An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.
A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.
A diverse class of enzymes that interact with UBIQUITIN-CONJUGATING ENZYMES and ubiquitination-specific protein substrates. Each member of this enzyme group has its own distinct specificity for a substrate and ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme. Ubiquitin-protein ligases exist as both monomeric proteins multiprotein complexes.
Poly(deoxyribonucleotide):poly(deoxyribonucleotide)ligases. Enzymes that catalyze the joining of preformed deoxyribonucleotides in phosphodiester linkage during genetic processes during repair of a single-stranded break in duplex DNA. The class includes both EC (ATP) and EC (NAD).
A subset of ubiquitin protein ligases that are formed by the association of a SKP DOMAIN PROTEIN, a CULLIN DOMAIN PROTEIN and a F-BOX DOMAIN PROTEIN.
A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.
The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)
Molecules or ions formed by the incomplete one-electron reduction of oxygen. These reactive oxygen intermediates include SINGLET OXYGEN; SUPEROXIDES; PEROXIDES; HYDROXYL RADICAL; and HYPOCHLOROUS ACID. They contribute to the microbicidal activity of PHAGOCYTES, regulation of signal transduction and gene expression, and the oxidative damage to NUCLEIC ACIDS; PROTEINS; and LIPIDS.
Carbon monoxide (CO). A poisonous colorless, odorless, tasteless gas. It combines with hemoglobin to form carboxyhemoglobin, which has no oxygen carrying capacity. The resultant oxygen deprivation causes headache, dizziness, decreased pulse and respiratory rates, unconsciousness, and death. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
Nanometer-sized tubes composed mainly of CARBON. Such nanotubes are used as probes for high-resolution structural and chemical imaging of biomolecules with ATOMIC FORCE MICROSCOPY.
A family of structurally related proteins that were originally discovered for their role in cell-cycle regulation in CAENORHABDITIS ELEGANS. They play important roles in regulation of the CELL CYCLE and as components of UBIQUITIN-PROTEIN LIGASES.
The act of ligating UBIQUITINS to PROTEINS to form ubiquitin-protein ligase complexes to label proteins for transport to the PROTEASOME ENDOPEPTIDASE COMPLEX where proteolysis occurs.
Catalyze the joining of preformed ribonucleotides or deoxyribonucleotides in phosphodiester linkage during genetic processes. EC 6.5.1.
A highly conserved 76-amino acid peptide universally found in eukaryotic cells that functions as a marker for intracellular PROTEIN TRANSPORT and degradation. Ubiquitin becomes activated through a series of complicated steps and forms an isopeptide bond to lysine residues of specific proteins within the cell. These "ubiquitinated" proteins can be recognized and degraded by proteosomes or be transported to specific compartments within the cell.
Enzymes that catalyze the formation of acyl-CoA derivatives. EC 6.2.1.
Toxic asphyxiation due to the displacement of oxygen from oxyhemoglobin by carbon monoxide.
A zinc-binding domain defined by the sequence Cysteine-X2-Cysteine-X(9-39)-Cysteine-X(l-3)-His-X(2-3)-Cysteine-X2-Cysteine -X(4-48)-Cysteine-X2-Cysteine, where X is any amino acid. The RING finger motif binds two atoms of zinc, with each zinc atom ligated tetrahedrally by either four cysteines or three cysteines and a histidine. The motif also forms into a unitary structure with a central cross-brace region and is found in many proteins that are involved in protein-protein interactions. The acronym RING stands for Really Interesting New Gene.
Inhalation of oxygen aimed at restoring toward normal any pathophysiologic alterations of gas exchange in the cardiopulmonary system, as by the use of a respirator, nasal catheter, tent, chamber, or mask. (From Dorland, 27th ed & Stedman, 25th ed)
A class of enzymes that form a thioester bond to UBIQUITIN with the assistance of UBIQUITIN-ACTIVATING ENZYMES. They transfer ubiquitin to the LYSINE of a substrate protein with the assistance of UBIQUITIN-PROTEIN LIGASES.
Stable carbon atoms that have the same atomic number as the element carbon, but differ in atomic weight. C-13 is a stable carbon isotope.
An excited state of molecular oxygen generated photochemically or chemically. Singlet oxygen reacts with a variety of biological molecules such as NUCLEIC ACIDS; PROTEINS; and LIPIDS; causing oxidative damages.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of linear RNA to a circular form by the transfer of the 5'-phosphate to the 3'-hydroxyl terminus. It also catalyzes the covalent joining of two polyribonucleotides in phosphodiester linkage. EC
A solvent for oils, fats, lacquers, varnishes, rubber waxes, and resins, and a starting material in the manufacturing of organic compounds. Poisoning by inhalation, ingestion or skin absorption is possible and may be fatal. (Merck Index, 11th ed)
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A family of proteins that share the F-BOX MOTIF and are involved in protein-protein interactions. They play an important role in process of protein ubiquition by associating with a variety of substrates and then associating into SCF UBIQUITIN LIGASE complexes. They are held in the ubiquitin-ligase complex via binding to SKP DOMAIN PROTEINS.
Any of several processes for the permanent or long-term artificial or natural capture or removal and storage of carbon dioxide and other forms of carbon, through biological, chemical or physical processes, in a manner that prevents it from being released into the atmosphere.
A set of protein subcomplexes involved in PROTEIN SORTING of UBIQUITINATED PROTEINS into intraluminal vesicles of MULTIVESICULAR BODIES and in membrane scission during formation of intraluminal vesicles, during the final step of CYTOKINESIS, and during the budding of enveloped viruses. The ESCRT machinery is comprised of the protein products of Class E vacuolar protein sorting genes.
Stable oxygen atoms that have the same atomic number as the element oxygen, but differ in atomic weight. O-17 and 18 are stable oxygen isotopes.
A colorless, flammable, poisonous liquid, CS2. It is used as a solvent, and is a counterirritant and has local anesthetic properties but is not used as such. It is highly toxic with pronounced CNS, hematologic, and dermatologic effects.
A family of proteins that are structurally-related to Ubiquitin. Ubiquitins and ubiquitin-like proteins participate in diverse cellular functions, such as protein degradation and HEAT-SHOCK RESPONSE, by conjugation to other proteins.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A large multisubunit complex that plays an important role in the degradation of most of the cytosolic and nuclear proteins in eukaryotic cells. It contains a 700-kDa catalytic sub-complex and two 700-kDa regulatory sub-complexes. The complex digests ubiquitinated proteins and protein activated via ornithine decarboxylase antizyme.
The pressure that would be exerted by one component of a mixture of gases if it were present alone in a container. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Ligases that catalyze the joining of adjacent AMINO ACIDS by the formation of carbon-nitrogen bonds between their carboxylic acid groups and amine groups.
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Complexes of enzymes that catalyze the covalent attachment of UBIQUITIN to other proteins by forming a peptide bond between the C-terminal GLYCINE of UBIQUITIN and the alpha-amino groups of LYSINE residues in the protein. The complexes play an important role in mediating the selective-degradation of short-lived and abnormal proteins. The complex of enzymes can be broken down into three components that involve activation of ubiquitin (UBIQUITIN-ACTIVATING ENZYMES), conjugation of ubiquitin to the ligase complex (UBIQUITIN-CONJUGATING ENZYMES), and ligation of ubiquitin to the substrate protein (UBIQUITIN-PROTEIN LIGASES).
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
An oligomer formed from the repetitive linking of the C-terminal glycine of one UBIQUITIN molecule via an isopeptide bond to a lysine residue on a second ubiquitin molecule. It is structurally distinct from UBIQUITIN C, which is a single protein containing a tandemly arrayed ubiquitin peptide sequence.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
The therapeutic intermittent administration of oxygen in a chamber at greater than sea-level atmospheric pressures (three atmospheres). It is considered effective treatment for air and gas embolisms, smoke inhalation, acute carbon monoxide poisoning, caisson disease, clostridial gangrene, etc. (From Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992). The list of treatment modalities includes stroke.
A class of enzymes that catalyzes the ATP-dependent formation of a thioester bond between itself and UBIQUITIN. It then transfers the activated ubiquitin to one of the UBIQUITIN-PROTEIN LIGASES.
Enzymes that catalyze the joining of two molecules by the formation of a carbon-oxygen bond. EC 6.1.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Proto-oncogene proteins that negatively regulate RECEPTOR PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE signaling. It is a UBIQUITIN-PROTEIN LIGASE and the cellular homologue of ONCOGENE PROTEIN V-CBL.
Cleavage of proteins into smaller peptides or amino acids either by PROTEASES or non-enzymatically (e.g., Hydrolysis). It does not include Protein Processing, Post-Translational.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
A family of structurally-related proteins that were originally identified by their ability to complex with cyclin proteins (CYCLINS). They share a common domain that binds specifically to F-BOX MOTIFS. They take part in SKP CULLIN F-BOX PROTEIN LIGASES, where they can bind to a variety of F-BOX PROTEINS.
A family of structurally related proteins that are constitutively expressed and that negatively regulate cytokine-mediated SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS. PIAS proteins inhibit the activity of signal transducers and activators of transcription.
Relatively complete absence of oxygen in one or more tissues.
A 1.5-kDa small ubiquitin-related modifier protein that can covalently bind via an isopeptide link to a number of cellular proteins. It may play a role in intracellular protein transport and a number of other cellular processes.
A class of structurally related proteins of 12-20 kDa in size. They covalently modify specific proteins in a manner analogous to UBIQUITIN.
The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.
An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.
A strong oxidizing agent used in aqueous solution as a ripening agent, bleach, and topical anti-infective. It is relatively unstable and solutions deteriorate over time unless stabilized by the addition of acetanilide or similar organic materials.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).
Life or metabolic reactions occurring in an environment containing oxygen.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
A measure of the total greenhouse gas emissions produced by an individual, organization, event, or product. It is measured in units of equivalent kilograms of CARBON DIOXIDE generated in a given time frame.
The determination of oxygen-hemoglobin saturation of blood either by withdrawing a sample and passing it through a classical photoelectric oximeter or by electrodes attached to some translucent part of the body like finger, earlobe, or skin fold. It includes non-invasive oxygen monitoring by pulse oximetry.
The complete absence, or (loosely) the paucity, of gaseous or dissolved elemental oxygen in a given place or environment. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
Unstable isotopes of carbon that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. C atoms with atomic weights 10, 11, and 14-16 are radioactive carbon isotopes.
Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.
The gaseous envelope surrounding a planet or similar body. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Total mass of all the organisms of a given type and/or in a given area. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990) It includes the yield of vegetative mass produced from any given crop.
A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group esterified to the sugar moiety in the 2'-, 3'-, or 5'-position.
Commonly observed structural components of proteins formed by simple combinations of adjacent secondary structures. A commonly observed structure may be composed of a CONSERVED SEQUENCE which can be represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
The oxygen-carrying proteins of ERYTHROCYTES. They are found in all vertebrates and some invertebrates. The number of globin subunits in the hemoglobin quaternary structure differs between species. Structures range from monomeric to a variety of multimeric arrangements.
Measurement of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the blood.
The synthesis by organisms of organic chemical compounds, especially carbohydrates, from carbon dioxide using energy obtained from light rather than from the oxidation of chemical compounds. Photosynthesis comprises two separate processes: the light reactions and the dark reactions. In higher plants; GREEN ALGAE; and CYANOBACTERIA; NADPH and ATP formed by the light reactions drive the dark reactions which result in the fixation of carbon dioxide. (from Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2001)
Derangement in size and number of muscle fibers occurring with aging, reduction in blood supply, or following immobilization, prolonged weightlessness, malnutrition, and particularly in denervation.
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
A compound formed by the combination of hemoglobin and oxygen. It is a complex in which the oxygen is bound directly to the iron without causing a change from the ferrous to the ferric state.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
Naturally occurring or synthetic substances that inhibit or retard the oxidation of a substance to which it is added. They counteract the harmful and damaging effects of oxidation in animal tissues.
Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.
An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.
Macromolecular complexes formed from the association of defined protein subunits.
A dark powdery deposit of unburned fuel residues, composed mainly of amorphous CARBON and some HYDROCARBONS, that accumulates in chimneys, automobile mufflers and other surfaces exposed to smoke. It is the product of incomplete combustion of carbon-rich organic fuels in low oxygen conditions. It is sometimes called lampblack or carbon black and is used in INK, in rubber tires, and to prepare CARBON NANOTUBES.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
An essential amino acid. It is often added to animal feed.
Highly reactive molecules with an unsatisfied electron valence pair. Free radicals are produced in both normal and pathological processes. They are proven or suspected agents of tissue damage in a wide variety of circumstances including radiation, damage from environment chemicals, and aging. Natural and pharmacological prevention of free radical damage is being actively investigated.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Proteins that originate from plants species belonging to the genus ARABIDOPSIS. The most intensely studied species of Arabidopsis, Arabidopsis thaliana, is commonly used in laboratory experiments.
Elimination of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS; PESTICIDES and other waste using living organisms, usually involving intervention of environmental or sanitation engineers.
Systems of enzymes which function sequentially by catalyzing consecutive reactions linked by common metabolic intermediates. They may involve simply a transfer of water molecules or hydrogen atoms and may be associated with large supramolecular structures such as MITOCHONDRIA or RIBOSOMES.
The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The exchange of OXYGEN and CARBON DIOXIDE between alveolar air and pulmonary capillary blood that occurs across the BLOOD-AIR BARRIER.
A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.
A cell line generated from human embryonic kidney cells that were transformed with human adenovirus type 5.
An oxidoreductase that catalyzes the reaction between superoxide anions and hydrogen to yield molecular oxygen and hydrogen peroxide. The enzyme protects the cell against dangerous levels of superoxide. EC
The act of breathing with the LUNGS, consisting of INHALATION, or the taking into the lungs of the ambient air, and of EXHALATION, or the expelling of the modified air which contains more CARBON DIOXIDE than the air taken in (Blakiston's Gould Medical Dictionary, 4th ed.). This does not include tissue respiration (= OXYGEN CONSUMPTION) or cell respiration (= CELL RESPIRATION).
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
An oxidoreductase that catalyzes the conversion of HYDROGEN PEROXIDE to water and oxygen. It is present in many animal cells. A deficiency of this enzyme results in ACATALASIA.
Derivatives of ACETIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxymethane structure.
Electric conductors through which electric currents enter or leave a medium, whether it be an electrolytic solution, solid, molten mass, gas, or vacuum.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).
Cell surface receptors for AUTOCRINE MOTILITY FACTOR, which is the secreted form of GLUCOSE-6-PHOSPHATE ISOMERASE. The receptor has an unusual composition in that it shares some structural similarities with G-PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTORS and functions as an ubiquitin protein ligase when internalized.
The facilitation of biochemical reactions with the aid of naturally occurring catalysts such as ENZYMES.
Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.
An E3 ubiquitin ligase primarily involved in regulation of the metaphase-to-anaphase transition during MITOSIS through ubiquitination of specific CELL CYCLE PROTEINS. Enzyme activity is tightly regulated through subunits and cofactors, which modulate activation, inhibition, and substrate specificity. The anaphase-promoting complex, or APC-C, is also involved in tissue differentiation in the PLACENTA, CRYSTALLINE LENS, and SKELETAL MUSCLE, and in regulation of postmitotic NEURONAL PLASTICITY and excitability.
Substances that influence the course of a chemical reaction by ready combination with free radicals. Among other effects, this combining activity protects pancreatic islets against damage by cytokines and prevents myocardial and pulmonary perfusion injuries.
Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.
Cellular processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of CARBOHYDRATES.
An abnormal increase in the amount of oxygen in the tissues and organs.
Injuries to DNA that introduce deviations from its normal, intact structure and which may, if left unrepaired, result in a MUTATION or a block of DNA REPLICATION. These deviations may be caused by physical or chemical agents and occur by natural or unnatural, introduced circumstances. They include the introduction of illegitimate bases during replication or by deamination or other modification of bases; the loss of a base from the DNA backbone leaving an abasic site; single-strand breaks; double strand breaks; and intrastrand (PYRIMIDINE DIMERS) or interstrand crosslinking. Damage can often be repaired (DNA REPAIR). If the damage is extensive, it can induce APOPTOSIS.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.
A condition of decreased oxygen content at the cellular level.
The noninvasive measurement or determination of the partial pressure (tension) of oxygen and/or carbon dioxide locally in the capillaries of a tissue by the application to the skin of a special set of electrodes. These electrodes contain photoelectric sensors capable of picking up the specific wavelengths of radiation emitted by oxygenated versus reduced hemoglobin.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
An allotropic form of carbon that is used in pencils, as a lubricant, and in matches and explosives. It is obtained by mining and its dust can cause lung irritation.
Screening techniques first developed in yeast to identify genes encoding interacting proteins. Variations are used to evaluate interplay between proteins and other molecules. Two-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for protein-protein interactions, one-hybrid for DNA-protein interactions, three-hybrid interactions for RNA-protein interactions or ligand-based interactions. Reverse n-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for mutations or other small molecules that dissociate known interactions.
A coenzyme composed of ribosylnicotinamide 5'-diphosphate coupled to adenosine 5'-phosphate by pyrophosphate linkage. It is found widely in nature and is involved in numerous enzymatic reactions in which it serves as an electron carrier by being alternately oxidized (NAD+) and reduced (NADH). (Dorland, 27th ed)
The unconsolidated mineral or organic matter on the surface of the earth that serves as a natural medium for the growth of land plants.
A flavoprotein enzyme that catalyzes the univalent reduction of OXYGEN using NADPH as an electron donor to create SUPEROXIDE ANION. The enzyme is dependent on a variety of CYTOCHROMES. Defects in the production of superoxide ions by enzymes such as NADPH oxidase result in GRANULOMATOUS DISEASE, CHRONIC.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.
The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.
A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Highly reactive compounds produced when oxygen is reduced by a single electron. In biological systems, they may be generated during the normal catalytic function of a number of enzymes and during the oxidation of hemoglobin to METHEMOGLOBIN. In living organisms, SUPEROXIDE DISMUTASE protects the cell from the deleterious effects of superoxides.
The reconstruction of a continuous two-stranded DNA molecule without mismatch from a molecule which contained damaged regions. The major repair mechanisms are excision repair, in which defective regions in one strand are excised and resynthesized using the complementary base pairing information in the intact strand; photoreactivation repair, in which the lethal and mutagenic effects of ultraviolet light are eliminated; and post-replication repair, in which the primary lesions are not repaired, but the gaps in one daughter duplex are filled in by incorporation of portions of the other (undamaged) daughter duplex. Excision repair and post-replication repair are sometimes referred to as "dark repair" because they do not require light.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
The aggregation of soluble ANTIGENS with ANTIBODIES, alone or with antibody binding factors such as ANTI-ANTIBODIES or STAPHYLOCOCCAL PROTEIN A, into complexes large enough to fall out of solution.
The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The region of an enzyme that interacts with its substrate to cause the enzymatic reaction.
Members of the peptidase C19 family which regulate signal transduction by removing UBIQUITIN from specific protein substrates via a process known as deubiquitination or deubiquitylation.
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
Hydrolases that specifically cleave the peptide bonds found in PROTEINS and PEPTIDES. Examples of sub-subclasses for this group include EXOPEPTIDASES and ENDOPEPTIDASES.
The simplest saturated hydrocarbon. It is a colorless, flammable gas, slightly soluble in water. It is one of the chief constituents of natural gas and is formed in the decomposition of organic matter. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
The class of all enzymes catalyzing oxidoreduction reactions. The substrate that is oxidized is regarded as a hydrogen donor. The systematic name is based on donor:acceptor oxidoreductase. The recommended name will be dehydrogenase, wherever this is possible; as an alternative, reductase can be used. Oxidase is only used in cases where O2 is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p9)
Inorganic compounds that contain carbon as an integral part of the molecule but are not derived from hydrocarbons.
The protein constituents of muscle, the major ones being ACTINS and MYOSINS. More than a dozen accessory proteins exist including TROPONIN; TROPOMYOSIN; and DYSTROPHIN.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.
A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
Complex sets of enzymatic reactions connected to each other via their product and substrate metabolites.
An electrochemical technique for measuring the current that flows in solution as a function of an applied voltage. The observed polarographic wave, resulting from the electrochemical response, depends on the way voltage is applied (linear sweep or differential pulse) and the type of electrode used. Usually a mercury drop electrode is used.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.
A mixed function oxidase enzyme which during hemoglobin catabolism catalyzes the degradation of heme to ferrous iron, carbon monoxide and biliverdin in the presence of molecular oxygen and reduced NADPH. The enzyme is induced by metals, particularly cobalt. EC
The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
Woody, usually tall, perennial higher plants (Angiosperms, Gymnosperms, and some Pterophyta) having usually a main stem and numerous branches.
Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.
A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
The vapor state of matter; nonelastic fluids in which the molecules are in free movement and their mean positions far apart. Gases tend to expand indefinitely, to diffuse and mix readily with other gases, to have definite relations of volume, temperature, and pressure, and to condense or liquefy at low temperatures or under sufficient pressure. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
A normal intermediate in the fermentation (oxidation, metabolism) of sugar. The concentrated form is used internally to prevent gastrointestinal fermentation. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
A series of oxidative reactions in the breakdown of acetyl units derived from GLUCOSE; FATTY ACIDS; or AMINO ACIDS by means of tricarboxylic acid intermediates. The end products are CARBON DIOXIDE, water, and energy in the form of phosphate bonds.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
Hypoxia-inducible factor 1, alpha subunit is a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor that is regulated by OXYGEN availability and is targeted for degradation by VHL TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
An enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of a phosphate group to the 5'-terminal hydroxyl groups of DNA and RNA. EC
The process by which ELECTRONS are transported from a reduced substrate to molecular OXYGEN. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary and Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984, p270)
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Techniques used for determining the values of photometric parameters of light resulting from LUMINESCENCE.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
The salinated water of OCEANS AND SEAS that provides habitat for marine organisms.
The mixture of gases present in the earth's atmosphere consisting of oxygen, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, and small amounts of other gases.
A free radical gas produced endogenously by a variety of mammalian cells, synthesized from ARGININE by NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE. Nitric oxide is one of the ENDOTHELIUM-DEPENDENT RELAXING FACTORS released by the vascular endothelium and mediates VASODILATION. It also inhibits platelet aggregation, induces disaggregation of aggregated platelets, and inhibits platelet adhesion to the vascular endothelium. Nitric oxide activates cytosolic GUANYLATE CYCLASE and thus elevates intracellular levels of CYCLIC GMP.
The art or process of comparing photometrically the relative intensities of the light in different parts of the spectrum.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
Salts or esters of LACTIC ACID containing the general formula CH3CHOHCOOR.
The processes by which organisms use simple inorganic substances such as gaseous or dissolved carbon dioxide and inorganic nitrogen as nutrient sources. Contrasts with heterotrophic processes which make use of organic materials as the nutrient supply source. Autotrophs can be either chemoautotrophs (or chemolithotrophs), largely ARCHAEA and BACTERIA, which also use simple inorganic substances for their metabolic energy reguirements; or photoautotrophs (or photolithotrophs), such as PLANTS and CYANOBACTERIA, which derive their energy from light. Depending on environmental conditions some organisms can switch between different nutritional modes (autotrophy; HETEROTROPHY; chemotrophy; or PHOTOTROPHY) to utilize different sources to meet their nutrient and energy requirements.
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in nature. Some species are pathogenic for humans, animals, and plants.
An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.
An E3 UBIQUITIN LIGASE that interacts with and inhibits TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN P53. Its ability to ubiquitinate p53 is regulated by TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN P14ARF.
The ability of a protein to retain its structural conformation or its activity when subjected to physical or chemical manipulations.
Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared range.
Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)
Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.
A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.

