Amino Acyl-tRNA Synthetases: A subclass of enzymes that aminoacylate AMINO ACID-SPECIFIC TRANSFER RNA with their corresponding AMINO ACIDS.RNA, Transfer, Amino Acyl: Intermediates in protein biosynthesis. The compounds are formed from amino acids, ATP and transfer RNA, a reaction catalyzed by aminoacyl tRNA synthetase. They are key compounds in the genetic translation process.Elongation Factor 2 Kinase: A monomeric calcium-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase subtype that specifically phosphorylates PEPTIDE ELONGATION FACTOR 2. The enzyme lacks a phosphorylatable activation domain that can respond to CALCIUM-CALMODULIN-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASE KINASE, however it is regulated by phosphorylation by PROTEIN KINASE A and through intramolecular autophosphorylation.Peptide Elongation Factor 1: Peptide elongation factor 1 is a multisubunit protein that is responsible for the GTP-dependent binding of aminoacyl-tRNAs to eukaryotic ribosomes. The alpha subunit (EF-1alpha) binds aminoacyl-tRNA and transfers it to the ribosome in a process linked to GTP hydrolysis. The beta and delta subunits (EF-1beta, EF-1delta) are involved in exchanging GDP for GTP. The gamma subunit (EF-1gamma) is a structural component.Peptide Elongation Factor 2: Peptide Elongation Factor 2 catalyzes the translocation of peptidyl-tRNA from the A site to the P site of eukaryotic ribosomes by a process linked to the hydrolysis of GTP to GDP.RNA, Transfer: The small RNA molecules, 73-80 nucleotides long, that function during translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC) to align AMINO ACIDS at the RIBOSOMES in a sequence determined by the mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). There are about 30 different transfer RNAs. Each recognizes a specific CODON set on the mRNA through its own ANTICODON and as aminoacyl tRNAs (RNA, TRANSFER, AMINO ACYL), each carries a specific amino acid to the ribosome to add to the elongating peptide chains.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Isoleucine-tRNA Ligase: An enzyme that activates isoleucine with its specific transfer RNA. EC 6.1.1.5.Peptide Elongation Factors: Protein factors uniquely required during the elongation phase of protein synthesis.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.RNA Stability: The extent to which an RNA molecule retains its structural integrity and resists degradation by RNASE, and base-catalyzed HYDROLYSIS, under changing in vivo or in vitro conditions.AU Rich Elements: RNA sequences composed of ADENINE NUCLEOTIDES and URACIL NUCLEOTIDES, that are located in the 3'UNTRANSLATED REGIONS of MESSENGER RNA molecules that are rapidly degraded. They are also known as AREs.Nonsense Mediated mRNA Decay: An mRNA metabolic process that distinguishes a normal STOP CODON from a premature stop codon (NONSENSE CODON) and facilitates rapid degradation of aberrant mRNAs containing premature stop codons.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Genome: The genetic complement of an organism, including all of its GENES, as represented in its DNA, or in some cases, its RNA.Codon, Nonsense: An amino acid-specifying codon that has been converted to a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR) by mutation. Its occurance is abnormal causing premature termination of protein translation and results in production of truncated and non-functional proteins. A nonsense mutation is one that converts an amino acid-specific codon to a stop codon.Genomics: The systematic study of the complete DNA sequences (GENOME) of organisms.RNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins that bind to RNA molecules. Included here are RIBONUCLEOPROTEINS and other proteins whose function is to bind specifically to RNA.RNA, Messenger, Stored: Messenger RNA that is stored in a masked state for translation at a later time. Distinguish from RNA, UNTRANSLATED which refers to non-messenger RNA, i.e. RNA that does not code for protein.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Carbon-Oxygen Ligases: Enzymes that catalyze the joining of two molecules by the formation of a carbon-oxygen bond. EC 6.1.Vancomycin: Antibacterial obtained from Streptomyces orientalis. It is a glycopeptide related to RISTOCETIN that inhibits bacterial cell wall assembly and is toxic to kidneys and the inner ear.Escherichia coli Proteins: Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Escherichia coli Infections: Infections with bacteria of the species ESCHERICHIA COLI.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Anatomy, Comparative: The comparative study of animal structure with regard to homologous organs or parts. (Stedman, 25th ed)DNA, Catalytic: Molecules of DNA that possess enzymatic activity.Rhizotomy: Surgical interruption of a spinal or cranial nerve root. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Web Browser: Software application for retrieving, presenting and traversing information resources on the World Wide Web.Patents as Topic: Exclusive legal rights or privileges applied to inventions, plants, etc.HEPES: A dipolar ionic buffer.Syringes: Instruments used for injecting or withdrawing fluids. (Stedman, 25th ed)Fibrin: A protein derived from FIBRINOGEN in the presence of THROMBIN, which forms part of the blood clot.Inventions: A novel composition, device, or process, independently conceived de novo or derived from a pre-existing model.Fibrinogen: Plasma glycoprotein clotted by thrombin, composed of a dimer of three non-identical pairs of polypeptide chains (alpha, beta, gamma) held together by disulfide bonds. Fibrinogen clotting is a sol-gel change involving complex molecular arrangements: whereas fibrinogen is cleaved by thrombin to form polypeptides A and B, the proteolytic action of other enzymes yields different fibrinogen degradation products.Thrombin: An enzyme formed from PROTHROMBIN that converts FIBRINOGEN to FIBRIN.Encephalitis, St. Louis: A viral encephalitis caused by the St. Louis encephalitis virus (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS, ST. LOUIS), a FLAVIVIRUS. It is transmitted to humans and other vertebrates primarily by mosquitoes of the genus CULEX. The primary animal vectors are wild birds and the disorder is endemic to the midwestern and southeastern United States. Infections may be limited to an influenza-like illness or present as an ASEPTIC MENINGITIS or ENCEPHALITIS. Clinical manifestations of the encephalitic presentation may include SEIZURES, lethargy, MYOCLONUS, focal neurologic signs, COMA, and DEATH. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p750)Encephalitis Virus, St. Louis: A species of FLAVIVIRUS, one of the Japanese encephalitis virus group (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUSES, JAPANESE), which is the etiologic agent of ST. LOUIS ENCEPHALITIS in the United States, the Caribbean, and Central and South America.Biotechnology: Body of knowledge related to the use of organisms, cells or cell-derived constituents for the purpose of developing products which are technically, scientifically and clinically useful. Alteration of biologic function at the molecular level (i.e., GENETIC ENGINEERING) is a central focus; laboratory methods used include TRANSFECTION and CLONING technologies, sequence and structure analysis algorithms, computer databases, and gene and protein structure function analysis and prediction.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis: Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.Databases, Genetic: Databases devoted to knowledge about specific genes and gene products.Expressed Sequence Tags: Partial cDNA (DNA, COMPLEMENTARY) sequences that are unique to the cDNAs from which they were derived.Computational Biology: A field of biology concerned with the development of techniques for the collection and manipulation of biological data, and the use of such data to make biological discoveries or predictions. This field encompasses all computational methods and theories for solving biological problems including manipulation of models and datasets.Software: Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Waiting Lists: Prospective patient listings for appointments or treatments.Algorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.

Molecular diversity and evolutionary relationships of Tn1546-like elements in enterococci from humans and animals. (1/206)

We report on a detailed study on the molecular diversity and evolutionary relationships of Tn1546-like elements in vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) from humans and animals. Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of the VanA transposon of 97 VRE revealed seven different Tn1546 types. Subsequent sequencing of the complete VanA transposons of 13 VRE isolates representing the seven RFLP types followed by sequencing of the identified polymorphic regions in 84 other VanA transposons resulted in the identification of 22 different Tn1546 derivatives. Differences between the Tn1546 types included point mutations in orf1, vanS, vanA, vanX, and vanY. Moreover, insertions of an IS1216V-IS3-like element in orf1, of IS1251 in the vanS-vanH intergenic region, and of IS1216V in the vanX-vanY intergenic region were found. The presence of insertion sequence elements was often associated with deletions in Tn1546. Identical Tn1546 types were found among isolates from humans and farm animals in The Netherlands, suggesting the sharing of a common vancomycin resistance gene pool. Application of the genetic analysis of Tn1546 to VRE isolates causing infections in Hospitals in Oxford, United Kingdom, and Chicago, Ill., suggested the possibility of the horizontal transmission of the vancomycin resistance transposon. The genetic diversity in Tn1546 combined with epidemiological data suggest that the DNA polymorphism among Tn1546 variants can successfully be exploited for the tracing of the routes of transmission of vancomycin resistance genes.  (+info)

Survey of antibiotic resistance among enterococci in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. (2/206)

A surveillance study on antibiotic resistance of enterococcal isolates (n = 730) was carried out in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany, in 1997. Resistance rates to ampicillin (7.4%), high-level gentamicin (15.0%), high-level streptomycin (27.9%), ciprofloxacin (37.9%), vancomycin (1.5%), and teicoplanin (1.5%) were determined. All vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) carried the vanA gene. SmaI and ApaI macrorestriction patterns indicated an intra- and interhospital spread of VRE.  (+info)

From vanA Enterococcus hirae to vanA Enterococcus faecium: a study of feed supplementation with avoparcin and tylosin in young chickens. (3/206)

Fifteen newborn chickens were isolated in separate cages after 1 month of living together, divided into three groups, and challenged for 5 weeks with seed food which either was supplemented with avoparcin (10 mg/kg of animal food) or tylosin (40 mg/kg) or was nonsupplemented. At 9 weeks of age and after the 5-week challenge, all chickens received nonsupplemented feed for 4 additional weeks. At 4, 9, and 13 weeks of life, feces were collected and inoculated on M-Enterococcus agar plates with and without vancomycin (4 micrograms/ml). vanA-containing Enterococcus hirae was isolated from 11 of 15 chickens before antibiotic challenge, without detection of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium. At 9 weeks of age and after the 5-week avoparcin challenge, vanA E. hirae strains were no longer detected, but five of five chickens now had vanA E. faecium. At a lower frequency, vanA E. faecium had also displaced vanA E. hirae in both the tylosin group (one of four chickens) and the control group (two of five chickens). One month after avoparcin discontinuation, the number of chickens colonized with vanA E. faecium decreased from five to one. All vanA-containing E. hirae strains detected in the first month of life and most of the vanA-containing E. faecium strains detected in the second month of life showed identical ApaI and SmaI restriction patterns, respectively, when analyzed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. All vanA E. hirae isolates transferred glycopeptide and macrolide resistance to Enterococcus faecalis JH2-2 in vitro; the level of glycopeptide resistance was higher in the transconjugants than in the donor E. hirae strains. These data suggest that E. hirae may be a significant source of vanA determinants with the potential of transfer to other enterococcal species from humans or animals.  (+info)

