A synthetic fluoroquinolone (FLUOROQUINOLONES) with broad-spectrum antibacterial activity against most gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. Norfloxacin inhibits bacterial DNA GYRASE.
The deliberate and methodical practice of finding new applications for existing drugs.
Databases devoted to knowledge about PHARMACEUTICAL PRODUCTS.
Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.
Ability of a microbe to survive under given conditions. This can also be related to a colony's ability to replicate.
The process of finding chemicals for potential therapeutic use.
Semi-synthetic derivative of penicillin that functions as an orally active broad-spectrum antibiotic.
A group of related disorders characterized by LYMPHOCYTOSIS; HISTIOCYTOSIS; and hemophagocytosis. The two major forms are familial and reactive.
Group of disorders which feature accumulations of active HISTIOCYTES and LYMPHOCYTES, but where the histiocytes are not LANGERHANS CELLS. The group includes HEMOPHAGOCYTIC LYMPHOHISTIOCYTOSIS; SINUS HISTIOCYTOSIS; xanthogranuloma; reticulohistiocytoma; JUVENILE XANTHOGRANULOMA; xanthoma disseminatum; as well as the lipid storage diseases (SEA-BLUE HISTIOCYTE SYNDROME; and NIEMANN-PICK DISEASES).
Disorders of the blood and blood forming tissues.
A family of proteins involved in intracellular membrane trafficking. They interact with SYNTAXINS and play important roles in vesicular docking and fusion during EXOCYTOSIS. Their name derives from the fact that they are related to Unc-18 protein, C elegans.
A mutation in which a codon is mutated to one directing the incorporation of a different amino acid. This substitution may result in an inactive or unstable product. (From A Dictionary of Genetics, King & Stansfield, 5th ed)
A calcium-dependent pore-forming protein synthesized in cytolytic LYMPHOCYTES and sequestered in secretory granules. Upon immunological reaction between a cytolytic lymphocyte and a target cell, perforin is released at the plasma membrane and polymerizes into transmembrane tubules (forming pores) which lead to death of a target cell.
Proteins secreted from an organism which form membrane-spanning pores in target cells to destroy them. This is in contrast to PORINS and MEMBRANE TRANSPORT PROTEINS that function within the synthesizing organism and COMPLEMENT immune proteins. These pore forming cytotoxic proteins are a form of primitive cellular defense which are also found in human LYMPHOCYTES.
The terms, expressions, designations, or symbols used in a particular science, discipline, or specialized subject area.
Biological molecules that possess catalytic activity. They may occur naturally or be synthetically created. Enzymes are usually proteins, however CATALYTIC RNA and CATALYTIC DNA molecules have also been identified.
International organizations which provide health-related or other cooperative services.
A discipline concerned with studying biological phenomena in terms of the chemical and physical interactions of molecules.
Databases devoted to knowledge about specific genes and gene products.
A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.
The interaction of persons or groups of persons representing various nations in the pursuit of a common goal or interest.
Free-floating minute organisms that are photosynthetic. The term is non-taxonomic and refers to a lifestyle (energy utilization and motility), rather than a particular type of organism. Most, but not all, are unicellular algae. Important groups include DIATOMS; DINOFLAGELLATES; CYANOBACTERIA; CHLOROPHYTA; HAPTOPHYTA; CRYPTOMONADS; and silicoflagellates.
Sulfur compounds in which the sulfur atom is attached to three organic radicals and an electronegative element or radical.
A family in the order Rhodobacterales, class ALPHAPROTEOBACTERIA.
Derivatives of propionic acid. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxyethane structure.
The salinated water of OCEANS AND SEAS that provides habitat for marine organisms.
The common name for the phylum of microscopic unicellular STRAMENOPILES. Most are aquatic, being found in fresh, brackish, and salt water. Diatoms are noted for the symmetry and sculpturing of their siliceous cell walls. They account for 40% of PHYTOPLANKTON, but not all diatoms are planktonic.
A genus of obligately aerobic marine phototrophic and chemoorganotrophic bacteria, in the family RHODOBACTERACEAE.
The study of microorganisms living in a variety of environments (air, soil, water, etc.) and their pathogenic relationship to other organisms including man.
An alcoholic beverage usually made from malted cereal grain (as barley), flavored with hops, and brewed by slow fermentation.
Any substance in the air which could, if present in high enough concentration, harm humans, animals, vegetation or material. Substances include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; and volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.
The planning of the furnishings and decorations of an architectural interior.
The surface of a structure upon which one stands or walks.
The study of microorganisms such as fungi, bacteria, algae, archaea, and viruses.
A general term for single-celled rounded fungi that reproduce by budding. Brewers' and bakers' yeasts are SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE; therapeutic dried yeast is YEAST, DRIED.
A subclass of enzymes of the transferase class that catalyze the transfer of an amino group from a donor (generally an amino acid) to an acceptor (generally a 2-keto acid). Most of these enzymes are pyridoxyl phosphate proteins. (Dorland, 28th ed) EC 2.6.1.
A class of enzymes that catalyze the cleavage of C-C, C-O, and C-N, and other bonds by other means than by hydrolysis or oxidation. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 4.
Enzymes that catalyze the cleavage of a carbon-sulfur bond by means other than hydrolysis or oxidation. EC 4.4.
A PYRIDOXAL PHOSPHATE containing enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of amino group of L-2-aminoadipate onto 2-oxoglutarate to generate 2-oxoadipate and L-GLUTAMATE.
All of the divisions of the natural sciences dealing with the various aspects of the phenomena of life and vital processes. The concept includes anatomy and physiology, biochemistry and biophysics, and the biology of animals, plants, and microorganisms. It should be differentiated from BIOLOGY, one of its subdivisions, concerned specifically with the origin and life processes of living organisms.

Heating garlic inhibits its ability to suppress 7, 12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene-induced DNA adduct formation in rat mammary tissue. (1/405)

The present studies compared the impact of heating, either by microwave or convection oven, on the ability of garlic to reduce the in vivo bioactivation of 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) in 55-d-old female Sprague-Dawley rats. In study 1, rats were fed a semipurified casein-based diet and treated by gastric gavage thrice weekly for 2-wk with crushed garlic (0.7 g in 2 mL corn oil) or the carrier prior to DMBA treatment (50 mg/kg body weight). Providing crushed garlic reduced by 64% (P < 0.05) the quantity DMBA-induced DNA adducts present in mammary epithelial cells compared to controls. In study 2, microwave treatment for 60 s, but not 30 s, decreased (P < 0.05) the protection provided by garlic against DMBA-induced adduct formation. In study 3, allowing crushed garlic to stand for 10 min prior to microwave heating for 60 s significantly (P < 0.05) restored its anticarcinogenic activity. Microwave heating of garlic for 30 s resulted in a 90% loss of alliinase activity. Heating in a convection oven (study 4) also completely blocked the ability of uncrushed garlic to retard DMBA bioactivation. Study 5 revealed that providing either 0.105 micromol diallyl disulfide or S-allyl cysteine by gastric gavage thrice weekly for 2 wk was effective in retarding DMBA bioactivation but isomolar alliin was not. These studies provide evidence that alliinase may be important for the formation of allyl sulfur compounds that contribute to a depression in DMBA metabolism and bioactivation.  (+info)

Hyperproduction of recombinant ferredoxins in escherichia coli by coexpression of the ORF1-ORF2-iscS-iscU-iscA-hscB-hs cA-fdx-ORF3 gene cluster. (2/405)

Fe-S proteins acquire Fe-S clusters by an unknown post-translational mechanism. To study the in vivo synthesis of the Fe-S clusters, we constructed an experimental system to monitor the expressed ferredoxin (Fd) as a reporter of protein-bound Fe-S clusters assembled in Escherichia coli. Overexpression of five Fds in a T7 polymerase-based system led to the formation of soluble apoFds and mature holoFds, indicating that assembly of the Fe-S cluster into apoFd polypeptides is a rate-limiting step. We examined the coexpression of the E. coli ORF1-ORF2-iscS-iscU-iscA-hscB-hsc A-fdx-ORF3 gene cluster, which has recently been suggested to be involved in the formation or repair of Fe-S protein [Zheng, L., Cash, V.L., Flint, D.H., and Dean, D.R. (1998) J. Biol. Chem. 273, 13264-13272], with reporter Fds using compatible plasmids. The production of all five reporter holoFds examined was dramatically increased by the coexpression of the gene cluster, and apparent specificity to the polypeptides or to the type of Fe-S clusters was not observed. The increase in holoFd production was observed under the coexpression conditions in all culture media examined, with either 2 x YT medium or Terrific broth, and with or without supplemental cysteine or iron. These results indicate that the proteins encoded by the gene cluster are involved in the assembly of the Fe-S clusters in a wide variety of Fe-S proteins.  (+info)

Glutathione-dependent metabolism of cis-3-(9H-purin-6-ylthio)acrylic acid to yield the chemotherapeutic drug 6-mercaptopurine: evidence for two distinct mechanisms in rats. (3/405)

cis-3-(9H-Purin-6-ylthio)acrylic acid (PTA) is a structural analog of azathioprine, a prodrug of the antitumor and immunosuppressive drug 6-mercaptopurine (6-MP). In this study, we examined the in vitro and in vivo metabolism of PTA in rats. Two metabolites of PTA, 6-MP and the major metabolite, S-(9H-purin-6-yl)glutathione (PG), were formed in a time- and GSH-dependent manner in vitro. Formation of 6-MP and PG occurred nonenzymatically, but 6-MP formation was enhanced 2- and 7-fold by the addition of liver and kidney homogenates, respectively. Purified rat liver glutathione S-transferases enhanced 6-MP formation from PTA by 1.8-fold, whereas human recombinant alpha, mu, and pi isozymes enhanced 6-MP formation by 1.7-, 1.3-, and 1.3-fold, respectively. In kidney homogenate incubations, PG accumulation was only observed during the first 15 min because of further metabolism by gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase, dipeptidase, and beta-lyase to yield 6-MP, as indicated by the use of the inhibitors acivicin and aminooxyacetic acid. Based on these results and other lines of evidence, two different GSH-dependent pathways are proposed for 6-MP formation: an indirect pathway involving PG formation and further metabolism to 6-MP, and a direct pathway in which PTA acts as a Michael acceptor. HPLC analyses of urine of rats treated i.p. with PTA (100 mg/kg) showed that 6-MP was formed in vivo and excreted in urine without apparent liver or kidney toxicity. Collectively, these studies show that PTA is metabolized to 6-MP both in vitro and in vivo and may therefore be a useful prodrug of 6-MP.  (+info)

Efficacy of recombinant methioninase in combination with cisplatin on human colon tumors in nude mice. (4/405)

The present treatment of colon cancer is based on 5-fluorouracil (5-FU). Despite promising results of combining leucovorin or levamisole with 5-FU, the 5-year survival rate of patients with advanced colon cancer has not increased significantly. Colon tumors in vitro have been shown previously to have an elevated requirement for methionine, suggesting a new therapeutic target. In this study, targeting the methionine dependence of colon tumors is effected by recombinant methioninase (rMETase), alone and in combination with cisplatin (CDDP). In vitro results demonstrated that CDDP and rMETase act synergistically on the human colon cancer cell line SW 620, with a combination index (CI) of 0.45, as well as on the human colon cancer cell line Colo 205 with a CI of 0.7. Human colon cancer lines HCT 15, HT 29, Colo 205, and SW 620 growing in nude mice were treated with rMETase to determine an effective dose for depletion of tumor methionine. rMETase at 15 units/g/day for 5 days depleted tumor methionine in all four tumor types to approximately 30% of untreated control. rMETase alone arrested growth of HCT 15 and HT29 in nude mice for 1 week after treatment termination. Colo 205 and SW 620 were partially arrested by rMETase. However, CDDP in combination with rMETase resulted in tumor regression of Colo 205 and growth arrest of SW 620 in nude mice. The ratio of the treated:control group (T:C) tumor weights for Colo 205 was 8% when CDDP was given on day-5, followed by treatment on days 5-9 with rMETase. This treatment schedule resulted in two of the six animals having no detectable tumor when the experiment was terminated on day 16. SW620 was resistant to CDDP alone and only partially sensitive to rMETase alone. However, when SW 620 was treated with rMETase from days-5 to -9 and CDDP on day-5, tumor growth was arrested. The results demonstrate that rMETase used simultaneously in combination with CDDP had significant antitumor efficacy in colon cancer in vitro and in vivo. The data suggest a novel and promising therapeutic approach by targeting the elevated methionine dependence of colon cancer.  (+info)

Metabolism of acrylate to beta-hydroxypropionate and its role in dimethylsulfoniopropionate lyase induction by a salt marsh sediment bacterium, Alcaligenes faecalis M3A. (5/405)

Dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) is degraded to dimethylsulfide (DMS) and acrylate by the enzyme DMSP lyase. DMS or acrylate can serve as a carbon source for both free-living and endophytic bacteria in the marine environment. In this study, we report on the mechanism of DMSP-acrylate metabolism by Alcaligenes faecalis M3A. Suspensions of citrate-grown cells expressed a low level of DMSP lyase activity that could be induced to much higher levels in the presence of DMSP, acrylate, and its metabolic product, beta-hydroxypropionate. DMSP was degraded outside the cell, resulting in an extracellular accumulation of acrylate, which in suspensions of citrate-grown cells was then metabolized at a low endogenous rate. The inducible nature of acrylate metabolism was evidenced by both an increase in the rate of its degradation over time and the ability of acrylate-grown cells to metabolize this molecule at about an eight times higher rate than citrate-grown cells. Therefore, acrylate induces both its production (from DMSP) and its degradation by an acrylase enzyme. (1)H and (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance analyses were used to identify the products resulting from [1-(13)C]acrylate metabolism. The results indicated that A. faecalis first metabolized acrylate to beta-hydroxypropionate outside the cell, which was followed by its intracellular accumulation and subsequent induction of DMSP lyase activity. In summary, the mechanism of DMSP degradation to acrylate and the subsequent degradation of acrylate to beta-hydroxypropionate in the aerobic beta-Proteobacterium A. faecalis has been described.  (+info)

Beta-cyanoalanine synthase: purification and characterization. (6/405)

Beta-cyano-L-alanine synthase [L-cysteine hydrogen-sulfide-lyase (adding HCN), EC 4.4.1.9] was purified about 4000-fold from blue lupine seedlings. The enzyme was homoegeneous on gel electrophoresis and free of contamination by other pyridoxal-P-dependent lyases. The enzyme has a molecular weight of 52,000 and contains 1 mole of pyridoxal-P per mole of protein; its isoelectric point is situated at pH 4.7. Its absorption spectrum has two maxima, at 280 and 410 nm. L-Cysteine is the natural primary (amino acid) substrate; beta-chloro- and beta-thiocyano can serve (with considerably lower affinity) instead of cyanide as cosubstrates for cyanoalanine synthase. The synthase is refractory to DL-cycloserine and D-penicillamine, potent inhibitors of many pyridoxal-P-dependent enzymes. Cyanoalanine synthase catalyzes slow isotopic alpha-H exchange in cysteine and in end-product amino acids; the rates of alpha-H exchange in nonreacted (excess) cysteine are markedly increased in the presence of an adequate cosubstrate; no exchange is observed of H atoms in beta-position.  (+info)

Cloning, expression, and cellular localization of a human prenylcysteine lyase. (7/405)

Prenylated proteins contain either a 15-carbon farnesyl or 20-carbon geranylgeranyl isoprenoid covalently attached to cysteine residues at or near their C terminus. These proteins constitute up to 2% of total cellular protein in eukaryotic cells. The degradation of prenylated proteins raises a metabolic challenge to the cell, because the thioether bond of the modified cysteine is quite stable. We recently identified and isolated an enzyme termed prenylcysteine lyase that cleaves the prenylcysteine to free cysteine and an isoprenoid product (Zhang, L., Tschantz, W. R., and Casey, P. J. (1997) J. Biol. Chem. 272, 23354-23359). To facilitate the molecular characterization of this enzyme, its cloning was undertaken. Overlapping cDNA clones encoding the complete coding sequence of this enzyme were obtained from a human cDNA library. The open reading frame of the gene encoding prenylcysteine lyase is 1515 base pairs and has a nearly ubiquitous expression pattern with a message size of 6 kilobase pairs. Recombinant prenylcysteine lyase was produced in a baculovirus-Sf9 expression system. Analysis of both the recombinant and native enzyme revealed that the enzyme is glycosylated and contains a signal peptide that is cleaved during processing. Additionally, the subcellular localization of this enzyme was determined to be lysosomal. These findings strengthen the notion that prenylcysteine lyase plays an important role in the final step in the degradation of prenylated proteins and will allow further physiological and biochemical characterization of this enzyme.  (+info)

Quorum sensing controls expression of the type III secretion gene transcription and protein secretion in enterohemorrhagic and enteropathogenic Escherichia coli. (8/405)

Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 and enteropathogenic E. coli cause a characteristic histopathology in intestinal cells known as attaching and effacing. The attaching and effacing lesion is encoded by the Locus of Enterocyte Effacement (LEE) pathogenicity island, which encodes a type III secretion system, the intimin intestinal colonization factor, and the translocated intimin receptor protein that is translocated from the bacterium to the host epithelial cells. Using lacZ reporter gene fusions, we show that expression of the LEE operons encoding the type III secretion system, translocated intimin receptor, and intimin is regulated by quorum sensing in both enterohemorrhagic E. coli and enteropathogenic E. coli. The luxS gene recently shown to be responsible for production of autoinducer in the Vibrio harveyi and E. coli quorum-sensing systems is responsible for regulation of the LEE operons, as shown by the mutation and complementation of the luxS gene. Regulation of intestinal colonization factors by quorum sensing could play an important role in the pathogenesis of disease caused by these organisms. These results suggest that intestinal colonization by E. coli O157:H7, which has an unusually low infectious dose, could be induced by quorum sensing of signals produced by nonpathogenic E. coli of the normal intestinal flora.  (+info)

