A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.
An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.
A class of enzymes that catalyze the cleavage of C-C, C-O, and C-N, and other bonds by other means than by hydrolysis or oxidation. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 4.
Enzymes which catalyze the elimination of delta-4,5-D-glucuronate residues from polysaccharides containing 1,4-beta-hexosaminyl and 1,3-beta-D-glucuronosyl or 1,3-alpha-L-iduronosyl linkages thereby bringing about depolymerization. EC 4.2.2.4 acts on chondroitin sulfate A and C as well as on dermatan sulfate and slowly on hyaluronate. EC 4.2.2.5 acts on chondroitin sulfate A and C.
The process in certain BACTERIA; FUNGI; and CYANOBACTERIA converting free atmospheric NITROGEN to biologically usable forms of nitrogen, such as AMMONIA; NITRATES; and amino compounds.
A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.
Carbon monoxide (CO). A poisonous colorless, odorless, tasteless gas. It combines with hemoglobin to form carboxyhemoglobin, which has no oxygen carrying capacity. The resultant oxygen deprivation causes headache, dizziness, decreased pulse and respiratory rates, unconsciousness, and death. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
Nanometer-sized tubes composed mainly of CARBON. Such nanotubes are used as probes for high-resolution structural and chemical imaging of biomolecules with ATOMIC FORCE MICROSCOPY.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that causes vascular wilts on a wide range of plant species. It was formerly named Erwinia chrysanthemi.
Stable nitrogen atoms that have the same atomic number as the element nitrogen, but differ in atomic weight. N-15 is a stable nitrogen isotope.
Enzymes which catalyze the elimination of glucuronate residues from chondroitin A,B, and C or which catalyze the hydrolysis of sulfate groups of the 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-D-galactose 6-sulfate units of chondroitin sulfate. EC 4.2.2.-.
Inorganic compounds that contain nitrogen as an integral part of the molecule.
High molecular weight polysaccharides present in the cell walls of all plants. Pectins cement cell walls together. They are used as emulsifiers and stabilizers in the food industry. They have been tried for a variety of therapeutic uses including as antidiarrheals, where they are now generally considered ineffective, and in the treatment of hypercholesterolemia.
The circulation of nitrogen in nature, consisting of a cycle of biochemical reactions in which atmospheric nitrogen is compounded, dissolved in rain, and deposited in the soil, where it is assimilated and metabolized by bacteria and plants, eventually returning to the atmosphere by bacterial decomposition of organic matter.
Nitrogen oxide (NO2). A highly poisonous gas. Exposure produces inflammation of lungs that may only cause slight pain or pass unnoticed, but resulting edema several days later may cause death. (From Merck, 11th ed) It is a major atmospheric pollutant that is able to absorb UV light that does not reach the earth's surface.
The urea concentration of the blood stated in terms of nitrogen content. Serum (plasma) urea nitrogen is approximately 12% higher than blood urea nitrogen concentration because of the greater protein content of red blood cells. Increases in blood or serum urea nitrogen are referred to as azotemia and may have prerenal, renal, or postrenal causes. (From Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)
Light harvesting proteins found in phycobilisomes.
A thick-rooted perennial (Cichorium intybus) native to Europe but widely grown for its young leaves used as salad greens and for its roots, dried and ground-roasted, used to flavor or adulterate coffee. (From Webster, 3d ed)
Toxic asphyxiation due to the displacement of oxygen from oxyhemoglobin by carbon monoxide.
Stable carbon atoms that have the same atomic number as the element carbon, but differ in atomic weight. C-13 is a stable carbon isotope.
Nitrogenous products of NITRIC OXIDE synthases, ranging from NITRIC OXIDE to NITRATES. These reactive nitrogen intermediates also include the inorganic PEROXYNITROUS ACID and the organic S-NITROSOTHIOLS.
Enzymes that catalyze a reverse aldol condensation. A molecule containing a hydroxyl group and a carbonyl group is cleaved at a C-C bond to produce two smaller molecules (ALDEHYDES or KETONES). EC 4.1.2.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Enzymes that catalyze the cleavage of a carbon-oxygen bond by means other than hydrolysis or oxidation. EC 4.2.
Inorganic oxides that contain nitrogen.
A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria whose organisms are associated with plants as pathogens, saprophytes, or as constituents of the epiphytic flora.
Enzymes that catalyze the cleavage of a carbon-carbon bond of a 3-hydroxy acid. (Dorland, 28th ed) EC 4.1.3.
An enzyme of the isomerase class that catalyzes the eliminative cleavage of polysaccharides containing 1,4-linked D-glucuronate or L-iduronate residues and 1,4-alpha-linked 2-sulfoamino-2-deoxy-6-sulfo-D-glucose residues to give oligosaccharides with terminal 4-deoxy-alpha-D-gluc-4-enuronosyl groups at their non-reducing ends. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 4.2.2.7.
A family of signal transducing adaptor proteins that control the METABOLISM of NITROGEN. They are primarily found in prokaryotes.
A solvent for oils, fats, lacquers, varnishes, rubber waxes, and resins, and a starting material in the manufacturing of organic compounds. Poisoning by inhalation, ingestion or skin absorption is possible and may be fatal. (Merck Index, 11th ed)
Any of several processes for the permanent or long-term artificial or natural capture or removal and storage of carbon dioxide and other forms of carbon, through biological, chemical or physical processes, in a manner that prevents it from being released into the atmosphere.
A cell wall-degrading enzyme found in microorganisms and higher plants. It catalyzes the random hydrolysis of 1,4-alpha-D-galactosiduronic linkages in pectate and other galacturonans. EC 3.2.1.15.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Inorganic or organic salts and esters of nitric acid. These compounds contain the NO3- radical.
A colorless alkaline gas. It is formed in the body during decomposition of organic materials during a large number of metabolically important reactions. Note that the aqueous form of ammonia is referred to as AMMONIUM HYDROXIDE.
Salts of alginic acid that are extracted from marine kelp and used to make dental impressions and as absorbent material for surgical dressings.
A colorless, flammable, poisonous liquid, CS2. It is used as a solvent, and is a counterirritant and has local anesthetic properties but is not used as such. It is highly toxic with pronounced CNS, hematologic, and dermatologic effects.
Total mass of all the organisms of a given type and/or in a given area. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990) It includes the yield of vegetative mass produced from any given crop.
Plants of the division Rhodophyta, commonly known as red algae, in which the red pigment (PHYCOERYTHRIN) predominates. However, if this pigment is destroyed, the algae can appear purple, brown, green, or yellow. Two important substances found in the cell walls of red algae are AGAR and CARRAGEENAN. Some rhodophyta are notable SEAWEED (macroalgae).
Substances or mixtures that are added to the soil to supply nutrients or to make available nutrients already present in the soil, in order to increase plant growth and productivity.
The unconsolidated mineral or organic matter on the surface of the earth that serves as a natural medium for the growth of land plants.
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria characterized by an outer membrane that contains glycosphingolipids but lacks lipopolysaccharide. They have the ability to degrade a broad range of substituted aromatic compounds.
Term used to designate tetrahydroxy aldehydic acids obtained by oxidation of hexose sugars, i.e. glucuronic acid, galacturonic acid, etc. Historically, the name hexuronic acid was originally given to ascorbic acid.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A key enzyme in the glyoxylate cycle. It catalyzes the conversion of isocitrate to succinate and glyoxylate. EC 4.1.3.1.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Open chain tetrapyrroles that function as light harvesting chromophores in PHYCOBILIPROTEINS.
An enzyme that catalyzes the eliminative degradation of polysaccharides containing 1,4-beta-D-hexosaminyl and 1,3-beta-D-glucuronosyl or 1,3-alpha-L-iduronosyl linkages to disaccharides containing 4-deoxy-beta-D-gluc-4-enuronosyl groups. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992)
Derivatives of ammonium compounds, NH4+ Y-, in which all four of the hydrogens bonded to nitrogen have been replaced with hydrocarbyl groups. These are distinguished from IMINES which are RN=CR2.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in nature. Some species are pathogenic for humans, animals, and plants.
The 30-kDa membrane-bound c-type cytochrome protein of mitochondria that functions as an electron donor to CYTOCHROME C GROUP in the mitochondrial and bacterial RESPIRATORY CHAIN. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p545)
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of ATP, L-glutamate, and NH3 to ADP, orthophosphate, and L-glutamine. It also acts more slowly on 4-methylene-L-glutamate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 6.3.1.2.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in SOIL and WATER. Its organisms are also found in raw meats, MILK and other FOOD, hospital environments, and human clinical specimens. Some species are pathogenic in humans.
A genus of gram-negative, anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria. Its organisms are normal inhabitants of the oral, respiratory, intestinal, and urogenital cavities of humans, animals, and insects. Some species may be pathogenic.
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
A sugar acid formed by the oxidation of the C-6 carbon of GLUCOSE. In addition to being a key intermediate metabolite of the uronic acid pathway, glucuronic acid also plays a role in the detoxification of certain drugs and toxins by conjugating with them to form GLUCURONIDES.
A compound formed in the liver from ammonia produced by the deamination of amino acids. It is the principal end product of protein catabolism and constitutes about one half of the total urinary solids.
The relationship between two different species of organisms that are interdependent; each gains benefits from the other or a relationship between different species where both of the organisms in question benefit from the presence of the other.
The gaseous envelope surrounding a planet or similar body. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
The synthesis by organisms of organic chemical compounds, especially carbohydrates, from carbon dioxide using energy obtained from light rather than from the oxidation of chemical compounds. Photosynthesis comprises two separate processes: the light reactions and the dark reactions. In higher plants; GREEN ALGAE; and CYANOBACTERIA; NADPH and ATP formed by the light reactions drive the dark reactions which result in the fixation of carbon dioxide. (from Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2001)
An enzyme that, in the course of purine ribonucleotide biosynthesis, catalyzes the conversion of 5'-phosphoribosyl-4-(N-succinocarboxamide)-5-aminoimidazole to 5'-phosphoribosyl-4-carboxamide-5-aminoimidazole and the conversion of adenylosuccinic acid to AMP. EC 4.3.2.2.
A species of gram-positive bacteria in the STREPTOCOCCUS MILLERI GROUP. It is the most frequently seen isolate of that group, has a proclivity for abscess formation, and is most often isolated from the blood, gastrointestinal, and urogenital tract.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
A plant genus of the family EUPHORBIACEAE, order Euphorbiales, subclass Rosidae. Commercial natural RUBBER is mainly obtained from Hevea brasiliensis but also from some other plants.
Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.
Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
An enzyme system that catalyzes the fixing of nitrogen in soil bacteria and blue-green algae (CYANOBACTERIA). EC 1.18.6.1.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
A group of alkylating agents derived from mustard gas, with the sulfur replaced by nitrogen. They were formerly used as toxicants and vesicants, but now function as antineoplastic agents. These compounds are also powerful mutagens, teratogens, immunosuppressants, and carcinogens.
A kingdom of eukaryotic, heterotrophic organisms that live parasitically as saprobes, including MUSHROOMS; YEASTS; smuts, molds, etc. They reproduce either sexually or asexually, and have life cycles that range from simple to complex. Filamentous fungi, commonly known as molds, refer to those that grow as multicellular colonies.
A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
A measure of the total greenhouse gas emissions produced by an individual, organization, event, or product. It is measured in units of equivalent kilograms of CARBON DIOXIDE generated in a given time frame.
The usually underground portions of a plant that serve as support, store food, and through which water and mineral nutrients enter the plant. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982; Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
Unstable isotopes of carbon that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. C atoms with atomic weights 10, 11, and 14-16 are radioactive carbon isotopes.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
Elimination of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS; PESTICIDES and other waste using living organisms, usually involving intervention of environmental or sanitation engineers.
Woody, usually tall, perennial higher plants (Angiosperms, Gymnosperms, and some Pterophyta) having usually a main stem and numerous branches.
Acids derived from monosaccharides by the oxidation of the terminal (-CH2OH) group farthest removed from the carbonyl group to a (-COOH) group. (From Stedmans, 26th ed)
Heteropolysaccharides which contain an N-acetylated hexosamine in a characteristic repeating disaccharide unit. The repeating structure of each disaccharide involves alternate 1,4- and 1,3-linkages consisting of either N-acetylglucosamine or N-acetylgalactosamine.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that occurs in soil, fecal matter, and sewage. It is an opportunistic pathogen and causes cystitis and pyelonephritis.
Oligosaccharides containing two monosaccharide units linked by a glycosidic bond.
Enzymes that catalyze the cleavage of a carbon-nitrogen bond by means other than hydrolysis or oxidation. Subclasses are the AMMONIA-LYASES, the AMIDINE-LYASES, the amine-lyases, and other carbon-nitrogen lyases. EC 4.3.
Enzymes that catalyze the cleavage of a carbon-carbon bond by means other than hydrolysis or oxidation. This subclass contains the DECARBOXYLASES, the ALDEHYDE-LYASES, and the OXO-ACID-LYASES. EC 4.1.
A non-essential amino acid present abundantly throughout the body and is involved in many metabolic processes. It is synthesized from GLUTAMIC ACID and AMMONIA. It is the principal carrier of NITROGEN in the body and is an important energy source for many cells.
Sulfur compounds in which the sulfur atom is attached to three organic radicals and an electronegative element or radical.
The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.
Derivatives of chondroitin which have a sulfate moiety esterified to the galactosamine moiety of chondroitin. Chondroitin sulfate A, or chondroitin 4-sulfate, and chondroitin sulfate C, or chondroitin 6-sulfate, have the sulfate esterified in the 4- and 6-positions, respectively. Chondroitin sulfate B (beta heparin; DERMATAN SULFATE) is a misnomer and this compound is not a true chondroitin sulfate.
The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.
The sequence of carbohydrates within POLYSACCHARIDES; GLYCOPROTEINS; and GLYCOLIPIDS.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the soil. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
Cellular processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of CARBOHYDRATES.
One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.
Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
A genus of BACILLACEAE that are spore-forming, rod-shaped cells. Most species are saprophytic soil forms with only a few species being pathogenic.
A naturally occurring glycosaminoglycan found mostly in the skin and in connective tissue. It differs from CHONDROITIN SULFATE A (see CHONDROITIN SULFATES) by containing IDURONIC ACID in place of glucuronic acid, its epimer, at carbon atom 5. (from Merck, 12th ed)
A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.