Molecular diversity and evolutionary relationships of Tn1546-like elements in enterococci from humans and animals. (1/206)

We report on a detailed study on the molecular diversity and evolutionary relationships of Tn1546-like elements in vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) from humans and animals. Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of the VanA transposon of 97 VRE revealed seven different Tn1546 types. Subsequent sequencing of the complete VanA transposons of 13 VRE isolates representing the seven RFLP types followed by sequencing of the identified polymorphic regions in 84 other VanA transposons resulted in the identification of 22 different Tn1546 derivatives. Differences between the Tn1546 types included point mutations in orf1, vanS, vanA, vanX, and vanY. Moreover, insertions of an IS1216V-IS3-like element in orf1, of IS1251 in the vanS-vanH intergenic region, and of IS1216V in the vanX-vanY intergenic region were found. The presence of insertion sequence elements was often associated with deletions in Tn1546. Identical Tn1546 types were found among isolates from humans and farm animals in The Netherlands, suggesting the sharing of a common vancomycin resistance gene pool. Application of the genetic analysis of Tn1546 to VRE isolates causing infections in Hospitals in Oxford, United Kingdom, and Chicago, Ill., suggested the possibility of the horizontal transmission of the vancomycin resistance transposon. The genetic diversity in Tn1546 combined with epidemiological data suggest that the DNA polymorphism among Tn1546 variants can successfully be exploited for the tracing of the routes of transmission of vancomycin resistance genes.  (+info)

Survey of antibiotic resistance among enterococci in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. (2/206)

A surveillance study on antibiotic resistance of enterococcal isolates (n = 730) was carried out in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany, in 1997. Resistance rates to ampicillin (7.4%), high-level gentamicin (15.0%), high-level streptomycin (27.9%), ciprofloxacin (37.9%), vancomycin (1.5%), and teicoplanin (1.5%) were determined. All vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) carried the vanA gene. SmaI and ApaI macrorestriction patterns indicated an intra- and interhospital spread of VRE.  (+info)

From vanA Enterococcus hirae to vanA Enterococcus faecium: a study of feed supplementation with avoparcin and tylosin in young chickens. (3/206)

Fifteen newborn chickens were isolated in separate cages after 1 month of living together, divided into three groups, and challenged for 5 weeks with seed food which either was supplemented with avoparcin (10 mg/kg of animal food) or tylosin (40 mg/kg) or was nonsupplemented. At 9 weeks of age and after the 5-week challenge, all chickens received nonsupplemented feed for 4 additional weeks. At 4, 9, and 13 weeks of life, feces were collected and inoculated on M-Enterococcus agar plates with and without vancomycin (4 micrograms/ml). vanA-containing Enterococcus hirae was isolated from 11 of 15 chickens before antibiotic challenge, without detection of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium. At 9 weeks of age and after the 5-week avoparcin challenge, vanA E. hirae strains were no longer detected, but five of five chickens now had vanA E. faecium. At a lower frequency, vanA E. faecium had also displaced vanA E. hirae in both the tylosin group (one of four chickens) and the control group (two of five chickens). One month after avoparcin discontinuation, the number of chickens colonized with vanA E. faecium decreased from five to one. All vanA-containing E. hirae strains detected in the first month of life and most of the vanA-containing E. faecium strains detected in the second month of life showed identical ApaI and SmaI restriction patterns, respectively, when analyzed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. All vanA E. hirae isolates transferred glycopeptide and macrolide resistance to Enterococcus faecalis JH2-2 in vitro; the level of glycopeptide resistance was higher in the transconjugants than in the donor E. hirae strains. These data suggest that E. hirae may be a significant source of vanA determinants with the potential of transfer to other enterococcal species from humans or animals.  (+info)

