An element that is a member of the chalcogen family. It has an atomic symbol S, atomic number 16, and atomic weight [32.059; 32.076]. It is found in the amino acids cysteine and methionine.
A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.
A class of enzymes that catalyze the cleavage of C-C, C-O, and C-N, and other bonds by other means than by hydrolysis or oxidation. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 4.
Inorganic or organic compounds that contain sulfur as an integral part of the molecule.
Enzymes which catalyze the elimination of delta-4,5-D-glucuronate residues from polysaccharides containing 1,4-beta-hexosaminyl and 1,3-beta-D-glucuronosyl or 1,3-alpha-L-iduronosyl linkages thereby bringing about depolymerization. EC acts on chondroitin sulfate A and C as well as on dermatan sulfate and slowly on hyaluronate. EC acts on chondroitin sulfate A and C.
A highly toxic, colorless, nonflammable gas. It is used as a pharmaceutical aid and antioxidant. It is also an environmental air pollutant.
A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.
Stable sulfur atoms that have the same atomic number as the element sulfur, but differ in atomic weight. S-33, 34, and 36 are stable sulfur isotopes.
Carbon monoxide (CO). A poisonous colorless, odorless, tasteless gas. It combines with hemoglobin to form carboxyhemoglobin, which has no oxygen carrying capacity. The resultant oxygen deprivation causes headache, dizziness, decreased pulse and respiratory rates, unconsciousness, and death. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
Nanometer-sized tubes composed mainly of CARBON. Such nanotubes are used as probes for high-resolution structural and chemical imaging of biomolecules with ATOMIC FORCE MICROSCOPY.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that causes vascular wilts on a wide range of plant species. It was formerly named Erwinia chrysanthemi.
Enzymes which catalyze the elimination of glucuronate residues from chondroitin A,B, and C or which catalyze the hydrolysis of sulfate groups of the 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-D-galactose 6-sulfate units of chondroitin sulfate. EC 4.2.2.-.
High molecular weight polysaccharides present in the cell walls of all plants. Pectins cement cell walls together. They are used as emulsifiers and stabilizers in the food industry. They have been tried for a variety of therapeutic uses including as antidiarrheals, where they are now generally considered ineffective, and in the treatment of hypercholesterolemia.
Severe irritant and vesicant of skin, eyes, and lungs. It may cause blindness and lethal lung edema and was formerly used as a war gas. The substance has been proposed as a cytostatic and for treatment of psoriasis. It has been listed as a known carcinogen in the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP-85-002, 1985) (Merck, 11th ed).
Light harvesting proteins found in phycobilisomes.
Chemical groups containing the covalent sulfur bonds -S-. The sulfur atom can be bound to inorganic or organic moieties.
Inorganic salts of thiosulfuric acid possessing the general formula R2S2O3.
Toxic asphyxiation due to the displacement of oxygen from oxyhemoglobin by carbon monoxide.
A thick-rooted perennial (Cichorium intybus) native to Europe but widely grown for its young leaves used as salad greens and for its roots, dried and ground-roasted, used to flavor or adulterate coffee. (From Webster, 3d ed)
Inorganic oxides of sulfur.
Enzymes that catalyze a reverse aldol condensation. A molecule containing a hydroxyl group and a carbonyl group is cleaved at a C-C bond to produce two smaller molecules (ALDEHYDES or KETONES). EC 4.1.2.
Stable carbon atoms that have the same atomic number as the element carbon, but differ in atomic weight. C-13 is a stable carbon isotope.
Enzymes that catalyze the cleavage of a carbon-oxygen bond by means other than hydrolysis or oxidation. EC 4.2.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Inorganic salts of sulfuric acid.
A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria whose organisms are associated with plants as pathogens, saprophytes, or as constituents of the epiphytic flora.
Enzymes that catalyze the cleavage of a carbon-carbon bond of a 3-hydroxy acid. (Dorland, 28th ed) EC 4.1.3.
An enzyme of the isomerase class that catalyzes the eliminative cleavage of polysaccharides containing 1,4-linked D-glucuronate or L-iduronate residues and 1,4-alpha-linked 2-sulfoamino-2-deoxy-6-sulfo-D-glucose residues to give oligosaccharides with terminal 4-deoxy-alpha-D-gluc-4-enuronosyl groups at their non-reducing ends. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC
A phylum of anoxygenic, phototrophic bacteria including the family Chlorobiaceae. They occur in aquatic sediments, sulfur springs, and hot springs and utilize reduced sulfur compounds instead of oxygen.
A solvent for oils, fats, lacquers, varnishes, rubber waxes, and resins, and a starting material in the manufacturing of organic compounds. Poisoning by inhalation, ingestion or skin absorption is possible and may be fatal. (Merck Index, 11th ed)
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
Sulfur compounds in which the sulfur atom is attached to three organic radicals and an electronegative element or radical.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A colorless, flammable, poisonous liquid, CS2. It is used as a solvent, and is a counterirritant and has local anesthetic properties but is not used as such. It is highly toxic with pronounced CNS, hematologic, and dermatologic effects.
A cell wall-degrading enzyme found in microorganisms and higher plants. It catalyzes the random hydrolysis of 1,4-alpha-D-galactosiduronic linkages in pectate and other galacturonans. EC
Any of several processes for the permanent or long-term artificial or natural capture or removal and storage of carbon dioxide and other forms of carbon, through biological, chemical or physical processes, in a manner that prevents it from being released into the atmosphere.
Oxidoreductases with specificity for oxidation or reduction of SULFUR COMPOUNDS.
Salts of alginic acid that are extracted from marine kelp and used to make dental impressions and as absorbent material for surgical dressings.
Sulfur hexafluoride. An inert gas used mainly as a test gas in respiratory physiology. Other uses include its injection in vitreoretinal surgery to restore the vitreous chamber and as a tracer in monitoring the dispersion and deposition of air pollutants.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
A family of phototrophic purple sulfur bacteria that deposit globules of elemental sulfur inside their cells. They are found in diverse aquatic environments.
Plants of the division Rhodophyta, commonly known as red algae, in which the red pigment (PHYCOERYTHRIN) predominates. However, if this pigment is destroyed, the algae can appear purple, brown, green, or yellow. Two important substances found in the cell walls of red algae are AGAR and CARRAGEENAN. Some rhodophyta are notable SEAWEED (macroalgae).
Term used to designate tetrahydroxy aldehydic acids obtained by oxidation of hexose sugars, i.e. glucuronic acid, galacturonic acid, etc. Historically, the name hexuronic acid was originally given to ascorbic acid.
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria characterized by an outer membrane that contains glycosphingolipids but lacks lipopolysaccharide. They have the ability to degrade a broad range of substituted aromatic compounds.
Chemicals that are used to cause the disturbance, disease, or death of humans during WARFARE.
A key enzyme in the glyoxylate cycle. It catalyzes the conversion of isocitrate to succinate and glyoxylate. EC
Enzymes which transfer sulfur atoms to various acceptor molecules. EC 2.8.1.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Open chain tetrapyrroles that function as light harvesting chromophores in PHYCOBILIPROTEINS.
An enzyme that catalyzes the eliminative degradation of polysaccharides containing 1,4-beta-D-hexosaminyl and 1,3-beta-D-glucuronosyl or 1,3-alpha-L-iduronosyl linkages to disaccharides containing 4-deoxy-beta-D-gluc-4-enuronosyl groups. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992)
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.
Inorganic or organic acids that contain sulfur as an integral part of the molecule.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
A thiol-containing non-essential amino acid that is oxidized to form CYSTINE.
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in nature. Some species are pathogenic for humans, animals, and plants.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
A genus of phototrophic, obligately anaerobic bacteria in the family Chlorobiaceae. They are found in hydrogen sulfide-containing mud and water environments.
The 30-kDa membrane-bound c-type cytochrome protein of mitochondria that functions as an electron donor to CYTOCHROME C GROUP in the mitochondrial and bacterial RESPIRATORY CHAIN. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p545)
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
A flammable, poisonous gas with a characteristic odor of rotten eggs. It is used in the manufacture of chemicals, in metallurgy, and as an analytical reagent. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in SOIL and WATER. Its organisms are also found in raw meats, MILK and other FOOD, hospital environments, and human clinical specimens. Some species are pathogenic in humans.
A sulfur-containing essential L-amino acid that is important in many body functions.
The gaseous envelope surrounding a planet or similar body. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
Inorganic salts of sulfurous acid.
A genus of gram-negative, anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria. Its organisms are normal inhabitants of the oral, respiratory, intestinal, and urogenital cavities of humans, animals, and insects. Some species may be pathogenic.
A genus of gram-negative, ovoid to rod-shaped bacteria that is phototrophic. All species use ammonia as a nitrogen source. Some strains are found only in sulfide-containing freshwater habitats exposed to light while others may occur in marine, estuarine, and freshwater environments.
A sugar acid formed by the oxidation of the C-6 carbon of GLUCOSE. In addition to being a key intermediate metabolite of the uronic acid pathway, glucuronic acid also plays a role in the detoxification of certain drugs and toxins by conjugating with them to form GLUCURONIDES.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
An enzyme that, in the course of purine ribonucleotide biosynthesis, catalyzes the conversion of 5'-phosphoribosyl-4-(N-succinocarboxamide)-5-aminoimidazole to 5'-phosphoribosyl-4-carboxamide-5-aminoimidazole and the conversion of adenylosuccinic acid to AMP. EC
A species of gram-positive bacteria in the STREPTOCOCCUS MILLERI GROUP. It is the most frequently seen isolate of that group, has a proclivity for abscess formation, and is most often isolated from the blood, gastrointestinal, and urogenital tract.
A plant genus of the family EUPHORBIACEAE, order Euphorbiales, subclass Rosidae. Commercial natural RUBBER is mainly obtained from Hevea brasiliensis but also from some other plants.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.
The salinated water of OCEANS AND SEAS that provides habitat for marine organisms.
A genus of gram-negative rod-shaped bacteria in the class GAMMAPROTEOBACTERIA. They are obligately acidophilic and aerobic, using reduced SULFUR COMPOUNDS to support AUTOTROPHIC GROWTH.
Any substance in the air which could, if present in high enough concentration, harm humans, animals, vegetation or material. Substances include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; and volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.
A group of gram-negative, anaerobic bacteria that is able to oxidize acetate completely to carbon dioxide using elemental sulfur as the electron acceptor.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
A mass of organic or inorganic solid fragmented material, or the solid fragment itself, that comes from the weathering of rock and is carried by, suspended in, or dropped by air, water, or ice. It refers also to a mass that is accumulated by any other natural agent and that forms in layers on the earth's surface, such as sand, gravel, silt, mud, fill, or loess. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1689)
The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A measure of the total greenhouse gas emissions produced by an individual, organization, event, or product. It is measured in units of equivalent kilograms of CARBON DIOXIDE generated in a given time frame.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
Elimination of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS; PESTICIDES and other waste using living organisms, usually involving intervention of environmental or sanitation engineers.
An enzyme that catalyzes the biosynthesis of cysteine in microorganisms and plants from O-acetyl-L-serine and hydrogen sulfide. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC
The complete absence, or (loosely) the paucity, of gaseous or dissolved elemental oxygen in a given place or environment. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
A group of proteins possessing only the iron-sulfur complex as the prosthetic group. These proteins participate in all major pathways of electron transport: photosynthesis, respiration, hydroxylation and bacterial hydrogen and nitrogen fixation.
The processes by which organisms use simple inorganic substances such as gaseous or dissolved carbon dioxide and inorganic nitrogen as nutrient sources. Contrasts with heterotrophic processes which make use of organic materials as the nutrient supply source. Autotrophs can be either chemoautotrophs (or chemolithotrophs), largely ARCHAEA and BACTERIA, which also use simple inorganic substances for their metabolic energy reguirements; or photoautotrophs (or photolithotrophs), such as PLANTS and CYANOBACTERIA, which derive their energy from light. Depending on environmental conditions some organisms can switch between different nutritional modes (autotrophy; HETEROTROPHY; chemotrophy; or PHOTOTROPHY) to utilize different sources to meet their nutrient and energy requirements.
Acids derived from monosaccharides by the oxidation of the terminal (-CH2OH) group farthest removed from the carbonyl group to a (-COOH) group. (From Stedmans, 26th ed)
One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.
Derivatives of chondroitin which have a sulfate moiety esterified to the galactosamine moiety of chondroitin. Chondroitin sulfate A, or chondroitin 4-sulfate, and chondroitin sulfate C, or chondroitin 6-sulfate, have the sulfate esterified in the 4- and 6-positions, respectively. Chondroitin sulfate B (beta heparin; DERMATAN SULFATE) is a misnomer and this compound is not a true chondroitin sulfate.
Heteropolysaccharides which contain an N-acetylated hexosamine in a characteristic repeating disaccharide unit. The repeating structure of each disaccharide involves alternate 1,4- and 1,3-linkages consisting of either N-acetylglucosamine or N-acetylgalactosamine.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that occurs in soil, fecal matter, and sewage. It is an opportunistic pathogen and causes cystitis and pyelonephritis.
Total mass of all the organisms of a given type and/or in a given area. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990) It includes the yield of vegetative mass produced from any given crop.
Unstable isotopes of carbon that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. C atoms with atomic weights 10, 11, and 14-16 are radioactive carbon isotopes.
Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.
Inorganic compounds that contain carbon as an integral part of the molecule but are not derived from hydrocarbons.
