Carbon: A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.Nitrogen: An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.Lyases: A class of enzymes that catalyze the cleavage of C-C, C-O, and C-N, and other bonds by other means than by hydrolysis or oxidation. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 4.Chondroitin Lyases: Enzymes which catalyze the elimination of delta-4,5-D-glucuronate residues from polysaccharides containing 1,4-beta-hexosaminyl and 1,3-beta-D-glucuronosyl or 1,3-alpha-L-iduronosyl linkages thereby bringing about depolymerization. EC 4.2.2.4 acts on chondroitin sulfate A and C as well as on dermatan sulfate and slowly on hyaluronate. EC 4.2.2.5 acts on chondroitin sulfate A and C.Nitrogen Fixation: The process in certain BACTERIA; FUNGI; and CYANOBACTERIA converting free atmospheric NITROGEN to biologically usable forms of nitrogen, such as AMMONIA; NITRATES; and amino compounds.Carbon Dioxide: A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.Carbon Monoxide: Carbon monoxide (CO). A poisonous colorless, odorless, tasteless gas. It combines with hemoglobin to form carboxyhemoglobin, which has no oxygen carrying capacity. The resultant oxygen deprivation causes headache, dizziness, decreased pulse and respiratory rates, unconsciousness, and death. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Nanotubes, Carbon: Nanometer-sized tubes composed mainly of CARBON. Such nanotubes are used as probes for high-resolution structural and chemical imaging of biomolecules with ATOMIC FORCE MICROSCOPY.Pectobacterium chrysanthemi: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that causes vascular wilts on a wide range of plant species. It was formerly named Erwinia chrysanthemi.Nitrogen Isotopes: Stable nitrogen atoms that have the same atomic number as the element nitrogen, but differ in atomic weight. N-15 is a stable nitrogen isotope.Chondroitinases and Chondroitin Lyases: Enzymes which catalyze the elimination of glucuronate residues from chondroitin A,B, and C or which catalyze the hydrolysis of sulfate groups of the 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-D-galactose 6-sulfate units of chondroitin sulfate. EC 4.2.2.-.Nitrogen Compounds: Inorganic compounds that contain nitrogen as an integral part of the molecule.Pectins: High molecular weight polysaccharides present in the cell walls of all plants. Pectins cement cell walls together. They are used as emulsifiers and stabilizers in the food industry. They have been tried for a variety of therapeutic uses including as antidiarrheals, where they are now generally considered ineffective, and in the treatment of hypercholesterolemia.Nitrogen Cycle: The circulation of nitrogen in nature, consisting of a cycle of biochemical reactions in which atmospheric nitrogen is compounded, dissolved in rain, and deposited in the soil, where it is assimilated and metabolized by bacteria and plants, eventually returning to the atmosphere by bacterial decomposition of organic matter.Nitrogen Dioxide: Nitrogen oxide (NO2). A highly poisonous gas. Exposure produces inflammation of lungs that may only cause slight pain or pass unnoticed, but resulting edema several days later may cause death. (From Merck, 11th ed) It is a major atmospheric pollutant that is able to absorb UV light that does not reach the earth's surface.Blood Urea Nitrogen: The urea concentration of the blood stated in terms of nitrogen content. Serum (plasma) urea nitrogen is approximately 12% higher than blood urea nitrogen concentration because of the greater protein content of red blood cells. Increases in blood or serum urea nitrogen are referred to as azotemia and may have prerenal, renal, or postrenal causes. (From Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)Phycobiliproteins: Light harvesting proteins found in phycobilisomes.Chicory: A thick-rooted perennial (Cichorium intybus) native to Europe but widely grown for its young leaves used as salad greens and for its roots, dried and ground-roasted, used to flavor or adulterate coffee. (From Webster, 3d ed)Carbon Monoxide Poisoning: Toxic asphyxiation due to the displacement of oxygen from oxyhemoglobin by carbon monoxide.Carbon Isotopes: Stable carbon atoms that have the same atomic number as the element carbon, but differ in atomic weight. C-13 is a stable carbon isotope.Reactive Nitrogen Species: Nitrogenous products of NITRIC OXIDE synthases, ranging from NITRIC OXIDE to NITRATES. These reactive nitrogen intermediates also include the inorganic PEROXYNITROUS ACID and the organic S-NITROSOTHIOLS.Aldehyde-Lyases: Enzymes that catalyze a reverse aldol condensation. A molecule containing a hydroxyl group and a carbonyl group is cleaved at a C-C bond to produce two smaller molecules (ALDEHYDES or KETONES). EC 4.1.2.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Carbon-Oxygen Lyases: Enzymes that catalyze the cleavage of a carbon-oxygen bond by means other than hydrolysis or oxidation. EC 4.2.Nitrogen Oxides: Inorganic oxides that contain nitrogen.Erwinia: A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria whose organisms are associated with plants as pathogens, saprophytes, or as constituents of the epiphytic flora.Oxo-Acid-Lyases: Enzymes that catalyze the cleavage of a carbon-carbon bond of a 3-hydroxy acid. (Dorland, 28th ed) EC 4.1.3.Heparin Lyase: An enzyme of the isomerase class that catalyzes the eliminative cleavage of polysaccharides containing 1,4-linked D-glucuronate or L-iduronate residues and 1,4-alpha-linked 2-sulfoamino-2-deoxy-6-sulfo-D-glucose residues to give oligosaccharides with terminal 4-deoxy-alpha-D-gluc-4-enuronosyl groups at their non-reducing ends. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 4.2.2.7.PII Nitrogen Regulatory Proteins: A family of signal transducing adaptor proteins that control the METABOLISM of NITROGEN. They are primarily found in prokaryotes.Carbon Tetrachloride: A solvent for oils, fats, lacquers, varnishes, rubber waxes, and resins, and a starting material in the manufacturing of organic compounds. Poisoning by inhalation, ingestion or skin absorption is possible and may be fatal. (Merck Index, 11th ed)Carbon Sequestration: Any of several processes for the permanent or long-term artificial or natural capture or removal and storage of carbon dioxide and other forms of carbon, through biological, chemical or physical processes, in a manner that prevents it from being released into the atmosphere.Polygalacturonase: A cell wall-degrading enzyme found in microorganisms and higher plants. It catalyzes the random hydrolysis of 1,4-alpha-D-galactosiduronic linkages in pectate and other galacturonans. EC 3.2.1.15.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Nitrates: Inorganic or organic salts and esters of nitric acid. These compounds contain the NO3- radical.Ammonia: A colorless alkaline gas. It is formed in the body during decomposition of organic materials during a large number of metabolically important reactions. Note that the aqueous form of ammonia is referred to as AMMONIUM HYDROXIDE.Alginates: Salts of alginic acid that are extracted from marine kelp and used to make dental impressions and as absorbent material for surgical dressings.Carbon Disulfide: A colorless, flammable, poisonous liquid, CS2. It is used as a solvent, and is a counterirritant and has local anesthetic properties but is not used as such. It is highly toxic with pronounced CNS, hematologic, and dermatologic effects.Biomass: Total mass of all the organisms of a given type and/or in a given area. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990) It includes the yield of vegetative mass produced from any given crop.Rhodophyta: Plants of the division Rhodophyta, commonly known as red algae, in which the red pigment (PHYCOERYTHRIN) predominates. However, if this pigment is destroyed, the algae can appear purple, brown, green, or yellow. Two important substances found in the cell walls of red algae are AGAR and CARRAGEENAN. Some rhodophyta are notable SEAWEED (macroalgae).Fertilizers: Substances or mixtures that are added to the soil to supply nutrients or to make available nutrients already present in the soil, in order to increase plant growth and productivity.Soil: The unconsolidated mineral or organic matter on the surface of the earth that serves as a natural medium for the growth of land plants.Sphingomonas: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria characterized by an outer membrane that contains glycosphingolipids but lacks lipopolysaccharide. They have the ability to degrade a broad range of substituted aromatic compounds.Hexuronic Acids: Term used to designate tetrahydroxy aldehydic acids obtained by oxidation of hexose sugars, i.e. glucuronic acid, galacturonic acid, etc. Historically, the name hexuronic acid was originally given to ascorbic acid.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Isocitrate Lyase: A key enzyme in the glyoxylate cycle. It catalyzes the conversion of isocitrate to succinate and glyoxylate. EC 4.1.3.1.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Phycobilins: Open chain tetrapyrroles that function as light harvesting chromophores in PHYCOBILIPROTEINS.Chondroitin ABC Lyase: An enzyme that catalyzes the eliminative degradation of polysaccharides containing 1,4-beta-D-hexosaminyl and 1,3-beta-D-glucuronosyl or 1,3-alpha-L-iduronosyl linkages to disaccharides containing 4-deoxy-beta-D-gluc-4-enuronosyl groups. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992)Quaternary Ammonium Compounds: Derivatives of ammonium compounds, NH4+ Y-, in which all four of the hydrogens bonded to nitrogen have been replaced with hydrocarbyl groups. These are distinguished from IMINES which are RN=CR2.Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Pseudomonas: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in nature. Some species are pathogenic for humans, animals, and plants.Cytochromes c1: The 30-kDa membrane-bound c-type cytochrome protein of mitochondria that functions as an electron donor to CYTOCHROME C GROUP in the mitochondrial and bacterial RESPIRATORY CHAIN. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p545)Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Carbon Tetrachloride PoisoningSequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Glutamate-Ammonia Ligase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of ATP, L-glutamate, and NH3 to ADP, orthophosphate, and L-glutamine. It also acts more slowly on 4-methylene-L-glutamate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 6.3.1.2.Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.Flavobacterium: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in SOIL and WATER. Its organisms are also found in raw meats, MILK and other FOOD, hospital environments, and human clinical specimens. Some species are pathogenic in humans.Bacteroides: A genus of gram-negative, anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria. Its organisms are normal inhabitants of the oral, respiratory, intestinal, and urogenital cavities of humans, animals, and insects. Some species may be pathogenic.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Amino Acids: Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Glucuronic Acid: A sugar acid formed by the oxidation of the C-6 carbon of GLUCOSE. In addition to being a key intermediate metabolite of the uronic acid pathway, glucuronic acid also plays a role in the detoxification of certain drugs and toxins by conjugating with them to form GLUCURONIDES.Urea: A compound formed in the liver from ammonia produced by the deamination of amino acids. It is the principal end product of protein catabolism and constitutes about one half of the total urinary solids.Symbiosis: The relationship between two different species of organisms that are interdependent; each gains benefits from the other or a relationship between different species where both of the organisms in question benefit from the presence of the other.Atmosphere: The gaseous envelope surrounding a planet or similar body. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Photosynthesis: The synthesis by organisms of organic chemical compounds, especially carbohydrates, from carbon dioxide using energy obtained from light rather than from the oxidation of chemical compounds. Photosynthesis comprises two separate processes: the light reactions and the dark reactions. In higher plants; GREEN ALGAE; and CYANOBACTERIA; NADPH and ATP formed by the light reactions drive the dark reactions which result in the fixation of carbon dioxide. (from Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2001)Adenylosuccinate Lyase: An enzyme that, in the course of purine ribonucleotide biosynthesis, catalyzes the conversion of 5'-phosphoribosyl-4-(N-succinocarboxamide)-5-aminoimidazole to 5'-phosphoribosyl-4-carboxamide-5-aminoimidazole and the conversion of adenylosuccinic acid to AMP. EC 4.3.2.2.Streptococcus anginosus: A species of gram-positive bacteria in the STREPTOCOCCUS MILLERI GROUP. It is the most frequently seen isolate of that group, has a proclivity for abscess formation, and is most often isolated from the blood, gastrointestinal, and urogenital tract.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Hevea: A plant genus of the family EUPHORBIACEAE, order Euphorbiales, subclass Rosidae. Commercial natural RUBBER is mainly obtained from Hevea brasiliensis but also from some other plants.Plants: Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.Plant Leaves: Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Nitrogenase: An enzyme system that catalyzes the fixing of nitrogen in soil bacteria and blue-green algae (CYANOBACTERIA). EC 1.18.6.1.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Nitrogen Mustard Compounds: A group of alkylating agents derived from mustard gas, with the sulfur replaced by nitrogen. They were formerly used as toxicants and vesicants, but now function as antineoplastic agents. These compounds are also powerful mutagens, teratogens, immunosuppressants, and carcinogens.Fungi: A kingdom of eukaryotic, heterotrophic organisms that live parasitically as saprobes, including MUSHROOMS; YEASTS; smuts, molds, etc. They reproduce either sexually or asexually, and have life cycles that range from simple to complex. Filamentous fungi, commonly known as molds, refer to those that grow as multicellular colonies.Ecosystem: A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Carbon Footprint: A measure of the total greenhouse gas emissions produced by an individual, organization, event, or product. It is measured in units of equivalent kilograms of CARBON DIOXIDE generated in a given time frame.Plant Roots: The usually underground portions of a plant that serve as support, store food, and through which water and mineral nutrients enter the plant. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982; Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Glycoside HydrolasesCarbon Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of carbon that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. C atoms with atomic weights 10, 11, and 14-16 are radioactive carbon isotopes.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Biodegradation, Environmental: Elimination of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS; PESTICIDES and other waste using living organisms, usually involving intervention of environmental or sanitation engineers.Trees: Woody, usually tall, perennial higher plants (Angiosperms, Gymnosperms, and some Pterophyta) having usually a main stem and numerous branches.Uronic Acids: Acids derived from monosaccharides by the oxidation of the terminal (-CH2OH) group farthest removed from the carbonyl group to a (-COOH) group. (From Stedmans, 26th ed)Glycosaminoglycans: Heteropolysaccharides which contain an N-acetylated hexosamine in a characteristic repeating disaccharide unit. The repeating structure of each disaccharide involves alternate 1,4- and 1,3-linkages consisting of either N-acetylglucosamine or N-acetylgalactosamine.Proteus vulgaris: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that occurs in soil, fecal matter, and sewage. It is an opportunistic pathogen and causes cystitis and pyelonephritis.Disaccharides: Oligosaccharides containing two monosaccharide units linked by a glycosidic bond.Carbon-Nitrogen Lyases: Enzymes that catalyze the cleavage of a carbon-nitrogen bond by means other than hydrolysis or oxidation. Subclasses are the AMMONIA-LYASES, the AMIDINE-LYASES, the amine-lyases, and other carbon-nitrogen lyases. EC 4.3.Carbon-Carbon Lyases: Enzymes that catalyze the cleavage of a carbon-carbon bond by means other than hydrolysis or oxidation. This subclass contains the DECARBOXYLASES, the ALDEHYDE-LYASES, and the OXO-ACID-LYASES. EC 4.1.Glutamine: A non-essential amino acid present abundantly throughout the body and is involved in many metabolic processes. It is synthesized from GLUTAMIC ACID and AMMONIA. It is the principal carrier of NITROGEN in the body and is an important energy source for many cells.Sulfonium Compounds: Sulfur compounds in which the sulfur atom is attached to three organic radicals and an electronegative element or radical.Crystallography, X-Ray: The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Oxygen: An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.Chondroitin Sulfates: Derivatives of chondroitin which have a sulfate moiety esterified to the galactosamine moiety of chondroitin. Chondroitin sulfate A, or chondroitin 4-sulfate, and chondroitin sulfate C, or chondroitin 6-sulfate, have the sulfate esterified in the 4- and 6-positions, respectively. Chondroitin sulfate B (beta heparin; DERMATAN SULFATE) is a misnomer and this compound is not a true chondroitin sulfate.AcetyleneCatalysis: The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.Carbohydrate Sequence: The sequence of carbohydrates within POLYSACCHARIDES; GLYCOPROTEINS; and GLYCOLIPIDS.Soil Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the soil. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Carbohydrate Metabolism: Cellular processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of CARBOHYDRATES.Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.Fermentation: Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Bacillus: A genus of BACILLACEAE that are spore-forming, rod-shaped cells. Most species are saprophytic soil forms with only a few species being pathogenic.Dermatan Sulfate: A naturally occurring glycosaminoglycan found mostly in the skin and in connective tissue. It differs from CHONDROITIN SULFATE A (see CHONDROITIN SULFATES) by containing IDURONIC ACID in place of glucuronic acid, its epimer, at carbon atom 5. (from Merck, 12th ed)Glucose: A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.