Chemical modification of antibiotic eremomycin at the asparagine side chain. (4/206)

AA3-Carboxyeremomycin 2, obtained by selective hydrolysis of antibiotic eremomycin was used as a starting compound for the eremomycin chemical modifications at the asparagine side chain to be transformed into eremomycin AA3, AA7 bis-amides (3a-c). Bis-benzylamide 3b displayed an activity (8 microg/ml) against an E. faecium VanA strain.  (+info)

Genetic analysis of a chromosomal region containing vanA and vanB, genes required for conversion of either ferulate or vanillate to protocatechuate in Acinetobacter. (5/206)

VanA and VanB form an oxygenative demethylase that converts vanillate to protocatechuate in microorganisms. Ferulate, an abundant phytochemical, had been shown to be metabolized through a vanillate intermediate in several Pseudomonas isolates, and biochemical evidence had indicated that vanillate also is an intermediate in ferulate catabolism by Acinetobacter. Genetic evidence supporting this conclusion was obtained by characterization of mutant Acinetobacter strains blocked in catabolism of both ferulate and vanillate. Cloned Acinetobacter vanA and vanB were shown to be members of a chromosomal segment remote from a supraoperonic cluster containing other genes required for completion of the catabolism of ferulate and its structural analogs, caffeate and coumarate, through protocatechuate. The nucleotide sequence of DNA containing vanA and vanB demonstrated the presence of genes that, on the basis of nucleotide sequence similarity, appeared to be associated with transport of aromatic compounds, metabolism of such compounds, or iron scavenging. Spontaneous deletion of 100 kb of DNA containing this segment does not impede the growth of cells with simple carbon sources other than vanillate or ferulate. Additional spontaneous mutations blocking vanA and vanB expression were shown to be mediated by IS1236, including insertion of the newly discovered composite transposon Tn5613. On the whole, vanA and vanB appear to be located within a nonessential genetic region that exhibits considerable genetic malleability in Acinetobacter. The overall organization of genes neighboring Acinetobacter vanA and vanB, including a putative transcriptional regulatory gene that is convergently transcribed and overlaps vanB, is conserved in Pseudomonas aeruginosa but has undergone radical rearrangement in other Pseudomonas species.  (+info)

Moderate-level resistance to glycopeptide LY333328 mediated by genes of the vanA and vanB clusters in enterococci. (6/206)

Three of five natural plasmids carrying a wild-type vanA gene cluster did not confer LY333328 glycopeptide resistance on Enterococcus faecalis JH2-2 (MIC = 2 microg/ml). The two remaining plasmids conferred resistance to the drug (MIC, 8 microg/ml). The vanB gene cluster did not confer resistance to LY333328, since this antibiotic was not an inducer. Mutations in the vanS(B) sensor gene that allowed induction by teicoplanin or constitutive expression of the vanB cluster led to LY333328 resistance (MIC, 8 to 16 microg/ml). Overproduction of the VanH, VanA, and VanX proteins for D-alanyl-D-lactate (D-Ala-D-Lac) synthesis and D-Ala-D-Ala hydrolysis was sufficient for resistance to LY333328 (MIC, 16 microg/ml). Mutations in the host D-Ala:D-Ala ligase contributed to LY333328 resistance in certain VanA- and VanB-type strains, but the MICs of the antibiotic did not exceed 16 microg/ml. Addition of D-2-hydroxybutyrate in the culture medium of mutants that did not produce the VanH D-lactate dehydrogenase led to incorporation of this D-2-hydroxy acid at the C-terminal ends of the peptidoglycan precursors and to LY333328 resistance (MIC, 64 microg/ml). The vanZ gene of the vanA cluster conferred resistance to LY333328 (MIC, 8 microg/ml) by an unknown mechanism. These data indicate that VanA- and VanB-type enterococci may acquire moderate-level resistance to LY333328 (MIC +info)

Evaluation of a vanA-specific PCR assay for detection of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium during a hospital outbreak. (7/206)

We investigated the use of PCR as an alternative to culture of fecal samples for detection of vanA-containing Enterococcus faecium during a recent hospital outbreak. Rectal swabs collected consecutively from 223 patients were analyzed by culture with and without enrichment broth and by vanA-specific PCR of enrichment broth samples. Fifty-five specimens were positive for vanA-containing E. faecium by at least one method. The sensitivities of the vanA-specific PCR assay and agar culture with and without enrichment broth were 94.5, 98, and 89%, respectively. All three methods were 100% specific. Final results were obtained much more rapidly by PCR (within 24 to 30 h of specimen submission) than by the culture methods (4 to 5 days). Thus, PCR is an accurate and rapid alternative to culture for detection of vancomycin-resistant enterococci during hospital outbreaks.  (+info)

Synergy testing of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium against quinupristin-dalfopristin in combination with other antimicrobial agents. (8/206)

Using checkerboard and time-kill assays, we evaluated the in vitro activity of quinupristin-dalfopristin (RP 59500) alone and in combination with five other antimicrobial agents against 12 clinical strains of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VREF). In time-kill studies, six VREF strains exhibited synergism with the combination of quinupristin-dalfopristin and doxycycline and three exhibited synergism with quinupristin-dalfopristin plus ampicillin-sulbactam. Combinations of quinupristin-dalfopristin with these and other agents warrant further clinical evaluation for the treatment of serious VREF infections.  (+info)

