Sulfur: An element that is a member of the chalcogen family. It has an atomic symbol S, atomic number 16, and atomic weight [32.059; 32.076]. It is found in the amino acids cysteine and methionine.Carbon: A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.Lyases: A class of enzymes that catalyze the cleavage of C-C, C-O, and C-N, and other bonds by other means than by hydrolysis or oxidation. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 4.Sulfur Compounds: Inorganic or organic compounds that contain sulfur as an integral part of the molecule.Chondroitin Lyases: Enzymes which catalyze the elimination of delta-4,5-D-glucuronate residues from polysaccharides containing 1,4-beta-hexosaminyl and 1,3-beta-D-glucuronosyl or 1,3-alpha-L-iduronosyl linkages thereby bringing about depolymerization. EC 4.2.2.4 acts on chondroitin sulfate A and C as well as on dermatan sulfate and slowly on hyaluronate. EC 4.2.2.5 acts on chondroitin sulfate A and C.Sulfur Dioxide: A highly toxic, colorless, nonflammable gas. It is used as a pharmaceutical aid and antioxidant. It is also an environmental air pollutant.Carbon Dioxide: A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.Sulfur Isotopes: Stable sulfur atoms that have the same atomic number as the element sulfur, but differ in atomic weight. S-33, 34, and 36 are stable sulfur isotopes.Amino Acids, SulfurCarbon Monoxide: Carbon monoxide (CO). A poisonous colorless, odorless, tasteless gas. It combines with hemoglobin to form carboxyhemoglobin, which has no oxygen carrying capacity. The resultant oxygen deprivation causes headache, dizziness, decreased pulse and respiratory rates, unconsciousness, and death. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Nanotubes, Carbon: Nanometer-sized tubes composed mainly of CARBON. Such nanotubes are used as probes for high-resolution structural and chemical imaging of biomolecules with ATOMIC FORCE MICROSCOPY.Pectobacterium chrysanthemi: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that causes vascular wilts on a wide range of plant species. It was formerly named Erwinia chrysanthemi.Chondroitinases and Chondroitin Lyases: Enzymes which catalyze the elimination of glucuronate residues from chondroitin A,B, and C or which catalyze the hydrolysis of sulfate groups of the 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-D-galactose 6-sulfate units of chondroitin sulfate. EC 4.2.2.-.Pectins: High molecular weight polysaccharides present in the cell walls of all plants. Pectins cement cell walls together. They are used as emulsifiers and stabilizers in the food industry. They have been tried for a variety of therapeutic uses including as antidiarrheals, where they are now generally considered ineffective, and in the treatment of hypercholesterolemia.Mustard Gas: Severe irritant and vesicant of skin, eyes, and lungs. It may cause blindness and lethal lung edema and was formerly used as a war gas. The substance has been proposed as a cytostatic and for treatment of psoriasis. It has been listed as a known carcinogen in the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP-85-002, 1985) (Merck, 11th ed).Phycobiliproteins: Light harvesting proteins found in phycobilisomes.Sulfides: Chemical groups containing the covalent sulfur bonds -S-. The sulfur atom can be bound to inorganic or organic moieties.Thiosulfates: Inorganic salts of thiosulfuric acid possessing the general formula R2S2O3.Carbon Monoxide Poisoning: Toxic asphyxiation due to the displacement of oxygen from oxyhemoglobin by carbon monoxide.Chicory: A thick-rooted perennial (Cichorium intybus) native to Europe but widely grown for its young leaves used as salad greens and for its roots, dried and ground-roasted, used to flavor or adulterate coffee. (From Webster, 3d ed)Sulfur Oxides: Inorganic oxides of sulfur.Aldehyde-Lyases: Enzymes that catalyze a reverse aldol condensation. A molecule containing a hydroxyl group and a carbonyl group is cleaved at a C-C bond to produce two smaller molecules (ALDEHYDES or KETONES). EC 4.1.2.Carbon Isotopes: Stable carbon atoms that have the same atomic number as the element carbon, but differ in atomic weight. C-13 is a stable carbon isotope.Carbon-Oxygen Lyases: Enzymes that catalyze the cleavage of a carbon-oxygen bond by means other than hydrolysis or oxidation. EC 4.2.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Sulfates: Inorganic salts of sulfuric acid.Erwinia: A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria whose organisms are associated with plants as pathogens, saprophytes, or as constituents of the epiphytic flora.Oxo-Acid-Lyases: Enzymes that catalyze the cleavage of a carbon-carbon bond of a 3-hydroxy acid. (Dorland, 28th ed) EC 4.1.3.Heparin Lyase: An enzyme of the isomerase class that catalyzes the eliminative cleavage of polysaccharides containing 1,4-linked D-glucuronate or L-iduronate residues and 1,4-alpha-linked 2-sulfoamino-2-deoxy-6-sulfo-D-glucose residues to give oligosaccharides with terminal 4-deoxy-alpha-D-gluc-4-enuronosyl groups at their non-reducing ends. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 4.2.2.7.Chlorobi: A phylum of anoxygenic, phototrophic bacteria including the family Chlorobiaceae. They occur in aquatic sediments, sulfur springs, and hot springs and utilize reduced sulfur compounds instead of oxygen.Carbon Tetrachloride: A solvent for oils, fats, lacquers, varnishes, rubber waxes, and resins, and a starting material in the manufacturing of organic compounds. Poisoning by inhalation, ingestion or skin absorption is possible and may be fatal. (Merck Index, 11th ed)Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Sulfonium Compounds: Sulfur compounds in which the sulfur atom is attached to three organic radicals and an electronegative element or radical.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Carbon Disulfide: A colorless, flammable, poisonous liquid, CS2. It is used as a solvent, and is a counterirritant and has local anesthetic properties but is not used as such. It is highly toxic with pronounced CNS, hematologic, and dermatologic effects.Polygalacturonase: A cell wall-degrading enzyme found in microorganisms and higher plants. It catalyzes the random hydrolysis of 1,4-alpha-D-galactosiduronic linkages in pectate and other galacturonans. EC 3.2.1.15.Carbon Sequestration: Any of several processes for the permanent or long-term artificial or natural capture or removal and storage of carbon dioxide and other forms of carbon, through biological, chemical or physical processes, in a manner that prevents it from being released into the atmosphere.Oxidoreductases Acting on Sulfur Group Donors: Oxidoreductases with specificity for oxidation or reduction of SULFUR COMPOUNDS.Alginates: Salts of alginic acid that are extracted from marine kelp and used to make dental impressions and as absorbent material for surgical dressings.Sulfur Hexafluoride: Sulfur hexafluoride. An inert gas used mainly as a test gas in respiratory physiology. Other uses include its injection in vitreoretinal surgery to restore the vitreous chamber and as a tracer in monitoring the dispersion and deposition of air pollutants.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Chromatiaceae: A family of phototrophic purple sulfur bacteria that deposit globules of elemental sulfur inside their cells. They are found in diverse aquatic environments.Rhodophyta: Plants of the division Rhodophyta, commonly known as red algae, in which the red pigment (PHYCOERYTHRIN) predominates. However, if this pigment is destroyed, the algae can appear purple, brown, green, or yellow. Two important substances found in the cell walls of red algae are AGAR and CARRAGEENAN. Some rhodophyta are notable SEAWEED (macroalgae).Hexuronic Acids: Term used to designate tetrahydroxy aldehydic acids obtained by oxidation of hexose sugars, i.e. glucuronic acid, galacturonic acid, etc. Historically, the name hexuronic acid was originally given to ascorbic acid.Sphingomonas: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria characterized by an outer membrane that contains glycosphingolipids but lacks lipopolysaccharide. They have the ability to degrade a broad range of substituted aromatic compounds.Chemical Warfare Agents: Chemicals that are used to cause the disturbance, disease, or death of humans during WARFARE.Isocitrate Lyase: A key enzyme in the glyoxylate cycle. It catalyzes the conversion of isocitrate to succinate and glyoxylate. EC 4.1.3.1.Sulfurtransferases: Enzymes which transfer sulfur atoms to various acceptor molecules. EC 2.8.1.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Phycobilins: Open chain tetrapyrroles that function as light harvesting chromophores in PHYCOBILIPROTEINS.Chondroitin ABC Lyase: An enzyme that catalyzes the eliminative degradation of polysaccharides containing 1,4-beta-D-hexosaminyl and 1,3-beta-D-glucuronosyl or 1,3-alpha-L-iduronosyl linkages to disaccharides containing 4-deoxy-beta-D-gluc-4-enuronosyl groups. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992)Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Nitrogen: An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.Sulfur Acids: Inorganic or organic acids that contain sulfur as an integral part of the molecule.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Cysteine: A thiol-containing non-essential amino acid that is oxidized to form CYSTINE.Pseudomonas: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in nature. Some species are pathogenic for humans, animals, and plants.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Carbon Tetrachloride PoisoningChlorobium: A genus of phototrophic, obligately anaerobic bacteria in the family Chlorobiaceae. They are found in hydrogen sulfide-containing mud and water environments.Cytochromes c1: The 30-kDa membrane-bound c-type cytochrome protein of mitochondria that functions as an electron donor to CYTOCHROME C GROUP in the mitochondrial and bacterial RESPIRATORY CHAIN. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p545)Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Hydrogen Sulfide: A flammable, poisonous gas with a characteristic odor of rotten eggs. It is used in the manufacture of chemicals, in metallurgy, and as an analytical reagent. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Flavobacterium: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in SOIL and WATER. Its organisms are also found in raw meats, MILK and other FOOD, hospital environments, and human clinical specimens. Some species are pathogenic in humans.Methionine: A sulfur-containing essential L-amino acid that is important in many body functions.Atmosphere: The gaseous envelope surrounding a planet or similar body. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Sulfites: Inorganic salts of sulfurous acid.Bacteroides: A genus of gram-negative, anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria. Its organisms are normal inhabitants of the oral, respiratory, intestinal, and urogenital cavities of humans, animals, and insects. Some species may be pathogenic.Chromatium: A genus of gram-negative, ovoid to rod-shaped bacteria that is phototrophic. All species use ammonia as a nitrogen source. Some strains are found only in sulfide-containing freshwater habitats exposed to light while others may occur in marine, estuarine, and freshwater environments.Glucuronic Acid: A sugar acid formed by the oxidation of the C-6 carbon of GLUCOSE. In addition to being a key intermediate metabolite of the uronic acid pathway, glucuronic acid also plays a role in the detoxification of certain drugs and toxins by conjugating with them to form GLUCURONIDES.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Adenylosuccinate Lyase: An enzyme that, in the course of purine ribonucleotide biosynthesis, catalyzes the conversion of 5'-phosphoribosyl-4-(N-succinocarboxamide)-5-aminoimidazole to 5'-phosphoribosyl-4-carboxamide-5-aminoimidazole and the conversion of adenylosuccinic acid to AMP. EC 4.3.2.2.Streptococcus anginosus: A species of gram-positive bacteria in the STREPTOCOCCUS MILLERI GROUP. It is the most frequently seen isolate of that group, has a proclivity for abscess formation, and is most often isolated from the blood, gastrointestinal, and urogenital tract.Hevea: A plant genus of the family EUPHORBIACEAE, order Euphorbiales, subclass Rosidae. Commercial natural RUBBER is mainly obtained from Hevea brasiliensis but also from some other plants.Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.Seawater: The salinated water of OCEANS AND SEAS that provides habitat for marine organisms.Acidithiobacillus: A genus of gram-negative rod-shaped bacteria in the class GAMMAPROTEOBACTERIA. They are obligately acidophilic and aerobic, using reduced SULFUR COMPOUNDS to support AUTOTROPHIC GROWTH.Air Pollutants: Any substance in the air which could, if present in high enough concentration, harm humans, animals, vegetation or material. Substances include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; and volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.Catalysis: The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.Sulfur-Reducing Bacteria: A group of gram-negative, anaerobic bacteria that is able to oxidize acetate completely to carbon dioxide using elemental sulfur as the electron acceptor.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Geologic Sediments: A mass of organic or inorganic solid fragmented material, or the solid fragment itself, that comes from the weathering of rock and is carried by, suspended in, or dropped by air, water, or ice. It refers also to a mass that is accumulated by any other natural agent and that forms in layers on the earth's surface, such as sand, gravel, silt, mud, fill, or loess. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1689)Crystallography, X-Ray: The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Carbon Footprint: A measure of the total greenhouse gas emissions produced by an individual, organization, event, or product. It is measured in units of equivalent kilograms of CARBON DIOXIDE generated in a given time frame.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Biodegradation, Environmental: Elimination of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS; PESTICIDES and other waste using living organisms, usually involving intervention of environmental or sanitation engineers.Cysteine Synthase: An enzyme that catalyzes the biosynthesis of cysteine in microorganisms and plants from O-acetyl-L-serine and hydrogen sulfide. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 4.2.99.8.Anaerobiosis: The complete absence, or (loosely) the paucity, of gaseous or dissolved elemental oxygen in a given place or environment. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Iron-Sulfur Proteins: A group of proteins possessing only the iron-sulfur complex as the prosthetic group. These proteins participate in all major pathways of electron transport: photosynthesis, respiration, hydroxylation and bacterial hydrogen and nitrogen fixation.Autotrophic Processes: The processes by which organisms use simple inorganic substances such as gaseous or dissolved carbon dioxide and inorganic nitrogen as nutrient sources. Contrasts with heterotrophic processes which make use of organic materials as the nutrient supply source. Autotrophs can be either chemoautotrophs (or chemolithotrophs), largely ARCHAEA and BACTERIA, which also use simple inorganic substances for their metabolic energy reguirements; or photoautotrophs (or photolithotrophs), such as PLANTS and CYANOBACTERIA, which derive their energy from light. Depending on environmental conditions some organisms can switch between different nutritional modes (autotrophy; HETEROTROPHY; chemotrophy; or PHOTOTROPHY) to utilize different sources to meet their nutrient and energy requirements.Uronic Acids: Acids derived from monosaccharides by the oxidation of the terminal (-CH2OH) group farthest removed from the carbonyl group to a (-COOH) group. (From Stedmans, 26th ed)Glycoside HydrolasesBacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.Chondroitin Sulfates: Derivatives of chondroitin which have a sulfate moiety esterified to the galactosamine moiety of chondroitin. Chondroitin sulfate A, or chondroitin 4-sulfate, and chondroitin sulfate C, or chondroitin 6-sulfate, have the sulfate esterified in the 4- and 6-positions, respectively. Chondroitin sulfate B (beta heparin; DERMATAN SULFATE) is a misnomer and this compound is not a true chondroitin sulfate.Glycosaminoglycans: Heteropolysaccharides which contain an N-acetylated hexosamine in a characteristic repeating disaccharide unit. The repeating structure of each disaccharide involves alternate 1,4- and 1,3-linkages consisting of either N-acetylglucosamine or N-acetylgalactosamine.Proteus vulgaris: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that occurs in soil, fecal matter, and sewage. It is an opportunistic pathogen and causes cystitis and pyelonephritis.Biomass: Total mass of all the organisms of a given type and/or in a given area. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990) It includes the yield of vegetative mass produced from any given crop.Carbon Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of carbon that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. C atoms with atomic weights 10, 11, and 14-16 are radioactive carbon isotopes.RNA, Ribosomal, 16S: Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.Carbon Compounds, Inorganic: Inorganic compounds that contain carbon as an integral part of the molecule but are not derived from hydrocarbons.Disaccharides: Oligosaccharides containing two monosaccharide units linked by a glycosidic bond.Thiobacillus: A genus of gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria that derives energy from the oxidation of one or more reduced sulfur compounds. Many former species have been reclassified to other classes of PROTEOBACTERIA.Sulfhydryl Compounds: Compounds containing the -SH radical.Fungi: A kingdom of eukaryotic, heterotrophic organisms that live parasitically as saprobes, including MUSHROOMS; YEASTS; smuts, molds, etc. They reproduce either sexually or asexually, and have life cycles that range from simple to complex. Filamentous fungi, commonly known as molds, refer to those that grow as multicellular colonies.Hydrogensulfite Reductase: An enzyme found primarily in SULFUR-REDUCING BACTERIA where it plays an important role in the anaerobic carbon oxidation pathway.Epsilonproteobacteria: A group of proteobacteria consisting of chemoorganotrophs usually associated with the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM of humans and animals.Photosynthesis: The synthesis by organisms of organic chemical compounds, especially carbohydrates, from carbon dioxide using energy obtained from light rather than from the oxidation of chemical compounds. Photosynthesis comprises two separate processes: the light reactions and the dark reactions. In higher plants; GREEN ALGAE; and CYANOBACTERIA; NADPH and ATP formed by the light reactions drive the dark reactions which result in the fixation of carbon dioxide. (from Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2001)Phototrophic Processes: Processes by which phototrophic organisms use sunlight as their primary energy source. Contrasts with chemotrophic processes which do not depend on light and function in deriving energy from exogenous chemical sources. Photoautotrophy (or photolithotrophy) is the ability to use sunlight as energy to fix inorganic nutrients to be used for other organic requirements. Photoautotrophs include all GREEN PLANTS; GREEN ALGAE; CYANOBACTERIA; and green and PURPLE SULFUR BACTERIA. Photoheterotrophs or photoorganotrophs require a supply of organic nutrients for their organic requirements but use sunlight as their primary energy source; examples include certain PURPLE NONSULFUR BACTERIA. Depending on environmental conditions some organisms can switch between different nutritional modes (AUTOTROPHY; HETEROTROPHY; chemotrophy; or phototrophy) to utilize different sources to meet their nutrients and energy requirements.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Gammaproteobacteria: A group of the proteobacteria comprised of facultatively anaerobic and fermentative gram-negative bacteria.Thiosulfate Sulfurtransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of the planetary sulfur atom of thiosulfate ion to cyanide ion to form thiocyanate ion. EC 2.8.1.1.Carbon-Carbon Lyases: Enzymes that catalyze the cleavage of a carbon-carbon bond by means other than hydrolysis or oxidation. This subclass contains the DECARBOXYLASES, the ALDEHYDE-LYASES, and the OXO-ACID-LYASES. EC 4.1.Carbohydrate Sequence: The sequence of carbohydrates within POLYSACCHARIDES; GLYCOPROTEINS; and GLYCOLIPIDS.Biocatalysis: The facilitation of biochemical reactions with the aid of naturally occurring catalysts such as ENZYMES.Carbon-Nitrogen Lyases: Enzymes that catalyze the cleavage of a carbon-nitrogen bond by means other than hydrolysis or oxidation. Subclasses are the AMMONIA-LYASES, the AMIDINE-LYASES, the amine-lyases, and other carbon-nitrogen lyases. EC 4.3.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Oxidoreductases: The class of all enzymes catalyzing oxidoreduction reactions. The substrate that is oxidized is regarded as a hydrogen donor. The systematic name is based on donor:acceptor oxidoreductase. The recommended name will be dehydrogenase, wherever this is possible; as an alternative, reductase can be used. Oxidase is only used in cases where O2 is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p9)Plants: Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.Air Pollution: The presence of contaminants or pollutant substances in the air (AIR POLLUTANTS) that interfere with human health or welfare, or produce other harmful environmental effects. The substances may include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; or volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.Dermatan Sulfate: A naturally occurring glycosaminoglycan found mostly in the skin and in connective tissue. It differs from CHONDROITIN SULFATE A (see CHONDROITIN SULFATES) by containing IDURONIC ACID in place of glucuronic acid, its epimer, at carbon atom 5. (from Merck, 12th ed)Sulfur Group Transferases: Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of sulfur atoms (2.8.1), sulfur groups (2.8.2) or coenzyme A (2.8.3). EC 2.8.Thiotrichaceae: A family of colorless sulfur bacteria in the order Thiotrichales, class GAMMAPROTEOBACTERIA.Catalytic Domain: The region of an enzyme that interacts with its substrate to cause the enzymatic reaction.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Hydrogen: The first chemical element in the periodic table. It has the atomic symbol H, atomic number 1, and atomic weight [1.00784; 1.00811]. It exists, under normal conditions, as a colorless, odorless, tasteless, diatomic gas. Hydrogen ions are PROTONS. Besides the common H1 isotope, hydrogen exists as the stable isotope DEUTERIUM and the unstable, radioactive isotope TRITIUM.DNA-(Apurinic or Apyrimidinic Site) Lyase: A DNA repair enzyme that catalyses the excision of ribose residues at apurinic and apyrimidinic DNA sites that can result from the action of DNA GLYCOSYLASES. The enzyme catalyzes a beta-elimination reaction in which the C-O-P bond 3' to the apurinic or apyrimidinic site in DNA is broken, leaving a 3'-terminal unsaturated sugar and a product with a terminal 5'-phosphate. This enzyme was previously listed under EC 3.1.25.2.Acetates: Derivatives of ACETIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxymethane structure.Cystathionine gamma-Lyase: A multifunctional pyridoxal phosphate enzyme. In the final step in the biosynthesis of cysteine it catalyzes the cleavage of cystathionine to yield cysteine, ammonia, and 2-ketobutyrate. EC 4.4.1.1.Water Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in water. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Oxygen: An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Cystine: A covalently linked dimeric nonessential amino acid formed by the oxidation of CYSTEINE. Two molecules of cysteine are joined together by a disulfide bridge to form cystine.Bacillus: A genus of BACILLACEAE that are spore-forming, rod-shaped cells. Most species are saprophytic soil forms with only a few species being pathogenic.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Iron: A metallic element with atomic symbol Fe, atomic number 26, and atomic weight 55.85. It is an essential constituent of HEMOGLOBINS; CYTOCHROMES; and IRON-BINDING PROTEINS. It plays a role in cellular redox reactions and in the transport of OXYGEN.N-Glycosyl Hydrolases: A class of enzymes involved in the hydrolysis of the N-glycosidic bond of nitrogen-linked sugars.DNA, Ribosomal: DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.Soot: A dark powdery deposit of unburned fuel residues, composed mainly of amorphous CARBON and some HYDROCARBONS, that accumulates in chimneys, automobile mufflers and other surfaces exposed to smoke. It is the product of incomplete combustion of carbon-rich organic fuels in low oxygen conditions. It is sometimes called lampblack or carbon black and is used in INK, in rubber tires, and to prepare CARBON NANOTUBES.Sulfate Adenylyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the activation of sulfate ions by ATP to form adenosine-5'-phosphosulfate and pyrophosphate. This reaction constitutes the first enzymatic step in sulfate utilization following the uptake of sulfate. EC 2.7.7.4.Chromatography: Techniques used to separate mixtures of substances based on differences in the relative affinities of the substances for mobile and stationary phases. A mobile phase (fluid or gas) passes through a column containing a stationary phase of porous solid or liquid coated on a solid support. Usage is both analytical for small amounts and preparative for bulk amounts.CarboxyhemoglobinChromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Methane: The simplest saturated hydrocarbon. It is a colorless, flammable gas, slightly soluble in water. It is one of the chief constituents of natural gas and is formed in the decomposition of organic matter. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Molybdenum: A metallic element with the atomic symbol Mo, atomic number 42, and atomic weight 95.94. It is an essential trace element, being a component of the enzymes xanthine oxidase, aldehyde oxidase, and nitrate reductase. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Chromatography, Gel: Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.Soil: The unconsolidated mineral or organic matter on the surface of the earth that serves as a natural medium for the growth of land plants.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Volcanic Eruptions: The ash, dust, gases, and lava released by volcanic explosion. The gases are volatile matter composed principally of about 90% water vapor, and carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide, hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and nitrogen. The ash or dust is pyroclastic ejecta and lava is molten extrusive material consisting mainly of magnesium silicate. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Acidianus: A genus of facultatively anaerobic coccoid ARCHAEA, in the family SULFOLOBACEAE. Cells are highly irregular in shape and thermoacidophilic. Lithotrophic growth occurs aerobically via sulfur oxidation in some species. Distribution includes solfataric springs and fields, mudholes, and geothermically heated acidic marine environments.Isoenzymes: Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.Carbohydrate Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a carbohydrate.Nitrogen Dioxide: Nitrogen oxide (NO2). A highly poisonous gas. Exposure produces inflammation of lungs that may only cause slight pain or pass unnoticed, but resulting edema several days later may cause death. (From Merck, 11th ed) It is a major atmospheric pollutant that is able to absorb UV light that does not reach the earth's surface.Carbohydrate Metabolism: Cellular processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of CARBOHYDRATES.Gases: The vapor state of matter; nonelastic fluids in which the molecules are in free movement and their mean positions far apart. Gases tend to expand indefinitely, to diffuse and mix readily with other gases, to have definite relations of volume, temperature, and pressure, and to condense or liquefy at low temperatures or under sufficient pressure. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Chromatography, Ion Exchange: Separation technique in which the stationary phase consists of ion exchange resins. The resins contain loosely held small ions that easily exchange places with other small ions of like charge present in solutions washed over the resins.Oceans and Seas: A great expanse of continuous bodies of salt water which together cover more than 70 percent of the earth's surface. Seas may be partially or entirely enclosed by land, and are smaller than the five oceans (Atlantic, Pacific, Indian, Arctic, and Antarctic).Ecosystem: A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Sulfuric Acids: Inorganic and organic derivatives of sulfuric acid (H2SO4). The salts and esters of sulfuric acid are known as SULFATES and SULFURIC ACID ESTERS respectively.Multigene Family: A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Arylsulfatases: Enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of a phenol sulfate to yield a phenol and sulfate. Arylsulfatase A, B, and C have been separated. A deficiency of arylsulfatases is one of the causes of metachromatic leukodystrophy (LEUKODYSTROPHY, METACHROMATIC). EC 3.1.6.1.DNA Glycosylases: A family of DNA repair enzymes that recognize damaged nucleotide bases and remove them by hydrolyzing the N-glycosidic bond that attaches them to the sugar backbone of the DNA molecule. The process called BASE EXCISION REPAIR can be completed by a DNA-(APURINIC OR APYRIMIDINIC SITE) LYASE which excises the remaining RIBOSE sugar from the DNA.Bacillus subtilis: A species of gram-positive bacteria that is a common soil and water saprophyte.Intramolecular Lyases: Enzymes of the isomerase class that catalyze reactions in which a group can be regarded as eliminated from one part of a molecule, leaving a double bond, while remaining covalently attached to the molecule. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 5.5.Metabolic Networks and Pathways: Complex sets of enzymatic reactions connected to each other via their product and substrate metabolites.Environmental Monitoring: The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.Enzyme Stability: The extent to which an enzyme retains its structural conformation or its activity when subjected to storage, isolation, and purification or various other physical or chemical manipulations, including proteolytic enzymes and heat.Spectrum Analysis: The measurement of the amplitude of the components of a complex waveform throughout the frequency range of the waveform. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Soil Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the soil. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Glucose: A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.Aerobiosis: Life or metabolic reactions occurring in an environment containing oxygen.Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans: A strictly autotrophic species of bacteria that oxidizes sulfur and thiosulfate to sulfuric acid. It was formerly called Thiobacillus thiooxidans.Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Glutathione: A tripeptide with many roles in cells. It conjugates to drugs to make them more soluble for excretion, is a cofactor for some enzymes, is involved in protein disulfide bond rearrangement and reduces peroxides.Bacteriochlorophylls: Pyrrole containing pigments found in photosynthetic bacteria.Heterotrophic Processes: The processes by which organisms utilize organic substances as their nutrient sources. Contrasts with AUTOTROPHIC PROCESSES which make use of simple inorganic substances as the nutrient supply source. Heterotrophs can be either chemoheterotrophs (or chemoorganotrophs) which also require organic substances such as glucose for their primary metabolic energy requirements, or photoheterotrophs (or photoorganotrophs) which derive their primary energy requirements from light. Depending on environmental conditions some organisms can switch between different nutritional modes (AUTOTROPHY; heterotrophy; chemotrophy; or PHOTOTROPHY) to utilize different sources to meet their nutrients and energy requirements.Chemoautotrophic Growth: Growth of organisms using AUTOTROPHIC PROCESSES for obtaining nutrients and chemotrophic processes for obtaining a primary energy supply. Chemotrophic processes are involved in deriving a primary energy supply from exogenous chemical sources. Chemotrophic autotrophs (chemoautotrophs) generally use inorganic chemicals as energy sources and as such are called chemolithoautotrophs. Most chemoautotrophs live in hostile environments, such as deep sea vents. They are mostly BACTERIA and ARCHAEA, and are the primary producers for those ecosystems.CystathionineHeparitin Sulfate: A heteropolysaccharide that is similar in structure to HEPARIN. It accumulates in individuals with MUCOPOLYSACCHARIDOSIS.Trees: Woody, usually tall, perennial higher plants (Angiosperms, Gymnosperms, and some Pterophyta) having usually a main stem and numerous branches.Sulfur Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of sulfur that decay or disintegrate spontaneously emitting radiation. S 29-31, 35, 37, and 38 are radioactive sulfur isotopes.Crystallization: The formation of crystalline substances from solutions or melts. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Amino Acids: Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.Metalloproteins: Proteins that have one or more tightly bound metal ions forming part of their structure. (Dorland, 28th ed)Rhodococcus: A bacterial genus of the order ACTINOMYCETALES.Cell Wall: The outermost layer of a cell in most PLANTS; BACTERIA; FUNGI; and ALGAE. The cell wall is usually a rigid structure that lies external to the CELL MEMBRANE, and provides a protective barrier against physical or chemical agents.Tetrathionic Acid: A sulfuric acid dimer, formed by disulfide linkage. This compound has been used to prolong coagulation time and as an antidote in cyanide poisoning.Oligosaccharides: Carbohydrates consisting of between two (DISACCHARIDES) and ten MONOSACCHARIDES connected by either an alpha- or beta-glycosidic link. They are found throughout nature in both the free and bound form.Graphite: An allotropic form of carbon that is used in pencils, as a lubricant, and in matches and explosives. It is obtained by mining and its dust can cause lung irritation.Thiouridine: A photoactivable URIDINE analog that is used as an affinity label.Fresh Water: Water containing no significant amounts of salts, such as water from RIVERS and LAKES.Geological Phenomena: The inanimate matter of Earth, the structures and properties of this matter, and the processes that affect it.Spectrophotometry: The art or process of comparing photometrically the relative intensities of the light in different parts of the spectrum.Fermentation: Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.