Cysteine desulfurases abstract sulfur from the substrate cysteine, generate a covalent persulfide on the active site cysteine of the enzyme, and then donate the persulfide sulfur to various recipients such as Fe-S clusters. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the Nfs1p protein is the only known cysteine desulfurase, and it forms a complex with Isd11p (Nfs1p·Isd11p). Both of these proteins are found primarily in mitochondria and both are essential for cell viability. In the present study we show, using the results of experiments with isolated mitochondria and purified proteins, that Isd11p is required for the cysteine desulfurase activity of Nfs1p. Whereas Nfs1p by itself was inactive, the Nfs1p·Isd11p complex formed persulfide and was active as a cysteine desulfurase. In the absence of Isd11p, Nfs1p was able to bind the substrate cysteine but failed to form a persulfide. Addition of Isd11p allowed Nfs1p with bound substrate to generate a covalent persulfide. We suggest that Isd11p induces an ...
Buy Characterization of S-Ribosylhomocysteinase (Luxs) by Jinge Zhu for $249.99 at Mighty Ape NZ. S-Ribosylhomocysteinase (LuxS) catalyzes the cleavage of the thioether bond in S-ribosylhomocysteine to produce L- homocysteine and 4,5-dihydroxy-2,3-...
SufS is a type II cysteine desulfurase and acts as the initial step in the Suf Fe-S cluster assembly pathway. In Escherichia coli, this pathway is utilized under conditions of oxidative stress and is resistant to reactive oxygen species. Mechanistically, this means SufS must shift between protecting a covalent persulfide intermediate and making it available for transfer to the next protein partner in the pathway, SufE. Here, we report five X-ray crystal structures of SufS including a new structure of SufS containing an inward-facing persulfide intermediate on C364. Additional structures of SufS variants with substitutions at the dimer interface show changes in dimer geometry and suggest a conserved β-hairpin structure plays a role in mediating interactions with SufE. These new structures, along with previous HDX-MS and biochemical data, identify an interaction network capable of communication between active-sites of the SufS dimer coordinating the shift between desulfurase and transpersulfurase
The observed fate of compound A in humans and in rats indicates that it undergoes metabolism by the beta-lyase pathway (Figure 1). The beta-lyase pathway is a well-established bioactivation pathway for a range of nephrotoxic fluorinated alkenes, including chlorotrifluoroethylene, tetrafluoroethylene, hexafluoropropene, and 2-bromo-2-chloro-1,1-difluoroethylene, which is a degradation product of the anesthetic halothane. [30]The beta-lyase pathway involves glutathione S-conjugate formation, hydrolysis of the glutathione S-conjugates to the corresponding cysteine S-conjugates, and bioactivation by renal cysteine conjugate beta-lyase. The formation of compound A-derived mercapturates (compounds 6 and 7) indicates that compound A undergoes glutathione S-conjugate formation to give diasteriomeric S-[2-(fluoromethoxy)-1,1,3,3,3-pentafluoropropyl]glutathione (Figure 1, compound 2) and (E)- and (Z)-S-[2-(fluoromethoxy)-1,3,3,3-tetrafluoro-1-propenyl]glutathione (Figure 1, compound 3). Compounds 2 and 3 ...
Cysteine desulfurases mobilize the sulfur from L-cysteine to yield L-alanine, an essential step in sulfur metabolism for biosynthesis of a variety of sulfur-containing biomolecules. Component of the suf operon, which is activated and required under specific conditions such as oxidative stress and iron limitation. Acts as a potent selenocysteine lyase in vitro, that mobilizes selenium from L-selenocysteine. Selenocysteine lyase activity is however unsure in vivo.
1NI7: High-quality homology models derived from NMR and X-ray structures of E. coli proteins YgdK and Suf E suggest that all members of the YgdK/Suf E protein family are enhancers of cysteine desulfurases.
Fe-S clusters are iron-containing cofactors utilized by numerous proteins within several biological pathways essential to life. In eukaryotes, the primary pathway for Fe-S cluster production is the iron-sulfur cluster (ISC) pathway. The eukaryotic ISC pathway, localized primarily within the mitochondria, has been best characterized within Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In yeast, de novo Fe-S cluster formation is accomplished through coordinated assembly of the substrates iron and sulfur on the primary scaffold assembly protein
[ASAP] Changes in Protein Dynamics in Escherichia coli SufS Reveal a Possible Conserved Regulatory Mechanism in Type II Cysteine Desulfurase Systems
Cysteine Desulfurase; Involved In Iron-sulfur Cluster (Fe/S) Biogenesis And In Thio-modification Of Mitochondrial And Cytoplasmic TRNAs; Essential Protein Located Predominantly In Mitochondria
SWISS-MODEL Template Library (SMTL) entry for 4q76.1. Crystal structure of Nfs2 C384S mutant, the plastidial cysteine desulfurase from Arabidopsis thaliana
CSDb (Commodore 64 Scene Database) is a website which goal is to gather as much information and material about the scene around the commodore 64 computer - the worlds most popular home computer throughout time. Here you can find almost anything which was ever made for the commodore 64, and more is being added every day. As this website is scene related, you can mostly find demos, music and graphics made by the people who made the scene (the sceners), but you can also find a lot of the old classic games here. Try out the search box in the top right corner, or check out the CSDb main page for the latest additions ...
CSDb (Commodore 64 Scene Database) is a website which goal is to gather as much information and material about the scene around the commodore 64 computer - the worlds most popular home computer throughout time. Here you can find almost anything which was ever made for the commodore 64, and more is being added every day. As this website is scene related, you can mostly find demos, music and graphics made by the people who made the scene (the sceners), but you can also find a lot of the old classic games here. Try out the search box in the top right corner, or check out the CSDb main page for the latest additions ...
Looking for online definition of desulfurases in the Medical Dictionary? desulfurases explanation free. What is desulfurases? Meaning of desulfurases medical term. What does desulfurases mean?
Involved in the synthesis of autoinducer 2 (AI-2) which is secreted by bacteria and is used to communicate both the cell density and the metabolic potential of the environment. The regulation of gene expression in response to changes in cell density is called quorum sensing. Catalyzes the transformation of S-ribosylhomocysteine (RHC) to homocysteine (HC) and 4,5-dihydroxy-2,3-pentadione (DPD).
Autoinducer 2 (AI-2), a widespread by-product of the LuxS-catalyzed S-ribosylhomocysteine cleavage reaction in the activated methyl cycle, has been suggested to serve as an intra- and interspecies signaling molecule, but in many bacteria AI-2 control of gene expression is not completely understood. Particularly, we have a lack of knowledge about AI-2 signaling in the important human pathogens Staphylococcus aureus and S. epidermidis. To determine the role of LuxS and AI-2 in S. epidermidis, we analyzed genome-wide changes in gene expression in an S. epidermidis luxS mutant and after addition of AI-2 synthesized by over-expressed S. epidermidis Pfs and LuxS enzymes. Genes under AI-2 control included mostly genes involved in sugar, nucleotide, amino acid, and nitrogen metabolism, but also virulence-associated genes coding for lipase and bacterial apoptosis proteins. In addition, we demonstrate by liquid chromatography/mass-spectrometry of culture filtrates that the pro-inflammatory phenol-soluble modulin
Previous studies on Campylobacter jejuni have demonstrated the role of LuxS in motility, cytolethal distending toxin production, agglutination, and intestinal colonization; however, its direct involvement in virulence has not been reported. In this study, we demonstrate a direct role of luxS in the virulence of C. jejuni in two different animal hosts. The IA3902 strain, a highly virulent sheep abortion strain recently described by our laboratory, along with its isogenic luxS mutant and luxScomplement strains, was inoculated by the oral route into both a pregnant guinea pig virulence model and a chicken colonization model. In both cases, the IA3902luxS mutant demonstrated a complete loss of ability to colonize the intestinal tract. In the pregnant model, the mutant also failed to induce abortion, while the wild-type strain was highly abortifacient. Genetic complementation of the luxSgene fully restored the virulent phenotype in both models. Interestingly, when the organism was inoculated into guinea pigs
Quorum sensing is a process of bacterial cell-to-cell communication involving the production and detection of extracellular signaling molecules called autoinducers. Recently, it has been proposed that autoinducer-2 (AI-2), a furanosyl borate diester derived from the recycling of S-adenosyl-homocysteine (SAH) to homocysteine, serves as a universal signal for interspecies communication. In this study, 138 completed genomes were examined for the genes involved in the synthesis and detection of AI-2. Except for some symbionts and parasites, all organisms have a pathway to recycle SAH, either using a two-step enzymatic conversion by the Pfs and LuxS enzymes or a one-step conversion using SAH-hydrolase (SahH). 51 organisms including most Gamma-, Beta-, and Epsilonproteobacteria, and Firmicutes possess the Pfs-LuxS pathway, while Archaea, Eukarya, Alphaproteobacteria, Actinobacteria and Cyanobacteria prefer the SahH pathway. In all 138 organisms, only the three Vibrio strains had strong, bidirectional matches
Communication between bacterial cells is crucial for the coordination of diverse cellular processes that facilitate environmental adaptation and, in the case of pathogenic species, virulence. This is achieved by the secretion and detection of small signaling molecules called autoinducers, a process termed quorum sensing. To date, the only signaling molecule recognized by both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria is autoinducer 2 (AI-2), synthesized by the metabolic enzyme LuxS (S-ribosylhomocysteine lyase) as a by-product of the activated methyl cycle. Homologues of LuxS are ubiquitous in bacteria, suggesting a key role in interspecies, as well as intraspecies, communication. Gram-negative bacteria sense and respond to AI-2 via the Lsr ABC transporter system or by the LuxP/LuxQ phosphorelay system. However, homologues of these systems are absent from Gram-positive bacteria and the AI-2 receptor is unknown. Here we show that in the major human pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae, sensing of ...
Small inorganic assemblies of alternating ferrous/ferric iron and sulphide ions, so-called iron-sulphur (Fe-S) clusters, are probably nature‟s most ancient prosthetic groups. These multipurpose reactive centres are biosynthesised by dedicated Fe-S cluster assembly proteins which are conserved in the mitochondria of all eukaryotes. One of the early actors in Fe-S cluster biosynthesis is a cysteine desulphurase, Nfs1, which catalyses the release of elemental sulphur from cysteine and plays a key role in its transfer to a molecular scaffold. Recent work has discovered that these reactions require the involvement of a small adaptor protein, Isd11. Isd11 belongs to the LYR family of proteins and helps stabilise Nfs1 upon binding. In this Thesis, heterologous production of soluble yeast Nfs1 on its own as well as in complex with yeast Isd11 in E. coli is presented. In the absence of Nfs1, Isd11 aggregated in the form of inclusion bodies from which the in vitro recovery of soluble protein could not ...
Iron sulfur (Fe-S) clusters are cofactors in hundreds of proteins involved in multiple cellular processes, including mitochondrial respiration, the maintenance of genome stability, ribosome biogenesis and translation. Fe-S cluster biogenesis is performed by multiple enzymes that are highly conserved throughout evolution, and mutations in numerous biogenesis factors are now recognized to cause a wide range of previously uncategorized rare human diseases. Recently, a complex formed of components of the cytoplasmic Fe-S cluster assembly (CIA) machinery, consisting of CIAO1, FAM96B and MMS19, was found to deliver Fe-S clusters to a subset of proteins involved in DNA metabolism, but it was unclear how this complex acquired its fully synthesized Fe-S clusters, since Fe-S clusters have been alleged to be assembled de novo solely in the mitochondrial matrix ...
MetabolismBiosynthesis of cofactors, prosthetic groups, and carriersOtheriron-sulfur cluster biosynthesis transcriptional regulator SufR (TIGR02702; HMM-score: 13) ...
Whatever goes out on my methyl cycle w/o hormones (or with insecticides that intercept the hormones) - maybe CBS - I wanted to say that the strategy...
The Paracoccus denitrificans transcription factor FnrP has been characterized using artificial FNR-dependent promoter-lacZ fusion plasmids in Escherichia coli. FnrP can activate both class I and class II FNR-dependent promoters in response to anoxia but shows a marked preference for the class II promoter, where the FNR binding site is centered at -41.5 with respect to the transcription start site. FnrP was found to be inactive in an iscS mutant in vivo, demonstrating a requirement for cysteine desulfurase activity to assemble an iron-sulfur cluster in FnrP. Accordingly, an iron-sulfur cluster could be reconstituted into the purified protein in vitro using cysteine desulfurase, ferrous ions, and cysteine. Thus, FnrP is a true orthologue of FNR from E. coli and switches on target genes in response to anoxia. Inactivation of FnrP by oxygen very likely involves the oxidative disassembly of an iron-sulfur cluster. Possible ligands for the iron-sulfur cluster were identified by substituting each of ...
The Moco (molybdenum cofactor) sulfurase ABA3 from Arabidopsis thaliana catalyses the sulfuration of the Moco of aldehyde oxidase and xanthine oxidoreductase, which represents the final activation step of these enzymes. ABA3 consists of an N-terminal NifS-like domain that exhibits L-cysteine desulfurase activity and a C-terminal domain that binds sulfurated Moco. The strictly conserved Cys430 in the NifS-like domain binds a persulfide intermediate, which is abstracted from the substrate L-cysteine and finally needs to be transferred to the Moco of aldehyde oxidase and xanthine oxidoreductase. In addition to Cys⁴³⁰, another eight cysteine residues are located in the NifS-like domain, with two of them being highly conserved among Moco sulfurase proteins and, at the same time, being in close proximity to Cys⁴³⁰. By determination of the number of surface-exposed cysteine residues and the number of persulfide-binding cysteine residues in combination with the sequential substitution of each ...
