib is widely used in the treatment of pain and inflammation. Celecoxib has been explored as a possible treatment of liver fibrosis with contradictory results, depending on the model. The present study reports the effect of celecoxib in a 5-week …
ASTM Committee D28 on Activated Carbon was formed in 1962. D28 meets twice a year, usually in April and October, with about 15 members attending two days of technical meetings. The Committee, with a current membership of approximately 35, has jurisdiction of 27 standards, published in the Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Volume 15.01. D28 has 3 technical subcommittees that maintain jurisdiction over these standards. These standards have and continue to play a preeminent role in determining acid extractable content in activated carbon by ashing, moisture in activated carbon, carbon tetrachloride activity, total ash content, ball-pan hardness, iodine number and pH of activated carbon.. ...
The purpose. To study the effect of partial hepatectomy (PH) on the main ways of ammonia detoxication in the liver (synthesis of urea and glutamine) in chronic tetrachlorcarbon (CCl4) hepatitis. Methods. The experiments were performed on 165 white outbred rats (females) weighing 180-220 g Chronic CCl4-hepatitis was reproduced by subcutaneous injection of 50% CCl4 solution in olive oil (0.1 ml/100g of body weight,65 days, through the day with two two-week breaks between 6-7 and 13-14 injections). PH conducted electrocautery, removing part of the left lobe of the liver (15-20% by weight of the body) to 65th (and last) day of the introduction of the CCl4 ...
Artichoke is a plant with antioxidant properties. In this study, we investigated the effect of artichoke extract pretreatment on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced oxidative stress and hepatotoxicity. Rats were given artichoke leaf extract (1.5 g/kg/day) by gavage for 2 weeks and after then CCl4 (1 ml/kg; i.p.) was applied. All rats were killed 24 11 after the CCl4 injection. CCl4 administration resulted in hepatic necrosis and significant increases in plasma transaminase activities as well as hepatic malondialdehyde (MDA) and diene conjugate (DC) levels in the liver of rats. Glutathione (GSH) and vitamin C levels decreased, but vitamin E levels increased in the liver Of CCl4-treated rats. Hepatic Superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities remained unchanged, but glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and glutathione transferase (GST) activities decreased following CCl4 treatment. In rats pretreated with artichoke extract, significant decreases in plasma transaminase activities and amelioration in ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - [The study of susceptibility to carbon tetrachloride and benzene in offspring of expanded simple tandem repeats mutation mice exposed to formaldehyde].. AU - Wang, Chao. AU - Liu, Yun ru. AU - Zhou, Yin. AU - Li, Ai ping. AU - Zhou, Jian wei. PY - 2011/1/1. Y1 - 2011/1/1. N2 - To investigate the susceptibility to carbon tetrachloride and benzene in offspring of expanded simple tandem repeats (ESTR) mutation mice exposed to formaldehyde (FA). F5 and F10 offspring (200 mg/m3 x 2 hours) served as H group and ICR mice were used as control group (group C). The F5 and F10 offspring were exposed to 10 ml/kg carbon tetrachloride at the doses of 0.05%, 0.50% or 5.00% for 24 hours, respectively or 500 or 1000 mg/kg benzene for 24 hours, respectively by intraperitoneal injection. Serum alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST) and the hepatic superoxide dismutase (SOD) or malondialdehyde (MDA) were detected; also the hepatic pathological changes were observed under light ...
The berries of Seabuckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.) are traditional medicinal foods that have been used by Tibetans and Mongolians for thousands of years. The polysaccharides are the main components of Seabuckthorn berries, possessing immune stimulating, anti-cancer and anti-fatigue activities. The present
Malotilate is a new drug suggested for use in chronic liver diseases. It is shown here to prevent liver damage caused by CCl4. The concomitant administration of malotilate with CCl4 significantly decreased hydroxyproline accumulation in the liver, liver prolyl 4-hydroxylase and liver and serum galactosylhydroxylysyl glucosyltransferase activities. However, it had no effect on the daily urinary hydroxyproline excretion or the hydroxyproline content of the skin, liver or lungs in normal young growing rats. It also had no specific inhibitory effect on hydroxyproline synthesis or secretion in fibroblast cultures, and did not affect the amount of procollagen-alpha 1(I)-specific mRNAs in these cultures. Thus it seems to have no direct inhibitory effect on collagen metabolism. In addition to inhibition of liver collagen accumulation, malotilate was also able to prevent the development of morphological changes in the liver such as focal necrosis, fatty infiltration and inflammatory changes. It also ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - α-Melanocyte-stimulating hormone gene therapy reverses carbon tetrachloride induced liver fibrosis in mice. AU - Lee, Tsung Hsing. AU - Jawan, Bruno. AU - Chou, Wen-Ying. AU - Lu, Cheng Nan. AU - Wu, Chia Ling. AU - Kuo, Hsiao Mei. AU - Concejero, Allan M.. AU - Wang, Cheng Haung. PY - 2006/6/1. Y1 - 2006/6/1. N2 - Background: Hepatic fibrosis represents a process of healing and scarring in response to chronic liver injury. Effective therapies are lacking. We have previously demonstrated that α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH) gene therapy protects against thioacetamide-induced acute liver failure in mice. Recent reports showed that collagen metabolism is a novel target of α-MSH. Therefore, the aim of this study is to investigate whether α-MSH gene therapy possesses anti-hepatic fibrogenic effect in mice. Methods: Liver fibrosis was induced in mice by administering carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) continuously for 10 weeks. α-MSH expression plasmid was delivered via ...
Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine (eCAM) is an international peer-reviewed, Open Access journal that seeks to understand the sources and to encourage rigorous research in this new, yet ancient world of complementary and alternative medicine.
The hepatocurative potential of ethanolic extract (ETO) and sesquiterpene lactones enriched fraction (SL) of Taraxacum officinale roots was evaluated against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) induced...
The uses of carbon tetrachloride have diminished lately because it is known to be damage peoples health. People think it might damage the ozone layer. Today, it is rarely used for anything.. Previously, was used in fire extinguishers. It was also used to make freon, used in dry cleaning and as a refrigerant.. ...