Heating garlic inhibits its ability to suppress 7, 12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene-induced DNA adduct formation in rat mammary tissue. (1/405)

The present studies compared the impact of heating, either by microwave or convection oven, on the ability of garlic to reduce the in vivo bioactivation of 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) in 55-d-old female Sprague-Dawley rats. In study 1, rats were fed a semipurified casein-based diet and treated by gastric gavage thrice weekly for 2-wk with crushed garlic (0.7 g in 2 mL corn oil) or the carrier prior to DMBA treatment (50 mg/kg body weight). Providing crushed garlic reduced by 64% (P < 0.05) the quantity DMBA-induced DNA adducts present in mammary epithelial cells compared to controls. In study 2, microwave treatment for 60 s, but not 30 s, decreased (P < 0.05) the protection provided by garlic against DMBA-induced adduct formation. In study 3, allowing crushed garlic to stand for 10 min prior to microwave heating for 60 s significantly (P < 0.05) restored its anticarcinogenic activity. Microwave heating of garlic for 30 s resulted in a 90% loss of alliinase activity. Heating in a convection oven (study 4) also completely blocked the ability of uncrushed garlic to retard DMBA bioactivation. Study 5 revealed that providing either 0.105 micromol diallyl disulfide or S-allyl cysteine by gastric gavage thrice weekly for 2 wk was effective in retarding DMBA bioactivation but isomolar alliin was not. These studies provide evidence that alliinase may be important for the formation of allyl sulfur compounds that contribute to a depression in DMBA metabolism and bioactivation.  (+info)

Hyperproduction of recombinant ferredoxins in escherichia coli by coexpression of the ORF1-ORF2-iscS-iscU-iscA-hscB-hs cA-fdx-ORF3 gene cluster. (2/405)

Fe-S proteins acquire Fe-S clusters by an unknown post-translational mechanism. To study the in vivo synthesis of the Fe-S clusters, we constructed an experimental system to monitor the expressed ferredoxin (Fd) as a reporter of protein-bound Fe-S clusters assembled in Escherichia coli. Overexpression of five Fds in a T7 polymerase-based system led to the formation of soluble apoFds and mature holoFds, indicating that assembly of the Fe-S cluster into apoFd polypeptides is a rate-limiting step. We examined the coexpression of the E. coli ORF1-ORF2-iscS-iscU-iscA-hscB-hsc A-fdx-ORF3 gene cluster, which has recently been suggested to be involved in the formation or repair of Fe-S protein [Zheng, L., Cash, V.L., Flint, D.H., and Dean, D.R. (1998) J. Biol. Chem. 273, 13264-13272], with reporter Fds using compatible plasmids. The production of all five reporter holoFds examined was dramatically increased by the coexpression of the gene cluster, and apparent specificity to the polypeptides or to the type of Fe-S clusters was not observed. The increase in holoFd production was observed under the coexpression conditions in all culture media examined, with either 2 x YT medium or Terrific broth, and with or without supplemental cysteine or iron. These results indicate that the proteins encoded by the gene cluster are involved in the assembly of the Fe-S clusters in a wide variety of Fe-S proteins.  (+info)

Glutathione-dependent metabolism of cis-3-(9H-purin-6-ylthio)acrylic acid to yield the chemotherapeutic drug 6-mercaptopurine: evidence for two distinct mechanisms in rats. (3/405)

cis-3-(9H-Purin-6-ylthio)acrylic acid (PTA) is a structural analog of azathioprine, a prodrug of the antitumor and immunosuppressive drug 6-mercaptopurine (6-MP). In this study, we examined the in vitro and in vivo metabolism of PTA in rats. Two metabolites of PTA, 6-MP and the major metabolite, S-(9H-purin-6-yl)glutathione (PG), were formed in a time- and GSH-dependent manner in vitro. Formation of 6-MP and PG occurred nonenzymatically, but 6-MP formation was enhanced 2- and 7-fold by the addition of liver and kidney homogenates, respectively. Purified rat liver glutathione S-transferases enhanced 6-MP formation from PTA by 1.8-fold, whereas human recombinant alpha, mu, and pi isozymes enhanced 6-MP formation by 1.7-, 1.3-, and 1.3-fold, respectively. In kidney homogenate incubations, PG accumulation was only observed during the first 15 min because of further metabolism by gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase, dipeptidase, and beta-lyase to yield 6-MP, as indicated by the use of the inhibitors acivicin and aminooxyacetic acid. Based on these results and other lines of evidence, two different GSH-dependent pathways are proposed for 6-MP formation: an indirect pathway involving PG formation and further metabolism to 6-MP, and a direct pathway in which PTA acts as a Michael acceptor. HPLC analyses of urine of rats treated i.p. with PTA (100 mg/kg) showed that 6-MP was formed in vivo and excreted in urine without apparent liver or kidney toxicity. Collectively, these studies show that PTA is metabolized to 6-MP both in vitro and in vivo and may therefore be a useful prodrug of 6-MP.  (+info)

Efficacy of recombinant methioninase in combination with cisplatin on human colon tumors in nude mice. (4/405)

The present treatment of colon cancer is based on 5-fluorouracil (5-FU). Despite promising results of combining leucovorin or levamisole with 5-FU, the 5-year survival rate of patients with advanced colon cancer has not increased significantly. Colon tumors in vitro have been shown previously to have an elevated requirement for methionine, suggesting a new therapeutic target. In this study, targeting the methionine dependence of colon tumors is effected by recombinant methioninase (rMETase), alone and in combination with cisplatin (CDDP). In vitro results demonstrated that CDDP and rMETase act synergistically on the human colon cancer cell line SW 620, with a combination index (CI) of 0.45, as well as on the human colon cancer cell line Colo 205 with a CI of 0.7. Human colon cancer lines HCT 15, HT 29, Colo 205, and SW 620 growing in nude mice were treated with rMETase to determine an effective dose for depletion of tumor methionine. rMETase at 15 units/g/day for 5 days depleted tumor methionine in all four tumor types to approximately 30% of untreated control. rMETase alone arrested growth of HCT 15 and HT29 in nude mice for 1 week after treatment termination. Colo 205 and SW 620 were partially arrested by rMETase. However, CDDP in combination with rMETase resulted in tumor regression of Colo 205 and growth arrest of SW 620 in nude mice. The ratio of the treated:control group (T:C) tumor weights for Colo 205 was 8% when CDDP was given on day-5, followed by treatment on days 5-9 with rMETase. This treatment schedule resulted in two of the six animals having no detectable tumor when the experiment was terminated on day 16. SW620 was resistant to CDDP alone and only partially sensitive to rMETase alone. However, when SW 620 was treated with rMETase from days-5 to -9 and CDDP on day-5, tumor growth was arrested. The results demonstrate that rMETase used simultaneously in combination with CDDP had significant antitumor efficacy in colon cancer in vitro and in vivo. The data suggest a novel and promising therapeutic approach by targeting the elevated methionine dependence of colon cancer.  (+info)

Metabolism of acrylate to beta-hydroxypropionate and its role in dimethylsulfoniopropionate lyase induction by a salt marsh sediment bacterium, Alcaligenes faecalis M3A. (5/405)

Dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) is degraded to dimethylsulfide (DMS) and acrylate by the enzyme DMSP lyase. DMS or acrylate can serve as a carbon source for both free-living and endophytic bacteria in the marine environment. In this study, we report on the mechanism of DMSP-acrylate metabolism by Alcaligenes faecalis M3A. Suspensions of citrate-grown cells expressed a low level of DMSP lyase activity that could be induced to much higher levels in the presence of DMSP, acrylate, and its metabolic product, beta-hydroxypropionate. DMSP was degraded outside the cell, resulting in an extracellular accumulation of acrylate, which in suspensions of citrate-grown cells was then metabolized at a low endogenous rate. The inducible nature of acrylate metabolism was evidenced by both an increase in the rate of its degradation over time and the ability of acrylate-grown cells to metabolize this molecule at about an eight times higher rate than citrate-grown cells. Therefore, acrylate induces both its production (from DMSP) and its degradation by an acrylase enzyme. (1)H and (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance analyses were used to identify the products resulting from [1-(13)C]acrylate metabolism. The results indicated that A. faecalis first metabolized acrylate to beta-hydroxypropionate outside the cell, which was followed by its intracellular accumulation and subsequent induction of DMSP lyase activity. In summary, the mechanism of DMSP degradation to acrylate and the subsequent degradation of acrylate to beta-hydroxypropionate in the aerobic beta-Proteobacterium A. faecalis has been described.  (+info)

Beta-cyanoalanine synthase: purification and characterization. (6/405)

Beta-cyano-L-alanine synthase [L-cysteine hydrogen-sulfide-lyase (adding HCN), EC 4.4.1.9] was purified about 4000-fold from blue lupine seedlings. The enzyme was homoegeneous on gel electrophoresis and free of contamination by other pyridoxal-P-dependent lyases. The enzyme has a molecular weight of 52,000 and contains 1 mole of pyridoxal-P per mole of protein; its isoelectric point is situated at pH 4.7. Its absorption spectrum has two maxima, at 280 and 410 nm. L-Cysteine is the natural primary (amino acid) substrate; beta-chloro- and beta-thiocyano can serve (with considerably lower affinity) instead of cyanide as cosubstrates for cyanoalanine synthase. The synthase is refractory to DL-cycloserine and D-penicillamine, potent inhibitors of many pyridoxal-P-dependent enzymes. Cyanoalanine synthase catalyzes slow isotopic alpha-H exchange in cysteine and in end-product amino acids; the rates of alpha-H exchange in nonreacted (excess) cysteine are markedly increased in the presence of an adequate cosubstrate; no exchange is observed of H atoms in beta-position.  (+info)

Cloning, expression, and cellular localization of a human prenylcysteine lyase. (7/405)