The production of methane by methanogens is dependent on numerous iron-sulfur (Fe-S) cluster proteins; yet, the machinery involved in Fe-S cluster biogenesis in methanogens remains largely unknown. Methanogen genomes encode uncharacterized homologs of the core components of the ISC (IscS and IscU) and SUF (SufBC) Fe-S cluster biogenesis systems found in bacteria and eukaryotes. Methanosarcina acetivorans contains three iscSU and two sufCB gene clusters. Here, we report genetic and biochemical characterization of M. acetivorans iscSU2. Purified IscS2 exhibited pyridoxal 5′- phosphate-dependent release of sulfur from L-cysteine. Incubation of purified IscU2 with IscS2, cysteine, and iron (Fe2+) resulted in the formation of [4Fe-4S] clusters in IscU2. IscU2 transferred a [4Fe-4S] cluster to purified M. acetivorans apo-aconitase. IscU2 also restored the aconitase activity in air-exposed M. acetivorans cell lysate. These biochemical results demonstrate that IscS2 is a cysteine desulfurase and that IscU2 is
Members of this family are radical SAM domain (PF04055) enzymes with an N-terminal B12-binding domain (PF02310), as is fairly common for radical SAM enzymes with lipid substrates. However, both domains as found in this family seem to be long-branch and mostly score below the cutoffs for their respective HMMs. The function is unknown, but all cases a PLP-dependent enzyme (a cysteine desulfurase homolog) is found nearby ...
ASm Conferance on biofilm; Quebec City, 2007-03-25-2007-03-29. Vestby, Lene K.; Lönn-Stensrud, Jessica; Petersen, Fernanda Cristina; Scheie, Anne Aamdal; Møretrø, Trond; Langsrud, Solveig; Nesse, Live. ...
InterPro provides functional analysis of proteins by classifying them into families and predicting domains and important sites. We combine protein signatures from a number of member databases into a single searchable resource, capitalising on their individual strengths to produce a powerful integrated database and diagnostic tool.
Complete information for ISCUP1 gene (Pseudogene), Iron-Sulfur Cluster Assembly Enzyme Pseudogene 1, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
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Waco ISD encourages parents, businesses and community members to praise a teacher, staff member or student for a job well done. You may also express appreciation for an educational program or delight in an event you enjoyed attending.. Use this form to send your kudos. ...
Relationship between performance and activation level of operators in a load experiment. Studia psych. 24, 2, 1982, p. 115-125 (angle ...
Deficiency of a modified nucleoside in tRNA often mediates suppression of +1 frameshift mutations. In Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium strain TR970 (hisC3737), which requires histidine for growth, a potential +1 frameshifting site, CCC-CAA-UAA, exists within the frameshifting window created by insertion of a C in the hisC gene. This site may be suppressed by peptidyl-tRNAProcmo5UGG (cmo(5)U is uridine-5-oxyacetic acid), making a frameshift when decoding the near-cognate codon CCC, provided that a pause occurs by, e.g., a slow entry of the tRNAGlnmnm5s2UUG (mnm(5)s(2)U is 5-methylaminomethyl-2-thiouridine) to the CAA codon located in the A site. We selected mutants of strain TR970 that were able to grow without histidine, and one such mutant (iscS51) was shown to have an amino acid substitution in the L-cysteine desulfurase IscS. Moreover, the levels of all five thiolated nucleosides 2-thiocytidine, mnm(5)s(2)U, 5-carboxymethylaminomethyl-2-thiouridine, 4-thiouridine, and ...
Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are L-cysteine and [[[enzyme]-cysteine]], whereas its two products are L-alanine and [[[enzyme]-S-sulfanylcysteine]]. This enzyme belongs to the family of transferases, specifically the sulfurtransferases, which transfer sulfur-containing groups. The systematic name of this enzyme class is L-cysteine:[enzyme cysteine] sulfurtransferase. Other names in common use include IscS, NIFS, NifS, SufS, and cysteine desulfurylase. This enzyme participates in thiamine metabolism. ...
The kinetics of the interaction between the V-ATPase subunit (Vph1p) and the Vma12p/Vma22p assembly complex suggest that the interaction may occur only for the duration of the assembly of the membrane sector of the V-ATPase (Vo). According to this model, the Vma12p/ Vma22p assembly complex would release the assembled Vo sector, and the Vo sector and/or assembled V-ATPase complex would be loaded into ER-derived vesicles bound for the Golgi complex. To determine whether Vph1p would continue to associate with the assembly complex in the absence of membrane traffic out of the ER, we used a temperature sensitive allele, sec12-4, to block protein exit from the ER at the restrictive temperature (Nakano et al., 1988). The sec12-4 cells were grown at 23°C before the addition of [35S]methionine, and an aliquot of the cells was shifted to the nonpermissive temperature (37°C for 15 min) to induce the temperature-sensitive block. Cells were radiolabeled for 5 min and chased for various times after the ...
FIG. 6. Biofilm formation of S. mutans UA159 and its derivatives in BM medium. Crystal violet-stained 24-h biofilms of brpA (wells A5 to A7), ccpA (wells B4 and B5), and luxSSm (well B3) mutants and their parental strain UA159 (wells A2 and A4 and well B1). Wells A1 and B2 are uninoculated BM medium as negative control. The graphs show quantitation of the biofilms formed after 6 h (left) and 24 h (right) by ccpA (ccpA), brpA (brpA), and luxSsm (luxS) mutants and the wild-type (WT) strains. See the text for more details. Data are representative of no fewer than three separate experiments. The error bars represent standard deviations. ...
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When modelling the population of repressilator-containing bacteria in BSim, we used many of the same features as the model outlined in [2]. The repressilators themselves are modelled as a system of 7 ODEs; 3 ODEs representing the 3 different mRNA levels, 3 ODEs for the 3 corresponding proteins, and one ODE for the internal level of autoinducer. These are in turn coupled to an external spatially varying chemical field via the autoinducer term, which incorporates physically correct diffusion and degradation characteristics. For the modelling of the autoinducer behaviour, we made the assumption that the autoinducer in question was AHL as this is a common quorum signalling molecule. The parameters for diffusion (in space and through the cell wall) and decay were then set accordingly. The parameter governing the ratio between mRNA and protein degradation was chosen from a random distribution as in the first part of [2]. ...
4GO1: Structural Basis for Phosphorylated Autoinducer-2 Modulation of the Oligomerization State of the Global Transcription Regulator LsrR from Escherichia coli
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MetabolismBiosynthesis of cofactors, prosthetic groups, and carriersOtheriron-sulfur cluster assembly transcription factor IscR (TIGR02010; HMM-score: 20.8) ...
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Rat liver mitochondrial aspartate aminotransferase (a homodimer) was shown to catalyse a β-lyase reaction with three nephrotoxic halogenated cysteine S-conjugates [S-(1,1,2,2-tetrafluoroethyl)-l-cysteine, S-(1,2-dichlorovinyl)-l-cysteine and S-(2-chloro-1,1,2-trifluoroethyl)-l-cysteine], and less effectively so with a non-toxic cysteine S-conjugate [benzothiazolyl-l-cysteine]. Transamination competes with the β-lyase reaction, but is not favourable. The ratio of β elimination to transamination in the presence of S-(1,1,2,2-tetrafluoroethyl)-l-cysteine and 2-oxoglutarate is ,100. Syncatalytic inactivation by the halogenated cysteine S-conjugates is also observed. The enzyme turns over approx. 2700 molecules of halogenated cysteine S-conjugate on average for every monomer inactivated. Kidney mitochondria are known to be especially sensitive to toxic halogenated cysteine S-conjugates. Evidence is presented that 15-20% of the cysteine S-conjugate β-lyase activity towards ...
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The mitochondrial acyl-carrier protein (ACP) functions in the synthesis of fatty acids within the mitochondrial matrix. Fatty acids are elongated on the covalently bound 4-phosphopantetheine cofactor on ACP. ACP has a second essential function within the mitochondria in the biogenesis of iron-sulfur clusters. Cells depleted of ACP are impaired in FeS cluster formation throughout the cell. ACP is a stable subunit of the cysteine desulfurase (Nfs1) and Isd11 subcomplex that generates sulfide ions for FeS cluster formation. The FeS defect observed in cells depleted of ACP can be partially suppressed by overexpression of the mitochondrial iron transporter Mrs3. The stability of ACP is dependent of the iron status of mitochondria. Thus, the central role of Acp1 in mitochondrial fatty acid synthesis, lipoic acid formation and FeS cluster biogenesis suggests that these processes are tied to Fe availability within the mitochondria. ...
Numerous gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria produce and respond to AI-2 and, hence, LuxS-based signaling is thought to represent an important means of intergeneric communication. Furthermore, individual species regulate different aspects of metabolism and virulence factor expression in response to AI-2 (12, 15, 43, 58). In the present study, we show that S. gordonii possesses a functional luxS gene and that LuxS in this species controls aspects of carbohydrate metabolism and mixed-species biofilm formation with P. gingivalis. S. gordonii culture supernatant was capable of inducing bioluminescence in a V. harveyi AI-2 reporter strain; however, the level of induction was significantly lower than that obtained with homologous V. harveyi signal. This does not appear to be the result of medium-dependent interference but may instead be related to the levels of AI-2 production by S. gordonii. Alternatively, the structure of the LuxS-derived signal may differ between S. gordonii and V. harveyi. ...
The Opposition leaders protested and tried to stop the Governor outside Himachal Pradesh Assembly. They tried to stop HP Governor Bandaru Dattatreya in Shimla on February 26. He was allegedly manhandled by some Congress members in the Assembly complex. First Information Report (FIR) has been registered against five suspended MLAs in Boileauganj Police Station of Shimla in the matter. More details are awaited in this regard.
Results: Alliin enhanced the dehydrogenase activity of the enzyme. It slightly reduced the Km and significantly enhanced the Vmax value. At 1 μM alliin concentration, the initial reaction rate increased by about two times. Further, it enhanced the hsALDH esterase activity. Biophysical studies indicated a strong complex formation between the enzyme and alliin (binding constant, Kb: 2.35 ± 0.14 x 103 M-1). It changes the secondary structure of hsALDH. Molecular docking study indicated that alliin interacts to the enzyme near the substrate binding region involving some active site residues that are evolutionary conserved. There was a slight increase in the nucleophilicity of active site cysteine in the presence of alliin. Ligand efficiency metrics values indicate that alliin is an efficient ligand for the enzyme ...
You are viewing an interactive 3D depiction of the molecule 5-(6-oxo-3,6-dihydro-9h-purin-9-yl)-2,3-pentanedione (C10H17N4O3+) from the PQR.
Shadab Anwar, Krishn P.Singh, Asif Equbal, Shashi S. Suman, Amir Zaidi, T. Nozaki, A.K Roy, Pradeep Das, and Vahab Ali (2012). In vivo & In-Silico analysis of EhNbp and EhCfd interaction involved in Fe-S clusters assembly of E. histolytica. 81thAnnual Meeting of the Society of Biological Chemists (India), 08-11th Nov., BIF-09, pp-72, Kolkata, India.. ...
SWISS-MODEL Repository entry for A1C4X8 (CFD1_ASPCL), Cytosolic Fe-S cluster assembly factor cfd1. Aspergillus clavatus (strain ATCC 1007 / CBS 51365 / DSM 816 / NCTC 3887 /NRRL 1)
Even though bacteria live their lives as single-celled entities, they still need to keep up to date with what their neighbors, friendly and otherwise, are doing. In a process called quorum sensing, Vibrio harveyi monitors its surroundings via two protein phosphorylation pathways that produce and detect autoinducers 1 and 2 (AI-1 and AI-2). The first is restricted to V. harveyi and a close relative, whereas the second is found in a wide variety of both Gram-negative and Gram-positive species. Mok et al. identify a number of target genes whose expression is regulated by AI-2. From an analysis of the responses of these genes to combinations of AI-1 and AI-2, they propose that this pair of pathways may serve as a coincidence detector, primarily designed to signal the presence of both inducers and, in essence, acting as an AND gate. - GJC. EMBO J.22, 870 (2003).. ...
Q9CQF9.1,Pcyox1,Pcyox1, prenylcysteine oxidase 1 [Source:MGI Symbol;Acc:MGI:1914131]Mice homozygous for a knock-out allele are viable, fertile and free of obvious pathology despite a striking accumulation of both farnesylcysteine and geranylgeranylcysteine in brain and liver., , ,
Solgar L-Methionine - L-Methionine: It is a sulphur-containing amino acid with antioxidant properties. L-Methionine is important for healthy nails and skin and for the synthesis of Taurine, L-Cysteine, Phosphatidylcholine (Lecithin), bile, L-Carnitin
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NFSv4: Clean up the OPEN/CLOSE serialisation code Reduce the time spent locking the rpc_sequence structure by queuing the nfs_seqid only when we are ready to take the lock (when calling nfs_wait_on_sequence). Signed-off-by: Trond Myklebust ,[EMAIL PROTECTED], --- fs/nfs/nfs4proc.c , 30 +++++++++++------------------- fs/nfs/nfs4state.c , 32 ++++++++++++++++---------------- 2 files changed, 27 insertions(+), 35 deletions(-) diff --git a/fs/nfs/nfs4proc.c b/fs/nfs/nfs4proc.c index 9e2e1c7..a51a753 100644 --- a/fs/nfs/nfs4proc.c +++ b/fs/nfs/nfs4proc.c @@ -3331,15 +3331,12 @@ static struct nfs4_lockdata *nfs4_alloc_lockdata(struct file_lock *fl, p-,arg.fh = NFS_FH(inode); p-,arg.fl = &p-,fl; - if (!(lsp-,ls_seqid.flags & NFS_SEQID_CONFIRMED)) { - p-,arg.open_seqid = nfs_alloc_seqid(&lsp-,ls_state-,owner-,so_seqid); - if (p-,arg.open_seqid == NULL) - goto out_free; - - } + p-,arg.open_seqid = nfs_alloc_seqid(&lsp-,ls_state-,owner-,so_seqid); + if (p-,arg.open_seqid == NULL) + goto out_free; ...