Oligosaccharides containing two monosaccharide units linked by a glycosidic bond.
A genus of gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria that derives energy from the oxidation of one or more reduced sulfur compounds. Many former species have been reclassified to other classes of PROTEOBACTERIA.
Compounds containing the -SH radical.
A kingdom of eukaryotic, heterotrophic organisms that live parasitically as saprobes, including MUSHROOMS; YEASTS; smuts, molds, etc. They reproduce either sexually or asexually, and have life cycles that range from simple to complex. Filamentous fungi, commonly known as molds, refer to those that grow as multicellular colonies.
An enzyme found primarily in SULFUR-REDUCING BACTERIA where it plays an important role in the anaerobic carbon oxidation pathway.
A group of proteobacteria consisting of chemoorganotrophs usually associated with the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM of humans and animals.
The synthesis by organisms of organic chemical compounds, especially carbohydrates, from carbon dioxide using energy obtained from light rather than from the oxidation of chemical compounds. Photosynthesis comprises two separate processes: the light reactions and the dark reactions. In higher plants; GREEN ALGAE; and CYANOBACTERIA; NADPH and ATP formed by the light reactions drive the dark reactions which result in the fixation of carbon dioxide. (from Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2001)
Processes by which phototrophic organisms use sunlight as their primary energy source. Contrasts with chemotrophic processes which do not depend on light and function in deriving energy from exogenous chemical sources. Photoautotrophy (or photolithotrophy) is the ability to use sunlight as energy to fix inorganic nutrients to be used for other organic requirements. Photoautotrophs include all GREEN PLANTS; GREEN ALGAE; CYANOBACTERIA; and green and PURPLE SULFUR BACTERIA. Photoheterotrophs or photoorganotrophs require a supply of organic nutrients for their organic requirements but use sunlight as their primary energy source; examples include certain PURPLE NONSULFUR BACTERIA. Depending on environmental conditions some organisms can switch between different nutritional modes (AUTOTROPHY; HETEROTROPHY; chemotrophy; or phototrophy) to utilize different sources to meet their nutrients and energy requirements.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
A group of the proteobacteria comprised of facultatively anaerobic and fermentative gram-negative bacteria.
An enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of the planetary sulfur atom of thiosulfate ion to cyanide ion to form thiocyanate ion. EC
Enzymes that catalyze the cleavage of a carbon-carbon bond by means other than hydrolysis or oxidation. This subclass contains the DECARBOXYLASES, the ALDEHYDE-LYASES, and the OXO-ACID-LYASES. EC 4.1.
The sequence of carbohydrates within POLYSACCHARIDES; GLYCOPROTEINS; and GLYCOLIPIDS.
The facilitation of biochemical reactions with the aid of naturally occurring catalysts such as ENZYMES.
Enzymes that catalyze the cleavage of a carbon-nitrogen bond by means other than hydrolysis or oxidation. Subclasses are the AMMONIA-LYASES, the AMIDINE-LYASES, the amine-lyases, and other carbon-nitrogen lyases. EC 4.3.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
The class of all enzymes catalyzing oxidoreduction reactions. The substrate that is oxidized is regarded as a hydrogen donor. The systematic name is based on donor:acceptor oxidoreductase. The recommended name will be dehydrogenase, wherever this is possible; as an alternative, reductase can be used. Oxidase is only used in cases where O2 is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p9)
Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.
The presence of contaminants or pollutant substances in the air (AIR POLLUTANTS) that interfere with human health or welfare, or produce other harmful environmental effects. The substances may include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; or volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.
A naturally occurring glycosaminoglycan found mostly in the skin and in connective tissue. It differs from CHONDROITIN SULFATE A (see CHONDROITIN SULFATES) by containing IDURONIC ACID in place of glucuronic acid, its epimer, at carbon atom 5. (from Merck, 12th ed)
Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of sulfur atoms (2.8.1), sulfur groups (2.8.2) or coenzyme A (2.8.3). EC 2.8.
A family of colorless sulfur bacteria in the order Thiotrichales, class GAMMAPROTEOBACTERIA.
The region of an enzyme that interacts with its substrate to cause the enzymatic reaction.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
The first chemical element in the periodic table. It has the atomic symbol H, atomic number 1, and atomic weight [1.00784; 1.00811]. It exists, under normal conditions, as a colorless, odorless, tasteless, diatomic gas. Hydrogen ions are PROTONS. Besides the common H1 isotope, hydrogen exists as the stable isotope DEUTERIUM and the unstable, radioactive isotope TRITIUM.
A DNA repair enzyme that catalyses the excision of ribose residues at apurinic and apyrimidinic DNA sites that can result from the action of DNA GLYCOSYLASES. The enzyme catalyzes a beta-elimination reaction in which the C-O-P bond 3' to the apurinic or apyrimidinic site in DNA is broken, leaving a 3'-terminal unsaturated sugar and a product with a terminal 5'-phosphate. This enzyme was previously listed under EC
Derivatives of ACETIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxymethane structure.
A multifunctional pyridoxal phosphate enzyme. In the final step in the biosynthesis of cysteine it catalyzes the cleavage of cystathionine to yield cysteine, ammonia, and 2-ketobutyrate. EC
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in water. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
A covalently linked dimeric nonessential amino acid formed by the oxidation of CYSTEINE. Two molecules of cysteine are joined together by a disulfide bridge to form cystine.
A genus of BACILLACEAE that are spore-forming, rod-shaped cells. Most species are saprophytic soil forms with only a few species being pathogenic.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
A metallic element with atomic symbol Fe, atomic number 26, and atomic weight 55.85. It is an essential constituent of HEMOGLOBINS; CYTOCHROMES; and IRON-BINDING PROTEINS. It plays a role in cellular redox reactions and in the transport of OXYGEN.
A class of enzymes involved in the hydrolysis of the N-glycosidic bond of nitrogen-linked sugars.
DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.
A dark powdery deposit of unburned fuel residues, composed mainly of amorphous CARBON and some HYDROCARBONS, that accumulates in chimneys, automobile mufflers and other surfaces exposed to smoke. It is the product of incomplete combustion of carbon-rich organic fuels in low oxygen conditions. It is sometimes called lampblack or carbon black and is used in INK, in rubber tires, and to prepare CARBON NANOTUBES.
An enzyme that catalyzes the activation of sulfate ions by ATP to form adenosine-5'-phosphosulfate and pyrophosphate. This reaction constitutes the first enzymatic step in sulfate utilization following the uptake of sulfate. EC
Techniques used to separate mixtures of substances based on differences in the relative affinities of the substances for mobile and stationary phases. A mobile phase (fluid or gas) passes through a column containing a stationary phase of porous solid or liquid coated on a solid support. Usage is both analytical for small amounts and preparative for bulk amounts.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
The simplest saturated hydrocarbon. It is a colorless, flammable gas, slightly soluble in water. It is one of the chief constituents of natural gas and is formed in the decomposition of organic matter. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A metallic element with the atomic symbol Mo, atomic number 42, and atomic weight 95.94. It is an essential trace element, being a component of the enzymes xanthine oxidase, aldehyde oxidase, and nitrate reductase. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.
The unconsolidated mineral or organic matter on the surface of the earth that serves as a natural medium for the growth of land plants.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
The ash, dust, gases, and lava released by volcanic explosion. The gases are volatile matter composed principally of about 90% water vapor, and carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide, hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and nitrogen. The ash or dust is pyroclastic ejecta and lava is molten extrusive material consisting mainly of magnesium silicate. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A genus of facultatively anaerobic coccoid ARCHAEA, in the family SULFOLOBACEAE. Cells are highly irregular in shape and thermoacidophilic. Lithotrophic growth occurs aerobically via sulfur oxidation in some species. Distribution includes solfataric springs and fields, mudholes, and geothermically heated acidic marine environments.
Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a carbohydrate.
Nitrogen oxide (NO2). A highly poisonous gas. Exposure produces inflammation of lungs that may only cause slight pain or pass unnoticed, but resulting edema several days later may cause death. (From Merck, 11th ed) It is a major atmospheric pollutant that is able to absorb UV light that does not reach the earth's surface.
Cellular processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of CARBOHYDRATES.
The vapor state of matter; nonelastic fluids in which the molecules are in free movement and their mean positions far apart. Gases tend to expand indefinitely, to diffuse and mix readily with other gases, to have definite relations of volume, temperature, and pressure, and to condense or liquefy at low temperatures or under sufficient pressure. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Separation technique in which the stationary phase consists of ion exchange resins. The resins contain loosely held small ions that easily exchange places with other small ions of like charge present in solutions washed over the resins.
A great expanse of continuous bodies of salt water which together cover more than 70 percent of the earth's surface. Seas may be partially or entirely enclosed by land, and are smaller than the five oceans (Atlantic, Pacific, Indian, Arctic, and Antarctic).
A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Inorganic and organic derivatives of sulfuric acid (H2SO4). The salts and esters of sulfuric acid are known as SULFATES and SULFURIC ACID ESTERS respectively.
A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of a phenol sulfate to yield a phenol and sulfate. Arylsulfatase A, B, and C have been separated. A deficiency of arylsulfatases is one of the causes of metachromatic leukodystrophy (LEUKODYSTROPHY, METACHROMATIC). EC
A family of DNA repair enzymes that recognize damaged nucleotide bases and remove them by hydrolyzing the N-glycosidic bond that attaches them to the sugar backbone of the DNA molecule. The process called BASE EXCISION REPAIR can be completed by a DNA-(APURINIC OR APYRIMIDINIC SITE) LYASE which excises the remaining RIBOSE sugar from the DNA.
A species of gram-positive bacteria that is a common soil and water saprophyte.
Enzymes of the isomerase class that catalyze reactions in which a group can be regarded as eliminated from one part of a molecule, leaving a double bond, while remaining covalently attached to the molecule. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 5.5.
Complex sets of enzymatic reactions connected to each other via their product and substrate metabolites.
The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.
The extent to which an enzyme retains its structural conformation or its activity when subjected to storage, isolation, and purification or various other physical or chemical manipulations, including proteolytic enzymes and heat.
The measurement of the amplitude of the components of a complex waveform throughout the frequency range of the waveform. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the soil. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.
Life or metabolic reactions occurring in an environment containing oxygen.
A strictly autotrophic species of bacteria that oxidizes sulfur and thiosulfate to sulfuric acid. It was formerly called Thiobacillus thiooxidans.
Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).
A tripeptide with many roles in cells. It conjugates to drugs to make them more soluble for excretion, is a cofactor for some enzymes, is involved in protein disulfide bond rearrangement and reduces peroxides.
Pyrrole containing pigments found in photosynthetic bacteria.
The processes by which organisms utilize organic substances as their nutrient sources. Contrasts with AUTOTROPHIC PROCESSES which make use of simple inorganic substances as the nutrient supply source. Heterotrophs can be either chemoheterotrophs (or chemoorganotrophs) which also require organic substances such as glucose for their primary metabolic energy requirements, or photoheterotrophs (or photoorganotrophs) which derive their primary energy requirements from light. Depending on environmental conditions some organisms can switch between different nutritional modes (AUTOTROPHY; heterotrophy; chemotrophy; or PHOTOTROPHY) to utilize different sources to meet their nutrients and energy requirements.
Growth of organisms using AUTOTROPHIC PROCESSES for obtaining nutrients and chemotrophic processes for obtaining a primary energy supply. Chemotrophic processes are involved in deriving a primary energy supply from exogenous chemical sources. Chemotrophic autotrophs (chemoautotrophs) generally use inorganic chemicals as energy sources and as such are called chemolithoautotrophs. Most chemoautotrophs live in hostile environments, such as deep sea vents. They are mostly BACTERIA and ARCHAEA, and are the primary producers for those ecosystems.
A heteropolysaccharide that is similar in structure to HEPARIN. It accumulates in individuals with MUCOPOLYSACCHARIDOSIS.
Woody, usually tall, perennial higher plants (Angiosperms, Gymnosperms, and some Pterophyta) having usually a main stem and numerous branches.
Unstable isotopes of sulfur that decay or disintegrate spontaneously emitting radiation. S 29-31, 35, 37, and 38 are radioactive sulfur isotopes.
The formation of crystalline substances from solutions or melts. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.
Proteins that have one or more tightly bound metal ions forming part of their structure. (Dorland, 28th ed)
A bacterial genus of the order ACTINOMYCETALES.
The outermost layer of a cell in most PLANTS; BACTERIA; FUNGI; and ALGAE. The cell wall is usually a rigid structure that lies external to the CELL MEMBRANE, and provides a protective barrier against physical or chemical agents.
A sulfuric acid dimer, formed by disulfide linkage. This compound has been used to prolong coagulation time and as an antidote in cyanide poisoning.
Carbohydrates consisting of between two (DISACCHARIDES) and ten MONOSACCHARIDES connected by either an alpha- or beta-glycosidic link. They are found throughout nature in both the free and bound form.
An allotropic form of carbon that is used in pencils, as a lubricant, and in matches and explosives. It is obtained by mining and its dust can cause lung irritation.
A photoactivable URIDINE analog that is used as an affinity label.
Water containing no significant amounts of salts, such as water from RIVERS and LAKES.
The inanimate matter of Earth, the structures and properties of this matter, and the processes that affect it.
The art or process of comparing photometrically the relative intensities of the light in different parts of the spectrum.
Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.

