A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.
A non-essential amino acid present abundantly throughout the body and is involved in many metabolic processes. It is synthesized from GLUTAMIC ACID and AMMONIA. It is the principal carrier of NITROGEN in the body and is an important energy source for many cells.
An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.
Organic compounds containing the -CO-NH2 radical. Amides are derived from acids by replacement of -OH by -NH2 or from ammonia by the replacement of H by an acyl group. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A diverse class of enzymes that interact with UBIQUITIN-CONJUGATING ENZYMES and ubiquitination-specific protein substrates. Each member of this enzyme group has its own distinct specificity for a substrate and ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme. Ubiquitin-protein ligases exist as both monomeric proteins multiprotein complexes.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of ATP, L-glutamate, and NH3 to ADP, orthophosphate, and L-glutamine. It also acts more slowly on 4-methylene-L-glutamate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC
Poly(deoxyribonucleotide):poly(deoxyribonucleotide)ligases. Enzymes that catalyze the joining of preformed deoxyribonucleotides in phosphodiester linkage during genetic processes during repair of a single-stranded break in duplex DNA. The class includes both EC (ATP) and EC (NAD).
Individuals supplying living tissue, organs, cells, blood or blood components for transfer or transplantation to histocompatible recipients.
A subset of ubiquitin protein ligases that are formed by the association of a SKP DOMAIN PROTEIN, a CULLIN DOMAIN PROTEIN and a F-BOX DOMAIN PROTEIN.
The process in certain BACTERIA; FUNGI; and CYANOBACTERIA converting free atmospheric NITROGEN to biologically usable forms of nitrogen, such as AMMONIA; NITRATES; and amino compounds.
A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.
Stable nitrogen atoms that have the same atomic number as the element nitrogen, but differ in atomic weight. N-15 is a stable nitrogen isotope.
Carbon monoxide (CO). A poisonous colorless, odorless, tasteless gas. It combines with hemoglobin to form carboxyhemoglobin, which has no oxygen carrying capacity. The resultant oxygen deprivation causes headache, dizziness, decreased pulse and respiratory rates, unconsciousness, and death. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
Nanometer-sized tubes composed mainly of CARBON. Such nanotubes are used as probes for high-resolution structural and chemical imaging of biomolecules with ATOMIC FORCE MICROSCOPY.
A colorless alkaline gas. It is formed in the body during decomposition of organic materials during a large number of metabolically important reactions. Note that the aqueous form of ammonia is referred to as AMMONIUM HYDROXIDE.
Non-cadaveric providers of organs for transplant to related or non-related recipients.
A family of structurally related proteins that were originally discovered for their role in cell-cycle regulation in CAENORHABDITIS ELEGANS. They play important roles in regulation of the CELL CYCLE and as components of UBIQUITIN-PROTEIN LIGASES.
The act of ligating UBIQUITINS to PROTEINS to form ubiquitin-protein ligase complexes to label proteins for transport to the PROTEASOME ENDOPEPTIDASE COMPLEX where proteolysis occurs.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Inorganic compounds that contain nitrogen as an integral part of the molecule.
Stable carbon atoms that have the same atomic number as the element carbon, but differ in atomic weight. C-13 is a stable carbon isotope.
Catalyze the joining of preformed ribonucleotides or deoxyribonucleotides in phosphodiester linkage during genetic processes. EC 6.5.1.
The circulation of nitrogen in nature, consisting of a cycle of biochemical reactions in which atmospheric nitrogen is compounded, dissolved in rain, and deposited in the soil, where it is assimilated and metabolized by bacteria and plants, eventually returning to the atmosphere by bacterial decomposition of organic matter.
A highly conserved 76-amino acid peptide universally found in eukaryotic cells that functions as a marker for intracellular PROTEIN TRANSPORT and degradation. Ubiquitin becomes activated through a series of complicated steps and forms an isopeptide bond to lysine residues of specific proteins within the cell. These "ubiquitinated" proteins can be recognized and degraded by proteosomes or be transported to specific compartments within the cell.