2,4-BIS(TRICHLOROMETHYL)QUINOLINE 203506-37-0 NMR spectrum, 2,4-BIS(TRICHLOROMETHYL)QUINOLINE H-NMR spectral analysis, 2,4-BIS(TRICHLOROMETHYL)QUINOLINE C-NMR spectral analysis ect.
Results Proteomic analysis identified p90RSK as one of the most deregulated kinases in AH. Hepatic p90RSK gene and protein expression was also upregulated in livers with chronic liver disease. Immunohistochemistry studies showed increased p90RSK staining in areas of active fibrogenesis in cirrhotic livers. Therapeutic administration of kaempferol to carbon tetrachloride-treated mice resulted in decreased hepatic collagen deposition, and expression of profibrogenic and proinflammatory genes, compared to vehicle administration. In addition, kaempferol reduced the extent of hepatocellular injury and degree of apoptosis. In primary hepatic stellate cells, kaempferol and small interfering RNA decreased activation of p90RSK, which in turn regulated key profibrogenic actions. In primary hepatocytes, kaempferol attenuated proapoptotic signalling. ...
Liver fibrosis is a feature in the majority of chronic liver diseases and oxidative stress is considered to be its main pathogenic mechanism. Antioxidants including vitamin E, are effective in preventing liver fibrogenesis. Several plant-drived antioxidants, such as silymarin, baicalin, beicalein, quercetin, apigenin, were shown to interfere with liver fibrogenesis. The antioxidans above are polyphenols, flavonoids or structurally related compounds which are the main chemical components of Pomegranate peels and seeds, and the antioxidant activity of Pomegranate peels and seeds have been verified. Here we investigated whether the extracts of pomegranate peels (EPP) and seeds (EPS) have preventive efficacy on liver fibrosis induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) in rats and explored its possible mechanisms. The animal model was established by injection with 50 % CCl4 subcutaneously in male wistar rats twice a week for four weeks. Meanwhile, EPP and EPS were administered orally every day for 4 weeks,
in Liang, Qing; Newman, Paul A; Reimann, Stefan (Eds.) SPARC Report on the Mystery of Carbon Tetrachloride (2016). The Montreal Protocol (MP) controls the production and consumption of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 or CTC) and other ozone-depleting substances (ODSs) for emissive uses. CCl4 is a major ODS, accounting for ... [more ▼]. The Montreal Protocol (MP) controls the production and consumption of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 or CTC) and other ozone-depleting substances (ODSs) for emissive uses. CCl4 is a major ODS, accounting for about 12% of the globally averaged inorganic chlorine and bromine in the stratosphere, compared to 14% for CFC-12 in 2012. In spite of the MP controls, there are large ongoing emissions of CCl4 into the atmosphere. Estimates of emissions from various techniques ought to yield similar numbers. However, the recent WMO/UNEP Scientific Assessment of Ozone Depletion [WMO, 2014] estimated a 2007-2012 CCl4 bottom-up emission of 1-4 Gg/year (1-4 kilotonnes/year), based on ...
Introduction : We explored the protective effects of total glucosides of paeony (TGP) and the underlying mechanisms in carbon tetrachloride (CCl 4 )-induced experimental liver injury in mice. Material and methods : Chronic liver damage was induced by intraperitoneal injection of CCl 4...
TITANIUM BEARING MATERIAL FLOW CONTROL IN THE MANUFACTURE OF TITIANIUM TETRACHLORIDE USING A COMBINATION OF FEEDBACK AND FEED FORWARD RESPONSES - This disclosure relates to process for controlling chlorination reactions in manufacturing titanium tetrachloride in a fluidized bed reactor, optionally followed by processing to form a titanium product comprising a minor amount of silica, the process comprising: (a) feeding carbonaceous material, titanium bearing material comprising an amount of silica, and chlorine to the fluidized bed reactor to form a gaseous stream, and condensing the gaseous stream to form titanium tetra-chloride, a non-condensed gas stream and a condensable product stream, wherein at least one of the titanium tetrachloride and the non-condensed gas stream comprise silicon tetrachloride; (b) analyzing the non-condensed gas stream, the titanium tetrachloride or both, to determine the analyzed concentration of silicon tetrachloride; (c) identifying a set point concentration of ...
Germanium tetrachloride Germanium tetrachloride IUPAC name Germanium(IV) chloride Other names Germanium chloride Tetrachlorogermane Identifiers CAS number
Adult hepatocytes and liver-cell progenitors play a role in restoring liver tissue after injury. For the study of progenitor cells in liver repair, experimental models included (a) surgical removal of liver tissue by partial hepatectomy; (b) acute injury by carbontetrachloride; (c) acute injury by D-galactosamine (GalN) and N-nitrosomorpholine (NNM); and (d) chemical hepatocarcinogenesis by feeding NNM in low and high doses. Serological and immuno-histological detection of alpha-fetoprotein gene expression served to follow pathways of cellular differentiation. Stem cells were not required in models of surgical removal of parenchyma and in carbon tetrachloride intoxication of adult hepatocytes. In contrast, regeneration of liver occurred through biliary epithelial cells in injuries induced by GalN and NNM. These biliary epithelial cells, collectively called oval cells, are most probably derived from the canals of Hering. Proliferating bile duct cells reached a level of differentiation with ...
Phytoconstituents like many polyphenols are poorly absorbed either due to their multiple-ring large size molecules which cannot be absorbed by simple diffusion, or due to their poor miscibility with oils and other lipids, severely limiting their ability to pass across the lipid-rich outer membranes of the enterocytes of the small intestine. Water-soluble phytoconstituent molecules (mainly polyphenols) can be converted into lipid-compatible molecular complexes, which are called Phytosomes. Gallic acid (GA, 3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoic acid), a naturally occurring plant phenol. So the following study was undertaken to evaluate the protective effects of gallic acid and gallic acid Phytosomes (GAP) at different doses against CCl4 induced hepatic and renal damage in albino rats. Liver damage was induced in Wister albino rats by administering CCl4 (1.5 ml/kg, i.p) once only. Simultaneously, GAP (40, 60 mg/kg, p.o.), GA (100 and 200 mg/kg, p.o.), and the reference drug silymarin (50 mg/kg b.w.).were administered
1. INTRODUCTION. Free radicals in the form of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species are an integral part of normal physiology. Over-production of these reactive species can occur, due to oxidative stress brought about by the imbalance of the bodily antioxidant defense system and free radical formation. These reactive species can react with biomolecules, causing cellular injury and even death. They can lead to the development of chronic diseases such as cancers and those that involve the cardio-and cerebrovascular systems (Gurdip et al., 2007). The consumption of fruits and vegetables (Peschel et al., 2006) containing antioxidants has been found to offer protection against these diseases. Antioxidants are often added to foods to prevent the radical chain reactions of oxidation, and they act by inhibiting the initiation and propagation step leading to the termination of the reaction and delay the oxidation process (Shahidi et al., 1992). Cinnamon is a popular flavoring ingredient, widely used in ...