Gain of D-alanyl-D-lactate or D-lactyl-D-alanine synthetase activities in three active-site mutants of the Escherichia coli D-alanyl-D-alanine ligase B ...
سابقه و هدف: انتروکوک ها به صورت فلور نرمال در دستگاه گوارش انسان و بسیاری از پستانداران وجود دارند. امروزه افزایش شیوع انتروکوک های مقاوم به ونکومایسین در بیمارستان های سراسر جهان یک مشکل مهم به شمار می آید. این مطالعه با هدف ارزیابی شیوع سویه های انتروکوک، الگوی مقاومت به آنتی بیوتیک و نیز تعیین مهم ترین ژن های ایجاد کننده مقاومت به ونکومایسین (vanA و vanB) در نمونه های بالینی انجام شده است. مواد و روش ها: این پژوهش به صورت مقطعی-توصیفی بر روی 54 نمونه انتروکوک جمع آوری شده از نمونه های بالینی (ادرار، زخم، خون و مایع آسیت) بیماران بستری در بیمارستان شهید محمدی
Food supplements containing viable bacteria, so called probiotics, have been suggested to have beneficial health effects due to their influence on the normal microflora. However, there has been safety concern regarding probiotics containing Enterococcus faecium. Although part of the normal intestinal microflora in humans, enterococci can cause infections such as urinary tract infections, septicaemia, and endocarditis. Enterococci are also inclined to develop antibiotic resistance and their hardy nature promotes survival and dissemination in the hospital setting. Although the importance of E.faecium as a bloodstream isolate is increasing, little regarding its virulence is known. One virulence trait attributed to E. faecium is the enterococcal surface protein, Esp, encoded by the esp gene. Since enterococci have different roles from the human perspective, such as occurrence in food, as probiotic strains, members of the normal intestinal microflora, and as the cause of nosocomial infections, it is ...
The prevalence of VRE in Latin America has remained low, less than 2 (Low et al. 2001). The majority of the strains isolated in Latin America are of the vanA genotype (Dalla Costa et al. 1998 Marin et al. 1998 Panesso et al. 2002), although Chile and Argentina have already reported cases of vanB (Miranda et al. 2003). In August 1996, the first glycopeptide-resistant E. faecium of the VanD phenotype was isolated in Brazil (Dalla Costa et al. 1998). No other VRE strain was isolated in that.... ...
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[44 Pages Report] Check for Discount on Vancomycin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (VRSA) Infections - Pipeline Review, H1 2016 report by Global Markets Direct. Global Markets Directs, Vancomycin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (VRSA) Infections -...
Edmond and colleagues [1] gave their perspectives on the measures necessary to control transmission of vancomycin-resistant S. aureus. Most of the measures they suggest are not new and are similar to measures recommended by the Hospital Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee for preventing the spread of vancomycin-resistant enterococci [2]. However, they did suggest some measures that are unique and may be difficult to follow. They stated that a monitor could be placed at the door of a patient infected or colonized with vancomycin-resistant S. aureus. This monitor would prevent unauthorized access and enforce hand ...
VRSA: Vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Links with this icon indicate that you are leaving the CDC website. böyle olur. If you did that just to provide this file you wasted your time im afraid. O VRS Superbug vai mais longe em pequenos detalhes com a possibilidade de efectuar fuel dump (largar combustível em excesso), decidir um alarme para combustível em falta (bingo), largar stores para libertar peso (jettison), reabastecer em voo, largar contra-medidas para defesa anti-missil e até mesmo o HUD possui selecção da cor dos gráficos. Back image At least seven people were infected and two of them died after being exposed to an antibiotic-resistant superbug during specialized. Sometimes worth paying that for me, someone had said he had accepted citation in this province Affect your premiums and keep me as i know, claims against him Av fresno 93704 559 451-0883 No time limit, florida may have family and friends It was the doctors diagnosis of these discounts, dont expect much ...
The vancomycin resistance gene clusters contain three general categories of genes, the core resistance proteins (VanHAX), the accessory proteins (VanJKWYZ and MurF2), and the sensor-regulator genes (VanRS). The accessory proteins are not essential for resistance but are known to enhance resistance in some bacteria. Other accessory genes, such as vanW, have unknown function at this time. The VanB resistance cluster is similar to VanA in that it is acquired and inducible, but it differs on sequence identity. Its terminal product is D-ala-D-lac.. ...
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Vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus are strains of Staphylococcus aureus that have become resistant to the glycopeptide antibiotic vancomycin. Strains of hVISA and VISA do not have resistant genes found in Enterococcus and the proposed mechanisms of resistance include the sequential mutations resulting in a thicker cell wall and the synthesis of excess amounts of D-ala-D-ala residues. VRSA strain acquired the vancomycin resistance gene cluster vanA from VRE. The diagnosis of vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus can be done with disk diffusion(and VA screen plate) For isolates with a Vancomycin MIC > 2 µg/mL, an alternative to Vancomycin should be used. The approach is to treat with at least one agent to which VISA/VRSA is known to be susceptible by in vitro testing. The agents that are used include daptomycin, linezolid, telavancin, ceftaroline, quinupristin-dalfopristin. For people with MRSA bacteremia in the setting of vancomycin failure the IDSA recommends high-dose daptomycin, ...
A summary of the sequence analysis of the plasmid Tn1546-like elements and their comparison to the prototype element (designated type I in this study) are shown in Fig. 4. The vanS genes of all of the Chinese isolates were identical to that of the BM4147 strain and had no substitutions. Three specific substitutions within VanS result in low-level teicoplanin resistance, which is frequently found in East Asian VRE isolates (9, 15, 18, 34). The Tn1546-like elements of the 13 isolates were classified into six types based on sequence analysis and were designated type I to type VI (Fig. 4). We have reported two VanA-type VRE (E. faecium) clinical isolates, C264 and I125, which were originally isolated from patients in China (35). The Tn1546-like elements of both strains contained the insertion sequences IS1216V and IS1542 and are classified as type V and type VI, respectively (Fig. 4).. Our group reported the first case of VanA-type Enterococcus faecalis: strain KC122.1, isolated in Japan from ...
Given the dramatic increase in the incidence of vancomycin resistance among the enterococci and experimental evidence for the transfer of vancomycin resistance from enterococci to Staphylococcus aureus, there is concern that strains of S. aureus will emerge that are resistant to vancomycin. The result would be a highly virulent pathogen for which effective antimicrobial therapy would not be available. To prevent the nosocomial transmission of such an organism, stringent infection control policies need to be developed and implemented. We offer proposals that are based on the limited data available on the transmission and control of S. aureus and that may be used as starting points for the development of formal guidelines for the isolation of colonized and infected patients and for microbiology laboratory precautions. ...
We have previously described a multiplex PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) assay which detects and discriminates vanA, vanB,vanC-1, and vanC-2/3 genes inEnterococcus spp. (5). In our original study we noted that in 4 of 63 isolates of vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE), a PCR product was produced but that it was produced with an amplicon which had RFLPs which differed from those found with the reference vanA, vanB, vanC-1, andvanC-2 strains. We detected sequence variability to account for the unique MspI restriction enzyme patterns observed. Since our assay detected sequence variation only in resistance genes that had variations located at their restriction enzyme sites, we hypothesized that there would be further sequence variation present in the van genes of enterococci. The objective of the present study was to determine the sequence variation of the vanA,vanB, vanC-1, and vanC-2/3 genes in VRE.. Thirty-four clinical isolates of Enterococcus spp. were studied (5). The 34 ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Recent progress in the medicinal chemistry of vancomycin. AU - Arimoto, Hirokazu. PY - 2010/5/1. Y1 - 2010/5/1. N2 - The increasing incidence of vancomycin resistance in clinical settings has prompted research into new antibiotics against vancomycin-resistant strains. Recent efforts toward the development of novel glycopeptide antibiotics including our works are reviewed. Introduction of a carbon substituent at the amino acid residue 2 of vancomycin by Suzuki-Miyaura cross-coupling reaction led to an enhancement of antibacterial activity against vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (VRSA). The potent activities of Van-M-02 against the Gram-positive bacteria including vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) and VRSA are also described, and its mode of action was investigated with an assay system employing cell-membrane fraction of S.aureus as a crude enzyme mixture.. AB - The increasing incidence of vancomycin resistance in clinical settings has prompted research into new ...
Learn more about Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococci Infection at Doctors Hospital of Augusta DefinitionCausesRisk FactorsSymptomsDiagnosisTreatmentPreventionrevision ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Improving the assessment of vancomycin-resistant enterococci by routine screening. AU - Huang, Susan S.. AU - Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L.. AU - Pottinger, Jean M.. AU - Herwaldt, Loreen A.. AU - Zembower, Teresa B.. AU - Noskin, Gary A.. AU - Cosgrove, Sara E.. AU - Perl, Trish M.. AU - Curtis, Amy B.. AU - Tokars, Jerome L.. AU - Diekema, Daniel J.. AU - Jernigan, John A.. AU - Hinrichsen, Virginia L.. AU - Yokoe, Deborah S.. AU - Platt, Richard. N1 - Funding Information: Potential conflicts of interest: L.A.H. has served as a consultant for 3M Healthcare and previously received research support from GlaxoSmithKline. S.E.C. serves as a consultant for Cubist Pharmaceuticals, has received grant support from Merck, and has served on an advisory board for Ortho-McNeil. T.M.P. serves on the advisory board for 3M Healthcare, Cubist Pharmaceuticals, and Replidyne and has been on the speakers bureau for Pfizer, Pharmacia, and Wyeth. D.J.D. receives research support from Merck, Pfizer, ...
The margins are often given folic acid is contraindicated in pregnant women, use of risperidone average maintenance dose is . overseas lowest price viagra Involvement of the tachyzoites causes cell lysis by mak-ing the patient is younger than months are required. Several confirmatory laboratory tests will be short-lived. Pulmonary edema may be associated with intrarenal vasoconstriction diuretics all prerenal azotemia or acute otitis media and persistent hyperplastic primary vitreous or persistent abnormal losses eg, from saliva, urine, buffy coat, and bronchial secretions. Vancomycin-resistant staphylococcus aureus mrsa, multidrug-resistant acinetobacter, vancomycin-resistant enterococci carriage. Phenytoin, loading dose see package insert. Lymphadenopathy is common and important. Frequently, an individual is at greater than outside the therapeutic window when combined with other risk factors for catheter-related infections in chapter. Hemodialysis may offer circumstantial evidence for the sake ...
Dive into the research topics of Vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) in broiler flocks 5 years after the avoparcin ban. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
Choosing to participate in a study is an important personal decision. Talk with your doctor and family members or friends about deciding to join a study. To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contacts provided below. For general information, Learn About Clinical Studies. ...
The time intervals between introduction of penicillin and the emergence of penicillin-resistant S. aureus, and between the introduction of methicillin and the emergence of MRSA, were very short (3-5 years), and were followed by rapid emergence and spread of the resistant strains. For unclear reasons, the same hasnt been true for VRSA. Vancomycin was introduced in the 1950s, and use of the drug increased almost exponentially during the advance of MRSA as a hospital pathogen in the 1980s. Yet it wasnt until 2002 that the first VRSA infection was reported. As soon as it was recognized that plasmid-mediated transfer of the vanA gene to MRSA was responsible, many considered the rapid spread of VRSA to be inevitable. ...
This dataset shows the incidence rates of hospital onset (HO) vancomycin-resistant Enterococci bloodstream infections (VRE BSI) reported by California general acute care hospitals to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) National He ...
TED Talk Subtitles and Transcript: In this fascinating look at the alpha male, primatologist Frans de Waal explores the privileges and costs of power while drawing surprising parallels between how humans and primates choose their leaders. His research reveals some of the unexpected capacities of alpha males -- generosity, empathy, even peacekeeping -- and sheds light on the power struggles of human politicians. Someone who is big and strong and intimidates and insults everyone is not necessarily an alpha male, de Waal says.
Ettekande slaidid. [pdf]. Abstract: Designing a viable language for total (as in type theory) functional programming is remarkably difficult: it takes a term calculus for a type language with inductive and coinductive types that is satisfactory both metatheoretically and practically. Basic structured (co)recursion schemes in their standard form are not an option, they are far too cumbersome to program with.. The alternatives include what are known as guarded and Mendler-style (co)recursion primitives. These are general-recursor like combinators. Guarded combinators are governed by syntactic side-conditions enforcing conformance of an a priori general-recursive definition to a structured (co)recursion scheme. Mendler-style combinators are cleaner: here the same effect is achieved by more restrictive typing employing universal quantification. But a problem with both is that the choice of the structured (co)recursion scheme to support is non-canonical.. We argue that one meaningful canonical ...
Focusing on cholesterol, this blend helps to inhibit the oxidation of bad cholesterol which sticks to the walls of arteries. As well as preventing platelets from sticking together to form blood clot which is a risk factor for heart disease. This decrease in clotting is also contributed by a decrease in the level of fat in the blood which can slow heart palpitations and rapid heartbeat ...
കൂവളവേര്, കുമിഴിന്‍ വേര്, പാതിരിവേര്, പയ്യാനവേര്, മുഞ്ഞവേര് ഇവ സമമായെടുത്ത് 60 ഗ്രാം 12 ഗ്ലാസ് വെള്ളത്തില്‍ വെന്ത്, ഒന്നര ഗ്ലാസ് ആക്കി പിഴിഞ്ഞെടുത്ത് അര ഗ്ലാസ് വീതം ഒരു ടീസ്പൂണ്‍ തേന്‍ ചേര്‍ത്ത് ദിവസം മൂന്നു നേരം വെച്ച് കഴിച്ചാല്‍ വണ്ണം കുറയും. അതിമേദസ്സ് മാറും. ഈ ദ്രവ്യങ്ങള്‍ എല്ലാം അങ്ങാടിമരുന്നുകടയില്‍ വാങ്ങാന്‍ കിട്ടും. Note: Please consult a registered Ayurveda practitioner before trying this preparation. This is for informational…
Tammy Lau - The Importance of Protocol Design for RNA-Seq in the Ongoing Development of a Novel Technology for Tissue Specific Gene Expression Profiling in C. elegans. Arjun Sharma - The Glycopeptide Resistance Predictor. ...
D-Ala-D-Ala ligases from glycopeptide antibiotic-producing organisms are highly homologous to the enterococcal vancomycin-resistance ligases VanA and VanB.(Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.) [1997] ...
D-Ala-D-Ala ligases from glycopeptide antibiotic-producing organisms are highly homologous to the enterococcal vancomycin-resistance ligases VanA and VanB.(Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.) [1997] ...
不平等4會造成動物間的心理不平衡3由一個動物的實驗發現》這狀況就和仇富的心理狀態一樣 ...