A novel jasmonate- and elicitor-responsive element in the periwinkle secondary metabolite biosynthetic gene Str interacts with a jasmonate- and elicitor-inducible AP2-domain transcription factor, ORCA2. (1/87)

Jasmonate (JA) is an important plant stress hormone that induces various plant defense responses, including the biosynthesis of protective secondary metabolites. The induction of the secondary metabolite biosynthetic gene Strictosidine synthase (Str) in Catharanthus roseus (periwinkle) cells by elicitor requires JA as a second messenger. A 42 bp region in the Str promoter is both necessary and sufficient for JA- and elicitor-responsive expression. This region is unlike other previously identified JA-responsive regions, and contains a GCC-box-like element. Yeast one-hybrid screening identified cDNAs encoding two AP2-domain proteins. These octadecanoid-derivative responsive Catharanthus AP2-domain (ORCA) proteins bind in a sequence-specific manner the JA- and elicitor-responsive element. ORCA2 trans-activates the Str promoter and its expression is rapidly inducible with JA and elicitor, whereas Orca1 is expressed constitutively. The results indicate that a GCC-box-like element and ORCA2 play key roles in JA- and elicitor-responsive expression of the terpenoid indole alkaloid biosynthetic gene Str.  (+info)

Destabilase from the medicinal leech is a representative of a novel family of lysozymes. (2/87)

Intrinsic lysozyme-like activity was demonstrated for destabilase from the medicinal leech supported by (1) high specific lysozyme activity of the highly purified destabilase, (2) specific inhibition of the lysozyme-like activity by anti-destabilase antibodies, and (3) appreciable lysozyme-like activity in insect cells infected with recombinant baculoviruses carrying cDNAs encoding different isoforms of destabilase. Several isoforms of destabilase constitute a protein family at least two members of which are characterized by lysozyme activity. The corresponding gene family implies an ancient evolutionary history of the genes although the function(s) of various lysozymes in the leech remains unclear. Differences in primary structures of the destabilase family members and members of known lysozyme families allow one to assign the former to a new family of lysozymes. New proteins homologous to destabilase were recently described for Caenorhabditis elegans and bivalve mollusks suggesting that the new lysozyme family can be widely distributed among invertebrates. It remains to be investigated whether the two enzymatic activities (isopeptidase and lysozyme-like) are attributes of one and the same protein.  (+info)

Sequencing, tissue distribution and chromosomal assignment of a novel ubiquitin-specific protease USP23. (3/87)

We have identified human and mouse cDNAs encoding a novel ubiquitin-specific protease designated USP23. Both cDNAs encode a 62-kDa protein containing the highly conserved His and Cys domains characteristic of the C19 cysteine protease family of ubiquitin-specific processing proteases (UCH-2). Human tissue Northern blots revealed USP23 to be ubiquitously expressed, whereas USP12, its closest human paralogue, displayed a more restricted expression pattern. The human USP23 gene mapped to chromosome 1q22.  (+info)

Identification of a novel isopeptidase with dual specificity for ubiquitin- and NEDD8-conjugated proteins. (4/87)

Covalent conjugation of proteins by ubiquitin or ubiquitin-like molecules is an important form of post-translational modification and plays a critical role in many cellular processes. Similar to the concept of phosphorylation and dephosphorylation, these conjugates are regulated by a large number of deconjugating enzymes. Here, we report the cloning of a 2,141-base pair DNA fragment from human placenta cDNA library by a strategy that involves expressed sequence tag data base searching, polymerase chain reaction, and rapid amplification of cDNA ends. Nucleotide sequence analysis revealed that the cloned cDNA contains an open reading frame of 1,143 base pairs encoding a novel protease, USP21, which is composed of 381 residues with a calculated molecular mass of 43 kDa. The human USP21 gene is located on chromosome 1q21 and encodes a member of the ubiquitin-specific protease family with highly conserved Cys and His domains. The activity and specificity of USP21 were determined by using a COS cell expression system in vivo. We showed that USP21 is capable of removing ubiquitin from ubiquitinated proteins as expected. Furthermore, USP21 is capable of removing NEDD8 from NEDD8 conjugates but has no effect on Sentrin-1 conjugates. As expected from its biochemical activity, overexpression of USP21 has a profound growth inhibitory effect on U2OS cells. Thus, USP21 is the first ubiquitin-specific protease shown to have dual specificity for both ubiquitin and NEDD8 and may play an important role in the regulation of cell growth.  (+info)

Structure of cyanase reveals that a novel dimeric and decameric arrangement of subunits is required for formation of the enzyme active site. (5/87)

BACKGROUND: Cyanase is an enzyme found in bacteria and plants that catalyzes the reaction of cyanate with bicarbonate to produce ammonia and carbon dioxide. In Escherichia coli, cyanase is induced from the cyn operon in response to extracellular cyanate. The enzyme is functionally active as a homodecamer of 17 kDa subunits, and displays half-site binding of substrates or substrate analogs. The enzyme shows no significant amino acid sequence homology with other proteins. RESULTS: We have determined the crystal structure of cyanase at 1.65 A resolution using the multiwavelength anomalous diffraction (MAD) method. Cyanase crystals are triclinic and contain one homodecamer in the asymmetric unit. Selenomethionine-labeled protein offers 40 selenium atoms for use in phasing. Structures of cyanase with bound chloride or oxalate anions, inhibitors of the enzyme, allowed identification of the active site. CONCLUSIONS: The cyanase monomer is composed of two domains. The N-terminal domain shows structural similarity to the DNA-binding alpha-helix bundle motif. The C-terminal domain has an 'open fold' with no structural homology to other proteins. The subunits of cyanase are arranged in a novel manner both at the dimer and decamer level. The dimer structure reveals the C-terminal domains to be intertwined, and the decamer is formed by a pentamer of these dimers. The active site of the enzyme is located between dimers and is comprised of residues from four adjacent subunits of the homodecamer. The structural data allow a conceivable reaction mechanism to be proposed.  (+info)

Microbial thiocyanate utilization under highly alkaline conditions. (6/87)

Three kinds of alkaliphilic bacteria able to utilize thiocyanate (CNS-) at pH 10 were found in highly alkaline soda lake sediments and soda soils. The first group included obligate heterotrophs that utilized thiocyanate as a nitrogen source while growing at pH 10 with acetate as carbon and energy sources. Most of the heterotrophic strains were able to oxidize sulfide and thiosulfate to tetrathionate. The second group included obligately autotrophic sulfur-oxidizing alkaliphiles which utilized thiocyanate nitrogen during growth with thiosulfate as the energy source. Genetic analysis demonstrated that both the heterotrophic and autotrophic alkaliphiles that utilized thiocyanate as a nitrogen source were related to the previously described sulfur-oxidizing alkaliphiles belonging to the gamma subdivision of the division Proteobacteria (the Halomonas group for the heterotrophs and the genus Thioalkalivibrio for autotrophs). The third group included obligately autotrophic sulfur-oxidizing alkaliphilic bacteria able to utilize thiocyanate as a sole source of energy. These bacteria could be enriched on mineral medium with thiocyanate at pH 10. Growth with thiocyanate was usually much slower than growth with thiosulfate, although the biomass yield on thiocyanate was higher. Of the four strains isolated, the three vibrio-shaped strains were genetically closely related to the previously described sulfur-oxidizing alkaliphiles belonging to the genus Thioalkalivibrio. The rod-shaped isolate differed from the other isolates by its ability to accumulate large amounts of elemental sulfur inside its cells and by its ability to oxidize carbon disulfide. Despite its low DNA homology with and substantial phenotypic differences from the vibrio-shaped strains, this isolate also belonged to the genus Thioalkalivibrio according to a phylogenetic analysis. The heterotrophic and autotrophic alkaliphiles that grew with thiocyanate as an N source possessed a relatively high level of cyanase activity which converted cyanate (CNO-) to ammonia and CO2. On the other hand, cyanase activity either was absent or was present at very low levels in the autotrophic strains grown on thiocyanate as the sole energy and N source. As a result, large amounts of cyanate were found to accumulate in the media during utilization of thiocyanate at pH 10 in batch and thiocyanate-limited continuous cultures. This is a first direct proof of a "cyanate pathway" in pure cultures of thiocyanate-degrading bacteria. Since it is relatively stable under alkaline conditions, cyanate is likely to play a role as an N buffer that keeps the alkaliphilic bacteria safe from inhibition by free ammonia, which otherwise would reach toxic levels during dissimilatory degradation of thiocyanate.  (+info)