Chemical modification of antibiotic eremomycin at the asparagine side chain. (4/206)

AA3-Carboxyeremomycin 2, obtained by selective hydrolysis of antibiotic eremomycin was used as a starting compound for the eremomycin chemical modifications at the asparagine side chain to be transformed into eremomycin AA3, AA7 bis-amides (3a-c). Bis-benzylamide 3b displayed an activity (8 microg/ml) against an E. faecium VanA strain.  (+info)

Genetic analysis of a chromosomal region containing vanA and vanB, genes required for conversion of either ferulate or vanillate to protocatechuate in Acinetobacter. (5/206)

VanA and VanB form an oxygenative demethylase that converts vanillate to protocatechuate in microorganisms. Ferulate, an abundant phytochemical, had been shown to be metabolized through a vanillate intermediate in several Pseudomonas isolates, and biochemical evidence had indicated that vanillate also is an intermediate in ferulate catabolism by Acinetobacter. Genetic evidence supporting this conclusion was obtained by characterization of mutant Acinetobacter strains blocked in catabolism of both ferulate and vanillate. Cloned Acinetobacter vanA and vanB were shown to be members of a chromosomal segment remote from a supraoperonic cluster containing other genes required for completion of the catabolism of ferulate and its structural analogs, caffeate and coumarate, through protocatechuate. The nucleotide sequence of DNA containing vanA and vanB demonstrated the presence of genes that, on the basis of nucleotide sequence similarity, appeared to be associated with transport of aromatic compounds, metabolism of such compounds, or iron scavenging. Spontaneous deletion of 100 kb of DNA containing this segment does not impede the growth of cells with simple carbon sources other than vanillate or ferulate. Additional spontaneous mutations blocking vanA and vanB expression were shown to be mediated by IS1236, including insertion of the newly discovered composite transposon Tn5613. On the whole, vanA and vanB appear to be located within a nonessential genetic region that exhibits considerable genetic malleability in Acinetobacter. The overall organization of genes neighboring Acinetobacter vanA and vanB, including a putative transcriptional regulatory gene that is convergently transcribed and overlaps vanB, is conserved in Pseudomonas aeruginosa but has undergone radical rearrangement in other Pseudomonas species.  (+info)

Moderate-level resistance to glycopeptide LY333328 mediated by genes of the vanA and vanB clusters in enterococci. (6/206)

Three of five natural plasmids carrying a wild-type vanA gene cluster did not confer LY333328 glycopeptide resistance on Enterococcus faecalis JH2-2 (MIC = 2 microg/ml). The two remaining plasmids conferred resistance to the drug (MIC, 8 microg/ml). The vanB gene cluster did not confer resistance to LY333328, since this antibiotic was not an inducer. Mutations in the vanS(B) sensor gene that allowed induction by teicoplanin or constitutive expression of the vanB cluster led to LY333328 resistance (MIC, 8 to 16 microg/ml). Overproduction of the VanH, VanA, and VanX proteins for D-alanyl-D-lactate (D-Ala-D-Lac) synthesis and D-Ala-D-Ala hydrolysis was sufficient for resistance to LY333328 (MIC, 16 microg/ml). Mutations in the host D-Ala:D-Ala ligase contributed to LY333328 resistance in certain VanA- and VanB-type strains, but the MICs of the antibiotic did not exceed 16 microg/ml. Addition of D-2-hydroxybutyrate in the culture medium of mutants that did not produce the VanH D-lactate dehydrogenase led to incorporation of this D-2-hydroxy acid at the C-terminal ends of the peptidoglycan precursors and to LY333328 resistance (MIC, 64 microg/ml). The vanZ gene of the vanA cluster conferred resistance to LY333328 (MIC, 8 microg/ml) by an unknown mechanism. These data indicate that VanA- and VanB-type enterococci may acquire moderate-level resistance to LY333328 (MIC +info)

Evaluation of a vanA-specific PCR assay for detection of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium during a hospital outbreak. (7/206)

We investigated the use of PCR as an alternative to culture of fecal samples for detection of vanA-containing Enterococcus faecium during a recent hospital outbreak. Rectal swabs collected consecutively from 223 patients were analyzed by culture with and without enrichment broth and by vanA-specific PCR of enrichment broth samples. Fifty-five specimens were positive for vanA-containing E. faecium by at least one method. The sensitivities of the vanA-specific PCR assay and agar culture with and without enrichment broth were 94.5, 98, and 89%, respectively. All three methods were 100% specific. Final results were obtained much more rapidly by PCR (within 24 to 30 h of specimen submission) than by the culture methods (4 to 5 days). Thus, PCR is an accurate and rapid alternative to culture for detection of vancomycin-resistant enterococci during hospital outbreaks.  (+info)

Synergy testing of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium against quinupristin-dalfopristin in combination with other antimicrobial agents. (8/206)

Using checkerboard and time-kill assays, we evaluated the in vitro activity of quinupristin-dalfopristin (RP 59500) alone and in combination with five other antimicrobial agents against 12 clinical strains of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VREF). In time-kill studies, six VREF strains exhibited synergism with the combination of quinupristin-dalfopristin and doxycycline and three exhibited synergism with quinupristin-dalfopristin plus ampicillin-sulbactam. Combinations of quinupristin-dalfopristin with these and other agents warrant further clinical evaluation for the treatment of serious VREF infections.  (+info)

*Histidine-tRNA ligase

... belongs to the family of ligase enzymes, specifically those forming carbon-oxygen bonds in aminoacyl-tRNA ... In enzymology, a histidine-tRNA ligase (EC 6.1.1.21) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction ATP + L-histidine + ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is L-histidine:tRNAHis ligase (AMP-forming). Other names in common use include ...

*Tyrosine-tRNA ligase

This enzyme belongs to the family of ligases, to be specific those forming carbon-oxygen bonds in tRNA and related compounds. ... Tyrosine-tRNA ligase (EC 6.1.1.1), also known as tyrosyl-tRNA synthetase (symbol YARS), is an enzyme that catalyzes the ...

*Glutamate-tRNA(Gln) ligase

This enzyme belongs to the family of ligases, to be specific those forming carbon-oxygen bonds in aminoacyl-tRNA and related ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is L-glutamate:tRNAGlx ligase (AMP-forming). This enzyme is also called glutamyl-tRNA ... In enzymology, a glutamate-tRNAGln ligase (EC 6.1.1.24) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction ATP + L-glutamate + ...

*Aspartate-tRNA ligase

This enzyme belongs to the family of ligases, to be specific those forming carbon-oxygen bonds in aminoacyl-tRNA and related ... In enzymology, an aspartate-tRNA ligase (EC 6.1.1.12) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction ATP + L-aspartate + ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is L-aspartate:tRNAAsp ligase (AMP-forming). Other names in common use include ...

*Tryptophan-tRNA ligase

This enzyme belongs to the family of ligases, to be specific those forming carbon-oxygen bonds in aminoacyl-tRNA and related ... In enzymology, a tryptophan-tRNA ligase (EC 6.1.1.2) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction ATP + L-tryptophan + ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is L-tryptophan:tRNATrp ligase (AMP-forming). Other names in common use include ... tryptophanyl-tRNA synthetase, L-tryptophan-tRNATrp ligase (AMP-forming), tryptophanyl-transfer ribonucleate synthetase, ...

*Valine-tRNA ligase

This enzyme belongs to the family of ligases, to be specific those forming carbon-oxygen bonds in aminoacyl-tRNA and related ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is L-valine:tRNAVal ligase (AMP-forming). Other names in common use include valyl-tRNA ... In enzymology, a valine-tRNA ligase (EC 6.1.1.9) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction ATP + L-valine + tRNAVal ... valine transfer ribonucleate ligase, and valine translase. This enzyme participates in valine, leucine and isoleucine ...

*Isoleucine-tRNA ligase

This enzyme belongs to the family of ligases, to be specific those forming carbon-oxygen bonds in aminoacyl-tRNA and related ... In enzymology, an isoleucine-tRNA ligase (EC 6.1.1.5) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction ATP + L-isoleucine + ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is L-isoleucine:tRNAIle ligase (AMP-forming). Other names in common use include ... isoleucine-transfer RNA ligase, isoleucine-tRNA synthetase, and isoleucine translase. This enzyme participates in valine, ...

*Cysteine-tRNA ligase

This enzyme belongs to the family of ligases, to be specific those forming carbon-oxygen bonds in aminoacyl-tRNA and related ... In enzymology, a cysteine-tRNA ligase (EC 6.1.1.16) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction ATP + L-cysteine + ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is L-cysteine:tRNACys ligase (AMP-forming). Other names in common use include ...

*Phenylalanine-tRNA ligase

This enzyme belongs to the family of ligases, to be specific those forming carbon-oxygen bonds in aminoacyl-tRNA and related ... phenylalanyl-tRNA ligase, phenylalanyl-transfer RNA ligase, L-phenylalanyl-tRNA synthetase, and phenylalanine translase. This ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is L-phenylalanine:tRNAPhe ligase (AMP-forming). Other names in common use include ... In enzymology, a phenylalanine-tRNA ligase (EC 6.1.1.20) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction ATP + L- ...

*Glutamine-tRNA ligase

This enzyme belongs to the family of ligases, to be specific those forming carbon-oxygen bonds in aminoacyl-tRNA and related ... In enzymology, a glutamine-tRNA ligase (EC 6.1.1.18) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction ATP + L-glutamine + ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is L-glutamine:tRNAGln ligase (AMP-forming). Other names in common use include ... glutamate-tRNA ligase, glutaminyl ribonucleic acid, and GlnRS. This enzyme participates in glutamate metabolism and aminoacyl- ...

*Aspartate-tRNA(Asn) ligase

This enzyme belongs to the family of ligases, to be specific those forming carbon-oxygen bonds in aminoacyl-tRNA and related ... Aspartate---tRNAAsn ligase (EC 6.1.1.23, nondiscriminating aspartyl-tRNA synthetase) is an enzyme with systematic name L- ... When this enzyme acts on tRNAAsp, it catalyses the same reaction as EC 6.1.1.12, aspartate---tRNA ligase. It has, however, ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is L-asparaginyl:tRNAAsx ligase (AMP-forming). This enzyme is also called ...

*Proline-tRNA ligase

This enzyme belongs to the family of ligases, to be specific those forming carbon-oxygen bonds in aminoacyl-tRNA and related ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is L-proline:tRNAPro ligase (AMP-forming). Other names in common use include prolyl- ... In enzymology, a proline-tRNA ligase (EC 6.1.1.15) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction ATP + L-proline + tRNAPro ... and prolinyl-tRNA ligase. This enzyme participates in arginine and proline metabolism and aminoacyl-trna biosynthesis. As of ...

