An element that is a member of the chalcogen family. It has an atomic symbol S, atomic number 16, and atomic weight [32.059; 32.076]. It is found in the amino acids cysteine and methionine.
A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.
A diverse class of enzymes that interact with UBIQUITIN-CONJUGATING ENZYMES and ubiquitination-specific protein substrates. Each member of this enzyme group has its own distinct specificity for a substrate and ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme. Ubiquitin-protein ligases exist as both monomeric proteins multiprotein complexes.
Inorganic or organic compounds that contain sulfur as an integral part of the molecule.
Poly(deoxyribonucleotide):poly(deoxyribonucleotide)ligases. Enzymes that catalyze the joining of preformed deoxyribonucleotides in phosphodiester linkage during genetic processes during repair of a single-stranded break in duplex DNA. The class includes both EC 6.5.1.1 (ATP) and EC 6.5.1.2 (NAD).
A subset of ubiquitin protein ligases that are formed by the association of a SKP DOMAIN PROTEIN, a CULLIN DOMAIN PROTEIN and a F-BOX DOMAIN PROTEIN.
A highly toxic, colorless, nonflammable gas. It is used as a pharmaceutical aid and antioxidant. It is also an environmental air pollutant.
A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.
Stable sulfur atoms that have the same atomic number as the element sulfur, but differ in atomic weight. S-33, 34, and 36 are stable sulfur isotopes.
Carbon monoxide (CO). A poisonous colorless, odorless, tasteless gas. It combines with hemoglobin to form carboxyhemoglobin, which has no oxygen carrying capacity. The resultant oxygen deprivation causes headache, dizziness, decreased pulse and respiratory rates, unconsciousness, and death. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
Nanometer-sized tubes composed mainly of CARBON. Such nanotubes are used as probes for high-resolution structural and chemical imaging of biomolecules with ATOMIC FORCE MICROSCOPY.
A family of structurally related proteins that were originally discovered for their role in cell-cycle regulation in CAENORHABDITIS ELEGANS. They play important roles in regulation of the CELL CYCLE and as components of UBIQUITIN-PROTEIN LIGASES.
The act of ligating UBIQUITINS to PROTEINS to form ubiquitin-protein ligase complexes to label proteins for transport to the PROTEASOME ENDOPEPTIDASE COMPLEX where proteolysis occurs.
Catalyze the joining of preformed ribonucleotides or deoxyribonucleotides in phosphodiester linkage during genetic processes. EC 6.5.1.
A highly conserved 76-amino acid peptide universally found in eukaryotic cells that functions as a marker for intracellular PROTEIN TRANSPORT and degradation. Ubiquitin becomes activated through a series of complicated steps and forms an isopeptide bond to lysine residues of specific proteins within the cell. These "ubiquitinated" proteins can be recognized and degraded by proteosomes or be transported to specific compartments within the cell.
Severe irritant and vesicant of skin, eyes, and lungs. It may cause blindness and lethal lung edema and was formerly used as a war gas. The substance has been proposed as a cytostatic and for treatment of psoriasis. It has been listed as a known carcinogen in the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP-85-002, 1985) (Merck, 11th ed).
Chemical groups containing the covalent sulfur bonds -S-. The sulfur atom can be bound to inorganic or organic moieties.
Enzymes that catalyze the formation of acyl-CoA derivatives. EC 6.2.1.
Inorganic salts of thiosulfuric acid possessing the general formula R2S2O3.
A zinc-binding domain defined by the sequence Cysteine-X2-Cysteine-X(9-39)-Cysteine-X(l-3)-His-X(2-3)-Cysteine-X2-Cysteine -X(4-48)-Cysteine-X2-Cysteine, where X is any amino acid. The RING finger motif binds two atoms of zinc, with each zinc atom ligated tetrahedrally by either four cysteines or three cysteines and a histidine. The motif also forms into a unitary structure with a central cross-brace region and is found in many proteins that are involved in protein-protein interactions. The acronym RING stands for Really Interesting New Gene.
Toxic asphyxiation due to the displacement of oxygen from oxyhemoglobin by carbon monoxide.
Inorganic oxides of sulfur.
A class of enzymes that form a thioester bond to UBIQUITIN with the assistance of UBIQUITIN-ACTIVATING ENZYMES. They transfer ubiquitin to the LYSINE of a substrate protein with the assistance of UBIQUITIN-PROTEIN LIGASES.
Stable carbon atoms that have the same atomic number as the element carbon, but differ in atomic weight. C-13 is a stable carbon isotope.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of linear RNA to a circular form by the transfer of the 5'-phosphate to the 3'-hydroxyl terminus. It also catalyzes the covalent joining of two polyribonucleotides in phosphodiester linkage. EC 6.5.1.3.
A phylum of anoxygenic, phototrophic bacteria including the family Chlorobiaceae. They occur in aquatic sediments, sulfur springs, and hot springs and utilize reduced sulfur compounds instead of oxygen.
Inorganic salts of sulfuric acid.
A solvent for oils, fats, lacquers, varnishes, rubber waxes, and resins, and a starting material in the manufacturing of organic compounds. Poisoning by inhalation, ingestion or skin absorption is possible and may be fatal. (Merck Index, 11th ed)
A family of proteins that share the F-BOX MOTIF and are involved in protein-protein interactions. They play an important role in process of protein ubiquition by associating with a variety of substrates and then associating into SCF UBIQUITIN LIGASE complexes. They are held in the ubiquitin-ligase complex via binding to SKP DOMAIN PROTEINS.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A colorless, flammable, poisonous liquid, CS2. It is used as a solvent, and is a counterirritant and has local anesthetic properties but is not used as such. It is highly toxic with pronounced CNS, hematologic, and dermatologic effects.
Any of several processes for the permanent or long-term artificial or natural capture or removal and storage of carbon dioxide and other forms of carbon, through biological, chemical or physical processes, in a manner that prevents it from being released into the atmosphere.
Oxidoreductases with specificity for oxidation or reduction of SULFUR COMPOUNDS.
A set of protein subcomplexes involved in PROTEIN SORTING of UBIQUITINATED PROTEINS into intraluminal vesicles of MULTIVESICULAR BODIES and in membrane scission during formation of intraluminal vesicles, during the final step of CYTOKINESIS, and during the budding of enveloped viruses. The ESCRT machinery is comprised of the protein products of Class E vacuolar protein sorting genes.
A family of proteins that are structurally-related to Ubiquitin. Ubiquitins and ubiquitin-like proteins participate in diverse cellular functions, such as protein degradation and HEAT-SHOCK RESPONSE, by conjugation to other proteins.
Sulfur hexafluoride. An inert gas used mainly as a test gas in respiratory physiology. Other uses include its injection in vitreoretinal surgery to restore the vitreous chamber and as a tracer in monitoring the dispersion and deposition of air pollutants.
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
A family of phototrophic purple sulfur bacteria that deposit globules of elemental sulfur inside their cells. They are found in diverse aquatic environments.
A large multisubunit complex that plays an important role in the degradation of most of the cytosolic and nuclear proteins in eukaryotic cells. It contains a 700-kDa catalytic sub-complex and two 700-kDa regulatory sub-complexes. The complex digests ubiquitinated proteins and protein activated via ornithine decarboxylase antizyme.
Chemicals that are used to cause the disturbance, disease, or death of humans during WARFARE.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
Enzymes which transfer sulfur atoms to various acceptor molecules. EC 2.8.1.
A thiol-containing non-essential amino acid that is oxidized to form CYSTINE.
Ligases that catalyze the joining of adjacent AMINO ACIDS by the formation of carbon-nitrogen bonds between their carboxylic acid groups and amine groups.
An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Inorganic or organic acids that contain sulfur as an integral part of the molecule.
Complexes of enzymes that catalyze the covalent attachment of UBIQUITIN to other proteins by forming a peptide bond between the C-terminal GLYCINE of UBIQUITIN and the alpha-amino groups of LYSINE residues in the protein. The complexes play an important role in mediating the selective-degradation of short-lived and abnormal proteins. The complex of enzymes can be broken down into three components that involve activation of ubiquitin (UBIQUITIN-ACTIVATING ENZYMES), conjugation of ubiquitin to the ligase complex (UBIQUITIN-CONJUGATING ENZYMES), and ligation of ubiquitin to the substrate protein (UBIQUITIN-PROTEIN LIGASES).
An oligomer formed from the repetitive linking of the C-terminal glycine of one UBIQUITIN molecule via an isopeptide bond to a lysine residue on a second ubiquitin molecule. It is structurally distinct from UBIQUITIN C, which is a single protein containing a tandemly arrayed ubiquitin peptide sequence.
A class of enzymes that catalyzes the ATP-dependent formation of a thioester bond between itself and UBIQUITIN. It then transfers the activated ubiquitin to one of the UBIQUITIN-PROTEIN LIGASES.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Enzymes that catalyze the joining of two molecules by the formation of a carbon-oxygen bond. EC 6.1.
A genus of phototrophic, obligately anaerobic bacteria in the family Chlorobiaceae. They are found in hydrogen sulfide-containing mud and water environments.
A flammable, poisonous gas with a characteristic odor of rotten eggs. It is used in the manufacture of chemicals, in metallurgy, and as an analytical reagent. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
Proto-oncogene proteins that negatively regulate RECEPTOR PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE signaling. It is a UBIQUITIN-PROTEIN LIGASE and the cellular homologue of ONCOGENE PROTEIN V-CBL.
A sulfur-containing essential L-amino acid that is important in many body functions.
The gaseous envelope surrounding a planet or similar body. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Inorganic salts of sulfurous acid.
The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.
A genus of gram-negative, ovoid to rod-shaped bacteria that is phototrophic. All species use ammonia as a nitrogen source. Some strains are found only in sulfide-containing freshwater habitats exposed to light while others may occur in marine, estuarine, and freshwater environments.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Cleavage of proteins into smaller peptides or amino acids either by PROTEASES or non-enzymatically (e.g., Hydrolysis). It does not include Protein Processing, Post-Translational.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
A family of structurally-related proteins that were originally identified by their ability to complex with cyclin proteins (CYCLINS). They share a common domain that binds specifically to F-BOX MOTIFS. They take part in SKP CULLIN F-BOX PROTEIN LIGASES, where they can bind to a variety of F-BOX PROTEINS.
A family of structurally related proteins that are constitutively expressed and that negatively regulate cytokine-mediated SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS. PIAS proteins inhibit the activity of signal transducers and activators of transcription.
The salinated water of OCEANS AND SEAS that provides habitat for marine organisms.
A genus of gram-negative rod-shaped bacteria in the class GAMMAPROTEOBACTERIA. They are obligately acidophilic and aerobic, using reduced SULFUR COMPOUNDS to support AUTOTROPHIC GROWTH.
Any substance in the air which could, if present in high enough concentration, harm humans, animals, vegetation or material. Substances include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; and volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.
Sulfur compounds in which the sulfur atom is attached to three organic radicals and an electronegative element or radical.
A 1.5-kDa small ubiquitin-related modifier protein that can covalently bind via an isopeptide link to a number of cellular proteins. It may play a role in intracellular protein transport and a number of other cellular processes.
One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
A class of structurally related proteins of 12-20 kDa in size. They covalently modify specific proteins in a manner analogous to UBIQUITIN.
A group of gram-negative, anaerobic bacteria that is able to oxidize acetate completely to carbon dioxide using elemental sulfur as the electron acceptor.
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A mass of organic or inorganic solid fragmented material, or the solid fragment itself, that comes from the weathering of rock and is carried by, suspended in, or dropped by air, water, or ice. It refers also to a mass that is accumulated by any other natural agent and that forms in layers on the earth's surface, such as sand, gravel, silt, mud, fill, or loess. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1689)
Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.
A measure of the total greenhouse gas emissions produced by an individual, organization, event, or product. It is measured in units of equivalent kilograms of CARBON DIOXIDE generated in a given time frame.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Elimination of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS; PESTICIDES and other waste using living organisms, usually involving intervention of environmental or sanitation engineers.
An enzyme that catalyzes the biosynthesis of cysteine in microorganisms and plants from O-acetyl-L-serine and hydrogen sulfide. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 4.2.99.8.
The complete absence, or (loosely) the paucity, of gaseous or dissolved elemental oxygen in a given place or environment. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
A group of proteins possessing only the iron-sulfur complex as the prosthetic group. These proteins participate in all major pathways of electron transport: photosynthesis, respiration, hydroxylation and bacterial hydrogen and nitrogen fixation.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
The processes by which organisms use simple inorganic substances such as gaseous or dissolved carbon dioxide and inorganic nitrogen as nutrient sources. Contrasts with heterotrophic processes which make use of organic materials as the nutrient supply source. Autotrophs can be either chemoautotrophs (or chemolithotrophs), largely ARCHAEA and BACTERIA, which also use simple inorganic substances for their metabolic energy reguirements; or photoautotrophs (or photolithotrophs), such as PLANTS and CYANOBACTERIA, which derive their energy from light. Depending on environmental conditions some organisms can switch between different nutritional modes (autotrophy; HETEROTROPHY; chemotrophy; or PHOTOTROPHY) to utilize different sources to meet their nutrient and energy requirements.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
Total mass of all the organisms of a given type and/or in a given area. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990) It includes the yield of vegetative mass produced from any given crop.
Unstable isotopes of carbon that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. C atoms with atomic weights 10, 11, and 14-16 are radioactive carbon isotopes.
Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.
Inorganic compounds that contain carbon as an integral part of the molecule but are not derived from hydrocarbons.
A type of POST-TRANSLATIONAL PROTEIN MODIFICATION by SMALL UBIQUITIN-RELATED MODIFIER PROTEINS (also known as SUMO proteins).
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
Commonly observed structural components of proteins formed by simple combinations of adjacent secondary structures. A commonly observed structure may be composed of a CONSERVED SEQUENCE which can be represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE.
A genus of gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria that derives energy from the oxidation of one or more reduced sulfur compounds. Many former species have been reclassified to other classes of PROTEOBACTERIA.
Compounds containing the -SH radical.
An enzyme found primarily in SULFUR-REDUCING BACTERIA where it plays an important role in the anaerobic carbon oxidation pathway.
A group of proteobacteria consisting of chemoorganotrophs usually associated with the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM of humans and animals.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group esterified to the sugar moiety in the 2'-, 3'-, or 5'-position.
The synthesis by organisms of organic chemical compounds, especially carbohydrates, from carbon dioxide using energy obtained from light rather than from the oxidation of chemical compounds. Photosynthesis comprises two separate processes: the light reactions and the dark reactions. In higher plants; GREEN ALGAE; and CYANOBACTERIA; NADPH and ATP formed by the light reactions drive the dark reactions which result in the fixation of carbon dioxide. (from Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2001)
Processes by which phototrophic organisms use sunlight as their primary energy source. Contrasts with chemotrophic processes which do not depend on light and function in deriving energy from exogenous chemical sources. Photoautotrophy (or photolithotrophy) is the ability to use sunlight as energy to fix inorganic nutrients to be used for other organic requirements. Photoautotrophs include all GREEN PLANTS; GREEN ALGAE; CYANOBACTERIA; and green and PURPLE SULFUR BACTERIA. Photoheterotrophs or photoorganotrophs require a supply of organic nutrients for their organic requirements but use sunlight as their primary energy source; examples include certain PURPLE NONSULFUR BACTERIA. Depending on environmental conditions some organisms can switch between different nutritional modes (AUTOTROPHY; HETEROTROPHY; chemotrophy; or phototrophy) to utilize different sources to meet their nutrients and energy requirements.
A group of the proteobacteria comprised of facultatively anaerobic and fermentative gram-negative bacteria.
An enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of the planetary sulfur atom of thiosulfate ion to cyanide ion to form thiocyanate ion. EC 2.8.1.1.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The class of all enzymes catalyzing oxidoreduction reactions. The substrate that is oxidized is regarded as a hydrogen donor. The systematic name is based on donor:acceptor oxidoreductase. The recommended name will be dehydrogenase, wherever this is possible; as an alternative, reductase can be used. Oxidase is only used in cases where O2 is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p9)
The presence of contaminants or pollutant substances in the air (AIR POLLUTANTS) that interfere with human health or welfare, or produce other harmful environmental effects. The substances may include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; or volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.
Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of sulfur atoms (2.8.1), sulfur groups (2.8.2) or coenzyme A (2.8.3). EC 2.8.
A family of colorless sulfur bacteria in the order Thiotrichales, class GAMMAPROTEOBACTERIA.
Proteins that originate from plants species belonging to the genus ARABIDOPSIS. The most intensely studied species of Arabidopsis, Arabidopsis thaliana, is commonly used in laboratory experiments.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
The first chemical element in the periodic table. It has the atomic symbol H, atomic number 1, and atomic weight [1.00784; 1.00811]. It exists, under normal conditions, as a colorless, odorless, tasteless, diatomic gas. Hydrogen ions are PROTONS. Besides the common H1 isotope, hydrogen exists as the stable isotope DEUTERIUM and the unstable, radioactive isotope TRITIUM.
A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.
Macromolecular complexes formed from the association of defined protein subunits.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
The facilitation of biochemical reactions with the aid of naturally occurring catalysts such as ENZYMES.
Derivatives of ACETIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxymethane structure.
A multifunctional pyridoxal phosphate enzyme. In the final step in the biosynthesis of cysteine it catalyzes the cleavage of cystathionine to yield cysteine, ammonia, and 2-ketobutyrate. EC 4.4.1.1.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in water. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.
Derangement in size and number of muscle fibers occurring with aging, reduction in blood supply, or following immobilization, prolonged weightlessness, malnutrition, and particularly in denervation.
Complex sets of enzymatic reactions connected to each other via their product and substrate metabolites.
A covalently linked dimeric nonessential amino acid formed by the oxidation of CYSTEINE. Two molecules of cysteine are joined together by a disulfide bridge to form cystine.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
An essential amino acid. It is often added to animal feed.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
A metallic element with atomic symbol Fe, atomic number 26, and atomic weight 55.85. It is an essential constituent of HEMOGLOBINS; CYTOCHROMES; and IRON-BINDING PROTEINS. It plays a role in cellular redox reactions and in the transport of OXYGEN.
DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.
Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.
Systems of enzymes which function sequentially by catalyzing consecutive reactions linked by common metabolic intermediates. They may involve simply a transfer of water molecules or hydrogen atoms and may be associated with large supramolecular structures such as MITOCHONDRIA or RIBOSOMES.
A dark powdery deposit of unburned fuel residues, composed mainly of amorphous CARBON and some HYDROCARBONS, that accumulates in chimneys, automobile mufflers and other surfaces exposed to smoke. It is the product of incomplete combustion of carbon-rich organic fuels in low oxygen conditions. It is sometimes called lampblack or carbon black and is used in INK, in rubber tires, and to prepare CARBON NANOTUBES.
An enzyme that catalyzes the activation of sulfate ions by ATP to form adenosine-5'-phosphosulfate and pyrophosphate. This reaction constitutes the first enzymatic step in sulfate utilization following the uptake of sulfate. EC 2.7.7.4.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.
The simplest saturated hydrocarbon. It is a colorless, flammable gas, slightly soluble in water. It is one of the chief constituents of natural gas and is formed in the decomposition of organic matter. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A metallic element with the atomic symbol Mo, atomic number 42, and atomic weight 95.94. It is an essential trace element, being a component of the enzymes xanthine oxidase, aldehyde oxidase, and nitrate reductase. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
A class of enzymes that catalyze the cleavage of C-C, C-O, and C-N, and other bonds by other means than by hydrolysis or oxidation. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 4.
Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.
The unconsolidated mineral or organic matter on the surface of the earth that serves as a natural medium for the growth of land plants.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
The ash, dust, gases, and lava released by volcanic explosion. The gases are volatile matter composed principally of about 90% water vapor, and carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide, hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and nitrogen. The ash or dust is pyroclastic ejecta and lava is molten extrusive material consisting mainly of magnesium silicate. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A genus of facultatively anaerobic coccoid ARCHAEA, in the family SULFOLOBACEAE. Cells are highly irregular in shape and thermoacidophilic. Lithotrophic growth occurs aerobically via sulfur oxidation in some species. Distribution includes solfataric springs and fields, mudholes, and geothermically heated acidic marine environments.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
One of the three domains of life (the others being BACTERIA and Eukarya), formerly called Archaebacteria under the taxon Bacteria, but now considered separate and distinct. They are characterized by: (1) the presence of characteristic tRNAs and ribosomal RNAs; (2) the absence of peptidoglycan cell walls; (3) the presence of ether-linked lipids built from branched-chain subunits; and (4) their occurrence in unusual habitats. While archaea resemble bacteria in morphology and genomic organization, they resemble eukarya in their method of genomic replication. The domain contains at least four kingdoms: CRENARCHAEOTA; EURYARCHAEOTA; NANOARCHAEOTA; and KORARCHAEOTA.
Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).
Cell surface receptors for AUTOCRINE MOTILITY FACTOR, which is the secreted form of GLUCOSE-6-PHOSPHATE ISOMERASE. The receptor has an unusual composition in that it shares some structural similarities with G-PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTORS and functions as an ubiquitin protein ligase when internalized.
Nitrogen oxide (NO2). A highly poisonous gas. Exposure produces inflammation of lungs that may only cause slight pain or pass unnoticed, but resulting edema several days later may cause death. (From Merck, 11th ed) It is a major atmospheric pollutant that is able to absorb UV light that does not reach the earth's surface.
An E3 ubiquitin ligase primarily involved in regulation of the metaphase-to-anaphase transition during MITOSIS through ubiquitination of specific CELL CYCLE PROTEINS. Enzyme activity is tightly regulated through subunits and cofactors, which modulate activation, inhibition, and substrate specificity. The anaphase-promoting complex, or APC-C, is also involved in tissue differentiation in the PLACENTA, CRYSTALLINE LENS, and SKELETAL MUSCLE, and in regulation of postmitotic NEURONAL PLASTICITY and excitability.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
Cellular processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of CARBOHYDRATES.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.
The region of an enzyme that interacts with its substrate to cause the enzymatic reaction.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
A cell line generated from human embryonic kidney cells that were transformed with human adenovirus type 5.
The vapor state of matter; nonelastic fluids in which the molecules are in free movement and their mean positions far apart. Gases tend to expand indefinitely, to diffuse and mix readily with other gases, to have definite relations of volume, temperature, and pressure, and to condense or liquefy at low temperatures or under sufficient pressure. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A great expanse of continuous bodies of salt water which together cover more than 70 percent of the earth's surface. Seas may be partially or entirely enclosed by land, and are smaller than the five oceans (Atlantic, Pacific, Indian, Arctic, and Antarctic).
A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.
Inorganic and organic derivatives of sulfuric acid (H2SO4). The salts and esters of sulfuric acid are known as SULFATES and SULFURIC ACID ESTERS respectively.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.
Enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of a phenol sulfate to yield a phenol and sulfate. Arylsulfatase A, B, and C have been separated. A deficiency of arylsulfatases is one of the causes of metachromatic leukodystrophy (LEUKODYSTROPHY, METACHROMATIC). EC 3.1.6.1.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The measurement of the amplitude of the components of a complex waveform throughout the frequency range of the waveform. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Screening techniques first developed in yeast to identify genes encoding interacting proteins. Variations are used to evaluate interplay between proteins and other molecules. Two-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for protein-protein interactions, one-hybrid for DNA-protein interactions, three-hybrid interactions for RNA-protein interactions or ligand-based interactions. Reverse n-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for mutations or other small molecules that dissociate known interactions.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the soil. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.
Life or metabolic reactions occurring in an environment containing oxygen.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
A strictly autotrophic species of bacteria that oxidizes sulfur and thiosulfate to sulfuric acid. It was formerly called Thiobacillus thiooxidans.
A tripeptide with many roles in cells. It conjugates to drugs to make them more soluble for excretion, is a cofactor for some enzymes, is involved in protein disulfide bond rearrangement and reduces peroxides.
Pyrrole containing pigments found in photosynthetic bacteria.
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in nature. Some species are pathogenic for humans, animals, and plants.
Hydrolases that specifically cleave the peptide bonds found in PROTEINS and PEPTIDES. Examples of sub-subclasses for this group include EXOPEPTIDASES and ENDOPEPTIDASES.
The processes by which organisms utilize organic substances as their nutrient sources. Contrasts with AUTOTROPHIC PROCESSES which make use of simple inorganic substances as the nutrient supply source. Heterotrophs can be either chemoheterotrophs (or chemoorganotrophs) which also require organic substances such as glucose for their primary metabolic energy requirements, or photoheterotrophs (or photoorganotrophs) which derive their primary energy requirements from light. Depending on environmental conditions some organisms can switch between different nutritional modes (AUTOTROPHY; heterotrophy; chemotrophy; or PHOTOTROPHY) to utilize different sources to meet their nutrients and energy requirements.
Growth of organisms using AUTOTROPHIC PROCESSES for obtaining nutrients and chemotrophic processes for obtaining a primary energy supply. Chemotrophic processes are involved in deriving a primary energy supply from exogenous chemical sources. Chemotrophic autotrophs (chemoautotrophs) generally use inorganic chemicals as energy sources and as such are called chemolithoautotrophs. Most chemoautotrophs live in hostile environments, such as deep sea vents. They are mostly BACTERIA and ARCHAEA, and are the primary producers for those ecosystems.
Woody, usually tall, perennial higher plants (Angiosperms, Gymnosperms, and some Pterophyta) having usually a main stem and numerous branches.
Members of the peptidase C19 family which regulate signal transduction by removing UBIQUITIN from specific protein substrates via a process known as deubiquitination or deubiquitylation.
Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
Unstable isotopes of sulfur that decay or disintegrate spontaneously emitting radiation. S 29-31, 35, 37, and 38 are radioactive sulfur isotopes.
An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.
An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.
Proteins that have one or more tightly bound metal ions forming part of their structure. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.
A bacterial genus of the order ACTINOMYCETALES.
A sulfuric acid dimer, formed by disulfide linkage. This compound has been used to prolong coagulation time and as an antidote in cyanide poisoning.
An allotropic form of carbon that is used in pencils, as a lubricant, and in matches and explosives. It is obtained by mining and its dust can cause lung irritation.