With our experience in sulfur chemistry we were able to contribute to the development of a molybdenum-catalyzed sulfur transfer reaction from elemental sulfur to isonitriles and reactive alkenes [111, 115]. Such S-transfer reactions have only a small thermodynamic driving force and are therefore more difficult to achieve than the corresponding O-tranfers [112]. ...
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Expression of YBX1 (BP-8, CSDA2, CSDB, DBPB, MDR-NF1, NSEP-1, NSEP1, YB-1, YB1) in cancer tissue. The cancer tissue page shows antibody staining of the protein in 20 different cancers.
Expression of YBX1 (BP-8, CSDA2, CSDB, DBPB, MDR-NF1, NSEP-1, NSEP1, YB-1, YB1) in kidney tissue. Antibody staining with HPA040304 and CAB005875 in immunohistochemistry.
TadABC complex; the Flp pilus assembly complex, consisting of one ATPase component, TadA or CpaF, and two membrane components, TadB (218 aas and 3 - 5 TMSs) and TadC (200 aas and 2 N- and C-terminal TMSs) (Bottacini et al. 2017 ...
The essentielle amino acid L-methionine CLEANSES the body of heavy metals + enhances the immune system ✓ + psychology ✓ Studies about top amino acids here!
This enzyme belongs to the family of ligases, specifically those forming carbon-sulfur bonds as acid-thiol ligases. This enzyme participates in biotin metabolism.
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In the case of methionine, the methyl carbon is derived from serine and the sulfur group, but in most organisms, it is derived ... SAICAR lyase removes the carbon skeleton of the added aspartate, leaving the amino group and forming 5-aminoimidazole-4- ... For all standard amino acids, except glycine, the α-carbon is a chiral center. In the case of glycine, the α-carbon has two ... Proline has a functional group on the α-carbon that forms a ring with the amino group. One major step in amino acid ...
Carbon disulfide hydrolase EC 3.13.1.6: [[[CysO sulfur-carrier protein]-S-L-cysteine hydrolase]] EC 3.13.1.7: Carbonyl sulfide ... The activity is most probably attributable to EC 4.4.1.21, S-ribosylhomocysteine lyase EC 3.13.1.3: 2'-hydroxybiphenyl-2- ... citrate lyase deacetylase EC 3.1.2.17: (S)-methylmalonyl-CoA hydrolase EC 3.1.2.18: ADP-dependent short-chain-acyl-CoA ...
... cleave carbon-nitrogen bonds EC 4.4 includes lyases that cleave carbon-sulfur bonds EC 4.5 includes lyases that cleave carbon- ... Lyases can be further classified into seven subclasses: EC 4.1 includes lyases that cleave carbon-carbon bonds, such as ... oxo acid lyases (EC 4.1.3), and others (EC 4.1.99) EC 4.2 includes lyases that cleave carbon-oxygen bonds, such as dehydratases ... this reaction was first classified as a lyase (EC 4.2.99.9), but was then reclassified as a transferase (EC 2.5.1.48). Lyases ...
Carbon disulfide hydrolase EC 3.13.1.6: (CysO sulfur-carrier protein)-S-L-cysteine hydrolase EC 3.13.1.7: Carbonyl sulfide ... EC 4.3.1 Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (EC 4.3.1.24) Category:EC 4.4.1 Cystathionine gamma-lyase Cystathionine beta-lyase ... lyase) ligase EC 6.2.1.23: Dicarboxylate-CoA ligase EC 6.2.1.24: Phytanate-CoA ligase EC 6.2.1.25: Benzoate-CoA ligase EC 6.2. ... with an iron-sulfur protein as acceptor) Category:EC 1.5.8 (with a flavin as acceptor) Category:EC 1.5.99 (with other acceptors ...
... are photoautotrophs: they not only get energy from light, they can grow using carbon dioxide as their ... 2Fdox ATP citrate lyase: ACL, acetyl-CoA + oxaloacetate + ADP + Pi ⇌ citrate + CoA + ATP α-keto-glutarate:ferredoxin ... They are autotrophs that utilize the reverse tricarboxylic acid cycle to perform carbon fixation. Green sulfur bacteria have ... They fix carbon dioxide using the reverse tricarboxylic acid cycle (rTCA) cycle where energy is consumed to reduce carbon ...
The sox gene cluster, sqr gene and sorAB genes were also noted, and are involved in the sulfur oxidation protein complex, ... This is the first case of non-Calvin-type pathway that is utilized to convert carbon dioxide into cellular components. In ... First, citryl-coA synthetase catalyzes the formation of citryl-CoA, which is immediately cleaved by citryl-CoA lyase. It was ... In addition, it is an obligate chemolithoautotroph, and so genes commonly used in carbon fixation were present. Genes that ...
Cox, J. M.; Owen, L. N. (1967). "Cyclic hemithioacetals: analogues of thiosugars with sulphur in the ring". Journal of the ... With four substituents on carbon, hemithioacetals are chiral. A related functional group is dithiohemiacetal, with the formula ... A hemithioacetal is also invoked in the mechanism of prenylcysteine lyase. In catalytic mechanism, S-farnesylcysteine is ... "Biologically oriented organic sulfur chemistry. II. Formation of hemimercaptals or hemimercaptoles (.alpha.-hydroxy sulfides) ...
... form carbon-oxygen bonds EC 6.2 includes ligases used to form carbon-sulfur bonds EC 6.3 includes ligases used to form carbon- ... It is also said that a synthase is a lyase (a lyase is an enzyme that catalyzes the breaking of various chemical bonds by means ... EC 6.4 includes ligases used to form carbon-carbon bonds EC 6.5 includes ligases used to form phosphoric ester bonds EC 6.6 ...
... carbon-carbon double bond isomerases MeSH D08.811.399.475.400.700 - steroid isomerases MeSH D08.811.399.475.800 - sulfur-sulfur ... chondroitin lyases MeSH D08.811.520.241.700.350.500.500 - chondroitin abc lyase MeSH D08.811.520.241.700.512 - heparin lyase ... tyrosine phenol-lyase MeSH D08.811.520.232.300 - amidine-lyases MeSH D08.811.520.232.300.200 - adenylosuccinate lyase MeSH ... ammonia-lyases MeSH D08.811.520.232.400.200 - aspartate ammonia-lyase MeSH D08.811.520.232.400.350 - ethanolamine ammonia-lyase ...
Adenine is bound to a cyclic ribose at the 1' carbon, while phosphate is bound to the ribose at the 5' carbon to form the ... All glutamate syntheses are iron-sulfur flavoproteins containing an iron-sulfur cluster and FMN. The three classes of glutamate ... Prenylcysteine lyase (PCLase) catalyzes the cleavage of prenylcysteine (a protein modification) to form an isoprenoid aldehyde ... The final two mechanisms show nucleophilic addition and a reaction using a carbon radical. FAD plays a major role as an enzyme ...
Increased H 2S levels within the body will react with oxygen to produce sulfane sulfur, a storage intermediate for H 2S. H 2S ... Only two other such gases are currently known: nitric oxide (NO) and carbon monoxide (CO).) The gas is produced from cysteine ... by the enzymes cystathionine beta-synthase and cystathionine gamma-lyase. It acts as a relaxant of smooth muscle and as a ...
Category:EC 4.4 (carbon-sulfur lyases)Edit. *Category:EC 4.4.1 *Cystathionine gamma-lyase ... Category:Lyases (EC 4) (Lyase)Edit. Category:EC 4.1 (carbon-carbon lyases)Edit. *Category:EC 4.1.1 *Ornithine decarboxylase (EC ... 4 Category:Lyases (EC 4) (Lyase) *4.1 Category:EC 4.1 (carbon-carbon lyases) ... Category:EC 4.3 (carbon-nitrogen lyases)Edit. *Category:EC 4.3.1 *Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (EC 4.3.1.24) ...
... thus enhancing carbon fixation. Mutants that lack genes coding for the carboxysome shell display a high carbon requiring ... The presence of iron-sulfur clusters in some shell proteins, presumably in the central pore, has led to the suggestion that ... Ethanolamine is cleaved to ammonia and acetaldehyde through the action of ethanolamine-ammonia lyase, which also requires ... and carbonic anhydrase in carbon-fixing bacteria as part of a carbon concentrating mechanism. Bicarbonate is pumped into the ...
1013 g sulfur to the atmosphere annually and plays a major part in the global sulfur cycle, which can affect cloud formation ... The ability to form large blooms and its ubiquity make Phaeocystis an important contributor to the ocean carbon cycle. In ... J, Stefels; L, Dijkhuizen; WWC, Gieskes (1995-07-20). "DMSP-lyase activity in a spring phytoplankton bloom off the Dutch coast ... "Importance of Phaeocystis blooms in the high-latitude ocean carbon cycle". Nature. 352 (6335): 514-516. Bibcode:1991Natur.352.. ...
The term is applied to, for example, oxygen, carbon dioxide, nitric oxide, carbon monoxide, hydrogen sulfide, sulfur dioxide, ... The gas is produced from cysteine by the enzymes cystathionine beta-synthase and cystathionine gamma-lyase. It acts as a ... The role of sulfur dioxide in mammalian biology is not yet well understood. Sulfur dioxide blocks nerve signals from the ... Carbon suboxide, C3O2, can be produced in small amounts in any biochemical process that normally produces carbon monoxide, CO, ...
The deprotonated amino group of serine is now a good nucleophile that attacks the Lys-PLP Schiff base at the C4 carbon (shown ... The β enzymes are all lyases and catalyze reactions where Cα and Cβ participate. Overall, in the PLP-dependent enzymes, the PLP ... The reason that SDH activity is inhibited by L-cysteine is because an inorganic sulfur is created from L-Cysteine via Cystine ... In general, beta-eliminations involve the removal of a halide and a proton from the adjacent beta-carbon to give a double bond ...
6.2: Carbon-Sulfur. *Succinyl coenzyme A synthetase. *Acetyl-CoA synthetase. *Long-chain-fatty-acid-CoA ligase ...
6.2: Carbon-Sulfur. *Succinyl coenzyme A synthetase. *Acetyl-CoA synthetase. *Long-chain-fatty-acid-CoA ligase ... This enzyme belongs to the family of ligases, specifically those forming carbon-nitrogen bonds carbon-nitrogen ligases with ...
6.2: Carbon-Sulfur. *Succinyl coenzyme A synthetase. *Acetyl-CoA synthetase. *Long-chain-fatty-acid-CoA ligase ... EC4 Lyases (list). *EC5 Isomerases (list). *EC6 Ligases (list). *EC7 Translocases (list) ...
The integration of sulfur is positively regulated by CysB. Effective inducers of this regulon are N-acetyl-serine (NAS) and ... Aspartic acid is produced by the addition of ammonia to fumarate using a lyase.[22] ... Bridgers WF (1970). "The relationship of the metabolic regulation of serine to phospholipids and one-carbon metabolism". ... Cystathionine-β-lyase (in mammals, this step is performed by homocysteine methyltransferase or betaine-homocysteine S- ...
Adenylosuccinate lyase deficiency Extremophile Guthrie test YlbH leader Euzéby JP (2008). "Bacillus". List of Prokaryotic names ... and malt waste can be used as their carbon source for lower-cost PHA production.[citation needed] It is used to produce ... "The FsrA sRNA and FbpB Protein Mediate the Iron-Dependent Induction of the Bacillus subtilis LutABC Iron-Sulfur-Containing ...
... harbor specific bacterial populations expressing DMSP-lyases. DMSP is a sulfur compound that exhibit, among other things, a ... After forced diffusion of CO2 (carbon dioxide) gas into seawater, the dissolved CO2 concentration increases until the medium is ... no DMSP-lyase activity was measured in cultures of Tetraselmsis convolutae alone. Bacterial DMSP-lyase activity has been ... In the tissues of the animal, the micro-algae produces a sulfur compound, DMSP (dimethylsulfoniopropionate), which also ...
Peptide lyases[edit]. A seventh catalytic type of proteolytic enzymes, asparagine peptide lyase, was described in 2011. Its ... Sims GK, Wander MM (2002). "Proteolytic activity under nitrogen or sulfur limitation". Appl. Soil Ecol. 568: 1-5.. ... Bacterial and fungal proteases are particularly important to the global carbon and nitrogen cycles in the recycling of proteins ... Asparagine peptide lyases - using an asparagine to perform an elimination reaction (not requiring water) ...
... carbon-monoxide dehydrogenase (cytochrome b-561) EC 1.2.3.1: aldehyde oxidase EC 1.2.3.2: now *EC 1.1.3.22 EC 1.2.3.3: pyruvate ... sulfur reductase EC 1.97.1.4: (formate-C-acetyltransferase)-activating enzyme EC 1.97.1.5: now *EC 1.20.4.1 EC 1.97.1.6: now * ... chlorite O2-lyase EC 1.13.11.50: acetylacetone-cleaving enzyme EC 1.13.11.51: 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase EC 1.13.11.52: ... sulfur dioxygenase EC 1.13.11.19: cysteamine dioxygenase EC 1.13.11.20: cysteine dioxygenase EC 1.13.11.21: now *EC 1.14.99.36 ...
... sulfur compounds, such as sulfates, sulfites, sulfur dioxide, and elemental sulfur; carbon dioxide; iron compounds; manganese ... Excess citrate is exported from the mitochondrion back into the cytosol, where ATP citrate lyase regenerates acetyl-CoA and ... Electrons delocalized in the carbon-carbon bond cleavage associate with the alcohol group. The resulting carbanion is ... It can also behave as a kinase (PFK2) adding a phosphate onto carbon-2 of F6P which produces F2,6BP. In humans, the TIGAR ...
Iron-sulfur clusters[edit]. Further information: Iron-sulfur protein. Iron-sulfur clusters are complexes of iron and sulfur ... 2-carbon groups, α cleavage. Bacteria, archaea and eukaryotes NAD+ and NADP+ [31]. Niacin (B3). ADP. Electrons. Bacteria, ... Meyer J (February 2008). "Iron-sulfur protein folds, iron-sulfur chemistry, and evolution". J. Biol. Inorg. Chem. 13 (2): 157- ... A simple [Fe2S2] cluster containing two iron atoms and two sulfur atoms, coordinated by four protein cysteine residues. ...
Aconitase is one of several iron-sulfur-containing (de)hydratases in metabolic pathways shown to be inactivated by superoxide.[ ... SOD2 knockout or null mutations cause growth inhibition on respiratory carbon sources in addition to decreased post-diauxic ... EC4 Lyases (list). *EC5 Isomerases (list). *EC6 Ligases (list). *EC7 Translocases (list) ...
... was named by the Williams team as "thio" or "sulfur-containing vitamin", with the term "vitamin" coming indirectly, by ... where it accumulates as a result of carbon starvation.[47] In E. coli, AThTP may account for up to 20% of total thiamine. It ... 2-hydroxyphytanoyl-CoA lyase. *transketolase. *Present in some species: *pyruvate decarboxylase (in yeast) ... ThDP is a coenzyme for several enzymes that catalyze the transfer of two-carbon units and in particular the dehydrogenation ( ...
6.2: Carbon-Sulfur. *Succinyl coenzyme A synthetase. *Acetyl-CoA synthetase. *Long-chain-fatty-acid-CoA ligase ...
... because of the presence of sulfur (resp. selenium) as a second neighbor to the asymmetric carbon. The remaining chiral amino ... The enzyme cystathionine gamma-lyase converts the cystathionine into cysteine and alpha-ketobutyrate. In plants and bacteria, ... Precursor to iron-sulfur clusters[edit]. Cysteine is an important source of sulfide in human metabolism. The sulfide in iron- ... The sulfur is derived from methionine, which is converted to homocysteine through the intermediate S-adenosylmethionine. ...
6.2: Carbon-Sulfur. *Succinyl coenzyme A synthetase. *Acetyl-CoA synthetase. *Long-chain-fatty-acid-CoA ligase ...
The basic residue or cofactor deprotonates the alpha carbon, and FAD accepts the hydride from the beta carbon, oxidizing the ... Succinate dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] iron-sulfur subunit, mitochondrial. Pfam PF13085, Pfam PF13183 3. SdhC. C560_HUMAN. ... EC4 Lyases (list). *EC5 Isomerases (list). *EC6 Ligases (list). *EC7 Translocases (list) ... The first two subunits, a flavoprotein (SdhA) and an iron-sulfur protein (SdhB), form a hydrophilic head where enzymatic ...
