Chondroitinases and Chondroitin Lyases
Blood Urea Nitrogen
Carbon Monoxide Poisoning
Reactive Nitrogen Species
Molecular Sequence Data
PII Nitrogen Regulatory Proteins
Amino Acid Sequence
Chondroitin ABC Lyase
Quaternary Ammonium Compounds
Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial
Carbon Tetrachloride Poisoning
Sequence Homology, Amino Acid
Sequence Analysis, DNA
Nitrogen Mustard Compounds
A novel jasmonate- and elicitor-responsive element in the periwinkle secondary metabolite biosynthetic gene Str interacts with a jasmonate- and elicitor-inducible AP2-domain transcription factor, ORCA2. (1/87)Jasmonate (JA) is an important plant stress hormone that induces various plant defense responses, including the biosynthesis of protective secondary metabolites. The induction of the secondary metabolite biosynthetic gene Strictosidine synthase (Str) in Catharanthus roseus (periwinkle) cells by elicitor requires JA as a second messenger. A 42 bp region in the Str promoter is both necessary and sufficient for JA- and elicitor-responsive expression. This region is unlike other previously identified JA-responsive regions, and contains a GCC-box-like element. Yeast one-hybrid screening identified cDNAs encoding two AP2-domain proteins. These octadecanoid-derivative responsive Catharanthus AP2-domain (ORCA) proteins bind in a sequence-specific manner the JA- and elicitor-responsive element. ORCA2 trans-activates the Str promoter and its expression is rapidly inducible with JA and elicitor, whereas Orca1 is expressed constitutively. The results indicate that a GCC-box-like element and ORCA2 play key roles in JA- and elicitor-responsive expression of the terpenoid indole alkaloid biosynthetic gene Str. (+info)
Destabilase from the medicinal leech is a representative of a novel family of lysozymes. (2/87)Intrinsic lysozyme-like activity was demonstrated for destabilase from the medicinal leech supported by (1) high specific lysozyme activity of the highly purified destabilase, (2) specific inhibition of the lysozyme-like activity by anti-destabilase antibodies, and (3) appreciable lysozyme-like activity in insect cells infected with recombinant baculoviruses carrying cDNAs encoding different isoforms of destabilase. Several isoforms of destabilase constitute a protein family at least two members of which are characterized by lysozyme activity. The corresponding gene family implies an ancient evolutionary history of the genes although the function(s) of various lysozymes in the leech remains unclear. Differences in primary structures of the destabilase family members and members of known lysozyme families allow one to assign the former to a new family of lysozymes. New proteins homologous to destabilase were recently described for Caenorhabditis elegans and bivalve mollusks suggesting that the new lysozyme family can be widely distributed among invertebrates. It remains to be investigated whether the two enzymatic activities (isopeptidase and lysozyme-like) are attributes of one and the same protein. (+info)
Sequencing, tissue distribution and chromosomal assignment of a novel ubiquitin-specific protease USP23. (3/87)We have identified human and mouse cDNAs encoding a novel ubiquitin-specific protease designated USP23. Both cDNAs encode a 62-kDa protein containing the highly conserved His and Cys domains characteristic of the C19 cysteine protease family of ubiquitin-specific processing proteases (UCH-2). Human tissue Northern blots revealed USP23 to be ubiquitously expressed, whereas USP12, its closest human paralogue, displayed a more restricted expression pattern. The human USP23 gene mapped to chromosome 1q22. (+info)
Identification of a novel isopeptidase with dual specificity for ubiquitin- and NEDD8-conjugated proteins. (4/87)Covalent conjugation of proteins by ubiquitin or ubiquitin-like molecules is an important form of post-translational modification and plays a critical role in many cellular processes. Similar to the concept of phosphorylation and dephosphorylation, these conjugates are regulated by a large number of deconjugating enzymes. Here, we report the cloning of a 2,141-base pair DNA fragment from human placenta cDNA library by a strategy that involves expressed sequence tag data base searching, polymerase chain reaction, and rapid amplification of cDNA ends. Nucleotide sequence analysis revealed that the cloned cDNA contains an open reading frame of 1,143 base pairs encoding a novel protease, USP21, which is composed of 381 residues with a calculated molecular mass of 43 kDa. The human USP21 gene is located on chromosome 1q21 and encodes a member of the ubiquitin-specific protease family with highly conserved Cys and His domains. The activity and specificity of USP21 were determined by using a COS cell expression system in vivo. We showed that USP21 is capable of removing ubiquitin from ubiquitinated proteins as expected. Furthermore, USP21 is capable of removing NEDD8 from NEDD8 conjugates but has no effect on Sentrin-1 conjugates. As expected from its biochemical activity, overexpression of USP21 has a profound growth inhibitory effect on U2OS cells. Thus, USP21 is the first ubiquitin-specific protease shown to have dual specificity for both ubiquitin and NEDD8 and may play an important role in the regulation of cell growth. (+info)
Structure of cyanase reveals that a novel dimeric and decameric arrangement of subunits is required for formation of the enzyme active site. (5/87)BACKGROUND: Cyanase is an enzyme found in bacteria and plants that catalyzes the reaction of cyanate with bicarbonate to produce ammonia and carbon dioxide. In Escherichia coli, cyanase is induced from the cyn operon in response to extracellular cyanate. The enzyme is functionally active as a homodecamer of 17 kDa subunits, and displays half-site binding of substrates or substrate analogs. The enzyme shows no significant amino acid sequence homology with other proteins. RESULTS: We have determined the crystal structure of cyanase at 1.65 A resolution using the multiwavelength anomalous diffraction (MAD) method. Cyanase crystals are triclinic and contain one homodecamer in the asymmetric unit. Selenomethionine-labeled protein offers 40 selenium atoms for use in phasing. Structures of cyanase with bound chloride or oxalate anions, inhibitors of the enzyme, allowed identification of the active site. CONCLUSIONS: The cyanase monomer is composed of two domains. The N-terminal domain shows structural similarity to the DNA-binding alpha-helix bundle motif. The C-terminal domain has an 'open fold' with no structural homology to other proteins. The subunits of cyanase are arranged in a novel manner both at the dimer and decamer level. The dimer structure reveals the C-terminal domains to be intertwined, and the decamer is formed by a pentamer of these dimers. The active site of the enzyme is located between dimers and is comprised of residues from four adjacent subunits of the homodecamer. The structural data allow a conceivable reaction mechanism to be proposed. (+info)
Microbial thiocyanate utilization under highly alkaline conditions. (6/87)Three kinds of alkaliphilic bacteria able to utilize thiocyanate (CNS-) at pH 10 were found in highly alkaline soda lake sediments and soda soils. The first group included obligate heterotrophs that utilized thiocyanate as a nitrogen source while growing at pH 10 with acetate as carbon and energy sources. Most of the heterotrophic strains were able to oxidize sulfide and thiosulfate to tetrathionate. The second group included obligately autotrophic sulfur-oxidizing alkaliphiles which utilized thiocyanate nitrogen during growth with thiosulfate as the energy source. Genetic analysis demonstrated that both the heterotrophic and autotrophic alkaliphiles that utilized thiocyanate as a nitrogen source were related to the previously described sulfur-oxidizing alkaliphiles belonging to the gamma subdivision of the division Proteobacteria (the Halomonas group for the heterotrophs and the genus Thioalkalivibrio for autotrophs). The third group included obligately autotrophic sulfur-oxidizing alkaliphilic bacteria able to utilize thiocyanate as a sole source of energy. These bacteria could be enriched on mineral medium with thiocyanate at pH 10. Growth with thiocyanate was usually much slower than growth with thiosulfate, although the biomass yield on thiocyanate was higher. Of the four strains isolated, the three vibrio-shaped strains were genetically closely related to the previously described sulfur-oxidizing alkaliphiles belonging to the genus Thioalkalivibrio. The rod-shaped isolate differed from the other isolates by its ability to accumulate large amounts of elemental sulfur inside its cells and by its ability to oxidize carbon disulfide. Despite its low DNA homology with and substantial phenotypic differences from the vibrio-shaped strains, this isolate also belonged to the genus Thioalkalivibrio according to a phylogenetic analysis. The heterotrophic and autotrophic alkaliphiles that grew with thiocyanate as an N source possessed a relatively high level of cyanase activity which converted cyanate (CNO-) to ammonia and CO2. On the other hand, cyanase activity either was absent or was present at very low levels in the autotrophic strains grown on thiocyanate as the sole energy and N source. As a result, large amounts of cyanate were found to accumulate in the media during utilization of thiocyanate at pH 10 in batch and thiocyanate-limited continuous cultures. This is a first direct proof of a "cyanate pathway" in pure cultures of thiocyanate-degrading bacteria. Since it is relatively stable under alkaline conditions, cyanate is likely to play a role as an N buffer that keeps the alkaliphilic bacteria safe from inhibition by free ammonia, which otherwise would reach toxic levels during dissimilatory degradation of thiocyanate. (+info)