A novel jasmonate- and elicitor-responsive element in the periwinkle secondary metabolite biosynthetic gene Str interacts with a jasmonate- and elicitor-inducible AP2-domain transcription factor, ORCA2. (1/87)

Jasmonate (JA) is an important plant stress hormone that induces various plant defense responses, including the biosynthesis of protective secondary metabolites. The induction of the secondary metabolite biosynthetic gene Strictosidine synthase (Str) in Catharanthus roseus (periwinkle) cells by elicitor requires JA as a second messenger. A 42 bp region in the Str promoter is both necessary and sufficient for JA- and elicitor-responsive expression. This region is unlike other previously identified JA-responsive regions, and contains a GCC-box-like element. Yeast one-hybrid screening identified cDNAs encoding two AP2-domain proteins. These octadecanoid-derivative responsive Catharanthus AP2-domain (ORCA) proteins bind in a sequence-specific manner the JA- and elicitor-responsive element. ORCA2 trans-activates the Str promoter and its expression is rapidly inducible with JA and elicitor, whereas Orca1 is expressed constitutively. The results indicate that a GCC-box-like element and ORCA2 play key roles in JA- and elicitor-responsive expression of the terpenoid indole alkaloid biosynthetic gene Str.  (+info)

Destabilase from the medicinal leech is a representative of a novel family of lysozymes. (2/87)

Intrinsic lysozyme-like activity was demonstrated for destabilase from the medicinal leech supported by (1) high specific lysozyme activity of the highly purified destabilase, (2) specific inhibition of the lysozyme-like activity by anti-destabilase antibodies, and (3) appreciable lysozyme-like activity in insect cells infected with recombinant baculoviruses carrying cDNAs encoding different isoforms of destabilase. Several isoforms of destabilase constitute a protein family at least two members of which are characterized by lysozyme activity. The corresponding gene family implies an ancient evolutionary history of the genes although the function(s) of various lysozymes in the leech remains unclear. Differences in primary structures of the destabilase family members and members of known lysozyme families allow one to assign the former to a new family of lysozymes. New proteins homologous to destabilase were recently described for Caenorhabditis elegans and bivalve mollusks suggesting that the new lysozyme family can be widely distributed among invertebrates. It remains to be investigated whether the two enzymatic activities (isopeptidase and lysozyme-like) are attributes of one and the same protein.  (+info)

Sequencing, tissue distribution and chromosomal assignment of a novel ubiquitin-specific protease USP23. (3/87)

We have identified human and mouse cDNAs encoding a novel ubiquitin-specific protease designated USP23. Both cDNAs encode a 62-kDa protein containing the highly conserved His and Cys domains characteristic of the C19 cysteine protease family of ubiquitin-specific processing proteases (UCH-2). Human tissue Northern blots revealed USP23 to be ubiquitously expressed, whereas USP12, its closest human paralogue, displayed a more restricted expression pattern. The human USP23 gene mapped to chromosome 1q22.  (+info)

Identification of a novel isopeptidase with dual specificity for ubiquitin- and NEDD8-conjugated proteins. (4/87)

Covalent conjugation of proteins by ubiquitin or ubiquitin-like molecules is an important form of post-translational modification and plays a critical role in many cellular processes. Similar to the concept of phosphorylation and dephosphorylation, these conjugates are regulated by a large number of deconjugating enzymes. Here, we report the cloning of a 2,141-base pair DNA fragment from human placenta cDNA library by a strategy that involves expressed sequence tag data base searching, polymerase chain reaction, and rapid amplification of cDNA ends. Nucleotide sequence analysis revealed that the cloned cDNA contains an open reading frame of 1,143 base pairs encoding a novel protease, USP21, which is composed of 381 residues with a calculated molecular mass of 43 kDa. The human USP21 gene is located on chromosome 1q21 and encodes a member of the ubiquitin-specific protease family with highly conserved Cys and His domains. The activity and specificity of USP21 were determined by using a COS cell expression system in vivo. We showed that USP21 is capable of removing ubiquitin from ubiquitinated proteins as expected. Furthermore, USP21 is capable of removing NEDD8 from NEDD8 conjugates but has no effect on Sentrin-1 conjugates. As expected from its biochemical activity, overexpression of USP21 has a profound growth inhibitory effect on U2OS cells. Thus, USP21 is the first ubiquitin-specific protease shown to have dual specificity for both ubiquitin and NEDD8 and may play an important role in the regulation of cell growth.  (+info)

Structure of cyanase reveals that a novel dimeric and decameric arrangement of subunits is required for formation of the enzyme active site. (5/87)

BACKGROUND: Cyanase is an enzyme found in bacteria and plants that catalyzes the reaction of cyanate with bicarbonate to produce ammonia and carbon dioxide. In Escherichia coli, cyanase is induced from the cyn operon in response to extracellular cyanate. The enzyme is functionally active as a homodecamer of 17 kDa subunits, and displays half-site binding of substrates or substrate analogs. The enzyme shows no significant amino acid sequence homology with other proteins. RESULTS: We have determined the crystal structure of cyanase at 1.65 A resolution using the multiwavelength anomalous diffraction (MAD) method. Cyanase crystals are triclinic and contain one homodecamer in the asymmetric unit. Selenomethionine-labeled protein offers 40 selenium atoms for use in phasing. Structures of cyanase with bound chloride or oxalate anions, inhibitors of the enzyme, allowed identification of the active site. CONCLUSIONS: The cyanase monomer is composed of two domains. The N-terminal domain shows structural similarity to the DNA-binding alpha-helix bundle motif. The C-terminal domain has an 'open fold' with no structural homology to other proteins. The subunits of cyanase are arranged in a novel manner both at the dimer and decamer level. The dimer structure reveals the C-terminal domains to be intertwined, and the decamer is formed by a pentamer of these dimers. The active site of the enzyme is located between dimers and is comprised of residues from four adjacent subunits of the homodecamer. The structural data allow a conceivable reaction mechanism to be proposed.  (+info)

Microbial thiocyanate utilization under highly alkaline conditions. (6/87)

Three kinds of alkaliphilic bacteria able to utilize thiocyanate (CNS-) at pH 10 were found in highly alkaline soda lake sediments and soda soils. The first group included obligate heterotrophs that utilized thiocyanate as a nitrogen source while growing at pH 10 with acetate as carbon and energy sources. Most of the heterotrophic strains were able to oxidize sulfide and thiosulfate to tetrathionate. The second group included obligately autotrophic sulfur-oxidizing alkaliphiles which utilized thiocyanate nitrogen during growth with thiosulfate as the energy source. Genetic analysis demonstrated that both the heterotrophic and autotrophic alkaliphiles that utilized thiocyanate as a nitrogen source were related to the previously described sulfur-oxidizing alkaliphiles belonging to the gamma subdivision of the division Proteobacteria (the Halomonas group for the heterotrophs and the genus Thioalkalivibrio for autotrophs). The third group included obligately autotrophic sulfur-oxidizing alkaliphilic bacteria able to utilize thiocyanate as a sole source of energy. These bacteria could be enriched on mineral medium with thiocyanate at pH 10. Growth with thiocyanate was usually much slower than growth with thiosulfate, although the biomass yield on thiocyanate was higher. Of the four strains isolated, the three vibrio-shaped strains were genetically closely related to the previously described sulfur-oxidizing alkaliphiles belonging to the genus Thioalkalivibrio. The rod-shaped isolate differed from the other isolates by its ability to accumulate large amounts of elemental sulfur inside its cells and by its ability to oxidize carbon disulfide. Despite its low DNA homology with and substantial phenotypic differences from the vibrio-shaped strains, this isolate also belonged to the genus Thioalkalivibrio according to a phylogenetic analysis. The heterotrophic and autotrophic alkaliphiles that grew with thiocyanate as an N source possessed a relatively high level of cyanase activity which converted cyanate (CNO-) to ammonia and CO2. On the other hand, cyanase activity either was absent or was present at very low levels in the autotrophic strains grown on thiocyanate as the sole energy and N source. As a result, large amounts of cyanate were found to accumulate in the media during utilization of thiocyanate at pH 10 in batch and thiocyanate-limited continuous cultures. This is a first direct proof of a "cyanate pathway" in pure cultures of thiocyanate-degrading bacteria. Since it is relatively stable under alkaline conditions, cyanate is likely to play a role as an N buffer that keeps the alkaliphilic bacteria safe from inhibition by free ammonia, which otherwise would reach toxic levels during dissimilatory degradation of thiocyanate.  (+info)

Control of ubiquitination of proteins in rat tissues by ubiquitin conjugating enzymes and isopeptidases. (7/87)

The activity of the ubiquitin-dependent proteolytic system in differentiated tissues under basal conditions remains poorly explored. We measured rates of ubiquitination in rat tissue extracts. Accumulation of ubiquitinated proteins increased in the presence of ubiquitin aldehyde, indicating that deubiquitinating enzymes can regulate ubiquitination. Rates of ubiquitination varied fourfold, with the highest rate in the testis. We tested whether ubiquitin-activating enzyme (E1) or ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes (E2s) could be limiting for conjugation. Immunodepletion of the E2s UBC2 or UBC4 lowered rates of conjugation similarly. Supplementation of extracts with excess UBC2 or UBC4, but not E1, stimulated conjugation. However, UBC2-stimulated rates of ubiquitination still differed among tissues, indicating that tissue differences in E3s or substrate availability may also be rate controlling. UBC2 and UBC4 stimulated conjugation half-maximally at concentrations of 10-50 and 28-44 nM, respectively. Endogenous tissue levels of UBC2, but not UBC4, appeared saturating for conjugation, suggesting that in vivo modulation of UBC4 levels can likely control ubiquitin conjugation. Thus the pool of ubiquitin conjugates and therefore the rate of degradation of proteins by this system may be controlled by E2s, E3s, and isopeptidases. The regulation of the ubiquitin pathway appears complex, but precise.  (+info)

Muscle-specific RING finger-1 interacts with titin to regulate sarcomeric M-line and thick filament structure and may have nuclear functions via its interaction with glucocorticoid modulatory element binding protein-1. (8/87)

The COOH-terminal A168-170 region of the giant sarcomeric protein titin interacts with muscle-specific RING finger-1 (MURF-1). To investigate the functional significance of this interaction, we expressed green fluorescent protein fusion constructs encoding defined fragments of titin's M-line region and MURF-1 in cardiac myocytes. Upon expression of MURF-1 or its central region (containing its titin-binding site), the integrity of titin's M-line region was dramatically disrupted. Disruption of titin's M-line region also resulted in a perturbation of thick filament components, but, surprisingly, not of the NH2-terminal or I-band regions of titin, the Z-lines, or the thin filaments. This specific phenotype also was caused by the expression of titin A168-170. These data suggest that the interaction of titin with MURF-1 is important for the stability of the sarcomeric M-line region.MURF-1 also binds to ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme-9 and isopeptidase T-3, enzymes involved in small ubiquitin-related modifier-mediated nuclear import, and with glucocorticoid modulatory element binding protein-1 (GMEB-1), a transcriptional regulator. Consistent with our in vitro binding data implicating MURF-1 with nuclear functions, endogenous MURF-1 also was detected in the nuclei of some myocytes. The dual interactions of MURF-1 with titin and GMEB-1 may link myofibril signaling pathways (perhaps including titin's kinase domain) with muscle gene expression.  (+info)

Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Nick D Tsihlis, Muneera R Kapadia, Ashley K Vavra, Walker D Flannery, Christopher S Oustwani, Qun Jiang, Melina R Kibbe].
1DWK: Structure of Cyanase Reveals that a Novel Dimeric and Decameric Arrangement of Subunits is Required for Formation of the Enzyme Active Site.
Escherichia coli can overcome the toxicity of environmental cyanate by hydrolysisof cyanate to ammonia and bicarbonate. This reaction is catalyzed by the enzymecyanase, encoded by the cynS gene. The nucleotide sequence of cynS has beenreported (Sung, Y.-c., Anderson, P. M., and Fuchs, J. A. (1987) J. Bacteriol.169, 5224-5230). The nucleotide sequence of the complete cyn operon has now been determined. The cyn operon is approximately 2600 base pairs and includes cynT,cynS, and cynX, which encode cyanate permease, cyanase, and a protein of unknown function, respectively. Two cyanate-inducible transcripts of 1500 and 2500nucleotides, respectively, were detected by Northern blot analysis. S1 nucleasemapping experiments indicated that two different cyn mRNAs have a common 5-endand two different 3-ends. One 3-end was located within the coding region ofcynX, whereas the other 3-end includes the entire DNA sequence of cynX. Thelonger transcript contained 98 nucleotides complementary to lac mRNA ...
Pioneer Herbal is manufacturer of Rauwolfia Serpentina (Sarpagandha) Herbs herbal remedies , natural herbs supplements,nature health products, rauwolfia
Ekaweriya (Rauvolfia serpentina) plant is used medicinally in ayurveda, Western medicine, Unani & folk medicine. The root of this is used in the treatment of mild essential hypertension. Baraka Rauvolfia plus capsule with black seed functions as a diureti
Small Ubiquitin-like Modifiers (SUMO) are 10 kDa proteins that are covalently attached to hundreds of intracellular proteins to regulate their function. In mammals, three members of the SUMO family are known to be conjugated (SUMO-1,-2,-3). Desumoylating enzymes (isopeptidases) play an essential role by ensuring reversibility of this posttranslational modification. At present, only a small number of these enzymes, members of the Ulp/SENP family, are known. They share a conserved catalytic cysteine protease domain, C48, wile remaining quite different in other regions. Mammals express only 6 distinct SENP proteases. This number appears extremely small, if one considers the plethora of SUMO targets that are individually regulated by reversible modification. For comparison, more than 80 different Ubiquitin proteases are currently known. This let us suspect that as yet undiscovered SUMO-specific isopeptidases exist. The goal of this work was to identify and perform initial characterization of a novel ...
carbamate = H2N-CO-O-. Other name(s): cyanate lyase; cyanate hydrolase; cyanase; cyanate aminohydrolase; cyanate C-N-lyase; cyanate hydratase Systematic name: carbamate hydro-lyase. Comments: This enzyme, which is found in bacteria and plants, is used to decompose cyanate, which can be used as the sole source of nitrogen [6,7]. Reaction (1) can be considered as the reverse of carbamate = cyanate + H2O, where this is assisted by reaction with bicarbonate and carbon dioxide (see mechanism above) [2], and hence is classified in sub-subclass 4.2.1. Bicarbonate functions as a recycling substrate [2].. Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, Metacyc, PDB, UM-BBD, CAS registry number: 37289-24-0. References:. 1. Anderson, P.M. Purification and properties of the inducible enzyme cyanase. Biochemistry 19 (1980) 2882-2888. [PMID: 6994799]. 2. Johnson, W.V. and Anderson, P.M. Bicarbonate is a recycling substrate for cyanase. J. Biol. Chem. 262 (1987) 9021-9025. [PMID: 3110153]. 3. Taussig, A. The ...
6. Rauvolfia tiaolushanensis Tsiang, Sci. Rep. Kwantung Coll. Forest. 1: 10. 1962. 吊罗山萝芙木 diao luo shan luo fu mu Shrubs to 1 m tall. Stems dark brown. Leaves opposite or in whorls of 3 or 4; petiole ca. 8 mm; leaf blade elliptic to oblong, 8-17 X 1.6-4 cm, lateral veins inconspicuous. Cymes ca. 2 cm; peduncle ca. 6 mm. Calyx lobes ca. 2.5 mm. Corolla yellow, tube cylindric, ca. 8 2 mm, dilated at throat, pubescent inside; lobes oblong or ovate, ca. 3.5 X 2.5 mm. Stamens inserted at corolla throat; filaments short; anthers broadly ovate, base rounded, apex short acuminate; disc cup-shaped, shorter than ovary. Ovaries distinct. Style filiform; pistil head club-shaped to capitate, base with a ringlike membrane. Drupes distinct, ellipsoid, 1-1.7 cm X 5-8 mm. Fl. Mar, fr. May.. * Montane forests; 300-600 m. Hainan (Baoting, Waning).. ...
The hepatitis C virus (HCV) glycoprotein E2 may be the major target of neutralizing antibodies and is therefore highly relevant for vaccine design. conformation on its surface. Such conformational plasticity of the HCV E2 receptor binding site has important implications for immunogen design. (GNA)-captured full-length E1E2 (genotype 2a JFH1), expressed in HEK cells, was probed in an ELISA with DAO5 in the presence of peptides spanning its epitope. A peptide AEG 3482 corresponding towards the MAb AP33 epitope (aa 411 to 424) was included Rabbit Polyclonal to Tau (phospho-Thr534/217). as a poor control. Peptide sequences are proven, using the DAO5 epitope in boldface. (B) Reactivity of MAb DAO5 to E2 having an alanine substitution of conserved residues W529 and D535. Wild-type (WT) and mutant full-length E1E2 was portrayed in HEK cells and captured on GNA-coated microtiter plates. The reactivities of serial dilutions of DAO5 with E2wt (), E2W529A (), and E2D535A () had been examined alongside ...
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Disclosed is the preparation of novel difunctional cyanate monomers with increased aromatic chain length between the cyanate groups and thermosetting re...
Hydrolyzed leather proteins have been used illegally by some dairy industries in dairy products to increase the protein content in the last few years. As a specific amino acid in collagen, the detection of l-hydroxyproline (l-Hyp) can be used to indicate whether the hydrolyzed leather proteins are added to dairy pr
Has an ATP-independent isopeptidase activity, cleaving at the C-terminus of the ubiquitin moiety in natural or engineered linear fusion proteins, irrespective of their size or the presence of an N-terminal extension to ubiquitin (PubMed:12778054, PubMed:17632125). Plays a role in regulation of silencing by interacting with SIR4 (PubMed:8752220). Also, in conjunction with BRE5, cleaves ubiquitin, leading to the subsequent mono-ubiquitination of SEC23 (PubMed:12778054). Required for ribophagy, a process which relocalizes ribosomal particles into the vacuole for degradation in response to starvation (PubMed:20508643).
The eastern snapping turtle (Chelydra serpentina) is widely distributed throughout the eastern and central U.S. and may be a useful model organism to study land use impacts on water quality. We compared the reproductive condition of C. serpentina from a pond impacted by runoff from land applied with animal manure from a concentrated animal feeding operation (CAFOs) relative to the condition of animals from a control pond not impacted by agriculture in an undisturbed forest. Turtles from the CAFO site compared to the control site were significantly heavier and had higher plasma concentrations of vitellogenin (mean ± SE; VTG, females; 859±115 vs. 401±127 ng/mL plasma, respectively) and testosterone (T, males; 39±7.0 vs. 3.8±6.9 ng/mL plasma, respectively). No VTG was detected in any males. Body mass was positively corrrelated with VTG and T. Our results suggest that nutrient pollution of the CAFO pond indirectly resulted in higher plasma VTG in females and T in males because of an increase in ...
Order Famous tranquilizer plant of India. Powerful hypnotic and sedative properties. Slow to germinate needs bottom heat 75 degree F. Rauwolfia, Rauwolfia serpentina, easily at Sand Mountain Herbs.com. Rauwolfia and every herb sold is useful medicinally or in some other practical application, and many have beautiful and unusual flowers too. So come buy and see our huge variety of herbal plant seeds today!
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Specificity of the BRISC deubiquitinating enzyme is not due to selective binding to Lys,sup,63,/sup,-linked polyubiquitin. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
The tumor suppressor p53 is mutated in more than 50% of all cancers. Importantly, most clinically useful antineoplastic agents are less potent and efficacious in the context of mutant p53. This situation has prompted a search for agents that cause tumor cell death via molecular mechanisms independent of p53. Our recent investigations with electrophilic prostaglandins enabled us to devise a pharmacophore and mechanism of action hypothesis relevant to this problem: a cross-conjugated α,β-unsaturated dienone with two sterically accessible electrophilic β-carbons is a molecular determinant that confers activity among this class of ubiquitin isopeptidases inhibitors, and that inhibitors of ubiquitin isopeptidases cause cell death in vitro independently of p53. Here, we report the use of the National Cancer Institutes Developmental Therapeutics Database to identify compounds to test this hypothesis. Shikoccin (a diterpene), dibenzylideneacetone, and curcumin fit the pharmacophore hypothesis, ...
Linnaeus, C. 1758. Systema Naturae per regna tria naturæ, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis, Tomus I. Editio decima, reformata. Holmiæ: impensis direct. Laurentii Salvii. i-ii, 1-824 pp doi: 10.5962/bhl.title.542: page 199. ...
Other articles where Ammonium cyanate is discussed: urea: …German chemist Friedrich Wöhler from ammonium cyanate in 1828 was the first generally accepted laboratory synthesis of a naturally occurring organic compound from inorganic materials. Urea is now prepared commercially in vast amounts from liquid ammonia and liquid carbon dioxide. These two materials are combined under high pressures and elevated…
Hamerton, I, Herman, H, Rees, KT, Chaplin, A and Shaw, SJ (2001) Water uptake effects in resins based on alkenyl-modified cyanate ester-bismaleimide blends ...
Hamerton, I, Herman, H, Mudhar, AK, Chaplin, A and Shaw, SJ (2002) Multivariate analysis of spectra of cyanate ester/bismaleimide blends and correlations with properties ...
Complete information for BABAM2 gene (Protein Coding), BRISC And BRCA1 A Complex Member 2, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
These records reflect the hard work of individuals who were initially part of the BRISC wildlife counts project which is now being delivered by BTCV Scotland, wildlife counts in your community. They are also records from BTCV Scotland natural talent apprentices who assisted in the delivery of recording workshops ...
Trifan A, Stanciu C, Gheorghe L, Iacob S, Curescu M, Cijevschi Prelipcean C, Stefanescu G, Girleanu I, Chiriac S, Mihai C, Brisc C, Goldis A, Sporea I, Miftode E, Bataga S, Rogoveanu I, Preda C, Caruntu FA, Singeap AM ...
We reported in a previous study, exposure of C. roseus cultured cells to UV-B irradiation induced the transcription of genes encoding tryptophan decarboxylase and strictosidine synthase and the catharanthine accumulation [10,11]. Tryptophan decarboxylase (TDC) and strictosidine synthase (STR) are key enzymes of terpenoid indole alkaloid biosynthesis and their expressions increases on UV-B irradiation in C. roseus plants and cells [12]. DAHP synthase is a key enzyme in the shikimate pathway of the primary metabolism involved in the biosynthesis of tryptophan that serves dual purposes as substrate in synthesis of proteins and of terpenoid indole alkaloids. UV-B is also known to induce the production of phenolics in plants [13 - 17]. These require the shikimate pathway and phenylalanine and hence DAHP synthase. It is possible that UV-B -induced DAHP synthase plays a role in UV-B induced accumulation of catharanthine and other terpenoid indole alkaloids in C. roseus cultured cells.. In the study, ...
Article: A REVIEW ON POTENTIAL BIOACTIVE CHEMICAL FROM RAUWOLFIA SERPENTINA: RESERPINE Article Category: Review articles. DOI: 10.7897/2277-4343.120123. Pages: 106-109. Author: Mukul Srivastava, Shikha Kesharwani, Roohi Kesharwani, Dilip K Patel *, S.N. Singh. Abstract: The drug Rauwolfia serpentina is known to Indian system of medicine since last many centuries. Because of snake like shape of drug, it has been known as sarpgandha. Although Rauwolfia serpentina contain more than 50 alkaloids but Reserpine is the principal alkaloid of Rauwolfia serpentina. Reserpine has a success application in antihypertensive even at a smaller dose. Rhizomes of Rauwolfia serpentine also have hepatoprotective activity including antihypertensive, hepatoprotective, Rauwolfia serpentina have many other medicinal uses like: Antidiahoerreal, antipsychotic, sedative, anticancer (in breast) etc. Although Rauwolfia serpentina contains major four Indole alkaloids but main object of this context is to provide knowledge ...
Abstract: Evaluation of Bioactive Plant Products for Ecofriendly and Effective Management of Cercospora Leaf Spot of Rauwolfia serpentina (L.) Benth Ex Kurz (Sarpagandha)
ten Hove, H. (2010). Serpula serpentina Requien, 1848. In: Read, G.; Fauchald, K. (Ed.) (2017). World Polychaeta database. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=449942 on 2017-12- ...
We have shown that in human cells, an antiserum generated against a recombinant UBPY fragment recognizes a protein doublet of Mr 130 000, in good agreement with the predicted UBPY mol. wt of 127 500 Da. The UBPY bands were enhanced upon transfection of a sense UBPY cDNA and, most importantly, were lowered in abundance upon transfection of an antisense cDNA construct. UBPY was able to remove ubiquitin from ubiquitin adducts. Its expression was undetectable upon serum starvation of normal human fibroblasts, and the protein reappeared upon re‐stimulation, in mid G1 coincident with the accumulation of cyclin D1. UBPY levels were reduced in non‐immortalized cells as they reached confluence and arrested in G0, while they remained high and even increased in transformed cells.. To date, no other studies have demonstrated the effects of down‐regulating a UBP in mammalian cells. We have been able to inhibit UBPY accumulation using an antisense cDNA vector and could demonstrate that G0‐arrested ...
Sumoylation, a protein posttranslation modification was discovered about two decades ago. This process is catalyzed by 3 enzymes: the activating enzyme E1 (SAE1/UBA2), the unique conjugating enzyme E2 (UBC9), and the ligating enzymes E3 (many types such as PIAS1 and RanBP2). The conjugated target proteins are deconjugated by the SUMO isopeptidase protease (SENPs). It is now approved to be a very important regulatory mechanism that controls many cellular processes including DNA replication and repair, chromatin structure and dynamics, gene expression and regulation, cell proliferation and differentiation, cell transformation and neural transmission, cell autophagy and senescence, apoptosis and necroptosis [1-16]. It is also implicated in various human diseases such as cardiovascular diseases, neural degeneration, and cancer development [1-16]. In the vision system, studies from several laboratories including ours reveal that sumoylation acts as a critical regulatory mechanism controlling eye ...
Sumoylation, a protein posttranslation modification was discovered about two decades ago. This process is catalyzed by 3 enzymes: the activating enzyme E1 (SAE1/UBA2), the unique conjugating enzyme E2 (UBC9), and the ligating enzymes E3 (many types such as PIAS1 and RanBP2). The conjugated target proteins are deconjugated by the SUMO isopeptidase protease (SENPs). It is now approved to be a very important regulatory mechanism that controls many cellular processes including DNA replication and repair, chromatin structure and dynamics, gene expression and regulation, cell proliferation and differentiation, cell transformation and neural transmission, cell autophagy and senescence, apoptosis and necroptosis [1-16]. It is also implicated in various human diseases such as cardiovascular diseases, neural degeneration, and cancer development [1-16]. In the vision system, studies from several laboratories including ours reveal that sumoylation acts as a critical regulatory mechanism controlling eye ...
Catharanthus roseus can be used to make medications for diabetes, Hodgkins lymphoma, and leukemia. Though studies are ongoing as...
The plant is often gathered from the wild for local medicinal use and as the source of a dyestuff and ink. It has been introduced into India, China and Vietnam where it has been experimentally cultivated as a substitute for R. Serpentaria in medicinal use ...