Expression, purification, and characterization of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis acyl carrier protein, AcpM. (1/22)

Mycolic acids are generated in Mycobacterium tuberculosis as a result of the interaction of two fatty acid biosynthetic systems: the multifunctional polypeptide, FASI, in which the acyl carrier protein (ACP) domain forms an integral part of the polypeptide, and the dissociated FASII system, which is composed of monofunctional enzymes and a discrete ACP (AcpM). In order to characterize enzymes of the FASII system, large amounts of AcpM are required to generate substrates such as holo-AcpM, malonyl-AcpM and acyl-AcpM. The M. tuberculosis acpM gene was overexpressed in Escherichia coli and AcpM purified, yielding approximately 15-20 mg/l of culture. Analysis of AcpM by mass spectrometry, N-terminal sequencing, amino acid analysis, and gas chromatography indicated the presence of three species, apo-, holo-, and acyl-AcpM, the former comprising up to 65% of the total pool. The apo-AcpM was purified away from the in vivo generated holo- and acyl-forms, which were inseparable and heterogeneous with respect to acyl chain lengths. Once purified, we were able to convert apo-AcpM into holo- and acyl-forms. These procedures provide the means for the preparation of the large quantities of AcpM and derivatives needed for characterization of the purified enzymes of the mycobacterial FASII system.  (+info)

Site-directed mutagenesis of acyl carrier protein (ACP) reveals amino acid residues involved in ACP structure and acyl-ACP synthetase activity. (2/22)