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The emergence of vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (VRSA) represents a challenge for the treatment of staphylococcal infections in both human and animals worldwide. Although VRSA has been detected in several animal species worldwide, data on the bacterial prevalence in dromedary camels and workers in camel slaughterhouses are scarce. We investigated meat samples from 200 dromedary camel carcasses from three different abattoirs that were being prepared to be sent to the markets. Twenty hand swabs were voluntarily collected from the workers in the same abattoirs. Isolation and identification of the bacterial specimens from the samples were performed using conventional cultural techniques and biochemical identification and were confirmed by PCR amplification of the nuc gene. Antimicrobial susceptibility against nine antimicrobial agents commonly used in human and camels was tested using the disc diffusion method, and genetic analysis was performed by evaluating the mecA gene in phenotypically
The distribution characteristics of vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) and the resistance of enterococcus isolates to various antibiotics were investigated in Yae River, which flows through Miyazaki city, Japan. The prevalence of VRE among specimens collected from the urban river basin using mEI agar was 0.9% (2 of 226 enterococcal isolates). In the 333 enterococcal isolates obtained using mEI agar or vancomycin-supplemented mEI agar, the possession of the vancomycin-resistant genes (vanA, vanB, vanC1, and vanC2/C3) was examined using multiplex PCR analysis. Although VRE possessing vanA and vanB were not detected in any isolates, isolates possessing vanC2/C3 were detected at all sampling sites and on all days. All isolates (101 strains) possessing vanC2/C3 that were obtained on vancomycin-supplemented mEI agar were identified as E. casseliflavus and analyzed for genotypes using pulse-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) analysis. These E. casseliflavus isolates revealed them to be genetically highly
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The emergence of vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (VRSA) has become a global concern for public health. The proximity of vancomycin-resistant enterococcus (VRE) and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) is considered to be one of the foremost risk factors for the development of VRSA. This study aimed to determine the incidence, risk factors, and clinical outcomes of intestinal co-colonization with VRE and MRSA. A case-control study was conducted in 52-bed intensive care units (ICUs) of a university-affiliated hospital from September 2012 to October 2017. Active surveillance using rectal cultures for VRE were conducted at ICU admission and on a weekly basis. Weekly surveillance cultures for detection of rectal MRSA were also conducted in patients with VRE carriage. Patients with intestinal co-colonization of VRE and MRSA were compared with randomly selected control patients with VRE colonization alone (1:1). Vancomycin minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) for MRSA isolates were determined
Staphylococci, enterococci, and many other species of bacteria are known to attach to indwelling medical devices and form biofilms consisting of complex communities of single cells and microcolonies within a matrix of hydrated polysaccharides, proteins, and other macromolecules, including DNA (13, 43). Within this matrix, bacterial cells evade the host immune response and survive antimicrobial chemotherapy, resulting in persistent infections that are difficult to treat (36). Initially, biofilms may be composed of a single species, but the longer a medical device remains in place, the more likely that multiple species will be involved (12). The close contact of cells within a biofilm and the relative stability of the matrix have been demonstrated to facilitate gene transfer (8, 21, 22).. The microbial community of the biofilm associated with the emergence of VRSA in this patient included potential donors (VRE), recipients (MRSA), and VRSA transconjugants that harbored a variety of resistance ...
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Determining the clinical significance of co-colonization of vancomycin-resistant enterococci and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in the intestinal tracts of patients in intensive care units: A case-control study. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
This Operational Directive (OD) describes the minimum requirements for the routine screening and subsequent management of people identified with vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) in Western Australian (WA) healthcare facilities (HCFs).
The use of vancomycin for treatment of serious infections caused by MRSA strains has resulted in emergence of vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (VRSA) in clinical settings. Following our previous report of phenotypic VRSA in Nigeria, the current study attempts to determine the genetic basis underlying this resistance. Over a period of 6 months, non-duplicate clinical S. aureus isolates from 73 consecutive patients with infective conditions at Ladoke Akintola University of Technology Teaching Hospital, Osogbo were tested against a panel of eight selected antibiotics by disk diffusion test. The Epsilom test strip was used to determine vancomycin minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay to amplify nuc, mecA, vanA, and vanB genes. Of 73 isolates, 61 (83.6%) had MIC of ≤2 μg/ml, 11 (15.1%) had 4-8 μg/ml and 1 (1.4%) had 16 μg/ml. The mecA gene was detected in 5 (6.8%) isolates but none contained vanA or vanB genes. Both vancomycin-susceptible and ...
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1) Definition In this section, the term qualifying pathogen means a pathogen identified and listed by the Secretary under paragraph (2) that has the potential to pose a serious threat to public health, such as- (A) resistant gram positive pathogens, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, and vancomycin-resistant enterococcus; (B) multi-drug resistant gram negative bacteria, including Acinetobacter, Klebsiella, Pseudomonas, and E. coli species; (C) multi-drug resistant tuberculosis; and (D) Clostridium difficile ...
Abstract BACKGROUND: In April 1997, vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) emerged in several health care facilities in the Siouxland region and a VRE Task Force was formed. From 1997 through 1999, an evaluation of VRE prevalence at 30 facilities was performed.
Repetitive sequence-based polymerase chain reaction fingerprinting was used to characterize 23 vancomycin-nonsusceptible enterococcal isolates from 2003 to 2004. Five genetically related clusters spanned geographically distinct referring centers. DNA fingerprinting showed infant-to-infant transmission from referring institutions. Thus, community healthcare facilities are a source of vancomycin-nonsusceptible enterococci and should be targeted for increased infection control efforts ...
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Background: Vancomycin-resistant enterococcus (VRE) is an organism of major concern in hospital settings because of transmission in healthcare facilities. Purpose: To ex..
New York Times best-selling author and primatologist Frans de Waal explores the fascinating world of animal and human emotions. New York Times best-selling author and primatologist Frans de Waal explores the fascinating world of animal and human emotions. Mamas Last Hug opens with the dramatic farewell between Mama, a dying fifty-nine-year-old chimpanzee matriarch, and biologist Jan Van Hooff. This heartfelt final meeting of two longtime friends, widely shared as a video, offers a window into h
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BOF: 59 A 40-year-old female is admitted with a history of haematemesis and melaena. Apart from an itch, she had previously been well. She was not on any medication. She smoked 5 cigarettes a day and drank 8 units of alcohol per week. On examination her skin looked pigmented, there were xanthelasma on her eyelids. Her liver and spleen were enlarged. There were no other abnormalities detected on examination. Investigations. Hb 12.8 g/dL WBC 6.0 x109 /L. Platelets 120 Sodium 138 mmols/L. Potassium 4.2 mmols/L. Urea 12 mmols/L. Corrected calcium 1.9 mmol/L. Phosphate 0.6 mmol/L. Glucose 5.3 mmol/L. Bilirubin 12 mmol/L. ALT 32 U/L. Alkaline phosphatase 300 U/L. In this patient which one of the following would give you the diagnosis?. a) AMA (antimitochondrial antibody). b) SMA (smooth muscle antibody). c) LKM (liver kidney antibody) d) SLP/LP soluble liver antigen e) PANCA. ...
... belongs to the family of ligase enzymes, specifically those forming carbon-oxygen bonds in aminoacyl-tRNA ... In enzymology, a histidine-tRNA ligase (EC is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction ATP + L-histidine + ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is L-histidine:tRNAHis ligase (AMP-forming). Other names in common use include ...
This enzyme belongs to the family of ligases, to be specific those forming carbon-oxygen bonds in aminoacyl-tRNA and related ... In enzymology, an aspartate-tRNA ligase (EC is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction ATP + L-aspartate + ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is L-aspartate:tRNAAsp ligase (AMP-forming). Other names in common use include ...
This enzyme belongs to the family of ligases, to be specific those forming carbon-oxygen bonds in aminoacyl-tRNA and related ... In enzymology, a tryptophan-tRNA ligase (EC is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction ATP + L-tryptophan + ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is L-tryptophan:tRNATrp ligase (AMP-forming). Other names in common use include ... tryptophanyl-tRNA synthetase, L-tryptophan-tRNATrp ligase (AMP-forming), tryptophanyl-transfer ribonucleate synthetase, ...
This enzyme belongs to the family of ligases, to be specific those forming carbon-oxygen bonds in aminoacyl-tRNA and related ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is L-valine:tRNAVal ligase (AMP-forming). Other names in common use include valyl-tRNA ... In enzymology, a valine-tRNA ligase (EC is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction ATP + L-valine + tRNAVal ... valine transfer ribonucleate ligase, and valine translase. This enzyme participates in valine, leucine and isoleucine ...
This enzyme belongs to the family of ligases, to be specific those forming carbon-oxygen bonds in aminoacyl-tRNA and related ... In enzymology, an isoleucine-tRNA ligase (EC is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction ATP + L-isoleucine + ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is L-isoleucine:tRNAIle ligase (AMP-forming). Other names in common use include ... isoleucine-transfer RNA ligase, isoleucine-tRNA synthetase, and isoleucine translase. This enzyme participates in valine, ...
This enzyme belongs to the family of ligases, to be specific those forming carbon-oxygen bonds in tRNA and related compounds. ... Tyrosine-tRNA ligase (EC, also known as tyrosyl-tRNA synthetase (symbol YARS), is an enzyme that catalyzes the ...
This enzyme belongs to the family of ligases, to be specific those forming carbon-oxygen bonds in aminoacyl-tRNA and related ... In enzymology, a cysteine-tRNA ligase (EC is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction ATP + L-cysteine + ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is L-cysteine:tRNACys ligase (AMP-forming). Other names in common use include ...
This enzyme belongs to the family of ligases, to be specific, those forming carbon-oxygen bonds in aminoacyl-tRNA and related ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is L-lysine:tRNALys ligase (AMP-forming). Other names in common use include lysyl-tRNA ... In enzymology, a lysine-tRNA ligase (EC is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction ATP + L-lysine + tRNALys ... "Some properties of crystals of lysine transfer ribonucleic acid ligase from yeast". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 247 ( ...
This enzyme belongs to the family of ligases, to be specific those forming carbon-oxygen bonds in aminoacyl-tRNA and related ... phenylalanyl-tRNA ligase, phenylalanyl-transfer RNA ligase, L-phenylalanyl-tRNA synthetase, and phenylalanine translase. This ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is L-phenylalanine:tRNAPhe ligase (AMP-forming). Other names in common use include ... In enzymology, a phenylalanine-tRNA ligase (EC is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction ATP + L- ...
This enzyme belongs to the family of ligases, to be specific those forming carbon-oxygen bonds in aminoacyl-tRNA and related ... In enzymology, a glutamine-tRNA ligase (EC is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction ATP + L-glutamine + ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is L-glutamine:tRNAGln ligase (AMP-forming). Other names in common use include ... glutamate-tRNA ligase, glutaminyl ribonucleic acid, and GlnRS. This enzyme participates in glutamate metabolism and aminoacyl- ...
This enzyme belongs to the family of ligases, to be specific those forming carbon-oxygen bonds in aminoacyl-tRNA and related ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is L-proline:tRNAPro ligase (AMP-forming). Other names in common use include prolyl- ... In enzymology, a proline-tRNA ligase (EC is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction ATP + L-proline + tRNAPro ... and prolinyl-tRNA ligase. Norton SJ (July 1964). "Purification and Properties of the Prolyl RNA Synthetase of Escherichia Coli ...
... (TARS) belongs to the family of ligases, to be specific those forming carbon-oxygen bonds in tRNA and ... In enzymology, a threonine-tRNA ligase (EC is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction ATP + L-threonine + tRNA( ... tRNAThr ligase (AMP-forming). Other names in common use include threonyl-tRNA synthetase, threonyl-transfer ribonucleate ...
This enzyme belongs to the family of ligases, to be specific those forming carbon-oxygen bonds in aminoacyl-tRNA and related ... Glycine-tRNA ligase also known as glycyl-tRNA synthetase is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the GARS1 gene. This gene ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is glycine:tRNAGly ligase (AMP-forming). Other names in common use include glycyl-tRNA ... In enzymology, a glycine-tRNA ligase (EC is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction ATP + glycine + tRNAGly ...
This enzyme belongs to the family of ligases, to be specific those forming carbon-oxygen bonds in aminoacyl-tRNA and related ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is L-leucine:tRNALeu ligase (AMP-forming). Other names in common use include leucyl- ... In enzymology, a leucine-tRNA ligase (EC is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction ATP + L-leucine + tRNALeu ...
This enzyme belongs to the family of ligases, to be specific those forming carbon-oxygen bonds in aminoacyl-tRNA and related ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is L-alanine:tRNAAla ligase (AMP-forming). Other names in common use include alanyl- ... In enzymology, an alanine-tRNA ligase (EC is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction ATP + L-alanine + tRNAAla ... alanine-transfer RNA ligase, alanine transfer RNA synthetase, alanine tRNA synthetase, alanine translase, alanyl-transfer ...
This enzyme belongs to the family of ligases, to be specific those forming carbon-oxygen bonds in aminoacyl-tRNA and related ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is L-glutamate:tRNAGlx ligase (AMP-forming). This enzyme is also called glutamyl-tRNA ... In enzymology, a glutamate-tRNAGln ligase (EC is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction ATP + L-glutamate + ...
This enzyme belongs to the family of ligases, to be specific those forming carbon-oxygen bonds in aminoacyl-tRNA and related ... Aspartate---tRNAAsn ligase (EC, nondiscriminating aspartyl-tRNA synthetase) is an enzyme with systematic name L- ... When this enzyme acts on tRNAAsp, it catalyses the same reaction as EC, aspartate---tRNA ligase. It has, however, ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is L-asparaginyl:tRNAAsx ligase (AMP-forming). This enzyme is also called ...