... which bind the sulfur of cysteine's thio (i.e. SH) residue in the tripeptide glutamate-cysteine-glycine to carbon 6 of LTA4 ... at carbon 5 of its 1,4 diene group (i.e. its 5Z,8Z double bonds) to form 5(S)-hydroperoxy-6E,8Z,11Z,14Z-eicosatetraenoic acid ( ... is identical to AA except that has a single rather than double bond between its 15th and 16th carbon. ALOX5 metabolizes mead ...
Carbon fixation and G3P synthesis. The Calvin cycle starts by using the enzyme RuBisCO to fix CO2 into five-carbon Ribulose ... Chloroplasts alone make almost all of a plant cell's amino acids in their stroma[158] except the sulfur-containing ones like ... "Subcellular Distribution of O-Acetylserine(thiol)lyase in Cauliflower (Brassica oleracea L.) Inflorescence". Plant Physiology ... They store CO2 in a four-carbon compound, which is why the process is called C4 photosynthesis. The four-carbon compound is ...
In the case of methionine, the methyl carbon is derived from serine and the sulfur group, but in most organisms, it is derived ... SAICAR lyase removes the carbon skeleton of the added aspartate, leaving the amino group and forming 5-aminoimidazole-4- ... For all standard amino acids, except glycine, the α-carbon is a chiral center. In the case of glycine, the α-carbon has two ... Proline has a functional group on the α-carbon that forms a ring with the amino group. One major step in amino acid ...
... cleave carbon-nitrogen bonds EC 4.4 includes lyases that cleave carbon-sulfur bonds EC 4.5 includes lyases that cleave carbon- ... Lyases can be further classified into seven subclasses: EC 4.1 includes lyases that cleave carbon-carbon bonds, such as ... oxo acid lyases (EC 4.1.3), and others (EC 4.1.99) EC 4.2 includes lyases that cleave carbon-oxygen bonds, such as dehydratases ... this reaction was first classified as a lyase (EC 4.2.99.9), but was then reclassified as a transferase (EC 2.5.1.48). Lyases ...
3.13 Acting on carbon-sulfur bonds (52 organisms) EC class 4", WIDTH, 550, FGCOLOR, "#ffffff", TEXTSIZE, "10px", CAPTIONSIZE, " ... 4 Lyases (5139 organisms) EC class 5", WIDTH, 550, FGCOLOR, "#ffffff", TEXTSIZE, "10px", CAPTIONSIZE, "12px", BORDER, 1); ... 3.7 Acting on carbon-carbon bonds (173 organisms) EC subclass 3.8", WIDTH, 550, FGCOLOR, "#ffffff", TEXTSIZE, "10px", ... 3.11 Acting on carbon-phosphorus bonds (49 organisms) 3.11.1 Acting on carbon-phosphorus bonds (only sub-subclass identified to ...
Putative protein predicted to have carbon-sulfur lyase activity; transcriptionally regulated by Upc2p via an upstream sterol ...
Epidithiol formation by an unprecedented twin carbon-sulfur lyase in the gliotoxin pathway. Angew Chem Int Ed Engl 51(40), ... Reconstitution of enzymatic carbon-sulfur bond formation reveals detoxification-like strategy in fungal toxin biosynthesis. ACS ... A dedicated glutathione S-transferase mediates carbon-sulfur bond formation in gliotoxin biosynthesis. J Am Chem Soc 133(32), ...
... sf 4.4.1 Carbon-sulfur lyases enzyme_commission Highly Informative supra_sf 1.3.1.12 Prephenate dehydrogenase enzyme_commission ... sf 6.3.4 Other carbon--nitrogen ligases enzyme_commission Moderately Informative supra_sf 4.1 Carbon-carbon lyases enzyme_ ... sf 4.2 Carbon-oxygen lyases enzyme_commission Moderately Informative supra_sf 3.6.4 Acting on acid anhydrides; involved in ... sf 4.2.99 Other carbon-oxygen lyases enzyme_commission Highly Informative supra_sf 6.1.1.10 Methionine--tRNA ligase enzyme_ ...
... arsenate or sulfur as a primary electron acceptor. These organic acids could be utilized as energy and carbon sources via the ... that the inability of autotrophy via a reductive tricarboxylic acid cycle may be due to the lack of ATP-dependent citrate lyase ... One carbon pool by folate. Carbon fixation pathways in prokaryotes. Thiamine metabolism. Riboflavin metabolism. Pantothenate ... Many genes encoded in the genome are most similar to the genes of sulphur- or sulphate-reducing bacterial species. The central ...
Lyases. 0.02354. 0.4169. Least Informative. INHERITED FROM: Carbon-sulfur lyases ,, Leukotriene-C(4) synthase. ... Lyases. 0.005452. 0.6918. Least Informative. INHERITED FROM: Leukotriene-C(4) synthase ,, Carbon-sulfur lyases. ... Carbon-sulfur lyases. 1. Highly Informative. Inherited. Document: EC annotation of SCOP domains. Jump to [ Top of page · SCOP ... Carbon-sulfur lyases. 0.00000000002029. 1.782. --. DIRECT. Enzyme Commission (EC). Transferases. 0.08074. 0. --. INHERITED FROM ...
Yes, rainwater is naturally acidic due to the presence of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere . Chemicals such as sulfur dioxide, ... and phenylalanine ammonia lyase (an important enzyme at the start of the phenylpropanoid pathway that leads to the synthesis of ... The chemicals responsible for the pollution include carbon, sulfur, and nitrogen oxides. Greg Anderson, Bates College, ... Automobiles: Petrol on combustion produces carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons, nitrogen oxides, aldehydes, sulphur compounds, ...
Lack of isocitrate lyase in Chlamydomonas leads to changes in carbon metabolism and in the response to oxidative stress under ... Sulphur responsiveness of the Chlamydomonas reinhardtii LHCBM9 promoter.. Sawyer AL, Hankamer BD, Ross IL., Planta 241(5), 2015 ... The metabolome of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii following induction of anaerobic H2 production by sulfur depletion.. Matthew T, ... To obtain a detailed picture of sulphur deprivation induced H2 production in microalgae, metabolome analyses were performed ...
... sulfur clusters and their importance for the biosynthesis, assembly, and activity of complex metalloenzymes in this Special ... Sulfur for Life”, we wanted to emphasize the link between iron– ... sulfur, carbon and hydrogen, biosynthesis of antibiotics, gene regulation, protein translation, replication and DNA repair, ... The review on formate dehydrogenase is complemented by an original research article on the formate-hydrogen-lyase (FHL) complex ...
Metabolomic profiling of the purple sulfur bacterium Allochromatium vinosum during growth on different reduced sulfur compounds ... Trehalose 6-phosphate coordinates organic and amino acid metabolism with carbon availability. The Plant Journal 85 (3), S. 410 ... lyase in Arabidopsis. The Plant Journal 73 (1), S. 118 - 130 (2013) ... Prodhan, M. A.; Jost, R.; Watanabe, M.; Hoefgen, R.; Lambers, H.; Finnegan, P. M.: Tight control of sulfur assimilation: an ...
Hydrogen cyanide is a linear molecule, with a triple bond between carbon and nitrogen. A minor tautomer of HCN is HNC, hydrogen ... The Role of Hydroxynitrile Lyase in Root Cyanide Production". ... Sulfur mustard (HD H HT HL HQ) * Nitrogen mustard * HN1 * HN2 * ... This reaction is akin to steam reforming, the reaction of methane and water to give carbon monoxide and hydrogen. ... Schilke, P.; Menten, K. M. (2003). "Detection of a Second, Strong Sub-millimeter HCN Laser Line toward Carbon Stars" (pdf). ...
Thus green-sulfur bacteria use light energy to produce both ATP and reducing power; both are required for carbon fixation ( ... less mutants by insertional mutagenesis by using the nitrate reductase or argininosuccinate lyase genes as tags and examined ... and carbon (C) during :// Plants have an ability to prevent chlorophyll accumulation, which would mask the bright flower color ...
Benzoates, sulfur dioxide, sulfites. These are bad because they are all preservatives that have no business being in a health ... On neutralization by acid, carbon dioxide is produced from bicarbonate.. One serving (about ¼ tsp) of pH ADJUST contains about ... The classes of enzymes that have manganese cofactors is large and includes oxidoreductases, transferases, hydrolases, lyases, ... Sulfur-containing amino acids supporting the bodys detoxification systems.. • Natural taste-enhancing complex of xylitol, ...
carbon disulfide * calcium sulphate * activated carbon * molecular sieve * sulfur mustard * silicic acid ...
Metabolic variability in seafloor brines revealed by carbon and sulphur dynamics. Nature Geosciences, 2. 349-354. doi:10.1038/ ... Franklin, D, Poulton, AJ, Steinke, M, Young, J, Peeken, I and Malin, G (2009) Dimethylsulphide, DMSP-lyase activity and ... a marine sulfate reducer oxidizing organic carbon completely to carbon dioxide. Environmental Microbiology, 67(5). 2145-2155. ... The stable carbon isotope biogeochemistry of acetate and other dissolved carbon species in deep subseafloor sediments at the ...
iron-sulfur cluster binding / positive regulation of cellular component movement / fibroblast growth factor binding / rescue of ... DNA-(apurinic or apyrimidinic site) lyase / class I DNA-(apurinic or apyrimidinic site) endonuclease activity / positive ...
Electrohydrogenation of Carbon Dioxide Using a Ternary Pd/Cu2O-Cu Catalyst. Chemsuschem. PMID 31368250 DOI: 10.1002/cssc. ... Influence of oxygen and sulphur donor atoms on the electrochemistry of bis-chelates of nickel(II) Journal of Electroanalytical ... Electrochemistry of cytochrome P450 17α-hydroxylase/17,20-lyase (P450c17). Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology. PMID 27702589 ... Carbon nanotube/Prussian blue nanocomposite film as a new electrode material for environmental treatment of water samples Rsc ...
2-ketobutyrate formate-lyase activity 2-methylhexanoyl-CoA C-acetyltransferase activity 2-phenylethanol acetyltransferase ... transferase activity, transferring one-carbon groups transferase activity, transferring phosphorus-containing groups ... transferase activity, transferring sulfur-containing groups UDP-L-rhamnose synthase activity molecular transducer activity ...
One Carbon Group Transferases + * Phosphotransferases [D08.811.913.696] + Phosphotransferases + * Sulfur Group Transferases [ ... ATP Citrate (pro S) Lyase [D08.811.913.050.331] ATP Citrate (pro S) Lyase ...
Effect of sulphur on growth of mustard under late sown condition in Dhanbad ...
ATP Citrate Lyase. ATP synthase. Carbonic Anhydrase. Cathepsin. CETP. COMT. CPA. CYP51. Decarboxylase. Dehydrogenase. More >>. ... Sulfur Dyes. Vat Dyes. Synthetic Reagents. Acids & Bases. C-C Bond Formation. C-X Bond Formation (Halogen). C-X Bond Formation ... Carbon-Donor Ligands. Cross-Coupling. Cross-Coupling using Transition Metal Catalysts. Diketone Ligands. Hydrogenation. Main- ... Carbon Nanomaterials. Ceramic Membranes. Dendrimers. Gold Nanoparticles. Iron Oxide Nanoparticles. Materials by Application. ...
Sulfur Dyes. Vat Dyes. Synthetic Reagents. Acids & Bases. C-C Bond Formation. C-X Bond Formation (Halogen). C-X Bond Formation ... ATP Citrate Lyase. ATP synthase. Carbonic Anhydrase. Cathepsin. CETP. More >>. Natural Products. Alkaloids. Cerebrosides. ... Chiral Carbon Ligands. Chiral Olefin Ligands. Olefin Ligands. Photocatalysts. Acridinium Series. Carbazole Series. Iridiums. ... Carbon-Donor Ligands. Cross-Coupling. Cross-Coupling using Transition Metal Catalysts. Diketone Ligands. Hydrogenation. Main- ...
Sulfur Dyes. Vat Dyes. Synthetic Reagents. Acids & Bases. C-C Bond Formation. C-X Bond Formation (Halogen). C-X Bond Formation ... ATP Citrate Lyase. ATP synthase. Carbonic Anhydrase. Cathepsin. CETP. More >>. Natural Products. Alkaloids. Cerebrosides. ... Chiral Carbon Ligands. Chiral Olefin Ligands. Olefin Ligands. Photocatalysts. Acridinium Series. Carbazole Series. Iridiums. ... Carbon-Donor Ligands. Cross-Coupling. Cross-Coupling using Transition Metal Catalysts. Diketone Ligands. Hydrogenation. Main- ...
Sulfur Dyes. Vat Dyes. Synthetic Reagents. Acids & Bases. C-C Bond Formation. C-X Bond Formation (Halogen). C-X Bond Formation ... ATP Citrate Lyase. ATP synthase. Carbonic Anhydrase. Cathepsin. CETP. More >>. Natural Products. Alkaloids. Cerebrosides. ... Chiral Carbon Ligands. Chiral Olefin Ligands. Olefin Ligands. Photocatalysts. Acridinium Series. Carbazole Series. Iridiums. ... Carbon-Donor Ligands. Cross-Coupling. Cross-Coupling using Transition Metal Catalysts. Diketone Ligands. Hydrogenation. Main- ...
Sulfur Dyes. Vat Dyes. Synthetic Reagents. Acids & Bases. C-C Bond Formation. C-X Bond Formation (Halogen). C-X Bond Formation ... ATP Citrate Lyase. ATP synthase. Carbonic Anhydrase. Cathepsin. CETP. More >>. Natural Products. Alkaloids. Cerebrosides. ... Chiral Carbon Ligands. Chiral Olefin Ligands. Olefin Ligands. Photocatalysts. Acridinium Series. Carbazole Series. Iridiums. ... Carbon-Donor Ligands. Cross-Coupling. Cross-Coupling using Transition Metal Catalysts. Diketone Ligands. Hydrogenation. Main- ...
Sulfur Dyes. Vat Dyes. Synthetic Reagents. Acids & Bases. C-C Bond Formation. C-X Bond Formation (Halogen). C-X Bond Formation ... ATP Citrate Lyase. ATP synthase. Carbonic Anhydrase. Cathepsin. CETP. More >>. Natural Products. Alkaloids. Cerebrosides. ... Chiral Carbon Ligands. Chiral Olefin Ligands. Olefin Ligands. Photocatalysts. Acridinium Series. Carbazole Series. Iridiums. ... Carbon-Donor Ligands. Cross-Coupling. Cross-Coupling using Transition Metal Catalysts. Diketone Ligands. Hydrogenation. Main- ...
Sulfur Dyes. Vat Dyes. Synthetic Reagents. Acids & Bases. C-C Bond Formation. C-X Bond Formation (Halogen). C-X Bond Formation ... ATP Citrate Lyase. ATP synthase. Carbonic Anhydrase. Cathepsin. CETP. More >>. Natural Products. Alkaloids. Cerebrosides. ... Chiral Carbon Ligands. Chiral Olefin Ligands. Olefin Ligands. Photocatalysts. Acridinium Series. Carbazole Series. Iridiums. ... Carbon-Donor Ligands. Cross-Coupling. Cross-Coupling using Transition Metal Catalysts. Diketone Ligands. Hydrogenation. Main- ...
Sulfur Dyes. Vat Dyes. Synthetic Reagents. Acids & Bases. C-C Bond Formation. C-X Bond Formation (Halogen). C-X Bond Formation ... ATP Citrate Lyase. ATP synthase. Carbonic Anhydrase. Cathepsin. CETP. More >>. Natural Products. Alkaloids. Cerebrosides. ... Chiral Carbon Ligands. Chiral Olefin Ligands. Olefin Ligands. Photocatalysts. Acridinium Series. Carbazole Series. Iridiums. ... Carbon-Donor Ligands. Cross-Coupling. Cross-Coupling using Transition Metal Catalysts. Diketone Ligands. Hydrogenation. Main- ...
Sulfur Dyes. Vat Dyes. Synthetic Reagents. Acids & Bases. C-C Bond Formation. C-X Bond Formation (Halogen). C-X Bond Formation ... ATP Citrate Lyase. ATP synthase. Carbonic Anhydrase. Cathepsin. CETP. More >>. Natural Products. Alkaloids. Cerebrosides. ... Chiral Carbon Ligands. Chiral Olefin Ligands. Olefin Ligands. Photocatalysts. Acridinium Series. Carbazole Series. Iridiums. ... Carbon-Donor Ligands. Cross-Coupling. Cross-Coupling using Transition Metal Catalysts. Diketone Ligands. Hydrogenation. Main- ...