The urea concentration of the blood stated in terms of nitrogen content. Serum (plasma) urea nitrogen is approximately 12% higher than blood urea nitrogen concentration because of the greater protein content of red blood cells. Increases in blood or serum urea nitrogen are referred to as azotemia and may have prerenal, renal, or postrenal causes. (From Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)
Nitrogen oxide (NO2). A highly poisonous gas. Exposure produces inflammation of lungs that may only cause slight pain or pass unnoticed, but resulting edema several days later may cause death. (From Merck, 11th ed) It is a major atmospheric pollutant that is able to absorb UV light that does not reach the earth's surface.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.
Enzymes that catalyze the formation of acyl-CoA derivatives. EC 6.2.1.
A zinc-binding domain defined by the sequence Cysteine-X2-Cysteine-X(9-39)-Cysteine-X(l-3)-His-X(2-3)-Cysteine-X2-Cysteine -X(4-48)-Cysteine-X2-Cysteine, where X is any amino acid. The RING finger motif binds two atoms of zinc, with each zinc atom ligated tetrahedrally by either four cysteines or three cysteines and a histidine. The motif also forms into a unitary structure with a central cross-brace region and is found in many proteins that are involved in protein-protein interactions. The acronym RING stands for Really Interesting New Gene.
Toxic asphyxiation due to the displacement of oxygen from oxyhemoglobin by carbon monoxide.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
A class of enzymes that form a thioester bond to UBIQUITIN with the assistance of UBIQUITIN-ACTIVATING ENZYMES. They transfer ubiquitin to the LYSINE of a substrate protein with the assistance of UBIQUITIN-PROTEIN LIGASES.
Nitrogenous products of NITRIC OXIDE synthases, ranging from NITRIC OXIDE to NITRATES. These reactive nitrogen intermediates also include the inorganic PEROXYNITROUS ACID and the organic S-NITROSOTHIOLS.
Derivatives of GLUTAMIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the 2-aminopentanedioic acid structure.
A family of signal transducing adaptor proteins that control the METABOLISM of NITROGEN. They are primarily found in prokaryotes.
An amino acid that inhibits phosphate-activated glutaminase and interferes with glutamine metabolism. It is an antineoplastic antibiotic produced by an unidentified species of Streptomyces from Peruvian soil. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of 2 molecules of glutamate from glutamine plus alpha-ketoglutarate in the presence of NADPH. EC
Derivatives of ammonium compounds, NH4+ Y-, in which all four of the hydrogens bonded to nitrogen have been replaced with hydrocarbyl groups. These are distinguished from IMINES which are RN=CR2.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of linear RNA to a circular form by the transfer of the 5'-phosphate to the 3'-hydroxyl terminus. It also catalyzes the covalent joining of two polyribonucleotides in phosphodiester linkage. EC
A non-essential amino acid naturally occurring in the L-form. Glutamic acid is the most common excitatory neurotransmitter in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).
Inorganic oxides that contain nitrogen.
Inorganic or organic salts and esters of nitric acid. These compounds contain the NO3- radical.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
A compound formed in the liver from ammonia produced by the deamination of amino acids. It is the principal end product of protein catabolism and constitutes about one half of the total urinary solids.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
A solvent for oils, fats, lacquers, varnishes, rubber waxes, and resins, and a starting material in the manufacturing of organic compounds. Poisoning by inhalation, ingestion or skin absorption is possible and may be fatal. (Merck Index, 11th ed)
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
A family of compounds containing an oxo group with the general structure of 1,5-pentanedioic acid. (From Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p442)
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Any of several processes for the permanent or long-term artificial or natural capture or removal and storage of carbon dioxide and other forms of carbon, through biological, chemical or physical processes, in a manner that prevents it from being released into the atmosphere.
Enzymes that catalyze the joining of either ammonia or an amide with another molecule, in which the linkage is in the form of a carbon-nitrogen bond. EC 6.3.1.
