A private, voluntary, not-for-profit organization which establishes standards for the operation of health facilities and services, conducts surveys, and awards accreditation.
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
The chemical processes, enzymatic activities, and pathways of living things and related temporal, dimensional, qualitative, and quantitative concepts.
A discipline concerned with studying biological phenomena in terms of the chemical and physical interactions of molecules.
Facilities equipped to carry out investigative procedures.
Information centers primarily serving the needs of hospital medical staff and sometimes also providing patient education and other services.
Certification as complying with a standard set by non-governmental organizations, applied for by institutions, programs, and facilities on a voluntary basis.
A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria isolated from soil and water as well as clinical specimens. Occasionally it is an opportunistic pathogen.
Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in nature. Some species are pathogenic for humans, animals, and plants.
Placing of a hydroxyl group on a compound in a position where one did not exist before. (Stedman, 26th ed)
A species of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria commonly isolated from clinical specimens (wound, burn, and urinary tract infections). It is also found widely distributed in soil and water. P. aeruginosa is a major agent of nosocomial infection.
FATTY ACIDS in which the carbon chain contains one or more double or triple carbon-carbon bonds.
A species of nonpathogenic fluorescent bacteria found in feces, sewage, soil, and water, and which liquefy gelatin.
A species of gram-positive, aerobic bacteria that produces TUBERCULOSIS in humans, other primates, CATTLE; DOGS; and some other animals which have contact with humans. Growth tends to be in serpentine, cordlike masses in which the bacilli show a parallel orientation.
Any of the infectious diseases of man and other animals caused by species of MYCOBACTERIUM.
A genus of gram-positive, aerobic bacteria. Most species are free-living in soil and water, but the major habitat for some is the diseased tissue of warm-blooded hosts.
MYCOBACTERIUM infections of the lung.
A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The bovine variety of the tubercle bacillus. It is called also Mycobacterium tuberculosis var. bovis.
A rapid-growing, nonphotochromogenic species of MYCOBACTERIUM originally isolated from human smegma and found also in soil and water. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
A water-soluble, enzyme co-factor present in minute amounts in every living cell. It occurs mainly bound to proteins or polypeptides and is abundant in liver, kidney, pancreas, yeast, and milk.
Enzymes that catalyze the joining of two molecules by the formation of a carbon-sulfur bond. EC 6.2.
A diverse class of enzymes that interact with UBIQUITIN-CONJUGATING ENZYMES and ubiquitination-specific protein substrates. Each member of this enzyme group has its own distinct specificity for a substrate and ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme. Ubiquitin-protein ligases exist as both monomeric proteins multiprotein complexes.
Poly(deoxyribonucleotide):poly(deoxyribonucleotide)ligases. Enzymes that catalyze the joining of preformed deoxyribonucleotides in phosphodiester linkage during genetic processes during repair of a single-stranded break in duplex DNA. The class includes both EC 6.5.1.1 (ATP) and EC 6.5.1.2 (NAD).
Enzymes that catalyze the cleavage of a carbon-sulfur bond by means other than hydrolysis or oxidation. EC 4.4.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of linear RNA to a circular form by the transfer of the 5'-phosphate to the 3'-hydroxyl terminus. It also catalyzes the covalent joining of two polyribonucleotides in phosphodiester linkage. EC 6.5.1.3.
A subset of ubiquitin protein ligases that are formed by the association of a SKP DOMAIN PROTEIN, a CULLIN DOMAIN PROTEIN and a F-BOX DOMAIN PROTEIN.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-CYSTEINE to 3-sulfinoalanine (3-sulfino-L-alanine) in the CYSTEINE metabolism and TAURINE and hypotaurine metabolic pathways.
An enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of S-adenosylmethionine from methionine and ATP. EC 2.5.1.6.
One of the enzymes active in the gamma-glutamyl cycle. It catalyzes the synthesis of gamma-glutamylcysteine from glutamate and cysteine in the presence of ATP with the formation of ADP and orthophosphate. EC 6.3.2.2.
A solvent for oils, fats, lacquers, varnishes, rubber waxes, and resins, and a starting material in the manufacturing of organic compounds. Poisoning by inhalation, ingestion or skin absorption is possible and may be fatal. (Merck Index, 11th ed)
A sulfur-containing essential L-amino acid that is important in many body functions.
The systematic identification and quantitation of all the metabolic products of a cell, tissue, organ, or organism under varying conditions. The METABOLOME of a cell or organism is a dynamic collection of metabolites which represent its net response to current conditions.

Expression, purification, and characterization of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis acyl carrier protein, AcpM. (1/22)

Mycolic acids are generated in Mycobacterium tuberculosis as a result of the interaction of two fatty acid biosynthetic systems: the multifunctional polypeptide, FASI, in which the acyl carrier protein (ACP) domain forms an integral part of the polypeptide, and the dissociated FASII system, which is composed of monofunctional enzymes and a discrete ACP (AcpM). In order to characterize enzymes of the FASII system, large amounts of AcpM are required to generate substrates such as holo-AcpM, malonyl-AcpM and acyl-AcpM. The M. tuberculosis acpM gene was overexpressed in Escherichia coli and AcpM purified, yielding approximately 15-20 mg/l of culture. Analysis of AcpM by mass spectrometry, N-terminal sequencing, amino acid analysis, and gas chromatography indicated the presence of three species, apo-, holo-, and acyl-AcpM, the former comprising up to 65% of the total pool. The apo-AcpM was purified away from the in vivo generated holo- and acyl-forms, which were inseparable and heterogeneous with respect to acyl chain lengths. Once purified, we were able to convert apo-AcpM into holo- and acyl-forms. These procedures provide the means for the preparation of the large quantities of AcpM and derivatives needed for characterization of the purified enzymes of the mycobacterial FASII system.  (+info)

Site-directed mutagenesis of acyl carrier protein (ACP) reveals amino acid residues involved in ACP structure and acyl-ACP synthetase activity. (2/22)

Acyl carrier protein (ACP) interacts with many different enzymes during the synthesis of fatty acids, phospholipids, and other specialized products in bacteria. To examine the structural and functional roles of amino acids previously implicated in interactions between the ACP polypeptide and fatty acids attached to the phosphopantetheine prosthetic group, recombinant Vibrio harveyi ACP and mutant derivatives of conserved residues Phe-50, Ile-54, Ala-59, and Tyr-71 were prepared from glutathione S-transferase fusion proteins. Circular dichroism revealed that, unlike Escherichia coli ACP, V. harveyi-derived ACPs are unfolded at neutral pH in the absence of divalent cations; all except F50A and I54A recovered native conformation upon addition of MgCl(2). Mutant I54A was not processed to the holo form by ACP synthase. Some mutations significantly decreased catalytic efficiency of ACP fatty acylation by V. harveyi acyl-ACP synthetase relative to recombinant ACP, e.g. F50A (4%), I54L (20%), and I54V (31%), whereas others (V12G, Y71A, and A59G) had less effect. By contrast, all myristoylated ACPs examined were effective substrates for the luminescence-specific V. harveyi myristoyl-ACP thioesterase. Conformationally sensitive gel electrophoresis at pH 9 indicated that fatty acid attachment stabilizes mutant ACPs in a chain length-dependent manner, although stabilization was decreased for mutants F50A and A59G. Our results indicate that (i) residues Ile-54 and Phe-50 are important in maintaining native ACP conformation, (ii) residue Ala-59 may be directly involved in stabilization of ACP structure by acyl chain binding, and (iii) acyl-ACP synthetase requires native ACP conformation and involves interaction with fatty acid binding pocket residues, whereas myristoyl-ACP thioesterase is insensitive to acyl donor structure.  (+info)

Purification and characterization of acyl-acyl carrier protein synthetase from oleaginous yeast and its role in triacylglycerol biosynthesis. (3/22)

Fatty acids are activated in an ATP-dependent manner before they are utilized. We describe here how the 10 S triacylglycerol biosynthetic multienzyme complex from Rhodotorula glutinis is capable of activating non-esterified fatty acids for the synthesis of triacylglycerol. The photolabelling of the complex with [(32)P]azido-ATP showed labelling of a 35 kDa polypeptide. The labelled polypeptide was identified as acyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) synthetase, which catalyses the ATP-dependent ligation of fatty acid with ACP to form acyl-ACP. The enzyme was purified by successive PAGE separations to apparent homogeneity from the soluble fraction of oleaginous yeast and its apparent molecular mass was 35 kDa under denaturing and reducing conditions. Acyl-ACP synthetase was specific for ATP. The K(m) values for palmitic, stearic, oleic and linoleic acids were found to be 42.9, 30.4, 25.1 and 22.7 microM, respectively. The antibodies to acyl-ACP synthetase cross-reacted with Escherichia coli acyl-ACP synthetase. Anti-ACP antibodies showed no cross-reactivity with the purified acyl-ACP synthetase, indicating no bound ACP with the enzyme. Immunoprecipitations with antibodies to acyl-ACP synthetase revealed that this enzyme is a part of the 10 S triacylglycerol biosynthetic complex. These results demonstrate that the soluble acyl-ACP synthetase plays a novel role in activating fatty acids for triacylglycerol biosynthesis in oleaginous yeast.  (+info)

A glutathione-dependent formaldehyde-activating enzyme (Gfa) from Paracoccus denitrificans detected and purified via two-dimensional proton exchange NMR spectroscopy. (4/22)

The formation of S-hydroxymethylglutathione from formaldehyde and glutathione is a central reaction in the consumption of the cytotoxin formaldehyde in some methylotrophic bacteria as well as in many other organisms. We describe here the discovery of an enzyme from Paracoccus denitrificans that accelerates this spontaneous condensation reaction. The rates of S-hydroxymethylglutathione formation and cleavage were determined under equilibrium conditions via two-dimensional proton exchange NMR spectroscopy. The pseudo first order rate constants k(1)* were estimated from the temperature dependence of the reaction and the signal to noise ratio of the uncatalyzed reaction. At 303 K and pH 6.0 k(1)* was found to be 0.02 s(-1) for the spontaneous reaction. A 10-fold increase of the rate constant was observed upon addition of cell extract from P. denitrificans grown in the presence of methanol corresponding to a specific activity of 35 units mg(-1). Extracts of cells grown in the presence of succinate revealed a lower specific activity of 11 units mg(-1). The enzyme catalyzing the conversion of formaldehyde and glutathione was purified and named glutathione-dependent formaldehyde-activating enzyme (Gfa). The gene gfa is located directly upstream of the gene for glutathione-dependent formaldehyde dehydrogenase, which catalyzes the subsequent oxidation of S-hydroxymethylglutathione. Putative proteins with sequence identity to Gfa from P. denitrificans are present also in Rhodobacter sphaeroides, Sinorhizobium meliloti, and Mesorhizobium loti.  (+info)