Heating garlic inhibits its ability to suppress 7, 12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene-induced DNA adduct formation in rat mammary tissue. (1/405)

The present studies compared the impact of heating, either by microwave or convection oven, on the ability of garlic to reduce the in vivo bioactivation of 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) in 55-d-old female Sprague-Dawley rats. In study 1, rats were fed a semipurified casein-based diet and treated by gastric gavage thrice weekly for 2-wk with crushed garlic (0.7 g in 2 mL corn oil) or the carrier prior to DMBA treatment (50 mg/kg body weight). Providing crushed garlic reduced by 64% (P < 0.05) the quantity DMBA-induced DNA adducts present in mammary epithelial cells compared to controls. In study 2, microwave treatment for 60 s, but not 30 s, decreased (P < 0.05) the protection provided by garlic against DMBA-induced adduct formation. In study 3, allowing crushed garlic to stand for 10 min prior to microwave heating for 60 s significantly (P < 0.05) restored its anticarcinogenic activity. Microwave heating of garlic for 30 s resulted in a 90% loss of alliinase activity. Heating in a convection oven (study 4) also completely blocked the ability of uncrushed garlic to retard DMBA bioactivation. Study 5 revealed that providing either 0.105 micromol diallyl disulfide or S-allyl cysteine by gastric gavage thrice weekly for 2 wk was effective in retarding DMBA bioactivation but isomolar alliin was not. These studies provide evidence that alliinase may be important for the formation of allyl sulfur compounds that contribute to a depression in DMBA metabolism and bioactivation.  (+info)

Hyperproduction of recombinant ferredoxins in escherichia coli by coexpression of the ORF1-ORF2-iscS-iscU-iscA-hscB-hs cA-fdx-ORF3 gene cluster. (2/405)

Fe-S proteins acquire Fe-S clusters by an unknown post-translational mechanism. To study the in vivo synthesis of the Fe-S clusters, we constructed an experimental system to monitor the expressed ferredoxin (Fd) as a reporter of protein-bound Fe-S clusters assembled in Escherichia coli. Overexpression of five Fds in a T7 polymerase-based system led to the formation of soluble apoFds and mature holoFds, indicating that assembly of the Fe-S cluster into apoFd polypeptides is a rate-limiting step. We examined the coexpression of the E. coli ORF1-ORF2-iscS-iscU-iscA-hscB-hsc A-fdx-ORF3 gene cluster, which has recently been suggested to be involved in the formation or repair of Fe-S protein [Zheng, L., Cash, V.L., Flint, D.H., and Dean, D.R. (1998) J. Biol. Chem. 273, 13264-13272], with reporter Fds using compatible plasmids. The production of all five reporter holoFds examined was dramatically increased by the coexpression of the gene cluster, and apparent specificity to the polypeptides or to the type of Fe-S clusters was not observed. The increase in holoFd production was observed under the coexpression conditions in all culture media examined, with either 2 x YT medium or Terrific broth, and with or without supplemental cysteine or iron. These results indicate that the proteins encoded by the gene cluster are involved in the assembly of the Fe-S clusters in a wide variety of Fe-S proteins.  (+info)

Glutathione-dependent metabolism of cis-3-(9H-purin-6-ylthio)acrylic acid to yield the chemotherapeutic drug 6-mercaptopurine: evidence for two distinct mechanisms in rats. (3/405)

cis-3-(9H-Purin-6-ylthio)acrylic acid (PTA) is a structural analog of azathioprine, a prodrug of the antitumor and immunosuppressive drug 6-mercaptopurine (6-MP). In this study, we examined the in vitro and in vivo metabolism of PTA in rats. Two metabolites of PTA, 6-MP and the major metabolite, S-(9H-purin-6-yl)glutathione (PG), were formed in a time- and GSH-dependent manner in vitro. Formation of 6-MP and PG occurred nonenzymatically, but 6-MP formation was enhanced 2- and 7-fold by the addition of liver and kidney homogenates, respectively. Purified rat liver glutathione S-transferases enhanced 6-MP formation from PTA by 1.8-fold, whereas human recombinant alpha, mu, and pi isozymes enhanced 6-MP formation by 1.7-, 1.3-, and 1.3-fold, respectively. In kidney homogenate incubations, PG accumulation was only observed during the first 15 min because of further metabolism by gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase, dipeptidase, and beta-lyase to yield 6-MP, as indicated by the use of the inhibitors acivicin and aminooxyacetic acid. Based on these results and other lines of evidence, two different GSH-dependent pathways are proposed for 6-MP formation: an indirect pathway involving PG formation and further metabolism to 6-MP, and a direct pathway in which PTA acts as a Michael acceptor. HPLC analyses of urine of rats treated i.p. with PTA (100 mg/kg) showed that 6-MP was formed in vivo and excreted in urine without apparent liver or kidney toxicity. Collectively, these studies show that PTA is metabolized to 6-MP both in vitro and in vivo and may therefore be a useful prodrug of 6-MP.  (+info)