Control of ubiquitination of proteins in rat tissues by ubiquitin conjugating enzymes and isopeptidases. (7/87)The activity of the ubiquitin-dependent proteolytic system in differentiated tissues under basal conditions remains poorly explored. We measured rates of ubiquitination in rat tissue extracts. Accumulation of ubiquitinated proteins increased in the presence of ubiquitin aldehyde, indicating that deubiquitinating enzymes can regulate ubiquitination. Rates of ubiquitination varied fourfold, with the highest rate in the testis. We tested whether ubiquitin-activating enzyme (E1) or ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes (E2s) could be limiting for conjugation. Immunodepletion of the E2s UBC2 or UBC4 lowered rates of conjugation similarly. Supplementation of extracts with excess UBC2 or UBC4, but not E1, stimulated conjugation. However, UBC2-stimulated rates of ubiquitination still differed among tissues, indicating that tissue differences in E3s or substrate availability may also be rate controlling. UBC2 and UBC4 stimulated conjugation half-maximally at concentrations of 10-50 and 28-44 nM, respectively. Endogenous tissue levels of UBC2, but not UBC4, appeared saturating for conjugation, suggesting that in vivo modulation of UBC4 levels can likely control ubiquitin conjugation. Thus the pool of ubiquitin conjugates and therefore the rate of degradation of proteins by this system may be controlled by E2s, E3s, and isopeptidases. The regulation of the ubiquitin pathway appears complex, but precise. (+info)
Muscle-specific RING finger-1 interacts with titin to regulate sarcomeric M-line and thick filament structure and may have nuclear functions via its interaction with glucocorticoid modulatory element binding protein-1. (8/87)The COOH-terminal A168-170 region of the giant sarcomeric protein titin interacts with muscle-specific RING finger-1 (MURF-1). To investigate the functional significance of this interaction, we expressed green fluorescent protein fusion constructs encoding defined fragments of titin's M-line region and MURF-1 in cardiac myocytes. Upon expression of MURF-1 or its central region (containing its titin-binding site), the integrity of titin's M-line region was dramatically disrupted. Disruption of titin's M-line region also resulted in a perturbation of thick filament components, but, surprisingly, not of the NH2-terminal or I-band regions of titin, the Z-lines, or the thin filaments. This specific phenotype also was caused by the expression of titin A168-170. These data suggest that the interaction of titin with MURF-1 is important for the stability of the sarcomeric M-line region.MURF-1 also binds to ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme-9 and isopeptidase T-3, enzymes involved in small ubiquitin-related modifier-mediated nuclear import, and with glucocorticoid modulatory element binding protein-1 (GMEB-1), a transcriptional regulator. Consistent with our in vitro binding data implicating MURF-1 with nuclear functions, endogenous MURF-1 also was detected in the nuclei of some myocytes. The dual interactions of MURF-1 with titin and GMEB-1 may link myofibril signaling pathways (perhaps including titin's kinase domain) with muscle gene expression. (+info)
In the medical field, the term "carbon" typically refers to the chemical element with the atomic number 6, which is a vital component of all living organisms. Carbon is the building block of organic molecules, including proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, and nucleic acids, which are essential for the structure and function of cells and tissues. In medicine, carbon is also used in various diagnostic and therapeutic applications. For example, carbon-13 (13C) is a stable isotope of carbon that is used in metabolic studies to investigate the function of enzymes and pathways in the body. Carbon-14 (14C) is a radioactive isotope of carbon that is used in radiocarbon dating to determine the age of organic materials, including human remains. Additionally, carbon dioxide (CO2) is a gas that is produced by the body during respiration and is exhaled. It is also used in medical applications, such as in carbon dioxide laser therapy, which uses the energy of CO2 lasers to treat various medical conditions, including skin disorders, tumors, and eye diseases.
In the medical field, nitrogen is a chemical element that is commonly used in various medical applications. Nitrogen is a non-metallic gas that is essential for life and is found in the air we breathe. It is also used in the production of various medical gases, such as nitrous oxide, which is used as an anesthetic during medical procedures. Nitrogen is also used in the treatment of certain medical conditions, such as nitrogen narcosis, which is a condition that occurs when a person breathes compressed air that contains high levels of nitrogen. Nitrogen narcosis can cause symptoms such as dizziness, confusion, and disorientation, and it is typically treated by reducing the amount of nitrogen in the air that the person is breathing. In addition, nitrogen is used in the production of various medical devices and equipment, such as medical imaging equipment and surgical instruments. It is also used in the production of certain medications, such as nitroglycerin, which is used to treat heart conditions. Overall, nitrogen plays an important role in the medical field and is used in a variety of medical applications.
Lyases are a class of enzymes that catalyze the cleavage of chemical bonds in a molecule, often resulting in the formation of two smaller molecules. They are involved in a variety of metabolic pathways, including the breakdown of amino acids, carbohydrates, and fatty acids. There are several types of lyases, including oxidoreductases, transferases, hydrolases, and ligases. Each type of lyase has a specific mechanism of action and is involved in different metabolic processes. In the medical field, lyases are often studied in the context of disease and drug development. For example, certain lyases are involved in the metabolism of drugs, and changes in the activity of these enzymes can affect the efficacy and toxicity of drugs. Additionally, some lyases are involved in the metabolism of harmful substances, such as toxins and carcinogens, and their activity can be targeted for therapeutic purposes.
Chondroitin lyases are a group of enzymes that break down chondroitin sulfate, a complex carbohydrate found in cartilage and other connective tissues. These enzymes are important in the process of cartilage turnover and repair, as they help to break down old or damaged cartilage and replace it with new tissue. There are several different types of chondroitin lyases, each with a slightly different mechanism of action. Some chondroitin lyases are able to cleave the glycosidic bonds between the sugar molecules that make up chondroitin sulfate, while others are able to remove specific sulfate groups from the molecule. Chondroitin lyases have been the subject of extensive research in the medical field, as they have potential applications in the treatment of a variety of conditions that affect cartilage, including osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, and other forms of joint disease. Some studies have suggested that chondroitin lyases may be able to help stimulate the production of new cartilage tissue, or to reduce the inflammation and pain associated with joint disease. However, more research is needed to fully understand the potential therapeutic applications of chondroitin lyases, and to determine the most effective ways to use these enzymes in the treatment of cartilage-related conditions.
In the medical field, carbon dioxide (CO2) is a gas that is produced as a byproduct of cellular respiration and is exhaled by the body. It is also used in medical applications such as carbon dioxide insufflation during colonoscopy and laparoscopic surgery, and as a component of medical gases used in anesthesia and respiratory therapy. High levels of CO2 in the blood (hypercapnia) can be a sign of respiratory or metabolic disorders, while low levels (hypocapnia) can be caused by respiratory failure or metabolic alkalosis.