Acyl carrier protein (ACP) interacts with many different enzymes during the synthesis of fatty acids, phospholipids, and other specialized products in bacteria. To examine the structural and functional roles of amino acids previously implicated in interactions between the ACP polypeptide and fatty acids attached to the phosphopantetheine prosthetic group, recombinant Vibrio harveyi ACP and mutant derivatives of conserved residues Phe-50, Ile-54, Ala-59, and Tyr-71 were prepared from glutathione S-transferase fusion proteins. Circular dichroism revealed that, unlike Escherichia coli ACP, V. harveyi-derived ACPs are unfolded at neutral pH in the absence of divalent cations; all except F50A and I54A recovered native conformation upon addition of MgCl(2). Mutant I54A was not processed to the holo form by ACP synthase. Some mutations significantly decreased catalytic efficiency of ACP fatty acylation by V. harveyi acyl-ACP synthetase relative to recombinant ACP, e.g. F50A (4%), I54L (20%), and I54V (31%), whereas others (V12G, Y71A, and A59G) had less effect. By contrast, all myristoylated ACPs examined were effective substrates for the luminescence-specific V. harveyi myristoyl-ACP thioesterase. Conformationally sensitive gel electrophoresis at pH 9 indicated that fatty acid attachment stabilizes mutant ACPs in a chain length-dependent manner, although stabilization was decreased for mutants F50A and A59G. Our results indicate that (i) residues Ile-54 and Phe-50 are important in maintaining native ACP conformation, (ii) residue Ala-59 may be directly involved in stabilization of ACP structure by acyl chain binding, and (iii) acyl-ACP synthetase requires native ACP conformation and involves interaction with fatty acid binding pocket residues, whereas myristoyl-ACP thioesterase is insensitive to acyl donor structure.  (+info)

Purification and characterization of acyl-acyl carrier protein synthetase from oleaginous yeast and its role in triacylglycerol biosynthesis. (3/22)

Fatty acids are activated in an ATP-dependent manner before they are utilized. We describe here how the 10 S triacylglycerol biosynthetic multienzyme complex from Rhodotorula glutinis is capable of activating non-esterified fatty acids for the synthesis of triacylglycerol. The photolabelling of the complex with [(32)P]azido-ATP showed labelling of a 35 kDa polypeptide. The labelled polypeptide was identified as acyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) synthetase, which catalyses the ATP-dependent ligation of fatty acid with ACP to form acyl-ACP. The enzyme was purified by successive PAGE separations to apparent homogeneity from the soluble fraction of oleaginous yeast and its apparent molecular mass was 35 kDa under denaturing and reducing conditions. Acyl-ACP synthetase was specific for ATP. The K(m) values for palmitic, stearic, oleic and linoleic acids were found to be 42.9, 30.4, 25.1 and 22.7 microM, respectively. The antibodies to acyl-ACP synthetase cross-reacted with Escherichia coli acyl-ACP synthetase. Anti-ACP antibodies showed no cross-reactivity with the purified acyl-ACP synthetase, indicating no bound ACP with the enzyme. Immunoprecipitations with antibodies to acyl-ACP synthetase revealed that this enzyme is a part of the 10 S triacylglycerol biosynthetic complex. These results demonstrate that the soluble acyl-ACP synthetase plays a novel role in activating fatty acids for triacylglycerol biosynthesis in oleaginous yeast.  (+info)

A glutathione-dependent formaldehyde-activating enzyme (Gfa) from Paracoccus denitrificans detected and purified via two-dimensional proton exchange NMR spectroscopy. (4/22)

The formation of S-hydroxymethylglutathione from formaldehyde and glutathione is a central reaction in the consumption of the cytotoxin formaldehyde in some methylotrophic bacteria as well as in many other organisms. We describe here the discovery of an enzyme from Paracoccus denitrificans that accelerates this spontaneous condensation reaction. The rates of S-hydroxymethylglutathione formation and cleavage were determined under equilibrium conditions via two-dimensional proton exchange NMR spectroscopy. The pseudo first order rate constants k(1)* were estimated from the temperature dependence of the reaction and the signal to noise ratio of the uncatalyzed reaction. At 303 K and pH 6.0 k(1)* was found to be 0.02 s(-1) for the spontaneous reaction. A 10-fold increase of the rate constant was observed upon addition of cell extract from P. denitrificans grown in the presence of methanol corresponding to a specific activity of 35 units mg(-1). Extracts of cells grown in the presence of succinate revealed a lower specific activity of 11 units mg(-1). The enzyme catalyzing the conversion of formaldehyde and glutathione was purified and named glutathione-dependent formaldehyde-activating enzyme (Gfa). The gene gfa is located directly upstream of the gene for glutathione-dependent formaldehyde dehydrogenase, which catalyzes the subsequent oxidation of S-hydroxymethylglutathione. Putative proteins with sequence identity to Gfa from P. denitrificans are present also in Rhodobacter sphaeroides, Sinorhizobium meliloti, and Mesorhizobium loti.  (+info)

Functional role of fatty acyl-coenzyme A synthetase in the transmembrane movement and activation of exogenous long-chain fatty acids. Amino acid residues within the ATP/AMP signature motif of Escherichia coli FadD are required for enzyme activity and fatty acid transport. (5/22)

Fatty acyl-CoA synthetase (FACS, fatty acid:CoA ligase, AMP forming; EC ) plays a central role in intermediary metabolism by catalyzing the formation of fatty acyl-CoA. In Escherichia coli this enzyme, encoded by the fadD gene, is required for the coupled import and activation of exogenous long-chain fatty acids. The E. coli FACS (FadD) contains two sequence elements, which comprise the ATP/AMP signature motif ((213)YTGGTTGVAKGA(224) and (356)GYGLTE(361)) placing it in the superfamily of adenylate-forming enzymes. A series of site-directed mutations were generated in the fadD gene within the ATP/AMP signature motif site to evaluate the role of this conserved region to enzyme function and to fatty acid transport. This approach revealed two major classes of fadD mutants with depressed enzyme activity: 1) those with 25-45% wild type activity (fadD(G216A), fadD(T217A), fadD(G219A), and fadD(K222A)) and 2) those with 10% or less wild-type activity (fadD(Y213A), fadD(T214A), and fadD(E361A)). Using anti-FadD sera, Western blots demonstrated the different mutant forms of FadD that were present and had localization patterns equivalent to the wild type. The defect in the first class was attributed to a reduced catalytic efficiency although several mutant forms also had a reduced affinity for ATP. The mutations resulting in these biochemical phenotypes reduced or essentially eliminated the transport of exogenous long-chain fatty acids. These data support the hypothesis that the FACS FadD functions in the vectorial movement of exogenous fatty acids across the plasma membrane by acting as a metabolic trap, which results in the formation of acyl-CoA esters.  (+info)

Isolation and expression pattern of two putative acyl-ACP desaturase cDNAs from Bassia scoparia. (6/22)

The seed lipids of some higher plants contain unusual fatty acids with potentially valuable non-food uses. Seeds of Bassia scoparia contain one such monounsaturated fatty acid, 16:1Delta5. This fatty acid can be used for the production of an insect oviposition pheromone, which is potentially valuable in the control of the mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus, a vector of West Nile virus. Previous work has established that a number of unusual monounsaturated fatty acids are produced by variant forms of the ubiquitous acyl-ACP desaturases. The isolation and initial characterization of two putative acyl-ACP desaturases from B. scoparia, one of which is seed-specific, suggests that such a variant enzyme occurs in this species.  (+info)

A dynamic zinc redox switch. (7/22)

The crystal structures of glutathione-dependent formaldehyde-activating enzyme (Gfa) from Paracoccus denitrificans, which catalyzes the formation of S-hydroxymethylglutathione from formaldehyde and glutathione, and its complex with glutathione (Gfa-GTT) have been determined. Gfa has a new fold with two zinc-sulfur centers, one that is structural (zinc tetracoordinated) and one catalytic (zinc apparently tricoordinated). In Gfa-GTT, the catalytic zinc is displaced due to disulfide bond formation of glutathione with one of the zinc-coordinating cysteines. Soaking crystals of Gfa-GTT with formaldehyde restores the holoenzyme. Accordingly, the displaced zinc forms a complex by scavenging formaldehyde and glutathione. The activation of formaldehyde and of glutathione in this zinc complex favors the final nucleophilic addition, followed by relocation of zinc in the catalytic site. Therefore, the structures of Gfa and Gfa-GTT draw the critical association between a dynamic zinc redox switch and a nucleophilic addition as a new facet of the redox activity of zinc-sulfur sites.  (+info)

Lysophospholipid flipping across the Escherichia coli inner membrane catalyzed by a transporter (LplT) belonging to the major facilitator superfamily. (8/22)

The transfer of phospholipids across membrane bilayers is protein-mediated, and most of the established transporters catalyze the energy-dependent efflux of phospholipids from cells. This work identifies and characterizes a lysophospholipid transporter gene (lplT, formally ygeD) in Escherichia coli that is an integral component in the 2-acylglycerophosphoethanolamine (2-acyl-GPE) metabolic cycle for membrane protein acylation. The lplT gene is adjacent to and in the same operon as the aas gene, which encodes the bifunctional enzyme 2-acyl-GPE acyltransferase/acyl-acyl carrier protein synthetase. In some bacteria, acyltransferase/acyl-ACP synthetase (Aas) and LplT homologues are fused in a single polypeptide chain. 2-Acyl-GPE transport to the inside of the cell was assessed by measuring the Aas-dependent formation of phosphatidylethanolamine. The Aas-dependent incorporation of [3H]palmitate into phosphatidylethanolamine was significantly diminished in deltalplT mutants, and the LplT-Aas transport/acylation activity was independent of the proton motive force. The deltalplT mutants accumulated acyl-GPE in vivo and had a diminished capacity to transport exogenous 2-acylglycerophosphocholine into the cell. Spheroplasts prepared from wild-type E. coli transported and acylated fluorescent 2-acyl-GPE with an apparent K(d) of 7.5 microM, whereas this high-affinity process was absent in deltalplT mutants. Thus, LplT catalyzes the transbilayer movement of lysophospholipids and is the first example of a phospholipid flippase that belongs to the major facilitator superfamily.  (+info)