Efficacy of recombinant methioninase in combination with cisplatin on human colon tumors in nude mice. (4/405)

The present treatment of colon cancer is based on 5-fluorouracil (5-FU). Despite promising results of combining leucovorin or levamisole with 5-FU, the 5-year survival rate of patients with advanced colon cancer has not increased significantly. Colon tumors in vitro have been shown previously to have an elevated requirement for methionine, suggesting a new therapeutic target. In this study, targeting the methionine dependence of colon tumors is effected by recombinant methioninase (rMETase), alone and in combination with cisplatin (CDDP). In vitro results demonstrated that CDDP and rMETase act synergistically on the human colon cancer cell line SW 620, with a combination index (CI) of 0.45, as well as on the human colon cancer cell line Colo 205 with a CI of 0.7. Human colon cancer lines HCT 15, HT 29, Colo 205, and SW 620 growing in nude mice were treated with rMETase to determine an effective dose for depletion of tumor methionine. rMETase at 15 units/g/day for 5 days depleted tumor methionine in all four tumor types to approximately 30% of untreated control. rMETase alone arrested growth of HCT 15 and HT29 in nude mice for 1 week after treatment termination. Colo 205 and SW 620 were partially arrested by rMETase. However, CDDP in combination with rMETase resulted in tumor regression of Colo 205 and growth arrest of SW 620 in nude mice. The ratio of the treated:control group (T:C) tumor weights for Colo 205 was 8% when CDDP was given on day-5, followed by treatment on days 5-9 with rMETase. This treatment schedule resulted in two of the six animals having no detectable tumor when the experiment was terminated on day 16. SW620 was resistant to CDDP alone and only partially sensitive to rMETase alone. However, when SW 620 was treated with rMETase from days-5 to -9 and CDDP on day-5, tumor growth was arrested. The results demonstrate that rMETase used simultaneously in combination with CDDP had significant antitumor efficacy in colon cancer in vitro and in vivo. The data suggest a novel and promising therapeutic approach by targeting the elevated methionine dependence of colon cancer.  (+info)

Metabolism of acrylate to beta-hydroxypropionate and its role in dimethylsulfoniopropionate lyase induction by a salt marsh sediment bacterium, Alcaligenes faecalis M3A. (5/405)

Dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) is degraded to dimethylsulfide (DMS) and acrylate by the enzyme DMSP lyase. DMS or acrylate can serve as a carbon source for both free-living and endophytic bacteria in the marine environment. In this study, we report on the mechanism of DMSP-acrylate metabolism by Alcaligenes faecalis M3A. Suspensions of citrate-grown cells expressed a low level of DMSP lyase activity that could be induced to much higher levels in the presence of DMSP, acrylate, and its metabolic product, beta-hydroxypropionate. DMSP was degraded outside the cell, resulting in an extracellular accumulation of acrylate, which in suspensions of citrate-grown cells was then metabolized at a low endogenous rate. The inducible nature of acrylate metabolism was evidenced by both an increase in the rate of its degradation over time and the ability of acrylate-grown cells to metabolize this molecule at about an eight times higher rate than citrate-grown cells. Therefore, acrylate induces both its production (from DMSP) and its degradation by an acrylase enzyme. (1)H and (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance analyses were used to identify the products resulting from [1-(13)C]acrylate metabolism. The results indicated that A. faecalis first metabolized acrylate to beta-hydroxypropionate outside the cell, which was followed by its intracellular accumulation and subsequent induction of DMSP lyase activity. In summary, the mechanism of DMSP degradation to acrylate and the subsequent degradation of acrylate to beta-hydroxypropionate in the aerobic beta-Proteobacterium A. faecalis has been described.  (+info)

Beta-cyanoalanine synthase: purification and characterization. (6/405)

Beta-cyano-L-alanine synthase [L-cysteine hydrogen-sulfide-lyase (adding HCN), EC] was purified about 4000-fold from blue lupine seedlings. The enzyme was homoegeneous on gel electrophoresis and free of contamination by other pyridoxal-P-dependent lyases. The enzyme has a molecular weight of 52,000 and contains 1 mole of pyridoxal-P per mole of protein; its isoelectric point is situated at pH 4.7. Its absorption spectrum has two maxima, at 280 and 410 nm. L-Cysteine is the natural primary (amino acid) substrate; beta-chloro- and beta-thiocyano can serve (with considerably lower affinity) instead of cyanide as cosubstrates for cyanoalanine synthase. The synthase is refractory to DL-cycloserine and D-penicillamine, potent inhibitors of many pyridoxal-P-dependent enzymes. Cyanoalanine synthase catalyzes slow isotopic alpha-H exchange in cysteine and in end-product amino acids; the rates of alpha-H exchange in nonreacted (excess) cysteine are markedly increased in the presence of an adequate cosubstrate; no exchange is observed of H atoms in beta-position.  (+info)

Cloning, expression, and cellular localization of a human prenylcysteine lyase. (7/405)

Prenylated proteins contain either a 15-carbon farnesyl or 20-carbon geranylgeranyl isoprenoid covalently attached to cysteine residues at or near their C terminus. These proteins constitute up to 2% of total cellular protein in eukaryotic cells. The degradation of prenylated proteins raises a metabolic challenge to the cell, because the thioether bond of the modified cysteine is quite stable. We recently identified and isolated an enzyme termed prenylcysteine lyase that cleaves the prenylcysteine to free cysteine and an isoprenoid product (Zhang, L., Tschantz, W. R., and Casey, P. J. (1997) J. Biol. Chem. 272, 23354-23359). To facilitate the molecular characterization of this enzyme, its cloning was undertaken. Overlapping cDNA clones encoding the complete coding sequence of this enzyme were obtained from a human cDNA library. The open reading frame of the gene encoding prenylcysteine lyase is 1515 base pairs and has a nearly ubiquitous expression pattern with a message size of 6 kilobase pairs. Recombinant prenylcysteine lyase was produced in a baculovirus-Sf9 expression system. Analysis of both the recombinant and native enzyme revealed that the enzyme is glycosylated and contains a signal peptide that is cleaved during processing. Additionally, the subcellular localization of this enzyme was determined to be lysosomal. These findings strengthen the notion that prenylcysteine lyase plays an important role in the final step in the degradation of prenylated proteins and will allow further physiological and biochemical characterization of this enzyme.  (+info)

Quorum sensing controls expression of the type III secretion gene transcription and protein secretion in enterohemorrhagic and enteropathogenic Escherichia coli. (8/405)

Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 and enteropathogenic E. coli cause a characteristic histopathology in intestinal cells known as attaching and effacing. The attaching and effacing lesion is encoded by the Locus of Enterocyte Effacement (LEE) pathogenicity island, which encodes a type III secretion system, the intimin intestinal colonization factor, and the translocated intimin receptor protein that is translocated from the bacterium to the host epithelial cells. Using lacZ reporter gene fusions, we show that expression of the LEE operons encoding the type III secretion system, translocated intimin receptor, and intimin is regulated by quorum sensing in both enterohemorrhagic E. coli and enteropathogenic E. coli. The luxS gene recently shown to be responsible for production of autoinducer in the Vibrio harveyi and E. coli quorum-sensing systems is responsible for regulation of the LEE operons, as shown by the mutation and complementation of the luxS gene. Regulation of intestinal colonization factors by quorum sensing could play an important role in the pathogenesis of disease caused by these organisms. These results suggest that intestinal colonization by E. coli O157:H7, which has an unusually low infectious dose, could be induced by quorum sensing of signals produced by nonpathogenic E. coli of the normal intestinal flora.  (+info)

Carbon Monoxide Poisoning Symptoms

The symptoms of carbon monoxide poisoning can vary depending on the level and duration of exposure, but they typically include:

* Headache
* Dizziness or nausea
* Confusion
* Slurred speech
* Loss of consciousness
* Seizures

In severe cases, carbon monoxide poisoning can cause brain damage, coma, and even death.

Carbon Monoxide Poisoning Causes

Carbon monoxide is a byproduct of incomplete combustion of fuels such as gasoline, natural gas, or wood. Sources of carbon monoxide poisoning include:

* Faulty heating systems or water heaters
* Poorly vented appliances like stoves and fireplaces
* Clogged chimneys or vents
* Running cars in enclosed spaces like garages
* Overcrowding with too many people in a small, poorly ventilated space

Diagnosis of Carbon Monoxide Poisoning

Doctors may suspect carbon monoxide poisoning based on symptoms and medical history. Blood tests can measure the level of carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) in red blood cells, which indicates CO exposure. Chest X-rays or CT scans may also be used to check for signs of lung damage.

Treatment of Carbon Monoxide Poisoning

The treatment of carbon monoxide poisoning involves moving the patient to a location with fresh air and administering oxygen therapy to help remove CO from the bloodstream. In severe cases, medication may be given to help stimulate breathing and improve oxygenation of tissues. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy may also be used in some cases.

Prevention of Carbon Monoxide Poisoning

Prevention is key when it comes to carbon monoxide poisoning. Some steps you can take to prevent CO poisoning include:

* Installing a carbon monoxide detector in your home
* Regularly inspecting and maintaining appliances like furnaces, water heaters, and chimneys
* Properly venting appliances and ensuring they are installed in well-ventilated areas
* Not running cars or generators in enclosed spaces
* Avoiding overcrowding and ensuring there is adequate ventilation in living spaces


Carbon monoxide poisoning is a serious condition that can be fatal if not treated promptly. It's important to be aware of the sources of CO exposure and take steps to prevent it, such as installing carbon monoxide detectors and regularly maintaining appliances. If you suspect CO poisoning, seek medical attention immediately.