*Lysine-tRNA(Pyl) ligase

This enzyme belongs to the family of ligases, to be specific those forming carbon-oxygen bonds in aminoacyl-tRNA and related ... In enzymology, a lysine-tRNAPyl ligase (EC 6.1.1.25) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction ATP + L-lysine + tRNAPyl ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is L-lysine:tRNAPyl ligase (AMP-forming). Srinivasan G, James CM, Krzycki JA (2002). " ...

*Glycine-tRNA ligase

This enzyme belongs to the family of ligases, to be specific those forming carbon-oxygen bonds in aminoacyl-tRNA and related ... Glycine-tRNA ligase also known as glycyl-tRNA synthetase is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the GARS gene. This gene ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is glycine:tRNAGly ligase (AMP-forming). Other names in common use include glycyl-tRNA ... In enzymology, a glycine-tRNA ligase (EC 6.1.1.14) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction ATP + glycine + tRNAGly ...

*D-alanine-poly(phosphoribitol) ligase

This enzyme belongs to the family of ligases, to be specific those forming carbon-oxygen bonds in aminoacyl-tRNA and related ... membrane acceptor ligase, D-alanine-D-alanyl carrier protein ligase, D-alanine-membrane acceptor ligase, and D-alanine- ... In enzymology, a D-alanine-poly(phosphoribitol) ligase (EC 6.1.1.13) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction ATP + D- ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is D-alanine:poly(phosphoribitol) ligase (AMP-forming). Other names in common use ...

*Leucine-tRNA ligase

This enzyme belongs to the family of ligases, to be specific those forming carbon-oxygen bonds in aminoacyl-tRNA and related ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is L-leucine:tRNALeu ligase (AMP-forming). Other names in common use include leucyl- ... In enzymology, a leucine-tRNA ligase (EC 6.1.1.4) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction ATP + L-leucine + tRNALeu ...

*Lysine-tRNA ligase

This enzyme belongs to the family of ligases, to be specific, those forming carbon-oxygen bonds in aminoacyl-tRNA and related ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is L-lysine:tRNALys ligase (AMP-forming). Other names in common use include lysyl-tRNA ... In enzymology, a lysine-tRNA ligase (EC 6.1.1.6) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction ATP + L-lysine + tRNALys ... "Some properties of crystals of lysine transfer ribonucleic acid ligase from yeast". J. Biol. Chem. 247 (12): 3897-9. PMID ...

*Threonine-tRNA ligase

... (TARS) belongs to the family of ligases, to be specific those forming carbon-oxygen bonds in tRNA and ... In enzymology, a threonine-tRNA ligase (EC 6.1.1.3) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction ATP + L-threonine + tRNA( ... tRNAThr ligase (AMP-forming). Other names in common use include threonyl-tRNA synthetase, threonyl-transfer ribonucleate ...

*Alanine-tRNA ligase

This enzyme belongs to the family of ligases, to be specific those forming carbon-oxygen bonds in aminoacyl-tRNA and related ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is L-alanine:tRNAAla ligase (AMP-forming). Other names in common use include alanyl- ... In enzymology, an alanine-tRNA ligase (EC 6.1.1.7) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction ATP + L-alanine + tRNAAla ... alanine-transfer RNA ligase, alanine transfer RNA synthetase, alanine tRNA synthetase, alanine translase, alanyl-transfer ...

*Ligase

... ligases used to form carbon-oxygen bonds EC 6.2 includes ligases used to form carbon-sulfur bonds EC 6.3 includes ligases used ... ligases used to form carbon-carbon bonds EC 6.5 includes ligases used to form phosphoric ester bonds EC 6.6 includes ligases ... The common names of ligases often include the word "ligase", such as DNA ligase, an enzyme commonly used in molecular biology ... Ligases are classified as EC 6 in the EC number classification of enzymes. Ligases can be further classified into six ...

*Daidzein

P-coumaric acid then acts as the starter unit which gets loaded with coenzyme A by 4-coumaroyl:CoA-ligase (4CL). The starter ... Daidzein is an isoflavonoid derived from the shikimate pathway that forms an oxygen containing heterocycle through a cytochrome ... and undergoes a general phenylpropanoid pathway where the shikimate derived aromatic ring is shifted to the adjacent carbon of ... The process begins with phenylalanine ligase (PAL) cleaving the amino group from L-Phe forming the unsaturated carboxylic acid ...

*Phosphoribosylamine-glycine ligase

This enzyme belongs to the family of ligases, specifically those forming generic carbon-nitrogen bonds. In bacteria, GARS is a ... The oxygen in the ribose ring of PRA is important in substrate binding, likely due to favorable energetics from hydrogen ... The reaction starts with the oxygen of glycine acting as a nucleophile to attack the γ-phosphorus of ATP. Then, the nitrogen of ... In addition to similar structure across species, GARS as a whole has a very similar structure to D-alanine:D-alanine ligase, ...

*Citrate synthase

One of the oxygen's lone pairs nucleophilically attacks the carbonyl carbon of citroyl−CoA. This forms a tetrahedral ... These experiments have revealed that this single site alternates between two forms, which participate in ligase and hydrolase ... of the two-carbon acetate residue from acetyl coenzyme A and a molecule of four-carbon oxaloacetate to form the six-carbon ... begins with the negatively charged carboxylate side chain oxygen atom of Asp-375 deprotonating acetyl CoA's alpha carbon atom ...

*Substrate-level phosphorylation

During the preparatory phase, each 6-carbon glucose molecule is broken into two 3-carbon molecules. Thus, in glycolysis ... or a GDP-forming succinate-CoA ligase (G-SUCL, EC 6.2.1.4). The ADP-forming succinate-CoA ligase is potentially the only matrix ... This is the case in human erythrocytes, which have no mitochondria, and in oxygen-depleted muscle. Substrate-level ... Succinate-CoA ligase is a heterodimer composed of an invariant α-subunit and a substrate-specific ß-subunit, encoded by either ...

*Succinyl coenzyme A synthetase

This operon is up-regulated by the presence of oxygen and responds to a variety of carbon sources. Antibacterial drugs that ... Citric acid cycle Succinate dehydrogenase Succinate-CoA ligase (ADP-forming) Succinate-CoA ligase (GDP-forming) Fraser ME, ... Succinyl coenzyme A synthetase (SCS, also known as succinyl-CoA synthetase or succinate thiokinase or succinate-CoA ligase) is ... "Deficiency of the alpha subunit of succinate-coenzyme A ligase causes fatal infantile lactic acidosis with mitochondrial DNA ...