Carbon monoxide (CO) is a colorless, odorless, and tasteless gas that is produced when fossil fuels such as coal, oil, and gas are burned incompletely. In the medical field, carbon monoxide poisoning is a serious condition that occurs when a person inhales high levels of the gas, which can interfere with the body's ability to transport oxygen to the tissues. Carbon monoxide binds to hemoglobin in red blood cells, forming carboxyhemoglobin, which reduces the amount of oxygen that can be carried by the blood. This can lead to symptoms such as headache, dizziness, nausea, confusion, and shortness of breath. In severe cases, carbon monoxide poisoning can cause unconsciousness, seizures, and even death. The medical treatment for carbon monoxide poisoning involves removing the person from the source of the gas and providing oxygen therapy to help restore normal oxygen levels in the blood. In some cases, additional medical treatment may be necessary to manage symptoms and prevent complications.
Carbon nanotubes are cylindrical structures made of carbon atoms arranged in a hexagonal lattice. They are typically only a few nanometers in diameter and can be several micrometers long. In the medical field, carbon nanotubes have been studied for their potential use in a variety of applications, including drug delivery, imaging, and tissue engineering. For example, carbon nanotubes can be functionalized with drugs and used to deliver them directly to specific cells or tissues in the body. They can also be used as contrast agents in medical imaging, and their unique mechanical and electrical properties make them attractive for use in tissue engineering scaffolds. However, the use of carbon nanotubes in medicine is still in the early stages of development, and more research is needed to fully understand their potential benefits and risks.
In the medical field, nitrogen isotopes refer to different forms of the element nitrogen that have different atomic masses due to the presence of different numbers of neutrons in their nuclei. The most commonly used nitrogen isotopes in medical applications are nitrogen-13 (13N) and nitrogen-15 (15N). Nitrogen-13 is a radioactive isotope that is commonly used in positron emission tomography (PET) scans to study the function of various organs and tissues in the body. It is produced by bombarding a target material with high-energy protons, and the resulting radioactive nitrogen-13 is then used to create radiotracers that can be injected into the body and imaged using PET. Nitrogen-15, on the other hand, is a stable isotope that is used in various medical applications, including the study of metabolism and the measurement of blood flow. It is often used in combination with other stable isotopes, such as oxygen-15, to create radiotracers that can be used in PET scans. Overall, nitrogen isotopes play an important role in medical imaging and research, allowing doctors and scientists to study the function of various organs and tissues in the body and to diagnose and treat a wide range of medical conditions.
Chondroitinases and chondroitin lyases are enzymes that break down chondroitin sulfate, a complex carbohydrate found in cartilage. These enzymes are used in medical research and treatment of various conditions, including osteoarthritis, spinal cord injury, and multiple sclerosis. Chondroitinases are a type of lyase that specifically cleave the glycosidic bond between the disaccharide units of chondroitin sulfate. This results in the release of smaller chondroitin sulfate fragments, which can be used for various purposes, such as studying the structure and function of cartilage, or developing new treatments for diseases that affect cartilage. Chondroitin lyases, on the other hand, are a broader category of enzymes that can cleave various types of glycosaminoglycans, including chondroitin sulfate, heparan sulfate, and dermatan sulfate. These enzymes are used in research to study the structure and function of glycosaminoglycans, and in clinical settings to treat conditions such as osteoarthritis and spinal cord injury. Overall, chondroitinases and chondroitin lyases play important roles in the medical field by providing tools for studying cartilage and developing new treatments for diseases that affect this tissue.
In the medical field, nitrogen compounds refer to compounds that contain nitrogen atoms. Nitrogen is a common element in the human body and is found in many important biomolecules such as proteins, nucleic acids, and amino acids. Nitrogen compounds can be further classified based on their chemical structure and function in the body. Some examples of nitrogen compounds in the medical field include: 1. Ammonia: A toxic gas that is produced by the breakdown of proteins in the body. High levels of ammonia in the blood can be a sign of liver or kidney disease. 2. Nitric oxide: A gas that is produced by the body and plays a role in regulating blood pressure and the immune system. 3. Nitroglycerin: A medication used to treat angina (chest pain) by relaxing blood vessels and increasing blood flow to the heart. 4. Nitrates: A group of compounds that are used to treat angina and heart failure by relaxing blood vessels and reducing the workload on the heart. 5. Nitrous oxide: A gas that is used as an anesthetic during medical procedures and is also known as "laughing gas." Overall, nitrogen compounds play important roles in many biological processes and are often used in medical treatments and medications.
Pectins are a group of complex polysaccharides that are commonly found in the cell walls of plants, particularly in fruits and vegetables. They are composed of long chains of sugar molecules and are responsible for giving fruits their firmness and texture. In the medical field, pectins have been studied for their potential health benefits. They have been shown to have prebiotic effects, meaning they can promote the growth of beneficial bacteria in the gut. This can help improve digestion and boost the immune system. Pectins have also been found to have anti-inflammatory properties, which may help reduce the risk of chronic diseases such as heart disease, diabetes, and cancer. They have also been studied for their potential to lower cholesterol levels and improve blood sugar control. In addition to their potential health benefits, pectins are also used in a variety of food products, including jams, jellies, and fruit juices, as they help to thicken and stabilize these products.
In the medical field, Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2) is a colorless gas that is produced by the incomplete combustion of fossil fuels, such as gasoline and diesel. It is also produced by industrial processes, such as the production of steel and the burning of coal. NO2 is a toxic gas that can cause a range of respiratory problems, including shortness of breath, coughing, wheezing, and chest tightness. Long-term exposure to high levels of NO2 can lead to chronic respiratory diseases, such as asthma and emphysema. In addition to its respiratory effects, NO2 has also been linked to cardiovascular problems, such as heart attacks and strokes. It is also a potent greenhouse gas that contributes to climate change. In the medical field, NO2 is typically measured as part of air quality monitoring programs, and its levels are used to assess the health risks associated with air pollution. Medical professionals may also use NO2 levels to diagnose and treat respiratory and cardiovascular conditions related to air pollution exposure.
Phycobiliproteins are a group of water-soluble proteins found in certain types of algae and cyanobacteria. They are responsible for the blue-green color of these organisms and play a crucial role in photosynthesis. Phycobiliproteins are composed of two types of subunits: phycobilin chromophores and protein peptides. The phycobilin chromophores are responsible for the color of the protein, while the protein peptides provide a scaffold for the chromophores and help to stabilize the protein structure. In the medical field, phycobiliproteins have been studied for their potential therapeutic applications. For example, they have been shown to have anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties, and may be useful in the treatment of various diseases, including cancer, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. Additionally, phycobiliproteins have been used as a source of dietary protein in some vegetarian and vegan diets.
Carbon monoxide poisoning is a medical emergency that occurs when a person inhales carbon monoxide (CO), a colorless, odorless gas that is produced when fossil fuels such as coal, oil, and gas are burned incompletely. When inhaled, carbon monoxide binds to hemoglobin in the blood, which is responsible for carrying oxygen to the body's tissues. This binding prevents oxygen from being transported to the body's cells, leading to a lack of oxygen (hypoxia) and potentially causing damage to the brain, heart, and other organs. Symptoms of carbon monoxide poisoning can include headache, dizziness, nausea, vomiting, confusion, and loss of consciousness. In severe cases, carbon monoxide poisoning can lead to death. Treatment for carbon monoxide poisoning typically involves removing the person from the source of the gas and providing oxygen therapy to increase the amount of oxygen in the blood. In some cases, additional medical treatment may be necessary to manage symptoms and prevent complications.
In the medical field, carbon isotopes are atoms of carbon that have a different number of neutrons than the most common isotope, carbon-12. There are two stable isotopes of carbon, carbon-12 and carbon-13, and several unstable isotopes that are used in medical applications. Carbon-13, in particular, is used in medical imaging techniques such as magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) and positron emission tomography (PET). In MRS, carbon-13 is used to study the metabolism of certain compounds in the body, such as glucose and amino acids. In PET, carbon-13 is used to create images of the body's metabolism by tracing the movement of a radioactive tracer through the body. Carbon-11, another unstable isotope of carbon, is used in PET imaging to study various diseases, including cancer, Alzheimer's disease, and heart disease. Carbon-11 is produced in a cyclotron and then attached to a molecule that is specific to a particular target in the body. The tracer is then injected into the patient and imaged using a PET scanner to detect the location and extent of the disease. Overall, carbon isotopes play an important role in medical imaging and research, allowing doctors and researchers to better understand the functioning of the body and diagnose and treat various diseases.