Control of ubiquitination of proteins in rat tissues by ubiquitin conjugating enzymes and isopeptidases. (7/87)

The activity of the ubiquitin-dependent proteolytic system in differentiated tissues under basal conditions remains poorly explored. We measured rates of ubiquitination in rat tissue extracts. Accumulation of ubiquitinated proteins increased in the presence of ubiquitin aldehyde, indicating that deubiquitinating enzymes can regulate ubiquitination. Rates of ubiquitination varied fourfold, with the highest rate in the testis. We tested whether ubiquitin-activating enzyme (E1) or ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes (E2s) could be limiting for conjugation. Immunodepletion of the E2s UBC2 or UBC4 lowered rates of conjugation similarly. Supplementation of extracts with excess UBC2 or UBC4, but not E1, stimulated conjugation. However, UBC2-stimulated rates of ubiquitination still differed among tissues, indicating that tissue differences in E3s or substrate availability may also be rate controlling. UBC2 and UBC4 stimulated conjugation half-maximally at concentrations of 10-50 and 28-44 nM, respectively. Endogenous tissue levels of UBC2, but not UBC4, appeared saturating for conjugation, suggesting that in vivo modulation of UBC4 levels can likely control ubiquitin conjugation. Thus the pool of ubiquitin conjugates and therefore the rate of degradation of proteins by this system may be controlled by E2s, E3s, and isopeptidases. The regulation of the ubiquitin pathway appears complex, but precise.  (+info)

Muscle-specific RING finger-1 interacts with titin to regulate sarcomeric M-line and thick filament structure and may have nuclear functions via its interaction with glucocorticoid modulatory element binding protein-1. (8/87)

The COOH-terminal A168-170 region of the giant sarcomeric protein titin interacts with muscle-specific RING finger-1 (MURF-1). To investigate the functional significance of this interaction, we expressed green fluorescent protein fusion constructs encoding defined fragments of titin's M-line region and MURF-1 in cardiac myocytes. Upon expression of MURF-1 or its central region (containing its titin-binding site), the integrity of titin's M-line region was dramatically disrupted. Disruption of titin's M-line region also resulted in a perturbation of thick filament components, but, surprisingly, not of the NH2-terminal or I-band regions of titin, the Z-lines, or the thin filaments. This specific phenotype also was caused by the expression of titin A168-170. These data suggest that the interaction of titin with MURF-1 is important for the stability of the sarcomeric M-line region.MURF-1 also binds to ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme-9 and isopeptidase T-3, enzymes involved in small ubiquitin-related modifier-mediated nuclear import, and with glucocorticoid modulatory element binding protein-1 (GMEB-1), a transcriptional regulator. Consistent with our in vitro binding data implicating MURF-1 with nuclear functions, endogenous MURF-1 also was detected in the nuclei of some myocytes. The dual interactions of MURF-1 with titin and GMEB-1 may link myofibril signaling pathways (perhaps including titin's kinase domain) with muscle gene expression.  (+info)

Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Nick D Tsihlis, Muneera R Kapadia, Ashley K Vavra, Walker D Flannery, Christopher S Oustwani, Qun Jiang, Melina R Kibbe].
1DWK: Structure of Cyanase Reveals that a Novel Dimeric and Decameric Arrangement of Subunits is Required for Formation of the Enzyme Active Site.
Pioneer Herbal is manufacturer of Rauwolfia Serpentina (Sarpagandha) Herbs herbal remedies , natural herbs supplements,nature health products, rauwolfia
Small Ubiquitin-like Modifiers (SUMO) are 10 kDa proteins that are covalently attached to hundreds of intracellular proteins to regulate their function. In mammals, three members of the SUMO family are known to be conjugated (SUMO-1,-2,-3). Desumoylating enzymes (isopeptidases) play an essential role by ensuring reversibility of this posttranslational modification. At present, only a small number of these enzymes, members of the Ulp/SENP family, are known. They share a conserved catalytic cysteine protease domain, C48, wile remaining quite different in other regions. Mammals express only 6 distinct SENP proteases. This number appears extremely small, if one considers the plethora of SUMO targets that are individually regulated by reversible modification. For comparison, more than 80 different Ubiquitin proteases are currently known. This let us suspect that as yet undiscovered SUMO-specific isopeptidases exist. The goal of this work was to identify and perform initial characterization of a novel ...
6. Rauvolfia tiaolushanensis Tsiang, Sci. Rep. Kwantung Coll. Forest. 1: 10. 1962. 吊罗山萝芙木 diao luo shan luo fu mu Shrubs to 1 m tall. Stems dark brown. Leaves opposite or in whorls of 3 or 4; petiole ca. 8 mm; leaf blade elliptic to oblong, 8-17 X 1.6-4 cm, lateral veins inconspicuous. Cymes ca. 2 cm; peduncle ca. 6 mm. Calyx lobes ca. 2.5 mm. Corolla yellow, tube cylindric, ca. 8 2 mm, dilated at throat, pubescent inside; lobes oblong or ovate, ca. 3.5 X 2.5 mm. Stamens inserted at corolla throat; filaments short; anthers broadly ovate, base rounded, apex short acuminate; disc cup-shaped, shorter than ovary. Ovaries distinct. Style filiform; pistil head club-shaped to capitate, base with a ringlike membrane. Drupes distinct, ellipsoid, 1-1.7 cm X 5-8 mm. Fl. Mar, fr. May.. * Montane forests; 300-600 m. Hainan (Baoting, Waning).. ...
The hepatitis C virus (HCV) glycoprotein E2 may be the major target of neutralizing antibodies and is therefore highly relevant for vaccine design. conformation on its surface. Such conformational plasticity of the HCV E2 receptor binding site has important implications for immunogen design. (GNA)-captured full-length E1E2 (genotype 2a JFH1), expressed in HEK cells, was probed in an ELISA with DAO5 in the presence of peptides spanning its epitope. A peptide AEG 3482 corresponding towards the MAb AP33 epitope (aa 411 to 424) was included Rabbit Polyclonal to Tau (phospho-Thr534/217). as a poor control. Peptide sequences are proven, using the DAO5 epitope in boldface. (B) Reactivity of MAb DAO5 to E2 having an alanine substitution of conserved residues W529 and D535. Wild-type (WT) and mutant full-length E1E2 was portrayed in HEK cells and captured on GNA-coated microtiter plates. The reactivities of serial dilutions of DAO5 with E2wt (), E2W529A (), and E2D535A () had been examined alongside ...
Disclosed is the preparation of novel difunctional cyanate monomers with increased aromatic chain length between the cyanate groups and thermosetting re...
Hydrolyzed leather proteins have been used illegally by some dairy industries in dairy products to increase the protein content in the last few years. As a specific amino acid in collagen, the detection of l-hydroxyproline (l-Hyp) can be used to indicate whether the hydrolyzed leather proteins are added to dairy pr
Order Famous tranquilizer plant of India. Powerful hypnotic and sedative properties. Slow to germinate needs bottom heat 75 degree F. Rauwolfia, Rauwolfia serpentina, easily at Sand Mountain Herbs.com. Rauwolfia and every herb sold is useful medicinally or in some other practical application, and many have beautiful and unusual flowers too. So come buy and see our huge variety of herbal plant seeds today!
Linnaeus, C. 1758. Systema Naturae per regna tria naturæ, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis, Tomus I. Editio decima, reformata. Holmiæ: impensis direct. Laurentii Salvii. i-ii, 1-824 pp doi: 10.5962/bhl.title.542: page 199. ...
Hamerton, I, Herman, H, Mudhar, AK, Chaplin, A and Shaw, SJ (2002) Multivariate analysis of spectra of cyanate ester/bismaleimide blends and correlations with properties ...
Complete information for BABAM2 gene (Protein Coding), BRISC And BRCA1 A Complex Member 2, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
Trifan A, Stanciu C, Gheorghe L, Iacob S, Curescu M, Cijevschi Prelipcean C, Stefanescu G, Girleanu I, Chiriac S, Mihai C, Brisc C, Goldis A, Sporea I, Miftode E, Bataga S, Rogoveanu I, Preda C, Caruntu FA, Singeap AM ...
Abstract: Evaluation of Bioactive Plant Products for Ecofriendly and Effective Management of Cercospora Leaf Spot of Rauwolfia serpentina (L.) Benth Ex Kurz (Sarpagandha)
ten Hove, H. (2010). Serpula serpentina Requien, 1848. In: Read, G.; Fauchald, K. (Ed.) (2017). World Polychaeta database. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=449942 on 2017-12- ...
We have shown that in human cells, an antiserum generated against a recombinant UBPY fragment recognizes a protein doublet of Mr 130 000, in good agreement with the predicted UBPY mol. wt of 127 500 Da. The UBPY bands were enhanced upon transfection of a sense UBPY cDNA and, most importantly, were lowered in abundance upon transfection of an antisense cDNA construct. UBPY was able to remove ubiquitin from ubiquitin adducts. Its expression was undetectable upon serum starvation of normal human fibroblasts, and the protein reappeared upon re‐stimulation, in mid G1 coincident with the accumulation of cyclin D1. UBPY levels were reduced in non‐immortalized cells as they reached confluence and arrested in G0, while they remained high and even increased in transformed cells.. To date, no other studies have demonstrated the effects of down‐regulating a UBP in mammalian cells. We have been able to inhibit UBPY accumulation using an antisense cDNA vector and could demonstrate that G0‐arrested ...
Sumoylation, a protein posttranslation modification was discovered about two decades ago. This process is catalyzed by 3 enzymes: the activating enzyme E1 (SAE1/UBA2), the unique conjugating enzyme E2 (UBC9), and the ligating enzymes E3 (many types such as PIAS1 and RanBP2). The conjugated target proteins are deconjugated by the SUMO isopeptidase protease (SENPs). It is now approved to be a very important regulatory mechanism that controls many cellular processes including DNA replication and repair, chromatin structure and dynamics, gene expression and regulation, cell proliferation and differentiation, cell transformation and neural transmission, cell autophagy and senescence, apoptosis and necroptosis [1-16]. It is also implicated in various human diseases such as cardiovascular diseases, neural degeneration, and cancer development [1-16]. In the vision system, studies from several laboratories including ours reveal that sumoylation acts as a critical regulatory mechanism controlling eye ...
Sumoylation, a protein posttranslation modification was discovered about two decades ago. This process is catalyzed by 3 enzymes: the activating enzyme E1 (SAE1/UBA2), the unique conjugating enzyme E2 (UBC9), and the ligating enzymes E3 (many types such as PIAS1 and RanBP2). The conjugated target proteins are deconjugated by the SUMO isopeptidase protease (SENPs). It is now approved to be a very important regulatory mechanism that controls many cellular processes including DNA replication and repair, chromatin structure and dynamics, gene expression and regulation, cell proliferation and differentiation, cell transformation and neural transmission, cell autophagy and senescence, apoptosis and necroptosis [1-16]. It is also implicated in various human diseases such as cardiovascular diseases, neural degeneration, and cancer development [1-16]. In the vision system, studies from several laboratories including ours reveal that sumoylation acts as a critical regulatory mechanism controlling eye ...
Catharanthus roseus can be used to make medications for diabetes, Hodgkins lymphoma, and leukemia. Though studies are ongoing as...
सर्पगन्धा एपोसाइनेसी (Apocynaceae) कुटुम्बे योजिता अस्ति । अस्य सस्यशास्त्रीयं नाम रौवोल्पिया सर्पेण्टिना (Rauwolfia Serpentina) इति । आङ्ग्लभाषया snake root इति वदन्ति । बहुवर्षीयः गुल्मः सपुष्पकः महत्वपूर्णम् औषधीयं सस्यम् । अस्य प्रधानमूलं २०से.मी. पर्यन्तं लम्बं वर्धते । मूले विशाखाः न भवन्ति । सर्पगन्धायाः पत्राणि सरलानि लघूनि च भवन्ति ।. ...
Helps Improving Blood Circulation and Erectile Function The root has anaesthetic, nervine and sedative properties. It has been employed for centuries for the
We report 3D printing of a pure thermal cure cyanate ester for the fabrication of robust 3D printed structures through the formulation, tailoring and post processing of a custom ink for Direct Ink Writing. Printed structures exhibit impressive thermo-oxidative stability, mechanical response.
Ask your health care provider any questions you may have about how to use Serpina.. STORAGE. Store Serpina at 77 degrees F (25 degrees C). Store away from heat, moisture, and light. Do not store in the bathroom. Keep Serpina out of the reach of children and away from pets.. MORE INFO:. Ingredients: Sarpagandha (Rauwolfia serpentina).. SAFETY INFORMATION. Do NOT use Serpina if:. ...
お薦めの保存温度 : -20℃以下. Products are for research use only. Not for human use. We do not sell to patients.. ...
Dubai Sodium Cyanate, Buy High Quality Sodium Cyanate Products from Dubai Sodium Cyanate Suppliers and Manufacturers at Dubai Yellow Pages Online
Scholarship. Gentili P.L., Gotoda H., Dolnik M., Epstein I.R.. "Analysis and prediction of aperiodic hydrodynamic oscillatory time series by feed-forward neural networks, fuzzy logic, and a local nonlinear predictor." Chaos 25. (2015): 013104.. Gentili P.L., Dolnik M., Epstein I.R.. ""Photochemical Oscillator": Colored Hydrodynamic Oscillations and Waves in a Photochromic System." J. Phys.Chem. C 118. (2014): 598-608.. Haim L., Hadberg A., Raphael Nagao, Steinberg A.P., Dolnik M., Epstein I.R., Meron E. "Fronts and patterns in a spatially forced CDIMA reaction." Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys 16. (2014): 26137-26143.. Sajevicz M., Dolnik M., Kowalska T., Epstein I.R.. "Condensation dynamics of L-proline and L-hydroxyproline in solutions." RSC Advances 4. (2014): 7330-7339.. Steinberg A.P., Epstein I.R., Dolnik M.. "Target Turing Patterns and Growth Dynamics in the Chlorine Dioxide-Iodine-Malonic Acid Reaction." J. Phys. Chem. A 118. (2014): 2393-2400.. Nagao R., Epstein I.R., Dolnik M. "Forcing of ...
This is the place to chat. Use initials for your comments/questions. Inactive chats/resolved things can be cut from here and pasted at the bottom of the page. AEW- Feb 06 2013 - rather than having a separate mechanistic section can we include this in the relevant sections, saves repetition and might be clearer for readers. e.g. if you want to know about BA catalysed P-S reaction, its all in one place. AEW- Feb 06 2013 - in a similar point, should there be a separate Natural products chapter? AEW - Feb 03 2013 - In all cases, a single yield and ee are shown for a representative substrate from a paper. Is it not more useful to present a range of results to give a more accurate flavour of the paper being reviewed? AEW - Feb 03 2013 - for Jacobsen paper, org. lett. 2008, vol 10, no. 8, 1577-1580 - A great paper, but the change in catalyst loading (10 to 20mol%) and conditions in the jump from initial hit to optimised result make general comparison in the paper unsuitable for inclusion in the review. ...
Accepted name: raucaffricine β-glucosidase. Reaction: raucaffricine + H2O = D-glucose + vomilenine. For diagram click here.. Other name(s): raucaffricine β-D-glucosidase; raucaffricine glucosidase. Systematic name: raucaffricine β-D-glucohydrolase. Comments: Highly specific; some other ajmalan glucoside alkaloids are hydrolysed, but more slowly.. Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, Metacyc, PDB, CAS registry number: 102925-37-1. References:. 1. Schübel, H., Stöckigt, J., Feicht, R. and Simon, H. Partial-purification and characterization of raucaffricine β-D-glucosidase from plant cell-suspension cultures of Rauwolfia serpentina benth. Helv. Chim. Acta 69 (1986) 538-547.. ...
Mga bawal sa fatty liver - SERPENTINA: The Herb For Diabetes, Liver, Heart Disease .... Reloramax is an 100% all natural product that effectively addresses the diverse and debilitating symptoms of stress, anxiety, and depression.
Covalent attachment of the C-terminus of ubiquitin to cellular proteins plays a role in a variety of cellular processes. Ubiquitin C-terminal…
Ulp1 antibody (SUMO protease ULP1) for ELISA, ICC/IF, WB. Anti-Ulp1 pAb (GTX48820) is tested in Yeast samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
Likewise, clinical stage, histological grade, ploidy and cellular S-phase fraction were also considered as variables of the study. 8-Anilino naphthalene sulfonate sildenafil generico prezzo in farmacia binding as a probe for conformational changes induced in glutamate dehydrogenase by regulatory reagents. The stimulating effect of destabilase, a component of Hirudo medicinalis salivary gland secretion, on sensory neuron neurite growth in organotypic culture Several options for weight loss are available, yet viagra 100mg lifestyle modification is essential in managing postmenopausal obesity and overweight. Furthermore, the BD group displayed greater cardiac vagal tone - a putative marker of positive emotion - across both the film and memory. Performance comparison of digital microRNA sildenafil generic profiling technologies applied on human breast cancer cell lines. We encountered a rare case of pulmonary granulomatous lesion accompanied with severe chest pain and hemoptysis. violacea is perhaps ...