A non-essential amino acid that occurs in high levels in its free state in plasma. It is produced from pyruvate by transamination. It is involved in sugar and acid metabolism, increases IMMUNITY, and provides energy for muscle tissue, BRAIN, and the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
A family of proteins that share the F-BOX MOTIF and are involved in protein-protein interactions. They play an important role in process of protein ubiquition by associating with a variety of substrates and then associating into SCF UBIQUITIN LIGASE complexes. They are held in the ubiquitin-ligase complex via binding to SKP DOMAIN PROTEINS.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
A set of protein subcomplexes involved in PROTEIN SORTING of UBIQUITINATED PROTEINS into intraluminal vesicles of MULTIVESICULAR BODIES and in membrane scission during formation of intraluminal vesicles, during the final step of CYTOKINESIS, and during the budding of enveloped viruses. The ESCRT machinery is comprised of the protein products of Class E vacuolar protein sorting genes.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-glutamate and water to 2-oxoglutarate and NH3 in the presence of NAD+. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC
A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.
A family of proteins that are structurally-related to Ubiquitin. Ubiquitins and ubiquitin-like proteins participate in diverse cellular functions, such as protein degradation and HEAT-SHOCK RESPONSE, by conjugation to other proteins.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
A large multisubunit complex that plays an important role in the degradation of most of the cytosolic and nuclear proteins in eukaryotic cells. It contains a 700-kDa catalytic sub-complex and two 700-kDa regulatory sub-complexes. The complex digests ubiquitinated proteins and protein activated via ornithine decarboxylase antizyme.
A colorless, flammable, poisonous liquid, CS2. It is used as a solvent, and is a counterirritant and has local anesthetic properties but is not used as such. It is highly toxic with pronounced CNS, hematologic, and dermatologic effects.
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
Total mass of all the organisms of a given type and/or in a given area. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990) It includes the yield of vegetative mass produced from any given crop.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
Substances or mixtures that are added to the soil to supply nutrients or to make available nutrients already present in the soil, in order to increase plant growth and productivity.
Ligases that catalyze the joining of adjacent AMINO ACIDS by the formation of carbon-nitrogen bonds between their carboxylic acid groups and amine groups.
The unconsolidated mineral or organic matter on the surface of the earth that serves as a natural medium for the growth of land plants.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
A non-essential amino acid that is involved in the metabolic control of cell functions in nerve and brain tissue. It is biosynthesized from ASPARTIC ACID and AMMONIA by asparagine synthetase. (From Concise Encyclopedia Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 3rd ed)
One of the non-essential amino acids commonly occurring in the L-form. It is found in animals and plants, especially in sugar cane and sugar beets. It may be a neurotransmitter.
The first chemical element in the periodic table. It has the atomic symbol H, atomic number 1, and atomic weight [1.00784; 1.00811]. It exists, under normal conditions, as a colorless, odorless, tasteless, diatomic gas. Hydrogen ions are PROTONS. Besides the common H1 isotope, hydrogen exists as the stable isotope DEUTERIUM and the unstable, radioactive isotope TRITIUM.
Adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group esterified to the sugar moiety in the 2'-, 3'-, or 5'-position.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
An oligomer formed from the repetitive linking of the C-terminal glycine of one UBIQUITIN molecule via an isopeptide bond to a lysine residue on a second ubiquitin molecule. It is structurally distinct from UBIQUITIN C, which is a single protein containing a tandemly arrayed ubiquitin peptide sequence.
An essential amino acid. It is often added to animal feed.
Complexes of enzymes that catalyze the covalent attachment of UBIQUITIN to other proteins by forming a peptide bond between the C-terminal GLYCINE of UBIQUITIN and the alpha-amino groups of LYSINE residues in the protein. The complexes play an important role in mediating the selective-degradation of short-lived and abnormal proteins. The complex of enzymes can be broken down into three components that involve activation of ubiquitin (UBIQUITIN-ACTIVATING ENZYMES), conjugation of ubiquitin to the ligase complex (UBIQUITIN-CONJUGATING ENZYMES), and ligation of ubiquitin to the substrate protein (UBIQUITIN-PROTEIN LIGASES).
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
Unstable isotopes of carbon that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. C atoms with atomic weights 10, 11, and 14-16 are radioactive carbon isotopes.
A series of oxidative reactions in the breakdown of acetyl units derived from GLUCOSE; FATTY ACIDS; or AMINO ACIDS by means of tricarboxylic acid intermediates. The end products are CARBON DIOXIDE, water, and energy in the form of phosphate bonds.