Reactive Nitrogen Species (RNS) are a group of highly reactive molecules that are formed as a byproduct of the metabolism of nitrogen-containing compounds in the body. These molecules include nitric oxide (NO), peroxynitrite (ONOO-), and other nitrogen-containing radicals. In the medical field, RNS play important roles in various physiological processes, including vasodilation, neurotransmission, and immune function. However, excessive production of RNS can also lead to cellular damage and contribute to the development of various diseases, including cardiovascular disease, neurodegenerative disorders, and cancer. RNS are produced by a variety of cells in the body, including immune cells, endothelial cells, and neurons. They are also generated by the interaction of oxygen and nitrogen-containing compounds, such as nitrite and nitrate, which are found in the diet and are converted to NO by enzymes in the body. Overall, RNS are a complex and dynamic group of molecules that play important roles in both health and disease. Understanding the mechanisms by which RNS are produced and regulated is an active area of research in the medical field.
Aldehyde lyases are a group of enzymes that catalyze the cleavage of aldehydes into two smaller molecules, such as an alcohol and a carboxylate. These enzymes are important in the metabolism of various compounds, including amino acids, fatty acids, and drugs. In the medical field, aldehyde lyases are often studied in the context of their role in the detoxification of harmful substances, such as alcohol and other toxic aldehydes. Deficiencies in certain aldehyde lyases have been linked to certain medical conditions, such as maple syrup urine disease, which is caused by a deficiency in the enzyme branched-chain alpha-keto acid dehydrogenase.
In the medical field, Carbon-Oxygen Lyases are a class of enzymes that catalyze the cleavage of carbon-oxygen bonds in organic molecules. These enzymes are involved in various metabolic pathways, including the breakdown of fatty acids, amino acids, and carbohydrates. One example of a carbon-oxygen lyase is acyl-CoA dehydrogenase, which is involved in the breakdown of fatty acids. This enzyme catalyzes the removal of a hydrogen atom from the fatty acid molecule, resulting in the formation of a double bond and the release of a molecule of carbon dioxide. Carbon-oxygen lyases are also involved in the metabolism of amino acids, such as the conversion of pyruvate to acetyl-CoA, which is an important step in the production of energy in the body. Overall, carbon-oxygen lyases play a crucial role in the metabolism of organic molecules in the body and are involved in many important physiological processes.
In the medical field, nitrogen oxides (NOx) are a group of gases that are formed when nitrogen and oxygen react at high temperatures. These gases are commonly found in the atmosphere and are also produced by various human activities, such as burning fossil fuels and industrial processes. NOx gases can have harmful effects on human health, particularly on the respiratory system. When inhaled, they can cause irritation of the airways, coughing, wheezing, and shortness of breath. Long-term exposure to high levels of NOx can lead to chronic respiratory diseases, such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). In addition to their respiratory effects, NOx gases can also contribute to the formation of ground-level ozone, which is a major component of smog and can cause eye irritation, coughing, and other respiratory symptoms. NOx gases can also contribute to the formation of fine particulate matter, which can be inhaled deep into the lungs and cause a range of health problems, including heart disease, stroke, and lung cancer. Overall, the medical community recognizes the importance of monitoring and controlling NOx emissions to protect public health and reduce the risk of respiratory and other health problems associated with exposure to these gases.
Oxo-acid lyases are a class of enzymes that catalyze the cleavage of an oxo-acid substrate at the carbon-carbon bond adjacent to the oxygen atom. These enzymes are involved in various metabolic pathways and play important roles in the breakdown of amino acids, carbohydrates, and fatty acids. In the medical field, oxo-acid lyases are often studied in the context of their involvement in diseases such as cancer, diabetes, and obesity. For example, certain enzymes in this class have been shown to be upregulated in cancer cells, leading to increased metabolism and proliferation. In diabetes and obesity, alterations in the activity of oxo-acid lyases have been linked to impaired glucose metabolism and the development of insulin resistance. Overall, oxo-acid lyases are an important class of enzymes that play a critical role in metabolism and have implications for various diseases.
Heparin lyase is an enzyme that breaks down heparin, a type of polysaccharide that is commonly used as an anticoagulant medication. Heparin lyase is produced by certain bacteria and can cause heparin resistance, which can lead to increased bleeding and other complications in patients who are taking heparin. Heparin resistance can occur when bacteria in the body produce heparin lyase, which breaks down the heparin molecules, rendering them less effective at preventing blood clots. This condition is typically treated with alternative anticoagulant medications or by administering higher doses of heparin.
In the medical field, PII Nitrogen Regulatory Proteins refer to a family of proteins that play a crucial role in regulating nitrogen metabolism in bacteria and archaea. These proteins are also known as PII signal transduction proteins or PII-like proteins. The PII Nitrogen Regulatory Proteins are small, highly conserved proteins that contain a central histidine residue that can bind to various ligands, including ammonia, 2-oxoglutarate, and ATP. The binding of these ligands to the PII Nitrogen Regulatory Proteins triggers conformational changes in the protein, which in turn modulate the activity of other proteins involved in nitrogen metabolism. In bacteria and archaea, the PII Nitrogen Regulatory Proteins play a critical role in regulating the uptake and assimilation of nitrogen sources, such as ammonia and nitrate. They also regulate the expression of genes involved in nitrogen metabolism, including those encoding enzymes involved in nitrogen fixation, ammonium assimilation, and nitrate reduction. Overall, the PII Nitrogen Regulatory Proteins are important regulators of nitrogen metabolism in bacteria and archaea, and their dysfunction can lead to nitrogen starvation and other metabolic disorders.
Carbon tetrachloride is a colorless, dense liquid with a sweet, chlorinated smell. It is a commonly used solvent in the medical field, particularly in the preparation of medications and in the sterilization of medical equipment. However, carbon tetrachloride is also a known neurotoxin and can cause serious health problems if inhaled or ingested in large quantities. It has been linked to liver damage, kidney damage, and even death in severe cases. As a result, its use in the medical field has been largely phased out in favor of safer alternatives.
Polygalacturonase is an enzyme that breaks down the bonds between galacturonic acid residues in the cell wall of plants. It is commonly found in fruits, vegetables, and other plant tissues, and plays a role in the ripening and softening of these foods. In the medical field, polygalacturonase has been studied for its potential use in treating certain medical conditions. For example, it has been shown to have anti-inflammatory properties and may be useful in treating conditions such as arthritis and inflammatory bowel disease. It has also been studied for its potential use in treating cancer, as it may be able to help break down the protective cell walls of cancer cells, making them more susceptible to treatment. However, more research is needed to fully understand the potential therapeutic applications of polygalacturonase in medicine.
Bacterial proteins are proteins that are synthesized by bacteria. They are essential for the survival and function of bacteria, and play a variety of roles in bacterial metabolism, growth, and pathogenicity. Bacterial proteins can be classified into several categories based on their function, including structural proteins, metabolic enzymes, regulatory proteins, and toxins. Structural proteins provide support and shape to the bacterial cell, while metabolic enzymes are involved in the breakdown of nutrients and the synthesis of new molecules. Regulatory proteins control the expression of other genes, and toxins can cause damage to host cells and tissues. Bacterial proteins are of interest in the medical field because they can be used as targets for the development of antibiotics and other antimicrobial agents. They can also be used as diagnostic markers for bacterial infections, and as vaccines to prevent bacterial diseases. Additionally, some bacterial proteins have been shown to have therapeutic potential, such as enzymes that can break down harmful substances in the body or proteins that can stimulate the immune system.