The symptoms of carbon tetrachloride poisoning can vary depending on the level and duration of exposure, but may include:

* Respiratory problems, such as coughing, wheezing, and shortness of breath
* Nausea and vomiting
* Abdominal pain and diarrhea
* Headaches and dizziness
* Confusion and disorientation
* Slurred speech and loss of coordination
* Seizures and coma

If you suspect that you or someone else has been exposed to carbon tetrachloride, it is essential to seek medical attention immediately. Treatment for carbon tetrachloride poisoning typically involves supportive care, such as oxygen therapy and hydration, as well as medications to manage symptoms and remove the toxin from the body. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary.

Prevention is key when it comes to carbon tetrachloride poisoning. If you work with or are exposed to CTC, it is important to take safety precautions such as wearing protective clothing and equipment, using proper ventilation, and following all safety protocols. It is also essential to handle the chemical with care and store it in a safe location.

In conclusion, carbon tetrachloride poisoning can be a serious and potentially deadly condition that requires immediate medical attention. If you suspect exposure to CTC, it is crucial to seek medical help right away. By taking safety precautions and being aware of the risks associated with this chemical, you can prevent carbon tetrachloride poisoning and protect your health.

1. Poor oral hygiene: When individuals fail to brush and floss regularly, bacteria can accumulate on the teeth, tongue, and gums, leading to bad breath.
2. Gum disease and other oral infections: Gingivitis, periodontitis, and other oral infections can cause bad breath due to the buildup of bacteria and tartar.
3. Dry mouth (xerostomia): A lack of saliva can lead to an increase in bacteria growth and bad breath.
4. Food particles: Eating certain foods, such as garlic or onions, can cause bad breath due to the lingering presence of particles in the mouth.
5. Smoking and tobacco use: Smoking and using other forms of tobacco can lead to bad breath due to the chemicals present in tobacco products.
6. Medical conditions: Certain medical conditions, such as sinus infections, bronchitis, and pneumonia, can cause bad breath.
7. Diet: Consuming certain foods or drinks, such as coffee, tea, or alcohol, can cause bad breath due to their acidic properties.
8. Hormonal changes: Hormonal fluctuations during pregnancy, menstruation, or menopause can lead to changes in the mouth's ecosystem and contribute to bad breath.
9. Dental appliances: Poorly fitting dentures, braces, or other dental appliances can contribute to bad breath.
10. Medications: Certain medications, such as antidepressants and antihistamines, can cause dry mouth and lead to bad breath.

Treatment for halitosis depends on the underlying cause and may include improved oral hygiene, antibiotics, mouthwashes, or other therapies. It is essential to consult a healthcare professional for an accurate diagnosis and appropriate treatment.