Functional role of fatty acyl-coenzyme A synthetase in the transmembrane movement and activation of exogenous long-chain fatty acids. Amino acid residues within the ATP/AMP signature motif of Escherichia coli FadD are required for enzyme activity and fatty acid transport. (5/22)

Fatty acyl-CoA synthetase (FACS, fatty acid:CoA ligase, AMP forming; EC ) plays a central role in intermediary metabolism by catalyzing the formation of fatty acyl-CoA. In Escherichia coli this enzyme, encoded by the fadD gene, is required for the coupled import and activation of exogenous long-chain fatty acids. The E. coli FACS (FadD) contains two sequence elements, which comprise the ATP/AMP signature motif ((213)YTGGTTGVAKGA(224) and (356)GYGLTE(361)) placing it in the superfamily of adenylate-forming enzymes. A series of site-directed mutations were generated in the fadD gene within the ATP/AMP signature motif site to evaluate the role of this conserved region to enzyme function and to fatty acid transport. This approach revealed two major classes of fadD mutants with depressed enzyme activity: 1) those with 25-45% wild type activity (fadD(G216A), fadD(T217A), fadD(G219A), and fadD(K222A)) and 2) those with 10% or less wild-type activity (fadD(Y213A), fadD(T214A), and fadD(E361A)). Using anti-FadD sera, Western blots demonstrated the different mutant forms of FadD that were present and had localization patterns equivalent to the wild type. The defect in the first class was attributed to a reduced catalytic efficiency although several mutant forms also had a reduced affinity for ATP. The mutations resulting in these biochemical phenotypes reduced or essentially eliminated the transport of exogenous long-chain fatty acids. These data support the hypothesis that the FACS FadD functions in the vectorial movement of exogenous fatty acids across the plasma membrane by acting as a metabolic trap, which results in the formation of acyl-CoA esters.  (+info)

Isolation and expression pattern of two putative acyl-ACP desaturase cDNAs from Bassia scoparia. (6/22)

The seed lipids of some higher plants contain unusual fatty acids with potentially valuable non-food uses. Seeds of Bassia scoparia contain one such monounsaturated fatty acid, 16:1Delta5. This fatty acid can be used for the production of an insect oviposition pheromone, which is potentially valuable in the control of the mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus, a vector of West Nile virus. Previous work has established that a number of unusual monounsaturated fatty acids are produced by variant forms of the ubiquitous acyl-ACP desaturases. The isolation and initial characterization of two putative acyl-ACP desaturases from B. scoparia, one of which is seed-specific, suggests that such a variant enzyme occurs in this species.  (+info)

A dynamic zinc redox switch. (7/22)

The crystal structures of glutathione-dependent formaldehyde-activating enzyme (Gfa) from Paracoccus denitrificans, which catalyzes the formation of S-hydroxymethylglutathione from formaldehyde and glutathione, and its complex with glutathione (Gfa-GTT) have been determined. Gfa has a new fold with two zinc-sulfur centers, one that is structural (zinc tetracoordinated) and one catalytic (zinc apparently tricoordinated). In Gfa-GTT, the catalytic zinc is displaced due to disulfide bond formation of glutathione with one of the zinc-coordinating cysteines. Soaking crystals of Gfa-GTT with formaldehyde restores the holoenzyme. Accordingly, the displaced zinc forms a complex by scavenging formaldehyde and glutathione. The activation of formaldehyde and of glutathione in this zinc complex favors the final nucleophilic addition, followed by relocation of zinc in the catalytic site. Therefore, the structures of Gfa and Gfa-GTT draw the critical association between a dynamic zinc redox switch and a nucleophilic addition as a new facet of the redox activity of zinc-sulfur sites.  (+info)

Lysophospholipid flipping across the Escherichia coli inner membrane catalyzed by a transporter (LplT) belonging to the major facilitator superfamily. (8/22)

The transfer of phospholipids across membrane bilayers is protein-mediated, and most of the established transporters catalyze the energy-dependent efflux of phospholipids from cells. This work identifies and characterizes a lysophospholipid transporter gene (lplT, formally ygeD) in Escherichia coli that is an integral component in the 2-acylglycerophosphoethanolamine (2-acyl-GPE) metabolic cycle for membrane protein acylation. The lplT gene is adjacent to and in the same operon as the aas gene, which encodes the bifunctional enzyme 2-acyl-GPE acyltransferase/acyl-acyl carrier protein synthetase. In some bacteria, acyltransferase/acyl-ACP synthetase (Aas) and LplT homologues are fused in a single polypeptide chain. 2-Acyl-GPE transport to the inside of the cell was assessed by measuring the Aas-dependent formation of phosphatidylethanolamine. The Aas-dependent incorporation of [3H]palmitate into phosphatidylethanolamine was significantly diminished in deltalplT mutants, and the LplT-Aas transport/acylation activity was independent of the proton motive force. The deltalplT mutants accumulated acyl-GPE in vivo and had a diminished capacity to transport exogenous 2-acylglycerophosphocholine into the cell. Spheroplasts prepared from wild-type E. coli transported and acylated fluorescent 2-acyl-GPE with an apparent K(d) of 7.5 microM, whereas this high-affinity process was absent in deltalplT mutants. Thus, LplT catalyzes the transbilayer movement of lysophospholipids and is the first example of a phospholipid flippase that belongs to the major facilitator superfamily.  (+info)