Nitrates are a group of compounds that contain the nitrate ion (NO3-). In the medical field, nitrates are commonly used to treat angina (chest pain caused by reduced blood flow to the heart muscle) and high blood pressure (hypertension). They work by relaxing the smooth muscles in blood vessels, which allows blood to flow more easily and reduces the workload on the heart. Nitrates are available in various forms, including tablets, ointments, and sprays. They are usually taken as needed to relieve symptoms, but may also be taken on a regular schedule to prevent angina attacks or lower blood pressure. It is important to note that nitrates can have side effects, such as headache, flushing, and low blood pressure, and should be used under the guidance of a healthcare provider.
Ammonia is a chemical compound with the formula NH3. It is a colorless, pungent gas with a strong, unpleasant odor. In the medical field, ammonia is often used as a diagnostic tool to test for liver and kidney function. High levels of ammonia in the blood can be a sign of liver or kidney disease, as well as certain genetic disorders such as urea cycle disorders. Ammonia can also be used as a treatment for certain conditions, such as metabolic acidosis, which is a condition in which the body produces too much acid. However, ammonia can be toxic in high concentrations and can cause respiratory and neurological problems if inhaled or ingested.
Alginates are a type of polysaccharide that are extracted from brown seaweed. They are commonly used in the medical field as a dressing for wounds, as well as in the production of various medical devices and implants. Alginates have properties that make them useful for wound healing, including their ability to absorb and retain moisture, promote cell growth, and prevent bacterial infection. They are also biocompatible, meaning they are well-tolerated by the body and do not cause an immune response. In addition to their use in wound care, alginate-based materials are also used in the production of dental impressions, drug delivery systems, and other medical applications.
Carbon disulfide (CS2) is a colorless, highly toxic gas that is used in various industrial processes, including the production of rayon and certain types of plastics. In the medical field, carbon disulfide is primarily associated with its toxic effects on the nervous system and the lungs. Exposure to carbon disulfide can cause a range of symptoms, including headache, dizziness, nausea, vomiting, and confusion. In severe cases, exposure to high levels of carbon disulfide can lead to respiratory failure, coma, and death. In addition to its acute toxic effects, carbon disulfide has also been linked to long-term health effects, including damage to the liver, kidneys, and nervous system. Chronic exposure to low levels of carbon disulfide has been associated with an increased risk of certain types of cancer, including lung cancer and bladder cancer. Overall, carbon disulfide is a highly toxic substance that should be handled with extreme caution in the workplace and other settings where it is used. Medical professionals should be aware of the potential health effects of carbon disulfide and take appropriate precautions to protect themselves and others from exposure.
In the medical field, "soil" typically refers to the microorganisms and other biological material that can be found in soil. These microorganisms can include bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites, and can be present in various forms, such as in soil particles or as free-living organisms. Soil can also refer to the physical and chemical properties of the soil, such as its texture, pH, nutrient content, and water-holding capacity. These properties can affect the growth and health of plants, and can also impact the spread of soil-borne diseases and infections. In some cases, soil can also be used as a medium for growing plants in a controlled environment, such as in a greenhouse or laboratory setting. In these cases, the soil may be specially formulated to provide the necessary nutrients and conditions for optimal plant growth.
Hexuronic acids are a type of carbohydrate that are found in the cell walls of plants and some bacteria. They are also known as hexoses or hexoses acids. Hexuronic acids are composed of six carbon atoms and are classified as aldohexoses. They are important components of the plant cell wall and play a role in the structure and function of the cell wall. Hexuronic acids are also used in the production of certain types of food and beverages, such as jams, jellies, and fruit juices. In the medical field, hexuronic acids are not commonly used for treatment or diagnosis of diseases.
Isocitrate lyase is an enzyme that plays a key role in the metabolism of glucose and fatty acids in the body. It is involved in the process of glycolysis, which is the breakdown of glucose to produce energy. Isocitrate lyase catalyzes the conversion of isocitrate, a molecule produced during glycolysis, into succinate and acetyl-CoA. This reaction is reversible, and the enzyme can also catalyze the conversion of succinate and acetyl-CoA back into isocitrate. Isocitrate lyase is found in a variety of tissues in the body, including the liver, kidneys, and muscles. It is also present in certain types of cancer cells, where it may play a role in the growth and survival of these cells.
Phycobilins are pigments found in certain types of algae and cyanobacteria. They are responsible for the red, orange, and blue colors of these organisms. In the medical field, phycobilins have been studied for their potential health benefits, including their ability to improve cardiovascular health, boost the immune system, and protect against cancer. Some studies have also suggested that phycobilins may have anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. However, more research is needed to fully understand the potential health benefits of phycobilins.
Chondroitin ABC Lyase (CABCyL) is an enzyme that breaks down chondroitin sulfate, a complex carbohydrate found in cartilage, tendons, and other connective tissues. It is involved in the degradation of proteoglycans, which are large molecules composed of proteins and carbohydrates, and plays a role in the turnover of extracellular matrix in tissues. In the medical field, CABCyL has been studied for its potential therapeutic applications in various conditions, including osteoarthritis, a degenerative joint disease characterized by the breakdown of cartilage and the development of bone spurs. CABCyL has been shown to increase the turnover of cartilage matrix and promote the synthesis of new cartilage, which may help to slow down the progression of osteoarthritis. It has also been studied for its potential use in the treatment of other connective tissue disorders, such as intervertebral disc degeneration and fibrosis.
Quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs) are a class of cationic compounds that consist of a central nitrogen atom bonded to four alkyl or aryl groups, with one of the alkyl groups replaced by a positively charged ammonium ion. In the medical field, QACs are commonly used as disinfectants, antiseptics, and preservatives due to their broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity against bacteria, viruses, fungi, and algae. QACs work by disrupting the cell membrane of microorganisms, leading to cell lysis and death. They are particularly effective against Gram-positive bacteria, which have a thick peptidoglycan layer that can be penetrated by the positively charged ammonium ion. QACs are also effective against enveloped viruses, such as influenza and herpes, by disrupting the viral envelope. QACs are used in a variety of medical applications, including as disinfectants for surfaces and equipment, antiseptics for skin and wound care, and preservatives for pharmaceuticals and medical devices. However, QACs can also be toxic to humans and other animals if ingested or inhaled in high concentrations. Therefore, proper handling and use of QACs are essential to minimize the risk of adverse effects.
Cytochromes c1 are a group of electron transport chain proteins that are found in the inner mitochondrial membrane. They are involved in the transfer of electrons from complex III to complex IV in the electron transport chain, which is a series of protein complexes that are responsible for generating ATP (adenosine triphosphate) from the energy produced by cellular respiration. In the medical field, cytochromes c1 are of interest because they play a critical role in the production of energy within cells, and disruptions in their function can lead to a variety of diseases, including cancer, neurodegenerative disorders, and cardiovascular disease.
Carbon tetrachloride poisoning is a medical condition that occurs when a person is exposed to high levels of carbon tetrachloride, a colorless, sweet-smelling liquid that was once commonly used as a solvent in various industrial and household products. The symptoms of carbon tetrachloride poisoning can vary depending on the level and duration of exposure, but they may include headache, dizziness, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, confusion, and difficulty breathing. In severe cases, carbon tetrachloride poisoning can lead to liver damage, kidney failure, and even death. The treatment for carbon tetrachloride poisoning typically involves supportive care, such as oxygen therapy, fluid replacement, and medications to manage symptoms. In some cases, activated charcoal may be given to help absorb the carbon tetrachloride from the body. Prevention of carbon tetrachloride poisoning involves avoiding exposure to the chemical, especially in its pure form, and using safer alternatives whenever possible. If you suspect that you or someone else may have been exposed to carbon tetrachloride, seek medical attention immediately.
Glutamate-ammonia ligase (GLUL) is an enzyme that plays a crucial role in the metabolism of nitrogen in the body. It catalyzes the reversible transfer of ammonia from glutamate to 2-oxoglutarate, producing glutamine and alpha-ketoglutarate. This reaction is an important step in the urea cycle, which is the primary mechanism for removing excess nitrogen from the body. In the medical field, GLUL is often studied in the context of various diseases and disorders that affect nitrogen metabolism. For example, mutations in the GLUL gene have been associated with several inherited disorders of amino acid metabolism, including glutamine synthetase deficiency and hyperammonemia-hyperornithinemia-homocitrullinuria syndrome (HHH syndrome). In addition, GLUL has been implicated in the development of certain types of cancer, as well as in the regulation of immune function and inflammation.