Prenylated proteins contain either a 15-carbon farnesyl or 20-carbon geranylgeranyl isoprenoid covalently attached to cysteine residues at or near their C terminus. These proteins constitute up to 2% of total cellular protein in eukaryotic cells. The degradation of prenylated proteins raises a metabolic challenge to the cell, because the thioether bond of the modified cysteine is quite stable. We recently identified and isolated an enzyme termed prenylcysteine lyase that cleaves the prenylcysteine to free cysteine and an isoprenoid product (Zhang, L., Tschantz, W. R., and Casey, P. J. (1997) J. Biol. Chem. 272, 23354-23359). To facilitate the molecular characterization of this enzyme, its cloning was undertaken. Overlapping cDNA clones encoding the complete coding sequence of this enzyme were obtained from a human cDNA library. The open reading frame of the gene encoding prenylcysteine lyase is 1515 base pairs and has a nearly ubiquitous expression pattern with a message size of 6 kilobase pairs. Recombinant prenylcysteine lyase was produced in a baculovirus-Sf9 expression system. Analysis of both the recombinant and native enzyme revealed that the enzyme is glycosylated and contains a signal peptide that is cleaved during processing. Additionally, the subcellular localization of this enzyme was determined to be lysosomal. These findings strengthen the notion that prenylcysteine lyase plays an important role in the final step in the degradation of prenylated proteins and will allow further physiological and biochemical characterization of this enzyme.  (+info)

Quorum sensing controls expression of the type III secretion gene transcription and protein secretion in enterohemorrhagic and enteropathogenic Escherichia coli. (8/405)

Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 and enteropathogenic E. coli cause a characteristic histopathology in intestinal cells known as attaching and effacing. The attaching and effacing lesion is encoded by the Locus of Enterocyte Effacement (LEE) pathogenicity island, which encodes a type III secretion system, the intimin intestinal colonization factor, and the translocated intimin receptor protein that is translocated from the bacterium to the host epithelial cells. Using lacZ reporter gene fusions, we show that expression of the LEE operons encoding the type III secretion system, translocated intimin receptor, and intimin is regulated by quorum sensing in both enterohemorrhagic E. coli and enteropathogenic E. coli. The luxS gene recently shown to be responsible for production of autoinducer in the Vibrio harveyi and E. coli quorum-sensing systems is responsible for regulation of the LEE operons, as shown by the mutation and complementation of the luxS gene. Regulation of intestinal colonization factors by quorum sensing could play an important role in the pathogenesis of disease caused by these organisms. These results suggest that intestinal colonization by E. coli O157:H7, which has an unusually low infectious dose, could be induced by quorum sensing of signals produced by nonpathogenic E. coli of the normal intestinal flora.  (+info)