Sulfur Dyes. Vat Dyes. Synthetic Reagents. Acids & Bases. C-C Bond Formation. C-X Bond Formation (Halogen). C-X Bond Formation ... ATP Citrate Lyase. ATP synthase. Carbonic Anhydrase. Cathepsin. CETP. More >>. Natural Products. Alkaloids. Cerebrosides. ... Chiral Carbon Ligands. Chiral Olefin Ligands. Olefin Ligands. Photocatalysts. Acridinium Series. Carbazole Series. Iridiums. ... Carbon-Donor Ligands. Cross-Coupling. Cross-Coupling using Transition Metal Catalysts. Diketone Ligands. Hydrogenation. Main- ...
  • CTH (Cystathionine Gamma-Lyase) is a Protein Coding gene. (genecards.org)
  • Cystathionine beta synthase catalyzes the upper reaction and cystathionine gamma-lyase catalyzes the lower reaction. (wikidoc.org)
  • There are three known enzymes that produce H 2 S endogenously in mammalian tissue: cystathionine-synthase (CBS), gamma lyase (CGL or cystathionine gamma-lyase, CSE), and 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfur transferase (3MST). (hindawi.com)
  • ATP-citrate lyase, one of the key enzymes of this cycle, was partially purified from C. limicola strain M1 and the N-terminal sequence of a 65-kDa protein was found to show similarity toward eukaryotic ATP-citrate lyase. (elsevier.com)
  • Heterologous expression of these genes in Escherichia coli showed that both gene products were essential for ATP-citrate lyase activity. (elsevier.com)
  • These properties suggested that ATP-citrate lyase from C. limicola controlled the cycle flux depending on intracellular energy conditions. (elsevier.com)
  • This paper provides the first direct evidence that a bacterial ATP-citrate lyase is a heteromeric enzyme, distinct from mammalian enzymes. (elsevier.com)
  • Key enzymes involved in the reductive tricarboxylic acid cycle (ATP-dependent citrate lyase) and sulfite oxidation or dissimilatory sulfate reduction (bidirectional APS reductase) were detected. (caltech.edu)
  • A citrate lyase (EC 4.1.3.6 ) was purified 25-fold from Leuconostoc mesenteroides and was shown to contain three subunits. (asm.org)
  • The gene ( citC ) encoding the citrate lyase ligase (EC 6.2.1.22 ) was localized in the region upstream of citD . (asm.org)
  • Protein comparisons show similarities with the citrate lyase ligase and citrate lyase of Klebsiella pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae . (asm.org)
  • Downstream of the citrate lyase cluster, a 1.4-kb open reading frame encoding a 52-kDa protein was found. (asm.org)
  • Expression of the citCDEFG gene cluster in Escherichia coli led to the detection of a citrate lyase activity only in the presence of acetyl coenzyme A, which is a structural analog of the prosthetic group. (asm.org)
  • This shows that the acetyl-ACP group of the citrate lyase form in E. coli is not complete or not linked to the protein. (asm.org)
  • Lactic acid bacteria of the genus Leuconostoc play important roles in the dairy industry because of their ability to produce carbon dioxide and C 4 aroma compounds through lactose heterofermentation and citrate utilization. (asm.org)
  • The citrate utilization by lactic acid bacteria requires specifically three enzymes involved in the conversion of citrate to pyruvate: a citrate permease, a citrate lyase, and an oxaloacetate decarboxylase. (asm.org)
  • The intracellular citrate is cleaved by a citrate lyase (EC 4.1.3.6 ), yielding acetate and oxaloacetate (Fig. 1 , reactions 2 and 3). (asm.org)
  • The proteins involved are citrate permease (1), citrate lyase α subunit citrate:acetyl-ACP transferase (EC 2.8.3.10 ) (2), citrate lyase β subunit citryl-S-ACP lyase (EC 4.1.3.34 ) (3) oxaloacetate decarboxylase (4), acetate:SH-CL ligase (EC 6.2.1.22 ) (5), and lactate dehydrogenase (6). (asm.org)
  • Both organisms contained activities of the key enzymes of the reductive tricarboxylic acid cycle, ATP citrate lyase, 2-oxoglutarate:ferredoxin oxidoreductase, and pyruvate:ferredoxin oxidoreductase. (mblwhoilibrary.org)
  • Sections of the genes encoding the alpha- and beta-subunits of ATP citrate lyase could be amplified from both organisms. (mblwhoilibrary.org)
  • The green sulfur bacteria ( Chlorobiaceae ) are a family of obligately anaerobic photoautotrophic bacteria . (wikipedia.org)
  • Green sulfur bacteria are nonmotile (except Chloroherpeton thalassium , which may glide) and capable of anoxygenic photosynthesis . (wikipedia.org)
  • [1] [2] In contrast to plants, green sulfur bacteria mainly use sulfide ions as electron donors. (wikipedia.org)
  • [4] Green sulfur bacteria have been found in depths of up to 145m in the Black Sea, with low light availability. (wikipedia.org)
  • Green sulfur bacteria use sulfide ions, hydrogen or ferrous iron as electron donors and the process is mediated by the Type I reaction centre and Fenna-Matthews-Olson complex . (wikipedia.org)
  • Chlorobium tepidum , a member of green sulfur bacteria was found to be mixotroph due to its ability to use inorganic and organic carbon sources. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Black Sea, an extremely anoxic environment, was found to house a large population of green sulfur bacteria at about 100 m depth. (wikipedia.org)
  • A species of green sulfur bacteria has been found living near a black smoker off the coast of Mexico at a depth of 2,500 m in the Pacific Ocean . (wikipedia.org)
  • The bacterial iron-sulfur cluster (isc) operon is an essential machine that is highly conserved from bacteria to primates and responsible for iron-sulfur cluster biogenesis. (nih.gov)
  • Considering the metabolic versatility in these fascinating and diverse photosynthetic bacteria, many essential questions in their central carbon metabolism still remain to be addressed. (frontiersin.org)
  • Members of a group of marine bacteria that is numerically important in coastal seawater and sediments were characterized with respect to their ability to transform organic and inorganic sulfur compounds. (asm.org)
  • The role of marine bacteria in the generation of DMS and other volatile dissolved organic sulfur compounds from DMSP is well recognized ( 19 , 20 , 29 ), and several bacterial strains that use DMSP or DMS as a carbon source have been isolated from seawater ( 3 , 5 , 6 , 19 , 30 , 40 , 44 ). (asm.org)
  • Recent studies have also suggested that marine bacteria may use DMSP as a sulfur source, incorporating DMSP sulfur during the synthesis of bacterial amino acids ( 24 ). (asm.org)
  • However, despite these important connections to both carbon and sulfur cycling, little is known about the identity of the bacteria that carry out organic sulfur transformations in natural marine environments or about whether DMSP-degrading isolates are representative of the natural DMSP-degrading bacteria in the sea. (asm.org)
  • One group of marine bacteria that may be a particularly appropriate focus for studies of organic sulfur cycling in the ocean is the Roseobacter group, which is also called the "marine alpha bacteria" ( 9 ). (asm.org)
  • The fermentation of wort into beer is a chemical transformation catalyzed by a group of microorganisms, both yeast and bacteria, that primarily produce carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) and ethanol (CH 3 CH 2 OH). (phdinbeer.com)
  • The enzymatic system of aerobic bacteria detoxifies mercury compounds such as methyl-mercury via the enzymes organomercurial lyase (MerB) and mercuric ion reductase. (asknature.org)
  • Growth yields of green sulfur bacteria in mixed cultures with sulfur and sulfate reducing bacteria. (springer.com)
  • Phototrophic sulfur bacteria and sulfate-reducing bacteria causing red waters in a shallow brackish coastal lagoon (Prèvost Lagoon, France). (springer.com)
  • However, no information exists on what pathway of autotrophic carbon fixation these bacteria might use. (mblwhoilibrary.org)
  • Carbon metabolism of intracellular bacteria. (uni-bielefeld.de)
  • Among its related pathways are Folate Metabolism and One carbon pool by folate . (genecards.org)
  • To satisfy the increased demand for sustainable energy sources and identify the mechanism of photosynthetic carbon assimilation, which is one of the bottlenecks in photosynthesis, it is essential to understand the process of solar energy storage and associated carbon metabolism in photosynthetic organisms. (frontiersin.org)
  • Researchers have employed physiological studies, microbiological chemistry, enzyme assays, genome sequencing, transcriptomics, and 13 C-based metabolomics/fluxomics to investigate central carbon metabolism and enzymes that operate in phototrophs. (frontiersin.org)
  • In this report, we review diverse CO 2 assimilation pathways, acetate assimilation, carbohydrate catabolism, the tricarboxylic acid cycle and some key, and/or unconventional enzymes in central carbon metabolism of phototrophic microorganisms. (frontiersin.org)
  • Although more than one-half of the isolates were obtained without any selection for sulfur metabolism, all of the isolates were able to degrade the sulfur-containing osmolyte dimethyl sulfoniopropionate (DMSP) with production of dimethyl sulfide (DMS). (asm.org)
  • In this article we review existing knowledge of M. tuberculosis 's central carbon metabolism as reported by studies of its basic genetic and biochemical composition, regulation, and organization, with the hope that such knowledge will inform our understanding of M. tuberculosis 's ability to traverse the stringent and heterogeneous niches encountered in the host. (asmscience.org)
  • It is generated by the metabolism of cysteine by the enzymes cystathionine β-synthase and cystathionine γ-lyase or by the concerted action of cysteine amino transferase and 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase ( Fig. 1 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • SK013 is able to switch from aerobic to anaerobic metabolism and thus is capable of aerobic and anaerobic sulfur cycling at the seafloor. (osti.gov)
  • Role of glutamine transaminases in nitrogen, sulfur, selenium and 1-carbon metabolism: Glutamine Transaminases in normal and cancer Cells. (columbia.edu)
  • Cysteine S-conjugate β-lyases: Important roles in the metabolism of naturally occurring sulfur-and selenium-containing compounds, xenobiotics and anticancer agents. (columbia.edu)
  • New insights into the metabolism of organomercury compounds: Mercury-containing cysteine S-conjugates are substrates of human glutamine transaminase K and potent inactivators of cystathionine g-lyase. (columbia.edu)
  • This increase of SQOR induces the downregulation of the cystathionine β-synthase and cystathionine γ-lyase, two enzymes of the transsulfuration pathway, the subsequent downregulation of serine biosynthesis and the adaptation of other sulfide linked pathways, such as folate cycle, nucleotides metabolism and glutathione system. (ugr.es)
  • Our results contribute to a better understanding of how sulfide metabolism is integrated in one carbon metabolism and may explain some of the benefits of CoQ10 supplementation observed in mitochondrial diseases. (ugr.es)
  • In plants, 14-3-3 proteins have major roles as regulators of nitrogen and carbon metabolism, conclusions based on the studies of a few specific 14-3-3 targets. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In carbon metabolism, some carbon metabolic enzymes such as sucrose phosphate synthase [ 19 ], and the dual function protein 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase/fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase [ 20 ], have been identified as interacting targets of 14-3-3 proteins. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Thus, the organism exquisitely controls how it handles environmental signals related to carbon and nitrogen metabolism. (osumicrobiology.org)
  • In: Hell R, Dahl C, Knaff D, Leustek T (eds) Sulfur metabolism in phototrophic organisms. (springer.com)
  • Oligomeric structure, enzyme kinetics, and substrate specificity of the phycocyanin alpha subunit phycocyanobilin lyase. (genome.jp)
  • Among the depolymerases, polygalacturonase is the major enzyme with a hydrolytic function and lyases (or transeleminases) which cleaves glycosidic bonds forming unsaturated product[DELTA](4,5-D-galacturonate) through transelimination reaction [34]. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • O-acetylserine (thiol) lyase is a pyridoxal phosphate-dependent enzyme, and a lysine residue at the N-terminal region of this protein is involved in binding this cofactor (Saito et al. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • In biochemistry, a lyase is an enzyme that catalyzes the breaking (an "elimination" reaction) of various chemical bonds by means other than hydrolysis (a "substitution" reaction) and oxidation, often forming a new double bond or a new ring structure. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, an enzyme that catalyzed this reaction would be a lyase: ATP → cAMP + PPi Lyases differ from other enzymes in that they require only one substrate for the reaction in one direction, but two substrates for the reverse reaction. (wikipedia.org)
  • The oxaloacetate is decarboxylated into carbon dioxide and pyruvate in a reaction catalyzed by the enzyme oxaloacetate decarboxylase (Fig. 1 , reaction 4). (asm.org)
  • forms glutaconyl-CoA, an iron-sulfur enzyme. (curehunter.com)
  • This enzyme belongs to the family of lyases , to be specific, the hydro-lyases, which cleave carbon-oxygen bonds. (wikidoc.org)
  • PDEs are from three enzyme classes: carbohydrate esterases from CE8 and CE12 family, glycoside hydrolases from GH28 family and lyases from PL1, 2, 3, 9 and 10. (biotech-asia.org)
  • It is also said that a synthase is a lyase (a lyase is an enzyme that catalyzes the breaking of various chemical bonds by means other than hydrolysis and oxidation, often forming a new double bond or a new ring structure) and does not require any energy, whereas a synthetase is a ligase (a ligase is an enzyme that binds two chemicals or compounds) and thus requires energy. (wikipedia.org)
  • That means that one molecule of the enzyme can cause a million molecules of carbon dioxide to react in one second. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Shown are ribbon depictions of the structures of monomer subunits of Escherichia coli pyruvate formate‐lyase activating enzyme, E. coli coproporphyrinogen III oxidase (HemN), E. coli biotin synthase (BioB), Thermotoga maritima S12 protein aspartyl‐89 3‐methylthioltransferase (RimO). (els.net)
  • H 2 S is also produced nonenzymatically from glucose, glutathione, thiosulfate, and sulfur-containing proteins and by the bacterial reduction of sulfur in the intestinal tract ( 3 , 4 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The first part of this project was focussed on identifying novel bacterial and plant C-S lyase enzymes, which can cleave the bond between sulphur and carbon in methionine, cysteine and related conjugates synthesised through Michael addition reaction. (dur.ac.uk)
  • Methods for the optimal production of recombinant C-S lyases were developed using E. coli as a bacterial host. (dur.ac.uk)