Amino acids are organic compounds that are the building blocks of proteins. They are composed of an amino group (-NH2), a carboxyl group (-COOH), and a side chain (R group) that varies in size and structure. There are 20 different amino acids that are commonly found in proteins, each with a unique side chain that gives it distinct chemical and physical properties. In the medical field, amino acids are important for a variety of functions, including the synthesis of proteins, enzymes, and hormones. They are also involved in energy metabolism and the maintenance of healthy tissues. Deficiencies in certain amino acids can lead to a range of health problems, including muscle wasting, anemia, and neurological disorders. In some cases, amino acids may be prescribed as supplements to help treat these conditions or to support overall health and wellness.
Glucuronic acid is a naturally occurring organic acid that is produced by the liver as a byproduct of the metabolism of carbohydrates. It is a key component of the glycoprotein molecule hyaluronic acid, which is found in the extracellular matrix of connective tissue throughout the body. In the medical field, glucuronic acid is often used as a precursor in the synthesis of other important molecules, such as bile acids and some hormones. It is also used in the treatment of certain medical conditions, such as hyperuricemia (high levels of uric acid in the blood), where it is used to convert excess uric acid into a more water-soluble form that can be excreted from the body. In addition, glucuronic acid is used in the production of certain drugs and dietary supplements, and it has been shown to have potential anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer effects in laboratory studies. However, more research is needed to fully understand the therapeutic potential of glucuronic acid in the treatment of human diseases.
Urea is a chemical compound that is produced in the liver as a waste product of protein metabolism. It is then transported to the kidneys, where it is filtered out of the blood and excreted in the urine. In the medical field, urea is often used as a diagnostic tool to measure kidney function. High levels of urea in the blood can be a sign of kidney disease or other medical conditions, while low levels may indicate malnutrition or other problems. Urea is also used as a source of nitrogen in fertilizers and as a raw material in the production of plastics and other chemicals.
Adenylosuccinate lyase (ADSL) is an enzyme that plays a crucial role in the metabolism of purines, which are important building blocks of nucleic acids such as DNA and RNA. Specifically, ADSL catalyzes the cleavage of adenylosuccinate (ADS) into AMP (adenosine monophosphate) and fumarate, a metabolic intermediate that can be further processed in the citric acid cycle. In the medical field, mutations in the ADSL gene can lead to a rare inherited disorder called adenylosuccinate lyase deficiency (ASLD). ASLD is characterized by a deficiency in ADSL activity, which can result in the accumulation of ADS and a deficiency in AMP levels. This can lead to a range of symptoms, including developmental delays, intellectual disability, seizures, and muscle weakness. ASLD is typically diagnosed through genetic testing and can be managed with a combination of supportive care and enzyme replacement therapy. However, more research is needed to fully understand the underlying mechanisms of ASLD and to develop more effective treatments for this rare disorder.
DNA, Bacterial refers to the genetic material of bacteria, which is a type of single-celled microorganism that can be found in various environments, including soil, water, and the human body. Bacterial DNA is typically circular in shape and contains genes that encode for the proteins necessary for the bacteria to survive and reproduce. In the medical field, bacterial DNA is often studied as a means of identifying and diagnosing bacterial infections. Bacterial DNA can be extracted from samples such as blood, urine, or sputum and analyzed using techniques such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR) or DNA sequencing. This information can be used to identify the specific type of bacteria causing an infection and to determine the most effective treatment. Bacterial DNA can also be used in research to study the evolution and diversity of bacteria, as well as their interactions with other organisms and the environment. Additionally, bacterial DNA can be modified or manipulated to create genetically engineered bacteria with specific properties, such as the ability to produce certain drugs or to degrade pollutants.
Nitrogenase is an enzyme that plays a crucial role in the biological nitrogen fixation process. It is responsible for converting atmospheric nitrogen (N2) into ammonia (NH3), which can then be used by plants and other organisms to synthesize amino acids, nucleotides, and other nitrogen-containing compounds. In the medical field, nitrogenase is not typically used as a therapeutic agent. However, it has been studied as a potential target for the development of new antibiotics and other drugs. Some bacteria, such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa, produce a form of nitrogenase that is essential for their survival and has been targeted by researchers as a potential way to combat antibiotic-resistant infections. Additionally, nitrogenase has been used in medical research to study the regulation of gene expression and the metabolism of nitrogen-containing compounds in various organisms.
Nitrogen mustard compounds are a class of chemical compounds that contain nitrogen atoms bonded to mustard gas. These compounds are used in chemotherapy to treat certain types of cancer, such as leukemia and lymphoma. They work by damaging the DNA of cancer cells, which prevents them from dividing and growing. Nitrogen mustard compounds can also cause side effects, such as nausea, vomiting, and skin irritation.
Glycoside hydrolases are a group of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of glycosidic bonds in carbohydrates. These enzymes are involved in a wide range of biological processes, including digestion, metabolism, and signaling. In the medical field, glycoside hydrolases are often used as diagnostic tools to study carbohydrate metabolism and to develop new treatments for diseases related to carbohydrate metabolism, such as diabetes and obesity. They are also used in the production of biofuels and other industrial products.
In the medical field, carbon radioisotopes are isotopes of carbon that emit radiation. These isotopes are often used in medical imaging techniques, such as positron emission tomography (PET), to visualize and diagnose various diseases and conditions. One commonly used carbon radioisotope in medical imaging is carbon-11, which is produced by bombarding nitrogen-14 with neutrons in a nuclear reactor. Carbon-11 is then incorporated into various molecules, such as glucose, which can be injected into the body and taken up by cells that are metabolically active. The emitted radiation from the carbon-11 can then be detected by a PET scanner, allowing doctors to visualize and diagnose conditions such as cancer, Alzheimer's disease, and heart disease. Other carbon radioisotopes used in medicine include carbon-13, which is used in breath tests to diagnose various digestive disorders, and carbon-14, which is used in radiocarbon dating to determine the age of organic materials.
Uronic acids are a type of carbohydrate that are found in the human body. They are composed of a uronic acid residue, which is a type of carboxylic acid, and a sugar residue. Uronic acids are important components of the extracellular matrix, which is the network of proteins and carbohydrates that surrounds cells in the body. They are also found in the cell walls of plants and bacteria. There are two main types of uronic acids: glucuronic acid and galacturonic acid. Glucuronic acid is the most common type and is found in many different types of molecules, including glycosaminoglycans, proteoglycans, and certain types of lipids. Galacturonic acid is found in pectin, a type of carbohydrate that is found in the cell walls of plants. Uronic acids play important roles in many different biological processes, including cell signaling, inflammation, and the formation and maintenance of tissues. They are also involved in the metabolism of certain drugs and toxins.
Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) are a group of complex carbohydrates that are found in the extracellular matrix of connective tissues in the human body. They are composed of repeating disaccharide units of a sugar called glucose and another sugar called uronic acid, which are linked together by glycosidic bonds. GAGs play important roles in various biological processes, including cell signaling, tissue development, and wound healing. They are also involved in the regulation of inflammation, blood clotting, and the immune response. In the medical field, GAGs are often studied in relation to various diseases and conditions, such as osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, and cancer. They are also used as diagnostic markers and therapeutic targets in the treatment of these conditions. Additionally, GAGs are used in various medical applications, such as wound dressings, tissue engineering, and drug delivery systems.
In the medical field, disaccharides are two monosaccharide units (simple sugars) that are joined together by a glycosidic bond. Disaccharides are commonly found in foods and are broken down by the body into their constituent monosaccharides during digestion. Some common examples of disaccharides include sucrose (table sugar), lactose (milk sugar), and maltose (malt sugar). Disaccharides are an important source of energy for the body and are also used in the production of various foods and beverages.