Cysteine desulfurases abstract sulfur from the substrate cysteine, generate a covalent persulfide on the active site cysteine of the enzyme, and then donate the persulfide sulfur to various recipients such as Fe-S clusters. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the Nfs1p protein is the only known cysteine desulfurase, and it forms a complex with Isd11p (Nfs1p·Isd11p). Both of these proteins are found primarily in mitochondria and both are essential for cell viability. In the present study we show, using the results of experiments with isolated mitochondria and purified proteins, that Isd11p is required for the cysteine desulfurase activity of Nfs1p. Whereas Nfs1p by itself was inactive, the Nfs1p·Isd11p complex formed persulfide and was active as a cysteine desulfurase. In the absence of Isd11p, Nfs1p was able to bind the substrate cysteine but failed to form a persulfide. Addition of Isd11p allowed Nfs1p with bound substrate to generate a covalent persulfide. We suggest that Isd11p induces an ...
Buy Characterization of S-Ribosylhomocysteinase (Luxs) by Jinge Zhu for $249.99 at Mighty Ape NZ. S-Ribosylhomocysteinase (LuxS) catalyzes the cleavage of the thioether bond in S-ribosylhomocysteine to produce L- homocysteine and 4,5-dihydroxy-2,3-...
SufS is a type II cysteine desulfurase and acts as the initial step in the Suf Fe-S cluster assembly pathway. In Escherichia coli, this pathway is utilized under conditions of oxidative stress and is resistant to reactive oxygen species. Mechanistically, this means SufS must shift between protecting a covalent persulfide intermediate and making it available for transfer to the next protein partner in the pathway, SufE. Here, we report five X-ray crystal structures of SufS including a new structure of SufS containing an inward-facing persulfide intermediate on C364. Additional structures of SufS variants with substitutions at the dimer interface show changes in dimer geometry and suggest a conserved β-hairpin structure plays a role in mediating interactions with SufE. These new structures, along with previous HDX-MS and biochemical data, identify an interaction network capable of communication between active-sites of the SufS dimer coordinating the shift between desulfurase and transpersulfurase
Cysteine desulfurases mobilize the sulfur from L-cysteine to yield L-alanine, an essential step in sulfur metabolism for biosynthesis of a variety of sulfur-containing biomolecules. Component of the suf operon, which is activated and required under specific conditions such as oxidative stress and iron limitation. Acts as a potent selenocysteine lyase in vitro, that mobilizes selenium from L-selenocysteine. Selenocysteine lyase activity is however unsure in vivo.
1NI7: High-quality homology models derived from NMR and X-ray structures of E. coli proteins YgdK and Suf E suggest that all members of the YgdK/Suf E protein family are enhancers of cysteine desulfurases.
Fe-S clusters are iron-containing cofactors utilized by numerous proteins within several biological pathways essential to life. In eukaryotes, the primary pathway for Fe-S cluster production is the iron-sulfur cluster (ISC) pathway. The eukaryotic ISC pathway, localized primarily within the mitochondria, has been best characterized within Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In yeast, de novo Fe-S cluster formation is accomplished through coordinated assembly of the substrates iron and sulfur on the primary scaffold assembly protein
Cysteine Desulfurase; Involved In Iron-sulfur Cluster (Fe/S) Biogenesis And In Thio-modification Of Mitochondrial And Cytoplasmic TRNAs; Essential Protein Located Predominantly In Mitochondria
CSDb (Commodore 64 Scene Database) is a website which goal is to gather as much information and material about the scene around the commodore 64 computer - the worlds most popular home computer throughout time. Here you can find almost anything which was ever made for the commodore 64, and more is being added every day. As this website is scene related, you can mostly find demos, music and graphics made by the people who made the scene (the sceners), but you can also find a lot of the old classic games here. Try out the search box in the top right corner, or check out the CSDb main page for the latest additions ...
CSDb (Commodore 64 Scene Database) is a website which goal is to gather as much information and material about the scene around the commodore 64 computer - the worlds most popular home computer throughout time. Here you can find almost anything which was ever made for the commodore 64, and more is being added every day. As this website is scene related, you can mostly find demos, music and graphics made by the people who made the scene (the sceners), but you can also find a lot of the old classic games here. Try out the search box in the top right corner, or check out the CSDb main page for the latest additions ...
Looking for online definition of desulfurases in the Medical Dictionary? desulfurases explanation free. What is desulfurases? Meaning of desulfurases medical term. What does desulfurases mean?
Involved in the synthesis of autoinducer 2 (AI-2) which is secreted by bacteria and is used to communicate both the cell density and the metabolic potential of the environment. The regulation of gene expression in response to changes in cell density is called quorum sensing. Catalyzes the transformation of S-ribosylhomocysteine (RHC) to homocysteine (HC) and 4,5-dihydroxy-2,3-pentadione (DPD).
Previous studies on Campylobacter jejuni have demonstrated the role of LuxS in motility, cytolethal distending toxin production, agglutination, and intestinal colonization; however, its direct involvement in virulence has not been reported. In this study, we demonstrate a direct role of luxS in the virulence of C. jejuni in two different animal hosts. The IA3902 strain, a highly virulent sheep abortion strain recently described by our laboratory, along with its isogenic luxS mutant and luxScomplement strains, was inoculated by the oral route into both a pregnant guinea pig virulence model and a chicken colonization model. In both cases, the IA3902luxS mutant demonstrated a complete loss of ability to colonize the intestinal tract. In the pregnant model, the mutant also failed to induce abortion, while the wild-type strain was highly abortifacient. Genetic complementation of the luxSgene fully restored the virulent phenotype in both models. Interestingly, when the organism was inoculated into guinea pigs
Quorum sensing is a process of bacterial cell-to-cell communication involving the production and detection of extracellular signaling molecules called autoinducers. Recently, it has been proposed that autoinducer-2 (AI-2), a furanosyl borate diester derived from the recycling of S-adenosyl-homocysteine (SAH) to homocysteine, serves as a universal signal for interspecies communication. In this study, 138 completed genomes were examined for the genes involved in the synthesis and detection of AI-2. Except for some symbionts and parasites, all organisms have a pathway to recycle SAH, either using a two-step enzymatic conversion by the Pfs and LuxS enzymes or a one-step conversion using SAH-hydrolase (SahH). 51 organisms including most Gamma-, Beta-, and Epsilonproteobacteria, and Firmicutes possess the Pfs-LuxS pathway, while Archaea, Eukarya, Alphaproteobacteria, Actinobacteria and Cyanobacteria prefer the SahH pathway. In all 138 organisms, only the three Vibrio strains had strong, bidirectional matches
Communication between bacterial cells is crucial for the coordination of diverse cellular processes that facilitate environmental adaptation and, in the case of pathogenic species, virulence. This is achieved by the secretion and detection of small signaling molecules called autoinducers, a process termed quorum sensing. To date, the only signaling molecule recognized by both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria is autoinducer 2 (AI-2), synthesized by the metabolic enzyme LuxS (S-ribosylhomocysteine lyase) as a by-product of the activated methyl cycle. Homologues of LuxS are ubiquitous in bacteria, suggesting a key role in interspecies, as well as intraspecies, communication. Gram-negative bacteria sense and respond to AI-2 via the Lsr ABC transporter system or by the LuxP/LuxQ phosphorelay system. However, homologues of these systems are absent from Gram-positive bacteria and the AI-2 receptor is unknown. Here we show that in the major human pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae, sensing of ...
Small inorganic assemblies of alternating ferrous/ferric iron and sulphide ions, so-called iron-sulphur (Fe-S) clusters, are probably nature‟s most ancient prosthetic groups. These multipurpose reactive centres are biosynthesised by dedicated Fe-S cluster assembly proteins which are conserved in the mitochondria of all eukaryotes. One of the early actors in Fe-S cluster biosynthesis is a cysteine desulphurase, Nfs1, which catalyses the release of elemental sulphur from cysteine and plays a key role in its transfer to a molecular scaffold. Recent work has discovered that these reactions require the involvement of a small adaptor protein, Isd11. Isd11 belongs to the LYR family of proteins and helps stabilise Nfs1 upon binding. In this Thesis, heterologous production of soluble yeast Nfs1 on its own as well as in complex with yeast Isd11 in E. coli is presented. In the absence of Nfs1, Isd11 aggregated in the form of inclusion bodies from which the in vitro recovery of soluble protein could not ...
Iron sulfur (Fe-S) clusters are cofactors in hundreds of proteins involved in multiple cellular processes, including mitochondrial respiration, the maintenance of genome stability, ribosome biogenesis and translation. Fe-S cluster biogenesis is performed by multiple enzymes that are highly conserved throughout evolution, and mutations in numerous biogenesis factors are now recognized to cause a wide range of previously uncategorized rare human diseases. Recently, a complex formed of components of the cytoplasmic Fe-S cluster assembly (CIA) machinery, consisting of CIAO1, FAM96B and MMS19, was found to deliver Fe-S clusters to a subset of proteins involved in DNA metabolism, but it was unclear how this complex acquired its fully synthesized Fe-S clusters, since Fe-S clusters have been alleged to be assembled de novo solely in the mitochondrial matrix ...
MetabolismBiosynthesis of cofactors, prosthetic groups, and carriersOtheriron-sulfur cluster biosynthesis transcriptional regulator SufR (TIGR02702; HMM-score: 13) ...
The Paracoccus denitrificans transcription factor FnrP has been characterized using artificial FNR-dependent promoter-lacZ fusion plasmids in Escherichia coli. FnrP can activate both class I and class II FNR-dependent promoters in response to anoxia but shows a marked preference for the class II promoter, where the FNR binding site is centered at -41.5 with respect to the transcription start site. FnrP was found to be inactive in an iscS mutant in vivo, demonstrating a requirement for cysteine desulfurase activity to assemble an iron-sulfur cluster in FnrP. Accordingly, an iron-sulfur cluster could be reconstituted into the purified protein in vitro using cysteine desulfurase, ferrous ions, and cysteine. Thus, FnrP is a true orthologue of FNR from E. coli and switches on target genes in response to anoxia. Inactivation of FnrP by oxygen very likely involves the oxidative disassembly of an iron-sulfur cluster. Possible ligands for the iron-sulfur cluster were identified by substituting each of ...
The Moco (molybdenum cofactor) sulfurase ABA3 from Arabidopsis thaliana catalyses the sulfuration of the Moco of aldehyde oxidase and xanthine oxidoreductase, which represents the final activation step of these enzymes. ABA3 consists of an N-terminal NifS-like domain that exhibits L-cysteine desulfurase activity and a C-terminal domain that binds sulfurated Moco. The strictly conserved Cys430 in the NifS-like domain binds a persulfide intermediate, which is abstracted from the substrate L-cysteine and finally needs to be transferred to the Moco of aldehyde oxidase and xanthine oxidoreductase. In addition to Cys⁴³⁰, another eight cysteine residues are located in the NifS-like domain, with two of them being highly conserved among Moco sulfurase proteins and, at the same time, being in close proximity to Cys⁴³⁰. By determination of the number of surface-exposed cysteine residues and the number of persulfide-binding cysteine residues in combination with the sequential substitution of each ...
Members of this family are radical SAM domain (PF04055) enzymes with an N-terminal B12-binding domain (PF02310), as is fairly common for radical SAM enzymes with lipid substrates. However, both domains as found in this family seem to be long-branch and mostly score below the cutoffs for their respective HMMs. The function is unknown, but all cases a PLP-dependent enzyme (a cysteine desulfurase homolog) is found nearby ...
ASm Conferance on biofilm; Quebec City, 2007-03-25-2007-03-29. Vestby, Lene K.; Lönn-Stensrud, Jessica; Petersen, Fernanda Cristina; Scheie, Anne Aamdal; Møretrø, Trond; Langsrud, Solveig; Nesse, Live. ...
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Waco ISD encourages parents, businesses and community members to praise a teacher, staff member or student for a job well done. You may also express appreciation for an educational program or delight in an event you enjoyed attending.. Use this form to send your kudos. ...
Relationship between performance and activation level of operators in a load experiment. Studia psych. 24, 2, 1982, p. 115-125 (angle ...
Deficiency of a modified nucleoside in tRNA often mediates suppression of +1 frameshift mutations. In Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium strain TR970 (hisC3737), which requires histidine for growth, a potential +1 frameshifting site, CCC-CAA-UAA, exists within the frameshifting window created by insertion of a C in the hisC gene. This site may be suppressed by peptidyl-tRNAProcmo5UGG (cmo(5)U is uridine-5-oxyacetic acid), making a frameshift when decoding the near-cognate codon CCC, provided that a pause occurs by, e.g., a slow entry of the tRNAGlnmnm5s2UUG (mnm(5)s(2)U is 5-methylaminomethyl-2-thiouridine) to the CAA codon located in the A site. We selected mutants of strain TR970 that were able to grow without histidine, and one such mutant (iscS51) was shown to have an amino acid substitution in the L-cysteine desulfurase IscS. Moreover, the levels of all five thiolated nucleosides 2-thiocytidine, mnm(5)s(2)U, 5-carboxymethylaminomethyl-2-thiouridine, 4-thiouridine, and ...
Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are L-cysteine and [[[enzyme]-cysteine]], whereas its two products are L-alanine and [[[enzyme]-S-sulfanylcysteine]]. This enzyme belongs to the family of transferases, specifically the sulfurtransferases, which transfer sulfur-containing groups. The systematic name of this enzyme class is L-cysteine:[enzyme cysteine] sulfurtransferase. Other names in common use include IscS, NIFS, NifS, SufS, and cysteine desulfurylase. This enzyme participates in thiamine metabolism. ...
FIG. 6. Biofilm formation of S. mutans UA159 and its derivatives in BM medium. Crystal violet-stained 24-h biofilms of brpA (wells A5 to A7), ccpA (wells B4 and B5), and luxSSm (well B3) mutants and their parental strain UA159 (wells A2 and A4 and well B1). Wells A1 and B2 are uninoculated BM medium as negative control. The graphs show quantitation of the biofilms formed after 6 h (left) and 24 h (right) by ccpA (ccpA), brpA (brpA), and luxSsm (luxS) mutants and the wild-type (WT) strains. See the text for more details. Data are representative of no fewer than three separate experiments. The error bars represent standard deviations. ...
When modelling the population of repressilator-containing bacteria in BSim, we used many of the same features as the model outlined in [2]. The repressilators themselves are modelled as a system of 7 ODEs; 3 ODEs representing the 3 different mRNA levels, 3 ODEs for the 3 corresponding proteins, and one ODE for the internal level of autoinducer. These are in turn coupled to an external spatially varying chemical field via the autoinducer term, which incorporates physically correct diffusion and degradation characteristics. For the modelling of the autoinducer behaviour, we made the assumption that the autoinducer in question was AHL as this is a common quorum signalling molecule. The parameters for diffusion (in space and through the cell wall) and decay were then set accordingly. The parameter governing the ratio between mRNA and protein degradation was chosen from a random distribution as in the first part of [2]. ...