Isolation and characterization of Escherichia coli K-12 mutants lacking both 2-acyl-glycerophosphoethanolamine acyltransferase and acyl-acyl carrier protein synthetase activity ...
Isolation and characterization of Escherichia coli K-12 mutants lacking both 2-acyl-glycerophosphoethanolamine acyltransferase and acyl-acyl carrier protein synthetase activity ...
RN [1] RM 11741920 RT A glutathione-dependent formaldehyde-activating enzyme (Gfa) from Paracoccus denitrificans detected and purified via two-dimensional proton exchange NMR spectroscopy. RA Goenrich M, Bartoschek S, Hagemeier CH, Griesinger C, Vorholt JA. RL J Biol Chem. 2002 Feb 1;277(5):3069-72. DR HAMAP; MF_00723; 13 of ...
Protein families that contain at least one copy of this domain include citrate lyase ligase, pantoate-beta-alanine ligase, glycerol-3-phosphate cytidyltransferase [ (PUBMED:16344011) ], ADP-heptose synthase, phosphocholine cytidylyltransferase, lipopolysaccharide core biosynthesis protein KdtB, the bifunctional protein NadR, archaeal FAD synthase RibL [ (PUBMED:20822113) ], and a number whose function is unknown. Many of these proteins are known to use CTP or ATP and release pyrophosphate. ...
Plays a role in lysophospholipid acylation. Transfers fatty acids to the 1-position via an enzyme-bound acyl-ACP intermediate in the presence of ATP and magnesium. Its physiological function is to regenerate phosphatidylethanolamine from 2-acyl-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine (2-acyl-GPE) formed by transacylation reactions or degradation by phospholipase A1.
The MHC class II gene Aa was disrupted by targeted mutation in embryonic stem (ES) cells derived from C57BL/6 mice to prevent expression of MHC class II molecules. Contrary to previous reports, the effect of the null-mutation on T cell development was investigated in C57BL/6 mice, which provide a defined genetic background. The complete lack of cell surface expression of MHC class II molecules in B6-Aa0/Aa0 homozygous mutant mice was directly demonstrated by cytofluorometric analysis using anti-Ab and anti-Ia specific mAbs. Development of CD4+CD8- T cells in the thymus was largely absent except for a small population of thymocytes expressing high levels of CD4 together with low amounts of CD8. The majority of these cells express the TCR at high density. Although mature CD4+CD8- T cells were undetectable in the thymus, some T cells with a CD4+CD8-TCRhigh phenotype were found in lymph nodes and spleen. Peripheral T cells from the mutant mice can be polyclonally activated in vitro with the mitogen ...
The spatiotemporal pattern of deposition, final amount, and relative abundance of oleic acid (cis-ω-9 C18:1) and its derivatives in the different lipid fractions of the seed of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) indicates that omega-9 monoenes are synthesized at high rates in this organ. Accordingly, we observed that four Δ9 stearoyl-ACP desaturase (SAD)-coding genes (FATTY ACID BIOSYNTHESIS2 [FAB2], ACYL-ACYL CARRIER PROTEIN5 [AAD5], AAD1, and AAD6) are transcriptionally induced in seeds. We established that the three most highly expressed ones are directly activated by the WRINKLED1 transcription factor. We characterized a collection of 30 simple, double, triple, and quadruple mutants affected in SAD-coding genes and thereby revealed the functions of these desaturases throughout seed development. Production of oleic acid by FAB2 and AAD5 appears to be critical at the onset of embryo morphogenesis. Double homozygous plants from crossing fab2 and aad5 could never be obtained, and further ...
Vip3Aa20 is a mutated form of the vip3Aa19 gene from the Bacillus thuringiensis strain AB88. The mutation occurred by two codon changes within the vip3Aa19 coding sequence when this gene was introduced in the maize event MIR162. One of these was a silent mutation and the other codon change resulted in an amino acid substitution. Therefore, the vip3Aa gene variant present in MIR162 maize has been designated vip3Aa20 ...
Vip3Aa20 is a mutated form of the vip3Aa19 gene from the Bacillus thuringiensis strain AB88. The mutation occurred by two codon changes within the vip3Aa19 coding sequence when this gene was introduced in the maize event MIR162. One of these was a silent mutation and the other codon change resulted in an amino acid substitution. Therefore, the vip3Aa gene variant present in MIR162 maize has been designated vip3Aa20 ...
This enzyme belongs to the family of ligases, specifically those forming carbon-sulfur bonds as acid-thiol ligases. This enzyme participates in biotin metabolism.
The graphical fragment assembly (GFA) フォーマットは、シーケンスグラフを表現するための新しい標準フォーマットである。GFA 1は主にアセンブリグラフを対象としていたが、新しい GFA 2 フォーマットはいくつかの機能を導入しており、scaffoldingグラフ、バリエーショングラフ、アラインメントグラフ、カラーメタゲノムグラフなど、他の種類の情報を表現するのに適している。ここでは、GFAフォーマットの配列グラフを可視化するためのインタラクティブなグラフィカルツールであるGfaVizを紹介する。このソフトウェアは、GFA 2のすべての新機能をサポートし、その…
by ACPM Staff , Aug 24, 2017 , Detox, IV THERAPY, Therapy. WHAT IS A NAD IV? It is a compound with multiple therapeutic benefits in our bodies. NAD+ is a substance that is produced naturally in every cell of our body, however, the process of aging, stress, alcohol, drugs and chronic illness affects the levels of NAD and the ...
Author: Doermann, P. et al.; Genre: Journal Article; Published in Print: 2000; Keywords: Fatty-acid biosynthesis. Acp thioesterases. Higher-plants. Desaturase.|br/|Expression. Thaliana. Genes. Temperature. Resistance.|br/|Plant Sciences in Current Contents(R)/Agricultural, Biology &|br/|Environmental Sciences|br/|Animal & Plant Sciences in Current Contents(R)/Life Sciences.|br/|2000 week 29|br/|Reprint available from: Dormann P. Max Planck Inst Mol Pflanzenphysiol,|br/|D-14476 Golm, Germany, .; Title: Accumulation of palmitate in arabidopsis mediated by the acyl-acyl carrier protein thioesterase FATB1
Pore-forming toxin with nematicidal activity (PubMed:26795495, PubMed:27576487). In infected C.elegans, induces an increase in intracellular Ca(2+) resulting in necrosis of host intestinal cells (PubMed:26795495). Also, induces the expression of aspartic protease asp-1 (PubMed:26795495).
Implications for the application of the MPN technique.It has been shown that cellular isolates which correspond to abundant 16S rDNA sequences can indeed be isolated if the inocula are diluted in MPN series prior to enrichment (16). This effect has been attributed to the presence of rare but rapidly growing bacteria which are eliminated by the dilution step. Consequently, the MPN technique currently represents the method of choice to obtain cultures of abundant bacteria (16).. Unexpectedly, isolates obtained in the present study from the highest positive dilutions, despite the very high cultivation success of up to 100%, could not be detected by DGGE fingerprinting and yielded only a very faint signal during dot blot hybridization. Based on the relatively large inherent statistical uncertainty of the MPN technique, the fraction of strain G100 in the natural bacterioplankton community could also be as low as 12% (the lower limit of the MPN confidence interval). Nevertheless, this minimum value is ...
Archives issue of International Journal of Pharma and Bio Sciences which aims to cover the latest outstanding developments in the field of pharmaceutical and biological sciences
The value of aryl sulfides in biologically active substances has actually led chemists to establish methods to manufacture them from carbon-sulfur bond forming reactions. The standard reaction, however, utilizes thiols that are foul-smelling and harmful. Now, chemists from Waseda University, Japan, report an unique, thiol-free synthesis method consisting of a nickel-catalyzed aryl exchange between 2-pyridyl sulfide and aromatic esters, supplying a versatile and low-cost technology for both clinical and commercial applications.. Health, Day, Health, Day is the worlds biggest syndicator of health news and material, and service providers of custom-made health/medical material. Customer Health News, A health news feed, reviewing the current and most topical health stories. Specialist News A news feed for Health Care Professionals (HCPs), evaluating latest medical research study and approvals.. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Isolation of a cDNA clone encoding an acyl-acyl carrier protein thioesterase from the mesocarp of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis). AU - Abrizah, O. AU - Lazarus, CM. AU - Stobart, AK. PY - 1999. Y1 - 1999. M3 - Article (Academic Journal). VL - Special Edition. SP - 81. EP - 86. JO - Journal of Oil Palm Research. JF - Journal of Oil Palm Research. SN - 1511-2780. ER - ...
ACPM 2014, Congress of Asian College of Psychosomatic Medicine is a Medical and Psychiatry Congress , organized in Jakarta, Indonesia. Click for more info
ウサギ・ポリクローナル抗体 ab117239 交差種: Hu 適用: WB…ATP citrate lyase抗体一覧…画像、プロトコール、文献などWeb上の情報が満載のアブカムの Antibody 製品。国内在庫と品質保証制度も充実。
15260498] The acyltransferase homologue from the initiation module of the R1128 polyketide synthase is an acyl-ACP thioesterase that edits acetyl primer units. (Biochemistry. , 2004 ...
Virulence in the Gram-negative pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa relies in part on the efficient functioning of two LuxI/R dependent quorum sensing (QS) cascades, namely, the LasI/R and RhlI/R systems that generate and respond to N-(3-oxo)-dodecanoyl-l-homoserine lactone and N-butyryl-l-homoserine lactone, respectively. The two acyl homoserine lactone (AHL) synthases, LasI and RhlI, use 3-oxododecanoyl-ACP and butyryl-ACP, respectively, as the acyl-substrates to generate the corresponding autoinducer signals for the bacterium. Although AHL synthases represent excellent targets for developing QS modulators in P. aeruginosa, and in other related bacteria, the identification of potent and signal synthase specific inhibitors has represented a significant technical challenge. In the current study, we sought to test the utility of AHL analogs as potential modulators of an AHL synthase and selected RhlI in P. aeruginosa as an initial target. We systematically varied the chemical functionalities of the ...
2021 F. Jing, Chen, K., Yandeau-Nelson, M. D., Dimmas, B. J., Machine learning model of the catalytic efficiency and specificity of acyl-ACP thioesterase variants generated by natural and in vitro directed evolution, PREPRINT (Version 1) available at Research Square. DOI
2020 Copyright France 24 - All rights reserved. France 24 is not responsible for the content of external websites. Audience ratings certified by ACPM/OJD.. ...
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Accepted name: oleoyl-[acyl-carrier-protein] hydrolase. Reaction: an oleoyl-[acyl-carrier protein] + H2O = an [acyl-carrier protein] + oleate. Other name(s): acyl-[acyl-carrier-protein] hydrolase; acyl-ACP-hydrolase; acyl-acyl carrier protein hydrolase; oleoyl-ACP thioesterase; oleoyl-acyl carrier protein thioesterase. Systematic name: oleoyl-[acyl-carrier protein] hydrolase. Comments: Acts on acyl-carrier-protein thioesters of fatty acids from C12 to C18, but the derivative of oleic acid is hydrolysed much more rapidly than any other compound tested.. Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, Metacyc, PDB, CAS registry number: 68009-83-6. References:. 1. Ohlrogge, J.B., Shine, W.E. and Stumpf, P.K. Fat metabolism in higher plants. Characterization of plant acyl-ACP and acyl-CoA hydrolases. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 189 (1978) 382-391. [PMID: 30409]. 2. Shine, W.E., Mancha, M. and Stumpf, P.K. Fat metabolism in higher plants. The function of acyl thioesterases in the metabolism of ...
Most studies of biofilms have focused on single species and on genes that control or are regulated by life on a surface. As more information is uncovered by studies of pure cultures, these data can be applied towards understanding the roles of specific genes in multispecies interactions. This chapter focuses mostly on multi-species interactions among oral bacteria in biofilms: a few single-species biofilms are featured to discuss responses to environmental signals, including signals generated by the occupants within the biofilm. Signals involved in cell-to-cell communication among biofilm cells include acyl homoserine lactones, oligopeptides, and autoinducer-2 (AI-2). Importantly, an optimal concentration of 4,5-dihydroxy-2,3-pentanedione (DPD) was critical for maximal biofilm development. One site where natural multispecies biofilms are unusually accessible is the tooth surface in the human oral cavity. We use a retrievable enamel chip model system that permits us to place three pieces of enamel side
Acyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) thioesterases play an essential role in chain termination during de novo fatty acid synthesis and in the channeling of carbon flux between the two lipid biosynthesis pathways in plants. We have discovered that there are two distinct but related thioesterase gene classes in higher plants, termed FatA and FatB, whose evolutionary divergence appears to be ancient. FatA encodes the already described 18:1-ACP thioesterase. In contrast, FatB representatives encode thioesterases preferring acyl-ACPs having saturated acyl groups. We unexpectedly obtained a 16:0-ACP thioesterase cDNA from Cuphea hookeriana seed, which accumulate predominantly 8:0 and 10:0. The 16:0 thioesterase transcripts were found in non-seed tissues, and expression in transgenic Brassica napus led to the production of a 16:0-rich oil. We present evidence that this type of FatB gene is ancient and ubiquitous in plants and that specialized plant medium-chain thioesterases have evolved independently from ...
The recent rapid growth in the biofilm field has spawned a number of new strategies for controlling biofilms. Below are descriptions of a few of these emergent strategies.. For some years it has been known that bacteria communicate with each other via diffusible signal molecules in a process termed quorum sensing. The discovery that quorum sensing regulates biofilm formation opens the door to interdicting normal biofilm development through the use of quorum sensing inhibitors. This strategy of jamming communication is now moving towards application. One example of such inhibitors are the brominated furanones that block quorum sensing by acyl homoserine lactones, signal molecules used by Gram-negative bacteria. These furanones were first isolated from a marine algae and are thought to be part of the plants natural defense against microbial biofouling. Furanone-based quorum sensing inhibitors have been shown to increase antibiotic sensitivity of Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms and improve ...