*Reduced muscle mass, strength and performance in space

Arteriovenous oxygen differences were calculated from the measured oxygen consumption and cardiac output data. The data ... Atrogin and MURF are E3 ligases that are responsible for ubiquinating target proteins to mark them for degradation in a system ... and carbon dioxide that are byproducts of human exercise are additional challenges that must be overcome. Knowledge gained ... In brief, reduced work capacity and oxygen consumption of significant degree was noted in 67% (18 of 27) of the Apollo ...
Gain of D-alanyl-D-lactate or D-lactyl-D-alanine synthetase activities in three active-site mutants of the Escherichia coli D-alanyl-D-alanine ligase B ...
سابقه و هدف: انتروکوک ها به صورت فلور نرمال در دستگاه گوارش انسان و بسیاری از پستانداران وجود دارند. امروزه افزایش شیوع انتروکوک های مقاوم به ونکومایسین در بیمارستان های سراسر جهان یک مشکل مهم به شمار می آید. این مطالعه با هدف ارزیابی شیوع سویه های انتروکوک، الگوی مقاومت به آنتی بیوتیک و نیز تعیین مهم ترین ژن های ایجاد کننده مقاومت به ونکومایسین (vanA و vanB) در نمونه های بالینی انجام شده است. مواد و روش ها: این پژوهش به صورت مقطعی-توصیفی بر روی 54 نمونه انتروکوک جمع آوری شده از نمونه های بالینی (ادرار، زخم، خون و مایع آسیت) بیماران بستری در بیمارستان شهید محمدی
Food supplements containing viable bacteria, so called probiotics, have been suggested to have beneficial health effects due to their influence on the normal microflora. However, there has been safety concern regarding probiotics containing Enterococcus faecium. Although part of the normal intestinal microflora in humans, enterococci can cause infections such as urinary tract infections, septicaemia, and endocarditis. Enterococci are also inclined to develop antibiotic resistance and their hardy nature promotes survival and dissemination in the hospital setting. Although the importance of E.faecium as a bloodstream isolate is increasing, little regarding its virulence is known. One virulence trait attributed to E. faecium is the enterococcal surface protein, Esp, encoded by the esp gene. Since enterococci have different roles from the human perspective, such as occurrence in food, as probiotic strains, members of the normal intestinal microflora, and as the cause of nosocomial infections, it is ...
The prevalence of VRE in Latin America has remained low, less than 2 (Low et al. 2001). The majority of the strains isolated in Latin America are of the vanA genotype (Dalla Costa et al. 1998 Marin et al. 1998 Panesso et al. 2002), although Chile and Argentina have already reported cases of vanB (Miranda et al. 2003). In August 1996, the first glycopeptide-resistant E. faecium of the VanD phenotype was isolated in Brazil (Dalla Costa et al. 1998). No other VRE strain was isolated in that.... ...
[44 Pages Report] Check for Discount on Vancomycin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (VRSA) Infections - Pipeline Review, H1 2016 report by Global Markets Direct. Global Markets Directs, Vancomycin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (VRSA) Infections -...
Edmond and colleagues [1] gave their perspectives on the measures necessary to control transmission of vancomycin-resistant S. aureus. Most of the measures they suggest are not new and are similar to measures recommended by the Hospital Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee for preventing the spread of vancomycin-resistant enterococci [2]. However, they did suggest some measures that are unique and may be difficult to follow. They stated that a monitor could be placed at the door of a patient infected or colonized with vancomycin-resistant S. aureus. This monitor would prevent unauthorized access and enforce hand ...
VRSA: Vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Links with this icon indicate that you are leaving the CDC website. böyle olur. If you did that just to provide this file you wasted your time im afraid. O VRS Superbug vai mais longe em pequenos detalhes com a possibilidade de efectuar fuel dump (largar combustível em excesso), decidir um alarme para combustível em falta (bingo), largar stores para libertar peso (jettison), reabastecer em voo, largar contra-medidas para defesa anti-missil e até mesmo o HUD possui selecção da cor dos gráficos. Back image At least seven people were infected and two of them died after being exposed to an antibiotic-resistant superbug during specialized. Sometimes worth paying that for me, someone had said he had accepted citation in this province Affect your premiums and keep me as i know, claims against him Av fresno 93704 559 451-0883 No time limit, florida may have family and friends It was the doctors diagnosis of these discounts, dont expect much ...
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Quick picks from librarians at the National Rehabilitation Information Center.. Spinal cord injury (SCI) is classified by where along the spinal column the injury occurs from top or cervical (c), through middle or thoracic (t) and lumbar (l), to bottom or sacral (s). Injury along any point in the spine can cause disability, from loss of feeling or muscle control, to paralysis. With the help of rehabilitation and assistive technology, it is possible to live a full life after injury.. For more resources, visit the Ready Reference page for Resources on Specific Disabilities or search the Knowledgebase. You may also download the brochure in PDF format at the bottom of this page. Disponible en español.. ...
Vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus are strains of Staphylococcus aureus that have become resistant to the glycopeptide antibiotic vancomycin. Strains of hVISA and VISA do not have resistant genes found in Enterococcus and the proposed mechanisms of resistance include the sequential mutations resulting in a thicker cell wall and the synthesis of excess amounts of D-ala-D-ala residues. VRSA strain acquired the vancomycin resistance gene cluster vanA from VRE. The diagnosis of vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus can be done with disk diffusion(and VA screen plate) For isolates with a Vancomycin MIC > 2 µg/mL, an alternative to Vancomycin should be used. The approach is to treat with at least one agent to which VISA/VRSA is known to be susceptible by in vitro testing. The agents that are used include daptomycin, linezolid, telavancin, ceftaroline, quinupristin-dalfopristin. For people with MRSA bacteremia in the setting of vancomycin failure the IDSA recommends high-dose daptomycin, ...
Given the dramatic increase in the incidence of vancomycin resistance among the enterococci and experimental evidence for the transfer of vancomycin resistance from enterococci to Staphylococcus aureus, there is concern that strains of S. aureus will emerge that are resistant to vancomycin. The result would be a highly virulent pathogen for which effective antimicrobial therapy would not be available. To prevent the nosocomial transmission of such an organism, stringent infection control policies need to be developed and implemented. We offer proposals that are based on the limited data available on the transmission and control of S. aureus and that may be used as starting points for the development of formal guidelines for the isolation of colonized and infected patients and for microbiology laboratory precautions. ...
We have previously described a multiplex PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) assay which detects and discriminates vanA, vanB,vanC-1, and vanC-2/3 genes inEnterococcus spp. (5). In our original study we noted that in 4 of 63 isolates of vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE), a PCR product was produced but that it was produced with an amplicon which had RFLPs which differed from those found with the reference vanA, vanB, vanC-1, andvanC-2 strains. We detected sequence variability to account for the unique MspI restriction enzyme patterns observed. Since our assay detected sequence variation only in resistance genes that had variations located at their restriction enzyme sites, we hypothesized that there would be further sequence variation present in the van genes of enterococci. The objective of the present study was to determine the sequence variation of the vanA,vanB, vanC-1, and vanC-2/3 genes in VRE.. Thirty-four clinical isolates of Enterococcus spp. were studied (5). The 34 ...
Learn more about Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococci Infection at Doctors Hospital of Augusta DefinitionCausesRisk FactorsSymptomsDiagnosisTreatmentPreventionrevision ...
The margins are often given folic acid is contraindicated in pregnant women, use of risperidone average maintenance dose is . overseas lowest price viagra Involvement of the tachyzoites causes cell lysis by mak-ing the patient is younger than months are required. Several confirmatory laboratory tests will be short-lived. Pulmonary edema may be associated with intrarenal vasoconstriction diuretics all prerenal azotemia or acute otitis media and persistent hyperplastic primary vitreous or persistent abnormal losses eg, from saliva, urine, buffy coat, and bronchial secretions. Vancomycin-resistant staphylococcus aureus mrsa, multidrug-resistant acinetobacter, vancomycin-resistant enterococci carriage. Phenytoin, loading dose see package insert. Lymphadenopathy is common and important. Frequently, an individual is at greater than outside the therapeutic window when combined with other risk factors for catheter-related infections in chapter. Hemodialysis may offer circumstantial evidence for the sake ...
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
Choosing to participate in a study is an important personal decision. Talk with your doctor and family members or friends about deciding to join a study. To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contacts provided below. For general information, Learn About Clinical Studies. ...
This dataset shows the incidence rates of hospital onset (HO) vancomycin-resistant Enterococci bloodstream infections (VRE BSI) reported by California general acute care hospitals to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) National He ...
Ettekande slaidid. [pdf]. Abstract: Designing a viable language for total (as in type theory) functional programming is remarkably difficult: it takes a term calculus for a type language with inductive and coinductive types that is satisfactory both metatheoretically and practically. Basic structured (co)recursion schemes in their standard form are not an option, they are far too cumbersome to program with.. The alternatives include what are known as guarded and Mendler-style (co)recursion primitives. These are general-recursor like combinators. Guarded combinators are governed by syntactic side-conditions enforcing conformance of an a priori general-recursive definition to a structured (co)recursion scheme. Mendler-style combinators are cleaner: here the same effect is achieved by more restrictive typing employing universal quantification. But a problem with both is that the choice of the structured (co)recursion scheme to support is non-canonical.. We argue that one meaningful canonical ...
കൂവളവേര്, കുമിഴിന്‍ വേര്, പാതിരിവേര്, പയ്യാനവേര്, മുഞ്ഞവേര് ഇവ സമമായെടുത്ത് 60 ഗ്രാം 12 ഗ്ലാസ് വെള്ളത്തില്‍ വെന്ത്, ഒന്നര ഗ്ലാസ് ആക്കി പിഴിഞ്ഞെടുത്ത് അര ഗ്ലാസ് വീതം ഒരു ടീസ്പൂണ്‍ തേന്‍ ചേര്‍ത്ത് ദിവസം മൂന്നു നേരം വെച്ച് കഴിച്ചാല്‍ വണ്ണം കുറയും. അതിമേദസ്സ് മാറും. ഈ ദ്രവ്യങ്ങള്‍ എല്ലാം അങ്ങാടിമരുന്നുകടയില്‍ വാങ്ങാന്‍ കിട്ടും. Note: Please consult a registered Ayurveda practitioner before trying this preparation. This is for informational…
Tammy Lau - The Importance of Protocol Design for RNA-Seq in the Ongoing Development of a Novel Technology for Tissue Specific Gene Expression Profiling in C. elegans. Arjun Sharma - The Glycopeptide Resistance Predictor. ...
D-Ala-D-Ala ligases from glycopeptide antibiotic-producing organisms are highly homologous to the enterococcal vancomycin-resistance ligases VanA and VanB.(Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.) [1997] ...
D-Ala-D-Ala ligases from glycopeptide antibiotic-producing organisms are highly homologous to the enterococcal vancomycin-resistance ligases VanA and VanB.(Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.) [1997] ...
不平等4會造成動物間的心理不平衡3由一個動物的實驗發現》這狀況就和仇富的心理狀態一樣 ...
The distribution characteristics of vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) and the resistance of enterococcus isolates to various antibiotics were investigated in Yae River, which flows through Miyazaki city, Japan. The prevalence of VRE among specimens collected from the urban river basin using mEI agar was 0.9% (2 of 226 enterococcal isolates). In the 333 enterococcal isolates obtained using mEI agar or vancomycin-supplemented mEI agar, the possession of the vancomycin-resistant genes (vanA, vanB, vanC1, and vanC2/C3) was examined using multiplex PCR analysis. Although VRE possessing vanA and vanB were not detected in any isolates, isolates possessing vanC2/C3 were detected at all sampling sites and on all days. All isolates (101 strains) possessing vanC2/C3 that were obtained on vancomycin-supplemented mEI agar were identified as E. casseliflavus and analyzed for genotypes using pulse-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) analysis. These E. casseliflavus isolates revealed them to be genetically highly
Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococcus Faecium Infections - Market Insights, Epidemiology and Market Forecast - 2025 is a market research report available at US $5750 for a Single User PDF License from RnR Market Research Reports Library.
Staphylococci, enterococci, and many other species of bacteria are known to attach to indwelling medical devices and form biofilms consisting of complex communities of single cells and microcolonies within a matrix of hydrated polysaccharides, proteins, and other macromolecules, including DNA (13, 43). Within this matrix, bacterial cells evade the host immune response and survive antimicrobial chemotherapy, resulting in persistent infections that are difficult to treat (36). Initially, biofilms may be composed of a single species, but the longer a medical device remains in place, the more likely that multiple species will be involved (12). The close contact of cells within a biofilm and the relative stability of the matrix have been demonstrated to facilitate gene transfer (8, 21, 22).. The microbial community of the biofilm associated with the emergence of VRSA in this patient included potential donors (VRE), recipients (MRSA), and VRSA transconjugants that harbored a variety of resistance ...
This Operational Directive (OD) describes the minimum requirements for the routine screening and subsequent management of people identified with vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) in Western Australian (WA) healthcare facilities (HCFs).
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
Repetitive sequence-based polymerase chain reaction fingerprinting was used to characterize 23 vancomycin-nonsusceptible enterococcal isolates from 2003 to 2004. Five genetically related clusters spanned geographically distinct referring centers. DNA fingerprinting showed infant-to-infant transmission from referring institutions. Thus, community healthcare facilities are a source of vancomycin-nonsusceptible enterococci and should be targeted for increased infection control efforts ...
The West Nipissing General Hospital is dedicated to providing health care services that are consistent with the needs of our community.