Isolation and characterization of Escherichia coli K-12 mutants lacking both 2-acyl-glycerophosphoethanolamine acyltransferase and acyl-acyl carrier protein synthetase activity ...
Isolation and characterization of Escherichia coli K-12 mutants lacking both 2-acyl-glycerophosphoethanolamine acyltransferase and acyl-acyl carrier protein synthetase activity ...
RN [1] RM 11741920 RT A glutathione-dependent formaldehyde-activating enzyme (Gfa) from Paracoccus denitrificans detected and purified via two-dimensional proton exchange NMR spectroscopy. RA Goenrich M, Bartoschek S, Hagemeier CH, Griesinger C, Vorholt JA. RL J Biol Chem. 2002 Feb 1;277(5):3069-72. DR HAMAP; MF_00723; 13 of ...
The MHC class II gene Aa was disrupted by targeted mutation in embryonic stem (ES) cells derived from C57BL/6 mice to prevent expression of MHC class II molecules. Contrary to previous reports, the effect of the null-mutation on T cell development was investigated in C57BL/6 mice, which provide a defined genetic background. The complete lack of cell surface expression of MHC class II molecules in B6-Aa0/Aa0 homozygous mutant mice was directly demonstrated by cytofluorometric analysis using anti-Ab and anti-Ia specific mAbs. Development of CD4+CD8- T cells in the thymus was largely absent except for a small population of thymocytes expressing high levels of CD4 together with low amounts of CD8. The majority of these cells express the TCR at high density. Although mature CD4+CD8- T cells were undetectable in the thymus, some T cells with a CD4+CD8-TCRhigh phenotype were found in lymph nodes and spleen. Peripheral T cells from the mutant mice can be polyclonally activated in vitro with the mitogen ...
The spatiotemporal pattern of deposition, final amount, and relative abundance of oleic acid (cis-ω-9 C18:1) and its derivatives in the different lipid fractions of the seed of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) indicates that omega-9 monoenes are synthesized at high rates in this organ. Accordingly, we observed that four Δ9 stearoyl-ACP desaturase (SAD)-coding genes (FATTY ACID BIOSYNTHESIS2 [FAB2], ACYL-ACYL CARRIER PROTEIN5 [AAD5], AAD1, and AAD6) are transcriptionally induced in seeds. We established that the three most highly expressed ones are directly activated by the WRINKLED1 transcription factor. We characterized a collection of 30 simple, double, triple, and quadruple mutants affected in SAD-coding genes and thereby revealed the functions of these desaturases throughout seed development. Production of oleic acid by FAB2 and AAD5 appears to be critical at the onset of embryo morphogenesis. Double homozygous plants from crossing fab2 and aad5 could never be obtained, and further ...
Vip3Aa20 is a mutated form of the vip3Aa19 gene from the Bacillus thuringiensis strain AB88. The mutation occurred by two codon changes within the vip3Aa19 coding sequence when this gene was introduced in the maize event MIR162. One of these was a silent mutation and the other codon change resulted in an amino acid substitution. Therefore, the vip3Aa gene variant present in MIR162 maize has been designated vip3Aa20 ...
Vip3Aa20 is a mutated form of the vip3Aa19 gene from the Bacillus thuringiensis strain AB88. The mutation occurred by two codon changes within the vip3Aa19 coding sequence when this gene was introduced in the maize event MIR162. One of these was a silent mutation and the other codon change resulted in an amino acid substitution. Therefore, the vip3Aa gene variant present in MIR162 maize has been designated vip3Aa20 ...
This enzyme belongs to the family of ligases, specifically those forming carbon-sulfur bonds as acid-thiol ligases. This enzyme participates in biotin metabolism.
The graphical fragment assembly (GFA) フォーマットは、シーケンスグラフを表現するための新しい標準フォーマットである。GFA 1は主にアセンブリグラフを対象としていたが、新しい GFA 2 フォーマットはいくつかの機能を導入しており、scaffoldingグラフ、バリエーショングラフ、アラインメントグラフ、カラーメタゲノムグラフなど、他の種類の情報を表現するのに適している。ここでは、GFAフォーマットの配列グラフを可視化するためのインタラクティブなグラフィカルツールであるGfaVizを紹介する。このソフトウェアは、GFA 2のすべての新機能をサポートし、その…
Author: Doermann, P. et al.; Genre: Journal Article; Published in Print: 2000; Keywords: Fatty-acid biosynthesis. Acp thioesterases. Higher-plants. Desaturase.|br/|Expression. Thaliana. Genes. Temperature. Resistance.|br/|Plant Sciences in Current Contents(R)/Agricultural, Biology &|br/|Environmental Sciences|br/|Animal & Plant Sciences in Current Contents(R)/Life Sciences.|br/|2000 week 29|br/|Reprint available from: Dormann P. Max Planck Inst Mol Pflanzenphysiol,|br/|D-14476 Golm, Germany, .; Title: Accumulation of palmitate in arabidopsis mediated by the acyl-acyl carrier protein thioesterase FATB1
Pore-forming toxin with nematicidal activity (PubMed:26795495, PubMed:27576487). In infected C.elegans, induces an increase in intracellular Ca(2+) resulting in necrosis of host intestinal cells (PubMed:26795495). Also, induces the expression of aspartic protease asp-1 (PubMed:26795495).
Implications for the application of the MPN technique.It has been shown that cellular isolates which correspond to abundant 16S rDNA sequences can indeed be isolated if the inocula are diluted in MPN series prior to enrichment (16). This effect has been attributed to the presence of rare but rapidly growing bacteria which are eliminated by the dilution step. Consequently, the MPN technique currently represents the method of choice to obtain cultures of abundant bacteria (16).. Unexpectedly, isolates obtained in the present study from the highest positive dilutions, despite the very high cultivation success of up to 100%, could not be detected by DGGE fingerprinting and yielded only a very faint signal during dot blot hybridization. Based on the relatively large inherent statistical uncertainty of the MPN technique, the fraction of strain G100 in the natural bacterioplankton community could also be as low as 12% (the lower limit of the MPN confidence interval). Nevertheless, this minimum value is ...
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ウサギ・ポリクローナル抗体 ab117239 交差種: Hu 適用: WB…ATP citrate lyase抗体一覧…画像、プロトコール、文献などWeb上の情報が満載のアブカムの Antibody 製品。国内在庫と品質保証制度も充実。
15260498] The acyltransferase homologue from the initiation module of the R1128 polyketide synthase is an acyl-ACP thioesterase that edits acetyl primer units. (Biochemistry. , 2004 ...
Virulence in the Gram-negative pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa relies in part on the efficient functioning of two LuxI/R dependent quorum sensing (QS) cascades, namely, the LasI/R and RhlI/R systems that generate and respond to N-(3-oxo)-dodecanoyl-l-homoserine lactone and N-butyryl-l-homoserine lactone, respectively. The two acyl homoserine lactone (AHL) synthases, LasI and RhlI, use 3-oxododecanoyl-ACP and butyryl-ACP, respectively, as the acyl-substrates to generate the corresponding autoinducer signals for the bacterium. Although AHL synthases represent excellent targets for developing QS modulators in P. aeruginosa, and in other related bacteria, the identification of potent and signal synthase specific inhibitors has represented a significant technical challenge. In the current study, we sought to test the utility of AHL analogs as potential modulators of an AHL synthase and selected RhlI in P. aeruginosa as an initial target. We systematically varied the chemical functionalities of the ...
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2020 Copyright France 24 - All rights reserved. France 24 is not responsible for the content of external websites. Audience ratings certified by ACPM/OJD.. ...
Accepted name: oleoyl-[acyl-carrier-protein] hydrolase. Reaction: an oleoyl-[acyl-carrier protein] + H2O = an [acyl-carrier protein] + oleate. Other name(s): acyl-[acyl-carrier-protein] hydrolase; acyl-ACP-hydrolase; acyl-acyl carrier protein hydrolase; oleoyl-ACP thioesterase; oleoyl-acyl carrier protein thioesterase. Systematic name: oleoyl-[acyl-carrier protein] hydrolase. Comments: Acts on acyl-carrier-protein thioesters of fatty acids from C12 to C18, but the derivative of oleic acid is hydrolysed much more rapidly than any other compound tested.. Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, Metacyc, PDB, CAS registry number: 68009-83-6. References:. 1. Ohlrogge, J.B., Shine, W.E. and Stumpf, P.K. Fat metabolism in higher plants. Characterization of plant acyl-ACP and acyl-CoA hydrolases. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 189 (1978) 382-391. [PMID: 30409]. 2. Shine, W.E., Mancha, M. and Stumpf, P.K. Fat metabolism in higher plants. The function of acyl thioesterases in the metabolism of ...
Most studies of biofilms have focused on single species and on genes that control or are regulated by life on a surface. As more information is uncovered by studies of pure cultures, these data can be applied towards understanding the roles of specific genes in multispecies interactions. This chapter focuses mostly on multi-species interactions among oral bacteria in biofilms: a few single-species biofilms are featured to discuss responses to environmental signals, including signals generated by the occupants within the biofilm. Signals involved in cell-to-cell communication among biofilm cells include acyl homoserine lactones, oligopeptides, and autoinducer-2 (AI-2). Importantly, an optimal concentration of 4,5-dihydroxy-2,3-pentanedione (DPD) was critical for maximal biofilm development. One site where natural multispecies biofilms are unusually accessible is the tooth surface in the human oral cavity. We use a retrievable enamel chip model system that permits us to place three pieces of enamel side
Acyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) thioesterases play an essential role in chain termination during de novo fatty acid synthesis and in the channeling of carbon flux between the two lipid biosynthesis pathways in plants. We have discovered that there are two distinct but related thioesterase gene classes in higher plants, termed FatA and FatB, whose evolutionary divergence appears to be ancient. FatA encodes the already described 18:1-ACP thioesterase. In contrast, FatB representatives encode thioesterases preferring acyl-ACPs having saturated acyl groups. We unexpectedly obtained a 16:0-ACP thioesterase cDNA from Cuphea hookeriana seed, which accumulate predominantly 8:0 and 10:0. The 16:0 thioesterase transcripts were found in non-seed tissues, and expression in transgenic Brassica napus led to the production of a 16:0-rich oil. We present evidence that this type of FatB gene is ancient and ubiquitous in plants and that specialized plant medium-chain thioesterases have evolved independently from ...
The recent rapid growth in the biofilm field has spawned a number of new strategies for controlling biofilms. Below are descriptions of a few of these emergent strategies.. For some years it has been known that bacteria communicate with each other via diffusible signal molecules in a process termed quorum sensing. The discovery that quorum sensing regulates biofilm formation opens the door to interdicting normal biofilm development through the use of quorum sensing inhibitors. This strategy of jamming communication is now moving towards application. One example of such inhibitors are the brominated furanones that block quorum sensing by acyl homoserine lactones, signal molecules used by Gram-negative bacteria. These furanones were first isolated from a marine algae and are thought to be part of the plants natural defense against microbial biofouling. Furanone-based quorum sensing inhibitors have been shown to increase antibiotic sensitivity of Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms and improve ...