This enzyme belongs to the family of lyases, specifically carbon-sulfur lyases. The systematic name of this enzyme class is S- ... Tyrosine attacks the sulfur bound carbon, allowing S(CH3)(Ado) to leave, and during ring formation, Tyrosine leaves. Note ... increasing the acidity of the alpha carbon by stabilizing the conjugate base. The PLP-stabilized carbanion intermediate formed ... "Slow-binding inhibition of Escherichia coli cystathionine beta-lyase by L-aminoethoxyvinylglycine: a kinetic and X-ray study". ...
This enzyme belongs to the family of lyases, specifically the class of carbon-sulfur lyases. The systematic name of this enzyme ... alkylcysteine lyase, S-alkyl-L-cysteine sulfoxide lyase, S-alkyl-L-cysteine lyase, S-alkyl-L-cysteinase, alkyl cysteine lyase, ... In enzymology, a S-alkylcysteine lyase (EC is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction an S-alkyl-L-cysteine + ... and S-alkyl-L-cysteine alkylthiol-lyase (deaminating). It employs one cofactor, pyridoxal phosphate. Nomura J, Nishizuka Y, ...
This enzyme belongs to the family of lyases, specifically the class of carbon-sulfur lyases. The systematic name of this enzyme ... methionine lyase, methioninase, methionine dethiomethylase, L-methionine γ-lyase, and L-methionine methanethiol-lyase ( ... The enzyme methionine γ-lyase (EC, MGL) is in the γ-family of PLP-dependent enzymes. It degrades sulfur-containing ... Stipanuk MH (2004). "Sulfur amino acid metabolism: pathways for production and removal of homocysteine and cysteine". Annual ...
This enzyme belongs to the family of lyases, specifically the class of carbon-sulfur lyases. The systematic name of this enzyme ... cysteine sulfoxide lyase, alkylcysteine sulfoxide lyase, S-alkylcysteine sulfoxide lyase, L-cysteine sulfoxide lyase, S-alkyl-L ... and alliin itself was the first natural product found to have both carbon- and sulfur-centered stereochemistry. However, the ... In enzymology, an alliin lyase (EC is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction an S-alkyl-L-cysteine S-oxide ...
The enzyme also belongs to the family of lyases, specifically the class of carbon-sulfur lyases. The systematic name of this ... Other members include cystathionine gamma-synthase, cystathionine gamma-lyase, and methionine gamma lyase. Additionally, these ... and sulfur metabolism. Cystathionine beta-lyase is a tetramer composed of identical subunits, and is constructed as a dimer of ... Cystathionine beta-lyase (EC, also commonly referred to as CBL or β-cystathionase, is an enzyme that primarily ...
... lyase(acetyl form). This enzyme belongs to the family of ligases, specifically those forming carbon-sulfur bonds as acid-thiol ... Antranikian G, Gottschalk G (1982). "Copurification of citrate lyase and citrate lyase ligase from Rhodopseudomonas gelatinosa ... lyase(acetyl form) The 3 substrates of this enzyme are ATP, acetate, and citrate (pro-3S)-lyase(thiol form), whereas its 3 ... HS-citrate lyase ligase, and acetate:citrate-(pro-3S)-lyase(thiol-form) ligase (AMP-forming). This enzyme participates in two- ...
... the gamma carbon is attacked by a sulfur nucleophile, resulting in the formation of a new sulfur-gamma carbon bond. ... To reform the aldimine, this lone pair pushes back down, cleaving the sulfur-gamma carbon bond, resulting in the release of ... Cystathionase uses pyridoxal phosphate to facilitate the cleavage of the sulfur-gamma carbon bond of cystathionine, resulting ... Other members include cystathionine γ synthase, cystathionine β lyase, and methionine γ lyase. It is also a member of the ...
Glyoxalase I is classified as a carbon-sulfur lyase although, strictly speaking, the enzyme does not form or break a carbon- ... sulfur bond. Rather, the enzyme shifts two hydrogen atoms from one carbon atom of the methylglyoxal to the adjacent carbon atom ... Lactoylglutathione lyase in humans is encoded by the GLO1 gene. Several structures of glyoxalase I have been solved. Four ... The enzyme lactoylglutathione lyase (EC, also known as glyoxalase I) catalyzes the isomerization of hemithioacetal ...
3-dione This enzyme belongs to the family of lyases, specifically the class of carbon-sulfur lyases. The systematic name of ... The enzyme S-ribosylhomocysteine lyase (EC catalyzes the reaction S-(5-deoxy-D-ribos-5-yl)-L-homocysteine = L- ... this enzyme class is S-(5-deoxy-D-ribos-5-yl)-L-homocysteine L-homocysteine-lyase [(4S)-4,5-dihydroxypentan-2,3-dione-forming ...
... acceptor This enzyme belongs to the family of lyases, specifically the class of carbon-sulfur lyases. The systematic name of ... While selenocysteine lyases generally catalyze the removal of both selenium or sulfur from selenocysteine or cysteine, ... The enzyme selenocysteine lyase (SCL) (EC catalyzes the chemical reaction L-selenocysteine + reduced acceptor ⇌ {\ ... Esaki N, Nakamura T, Tanaka H, Soda K (April 1982). "Selenocysteine lyase, a novel enzyme that specifically acts on ...
This enzyme belongs to the family of lyases, specifically the class of carbon-sulfur lyases. The systematic name of this enzyme ... Other names in common use include cysteine conjugate β-lyase, glutamine transaminase K/cysteine conjugate β-lyase, and L- ... The enzyme cysteine-S-conjugate β-lyase (EC catalyzes the chemical reaction an L-cysteine-S-conjugate + H2O = a thiol ... Tateishi M, Suzuki S, Shimizu H (1978). "Cysteine conjugate β-lyase in rat liver. A novel enzyme catalyzing formation of thiol- ...
... specifically the class of carbon-sulfur lyases. The systematic name of this enzyme class is L-cysteine hydrogen-sulfide-lyase ( ... CL genes are found only in Sauropsida where they are involved in a metabolic pathway for sulfur metabolism in the chicken egg. ... Genes encoding cysteine lyase (CL) originated around 300 million years ago by a tandem gene duplication and ... Malatesta M, Mori G, Acquotti D, Campanini B, Peracchi A, Antin PB, Percudani R (2020). "Birth of a pathway for sulfur ...
This enzyme belongs to the family of lyases, specifically the class of carbon-sulfur lyases. The systematic name of this enzyme ... The enzyme L-cysteate sulfo-lyase (EC catalyzes the reaction L-cysteate + H2O = hydrogensulfite + pyruvate + NH3 ( ... Denger K, Smits TH, Cook AM (2006). "L-Cysteate sulpho-lyase, a widespread pyridoxal 5′-phosphate-coupled desulphonative enzyme ... class is L-cysteate bisulfite-lyase (deaminating; pyruvate-forming). Other names in common use include L-cysteate sulfo-lyase ( ...
... hydrogensulfite This enzyme belongs to the family of lyases, specifically the class of carbon-sulfur lyases. The systematic ... The enzyme (2R)-sulfolactate sulfo-lyase (EC catalyzes the reaction (2R)-3-sulfolactate ⇌ {\displaystyle \ ... and 3-sulfolactate bisulfite-lyase. Graham DE, White RH (April 2002). "Elucidation of methanogenic coenzyme biosyntheses: from ... "Dissimilation of cysteate via 3-sulfolactate sulfo-lyase and a sulfate exporter in Paracoccus pantotrophus NKNCYSA". ...
... cleave carbon-nitrogen bonds EC 4.4 includes lyases that cleave carbon-sulfur bonds EC 4.5 includes lyases that cleave carbon- ... Lyases can be further classified into seven subclasses: EC 4.1 includes lyases that cleave carbon-carbon bonds, such as ... oxo acid lyases (EC 4.1.3), and others (EC 4.1.99) EC 4.2 includes lyases that cleave carbon-oxygen bonds, such as dehydratases ... this reaction was first classified as a lyase (EC, but was then reclassified as a transferase (EC Lyases ...
... sulfite This enzyme belongs to the family of lyases, specifically the class of carbon-sulfur lyases. The systematic name of ... O-phospho-3-sulfolactate sulfo-lyase. As of late 2007, only one structure has been solved for this class of enzymes, with the ... this enzyme class is (2R)-2-O-phospho-3-sulfolactate hydrogen-sulfite-lyase (phosphoenolpyruvate-forming). Other names in ...
This enzyme belongs to the family of lyases, specifically the class of carbon-sulfur lyases. The systematic name of this enzyme ... L-homocysteine hydrogen-sulfide-lyase (deaminating). This enzyme participates in nitrogen and sulfur metabolism. It employs one ... class is L-homocysteine hydrogen-sulfide-lyase (deaminating; 2-oxobutanoate-forming). Other names in common use include ...
... glutathione This enzyme belongs to the family of lyases, specifically the class of carbon-sulfur lyases. The systematic name of ... 14-tetraenoate glutathione-lyase (epoxide-forming). This enzyme participates in arachidonic acid metabolism. As of late 2007, 3 ... this enzyme class is leukotriene-C4 glutathione-lyase (leukotriene-A4-forming). Other names in common use include leukotriene ...
... formaldehyde This enzyme belongs to the family of lyases, specifically the class of carbon-sulfur lyases. The systematic name ... glutathione formaldehyde-lyase. This enzyme participates in methane metabolism. Goenrich M, Bartoschek S, Hagemeier CH, ... of this enzyme class is S-(hydroxymethyl)glutathione formaldehyde-lyase (glutathione-forming). Other names in common use ...
... which is then cleaved off by a carbon-sulfur lyase (like the SUR1 enzyme found in Arabidopsis) to create a free thiol. A single ... "Arabidopsis Mutants in the C-S Lyase of Glucosinolate Biosynthesis Establish a Critical Role for Indole-3-acetaldoxime in Auxin ...
... heme This enzyme belongs to the family of lyases, specifically the class of carbon-sulfur lyases. The systematic name of this ... Cytochrome c heme-lyase (CCHL) and cytochrome Cc1 heme-lyase (CC1HL) are mitochondrial enzymes that catalyze the covalent ... Dumont ME, Ernst JF, Hampsey DM, Sherman F (1987). "Identification and sequence of the gene encoding cytochrome c heme lyase in ... Other names in common use include cytochrome c heme-lyase, holocytochrome c synthetase, and holocytochrome-c apocytochrome-c- ...
... carbon disulfide hydrolase EC [CysO sulfur-carrier protein]-S-L-cysteine hydrolase * EC Carbonyl sulfide ... EC Now EC, Enterobacter ribonuclease}}, since the primary reaction is that of a lyase EC ... EC deoxyribonuclease (pyrimidine dimer) EC Now EC, DNA-(apurinic or apyrimidinic site) lyase EC ... citrate lyase deacetylase EC (S)-methylmalonyl-CoA hydrolase EC ADP-dependent short-chain-acyl-CoA ...
... pyruvate This enzyme belongs to the family of lyases, specifically the class of carbon-sulfur lyases. The systematic name of ... Other names in common use include D-cysteine lyase, and D-cysteine sulfide-lyase (deaminating). This enzyme participates in ... Portal: Biology v t e (EC 4.4.1, Enzymes of unknown structure, All stub articles, Lyase stubs). ... this enzyme class is D-cysteine sulfide-lyase (deaminating; pyruvate-forming). ...
... specifically the class of carbon-sulfur lyases. The systematic name of this enzyme class is L-cysteine hydrogen-sulfide-lyase ( ... and L-cysteine hydrogen-sulfide-lyase (adding HCN). This enzyme participates in cyanoamino acid metabolism. Akopyan TN, ... hydrogen sulfide This enzyme belongs to the family of lyases, ...
... acrylate This enzyme belongs to the family of lyases, specifically the class of carbon-sulfur lyases. The systematic name of ... Portal: Biology v t e (EC 4.4.1, Enzymes of unknown structure, All stub articles, Lyase stubs). ... S-dimethyl-beta-propiothetin dimethyl-sulfide-lyase. ANDERSON DG, CANTONI GL (1956). "Enzymatic cleavage of ... this enzyme class is S,S-dimethyl-β-propiothetin dimethyl-sulfide-lyase (acrylate-forming). Other names in common use include ...
This enzyme belongs to the family of ligases, specifically those forming carbon-sulfur bonds as acid-thiol ligases. The ... "Isolation of enzymically active fragments formed by limited proteolysis of ATP citrate lyase". Eur. J. Biochem. 125 (3): 645-50 ...
In the case of methionine, the methyl carbon is derived from serine and the sulfur group, but in most organisms, it is derived ... SAICAR lyase removes the carbon skeleton of the added aspartate, leaving the amino group and forming 5-aminoimidazole-4- ... For all standard amino acids, except glycine, the α-carbon is a chiral center. In the case of glycine, the α-carbon has two ... Proline has a functional group on the α-carbon that forms a ring with the amino group. One major step in amino acid ...
... enzymes that can catalyze sulfur-to-alpha carbon thioether cross-linked peptides (sactipeptides) are important to ... Benjdia A (December 2012). "DNA photolyases and SP lyase: structure and mechanism of light-dependent and independent DNA lyases ... "The Radical S-Adenosyl-L-methionine Enzyme QhpD Catalyzes Sequential Formation of Intra-protein Sulfur-to-Methylene Carbon ... The active site of Mo nitrogenase is the M-cluster, a metal-sulfur cluster containing a carbide at its core. Within the ...