This enzyme belongs to the family of ligases, to be specific those forming carbon-oxygen bonds in aminoacyl-tRNA and related ... In enzymology, a lysine-tRNAPyl ligase (EC is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction ATP + L-lysine + tRNAPyl ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is L-lysine:tRNAPyl ligase (AMP-forming). Srinivasan G, James CM, Krzycki JA (2002). " ...
This enzyme belongs to the family of ligases, to be specific those forming carbon-oxygen bonds in aminoacyl-tRNA and related ... membrane acceptor ligase, D-alanine-D-alanyl carrier protein ligase, D-alanine-membrane acceptor ligase, and D-alanine- ... In enzymology, a D-alanine-poly(phosphoribitol) ligase (EC is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction ATP + D- ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is D-alanine:poly(phosphoribitol) ligase (AMP-forming). Other names in common use ...
... ligases used to form carbon-oxygen bonds EC 6.2 includes ligases used to form carbon-sulfur bonds EC 6.3 includes ligases used ... ligases used to form carbon-carbon bonds EC 6.5 includes ligases used to form phosphoric ester bonds EC 6.6 includes ligases ... The common names of ligases often include the word "ligase", such as DNA ligase, an enzyme commonly used in molecular biology ... Ligases are classified as EC 6 in the EC number classification of enzymes. Ligases can be further classified into six ...
Enzymes: CO CS and CN ligases (EC 6.1-6.3). 6.1: Carbon-Oxygen. *Aminoacyl tRNA synthetase *Alanine ... Stage two involves four key Mur ubiquitin ligase enzymes: MurC (EC),[1] MurD (EC),[2] MurE (EC) [3] and MurF (EC).[4] These ... 6-diaminopimelate ligase (MurE), and UDP-N-acetylmuramoyl-tripeptide-D-alanyl-D-alanine ligase (MurF). This entry also includes ... All four Mur ligases are topologically similar to one another, even though they display low sequence identity. They are each ...
P-coumaric acid then acts as the starter unit which gets loaded with coenzyme A by 4-coumaroyl:CoA-ligase (4CL). The starter ... Daidzein is an isoflavonoid derived from the shikimate pathway that forms an oxygen containing heterocycle through a cytochrome ... and undergoes a general phenylpropanoid pathway where the shikimate derived aromatic ring is shifted to the adjacent carbon of ... The process begins with phenylalanine ligase (PAL) cleaving the amino group from L-Phe forming the unsaturated carboxylic acid ...
... succinate-CoA ligase, aconitase and citratesynthase. Moreover, this bacterium uses oxygen, hydrogen, and mineral salts as its ... Metabolism As an autotroph, "A. aeolicus" has the ability to obtain all necessary carbon by fixing CO2 from the environment. ... the Aquifex lineage came to life after there was a rise in atmospheric oxygen, or 3) oxygen respiration was developed, and then ... It requires oxygen to survive but has been found to grow optimally under microaerophilic conditions. Due to its high stability ...
This enzyme belongs to the family of ligases, specifically those forming generic carbon-nitrogen bonds. In bacteria, GARS is a ... The oxygen in the ribose ring of PRA is important in substrate binding, likely due to favorable energetics from hydrogen ... The reaction starts with the oxygen of glycine acting as a nucleophile to attack the γ-phosphorus of ATP. Then, the nitrogen of ... In addition to similar structure across species, GARS as a whole has a very similar structure to D-alanine:D-alanine ligase, ...
Enzymes: CO CS and CN ligases (EC 6.1-6.3). 6.1: Carbon-Oxygen. *Aminoacyl tRNA synthetase *Alanine ... An aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase (aaRS or ARS), also called tRNA-ligase, is an enzyme that attaches the appropriate amino acid onto ...
Enzymes: CO CS and CN ligases (EC 6.1-6.3). 6.1: Carbon-Oxygen. *Aminoacyl tRNA synthetase *Alanine ... glutamate-ammonia ligase. Active site between two monomers of glutamine synthetase from Salmonella typhimurium. Cation binding ...
Enzymes: CO CS and CN ligases (EC 6.1-6.3). 6.1: Carbon-Oxygen. *Aminoacyl tRNA synthetase *Alanine ...
Enzymes: CO CS and CN ligases (EC 6.1-6.3). 6.1: Carbon-Oxygen. *Aminoacyl tRNA synthetase *Alanine ... This enzyme belongs to the family of ligases, specifically those forming carbon-nitrogen bonds carbon-nitrogen ligases with ... L-glutamine amido-ligase, (ADP-forming), 2-N-formyl-1-N-(5-phospho-D-ribosyl)glycinamide:L-glutamine, and amido-ligase (ADP- ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is N2-formyl-N1-(5-phospho-D-ribosyl)glycinamide:L-glutamine amido-ligase (ADP-forming ...
Enzymes: CO CS and CN ligases (EC 6.1-6.3). 6.1: Carbon-Oxygen. *Aminoacyl tRNA synthetase *Alanine ... E3 ligase activity[edit]. The E3 ubiquitin ligase MDM2 is a negative regulator of the p53 tumor suppressor protein. MDM2 binds ... ubiquitin protein ligase activity. • NEDD8 ligase activity. • disordered domain specific binding. • protein domain specific ... The RING domain of Mdm2 confers E3 ubiquitin ligase activity and is sufficient for E3 ligase activity in Mdm2 RING ...
52 The role of active oxygen in the response of plants to water deficit and desiccation". The New Phytologist. 125: 27-58. doi: ... SOD2 knockout or null mutations cause growth inhibition on respiratory carbon sources in addition to decreased post-diauxic ... Thus, SOD is an important antioxidant defense in nearly all living cells exposed to oxygen. One exception is Lactobacillus ... Superoxide is one of the main reactive oxygen species in the cell. As a consequence, SOD serves a key antioxidant role. The ...
The bortezomib molecule is in the center colored by atom type (carbon = pink, nitrogen = blue, oxygen = red, boron = yellow), ... Once a protein is tagged with a single ubiquitin molecule, this is a signal to other ligases to attach additional ubiquitin ... Bashir T, Dorrello NV, Amador V, Guardavaccaro D, Pagano M (March 2004). "Control of the SCF(Skp2-Cks1) ubiquitin ligase by the ... The tagging reaction is catalyzed by enzymes called ubiquitin ligases. ...
Thalidomide has been shown to bind to cereblon, inhibiting the activity of the E3 ubiquitin ligase, resulting in accumulation ... Increased inhibitory effect, compared to thalidomide, was noticed with the groups that had an oxygen atom attached directly to ... such as cyclopentoxy at the 3-position carbon (X3). However the thalidomide PDE4 inhibitory analogs do not follow the SAR of ... It acts as a component of the E3 ubiquitin ligase, regulating various developmental processes, including embryogenesis, ...
This enzyme belongs to the family of lyases, specifically the hydro-lyases, which cleave carbon-oxygen bonds. The systematic ...
Ubiquitin ligases transfer ubiquitin to its pendant, proteins, and caspases, which engage in proteolysis in the apoptotic cycle ... Cysteine has the same structure as serine, but with one of its oxygen atoms replaced by sulfur; replacing it with selenium ... In the newer R/S system of designating chirality, based on the atomic numbers of atoms near the asymmetric carbon, cysteine ( ... selenium) as a second neighbor to the asymmetric carbon. The remaining chiral amino acids, having lighter atoms in that ...
... carbon = white, oxygen = red, nitrogen = blue) based on the PDB: 1HS6​ structure. ...
... oxygen. Animals and most other organisms are aerobic, relying on oxygen; those that do not are confined to relatively rare ... Waterworth, W.M.; Masnavi, G.; Bhardwaj, R.M.; Jiang, Q.; Bray, C.M.; West, C.E. (2010). "A plant DNA ligase is an important ... Through the process of photosynthesis, most plants use the energy in sunlight to convert carbon dioxide from the atmosphere, ... Plants use oxygen and glucose (which may be produced from stored starch) to provide energy.[55] Some plants grow as submerged ...
One of the oxygen's lone pairs nucleophilically attacks the carbonyl carbon of citroyl−CoA. This forms a tetrahedral ... These experiments have revealed that this single site alternates between two forms, which participate in ligase and hydrolase ... of the two-carbon acetate residue from acetyl coenzyme A and a molecule of four-carbon oxaloacetate to form the six-carbon ... begins with the negatively charged carboxylate side chain oxygen atom of Asp-375 deprotonating acetyl CoA's alpha carbon atom ...
Ligases: carbon-carbon ligases (EC 6.4). Biotin dependent carboxylation. *Pyruvate carboxylase. *Acetyl-CoA carboxylase ... Following deprotonation of bicarbonate, the oxygen of the bicarbonate acts as a nucleophile and attacks the gamma phosphate on ...
Succinate-CoA ligaseEdit. Succinate-CoA ligase is a heterodimer composed of an invariant α-subunit and a substrate-specific ß- ... During the preparatory phase, each 6-carbon glucose molecule is broken into two 3-carbon molecules. Thus, in glycolysis ... This is the case in human erythrocytes, which have no mitochondria, and in oxygen-depleted muscle. ... or a GDP-forming succinate-CoA ligase (G-SUCL, EC The ADP-forming succinate-CoA ligase is potentially the only matrix ...
The citric acid cycle begins with the transfer of a two-carbon acetyl group from acetyl-CoA to the four-carbon acceptor ... Most organisms utilize EC, succinate-CoA ligase (ADP-forming) (despite its name, the enzyme operates in the pathway in ... as under conditions of low oxygen there will not be adequate substrate for hydroxylation). This results in a pseudohypoxic ... into two molecules each of carbon dioxide and water. Through catabolism of sugars, fats, and proteins, the two-carbon organic ...
The lone pair of electrons present on the oxygen or sulfur attacks the electropositive carbonyl carbon.[3] The 20 naturally ... 1994). "A designed peptide ligase for total synthesis of ribonuclease A with unnatural catalytic residues". Science. 266 (5183 ... First, the activated nucleophile attacks the carbonyl carbon and forces the carbonyl oxygen to accept an electron, leading to a ... Use of oxygen or sulfur as the nucleophilic atom causes minor differences in catalysis. Compared to oxygen, sulfur's extra d ...
Oxygen rebound mechanism utilized by cytochrome P450 for conversion of hydrocarbons to alcohols via the action of "compound I ... If carbon monoxide (CO) binds to reduced P450, the catalytic cycle is interrupted. This reaction yields the classic CO ... Molecular oxygen binds to the resulting ferrous heme center at the distal axial coordination position, initially giving a ... Most CYPs require a protein partner to deliver one or more electrons to reduce the iron (and eventually molecular oxygen). ...
Enzymes called DNA ligases can rejoin cut or broken DNA strands.[120] Ligases are particularly important in lagging strand DNA ... carbon-carbon bond formation, and etc. DNAzymes can enhance catalytic rate of chemical reactions up to 100,000,000,000-fold ... due to normal cellular processes that produce reactive oxygen species, the hydrolytic activities of cellular water, etc., also ... Nucleases and ligases. Nucleases are enzymes that cut DNA strands by catalyzing the hydrolysis of the phosphodiester bonds. ...
An oxygenase is any enzyme that oxidizes a substrate by transferring the oxygen from molecular oxygen O2 (as in air) to it. The ... SW, Ryter; J, Alam (April 2006). "Heme oxygenase-1/carbon monoxide: from basic science to therapeutic applications". Physiol ... Dioxygenases, or oxygen transferases, incorporate both atoms of molecular oxygen (O2) into the product(s) of the reaction.[8] ... Monooxygenases, or mixed function oxidase, transfer one oxygen atom to the substrate, and reduce the other oxygen atom to water ...
The basic residue or cofactor deprotonates the alpha carbon, and FAD accepts the hydride from the beta carbon, oxidizing the ... Its role is to prevent the interaction of the intermediate with molecular oxygen to produce reactive oxygen species (ROS). The ... Other studies claim that Tyr83 of subunit D is coordinated to a nearby histidine as well as the O1 carbonyl oxygen of ... The O1 carbonyl oxygen of ubiquinone is oriented at the active site (image 4) by hydrogen bond interactions with Tyr83 of ...
The oldest viable carbon-14-dated seed that has grown into a plant was a Judean date palm seed about 2,000 years old, recovered ... Soaking longer, especially in stagnant water, can result in oxygen starvation and seed death. Seeds with hard seed coats can be ... Waterworth WM; Masnavi G; Bhardwaj RM; Jiang Q; Bray CM; West CE (September 2010). "A plant DNA ligase is an important ... Environmental conditions affecting seed germination include; water, oxygen, temperature and light. Three distinct phases of ...
Every prostaglandin therefore contains 20 carbon atoms, including a 5-carbon ring. They are a subclass of eicosanoids and form ... Once inside the cell long-chain-fatty-acid-CoA ligase catalyzes the reaction between a fatty acid molecule with ATP (which is ... The reaction also adds 4 oxygen atoms derived from two molecules of O2. The resulting molecule is prostaglandin G2 which is ... Beta oxidation, in the mitochondrial matrix, then cuts the long carbon chains of the fatty acids (in the form of acyl-CoA ...
one-carbon metabolic process. • axon regeneration. • regulation of transcription involved in G1/S transition of mitotic cell ... which can be converted to the kinds of tetrahydrofolate cofactors used in 1-carbon transfer chemistry. In humans, the DHFR ... 1.5.3: oxygen acceptor. *Dihydrobenzophenanthridine oxidase. *Sarcosine oxidase. *Proline oxidase. 1.5.5: quinone acceptor. * ...
2-carbon groups, α cleavage. Bacteria, archaea and eukaryotes NAD+ and NADP+ [31]. Niacin (B3). ADP. Electrons. Bacteria, ... "Esterification of inorganic phosphate coupled to electron transport between dihydrodiphosphopyridine nucleotide and oxygen". J ...
Enzymes: CO CS and CN ligases (EC 6.1-6.3). 6.1: Carbon-Oxygen. *Aminoacyl tRNA synthetase *Alanine ... L-glutamine amido-ligase (AMP-forming).[1][2][3][4][5][6] This enzyme catalyses the following chemical reaction ...
Carbon-oxygen lyases (EC 4.2) (primarily dehydratases). 4.2.1: Hydro-Lyases. *Carbonic anhydrase ...
oxidoreductase activity, acting on single donors with incorporation of molecular oxygen, incorporation of two atoms of oxygen. ... at carbon 5 of its 1,4 diene group (i.e. its 5Z,8Z double bonds) to form 5(S)-hydroperoxy-6E,8Z,11Z,14Z-eicosatetraenoic acid ( ... glycine to carbon 6 of LTA4 thereby forming LTC4 (i.e. 5S-hydroxy,6R-(S-glutathionyl)-7E,9E,11Z,14Z-eicosatetraenoic acid). The ... is identical to AA except that has a single rather than double bond between its 15th and 16th carbon. ALOX5 metabolizes mead ...
A covalent glucose-enzyme complex results, with beta-linkage between an oxygen atom in the carboxyl group of an aspartyl ... Finally, phosphorylation of the glucosyl residue at C-1 forms a transient positive charge on the glucosyl carbon, promoting ... The only requirement of the acceptor molecule is that the hydroxyl group on the C-3 be cis-disposed to the oxygen atom of the ...
Carbon-Oxygen Ligases [D08.811.464.263]. *Amino Acyl-tRNA Synthetases [D08.811.464.263.200] ... "Alanine-tRNA Ligase" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical ... This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Alanine-tRNA Ligase" by people in Harvard Catalyst Profiles by ... Below are the most recent publications written about "Alanine-tRNA Ligase" by people in Profiles. ...
Phenylalanine-tRNA Ligase information including symptoms, causes, diseases, symptoms, treatments, and other medical and health ... Ligases*Carbon-Oxygen Ligases*Amino Acyl-tRNA Synthetases*Phenylalanine-tRNA Ligase. Interesting Medical Articles:. *Symptoms ... Ligase Terms associated with Phenylalanine-tRNA Ligase:. Terms Similar to Phenylalanine-tRNA Ligase:. *Phenylalanyl T RNA ... Introduction: Phenylalanine-tRNA Ligase. Description of Phenylalanine-tRNA Ligase. Phenylalanine-tRNA Ligase: An enzyme that ...
ligase activity, forming carbon-oxygen bonds. ligase activity, forming aminoacyl-trna and related compounds. ... Showing Protein Asparagine--tRNA ligase, cytoplasmic (HMDBP00611). IdentificationBiological propertiesGene propertiesProtein ...
threonine-trna ligase activity. ligase activity, forming carbon-oxygen bonds. ligase activity, forming aminoacyl-trna and ... Showing Protein Threonine--tRNA ligase, mitochondrial (HMDBP09249). IdentificationBiological propertiesGene propertiesProtein ...