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BOF: 59 A 40-year-old female is admitted with a history of haematemesis and melaena. Apart from an itch, she had previously been well. She was not on any medication. She smoked 5 cigarettes a day and drank 8 units of alcohol per week. On examination her skin looked pigmented, there were xanthelasma on her eyelids. Her liver and spleen were enlarged. There were no other abnormalities detected on examination. Investigations. Hb 12.8 g/dL WBC 6.0 x109 /L. Platelets 120 Sodium 138 mmols/L. Potassium 4.2 mmols/L. Urea 12 mmols/L. Corrected calcium 1.9 mmol/L. Phosphate 0.6 mmol/L. Glucose 5.3 mmol/L. Bilirubin 12 mmol/L. ALT 32 U/L. Alkaline phosphatase 300 U/L. In this patient which one of the following would give you the diagnosis?. a) AMA (antimitochondrial antibody). b) SMA (smooth muscle antibody). c) LKM (liver kidney antibody) d) SLP/LP soluble liver antigen e) PANCA. ...
Vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VREfm) has emerged as an important global nosocomial pathogen, and this trend is associated with the spread of high-risk clones. Here, we determined the genetic and phenotypic features of 93 VREfm isolates that were obtained from patients in 13 hospitals in Vitória, Espírito Santo, Brazil, during 2012-2013. All the isolates were vancomycin-resistant and harbored the vanA gene. Only 6 (6.5%) of the VREfm isolates showed the ability to form biofilm. The 93 isolates analyzed belong to a single pulsed-field gel electrophoresis lineage and presented six subtypes. MLST genotyping showed that all VREfm belonged to ST412 (the high-risk clone, hospital-adapted). The present study describes the dissemination of ST412 clone in the local hospitals. The clonal spread of these ST412 isolates in the area we analyzed as well as other hospitals in southeastern Brazil supports the importance of identifying and controlling the presence of these microorganisms in health ...
BACKGROUND: Avoparcin, cross-resistance with vancomycin, was added as feed-additive since 1970s and was prohibited in 1997 in Korea. After avoparcin was banned we examined prevalence and genetic relatedness of VRE in enterococci isolated from livestock and humans. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Using enrichment broth and 6 microgram/mL vancomycin-containing enterococcosel selective agar, vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) were isolated from fecal sample of 255 pigs of 8 farms, 431 chickens of 9 farms, and 328 humans (Food industry employee and Institution cafeteria employee) of 5 public health centers, and 100 raw chicken meats from April to June 2003. Antimicrobial susceptibility was examined by disk diffusion and minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs), and E-test. Species identification and genotyping were done by multiplex PCR method. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) of vanA-type VRE isolates was performed by CHEF-Mapper system. RESULTS: 19 isolates from 255 pigs, 122 isolates from 431 ...
The high sensitivity of amplification by PCR requires the specimen to be processed in an environment in which contamination of the specimen by Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococcus DNA is unlikely.. Submit only 1 of the following specimens:. Supplies:. Culturette (BBL Culture Swab) (T092). C and S Vial (T058). Stool container, Small (Random), 4 oz Random (T288). Preferred:. Specimen Type: Perianal, perirectal, rectal. Container/Tube: Culture transport swab (Dacron or rayon swab with aluminum or plastic shaft with either Stuart or Amies liquid medium [T092]). Specimen Volume: Swab. Acceptable:. Specimen Type: Preserved Stool. Container/Tube: Commercially available transport system specific for recovery of enteric pathogens from fecal specimens (15 mL of non-nutritive transport medium containing phenol red as a pH indicator, either Cary-Blair, Para-Pak C and S [T058]). Specimen Volume: Representative portion of stool. Collection Instructions:. 1. Collect fresh stool and submit 1 gram or 5 mL in ...
RESULTS: A total of 66 of the 405 rectal swab surveillance cultures obtained from 46 inpatients were positive for VRE, among which 27 inpatients were culture-positive for VRE on admission to medical ICU, and 19 inpatients were initially culture-negative but converted to culture-positive after admission. All isolates carried vanA gene consisting of 51 Enterococcusgallinarum, 13 Enterococcus faecium, and two Eenterococcus casseliflavus. Of the 51 E. gallinarum isolates, 40 were type ST 341, seven were ST 252, two were ST 78, and two were ST 64. The Enterococcus spp., MLST and PFGE subtypes were almost similar among these two groups of inpatients. Linezolid and tigecycline were most active against VRE in vitro ...
To further characterize the fosB-carrying plasmids of 19 vancomycin-resistant enterococci, the complete sequences of the fosB- and vanA-containing plasmids of E. faecium (pEMA120) and E. avium (pEA19081) were obtained by single-molecule, real-time sequencing. We found that these two plasmids are essentially identical (99.99% nucleotide sequence identity), which proved the possibility of interspecies transmission. Comparative analysis of the plasmids revealed that the backbone of pEMA120 is 99% similar to a conjugative fosB-negative E. faecium plasmid, pZB18. There is a traE disrupted in the transfer region of pEMA120, in comparison to pZB18 with an intact traE. The difference of their transfer frequencies between pEMA120 and pZB18 suggests this interruption of traE might affect conjugative transfer. Two copies of the fosB gene linked to a tnpA gene, forming an ISL3-like transposon, were found at separate locations within pEMA120, which had not been reported previously. These two fosB-carrying
This report published in Communicable Diseases Intelligence Volume 22, No 11, 29 October 1998 contains information on enterococci with acquired resistance to vancomycin and other glycopeptides, which has emerged and spread rapidly through Europe and the United States since 1988.
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Jan. 27; 1953 J. KINSELLA ETAL HEATING OF SURFACES BY LAMINATED FOIL RESISTANCE ELEMENTS WITH TIMED CONNECTING MEANS Filed Aug. 5, 1950 3 Sheets-Sheet l Inventor -do HN KINSELL-A mug-a150 ROBERTSON Q torneys J 1953 J KINSELLA ETAL 2,627,012 HEATING OF SURFACES BY LAMINATED FOIL RESISTANCE ELEMENTS WITH TIMED CONNECTING MEANS Filed Aug. 5, 1950 3 Sheets-Sheet 2 Inventor .J HN KINSE 4.1.,4 ERNE 51 O ROBE RTSO N A Item e ys 1953 .1. KINSELLA ETAL 2, 2 HEATING OF SURFACES BY LAMINATED FOIL RESISTANCE ELEMENTS WITH TIMED CONNECTING MEANS Filed Aug. 5, 1950 s Sheets-Sheet s ammn n PM. I Inventor uomlxuvssLLA 8 an ussr o n.nainrs ou 6}117 Meow/14 9 @JQM/ A Item eys Patented Jan. 27, 1953 HEATING OF SURFACES BY LAMINATED FOIL RESISTANCE ELEMENTS WITH TIMED CONNECTING MEANS John Kinsella and Ernest Owen Robertson, Luton, England, assignors to D. Napier & Son Limited, London, England, a British company, and The English Electric Company Limited, London, England, a British company Application August 5, ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Prevention and control of vancomycin resistance in gram-positive coccal microorganisms. T2 - fire prevention and fire fighting.. AU - Mayhall, C. G.. PY - 1996/6. Y1 - 1996/6. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0030158819&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0030158819&partnerID=8YFLogxK. M3 - Article. C2 - 8805064. AN - SCOPUS:0030158819. VL - 17. SP - 353. EP - 355. JO - Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology. JF - Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology. SN - 0899-823X. IS - 6. ER - ...
Avene makes great products for those suffering from dry sensitized skin as well…? Many of these side effects can be avoided in patients with angina by using beta blockers that work primarily on the heart itself, asthalin mdi dose and that have relatively little effect on the blood vessels, lungs, and central nervous system. Co? Empiric docilely cozaar cost therapy for vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium is not recommended unless the patient is at high risk of infection! Por y Para: zwei Präpositionen auf Spanisch, asthalin ax syrup price Regeln, Gebrauch und Beispiele, Übungen 20102007 · Mejor respuesta: hola: Sirv? On July 27, 2006, Congress passed the Adam Walsh Act, which among other innovations, removed the statute of limitations for sex crimes against children and established a comprehensive program for the registry of convicted sex offenders. Based on urinary recovery, the mean extent of absorption of lisinopril is approximately 25%, with large intersubject variability (6-60%) ...
Multidrug-resistant gut bacteria called vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) are on the rise in Swiss hospitals. The strains are identical to ...
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Vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus, or vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE), are bacterial strains of the genus Enterococcus that are resistant to the antibiotic vancomycin. Six different types of vancomycin resistance are shown by enterococcus: Van-A, Van-B, Van-C, Van-D, Van-E and Van-G. The significance is that Van-A VRE is resistant to both vancomycin and teicoplanin, Van-B VRE is resistant to vancomycin but susceptible to teicoplanin, and Van-C is only partly resistant to vancomycin The mechanism of resistance to vancomycin found in enterococcus involves the alteration of the peptidoglycan synthesis pathway. The D-alanyl-D-lactate variation results in the loss of one hydrogen-bonding interaction (four, as opposed to five for D-alanyl-D-alanine) being possible between vancomycin and the peptide. The D-alanyl-D-serine variation causes a six-fold loss of affinity between vancomycin and the peptide, likely due to steric hindrance. Once the individual has VRE, it is important to ascertain which ...
This retrospective cohort study revealed that linezolid resistance in vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium was dependent on prior linezolid exposure and duration of linezolid therapy. These strains of E. faecium were resistant to the entire class of oxazolidinones.. ...
Objectives: To characterize, phenotypically and genotypically, the first Enterococcus faecium clinical isolate harbouring a vanG operon.Methods: The antibiotic resistance profile of E. faecium 16-346 was determined and its whole genome sequenced using PacBio technology. Attempts to transfer vancomycin resistance by filter mating were performed and the inducibility of expression of the vanG operon was studied by reverse-transcription quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) in the presence or absence of subinhibitory concentrations of vancomycin.Results: E. faecium 16-346 was resistant to rifampicin (MIC |4 mg/L), erythromycin (MIC |4 mg/L), tetracycline (MIC |16 mg/L) and vancomycin (MIC 8 mg/L), but susceptible to teicoplanin (MIC 0.5 mg/L). The strain harboured the vanG operon in its chromosome, integrated in a 45.5 kb putative mobile genetic element, similar to that of Enterococcus faecalis BM4518. We were unable to transfer vancomycin resistance from E. faecium 16-346 to E. faecium BM4107 and E. faecalis JH2-2.
VRE (Vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus) is an infection caused by the bacteria Enterococcus which has become resistant to treatment with vancomycin, an antibiotic commonly used to treat this type of infection. Enterococcus is a type of bacteria that is normally found in human intestines (gut) and the female genital tract and is also often found in the environment without causing disease. When it becomes resistant to vancomycin, it is then called vancomycin resistant Enterococcus or VRE. VRE can be present in an individual but not cause symptoms, this is often called colonization of the bacteria. Sometimes however, the VRE bacteria can cause a variety of infections in the urinary tract, the bloodstream or in open wounds on the skin. VRE is spread by simple skin to skin contact or by touching surfaces contaminated with the bacteria. Most VRE infections spread this way in hospitals. VRE cannot be spread through the air by coughing or sneezing. People at risk for VRE infections include those who ...
Virulence determinants in vancomycin-resistant **Enterococcus faecium vanB**: clonal distribution, prevalence and significance of **esp** and **hyl** in Australian patients with haematological disorders ...
VRE, like many bacteria, can be spread from one person to another through casual contact or through contaminated objects. Most often, VRE infections are spread from the hands of health care workers to a patient in a hospital or other facility such as a nursing home. VRE infections are not usually spread through the air like the common cold or flu virus unless you have VRE pneumonia and are coughing, which is rare.. If you are healthy, your chances of getting a VRE infection are very low. Even if you have been exposed to VRE, or have VRE in your body, you are not likely to get an infection. VRE infections typically only occur among people who have weakened immune systems, such as people who have long-term illnesses or people who have had major surgery or other medical procedures and have been treated with multiple antibiotics.. Experts do not know exactly why some people become infected with VRE and others do not. But they do know that VRE infections are more likely to develop when antibiotics ...
Vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) (also referred to as glycopeptide-resistant enterococci) have emerged as significant nosocomial pathogens. Immunosuppression and indwelling devices are risk factors for invasive infections ( 3 , 6 ). Transmission on hospital wards is the major source of spread of these antibiotic-resistant organisms. Infection rates can be reduced by screening high-risk groups ( 4 ). Patients colonized with VRE are isolated to prevent transmission. The laboratory, in conjunction with the Infection Control Program, should decide which groups of patients to screen and the frequency of screening depending on the local epidemiology, unless regulations state otherwise ( 8 ).
1) Evers S, et al. (1996) Regulation of VanB-type vancomycin resistance gene expression by the VanS(B)-VanR (B) two-component regulatory system in Enterococcus faecalis V583.. J Bacteriol 178(5):1302-9 PubMed: 8631706 ...
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Enterococcus Faecium (EF) is a probiotic and has been found when that dietary supplementation of EF can increase nutrient digestibility and decrease faecal
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Disinfecting surfaces is key to preventing nosocomial transmission of pathogens such as C difficile, MRSA, and vancomycin-resistant enterococci.
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What happens when two monkeys are paid unequally? Fairness, reciprocity, empathy, cooperation -- caring about the well-being of others seems like a very human trait. But Frans de Waal shares some surprising videos of behavioral tests, on primates and other mammals, that show how many of these moral traits all of us share.
Empathy, cooperation, fairness and reciprocity -- caring about the well-being of others seems like a very human trait. But Frans de Waal shares some surprising videos of behavioral tests, on primates and other mammals, that show how many of these moral traits all of us share.. ...
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IDEXX announces that the Association Française de Normalisation (AFNOR) has just granted NF Validation to the method Enterolert-DW and Quanti-Tray for the detection of enterococci in drinking water (Certificate Number IDX 33/03-10/13). This new validation makes Enterolert-DW the first and only method validated by AFNOR for the detection of enterococci bacteria in drinking water.