Helps Improving Blood Circulation and Erectile Function. The root has anaesthetic, nervine and sedative properties. It has been employed for centuries for the relief of various central nervous system disorders, both psychic and motor, including anxiety states, insomnia, excitement, sexual aggression, maniacal behavior associated with psychosis, hypochondriasis, melancholia, schizophrenia, insanity, insomnia and epilepsy in Indian medicine for about 4000 years.. Extracts of the root are valued for the treatment of intestinal disorders, particularly diarrhoea & dysentery. It is also used as an antihelminthics. It contains Reserpine alkaloid which is consumed for mild, essential hypertension.. ...
सर्पगन्धा एपोसाइनेसी (Apocynaceae) कुटुम्बे योजिता अस्ति । अस्य सस्यशास्त्रीयं नाम रौवोल्पिया सर्पेण्टिना (Rauwolfia Serpentina) इति । आङ्ग्लभाषया snake root इति वदन्ति । बहुवर्षीयः गुल्मः सपुष्पकः महत्वपूर्णम् औषधीयं सस्यम् । अस्य प्रधानमूलं २०से.मी. पर्यन्तं लम्बं वर्धते । मूले विशाखाः न भवन्ति । सर्पगन्धायाः पत्राणि सरलानि लघूनि च भवन्ति ।. ...
Potassium cyanate definition is - a crystalline salt KOCN made by oxidizing potassium cyanide or by heating a mixture of potassium carbonate and urea and used chiefly to kill crabgrass on lawns.
We report 3D printing of a pure thermal cure cyanate ester for the fabrication of robust 3D printed structures through the formulation, tailoring and post processing of a custom ink for Direct Ink Writing. Printed structures exhibit impressive thermo-oxidative stability, mechanical response.
Ask your health care provider any questions you may have about how to use Serpina.. STORAGE. Store Serpina at 77 degrees F (25 degrees C). Store away from heat, moisture, and light. Do not store in the bathroom. Keep Serpina out of the reach of children and away from pets.. MORE INFO:. Ingredients: Sarpagandha (Rauwolfia serpentina).. SAFETY INFORMATION. Do NOT use Serpina if:. ...
お薦めの保存温度 : -20℃以下. Products are for research use only. Not for human use. We do not sell to patients.. ...
Dubai Sodium Cyanate, Buy High Quality Sodium Cyanate Products from Dubai Sodium Cyanate Suppliers and Manufacturers at Dubai Yellow Pages Online
Flora of China Editorial Committee. 1995. Flora of China (Gentianaceae through Boraginaceae). 16: 1-479. In C. Y. Wu, P. H. Raven & D. Y. Hong (eds.) Fl. China. Science Press & Missouri Botanical Garden Press, Beijing & St. Louis ...
Scholarship. Gentili P.L., Gotoda H., Dolnik M., Epstein I.R.. Analysis and prediction of aperiodic hydrodynamic oscillatory time series by feed-forward neural networks, fuzzy logic, and a local nonlinear predictor. Chaos 25. (2015): 013104.. Gentili P.L., Dolnik M., Epstein I.R.. Photochemical Oscillator: Colored Hydrodynamic Oscillations and Waves in a Photochromic System. J. Phys.Chem. C 118. (2014): 598-608.. Haim L., Hadberg A., Raphael Nagao, Steinberg A.P., Dolnik M., Epstein I.R., Meron E. Fronts and patterns in a spatially forced CDIMA reaction. Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys 16. (2014): 26137-26143.. Sajevicz M., Dolnik M., Kowalska T., Epstein I.R.. Condensation dynamics of L-proline and L-hydroxyproline in solutions. RSC Advances 4. (2014): 7330-7339.. Steinberg A.P., Epstein I.R., Dolnik M.. Target Turing Patterns and Growth Dynamics in the Chlorine Dioxide-Iodine-Malonic Acid Reaction. J. Phys. Chem. A 118. (2014): 2393-2400.. Nagao R., Epstein I.R., Dolnik M. Forcing of ...
This is the place to chat. Use initials for your comments/questions. Inactive chats/resolved things can be cut from here and pasted at the bottom of the page. AEW- Feb 06 2013 - rather than having a separate mechanistic section can we include this in the relevant sections, saves repetition and might be clearer for readers. e.g. if you want to know about BA catalysed P-S reaction, its all in one place. AEW- Feb 06 2013 - in a similar point, should there be a separate Natural products chapter? AEW - Feb 03 2013 - In all cases, a single yield and ee are shown for a representative substrate from a paper. Is it not more useful to present a range of results to give a more accurate flavour of the paper being reviewed? AEW - Feb 03 2013 - for Jacobsen paper, org. lett. 2008, vol 10, no. 8, 1577-1580 - A great paper, but the change in catalyst loading (10 to 20mol%) and conditions in the jump from initial hit to optimised result make general comparison in the paper unsuitable for inclusion in the review. ...
Accepted name: raucaffricine β-glucosidase. Reaction: raucaffricine + H2O = D-glucose + vomilenine. For diagram click here.. Other name(s): raucaffricine β-D-glucosidase; raucaffricine glucosidase. Systematic name: raucaffricine β-D-glucohydrolase. Comments: Highly specific; some other ajmalan glucoside alkaloids are hydrolysed, but more slowly.. Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, Metacyc, PDB, CAS registry number: 102925-37-1. References:. 1. Schübel, H., Stöckigt, J., Feicht, R. and Simon, H. Partial-purification and characterization of raucaffricine β-D-glucosidase from plant cell-suspension cultures of Rauwolfia serpentina benth. Helv. Chim. Acta 69 (1986) 538-547.. ...
Mga bawal sa fatty liver - SERPENTINA: The Herb For Diabetes, Liver, Heart Disease .... Reloramax is an 100% all natural product that effectively addresses the diverse and debilitating symptoms of stress, anxiety, and depression.
Covalent attachment of the C-terminus of ubiquitin to cellular proteins plays a role in a variety of cellular processes. Ubiquitin C-terminal…
Ulp1 antibody (SUMO protease ULP1) for ELISA, ICC/IF, WB. Anti-Ulp1 pAb (GTX48820) is tested in Yeast samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
Likewise, clinical stage, histological grade, ploidy and cellular S-phase fraction were also considered as variables of the study. 8-Anilino naphthalene sulfonate sildenafil generico prezzo in farmacia binding as a probe for conformational changes induced in glutamate dehydrogenase by regulatory reagents. The stimulating effect of destabilase, a component of Hirudo medicinalis salivary gland secretion, on sensory neuron neurite growth in organotypic culture Several options for weight loss are available, yet viagra 100mg lifestyle modification is essential in managing postmenopausal obesity and overweight. Furthermore, the BD group displayed greater cardiac vagal tone - a putative marker of positive emotion - across both the film and memory. Performance comparison of digital microRNA sildenafil generic profiling technologies applied on human breast cancer cell lines. We encountered a rare case of pulmonary granulomatous lesion accompanied with severe chest pain and hemoptysis. violacea is perhaps ...
Study of the involvement of osmotic adjustment and H+-ATPase activity in the resistance of Catharanthus roseus suspension cells to salt stress ...
A novel hydroxylase from Catharanthus roseus participating in the hydroxylation of 2-hydroxybenzoic acid.: A novel 55-kDa hydroxylase was isolated from cultured
In 1931, Gananath Sen and Kartick Chandra Bose reported on the use of an alkaloid extract from the Rauwolfia serpentina plant in the treatment of hypertension and insanity with violent maniacal symptoms. They noted that dosages of 20 to 30 grains of the powder twice daily produce not only a hypnotic effect but also a reduction of blood pressure and violent symptoms
Rausedyl-An alkaloid found in the roots of Rauwolfia serpentina and R. vomitoria. Reserpine inhibits the uptake of norepinephrine into storage vesicles resulting in depletion of catecholamines and serotonin from central and peripheral axon terminals.
Ask your health care provider any questions you may have about how to use Serpina.. STORAGE. Store Serpina at 77 degrees F (25 degrees C). Store away from heat, moisture, and light. Do not store in the bathroom. Keep Serpina out of the reach of children and away from pets.. MORE INFO:. Ingredients: Sarpagandha (Rauwolfia serpentina).. SAFETY INFORMATION. Do NOT use Serpina if:. ...
The Golm Metabolome Database (GMD) facilitates the search for and dissemination of mass spectra from biologically active metabolites quantified using GC-MS.
PGP9.5 antibody [10A1] (ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolase L1) for IHC-Fr, IHC-P, WB. Anti-PGP9.5 mAb (GTX75786) is tested in Human samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
UBPY/USP8兔多克隆抗体(ab38865)可与人样本反应并经WB, ELISA, IHC实验严格验证。中国75%以上现货,所有产品均提供质保服务,可通过电话、电邮或微信获得本地专属技术支持。
This enzyme belongs to the family of lyases, specifically the class of carbon-sulfur lyases. The systematic name of this enzyme ... L-homocysteine hydrogen-sulfide-lyase, and (deaminating). This enzyme participates in nitrogen metabolism and sulfur metabolism ... class is L-homocysteine hydrogen-sulfide-lyase (deaminating 2-oxobutanoate-forming). Other names in common use include ...
This enzyme belongs to the family of lyases, specifically ammonia lyases, which cleave carbon-nitrogen bonds. The systematic ... and L-ornithine ammonia-lyase (cyclizing). This enzyme participates in arginine and proline biosynthesis. It employs one ... name of this enzyme class is L-ornithine ammonia-lyase (cyclizing; L-proline-forming). Other names in common use include ...
This enzyme belongs to the family of lyases, specifically amine lyases, which cleave carbon-nitrogen bonds. It can be isolated ... strictosidine tryptamine-lyase. Originally isolated from the plant Rauvolfia serpentina, a medicinal plant widely used in ... strictosidine tryptamine-lyase (secologanin-forming). Other names in common use include strictosidine synthetase, STR, and 3- ... from which Glu309 deprotonates tryptamine's carbon 2. This allows for strictosidine's formation under the subsequent ring ...
This enzyme belongs to the family of lyases, specifically ammonia lyases, which cleave carbon-nitrogen bonds. The systematic ... and 5-formimidoyltetrahydrofolate ammonia-lyase (cyclizing). This enzyme participates in folate metabolism by catabolising ... name of this enzyme class is 5-formimidoyltetrahydrofolate ammonia-lyase (cyclizing 5,10-methenyltetrahydrofolate-forming). ...
This enzyme belongs to the family of lyases, specifically amine lyases, which cleave carbon-nitrogen bonds. The systematic name ... This enzyme is also called deacetylipecoside dopamine-lyase. This enzyme participates in indole and ipecac alkaloid ... of this enzyme class is deacetylipecoside dopamine-lyase (secologanin-forming). ...
This enzyme belongs to the family of lyases, specifically the hydro-lyases, which cleave carbon-oxygen bonds. The systematic ... involved in nitrogen-carbon triple bond cleavage". J. Biol. Chem. 276 (26): 23480-5. doi:10.1074/jbc.M007856200. PMID 11306561 ... and N-cyclohexylformamide hydro-lyase. This enzyme participates in caprolactam degradation. Goda M, Hashimoto Y, Shimizu S, ... name of this enzyme class is N-cyclohexylformamide hydro-lyase (cyclohexyl-isocyanide-forming). Other names in common use ...
This bacterium is capable of using either heparin or HS as its sole carbon and nitrogen source. To do so, it produces a range ... The lyases have mainly been used in heparin/HS studies. The bacterium produces three lyases, heparinases I (EC 4.2.2.7), II (no ... The lyases cleave heparin/HS by a beta elimination mechanism. This action generates an unsaturated double bond between C4 and ... 1990). "Examination of the substrate specificity of heparin and heparan sulfate lyases". Biochemistry. 29 (10): 2611-2617. doi: ...
This enzyme belongs to the family of lyases, specifically the amine-lyases, which cleave carbon-nitrogen bonds. 4-hydroxy- ... The fold resembles that of N-acetylneuraminate lyase. The active site lysine is located in the barrel domain, and has access ... These are Escherichia coli N-acetylneuraminate lyase (EC 4.1.3.3) (protein NanA), which catalyses the condensation of N-acetyl- ... L-aspartate-4-semialdehyde hydro-lyase (adding pyruvate and cyclizing), dapA (gene)) is an enzyme with the systematic name L- ...
"A Carbon-Nitrogen Lyase from Leucaena leucocephala Catalyzes the First Step of Mimosine Degradation". Plant Physiology. 164 (2 ... strain TAL1145 is a C-N lyase that catabolizes L-mimosine into 3-hydroxy-4-pyridone, pyruvate, and ammonia". Amino Acids. 44 (6 ...
This enzyme belongs to the family of lyases, specifically in the "catch-all" class of carbon-carbon lyases. The systematic name ... and L-tryptophan indole-lyase (deaminating). This enzyme participates in tryptophan metabolism and nitrogen metabolism. It has ... of this enzyme class is L-tryptophan indole-lyase (deaminating; pyruvate-forming). Other names in common use include L- ...
This enzyme belongs to the family of hydrolases, those acting on carbon-nitrogen bonds other than peptide bonds, specifically ... This enzyme is also called allophanate lyase. This enzyme participates in urea cycle and metabolism of amino groups and ...
These fungi participate in the catabolism of phenylalanine for carbon and nitrogen. PAL in some plants and fungi also has a ... Phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) is known to be present in fungi, such as Basidiomycota yeast like Rhodotorula and Ascomycota ... tyrosine ammonia lyase (TAL) for the synthesis of p-coumaric acid into p-coumaroyl-CoA. PAL likely emerged from bacteria in an ...
"Novel aldoxime dehydratase involved in carbon-nitrogen triple bond synthesis of Pseudomonas chlororaphis B23. Sequencing, gene ... This enzyme belongs to the family of lyases, specifically the "catch-all" class of lyases that do not fit into any other sub- ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is aliphatic aldoxime hydro-lyase (aliphatic-nitrile-forming). Other names in common ... use include OxdA, and aliphatic aldoxime hydro-lyase. D-amino acid oxidase, sometimes also referred to as OXDA Kobayashi M; ...
... s are designated as α- when the nitrogen atom is attached to the carbon atom adjacent to the carboxyl group: in this ... Aspartic acid is produced by the addition of ammonia to fumarate using a lyase. In plants, nitrogen is first assimilated into ... The key elements of an amino acid are carbon (C), hydrogen (H), oxygen (O), and nitrogen (N), although other elements are found ... Martin PD, Malley DF, Manning G, Fuller L (2002). "Determination of soil organic carbon and nitrogen at thefield level using ...
Finally, a second one-carbon unit from formyl-THF is added to the nitrogen group and the ring is covalently closed to form the ... This step is catalyzed by adenylosuccinate lyase. Inosine monophosphate is converted to guanosine monophosphate by the ... A carboxylation of the second carbon of the glycin unit is concomitantly added. This new carbon is modified by the addition of ... A one-carbon unit from folic acid coenzyme N10-formyl-THF is then added to the amino group of the substituted glycine followed ...
The aromatic ring is bound to phenylalanine, and the nitrogen on the ring is hydrogen bonded to hydroxyl group-containing ... After deprotonation of the amino acid alpha carbon and subsequent dehydration (hence the common name threonine dehydratase), a ... Threonine ammonia-lyase is a tetramer of identical subunits, and is arranged as a dimer of dimers. Each subunit has two domains ... Threonine ammonia-lyase is a member of the Fold Type II family, also known as the tryptophan synthase family. Though threonine ...
The beta carbon is then deprotonated, creating an alpha-beta unsaturation and pushing a lone pair onto the aldimine nitrogen. ... The basic lysine residue is then able to deprotonate the alpha carbon, pushing electron density into the nitrogen of the ... The lone pair from the pyridine nitrogen pushes electron density to the gamma carbon, which is protonated by lysine. Lysine ... Other members include cystathionine gamma synthase, cystathionine beta lyase, and methionine gamma lyase. It is also a member ...
However, alternate pathways have been proposed in organisms lacking isocitrate lyase. "Glyoxylate and dicarboxylate metabolism ... carbon fixation which consumes 3-phospho-D-glycerate and provides D-ribulose 1,5-P2, ascorbate and aldarate metabolism which ... shares tartronate-semialdehyde, nitrogen metabolism which shares formate, pyruvate metabolism and the citrate cycle which share ... Its crucial enzymes are isocitrate lyase and malate synthase. ... in biosynthesis of carbohydrates from fatty acids or two-carbon ...
... cleave carbon-nitrogen bonds EC 4.4 includes lyases that cleave carbon-sulfur bonds EC 4.5 includes lyases that cleave carbon- ... Lyases can be further classified into seven subclasses: EC 4.1 includes lyases that cleave carbon-carbon bonds, such as ... oxo acid lyases (EC 4.1.3), and others (EC 4.1.99) EC 4.2 includes lyases that cleave carbon-oxygen bonds, such as dehydratases ... this reaction was first classified as a lyase (EC 4.2.99.9), but was then reclassified as a transferase (EC 2.5.1.48). Lyases ...