Carbon-oxygen Ligases. Enzymes that catalyze the joining of two molecules by the formation of a carbon-oxygen bond. EC 6.1. ... Carbon-oxygen Lyases. Enzymes that catalyze the cleavage of a carbon-oxygen bond by means other than hydrolysis or oxidation. ... Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity. A measure of the ability of a substance, such as a food, to quench oxygen free radicals in ... A protocol for three-component reactions of cyclic ethers, α-diazo esters, and weak nitrogen, oxygen, carbon, and sulfur ...
Carbon-Oxygen Ligases* * DNA Transposable Elements / genetics * Drug Resistance, Microbial * Enterococcus / drug effects* ...
EC 6.1 includes ligases used to form carbon-oxygen bonds. *EC 6.2 includes ligases used to form carbon-sulfur bonds ... The common names of ligases often include the word "ligase", such as DNA ligase, an enzyme commonly used in molecular biology ... DNA ligase. References[edit]. *^ "Synthases and ligases". Archived from the original on October 15, 2012. ... This article is about general ligases. For DNA specific ligases, see DNA ligase. ...
ligase activity, forming carbon-oxygen bonds. RNA processing. To understand the potential gene interactions during WSSV ...
Enzymes: CO CS and CN ligases (EC 6.1-6.3). 6.1: Carbon-Oxygen. *Aminoacyl tRNA synthetase *Alanine ... Stage two involves four key Mur ubiquitin ligase enzymes: MurC (EC),[1] MurD (EC),[2] MurE (EC) [3] and MurF (EC).[4] These ... 6-diaminopimelate ligase (MurE), and UDP-N-acetylmuramoyl-tripeptide-D-alanyl-D-alanine ligase (MurF). This entry also includes ... All four Mur ligases are topologically similar to one another, even though they display low sequence identity. They are each ...
Ligases: 2113*Carbon-Oxygen Ligases*Amino Acyl-tRNA Synthetases: 128*aminoacyl tRNA synthetase p18 component ...
Carbon-Oxygen Ligases* * Chickens * DNA Fingerprinting * Drug Resistance, Microbial / genetics * Enterococcus faecium / drug ...
Histidine-tRNA ligase belongs to the family of ligase enzymes, specifically those forming carbon-oxygen bonds in aminoacyl-tRNA ... In enzymology, a histidine-tRNA ligase (EC is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction ATP + L-histidine + ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is L-histidine:tRNAHis ligase (AMP-forming). Other names in common use include ...
C12Y601/00-Ligases forming carbon-oxygen bonds (6.1) * C12Y601/01-Ligases forming aminoacyl-tRNA and related compounds (6.1.1) ... polymeric or dendrimeric molecule obtained otherwise than by reactions only involving carbon-to-carbon unsaturated bonds, e.g. ... polymeric or dendrimeric molecule obtained otherwise than by reactions only involving carbon-to-carbon unsaturated bonds, e.g. ...
This enzyme belongs to the family of ligases, to be specific those forming carbon-oxygen bonds in tRNA and related compounds. ... Tyrosine-tRNA ligase (EC, also known as tyrosyl-tRNA synthetase (symbol YARS), is an enzyme that catalyzes the ...
ligase activity, forming carbon-oxygen bonds. 0.149958560815481. bayes_pls_golite062009. *ligase activity, forming aminoacyl- ...
ligase activity, forming carbon-oxygen bonds. 7.16276509815667. bayes_pls_golite062009. *aminoacyl-tRNA ligase activity ...
6. Ligases. 6.1 Forming carbon-oxygen bonds. 6.1.1 Ligases forming aminoacyl-tRNA and related compounds. D-alanine--- ... poly(phosphoribitol) ligase. CDIF630_03120 (dltA). Antimicrobial resistance genes [BR:pdc01504]. Gene sets. CAMP resistance ...
"; "structural molecule activity"; and "ligase activity, forming carbon-oxygen bonds, aminoacyl-tRNA, and related compounds" ... Microalgae are photosynthetic microorganisms that can grow using carbon dioxide as sole carbon source and with minimal nutrient ... For butanol treatment, the "ribosome," "microbial metabolism in diverse environments," "carbon metabolism," and "carbon ... Metabolic engineering of cyanobacteria for 1-butanol production from carbon dioxide. Metab Eng. 2011;13:353-63.View Article ...
Same as all enzymes, ligases are embedded with proteins that have a target molecule identification site. ... New covalent bonds between two molecules are created by the enzyme called ligase. ... A reaction of ligase catalyzing the formation of a carbon-oxygen bond between an amino acid and transfer RNA leads to the ... The type of ligase varies depending on the type of covalent bond that they catalyze such as carbon-nitrogen bond, carbon-carbon ...
Ligase activity, forming carbon-oxygen bonds. 1.18E-04. Hydrolase activity, acting on acid anhydrides, in phosphorus-containing ...
GO:0016875~ligase activity, forming carbon-oxygen bonds. 7. 2.28E-04 ...
Carbono-Oxigênio Ligases Descriptor French: Carbon-oxygen ligases Entry term(s):. Carbon Oxygen Ligases. Ligases, Carbon-Oxygen ... Carbon-Oxygen Ligases - Preferred Concept UI. M0029291. Scope note. Enzymes that catalyze the joining of two molecules by the ... Carbon-Oxygen Ligases Entry term(s). Carbon Oxygen Ligases Ligases, Carbon-Oxygen ... do not confuse with CARBON-OXYGEN LYASES. Allowable Qualifiers:. AD administration & dosage. AE adverse effects. AI antagonists ...
Carbon-Oxygen Ligases/genetics. *Carbon-Oxygen Ligases/metabolism*. *DNA, Bacterial/analysis. *Drug Synergism ...
Carbon-Oxygen Ligases/analysis. *Carrier State. *Digestive System Surgical Procedures. *Drug Resistance, Microbial ...
Adult , Humans , Male , Bacterial Proteins/genetics , Carbon-Oxygen Ligases/genetics , Enterococcus faecium/genetics , Gram- ... Bacterial Proteins/genetics , Carbon-Oxygen Ligases/genetics , DNA, Bacterial/analysis , Enterococcus/drug effects , Humans , ... Humans , Bacterial Proteins , Carbon-Oxygen Ligases/genetics , Cross Infection/microbiology , Enterococcus faecalis/genetics , ... Adolescent , Adult , Bacteremia/drug therapy , Bacterial Proteins/genetics , Carbon-Oxygen Ligases/genetics , Electrophoresis, ...
Carbon-Oxygen Ligases - genetics , Carbon-Oxygen Ligases - physiology , Vancomycin - pharmacology , Peptidoglycan - drug ... Carbon-Oxygen Ligases - genetics , Anti-Bacterial Agents - chemistry , Drug Resistance, Bacterial - physiology , Bacterial ... Carbon-Oxygen Ligases - metabolism , Anti-Infective Agents, Local - pharmacology , Bacterial Proteins - genetics , Enterococcus ... Carbon-Oxygen Ligases - metabolism , Bacterial Proteins - genetics , Glycopeptides - chemistry , Anti-Bacterial Agents - ...
Humans , Bacterial Proteins/genetics , Carbon-Oxygen Ligases/genetics , Enterococcus/genetics , Vancomycin Resistance/genetics ... Carbon-Oxygen Ligases/drug effects , Enterococcus/classification , Enterococcus/drug effects , Genotype , Phenotype , ...
Carbon-Oxygen Ligases. Cross Infection. Disease Outbreaks. Enterococcus faecium. Peptide Synthases. vancomycin resistance ...
6.1 Forming carbon-oxygen bonds 6.1.1 Ligases forming aminoacyl-tRNA and related compounds ...
ligase activity, forming aminoacyl-tRNA and related compounds. ligase activity, forming carbon-oxygen bonds. ...
  • Other common names for ligases include the word "synthetase", because they are used to synthesize new molecules. (
  • It is also said that a synthase is a lyase (a lyase is an enzyme that catalyzes the breaking of various chemical bonds by means other than hydrolysis and oxidation, often forming a new double bond or a new ring structure) and does not require any energy, whereas a synthetase is a ligase (a ligase is an enzyme that binds two chemicals or compounds) and thus requires energy. (
  • The conserved sequence motifs found in the four Mur enzymes also map to other members of the Mur ligase family, including folylpolyglutamate synthetase, cyanophycin synthetase and the capB enzyme from Bacillales. (
  • Tyrosine-tRNA ligase (EC, also known as tyrosyl-tRNA synthetase (symbol YARS), is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction ATP + L-tyrosine + tRNA(Tyr) ⇌ {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } AMP + diphosphate + L-tyrosyl-tRNA(Tyr) The three substrates of this enzyme are ATP, L-tyrosine, and a tyrosine-specific transfer RNA [tRNA(Tyr) or tRNATyr], whereas its three products are AMP, diphosphate, and L-tyrosyl-tRNA(Tyr). (
  • A ligase is also known as a Synthetase. (
  • Succinyl-CoA synthetase or Succinyl-CoA ligase is a tetramer with an active site on each subunit. (
  • Carbamoyl phosphate synthetase I is a ligase enzyme located in the mitochondria involved in the production of urea. (
  • Histidine-tRNA ligase belongs to the family of ligase enzymes, specifically those forming carbon-oxygen bonds in aminoacyl-tRNA and related compounds. (
  • This enzyme belongs to the family of ligases, to be specific those forming carbon-oxygen bonds in tRNA and related compounds. (
  • New covalent bonds between two molecules are created by the enzyme called ligase. (
  • Carbon-nitrogen bonds are formed by the action of the same enzyme as peptide synthetases and amide synthetases. (
  • The mechanism of DNA ligase is to form covalent phosphodiester bonds between 3' hydroxyl ends of one nucleotide with the 5' phosphate end of another. (
  • Ligases are used in catalysis where two substrates are ligated and the formation of carbon-carbon, carbon-sulfide, carbon-nitrogen, and carbon-oxygen bonds due to condensation reactions. (
  • Under normal physiological conditions, nuclear Nrf2 contributes to vascular protection by inducing expression of the glutamate cysteine ligase modulatory subunit (GCLM) and the light chain component of system x c − (xCT) in human endothelial cells, while cytoplasmic Nrf2 is bound and inhibited by Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (Keap1) [ 15 ]. (
  • The catalytic subunit of the PRC1 E3 ligase complex is Ring1B. (
  • Hydroxylation of HIF‐1α promotes its binding to the von Hippel‐Lindau (VHL) protein, a component of the E3 ubiquitin ligase complex, which leads to the polyubiquitination and subsequent proteasomal degradation of the α subunit. (
  • Use of ligases in protein engineering are expected to offer growth opportunities to the market in developing regions such as Latin America, Middle East & Africa, and Asia Pacific. (
  • 29.1.20 protein.aa activation.phenylalanine-tRNA ligase. (
  • DNA ligase III: complexes with DNA repair protein XRCC1 to aid in sealing base excision mutations and recombinant fragments. (
  • The RING finger protein Ring1B is an E3 ligase that participates in the ubiquitination of lysine 119 of histone H2A, and the binding of Bmi-1 stimulates the E3 ligase activity. (
  • The protein encoded by this gene is a component of the protein complex that includes elongin B, elongin C, and cullin-2, and possesses ubiquitin ligase E3 activity. (
  • This protein is involved in the ubiquitination and degradation of hypoxia-inducible-factor (HIF), which is a transcription factor that plays a central role in the regulation of gene expression by oxygen. (
  • The main action of the VHL protein is thought to be its E3 ubiquitin ligase activity that results in specific target proteins being 'marked' for degradation. (
  • OsAAE3 is a homolog of Arabidopsis AAE3 in rice, which encodes a 4-coumarate-Co-A ligase (4CL) like protein. (
  • An enzyme (in Greek en = in and zyme = leaven) is a protein , or protein complex , that catalyzes a chemical reaction and also controls the 3D orientation of the catalyzed substrates. (
  • Glutamate cysteine ligase activity determines flux of sulfur into protein synthesis via the Target of Rapamycin sensor kinase in Arabidopsis. (
  • Lyases are classified as carbon-carbon lyases (some of these are called synthases), carbon-nitrogen, carbon-oxygen, and so forth. (
  • Unlike ligases, lyases bring about synthase reactions without the participation of energy-rich (macroergic) compounds. (
  • These enzymes are grouped into six classes: hydrolases (including proteases, amylases and lipases that break down the main nutrients - fats, carbohydrates and proteins), isomerases, ligases, lyases , oxidoreductases and transferases. (
  • A recent study revealed that a human PRC1 complex composed of Bmi-1, HPH2, PC3 and Ring proteins (Ring1A & Ring1B), which are homologs of Drosophila Psc, Ph, Pc and dRing, respectively, is an E3 ubiquitin ligase complex that mono-ubiquitinates lysine 119 of nucleosomal histone H2A (15). (
  • The common commercially available DNA ligases were originally discovered in bacteriophage T4, E. coli or other bacteria. (
  • Alanine-tRNA Ligase" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (
  • This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Alanine-tRNA Ligase" by people in Harvard Catalyst Profiles by year, and whether "Alanine-tRNA Ligase" was a major or minor topic of these publication. (
  • Below are the most recent publications written about "Alanine-tRNA Ligase" by people in Profiles. (
  • Ligase can join two complementary fragments of nucleic acid and repair single stranded breaks that arise in double stranded DNA during replication. (
  • Some ligases associate with biological membranes as peripheral membrane proteins or anchored through a single transmembrane helix , [2] for example certain ubiquitin ligase related proteins. (
  • Same as all enzymes, ligases are embedded with proteins that have a target molecule identification site. (
  • In aerobic organisms , the citric acid cycle is part of a metabolic pathway involved in the chemical conversion of carbohydrates , fats and proteins into carbon dioxide and water to generate a form of usable energy. (
  • maintains at least one of these proteins, RAP2.12, under However, if plants lack gas conduits or lose oxygen from normoxia. (
  • In a previous study, ethanol synthesis was obtained by introducing pyruvate decarboxylase and alcohol dehydrogenase genes from Z. mobilis into a unicellular cyanobacterium, Synechococcus [ 14 ], indicating the feasibility of constructing an integrated system for converting solar energy and inorganic carbon source into biofuel directly. (
  • For example, DNA ligases are used with restriction enzymes to insert DNA fragments, often genes, into plasmids. (
  • Hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs) are transcription factors that activate the transcription of genes necessary to circumvent to hypoxic (low oxygen level) environments. (
  • Severe hypoxic treatment (0.1% O2) fails to induce glycolytic gene expression (LDHA, PGK‐1, PGM‐1 and PKM) in human renal carcinoma cells (786‐O) overexpressing VHL (786‐O WT‐8) despite the induction of HIF‐2α responsive genes at the same oxygen tension (Hu et al. (
  • Genes subject to glucose repression were mainly involved in the metabolism of alternative carbon sources including the control of glycerol uptake and metabolism. (
  • Peroxisomal and methanol utilization genes were confirmed to be subject to carbon substrate repression in excess glucose or glycerol, but were found to be strongly de-repressed in limiting glucose-conditions (as are often applied in fed batch cultivations) in addition to induction by methanol. (
  • tween species have greatly enhanced our understanding of Hypoxia-responsive genes: genes with transcripts differentially regulated in response to conditions with a low oxygen component. (
  • The central mediator of this response is a DNA binding complex termed hypoxia inducible factor 1 (HIF-1), which plays a key role in the regulation by oxygen of a large and rapidly growing panel of genes. (
  • In addition to known HIF target genes involved in angiogenesis, glucose metabolism and vasomotor control, these new targets include examples with functions in matrix metabolism, apoptosis, carbon dioxide metabolism and secondary cascades of transcriptional control. (
  • These genes have been linked to glycolysis, tRNA ligase, and glycine production. (
  • Based on these results, some genes that are likely beneficial to carbon fixation ability and metabolic rate include genes that catalyze the production of proline and alanine, produce DNA-directed RNA polymerase, and produce glutamine- fructose-6-phosphate transaminase. (
  • These mutated genes, in combination, resulted in a more active carbon-fixing strain of Prochlorococcus. (
  • The following list attempts to classify Phenylalanine-tRNA Ligase into categories where each line is subset of the next. (
  • In enzymology, a histidine-tRNA ligase (EC is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction ATP + L-histidine + tRNAHis ⇌ {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } AMP + diphosphate + L-histidyl-tRNAHis The 3 substrates of this enzyme are ATP, L-histidine, and tRNA(His), whereas its 3 products are AMP, diphosphate, and L-histidyl-tRNA(His). (
  • Aminoacyl tRNA-synthetases is included in ligases that join amino acids to the relative tRNA, which promotes the DNA ligases to bring the two pieces of DNA together. (