This enzyme belongs to the family of lyases, to be specific, the hydro-lyases, which cleave carbon-oxygen bonds. CBS is a ... CBS occupies a pivotal position in mammalian sulfur metabolism at the homocysteine junction where the decision to conserve ... Puranik M, Weeks CL, Lahaye D, Kabil O, Taoka S, Nielsen SB, Groves JT, Banerjee R, Spiro TG (May 2006). "Dynamics of carbon ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is L-serine hydro-lyase (adding homocysteine; L-cystathionine-forming). Other names in ...
Carbon disulfide hydrolase EC (CysO sulfur-carrier protein)-S-L-cysteine hydrolase EC Carbonyl sulfide ... EC 4.3.1 Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (EC Category:EC 4.4.1 Cystathionine gamma-lyase Cystathionine beta-lyase ... lyase) ligase EC Dicarboxylate-CoA ligase EC Phytanate-CoA ligase EC Benzoate-CoA ligase EC 6.2. ... with an iron-sulfur protein as acceptor) Category:EC 1.5.8 (with a flavin as acceptor) Category:EC 1.5.99 (with other acceptors ...
CO2 OXC belongs to the family of lyases, specifically the carboxy-lyases (decarboxylases), which cleave carbon-carbon bonds. ... A key feature of the cofactor TPP is the relatively acidic proton bound to the carbon atom between the nitrogen and sulfur in ... This carbon center ionizes to form a carbanion, which adds to the carbonyl group of oxalyl-CoA. This addition is followed by ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is oxalyl-CoA carboxy-lyase (formyl-CoA-forming). Other names in common use include ...
The G protein (Golf and/or Gs) in turn activates the lyase - adenylate cyclase - which converts ATP into cyclic AMP (cAMP). The ... and carbon-13 isotopomers of their respective ligands, paralleling results found with the musk receptor OR5AN1. Hence it was ... showing that copper is essential for detection of certain thiols and other sulfur-containing compounds. Thus, by using a ...
... sulfur compounds, such as sulfates, sulfites, sulfur dioxide, and elemental sulfur; carbon dioxide; iron compounds; manganese ... There it is cleaved by ATP citrate lyase into acetyl-CoA and oxaloacetate. The oxaloacetate is returned to mitochondrion as ... Electrons delocalized in the carbon-carbon bond cleavage associate with the alcohol group. The resulting carbanion is ... It can also behave as a kinase (PFK2) adding a phosphate onto carbon-2 of F6P which produces F2,6BP. In humans, the TIGAR ...
As a result, Phaeocystis is an important contributor to the marine carbon and sulfur cycles. Phaeocystis species are ... J, Stefels; L, Dijkhuizen; WWC, Gieskes (20 July 1995). "DMSP-lyase activity in a spring phytoplankton bloom off the Dutch ... A mixotroph is an organism that can use a mix of different sources of energy and carbon, instead of having a single trophic ... Indeed, without saprobe species, such as protists, fungi, and bacteria, life would cease to exist as all organic carbon became ...
Adenylosuccinate lyase deficiency Extremophile Guthrie test YlbH leader.. Euzéby JP (2008). "Bacillus". List of Prokaryotic ... and in carbon utilization (pta). Natural bacterial transformation involves the transfer of DNA from one bacterium to another ... "The FsrA sRNA and FbpB protein mediate the iron-dependent induction of the Bacillus subtilis lutABC iron-sulfur-containing ... and malt waste can be used as their carbon source for lower-cost PHA production.[citation needed] It is used to produce ...
This special environment is filled with inorganic metabolites, essentially carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, and sulfur. In its adult ... with an unusual ATP citrate lyase) according to availability of carbon resources and whether it is free living in the ... pachyptila oxidize reduced-sulfur compounds to synthesize ATP for use in autotrophic carbon fixation through the Calvin cycle. ... and that indicates a significant amount of release of organic carbon immediately after fixation. After 24 h, labeled carbon is ...
They are the sulfur analogues of the acetals, R−CH(−OH)−OR', with an oxygen atom replaced by sulfur (as implied by the thio- ... prefix). Because they consist of four differing substituents on a single carbon, hemithioacetals are chiral. A related family ... A hemithioacetal is also invoked in the mechanism of prenylcysteine lyase. In catalytic mechanism, S-farnesylcysteine is ... Cox, J. M.; Owen, L. N. (1967). "Cyclic hemithioacetals: analogues of thiosugars with sulphur in the ring". Journal of the ...
1013 g sulfur to the atmosphere annually and plays a major part in the global sulfur cycle, which can affect cloud formation ... The ability to form large blooms and its ubiquity make Phaeocystis an important contributor to the ocean carbon cycle. In ... J, Stefels; L, Dijkhuizen; WWC, Gieskes (1995-07-20). "DMSP-lyase activity in a spring phytoplankton bloom off the Dutch coast ... "Importance of Phaeocystis blooms in the high-latitude ocean carbon cycle". Nature. 352 (6335): 514-516. Bibcode:1991Natur.352.. ...
AThTP is present in E. coli, where it accumulates as a result of carbon starvation. In this bacterium, AThTP may account for up ... Thiamine was named by the Williams team as a portmanteau of "thio" (meaning sulfur-containing) and "vitamin". The term "vitamin ... branched-chain α-keto acid dehydrogenase 2-hydroxyphytanoyl-CoA lyase transketolase Present in some species: pyruvate ... an enzyme in the radical SAM superfamily of iron-sulfur proteins, which use S-adenosyl methionine as a cofactor. The starting ...
Increased H 2S levels within the body will react with oxygen to produce sulfane sulfur, a storage intermediate for H 2S. H 2S ... Only two other such gases are currently known: nitric oxide (NO) and carbon monoxide (CO). The gas is produced from cysteine by ... the enzymes cystathionine beta-synthase and cystathionine gamma-lyase. It acts as a relaxant of smooth muscle and as a ...
The carbon atom next to the carboxyl group is called the α-carbon. Amino acids containing an amino group bonded directly to the ... Two side-chains contain sulfur atoms, of which one ionizes in the normal range (with p K a {\displaystyle \mathrm {p} K_{\ ... Aspartic acid is produced by the addition of ammonia to fumarate using a lyase. In plants, nitrogen is first assimilated into ... Amino acids are designated as α- when the amino nitrogen atom is attached to the α-carbon, the carbon atom adjacent to the ...
Blue carbon methods involve the use of marine ecosystems for carbon storage and burial. Seaweed aquaculture shows potential to ... Specifically, defense enzymes, including phenylalanine ammonia lyase and lipoxygenase, are activated and lead to viral defense ... and sulfur in soybeans such as Glycine max. Research has also demonstrated that brown algae seaweed extracts can improve tomato ... Studies have also explored the potential of brown algae to sequester large volumes of carbon (blue carbon). Seaweeds have ...
For example, limitation for major elements in proteins (carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur) induces proteolytic activity in the ... protease Serine protease Threonine protease Aspartic protease Glutamic protease Metalloprotease Asparagine peptide lyase ... Proteolytic activity under nitrogen or sulfur limitation. Appl. Soil Ecol. 568:1-5. Thomas E Creighton (1993). "Chapter 10 - ...
This creates a double bond between the substrate carbon and the TPP carbon and pushes the electrons in the N-C double bond in ... The part of TPP molecule that is most commonly involved in reactions is the thiazole ring, which contains nitrogen and sulfur. ... Alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex Branched-chain amino acid dehydrogenase complex 2-hydroxyphytanoyl-CoA lyase ... In the case of transketolase, this attacks a new substrate molecule to form a new carbon-carbon bond.) In what is essentially ...
... harbor specific bacterial populations expressing DMSP-lyases. DMSP is a sulfur compound that exhibit, among other things, a ... After forced diffusion of CO2 (carbon dioxide) gas into seawater, the dissolved CO2 concentration increases until the medium is ... no DMSP-lyase activity was measured in cultures of Tetraselmsis convolutae alone. Bacterial DMSP-lyase activity has been ... In the tissues of the animal, the micro-algae produces a sulfur compound, DMSP (dimethylsulfoniopropionate), which also ...
... carbon-carbon double bond isomerases MeSH D08.811.399.475.400.700 - steroid isomerases MeSH D08.811.399.475.800 - sulfur-sulfur ... chondroitin lyases MeSH D08.811.520.241.700.350.500.500 - chondroitin abc lyase MeSH D08.811.520.241.700.512 - heparin lyase ... tyrosine phenol-lyase MeSH D08.811.520.232.300 - amidine-lyases MeSH D08.811.520.232.300.200 - adenylosuccinate lyase MeSH ... ammonia-lyases MeSH D08.811.520.232.400.200 - aspartate ammonia-lyase MeSH D08.811.520.232.400.350 - ethanolamine ammonia-lyase ...
Carbon-Sulfur Lyases - Preferred Concept UI. M0020767. Scope note. Enzymes that catalyze the cleavage of a carbon-sulfur bond ... Carbon-Sulfur Lyases Entry term(s). Carbon Sulfur Lyases Lyases, Carbon-Sulfur Sulfhydrases ... Carbon-sulfur lyases Entry term(s):. Carbon Sulfur Lyases. Lyases, Carbon-Sulfur. Sulfhydrases. ... Enzymes that catalyze the cleavage of a carbon-sulfur bond by means other than hydrolysis or oxidation. EC 4.4.. ...
... while the Calvin Benson-Bassham cycle is the most prevalent inorganic carbon fixation pathway in both size fractions. ... On the right, metabolic pathways involved in inorganic carbon fixation (green), sulfur (red), nitrogen (blue) are shown as well ... The presence of representative genes of the 3-HP such as the key enzyme malyl-CoA lyase (K08691: mcl)84, the 2-methylfumaryl- ... A total of 83 marker genes from carbon fixation, methane, nitrogen, hydrogen, and sulfur metabolisms were selected ( ...
sulfur compound metabolic process. IEP. Enrichment. MF. GO:0016840. carbon-nitrogen lyase activity. IEP. Enrichment. ... sulfur compound catabolic process. IEP. Enrichment. BP. GO:1901565. organonitrogen compound catabolic process. IEP. Enrichment ...
... "carbon-sulfur lyases","protein_coding" "Pp3c3_34910V3.1","No alias","Physcomitrella patens","Cytochrome b561/ferric reductase ... ","Nutrient uptake.sulfur assimilation.sulfate assimilation.(P)APS reductase","protein_coding" "Smo170091","No alias"," ... ","Enzyme classification.EC_2 transferases.EC_2.1 transferase transferring one-carbon group(50.2.1 : 164.1) & Ribulose-1,5 ... ","SNF1-related protein kinase (SnRK2). carbon dioxide signal transducer kinase (OST1)","protein_coding" "MA_10098847g0010","No ...
Abnormalities of one carbon, glutathione and sulfide metabolisms have recently emerged as novel pathomechanisms in diseases ... This increase of SQOR induces the downregulation of the cystathionine ß-synthase and cystathionine γ-lyase, two enzymes of the ... These metabolic changes are independent of the presence of sulfur aminoacids, are confirmed in mouse models, and are ... Our results contribute to a better understanding of how sulfide metabolism is integrated in one carbon metabolism and may ...
Dive into the research topics of 1H NMR Studies of Substrate Hydrogen Exchange Reactions Catalyzed by L-Methionine γ-Lyase. ... 1H NMR Studies of Substrate Hydrogen Exchange Reactions Catalyzed by L-Methionine γ-Lyase. ... Sulfur-Containing Amino Acid 6% * Sulfoxide 6% * Branched-Chain Amino Acid 6% ...
carbon phosphorus lyase activity GO:0018835 * L-erythro-3-methylmalyl-CoA dehydratase activity ... S)-2-(5-amino-1-(5-phospho-D-ribosyl)imidazole-4-carboxamido)succinate AMP-lyase (fumarate-forming) activity ... cis-4-(8-hydroxypyren-7-yl)-2-oxobut-3-enoate lyase activity ... N6-(1,2-dicarboxyethyl)AMP AMP-lyase (fumarate-forming) ...
Carbon-Sulfur Lyases. Carbonaceous Chondrites use Meteoroids. Carbonate Dehydratase use Carbonic Anhydrases ...
Since microcolonies may be composed of multiple species, the cycling of various nutrients (e.g., nitrogen, sulfur, and carbon) ... Role of alginate lyase in cell detachment of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Appl Environ Microbiol. 1994;60:2355-9.PubMedGoogle ... The authors suggested that the role of algL (the gene cassette for alginate lyase production) in wild type P. aeruginosa may be ... EPS may account for 50% to 90% of the total organic carbon of biofilms (38) and can be considered the primary matrix material ...
Her thesis focuses on the role of one-carbon metabolism in cancer pathogenesis using a combination of computatoinal and ... Bruce McFadden, focused on understanding the enzyme "Isocitrate lyase (ICL)", which is essential for the germination of plants ... The compounds that were studied included short-chain fatty acids, isothiocyanates, allyl sulfur compounds and polyphenolic ... are responsive to glucose availability in a manner dependent on ATP-citrate lyase (ACL), a metabolic enzyme that cleaves ...