Acyl-acyl carrier protein thioesterases (acyl-ACP TEs) catalyze the hydrolysis of the thioester bond that links the acyl chain to the sulfhydryl group of the phosphopantetheine prosthetic group of ACP. This reaction terminates acyl chain elongation of fatty acid biosynthesis, and in plant seeds it is the biochemical determinant of the fatty acid compositions of storage lipids. To explore acyl-ACP TE diversity and to identify novel acyl ACP-TEs, 31 acyl-ACP TEs from wide-ranging phylogenetic sources were characterized to ascertain their in vivo activities and substrate specificities. These acyl-ACP TEs were chosen by two different approaches: 1) 24 TEs were selected from public databases on the basis of phylogenetic analysis and fatty acid profile knowledge of their source organisms; and 2) seven TEs were molecularly cloned from oil palm (Elaeis guineensis), coconut (Cocos nucifera) and Cuphea viscosissima, organisms that produce medium-chain and short-chain fatty acids in their seeds. The in vivo
1.THE GREEN FLUORESCENT PROTEIN - Annual Review of Biochemistry, 67(1):509.. 2.Tian T, Burrage K (2006) Stochastic models for regulatory networks of the genetic toggle switch. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 103: 8372 -8377.. 3.Basu S, Mehreja R, Thiberge S, Chen M, Weiss R (2004) Spatiotemporal control of gene expression with pulse-generating networks. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 101: 6355 -6360.. 4.Nilsson P, Olofsson A, Fagerlind M, Fagerström T, Rice S, u. a. (2001) Kinetics of the AHL Regulatory System in a Model Biofilm System: How Many Bacteria Constitute a Quorum? Journal of Molecular Biology 309: 631-640.. 5.Schaefer AL, Val DL, Hanzelka BL, Cronan JE, Greenberg EP (1996) Generation of cell-to-cell signals in quorum sensing: acyl homoserine lactone synthase activity of a purified Vibrio fischeri LuxI protein. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A 93: 9505-9509.. 6.Kaplan HB, Greenberg EP (1985) Diffusion of autoinducer is ...
The Ramberg-Bäcklund reaction is an organic reaction converting an α-halo sulfone into an alkene in presence of a base with extrusion of sulfur dioxide.[1] The reaction is named after the two Swedish chemists Ludwig Ramberg and Birger Bäcklund. The carbanion formed by deprotonation gives an unstable thiirane dioxide that decomposes with elimination of sulfur dioxide. This elimination step is considered to be a concerted cycloelimination.[citation needed] The overall transformation is the conversion of the carbon-sulfur bonds to a carbon-carbon double bond. The original procedure involved halogenation of a sulfide, followed by oxidation to the sulfone. Recently, the preferred method has reversed the order of the steps. After the oxidation, which is normally done with a peroxy acid, halogenation is done under basic conditions by use of dibromodifluoromethane for the halogen transfer step. [2] This method was used to synthesize 1,8-diphenyl-1,3,5,7-octatetraene. The Ramberg-Bäcklund reaction ...
As the leader for the specialty of Preventive Medicine and physicians dedicated to prevention, ACPM improves the health of individuals and populations through evidence-based health promotion, disease prevention, and systems-based approaches to improving health and health care.
As the leader for the specialty of Preventive Medicine and physicians dedicated to prevention, ACPM improves the health of individuals and populations through evidence-based health promotion, disease prevention, and systems-based approaches to improving health and health care.
The current study reveals several key findings with regard to endogenous cardiac TAG metabolism under both baseline (i.e., normoxia) and I-R conditions. First, increased TAG content and turnover as a result of DGAT1 overexpression do not adversely affect cardiac function, energetics, or the oxidation of exogenous substrates. Second, DGAT1 overexpression significantly increased the incorporation rates of various LCFAs into the TAG pool. Third, our data show that maintaining elevated TAG turnover rates during reperfusion after acute ischemia is cardioprotective, in part, by sequestering fatty acids into the TAG pool and reducing the accumulation of ceramides. Last, we show that when palmitate is the sole source of exogenous fatty acids during the reperfusion period, there are deleterious effects on recovery from ischemia in DGAT1 transgenic hearts. All told, our findings demonstrate an important role of endogenous cardiac TAG metabolism in determining outcomes of cardiac stress. Moreover, they ...
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Acinetobacter calcoaceticus BD413 accumulates wax esters and triacylglycerol under conditions of mineral nutrient limitation. Nitrosoguanidine-induced mutants of strain BD413 were isolated that failed to accumulate wax esters under nitrogen-limited growth conditions. One of the mutants, Wow15 (without wax), accumulated wax when grown in the presence of cis-11-hexadecenal and hexadecanol but not hexadecane or hexadecanoic acid. This suggested that the mutation may have inactivated a gene encoding either an acyl-acyl carrier protein or acyl-coenzyme A (CoA) reductase. The Wow15 mutant was complemented with a cosmid genomic library prepared from wild-type A. calcoaceticus BD413. The complementary region was localized to a single gene (acr1) encoding a protein of 32,468 Da that is 44% identical over a region of 264 amino acids to a product of unknown function encoded by an open reading frame associated with mycolic acid synthesis in Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Ra. Extracts of Escherichia coli ...
Crassous PA, Cardinaletti C, Carrieri A, Bruni B, Di Vaira M, Gentili F, Ghelfi F, Giannella M, Paris H, Piergentili A, Quaglia W, Schaak S, Vesprini C, Pigini M (August 2007). Alpha2-adrenoreceptors profile modulation. 3.1 (R)-(+)-m-nitrobiphenyline, a new efficient and alpha2C-subtype selective agonist. Journal of Medicinal Chemistry 50 (16): 3964-8. PMID 17630725. doi:10.1021/jm061487a. Cite uses deprecated parameter ...
This enzyme belongs to the family of ligases, specifically those forming carbon-sulfur bonds as acid-thiol ligases. The ... systematic name of this enzyme class is trans-ferulate:CoASH ligase (ATP-hydrolysing). This enzyme is also called trans- ...
... ligases used to form carbon-oxygen bonds EC 6.2 includes ligases used to form carbon-sulfur bonds EC 6.3 includes ligases used ... ligases used to form carbon-carbon bonds EC 6.5 includes ligases used to form phosphoric ester bonds EC 6.6 includes ligases ... The common names of ligases often include the word "ligase", such as DNA ligase, an enzyme commonly used in molecular biology ... Ligases are classified as EC 6 in the EC number classification of enzymes. Ligases can be further classified into six ...
This enzyme belongs to the family of ligases, to be specific those forming carbon-sulfur bonds as acid-thiol ligases. The ... p-coumaroyl CoA ligase, p-coumaryl coenzyme A synthetase, p-coumaryl-CoA synthetase, p-coumaryl-CoA ligase, feruloyl CoA ligase ... CoA ligase, p-coumaryl-CoA ligase, p-hydroxycinnamic acid:CoA ligase, and 4CL. This enzyme participates in phenylpropanoid ... In enzymology, a 4-coumarate-CoA ligase (EC 6.2.1.12) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction ATP + 4-coumarate + CoA ...
This enzyme belongs to the family of ligases, specifically those forming carbon-sulfur bonds as acid-thiol ligases. The ... HS-citrate lyase ligase, and acetate:citrate-(pro-3S)-lyase(thiol-form) ligase (AMP-forming). This enzyme participates in two- ... In enzymology, a citrate (pro-3S)-lyase ligase (EC 6.2.1.22) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction ATP + acetate + ... Antranikian G, Herzberg C, Gottschalk G (1985). "Covalent modification of citrate lyase ligase from Clostridium sphenoides by ...
This enzyme belongs to the family of ligases, specifically those forming carbon-sulfur bonds as acid-thiol ligases. The ... Other names in common use include phenylacetyl-CoA ligase, PA-CoA ligase, and phenylacetyl-CoA ligase (AMP-forming). This ... In enzymology, a phenylacetate-CoA ligase is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction ATP + phenylacetate + CoA ⇌ {\ ... "Purification and biochemical characterization of phenylacetyl-CoA ligase from Pseudomonas putida. A specific enzyme for the ...
This enzyme belongs to the family of ligases, specifically those forming carbon-sulfur bonds as acid-thiol ligases. The ... This enzyme is also called phytanoyl-CoA ligase. Muralidharan FN, Muralidharan VB (1986). "Phytanoyl-CoA ligase activity in rat ... In enzymology, a phytanate-CoA ligase (EC 6.2.1.24) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction ATP + phytanate + CoA ... systematic name of this enzyme class is phytanate:CoA ligase (AMP-forming). ...
This enzyme belongs to the family of ligases, specifically those forming carbon-sulfur bonds as acid-thiol ligases. This enzyme ... Butyrate-CoA ligase, also known as xenobiotic/medium-chain fatty acid-ligase (XM-ligase), is an enzyme (EC 6.2.1.2) that ... 3-hydroxybutyryl CoA ligase, xenobiotic/medium-chain fatty acid ligase, and short-chain acyl-CoA synthetase. ACSM1 ACSM2A ... This reaction is catalyzed by the HXM-A and HXM-B medium-chain acid:CoA ligases and requires energy in the form of ATP. ... The ...
This enzyme belongs to the family of ligases, specifically those forming carbon-sulfur bonds as acid-thiol ligases. The ... 2-aminobenzoate-CoA ligase, 2-aminobenzoate-coenzyme A ligase, and 2-aminobenzoate coenzyme A ligase. This enzyme participates ... In enzymology, an anthranilate-CoA ligase (EC 6.2.1.32) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction ATP + anthranilate + ... systematic name of this enzyme class is anthranilate:CoA ligase (AMP-forming). Other names in common use include anthraniloyl ...
This enzyme belongs to the family of ligases, specifically those forming carbon-sulfur bonds as acid-thiol ligases. The ... In enzymology, a citrate-CoA ligase (EC 6.2.1.18) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction ATP + citrate + CoA ⇌ {\ ... CoA ligase, and citrate thiokinase. This enzyme participates in citric acid cycle. Lill U, Schreil A, Eggerer H (1982). " ... systematic name of this enzyme class is citrate:CoA ligase (ADP-forming). Other names in common use include citryl-CoA ...
This enzyme belongs to the family of ligases, specifically those forming carbon-sulfur bonds as acid-thiol ligases. The ... In enzymology, a propionate-CoA ligase (EC 6.2.1.17) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction ATP + propanoate + CoA ... systematic name of this enzyme class is propanoate:CoA ligase (AMP-forming). This enzyme is also called propionyl-CoA ...
This enzyme belongs to the family of ligases, specifically those forming carbon-sulfur bonds as acid-thiol ligases. The ... In enzymology, a glutarate-CoA ligase (EC 6.2.1.6) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction ATP + glutarate + CoA ⇌ {\ ... systematic name of this enzyme class is glutarate:CoA ligase (ADP-forming). Other names in common use include glutaryl-CoA ...
This enzyme belongs to the family of ligases, specifically those forming carbon-sulfur bonds as acid-thiol ligases. The ... In enzymology, a dicarboxylate-CoA ligase (EC 6.2.1.23) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction ATP + an alphaomega- ... systematic name of this enzyme class is omega-dicarboxylate:CoA ligase (AMP-forming). Other names in common use include ...
This enzyme belongs to the family of ligases, specifically those forming carbon-sulfur bonds as acid-thiol ligases. The ... In enzymology, an oxalate-CoA ligase (EC 6.2.1.8) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction ATP + oxalate + CoA ⇌ {\ ... systematic name of this enzyme class is oxalate:CoA ligase (AMP-forming). Other names in common use include oxalyl-CoA ... Organisms with Oxalate-CoA Ligases include: Arabidopsis thalianaSaccharomyces cerevisiae http://www.plantcell.org/content/24/3/ ...