Natural products serve as lead molecules for development for the many popular drugs. Herbal drugs are having fewer side effects than the other class o..
If ya find exactly where to get calcium cyanimide please let us all know, I have been trying for about a year now. I have tried 3 really good ags in my area and have called several others with no luck. I asked for lime-nitrogen and also calcium cyanimide by name. One place over the phone said it was not used for fertiliser anymore and has been replaced with better nitrogen fertilisers (names not given to me). Another Ag-store said they could order it so I said OK. A few days latter they called back and said it was no longer avaible. I live in Calif.. Good luck! I really do hope you find a good source ...
Effect and mechanism of methyl helicterate isolated from Helicteres angustifolia (Sterculiaceae) on hepatic fibrosis induced by carbon tetrachloride in rats. - Quanfang Huang, Yongwen Li, Shijun Zhang, Renbin Huang, Li Zheng, Ling Wei, Min He, Ming Liao, Li Li, Lang Zhuo, Xing Lin
73790-71-3 - GYIYKXRSUWXOKK-UHFFFAOYSA-N - Piperidine, 1-(o-chloro-alpha-(trichloromethyl)benzyl)-, hydrochloride - Similar structures search, synonyms, formulas, resource links, and other chemical information.
Ameliorative Effects of Adansonia Digitata Leaf Extract on Carbon Tetrachloride (Ccl4) Induced Testicular Toxicity in Adult Male Wistar Rats… 481 - 487. Oyewopo Oyetunji, Ibrahim Babatunde, Saalu Chia, Osinubi Abraham, Adewale Benard, Eweoya Olugbenga, Williams Esemekiphoraro ...
CCl4 administration leads to the infiltration of inflammatory cells and subsequent liver damage leads to the development of fibrosis. In order to investigate the lncRNAs and mRNAs involved in the progression of liver fibrosis, an animal model of liver injury and fibrosis was constructed using male Sprague-Dawley rats treated with CCl4. The predominant biological processes and pathways enriched in the overlapping differentially expressed mRNAs were revealed. Following this, the differentially expressed lncRNAs were analyzed and their expression levels were verified using RT-qPCR. Finally, one of the most significant differentially expressed lncRNAs, NR_002155.1, was investigated further in order to determine its role in liver fibrosis.. The results of the present study revealed that liver tissues from rats in the CCl4-treated group exhibited signs of inflammation and the occurrence of fibrosis. The body weight and liver/body weight ratio of the rats were decreased following CCl4 treatment for 8 ...
Lin S.C., Lin C.H., Lin C.C., Lin Y.H., Chen C.F., Chen I.C., Wang L.Y. Hepatoprotective effects of Arctium lappa Linne on liver injuries induced by chronic ethanol consumption and potentiated by carbon tetrachloride. Journal of biomedical science 2002 9:5 (401-409) ...
Lin S.C., Lin C.H., Lin C.C., Lin Y.H., Chen C.F., Chen I.C., Wang L.Y. Hepatoprotective effects of Arctium lappa Linne on liver injuries induced by chronic ethanol consumption and potentiated by carbon tetrachloride. Journal of biomedical science 2002 9:5 (401-409) ...
Alexander Zlotnik is the author of these articles in the Journal of Visualized Experiments: Inducing Acute Liver Injury in Rats via Carbon Tetrachloride (CCl4) Exposure Through an Orogastric Tube, A Middle Cerebral Artery Occlusion Technique for Inducing Post-stroke Depression in Rats, A New Method for Inducing a Depression-Like Behavior in Rats
Many potentially toxic substances enter the body via the gastrointestinal tract (gut). As the blood supply from the gastrointestinal tract (through the portal vein) drains into the liver, the liver comes into contact with the potentially toxic substances, and this exposure will often be at a higher concentration than in other tissues. The liver is essential for the metabolic disposal of virtually all xenobiotics (foreign substances). This process is mostly achieved without injury to the liver itself or to other organs. A few compounds such as carbon tetrachloride are toxic themselves or produce metabolites that cause liver injury in a dose-dependent fashion. However, most agents cause liver injury only under special circumstances when toxic substances accumulate.
Results When the two studies were pooled, there were indications of an increased risk of lung cancer associated with occupational exposure to perchloroethylene (ORany exposure 2.5, 95% CI 1.2 to 5.6; ORsubstantial exposure 2.4, 95% CI 0.8 to 7.7) and to carbon tetrachloride (ORany exposure 1.2, 95% CI 0.8 to 2.1; ORsubstantial exposure 2.5, 95% CI 1.1 to 5.7). No other chlorinated solvents showed both statistically significant associations and dose-response relationships. ORs appeared to be higher among non-smokers. When the lung cancer cases were separated by histological type, there was a suggestion of differential effects by tumour type, but statistical imprecision and multiple testing preclude strong inferences in this regard.. ...
The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) uses its best efforts to deliver a high quality copy of the Database and to verify that the data contained therein have been selected on the basis of sound scientific judgment. However, NIST makes no warranties to that effect, and NIST shall not be liable for any damage that may result from errors or omissions in the Database ...
SiCl4 is silicon tetrachloride, which is a non-polar molecule. Silicon tetrachloride is non-polar because the four chemical bonds between silicon and chlorine are equally distributed. The even...
Can the Liver Repair Itself? - One of the primary adverse health effects of excessive drinking is damage to the liver, a bodily organ...
Platinum(IV) chloride 96%; CAS Number: 13454-96-1; EC Number: 236-645-1; Synonym: Platinum tetrachloride; Linear Formula: Cl4Pt; find Sigma-Aldrich-206113 MSDS, related peer-reviewed papers, technical documents, similar products & more at Sigma-Aldrich.