For both ASL-catalyzed reactions deprotonation of the carbon β to the leaving nitrogen occurs first, then the formation and ... Adenylosuccinate lyase (or adenylosuccinase) is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the ADSL gene. Adenylosuccinate lyase ... Mutated adenylosuccinate lyase (ASL) causes clinical disease in patients that is referred to as adenylosuccinate lyase ... with respect to the leaving nitrogen) was abstracted by the catalytic base at the same time that the leaving nitrogen was ...
This enzyme belongs to the family of lyases, specifically ammonia lyases, which cleave carbon-nitrogen bonds. The systematic ... ammonia-lyase, and 3,4-dihydroxy-L-phenylalanine ammonia-lyase. This enzyme participates in tyrosine metabolism. Magee WL, ... In enzymology, a dihydroxyphenylalanine ammonia-lyase (EC 4.3.1.11, entry deleted) is a non-existing enzyme that catalyzes the ... name of this enzyme class is 3,4-dihydroxy-L-phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (trans-caffeate-forming). Other names in common use ...
This enzyme belongs to the family of lyases, specifically ammonia lyases, which cleave carbon-nitrogen bonds. The systematic ... In enzymology, an ethanolamine ammonia-lyase (EC 4.3.1.7) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction ethanolamine ⇌ {\ ... name of this enzyme class is ethanolamine ammonia-lyase (acetaldehyde-forming). This enzyme is also called ethanolamine ...
This enzyme belongs to the family of lyases, specifically ammonia lyases, which cleave carbon-nitrogen bonds. The systematic ... and L-threo-3-methylaspartate ammonia-lyase. This enzyme participates in c5-branched dibasic acid metabolism and nitrogen ... In enzymology, a methylaspartate ammonia-lyase (EC 4.3.1.2) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction L-threo-3- ... "Insights into Enzyme Evolution Revealed by the Structure of Methylaspartate Ammonia Lyase". Structure. 10 (1): 105-13. doi: ...
This enzyme belongs to the family of lyases, specifically in the "catch-all" class of carbon-carbon lyases. The systematic name ... and L-tyrosine phenol-lyase (deaminating). This enzyme participates in tyrosine metabolism and nitrogen metabolism. It employs ... In enzymology, a tyrosine phenol-lyase (EC 4.1.99.2) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction L-tyrosine + H2O ⇌ {\ ... Kumagai H, Yamada H, Matsui H, Ohkishi H, Ogata K (1970). "Tyrosine phenol lyase. II. Cofactor requirements". J. Biol. Chem. ...
The enzyme is a member of the ammonia lyase family, which cleaves carbon-nitrogen bonds. Like other lyases, PAL requires only ... L-tyrosine ammonia-lyase, phenylalanine ammonium-lyase, PAL, and L-phenylalanine ammonia-lyase. Phenylalanine ammonia lyase is ... phenylalanine ammonia-lyases), EC 4.3.1.25 (tyrosine ammonia-lyases), and EC 4.3.1.26 (phenylalanine/tyrosine ammonia-lyases). ... generating carbon and nitrogen. In plants it is a key biosynthetic enzyme that catalyzes the first step in the synthesis of a ...
This enzyme belongs to the family of lyases, specifically ammonia lyases, which cleave carbon-nitrogen bonds. The systematic ... aminodeoxygluconate ammonia-lyase, 2-amino-2-deoxy-D-gluconate ammonia-lyase, and D-glucosaminate ammonia-lyase. This enzyme ... In enzymology, a glucosaminate ammonia-lyase (EC 4.3.1.9) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction D-glucosaminate ... name of this enzyme class is D-glucosaminate ammonia-lyase (isomerizing 2-dehydro-3-deoxy-D-gluconate-forming). Other names in ...
This enzyme belongs to the family of lyases, specifically ammonia lyases, which cleave carbon-nitrogen bonds. The systematic ... and L-aspartate ammonia-lyase. This enzyme participates in alanine and aspartate metabolism and nitrogen metabolism. As of late ... In enzymology, an aspartate ammonia-lyase (EC 4.3.1.1) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction L-aspartate ⇌ {\ ... name of this enzyme class is L-aspartate ammonia-lyase (fumarate-forming). Other names in common use include aspartase, fumaric ...
The enzyme also belongs to the family of lyases, specifically the class of carbon-sulfur lyases. The systematic name of this ... nitrogen metabolism, and sulfur metabolism. Cystathionine beta-lyase is a tetramer composed of identical subunits, and is ... Other members include cystathionine gamma-synthase, cystathionine gamma-lyase, and methionine gamma lyase. Additionally, these ... Cystathionine beta-lyase (EC 4.4.1.8), also commonly referred to as CBL or β-cystathionase, is an enzyme that primarily ...
This enzyme belongs to the family of lyases, specifically ammonia lyases, which cleave carbon-nitrogen bonds. The systematic ... beta-diaminopropionate ammonia-lyase, 2,3-diaminopropionate ammonia-lyase, and 2,3-diaminopropanoate ammonia-lyase. It employs ... In enzymology, a diaminopropionate ammonia-lyase (EC 4.3.1.15) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction 2,3- ... Nagasawa T, Tanizawa K, Satoda T, Yamada H (1988). "Diaminopropionate ammonia-lyase from Salmonella typhimurium Purification ...
This enzyme belongs to the family of lyases, specifically ammonia lyases, which cleave carbon-nitrogen bonds. The systematic ... In enzymology, a serine-sulfate ammonia-lyase (EC 4.3.1.10) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction L-serine O- ... name of this enzyme class is L-serine-O-sulfate ammonia-lyase (pyruvate-forming). This enzyme is also called (L-SOS)lyase. ...
6.3: Carbon-Nitrogen. *Glutamine synthetase. *Ubiquitin ligase *Cullin. *Von Hippel-Lindau tumor suppressor ...
This enzyme belongs to the family of hydrolases, those acting on carbon-nitrogen bonds other than peptide bonds, specifically ...
This enzyme belongs to the family of hydrolases, those acting on carbon-nitrogen bonds other than peptide bonds, specifically ... EC4 Lyases (list). *EC5 Isomerases (list). *EC6 Ligases (list). *EC7 Translocases (list) ...
... , though, binds better than N-methylephedrine, which has an additional methyl group at the nitrogen atom. Also the ... Benzaldehyde reacts with pyruvic acid to attach a 2 carbon unit. This product then undergoes transamination and methylation to ... A new pathway proposed suggests that phenylalanine first forms cinnamoyl-CoA via the enzymes phenylalanine ammonia-lyase and ...
However, Takaki had added many foods to the successful diet and he incorrectly attributed the benefit to increased nitrogen ... where it accumulates as a result of carbon starvation.[47] In E. coli, AThTP may account for up to 20% of total thiamine. It ... 2-hydroxyphytanoyl-CoA lyase. *transketolase. *Present in some species: *pyruvate decarboxylase (in yeast) ... ThDP is a coenzyme for several enzymes that catalyze the transfer of two-carbon units and in particular the dehydrogenation ( ...
N-Acetyl-L-cysteine is a derivative of cysteine wherein an acetyl group is attached to the nitrogen atom. This compound is sold ... In the newer R/S system of designating chirality, based on the atomic numbers of atoms near the asymmetric carbon, cysteine ( ... The enzyme cystathionine gamma-lyase converts the cystathionine into cysteine and alpha-ketobutyrate. In plants and bacteria, ... The enzyme O-acetylserine (thiol)-lyase, using sulfide sources, converts this ester into cysteine, releasing acetate.[12] ...
... carbon = white, oxygen = red, nitrogen = blue) based on the PDB: 1HS6​ structure. ... EC4 Lyases (list). *EC5 Isomerases (list). *EC6 Ligases (list). *EC7 Translocases (list) ...
... of the two-carbon acetate residue from acetyl coenzyme A and a molecule of four-carbon oxaloacetate to form the six-carbon ... the epsilon nitrogen lone pair of electrons on His-274 formed in the last step abstracts the hydroxyl enol proton to reform an ... One of the oxygen's lone pairs nucleophilically attacks the carbonyl carbon of citroyl−CoA. This forms a tetrahedral ... which in turn deprotonate the epsilon nitrogen atom of His-320. This nucleophilic addition results in the formation of citroyl− ...
6.3: Carbon-Nitrogen. *Glutamine synthetase. *Ubiquitin ligase *Cullin. *Von Hippel-Lindau tumor suppressor ... EC4 Lyases (list). *EC5 Isomerases (list). *EC6 Ligases (list). *EC7 Translocases (list) ... Glutamine synthetase (GS) (EC 6.3.1.2)[3] is an enzyme that plays an essential role in the metabolism of nitrogen by catalyzing ... strain PCC 6803 is differently regulated in response to nitrogen availability". Journal of Bacteriology. 179 (8): 2678-89. doi: ...
Of these amino acids, aspartate and glutamine are used, together with carbon and nitrogen atoms from other sources, to form the ... There it is cleaved by ATP citrate lyase into acetyl-CoA and oxaloacetate. The oxaloacetate is returned to mitochondrion as ... The citric acid cycle begins with the transfer of a two-carbon acetyl group from acetyl-CoA to the four-carbon acceptor ... into two molecules each of carbon dioxide and water. Through catabolism of sugars, fats, and proteins, the two-carbon organic ...
... reflecting different underlying carbon- and nitrogen-isotope effects. The approach requires a relatively high amount of ... The C-P lyase enzyme system is encoded by a complicated 14-gene operon. Biodegradation transformation intermediates may ... Carbon 14-labeled pesticides do enable mass balances, but investigations with radioactively tagged substrates cannot be ... more readily assimilable carbon substrates, whereas pesticides present at trace concentrations are transformed through ...
6.3: Carbon-Nitrogen. *Glutamine synthetase. *Ubiquitin ligase *Cullin. *Von Hippel-Lindau tumor suppressor ...
This enzyme belongs to the family of ligases, specifically those forming carbon-nitrogen bonds carbon-nitrogen ligases with ...
Bacterial and fungal proteases are particularly important to the global carbon and nitrogen cycles in the recycling of proteins ... Peptide lyases[edit]. A seventh catalytic type of proteolytic enzymes, asparagine peptide lyase, was described in 2011. Its ... Sims GK, Wander MM (2002). "Proteolytic activity under nitrogen or sulfur limitation". Appl. Soil Ecol. 568: 1-5.. ... Asparagine peptide lyases - using an asparagine to perform an elimination reaction (not requiring water) ...
The remaining proton of the now-neutral imidazole ring can reside on either nitrogen, giving rise to what are known as the N1-H ... The enzyme histidine ammonia-lyase converts histidine into ammonia and urocanic acid. A deficiency in this enzyme is present in ... As a result, carbon monoxide binding is only 200 times stronger in haemoglobin, compared to 20,000 times stronger in free haem ... It can do this by abstracting a proton with its basic nitrogen to make a positively charged intermediate and then use another ...
The first enzyme involved is phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) that converts L-phenylalanine to trans-cinnamic acid and ammonia ... under phosphate-limited and carbon-limited conditions". Biotechnology and Bioengineering. 92 (5): 541-552. doi:10.1002/bit. ... which is transaminated using glutamate as the nitrogen source to give tyrosine and α-ketoglutarate. ...
... ammonia lyase (TAL) is an enzyme in the natural phenols biosynthesis pathway. It transforms L-tyrosine into p-coumaric ... This enzyme catalyzes the reaction causing the addition of a hydroxyl group to the end of the 6-carbon aromatic ring of ... which is transaminated using glutamate as the nitrogen source to give tyrosine and α-ketoglutarate. ... The second utilizes enzymatic synthesis from phenolics, pyruvate, and ammonia through the use of tyrosine phenol-lyase.[29] ...
one-carbon metabolic process. • axon regeneration. • regulation of transcription involved in G1/S transition of mitotic cell ... The acidity of the targeted nitrogen on the substrate is important in the binding of the substrate to the enzyme's binding site ... which can be converted to the kinds of tetrahydrofolate cofactors used in 1-carbon transfer chemistry. In humans, the DHFR ...
2-carbon groups, α cleavage. Bacteria, archaea and eukaryotes NAD+ and NADP+ [31]. Niacin (B3). ADP. Electrons. Bacteria, ... Other organisms require additional metals as enzyme cofactors, such as vanadium in the nitrogenase of the nitrogen-fixing ...
6.3: Carbon-Nitrogen. *Glutamine synthetase. *Ubiquitin ligase *Cullin. *Von Hippel-Lindau tumor suppressor ... EC4 Lyases (list). *EC5 Isomerases (list). *EC6 Ligases (list). *EC7 Translocases (list) ... Boehlein SK, Richards NG, Schuster SM (March 1994). "Glutamine-dependent nitrogen transfer in Escherichia coli asparagine ...
In the next step, two additional carbon atoms are removed by the CYP17A1 (17α-hydroxylase/17,20-lyase) enzyme in the ... were able to show that testosterone raised nitrogen retention (a mechanism central to anabolism) in the dog, after which Allan ... a solid polycyclic alcohol with a hydroxyl group at the 17th carbon atom. This also made it obvious that additional ... a mitochondrial cytochrome P450 oxidase with the loss of six carbon atoms to give pregnenolone. ...
The conversion of glutamate to glutamine is regulated by glutamine synthetase (GS) and is a key step in nitrogen metabolism.[5] ... Aspartic acid is produced by the addition of ammonia to fumarate using a lyase.[22] ... Bridgers WF (1970). "The relationship of the metabolic regulation of serine to phospholipids and one-carbon metabolism". ... Cystathionine-β-lyase (in mammals, this step is performed by homocysteine methyltransferase or betaine-homocysteine S- ...
Category:EC 4.3 (carbon-nitrogen lyases)Edit. *Category:EC 4.3.1 *Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (EC 4.3.1.24) ... Category:Lyases (EC 4) (Lyase)Edit. Category:EC 4.1 (carbon-carbon lyases)Edit. *Category:EC 4.1.1 *Ornithine decarboxylase (EC ... 4 Category:Lyases (EC 4) (Lyase) *4.1 Category:EC 4.1 (carbon-carbon lyases) ... Category:EC 4.4 (carbon-sulfur lyases)Edit. *Category:EC 4.4.1 *Cystathionine gamma-lyase ...
Taurino is the functional group attaching at the nitrogen, 2-sulfoethylamino.. See also. *Homotaurine (tramiprosate), precursor ... The cystathionine is then converted to hypotaurine by the sequential action of three enzymes: cystathionine gamma-lyase, ...
... is a linear molecule, with a triple bond between carbon and nitrogen. A minor tautomer of HCN is HNC, hydrogen ... "Cyanogenesis in Cassava, The Role of Hydroxynitrile Lyase in Root Cyanide Production". Plant Physiology. 116 (4): 1219-1225. ... HCN has been detected in the interstellar medium[40] and in the atmospheres of carbon stars.[41] Since then, extensive studies ... This reaction is akin to steam reforming, the reaction of methane and water to give carbon monoxide and hydrogen. ...
Carbon fixation and G3P synthesis. The Calvin cycle starts by using the enzyme RuBisCO to fix CO2 into five-carbon Ribulose ... Other nitrogen compounds. Chloroplasts make all of a cell's purines and pyrimidines-the nitrogenous bases found in DNA and RNA. ... "Subcellular Distribution of O-Acetylserine(thiol)lyase in Cauliflower (Brassica oleracea L.) Inflorescence". Plant Physiology ... They store CO2 in a four-carbon compound, which is why the process is called C4 photosynthesis. The four-carbon compound is ...
Righthanded β-helices, typified by the pectate lyase enzyme shown at left or P22 phage tailspike protein, have a less regular ... Oxygen atoms are red balls, nitrogen atoms are blue, and hydrogen atoms are omitted for simplicity; sidechains are shown only ... out to the first sidechain carbon atom (green). b) Edge-on view of the central two β-strands in a, showing the righthanded ... Cartoon above, atoms below with nitrogen in blue, oxygen in red (PDB: 1AXC​​) ...
Hydrolases: carbon-nitrogen non-peptide (EC 3.5). 3.5.1: Linear amides /. Amidohydrolases. *Asparaginase ... EC4 Lyases (list). *EC5 Isomerases (list). *EC6 Ligases (list). *EC7 Translocases (list) ...
EC 6.2 includes ligases used to form carbon-sulfur bonds. *EC 6.3 includes ligases used to form carbon-nitrogen bonds ( ... It is also said that a synthase is a lyase (a lyase is an enzyme that catalyzes the breaking of various chemical bonds by means ... EC 6.6 includes ligases used to form nitrogen-metal bonds, as in the chelatases ... EC 6.1 includes ligases used to form carbon-oxygen bonds. * ... EC 6.4 includes ligases used to form carbon-carbon bonds. *EC ...
A Carbon-Nitrogen Lyase from Leucaena leucocephala Catalyzes the First Step of Mimosine Degradation. Vishal Singh Negi, Jon- ... A Carbon-Nitrogen Lyase from Leucaena leucocephala Catalyzes the First Step of Mimosine Degradation ... A Carbon-Nitrogen Lyase from Leucaena leucocephala Catalyzes the First Step of Mimosine Degradation ... A Carbon-Nitrogen Lyase from Leucaena leucocephala Catalyzes the First Step of Mimosine Degradation ...
Recent Applications of CarbonNitrogen Lyases in Asymmetric Synthesis of Noncanonical Amino Acids and Heterocyclic Compounds. ... Enantioselective Synthesis of Chiral Synthons for Artificial Dipeptide Sweeteners Catalyzed by an Engineered C-N Lyase. Zhang, ...