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Vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) are important nosocomial pathogens in many countries with the genotype vanA and vanB being the most important is hospital environment. The objectives of this study is the Molecular characterization of VRE isolated from hematology-oncology patients. Fecal/rectal samples from 50 randomly selected patients together with blood samples from the 11 patients who developed bacteremia. Enterococcal isolates were identified and subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility testing to vancomycin by agar screen method. Vancomycin resistance was confirmed by determining its minimum inhibitory concentration by broth dilution method. Susceptibility of the VRE isolates to different antimicrobials was also determined using the disk diffusion method. Multiplex PCR was used to detect vanA and vanB genes among the isolated VRE strains. Fifty enterococcal strains were isolated from the fecal-rectal samples, of which six (12 %) were VRE (3 E. faecium, 2 E. faecalis and one E. gallinarum).
Vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) is an important cause of health care-associated infection and is known to prolong hospital stay, increase treatment cost, and patient morbidity and mortality.1 2 3 4 5 A VRE carrier was defined as any patient with VRE isolated from a clinical or surveillance specimen. The first case of VRE in Hong Kong was identified at Queen Elizabeth Hospital (QEH) in 1997.6 In 2010, VRE constituted 0.4% of all Enterococcus isolates. Apart from individual small-scale outbreaks,7 8 VRE had not gained a foothold in Hong Kong. Queen Elizabeth Hospital is the largest public acute general tertiary hospital under the administration of the Hospital Authority (HA) with 1800 beds. There are more than 160 000 admissions with 104 000 in-patients treated annually. A major VRE outbreak occurred in QEH in 2013. There was an abnormal increase in the incidence of VRE carriage in multiple clinical departments compared with baseline. Prior to this outbreak, VRE control measures were ...
The prevalence and diversity of antibiotic resistant enterococci populations in samples collected four times from urban sewage treatment plant in Tehran, Iran between June 2005 and July 2006 were studied. Filtered samples were grown on mEnterococci medium containing 4 μg/ml vancomycin after which the enterococci isolates were identified to the species level. All strains were then tested for their resistance against nine antibiotics. Of the 131 isolates, 98 (75%) isolates were identified as Enterococcus gallinarum, followed by 24 (18%) and 9 (7%) for E. faecium and E. casseliflavus, respectively. All E. gallinarum isolates carried vanC1 gene with 64 (65%) and 14 (14%) isolates concomitantly harboured either vanA or vanB gene, respectively. Some E. casseliflavus concomitantly harboured vanA and vanC2 or vanB and vanC2. Typing the total enterococci isolates with a high resolution biochemical fingerprinting method showed a high diversity (D i = 0.91). We have shown by biochemical fingerprinting the
Surface filamentous structures designated pili, and implicated in virulence, have been found on the surfaces of several Gram-positive pathogens. This work describes the conditional expression of two phenotypically distinct pilus-like structures, designated PilA and PilB, on the surface of a hospital-adapted Enterococcus faecium bloodstream isolate. E. faecium is an emerging Gram-positive opportunistic pathogen that can cause severe disease, particularly in immunocompromised patients. Expression of PilA- and PilB-type pili was analysed during different phases of growth in broth culture. During growth, PilA and PilB pilin subunits were expressed around the cross-wall in early-exponential-phase cells. Polymerization and migration of short PilB-type pili towards the poles occurred in cells from the exponential phase and long polymerized pili were expressed at the poles of cells grown to stationary phase. In contrast, PilA-type pili were not expressed in broth culture, but only when cells were grown on solid
PONESSA, Adriana et al. Vancomycin-resistant enterocci-colonized patients located in critical areas of four hospitals in Rosario City, Argentina. Acta bioquím. clín. latinoam. [online]. 2006, vol.40, n.4, pp. 499-502. ISSN 1851-6114.. Vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) have emerged as important pathogenic bacteria all over the world. The first outbreak of infections due to VRE occurred in Rosario in 2000 due to Enterococcus faecium with the Van-A phenotype. As the use of contact isolation precautions for VRE-colonized and infected patients was recommended in order to prevent the spread of vancomycin resistance, a study to determine the level of fecal colonization among patients hospitalized in critical areas was conducted. Samples of rectal swabs were obtained from patients hospitalized in intensive care units of four hospitals in Rosario looking for VRE. Sixty-four cases of colonized patients with VRE were detected among the 565 patients studied. Sixty E. faecium, and two Enterococcus ...
Glycopeptide antibiotics were synthesized via the PyBOP mediated condensation of aliphatic, heterocyclic and aromatic amines with the C-terminus of vancomycin, LY264826 (A82846B) and semi-synthetic derivatives of these natural products. Amides of LY264826 and vancomycin demonstrated excellent activi …
The objective of this study was to estimate the rate and significance of colonisation with vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) among hospitalised children. The PubMed and EMBASE databases were systematically searched (last accessed on 29 May 2016) to identify studies evaluating VRE colonisation of the gastrointestinal tract of hospitalised children in non-outbreak periods. Of 945 non-duplicate citations, 19 studies enrolling 20 234 children were included. The overall and paediatric intensive care unit (PICU) rate of VRE colonisation were both 5% [95% confidence interval (CI) 3-8% overall and 95% CI 2-9% in the PICU] but was 23% in haematology/oncology units (95% CI 18-29 ...
Enterococcus faecium ATCC ® 8459™ Designation: NCTC 2699 TypeStrain=False Application: Produces FAD flavin-adenine dinucleotide
Pyruvate Broth Test Objectives To determine the ability of an organism to utilize pyruvate. It aids in the differentiation between Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium. Principle In the identification of microorganisms, the widely used method is the ability of bacteria to form organic compounds by metabolizing certain carbohydrates and related compounds. Pyruvate broth is a carbohydrate-free, … Read more Pyruvate Broth Test. ...
Get the latest enterococci monitoring news on Environmental XPRT, the worlds largest environmental industry marketplace and information resource.
3ZG4: The Structure of Enterococcus Faecium L,D---Transpeptidase Acylated by Ertapenem Provides Insight Into the Inactivation Mechanism.
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Vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus hominis endophthalmitis following cataract surgery Jun Yeon Won,1 Moosang Kim21Department of Otolaryngology, School of Medicine, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon, Korea; 2Department of Ophthalmology, School of Medicine, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon, KoreaAbstract: We report a case of acute postoperative endophthalmitis caused by vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus hominis, treated at our hospital. An 80-year-old male presented 2 days after uncomplicated phacoemulsification and posterior chamber intraocular lens implantation, with a 24-hour history of progressive visual loss and redness in the operated (right) eye. On examination, best corrected visual acuity was counting fingers. Anterior segment examination revealed conjunctival injection, chemosis, corneal edema, and hypopyon. B-scan ultrasonography showed vitreous opacification, but no retinal detachment. Acute postoperative endophthalmitis was diagnosed. We performed vitrectomy with vancomycin in
Background: Vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE) are important hospital-acquired pathogens among hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT) recipients. We examined the incidence and outcomes of patients with VRE colonization and bacteremia (VREB) over a ten-year period at a center that routinely screens and uses barrier precautions for VRE. Methods: Adults receiving their first allogeneic HCT at our center between September 2007 and August 2016 were eligible for inclusion. Patients who were positive either by standardized pre-HCT stool/rectal screening or at any point two years prior to HCT were considered VRE colonized. Patients with acquired VRE were those with positive VRE cultures only post-HCT. Colonization and 100-day post-HCT VREB incidence rates were compared over time using linear regression. Cox proportional hazards models were constructed to assess the relationship between 100-day mortality and: a) pre-HCT colonization, and b) the number of days with sequential VREB cultures. ...
As a popular medicine for probiotic therapy to treat with patients with diarrhea, the safety of Shin Biofermin S is paramount. Therefore, in the present study, the species of the SBS-1 strain isolated from a commercial medicine (Shin Biofermin S) was determined via genome sequencing. Species identification is important for evaluating safety and is favorable for formulating therapeutic strategies. The scientific names of E. faecium have been changed several times. Streptococcus faecalis and Streptococcus faecium were separate until 1984, when DNA-DNA and DNA-rRNA hybridization tests revealed that they belonged to Enterococcus instead (5). Bergeys Manual of Systematic Bacteriology Volume 3: The Firmicutes also demonstrated this result (6), such that Streptococcus faecalis was renamed Enterococcus faecalis. In the food and health industry, E. faecium and E. faecalis have been used to improve the intestinal environment by regulating its inflammatory status and the gut microflora (2). However, the ...
Avoparcin, a glycopeptide antimicrobial agent related to vancomycin, has been used extensively as a growth promoter in animal feeds for more than 2 decades, and evidence has shown that such use contributed to the development of vancomycin-resistant enterococci. A cluster that includes three genes, vanH, vanA, and vanX, is required for high-level resistance to glycopeptides. In the vancomycin producer Amycolatopsis orientalis C329.2, homologs of these genes are present, suggesting an origin for the cluster. We found substantial bacterial DNA contamination in animal-feed-grade avoparcin. Furthermore, nucleotide sequences related to the cluster vanHAX are present in this DNA, suggesting that the prolonged use of avoparcin in agriculture led to the uptake of glycopeptide resistance genes by animal commensal bacteria, which were subsequently transferred to humans.
The frequency of infections with multiply antibiotic-resistant gram-positive bacteria is increasing, and in some cases these organisms remain susceptible only to the glycopeptides vancomycin and teicoplanin. The appearance of transferable high-level glycopeptide resistance in enterococci- producing some strains that are now resistant to all available antibiotics-is thus a cause for concern. The enterococci readily colonize the bowel, spread rapidly among hospital patients, and transfer their antibiotic resistances widely among themselves and other gram-positive species. Glycopeptide resistance has not yet transferred in vivo to other significant pathogens, but experimental transfer to Staphylococcus aureus has been achieved in vitro. The emergence of glycopeptideresistant enterococci has been encouraged by the increasing use of aminoglycosides, cephalosporins, and quinolones for the treatment of infections due to gram-negative bacteria and glycopeptides for infections due to staphylococci and ...
The last 30 years Enterococcus faecium has become an important nosocomial pathogen in hospitals worldwide. The aim of this study was to obtain insight in the cell surface proteome of E. faecium when grown in laboratory and clinically relevant conditions. Enterococcus faecium E1162, a clinical blood stream isolate, was grown ... read more until mid-log phase in brain heart infusion medium (BHI) with, or without 0.02% bile salts, Tryptic Soy Broth with 1% glucose (TSBg) and urine, and its cell surface was "shaved" using immobilized trypsin. Peptides were identified using MS/MS. Mapping against the translated E1162 whole genome sequence identified 67 proteins that were differentially detected in different conditions. In urine, 14 proteins were significantly more and nine proteins less abundant relative to the other conditions. Growth in BHI-bile and TSBg, revealed four and six proteins, respectively, which were uniquely present in these conditions while two proteins were uniquely present in both ...
The vancomycin agar screen is used to detect vancomycin-resistant enterococcal colonies that have been isolated from clinical or surveillance cultures. A standard number of bacteria is inoculated onto BHI agar containing 6 μg of vancomycin per ml. Following incubation, the appearance of growth indicates that the enterococcal isolate is likely to be resistant to vancomycin. MIC and species identification tests are subsequently required to determine if the isolate is a true vancomycin-resistant enterococcus (VRE) ( 1 , 2 ).
臺大位居世界頂尖大學之列,為永久珍藏及向國際展現本校豐碩的研究成果及學術能量,圖書館整合機構典藏(NTUR)與學術庫(AH)不同功能平台,成為臺大學術典藏NTU scholars。期能整合研究能量、促進交流合作、保存學術產出、推廣研究成果。. To permanently archive and promote researcher profiles and scholarly works, Library integrates the services of "NTU Repository" with "Academic Hub" to form NTU Scholars.. ...
BioAssay record AID 68231 submitted by ChEMBL: Compound was tested for the inhibition of cell wall biosynthesis and growth against Enterococcus faecium (ATCC51559) (Vancomycin-resistant).
BioAssay record AID 70693 submitted by ChEMBL: Antibacterial activity against Erythromycin faecium (vancomycin-resistant, erythromycin-resistant, ciprofloxacin-resistant).
Antibacterial activity of probiotic enterococci is often related to the production of bacteriocins. There is a variety of Enterococcus faecium strains which synthesise one or several enterocins including A, B, P, 96, L50AB and others. In this work we have analysed the probiotic strain E. faecium L3 whose genome contained the genes encoding enterocins А, В and a three-component reg ...
Three Streptococcal strains: S. milleri P213, S. milleri P35 and S. milleri B200 and three enterococcal strains: E. faecalis 123, E. faecalis 126 and E. faecium were used to test for vancomycin resistance. Two strains were used as reference strains that were already characterized as vancomycin resistant. E. faecium BM4147 was used as a VanA control and E. faecalis ATCC was used as a VanB control. Susceptibility of each strain to this antibiotic was tested by disk-diffusion assay and the MIC values for the strains were found to be between 5 - 10 ug/ml and for the VanA control, the MIC was , 64 ug/ml and for the VanB control was 32 ug/ml. These MIC values indicate that S. milleri P213, S. milleri P35, S. milleri B200, E. faecalis 123, E. faecalis 126, and E. faecium are all of the VanC phenotype. All strains were tested for lysis by means of addition of vancomycin (10 ug/ml) to the bacterial cultures. Lytic curves were constructed and the VanB control was found to be most autolytic upon addition ...