This enzyme belongs to the family of ligases, specifically those forming carbon-sulfur bonds as acid-thiol ligases. The ... In enzymology, an arachidonate-CoA ligase (EC 6.2.1.15) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction ATP + arachidonate + ... systematic name of this enzyme class is arachidonate:CoA ligase (AMP-forming). This enzyme is also called arachidonoyl-CoA ...
This enzyme belongs to the family of ligases, specifically those forming carbon-sulfur bonds as acid-thiol ligases. The ... In enzymology, a 4-chlorobenzoate-CoA ligase (EC 6.2.1.33) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction 4-chlorobenzoate ... Loffler F, Muller R, Lingens F (1992). "Purification and properties of 4-halobenzoate-coenzyme A ligase from Pseudomonas sp. ... systematic name of this enzyme class is 4-chlorobenzoate:CoA ligase. This enzyme participates in 2,4-dichlorobenzoate ...
This enzyme belongs to the family of ligases, specifically those forming carbon-sulfur bonds as acid-thiol ligases. The ... 4-hydroxybenzoate-coenzyme A ligase (AMP-forming), 4-hydroxybenzoyl coenzyme A synthetase, and 4-hydroxybenzoyl-CoA ligase. ... In enzymology, a 4-hydroxybenzoate-CoA ligase (EC 6.2.1.27) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction ATP + 4- ... systematic name of this enzyme class is 4-hydroxybenzoate:CoA ligase (AMP-forming). Other names in common use include 4- ...
6.2: Carbon-Sulfur. *Succinyl coenzyme A synthetase. *Acetyl-CoA synthetase. *Long-chain-fatty-acid-CoA ligase ... Stage two involves four key Mur ubiquitin ligase enzymes: MurC (EC),[1] MurD (EC),[2] MurE (EC) [3] and MurF (EC).[4] These ... 6-diaminopimelate ligase (MurE), and UDP-N-acetylmuramoyl-tripeptide-D-alanyl-D-alanine ligase (MurF). This entry also includes ... All four Mur ligases are topologically similar to one another, even though they display low sequence identity. They are each ...
This enzyme belongs to the family of ligases, specifically those forming carbon-sulfur bonds as acid-thiol ligases. The ... In enzymology, an acid-CoA ligase (GDP-forming) (EC 6.2.1.10) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction GTP + an acid ... systematic name of this enzyme class is acid:CoA ligase (GDP-forming). Other names in common use include acyl-CoA synthetase ( ...
This enzyme belongs to the family of ligases, specifically those forming carbon-sulfur bonds as acid-thiol ligases. The ... In enzymology, an acetate-CoA ligase (ADP-forming) (EC 6.2.1.13) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction ATP + ... systematic name of this enzyme class is acetate:CoA ligase (ADP-forming). Other names in common use include acetyl-CoA ...
This enzyme belongs to the family of ligases, specifically those forming carbon-sulfur bonds as acid-thiol ligases. The ... In enzymology, a long-chain-fatty-acid-luciferin-component ligase (EC 6.2.1.19) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical ... systematic name of this enzyme class is long-chain-fatty-acid:protein ligase (AMP-forming). This enzyme is also called acyl- ...
This enzyme belongs to the family of ligases, specifically those forming carbon-sulfur bonds as acid-thiol ligases. The ... In enzymology, a long-chain-fatty-acid-[acyl-carrier-protein] ligase (EC 6.2.1.20) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical ... systematic name of this enzyme class is long-chain-fatty-acid:[acyl-carrier-protein] ligase (AMP-forming). Other names in ...
This enzyme belongs to the family of ligases, specifically those forming carbon-sulfur bonds as acid-thiol ligases. The ... DHCA-CoA ligase, and 3alpha,7alpha-dihydroxy-5beta-cholestanate:CoA ligase (AMP-forming). This enzyme participates in bile acid ... In enzymology, a 3alpha,7alpha-dihydroxy-5beta-cholestanate-CoA ligase (EC 6.2.1.28) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical ... 12 alpha-trihydroxy-5 beta-cholestanoyl-coenzyme A ligase(s) in rat liver". Journal of Lipid Research. 29 (8): 997-1004. PMID ...
... which was found to be the iron-sulfur (Fe-S) center contained in the enzyme. D-(+)-Biotin is a cofactor responsible for carbon ... In bacteria, biotin is attached to biotin carboxyl carrier protein (BCCP) by biotin protein ligase (BirA in E. coli). The ... A valeric acid substituent is attached to one of the carbon atoms of the tetrahydrothiophene ring. Biotin is a coenzyme for ... Biotin assists in various metabolic reactions involving the transfer of carbon dioxide. It may also be helpful in maintaining a ...
6.2: Carbon-Sulfur. *Succinyl coenzyme A synthetase. *Acetyl-CoA synthetase. *Long-chain-fatty-acid-CoA ligase ... An aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase (aaRS or ARS), also called tRNA-ligase, is an enzyme that attaches the appropriate amino acid onto ...
6.2: Carbon-Sulfur. *Succinyl coenzyme A synthetase. *Acetyl-CoA synthetase. *Long-chain-fatty-acid-CoA ligase ...
6.2: Carbon-Sulfur. *Succinyl coenzyme A synthetase. *Acetyl-CoA synthetase. *Long-chain-fatty-acid-CoA ligase ... This enzyme belongs to the family of ligases, specifically those forming carbon-nitrogen bonds carbon-nitrogen ligases with ... L-glutamine amido-ligase, (ADP-forming), 2-N-formyl-1-N-(5-phospho-D-ribosyl)glycinamide:L-glutamine, and amido-ligase (ADP- ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is N2-formyl-N1-(5-phospho-D-ribosyl)glycinamide:L-glutamine amido-ligase (ADP-forming ...
6.2: Carbon-Sulfur. *Succinyl coenzyme A synthetase. *Acetyl-CoA synthetase. *Long-chain-fatty-acid-CoA ligase ... E3 ligase activity[edit]. The E3 ubiquitin ligase MDM2 is a negative regulator of the p53 tumor suppressor protein. MDM2 binds ... ubiquitin protein ligase activity. • NEDD8 ligase activity. • disordered domain specific binding. • protein domain specific ... The RING domain of Mdm2 confers E3 ubiquitin ligase activity and is sufficient for E3 ligase activity in Mdm2 RING ...
6.2: Carbon-Sulfur. *Succinyl coenzyme A synthetase. *Acetyl-CoA synthetase. *Long-chain-fatty-acid-CoA ligase ... L-glutamine amido-ligase (AMP-forming).[1][2][3][4][5][6] This enzyme catalyses the following chemical reaction ...
Category:EC 6.2 (form carbon-sulfur bonds)Edit. *EC 6.2.1.1: Acetate--CoA ligase ... Category:Ligases (EC 6) (Ligase)Edit. Category:EC 6.1 (form carbon-oxygen bonds)Edit. 6-carboxytetrahydropterin synthase ... 6 Category:Ligases (EC 6) (Ligase) *6.1 Category:EC 6.1 (form carbon-oxygen bonds) ... Category:EC 4.4 (carbon-sulfur lyases)Edit. *Category:EC 4.4.1 *Cystathionine gamma-lyase ...
Aconitase is one of several iron-sulfur-containing (de)hydratases in metabolic pathways shown to be inactivated by superoxide.[ ... SOD2 knockout or null mutations cause growth inhibition on respiratory carbon sources in addition to decreased post-diauxic ...
... because of the presence of sulfur (resp. selenium) as a second neighbor to the asymmetric carbon. The remaining chiral amino ... Ubiquitin ligases transfer ubiquitin to its pendant, proteins, and caspases, which engage in proteolysis in the apoptotic cycle ... Precursor to iron-sulfur clusters[edit]. Cysteine is an important source of sulfide in human metabolism. The sulfide in iron- ... The sulfur is derived from methionine, which is converted to homocysteine through the intermediate S-adenosylmethionine. ...
The lone pair of electrons present on the oxygen or sulfur attacks the electropositive carbonyl carbon.[3] The 20 naturally ... 1994). "A designed peptide ligase for total synthesis of ribonuclease A with unnatural catalytic residues". Science. 266 (5183 ... Use of oxygen or sulfur as the nucleophilic atom causes minor differences in catalysis. Compared to oxygen, sulfur's extra d ... Sterically, the sulfur of cysteine also forms longer bonds and has a bulkier van der Waals radius[2] and if mutated to serine ...
The basic residue or cofactor deprotonates the alpha carbon, and FAD accepts the hydride from the beta carbon, oxidizing the ... Succinate dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] iron-sulfur subunit, mitochondrial. Pfam PF13085, Pfam PF13183 3. SdhC. C560_HUMAN. ... The first two subunits, a flavoprotein (SdhA) and an iron-sulfur protein (SdhB), form a hydrophilic head where enzymatic ... The complex is also thought to be capable of inserting the iron-sulphur clusters in SDHB during its maturation. The studies ...
Sims GK, Wander MM (2002). "Proteolytic activity under nitrogen or sulfur limitation". Appl. Soil Ecol. 568: 1-5.. ... Bacterial and fungal proteases are particularly important to the global carbon and nitrogen cycles in the recycling of proteins ... present in soil can be observed at the overall microbial community level as proteins are broken down in response to carbon, ... nitrogen, or sulfur limitation.[11] Bacteria contain proteases responsible for general protein quality control (e.g. the AAA+ ...
Iron-sulfur clusters[edit]. Further information: Iron-sulfur protein. Iron-sulfur clusters are complexes of iron and sulfur ... 2-carbon groups, α cleavage. Bacteria, archaea and eukaryotes NAD+ and NADP+ [31]. Niacin (B3). ADP. Electrons. Bacteria, ... Meyer J (February 2008). "Iron-sulfur protein folds, iron-sulfur chemistry, and evolution". J. Biol. Inorg. Chem. 13 (2): 157- ... A simple [Fe2S2] cluster containing two iron atoms and two sulfur atoms, coordinated by four protein cysteine residues. ...
... which bind the sulfur of cysteine's thio (i.e. SH) residue in the tripeptide glutamate-cysteine-glycine to carbon 6 of LTA4 ... at carbon 5 of its 1,4 diene group (i.e. its 5Z,8Z double bonds) to form 5(S)-hydroperoxy-6E,8Z,11Z,14Z-eicosatetraenoic acid ( ... is identical to AA except that has a single rather than double bond between its 15th and 16th carbon. ALOX5 metabolizes mead ...
A key feature of the cofactor TPP is the relatively acidic proton bound to the carbon atom between the nitrogen and sulfur in ... Oxalate-CoA ligase Formyl-CoA transferase Oxalate CoA-transferase Baetz, A.L. and Allison, M.J. "Purification and ... which cleave carbon-carbon bonds. The systematic name of this enzyme class is oxalyl-CoA carboxy-lyase (formyl-CoA-forming). ... This carbon center ionizes to form a carbanion, which adds to the carbonyl group of oxalyl-CoA. This addition is followed by ...
This enzyme belongs to the family of ligases, specifically those forming carbon-sulfur bonds as acid-thiol ligases. The ... In enzymology, a 6-carboxyhexanoate-CoA ligase (EC 6.2.1.14) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction ATP + 6- ... systematic name of this enzyme class is 6-carboxyhexanoate:CoA ligase (AMP-forming). Other names in common use include 6- ...
The ligase activity of this enzyme requires ATP. Lipoic acid is cofactor for at least five enzyme systems. Two of these are in ... LA contains two sulfur atoms (at C6 and C8) connected by a disulfide bond and is thus considered to be oxidized although either ... sulfur atom can exist in higher oxidation states. The carbon atom at C6 is chiral and the molecule exists as two enantiomers (R ... Two hydrogens of octanoate are replaced with sulfur groups via a radical SAM mechanism, by lipoyl synthase As a result, lipoic ...
The covalent bond is formed between the sulfur atom in Co-A and the central carbon atom of acetate. The ACS1 form of acetyl-CoA ... Acetyl-CoA synthetase or Acetate-CoA ligase is an enzyme (EC 6.2.1.1) involved in metabolism of acetate. It is in the ligase ... "An acetyl-CoA synthetase not encoded by the facA gene is expressed under carbon starvation in Phycomyces blakesleeanus.", Red ... "Inactivation of Acetyl-CoA Synthase/Carbon Monoxide Dehydrogenase by Copper", J. Am. Chem. Soc., 125 (31): 9316-7, doi:10.1021/ ...