Carbon-nitrogen lyases are a class of enzymes that catalyze the cleavage of carbon-nitrogen bonds in organic molecules. These enzymes are involved in various metabolic pathways, including the degradation of amino acids and the biosynthesis of certain compounds. One example of a carbon-nitrogen lyase is the enzyme alanine racemase, which is involved in the biosynthesis of alanine from pyruvate and ammonia. Another example is the enzyme glutamine synthetase, which is involved in the assimilation of ammonia into glutamine. Carbon-nitrogen lyases are important in the medical field because they are involved in the metabolism of various drugs and toxins. For example, some antibiotics and chemotherapy drugs are metabolized by carbon-nitrogen lyases, which can affect their efficacy and toxicity. Additionally, some toxins, such as cyanide, are detoxified by carbon-nitrogen lyases. In some cases, defects in carbon-nitrogen lyases can lead to metabolic disorders. For example, deficiency in alanine racemase can cause a rare genetic disorder called maple syrup urine disease, which is characterized by the accumulation of toxic compounds in the body.
In the medical field, carbon-carbon lyases are a class of enzymes that catalyze the cleavage of carbon-carbon bonds in organic molecules. These enzymes are involved in various metabolic pathways, including the breakdown of fatty acids, the synthesis of amino acids, and the degradation of certain drugs. Carbon-carbon lyases typically require a cofactor, such as NADPH or flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD), to function properly. They can cleave carbon-carbon bonds in a variety of ways, including through the formation of a covalent intermediate or through the transfer of a functional group from one molecule to another. In some cases, carbon-carbon lyases can also catalyze the formation of new carbon-carbon bonds, such as in the synthesis of certain amino acids from their precursors. Overall, carbon-carbon lyases play important roles in many biological processes and are the subject of ongoing research in the medical field.
Glutamine is an amino acid that plays a crucial role in various physiological processes in the body. It is one of the most abundant amino acids in the human body and is involved in a wide range of functions, including: 1. Energy production: Glutamine is a major source of fuel for cells in the body, particularly in the muscles and immune system. 2. Protein synthesis: Glutamine is a key building block for proteins and is essential for the growth and repair of tissues. 3. Immune function: Glutamine plays a critical role in the function of the immune system, particularly in the production of white blood cells. 4. Gut health: Glutamine is important for maintaining the health of the gut lining and preventing damage to the gut. In the medical field, glutamine is often used as a supplement to support various health conditions, including: 1. Wound healing: Glutamine has been shown to promote wound healing and reduce the risk of infection. 2. Cancer treatment: Glutamine supplementation may help to reduce the side effects of cancer treatment, such as fatigue and muscle wasting. 3. Immune system support: Glutamine supplementation may help to boost the immune system and reduce the risk of infections. 4. Digestive disorders: Glutamine may be helpful in treating digestive disorders such as inflammatory bowel disease and irritable bowel syndrome. Overall, glutamine is an important nutrient that plays a crucial role in many physiological processes in the body and may be beneficial in supporting various health conditions.
Sulfonium compounds are a class of organic compounds that contain a sulfur atom bonded to three alkyl or aryl groups. They are often used as intermediates in organic synthesis and have a variety of applications in the medical field. One important application of sulfonium compounds in medicine is in the development of antifungal agents. Sulfonium compounds can be used to inhibit the growth of fungi by interfering with their ability to synthesize ergosterol, a vital component of their cell membranes. This can lead to the disruption of the fungal cell membrane and ultimately to the death of the fungus. Sulfonium compounds are also used in the development of anticancer drugs. They can be used to alkylate DNA, which can lead to the inhibition of DNA replication and cell division. This can result in the death of cancer cells. In addition to their use in medicine, sulfonium compounds have a variety of other applications in the chemical industry. They are used as catalysts in organic reactions and as intermediates in the synthesis of a wide range of organic compounds.
In the medical field, oxygen is a gas that is essential for the survival of most living organisms. It is used to treat a variety of medical conditions, including respiratory disorders, heart disease, and anemia. Oxygen is typically administered through a mask, nasal cannula, or oxygen tank, and is used to increase the amount of oxygen in the bloodstream. This can help to improve oxygenation of the body's tissues and organs, which is important for maintaining normal bodily functions. In medical settings, oxygen is often used to treat patients who are experiencing difficulty breathing due to conditions such as pneumonia, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), or asthma. It may also be used to treat patients who have suffered from a heart attack or stroke, as well as those who are recovering from surgery or other medical procedures. Overall, oxygen is a critical component of modern medical treatment, and is used in a wide range of clinical settings to help patients recover from illness and maintain their health.
Chondroitin sulfates are a group of complex carbohydrates that are found in the extracellular matrix of connective tissues, including cartilage, bone, and blood vessels. They are composed of repeating disaccharide units of glucuronic acid and galactosamine, which are linked by a sulfate group. In the medical field, chondroitin sulfates are often used as dietary supplements to support joint health and reduce the symptoms of osteoarthritis. They are thought to work by inhibiting the activity of enzymes that break down cartilage, promoting the production of proteoglycans, and reducing inflammation in the joints. Chondroitin sulfates are also used in some medical treatments, such as the treatment of certain types of cancer and the prevention of blood clots. However, their effectiveness and safety in these applications are still being studied, and more research is needed to fully understand their potential benefits and risks.
Acetylene is not typically used in the medical field. It is a colorless, flammable gas that is commonly used in welding and cutting applications. It is not used for medical purposes and should not be administered to patients. If you have any questions about medical terminology or treatments, it is important to speak with a qualified healthcare professional.
Dermatan sulfate is a type of glycosaminoglycan, which is a complex carbohydrate found in the extracellular matrix of connective tissues in the body. It is a major component of the proteoglycans found in the skin, cartilage, and other connective tissues. Dermatan sulfate is synthesized by cells in the connective tissue and is involved in a variety of biological processes, including cell signaling, tissue development, and wound healing. It also plays a role in the regulation of inflammation and the immune response. In the medical field, dermatan sulfate is used as a diagnostic tool to help identify certain diseases and conditions, such as inflammatory bowel disease, osteoarthritis, and certain types of cancer. It is also used in the development of new drugs and therapies for these conditions.
Glucose is a simple sugar that is a primary source of energy for the body's cells. It is also known as blood sugar or dextrose and is produced by the liver and released into the bloodstream by the pancreas. In the medical field, glucose is often measured as part of routine blood tests to monitor blood sugar levels in people with diabetes or those at risk of developing diabetes. High levels of glucose in the blood, also known as hyperglycemia, can lead to a range of health problems, including heart disease, nerve damage, and kidney damage. On the other hand, low levels of glucose in the blood, also known as hypoglycemia, can cause symptoms such as weakness, dizziness, and confusion. In severe cases, it can lead to seizures or loss of consciousness. In addition to its role in energy metabolism, glucose is also used as a diagnostic tool in medical testing, such as in the measurement of blood glucose levels in newborns to detect neonatal hypoglycemia.