An enzyme system that catalyzes the fixing of nitrogen in soil bacteria and blue-green algae (CYANOBACTERIA). EC
Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of nitrogenous groups, primarily amino groups, from a donor, generally an amino acid, to an acceptor, usually a 2-oxoacid. EC 2.6.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A subclass of enzymes of the transferase class that catalyze the transfer of an amino group from a donor (generally an amino acid) to an acceptor (generally a 2-keto acid). Most of these enzymes are pyridoxyl phosphate proteins. (Dorland, 28th ed) EC 2.6.1.
An essential amino acid that is physiologically active in the L-form.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
The usually underground portions of a plant that serve as support, store food, and through which water and mineral nutrients enter the plant. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982; Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.
The relationship between two different species of organisms that are interdependent; each gains benefits from the other or a relationship between different species where both of the organisms in question benefit from the presence of the other.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.
A class of enzymes that catalyzes the ATP-dependent formation of a thioester bond between itself and UBIQUITIN. It then transfers the activated ubiquitin to one of the UBIQUITIN-PROTEIN LIGASES.
An enzyme, involved in the early steps of purine nucleotide biosynthesis, that catalyzes the formation of 5-phosphoribosylamine from glutamine and phosphoribosylpyrophosphate. EC
Enzymes that catalyze the joining of two molecules by the formation of a carbon-oxygen bond. EC 6.1.
The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
Derivatives of ACETIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxymethane structure.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
The synthesis by organisms of organic chemical compounds, especially carbohydrates, from carbon dioxide using energy obtained from light rather than from the oxidation of chemical compounds. Photosynthesis comprises two separate processes: the light reactions and the dark reactions. In higher plants; GREEN ALGAE; and CYANOBACTERIA; NADPH and ATP formed by the light reactions drive the dark reactions which result in the fixation of carbon dioxide. (from Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2001)
Cleavage of proteins into smaller peptides or amino acids either by PROTEASES or non-enzymatically (e.g., Hydrolysis). It does not include Protein Processing, Post-Translational.
Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.
An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.
Proto-oncogene proteins that negatively regulate RECEPTOR PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE signaling. It is a UBIQUITIN-PROTEIN LIGASE and the cellular homologue of ONCOGENE PROTEIN V-CBL.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
An essential branched-chain amino acid important for hemoglobin formation.
A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.
An acidifying agent that has expectorant and diuretic effects. Also used in etching and batteries and as a flux in electroplating.
An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
Deuterium. The stable isotope of hydrogen. It has one neutron and one proton in the nucleus.
Peptides derived from proglucagon which is also the precursor of pancreatic GLUCAGON. Despite expression of proglucagon in multiple tissues, the major production site of glucagon-like peptides (GLPs) is the INTESTINAL L CELLS. GLPs include glucagon-like peptide 1, glucagon-like peptide 2, and the various truncated forms.
A low-energy attractive force between hydrogen and another element. It plays a major role in determining the properties of water, proteins, and other compounds.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
Amides composed of unsaturated aliphatic FATTY ACIDS linked with AMINES by an amide bond. They are most prominent in ASTERACEAE; PIPERACEAE; and RUTACEAE; and also found in ARISTOLOCHIACEAE; BRASSICACEAE; CONVOLVULACEAE; EUPHORBIACEAE; MENISPERMACEAE; POACEAE; and SOLANACEAE. They are recognized by their pungent taste and for causing numbing and salivation.
An amino acid produced in the urea cycle by the splitting off of urea from arginine.
Peptides composed of two amino acid units.
The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.
The gaseous envelope surrounding a planet or similar body. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
Cellular processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of CARBOHYDRATES.
The delivery of nutrients for assimilation and utilization by a patient whose sole source of nutrients is via solutions administered intravenously, subcutaneously, or by some other non-alimentary route. The basic components of TPN solutions are protein hydrolysates or free amino acid mixtures, monosaccharides, and electrolytes. Components are selected for their ability to reverse catabolism, promote anabolism, and build structural proteins.
The characteristic three-dimensional shape of a molecule.