Strain KC was isolated from an aquifer and it is able to transform carbon tetrachloride to carbon dioxide, formate, and other ... strain KC can mineralize carbon tetrachloride, which is useful for in situremediation of aquifers contaminated with carbon ... Carbon tetrachloride can be a pollutant in soils and groundwater, and according to the Center for Disease Control and ... "Carbon tetrachloride". Stringfellow WT, Aitken MD (June 1994). "Comparative physiology of phenanthrene degradation by two ...
Williamson, D. G.; Cvetanovic, R. J. (1968). "Rates of ozone-olefin reactions in carbon tetrachloride solutions". Journal of ... The carbon of diazomethane bears the largest HOMO, while the end olefinic carbons of methyl acrylate and styrene bear the ... However, the synthesis of α-halocarbonyl ylides can also undesirably lead to the loss of carbon monoxide and the generation of ... The carboxyl is the better electron-withdrawing group, causing the β-carbon to be most electrophilic. Thus, cycloaddition ...
Carbon tetrachloride was suitable for liquid and electrical fires and the extinguishers were fitted to motor vehicles. Carbon ... Another type of carbon tetrachloride extinguisher was the fire grenade. This consisted of a glass sphere filled with CTC, that ... It was more effective and slightly less toxic than carbon tetrachloride and was used until 1969. Methyl bromide was discovered ... In 1910, The Pyrene Manufacturing Company of Delaware filed a patent for using carbon tetrachloride (CTC, or CCl4) to ...
Vinyl ether rapidly decolorizes a solution of bromine in carbon tetrachloride; it is also rapidly oxidized by aqueous potassium ...
... carbon tetrachloride, chloroform, and carbon disulfide. However, it hydrolyzes rapidly in basic or hydroxylic solutions, such ...
"Fermented Citrus Lemon Reduces Liver Injury Induced by Carbon Tetrachloride in Rats". Evidence-Based Complementary and ...
... is violet when dissolved in carbon tetrachloride and saturated hydrocarbons but deep brown in alcohols and amines, ... Nonpolar solvents such as hexane and carbon tetrachloride provide a higher solubility. Polar solutions, such as aqueous ... The C-I bond is the weakest of all the carbon-halogen bonds due to the minuscule difference in electronegativity between carbon ... It will quickly oxidise carbon monoxide completely to carbon dioxide at room temperature, and is thus a useful reagent in ...
In 1858 August Wilhelm von Hofmann obtained it from aniline and carbon tetrachloride. François-Emmanuel Verguin [fr] discovered ... The positive charge can be thought of as residing on the central carbon atom and all three "wings" becoming identical aromatic ... von Hofmann, August Wilhelm (1858). "Action of Bichloride of Carbon on Aniline". Philosophical Magazine: 131-142. "Necrologie. ...
Fires should be fought with foam, carbon dioxide, dry chemical or carbon tetrachloride. The naphtha mixtures that are distilled ...
With a mixture of turpentine and carbon tetrachloride, photographs in magazines can be blurred. The cycle Kleenex from 1962, ...
Depending on reaction conditions, the chlorination of methane yields dichloromethane, chloroform and carbon tetrachloride. In ... In a chain reaction step of a Br radical reacting with a hydrogen on a secondary carbon to cleave the H−C bond requires 397 kJ/ ... notably this results in an organic molecule with a longer carbon chain than the reactants. The net reaction is: The rate law ... more stable than primary radical species-thus any single chlorination will favor substitution at the most substituted carbon. ...
Zone 3 (centrilobular) occurs with ischemic injury, toxic effects, carbon tetrachloride exposure, or chloroform ingestion. In ...
"Protection by Osbeckia aspera against carbon tetrachloride-mediated alterations in microsomal drug metabolizing enzyme activity ...
Groundwater beneath the plant is contaminated with cancer-causing chemicals, including carbon tetrachloride, trichloroethylene ...
The anion has a tetrahedral shape, similar to carbon tetrachloride where carbon is replaced with aluminium. Some ...
The visible spectra of bis(hexafluoroacetylacetonato)copper(II) and its dehydrate have been reported in carbon tetrachloride. ... Since bis(hexafluoroacetylacetonato)copper(II) is soluble in carbon tetrachloride, its Lewis acid properties have been studied ...
C with carbon and chlorine gas, giving titanium tetrachloride. Typical is the conversion starting from the ore ilmenite: 2 ... The titanium tetrachloride is purified by distillation. It can be subsequently oxidized in an oxygen flame or plasma to give ... Vanadium tetrachloride and vanadium oxytrichloride codistill with TiCl4, but these impurities can be removed by chemical ... The oxidized form of the chlorine is molecular chlorine Cl2, the reduced form is titanium tetrachloride (TiCl4). The oxidizing ...
... is soluble in most polar organic solvents and is poorly soluble in hexanes and carbon tetrachloride. This ... Ainley, A. D.; Challenger, F. (1930). "Studies of the boron-carbon linkage. Part I. The oxidation and nitration of phenylboric ...
Oostrom, M.; Rockhold, M.L.; Thorne, P.D.; Truex, M.J.; Last, G.V.; Rohay, V.J. (2007). "Carbon Tetrachloride Flow and ... The most commonly applied aboveground treatment technologies are thermal oxidation and granular activated carbon adsorption. ... soil carbon content), subsurface heterogeneity, and the air flow driving force (applied pressure gradient). As an example, a ... in a homogeneous sand with high permeability and low carbon content (i.e., low/negligible adsorption) will be readily treated ...
Ram VS (2012). A Deterministic and Probabilistic Analyses of the Carbon Tetrachloride Contaminant Plume in Groundwater at the ... During 1983 and 1984, there were leaks of MIC, chlorine, monomethylamine, phosgene, and carbon tetrachloride, sometimes in ... was found to contain 1,000 times the World Health Organization's recommended maximum amount of carbon tetrachloride, a ... In addition to it, carbon steel valves were used at the factory, even though they were known to corrode when exposed to acid. ...
... the other using carbon tetrachloride. The main armament was in the turret, consisting of the semi-automatic Bofors 37 mm Long ...