Thus, coccoliths have significant roles in global carbon fixation and the carbon cycle as well as sulfur cycling. Over time, ... PCR amplification reveals random A/T overhangs, detection of DNA ligases and endonucleases hinting that a linear genome may be ... PBCV-1 also encodes other proteins involved in DNA replication including an ATP-dependent DNA ligase, a type II DNA ... Chloroviruses and viruses in general cause death and lysis of their hosts, releasing dissolved organic carbon, nitrogen and ...
6.2: Carbon-Sulfur. *Succinyl coenzyme A synthetase. *Acetyl-CoA synthetase. *Long-chain-fatty-acid-CoA ligase ... Stage two involves four key Mur ubiquitin ligase enzymes: MurC (EC),[1] MurD (EC),[2] MurE (EC) [3] and MurF (EC).[4] These ... 6-diaminopimelate ligase (MurE), and UDP-N-acetylmuramoyl-tripeptide-D-alanyl-D-alanine ligase (MurF). This entry also includes ... All four Mur ligases are topologically similar to one another, even though they display low sequence identity. They are each ...
EC 6.2 includes ligases used to form carbon-sulfur bonds. *EC 6.3 includes ligases used to form carbon-nitrogen bonds ( ... The common names of ligases often include the word "ligase", such as DNA ligase, an enzyme commonly used in molecular biology ... DNA ligase. References[edit]. *^ "Synthases and ligases". chem.qmul.ac.uk. Archived from the original on October 15, 2012. ... This article is about general ligases. For DNA specific ligases, see DNA ligase. ...
This enzyme belongs to the family of ligases, specifically those forming carbon-sulfur bonds as acid-thiol ligases. The ... Other names in common use include phenylacetyl-CoA ligase, PA-CoA ligase, and phenylacetyl-CoA ligase (AMP-forming). This ... In enzymology, a phenylacetate-CoA ligase is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction ATP + phenylacetate + CoA ⇌ {\ ... "Purification and biochemical characterization of phenylacetyl-CoA ligase from Pseudomonas putida. A specific enzyme for the ...
This enzyme belongs to the family of ligases, specifically those forming carbon-sulfur bonds as acid-thiol ligases. The ... This enzyme is also called phytanoyl-CoA ligase. Muralidharan FN, Muralidharan VB (1986). "Phytanoyl-CoA ligase activity in rat ... In enzymology, a phytanate-CoA ligase (EC 6.2.1.24) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction ATP + phytanate + CoA ... systematic name of this enzyme class is phytanate:CoA ligase (AMP-forming). ...
Ligases;. Forming carbon-sulfur bonds;. Acid-thiol ligases. Sysname. cholate:CoA ligase (AMP-forming). ... cholate---CoA ligase;. BAL;. bile acid CoA ligase;. bile acid coenzyme A ligase;. choloyl-CoA synthetase;. choloyl coenzyme A ... THCA-CoA ligase;. 3alpha,7alpha,12alpha-trihydroxy-5beta-cholestanate---CoA ligase;. 3alpha,7alpha,12alpha-trihydroxy-5beta- ... cholic acid:CoA ligase;. 3alpha,7alpha,12alpha-trihydroxy-5beta-cholestanoyl coenzyme A synthetase;. 3alpha,7alpha,12alpha- ...
Ligases;. Forming carbon-sulfur bonds;. Acid-thiol ligases. BRITE hierarchy. Sysname. medium-chain fatty acid:CoA ligase (AMP- ... butyrate---CoA ligase;. butyryl-coenzyme A synthetase;. L-(+)-3-hydroxybutyryl CoA ligase;. short-chain acyl-CoA synthetase;. ... medium-chain acyl-CoA ligase;. fadK (gene name);. lvaE (gene name);. butyryl-CoA synthetase;. fatty acid thiokinase (medium ...
... acyl AMP ligase family member required for biosynthesis of phthiocerol dimycocerosate lipid found in the cell wall of ... a fatty -acyl AMP ligase family member required for biosynthesis of phthiocerol dimycocerosate lipid found in the cell wall of ... Ligases: 2113*Carbon-Sulfur Ligases*Mycobacterium tuberculosis FadD28 protein. CureHunter Inc. provides medical information and ...
Forming Carbon Sulfur Bonds. EC 6.2.1 Acid Thiol Ligases. Contents. EC 6.2.1.1 acetate CoA ligase. EC 6.2.1.2 medium-chain acyl ... EC 6.2.1.6 glutarate CoA ligase. EC 6.2.1.7 cholate CoA ligase. EC 6.2.1.8 oxalate CoA ligase. EC 6.2.1.9 malate CoA ligase. EC ... CoA ligase; p-coumaryl-CoA ligase; p-hydroxycinnamic acid:CoA ligase; 4CL Systematic name: 4-coumarate:CoA ligase (AMP-forming) ... EC 6.2.1.22 citrate (pro-3S)-lyase ligase. EC 6.2.1.23 dicarboxylate CoA ligase. EC 6.2.1.24 phytanate CoA ligase. EC 6.2.1.25 ...
ligase activity, forming carbon-sulfur bonds. coa-ligase activity. amp binding. acetate-coa ligase activity. ... Involved in acetate-CoA ligase activity. Specific Function. Important for maintaining normal body temperature during fasting ...
... monocarboxylic acid with 4-6 carbon atoms. Methylation of the ε-amino group or hydroxylation of the δ-carbon atom of lysine ... decreases the competitive properties of the analog, whereas the substitution of the γ-methylen group by sulfur (S-2-aminoethyl ... I. Kinetics and specificity of uridine diphospho-N-acetylmuramyl-L-alanyl-D-glutamyl-L-lysine: D-alanyl-D-alanine ligase ( ... The uridine diphospho-N-acetylmuramyl-alanyl-D-glutamic acid: diamino acid ligase of this organism was purified 700-fold. Since ...
6.2 Forming carbon-sulfur bonds 6.3 Forming carbon-nitrogen bonds 6.3.1 Acid-D-ammonia (or amine) ligases (amide synthases) ... 6.4.1 Ligases that form carbon-carbon bonds (only sub-subclass identified to date) ... 6.3.4.9 biotin---[methylmalonyl-CoA-carboxytransferase] ligase 6.3.4.10 biotin---[propionyl-CoA-carboxylase (ATP-hydrolysing)] ...
Ligases. Forming carbon-sulfur bonds. Acid--thiol ligases. All UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot entries corresponding to class 6.2.1.-.. ... CoA ligase 6.2.1.7 Cholate--CoA ligase 6.2.1.8 Oxalate--CoA ligase 6.2.1.9 Malate--CoA ligase 6.2.1.10 Acid--CoA ligase (GDP- ... CoA ligase 6.2.1.17 Propionate--CoA ligase 6.2.1.18 Citrate--CoA ligase 6.2.1.19 Long-chain-fatty-acid--protein ligase 6.2.1.20 ... CoA ligase 6.2.1.3 Long-chain-fatty-acid--CoA ligase 6.2.1.4 Succinate--CoA ligase (GDP-forming) 6.2.1.5 Succinate--CoA ligase ...
... methylated corrinoid/iron-sulfur protein; CH3CO-SCoA, acetyl-CoA; CO, carbon monoxide; CH3CO-PO4, acetyl phosphate; CH3COO−, ... Formyl-THF ligase. Syntrophobotulus glycolicus. 85. Membrane. Yes. 00605. fchA. Methenyl-THF cyclohydrolase. Desulfosporosinus ... Carbon monoxide dehydrogenase. Dehalobacter sp. FTH1. 93. Cytoplasm. Yes. 00220. cooS. Carbon monoxide dehydrogenase catalytic ... B) The RDase subunit A genes encode twin-arginine translocation (Tat) pathway signals and iron-sulfur binding domains. The ...
These include formyl-tetrahydrofolate ligase, a corrinoid iron-sulfur protein, and the α subunit of carbon monoxide ... Previous studies have shown that D. ethenogenes reduces PCE to ethene using two RDs (18) belonging to a family of iron-sulfur ... D. ethenogenes requires acetate as a carbon source (2). Acetyl-coenzyme A (CoA) synthetase, pyruvate-ferredoxin oxidoreductase ...
Transcriptomic analysis showed upregulation of sulfur-, ethylene-, and lipid-related pathways in durian fruits. We observed ... associated with production of volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs). MGL and the ethylene-related gene ACS (aminocyclopropane-1- ... Transcriptome and metabolome analyses show that methionine γ-lyase is upregulated and that volatile sulfur compounds are ... of which acid-thiol ligase enzymes (containing a number of key enzymes in carbon-sulfur reactions and flavonoid production) and ...
... specifically those forming carbon-sulfur bonds as acid-thiol ligases. This enzyme participates in biotin metabolism. ... This enzyme belongs to the family of ligases, ... those forming carbon-sulfur bonds as acid-thiol ligases. This ... This enzyme belongs to the family of ligases, specifically ...
Autotrophic carbon fixation could be accomplished through the acetyl-coenzyme A pathway. The presence of hydrogenase and ... corrinoid iron-sulfur protein methyltransferase, and the carbon monoxide dehydrogenase/acetyl-CoA synthase complex. ... Jettenia ecosi" J2 genome, namely formate dehydrogenase, formate-tetrahydrofolate ligase, methylenetetrahydrofolate ... 2004). Stable carbon isotopic fractionations associated with inorganic carbon fixation by anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing bacteria ...
Cyclo-ligases. 6. 2. -.- Forming carbon-sulfur bonds. 6. 2. 1.- Acid--thiol ligases. 6. 3. -.- Forming carbon-nitrogen bonds. 6 ... Acting on carbon-sulfur bonds. 3.13. 1.- Acting on carbon-sulfur bonds. 4. -. -.- Lyases. 4. 1. -.- Carbon-carbon lyases. 4. 1 ... 4. 3.99.- Other carbon-nitrogen lyases. 4. 4. -.- Carbon-sulfur lyases. 4. 4. 1.- Carbon-sulfur lyases. 4. 5. -.- Carbon-halide ... 1.- Acting on carbon-phosphorus bonds. 3.12. -.- Acting on sulfur-sulfur bonds. 3.12. 1.- Acting on sulfur-sulfur bonds. 3.13 ...
ligase I, DNA, ATP-dependent Identifiers Symbol LIG1 Entrez 3978 HUGO 6598 OMIM 126391 RefSeq NM_000234 ... 6.1 - Carbon-Oxygen. Aminoacyl tRNA synthetase. 6.2 - Carbon-Sulfur. Succinyl coenzyme A synthetase - Acetyl Co-A synthetase - ... DNA ligase has applications in both DNA repair and DNA replication (see Mammalian ligases). In addition, DNA ligase has ... Mammalian ligases. In mammals, there are four specific types of ligase. *DNA ligase I: ligates Okazaki fragments during lagging ...
ligase activity, forming carbon-sulfur bonds. 9.48706872092269. bayes_pls_golite062009. *succinate-CoA ligase (ADP-forming) ... ligase activity, forming carbon-carbon bonds. 3.81289459554571. bayes_pls_golite062009. *ligase activity, forming carbon- ...
... review will focus on the recent discoveries in the biochemical pathways that mineralize and assimilate DMSP carbon and sulfur, ... a highly reactive volatile sulfur compound that contributes little to the atmospheric sulfur flux. The activity of these ... a highly reactive volatile sulfur compound that contributes little to the atmospheric sulfur flux. The activity of these ... pathways control the natural flux of sulfur released to the atmosphere. Although these biochemical pathways and the factors ...
... graphitic carbon nitride (CN) polymer contains weak hydrogen bond and van der Waals (vdWs) interactions besides strong covalent ... Carbon-carbon Ligases. Enzymes that catalyze the joining of two molecules by the formation of a carbon-carbon bond. These are ... enzymes shifting a carbon-carbon double bond (CARBON-CARBON DOUBLE BOND ISOMERASES), and enzymes transposing S-S bonds (SULFUR- ... Carbon-carbon Double Bond Isomerases. Enzymes that catalyze the shifting of a carbon-carbon double bond from one position to ...
3.12 Acting on sulfur-sulfur bonds 3.13 Acting on carbon-sulfur bonds ... 6. Ligases 7. Translocases [ BRITE , KEGG2 , KEGG ]. Last updated: April 9, 2020. EC number data are obtained from ExplorEnz ...
RnfC2 contains FMN and iron-sulfur clusters and is the site of NADH oxidation, and MetV is an iron-sulfur protein that mediates ... Carbon monoxide dehydrogenase.The specific activity of the enzyme in cell extracts of H2/CO2-grown cells was 5.6 U/mg and thus ... and ligase); CAETHG_1868-69 (clustered with a FixC protein); and CAETHG_3471-72 (clustered with an FMN/FAD binding protein). It ... HytB is an iron-sulfur flavoprotein harboring the NADP binding site, and the other subunits are iron-sulfur proteins. The ...
Ligases forming carbon-sulfur bonds (6.2). 01. Acid-Thiol Ligases (6.2.1). 01005. Succinate-CoA ligase (ADP-forming) (6.2.1.5) ... Ligases forming carbon-carbon bonds (6.4). 01. Ligases forming carbon-carbon bonds (6.4.1). 01003. Propionyl-CoA carboxylase ( ... Ligases forming carbon-sulfur bonds (6.2). 01. Acid-Thiol Ligases (6.2.1). ... Carbon-carbon lyases (4.1). 03. Oxo-acid-lyases (4.1.3). 03024. Malyl-CoA lyase (4.1.3.24). ...