Study of the involvement of osmotic adjustment and H+-ATPase activity in the resistance of Catharanthus roseus suspension cells to salt stress ...
A novel hydroxylase from Catharanthus roseus participating in the hydroxylation of 2-hydroxybenzoic acid.: A novel 55-kDa hydroxylase was isolated from cultured
In 1931, Gananath Sen and Kartick Chandra Bose reported on the use of an alkaloid extract from the Rauwolfia serpentina plant in the treatment of hypertension and insanity with violent maniacal symptoms. They noted that dosages of 20 to 30 grains of the powder twice daily produce not only a hypnotic effect but also a reduction of blood pressure and violent symptoms
... -An alkaloid found in the roots of Rauwolfia serpentina and R. vomitoria. Reserpine inhibits the uptake of norepinephrine into storage vesicles resulting in depletion of catecholamines and serotonin from central and peripheral axon terminals.
Ask your health care provider any questions you may have about how to use Serpina.. STORAGE. Store Serpina at 77 degrees F (25 degrees C). Store away from heat, moisture, and light. Do not store in the bathroom. Keep Serpina out of the reach of children and away from pets.. MORE INFO:. Ingredients: Sarpagandha (Rauwolfia serpentina).. SAFETY INFORMATION. Do NOT use Serpina if:. ...
The Golm Metabolome Database (GMD) facilitates the search for and dissemination of mass spectra from biologically active metabolites quantified using GC-MS.
PGP9.5 antibody [10A1] (ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolase L1) for IHC-Fr, IHC-P, WB. Anti-PGP9.5 mAb (GTX75786) is tested in Human samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
UBPY/USP8兔多克隆抗体(ab38865)可与人样本反应并经WB, ELISA, IHC实验严格验证。中国75%以上现货,所有产品均提供质保服务,可通过电话、电邮或微信获得本地专属技术支持。
TY - JOUR. T1 - Differential expression of SUMO-specific protease 7 variants regulates epithelial-mesenchymal transition. AU - Bawa-Khalfe, Tasneem. AU - Lu, Long-Sheng. AU - Zuo, Yong. AU - Huang, Chao. AU - Dere, Ruhee. AU - Lin, Feng Ming. AU - Yeh, Edward. PY - 2012/10/23. Y1 - 2012/10/23. N2 - Two Sentrin/small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO)-specific protease 7 (SENP7) variants are naturally expressed in breast epithelia. Breast cancer (BCa) onset down-regulates the short SENP7 splice variant (SENP7S) and enhances the long transcript (SENP7L). Here, we show that SENP7L induction promotes gene expression profiles that favor aberrant proliferation and initiate epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). SENP7L exhibits an interaction domain for the epigenetic remodeler heterochromatin protein 1 α (HP1α) and isopeptidase activity against SUMO-modified HP1α. Loss of this interaction domain, as observed with SENP7S, favors HP1α SUMOylation. SUMOylated HP1α is enriched at E2F-responsive and ...
An endosome-associated DUB may be expected to influence trafficking of ubiquitinated receptors. We used siRNA to specifically knockdown AMSH in HeLa cells (Fig. 4, a-c). If AMSH influences the dynamics of EGFR trafficking through deubiquitination, then it should alter the rate of receptor degradation following acute stimulation with EGF. We consistently observed an increased rate of receptor degradation in AMSH knockdown cells. The relative amount of receptor remaining after 30 min of stimulation compared with control cells is 0.51 (± 0.04, n = 4). A second siRNA duplex designed to knockdown AMSH likewise enhanced the rate of EGFR degradation (unpublished data). The E3-ligase Cbl has been shown to promote EGFR degradation through ubiquitination of the receptor, which promotes lysosomal sorting at the expense of recycling (Levkowitz et al., 1998; Thien and Langdon, 2001). Endosomal DUBs, such as AMSH, could be expected to reverse this modification and hence oppose lysosomal sorting. In support ...
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This project is supported by the Canadian Institutes of Health Research (award #111062), Alberta Innovates - Health Solutions, and by The Metabolomics Innovation Centre (TMIC), a nationally-funded research and core facility that supports a wide range of cutting-edge metabolomic studies. TMIC is funded by Genome Alberta, Genome British Columbia, and Genome Canada, a not-for-profit organization that is leading Canadas national genomics strategy with funding from the federal government. Maintenance, support, and commercial licensing is provided by OMx Personal Health Analytics, Inc. Designed by Educe Design & Innovation Inc. ...
Right - youre making S/M and are going to develop a good protocol for screening this reaction, i.e. work through any handling issues of S/M and products, get a good TLC system in place, work out the HPLC conditions for examining the product. Youre then going to use some BOX ligands for this reaction. But clearly it would be more efficient if you could hook up with others interested in doing this reaction, who might have ligands for Lewis acid-catalyzed reactions of this type. Kat, try to think of groups we could ask to join the campaign. If youre reading this and have BOX, or equivalent, ligands in the fridge youre interested in screening, let us know and we can work on the problem together. There are a lot of ligands in the world, and we dont want to have to make them all.... ...
Catharanthus, Catharanthus Roseus, Cultures, Genes, Production, Alkaloids, Enzymes, Methionine, Plant, Transcription Factors, Cells, Complement, Gene, Gene Expression, Gene Expression Profiling, Hplc, Indole Alkaloids, PCR, Regulation, Regulation Of Gene Expression
Ready-to-use arrayed siRNA library in single-use plate sets Just rehydrate, and add cells for RNAi screening of human deubiquitinating enzymes Optimization plates available
today i slept most of the day away..then at nite steph asks me to go out AGAIN..... so i sms rick cyn n manda...it was 10pm areadi. waitin for their reply... cyn calls to tell me she is goin out wit manda n her sis,her cuzns n her own bro. so i tot id rather go wit cyn they all, than jus me n steph.then i waited for ricks reply but received mandas... she was like (not today la,mebe another day..u enjoy urself la.) my blood boiled afta seeing tat.i felt like soo betrayed cuz i areadi knew she was goin out wit cyn n her family but she acts like shes bz with sumtin n tryin to hide tat she goin out wit them. its not as if im not close to them..im areadi frens wit all of them except for cyns bro .so i wanted a hailstorm to fall on manda rite then.then i called cyn to say im goin wit her afta tokin myself out of stephs outing cuz two ppl is jus too little.she said she was areadi eating wit them,then she say (shall i ask if u can come) but i was like.y cant i come?its like automatic la.rachel then ...
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Looking for online definition of 41-kDa ubiquitin-specific protease in the Medical Dictionary? 41-kDa ubiquitin-specific protease explanation free. What is 41-kDa ubiquitin-specific protease? Meaning of 41-kDa ubiquitin-specific protease medical term. What does 41-kDa ubiquitin-specific protease mean?
Silver cyanate is a chemical compound; it is the cyanate salt of silver. It can be prepared by the reaction of potassium cyanate or urea with silver nitrate. A g N O 3 + K O C N ⟶ A g O C N ↓ + K N O 3 {\displaystyle \mathrm {AgNO_{3}+KOCN\longrightarrow AgOCN\downarrow +\ KNO_{3}} } A g N O 3 + H 2 N - C ( O ) - N H 2 ⟶ {\displaystyle \mathrm {AgNO_{3}+H_{2}N{\text{-}}C(O){\text{-}}NH_{2}\longrightarrow } } A g O C N ↓ + N H 4 N O 3 {\displaystyle \mathrm {AgOCN\downarrow +\ NH_{4}NO_{3}} } Silver cyanate is a beige to gray powder. It crystallises in the monoclinic crystal system in space group P21/m with parameters a = 547.3 pm, b = 637.2 pm, c = 341.6 pm, and β = 91°. With nitric acid, silver cyanate reacts to form carbon dioxide and ammonium nitrate. A g O C N + 2 H N O 3 + H 2 O ⟶ {\displaystyle \mathrm {AgOCN+2HNO_{3}+H_{2}O\longrightarrow } } A g N O 3 + C O 2 ↑ + N H 4 N O 3 {\displaystyle \mathrm {AgNO_{3}+CO_{2}\uparrow +\ NH_{4}NO_{3}} } Justus Von Liebig Friedrich ...
Looking for online definition of Deubiquitinating enzyme 46 in the Medical Dictionary? Deubiquitinating enzyme 46 explanation free. What is Deubiquitinating enzyme 46? Meaning of Deubiquitinating enzyme 46 medical term. What does Deubiquitinating enzyme 46 mean?
Changes in cytoplasmic pH of suspension-cultured cells of Catharanthus roseus under extreme acid conditions were measured with the pH-dependent fluorescence dye; 2′,7′-bis-(2-carboxyethyl)-5 (and-6) carboxyfluorescein (-acetoxymethylester) (BCECF). When cells were treated with 1 mM HC1 (pH 3 solution), the cytoplasmic pH first decreased then returned to the original level. Treatment with 10 mM HC1 (pH 2 solution) acidified the cytoplasm to a greater extent, and the acidification continued at a constant level throughout the measurement. Treatment with a pH 2 solution resulted in a gradual decrease of the malate content, indicating the operation of biochemical pH regulation mechanism. The pH 2 treatment also caused a sudden decrease of the intracellular level of Pi. The cellular content of total phosphorus did not change during the acidification. The Pi was converted to the organic phosphate form. The ATP level was not increased by the pH 2 treatment, but slightly decreased. The role of Pi, ...
This is the place to chat. Use initials for your comments/questions. Inactive chats/resolved things can be cut from here and pasted at the bottom of the page. KAB - Jan22 - Added two .cdx files to DropBox under "All BINAP-derived" and "All Organocatalysts", with all the summarised papers catalysts. MHT - good idea. KAB - Jan22 - (not sure of relevancy) Found "Stereoselectivity of Superacid-Catalyzed Pictet−Spengler Cyclization Reactions." 2003 Ohwada OrgLett (added to DropBox). Proposes dicationic intermediate/transition state(?) mechanism for PS reaction of non-activated aromatics in the presence of catalytic (achiral) acid. MHT - sounds interesting, will check it out. KAB - Feb11 - Significant discussion of PS mechanism and acid-base effects on non-enzymatic aq solution PS reactions with enzyme cat. reactions, using kinetic isotope effects. RDS appears to be the same for both systems. Discusses pH dependence of enzyme for catalysis but not binding of substrate. Also, proposal of enzyme ...
Hi Kathy, merocyanine is a fluorescent lipophilic probe which binds to the plasma membrane depending on the degree of the lipid architecture disorder. Changes in merocyanine binding (i.e. evolving subpopulations with increased intensity) indicates a changes in the assymetry of the membrane phospholipid distribution. In sperm it is thought to be a sign of the physiologically induced destabilization, which in vitro will be induced by the bicarbonate/CO2. Also, it will be most important to gas your samples with CO2 and have adequate controls. There has been a lot of research done re mero binding in mammallian sperm (have not heard much about avian sperm, though). Here are some references which describe protocols and ideas quite nicely: Mol Reprod Dev. 1996 Nov;45(3):378-91.; Mol Reprod Dev. 2000 Feb;55(2):220-8.; Development. 2000 Jun;127(11):2407-20; Biol Reprod. 2002 Jul;67(1):340-50. When using cryopreservation, there may be some severe problems if cryodiluent contains egg yolk (as it will ...
Complete information for UCHL3 gene (Protein Coding), Ubiquitin C-Terminal Hydrolase L3, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
A depilatory composition comprising a source of cyanate ion, an organic acid or a salt thereof and a peroxide compound; and methods of removing hair from the skin using such compositions.
The natural diversity of plant metabolism has long been a source for human medicines. One group of plant-derived compounds, the monoterpene indole alkaloids (MIAs), includes well-documented therapeutic agents used in the treatment of cancer (vinblastine, vincristine, camptothecin), hypertension (reserpine, ajmalicine), malaria (quinine), and as analgesics (7-hydroxymitragynine). Our understanding of the biochemical pathways that synthesize these commercially relevant compounds is incomplete due in part to a lack of molecular, genetic, and genomic resources for the identification of the genes involved in these specialized metabolic pathways. To address these limitations, we generated large-scale transcriptome sequence and expression profiles for three species of Asterids that produce medicinally important MIAs: Camptotheca acuminata, Catharanthus roseus, and Rauvolfia serpentina. Using next generation sequencing technology, we sampled the transcriptomes of these species across a diverse set of
With Berberine, Banaba (Corosolic Acid), Rauwolfia Serpentina, (Apple Cider) Vinegar and Chromium the 2nd serving of the "Supplements to Improve & Restore Insulin Sensitivity Series" does not have a "must have", but both promising and disappointing supps ... and - at least for some of you - maybe one or another surprise.
Just a nice idea to generate polycyclic frameworks. The added chiral phosphoric acid (substoichiometric) induces the requisite post-metathesis isomerization and allows the final Pictet-Spengler step to proceed in a highly stereoselective way ...
Plants of the Apocynaceae family have been traditionally used in the treatment of age-related brain disorders. Rauvolfia reflexa, a member of the family, has been used as an antidote for poisons and to treat malaria. The dichloromethane, ethanol and methanol extracts from the leaves of Rauvolfia reflexa showed potential acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) inhibitory activities, with IC50 values in the 8.49 to 52.23 g/mL range. Further cholinesterase inhibitory-guided isolation of these extracts afforded four bioactive compounds, namely: (E)-3-(3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl)acrylic acid (1), (E)-methyl 3-(4-hydroxy-3,5-dimethoxyphenyl) acrylate (2), 17-methoxycarbonyl-14-heptadecaenyl-4-hydroxy-3-methoxycinnamate (3) and 1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-1-oxo-β-carboline (4 ...