Acyl-acyl carrier protein thioesterases (acyl-ACP TEs) catalyze the hydrolysis of the thioester bond that links the acyl chain to the sulfhydryl group of the phosphopantetheine prosthetic group of ACP. This reaction terminates acyl chain elongation of fatty acid biosynthesis, and in plant seeds it is the biochemical determinant of the fatty acid compositions of storage lipids. To explore acyl-ACP TE diversity and to identify novel acyl ACP-TEs, 31 acyl-ACP TEs from wide-ranging phylogenetic sources were characterized to ascertain their in vivo activities and substrate specificities. These acyl-ACP TEs were chosen by two different approaches: 1) 24 TEs were selected from public databases on the basis of phylogenetic analysis and fatty acid profile knowledge of their source organisms; and 2) seven TEs were molecularly cloned from oil palm (Elaeis guineensis), coconut (Cocos nucifera) and Cuphea viscosissima, organisms that produce medium-chain and short-chain fatty acids in their seeds. The in vivo
1.THE GREEN FLUORESCENT PROTEIN - Annual Review of Biochemistry, 67(1):509.. 2.Tian T, Burrage K (2006) Stochastic models for regulatory networks of the genetic toggle switch. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 103: 8372 -8377.. 3.Basu S, Mehreja R, Thiberge S, Chen M, Weiss R (2004) Spatiotemporal control of gene expression with pulse-generating networks. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 101: 6355 -6360.. 4.Nilsson P, Olofsson A, Fagerlind M, Fagerström T, Rice S, u. a. (2001) Kinetics of the AHL Regulatory System in a Model Biofilm System: How Many Bacteria Constitute a Quorum? Journal of Molecular Biology 309: 631-640.. 5.Schaefer AL, Val DL, Hanzelka BL, Cronan JE, Greenberg EP (1996) Generation of cell-to-cell signals in quorum sensing: acyl homoserine lactone synthase activity of a purified Vibrio fischeri LuxI protein. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A 93: 9505-9509.. 6.Kaplan HB, Greenberg EP (1985) Diffusion of autoinducer is ...
The Ramberg-Bäcklund reaction is an organic reaction converting an α-halo sulfone into an alkene in presence of a base with extrusion of sulfur dioxide.[1] The reaction is named after the two Swedish chemists Ludwig Ramberg and Birger Bäcklund. The carbanion formed by deprotonation gives an unstable thiirane dioxide that decomposes with elimination of sulfur dioxide. This elimination step is considered to be a concerted cycloelimination.[citation needed] The overall transformation is the conversion of the carbon-sulfur bonds to a carbon-carbon double bond. The original procedure involved halogenation of a sulfide, followed by oxidation to the sulfone. Recently, the preferred method has reversed the order of the steps. After the oxidation, which is normally done with a peroxy acid, halogenation is done under basic conditions by use of dibromodifluoromethane for the halogen transfer step. [2] This method was used to synthesize 1,8-diphenyl-1,3,5,7-octatetraene. The Ramberg-Bäcklund reaction ...
As the leader for the specialty of Preventive Medicine and physicians dedicated to prevention, ACPM improves the health of individuals and populations through evidence-based health promotion, disease prevention, and systems-based approaches to improving health and health care.
As the leader for the specialty of Preventive Medicine and physicians dedicated to prevention, ACPM improves the health of individuals and populations through evidence-based health promotion, disease prevention, and systems-based approaches to improving health and health care.
The current study reveals several key findings with regard to endogenous cardiac TAG metabolism under both baseline (i.e., normoxia) and I-R conditions. First, increased TAG content and turnover as a result of DGAT1 overexpression do not adversely affect cardiac function, energetics, or the oxidation of exogenous substrates. Second, DGAT1 overexpression significantly increased the incorporation rates of various LCFAs into the TAG pool. Third, our data show that maintaining elevated TAG turnover rates during reperfusion after acute ischemia is cardioprotective, in part, by sequestering fatty acids into the TAG pool and reducing the accumulation of ceramides. Last, we show that when palmitate is the sole source of exogenous fatty acids during the reperfusion period, there are deleterious effects on recovery from ischemia in DGAT1 transgenic hearts. All told, our findings demonstrate an important role of endogenous cardiac TAG metabolism in determining outcomes of cardiac stress. Moreover, they ...
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Acinetobacter calcoaceticus BD413 accumulates wax esters and triacylglycerol under conditions of mineral nutrient limitation. Nitrosoguanidine-induced mutants of strain BD413 were isolated that failed to accumulate wax esters under nitrogen-limited growth conditions. One of the mutants, Wow15 (without wax), accumulated wax when grown in the presence of cis-11-hexadecenal and hexadecanol but not hexadecane or hexadecanoic acid. This suggested that the mutation may have inactivated a gene encoding either an acyl-acyl carrier protein or acyl-coenzyme A (CoA) reductase. The Wow15 mutant was complemented with a cosmid genomic library prepared from wild-type A. calcoaceticus BD413. The complementary region was localized to a single gene (acr1) encoding a protein of 32,468 Da that is 44% identical over a region of 264 amino acids to a product of unknown function encoded by an open reading frame associated with mycolic acid synthesis in Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Ra. Extracts of Escherichia coli ...
This Axxera double-DIN digital media receiver features a capacitive touchscreen LCD and Apple CarPlay. Other features include USB control for iPod and iPhone, Bluetooth with an external microphone, three pairs of 4V RMS preamp outputs, 10 band EQ, steering wheel control input, and much more. Comes with a wireless remote control.
Greenwashing in ESG integration can be distinguished from greenwashing in thematic investing. For ESG integration, the investment management team should be doing their own ESG analysis-this requires education and training to develop a high level of expertise. Third-party ESG research is a valuable tool for investment managers to consider, but it doesnt replace the due diligence done by the investment team. We work with our clients to better understand their investmen. objectives, and we believe that asset owners should ask for examples of ESG integration in practice and look for whether the manager has employees who are knowledgeable about ESG, access to third-party ESG data sources, and training to bring this all together. This can be trickier for passive investments, where the concept of stewardship is all the more important. For thematic investing, the reporting and tracking of the objective should be transparent. Best practice accounts for both the positive and negative impacts from ...
Crassous PA, Cardinaletti C, Carrieri A, Bruni B, Di Vaira M, Gentili F, Ghelfi F, Giannella M, Paris H, Piergentili A, Quaglia W, Schaak S, Vesprini C, Pigini M (August 2007). Alpha2-adrenoreceptors profile modulation. 3.1 (R)-(+)-m-nitrobiphenyline, a new efficient and alpha2C-subtype selective agonist. Journal of Medicinal Chemistry 50 (16): 3964-8. PMID 17630725. doi:10.1021/jm061487a. Cite uses deprecated parameter ...
This enzyme belongs to the family of ligases, specifically those forming carbon-sulfur bonds as acid-thiol ligases. The ... systematic name of this enzyme class is trans-ferulate:CoASH ligase (ATP-hydrolysing). This enzyme is also called trans- ...
... ligases used to form carbon-oxygen bonds EC 6.2 includes ligases used to form carbon-sulfur bonds EC 6.3 includes ligases used ... ligases used to form carbon-carbon bonds EC 6.5 includes ligases used to form phosphoric ester bonds EC 6.6 includes ligases ... The common names of ligases often include the word "ligase", such as DNA ligase, an enzyme commonly used in molecular biology ... Ligases are classified as EC 6 in the EC number classification of enzymes. Ligases can be further classified into six ...
This enzyme belongs to the family of ligases, to be specific those forming carbon-sulfur bonds as acid-thiol ligases. The ... p-coumaroyl CoA ligase, p-coumaryl coenzyme A synthetase, p-coumaryl-CoA synthetase, p-coumaryl-CoA ligase, feruloyl CoA ligase ... CoA ligase, p-coumaryl-CoA ligase, p-hydroxycinnamic acid:CoA ligase, and 4CL. This enzyme participates in phenylpropanoid ... In enzymology, a 4-coumarate-CoA ligase (EC 6.2.1.12) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction ATP + 4-coumarate + CoA ...
6.2: Carbon-Sulfur. *Succinyl coenzyme A synthetase. *Acetyl-CoA synthetase. *Long-chain-fatty-acid-CoA ligase ... Stage two involves four key Mur ubiquitin ligase enzymes: MurC (EC),[1] MurD (EC),[2] MurE (EC) [3] and MurF (EC).[4] These ... 6-diaminopimelate ligase (MurE), and UDP-N-acetylmuramoyl-tripeptide-D-alanyl-D-alanine ligase (MurF). This entry also includes ... All four Mur ligases are topologically similar to one another, even though they display low sequence identity. They are each ...
This enzyme belongs to the family of ligases, specifically those forming carbon-sulfur bonds as acid-thiol ligases. The ... HS-citrate lyase ligase, and acetate:citrate-(pro-3S)-lyase(thiol-form) ligase (AMP-forming). This enzyme participates in two- ... In enzymology, a citrate (pro-3S)-lyase ligase (EC 6.2.1.22) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction ATP + acetate + ... Antranikian G, Herzberg C, Gottschalk G (1985). "Covalent modification of citrate lyase ligase from Clostridium sphenoides by ...
This enzyme belongs to the family of ligases, specifically those forming carbon-sulfur bonds as acid-thiol ligases. The ... Other names in common use include phenylacetyl-CoA ligase, PA-CoA ligase, and phenylacetyl-CoA ligase (AMP-forming). This ... In enzymology, a phenylacetate-CoA ligase is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction ATP + phenylacetate + CoA ⇌ {\ ... "Purification and biochemical characterization of phenylacetyl-CoA ligase from Pseudomonas putida. A specific enzyme for the ...
This enzyme belongs to the family of ligases, specifically those forming carbon-sulfur bonds as acid-thiol ligases. The ... This enzyme is also called phytanoyl-CoA ligase. Muralidharan FN, Muralidharan VB (1986). "Phytanoyl-CoA ligase activity in rat ... In enzymology, a phytanate-CoA ligase (EC 6.2.1.24) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction ATP + phytanate + CoA ... systematic name of this enzyme class is phytanate:CoA ligase (AMP-forming). ...
This enzyme belongs to the family of ligases, specifically those forming carbon-sulfur bonds as acid-thiol ligases. This enzyme ... Butyrate-CoA ligase, also known as xenobiotic/medium-chain fatty acid-ligase (XM-ligase), is an enzyme (EC 6.2.1.2) that ... 3-hydroxybutyryl CoA ligase, xenobiotic/medium-chain fatty acid ligase, and short-chain acyl-CoA synthetase. ACSM1 ACSM2A ... This reaction is catalyzed by the HXM-A and HXM-B medium-chain acid:CoA ligases and requires energy in the form of ATP. ... The ...
This enzyme belongs to the family of ligases, specifically those forming carbon-sulfur bonds as acid-thiol ligases. The ... 2-aminobenzoate-CoA ligase, 2-aminobenzoate-coenzyme A ligase, and 2-aminobenzoate coenzyme A ligase. This enzyme participates ... In enzymology, an anthranilate-CoA ligase (EC 6.2.1.32) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction ATP + anthranilate + ... systematic name of this enzyme class is anthranilate:CoA ligase (AMP-forming). Other names in common use include anthraniloyl ...
This enzyme belongs to the family of ligases, specifically those forming carbon-sulfur bonds as acid-thiol ligases. The ... In enzymology, a citrate-CoA ligase (EC 6.2.1.18) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction ATP + citrate + CoA ⇌ {\ ... CoA ligase, and citrate thiokinase. This enzyme participates in citric acid cycle. Lill U, Schreil A, Eggerer H (1982). " ... systematic name of this enzyme class is citrate:CoA ligase (ADP-forming). Other names in common use include citryl-CoA ...
This enzyme belongs to the family of ligases, specifically those forming carbon-sulfur bonds as acid-thiol ligases. The ... In enzymology, a propionate-CoA ligase (EC 6.2.1.17) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction ATP + propanoate + CoA ... systematic name of this enzyme class is propanoate:CoA ligase (AMP-forming). This enzyme is also called propionyl-CoA ...
This enzyme belongs to the family of ligases, specifically those forming carbon-sulfur bonds as acid-thiol ligases. The ... In enzymology, a glutarate-CoA ligase (EC 6.2.1.6) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction ATP + glutarate + CoA ⇌ {\ ... systematic name of this enzyme class is glutarate:CoA ligase (ADP-forming). Other names in common use include glutaryl-CoA ...
This enzyme belongs to the family of ligases, specifically those forming carbon-sulfur bonds as acid-thiol ligases. The ... In enzymology, a dicarboxylate-CoA ligase (EC 6.2.1.23) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction ATP + an alphaomega- ... systematic name of this enzyme class is omega-dicarboxylate:CoA ligase (AMP-forming). Other names in common use include ...
This enzyme belongs to the family of ligases, specifically those forming carbon-sulfur bonds as acid-thiol ligases. The ... In enzymology, an oxalate-CoA ligase (EC 6.2.1.8) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction ATP + oxalate + CoA ⇌ {\ ... systematic name of this enzyme class is oxalate:CoA ligase (AMP-forming). Other names in common use include oxalyl-CoA ... Organisms with Oxalate-CoA Ligases include: Arabidopsis thaliana Saccharomyces cerevisiae http://www.plantcell.org/content/24/3 ...
This enzyme belongs to the family of ligases, specifically those forming carbon-sulfur bonds as acid-thiol ligases. The ... In enzymology, an arachidonate-CoA ligase (EC 6.2.1.15) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction ATP + arachidonate + ... systematic name of this enzyme class is arachidonate:CoA ligase (AMP-forming). This enzyme is also called arachidonoyl-CoA ...
This enzyme belongs to the family of ligases, specifically those forming carbon-sulfur bonds as acid-thiol ligases. The ... In enzymology, a 4-chlorobenzoate-CoA ligase (EC 6.2.1.33) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction 4-chlorobenzoate ... Loffler F, Muller R, Lingens F (1992). "Purification and properties of 4-halobenzoate-coenzyme A ligase from Pseudomonas sp. ... systematic name of this enzyme class is 4-chlorobenzoate:CoA ligase. This enzyme participates in 2,4-dichlorobenzoate ...
This enzyme belongs to the family of ligases, specifically those forming carbon-sulfur bonds as acid-thiol ligases. The ... 4-hydroxybenzoate-coenzyme A ligase (AMP-forming), 4-hydroxybenzoyl coenzyme A synthetase, and 4-hydroxybenzoyl-CoA ligase. ... In enzymology, a 4-hydroxybenzoate-CoA ligase (EC 6.2.1.27) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction ATP + 4- ... systematic name of this enzyme class is 4-hydroxybenzoate:CoA ligase (AMP-forming). Other names in common use include 4- ...
This enzyme belongs to the family of ligases, specifically those forming carbon-sulfur bonds as acid-thiol ligases. The ... In enzymology, an acid-CoA ligase (GDP-forming) (EC 6.2.1.10) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction GTP + an acid ... systematic name of this enzyme class is acid:CoA ligase (GDP-forming). Other names in common use include acyl-CoA synthetase ( ...