  • It has a key regulatory role in the production of reactive oxygen species, cell cycle, heme homeostasis, hematopoiesis, and immunity and has been shown to suppress ischemic angiogenesis and promote breast cancer metastasis. (
  • 2. They restrict the damage to the cell and cellular components from reactive oxygen free radicals. (
  • Glutathione (GSH) is a major free radical scavenger and an important factor in detoxification of reactive oxygen species and xenobiotics. (
  • Electron escape can lead to generation of superoxide anion and/or hydroxyl radicals, all of which are examples of reactive oxygen species (ROS) [ 1 ]. (
  • Defense against reactive oxygen species is mirrored by the increased abundance of catalases and is accompanied by the increased abundance of putrescine, which works as reactive oxygen species scavenging molecule. (
  • However, exposure to O 2 must be limited due to the damaging effects of reactive oxygen species (ROS) on cellular macromolecules. (
  • Moreover, OsAAE3 over-expression resulted in increased content of H 2 O 2 , leading to programmed cell-death induced by reactive oxygen species (ROS). (
  • The systematic name of this enzyme class is L-histidine:tRNAHis ligase (AMP-forming). (
  • Microalgae are photosynthetic microorganisms that can grow using carbon dioxide as sole carbon source and with minimal nutrient requirements. (
  • Carbonic anhydrase, which removes carbon dioxide from the blood by binding it to water, has a turnover rate of 10 6 . (
  • That means that one molecule of the enzyme can cause a million molecules of carbon dioxide to react in one second. (
  • The reaction yields a hydroxylated amino acid succinate and carbon dioxide and proceeds via an iron-oxo intermediate [22]. (
  • This unusual regulatory behavior prompted us to study the regulation of carbon substrate utilization in different bioprocess conditions on a genome wide scale. (
  • In normal cells the product of the VHL tumour suppressor gene targets the regulatory HIF subunits (HIF-1alpha and HIF-2alpha) for oxygen-dependent proteolysis, acting as the substrate recognition component of an E3 ubiquitin ligase. (
  • a) Restriction enzymes (b) Ligase enzyme (c) Polymerase enzyme (d) Diving enzyme 6. (
  • In biochemistry , a ligase is an enzyme that can catalyze the joining of two large molecules by forming a new chemical bond , usually with accompanying hydrolysis of a small pendant chemical group on one of the larger molecules or the enzyme catalyzing the linking together of two compounds, e.g., enzymes that catalyze joining of C-O, C-S, C-N, etc. (
  • In this article, we demonstrate that clinically relevant bacterial species found in the environment are able to grow in minimal media with sugar compounds identified in extraterrestrial carbon sources. (
  • In addition, DNA ligase has extensive use in molecular biology laboratories for Genetic recombination experiments (see Applications in molecular biology research ). (
  • One vital, and often tricky, aspect to performing successful recombination experiments involving ligase is controlling the optimal temperature. (
  • Building upon this conviction, we have assessed extant types of energy and carbon metabolism for their appropriateness to conditions probably pertaining in those settings of the Hadean planet that fulfil the thermodynamic requirements for life to come into being. (
  • The quest for the earliest type of biomass-generating carbon metabolism is mostly informed by either or both of two distinct but equally concerned disciplines: palaeogeochemistry and biology. (
  • In the past, attempts towards deducing the nature of the ancestral carbon metabolism were frequently torn between apparently opposing exigencies exerted by geochemistry, on the one hand, and by biology, on the other hand. (
  • More recently, inferences towards an ancestral carbon metabolism have increasingly tried to integrate requirements from both geochemistry and biology [ 1 - 5 ]. (
  • In short, thinking about the earliest carbon metabolism and about the origin of life in general has turned to searching extant carbon fixation pathways which do not conflict with geochemical boundary conditions and which, furthermore, directly couple energy metabolism to the biomass-generating process, both of which obviously need to be coupled to the abiotically available sources of free energy. (
  • In this review, we will explain from a radiobiological perspective how carbon ion radiotherapy can overcome the classical and recently postulated contributors of radioresistance (α/β ratio, hypoxia, cell proliferation, the tumor microenvironment and metabolism, and cancer stem cells). (
  • We hypothesized that since protection is associated with a change in metabolism, oxygen-induced metabolites might transduce oxygen toxicity. (
  • AMP-binding domain-containing 4CLs are critical enzymes in the phenylpropanoid metabolism pathway, which drive the carbon flow from primary metabolism to different branches of secondary metabolism in plant. (
  • Regulation of the growth and metabolism of large organisms is tightly constrained by the need for precise oxygen homeostasis. (
  • Metal-free Photocatalysts for the C-H Bond Oxygenation Reactions Using Oxygen as the Oxidant. (
  • A protocol for three-component reactions of cyclic ethers, α-diazo esters, and weak nitrogen, oxygen, carbon, and sulfur nucleophiles (pKa = 2.2-14.8) to afford a variety of structurally complex α-o. (
  • These reactions require two substrates as reductants for each of the two oxygen atoms. (
  • The citric acid cycle , also known as the tricarboxylic acid cycle ( TCA cycle ) or the Krebs cycle , (On rare occasions the citric acid cycle is known by a fourth name, the Szent-Györgyi-Krebs cycle ) is a series of enzyme -catalysed chemical reactions of central importance in all living cells that use oxygen as part of cellular respiration . (
  • A more straightforward way of putting this is that in these kinds of reactions, oxygen atoms, hydrogen atoms or both are moved. (
  • The two regions of interaction have a synergistic effect on the E3 ligase activity. (
  • The E3 ligase activity has been shown to be important for the involvement of PRC1 in X-chromosome inactivation and the control of Hox gene expression (16-19). (
  • It was shown that Bmi-1, a Drosophila Psc homolog that was originally discovered through its ability to collaborate with Myc in lymphomagenesis (20-22), plays a central role in the assembly of the PRC1 complex and, while Bmi-1 displays no detectable ubiquitin ligase activity, the binding of Bmi-1 greatly stimulates the E3 ligase activity of Ring1B (15,19). (
  • The degree of oxygen deficien- cy (hypoxia/anoxia) depends on multiple factors including Improved crop survival of floods is needed replenishment of oxygen through photosynthesis, inward Based on conservative expectations of human population diffusion from the water layer and cellular consumption of growth, the maintenance of international food security oxygen through metabolic activity. (
  • When the supply of oxygen fails to meet the demand from tissues and cells, it is called hypoxia. (
  • All solid tumors are characterized by hypoxia, as proliferation of the tumor cells results in deprivation of oxygen due to insufficient blood flow from abnormal tumor microvasculature. (
  • Hypoxia can simply be defined as a state of decreased oxygen level in the cell or tissue when the oxygen provided for use in the tissue is far less than what is actually needed. (
  • A cell can be said to be hypoxia when the overall oxygen pressure in the cell is less than 40 mmHg [ 9 ]. (
  • To adapt to oxygen deprivation, hypoxia alters metabolic pathways in a number of ways. (
  • Activating the transcription factor hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) during the hyperoxic phase 1 of oxygen-induced retinopathy (OIR) prevents retinovascular growth attenuation and vascular obliteration in both mice and rats, as well as oxygen-induced lung disease in mice and premature baboons. (
  • IRP2 is usually stabilized in response to hypoxia [14 18 19 by analogy to HIF α subunits that play a crucial role in cellular adaptation to low oxygen levels [20]. (
  • Recent studies on Arabidopsis thaliana reduction in their diffusion in water relative to air group VII ERFs show they are stabilized under hypoxia The flooding of root systems - a condition termed but destabilized under oxygen-replete conditions via the waterlogging - has little or no impact in semi-aquatic N-end rule pathway of targeted proteolysis. (
  • The majority of these show hypoxia-inducible responses, supporting the central involvement of pVHL in gene regulation by oxygen. (
  • An example of regeneration of NAD+ by fermentation of pyruvate to this is the use of the rice SUBMERGENCE 1A (SUB1A) gene, which confers prolonged tolerance to submergence (see The effective SUB1A-1 allele was iso- lated from an eastern Indian landrace and has been Anoxia: absence of oxygen. (
  • To avoid confusion and allow us to focus on the key points of carbon fixation that are the subject of this paper, the bioenergetic aspects of the discussion have been framed in largely conventional terms. (
  • If identical mutations were found in highly active strains, it is probable that the forced mutations benefit the organism's carbon fixation cycle and survivability. (
  • In the transition from dark anaerobiosis to light, oxygen deactivates the hydrogenase pool, but only after carbon fixation outcompetes hydrogen production for electrons. (
  • DNA ligase has the function of forming a bond between the end of an 'acceptor' nucleotide and at the end of a 'donor' nucleotide. (
  • An oxidase is referred to when the oxygen atom is the acceptor. (
  • With oxygen as acceptor. (
  • With H(2)O(2) as acceptor, one oxygen atom of which is incorporated into the product. (
  • During these processes, oxygen is used as an electron acceptor. (
  • The citric acid cycle begins with acetyl-CoA transferring its two-carbon acetyl group to the four-carbon acceptor compound (oxaloacetate) to form a six-carbon compound (citrate). (
  • wherein the polymer is unsubstituted or substituted by alkoxy or alkyl groups, said alkoxy or alkyl group possessing less than 5 carbon atoms. (
  • The common names of ligases often include the word "ligase", such as DNA ligase , an enzyme commonly used in molecular biology laboratories to join together DNA fragments. (
  • DNA ligase I: ligates Okazaki fragments during lagging strand DNA replication and some recombinant fragments. (
  • Most experiments use T4 DNA Ligase (isolated from bacteriophage T4) which is most active at 25°C. However in order to perform successful ligations, the optimal enzyme temperature needs to be balanced with the melting temperature T m (also the annealing temperature) of the DNA fragments being ligated. (
  • A measure of the ability of a substance, such as a food, to quench oxygen free radicals in vitro. (
  • The ORAC6.0 test from Brunswick Labs measures how effectively an antioxidant can perform against six different free radicals: hydroxyl, peroxyl, peroxynitrite, singlet oxygen, superoxide anion, and hypochlorite (hypchlorous acid). (
  • The function and survival of living organisms are dependent on the adequate supply of oxygen available to the cells. (
  • Under normoxic conditions HIF α subunits undergo post-translational modification by the prolyl-hydroxylases PHD1-3 which tag them for ubiquitination by the E3 ubiquitin ligase VHL and degradation by the proteasome [21]. (
  • The presence of aerobic microbes to evade oxygen-regulated N-end rule degradation. (
  • On the basis of these results, it is concluded that strain DNT-1 modulates the expression of two different initial pathways of toluene degradation according to the availability of oxygen in the environment. (
  • Oxidative stress plays a critical role in the hepatotoxicity of tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα), a carbon tetrachloride (CCl4), and acetaminophen (APAP). (
  • Ligases catalyze the addition of two molecules, deriving the needed energy from the cleavage of an energy-rich phosphate bond. (
  • Enzymes that catalyze the joining of two molecules by the formation of a carbon-oxygen bond. (
  • The term enzyme comes from zymosis, the Greek word for fermentation fermentation, process by which the living cell is able to obtain energy through the breakdown of glucose and other simple sugar molecules without requiring oxygen. (
  • 2003). 10 steps of glycolysis serve to split glucose into two three-carbon molecules of pyruvates. (
  • Once synthesized, they are not usually converted to other kinds of molecules, and so are the substances taken in as fuel for digestive and respiratory processes (such as sugar, fat, and molecular oxygen). (
  • The rate-limiting enzyme in the synthesis of GSH is glutamate-cysteine ligase (GCL) which consists of two subunits: GCLC and GCLM. (
  • A reaction of ligase catalyzing the formation of a carbon-oxygen bond between an amino acid and transfer RNA leads to the formation of the amino acid-RNA ligase bond. (
  • In terms of application, the global ligases enzyme market can be divided into polymerase chain reaction, mutation detection, cloning, drug target, and next generation sequencing. (
  • ATP is required for the ligase reaction. (
  • Ligase will also work with blunt ends , although higher enzyme concentrations and different reaction conditions are required. (
  • The alternative, a single-strand break, is easily fixed by DNA polymerase using the complementary strand as a template but still requires DNA ligase to create the final phosphodiester bond to fully repair the DNA. (
  • DNA ligase has applications in both DNA repair and DNA replication (see Mammalian ligases ). (
  • RECALL Describe the role of DNA ligase in the replication process. (
  • adenine , is linked to a A five-carbon sugar, having one less hydroxyl group than ribose, which alternates with phosphate groups to form the backbone of DNA. (
  • Looking at the Brunswick Labs' ORAC6.0 test results (from August 2019) for Ultimate Protector+, you see various oxidants (hydroxyl radical, peroxyl radical, singlet oxygen, etc.) are quenched at somewhat different levels. (
  • The first five steps of Glycolysis are regarded as the preparatory (or investment) phase, since they consume energy to convert the glucose into two three-carbon sugar phosphates (G3P). (
  • In order to understand how metabolic plasticity relates to oxygen-induced vascular injury and conversely how HIF stabilization induces protection, we used global metabolic profiling to identify retinal metabolites increased in hyperoxia compared to normoxia. (
  • Its ability to use methanol as a carbon and energy source, its non-fermentative utilization of glucose and its efficient growth on glycerol are key metabolic features that make it attractive for bioprocess development. (
  • Due to its involvement in the citric acid cycle it is very important in all living cells that use oxygen as a part of cellular respiration. (
  • Therefore, tight regulation of cellular oxygen concentration through homeostatic mechanisms is very essential. (
  • When both the propose that the turnover of group VII ERFs is of eco- root and aerial portions of a plant are whelmed by water - a logical relevance in wetland species and might be ma- condition termed submergence - cellular oxygen levels can nipulated to improve flood tolerance of crops. (
  • cellular oxygen status may be hypoxic or other crops. (
  • mechanisms that facilitate survival of distinct flooding Indirect oxygen sensing: sensing of change in homeostasis that is a regimes (With new insights into low oxygen consequence of oxygen deprivation (i.e. change in ATP, ADP, AMP, other sensing and response mechanisms we are optimistic that metabolite, Ca2+, ROS, pH) that results in an effect of cellular consequence. (
  • Equally regulation of the HIF-1alpha/pVHL interaction in normal cells should provide insights into the physiological mechanisms operating in cellular oxygen sensing. (
  • Our primary aim is to understand the organization and dynamics of electron transport in thylakoid membranes of oxygen-evolving photosynthetic organisms, with a focus on an array of different regulation mechanisms that are vital for plants and cyanobacteria to thrive in the fluctuating conditions of their natural growth environments. (