View source for FF:10839-111E2 - resource browserView source for FF:10839-111E2 - resource browser

... aminoacyl-tRNA ligase activity;3.65056143572494e-09!GO:0016875;ligase activity, forming carbon-oxygen bonds;3.65056143572494e- ... ligase activity, forming carbon-nitrogen bonds;1.89843902427685e-10!GO:0006366;transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter; ... with incorporation or reduction of molecular oxygen, 2-oxoglutarate as one donor, and incorporation of one atom each of oxygen ... acid-amino acid ligase activity;1.47946548571203e-07!GO:0006403;RNA localization;1.55596566207593e-07!GO:0046034;ATP metabolic ...
more infohttps://fantom.gsc.riken.jp/5/sstar/index.php?title=FF:10839-111E2&action=edit

aminoacyl tRNA synthetase p18 component
     Summary Report | CureHunteraminoacyl tRNA synthetase p18 component Summary Report | CureHunter

Ligases: 2113*Carbon-Oxygen Ligases*Amino Acyl-tRNA Synthetases: 128*aminoacyl tRNA synthetase p18 component ...
more infohttp://www.curehunter.com/public/keywordSummaryC101946-aminoacyl-tRNA-synthetase-p18-component.do

Phenylalanine-tRNA Ligase - RightDiagnosis.comPhenylalanine-tRNA Ligase - RightDiagnosis.com

Phenylalanine-tRNA Ligase information including symptoms, causes, diseases, symptoms, treatments, and other medical and health ... Ligases*Carbon-Oxygen Ligases*Amino Acyl-tRNA Synthetases*Phenylalanine-tRNA Ligase. Interesting Medical Articles:. *Symptoms ... Ligase Terms associated with Phenylalanine-tRNA Ligase:. Terms Similar to Phenylalanine-tRNA Ligase:. *Phenylalanyl T RNA ... Introduction: Phenylalanine-tRNA Ligase. Description of Phenylalanine-tRNA Ligase. Phenylalanine-tRNA Ligase: An enzyme that ...
more infohttps://www.rightdiagnosis.com/medical/phenylalanine_trna_ligase.htm

Metal-free Photocatalysts for the C-H Bond Oxygenation Reactions Using Oxygen as the Oxidant.Metal-free Photocatalysts for the C-H Bond Oxygenation Reactions Using Oxygen as the Oxidant.

Carbon-oxygen Ligases. Enzymes that catalyze the joining of two molecules by the formation of a carbon-oxygen bond. EC 6.1. ... Carbon-oxygen Lyases. Enzymes that catalyze the cleavage of a carbon-oxygen bond by means other than hydrolysis or oxidation. ... Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity. A measure of the ability of a substance, such as a food, to quench oxygen free radicals in ... A protocol for three-component reactions of cyclic ethers, α-diazo esters, and weak nitrogen, oxygen, carbon, and sulfur ...
more infohttps://www.bioportfolio.com/resources/pmarticle/2332184/Metal-free-Photocatalysts-for-the-C-H-Bond-Oxygenation-Reactions-Using-Oxygen.html

WO2013022982A3 - Pegylated tyrosyl-trna synthetase polypeptides 
        - Google PatentsWO2013022982A3 - Pegylated tyrosyl-trna synthetase polypeptides - Google Patents

C12Y601/00-Ligases forming carbon-oxygen bonds (6.1) * C12Y601/01-Ligases forming aminoacyl-tRNA and related compounds (6.1.1) ... polymeric or dendrimeric molecule obtained otherwise than by reactions only involving carbon-to-carbon unsaturated bonds, e.g. ... polymeric or dendrimeric molecule obtained otherwise than by reactions only involving carbon-to-carbon unsaturated bonds, e.g. ...
more infohttps://patents.google.com/patent/WO2013022982A3/en

Human Metabolome Database: Showing Protein Threonine--tRNA ligase, mitochondrial (HMDBP09249)Human Metabolome Database: Showing Protein Threonine--tRNA ligase, mitochondrial (HMDBP09249)

threonine-trna ligase activity. ligase activity, forming carbon-oxygen bonds. ligase activity, forming aminoacyl-trna and ... Showing Protein Threonine--tRNA ligase, mitochondrial (HMDBP09249). IdentificationBiological propertiesGene propertiesProtein ...
more infohttp://www.hmdb.ca/proteins/HMDBP09249

Carrier rate of resistant enterococci in a tertiary care hospital in Norway.  - PubMed - NCBICarrier rate of resistant enterococci in a tertiary care hospital in Norway. - PubMed - NCBI

Carbon-Oxygen Ligases/analysis. *Carrier State. *Digestive System Surgical Procedures. *Drug Resistance, Microbial ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10379681?dopt=Abstract

Metabolic responses to ethanol and butanol in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii | Biotechnology for Biofuels | Full TextMetabolic responses to ethanol and butanol in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii | Biotechnology for Biofuels | Full Text

"; "structural molecule activity"; and "ligase activity, forming carbon-oxygen bonds, aminoacyl-tRNA, and related compounds" ... Microalgae are photosynthetic microorganisms that can grow using carbon dioxide as sole carbon source and with minimal nutrient ... For butanol treatment, the "ribosome," "microbial metabolism in diverse environments," "carbon metabolism," and "carbon ... Metabolic engineering of cyanobacteria for 1-butanol production from carbon dioxide. Metab Eng. 2011;13:353-63.View Article ...
more infohttps://biotechnologyforbiofuels.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s13068-017-0931-9

Genome-wide analysis of mRNA decay patterns during early Drosophiladevelopment | Genome Biology | Full TextGenome-wide analysis of mRNA decay patterns during early Drosophiladevelopment | Genome Biology | Full Text

Ligase activity, forming carbon-oxygen bonds. 1.18E-04. Hydrolase activity, acting on acid anhydrides, in phosphorus-containing ...
more infohttps://genomebiology.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/gb-2010-11-9-r93

Welcome to CDC stacks | Vancomycin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Michigan, USA, 2007 - 17747 | Emerging Infectious DiseasesWelcome to CDC stacks | Vancomycin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Michigan, USA, 2007 - 17747 | Emerging Infectious Diseases

Carbon-Oxygen Ligases Dispatch DNA, Bacterial Electrophoresis, Gel, Pulsed-Field Humans Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus ...
more infohttps://stacks.cdc.gov/view/cdc/17747