This enzyme belongs to the family of ligases, specifically those forming carbon-sulfur bonds as acid-thiol ligases. The ... In enzymology, an acetate-CoA ligase (ADP-forming) (EC 6.2.1.13) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction ATP + ... systematic name of this enzyme class is acetate:CoA ligase (ADP-forming). Other names in common use include acetyl-CoA ...
This enzyme belongs to the family of ligases, specifically those forming carbon-sulfur bonds as acid-thiol ligases. The ... In enzymology, a long-chain-fatty-acid-luciferin-component ligase (EC 6.2.1.19) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical ... systematic name of this enzyme class is long-chain-fatty-acid:protein ligase (AMP-forming). This enzyme is also called acyl- ...
This enzyme belongs to the family of ligases, specifically those forming carbon-sulfur bonds as acid-thiol ligases. The ... In enzymology, a long-chain-fatty-acid-[acyl-carrier-protein] ligase (EC 6.2.1.20) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical ... systematic name of this enzyme class is long-chain-fatty-acid:[acyl-carrier-protein] ligase (AMP-forming). Other names in ...
This enzyme belongs to the family of ligases, specifically those forming carbon-sulfur bonds as acid-thiol ligases. The ... DHCA-CoA ligase, and 3alpha,7alpha-dihydroxy-5beta-cholestanate:CoA ligase (AMP-forming). This enzyme participates in bile acid ... In enzymology, a 3alpha,7alpha-dihydroxy-5beta-cholestanate-CoA ligase (EC 6.2.1.28) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical ... 12 alpha-trihydroxy-5 beta-cholestanoyl-coenzyme A ligase(s) in rat liver". Journal of Lipid Research. 29 (8): 997-1004. PMID ...
6.2: Carbon-Sulfur. *Succinyl coenzyme A synthetase. *Acetyl-CoA synthetase. *Long-chain-fatty-acid-CoA ligase ... An aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase (aaRS or ARS), also called tRNA-ligase, is an enzyme that attaches the appropriate amino acid onto ...
6.2: Carbon-Sulfur. *Succinyl coenzyme A synthetase. *Acetyl-CoA synthetase. *Long-chain-fatty-acid-CoA ligase ... glutamate-ammonia ligase. Active site between two monomers of glutamine synthetase from Salmonella typhimurium. Cation binding ... "Evidence of covalent modification of glutamine synthetase in the purple sulfur bacterium". FEMS Microbiology Letters. 122 (1-2 ...
6.2: Carbon-Sulfur. *Succinyl coenzyme A synthetase. *Acetyl-CoA synthetase. *Long-chain-fatty-acid-CoA ligase ...
6.2: Carbon-Sulfur. *Succinyl coenzyme A synthetase. *Acetyl-CoA synthetase. *Long-chain-fatty-acid-CoA ligase ... This enzyme belongs to the family of ligases, specifically those forming carbon-nitrogen bonds carbon-nitrogen ligases with ... L-glutamine amido-ligase, (ADP-forming), 2-N-formyl-1-N-(5-phospho-D-ribosyl)glycinamide:L-glutamine, and amido-ligase (ADP- ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is N2-formyl-N1-(5-phospho-D-ribosyl)glycinamide:L-glutamine amido-ligase (ADP-forming ...
6.2: Carbon-Sulfur. *Succinyl coenzyme A synthetase. *Acetyl-CoA synthetase. *Long-chain-fatty-acid-CoA ligase ... E3 ligase activity[edit]. The E3 ubiquitin ligase MDM2 is a negative regulator of the p53 tumor suppressor protein. MDM2 binds ... ubiquitin protein ligase activity. • NEDD8 ligase activity. • disordered domain specific binding. • protein domain specific ... The RING domain of Mdm2 confers E3 ubiquitin ligase activity and is sufficient for E3 ligase activity in Mdm2 RING ...
6.2: Carbon-Sulfur. *Succinyl coenzyme A synthetase. *Acetyl-CoA synthetase. *Long-chain-fatty-acid-CoA ligase ... L-glutamine amido-ligase (AMP-forming).[1][2][3][4][5][6] This enzyme catalyses the following chemical reaction ...
Category:EC 6.2 (form carbon-sulfur bonds)Edit. *EC 6.2.1.1: Acetate--CoA ligase ... Category:Ligases (EC 6) (Ligase)Edit. Category:EC 6.1 (form carbon-oxygen bonds)Edit. 6-carboxytetrahydropterin synthase ... 6 Category:Ligases (EC 6) (Ligase) *6.1 Category:EC 6.1 (form carbon-oxygen bonds) ... Category:EC 4.4 (carbon-sulfur lyases)Edit. *Category:EC 4.4.1 *Cystathionine gamma-lyase ...
Aconitase is one of several iron-sulfur-containing (de)hydratases in metabolic pathways shown to be inactivated by superoxide.[ ... SOD2 knockout or null mutations cause growth inhibition on respiratory carbon sources in addition to decreased post-diauxic ...
... because of the presence of sulfur (resp. selenium) as a second neighbor to the asymmetric carbon. The remaining chiral amino ... Ubiquitin ligases transfer ubiquitin to its pendant, proteins, and caspases, which engage in proteolysis in the apoptotic cycle ... Precursor to iron-sulfur clusters[edit]. Cysteine is an important source of sulfide in human metabolism. The sulfide in iron- ... The sulfur is derived from methionine, which is converted to homocysteine through the intermediate S-adenosylmethionine. ...
The lone pair of electrons present on the oxygen or sulfur attacks the electropositive carbonyl carbon.[3] The 20 naturally ... 1994). "A designed peptide ligase for total synthesis of ribonuclease A with unnatural catalytic residues". Science. 266 (5183 ... Use of oxygen or sulfur as the nucleophilic atom causes minor differences in catalysis. Compared to oxygen, sulfur's extra d ... Sterically, the sulfur of cysteine also forms longer bonds and has a bulkier van der Waals radius[2] and if mutated to serine ...
SW, Ryter; J, Alam (April 2006). "Heme oxygenase-1/carbon monoxide: from basic science to therapeutic applications". Physiol ... These constitute a major intracellular source of iron and carbon monoxide[7] ... 1.14.15: reduced iron-sulfur protein. *11B1. *11B2. *11A1. 1.14.16: reduced pteridine (BH4 dependent). *Phenylalanine ...
The basic residue or cofactor deprotonates the alpha carbon, and FAD accepts the hydride from the beta carbon, oxidizing the ... Succinate dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] iron-sulfur subunit, mitochondrial. Pfam PF13085, Pfam PF13183 3. SdhC. C560_HUMAN. ... The first two subunits, a flavoprotein (SdhA) and an iron-sulfur protein (SdhB), form a hydrophilic head where enzymatic ... The complex is also thought to be capable of inserting the iron-sulphur clusters in SDHB during its maturation. The studies ...
Sims GK, Wander MM (2002). "Proteolytic activity under nitrogen or sulfur limitation". Appl. Soil Ecol. 568: 1-5.. ... Bacterial and fungal proteases are particularly important to the global carbon and nitrogen cycles in the recycling of proteins ... present in soil can be observed at the overall microbial community level as proteins are broken down in response to carbon, ... nitrogen, or sulfur limitation.[11] Bacteria contain proteases responsible for general protein quality control (e.g. the AAA+ ...
Iron-sulfur clusters[edit]. Further information: Iron-sulfur protein. Iron-sulfur clusters are complexes of iron and sulfur ... 2-carbon groups, α cleavage. Bacteria, archaea and eukaryotes NAD+ and NADP+ [31]. Niacin (B3). ADP. Electrons. Bacteria, ... Meyer J (February 2008). "Iron-sulfur protein folds, iron-sulfur chemistry, and evolution". J. Biol. Inorg. Chem. 13 (2): 157- ... A simple [Fe2S2] cluster containing two iron atoms and two sulfur atoms, coordinated by four protein cysteine residues. ...
... which bind the sulfur of cysteine's thio (i.e. SH) residue in the tripeptide glutamate-cysteine-glycine to carbon 6 of LTA4 ... at carbon 5 of its 1,4 diene group (i.e. its 5Z,8Z double bonds) to form 5(S)-hydroperoxy-6E,8Z,11Z,14Z-eicosatetraenoic acid ( ... is identical to AA except that has a single rather than double bond between its 15th and 16th carbon. ALOX5 metabolizes mead ...
A key feature of the cofactor TPP is the relatively acidic proton bound to the carbon atom between the nitrogen and sulfur in ... Oxalate-CoA ligase Formyl-CoA transferase Oxalate CoA-transferase Baetz AL, Allison MJ (July 1990). "Purification and ... which cleave carbon-carbon bonds. The systematic name of this enzyme class is oxalyl-CoA carboxy-lyase (formyl-CoA-forming). ... This carbon center ionizes to form a carbanion, which adds to the carbonyl group of oxalyl-CoA. This addition is followed by ...
This enzyme belongs to the family of ligases, specifically those forming carbon-nitrogen bonds as acid-D-amino-acid ligases ( ... Glutathione synthetase deficiency Glutathione Liver Sulfur Metabolism Gogos A, Shapiro L (Dec 2002). "Large conformational ... "Synthases and Ligases". IUPAC-IUB Joint Commission on Biochemical Nomenclature (JCBN), and Nomenclature Commission of IUB (NC- ... Li H, Xu H, Graham DE, White RH (Aug 2003). "Glutathione synthetase homologs encode alpha-L-glutamate ligases for methanogenic ...
This enzyme belongs to the family of ligases, specifically those forming carbon-sulfur bonds as acid-thiol ligases. The ... In enzymology, a 6-carboxyhexanoate-CoA ligase (EC 6.2.1.14) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction ATP + 6- ... systematic name of this enzyme class is 6-carboxyhexanoate:CoA ligase (AMP-forming). Other names in common use include 6- ...
Carbon disulfide hydrolase EC 3.13.1.6: (CysO sulfur-carrier protein)-S-L-cysteine hydrolase EC 3.13.1.7: Carbonyl sulfide ... Glutarate-CoA ligase EC 6.2.1.7: Cholate-CoA ligase EC 6.2.1.8: Oxalate-CoA ligase EC 6.2.1.9: Malate-CoA ligase EC 6.2.1.10: ... ligase EC 6.2.1.23: Dicarboxylate-CoA ligase EC 6.2.1.24: Phytanate-CoA ligase EC 6.2.1.25: Benzoate-CoA ligase EC 6.2.1.26: o- ... Arachidonate-CoA ligase EC 6.2.1.16: Acetoacetate-CoA ligase EC 6.2.1.17: Propionate-CoA ligase EC 6.2.1.18: Citrate-CoA ligase ...
LA contains two sulfur atoms (at C6 and C8) connected by a disulfide bond and is thus considered to be oxidized although either ... sulfur atom can exist in higher oxidation states. The carbon atom at C6 is chiral and the molecule exists as two enantiomers (R ... The ligase activity of this enzyme requires ATP. Along with sodium and the vitamins biotin (B7) and pantothenic acid (B5), ... Free lipoate can be used by some organisms as an enzyme called lipoate protein ligase that attaches it covalently to the ...
6.2: Carbon-Sulfur. *Succinyl coenzyme A synthetase. *Acetyl-CoA synthetase. *Long-chain-fatty-acid-CoA ligase ... Stage two involves four key Mur ubiquitin ligase enzymes: MurC (EC),[1] MurD (EC),[2] MurE (EC) [3] and MurF (EC).[4] These ... 6-diaminopimelate ligase (MurE), and UDP-N-acetylmuramoyl-tripeptide-D-alanyl-D-alanine ligase (MurF). This entry also includes ... All four Mur ligases are topologically similar to one another, even though they display low sequence identity. They are each ...
EC 6.2 includes ligases used to form carbon-sulfur bonds. *EC 6.3 includes ligases used to form carbon-nitrogen bonds ( ... The common names of ligases often include the word "ligase", such as DNA ligase, an enzyme commonly used in molecular biology ... DNA ligase. References[edit]. *^ "Synthases and ligases". chem.qmul.ac.uk. Archived from the original on October 15, 2012. ... This article is about general ligases. For DNA specific ligases, see DNA ligase. ...
Ligases;. Forming carbon-sulfur bonds;. Acid-thiol ligases. Sysname. cholate:CoA ligase (AMP-forming). ... cholate---CoA ligase;. BAL;. bile acid CoA ligase;. bile acid coenzyme A ligase;. choloyl-CoA synthetase;. choloyl coenzyme A ... THCA-CoA ligase;. 3alpha,7alpha,12alpha-trihydroxy-5beta-cholestanate---CoA ligase;. 3alpha,7alpha,12alpha-trihydroxy-5beta- ... cholic acid:CoA ligase;. 3alpha,7alpha,12alpha-trihydroxy-5beta-cholestanoyl coenzyme A synthetase;. 3alpha,7alpha,12alpha- ...
Ligases;. Forming carbon-sulfur bonds;. Acid-thiol ligases. BRITE hierarchy. Sysname. medium-chain fatty acid:CoA ligase (AMP- ... butyrate---CoA ligase;. butyryl-coenzyme A synthetase;. L-(+)-3-hydroxybutyryl CoA ligase;. short-chain acyl-CoA synthetase;. ... medium-chain acyl-CoA ligase;. fadK (gene name);. lvaE (gene name);. butyryl-CoA synthetase;. fatty acid thiokinase (medium ...
... acyl AMP ligase family member required for biosynthesis of phthiocerol dimycocerosate lipid found in the cell wall of ... a fatty -acyl AMP ligase family member required for biosynthesis of phthiocerol dimycocerosate lipid found in the cell wall of ... Ligases: 2113*Carbon-Sulfur Ligases*Mycobacterium tuberculosis FadD28 protein. CureHunter Inc. provides medical information and ...
Forming Carbon Sulfur Bonds. EC 6.2.1 Acid Thiol Ligases. Contents. EC 6.2.1.1 acetate CoA ligase. EC 6.2.1.2 medium-chain acyl ... EC 6.2.1.6 glutarate CoA ligase. EC 6.2.1.7 cholate CoA ligase. EC 6.2.1.8 oxalate CoA ligase. EC 6.2.1.9 malate CoA ligase. EC ... CoA ligase; p-coumaryl-CoA ligase; p-hydroxycinnamic acid:CoA ligase; 4CL Systematic name: 4-coumarate:CoA ligase (AMP-forming) ... EC 6.2.1.22 citrate (pro-3S)-lyase ligase. EC 6.2.1.23 dicarboxylate CoA ligase. EC 6.2.1.24 phytanate CoA ligase. EC 6.2.1.25 ...
6. Ligases. 6.2 Forming carbon-sulfur bonds. 6.2.1 Acid-thiol ligases. 6.2.1.14 6-carboxyhexanoate---CoA ligase. K01906 bioW; 6 ... K01906 bioW; 6-carboxyhexanoate--CoA ligase. Enzymes [BR:ko01000]. ... Ligases;. Forming carbon-sulfur bonds;. Acid-thiol ligases. BRITE hierarchy. Sysname. 6-carboxyhexanoate:CoA ligase (AMP- ...
ligase activity, forming carbon-sulfur bonds. coa-ligase activity. amp binding. acetate-coa ligase activity. ... Involved in acetate-CoA ligase activity. Specific Function. Important for maintaining normal body temperature during fasting ...
6.2 Forming carbon-sulfur bonds 6.3 Forming carbon-nitrogen bonds 6.3.1 Acid-D-ammonia (or amine) ligases (amide synthases) ... 6.4.1 Ligases that form carbon-carbon bonds (only sub-subclass identified to date) ... 6.3.4.9 biotin---[methylmalonyl-CoA-carboxytransferase] ligase 6.3.4.10 biotin---[propionyl-CoA-carboxylase (ATP-hydrolysing)] ...
This enzyme belongs to the family of ligases, specifically those forming carbon-sulfur bonds as acid-thiol ligases. The ... Other names in common use include phenylacetyl-CoA ligase, PA-CoA ligase, and phenylacetyl-CoA ligase (AMP-forming). This ... In enzymology, a phenylacetate-CoA ligase is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction ATP + phenylacetate + CoA ⇌ {\ ... "Purification and biochemical characterization of phenylacetyl-CoA ligase from Pseudomonas putida. A specific enzyme for the ...
This enzyme belongs to the family of ligases, specifically those forming carbon-sulfur bonds as acid-thiol ligases. The ... This enzyme is also called phytanoyl-CoA ligase. Muralidharan FN, Muralidharan VB (1986). "Phytanoyl-CoA ligase activity in rat ... In enzymology, a phytanate-CoA ligase (EC 6.2.1.24) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction ATP + phytanate + CoA ... systematic name of this enzyme class is phytanate:CoA ligase (AMP-forming). ...
... methylated corrinoid/iron-sulfur protein; CH3CO-SCoA, acetyl-CoA; CO, carbon monoxide; CH3CO-PO4, acetyl phosphate; CH3COO−, ... Formyl-THF ligase. Syntrophobotulus glycolicus. 85. Membrane. Yes. 00605. fchA. Methenyl-THF cyclohydrolase. Desulfosporosinus ... Carbon monoxide dehydrogenase. Dehalobacter sp. FTH1. 93. Cytoplasm. Yes. 00220. cooS. Carbon monoxide dehydrogenase catalytic ... B) The RDase subunit A genes encode twin-arginine translocation (Tat) pathway signals and iron-sulfur binding domains. The ...