19(S),20(R)-dihydroperaksine-17-al: monoterpenoid indole alkaloid from RAUWOLFIA serpentina hairy root culture; structure in first source
Rosinidin is an O-methylated anthocyanidin derived from Cyanidin. It is a pigment found in the flowers of Catharanthus roseus and, in lower concentration, in Primula rosea. Toki K, Saito N, Irie Y, Tatsuzawa F, Shigihara A, Honda T (March 2008). "7-O-Methylated anthocyanidin glycosides from Catharanthus roseus". Phytochemistry. 69 (5): 1215-9. doi:10.1016/j.phytochem.2007.11.005. PMID 18164044. The Structure and Distribution of the Flavonoids in Plants. Tsukasa Iwashina, Journal of Plant Research, 2000, Volume 113, Number 3, pages 287-299, doi:10.1007/PL00013940 Rosinidin at sci-toys. ...
Alkaloids, Catharanthus, Catharanthus Roseus, Plants, Secretion, Metabolism, Ajmaline, Concentrations, Tissues, Abc Transporters, Arabidopsis, Coa, Diurnal Rhythm, Diurnal Rhythms, Exudates, Flavonoids, Gene, Gene Expression, Genes, Ligases
The total 80% EtOH extract of stem bark of Nauclea pobeguinii (Rubiaceae), which is active against uncomplicated falciparum malaria as shown in previous clinical studies, was analysed by means of UPLC-MS and HPLC-SPE-NMR. Apart from the main constituent, strictosamide, a series of minor constituents was identified, including two new iridoid-indole alkaloids, i.e. naucleidinic acid and 19-O-methyl-3,14-dihydroangustoline, together with 8 known iridoid-indole alkaloids, i.e. naucleidinal, magniflorine, naucleofficine D, two diastereoisomers of 3,14-dihydroangustoline, strictosidine, desoxycordifoline, 3 alpha,5 alpha-tetrahydrodeoxycordifoline lactam, and a phenol glycoside 3,4,5-trimethoxyphenol beta-D-apiofuranosyl-(1-6)-beta-D-glucopyranoside (kelampayoside A). (C) 2012 Phytochemical Society of Europe. Published by Elsevier B. V. All rights reserved. ...
The IFN immune system comprises type I, II, and III IFNs, signals through the JAK-STAT pathway, and plays central roles in host defense against viral infection. Posttranslational modifications such as ubiquitination regulate diverse molecules in the IFN pathway. To search for the deubiquitinating enzymes (DUBs) involved in the antiviral activity of IFN, we used RNA interference screening to identify a human DUB, ubiquitin-specific protease (USP) 13, whose expression modulates the antiviral activity of IFN-α against dengue virus serotype 2 (DEN-2). The signaling events and anti-DEN-2 activities of IFN-α and IFN-γ were reduced in cells with USP13 knockdown but enhanced with USP13 overexpression. USP13 may regulate STAT1 protein because the protein level and stability of STAT1 were increased with USP13 overexpression. Furthermore, STAT1 ubiquitination was reduced in cells with USP13 overexpression and increased with USP13 knockdown regardless of with or without IFN-α treatment. Thus, USP13 ...
We acknowledge Australian Aboriginal People and Torres Strait Islander People as the first inhabitants of the nation, and acknowledge Traditional Owners of the lands where our staff and students live, learn and work. ...
Pixars new Coco, coming out on Wednesday, features some behind-the-scenes work by an Anderson native who has always dreamed of working there
EC 6.2 includes ligases used to form carbon-sulfur bonds. *EC 6.3 includes ligases used to form carbon-nitrogen bonds ( ... It is also said that a synthase is a lyase (a lyase is an enzyme that catalyzes the breaking of various chemical bonds by means ... EC 6.6 includes ligases used to form nitrogen-metal bonds, as in the chelatases ... EC 6.1 includes ligases used to form carbon-oxygen bonds. * ... EC 6.4 includes ligases used to form carbon-carbon bonds. *EC ...
6.3: Carbon-Nitrogen. *Glutamine synthetase. *Ubiquitin ligase *Cullin. *Von Hippel-Lindau tumor suppressor ... EC4 Lyases (list). *EC5 Isomerases (list). *EC6 Ligases (list). *EC7 Translocases (list) ... Boehlein SK, Richards NG, Schuster SM (March 1994). "Glutamine-dependent nitrogen transfer in Escherichia coli asparagine ...
The conversion of glutamate to glutamine is regulated by glutamine synthetase (GS) and is a key step in nitrogen metabolism.[5] ... Aspartic acid is produced by the addition of ammonia to fumarate using a lyase.[22] ... Bridgers WF (1970). "The relationship of the metabolic regulation of serine to phospholipids and one-carbon metabolism". ... Cystathionine-β-lyase (in mammals, this step is performed by homocysteine methyltransferase or betaine-homocysteine S- ...
This enzyme belongs to the family of hydrolases, those acting on carbon-nitrogen bonds other than peptide bonds, specifically ... EC4 Lyases (list). *EC5 Isomerases (list). *EC6 Ligases (list). *EC7 Translocases (list) ...
Hydrolases: carbon-nitrogen non-peptide (EC 3.5). 3.5.1: Linear amides /. Amidohydrolases. *Asparaginase ... EC4 Lyases (list). *EC5 Isomerases (list). *EC6 Ligases (list). *EC7 Translocases (list) ...
Category:EC 4.3 (carbon-nitrogen lyases)Edit. *Category:EC 4.3.1 *Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (EC 4.3.1.24) ... Category:Lyases (EC 4) (Lyase)Edit. Category:EC 4.1 (carbon-carbon lyases)Edit. *Category:EC 4.1.1 *Ornithine decarboxylase (EC ... 4 Category:Lyases (EC 4) (Lyase) *4.1 Category:EC 4.1 (carbon-carbon lyases) ... Category:EC 4.4 (carbon-sulfur lyases)Edit. *Category:EC 4.4.1 *Cystathionine gamma-lyase ...
... , though, binds better than N-methylephedrine, which has an additional methyl group at the nitrogen atom. Also the ... Benzaldehyde reacts with pyruvic acid to attach a 2 carbon unit. This product then undergoes transamination and methylation to ... A new pathway proposed suggests that phenylalanine first forms cinnamoyl-CoA via the enzymes phenylalanine ammonia-lyase and ...
... carbon = white, oxygen = red, nitrogen = blue) based on the PDB: 1HS6​ structure. ... EC4 Lyases (list). *EC5 Isomerases (list). *EC6 Ligases (list). *EC7 Translocases (list) ...
... ammonia lyase (TAL) is an enzyme in the natural phenols biosynthesis pathway. It transforms L-tyrosine into p-coumaric ... This enzyme catalyzes the reaction causing the addition of a hydroxyl group to the end of the 6-carbon aromatic ring of ... which is transaminated using glutamate as the nitrogen source to give tyrosine and α-ketoglutarate. ... The second utilizes enzymatic synthesis from phenolics, pyruvate, and ammonia through the use of tyrosine phenol-lyase.[29] ...
The remaining proton of the now-neutral imidazole ring can reside on either nitrogen, giving rise to what are known as the N1-H ... The enzyme histidine ammonia-lyase converts histidine into ammonia and urocanic acid. A deficiency in this enzyme is present in ... As a result, carbon monoxide binding is only 200 times stronger in haemoglobin, compared to 20,000 times stronger in free haem ... It can do this by abstracting a proton with its basic nitrogen to make a positively charged intermediate and then use another ...
one-carbon metabolic process. • axon regeneration. • regulation of transcription involved in G1/S transition of mitotic cell ... The acidity of the targeted nitrogen on the substrate is important in the binding of the substrate to the enzyme's binding site ... which can be converted to the kinds of tetrahydrofolate cofactors used in 1-carbon transfer chemistry. In humans, the DHFR ...
Carbon fixation and G3P synthesis. The Calvin cycle starts by using the enzyme RuBisCO to fix CO2 into five-carbon Ribulose ... Other nitrogen compounds. Chloroplasts make all of a cell's purines and pyrimidines-the nitrogenous bases found in DNA and RNA. ... "Subcellular Distribution of O-Acetylserine(thiol)lyase in Cauliflower (Brassica oleracea L.) Inflorescence". Plant Physiology ... They store CO2 in a four-carbon compound, which is why the process is called C4 photosynthesis. The four-carbon compound is ...
In the next step, two additional carbon atoms are removed by the CYP17A1 (17α-hydroxylase/17,20-lyase) enzyme in the ... were able to show that testosterone raised nitrogen retention (a mechanism central to anabolism) in the dog, after which Allan ... a solid polycyclic alcohol with a hydroxyl group at the 17th carbon atom. This also made it obvious that additional ... a mitochondrial cytochrome P450 oxidase with the loss of six carbon atoms to give pregnenolone. ...
6.3: Carbon-Nitrogen. *Glutamine synthetase. *Ubiquitin ligase *Cullin. *Von Hippel-Lindau tumor suppressor ...
N-Acetyl-L-cysteine is a derivative of cysteine wherein an acetyl group is attached to the nitrogen atom. This compound is sold ... In the newer R/S system of designating chirality, based on the atomic numbers of atoms near the asymmetric carbon, cysteine ( ... The enzyme cystathionine gamma-lyase converts the cystathionine into cysteine and alpha-ketobutyrate. In plants and bacteria, ... The enzyme O-acetylserine (thiol)-lyase, using sulfide sources, converts this ester into cysteine, releasing acetate.[12] ...
Bacterial and fungal proteases are particularly important to the global carbon and nitrogen cycles in the recycling of proteins ... Peptide lyases[edit]. A seventh catalytic type of proteolytic enzymes, asparagine peptide lyase, was described in 2011. Its ... Sims GK, Wander MM (2002). "Proteolytic activity under nitrogen or sulfur limitation". Appl. Soil Ecol. 568: 1-5.. ... Asparagine peptide lyases - using an asparagine to perform an elimination reaction (not requiring water) ...
Of these amino acids, aspartate and glutamine are used, together with carbon and nitrogen atoms from other sources, to form the ... There it is cleaved by ATP citrate lyase into acetyl-CoA and oxaloacetate. The oxaloacetate is returned to mitochondrion as ... The citric acid cycle begins with the transfer of a two-carbon acetyl group from acetyl-CoA to the four-carbon acceptor ... into two molecules each of carbon dioxide and water. Through catabolism of sugars, fats, and proteins, the two-carbon organic ...
Righthanded β-helices, typified by the pectate lyase enzyme shown at left or P22 phage tailspike protein, have a less regular ... Oxygen atoms are red balls, nitrogen atoms are blue, and hydrogen atoms are omitted for simplicity; sidechains are shown only ... out to the first sidechain carbon atom (green). b) Edge-on view of the central two β-strands in a, showing the righthanded ... Cartoon above, atoms below with nitrogen in blue, oxygen in red (PDB: 1AXC​​) ...
2-carbon groups, α cleavage. Bacteria, archaea and eukaryotes NAD+ and NADP+ [31]. Niacin (B3). ADP. Electrons. Bacteria, ... Other organisms require additional metals as enzyme cofactors, such as vanadium in the nitrogenase of the nitrogen-fixing ...
6.3: Carbon-Nitrogen. *Glutamine synthetase. *Ubiquitin ligase *Cullin. *Von Hippel-Lindau tumor suppressor ...
This enzyme belongs to the family of ligases, specifically those forming carbon-nitrogen bonds carbon-nitrogen ligases with ...
The first enzyme involved is phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) that converts L-phenylalanine to trans-cinnamic acid and ammonia ... under phosphate-limited and carbon-limited conditions". Biotechnology and Bioengineering. 92 (5): 541-552. doi:10.1002/bit. ... which is transaminated using glutamate as the nitrogen source to give tyrosine and α-ketoglutarate. ...
... of the two-carbon acetate residue from acetyl coenzyme A and a molecule of four-carbon oxaloacetate to form the six-carbon ... the epsilon nitrogen lone pair of electrons on His-274 formed in the last step abstracts the hydroxyl enol proton to reform an ... One of the oxygen's lone pairs nucleophilically attacks the carbonyl carbon of citroyl−CoA. This forms a tetrahedral ... which in turn deprotonate the epsilon nitrogen atom of His-320. This nucleophilic addition results in the formation of citroyl− ...
... (also known as para-aminobenzoic acid or PABA because the number 4 carbon in the benzene ring is also known ... or nitrogen levels. Despite the lack of any recognized syndromes of PABA deficiency in humans, except for a few people who lack ... from chorismate by the combined action of the enzymes 4-amino-4-deoxychorismate synthase and 4-amino-4-deoxychorismate lyase. ...
... whereas the N1-H tautomer is protonated on the nitrogen nearer the backbone. When both imidazole ring nitrogens are protonated ... As a result, carbon monoxide binding is only 200 times stronger in haemoglobin, compared to 20,000 times stronger in free haem ... The enzyme histidine ammonia-lyase converts histidine into ammonia and urocanic acid. A deficiency in this enzyme is present in ... The remaining proton of the now-neutral imidazole ring can reside on either nitrogen, giving rise to what are known as the N1-H ...
CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link) Negi VS, Bingham J-P, Li QX, Borthakur D. (2014). "A Carbon-Nitrogen Lyase from ... strain TAL1145 is a C-N lyase that catabolizes L-mimosine into 3-hydroxy-4-pyridone, pyruvate and ammonia". Amino Acids. 44 (6 ...
This enzyme belongs to the family of lyases, specifically the amine-lyases, which cleave carbon-nitrogen bonds. 4-hydroxy- ... The fold resembles that of N-acetylneuraminate lyase. The active site lysine is located in the barrel domain, and has access ... These are Escherichia coli N-acetylneuraminate lyase (EC 4.1.3.3) (protein NanA), which catalyses the condensation of N-acetyl- ... L-aspartate-4-semialdehyde hydro-lyase (adding pyruvate and cyclizing), dapA (gene)) is an enzyme with the systematic name L- ...
MYSM1 Scalable spray deposition process for high-performance carbon nanotube gas sensors Flexible carbon nanotube based gas ... inhibits turnover and reduces fibrosis in dystrophic muscle Higher blood urea nitrogen is associated with increased risk of ... sphingosine phosphate lyase 1) modulates neuronal autophagy via phosphatidylethanolamine production Dynamically and ... single walled carbon nanotubes with endoscopic ultrasound Preparation and evaluation of polyethyleneimine-single walled carbon ...