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Genetics of Propionic Acidemia (Propionyl CoA Carboxylase Deficiency): Background, Pathophysiology, Epidemiology
Determining novel functions of Arabidopsis14-3-3 proteins in central metabolic processes | BMC Systems Biology | Full Text
Genetics of Propionic Acidemia (Propionyl CoA Carboxylase Deficiency): Background, Pathophysiology, Epidemiology
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- The organism that grows and develops on this medium produces an enzyme called citrate permease (citrate transport protein), which has the ability to break citrate to oxaloacetate and acetate by the enzyme citrate lyase. (studyread.com)
- The carbon dioxide which is released reacts with water and the sodium ion present in the medium and produces sodium carbonate(alkaline compound) that will raise the pH. (studyread.com)
- Carbon monoxide, formaldehyde, methylene chloride, nitrogen dioxide, and tetrachloroethylene were chosen as the subject for this interaction profile based on the likelihood of co-exposure to these chemicals in the home. (cdc.gov)
- The removal of a carboxyl group, usually in the form of carbon dioxide, from a chemical compound. (bvsalud.org)
- Our previous study suggests that three 14-3-3 isoforms (kappa, chi and psi) also play important roles in nitrogen and sulfur metabolic processes by regulating the activities of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase and O-acetylserine lyase [ 13 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
- Our study further confirms that 14-3-3 proteins are important regulators of both nitrogen and carbon metabolic processes. (biomedcentral.com)
- Nonetheless, a systematic comparative interpretation of metabolic changes upon vegetable oil or glucose as sole carbon source is still lacking. (biomedcentral.com)
- Overall, this study has provided insights on the understanding on the effect of triglycerides and sugar as carbon source in fungi global metabolic pathway, which might become important for future optimization of carbon flux engineering in fungi to improve organic acids production when vegetable oil is applied as the sole carbon source. (biomedcentral.com)
- Compound 5 is fumaric acid generated in the reaction that converts ASA to arginine (6), which is mediated by ASA lyase. (medscape.com)
- In plants, 14-3-3 proteins have major roles as regulators of nitrogen and carbon metabolism, conclusions based on the studies of a few specific 14-3-3 targets. (biomedcentral.com)
- Plant 14-3-3 proteins are mainly thought to be regulators of carbon and nitrogen metabolism [ 2 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
- Hence, this study aimed to investigate the overall metabolite changes of an omnipotent fungus and to reveal changes at central carbon metabolism corresponding to both carbon sources. (biomedcentral.com)
- Targeted metabolomics on central carbon metabolism of tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle and glyoxylate cycle were analysed using LC-MS/MS-TripleQ and GC-MS, while untargeted metabolite profiling was performed using LC-MS/MS-QTOF followed by multivariate analysis. (biomedcentral.com)
- Targeted metabolomics analysis showed that glyoxylate pathway and TCA cycle were recruited at central carbon metabolism for triglyceride and glucose catabolism, respectively. (biomedcentral.com)
- Correlation of organic acids concentration and key enzymes involved in the central carbon metabolism was further determined by enzymatic assays. (biomedcentral.com)
- Trehalose 6-phosphate coordinates organic and amino acid metabolism with carbon availability. (mpg.de)
- Transcriptome and metabolome analysis of plant sulphate starvation and resupply provides novel information on transcriptional regulation of metabolism associated with sulphur, nitrogen and phosphorus nutritional responses in Arabidopsis. (mpg.de)
- These studies showed that plant triglycerides could serve as an alternative carbon source for microbial growth. (biomedcentral.com)
- In this area, we have developed a methodology for the incorporation of protected isocyanates into organic molecules and this chemistry is being applied to the synthesis of a diverse set of biologically important, nitrogen-containing heterocycles. (exeter.ac.uk)
- The aim of these studies has been to develop a much-needed general synthetic route to amino acids (and other amine derivatives) possessing a quaternary chiral centre alpha -to the nitrogen atom and in particular, alpha , alpha -disubstituted alpha -amino acids. (exeter.ac.uk)
- Our preliminary study using 2D isolates were recovered from liq- new cases throughout the world cu- gel electrophoresis in drug sensitive/ uid nitrogen, and sub-cultured in taneous leishmaniasis (CL) remains resistant strains of L. tropica showed RPMI1640 medium (Gibco/BRL) a serious public health problem in that some proteins were differentially supplemented with 10% fetal bovine numerous countries [1,2]. (who.int)
- Here, the bacteria utilize sodium citrate as its only source of carbon and inorganic ammonium dihydrogen phosphate (NH4H2PO4) as its only source of nitrogen. (studyread.com)
- Glucose is a common carbon source in fermentation. (biomedcentral.com)
- Knowing that only certain lipase-secreting microorganisms are able to grow on this carbon source, triglycerides is selected as the carbon source in selective minimal media. (biomedcentral.com)
- Decreases in the levels of sugars and nitrogen-containing-compounds and in the activities of known 14-3-3-interacting-enzymes were observed in 14-3-3 overexpression plants. (biomedcentral.com)
- The immediate obvious effect of dietary KIC is that it reduces urine urea nitrogen retention, the long term effect of which could be increased muscle mass. (getbig.com)
- Vanadyl's ability to mitigate insulin resistance and improve carbohydrate utilization efficiency may be indirectly responsible for the results of field studies (again by Fahey and Fritz) that demonstrate that vanadyl increases nitrogen retention in bodybuilders and other strength athletes. (getbig.com)
- Enzyme assays validated the increase in isocitrate lyase and malate synthase activities. (nih.gov)
- Isocitrate lyase (Icl), which is a key enzyme in the glyoxylate cycle and is essential as an anapleurotic enzyme for growth using acetate and certain fatty acids as a carbon source, is upregulated in MTB organisms that are exposed to anaerobic conditions and are in the stationary phase, or growing inside macrophages. (medscape.com)
- In addition, a second isocitrate lyase encoded by the aceA gene and malate synthase (the second enzyme of the glyoxylate shunt) encoded by the glcB gene are thought to be required for the persistence of MTB. (medscape.com)
- We demonstrated using phylogenetics, biochemistry and structural biology that this cysteine-thiol lyase (C-T lyase) is a PLP-dependent enzyme that moved horizontally into a unique monophyletic group of odour-forming staphylococci about 60 million years ago, and has subsequently tailored its enzymatic function to human-derived thioalcohol precursors. (nih.gov)
- The expression cassette of the 3hkt/hr3 inverted repeat sequence and a DNA fragment of the argininosuccinate lyase gene without the ampicillin resistance gene were obtained using restriction enzyme digestion and recovery. (biomedcentral.com)
- Enzymes that catalyze the cleavage of a carbon-nitrogen bond by means other than hydrolysis or oxidation. (nih.gov)
- However, abundant marker genes for aerobic anoxygenic phototrophy, sulfur oxidation, rhodopsins and CO oxidation were also linked to the dominant heterotrophic bacteria, and indicate the use of photo- and lithoheterotrophy as mechanisms for conserving organic carbon. (edu.au)
- In particular, carbon mixotrophy relieves the extent of carbon oxidation for energy production, allowing more carbon to be used for biosynthetic processes. (edu.au)
- DMSP cleavage, carbon mixotrophy (photoheterotrophy and lithoheterotrophy) and nitrogen remineralization by dominant Organic Lake bacteria are potentially important adaptations to nutrient constraints. (edu.au)
- The mitochondrial HMG-CoA lyase was the first to be described, and catalyzes the cleavage of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl CoA to acetoacetate and acetyl-CoA, the common final step in ketogenesis and leucine catabolism. (nih.gov)
- There are three human enzymes with HMG-CoA lyase activity that are able to synthesize ketone bodies in different subcellular compartments. (nih.gov)
- AMMONUL is a nitrogen binding agent indicated as adjunctive therapy for the treatment of acute hyperammonemia and associated encephalopathy in patients with deficiencies in enzymes of the urea cycle. (nih.gov)
- Dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) lyase genes were abundant, indicating that DMSP is a significant carbon and energy source. (edu.au)
- Accumulation of the 3-carbon fatty acyl-CoA within the mitochondrion leads to decreased free CoA for other reactions, which is alleviated by conversion of propionyl CoA to propionyl-carnitine. (medscape.com)
- So, the Jacobi powers are first chronic for the labor market experience of workers with disabilities the ada nitrogen levels in Comparative capacity, which are us to compromise & generally just as Medium-Sized and different suitable treatment metabolites by activity couple medicine. (xn--drpverein-rahe-vpb.de)
- 2001). The common steps of phenylpropanoid pathway are catalyzed by phenylalanine ammonia- lyase (PAL), cinnamate 4-hydroxylase (C4H) and 4-coumarate:CoA ligase (4CL). (scielo.br)
- The highly curated model was effective in capturing the growth of A. succinogenes on various carbon sources, as well as the SA production under various growth conditions with fair agreement between experimental and predicted data. (biomedcentral.com)
- Similarly, a high genetic potential for the recycling of nitrogen compounds likely functions to retain fixed nitrogen in the lake. (edu.au)