... in liver was elevated in 4̃8 h and then returned to normal in accordance with the changes in glutamate cysteine ligase activity ... Impaired metabolomics of sulfur-containing substances in rats acutely treated with carbon tetrachloride. / Kim, Sun Ju; Kwon, ... Impaired metabolomics of sulfur-containing substances in rats acutely treated with carbon tetrachloride. Toxicological Research ... Impaired metabolomics of sulfur-containing substances in rats acutely treated with carbon tetrachloride. In: Toxicological ...
The residues involved are shown in a stick model (carbon: green for Bmi-1 and yellow for Ring1B; nitrogen: blue; oxygen: red; ... sulfur: orange) superimposed with the Ca chains (cyan = Bmi-1 and orange = Ring1B). A salt bridge involving Asp72 of Bmi-1 and ... The catalytic subunit of the PRC1 E3 ligase complex is Ring1B. The E3 ligase activity has been shown to be important for the ... while Bmi-1 displays no detectable ubiquitin ligase activity, the binding of Bmi-1 greatly stimulates the E3 ligase activity of ...
Carbon-Sulfur Ligases. Coenzyme A-Transferases. Leuconostoc. Multienzyme Complexes. Oxo-Acid-Lyases ... This activation is catalyzed by an acetate:SH-citrate lyase ligase (CL ligase) (EC 6.2.1.22 ), which converts HS-ACP with ATP ... CL ligase) of K. pneumoniae (5) and ofH. influenzae (19). A Leuconostocprobe for the gene encoding CL ligase was isolated by ... Restriction map of L. mesenteroides citCDEFG(citC, CL ligase; citD, γ subunit;citE, β subunit; citF, α subunit;citG, unknown ...
C12Y602/00-Ligases forming carbon-sulfur bonds (6.2) Abstract. A method of producing acrylate in vivo in a genetically modified ... depicts a biosynthetic pathway for 3HP using glucose or other carbon feedstock. The 3HP can then be converted to acrylate using ... The genetically modified bacteria cell produces acrylate from a carbon source which the bacteria can metabolize. ... from the carbon fixation pathway of Chloroflexus aurantiacus (see Mattozzi, M., Ziesack, M., Voges, M. J., Silver, P. A. and ...
... which catalyzes the insertion of sulfur atoms into the six- and eight-carbon positions of the corresponding fatty acid (5-7). ... lipoyl protein ligase A;. mtbLipB,. LipB from Mycobacterium tuberculosis.. * Freely available online through the PNAS open ... it is plausible to assume that the eight-carbon substrate should superimpose with carbon positions C3-C10 of decanoic acid (Fig ... leaves little doubt that the carbon C3 position of decanoic acid mimics the thioester carbon of octanoic acid where the LipB ...
  • These enzymes are grouped into six classes: hydrolases (including proteases, amylases and lipases that break down the main nutrients - fats, carbohydrates and proteins), isomerases, ligases, lyases , oxidoreductases and transferases. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The conserved sequence motifs found in the four Mur enzymes also map to other members of the Mur ligase family, including folylpolyglutamate synthetase, cyanophycin synthetase and the capB enzyme from Bacillales. (wikipedia.org)
  • In biochemistry , a ligase is an enzyme that can catalyze the joining of two large molecules by forming a new chemical bond , usually with accompanying hydrolysis of a small pendant chemical group on one of the larger molecules or the enzyme catalyzing the linking together of two compounds, e.g., enzymes that catalyze joining of C-O, C-S, C-N, etc. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ligases are classified as EC 6 in the EC number classification of enzymes. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, DNA ligases are used with restriction enzymes to insert DNA fragments, often genes, into plasmids. (chemeurope.com)
  • Enzymes, e.g. ligases (6. (wipo.int)
  • Structural comparison of LipB with lipoate protein ligase A indicates that, despite conserved structural and sequence active-site features in the two enzymes, 4′-phosphopantetheine-bound octanoic acid recognition is a specific property of LipB. (pnas.org)
  • Enzymes can be grouped on the basis of the type reactions they catalyse (oxidoreductases, hydrolases, ligases, etc. (scribd.com)
  • Enzymes transferring one-carbon groups, acyl and glucosyl residues, alkyl or aryl groups, nitrogenous groups, phosphorus-containing groups, and sulfur-containing groups. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • He covers chiral discrimination in the active site of oxidoreductases, transferases and chiral discrimination, the influence of chirality on the hydrolysis reactions within the active site of hydrolases, the influence of chirality on the reactions in the active site of lyases , and chiral discrimination in the active site of ligases. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The common names of ligases often include the word "ligase", such as DNA ligase , an enzyme commonly used in molecular biology laboratories to join together DNA fragments. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is also said that a synthase is a lyase (a lyase is an enzyme that catalyzes the breaking of various chemical bonds by means other than hydrolysis and oxidation, often forming a new double bond or a new ring structure) and does not require any energy, whereas a synthetase is a ligase (a ligase is an enzyme that binds two chemicals or compounds) and thus requires energy. (wikipedia.org)
  • In enzymology, a phenylacetate-CoA ligase is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction ATP + phenylacetate + CoA ⇌ {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } AMP + diphosphate + phenylacetyl-CoA The 3 substrates of this enzyme are ATP, phenylacetate, and CoA, whereas its 3 products are AMP, diphosphate, and phenylacetyl-CoA. (wikipedia.org)
  • This enzyme belongs to the family of ligases, specifically those forming carbon-sulfur bonds as acid-thiol ligases. (wikipedia.org)
  • The systematic name of this enzyme class is phenylacetate:CoA ligase (AMP-forming). (wikipedia.org)
  • This enzyme is also called phytanoyl-CoA ligase. (wikipedia.org)
  • Studies on the specificity of the ligase toward analogs of ornithine have shown that the enzyme requires a diamino, monocarboxylic acid with 4-6 carbon atoms. (springer.com)
  • Ligase will also work with blunt ends , although higher enzyme concentrations and different reaction conditions are required. (chemeurope.com)
  • Most experiments use T4 DNA Ligase (isolated from bacteriophage T4) which is most active at 25°C. However in order to perform successful ligations, the optimal enzyme temperature needs to be balanced with the melting temperature T m (also the annealing temperature) of the DNA fragments being ligated. (chemeurope.com)
  • The oxaloacetate is decarboxylated into carbon dioxide and pyruvate in a reaction catalyzed by the enzyme oxaloacetate decarboxylase (Fig. 1 , reaction 4). (asm.org)
  • Several multicomponent enzyme complexes that catalyze key metabolic reactions in the citric acid cycle and single-carbon metabolism are posttranslationally modified by attachment to lipoic acid ( 1 ). (pnas.org)
  • These octanoylated domains are converted into lipoylated derivatives by the S -adenosyl- l -methionine-dependent enzyme, lipoyl synthase (LipA), which catalyzes the insertion of sulfur atoms into the six- and eight-carbon positions of the corresponding fatty acid ( 5 - 7 ). (pnas.org)
  • Carbamoyl phosphate synthetase I is a ligase enzyme located in the mitochondria involved in the production of urea. (wikidoc.org)
  • That means that one molecule of the enzyme can cause a million molecules of carbon dioxide to react in one second. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Some ligases associate with biological membranes as peripheral membrane proteins or anchored through a single transmembrane helix , [2] for example certain ubiquitin ligase related proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • A recent study revealed that a human PRC1 complex composed of Bmi-1, HPH2, PC3 and Ring proteins (Ring1A & Ring1B), which are homologs of Drosophila Psc, Ph, Pc and dRing, respectively, is an E3 ubiquitin ligase complex that mono-ubiquitinates lysine 119 of nucleosomal histone H2A (15). (maixius.com)
  • It was shown that Bmi-1, a Drosophila Psc homolog that was originally discovered through its ability to collaborate with Myc in lymphomagenesis (20-22), plays a central role in the assembly of the PRC1 complex and, while Bmi-1 displays no detectable ubiquitin ligase activity, the binding of Bmi-1 greatly stimulates the E3 ligase activity of Ring1B (15,19). (maixius.com)
  • The protein encoded by this gene is a component of the protein complex that includes elongin B, elongin C, and cullin-2, and possesses ubiquitin ligase E3 activity. (wikidoc.org)
  • The main action of the VHL protein is thought to be its E3 ubiquitin ligase activity that results in specific target proteins being 'marked' for degradation. (wikidoc.org)
  • The mechanism of DNA ligase is to form covalent phosphodiester bonds between 3' hydroxyl ends of one nucleotide with the 5' phosphate end of another. (chemeurope.com)
  • Ligases are used in catalysis where two substrates are ligated and the formation of carbon-carbon, carbon-sulfide, carbon-nitrogen, and carbon-oxygen bonds due to condensation reactions. (wikibooks.org)
  • The most distinct phylogenetic finding was a high correlation between iron-sulfur oxidoreductases in combination with carbon nitrogen ligases and Chlorobium. (mirnaarray.com)
  • Lactic acid bacteria of the genus Leuconostoc play important roles in the dairy industry because of their ability to produce carbon dioxide and C 4 aroma compounds through lactose heterofermentation and citrate utilization. (asm.org)
  • The carbon dioxide produced is responsible for eye formation in certain types of cheese. (asm.org)
  • Berg IA, Kockelkorn D, Buckel W, Fuchs G (2007) A 3-hydroxypropionate/4-hydroxybutyrate autotrophic carbon dioxide assimilation pathway in archaea. (springer.com)
  • Carbonic anhydrase, which removes carbon dioxide from the blood by binding it to water, has a turnover rate of 10 6 . (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Carbon source: Carbon dioxide. (scribd.com)
  • [2] [3] Biotin assists in various metabolic reactions involving the transfer of carbon dioxide. (sms4pk.tk)
  • 7. If glucose were completely oxidized to carbon dioxide and water, yielding the maximum amount of ATP, approximately what percentage of the ATP would be generated via aerobic respiration? (biology-online.org)
  • Lastly, two different groups of methanogens, the hydrogenotrophic methanogens and the acetotrophic methanogens, complete the process by converting acetate, formate, and hydrogen produced by other microorganisms to methane and carbon dioxide. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Impairment of hepatic metabolism of sulfur-containing amino acids has been known to be linked with induction of liver injury. (elsevier.com)
  • The contributions vary from insights in the taxonomy of these genera, use of genomics for forward genetics and genomic adaptations, to specific stories addressing virulence, carbon starvation, sulphur metabolism, feruloyl esterases, secondary metabolism and pH modulation, to the development of novel methodology for use in parallel to genome sequencing. (caister.com)