The administrative procedures involved with acquiring TISSUES or organs for TRANSPLANTATION through various programs, systems, or organizations. These procedures include obtaining consent from TISSUE DONORS and arranging for transportation of donated tissues and organs, after TISSUE HARVESTING, to HOSPITALS for processing and transplantation.
A family of structurally-related proteins that were originally identified by their ability to complex with cyclin proteins (CYCLINS). They share a common domain that binds specifically to F-BOX MOTIFS. They take part in SKP CULLIN F-BOX PROTEIN LIGASES, where they can bind to a variety of F-BOX PROTEINS.
Fatty acid derivatives that have specificity for CANNABINOID RECEPTORS. They are structurally distinct from CANNABINOIDS and were originally discovered as a group of endogenous CANNABINOID RECEPTOR AGONISTS.
A family of structurally related proteins that are constitutively expressed and that negatively regulate cytokine-mediated SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS. PIAS proteins inhibit the activity of signal transducers and activators of transcription.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
A phylum of oxygenic photosynthetic bacteria comprised of unicellular to multicellular bacteria possessing CHLOROPHYLL a and carrying out oxygenic PHOTOSYNTHESIS. Cyanobacteria are the only known organisms capable of fixing both CARBON DIOXIDE (in the presence of light) and NITROGEN. Cell morphology can include nitrogen-fixing heterocysts and/or resting cells called akinetes. Formerly called blue-green algae, cyanobacteria were traditionally treated as ALGAE.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Commonly observed structural components of proteins formed by simple combinations of adjacent secondary structures. A commonly observed structure may be composed of a CONSERVED SEQUENCE which can be represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE.
Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.
An essential amino acid that is required for the production of HISTAMINE.
A 1.5-kDa small ubiquitin-related modifier protein that can covalently bind via an isopeptide link to a number of cellular proteins. It may play a role in intracellular protein transport and a number of other cellular processes.
Stable elementary particles having the smallest known positive charge, found in the nuclei of all elements. The proton mass is less than that of a neutron. A proton is the nucleus of the light hydrogen atom, i.e., the hydrogen ion.
A class of structurally related proteins of 12-20 kDa in size. They covalently modify specific proteins in a manner analogous to UBIQUITIN.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
A transfer RNA which is specific for carrying glutamine to sites on the ribosomes in preparation for protein synthesis.
A non-essential amino acid that is synthesized from GLUTAMIC ACID. It is an essential component of COLLAGEN and is important for proper functioning of joints and tendons.
A group of alkylating agents derived from mustard gas, with the sulfur replaced by nitrogen. They were formerly used as toxicants and vesicants, but now function as antineoplastic agents. These compounds are also powerful mutagens, teratogens, immunosuppressants, and carcinogens.
A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
The region of an enzyme that interacts with its substrate to cause the enzymatic reaction.
Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.
An enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of fructose-6-phosphate plus GLUTAMINE from GLUTAMATE plus glucosamine-6-phosphate.
Amino acid transporter systems capable of transporting neutral amino acids (AMINO ACIDS, NEUTRAL).
Complex sets of enzymatic reactions connected to each other via their product and substrate metabolites.
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
Enzymes that catalyze the joining of two molecules by the formation of a carbon-nitrogen bond. EC 6.3.
Transplantation between individuals of the same species. Usually refers to genetically disparate individuals in contradistinction to isogeneic transplantation for genetically identical individuals.
Elimination of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS; PESTICIDES and other waste using living organisms, usually involving intervention of environmental or sanitation engineers.
An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of anthranilate (o-aminobenzoate) and pyruvic acid from chorismate and glutamine. Anthranilate is the biosynthetic precursor of tryptophan and numerous secondary metabolites, including inducible plant defense compounds. EC
A measure of the total greenhouse gas emissions produced by an individual, organization, event, or product. It is measured in units of equivalent kilograms of CARBON DIOXIDE generated in a given time frame.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
The survival of a graft in a host, the factors responsible for the survival and the changes occurring within the graft during growth in the host.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.
Derivatives of carbamic acid, H2NC(=O)OH. Included under this heading are N-substituted and O-substituted carbamic acids. In general carbamate esters are referred to as urethanes, and polymers that include repeating units of carbamate are referred to as POLYURETHANES. Note however that polyurethanes are derived from the polymerization of ISOCYANATES and the singular term URETHANE refers to the ethyl ester of carbamic acid.