4GO1: Structural Basis for Phosphorylated Autoinducer-2 Modulation of the Oligomerization State of the Global Transcription Regulator LsrR from Escherichia coli
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Board Briefs is an electronic newsletter published following the monthly Waco ISD School Board meetings. Board Briefs provides a short summary of action items, special recognitions, program updates, financial reports, and board committee issues. ...
MetabolismBiosynthesis of cofactors, prosthetic groups, and carriersOtheriron-sulfur cluster assembly transcription factor IscR (TIGR02010; HMM-score: 20.8) ...
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Rat liver mitochondrial aspartate aminotransferase (a homodimer) was shown to catalyse a β-lyase reaction with three nephrotoxic halogenated cysteine S-conjugates [S-(1,1,2,2-tetrafluoroethyl)-l-cysteine, S-(1,2-dichlorovinyl)-l-cysteine and S-(2-chloro-1,1,2-trifluoroethyl)-l-cysteine], and less effectively so with a non-toxic cysteine S-conjugate [benzothiazolyl-l-cysteine]. Transamination competes with the β-lyase reaction, but is not favourable. The ratio of β elimination to transamination in the presence of S-(1,1,2,2-tetrafluoroethyl)-l-cysteine and 2-oxoglutarate is ,100. Syncatalytic inactivation by the halogenated cysteine S-conjugates is also observed. The enzyme turns over approx. 2700 molecules of halogenated cysteine S-conjugate on average for every monomer inactivated. Kidney mitochondria are known to be especially sensitive to toxic halogenated cysteine S-conjugates. Evidence is presented that 15-20% of the cysteine S-conjugate β-lyase activity towards ...
PubMed Central Canada (PMC Canada) provides free access to a stable and permanent online digital archive of full-text, peer-reviewed health and life sciences research publications. It builds on PubMed Central (PMC), the U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH) free digital archive of biomedical and life sciences journal literature and is a member of the broader PMC International (PMCI) network of e-repositories.
The mitochondrial acyl-carrier protein (ACP) functions in the synthesis of fatty acids within the mitochondrial matrix. Fatty acids are elongated on the covalently bound 4-phosphopantetheine cofactor on ACP. ACP has a second essential function within the mitochondria in the biogenesis of iron-sulfur clusters. Cells depleted of ACP are impaired in FeS cluster formation throughout the cell. ACP is a stable subunit of the cysteine desulfurase (Nfs1) and Isd11 subcomplex that generates sulfide ions for FeS cluster formation. The FeS defect observed in cells depleted of ACP can be partially suppressed by overexpression of the mitochondrial iron transporter Mrs3. The stability of ACP is dependent of the iron status of mitochondria. Thus, the central role of Acp1 in mitochondrial fatty acid synthesis, lipoic acid formation and FeS cluster biogenesis suggests that these processes are tied to Fe availability within the mitochondria. ...
You are viewing an interactive 3D depiction of the molecule 5-(6-oxo-3,6-dihydro-9h-purin-9-yl)-2,3-pentanedione (C10H17N4O3+) from the PQR.
Shadab Anwar, Krishn P.Singh, Asif Equbal, Shashi S. Suman, Amir Zaidi, T. Nozaki, A.K Roy, Pradeep Das, and Vahab Ali (2012). In vivo & In-Silico analysis of EhNbp and EhCfd interaction involved in Fe-S clusters assembly of E. histolytica. 81thAnnual Meeting of the Society of Biological Chemists (India), 08-11th Nov., BIF-09, pp-72, Kolkata, India.. ...
SWISS-MODEL Repository entry for A1C4X8 (CFD1_ASPCL), Cytosolic Fe-S cluster assembly factor cfd1. Aspergillus clavatus (strain ATCC 1007 / CBS 51365 / DSM 816 / NCTC 3887 /NRRL 1)
Even though bacteria live their lives as single-celled entities, they still need to keep up to date with what their neighbors, friendly and otherwise, are doing. In a process called quorum sensing, Vibrio harveyi monitors its surroundings via two protein phosphorylation pathways that produce and detect autoinducers 1 and 2 (AI-1 and AI-2). The first is restricted to V. harveyi and a close relative, whereas the second is found in a wide variety of both Gram-negative and Gram-positive species. Mok et al. identify a number of target genes whose expression is regulated by AI-2. From an analysis of the responses of these genes to combinations of AI-1 and AI-2, they propose that this pair of pathways may serve as a coincidence detector, primarily designed to signal the presence of both inducers and, in essence, acting as an AND gate. - GJC. EMBO J.22, 870 (2003).. ...
Q9CQF9.1,Pcyox1,Pcyox1, prenylcysteine oxidase 1 [Source:MGI Symbol;Acc:MGI:1914131]Mice homozygous for a knock-out allele are viable, fertile and free of obvious pathology despite a striking accumulation of both farnesylcysteine and geranylgeranylcysteine in brain and liver., , ,
... - L-Methionine: It is a sulphur-containing amino acid with antioxidant properties. L-Methionine is important for healthy nails and skin and for the synthesis of Taurine, L-Cysteine, Phosphatidylcholine (Lecithin), bile, L-Carnitin
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... Reduce the time spent locking the rpc_sequence structure by queuing the nfs_seqid only when we are ready to take the lock (when calling nfs_wait_on_sequence). Signed-off-by: Trond Myklebust ,[EMAIL PROTECTED], --- fs/nfs/nfs4proc.c , 30 +++++++++++------------------- fs/nfs/nfs4state.c , 32 ++++++++++++++++---------------- 2 files changed, 27 insertions(+), 35 deletions(-) diff --git a/fs/nfs/nfs4proc.c b/fs/nfs/nfs4proc.c index 9e2e1c7..a51a753 100644 --- a/fs/nfs/nfs4proc.c +++ b/fs/nfs/nfs4proc.c @@ -3331,15 +3331,12 @@ static struct nfs4_lockdata *nfs4_alloc_lockdata(struct file_lock *fl, p-,arg.fh = NFS_FH(inode); p-,arg.fl = &p-,fl; - if (!(lsp-,ls_seqid.flags & NFS_SEQID_CONFIRMED)) { - p-,arg.open_seqid = nfs_alloc_seqid(&lsp-,ls_state-,owner-,so_seqid); - if (p-,arg.open_seqid == NULL) - goto out_free; - - } + p-,arg.open_seqid = nfs_alloc_seqid(&lsp-,ls_state-,owner-,so_seqid); + if (p-,arg.open_seqid == NULL) + goto out_free; ...
With our experience in sulfur chemistry we were able to contribute to the development of a molybdenum-catalyzed sulfur transfer reaction from elemental sulfur to isonitriles and reactive alkenes [111, 115]. Such S-transfer reactions have only a small thermodynamic driving force and are therefore more difficult to achieve than the corresponding O-tranfers [112]. ...
Each year, a striking number of our new hires are graduates of Mesquite ISD schools. This year, 20 percent of new hires are Mesquite ISD alumni ...
Expression of YBX1 (BP-8, CSDA2, CSDB, DBPB, MDR-NF1, NSEP-1, NSEP1, YB-1, YB1) in cancer tissue. The cancer tissue page shows antibody staining of the protein in 20 different cancers.
Expression of YBX1 (BP-8, CSDA2, CSDB, DBPB, MDR-NF1, NSEP-1, NSEP1, YB-1, YB1) in kidney tissue. Antibody staining with HPA040304 and CAB005875 in immunohistochemistry.
TadABC complex; the Flp pilus assembly complex, consisting of one ATPase component, TadA or CpaF, and two membrane components, TadB (218 aas and 3 - 5 TMSs) and TadC (200 aas and 2 N- and C-terminal TMSs) (Bottacini et al. 2017 ...
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This enzyme belongs to the family of ligases, specifically those forming carbon-sulfur bonds as acid-thiol ligases. This enzyme participates in biotin metabolism.
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The term `quorum sensing (QS) is used to define a population density based communication mechanism which uses chemical signal molecules called autoinducers to trigger unique and varied changes in gene expression. Although several communication methods have been identified in bacteria that are unique to a particular species, one type of signal molecule, autoinducer-2 (AI-2) is linked to interspecies communication, indicating its potential as a universal signal for cueing a QS response among multiple bacterial types. In E. coli, AI-2 acts as an effector by binding to the QS repressor LsrR. As a result, LsrR unbinds and relieves repression of the lsr regulon, stimulating a subsequent QS gene expression cascade. In this dissertation, LsrR structure and in vitro binding activity are examined. Genomic binding and DNA microarray analyses are conducted and three novel sites putatively regulated by LsrR, yegE-udk, mppA and yihF, are revealed. Two cAMP receptor protein (CRP) binding locations in ...
AM: The presumption that we cannot communicate across species comes from the worldview that says there is this human world and then there is this animal world or the environment outside of us. All kinds of cultures throughout time have included myths and stories about people communicating across boundaries of species. It doesnt have to be like some woo-woo New Age thing. It is just part of being a living creature on this planet that species are interacting with each other across species boundaries in all kinds of ways.. It doesnt mean we are reading each others thoughts or completely understand what is going on in each others minds. The birds outside my window are not making noise because there is a huge construction truck making a whole lot of noise instead. That is interspecies communication or interruption of interspecies communication. We are all in this thing together. I am really interested in the scientists that are taking that to another level and saying beyond metaphor what is ...
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To unlock the healing powers of garlic, it must sit for 10 minutes after being crushed and before being consumed. A sulfur-based compound called alliin and an enzyme called alliinase are separated in garlics cell structure when its whole. Crushing garlic ruptures the cells and releases these elements, allowing them to come in contact and form a powerful new compound called alliicin, which not only has numerous health-promoting benefits but is also what gives garlic its pungent aroma and "bite.". Cheers to good health!. ...
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K00816 CCBL; kynurenine---oxoglutarate transaminase / cysteine-S-conjugate beta-lyase / glutamine---phenylpyruvate transaminase [EC:2.6.1.7 4.4.1.13 2.6.1.64 ...
L-Cysteine is a crystalline free-form amino acid that is active in many body processes. L-Cysteine works in the liver to protect the body from harmful substance
Only Houston ISD is a tax-paying member of the HCCS system. Katy ISD has been asked to join the district but has not acted upon the invitation. Spring Branch ISD has not been formally asked to join the taxing district, which levies an ad valorem tax of 8 cents per $100 of assessed valuation.. ...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - AI-2 does not function as a quorum sensing molecule in Campylobacter jejuni during exponential growth in vitro. AU - Holmes, K.. AU - Tavender, T.J.. AU - Winzer, K.. AU - Wells, J.. AU - Hardie, K.. PY - 2009. Y1 - 2009. N2 - Background - Campylobacter jejuni contains a homologue of the luxS gene shown to be responsible for the production of the signalling molecule autoinducer-2 (AI-2) in Vibrio harveyi and Vibrio cholerae. The aim of this study was to determine whether AI-2 acted as a diffusible quorum sensing signal controlling C. jejuni gene expression when it is produced at high levels during mid exponential growth phase. Results - AI-2 activity was produced by the parental strain NCTC 11168 when grown in rich Mueller-Hinton broth (MHB) as expected, but interestingly was not present in defined Modified Eagles Medium (MEM-a). Consistent with previous studies, the luxS mutant showed comparable growth rates to the parental strain and exhibited decreased motility halos in both ...
Autoinducer-2 (AI-2), a furanosyl borate diester, is a member of a family of signaling molecules used in quorum sensing. AI-2 is one of only a few known biomolecules incorporating boron. First identified in the marine bacterium Vibrio harveyi, AI-2 is produced and recognized by many Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. AI-2 arises by the reaction of 1-deoxy-3-dehydro-D-ribulose, which is produced enzymatically, with boric acid and is recognized by the two-component sensor kinase LuxPQ in Vibrionaceae. AI-2 is actively transported by the Lsr ABC-type transporter into the cell in Enterobacteriaceae and few other bacterial taxa (Pasteurella, Photorhabdus, Haemophilus, Bacillus), where it is phosphorylated by LsrK . Then, Phospho-AI-2 binds the transcriptional repressor protein, LsrR, which subsequently is released from the promoter/operator region of the lsr operon - and transcription of the lsr genes is initiated. AI-2 signalling is also regulated by glucose and cAMP/CRP via the lsr operon. ...
Salmonella typhi utilize inter and intra species communication via the process of cell-cell communication, which use to regulate population density with small, diffusible signaling molecules as communication intermediary called Autoinducers-2 (AI-2). Lsrk is the kinase phosphorylate AI-2, be capable to simulate the lsr operon. On the other hand, a solved structure of LsrK from Salmonella typhi is not available on Protein Data Bank. For that reason, we modelled and validated LsrK through online servers. Secondary structural insights were discussed. These findings provide new knowledge to molecular understanding of Autoinducer-2 kinase within Salmonella typhi.. ...
Carbohydrate Structure Database (CSDB) is a free database and service platform in glycoinformatics, launched in 2005 by a group of Russian scientists from N.D. Zelinsky Institute of Organic Chemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences. CSDB stores structural and spectral data on natural carbohydrates and carbohydrate-related molecules. The main data stored in CSDB are carbohydrate structures of bacterial, fungal, and plant origin. Each structure is assigned to an organism and is provided with the link(s) to the corresponding scientific publication(s), in which it was described. Apart from structural data, CSDB also stores NMR spectra, information on methods used to decipher a particular structure, and some other data. CSDB provides access to several carbohydrate-related research tools: Simulation of 1D and 2D NMR spectra of carbohydrates (GODESS: glycan-oriented dual empirical spectrum simulation). Automated NMR-based structure elucidation (GRASS: generation, ranking and assignment of saccharide ...
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The advanced NIFS campus information network, NIFS-LAN, was designed and constructed as an informational infrastructure in 1996, 1997 and 1998 fiscal year. NIFS-LAN was composed of three autonomous clusters classified from research purpose; Research Information cluster, Large Helical Device Experiment cluster and Large-Scale Computer Simulation Research cluster. Many ATM(Asychronous Transfer Mode) switching systems and switching equipments were used for NIFS-LAN. Here, the outline of NIFS-LAN is described ...
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Will is a preschooler in Frisco ISD! He made it to school today, although he wasnt too happy about it. I tried to get a couple "first day of school" photos and Will just wasnt having it ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Catalysts and supports for conversion of lactic acid to acrylic acid and 2,3-pentanedione. AU - Gunter,Garry C.. AU - Langford,Robert H.. AU - Jackson,James E.. AU - Miller,Dennis J.. PY - 1995/3. Y1 - 1995/3. N2 - The catalytic conversion of lactic acid over various sodium salt catalysts and support materials has been carried out to identify potential catalyst/support combinations for 2,3-pentanedione and acrylic acid production. Low surface area, pure silica is the best support for suppressing undesirable side reactions to acetaldehyde and propanoic acid, which are favored over high surface area (microporous) or surface acidic materials. The best catalysts for 2,3-pentanedione and acrylic acid formation are the sodium salts of group IV and group V oxides, with sodium arsenate giving a 2,3-pentanedione yield of 25% and combined selectivity to acrylic acid and 2,3-pentanedione of 83% at 300 °C and 0.5 MPa total pressure.. AB - The catalytic conversion of lactic acid over various ...
Ethology. Interspecies communication. Animal communication. Animal cognition. Emotion in animals. Animal culture. Animal sexual behaviour. A range of animal
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Effect of growth phase (A) and medium (B) on AI-2 production in representative species of the genus Shewanella. (A) Comparison between a Shewanella species with