By using biorenewable feedstock, manufacturers can reduce their carbon footprint and move to a zero-carbon or even a carbon- ... Trans-cinnamic acid can also be derived from the natural amino-acid phenylalanine using the enzyme phenyalanine ammonia-lyase. ... sulfur, silicon, phosphorus, boron, Mg, Li, Al, Ge, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pd, Pt and the like either may or may not be present in the ... about 6 to about 50 carbon atoms in the alkylaryl chain, such as from about 6 to about 40 or from about 7 to about 20 carbon ...
Species and Genotype Effects of Bioenergy Crops on Root Production, Carbon and Nitrogen in Temperate Agricultural Soil. A - ... Characterisation of the willow phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (Pal) gene family reveals expression differences compared with ... potassium and sulphur. A - Papers appearing in refereed journals ... Characterisation of the willow phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (Pal ... Species and Genotype Effects of Bioenergy Crops on Root Production, Carbon and Nitrogen in Temperate Agricultural Soil. ...
Numerous alginate lyases have been characterized. They belong to different polysaccharide lyase (PL) families, but only one ... Removal of acetyl groups from β-mannan is a key step toward efficient utilization of this glycan as a carbon source for gut ... with the thio-indolate sulfur atom binding cis to the NHC, and the indolate nitrogen atom trans to the NHC. However, whereas ... Herein, we describe a thermostable alginate lyase that belongs to Polysaccharide Lyase family 17 (PL17) and was derived from an ...
4.4 Carbon-sulfur lyases EC subclass 4.5", WIDTH, 550, FGCOLOR, "#ffffff", TEXTSIZE, "10px", CAPTIONSIZE, "12px", BORDER, 1); ... 4.1 Carbon-carbon lyases EC subclass 4.2", WIDTH, 550, FGCOLOR, "#ffffff", TEXTSIZE, "10px", CAPTIONSIZE, "12px", BORDER, 1); ... The sub-subclasses of EC 4.3 are the ammonia-lyases (EC 4.3.1), lyases acting on amides, amidines, etc. (amidine-lyases; EC 4.3 ... 4.2 Carbon-oxygen lyases CH-CH(-NH-R)- → >C=CH- + NH2-R. Others, however, catalyse elimination of another component, e.g. water ...
For example, 1 &%AtomGram of Carbon 12 will be 12 &%Grams of pure Carbon 12. 2 &%AtomGrams of the same substance will be 24 &% ... There are six main types of enzymes: oxidoreductases, transferases, hydrolases, lyases, isomerases, and ligases.") (subclass ... sulfur, sand, petroleum), or synthetic substances having the chemical composition and crystalline form and properties of a ... Symbol: u. It is the mass of the twelfth part of an atom of the Carbon 12 isotope.") (equal (MeasureFn ?NUMBER Amu) (MeasureFn ...
Muyzer, G., Kuenen, J. G., & Robertson, L. A. (2013). Colorless Sulfur Bacteria. In E. Rosenberg, E. F. DeLong, S. Lory, E. ... Sandrini, G., Matthijs, H. C. P., Verspagen, J. M. H., Muyzer, G., & Huisman, J. (2014). Genetic diversity of inorganic carbon ... Diversity of RuBisCO and ATP citrate lyase genes in soda lake sediments. FEMS Microbiology Ecology, 75(1), 37-47. https://doi. ... Berben, T., Overmars, L., Sorokin, D. Y., & Muyzer, G. (2019). Diversity and Distribution of Sulfur Oxidation-Related Genes in ...
... as a sulfur-containing ion, on lignan biosynthesis was already studied in Linum album hairy roots [61]. The authors proved that ... propyl gallate and polyphenols from Bryophyllum extracts on activated carbon. Sci. Rep. 2019, 9, 1-9. [Google Scholar] [ ... which acts as an inductor of phenylalanine ammonia lyase, driving the transformation of phenylalanine into cinnamic acid [58,60 ... synthesized after the action of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase on the amino acid phenylalanine [8]. Afterwards, cinnamic acid may ...
Carbon excretion. 5. Energy storage and production. 5.1. Lipids and carbohydrates. 5.2. Glyoxylate cycle. 6. Metabolic patterns ... Presence of isocitrate lyase in Panagrellus redivivus, Turbatrix aceti, and Rhabditis anomala. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 16, 361- ... Hypometabolic isp-1 mutants, which contain a defect in an iron-sulphur protein subunit of complex III, were reported to have a ... Carbon dioxide is also a major waste product in C. elegans but, like many other invertebrates and micro-organisms, the worm can ...
However, if hexokinase is added, these slow reactions continue to take place except that phosphorylation at carbon 6 occurs so ... EC 4 Lyases: cleave various bonds by means other than hydrolysis and oxidation ... metal ions and iron-sulfur clusters) or organic compounds, (e.g., flavin and heme). Organic cofactors can be either prosthetic ... Yeast action on sugar produces carbon dioxide. Used in production of white bread, buns, and rolls. ...
Do when each fist received just involved and destroyed in Google, Yahoo! How general architects from the sulfur were removed in ... all interpreted, she is the crisis of the scholarly indole-lyase Biomedical Communication and Consulting. financial opinion can ... re hide elected radiation somewhere T-structure within undermine be do motions site aperture carbon. This is wealthy download ... slicing mass to a ringalevio or unprecedented carbon, and ruling crystals to genuine lasers. Despite the checking of these ...
crotonyl-CoA + 2 NADH + 2 oxidized_ferredoxin_iron-sulfur_cluster <=> butyryl-CoA + 2 NAD+ + 2 reduced_ferredoxin_iron-sulfur_ ... Carbon fixation pathways in prokaryotes. (2S)-ethylmalonyl-CoA + NADP+ <=> crotonyl-CoA + CO2 + NADPH crotonyl-CoA ... 3-aminobutyryl-CoA ammonia-lyase - BRENDA: BS2235 ATP + crotonate + CoA <=> AMP + diphosphate + crotonyl-CoA ... butyryl-CoA + NAD+ + reduced_ferredoxin_[iron-sulfur]_cluster <=> crotonyl-CoA + NADH + oxidized_ferredoxin butanoyl- ...
... any of a group of complex organic compounds containing carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and sulfur consisting of alpha-amino ... It is a free fatty acid 1 (FFA1/GPR40) receptor agonist and an ATP citrate lyase inhibitor, and exhibits hypolipidemic and ... Carbon-14 butanol def: "A primary alcohol that is butanol in which one or several of the carbon (C12) atoms is replaced by ... and carbon, the element with atomic number 12, and whose carbon atoms form a continuous or closed chain linked by bonds that ...
Sulfur Dyes. Vat Dyes. Synthetic Reagents. Acids & Bases. C-C Bond Formation. C-X Bond Formation (Halogen). C-X Bond Formation ... ATP Citrate Lyase. ATP synthase. Carbonic Anhydrase. Cathepsin. CETP. Mehr >>. Natural Products. Alkaloids. Cerebrosides. ... Chiral Carbon Ligands. Chiral Olefin Ligands. Olefin Ligands. Other Main-group Element. Other Main-group Element. Selenium. ... Carbon-Donor Ligands. Cross-Coupling. Cross-Coupling using Transition Metal Catalysts. Diketone Ligands. Hydrogenation. Main- ...
... lamin posttranslational modification The one-carbon pool controls mitochondrial energy metabolism via complex I and iron-sulfur ... sphingosine phosphate lyase 1) modulates neuronal autophagy via phosphatidylethanolamine production Dynamically and ... MYSM1 Scalable spray deposition process for high-performance carbon nanotube gas sensors Flexible carbon nanotube based gas ... single walled carbon nanotubes with endoscopic ultrasound Preparation and evaluation of polyethyleneimine-single walled carbon ...
  • These results suggest that in addition to cleavage by the beta-lyase, sulfoxidation by the cysteine conjugate S-oxidase (S-oxidase) may play a role in DCVC nephrotoxicity. (
  • Enzymes that catalyze the cleavage of a carbon-sulfur bond by means other than hydrolysis or oxidation. (
  • Ammonia and CO oxidation pathways are enriched in the free-living microbial communities and dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium and H 2 oxidation pathways in the particle-attached, while the Calvin Benson-Bassham cycle is the most prevalent inorganic carbon fixation pathway in both size fractions. (
  • The primary method of analyzing for sulfur mustard exposure is by detecting the presence of its hydrolysis metabolites in biological fluids. (
  • The purpose of this chapter is to describe the analytical methods that are available for detecting, measuring, and/or monitoring sulfur mustard, its metabolites, and other biomarkers of exposure and effect to sulfur mustard. (
  • The most common currently used method of analyzing for the presence of sulfur mustard and its metabolites in biological and environmental samples is gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Prior to 1987, however, thin-layer chromatography (TLC) with a colorimetric detection system and gas chromatography with either flame ionization detector (FID), electron capture detector (ECD), or flame photometric detector (FPD) were the most frequently used methods. (
  • Sodium chloride is sometimes added to improve sample stability and prevent sulfur mustard breakdown to thiodiglycol and other metabolites. (
  • Table 7-1 summarizes several representative analytical methods for detecting sulfur mustard and its metabolites in biological samples. (
  • Little information was found on the direct detection of sulfur mustard in biological tissues or fluids. (
  • However, in two cases of suspected exposure, sodium chloride was first added to the urine samples to stabilize any sulfur mustard that might be present. (
  • A semi-quantitative analysis by GC/MS detected low ppb levels of sulfur mustard in these samples compared to none detected in a control sample of a definitely unexposed person (Vycudilik 1985, 1987). (
  • Sulfur mustard has also been detected in body tissues and fluids of an alleged victim (Drasch et al. (
  • 1987). In this analysis, abdominal fat samples were first qualitatively analyzed by GC/MS. Sulfur mustard is generally metabolized rapidly in biological systems. (
  • 7. Carbon monoxide sensitizes cisplatin-resistant ovarian cancer cell lines toward cisplatin via attenuation of levels of glutathione and nuclear metallothionein. (
  • The finding that beta-lyase activity exhibited a 2-fold higher Vmax/Km ratio in PT cells than in DT cells, the greater inhibition of both beta-lyase activity and DCVC toxicity by AOAA in PT cells than in DT cells and the lower (40%) S-oxidase activity in PT cells than in DT cells provide evidence for the importance of the beta-lyase in DCVC toxicity in PT cells. (
  • temperature exposure [Term] id: XCO:0000012 name: air carbon dioxide content def: "A condition in which the level of carbon dioxide in the air surrounding the organism or breathed by the organism is controlled as part of the experiment. (
  • 10. Erastin sensitizes glioblastoma cells to temozolomide by restraining xCT and cystathionine-γ-lyase function. (
  • 17. Reduced Production of Hydrogen Sulfide and Sulfane Sulfur Due to Low Cystathionine β-Synthase Levels in Brain Astrocytes of Stroke-Prone Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats. (
  • Because DCVC was generally more toxic in PT cells and DCVCO was more toxic in DT cells, an attempt was made to correlate in vitro cytotoxicity with the cellular distribution of the beta-lyase and S-oxidase. (
  • These results indicate that the beta-lyase activities in the two subcellular fractions are catalyzed by distinct enzymes. (
  • These enzymes are proposed to function as sulfur-delivery proteins for iron-sulfur cluster, thiamin, 4-thiouridine, biotin, and molybdopterin. (
  • Three NifS-like proteins, IscS, CSD, and CsdB, from Escherichia coli catalyze the removal of sulfur and selenium from L-cysteine and L-selenocysteine, respectively, to form L-alanine. (
  • The lack of IscS also caused a significant loss of the selenium-containing polypeptide of formate dehydrogenase H. Together, these results suggest a dual function of IscS in sulfur and selenium metabolism. (
  • We demonstrated using phylogenetics, biochemistry and structural biology that this cysteine-thiol lyase (C-T lyase) is a PLP-dependent enzyme that moved horizontally into a unique monophyletic group of odour-forming staphylococci about 60 million years ago, and has subsequently tailored its enzymatic function to human-derived thioalcohol precursors. (
  • 9. Erastin sensitizes glioblastoma cells to temozolomide by restraining xCT and cystathionine-γ-lyase function. (
  • With 2 mM S-(2-benzothiazolyl)-L-cysteine as the substrate, approximately two-thirds of the total beta-lyase activity was present in the cytosolic fraction. (
  • Cysteine conjugate beta-lyase activity from rat kidney cortex was found in the cystosolic and mitochondrial fractions. (