These findings suggest that the biofilm niches are distinguished by distinct carbon and nitrogen resource utilization, oxygen ... These findings suggest that the biofilm niches are distinguished by distinct carbon and nitrogen resource utilization, oxygen ... defined mechanisms of fungal adaptation and identified a functional shift related to different roles in carbon and nitrogen ... defined mechanisms of fungal adaptation and identified a functional shift related to different roles in carbon and nitrogen ...
Lyases synonyms, Lyases pronunciation, Lyases translation, English dictionary definition of Lyases. n. Any of a class of ... non-redux lyases and transferases for forming bonds of carbon with carbon, oxygen, sulfur, and nitrogen; oxidations; reductions ... lyase. (redirected from Lyases). Also found in: Medical, Encyclopedia.. Related to Lyases: Isomerases, Transferases ... Lyases - definition of Lyases by The Free Dictionary https://www.thefreedictionary.com/Lyases ...
4.3 Carbon-nitrogen lyases. 4.3.1 Ammonia lyases. 3. histidase. Substrates useful in this invention include those reactive with ...
Lyases are enzymes that catalyse the cleavage of carbon-carbon,. carbon-oxygen and carbon-nitrogen bond, by means other than ... the carbon-hydrogen bond, such that lysine 345 here can abstract. a proton from that substrate and drive the reaction forward. ... This is a particular feature of the enzyme family known as lyases. ...
carbon-nitrogen lyase activity Source: UniProtKB-UniRule. *magnesium ion binding Source: UniProtKB-UniRule ...
Carbon-Nitrogen Lyases / chemistry * Carbon-Nitrogen Lyases / metabolism* * Conserved Sequence * Cysteine / metabolism ...
This enzyme belongs to the family of lyases, specifically in the "catch-all" class of carbon-carbon lyases. The systematic name ... and L-tyrosine phenol-lyase (deaminating). This enzyme participates in tyrosine metabolism and nitrogen metabolism. It employs ... In enzymology, a tyrosine phenol-lyase (EC 4.1.99.2) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction L-tyrosine + H2O ⇌ {\ ... Kumagai H, Yamada H, Matsui H, Ohkishi H, Ogata K (1970). "Tyrosine phenol lyase. II. Cofactor requirements". J. Biol. Chem. ...
EC 4.3 Carbon-Nitrogen Lyases. EC 4.3.1 Ammonia-Lyases. EC 4.3.1.1 aspartate ammonia-lyase. EC 4.3.1.2 methylaspartate ammonia- ... EC 4 Lyases. EC 4.1 Carbon-Carbon Lyases. EC 4.1.1 Carboxy-Lyases. EC 4.1.1.1 pyruvate decarboxylase. EC 4.1.1.2 oxalate ... EC 4.7 carbon-phosphorus lyases. EC 4.7.1.1 α-D-ribose 1-methylphosphonate 5-phosphate C-P-lyase. EC 4.99 Other Lyases. EC 4.99 ... EC 4.1.3.46 (R)-citramalyl-CoA lyase EC 4.1.99 Other Carbon-Carbon Lyases. EC 4.1.99.1 tryptophanase. EC 4.1.99.2 tyrosine ...
The enzyme is a member of the ammonia lyase family, which cleaves carbon-nitrogen bonds. Like other lyases, PAL requires only ... L-tyrosine ammonia-lyase, phenylalanine ammonium-lyase, PAL, and L-phenylalanine ammonia-lyase. Phenylalanine ammonia lyase is ... phenylalanine ammonia-lyases), EC 4.3.1.25 (tyrosine ammonia-lyases), and EC 4.3.1.26 (phenylalanine/tyrosine ammonia-lyases). ... generating carbon and nitrogen. In plants it is a key biosynthetic enzyme that catalyzes the first step in the synthesis of a ...
Carbon-nitrogen lyases. Metalloproteinases. Other toxins. Various; autonomic etc. Lectins. Nerve growth factors. ...
Production of Xanthan Lyase by Microbacterium sp. XT11. The effect of carbon sources and nitrogen sources on the production of ... Optimum Culture Condition and Xanthan Lyase Production. The influence of carbon source on xanthan lyase production was ... The highest xanthan lyase activity was obtained when xanthan was used as carbon source, while much lower titers of xanthan ... Like the xanthan lyases produced by Paenibacillus and Bacillus [14, 15], Microbacterium xanthan lyase was active on the intact ...
4.1 Carbon-carbon lyases 4.2 Carbon-oxygen lyases 4.3 Carbon-nitrogen lyases ...
Deficiency of carbon-carbon lyase. *Deficiency of carbon-halide lyase. *Deficiency of carbon-nitrogen lyase ...
Impact of nitrogen supply on carbon/nitrogen allocation: a case study on amino acids and catechins in green tea [Camellia ... Effects of Nitrogen Fertilization on Synthesis of Primary and Secondary Metabolites in Three Varieties of Kacip Fatimah ( ... Six phenylalanine ammonia-lyases from Camellia sinensis: Evolution, expression, and kinetics. Yingling Wu, Wenzhao Wang, Yanzhi ... Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) and cinnamate 4-hydroxylase (C4H) and catechins (flavan-3-ols) accumulation in tea ...
carbon-nitrogen lyase activity. 0.249761226675912. bayes_pls_golite062009. 2. No functions predicted.. ...
Structural Basis for the Catalytic Mechanism of Ethylenediamine- N, N-disuccinic Acid Lyase, a Carbon-Nitrogen Bond-Forming ... Catalytic mechanisms and biocatalytic applications of aspartate and methylaspartate ammonia lyases.. de Villiers M, Puthan ... Engineering methylaspartate ammonia lyase for the asymmetric synthesis of unnatural amino acids. ... resolution and stereoselective synthesis of 3-substituted aspartic acids by using engineered methylaspartate ammonia lyases. ...
... based on the formation of carbon-carbon and carbon-nitrogen bonds. Increasing the availability and applicability of a variety ... Lyase enzymes have potential to expand the application of biocatalysis in chemical synthesis - they can selectively synthesize ... screens based on assimilable nitrogen release gives rise to host growth on nitrogen free media in instances where selection ... Work Package 2.: Next Generation C-C Lyases The objectives are to deliver to the market place products from - and a portfolio ...
Tichi M.A., W.G. Meijer and F. R. Tabita.; (2001) Complex I and its involvement in redox homeostasis and carbon and nitrogen ... Wall, D.M.,Duffy P.S., DuPont C, Prescott J.F., Meijer, W.G.; (2005) Isocitrate lyase activity is required for virulence of ... Croes, L. M., W. G. Meijer, and L. Dijkhuizen; (1991) Regulation of methanol oxidation and carbon dioxide fixation in ... Shively, JM; van Keulen, G; Meijer, WG; ; (1998) Something from almost nothing: Carbon dioxide fixation in chemoautotrophs. ...
The carbon-free minimal medium was NCE (5), and the carbon- and nitrogen-free minimal medium was NCN (43). Ethanolamine ... The ability to remove inhibitory forms of vitamin B12 from lyase may contribute to the ability of EutA to protect lyase from ... Under aerobic conditions,Salmonella typhimurium can use ethanolamine as a sole source of carbon, nitrogen, and energy (44, 47 ... The eutBC genes encode ethanolamine ammonia lyase.The assignment of ethanolamine ammonia lyase to the eutBCgenes was initially ...
... "carbon nitrogen lyase activity," and "ammonia lyase activity." ... and organs were dissected and snap-frozen in liquid nitrogen. ...
... including carbon-carbon lyases, carbon-oxygen lyases and carbon-nitrogen lyases. In addition to these types, there are also ... such as carbon-sulfur lyases, carbon-halide lyases and phosphorus-oxygen lyases. There are also several subclasses, but these ... Hydro-lyases - This is a form of carbon-oxygen lyases enzymes. These enzymes work by removing water from cellular structures. ... Decarboxylases - This class of lyases has a carbon-carbon reaction in the body. An example of a particular form of ...
Lack of isocitrate lyase inChlamydomonasleads to changes in carbon metabolism and in the response to oxidative stress under ... Use of a lipid rich strain reveals mechanisms of nitrogen limitation and carbon partitioning in the haptophyte Tisochrysis ... Comparative Shotgun Proteomic Analysis of Wastewater-Cultured Microalgae: Nitrogen Sensing and Carbon Fixation for Growth and ... Carbon partitioning in lipids synthesized by Chlamydomonas reinhardtii when cultured under three unique inorganic carbon ...
lyase activity. 2.31268471569846. bayes_pls_golite062009. carbon-nitrogen lyase activity. 2.2046475419807. bayes_pls_ ... ASL - argininosuccinate lyase. 0.0. [1..462]. [1..459]. ARLY_CANAX - Argininosuccinate lyase OS=Candida albicans GN=ARG4 PE=3 ... amidine-lyase activity. 3.84281419858187. bayes_pls_golite062009. argininosuccinate lyase activity. 3.58328346705456. bayes_pls ... ARLY_SACDO - Argininosuccinate lyase OS=Saccharomyces douglasii GN=ARG4 PE=3 SV=1. ARLY_SACPA - Argininosuccinate lyase OS= ...
... with sufficient carbon and nitrogen harvested during log-phase growth; (ii) CLB (carbon-limited B3 medium) harvested during ... Among these were six members of the glycoside hydrolase family 61, as well as several polysaccharide lyases and carbohydrate ... Under nitrogen or carbon limitation, lignin and manganese peroxidase expression increased relative to nutrient replete medium. ... Distribution of P. chrysosporium genes encoding upregulated transcripts in carbon limited B3 medium (CLB, inner ring), nitrogen ...
... and isocitrate lyase were assayed in Escherichia coli which had been grown on various sources of carbon and nitrogen. Induction ... of ethanolamine ammonia-lyase and of maximal levels of … ... The activities of the enzymes ethanolamine ammonia-lyase, CoA- ... and isocitrate lyase were assayed in Escherichia coli which had been grown on various sources of carbon and nitrogen. Induction ... No evidence was found for structural relationships between ethanolamine ammonia-lyase, CoA-dependent aldehyde dehydrogenase and ...
To date, many studies have focused on the uptake, metabolism and distribution of organic nitrogen in plants, but few have ... To date, many studies have focused on the uptake, metabolism and distribution of organic nitrogen in plants, but few have ... is regarded as a model nutrient in organic nitrogen studies. ... performance of plants supplied with organic nitrogen. Lettuce ( ... investigated the nutritional performance of plants supplied with organic nitrogen. Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.), one of the most ...
6.3.4 Other carbon-nitrogen ligases 6.3.5 Carbon-nitrogen ligases with glutamine as amido-N-donor ...
Other name(s): cyanate lyase; cyanate hydrolase; cyanase; cyanate aminohydrolase; cyanate C-N-lyase; cyanate hydratase ... which can be used as the sole source of nitrogen [6,7]. Reaction (1) can be considered as the reverse of carbamate = cyanate ... H2O, where this is assisted by reaction with bicarbonate and carbon dioxide (see mechanism above) [2], and hence is classified ... Systematic name: carbamate hydro-lyase. Comments: This enzyme, which is found in bacteria and plants, is used to decompose ...
  • Considering its biochemical properties of inactivating various enzymes that require either bivalent metallic ions or PLP as cofactors, mimosine may have a role in plant defense, and based on its chemical composition, it may serve as a reservoir of carbon and nitrogen for survival and growth under nutrient-limiting conditions. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Genomic and functional characterization of the oas gene family encoding O-acetylserine (thiol) lyases , enzymes catalyzing the final step in cysteine biosynthesis in Arabidopsis thaliana. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • These enzymes are grouped into six classes: hydrolases (including proteases, amylases and lipases that break down the main nutrients - fats, carbohydrates and proteins), isomerases, ligases, lyases , oxidoreductases and transferases. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The principle focus of research effort in KYROBIO was to enable enabling the industrial application of the lyase class of enzymes. (europa.eu)
  • Lyase enzymes have potential to expand the application of biocatalysis in chemical synthesis - they can selectively synthesize molecules with multiple chiral centres, based on the formation of carbon-carbon and carbon-nitrogen bonds. (europa.eu)
  • Increasing the availability and applicability of a variety of novel lyase enzymes suitable for industrial applications was a central objective of the KYROBIO project. (europa.eu)
  • It synthesizes five enzymes, three heparinases, and two chondroitinases that degrade heparin and acidic mucoheteropolysaccharides with sulfate groups from various animal tissues and uses them as sole sources of carbon, nitrogen, and energy ( 6 , 11 , 17 ). (asm.org)
  • In medium containing microcrystalline cellulose as the sole carbon source, numerous genes encoding carbohydrate-active enzymes were upregulated. (asm.org)
  • The activities of the enzymes ethanolamine ammonia-lyase, CoA-dependent and CoA-independent aldehyde dehydrogenases, and isocitrate lyase were assayed in Escherichia coli which had been grown on various sources of carbon and nitrogen. (nih.gov)
  • No evidence was found for structural relationships between ethanolamine ammonia-lyase, CoA-dependent aldehyde dehydrogenase and CoA-independent aldehyde dehydrogenase, but mutant and physiological studies demonstrated that the induction of the first two enzymes is under common control. (nih.gov)
  • ATP-citrate lyase, one of the key enzymes of this cycle, was partially purified from C. limicola strain M1 and the N-terminal sequence of a 65-kDa protein was found to show similarity toward eukaryotic ATP-citrate lyase. (elsevier.com)
  • This paper provides the first direct evidence that a bacterial ATP-citrate lyase is a heteromeric enzyme, distinct from mammalian enzymes. (elsevier.com)
  • Thermal bifunctionality of bacterial phenylalanine aminomutase and ammonia lyase enzymes. (innspub.net)
  • The dbCAN CAZyme annotation program (http://csbl.bmb.uga.edu/dbCAN/) [30] with default parameters and the Carbohydrate Active Enzymes (CAZy) database v6.0 (http://www.cazy.org) were adopted to perform the functional annotations for carbohydrate-active modules and ligninolytic enzymes, which include glycoside hydrolases (GHs), glycosyltransferases (GTs), polysaccharide lyases (PLs), carbohydrate esterases (CEs), and auxiliary activities (AAs). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • In view of this, the research was planned to determine the effect of different concentrations of zinc (Zn) on biochemical constituents of clusterbean, such as antioxidative enzymes namely peroxidase, polyphenol oxidase, phenylalanine ammonia lyase , and tyrosine ammonia lyase , which play an important role in disease resistance mechanisms. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The cluster of genes encoding the enzymes N -acetylneuraminate lyase (NanA), epimerase (NanE), and kinase (NanK), necessary for the catabolism of sialic acid (the Nan cluster), are confined 46 bacterial species, 42 of which colonize mammals, 33 as pathogens and 9 as gut commensals. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Pectin-degrading enzymes (pectinase and pectin lyase) were produced in solid state fermentation by Bacillus subtilis SAV-21 isolated from fruit and vegetable market waste soil of Yamuna Nagar, Haryana, India, and identified by 16S rDNA sequencing. (usda.gov)
  • With the exception of cinnamate 4-hydroxylase, the enzymes which act downstream of phenylalanine ammonia lyase are encoded by small gene families in all species analyzed so far. (tuscany-diet.net)
  • On the other hand, the cytochrome d oxidase, with high affinity for oxygen, and fermentation enzymes such as pyruvate-formate lyase are activated under microaerobic conditions ( 20 ). (asm.org)
  • It encodes a broad spectrum of enzymes for the uptake and utilization of various sugars and organic nitrogen compounds. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Lyases are enzymes cleaving C-C, C-O, C-N and other bonds by other means than by hydrolysis or oxidation. (qmul.ac.uk)
  • These enzymes catalyse the breakage of a carbon-oxygen bond. (qmul.ac.uk)
  • Crystal structure information is used to make substrate-switched amino acid ammonia lyase enzymes, including TALs, PALs and HALs. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • The reactions of the cycle are carried out by eight enzymes that completely oxidize acetate (a two carbon molecule), in the form of acetyl-CoA, into two molecules each of carbon dioxide and water. (wikipedia.org)
  • The main enzymes involved in the degradation of the HG backbone of pectin are polygalacturonases (PGA, E.C. 3.2.1.15 and XPG, E.C. 3.2.1.67), pectate lyases (PL, E.C. 4.2.2.9 and 4.2.2.2) and pectin lyases (PNL, E.C. 4.2.2.10) [ 3 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Employing flux balance analysis (FBA) [ 15 , 16 ], we could support the putative annotation of a formate hydrogen lyase and enzymes of the Bifid shunt. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This enzyme participates in tyrosine metabolism and nitrogen metabolism. (wikipedia.org)