In addition, a variety of simple chlorinated hydrocarbons including dichloromethane, chloroform, and carbon tetrachloride have ...
... more effective alternative to carbon tetrachloride. This was a concern in aircraft and tanks as carbon tetrachloride produced ...
On April 11, 1956, she died after accidentally drinking a glass of typewriter cleaning fluid containing carbon tetrachloride ...
... especially carbon tetrachloride and chloroform) indicate that the bleach use may be a source that could be important in terms ... The highest level cited for a concentration of carbon tetrachloride (seemingly of highest concern) is 459 micrograms per cubic ... Carbon Tetrachloride". OSHA. 16 June 2004. Retrieved 4 December 2009. Dvorak, Glenda (February 2005). "Disinfection" (PDF). ... 8-52 times for chloroform and 1-1170 times for carbon tetrachloride, respectively, above baseline quantities in the household) ...
It made a variety of products, including soda ash, baking soda, chromium compounds, carbon tetrachloride, hydrochloric and ...
An investigation concluded that an electrician had taken a can of carbon tetrachloride on board as a cleaning agent, which was ... Although the illness was attributed the tetrachloride, some[who?] suspected that the fresh water tanks had not been cleaned as ...
Crude samples explode near 100 °C. It forms an explosive mixture with carbon tetrachloride, which caused an often-mentioned ...
... which was then reacted with carbon tetrachloride (CCl 4) to produce uranium tetrachloride. Charles A. Kraus proposed a better ... Uranium tetrachloride was ionized by the filament, and then passed through a 0.04-by-2-inch (1.0 by 50.8 mm) slot into a vacuum ... The chemists had to find a way of producing quantities of uranium tetrachloride (UCl 4) from uranium oxide. (Nier had used ... method for large-scale production that involved reacting the uranium oxide with carbon tetrachloride at high temperature and ...
... and Carbon tetrachloride have also been recorded. Even though most of these pollutions are bound to particles, leachate from ...
"Melatonin ameliorates experimental hepatic fibrosis induced by carbon tetrachloride in rats". Department of Geriatrics Medicine ...
... can be prepared by the redistribution reaction of tetramethyltin with tin tetrachloride. SnCl4 + 3 SnMe4 ... LiCl An example of an organolithium reagent reacting with Me3SnCl to form a tin-carbon bond is: LiCH(SiMe3)(GeMe3) + Me3SnCl → ...
... 10001 (iodomethane) Halon 1001 (bromomethane) Halon 1011 (bromochloromethane, CH2BrCl) Halon 104 (carbon tetrachloride) ...
... carbon tetrachloride, chloroform, diethyl ether, ethylene glycol, glycerol, nitromethane, pyridine, and toluene. Its main use ... An alternative notation is CH3−CH2−OH, which indicates that the carbon of a methyl group (CH3−) is attached to the carbon of a ... Direct electrochemical reduction of carbon dioxide to ethanol under ambient conditions using copper nanoparticles on a carbon ... Ethanol is classified as a primary alcohol, meaning that the carbon that its hydroxyl group attaches to has at least two ...
... benzene may react with carbon tetrachloride using the same catalyst to obtain the triphenylmethyl chloride-aluminium chloride ...
Carbon steel contains 2.0% carbon or less, with small amounts of manganese, sulfur, phosphorus, and silicon. Alloy steels ... tetrachloride (II)". Inorganica Chimica Acta. 247 (2): 169-74. doi:10.1016/0020-1693(95)04955-X. Giannoccaro, P.; Sacco, A. ( ... This stage yields an alloy-pig iron-that contains relatively large amounts of carbon. In the second stage, the amount of carbon ... The end product below 0.8% carbon content is a pearlite-αFe mixture, and that above 0.8% carbon content is a pearlite-cementite ...
Palladium on carbon hydrogenation removed the benzyl protecting group allowing the Swern oxidation of 2.10 to ketone 2.11 ... diol in 2.3 was protected as the boronic ester 2.4 preparing the molecule for upper part ring closure with tin tetrachloride to ... The 20 carbon frame is constructed from several pieces: propargyl alcohol (C1, C2, C14), propionaldehyde (C13, C12, C18), ...
In one preparation of benzophenone, steam is employed to first recover unreacted carbon tetrachloride and subsequently to ...
1-trichloroethane and carbon tetrachloride coal tar creosote polychlorinated biphenyl (PCBs) mercury extra heavy crude oil, ...
It is prepared from titanium tetrachloride (which is also tetrahedral, diamagnetic, and volatile) by treatment with lithium ... meaning that its properties are strongly influenced by the organic ligands but the compound lacks metal-carbon bonds. It is ...
... a solution of Chloroacetophenone in Benzene and Carbon tetrachloride) and CNS (a solution of Chloroacetophenone and ...
Titanium tetrachloride or organo titanates can also be used. In all cases the coating renders the surface of the glass more ... however the logic of this given the cost in carbon of (1) not using regenerators and (2) having to liquefy and transport oxygen ...
Lettington, Alan H. (1998). "Applications of diamond-like carbon thin films". Carbon. 36 (5-6): 555-560. doi:10.1016/S0008-6223 ... For example, germanium tetrachloride, GeCl4, is obtained as a colorless fuming liquid boiling at 83.1 °C by heating the metal ... It is a metalloid in the carbon group that is chemically similar to its group neighbors silicon and tin. Like silicon, ... Particularly, a very hard special antireflection coating of diamond-like carbon (DLC), refractive index 2.0, is a good match ...
... carbon tetrachloride) C2H6 + Cl2 → C2H5Cl + HCl C2H4Cl2 + Cl2 → C2H3Cl3 + HCl all the way to C2Cl6 (hexachloroethane) Addition ... Substitution reactions occur also in saturated hydrocarbons (all single carbon-carbon bonds). Such reactions require highly ... Unsaturated hydrocarbons have one or more double or triple bonds between carbon atoms. Those with one or more double bonds are ... Coal, in contrast to petroleum, is richer in carbon and poorer in hydrogen. Natural gas is the product of methanogenesis. A ...
... which are organometallic compounds containing a carbon to uranium chemical bond. The field is of some importance to the nuclear ... Geoffrey Wilkinson in 1956 synthesized the uranium metallocene Cp3UCl from sodium cyclopentadienide and uranium tetrachloride ...