|p|One of the nine essential amino acids, L-Methionine is extremely important when it comes to supporting the growth of new blood vessels, helping to encourage healthy bone density and even reducing the symptoms of liver disease!|/p| |p|Sound great but o
This is the default dialog which is useful for displaying information. The dialog window can be moved, resized and closed with the x icon.. ...
This is the default dialog which is useful for displaying information. The dialog window can be moved, resized and closed with the x icon.. ...
This is the default dialog which is useful for displaying information. The dialog window can be moved, resized and closed with the x icon.. ...
2011/10/8 Mats Erik Andersson ,[email protected],: , Dear all, , , let me begin a thread tracking issues with NFS, a package , collection in need for better examination, as we were told , a few days ago. Please could you use the BTS? -- Robert Millan ...
Eagle Mountain-Saginaw is fully accredited by the Texas Education Agency. Eagle Mountain-Saginaw ISD is not responsible for the content of sites hosted on outside webservers.. ...
This product contains the harmonious combination of garlic and ginger. Jarrow Formulas Garlic contains the original amino acids, vitamins and minerals, including selenium, and special sulphur compounds, including alliin, alliinase, allicin and diallyl disulfide compounds, naturally occurring in garlic. Jarrow Formulas Ginger is naturally dried and not subjected to any additional heat. This process ensures the presence of the active compounds that are beneficial to the gastrointestinal tract.* Keep out of the reach of children.
He appears to fancy himself as a humourist. When another parrot hung upside down from its perch, he commented: "You got to put this bird on the camera." Dr Goodall says Nkisis verbal fireworks are an "outstanding example of interspecies communication". In an experiment, the bird and his owner were put in separate rooms and filmed as the artist opened random envelopes containing picture cards. Analysis showed the parrot had used appropriate keywords three times more often than would be likely by chance. Captives frustrations This was despite the researchers discounting responses like "What ya doing on the phone?" when Nkisi saw a card of a man with a telephone, and "Can I give you a hug?" with one of a couple embracing. Professor Donald Broom, of the University of Cambridges School of Veterinary Medicine, said: "The more we look at the cognitive abilities of animals, the more advanced they appear, and the biggest leap of all has been with parrots." Alison Hales, of the World Parrot Trust, ...
In a hydrolysis study conducted by Ricerca Inc. (BAMM 1990), the half-life of 14C-butyl acrylate in water at pH 11 was determined to be approximately 243 minutes. There was less than 2 % hydrolysis of 14C-butyl acrylate at pH 3 and pH 7 during the 28 day period. Approximate hydrolysis half-life values for pH 3 and pH 7, calculated using initial and final 14C-butyl acrylate concentrations, were 2800 days at pH 3 and 1100 days at pH 7. Therefore, the substance will hydrolyse slowly in contact with water under environmental conditions. Hydrolysis will not contribute significantly to the degradation of n-butyl acrylate under environmental conditions. ...
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This enzyme belongs to the family of lyases, specifically carbon-sulfur lyases. The systematic name of this enzyme class is S- ... Tyrosine attacks the sulfur bound carbon, allowing S(CH3)(Ado) to leave, and during ring formation, Tyrosine leaves. Note ... increasing the acidity of the alpha carbon by stabilizing the conjugate base. The PLP-stabilized carbanion intermediate formed ... "Slow-binding inhibition of Escherichia coli cystathionine beta-lyase by L-aminoethoxyvinylglycine: a kinetic and X-ray study". ...
This enzyme belongs to the family of lyases, specifically the class of carbon-sulfur lyases. The systematic name of this enzyme ... O-phospho-3-sulfolactate sulfo-lyase. As of late 2007, only one structure has been solved for this class of enzymes, with the ... class is (2R)-2-O-phospho-3-sulfolactate hydrogen-sulfite-lyase (phosphoenolpyruvate-forming). Other names in common use ...
This enzyme belongs to the family of lyases, specifically the class of carbon-sulfur lyases. The systematic name of this enzyme ... L-homocysteine hydrogen-sulfide-lyase, and (deaminating). This enzyme participates in nitrogen metabolism and sulfur metabolism ... class is L-homocysteine hydrogen-sulfide-lyase (deaminating 2-oxobutanoate-forming). Other names in common use include ...
This enzyme belongs to the family of lyases, specifically the class of carbon-sulfur lyases. The systematic name of this enzyme ... 14-tetraenoate glutathione-lyase (epoxide-forming). This enzyme participates in arachidonic acid metabolism. As of late 2007, 3 ... class is leukotriene-C4 glutathione-lyase (leukotriene-A4-forming). Other names in common use include leukotriene C4 synthetase ...
This enzyme belongs to the family of lyases, specifically the class of carbon-sulfur lyases. The systematic name of this enzyme ... glutathione formaldehyde-lyase. This enzyme participates in methane metabolism. Goenrich M; Bartoschek S; Hagemeier CH; ... class is S-(hydroxymethyl)glutathione formaldehyde-lyase (glutathione-forming). Other names in common use include glutathione- ...
This enzyme belongs to the family of lyases, specifically the class of carbon-sulfur lyases. The systematic name of this enzyme ... Cytochrome c haem-lyase (CCHL) and cytochrome Cc1 haem-lyase (CC1HL) are mitochondrial enzymes that catalyse the covalent ... Dumont ME, Ernst JF, Hampsey DM, Sherman F (1987). "Identification and sequence of the gene encoding cytochrome c heme lyase in ... class is holocytochrome-c apocytochrome-c-lyase (heme-forming). Other names in common use include cytochrome c heme-lyase, ...
This enzyme belongs to the family of lyases, specifically the class of carbon-sulfur lyases. The systematic name of this enzyme ... cysteine sulfoxide lyase, alkylcysteine sulfoxide lyase, S-alkylcysteine sulfoxide lyase, L-cysteine sulfoxide lyase, S-alkyl-L ... and alliin itself was the first natural product found to have both carbon- and sulfur-centered stereochemistry. However, the ... In enzymology, an alliin lyase (EC 4.4.1.4) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction an S-alkyl-L-cysteine S-oxide ...
This enzyme belongs to the family of lyases, specifically the class of carbon-sulfur lyases. The systematic name of this enzyme ... Other names in common use include D-cysteine lyase, and D-cysteine sulfide-lyase (deaminating). This enzyme participates in ... class is D-cysteine sulfide-lyase (deaminating; pyruvate-forming). ...
This enzyme belongs to the family of lyases, specifically the class of carbon-sulfur lyases. The systematic name of this enzyme ... and L-cysteine hydrogen-sulfide-lyase (adding HCN). This enzyme participates in cyanoamino acid metabolism. Akopyan TN, ... class is L-cysteine hydrogen-sulfide-lyase (adding hydrogen cyanide L-3-cyanoalanine-forming). Other names in common use ...
This enzyme belongs to the family of lyases, specifically the class of carbon-sulfur lyases. The systematic name of this enzyme ... S-dimethyl-beta-propiothetin dimethyl-sulfide-lyase. ANDERSON DG, CANTONI GL (1956). "Enzymatic cleavage of ... class is S,S-dimethyl-beta-propiothetin dimethyl-sulfide-lyase (acrylate-forming). Other names in common use include ...
However, the pathway of sulfur oxidation is not well-understood.[3] Anabolism[edit]. These autotrophs fix carbon dioxide using ... ATP citrate lyase: ACL, acetyl-CoA + oxaloacetate + ADP + Pi ⇌ citrate + CoA + ATP. ... Carbon Fixation of Green Sulfur Bacteria[edit]. The reactions of reversal of the oxidative tricarboxylic acid cycle are ... Elemental sulfur is deposited in globules on the extracellular side of the outer membrane. When sulfide is depleted, the sulfur ...
This enzyme belongs to the family of lyases, specifically the hydro-lyases, which cleave carbon-oxygen bonds. The systematic ... a tungsten iron-sulfur protein". J. Bacteriol. 177 (20): 5767-72. PMC 177396 . PMID 7592321. ten Brink, Felix (2014). "Chapter ... and acetaldehyde hydro-lyase. Acetylene hydratase participates in tetrachloroethene degradation. Rosner BM, Schink B (1995). " ... name of this enzyme class is acetaldehyde hydro-lyase (acetylene-forming). Other names in common use include AH, ...
This enzyme belongs to the family of ligases, specifically those forming carbon-sulfur bonds as acid-thiol ligases. The ... "Isolation of enzymically active fragments formed by limited proteolysis of ATP citrate lyase". Eur. J. Biochem. 125 (3): 645-50 ...
... cleave carbon-nitrogen bonds EC 4.4 includes lyases that cleave carbon-sulfur bonds EC 4.5 includes lyases that cleave carbon- ... Lyases can be further classified into seven subclasses: EC 4.1 includes lyases that cleave carbon-carbon bonds, such as ... oxo acid lyases (EC 4.1.3), and others (EC 4.1.99) EC 4.2 includes lyases that cleave carbon-oxygen bonds, such as dehydratases ... this reaction was first classified as a lyase (EC 4.2.99.9), but was then reclassified as a transferase (EC 2.5.1.48). Lyases ...
In the case of methionine, the methyl carbon is derived from serine and the sulfur group, but in most organisms, it is derived ... SAICAR lyase removes the carbon skeleton of the added aspartate, leaving the amino group and forming 5-aminoimidazole-4- ... For all standard amino acids, except glycine, the α-carbon is a chiral center. In the case of glycine, the α-carbon has two ... Proline has a functional group on the α-carbon that forms a ring with the amino group. One major step in amino acid ...
Glyoxalase I is classified as a carbon-sulfur lyase although, strictly speaking, the enzyme does not form or break a carbon- ... sulfur bond. Rather, the enzyme shifts two hydrogen atoms from one carbon atom of the methylglyoxal to the adjacent carbon atom ... Lactoylglutathione lyase in humans is encoded by the GLO1 gene. Several structures of glyoxalase I have been solved. Four ... In effect, the reaction is an intramolecular redox reaction; one carbon is oxidized whereas the other is reduced. The mechanism ...
... the gamma carbon is attacked by a sulfur nucleophile, resulting in the formation of a new sulfur-gamma carbon bond. ... To reform the aldimine, this lone pair pushes back down, cleaving the sulfur-gamma carbon bond, resulting in the release of ... Cystathionase uses pyridoxal phosphate to facilitate the cleavage of the sulfur-gamma carbon bond of cystathionine, resulting ... Other members include cystathionine gamma synthase, cystathionine beta lyase, and methionine gamma lyase. It is also a member ...
This enzyme belongs to the family of lyases, specifically the class of carbon-sulfur lyases. The systematic name of this enzyme ... Esaki N, Nakamura T, Tanaka H, Soda K (1982). "Selenocysteine lyase, a novel enzyme that specifically acts on selenocysteine. ... In enzymology, a selenocysteine lyase (EC 4.4.1.16) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction L-selenocysteine + ... and selenocysteine beta-lyase. This enzyme participates in selenoamino acid metabolism. It employs one cofactor, pyridoxal ...
This enzyme belongs to the family of lyases, specifically the class of carbon-sulfur lyases. The systematic name of this enzyme ... lyase, and L-cysteine hydrogen-sulfide-lyase (adding sulfite). This enzyme participates in cysteine metabolism and taurine and ... Tolosa EA, Chepurnova NK, Khomutov RM, Severin ES (1969). "Reactions catalysed by cysteine lyase from the yolk sac of chicken ... In enzymology, a cysteine lyase (EC 4.4.1.10) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction L-cysteine + sulfite ⇌ {\ ...
This enzyme belongs to the family of lyases, specifically the class of carbon-sulfur lyases. The systematic name of this enzyme ... In enzymology, a S-ribosylhomocysteine lyase (EC 4.4.1.21) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction S-(5-deoxy-D-ribos ... class is S-(5-deoxy-D-ribos-5-yl)-L-homocysteine L-homocysteine-lyase [(4S)-4,5-dihydroxypentan-2,3-dione-forming]. Other names ...
This enzyme belongs to the family of lyases, specifically the class of carbon-sulfur lyases. The systematic name of this enzyme ... alkylcysteine lyase, S-alkyl-L-cysteine sulfoxide lyase, S-alkyl-L-cysteine lyase, S-alkyl-L-cysteinase, alkyl cysteine lyase, ... In enzymology, a S-alkylcysteine lyase (EC 4.4.1.6) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction an S-alkyl-L-cysteine + ... and S-alkyl-L-cysteine alkylthiol-lyase (deaminating). It employs one cofactor, pyridoxal phosphate. Nomura J, Nishizuka Y, ...
This enzyme belongs to the family of lyases, specifically the class of carbon-sulfur lyases. The systematic name of this enzyme ... In enzymology, a sulfolactate sulfo-lyase (EC 4.4.1.24, Suy, SuyAB, 3-sulfolactate bisulfite-lyase, sulfolactate sulfo-lyase) ... and 3-sulfolactate bisulfite-lyase. Graham, D.E.; White, R.H. (2002). "Elucidation of methanogenic coenzyme biosyntheses: from ... "Dissimilation of cysteate via 3-sulfolactate sulfo-lyase and a sulfate exporter in Paracoccus pantotrophus NKNCYSA". ...
This enzyme belongs to the family of lyases, specifically the class of carbon-sulfur lyases. The systematic name of this enzyme ... Methionine gamma-lyase (MGL) is an enzyme in the γ-family of PLP-dependent enzymes. It degrades sulfur-containing amino acids ... methionine lyase, methioninase, methionine dethiomethylase, L-methionine gamma-lyase, and L-methionine methanethiol-lyase ( ... Because sulfur-containing amino acids play a role in multiple biological processes, the regulation of these amino acids is ...
The enzyme also belongs to the family of lyases, specifically the class of carbon-sulfur lyases. The systematic name of this ... Other members include cystathionine gamma-synthase, cystathionine gamma-lyase, and methionine gamma lyase. Additionally, these ... and sulfur metabolism. Cystathionine beta-lyase is a tetramer composed of identical subunits, and is constructed as a dimer of ... Cystathionine beta-lyase (EC 4.4.1.8), also commonly referred to as CBL or β-cystathionase, is an enzyme that primarily ...
This enzyme belongs to the family of lyases, specifically the class of carbon-sulfur lyases. The systematic name of this enzyme ... In enzymology, a L-cysteate sulfo-lyase (EC 4.4.1.25) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction L-cysteate + H2O ⇌ {\ ... Denger K, Smits TH, Cook AM (2006). "L-cysteate sulpho-lyase, a widespread pyridoxal 5'-phosphate-coupled desulphonative enzyme ... class is L-cysteate bisulfite-lyase (deaminating; pyruvate-forming). Other names in common use include L-cysteate sulfo-lyase ( ...
This enzyme belongs to the family of lyases, specifically the class of carbon-sulfur lyases. The systematic name of this enzyme ... Other names in common use include cysteine conjugate beta-lyase, glutamine transaminase K/cysteine conjugate beta-lyase, and L- ... In enzymology, a cysteine-S-conjugate beta-lyase (EC 4.4.1.13) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction RS-CH2-CH(NH3+ ... Tateishi M, Suzuki S, Shimizu H (1978). "Cysteine conjugate beta-lyase in rat liver. A novel enzyme catalyzing formation of ...
Aconitase is one of several iron-sulfur-containing (de)hydratases in metabolic pathways shown to be inactivated by superoxide.[ ... SOD2 knockout or null mutations cause growth inhibition on respiratory carbon sources in addition to decreased post-diauxic ... EC4 Lyases (list). *EC5 Isomerases (list). *EC6 Ligases (list). *EC7 Translocases (list) ...
... lyase(acetyl form). This enzyme belongs to the family of ligases, specifically those forming carbon-sulfur bonds as acid-thiol ... Antranikian G, Gottschalk G (1982). "Copurification of citrate lyase and citrate lyase ligase from Rhodopseudomonas gelatinosa ... lyase(acetyl form) The 3 substrates of this enzyme are ATP, acetate, and citrate (pro-3S)-lyase(thiol form), whereas its 3 ... HS-citrate lyase ligase, and acetate:citrate-(pro-3S)-lyase(thiol-form) ligase (AMP-forming). This enzyme participates in two- ...
However, the pathway of sulfur oxidation is not well-understood.[3] Anabolism[edit]. These autotrophs fix carbon dioxide using ... ATP citrate lyase: ACL, acetyl-CoA + oxaloacetate + ADP + Pi ⇌ citrate + CoA + ATP. ... Carbon Fixation of Green Sulfur Bacteria[edit]. The reactions of reversal of the oxidative tricarboxylic acid cycle are ... Elemental sulfur is deposited in globules on the extracellular side of the outer membrane. When sulfide is depleted, the sulfur ...
Lyases;. Carbon-sulfur lyases;. Carbon-sulfur lyases (only sub-subclass identified to date). ...
Carbon-Sulfur Lyases); EC 4.4.1.21 (LuxS protein, Bacteria). ...