Muramyl ligase - WikipediaMuramyl ligase - Wikipedia

Enzymes: CO CS and CN ligases (EC 6.1-6.3). 6.1: Carbon-Oxygen. *Aminoacyl tRNA synthetase *Alanine ... Stage two involves four key Mur ubiquitin ligase enzymes: MurC (EC),[1] MurD (EC),[2] MurE (EC) [3] and MurF (EC).[4] These ... 6-diaminopimelate ligase (MurE), and UDP-N-acetylmuramoyl-tripeptide-D-alanyl-D-alanine ligase (MurF). This entry also includes ... All four Mur ligases are topologically similar to one another, even though they display low sequence identity. They are each ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Muramyl_ligase

KEGG T03885: CDIF630 03120KEGG T03885: CDIF630 03120

6. Ligases. 6.1 Forming carbon-oxygen bonds. 6.1.1 Ligases forming aminoacyl-tRNA and related compounds. 6.1.1.13 D-alanine--- ... poly(phosphoribitol) ligase. CDIF630_03120 (dltA). Antimicrobial resistance genes [BR:pdc01504]. Gene sets. CAMP resistance ...
more infohttps://www.genome.jp/dbget-bin/www_bget?pdc:CDIF630_03120

Histidine-tRNA ligase - WikipediaHistidine-tRNA ligase - Wikipedia

Histidine-tRNA ligase belongs to the family of ligase enzymes, specifically those forming carbon-oxygen bonds in aminoacyl-tRNA ... In enzymology, a histidine-tRNA ligase (EC 6.1.1.21) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction ATP + L-histidine + ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is L-histidine:tRNAHis ligase (AMP-forming). Other names in common use include ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Histidine%E2%80%94tRNA_ligase

Tyrosine-tRNA ligase - WikipediaTyrosine-tRNA ligase - Wikipedia

This enzyme belongs to the family of ligases, to be specific those forming carbon-oxygen bonds in tRNA and related compounds. ... Tyrosine-tRNA ligase (EC 6.1.1.1), also known as tyrosyl-tRNA synthetase (symbol YARS), is an enzyme that catalyzes the ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tyrosine%E2%80%94tRNA_ligase

Gain of D-alanyl-D-lactate or D-lactyl-D-alanine synthetase activities in three active-site mutants of the Escherichia coli D...Gain of D-alanyl-D-lactate or D-lactyl-D-alanine synthetase activities in three active-site mutants of the Escherichia coli D...

Carbon-Oxygen Ligases * Drug Resistance * Escherichia coli * Hydrogen-Ion Concentration * Lactates * Ligases ... or D-lactyl-D-alanine synthetase activities in three active-site mutants of the Escherichia coli D-alanyl-D-alanine ligase B ...
more infohttps://vivo.scripps.edu/display/e2n56575

View source for FF:11684-122I1 - resource browserView source for FF:11684-122I1 - resource browser

... aminoacyl-tRNA ligase activity;7.29338040255133e-06!GO:0016875;ligase activity, forming carbon-oxygen bonds;7.29338040255133e- ... ligase activity, forming carbon-carbon bonds;0.00310298749495358!GO:0007040;lysosome organization and biogenesis; ... ligase activity, forming carbon-nitrogen bonds;2.11525603869065e-07!GO:0005319;lipid transporter activity;2.19020038963518e-07! ... ligase activity, forming carbon-sulfur bonds;0.0135211100688485!GO:0045045;secretory pathway;0.0137519256446866!GO:0030880;RNA ...
more infohttps://fantom.gsc.riken.jp/5/sstar/index.php?title=FF:11684-122I1&action=edit&oldid=3281795

KEGG BRITE: Enzymes - Histophilus somni 2336KEGG BRITE: Enzymes - Histophilus somni 2336

6.1 Forming carbon-oxygen bonds 6.1.1 Ligases forming aminoacyl-tRNA and related compounds ...
more infohttps://www.genome.jp/kegg-bin/get_htext?hsm01000+HSM_0803

DNA ligaseDNA ligase

ligase I, DNA, ATP-dependent Identifiers Symbol LIG1 Entrez 3978 HUGO 6598 OMIM 126391 RefSeq NM_000234 ... 6.1 - Carbon-Oxygen. Aminoacyl tRNA synthetase. 6.2 - Carbon-Sulfur. Succinyl coenzyme A synthetase - Acetyl Co-A synthetase - ... DNA ligase has applications in both DNA repair and DNA replication (see Mammalian ligases). In addition, DNA ligase has ... Mammalian ligases. In mammals, there are four specific types of ligase. *DNA ligase I: ligates Okazaki fragments during lagging ...
more infohttps://www.chemeurope.com/en/encyclopedia/DNA_ligase.html

Structural Biochemistry/Specific Enzymes and Catalytic Mechanisms/Enzyme Classification - Wikibooks, open books for an open...Structural Biochemistry/Specific Enzymes and Catalytic Mechanisms/Enzyme Classification - Wikibooks, open books for an open...

Ligases[edit]. *EC 6.1 includes ligases used to form carbon-oxygen bonds ... Ligases are used in catalysis where two substrates are ligated and the formation of carbon-carbon, carbon-sulfide, carbon- ... EC 6.2 includes ligases used to form carbon-sulfur bonds. *EC 6.3 includes ligases used to form carbon-nitrogen bonds ( ... EC 3.13: carbon-sulfur bonds. Lyases[edit]. *EC 4.1 includes lyases that cleave carbon-carbon bonds, such as decarboxylases (EC ...
more infohttps://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Structural_Biochemistry/Specific_Enzymes_and_Catalytic_Mechanisms/Enzyme_Classification

COLLAGEN AND FIBRIN MICROTHREADS IN A DISCRETE THREAD MODEL OF IN VITRO ACL SCAFFOLD REGENERATION - Patent applicationCOLLAGEN AND FIBRIN MICROTHREADS IN A DISCRETE THREAD MODEL OF IN VITRO ACL SCAFFOLD REGENERATION - Patent application

... wherein the ligase generates a carbon-oxygen bond, a carbon-sulfur bond, a carbon-nitrogen bond, or a carbon-carbon bond ... wherein the ligase generates a carbon-oxygen bond, a carbon-sulfur bond, a carbon-nitrogen bond, or a carbon-carbon bond ... carbon-oxygen bond, a carbon-sulfur bond, a carbon-nitrogen bond, or a carbon-carbon bond between the therapeutic agent and the ... Air dried fibrin threads were mounted on aluminum stubs (Ted Pella, Inc., Redding, Calif.) coated with double-sided carbon tape ...
more infohttp://www.patentsencyclopedia.com/app/20110034388
  • A recent study revealed that a human PRC1 complex composed of Bmi-1, HPH2, PC3 and Ring proteins (Ring1A & Ring1B), which are homologs of Drosophila Psc, Ph, Pc and dRing, respectively, is an E3 ubiquitin ligase complex that mono-ubiquitinates lysine 119 of nucleosomal histone H2A (15). (maixius.com)
  • It was shown that Bmi-1, a Drosophila Psc homolog that was originally discovered through its ability to collaborate with Myc in lymphomagenesis (20-22), plays a central role in the assembly of the PRC1 complex and, while Bmi-1 displays no detectable ubiquitin ligase activity, the binding of Bmi-1 greatly stimulates the E3 ligase activity of Ring1B (15,19). (maixius.com)
  • The catalytic subunit of the PRC1 E3 ligase complex is Ring1B. (maixius.com)
  • Under normal physiological conditions, nuclear Nrf2 contributes to vascular protection by inducing expression of the glutamate cysteine ligase modulatory subunit (GCLM) and the light chain component of system x c − (xCT) in human endothelial cells, while cytoplasmic Nrf2 is bound and inhibited by Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (Keap1) [ 15 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • DNA ligase III: complexes with DNA repair protein XRCC1 to aid in sealing base excision mutations and recombinant fragments. (chemeurope.com)
  • The RING finger protein Ring1B is an E3 ligase that participates in the ubiquitination of lysine 119 of histone H2A, and the binding of Bmi-1 stimulates the E3 ligase activity. (maixius.com)
  • To avoid confusion and allow us to focus on the key points of carbon fixation that are the subject of this paper, the bioenergetic aspects of the discussion have been framed in largely conventional terms. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • In short, thinking about the earliest carbon metabolism and about the origin of life in general has turned to searching extant carbon fixation pathways which do not conflict with geochemical boundary conditions and which, furthermore, directly couple energy metabolism to the biomass-generating process, both of which obviously need to be coupled to the abiotically available sources of free energy. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • It has a key regulatory role in the production of reactive oxygen species, cell cycle, heme homeostasis, hematopoiesis, and immunity and has been shown to suppress ischemic angiogenesis and promote breast cancer metastasis. (hindawi.com)
  • The following list attempts to classify Phenylalanine-tRNA Ligase into categories where each line is subset of the next. (rightdiagnosis.com)
  • In the past, attempts towards deducing the nature of the ancestral carbon metabolism were frequently torn between apparently opposing exigencies exerted by geochemistry, on the one hand, and by biology, on the other hand. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • The two regions of interaction have a synergistic effect on the E3 ligase activity. (maixius.com)
  • The E3 ligase activity has been shown to be important for the involvement of PRC1 in X-chromosome inactivation and the control of Hox gene expression (16-19). (maixius.com)
  • Building upon this conviction, we have assessed extant types of energy and carbon metabolism for their appropriateness to conditions probably pertaining in those settings of the Hadean planet that fulfil the thermodynamic requirements for life to come into being. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • All four Mur ligases are topologically similar to one another, even though they display low sequence identity. (wikipedia.org)
  • In molecular biology, DNA ligase is a particular type of ligase ( EC 6.5.1.1) that can link together DNA strands that have double-strand breaks (a break in both complementary strands of DNA). (chemeurope.com)
  • The quest for the earliest type of biomass-generating carbon metabolism is mostly informed by either or both of two distinct but equally concerned disciplines: palaeogeochemistry and biology. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • The common commercially available DNA ligases were originally discovered in bacteriophage T4, E. coli or other bacteria. (chemeurope.com)
  • Microalgae are photosynthetic microorganisms that can grow using carbon dioxide as sole carbon source and with minimal nutrient requirements. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In a previous study, ethanol synthesis was obtained by introducing pyruvate decarboxylase and alcohol dehydrogenase genes from Z. mobilis into a unicellular cyanobacterium, Synechococcus [ 14 ], indicating the feasibility of constructing an integrated system for converting solar energy and inorganic carbon source into biofuel directly. (biomedcentral.com)
  • More recently, inferences towards an ancestral carbon metabolism have increasingly tried to integrate requirements from both geochemistry and biology [ 1 - 5 ]. (royalsocietypublishing.org)