  • A. richmondensis transcripts involved in denitrification and in the degradation of complex carbon sources (including cellulose) were up-regulated in floating biofilms, whereas central carbon metabolism and stress-related transcripts were significantly up-regulated in streamer biofilms. (frontiersin.org)
  • A structure analysis of the promoter regions of the lyase genes revealed a number of putative regulatory DNA elements, such as the AREA and CREA sites, which are related to nitrogen and carbon metabolism, respectively, and the CCAAT/CAAT boxes, which are related to basal expression of genes. (deepdyve.com)
  • To date, many studies have focused on the uptake, metabolism and distribution of organic nitrogen in plants, but few have investigated the nutritional performance of plants supplied with organic nitrogen. (frontiersin.org)
  • Role of glutamine transaminases in nitrogen, sulfur, selenium and 1-carbon metabolism: Glutamine Transaminases in normal and cancer Cells. (columbia.edu)
  • Cysteine S-conjugate β-lyases: Important roles in the metabolism of naturally occurring sulfur-and selenium-containing compounds, xenobiotics and anticancer agents. (columbia.edu)
  • New insights into the metabolism of organomercury compounds: Mercury-containing cysteine S-conjugates are substrates of human glutamine transaminase K and potent inactivators of cystathionine g-lyase. (columbia.edu)
  • Saba, "Sphingosine-1-phosphate lyase in development and disease: sphingolipid metabolism takes flight," Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Molecular and Cell Biology of Lipids, vol. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Participates in cellular nitrogen metabolism and also in liver gluconeogenesis starting with precursors transported from skeletal muscles (By similarity). (hmdb.ca)
  • 20. David H, Akesson M, Nielsen J: Reconstruction of the central carbon metabolism of Aspergillus niger.Eur J Biochem 2003, 270:4243-4253. (biology-online.org)
  • It requires no cofactors and catalyzes the reaction that links primary and secondary metabolism: the deamination of phenylalanine to trans -cinnamic acid, with the release of nitrogen as ammonia and introduction of a trans double bond between carbon atoms 7 and 8 of the side chain. (tuscany-diet.net)
  • We present iNS934, the first GSMM for N. salina , including 2345 reactions, 934 genes and an exhaustive description of lipid and nitrogen metabolism. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This phenomenon is unprecedented in a human pathogen and may substantially impact host physiology by linking morphogenesis, pH adaptation, carbon metabolism, and interactions with host cells, all of which are critical for the ability of C. albicans to cause disease. (asm.org)
  • Sialic acids also serve as a carbon, nitrogen, and energy source for bacterial pathogens that degrade it into fructose-6-phosphate, which can subsequently enter central metabolism. (asnevents.com.au)
  • We have created a predictive model of the central carbon metabolism of P. polymyxa ICGEB2008 and could show the presence of the Bifid shunt and explain its role in ICGEB2008. (biomedcentral.com)
  • To interpret the results obtained from sequence analysis and to obtain new insights into the biochemical capabilities of this strain, we reconstructed a metabolic network model of the carbon metabolism of ICGEB2008 by integrating genomic and biochemical data, resulting in a stoichiometric model connecting 133 metabolites by 158 reactions. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The DEGs cover a wide range of functions related to nutrient reservoir activity, nitrogen metabolism, stress resistance, etc. (plantcell.org)
  • O2 directly regulates two transcription factors, genes linked to carbon and amino acid metabolism and abiotic stress resistance. (plantcell.org)
  • It is thought to be mechanistically similar to the related enzyme histidine ammonia-lyase (EC:4.3.1.3, HAL). (wikipedia.org)
  • The mechanism of the reaction of PAL is thought to be similar to the mechanism of the related enzyme histidine ammonia lyase. (wikipedia.org)
  • PAL is structurally similar to the mechanistically related histidine ammonia lyase, although PAL has approximately 215 additional residues. (wikipedia.org)
  • title=Crystal structure of histidine ammonia-lyase revealing a novel polypeptide modification as the catalytic electrophile. (wikidoc.org)
  • 6. The recombinant amino acid ammonia lyase enzyme of claim 1, wherein the recombinant enzyme is derived from a tyrosine or histidine ammonia lyase, and wherein the recombinant enzyme preferentially deaminates L-Phe. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • If a person lacks histidine ammonia-lyase, it results in histidinemia, a rare metabolic disorder. (brighthub.com)
  • Phenylalanine ammonia lyase (EC 4.3.1.24) is an enzyme that catalyzes a reaction converting L-phenylalanine to ammonia and trans-cinnamic acid. (wikipedia.org)
  • Phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) is the first and committed step in the phenyl propanoid pathway and is therefore involved in the biosynthesis of the polyphenol compounds such as flavonoids, phenylpropanoids, and lignin in plants. (wikipedia.org)
  • Phenylalanine ammonia lyase is found widely in plants, as well as some bacteria, yeast, and fungi, with isoenzymes existing within many different species. (wikipedia.org)
  • The systematic name of this enzyme class is L-phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (trans-cinnamate-forming). (wikipedia.org)
  • Previously, it was designated EC 4.3.1.5, but that class has been redesignated as EC 4.3.1.24 (phenylalanine ammonia-lyases), EC 4.3.1.25 (tyrosine ammonia-lyases), and EC 4.3.1.26 (phenylalanine/tyrosine ammonia-lyases). (wikipedia.org)
  • Phenylalanine ammonia lyase is specific for L-phe, and to a lesser extent, L-tyrosine. (wikipedia.org)
  • Numbers are given for the phenylalanine ammonia lyase from Petroselinum crispum (PDB 1W27). (wikipedia.org)
  • Phenylalanine ammonia lyase is composed of four identical subunits composed mainly of alpha-helices, with pairs of monomers forming a single active site. (wikipedia.org)
  • Phenylalanine ammonia lyase can perform different functions in different species. (wikipedia.org)
  • Induction of L-phenylalanine ammonia-lyase during utilization of phenylalanine as a carbon or nitrogen source in Rhodotorula glutinis. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Synthesis and degradation of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase of Rhodosporidium toruloides. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Production of l-Phenylalanine from trans-Cinnamic Acid with Rhodotorula glutinis Containing l-Phenylalanine Ammonia-Lyase Activity. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) is the key enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-Phenylalanine to ammonia and trans- cinnamic acid. (innspub.net)
  • The present study was conducted with the main objective to optimize the phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) production process by Bacillus subtilis GCB-31 on agro-industrial wastes as carrier substrates in solid state fermentation. (innspub.net)
  • 2014. Biotechnological production and applications of microbial phenylalanine ammonia lyase: a recent review. (innspub.net)
  • Stabilization of phenylalanine ammonia lyase containing Rhodotorulaglutinis cells for the continuous synthesis of L-phenylalanine methyl ester/96. (innspub.net)
  • In all plant species investigated, several copies of phenylalanine ammonia lyase gene are found, copies that probably respond differentially to internal and external stimuli. (tuscany-diet.net)
  • 5. The recombinant amino acid ammonia lyase enzyme of claim 3, wherein the first amino acid is tyrosine or histidine and the second amino acid is phenylalanine. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • 12. The recombinant cell of claim 11, wherein the cell encodes a recombinant tyrosine amino acid-type ammonia lyase enzyme that comprises a mutation converting a kinetic preference of the enzyme for tyrosine into a preference for phenylalanine. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • He covers chiral discrimination in the active site of oxidoreductases, transferases and chiral discrimination, the influence of chirality on the hydrolysis reactions within the active site of hydrolases, the influence of chirality on the reactions in the active site of lyases , and chiral discrimination in the active site of ligases. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Unlike ligases, lyases bring about synthase reactions without the participation of energy-rich (macroergic) compounds. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • This enzyme belongs to the family of ligases, specifically those forming carbon-nitrogen bonds carbon-nitrogen ligases with glutamine as amido-N-donor. (wikibooks.org)
  • Two genes ( eutBC ) encode subunits of the cobalamin-dependent ethanolamine ammonia lyase ( 27 , 45 ), which converts ethanolamine to acetaldehyde and ammonia ( 13 , 50 ). (asm.org)
  • Induction of ethanolamine ammonia-lyase and of maximal levels of both aldehyde dehydrogenases required the concerted effects of ethanolamine and vitamin (or coenzyme) B12. (nih.gov)
  • Previous studies have revealed the presence of eutBC genes encoding ethanolamine-ammonia lyase, a key enzyme that breaks ethanolamine into acetaldehyde and ammonia, in about 100 bacterial genomes including members of gamma-proteobacteria. (biomedcentral.com)
  • After its entry into the cytoplasm by the action of the transporter proteins EutH and/or eat [ 2 , 4 ] and possibly by passive diffusion [ 6 ], ethanolamine is broken down into ammonia and acetaldehyde by ethanolamine ammonia lyase encoded by the genes eutB and eutC . (biomedcentral.com)
  • Numerous genes presumed to be involved in mobilizing and recycling nitrogen were expressed under nitrogen limitation, and among these were several secreted glutamic acid proteases not previously observed. (asm.org)
  • A group of α-1,4-glucan lyase genes from the fungi Morchella costata, M.vulgaris and Peziza ostracoderma. (deepdyve.com)
  • Marcussen, Jan 2004-09-29 00:00:00 We here report genes encoding a newly discovered class of starch- and glycogen-degrading enzyme, α-1,4-glucan lyase (EC 4.2.2.13), which degrades starch and glycogen to 1,5-anhydro-D-fructose. (deepdyve.com)
  • Two lyase genes (Agll1;Mo.cos and Agll1;Mo.vul) from the two fungi were fully sequenced and found to contain a coding region of 3201 bp and 3213 bp, respectively. (deepdyve.com)
  • The two lyase genes share 86% identity at the amino acid level. (deepdyve.com)
  • Heterologous expression of these genes in Escherichia coli showed that both gene products were essential for ATP-citrate lyase activity. (elsevier.com)
  • The Clpnl2 gene of C. lindemuthianum shares the characteristic elements of genes coding for pectin lyases. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Many genes involved in key ecological processes such as nitrogen cycling, carbon fixation, phosphorus utilization, metal homeostasis and resistance were significantly greater in healthy than in the ' Ca . L. asiaticus'-infected citrus rhizosphere. (nature.com)
  • Kynurenine aminotransferase 3 (KAT3) catalyzes the transamination of Kynurenine to kynurenic acid, and is identical to cysteine conjugate beta-lyase 2 (CCBL2) and glutamine transaminase L (GTL). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • KAT1 is identical to glutamine transaminase K (GTK), a kidney type transaminase and cysteine conjugate beta-lyase 1 (CCBL1). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Recently, it was demonstrated that KAT3 is not only identical to cysteine conjugate beta-lyase 2 (CCBL2), but also to glutamine transaminase L (GTL), a liver type glutamine transaminase [15] . (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Measurement of cysteine S-conjugate β-lyase activity. (columbia.edu)
  • In higher plants cysteine biosynthesis is catalyzed by O-acetylserine(thiol)lyase (OASTL) and represents the last step of the assimilatory sulfate reduction pathway. (openaire.eu)
  • Successful fertilization requires the presence of at least one major O-Acetylserine(thiol)lyase for cysteine synthesis in pollen of Arabidopsis. (openaire.eu)
  • PDEs are from three enzyme classes: carbohydrate esterases from CE8 and CE12 family, glycoside hydrolases from GH28 family and lyases from PL1, 2, 3, 9 and 10. (biotech-asia.org)
  • It seems, in fact, that each member of each family can be used mainly for the synthesis of a specific compound, thus acting as a control point for carbon flux among the metabolic pathways leading to lignan , lignin, and flavonoid biosynthesis. (tuscany-diet.net)
  • Structural Basis for the Catalytic Mechanism of Ethylenediamine- N, N'-disuccinic Acid Lyase, a Carbon-Nitrogen Bond-Forming Enzyme with a Broad Substrate Scope. (nih.gov)
  • Hydrolysis of the a-carbon-amino bond of the ketimine results in the release of the oxo-acid corresponding to the amino acid substrate, leaving pyridoxamine phosphate at the catalytic site of the enzyme. (doctorabel.us)
  • Bacillus cereus GS-2 isolated from fruit industrial dump site effectively produces pectin lyase (PL) and Polygalacturonase (PG). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The purified xanthan lyase has a molecular mass of 110 kDa and a specific activity of 28.2 U/mg that was much higher than that of both Paenibacillus and Bacillus lyases. (hindawi.com)
  • However, xanthan lyase was purified from both Paenibacillus alginolyticus XL-1 and Bacillus sp. (hindawi.com)
  • Like the xanthan lyases produced by Paenibacillus and Bacillus [14, 15], Microbacterium xanthan lyase was active on the intact xanthan and was not associated with endoglucanase [8]. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • In enzymology, a tyrosine phenol-lyase (EC 4.1.99.2) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction L-tyrosine + H2O ⇌ {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } phenol + pyruvate + NH3 Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are L-tyrosine and H2O, whereas its 3 products are phenol, pyruvate, and NH3. (wikipedia.org)
  • Other names in common use include beta-tyrosinase, and L-tyrosine phenol-lyase (deaminating). (wikipedia.org)
  • The enzyme from monocots is also able to act as tyrosine ammonia lyase (EC 4.3.1.25), converting tyrosine to p-coumaric acid directly, (therefore without the 4-hydroxylation step), but with a lower efficiency. (tuscany-diet.net)
  • 7. The recombinant amino acid ammonia lyase enzyme of claim 1, wherein the mutation is in a residue corresponding to His 89 of Rhodobacter sphaeroides Tyrosine Ammonia Lyase. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • Reaction (1) can be considered as the reverse of 'carbamate = cyanate + H 2 O', where this is assisted by reaction with bicarbonate and carbon dioxide (see mechanism above) [2], and hence is classified in sub-subclass 4.2.1. (qmul.ac.uk)
  • The reductive tricarboxylic acid cycle functions as a carbon dioxide fixation pathway in the green sulfur bacterium, Chlorobium limicola. (elsevier.com)
  • In particular cyanate can be decomposed to carbamate (ammonia) and carbon dioxide. (hmdb.ca)
  • Alternately the same enzyme can be used to synthesize cyanate using carbamate and carbon dioxide. (hmdb.ca)
  • RuBisCO catalyzes two reactions- the carboxylation of D- ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate, the primary event in carbon dioxide fixation, as well as the oxidative fragmentation of the pentose substrate in the photorespiration process. (string-db.org)
  • The cycle consumes acetate (in the form of acetyl-CoA ) and water , reduces NAD + to NADH, releasing carbon dioxide. (wikipedia.org)
  • This carbon dioxide fixation reaction does not require biotin or ATP. (biochemden.com)
  • The fermentation of wort into beer is a chemical transformation catalyzed by a group of microorganisms, both yeast and bacteria, that primarily produce carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) and ethanol (CH 3 CH 2 OH). (phdinbeer.com)
  • Whenever there is a bottleneck, the intermediate runs the risk of being excreted by the cell…especially when there isn't oxygen enough to metabolize everything down to carbon dioxide. (phdinbeer.com)
  • Differing from other polysaccharide lyases acting on the polysaccharide backbone, xanthan lyase could cleave the linkage between the terminal mannosyl and the glucuronyl residues on the side chain by a β -elimination reaction, introducing a double bond between C4 and C5 of the uronosyl residue and subsequently might be exploited for further chemical modification [ 13 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Among these were six members of the glycoside hydrolase family 61, as well as several polysaccharide lyases and carbohydrate esterases. (asm.org)