  • Building upon this conviction, we have assessed extant types of energy and carbon metabolism for their appropriateness to conditions probably pertaining in those settings of the Hadean planet that fulfil the thermodynamic requirements for life to come into being. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • The quest for the earliest type of biomass-generating carbon metabolism is mostly informed by either or both of two distinct but equally concerned disciplines: palaeogeochemistry and biology. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • In the past, attempts towards deducing the nature of the ancestral carbon metabolism were frequently torn between apparently opposing exigencies exerted by geochemistry, on the one hand, and by biology, on the other hand. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • More recently, inferences towards an ancestral carbon metabolism have increasingly tried to integrate requirements from both geochemistry and biology [ 1 - 5 ]. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • In short, thinking about the earliest carbon metabolism and about the origin of life in general has turned to searching extant carbon fixation pathways which do not conflict with geochemical boundary conditions and which, furthermore, directly couple energy metabolism to the biomass-generating process, both of which obviously need to be coupled to the abiotically available sources of free energy. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Structure guided design of biotin protein ligase inhibitors for antibiotic discovery. (embl-heidelberg.de)
  • Biotin protein ligase (BPL) represents a promising target for the discovery of new antibacterial chemotherapeutics. (embl-heidelberg.de)
  • Other common names for ligases include the word "synthetase", because they are used to synthesize new molecules. (wikipedia.org)
  • Anaerobic" isozyme of acetyl-coenzyme A synthetase, which is required for growth on fermentable carbon sources such as glucose. (ymdb.ca)
  • Carbon atoms in the graphitic carbon skeleton can be replaced by heteroatoms with different electronegative from that of the carbon atom (i.e., heteroatom doping) to modulate the charge distribution o. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Side-on sulfur monoxide complexes of tantalum, niobium, and vanadium oxyfluorides OMF(η-SO) were prepared via the reactions of metal atoms and SOF upon UV-vis irradiation in a cryogenic matrix. (bioportfolio.com)
  • A valeric acid substituent is attached to one of the carbon atoms of the tetrahydrothiophene ring. (sms4pk.tk)
  • Glutathione can exist in 2 states: Reduced GSH and oxidized GSSG, oxidized is actually reduced glutathiones bound at sulfur atoms, the ratio of GSH to GSSG determines cell redox status of cells. (maculardegenerationutah.com)
  • The catalytic subunit of the PRC1 E3 ligase complex is Ring1B. (maixius.com)
  • The proteins involved are citrate permease (1), citrate lyase α subunit citrate:acetyl-ACP transferase (EC 2.8.3.10 ) (2), citrate lyase β subunit citryl-S-ACP lyase (EC 4.1.3.34 ) (3) oxaloacetate decarboxylase (4), acetate:SH-CL ligase (EC 6.2.1.22 ) (5), and lactate dehydrogenase (6). (asm.org)
  • 19. The method of claim 18, wherein the ligase generates a carbon-oxygen bond, a carbon-sulfur bond, a carbon-nitrogen bond, or a carbon-carbon bond between the therapeutic agent and the fibrin microthread. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • A protocol for three-component reactions of cyclic ethers, α-diazo esters, and weak nitrogen, oxygen, carbon, and sulfur nucleophiles (pKa = 2.2-14.8) to afford a variety of structurally complex α-o. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Biotin synthase reductively cleaves SAM into a deoxyadenosyl radical, which abstracts an H atom from dethiobiotin to give an intermediate that is trapped by the sulfur donor. (sms4pk.tk)
  • Doping-induced Hydrogen-Bond Engineering in Polymeric Carbon Nitride to Significantly Boost the Photocatalytic H2 Evolution Performance. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Unlike graphene, graphitic carbon nitride (CN) polymer contains weak hydrogen bond and van der Waals (vdWs) interactions besides strong covalent bond, which control its final morphology and functionality. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Nanorod carbon nitride as a carbo catalyst for selective oxidation of hydrogen sulfide to sulfur. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Adessi A, Corneli E, De Philippis R (2017) Photosynthetic purple non sulfur bacteria in hydrogen producing systems: new approaches in the use of well-known and innovative substrates. (springer.com)
  • In the transition from dark anaerobiosis to light, oxygen deactivates the hydrogenase pool, but only after carbon fixation outcompetes hydrogen production for electrons. (plantphysiol.org)
  • DNA ligase III: complexes with DNA repair protein XRCC1 to aid in sealing base excision mutations and recombinant fragments. (chemeurope.com)
  • DNA ligase IV: complexes with XRCC4. (chemeurope.com)
  • Side-On Sulfur Monoxide Complexes of Tantalum, Niobium, and Vanadium Oxyfluorides. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Curcumin can also act as intermediaries in order to increase tissue glutathione levels (Dickinson DA, Iles, KE, Zhang, H., Blank, V., and Forman, HJ useful changes curcumin EpRE and AP-1 binding complexes and elevates Glutamate - cysteine ligase gene expression, FASEB J. (2003)17 (3) :473-475. (wordpress.com)
  • The activity of these pathways control the natural flux of sulfur released to the atmosphere. (frontiersin.org)
  • Glutamate cysteine ligase activity determines flux of sulfur into protein synthesis via the Target of Rapamycin sensor kinase in Arabidopsis. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Multiple dimethyl sulfoxide-molybdopterin (DMSO-MPT) oxidoreductase genes, which are implicated in the reduction of sulfur and arsenic, were identified. (asm.org)
  • This pathway is principally under metabolic control, but regulation of the transcription of PP pathway genes can exert a stronger effect, by redirecting larger amounts of carbon to this pathway to satisfy the demand for NADPH. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Glutathione (GSH) concentration in liver was elevated in 4̃8 h and then returned to normal in accordance with the changes in glutamate cysteine ligase activity. (elsevier.com)
  • It is a hyper-ammonia producing bacterium and is able to catabolize amino acids as important carbon and energy sources via Stickland reactions and the development of the specific pathways. (cyberleninka.org)
  • Transcriptomic analysis showed upregulation of sulfur-, ethylene-, and lipid-related pathways in durian fruits. (nature.com)
  • This review will focus on the recent discoveries in the biochemical pathways that mineralize and assimilate DMSP carbon and sulfur, as well as the areas for which a comprehensive understanding is still lacking. (frontiersin.org)
  • Using this metabolic map, the analysis of genetic potential for functioning of tricarboxylic acid cycle replenishment pathways was carried out for seven strains of purple non-sulfur bacterium Rhodopseudomonas palustris . (springer.com)
  • At beginning, acetyl-CoA first transfers its 2-carbon acetyl group to the 4-carbon acceptor compound called oxaloacetate to form the 6-carbon compound (citrate) for which the cycle is named. (smpdb.ca)
  • Acts both as a biotin--[acetyl-CoA-carboxylase] ligase and a biotin-operon repressor. (string-db.org)
  • The gene ( citC ) encoding the citrate lyase ligase (EC 6.2.1.22 ) was localized in the region upstream of citD . (asm.org)
  • Protein comparisons show similarities with the citrate lyase ligase and citrate lyase of Klebsiella pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae . (asm.org)
  • The resulting citrate will have numbers of chemical transformations, whereby it loses one carboxyl group (leading to the 5-carbon compound called alpha-ketoglutarate) and then a second carboxyl group (leading to the 4-carbon compound called succinate). (smpdb.ca)
  • Methylation of the ε-amino group or hydroxylation of the δ-carbon atom of lysine decreases the competitive properties of the analog, whereas the substitution of the γ-methylen group by sulfur (S-2-aminoethyl cysteine) results in a highly competitive compound. (springer.com)
  • We observed paleopolyploidization events shared by durian and cotton and durian-specific gene expansions in MGL (methionine γ-lyase), associated with production of volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs). (nature.com)
  • Carbon source: Organic compounds. (scribd.com)
  • Silymarin has been shown that against liver damage by extremely toxic chemicals to protect (produce this toxicity through its ability to be dangerous and destructive unstable compounds called free radicals), mediated by Amanita toxin, carbon tetrachloride, galactosamine and praseodymium nitrate. (wordpress.com)
  • The E3 ligase activity has been shown to be important for the involvement of PRC1 in X-chromosome inactivation and the control of Hox gene expression (16-19). (maixius.com)
  • The use of a lignin monomer synthetic gene 4-CL encoding 4-coumarate: CoA ligase from Populus tomentosa in increasing Sclerotinia resistance and lodging resistance. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • 1. A method of increasing the resistance against fungal disease or of increasing the lodging resistance in a Brassica plant comprising introducing a chimeric gene into cells of said Brassica plant, said chimeric gene comprising a nucleotide sequence encoding a 4-coumarate-CoA ligase operably linked to a heterologous plant-expressible promoter, a transcription termination and a polyadenylation region. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • An alternative demethylation/demethiolation pathway results in the eventual release of methanethiol, a highly reactive volatile sulfur compound that contributes little to the atmospheric sulfur flux. (frontiersin.org)
  • Hydrolysis of X gives a sulphur compound Y. What is the structure and hybridisation of anion of Y? (anesi.info)
  • Doping-induced enhancement of crystallinity in polymeric carbon nitride nanosheets to improve their visible-light photocatalytic activity. (bioportfolio.com)
  • The RING finger protein Ring1B is an E3 ligase that participates in the ubiquitination of lysine 119 of histone H2A, and the binding of Bmi-1 stimulates the E3 ligase activity. (maixius.com)
  • The two regions of interaction have a synergistic effect on the E3 ligase activity. (maixius.com)
  • C. autoethanogenum can grow on CO as the sole carbon and energy source, forming mainly ethanol and acetic acid but also 2,3-butanediol, lactic acid, and some H 2 as fermentation products ( 6 , 10 ). (asm.org)
  • strain Rue61a is an isolate from sewage sludge able to utilize quinaldine (2-methylquinoline) as sole carbon and energy source. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In this study, strain SP2 is isolated for the high-efficiency utilization of emulsifier as its sole carbon and energy source. (usda.gov)
  • [4] These four Mur ligases are responsible for the successive additions of L-alanine, D-glutamate, meso- diaminopimelate or L-lysine, and D-alanyl-D-alanine to UDP- N-acetylmuramic acid . (wikipedia.org)
  • Ligase can join two complementary fragments of nucleic acid and repair single stranded breaks that arise in double stranded DNA during replication. (wikipedia.org)
  • The uridine diphospho-N-acetylmuramyl-alanyl- D -glutamic acid: diamino acid ligase of this organism was purified 700-fold. (springer.com)
  • Autotrophic carbon fixation could be accomplished through the Wood Ljungdahl pathway. (frontiersin.org)
  • Template free synthesis of lithium doped three-dimensional macroporous graphitic carbon nitride for photocatalytic N fixation: the effect of Li-N active sites. (bioportfolio.com)
  • To avoid confusion and allow us to focus on the key points of carbon fixation that are the subject of this paper, the bioenergetic aspects of the discussion have been framed in largely conventional terms. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Other names in common use include phenylacetyl-CoA ligase, PA-CoA ligase, and phenylacetyl-CoA ligase (AMP-forming). (wikipedia.org)