Elements lighter than carbon (B, Be, Li) as well as Al and Mg often form electron-deficient structures that are electronically ... Examples: iron pentacarbonyl, titanium tetrachloride, cisplatin Usually, organometallic compounds are considered to contain the ... This field covers chemical compounds that are not carbon-based, which are the subjects of organic chemistry. The distinction ... buckytubes and binary carbon oxides. Examples: tetrasulfur tetranitride S4N4, diborane B2H6, silicones, buckminsterfullerene ...
MSDS for carbon tetrachloride is available at Fisher Scientific. Table data obtained from CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics ... This page provides supplementary chemical data on carbon tetrachloride. The handling of this chemical may incur notable safety ...
... supplier and exporter of Carbon Tetrachloride based in Vadodara, Gujarat (India). Our export market include Iran, Iraq, Saudi ... Refractive index of Carbon Tetrachloride is 1.46. Long storage life and precise formulation are some of their key aspects. ... Available in light yellow liquid form, Carbon Tetrachloride is reckoned for its pure composition. Its molar mass is 154.81 and ...
Strain KC was isolated from an aquifer and it is able to transform carbon tetrachloride to carbon dioxide, formate, and other ... strain KC can mineralize carbon tetrachloride, which is useful for in situremediation of aquifers contaminated with carbon ... Carbon tetrachloride can be a pollutant in soils and groundwater, and according to the Center for Disease Control and ... "Carbon tetrachloride". Stringfellow WT, Aitken MD (June 1994). "Comparative physiology of phenanthrene degradation by two ...
Carbon Tetrachloride Carbon tetrachloride is a clear heavy organic liquid with a sweet aromatic odor similar to chloraform. ... Most carbon tetrachloride is used to make chlorofluorocarbon propellants and refrigerants, though this has been declining ... Some people who drink water containing carbon tetrachloride well in excess of the maximum contaminant level (MCL) for many ...
Abiotic transformation of carbon tetrachloride at mineral surfaces. 1994. 2. Air pollution aspects of iron and its compounds. ...
Fermented camel milk by lactococcus lactis subsp creemoris could reduce carbon tetrachloride induced heart oxidative damages. ...
Diffusion coefficients of binary gas systems: carbon tetrachloride - air, carbon tetrachloride - nitrogen, methyl sulfide - ...
Carbon Tetrachloride. 0.330%. Lead. 0.070%. Mercury. 0.120%. Average monthly Antioch temperature with heat index. ...
The grenades were filled with various liquids; however, carbon tetrachloride seemed to work the best. The grenades are very ...
For carbon tetrachloride, with formula CCl4, see Carbon tetrachloride.. VALUE_ERROR (nil). ...
Very old fire extinguishers may contain carbon tetrachloride, a known carcinogen. *Take to a Household Hazardous Waste ... Carbon Dioxide Extinguishers. *These extinguishers are refillable and should be refilled after each use. Check the Yellow Pages ... The two most common types include dry chemical (sodium bicarbonate or monoammonium phosphate) and carbon dioxide (CO2), both of ...
Non-metal chloride: Carbon tetrachloride, CCl4 (b) Sodium chloride solution conducts electricity whereas carbon tetrachloride ... Carbon cannot reduce oxides of sodium or magnesium because carbon is less reactive than magnesium or sodium. Carbon, which is a ... Covalent compound: Carbon tetrachloride, CCl4 (b) Out of A and B, the compound whose aqueous solution conducts electricity will ... d) Carbon (Diamond).. (e) Non-metals react with oxygen to form acidic oxides or neutral oxides. Carbon burns in air to form ...
This process produced a mixture of chloromethane, chloroform, carbon tetrachloride, and dichloromethane. It can dissolve a huge ... carbon tetrachloride ) to ensure equipment is stripped of contaminants is as an organic.. Used later on to strip the ... carbon tetrachloride ) chemicals.co.uk everything! 4,00,000 tons was obtained in countries such as Europe, Japan, and miscible ... carbon tetrachloride). We also calculate order parameters for all molecules across the interface. This is because the chlorines ...
Carbon tetrachloride. 1,1,1-Trichloroethane. 1,1,2-Trichloroethane. Trichloroethene. PHENOLIC COMPOUNDS ...
5. Carbon, silicon, germanium, or tin tetra chloride molecules, H. Stoeckli-Evans, A. J. Barnes, W. J. Orville-Thomas, J. Mol. ... 152. Carbon-carbon coupling reactions on triruthenium clusters: synthesis and structure of Ru3(CO)9[ µ 3- η 3-PhCCCC(H)Ph][ µ 2 ... 199. Carbon-carbon coupling reactions of but-2-yne on a triruthenium framework: synthesis and molecular structure of Ru3(CO)7[ ... 61. Room-temperature activation of aliphatic carbon-hydrogen bonds in cyclohexane and pentane by the system [Os3(CO)11(NCMe)]- ...
have hepatoprotective activities against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) induced hepatotoxicity (Rajkapoor et al., 2002). Papaya ...
Strategies to reduce the likelihood that appointments will be given as well as from carbon tetrachloride, yellow phosphorus, ...
The exact recipe is a proprietary secret, but a key ingredient is the solvent carbon tetrachloride, which adds weight to the ...
They are not suited for use with strong oxidising agents; chlorinated solvents such as carbon tetrachloride or trichlorethylene ...
Avoid any product that contains carbon tetrachloride or other toxic materials. Pretest a small area before proceeding.. X - ... Clean only in a well ventilated room and avoid any product that contains carbon tetrachloride or other toxic materials. Pretest ... In AATCC 16 Option 1 a Carbon-Arc lamp is used as the light source and in AATCC 16 Option 3 a Xenon-Arc lamp is used. Under ...
Avoid any product that contains carbon tetrachloride or other toxic materials. Pretest a small area before proceeding.. X - ... Clean only in a well ventilated room and avoid any product that contains carbon tetrachloride or other toxic materials. Pretest ... In AATCC 16 Option 1 a Carbon-Arc lamp is used as the light source and in AATCC 16 Option 3 a Xenon-Arc lamp is used. Under ...