Ligases. Forming carbon-sulfur bonds. Acid--thiol ligases. All UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot entries corresponding to class 6.2.1.-.. ... CoA ligase 6.2.1.7 Cholate--CoA ligase 6.2.1.8 Oxalate--CoA ligase 6.2.1.9 Malate--CoA ligase 6.2.1.10 Acid--CoA ligase (GDP- ... CoA ligase 6.2.1.17 Propionate--CoA ligase 6.2.1.18 Citrate--CoA ligase 6.2.1.19 Long-chain-fatty-acid--protein ligase 6.2.1.20 ... CoA ligase 6.2.1.3 Long-chain-fatty-acid--CoA ligase 6.2.1.4 Succinate--CoA ligase (GDP-forming) 6.2.1.5 Succinate--CoA ligase ...
Same as all enzymes, ligases are embedded with proteins that have a target molecule identification site. ... New covalent bonds between two molecules are created by the enzyme called ligase. ... carbon-carbon bond, and carbon-sulphur bond. The energy of a molecule of Guanosine-5-triphosphate or Adenosine Triphosphate is ... which promotes the DNA ligases to bring the two pieces of DNA together. A ligase is also known as a Synthetase. Ligases are one ...
... monocarboxylic acid with 4-6 carbon atoms. Methylation of the ε-amino group or hydroxylation of the δ-carbon atom of lysine ... decreases the competitive properties of the analog, whereas the substitution of the γ-methylen group by sulfur (S-2-aminoethyl ... I. Kinetics and specificity of uridine diphospho-N-acetylmuramyl-L-alanyl-D-glutamyl-L-lysine: D-alanyl-D-alanine ligase ( ... The uridine diphospho-N-acetylmuramyl-alanyl-D-glutamic acid: diamino acid ligase of this organism was purified 700-fold. Since ...
These include formyl-tetrahydrofolate ligase, a corrinoid iron-sulfur protein, and the α subunit of carbon monoxide ... Previous studies have shown that D. ethenogenes reduces PCE to ethene using two RDs (18) belonging to a family of iron-sulfur ... D. ethenogenes requires acetate as a carbon source (2). Acetyl-coenzyme A (CoA) synthetase, pyruvate-ferredoxin oxidoreductase ...
Transcriptomic analysis showed upregulation of sulfur-, ethylene-, and lipid-related pathways in durian fruits. We observed ... associated with production of volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs). MGL and the ethylene-related gene ACS (aminocyclopropane-1- ... Transcriptome and metabolome analyses show that methionine γ-lyase is upregulated and that volatile sulfur compounds are ... of which acid-thiol ligase enzymes (containing a number of key enzymes in carbon-sulfur reactions and flavonoid production) and ...
... specifically those forming carbon-sulfur bonds as acid-thiol ligases. This enzyme participates in biotin metabolism. ... This enzyme belongs to the family of ligases, ... those forming carbon-sulfur bonds as acid-thiol ligases. This ... This enzyme belongs to the family of ligases, specifically ...
Autotrophic carbon fixation could be accomplished through the acetyl-coenzyme A pathway. The presence of hydrogenase and ... corrinoid iron-sulfur protein methyltransferase, and the carbon monoxide dehydrogenase/acetyl-CoA synthase complex. ... Jettenia ecosi" J2 genome, namely formate dehydrogenase, formate-tetrahydrofolate ligase, methylenetetrahydrofolate ... 2004). Stable carbon isotopic fractionations associated with inorganic carbon fixation by anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing bacteria ...
ligase activity, forming carbon-sulfur bonds. 9.48706872092269. bayes_pls_golite062009. *succinate-CoA ligase (ADP-forming) ... ligase activity, forming carbon-carbon bonds. 3.81289459554571. bayes_pls_golite062009. *ligase activity, forming carbon- ...
RnfC2 contains FMN and iron-sulfur clusters and is the site of NADH oxidation, and MetV is an iron-sulfur protein that mediates ... Carbon monoxide dehydrogenase.The specific activity of the enzyme in cell extracts of H2/CO2-grown cells was 5.6 U/mg and thus ... and ligase); CAETHG_1868-69 (clustered with a FixC protein); and CAETHG_3471-72 (clustered with an FMN/FAD binding protein). It ... HytB is an iron-sulfur flavoprotein harboring the NADP binding site, and the other subunits are iron-sulfur proteins. The ...
... review will focus on the recent discoveries in the biochemical pathways that mineralize and assimilate DMSP carbon and sulfur, ... a highly reactive volatile sulfur compound that contributes little to the atmospheric sulfur flux. The activity of these ... a highly reactive volatile sulfur compound that contributes little to the atmospheric sulfur flux. The activity of these ... pathways control the natural flux of sulfur released to the atmosphere. Although these biochemical pathways and the factors ...
Cyclo-ligases. 6. 2. -.- Forming carbon-sulfur bonds. 6. 2. 1.- Acid--thiol ligases. 6. 3. -.- Forming carbon-nitrogen bonds. 6 ... Acting on carbon-sulfur bonds. 3.13. 1.- Acting on carbon-sulfur bonds. 4. -. -.- Lyases. 4. 1. -.- Carbon-carbon lyases. 4. 1 ... 4. 3.99.- Other carbon-nitrogen lyases. 4. 4. -.- Carbon-sulfur lyases. 4. 4. 1.- Carbon-sulfur lyases. 4. 5. -.- Carbon-halide ... 1.- Acting on carbon-phosphorus bonds. 3.12. -.- Acting on sulfur-sulfur bonds. 3.12. 1.- Acting on sulfur-sulfur bonds. 3.13 ...
ligase I, DNA, ATP-dependent Identifiers Symbol LIG1 Entrez 3978 HUGO 6598 OMIM 126391 RefSeq NM_000234 ... 6.1 - Carbon-Oxygen. Aminoacyl tRNA synthetase. 6.2 - Carbon-Sulfur. Succinyl coenzyme A synthetase - Acetyl Co-A synthetase - ... DNA ligase has applications in both DNA repair and DNA replication (see Mammalian ligases). In addition, DNA ligase has ... Mammalian ligases. In mammals, there are four specific types of ligase. *DNA ligase I: ligates Okazaki fragments during lagging ...
ligase activity, forming carbon-sulfur bonds. 0.0162555467239316. GO:0005739. mitochondrion. 0.0162555467239316. GO:0030424. ...
... graphitic carbon nitride (CN) polymer contains weak hydrogen bond and van der Waals (vdWs) interactions besides strong covalent ... Carbon-carbon Ligases. Enzymes that catalyze the joining of two molecules by the formation of a carbon-carbon bond. These are ... enzymes shifting a carbon-carbon double bond (CARBON-CARBON DOUBLE BOND ISOMERASES), and enzymes transposing S-S bonds (SULFUR- ... Carbon-carbon Double Bond Isomerases. Enzymes that catalyze the shifting of a carbon-carbon double bond from one position to ...
Carbono-Enxofre Ligases Descriptor French: Carbon-sulfur ligases Entry term(s):. Carbon Sulfur Ligases. Ligases, Carbon-Sulfur ... Carbon-Sulfur Ligases - Preferred Concept UI. M0029292. Scope note. Enzymes that catalyze the joining of two molecules by the ... Carbon-Sulfur Ligases Entry term(s). Carbon Sulfur Ligases Ligases, Carbon-Sulfur ... Enzymes that catalyze the joining of two molecules by the formation of a carbon-sulfur bond. EC 6.2.. ...
D08.811.464 Ligases .. D08.811.464.267 Carbon-Sulfur Ligases .. D08.811.464.267.500 Coenzyme A Ligases .. D08.811.464.267. ... Acetate-CoA Ligase .. Acetothiokinase .. Acetyl Coenzyme A Synthetase .. Acetate CoA Ligase .. Activating Enzyme, Acetyl .. CoA ... Ligase, Acetate-CoA .. Synthetase, Acetyl CoA .. Thiokinase, Acetate .. Acetate Thiokinase .. Acetyl Activating Enzyme .. ... 500.200 Acetate-CoA Ligase .. D08.811.913 Transferases .. D08.811.913.696 Phosphotransferases .. D08.811.913.696.650 ...
... which catalyzes the insertion of sulfur atoms into the six- and eight-carbon positions of the corresponding fatty acid (5-7). ... lipoyl protein ligase A;. mtbLipB,. LipB from Mycobacterium tuberculosis.. * Freely available online through the PNAS open ... it is plausible to assume that the eight-carbon substrate should superimpose with carbon positions C3-C10 of decanoic acid (Fig ... leaves little doubt that the carbon C3 position of decanoic acid mimics the thioester carbon of octanoic acid where the LipB ...
Ligases forming carbon-sulfur bonds (6.2). 01. Acid-Thiol Ligases (6.2.1). 01005. Succinate-CoA ligase (ADP-forming) (6.2.1.5) ... Ligases forming carbon-carbon bonds (6.4). 01. Ligases forming carbon-carbon bonds (6.4.1). 01003. Propionyl-CoA carboxylase ( ... Ligases forming carbon-sulfur bonds (6.2). 01. Acid-Thiol Ligases (6.2.1). ... Carbon-carbon lyases (4.1). 03. Oxo-acid-lyases (4.1.3). 03024. Malyl-CoA lyase (4.1.3.24). ...
  • The conserved sequence motifs found in the four Mur enzymes also map to other members of the Mur ligase family, including folylpolyglutamate synthetase, cyanophycin synthetase and the capB enzyme from Bacillales. (wikipedia.org)
  • In biochemistry , a ligase is an enzyme that can catalyze the joining of two large molecules by forming a new chemical bond , usually with accompanying hydrolysis of a small pendant chemical group on one of the larger molecules or the enzyme catalyzing the linking together of two compounds, e.g., enzymes that catalyze joining of C-O, C-S, C-N, etc. (wikipedia.org)
  • The common names of ligases often include the word "ligase", such as DNA ligase , an enzyme commonly used in molecular biology laboratories to join together DNA fragments. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is also said that a synthase is a lyase (a lyase is an enzyme that catalyzes the breaking of various chemical bonds by means other than hydrolysis and oxidation, often forming a new double bond or a new ring structure) and does not require any energy, whereas a synthetase is a ligase (a ligase is an enzyme that binds two chemicals or compounds) and thus requires energy. (wikipedia.org)
  • In enzymology, a phenylacetate-CoA ligase is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction ATP + phenylacetate + CoA ⇌ {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } AMP + diphosphate + phenylacetyl-CoA The 3 substrates of this enzyme are ATP, phenylacetate, and CoA, whereas its 3 products are AMP, diphosphate, and phenylacetyl-CoA. (wikipedia.org)
  • This enzyme belongs to the family of ligases, specifically those forming carbon-sulfur bonds as acid-thiol ligases. (wikipedia.org)
  • The systematic name of this enzyme class is phenylacetate:CoA ligase (AMP-forming). (wikipedia.org)
  • This enzyme is also called phytanoyl-CoA ligase. (wikipedia.org)
  • New covalent bonds between two molecules are created by the enzyme called ligase. (biospace.com)
  • Carbon-nitrogen bonds are formed by the action of the same enzyme as peptide synthetases and amide synthetases. (biospace.com)
  • DNA ligase is an enzyme that regulates irregularities. (biospace.com)
  • Research activities for sequencing applications, increase in the birth rate, rise in the incidence of infectious diseases, and increase in genetic disorders are key factors that are estimated to boost the global ligases enzyme market . (biospace.com)
  • However, high sensitivity of the enzyme to factors such as ligase concentration, DNA concentration, temperature, and buffer composition are expected to restrain the market. (biospace.com)
  • The global ligases enzyme market can be segmented based on source, application, end-user, and region. (biospace.com)
  • Based on source, the global ligases enzyme market can be classified into microorganisms, animal, and plant. (biospace.com)
  • In terms of application, the global ligases enzyme market can be divided into polymerase chain reaction, mutation detection, cloning, drug target, and next generation sequencing. (biospace.com)
  • Based on end-user, the global ligases enzyme market can be classified into diagnostic centers & hospitals and research institutes. (biospace.com)
  • In terms of region, the global ligases enzyme market can be divided into North America, Europe, Asia Pacific, Latin America, and Middle East & Africa. (biospace.com)
  • Studies on the specificity of the ligase toward analogs of ornithine have shown that the enzyme requires a diamino, monocarboxylic acid with 4-6 carbon atoms. (springer.com)
  • Ligase will also work with blunt ends , although higher enzyme concentrations and different reaction conditions are required. (chemeurope.com)
  • Most experiments use T4 DNA Ligase (isolated from bacteriophage T4) which is most active at 25°C. However in order to perform successful ligations, the optimal enzyme temperature needs to be balanced with the melting temperature T m (also the annealing temperature) of the DNA fragments being ligated. (chemeurope.com)
  • Several multicomponent enzyme complexes that catalyze key metabolic reactions in the citric acid cycle and single-carbon metabolism are posttranslationally modified by attachment to lipoic acid ( 1 ). (pnas.org)
  • These octanoylated domains are converted into lipoylated derivatives by the S -adenosyl- l -methionine-dependent enzyme, lipoyl synthase (LipA), which catalyzes the insertion of sulfur atoms into the six- and eight-carbon positions of the corresponding fatty acid ( 5 - 7 ). (pnas.org)
  • The oxaloacetate is decarboxylated into carbon dioxide and pyruvate in a reaction catalyzed by the enzyme oxaloacetate decarboxylase (Fig. 1 , reaction 4). (asm.org)
  • Carbamoyl phosphate synthetase I is a ligase enzyme located in the mitochondria involved in the production of urea. (wikidoc.org)
  • That means that one molecule of the enzyme can cause a million molecules of carbon dioxide to react in one second. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The mechanism of DNA ligase is to form covalent phosphodiester bonds between 3' hydroxyl ends of one nucleotide with the 5' phosphate end of another. (chemeurope.com)
  • Ligases are used in catalysis where two substrates are ligated and the formation of carbon-carbon, carbon-sulfide, carbon-nitrogen, and carbon-oxygen bonds due to condensation reactions. (wikibooks.org)
  • These enzymes are grouped into six classes: hydrolases (including proteases, amylases and lipases that break down the main nutrients - fats, carbohydrates and proteins), isomerases, ligases, lyases , oxidoreductases and transferases. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Some ligases associate with biological membranes as peripheral membrane proteins or anchored through a single transmembrane helix , [2] for example certain ubiquitin ligase related proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • A recent study revealed that a human PRC1 complex composed of Bmi-1, HPH2, PC3 and Ring proteins (Ring1A & Ring1B), which are homologs of Drosophila Psc, Ph, Pc and dRing, respectively, is an E3 ubiquitin ligase complex that mono-ubiquitinates lysine 119 of nucleosomal histone H2A (15). (maixius.com)
  • It was shown that Bmi-1, a Drosophila Psc homolog that was originally discovered through its ability to collaborate with Myc in lymphomagenesis (20-22), plays a central role in the assembly of the PRC1 complex and, while Bmi-1 displays no detectable ubiquitin ligase activity, the binding of Bmi-1 greatly stimulates the E3 ligase activity of Ring1B (15,19). (maixius.com)
  • The protein encoded by this gene is a component of the protein complex that includes elongin B, elongin C, and cullin-2, and possesses ubiquitin ligase E3 activity. (wikidoc.org)