  • Despite being a good source of protein and dietary fibre, the quality of bean protein is limited because of sub optimal levels of essential sulfur amino acids: methionine and cysteine. (uwo.ca)
  • Levels of cysteine and methionine in developing seeds have an inverse relationship with the non-protein sulfur amino acid S -methyl-cysteine ( S- methylCys) and dipeptide g-glutamyl- S -methyl-cysteine (g-Glu- S -methylCys). (uwo.ca)
  • BSAS4;1 is a cysteine synthase that utilizes O -acetylserine as a carbon backbone donor and methionine as a methyl donor to synthesize S -methylCys. (uwo.ca)
  • This study identifies BSAS4;1 and methionine g-lyase (MGL) as candidate enzymes for S -methylCys biosynthesis in common bean. (uwo.ca)
  • however, modulation of methionine and other sulfur amino acids is not a trivial task in experimental animals. (nih.gov)
  • A large superfamily of enzymes uses S ‐adenosyl‐ l ‐methionine (SAM) to generate high‐energy carbon radicals as intermediates in a variety of metabolic and biosynthetic reactions. (els.net)
  • Methionine is an α- amino acid present in many proteins and, together with cysteine , is one of two sulfur -containing proteinogenic amino acids. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Methionine is the source of sulfur for many compounds, including cysteine (Longe 2005). (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Like cysteine, methionine contains sulfur , but with a methyl group instead of hydrogen. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • In eukaryotes, the sulfur atom of cysteine is derived from methionine while the carbon chain and the amino group originate from serine. (cuni.cz)
  • [3] They are autotrophs that utilize the reverse tricarboxylic acid cycle to fix carbon dioxide. (wikipedia.org)
  • We demonstrate that the mechanism of hydroxyl radical formation induced by bactericidal antibiotics is the end product of an oxidative damage cellular death pathway involving the tricarboxylic acid cycle, a transient depletion of NADH, destabilization of iron-sulfur clusters, and stimulation of the Fenton reaction. (nih.gov)
  • The reductive tricarboxylic acid cycle functions as a carbon dioxide fixation pathway in the green sulfur bacterium, Chlorobium limicola. (elsevier.com)
  • Among its components are the genes for the desulfurase IscS that provides sulfur for cluster formation, and a specialized ferredoxin (Fdx) whose role is still unknown. (nih.gov)
  • The genome analysis revealed the presence of genes for a dimethylsulfoniopropionate lyase, demethylase and the trimethylamine methyltransferase ( mttB ) as well as genes for nitrate, nitrite and dimethyl sulfoxide reduction. (osti.gov)
  • Indeed, knocking out the cbb system, under conditions where CO 2 is normally used as an electron acceptor and not a carbon source, causes both organisms to derepress nitrogenase synthesis and the nifHDK genes, so that reducing equivalents may now be dissipated as a result of the H+-reducing hydrogenase activity of nitrogenase. (osumicrobiology.org)
  • These enzymes are grouped into six classes: hydrolases (including proteases, amylases and lipases that break down the main nutrients - fats, carbohydrates and proteins), isomerases, ligases, lyases , oxidoreductases and transferases. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Genomic and functional characterization of the oas gene family encoding O-acetylserine (thiol) lyases , enzymes catalyzing the final step in cysteine biosynthesis in Arabidopsis thaliana. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Arabidopsis mutants in the C-S lyase of glucosinolate biosynthesis establish a critical role for indole-3-acetaldoxime in auxin homeostasis. (kegg.jp)
  • He covers chiral discrimination in the active site of oxidoreductases, transferases and chiral discrimination, the influence of chirality on the hydrolysis reactions within the active site of hydrolases, the influence of chirality on the reactions in the active site of lyases , and chiral discrimination in the active site of ligases. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Ligases are used in catalysis where two substrates are ligated and the formation of carbon-carbon, carbon-sulfide, carbon-nitrogen, and carbon-oxygen bonds due to condensation reactions. (wikibooks.org)
  • These autotrophs fix carbon dioxide using the reverse tricarboxylic acid (RTCA) cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • Energy is consumed to incorporate carbon dioxide in order to assimilate pyruvate and acetate and generate macromolecules . (wikipedia.org)
  • The carbon dioxide produced is responsible for eye formation in certain types of cheese. (asm.org)
  • Environmental pollution, acid rain, and health problems are caused when sulfur dioxide is emitted into the atmosphere as the result of the combustion of petroleum fractions. (intechopen.com)
  • Whenever there is a bottleneck, the intermediate runs the risk of being excreted by the cell…especially when there isn't oxygen enough to metabolize everything down to carbon dioxide. (phdinbeer.com)
  • My laboratory is concerned with the molecular regulation, biochemistry,and enzymology of carbon dioxide assimilation. (osumicrobiology.org)
  • Carbon dioxide may also be employed as the sole source of carbon by a large and diverse group of organisms on this planet. (osumicrobiology.org)
  • Carbonic anhydrase, which removes carbon dioxide from the blood by binding it to water, has a turnover rate of 10 6 . (thefreedictionary.com)
  • H 2 S elicits many of its biological effects by targeting proteins for S-sulfhydration, where sulfur is added to the thiol groups of reactive cysteine residues resulting in the formation of hydropersulfide ( 6 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Organomercury compounds are toxic because the metal has a high affinity for sulfur, in particular the sulfur of thiol (-SH) groups in cysteine units of proteins. (asknature.org)
  • A combination of both an elimination and a Michael addition is seen in O-succinylhomoserine (thiol)-lyase (MetY or MetZ) which catalyses first the γ-elimination of O-succinylhomoserine (with succinate as a leaving group) and then the addition of sulfide to the vinyl intermediate, this reaction was first classified as a lyase (EC 4.2.99.9), but was then reclassified as a transferase (EC 2.5.1.48). (wikipedia.org)
  • This subclass contains the decarboxylases ( EC 4.1.1 ), the aldehyde-lyases catalysing the reversal of an aldol condensation ( EC 4.1.2 ), and the oxo-acid-lyases, catalysing the cleavage of a 3-hydroxy acid ( EC 4.1.3 ), or the reverse reactions. (qmul.ac.uk)
  • Lyases are enzymes cleaving C-C, C-O, C-N and other bonds by other means than by hydrolysis or oxidation. (qmul.ac.uk)
  • Lyases catalyze reactions where functional groups are added to break double bonds in molecules or the reverse where double bonds are formed by the removal of functional groups. (wikibooks.org)
  • The other half is irreversibly converted by cystathionine b -synthase (L-serine hydrolyase (adding homocysteine), EC 4.2.1.22) (CBS) and cystathionine g -lyase to cysteine. (cuni.cz)
  • Transsulfuration, catalyzed by CBS, converts homocysteine to cystathionine , which cystathione gamma lyase converts to cysteine . (wikidoc.org)
  • However, the pathway of sulfur oxidation is not well-understood. (wikipedia.org)
  • methane oxidation [particulate methane monooxygenase (pmoA)] and sulfur oxidation [adenosine-5'-phosphosulfate reductase (aprA) and soxB]. (univ-brest.fr)
  • Systematic names are formed as "substrate group-lyase. (wikipedia.org)
  • Remarkably, citral lyase activity was induced 118-fold by incubating nongerminating spores with the substrate, citral. (tudelft.nl)
  • BioB has a complete (αβ) 8 barrel that encapsulates the substrate dethiobiotin and the sulphur‐donating [2Fe‐2S] 2+ cluster. (els.net)
  • Studies of culturable representatives suggested that the group could mediate a number of steps in the cycling of both organic and inorganic forms of sulfur in marine environments. (asm.org)
  • The ability to incorporate the reduced sulfur in DMSP and methanethiol into cellular material was studied with one of the isolates. (asm.org)
  • The fate of DMS, DMSP, and other organic sulfur compounds in seawater is therefore important from both biogeochemical and biotechnological perspectives. (asm.org)
  • The inferred enzymatic mechanism for DMS liberation involves an initial step in which DMSP is modified by addition of acyl coenzyme A, rather than the immediate release of DMS by a DMSP lyase, the previously suggested mechanism. (sciencemag.org)
  • Sulphur is also a constituent of dimethylsulphoniopropionate (DMSP), which in some algae can represent a very large portion of cell S and is involved in algal responses to a variety of abiotic and biotic stresses, in addition to being indicted (controversially) of an important role in climate control. (springer.com)
  • One of the strategies to improve protein quality in bean is to redirect sulfur from S -methylCys and g-Glu- S -methylCys to the cysteine pool. (uwo.ca)
  • A multifunctional iron-sulfur protein that is both an iron regulatory protein and cytoplasmic form of aconitate hydratase. (umassmed.edu)
  • Consequently, the potential for carbon fixation and cycling of reduced and oxidized sulfur appear to exist in the dense microflora that grows on the crab's setae. (caltech.edu)
  • In this study, Thiomicrospira denitrificans and Candidatus Arcobacter sulfidicus, two chemolithoautotrophic sulfur oxidizers of the epsilon subdivision of proteobacteria, were examined for activities of the key enzymes of the known autotrophic CO(2) fixation pathways. (mblwhoilibrary.org)
  • For this reason, CO 2 fixation is a process that is associated with global issues of agricultural productivity, carbon cycling, and industrial productivity. (osumicrobiology.org)
  • Investigations on the phototrophic sulfur bacterium Chlorobium phaeobacteroides causing seasonal blooms in Lake Kinneret. (springer.com)
  • Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include calmodulin binding and carbon-sulfur lyase activity . (genecards.org)
  • Measurement of cysteine S-conjugate β-lyase activity. (columbia.edu)
  • A novel lyase, combining hydratase and aldolase activity, that converts citral into methylheptenone and acetaldehyde, was purified from spores of Penicillium digitatum. (tudelft.nl)
  • To accomplish this, they couple the activity of two enzymes: organomercurial lyase (MerB) and mercuric ion reductase. (asknature.org)
  • Abnormalities of one carbon, glutathione and sulfide metabolisms have recently emerged as novel pathomechanisms in diseases with mitochondrial dysfunction. (ugr.es)
  • Kynurenine aminotransferase 3 (KAT3) catalyzes the transamination of Kynurenine to kynurenic acid, and is identical to cysteine conjugate beta-lyase 2 (CCBL2) and glutamine transaminase L (GTL). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • For Lactococcus lactis, this is accomplished by the enzymes cystathionine β-lyase and cystathionine γ-lyase [11]. (kenyon.edu)
  • Melnick and Parkin 'provide an elegant atomic-level description for the facile cleavage of a carbon-mercury bond,' notes James G. Omichinski of the University of Montreal in a Science commentary. (asknature.org)
  • Organic sulfur compounds produced in paper industry plants and in wastewater treatment plants also find their way into marine ecosystems. (asm.org)
  • Biocatalyst in the production of sulfur and organic carbon from a gas stream containing H Z S and CO,. Applied Environmental Microbiology 45:913-918. (springer.com)
  • Sulphur is however assimilated in the organic matter as sulphide (S 2− ). (springer.com)
  • Carbon source: Organic compounds. (scribd.com)
  • We also discuss the reducing equivalent flow during photoautotrophic and photoheterotrophic growth, evolutionary links in the central carbon metabolic network, and correlations between photosynthetic and non-photosynthetic organisms. (frontiersin.org)
  • The energy and reducing equivalents generated from light-induced electron transport drive diverse carbon metabolic pathways for producing cellular material, bioactive products and biofuel. (frontiersin.org)
  • These metabolic changes are independent of the presence of sulfur aminoacids, are confirmed in mouse models, and are recapitulated by overexpression of SQOR, further proving that the metabolic effects of CoQ10 supplementation are mediated by the overexpression of SQOR. (ugr.es)
  • Volatile sulfur compounds contribute to wine aromas that may be considered pleasant, such as "tropical," "passionfruit," and "guava," as well as aromas that are considered undesirable, such as "rotten eggs," "onions," and "sewer. (asm.org)
  • The mechanistic implications of the variety of sulfur compounds observed vis-à-vis the pathways for their formation are discussed. (plantphysiol.org)
  • There are dozens of simultaneous chemical reactions happening within any given cell at any time in the life-cycle of the cell, reactions that are driving carbon off to make fatty acids to repair membranes or driving nitrogen and sulfur off to make amino acids. (phdinbeer.com)
  • One of the most intriguing but least studied of these is the emission of volatile and reactive organosulfur compounds such as the foul and toxic gas carbonyl sulfide ( COS ) and volatile carbon disulfide ( CS 2 ). (plantphysiol.org)
  • Biogenic sulfur emissions from the oceans, mainly in the form of dimethyl sulfide (DMS), play an important role in the global sulfur cycle. (asm.org)
  • Dimethyl sulfide (DMS) is a key compound in global sulfur and carbon cycles. (sciencemag.org)
  • Lyases are classified as EC 4 in the EC number classification of enzymes. (wikipedia.org)
  • The gasotransmitters nitric oxide (NO), carbon monoxide (CO), and hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S) have emerged as crucial regulators of vascular disease in diabetes ( 2 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S), the third endogenous gaseous signaling molecule alongside nitric oxide (NO) and carbon monoxide, is synthesized by multiple enzymes in cardiovascular system. (frontiersin.org)
  • This methyl group (one carbon and three hydrogen, or CH 3 ) can be activated, and is used in many reactions where a new carbon atom is being added to another molecule. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • The bulk of our work over the years has concentrated on two or three model systems, both of which enable organisms to use CO 2 as the sole source of carbon for growth. (osumicrobiology.org)
  • Growth on glutamate as a sole carbon source results in formation of cell-connecting filaments, a putative phenotypic adaptation of the surface-associated strain to the environmental conditions at the seafloor. (osti.gov)