Carbon tetrachloride, Chloroform, 1,1-Dichloroethane, 1,2-Dichloroethane, 1,1-Dichloroethene, cis-1,2, Dichloroethylene, 1,2- ... Acrylonitrile, Benzene, Bromomethane, 1,3-Butadiene, Carbon tetrachloride, Chlorobenzene, Chloroform, Chloromethane, 1,2- ... Acetone, Allyl chloride, Benzyl chloride, Bromodichloromethane, Bromoform, 1,3-Butadiene, 2-Butanone (MEK), Carbon Disulfide, ...
... carbon tetrachloride [CCl4] and bile duct ligation [BDL]). The liver AUC divided by the blood AUC over 30 min was used as an ...
On the administration of carbon tetrachloride at 30 to 1000 mg/kg, VLDL and HDLwere reduced dose-dependently, but the reduction ... Liver-to-body weight ratios were raised with increasing doses of carbon tetrachloride, trichloroethylene, and 1, 1, 1- ... Effects of Trichloroethylene, 1, 1, 1-trichloroethane and Carbon Tetrachloride on Plasma Lipoproteins of Rats ... Effects of single intraperitoneal administration of trichloroethylene, 1, 1, 1-tri-chloroethane, and carbon tetrachloride ( ...
mercury, dichlorobenzenes, chloroform, carbon tetrachloride, and other pollutants, toxins, and heavy metals. Soil samples from ...
Sites 2 and 12 and Operable Unit Carbon Tetrachloride (OUCTP). Final Uniform Federal Policy QAPP Groundwater Monitoring and ...
The Global Monitoring Laboratory conducts research on greenhouse gas and carbon cycle feedbacks, changes in clouds, aerosols, ... Carbon Monoxide (91). Sulfur Hexafluoride (88). CFC-11 (12). CFC-12 (12). Carbon Tetrachloride (11). Methyl Chloroform (11). ... Carbon Tetrachloride. (CCl4). Insitu. Monthly Averages. Multiple. Download 530. Tutuila, American Samoa (SMO). Continuous in- ... Carbon Tetrachloride. (CCl4). Insitu. Monthly Averages. Multiple. Download 531. Tutuila, American Samoa (SMO). Continuous in- ...
CARBON TETRACHLORIDE CIS-1,2-DICHLOROETHYLENE DICHLOROMETHANE ETHYLBENZENE MONOCHLOROBENZENE O-DICHLOROBENZENE P- ...
  • Calculate the mass percentage of benzene (C 6 H 6 ) and carbon tetrachloride (CCl 4 ) if 22 g of benzene is dissolved in 122 g of carbon tetrachloride. (physicsgurukul.com)
  • Calculate the mole fraction of benzene in solution containing 30% by mass in carbon tetrachloride. (physicsgurukul.com)
  • The process also produces the other three C1 chlorohydrocarbons-chloromethane, trichloromethane (chloroform), and tetrachloromethane (carbon tetrachloride). (ireggae.com)
  • Preserve in tightly closed containers, adding a few drops of chloroform or carbon tetrachloride, to prevent attack by insects. (henriettes-herb.com)
  • The two most common types include dry chemical (sodium bicarbonate or monoammonium phosphate) and carbon dioxide ( CO2 ), both of which are not hazardous. (burlington.org)
  • a) Carbon dioxide and sulphur dioxide. (topperlearning.com)
  • For example: Carbon dioxide. (topperlearning.com)
  • 1 The Solvair® dry-cleaning system uses both DPGnBE and carbon dioxide (an exempt solvent) as dry cleaning solvents. (mirweb.nl)
  • 3] Carbon dioxide - Plants use CO2 for producing their food. (phdsciencegyan.com)
  • I quickly take you through how to draw the Lewis Structure of CO2 (Carbon DiOxide). (salesautopilot.com)
  • In the carbon dioxide molecule, oxygen also hybridizes its orbitals to produce three sp2 hybrid orbitals. (salesautopilot.com)
  • For carbon tetrachloride, with formula CCl4, see Carbon tetrachloride . (wikidoc.org)
  • Product name: Tributyl citrate / TBC MW: 360.44 Molecular formula: C18H32O7 Properties: TBC is a colorless transparent oily liquid with a slight odour.Insoluble in water, soluble in methanol, acetone, carbon tetrachloride, acetic acid, castor oil, mineral oil and other organic solvents. (modst.nl)
  • This present investigation was aimed at assessing the hepatoprotective activity of aqueous, ethanol and acetone extract of Sesbania grandiflora leaves against carbon tetrachloride (CCl 4 ) induced liver damage in Albino rats. (ijpjournal.com)
  • Effects of single intraperitoneal administration of trichloroethylene, 1, 1, 1-tri-chloroethane, and carbon tetrachloride (positive control) on the plasma contents of lipopro-teins were investigated in rats. (go.jp)
  • Liver-to-body weight ratios were raised with increasing doses of carbon tetrachloride, trichloroethylene, and 1, 1, 1-trichloroethane. (go.jp)
  • Similarly, carbon has four electrons in its valence shell and shares with four chlorine atoms to form carbon tetrachloride (CCl 4 ) molecule as shown below. (emedicalprep.com)
  • The smallest possible fullerene molecule may have as few as 32 atoms of carbon, although fullerenelike molecules (lacking a hexagonal face) with as few as 20 carbon atoms have been found. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The most common and most stable fullerene is buckminsterfullerene , a spheroidal molecule, resembling a soccer ball, consisting of 60 carbon atoms. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • It is also the smallest carbon molecule whose pentagonal faces are isolated from each other. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • TOKYO - The decay lifetime of radioactive beryllium-7 changes by almost 1 percent when placed inside a carbon-60 molecule, much more than in other attempts so far, Japanese researchers have found. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • What is the hybridization of phosphorous in a P4 molecule orbital hybridization question The orbital hybridization on the carbon atom in S CN - is a) sp. (salesautopilot.com)
  • Pro Lite, Vedantu x=2 (1 sigma bond with either of the oxygen) y=0 (because carbon belong to group IV it has 4 valence electrons and all the electrons are used in bond making) So, hybridization=2+0=2 Step 1: Determine the central atom in this molecule. (salesautopilot.com)
  • If a mixture of methane and chlorine is exposed to a flame, it explodes - producing carbon and hydrogen chloride. (moorejustinmusic.com)
  • In 1910, Mattew A. Hunter, an employee of General Electric in the USA, made pure titanium metal by heating titanium tetrachloride and sodium metal. (idesign.wiki)