GilM.I.HolcroftD.M.KaderA.A.1997Changes in strawberry anthocyanins and other polyphenols in response to carbon dioxide ... Beaudoin-EaganL.D.ThorpeT.A.1985Tyrosine and phenylalanine ammonia lyase activities during shoot initiation in tobacco callus ... Fresh-cut apple samples were ground to powder in liquid nitrogen, and RNA was extracted by the RNAiso for Polysaccharide-rich ... GilM.I.HolcroftD.M.KaderA.A.1997Changes in strawberry anthocyanins and other polyphenols in response to carbon dioxide ...
González A, Castro J, Vera J, Moenne A. Seaweed oligosaccharides stimulate plant growth by enhancing carbon and nitrogen ... Relative level of transcripts encoding phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (pal1, a) and terpene synthase (ts1, b), in control and in E ... Quantification of chlorophylls a and b was performed as described in [54]. Fresh leaves (0.1 g) were frozen in liquid nitrogen ... Total RNA was extracted from Eucalyptus leaves as described in [58]. Fresh leaves (1 g) were frozen in liquid nitrogen and ...
Carbon-nitrogen lyases (EC 4.3). 4.3.1: ammonia-lyases. *Histidine ammonia-lyase ... Serine dehydratase or L-serine ammonia lyase (SDH) is in the β-family of pyridoxal phosphate-dependent (PLP) enzymes. SDH is ... L-serine hydro-lyase. Enzyme structure. HoloEnzyme: The holoenzyme SDH contains 319 residues, 1 PLP cofactor molecule, and 131 ... The deprotonated amino group of Serine is now a good nucleophile that attacks the Lys-PLP Schiff base at the C4 carbon (shown ...
Tags: Nitrogen catabolism anabolic pathway catabolic pathway nuclear division meiosis mitosis nitrogen cycle TCA Cycle ... Tags: Carbon-oxygen cycle photosynthesis chloroplast chlorophyll respiration catabolism Electron transport chain combustion ... Tags: Enzymes CLASSIFICATION OF ENZYMES Oxidoreductases Transferases Hydrolases Lyases Isomerases Ligases See more ... NITROGEN BALANCE AND UREA CYCLE. NITROGEN BALANCE AND UREA CYCLE. Department: Biochemistry ...
... oneidensis and other Alteromondales in a capacity to utilize environmental amino acids as carbon (and nitrogen) sources, ... The amino group can be removed with dehydratases or lyases.. Fatty acids, breakdown. The four major enzymes of degradation of ... each cycle adding 2-carbon moieties. At the 10-carbon level, the pathway of unsaturated fatty acids commences. Orthologs for ... These carbon sources have not yet been tested in culture. This picture is similar to the one found in S. oneidensis, a ...
... isocitrate lyase (Icl1) is also subject to catabolite inactivation in S. cerevisiae (24). This tight control of central carbon ... yeast nitrogen base) containing glucose (2%) (SD), lactic acid (2%), oleic acid (0.2%), or mixed amino acids (2%) as the sole ... Impact of carbon sources on central carbon metabolism in C. albicans. (A) Glucose; (B) lactate; (C) amino acids. Download ... Effect of carbon source on central carbon metabolic enzymes in C. albicans. (A) Western blots demonstrating the effects of ...
At each time point, all seedlings were immediately frozen by liquid nitrogen and then stored at -80°C for RNA preparation. To ... carbon partitioning, lipid metabolism, and osmotic homeostasis (Hua et al., 2012; Jarzyniak and Jasiński, 2014; Fleta-Soriano ... Salicylic acid activates phenylalanine ammonia-lyase in grape berry in response to high temperature stress. Plant Growth Regul. ...
Kato, S., Inagaki, K., & Oikawa, T. (2019). Application of lL-methionine-lyase in chiral amino acid analysis. Analytical ... study of saxitoxin analogues and biosynthetic intermediates in dinoflagellates using 15 N-labelled sodium nitrate as a nitrogen ... of bioactive compounds in red palm oil microcapsules produced with solution-enhanced dispersion by supercritical carbon dioxide ...
The air-flow of the FID was 300 ml min−1 with a makeup-flow of 25 ml nitrogen per min. The total run time was adjusted to 30 ... All isolated strains formed acetic acid from the carbon source provided.. In the metagenome and metatranscriptome datasets, D. ... and pectate lyase (COG3866) represent enzymes/proteins involved in the degradation of the plant cell wall components ... In addition, NH4 + resulting from anaerobic degradation of amino acids is a nitrogen source for the methanogens. To determine ...
... citrate lyase and other proteins indicative of the capacity for carbon fixation through the reductive tricarboxylic acid cycle ... SAR11 bacteria linked to ocean anoxia and nitrogen loss. Nature 536, 179-183 (2016). doi:10.1038/nature19068pmid:27487207. ... Carbon fixation by chemoautotrophic microorganisms in the dark ocean has a major impact on global carbon cycling and ecological ... of inorganic carbon in the mesopelagic western North Atlantic. Nitrite oxidation may have a greater impact on the carbon cycle ...
... and also a series of hydrolases acting on carbon-nitrogen bonds (EC 3.5, 5 of total), or acting on ester bonds and anhydrides ( ... also numerically essential were the carbon-oxygen lyases (EC 4.2.1, four of total), nucleotidyl phosphotransferases (EC 2.7.7, ... lyases) represented 21 , 17 and 10 of all enzymes respectively, when isomerases (EC five) and ligases (EC 6) have been the ... with the EC X.X.X classification permitted us to clarify the pattern of development of strain DOT-T1E with 65 various carbon ...
Pegvaliase is a recombinant phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) enzyme derived from Anabaena variabilis that converts ... Ammonia-Lyases. *Carbon-Nitrogen Lyases. *Enzymes. *Enzymes and Coenzymes. *Lyases. *Pegylated agents ... These are alpha amino acids which have the L-configuration of the alpha-carbon atom.. Kingdom. Organic compounds. Super Class. ... Pegvaliase is a phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) enzyme that temporarily restores the levels of deficient enzyme and reduces ...
However for AMF, the roles of CMNs in nutrients (e.g., phosphorus or nitrogen) or carbon transport among plants remain a matter ... Ruiz, R. A. C., Herrera, C., Ghislain, M., and Gebhardt, C. (2005). Organization of phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL), acidic ... In the last decade, in vitro cultivation systems have been used to investigate the interplant transport of carbon (Voets et al ... The frozen leaves of each replicate were ground in liquid nitrogen (−196°C). Total RNA extraction was done using the RNeasy ...
ICL isocitrate lyase, SDH succinate dehydrogenase, ACL ATP-citrate lyase, NOX NADH/NADPH oxidase ... In addition, a more comprehensive study has analyzed the response of A. niger to carbon starvation in terms of changes in the ... Gene 18.284.1 (An16g07900) is similar to a choline transporter Hnm1 in A. fumigatus Af293, which is associated with nitrogen ... ATP-citrate lyase is the key enzyme to catalyze the decomposition of CA to oxaloacetate (OAA) and acetyl coenzyme A, and there ...
Nitrogen modelling and decision support systems for nitrogen fertilizer recommendation. Smith, J. U., Glendining, M. J., Dailey ... Regional estimates of carbon sequestration potential: linking the Rothamsted carbon model to GIS databases. Falloon, P., Smith ... Characterisation of phenylalanine ammonia lyase production following challenge of Sitka spruce with Heterobasidion annosum. Hsu ... Linking the Rothamsted Carbon turnover model to GIS databases: Regional estimates of carbon sequestration potential. Falloon, P ...
... stenobrocha provides support for the hypothesis that nematode trapping fungi evolved from saprophytic fungi in a high carbon ... and low nitrogen environment. It reveals the transition between saprophagy and predation of these fungi and also proves new ... To test the hypothesis that trapping fungi originated in carbon-rich but nitrogen-poor niches as well as to understand the ... CBM1-containing polysaccharide lyases which were specific to plant pathogens and were absent in nematode-trapping and ...
1985). This calculation shows that for one atom of carbon to be assimilated, that is, for it to be bound in an organic form, ... vitrify and devitrify the cells, the samples were immersed directly into liquid nitrogen [5] and [49]. However, the non-sterile ... The tidal current velocity in the main body of the Phosphatidylinositol diacylglycerol-lyase lagoon ... reactions in photosynthesis leading to the assimilation of one atom of carbon, even though not BCKDHA all of the energy of ...
ATP Citrate Lyase. ATP synthase. Carbonic Anhydrase. Cathepsin. CETP. COMT. CPA. CYP51. Decarboxylase. Dehydrogenase. More >>. ... Nitrogen-Donor Ligands. Non-Precious Metal Catalysts. Olefin Ligands. Olefin Metathesis. Organocatalysts. Other Ligands. ... Carbon-Donor Ligands. Cross-Coupling. Cross-Coupling using Transition Metal Catalysts. Diketone Ligands. Hydrogenation. Main- ... Carbon Nanomaterials. Ceramic Membranes. Dendrimers. Gold Nanoparticles. Iron Oxide Nanoparticles. Materials by Application. ...
Carbon-sulfur Lyase Activity. *Pyridoxal Phosphate Binding. *L-cystine L-cysteine-lyase (deaminating) ... Cellular Nitrogen Compound Metabolic Process. *Positive Regulation Of I-kappaB Kinase/NF-kappaB Signaling ...
Carbon-Nitrogen Lyases - metabolism , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Isomerism , Catharanthus - metabolism , ...
... and orgainc carbon leaching experiment. RHB and FWB had different physico-chemical properties each other. Carbon to nitrogen ... galactosidase were consistently higher in Haehyang and the activity of pectate lyase was more increased than Halla Gold ... However, cucumber growth did not show any significant difference between nitrogen levels. Nitrogen supply of 400 mg/L, highest ... Organic carbon leaching test using saturated soil column (. ${\Phi}75{\times}h75mm$. ) with $10MT\;ha^{-1}$. biochar ...
Methane decomposition over Ni loaded activated carbon for hydrogen production and the formation of filamentous carbon ... Methane emission rates from an ombrotrophic mire show marked seasonality which is independent of nitrogen supply and soil ... Purification and Characterization of Cystathionine β-Lyase from Spinach Chloroplasts. 805. Methionine Biosynthesis in Higher- ... Methane, carbon dioxide and nitrous oxide fluxes from a temperate salt marsh: Grazing management does not alter Global Warming ...
Zabaleta, E., Martin, M.V. and Braun, H.P. (2012): A basal carbon concentrating mechanism in plants? , Plant Science 187, 97- ... Thal, B., Braun, H.P. and Eubel, H (2018): Proteomic analysis dissects the impact of nodulation and biological nitrogen ... campestris pectate lyases, BMC Microbiology 12: 239 Weitere Informationen * G. Ortu, R. Balestrini, P.A. Pereira, J.D. Becker, ... S. Weidner, A. Pühler, H. Küster (2003): Genomics insights into symbiotic nitrogen fixation, Curr Opin Biotechnol 14(2): 200- ...
This enzyme belongs to the family of hydrolases, those acting on carbon-nitrogen bonds other than peptide bonds, specifically ... Cystathionine-β-Synthase/Lyase Industrial Enzyme Production Enzyme Engineering and Modification Creatinase/Creatininase/ ...
  • Apple fruits fumigated with H 2 S contained significantly higher activities of ascorbate peroxidase (APX), catalase (CAT), glutathione reductase (GR), guaiacol peroxidase (POD) and superoxide dismutase (SOD), and lower activities of lipoxygenase (LOX), phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL), polyphenol oxidase (PPO), and protease relative to controls. (ashs.org)
  • Serine dehydratase or L -serine ammonia lyase (SDH) is in the β-family of pyridoxal phosphate-dependent (PLP) enzymes. (wikidoc.org)
  • Current views about carbon assimilation in the pathogenic yeast Candida albicans are strongly influenced by the Saccharomyces cerevisiae paradigm in which cells faced with choices of nutrients first use energetically favorable sugars, degrading enzymes required for the assimilation of less favorable alternative carbon sources. (asm.org)
  • As a result, this major pathogen of humans retains enzymes required for the utilization of physiologically relevant carbon sources such as lactic acid and fatty acids, allowing it to continue to use these host nutrients even when glucose is available. (asm.org)
  • This selective carbon utilization is reflected in the differential regulation of genes and enzymes that support the uptake and catabolism of specific carbon sources. (asm.org)
  • 2010), along with the EC X.X.X classification permitted us to clarify the pattern of development of strain DOT-T1E with 65 various carbon sour.Identified as much as 1751 enzymatic reactions performed by approximately 1686 enzymes with 1268 distinctive possible substrates. (edu.ua)
  • transferases), EC classes three (hydrolases) and four (lyases) represented 21 , 17 and 10 of all enzymes respectively, when isomerases (EC five) and ligases (EC 6) have been the least abundant, with 5 and six of total enzymes respectively. (edu.ua)
  • The β -substituted alanine (Ala) synthase (Bsas) family in the large superfamily of pyridoxal 5′-phosphate-dependent enzymes comprises cysteine (Cys) synthase (CSase) [ O -acetyl-serine (thiol) lyase] and β -cyano-Ala synthase (CASase) in plants. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Such degradation is hugely significant in the recycling of carbon in the natural environment, and the enzymes responsible are of biotechnological relevance in emerging technologies involving the deconstruction of plant cell wall material. (megazyme.com)
  • Carbonic anhydrases (EC 4.2.1.1) are zinc-containing enzymes belonging to the lyases family, and are primarily responsible for catalyzing the reversible hydration of carbon dioxide to form bicarbonate (HCO3-) and hydrogen (H+) ions. (genecards.org)
  • The catalyzing enzymes serine acetyltransferase (SAT) and O -acetylserine (OAS) thiol lyase (OAS-TL) reversibly form the heterooligomeric Cys synthase complex (CSC). (plantcell.org)
  • Carbonic anhydrases constitute a group of enzymes that catalyse reversible hydration of carbon dioxide leading to the formation of bicarbonate and proton. (hindawi.com)