  • PNLs are grouped together with pectate lyases (PL) in Family 1 of the polysaccharide lyases, as they share a conserved structure in a parallel β-helix. (biomedcentral.com)
  • There are dozens of simultaneous chemical reactions happening within any given cell at any time in the life-cycle of the cell, reactions that are driving carbon off to make fatty acids to repair membranes or driving nitrogen and sulfur off to make amino acids. (phdinbeer.com)
  • Pectin lyases are significant compared to that of PG and PE in capability to undergo [beta]-elimination mechanism to degrade highly esterified pectins (present in fruits) into small molecules without producing methanol (7). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Pectin lyases are the only known pectinases capable of degrading highly esterified pectins (like those found in fruits) into small molecules via [beta]-elimination mechanism without producing methanol. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • a) Pectin lyase (PL) activity was assayed spectrophotometrically by determining uronide at 235 nm [40]. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Among these, pectin lyases (PNLs) catalyze the depolymerization of esterified pectin by a β-elimination mechanism. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The best-characterized fungal pectin lyases are obtained from saprophytic/opportunistic fungi in the genera Aspergillus and Penicillium and from some pathogens such as Colletotrichum gloeosporioides . (biomedcentral.com)
  • Here we report the isolation and sequence analysis of the Clpnl2 gene, which encodes the pectin lyase 2 of C. lindemuthianum , and its expression in pathogenic and non-pathogenic races of C. lindemuthianum grown on different carbon sources. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Both analyses revealed an early separation of bacterial pectin lyases from those found in fungi and oomycetes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Clpnl2 was found in the latter group and was grouped together with the pectin lyase from C. gloeosporioides . (biomedcentral.com)
  • A time-course analysis revealed significant differences between the two fungal races in terms of the expression of Clpnl2 encoding for pectin lyase 2. (biomedcentral.com)
  • According to the results, pectin lyases from bacteria and fungi separated early during evolution. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) is one of the most important phenomena occurring in nature, only exceeded by photosynthesis [ 1 , 2 ]. (intechopen.com)
  • They also give the bacteria access to their roots, allowing them to colonize and reside in the root nodules, where the modified bacteria (bacteroids) can perform nitrogen fixation [ 1 , 4 , 5 ]. (intechopen.com)
  • This biological nitrogen fixation process is complex, but has been best examined in some detail in the context of soybean- Bradyrhizobium plant-microbe interactions. (intechopen.com)
  • N-Acetyl-D-neuraminic acid lyase (NanA) catalyzes the breakdown of sialic acid (Neu5Ac) to N-acetyl-D-mannosamine (ManNAc) and pyruvate. (instem.res.in)
  • It is also said that a synthase is a lyase (a lyase is an enzyme that catalyzes the breaking of various chemical bonds by means other than hydrolysis and oxidation, often forming a new double bond or a new ring structure) and does not require any energy, whereas a synthetase is a ligase (a ligase is an enzyme that binds two chemicals or compounds) and thus requires energy. (wikipedia.org)
  • Argentilactone is a compound that was isolated from the Brazilian savanna plant Hyptis ovalifolia , and it has been suggested to be a potent antifungal, inhibiting the dimorphism of P. brasiliensis and the enzymatic activity of isocitrate lyase, a key enzyme of the glyoxylate cycle. (asm.org)
  • The obtained lyase amino acid sequences were used to generate PCR primers, which were further used to probe the fungal genomic libraries. (deepdyve.com)
  • The amino acid sequence deduced from this nucleotide fragment shares 76% identity with the M. costata lyase. (deepdyve.com)
  • Glycine, the simplest amino acid in nature and one of the most abundant free amino acids in soil, is regarded as a model nutrient in organic nitrogen studies. (frontiersin.org)
  • 1. A recombinant amino acid ammonia lyase enzyme, comprising at least one mutation in an active site of the enzyme, wherein the mutation switches substrate preference of the lyase enzyme from a first substrate to a second substrate. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • 2. The recombinant amino acid ammonia lyase enzyme of claim 1, wherein the first substrate is an amino acid, and the second substrate is an amino acid. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • 3. The recombinant amino acid ammonia lyase enzyme of claim 2, wherein the first and second amino acids are aromatic amino acids. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • 8. The recombinant amino acid ammonia lyase enzyme of claim 1, wherein the enzyme comprises a 4-methylidene-imidazole-5-one (MOI) cofactor prosthetic group. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • 9. The recombinant amino acid ammonia lyase enzyme of claim 1, wherein the enzyme produces trans-cinnamic acid. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • 17. A library of amino acid ammonia lyase polypeptides, the library comprising:a plurality of polypeptides comprising or derived from amino acid ammonia lyase enzyme polypeptides, wherein the plurality of polypeptides collectively comprise a plurality of mutations of at least one amino acid in at least one region of the polypeptides, the region corresponding to an active site of an amino acid ammonia lyase enzyme. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • Among the depolymerases, polygalacturonase is the major enzyme with a hydrolytic function and lyases (or transeleminases) which cleaves glycosidic bonds forming unsaturated product[DELTA](4,5-D-galacturonate) through transelimination reaction [34]. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Like other lyases, PAL requires only one substrate for the forward reaction, but two for the reverse. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lyases also catalyze the reverse reaction: the joining of groups by double bonds. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The deprotonated aldimine is reprotonated at carbon-4 by reaction with a histamine residue to form the pyridoxamine phosphate ketimine. (doctorabel.us)
  • In this reaction, Carbonic acid is substituted on a 4th carbon atom as in the form of the Carboxyl group (CAIR). (biochemden.com)
  • This reaction is catalyzed by Adenosuccinate Lyase. (biochemden.com)
  • These findings suggest that the biofilm niches are distinguished by distinct carbon and nitrogen resource utilization, oxygen availability, and environmental challenges. (frontiersin.org)
  • NanA plays a key role in Neu5Ac catabolism in many pathogenic and bacterial commensals where sialic acid is available as a carbon and nitrogen source. (instem.res.in)
  • Like other bacterial N-acetylneuraminate lyases, FnNanA also shares the triosephosphate isomerase (TIM)-barrel fold. (instem.res.in)
  • Many bacterial species synthesize polyhydroxyalkanoic acids (PHAs), which accumulate in the cytoplasm as hydrophobic granules and function as a carbon reservoir and as an electron sink ( 2 ). (asm.org)
  • Heterotrophic bacterial communities are likewise limited by available carbon substrates. (nap.edu)
  • Identification and characterisation of metabolic pathways (in particular of carbon and iron uptake) that are required for intracellular proliferation of R. equi. (ucd.ie)
  • Global conversion of organic carbon to CO 2 with concomitant reduction of molecular oxygen involves the combined metabolic activity of numerous organisms. (asm.org)
  • It grows quickly using several carbon sources, and it offers a well-defined physiological environment for the construction and manipulation of various metabolic pathways. (asm.org)
  • Both simulations and experiments showed that metabolic flux is diverted from ethanol to acetate production when an oxidized nitrogen source is utilized. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The enzyme is a member of the ammonia lyase family, which cleaves carbon-nitrogen bonds. (wikipedia.org)
  • They perform many critical ecosystem functions including the decomposition of organic matter, carbon storage, nutrient transfer, metal transformation and accumulation, and soil formation. (frontiersin.org)
  • Exogenous Glycine Nitrogen Enhances Accumulation of Glycosylated Flavonoids and Antioxidant Activity in Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. (frontiersin.org)
  • Accumulation of the 3-carbon fatty acyl-CoA within the mitochondrion leads to decreased free CoA for other reactions, which is alleviated by conversion of propionyl CoA to propionyl-carnitine. (medscape.com)
  • By exploiting the tab2 mutation in the cells of C. reinhardtii cultured under autotrophic, mixotrophic, and heterotrophic conditions during nitrogen replete growth and for the first 8 days of nitrogen deprivation, we showed that TAG accumulation and lipid/starch partitioning are dynamically regulated by alterations in PSI function, which concomitantly alters the immediate ATP/NADPH demand. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Production and Purification of a Novel Xanthan Lyase from a Xanthan-Degrading Microbacterium sp. (hindawi.com)
  • S43539 argininosuccinate lyase (EC 4.3.2.1) - yeast (Saccharomyces sp. (yeastrc.org)
  • argininosuccinate lyase [Rattus sp. (yeastrc.org)
  • As expected, bacteria with mutations in this gene can use ethanolamine as a source of nitrogen but not carbon [a Eut(N + C − ) phenotype]. (asm.org)
  • A third lyase gene (Agll1;Pe.ost) from the fungus Peziza ostracoderma was partially sequenced to 557 bp. (deepdyve.com)
  • Heterologous expression of the M. costata lyase gene was achieved intracellularly in Pichia pastoris and Aspergillus niger. (deepdyve.com)
  • The canonical pathway that breaks down sialic acid following its import into the cell includes a lyase, kinase, epimerase, deacetylase, and a deaminase. (asnevents.com.au)
  • Glutamine aids in protein synthesis, helps produce ammonium, serves as a source of energy, donates carbon in the citric acid cycle and donates nitrogen for anabolic processes in the body. (brighthub.com)
  • The carbon skeleton of isoleucine can be used for the production of glucose or fed into the citric acid cycle to play a role in oxidation. (brighthub.com)
  • Through catabolism of sugars, fats, and proteins, the two-carbon organic product acetyl-CoA (a form of acetate) is produced which enters the citric acid cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • The citric acid cycle begins with the transfer of a two-carbon acetyl group from acetyl-CoA to the four-carbon acceptor compound (oxaloacetate) to form a six-carbon compound (citrate). (wikipedia.org)
  • These properties suggested that ATP-citrate lyase from C. limicola controlled the cycle flux depending on intracellular energy conditions. (elsevier.com)
  • Overall, our analyses defined mechanisms of fungal adaptation and identified a functional shift related to different roles in carbon and nitrogen turnover for the same species of fungi growing in closely located but distinct biofilm niches. (frontiersin.org)
  • Many microorganisms are capable of utilizing cellulose and hemicellulose as carbon and energy sources, but a much smaller group of filamentous fungi has evolved with the ability to depolymerize lignin, the most recalcitrant component of plant cell walls. (asm.org)
  • Collectively known as white rot fungi, they possess the unique ability to efficiently depolymerize lignin in order to gain access to cell wall carbohydrates for carbon and energy sources. (asm.org)
  • As such, white rot fungi play an important, if not pivotal, role in the carbon cycle (for a review, see reference 15 ). (asm.org)
  • Cyanate can be decomposed by the enzyme cyanate lyase (or cyanase), which is found in bacteria and plants. (hmdb.ca)
  • This group then forms a dative bond to the imino nitrogen of the internal aldimine, increasing its electrophilicity and thus enhancing the nucleophilic attack by the substrate. (doctorabel.us)
  • Once the substrate-coenzyme aldimine has been formed, it loses a proton from the a-carbon. (doctorabel.us)
  • the preferred substrate for the lyase in the degradation pathway. (asnevents.com.au)
  • These approaches commonly target individual biological processes (e.g., carbon degradation). (frontiersin.org)
  • Recently this paradox has been resolved by the finding that the anaerobic electron acceptor tetrathionate allows Salmonella to use endogenous B 12 to support anaerobic degradation of ethanolamine as a sole source of nitrogen, carbon, and energy ( 12 ). (asm.org)
  • We could further show that the nitrogen source is critical for metabolite production by Paenibacillus, and correctly quantify the influence on the by-product metabolite profile of ICGEB2008. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The deduced molecular masses of 121 530 and 121 971 Da agree with the values found for the two purified lyases. (deepdyve.com)
  • International contributors to a dozen chapters review biotransformation from the perspective of a major pharmaceutical company and the basics of molecular biology for nonspecialists, then describe key biocatalysts (e.g., lipases, proteases, sulfatases, hydroxal nitrile lyases ) and their applications in the resolution of interesting molecules such as drug metabolites. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Under nitrogen or carbon limitation, lignin and manganese peroxidase expression increased relative to nutrient replete medium. (asm.org)
  • Microbial communities are likewise organized to maximize nutrient and energy transfer between cells, and efficiently recycle organic carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, and trace metals. (nap.edu)
  • We propose that nutrient-deprived C. albicans cells catabolize amino acids as a carbon source, excreting the amino nitrogen as ammonia to raise environmental pH and stimulate morphogenesis, thus directly contributing to pathogenesis. (asm.org)
  • This enzyme, which is found in bacteria and plants, is used to decompose cyanate, which can be used as the sole source of nitrogen [6,7]. (qmul.ac.uk)
  • Predominantly, members of the plant family Leguminosae have evolved with nitrogen fixing bacteria from the family Rhizobiaceae. (intechopen.com)
  • In summary, the plants excrete specific chemical signals to attract the nitrogen fixing bacteria towards their roots. (intechopen.com)
  • The Nan cluster among bacteria is confined to human pathogens and commensals conferring them the ability to utilize a ubiquitous carbon source in mucus rich surfaces of the human body. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The five GAG lyases were purified from these transconjugant strains and shown to be identical to their wild-type counterparts. (asm.org)
  • O-acetylserine (thiol) lyase is a pyridoxal phosphate-dependent enzyme, and a lysine residue at the N-terminal region of this protein is involved in binding this cofactor (Saito et al. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The EutT enzyme appears to be an adenosyl transferase, converting CNB 12 to AdoB 12 , and the EutA protein appears to protect the lyase (EutBC) from inhibition by CNB 12 ( 54 ). (asm.org)
  • It was specific on the pyruvated mannosyl residue in the intact xanthan molecule, but about 50% lyase activity remained when xanthan was partially depyruvated. (hindawi.com)
  • The metal ions including K + , Ca 2+ , Na + , Mg 2+ , Mn 2+ , and Li + strongly stimulated xanthan lyase activity but ions Zn 2+ and Cu 2+ were its inhibitor. (hindawi.com)
  • Each year, more than 10 GT of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) is added to seawater by the activity of marine microbes. (nap.edu)
  • SummaryPhenylalanine Ammonia-Lyase (PAL) containing microorganisms were isolated from a wide variety of natural habitats. (semanticscholar.org)
  • One of the unsolved mysteries of marine microbial biogeochemistry is that while microbial communities are usually carbon, nitrogen, phosphorous, or iron limited, these microbes nevertheless inhabit an environment where DOC, DON, DOP, and organically bound iron are abundant. (nap.edu)
  • Our results showed that the microbial community of the ' Ca . L. asiaticus'-infected citrus rhizosphere has shifted away from using more easily degraded sources of carbon to the more recalcitrant forms. (nature.com)