  • fullerene, any of a class of carbon molecules in which the carbon atoms are arranged into 12 pentagonal faces and 2 or more hexagonal faces to form a hollow sphere, cylinder, or similar figure. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Buckminsterfullerene is the most abundant cluster of carbon atoms found in carbon soot. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • believed to have the structure of a hollow spheroidal cage with a surface network of carbon atoms connected in hexagonal and pentagonal rings. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Only the central carbon has a share in 4 valence electrons, so, possibly, we can pass a lone pair from each oxygen, to form two double bonds between the C and O atoms. (salesautopilot.com)
  • Now, these sp hybridized orbitals of the carbon atom overlap with two p orbitals of the oxygen atoms to form 2 sigma bonds. (salesautopilot.com)
  • Important Points To Remember In the formation of C2H2, the carbon atom needs extra electrons to form 4 bonds with hydrogen and other carbon atoms. (salesautopilot.com)
  • The ozone layer is destroyed if chemical gases like carbon tetrachloride or the chlorofluorocarbons used in air conditioners and refrigerators mix with the air.The 16th of September is celebrated as 'Ozone Protection Day' all over the world to make everyone aware of the importance of ozone. (phdsciencegyan.com)
  • Carbon tetrachloride is a clear heavy organic liquid with a sweet aromatic odor similar to chloraform. (aquasana.com)
  • It's not--a carbon-60 fullerene is only one nanometer in diameter, roughly the size of many small pharmaceutical molecules, including Prozac and Tagamet. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • At Vanderbilt, Rosenthal and her colleagues are experimenting with blends of quantum dots and polymers to which they add carbon-60 , or buckminsterfullerene, molecules--popularly known as buckyballs. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The exact recipe is a proprietary secret, but a key ingredient is the solvent carbon tetrachloride, which adds weight to the otherwise buoyant wax. (smithsonianmag.com)
  • Research has shown piperine offers protection against liver damage induced by tertiary butyl hydroperoxide and the chemical carbon tetrachloride by reducing lipid peroxidation. (ultimatewellness.life)
  • Contaminants such as gasoline range organics (GRO), volatile organics (VOC), and chlorinated compounds are physically absorbed onto the surface of activated carbon in the vessel. (h2ktech.com)
  • Porous grains of carbon are used because they have a large internal surface area that adsorbs organic and inorganic compounds as well as some metals. (h2ktech.com)
  • Parcil's exclusive activated carbon filters, which are independently tested to protect against organic vapors and 95% of particulates, down to 0.3 microns. (parcilsafety.com)
  • Let's pick some electrons and share them across the other side so that Oxygen can have 8 and carbon as 6. (salesautopilot.com)
  • So, place the Carbon in the middle and then keep the oxygen either side of that! (salesautopilot.com)
  • VGAC will process and treat air with higher pollutant concentrations just as well as lower concentrations, but carbon will be used more quickly and require more frequent changeouts. (h2ktech.com)
  • Vapor Phase Carbon Vessels are used to remove pollutants from the air through an adsorption process. (h2ktech.com)
  • VCD Series - The VCD series vapor phase carbon vessels as designed for easy carbon change-out. (h2ktech.com)
  • The activity was assessed by comparing the biochemical parameters in serum levels such as serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase, serum glutamate oxalate transaminase, total bilirubin, alkaline phosphatase of plant extracts treated group with carbon tetrachloride treated animals. (ijpjournal.com)
  • This page provides supplementary chemical data on carbon tetrachloride. (wikipedia.org)
  • Titanium has also been utilized as a deoxidizer in steel and as an alloying addition in many varieties of steels to degrade grain size, in stainless steel to reduce carbon content, in aluminium to purify grain size, and in copper to produce crystallisation. (idesign.wiki)
  • VGAC vessels provide satisfactory adsorption performance so long as the activated carbon has sufficient space to adsorb contaminants. (h2ktech.com)
  • carbon tetrachloride, which can cause damage to the liver, kidneys and nervous system. (wokeonwater.org)
  • These units feature a manual chain hoist to lift the vessel which allows spent carbon to be collected in containers for disposal. (h2ktech.com)
  • Available in light yellow liquid form, Carbon Tetrachloride is reckoned for its pure composition. (suvidhinathlab.com)
  • It is common to do the However, out of the three sp hybrid orbitals, only one will be used to form a bond with the carbon atom. (salesautopilot.com)
  • In the formation of CH 2 = CH 2 each carbon atom in its excited state undergoes sp 2 hybridisation by intermixing one s-orbital (2s) and two p-orbitals (say 2p x, 2p y) and reshuffling to form three sp 2 orbitals. (salesautopilot.com)
  • The 2pz now can overlap with the unhybridized 2pz on the carbon to form a resultant π bond. (salesautopilot.com)
  • Carbon vessels are typically installed in a lead/lag, series orientation to ensure no pollution passes through the vessels. (h2ktech.com)
  • Fermented camel milk by lactococcus lactis subsp creemoris could reduce carbon tetrachloride induced heart oxidative damages. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • In an effort to reduce carbon change-out costs, H2K technologies partnered with a client to design carbon vessels that allow a technician to remove carbon without an expensive vacuum truck. (h2ktech.com)
  • Some people who drink water containing carbon tetrachloride well in excess of the maximum contaminant level (MCL) for many years could experience problems with their liver and may have an increased risk of getting cancer. (aquasana.com)
  • a. 65 ft of water b. 3.07x 106 pa c. 1500 cm of carbon tetrachloride d. 7 cm of. (unifolks.com)
  • Thus the final product of chlorination of methane in the sunlight is carbon tetrachloride, i.e. option D is the correct answer. (moorejustinmusic.com)
  • Most carbon tetrachloride is used to make chlorofluorocarbon propellants and refrigerants, though this has been declining steadily. (aquasana.com)
  • Titanium tetrachloride (TiCl4), another compound, has been used to make smoke screens . (idesign.wiki)