  • Transfection of S14 antisense oligonucleotides into cultured hepatocytes repressed the expression or the activity of certain lipogenesis-related enzymes, such as ATP-citrate lyase, fatty acid synthase, and malic enzyme . (biotech2012.org)
  • Many bacteria, including those found in the human intestinal tract such as E. coli, generate PABA from chorismate by the combined action of the enzymes 4-amino-4-deoxychorismate synthase and 4-amino-4-deoxychorismate lyase. (wikipedia.org)
  • In particular, selenocystathionine can be converted into selenocysteine and 2-ketobutyric acid through the action of the enzyme cystathionine gamma-lyase. (hmdb.ca)
  • In plants, H 2 S can be endogenously generated from cysteine and sulfite by O -acetylserine (thiol) lyase and sulfite reductase, respectively ( Rausch and Wachter, 2005 ). (ashs.org)
  • EC 4.2.99.8 ) [ O -acetyl-Ser (thiol) lyase] by using O -acetyl-Ser (OAS) and sulfide as substrates. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Serine acetyltransferase (SAT) is assumed to consist of a dimer of homotrimers that only forms O -acetylserine (OAS) from Ser and acetyl-CoA with highest efficiency if it is associated with two homodimers of O -acetylserine (thiol) lyase (OAS-TL) in the Cys synthase complex (CSC). (plantcell.org)
  • Wall modifying enzyme activities including xylanase, ${\alpha}$ -L-arabinofuranosi-dase and ${\beta}$ -galactosidase were consistently higher in 'Haehyang' and the activity of pectate lyase was more increased than 'Halla Gold' after 2 months of storage. (koreascience.or.kr)
  • Carbonic anhydrases constitute a group of zinc containing lyases, classified, according to the Enzyme Catalogue to EC 4.2.1.1. (hindawi.com)
  • It is also said that a synthase is a lyase (a lyase is an enzyme that catalyzes the breaking of various chemical bonds by means other than hydrolysis and oxidation, often forming a new double bond or a new ring structure) and does not require any energy, whereas a synthetase is a ligase (a ligase is an enzyme that binds two chemicals or compounds) and thus requires energy. (wikipedia.org)
  • We report the differential expression of MTB mRNAs associated with iron limitation, alternative carbon metabolism, and cellular hypoxia, conditions that are thought to exist within the granulomatous lesions of TB, in the lungs of wild-type C57BL/6 mice as compared with bacteria grown in vitro . (pnas.org)
  • CPSI plays a vital role in protein and nitrogen metabolism. (wikidoc.org)
  • Sometimes the body does not produce enough CPSI due to a mutation in the genetic code, resulting in poor metabolism of proteins and nitrogen, as well as high levels of ammonia in the body. (wikidoc.org)
  • The integrated metagenomic, metatranscriptomic, and metaproteomic data revealed that nitrogen metabolism is the most active process in the studied PNA reactor. (biomedcentral.com)
  • These findings provide the first insight that the bacterial communities in the PNA reactor are defined by not only abiotic factors (operating mode) but also metabolic interactions, such as nitrogen metabolism, exchange of electron donors, and auxotrophies. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This pathway provides a source of ATP, an electron sink, and carbon compounds that can be diverted to central metabolism via known pathways ( 27 , 56 ). (asm.org)
  • To understand how the limitations of direct fertilization with ammonium (growth reduction attributed to ammonium toxicity) can be overcome, the effects of elevated [CO(800ppm) exposure were studied in the Arabidopsis thaliana double nitrate reductase defective mutant, nia1-1/chl3-5 (which preferentially assimilates ammonium as its nitrogen source). (araponics.com)
  • Hydrogen sulfide, similar to nitric oxide (NO) and carbon monoxide (CO), has been shown to be an endogenous gaseous signaling molecule in animal systems with multifaceted physiological functions ( Wang, 2002 ). (ashs.org)
  • Recent investigations have shown that connexins can be modified by phosphorylation/dephosphorylation, redox-related changes including effects of nitric oxide (NO), hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S) or carbon monoxide (CO), acetylation, methylation or ubiquitination. (biomedcentral.com)
  • As a result, carbon monoxide binding is only 200 times stronger in haemoglobin, compared to 20,000 times stronger in free haem. (wikipedia.org)
  • We computationally predicted several new reactions, including isoleucine synthesis via citramalate synthase (DVU1914), methionine synthesis via a potential bifunctional cystathionine gamma-synthase and beta-lyase (DVU0171), synthesis of alpha-ketoglutarate and glutamate via an Re-citrate synthase (DVU0398), and synthesis of chorismate and aromatic amino acids via an archaeal-like transaldolase and 3-dehydroquinate cyclase/deaminase (DVU0460,DVU0461). (escholarship.org)
  • Metabolic Adaptation, a Specialized Leaf Organ Structure and Vascular Responses to Diurnal N-2 Fixation by Nostoc azollae Sustain the Astonishing Productivity of Azolla Ferns without Nitrogen Fertilizer. (uni-bielefeld.de)
  • Fortunately bacterial replication is slowed following recruitment of innate components when host effectors like reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitrogen intermediates are released. (springeropen.com)
  • In catalytic triads, the basic nitrogen of histidine is used to abstract a proton from serine, threonine, or cysteine to activate it as a nucleophile. (wikipedia.org)
  • Transcript profiling has suggested that Candida albicans , a major pathogen of humans, regulates its carbon assimilation in an analogous fashion to the model yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae , repressing metabolic pathways required for the use of alterative nonpreferred carbon sources when sugars are available. (asm.org)
  • Carbon assimilation is fundamentally important for all organisms. (asm.org)
  • However, the highest β-glucosidase accumulation of 10,470 U/L was observed when the rich organic nitrogen source yeast extract was used. (bvsalud.org)
  • Despite the treatment dosage was calculated only on nitrogen requirements, the study highlighted the importance of the other nutrients and organic matter on plant growth. (bvsalud.org)
  • They then switch to photoheterotrophic growth (with an organic substrate as carbon and electron source) or to photoautotrophic growth (if CO 2 and an inorganic electron donor such as hydrogen are supplied). (biomedcentral.com)
  • 4-Aminobenzoic acid (also known as para-aminobenzoic acid or PABA because the number 4 carbon in the benzene ring is also known as the para position) is an organic compound with the formula H2NC6H4CO2H. (wikipedia.org)
  • The discovery of the anammox process and its direct application in wastewater treatment plants provide an energy-efficient way of nitrogen removal from wastewater. (biomedcentral.com)
  • While starchy substrates or molasses are major carbon feedstocks for fermentative production of 1-butanol in clostridia or heterologous microorganisms, interest is growing in employing novel substrates that are economically competitive with petrochemical synthesis yet at the same time non-competitive with food for human consumption [ 12 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • These variables including: fermentation technique, agitation condition, tannins source, adding carbohydrates incorporation with tannic acid, nitrogen source type and divalent cations. (bvsalud.org)
  • Maximum extracellular tannase activity (305 units/ 50 mL) was attained in medium containing tannic acid as tannins source and sodium nitrate as nitrogen source at 30 ºC for 96 h. (bvsalud.org)
  • The production of xylanase, β-xylosidase, ferulic acid esterase and β-glucosidase by Aspergillus awamori 2B.361 U2/1, a hyper producer of glucoamylase and pectinase, was evaluated using selected conditions regarding nitrogen nutrition. (bvsalud.org)
  • Results: Extracellular tannase production was induced when the fungus was cultured in Khanna medium with tannic acid as carbon source. (bvsalud.org)
  • Nitrogen sources for renal ammoniagenesis: study with 15N amino acid. (termsreign.ga)
  • The N3-H tautomer, shown in the figure above, is protonated on the #3 nitrogen, farther from the amino acid backbone bearing the amino and carboxyl groups, whereas the N1-H tautomer is protonated on the nitrogen nearer the backbone. (wikipedia.org)
  • When both imidazole ring nitrogens are protonated, their 15N chemical shifts are similar (about 200 ppm, relative to nitric acid on the sigma scale, on which increased shielding corresponds to increased chemical shift). (wikipedia.org)
  • [n The necessity for this ligand also connects the high concentration of nitrogen, reflected in excess of glutamate and arginine to produce NAG, to an increase in CPSI activity to clear this excess. (wikidoc.org)
  • Levels of the amino acids glutamate and alanine , will be increased (as these are the amino acids that receive nitrogen from others). (chemeurope.com)
  • We conclude that evolutionary rewiring of ubiquitination targets has meant that following glucose exposure, C. albicans retains key metabolic functions, allowing it to continue to assimilate alternative carbon sources. (asm.org)
  • Although clostridia are the primary industrial microbes for the fermentative production of 1-butanol, alternative engineered hosts have the potential to generate 1-butanol from alternative carbon feedstocks via synthetic metabolic pathways. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In the last few years, attention has focused on single carbon compounds such as methane and methanol as future alternative carbon feedstocks due to their relative abundance [ 13 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • PABA is also occasionally used in pill form by sufferers of irritable bowel syndrome to treat its associated gastrointestinal symptoms, and in nutritional epidemiological studies to assess the completeness of 24-hour urine collection for the determination of urinary sodium, potassium, or nitrogen levels. (wikipedia.org)
  • Structural and biochemical characterization of a multidomain alginate lyase reveals a novel role of CBM32 in CAZymes. (uni-bielefeld.de)
  • Oxidoreductases utilizing Ice had been characterized by dwarfism involving elongation aldehydes as donor groups with NAD+ or NADP+ as acceptor (EC 1.two.1) have been essentially the most abundant (11 of your total), also numerically essential were the carbon-oxygen lyases (EC 4.2.1, four of total), nucleotidyl phosphotransferases (EC 2.7.7, three of total) and acyltransferases (EC two.3.1, three of total). (edu.ua)
  • A Schiff base is a functional group containing a C=N bond with the nitrogen atom connected to an aryl or alkyl group. (bionity.com)
  • These are amino acids in which the amino group is attached to the carbon atom immediately adjacent to the carboxylate group (alpha carbon). (hmdb.ca)
  • These are alpha amino acids which have the L-configuration of the alpha-carbon atom. (hmdb.ca)
  • By mining genome sequence databases, coupling genomic (microarrays & RNAseq, proteomics, metabolomics), computational, molecular and synthetic biology techniques, we define how carbon and energy in nutrients is partitioned into cell growth or formation of bioproducts. (wisc.edu)
  • Diversity of Pink-Pigmented Facultative Methylotrophs (PPFMs) in phyllosphere of cotton, maize and sunflower was determined based on differential carbon-substrate utilization profile and Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA data. (bvsalud.org)
  • When faced with choices of carbon source, microbes often assimilate preferred carbon sources to support the first phase of growth and then, having exhausted these carbon sources, turn to alternative energetically less favorable carbon sources to drive subsequent phases of diauxic growth. (asm.org)
  • C. resistens DSM 45100 is able to use external L-histidine as a combined carbon and nitrogen source, presumably as a result of adaptation to the hitherto unknown habitat on the human skin. (nih.gov)
  • Methylobacterium extorquens AM1 is a facultative methylotrophic α-proteobacterium capable of using both one-carbon (C1) compounds as well as multi-carbon compounds as sole carbon and energy sources. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The remaining proton of the now-neutral imidazole ring can reside on either nitrogen, giving rise to what are known as the N1-H or N3-H tautomers. (wikipedia.org)
  • It can do this by abstracting a proton with its basic nitrogen to make a positively charged intermediate and then use another molecule, a buffer, to extract the proton from its acidic nitrogen. (wikipedia.org)
  • The genome of D. stenobrocha provides support for the hypothesis that nematode trapping fungi evolved from saprophytic fungi in a high carbon and low nitrogen environment. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The hypothesis holds that dead creatures caused by mass extinctions were rich in carbon but poor in nitrogen, so direct capture of nitrogen rich living animals would give predatory fungi a competitive advantage over strictly saprophytic fungi [ 11 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The complex microbial community structures, life strategies, and interactions between taxa are of crucial importance for the stable removal of nitrogen from wastewater. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The metabolic capacities of anammox bacteria and associated microbial community interactions in partial-nitritation anammox (PNA) reactors have received considerable attention for their crucial roles in energy-efficient nitrogen removal from wastewater. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Each of the polar substituents of PLP is coordinated by functional groups: the pyridinium nitrogen of PLP is hydrogen-bonded to the side chain of Cys 303, the C3-hydroxyl group of PLP is hydrogen-bonded to the side chain of Asn 67, and the phosphate group of PLP is coordinated by main chain amides from the tetraglycine loop. (wikidoc.org)