Carbon-Sulfur Lyases; EC 4.4.1.23/2-hydroxypropyl-CoM 2-mercaptoethanesulfonate lyase (epoxyalkane-ring forming) ... Carbon-Sulfur Lyases / genetics*. Carcinogens / analysis. Ethylenes / analysis*. Genetic Variation. Humans. Oxygenases / ...
3.12 Acting on sulfur-sulfur bonds 3.13 Acting on carbon-sulfur bonds ... 4. Lyases 5. Isomerases 6. Ligases [ BRITE , KEGG2 , KEGG ]. Last updated: February 16, 2018. EC number data are obtained from ...
carbon-sulfur lyase activity Source: InterPro. View the complete GO annotation on QuickGO ... ...
EC 4.3.99.4 choline trimethylamine-lyase. EC 4.4 Carbon-Sulfur Lyases. EC 4.4.1.1 cystathionine γ-lyase. EC 4.4.1.2 ... EC 4 Lyases. EC 4.1 Carbon-Carbon Lyases. EC 4.1.1 Carboxy-Lyases. EC 4.1.1.1 pyruvate decarboxylase. EC 4.1.1.2 oxalate ... EC 4.7 carbon-phosphorus lyases. EC 4.7.1.1 α-D-ribose 1-methylphosphonate 5-phosphate C-P-lyase. EC 4.99 Other Lyases. EC 4.99 ... EC 4.3 Carbon-Nitrogen Lyases. EC 4.3.1 Ammonia-Lyases. EC 4.3.1.1 aspartate ammonia-lyase. EC 4.3.1.2 methylaspartate ammonia- ...
4 iron, 4 sulfur cluster binding Source: UniProtKB-UniRule. *carbon-nitrogen lyase activity Source: UniProtKB-UniRule ... Iron-sulfur (4Fe-4S-S-AdoMet)UniRule annotation. Manual assertion according to rulesi ... Iron-sulfur (4Fe-4S-S-AdoMet)UniRule annotation. Manual assertion according to rulesi ... Iron-sulfur (4Fe-4S-S-AdoMet)UniRule annotation. Manual assertion according to rulesi ...
Lyases synonyms, Lyases pronunciation, Lyases translation, English dictionary definition of Lyases. n. Any of a class of ... non-redux lyases and transferases for forming bonds of carbon with carbon, oxygen, sulfur, and nitrogen; oxidations; reductions ... lyase. (redirected from Lyases). Also found in: Medical, Encyclopedia.. Related to Lyases: Isomerases, Transferases ... Sulfur assimilation in soybean: molecular cloning and characterization of O-acetylserine (thiol) lyase (cysteine synthase) ...
carbon-sulfur lyase activity. 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate synthase activity. binding. catalytic activity. ...
3.13 Acting on carbon-sulfur bonds (41 organisms) EC class 4", WIDTH, 550, FGCOLOR, "#ffffff", TEXTSIZE, "10px", CAPTIONSIZE, " ... 4 Lyases (5111 organisms) EC class 5", WIDTH, 550, FGCOLOR, "#ffffff", TEXTSIZE, "10px", CAPTIONSIZE, "12px", BORDER, 1); ... 3.10 Acting on sulfur-nitrogen bonds (8 organisms) 3.10.1 Acting on sulfur-nitrogen bonds (only sub-subclass identified to date ... 3.7 Acting on carbon-carbon bonds (153 organisms) EC subclass 3.8", WIDTH, 550, FGCOLOR, "#ffffff", TEXTSIZE, "10px", ...
3.12 Acting on sulfur-sulfur bonds 3.13 Acting on carbon-sulfur bonds ...
Carbon-Sulfur Lyases/chemistry*/genetics/metabolism. *Escherichia coli/chemistry*/genetics/metabolism. *Escherichia coli ... The bacterial iron-sulfur cluster (isc) operon is an essential machine that is highly conserved from bacteria to primates and ... The bacterial iron-sulfur cluster (isc) operon is an essential machine that is highly conserved from bacteria to primates and ... Among its components are the genes for the desulfurase IscS that provides sulfur for cluster formation, and a specialized ...
This enzyme belongs to the family of lyases, specifically carbon-sulfur lyases. The systematic name of this enzyme class is S- ... Tyrosine attacks the sulfur bound carbon, allowing S(CH3)(Ado) to leave, and during ring formation, Tyrosine leaves. Note ... increasing the acidity of the alpha carbon by stabilizing the conjugate base. The PLP-stabilized carbanion intermediate formed ... "Slow-binding inhibition of Escherichia coli cystathionine beta-lyase by L-aminoethoxyvinylglycine: a kinetic and X-ray study". ...
... and carbon-sulfur lyases; Hob1 regulated glycoside hydrolases; and Mbs1 regulated oxidoreductases, microtubule motors, ...
This enzyme belongs to the family of lyases, specifically the class of carbon-sulfur lyases. The systematic name of this enzyme ... O-phospho-3-sulfolactate sulfo-lyase. As of late 2007, only one structure has been solved for this class of enzymes, with the ... class is (2R)-2-O-phospho-3-sulfolactate hydrogen-sulfite-lyase (phosphoenolpyruvate-forming). Other names in common use ...
To satisfy the increased demand for sustainable energy sources and identify the mechanism of photosynthetic carbon assimilation ... the TCA cycle and some key and/or unconventional enzymes in central carbon metabolism of phototrophic microorganisms. We also ... the TCA cycle and some key and/or unconventional enzymes in central carbon metabolism of phototrophic microorganisms. We also ... and 13C-based metabolomics/fluxomics to investigate central carbon metabolism and enzymes that operate in phototrophs. In this ...
Carbon-Sulfur Lyases/genetics*. *Genes, Bacterial*. *Homoserine/analogs & derivatives*/biosynthesis. *Streptococcus suis/ ...
Cystathionine γ-lyase (CGL) is an enzyme in the transsulfuration pathway, a route in the metabolism of sulfur-containing amino ... Background: One-carbon metabolism includes various enzymatic reactions involving the transfer of one-carbon groups mediated by ... The One-Carbon Metabolism Antibody Sampler Kit provides an economical means of detecting select components involved in one- ... One-Carbon Metabolism Antibody Sampler Kit, UniProt ID O43865, Entrez ID 10768 #17336 ...
... "carbon-sulfur lyase activity" FT /protein_id="CAP85613.1" FT /db_xref="GO:0016846" FT /db_xref="InterPro:IPR006913" FT /db_xref ... "carbon-sulfur lyase activity" FT /protein_id="CAP85655.1" FT /db_xref="GO:0016846" FT /db_xref="InterPro:IPR006913" FT /db_xref ... "one-carbon metabolic process " FT /protein_id="CAP85689.1" FT /db_xref="GO:0004329" FT /db_xref="GO:0004477" FT /db_xref="GO: ... acting on carbon-nitrogen FT (but not peptide) bonds, in linear amides" FT /protein_id="CAP85811.1" FT /db_xref="GO:0016811" FT ...
BSAS4;1 is a cysteine synthase that utilizes O-acetylserine as a carbon backbone donor and methionine as a methyl donor to ... This study identifies BSAS4;1 and methionine g-lyase (MGL) as candidate enzymes for S-methylCys biosynthesis in common bean. ... Levels of cysteine and methionine in developing seeds have an inverse relationship with the non-protein sulfur amino acid S- ... One of the strategies to improve protein quality in bean is to redirect sulfur from S-methylCys and g-Glu-S-methylCys to the ...
4. Lyases 5. Isomerases 6. Ligases 6.1 Forming carbon-oxygen bonds 6.2 Forming carbon-sulfur bonds ... 6.4.1 Ligases that form carbon-carbon bonds (only sub-subclass identified to date) ...
... a predicted glyoxalase with carbon-sulfur lyase activity (SPO0721), a methionine-γ-lyase (SPOA0318) potentially involved in ... strain TM1040 (24, 40) (Table 3). DMSP can be a major source of both carbon and sulfur for marine bacterioplankton in ocean ... such as carbon monoxide oxidation (cox genes), sulfur oxidation (sox genes), DMSP demethylation (dmdA), denitrification (nirK, ... With no recognizable carbon fixation pathways, phototrophy may be used by Jannaschia sp. strain CCS1 to obtain energy and ...
... despite these important connections to both carbon and sulfur cycling, little is known about the identity of the bacteria that ... All 15 isolates characterized in this study possessed DMSP lyase type activity, since DMS was produced from DMSP, and 5 ... Utilization of organic sulfur compounds as sources of reduced sulfur could also provide an energetic advantage (24). In the ... Sulfur incorporation by strain DSS-3.We investigated the incorporation of sulfur from DMSP or methanethiol into the protein ...
Carbon-sulfur lyase Current Synonym true false 475010019 Carbon-sulphur lyase Current Synonym true false ... Enzyme (substance) {90668006 , SNOMED-CT } Substance with lyase mechanism of action (substance) {21533003 , SNOMED-CT } ... Carbon-sulfur lyase (substance). Code System Preferred Concept Name. Carbon-sulfur lyase (substance). ...
  • Among its components are the genes for the desulfurase IscS that provides sulfur for cluster formation, and a specialized ferredoxin (Fdx) whose role is still unknown. (nih.gov)
  • Genes shared among the three roseobacters and also common in nine draft Roseobacter genomes include those for carbon monoxide oxidation, dimethylsulfoniopropionate demethylation, and aromatic compound degradation. (asm.org)
  • The genome analysis revealed the presence of genes for a dimethylsulfoniopropionate lyase, demethylase and the trimethylamine methyltransferase ( mttB ) as well as genes for nitrate, nitrite and dimethyl sulfoxide reduction. (osti.gov)
  • Whereas, the sulfur containing impact odorants already have been elucidated as ethanethiol, 1-(ethylsulfanyl)ethane-1-thiol, methanethiol and ethane-1,1-dithiol ( 3 ) and recent whole genome sequencing ( 4 ) revealed sulfur and particular γ-methionine lyase related genes to be responsible for its odor, the nutritive value of durian is largely unknown or less acknowledged. (frontiersin.org)
  • Indeed, knocking out the cbb system, under conditions where CO 2 is normally used as an electron acceptor and not a carbon source, causes both organisms to derepress nitrogenase synthesis and the nifHDK genes, so that reducing equivalents may now be dissipated as a result of the H+-reducing hydrogenase activity of nitrogenase. (osumicrobiology.org)
  • Two genes ( eutBC ) encode subunits of the cobalamin-dependent ethanolamine ammonia lyase ( 27 , 45 ), which converts ethanolamine to acetaldehyde and ammonia ( 13 , 50 ). (asm.org)
  • Lyases catalyze reactions where functional groups are added to break double bonds in molecules or the reverse where double bonds are formed by the removal of functional groups. (wikibooks.org)
  • Investigations on the phototrophic sulfur bacterium Chlorobium phaeobacteroides causing seasonal blooms in Lake Kinneret. (springer.com)
  • In this study, the pathway for anaerobic catabolism of p -coumarate by a model bacterium, Rhodopseudomonas palustris , was characterized by comparing the gene expression profiles of cultures grown in the presence of p -coumarate, benzoate, or succinate as the sole carbon sources. (mcponline.org)
  • The purple, non-sulfur phototrophic bacterium Rhodopseudomonas palustris has served as a model organism for studies of anaerobic aromatic compound degradation ( 4 , 5 ). (mcponline.org)
  • All the results were compared with the results for another purple non-sulfur bacterium, Rhodobacter capsulatus SB1003 and species-specific differences were clarified. (springer.com)
  • Nonenzymatic H 2 S can form via the reduction of thiol-containing molecules when H 2 S is released from sulfur stores such as sulfane sulfur. (hindawi.com)
  • EC 4.2.99.8 ) [ O -acetyl-Ser (thiol) lyase] by using O -acetyl-Ser (OAS) and sulfide as substrates. (plantphysiol.org)
  • One of the strategies to improve protein quality in bean is to redirect sulfur from S -methylCys and g-Glu- S -methylCys to the cysteine pool. (uwo.ca)
  • A multifunctional iron-sulfur protein that is both an iron regulatory protein and cytoplasmic form of aconitate hydratase. (umassmed.edu)
  • The ability to incorporate the reduced sulfur in DMSP and methanethiol into cellular material was studied with one of the isolates. (asm.org)
  • The inferred enzymatic mechanism for DMS liberation involves an initial step in which DMSP is modified by addition of acyl coenzyme A, rather than the immediate release of DMS by a DMSP lyase, the previously suggested mechanism. (sciencemag.org)
  • Sulphur is also a constituent of dimethylsulphoniopropionate (DMSP), which in some algae can represent a very large portion of cell S and is involved in algal responses to a variety of abiotic and biotic stresses, in addition to being indicted (controversially) of an important role in climate control. (springer.com)
  • However, its accurate detection in vivo is critical due to its volatility and tendency to form sulfane sulfur derivatives, thus limiting the data interpretation of its biological roles. (bvsalud.org)
  • Sulfane sulfur represents the major species derived from intracellular H2S. (bvsalud.org)
  • We present here an alternative to the classic imaging method for sulfane sulfur evaluation, running on a flow cytometer, based on SSP4 probe labeling. (bvsalud.org)
  • The new application methods for H2S determination appear to be fully suitable for the analysis of H2S release and sulfane sulfur content in biological samples. (bvsalud.org)
  • A novel lyase, combining hydratase and aldolase activity, that converts citral into methylheptenone and acetaldehyde, was purified from spores of Penicillium digitatum. (tudelft.nl)
  • We also discuss the reducing equivalent flow during photoautotrophic and photoheterotrophic growth, evolutionary links in the central carbon metabolic network, and correlations between photosynthetic and non-photosynthetic organisms. (frontiersin.org)
  • Studies of culturable representatives suggested that the group could mediate a number of steps in the cycling of both organic and inorganic forms of sulfur in marine environments. (asm.org)
  • Citral lyase also converts other α,β-unsaturated aldehydes (farnesal, methyl-crotonaldehyde, decenal and cinnemaldehyde). (tudelft.nl)
  • Sulfide donates two electrons to yield elemental sulfur. (wikipedia.org)
  • When sulfide is depleted, the sulfur globules are consumed and oxidized to sulfate. (wikipedia.org)
  • Biogenic sulfur emissions from the oceans, mainly in the form of dimethyl sulfide (DMS), play an important role in the global sulfur cycle. (asm.org)
  • Dimethyl sulfide (DMS) is a key compound in global sulfur and carbon cycles. (sciencemag.org)
  • Moreover, sulfide is able to reverse ATG8 accumulation and lipidation, even in wild-type plants when autophagy is induced by carbon starvation, suggesting a general effect of sulfide on autophagy regulation that is unrelated to sulfur or nitrogen limitation stress. (plantcell.org)
  • Hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S) is a gasotransmitter, along with nitric oxide (NO) and carbon monoxide (CO) that initiates a variety of signaling pathways within cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Sulphur is however assimilated in the organic matter as sulphide (S 2− ). (springer.com)
  • Biocatalyst in the production of sulfur and organic carbon from a gas stream containing H Z S and CO,. Applied Environmental Microbiology 45:913-918. (springer.com)
  • There are dozens of simultaneous chemical reactions happening within any given cell at any time in the life-cycle of the cell, reactions that are driving carbon off to make fatty acids to repair membranes or driving nitrogen and sulfur off to make amino acids. (phdinbeer.com)
  • Side-On Sulfur Monoxide Complexes of Tantalum, Niobium, and Vanadium Oxyfluorides. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Side-on sulfur monoxide complexes of tantalum, niobium, and vanadium oxyfluorides OMF(η-SO) were prepared via the reactions of metal atoms and SOF upon UV-vis irradiation in a cryogenic matrix. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Gases such as nitric oxide (NO) and carbon monoxide (CO) play important roles both in normal physiology and in disease. (hindawi.com)
  • Nitric oxide (NO) and carbon monoxide (CO) are established physiologic messenger molecules, and the former serving as an endothelial cell-derived relaxing factor (EDRF) has an important role in the regulation of blood pressure [ 1 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • The bulk of our work over the years has concentrated on two or three model systems, both of which enable organisms to use CO 2 as the sole source of carbon for growth. (osumicrobiology.org)
  • Pectin lyases are significant compared to that of PG and PE in capability to undergo [beta]-elimination mechanism to degrade highly esterified pectins (present in fruits) into small molecules without producing methanol (7). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Bacillus cereus GS-2 isolated from fruit industrial dump site effectively produces pectin lyase (PL) and Polygalacturonase (PG). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Pectin lyases are the only known pectinases capable of degrading highly esterified pectins (like those found in fruits) into small molecules via [beta]-elimination mechanism without producing methanol. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Despite the diverse array of reactions catalysed, members of the Radical SAM superfamily share a similar structural topology that facilitates this interaction between SAM and an iron‐sulphur cluster and allows restricted access of substrates to the site of radical generation. (els.net)
  • BioB has a complete (αβ) 8 barrel that encapsulates the substrate dethiobiotin and the sulphur‐donating [2Fe‐2S] 2+ cluster. (els.net)