  • The main action of the VHL protein is thought to be its E3 ubiquitin ligase activity that results in specific target proteins being 'marked' for degradation. (wikidoc.org)
  • Other common names for ligases include the word "synthetase", because they are used to synthesize new molecules. (wikipedia.org)
  • A ligase is also known as a Synthetase. (biospace.com)
  • Anaerobic" isozyme of acetyl-coenzyme A synthetase, which is required for growth on fermentable carbon sources such as glucose. (ymdb.ca)
  • A complete archaeal acetogenesis pathway is identified in the ANME-2a genome, and apparent acetogenic activity of the key enzymes ADP-forming acetate-CoA ligase and acetyl-CoA synthetase is demonstrated. (nature.com)
  • The most distinct phylogenetic finding was a high correlation between iron-sulfur oxidoreductases in combination with carbon nitrogen ligases and Chlorobium. (mirnaarray.com)
  • Enzymes can be grouped on the basis of the type reactions they catalyse (oxidoreductases, hydrolases, ligases, etc. (scribd.com)
  • He covers chiral discrimination in the active site of oxidoreductases, transferases and chiral discrimination, the influence of chirality on the hydrolysis reactions within the active site of hydrolases, the influence of chirality on the reactions in the active site of lyases , and chiral discrimination in the active site of ligases. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Here, we propose a modified model of carbon cycling in cold seeps: during AOM process, methane can be converted into organic carbon, such as acetate, which further fuels the heterotrophic community in the ecosystem. (nature.com)
  • Lastly, two different groups of methanogens, the hydrogenotrophic methanogens and the acetotrophic methanogens, complete the process by converting acetate, formate, and hydrogen produced by other microorganisms to methane and carbon dioxide. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Lactic acid bacteria of the genus Leuconostoc play important roles in the dairy industry because of their ability to produce carbon dioxide and C 4 aroma compounds through lactose heterofermentation and citrate utilization. (asm.org)
  • The carbon dioxide produced is responsible for eye formation in certain types of cheese. (asm.org)
  • Berg IA, Kockelkorn D, Buckel W, Fuchs G (2007) A 3-hydroxypropionate/4-hydroxybutyrate autotrophic carbon dioxide assimilation pathway in archaea. (springer.com)
  • Carbonic anhydrase, which removes carbon dioxide from the blood by binding it to water, has a turnover rate of 10 6 . (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Carbon source: Carbon dioxide. (scribd.com)
  • [2] [3] Biotin assists in various metabolic reactions involving the transfer of carbon dioxide. (sms4pk.tk)
  • The chemosynthetic microorganisms inhabiting cold seeps convert the methane into organic matter and carbon dioxide to generate energy. (nature.com)
  • This is surprising because the primary energy source is the AOM process, where carbon dioxide is the end product. (nature.com)
  • 7. If glucose were completely oxidized to carbon dioxide and water, yielding the maximum amount of ATP, approximately what percentage of the ATP would be generated via aerobic respiration? (biology-online.org)
  • Impairment of hepatic metabolism of sulfur-containing amino acids has been known to be linked with induction of liver injury. (elsevier.com)
  • The contributions vary from insights in the taxonomy of these genera, use of genomics for forward genetics and genomic adaptations, to specific stories addressing virulence, carbon starvation, sulphur metabolism, feruloyl esterases, secondary metabolism and pH modulation, to the development of novel methodology for use in parallel to genome sequencing. (caister.com)
  • Building upon this conviction, we have assessed extant types of energy and carbon metabolism for their appropriateness to conditions probably pertaining in those settings of the Hadean planet that fulfil the thermodynamic requirements for life to come into being. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • The quest for the earliest type of biomass-generating carbon metabolism is mostly informed by either or both of two distinct but equally concerned disciplines: palaeogeochemistry and biology. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • In the past, attempts towards deducing the nature of the ancestral carbon metabolism were frequently torn between apparently opposing exigencies exerted by geochemistry, on the one hand, and by biology, on the other hand. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • More recently, inferences towards an ancestral carbon metabolism have increasingly tried to integrate requirements from both geochemistry and biology [ 1 - 5 ]. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • In short, thinking about the earliest carbon metabolism and about the origin of life in general has turned to searching extant carbon fixation pathways which do not conflict with geochemical boundary conditions and which, furthermore, directly couple energy metabolism to the biomass-generating process, both of which obviously need to be coupled to the abiotically available sources of free energy. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Structural comparison of LipB with lipoate protein ligase A indicates that, despite conserved structural and sequence active-site features in the two enzymes, 4′-phosphopantetheine-bound octanoic acid recognition is a specific property of LipB. (pnas.org)
  • Structure guided design of biotin protein ligase inhibitors for antibiotic discovery. (embl-heidelberg.de)
  • Biotin protein ligase (BPL) represents a promising target for the discovery of new antibacterial chemotherapeutics. (embl-heidelberg.de)
  • Biotin synthase reductively cleaves SAM into a deoxyadenosyl radical, which abstracts an H atom from dethiobiotin to give an intermediate that is trapped by the sulfur donor. (sms4pk.tk)
  • Same as all enzymes, ligases are embedded with proteins that have a target molecule identification site. (biospace.com)
  • Aminoacyl tRNA-synthetases is included in ligases that join amino acids to the relative tRNA, which promotes the DNA ligases to bring the two pieces of DNA together. (biospace.com)
  • A reaction of ligase catalyzing the formation of a carbon-oxygen bond between an amino acid and transfer RNA leads to the formation of the amino acid-RNA ligase bond. (biospace.com)
  • Methylation of the ε-amino group or hydroxylation of the δ-carbon atom of lysine decreases the competitive properties of the analog, whereas the substitution of the γ-methylen group by sulfur (S-2-aminoethyl cysteine) results in a highly competitive compound. (springer.com)
  • 5. The method of claim 1, wherein said 4-coumarate-CoA ligase comprises the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID No. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • 13. The chimeric DNA of claim 9, wherein said 4-coumarate-CoA ligase comprises the amino acid sequence of according to SEQ ID No. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • It is a hyper-ammonia producing bacterium and is able to catabolize amino acids as important carbon and energy sources via Stickland reactions and the development of the specific pathways. (cyberleninka.org)
  • The type of ligase varies depending on the type of covalent bond that they catalyze such as carbon-nitrogen bond, carbon-carbon bond, and carbon-sulphur bond. (biospace.com)
  • 19. The method of claim 18, wherein the ligase generates a carbon-oxygen bond, a carbon-sulfur bond, a carbon-nitrogen bond, or a carbon-carbon bond between the therapeutic agent and the fibrin microthread. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • A protocol for three-component reactions of cyclic ethers, α-diazo esters, and weak nitrogen, oxygen, carbon, and sulfur nucleophiles (pKa = 2.2-14.8) to afford a variety of structurally complex α-o. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Carbon atoms in the graphitic carbon skeleton can be replaced by heteroatoms with different electronegative from that of the carbon atom (i.e., heteroatom doping) to modulate the charge distribution o. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Side-on sulfur monoxide complexes of tantalum, niobium, and vanadium oxyfluorides OMF(η-SO) were prepared via the reactions of metal atoms and SOF upon UV-vis irradiation in a cryogenic matrix. (bioportfolio.com)
  • A valeric acid substituent is attached to one of the carbon atoms of the tetrahydrothiophene ring. (sms4pk.tk)
  • Doping-induced Hydrogen-Bond Engineering in Polymeric Carbon Nitride to Significantly Boost the Photocatalytic H2 Evolution Performance. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Unlike graphene, graphitic carbon nitride (CN) polymer contains weak hydrogen bond and van der Waals (vdWs) interactions besides strong covalent bond, which control its final morphology and functionality. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Nanorod carbon nitride as a carbo catalyst for selective oxidation of hydrogen sulfide to sulfur. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Adessi A, Corneli E, De Philippis R (2017) Photosynthetic purple non sulfur bacteria in hydrogen producing systems: new approaches in the use of well-known and innovative substrates. (springer.com)
  • In the transition from dark anaerobiosis to light, oxygen deactivates the hydrogenase pool, but only after carbon fixation outcompetes hydrogen production for electrons. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Other names in common use include phenylacetyl-CoA ligase, PA-CoA ligase, and phenylacetyl-CoA ligase (AMP-forming). (wikipedia.org)
  • DNA ligase has the function of forming a bond between the end of an 'acceptor' nucleotide and at the end of a 'donor' nucleotide. (biospace.com)
  • C. autoethanogenum can grow on CO as the sole carbon and energy source, forming mainly ethanol and acetic acid but also 2,3-butanediol, lactic acid, and some H 2 as fermentation products ( 6 , 10 ). (asm.org)
  • The activity of these pathways control the natural flux of sulfur released to the atmosphere. (frontiersin.org)
  • Glutamate cysteine ligase activity determines flux of sulfur into protein synthesis via the Target of Rapamycin sensor kinase in Arabidopsis. (plantphysiol.org)
  • The resulting citrate will have numbers of chemical transformations, whereby it loses one carboxyl group (leading to the 5-carbon compound called alpha-ketoglutarate) and then a second carboxyl group (leading to the 4-carbon compound called succinate). (smpdb.ca)
  • The proteins involved are citrate permease (1), citrate lyase α subunit citrate:acetyl-ACP transferase (EC 2.8.3.10 ) (2), citrate lyase β subunit citryl-S-ACP lyase (EC 4.1.3.34 ) (3) oxaloacetate decarboxylase (4), acetate:SH-CL ligase (EC 6.2.1.22 ) (5), and lactate dehydrogenase (6). (asm.org)
  • For example, DNA ligases are used with restriction enzymes to insert DNA fragments, often genes, into plasmids. (chemeurope.com)
  • Multiple dimethyl sulfoxide-molybdopterin (DMSO-MPT) oxidoreductase genes, which are implicated in the reduction of sulfur and arsenic, were identified. (asm.org)
  • This pathway is principally under metabolic control, but regulation of the transcription of PP pathway genes can exert a stronger effect, by redirecting larger amounts of carbon to this pathway to satisfy the demand for NADPH. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Autotrophic carbon fixation could be accomplished through the Wood Ljungdahl pathway. (frontiersin.org)
  • An alternative demethylation/demethiolation pathway results in the eventual release of methanethiol, a highly reactive volatile sulfur compound that contributes little to the atmospheric sulfur flux. (frontiersin.org)
  • The catalytic subunit of the PRC1 E3 ligase complex is Ring1B. (maixius.com)
  • Transcriptomic analysis showed upregulation of sulfur-, ethylene-, and lipid-related pathways in durian fruits. (nature.com)
  • This review will focus on the recent discoveries in the biochemical pathways that mineralize and assimilate DMSP carbon and sulfur, as well as the areas for which a comprehensive understanding is still lacking. (frontiersin.org)
  • Using this metabolic map, the analysis of genetic potential for functioning of tricarboxylic acid cycle replenishment pathways was carried out for seven strains of purple non-sulfur bacterium Rhodopseudomonas palustris . (springer.com)
  • At beginning, acetyl-CoA first transfers its 2-carbon acetyl group to the 4-carbon acceptor compound called oxaloacetate to form the 6-carbon compound (citrate) for which the cycle is named. (smpdb.ca)
  • Acts both as a biotin--[acetyl-CoA-carboxylase] ligase and a biotin-operon repressor. (string-db.org)
  • The gene ( citC ) encoding the citrate lyase ligase (EC 6.2.1.22 ) was localized in the region upstream of citD . (asm.org)
  • Protein comparisons show similarities with the citrate lyase ligase and citrate lyase of Klebsiella pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae . (asm.org)
  • Glutathione (GSH) concentration in liver was elevated in 4̃8 h and then returned to normal in accordance with the changes in glutamate cysteine ligase activity. (elsevier.com)
  • We observed paleopolyploidization events shared by durian and cotton and durian-specific gene expansions in MGL (methionine γ-lyase), associated with production of volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs). (nature.com)
  • DNA ligase III: complexes with DNA repair protein XRCC1 to aid in sealing base excision mutations and recombinant fragments. (chemeurope.com)
  • DNA ligase IV: complexes with XRCC4. (chemeurope.com)
  • Side-On Sulfur Monoxide Complexes of Tantalum, Niobium, and Vanadium Oxyfluorides. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Doping-induced enhancement of crystallinity in polymeric carbon nitride nanosheets to improve their visible-light photocatalytic activity. (bioportfolio.com)
  • The RING finger protein Ring1B is an E3 ligase that participates in the ubiquitination of lysine 119 of histone H2A, and the binding of Bmi-1 stimulates the E3 ligase activity. (maixius.com)
  • The two regions of interaction have a synergistic effect on the E3 ligase activity. (maixius.com)
  • The E3 ligase activity has been shown to be important for the involvement of PRC1 in X-chromosome inactivation and the control of Hox gene expression (16-19). (maixius.com)
  • In addition, DNA ligase has extensive use in molecular biology laboratories for Genetic recombination experiments (see Applications in molecular biology research ). (chemeurope.com)
  • One vital, and often tricky, aspect to performing successful recombination experiments involving ligase is controlling the optimal temperature. (chemeurope.com)
  • Purification and biochemical characterization of phenylacetyl-CoA ligase from Pseudomonas putida. (wikipedia.org)
  • Enzymes transferring one-carbon groups, acyl and glucosyl residues, alkyl or aryl groups, nitrogenous groups, phosphorus-containing groups, and sulfur-containing groups. (thefreedictionary.com)