A non-essential amino acid. It is found primarily in gelatin and silk fibroin and used therapeutically as a nutrient. It is also a fast inhibitory neurotransmitter.
The interference in synthesis of an enzyme due to the elevated level of an effector substance, usually a metabolite, whose presence would cause depression of the gene responsible for enzyme synthesis.
A spectroscopic technique in which a range of wavelengths is presented simultaneously with an interferometer and the spectrum is mathematically derived from the pattern thus obtained.
Spectrophotometry in the infrared region, usually for the purpose of chemical analysis through measurement of absorption spectra associated with rotational and vibrational energy levels of molecules. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of nitrite to nitrate. It is a cytochrome protein that contains IRON and MOLYBDENUM.
Woody, usually tall, perennial higher plants (Angiosperms, Gymnosperms, and some Pterophyta) having usually a main stem and numerous branches.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.
An enzyme that catalyzes the first step of histidine catabolism, forming UROCANIC ACID and AMMONIA from HISTIDINE. Deficiency of this enzyme is associated with elevated levels of serum histidine and is called histidinemia (AMINO ACID METABOLISM, INBORN ERRORS).
NMR spectroscopy on small- to medium-size biological macromolecules. This is often used for structural investigation of proteins and nucleic acids, and often involves more than one isotope.
The administering of nutrients for assimilation and utilization by a patient who cannot maintain adequate nutrition by enteral feeding alone. Nutrients are administered by a route other than the alimentary canal (e.g., intravenously, subcutaneously).
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in fungi.
Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.
A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.

Three asparagine synthetase genes of Bacillus subtilis. (1/39)

Three asparagine synthetase genes, asnB, asnH, and asnO (yisO), were predicted from the sequence of the Bacillus subtilis genome. We show here that the three genes are expressed differentially during cell growth. In a rich sporulation medium, expression of asnB was detected only during exponential growth, that of asnH was drastically elevated at the transition between exponential growth and stationary phase, and that of asnO was seen only later in sporulation. In a minimal medium, both asnB and asnH were expressed constitutively during exponential growth and in stationary phase, while the expression of asnO was not detected in either phase. However, when the minimal medium was supplemented with asparagine, only the expression of asnH was partially repressed. Transcription analyses revealed that asnB was possibly cotranscribed with a downstream gene, ytnA, while the asnH gene was transcribed as the fourth gene of an operon comprising yxbB, yxbA, yxnB, asnH, and yxaM. The asnO gene is a monocistronic operon, the expression of which was dependent on one of the sporulation sigma factors, sigma-E. Each of the three genes, carried on a low-copy-number plasmid, complemented the asparagine deficiency of an Escherichia coli strain lacking asparagine synthetases, indicating that all encode an asparagine synthetase. In B. subtilis, deletion of asnO or asnH, singly or in combination, had essentially no effect on growth rates in media with or without asparagine. In contrast, deletion of asnB led to a slow-growth phenotype, even in the presence of asparagine. A strain lacking all three genes still grew without asparagine, albeit very slowly, implying that B. subtilis might have yet another asparagine synthetase, not recognized by sequence analysis. The strains lacking asnO failed to sporulate, indicating an involvement of this gene in sporulation.  (+info)

X-ray crystal structure of aminoimidazole ribonucleotide synthetase (PurM), from the Escherichia coli purine biosynthetic pathway at 2.5 A resolution. (2/39)

BACKGROUND: The purine biosynthetic pathway in procaryotes enlists eleven enzymes, six of which use ATP. Enzymes 5 and 6 of this pathway, formylglycinamide ribonucleotide (FGAR) amidotransferase (PurL) and aminoimidazole ribonucleotide (AIR) synthetase (PurM) utilize ATP to activate the oxygen of an amide within their substrate toward nucleophilic attack by a nitrogen. AIR synthetase uses the product of PurL, formylglycinamidine ribonucleotide (FGAM) and ATP to make AIR, ADP and P(i). RESULTS: The structure of a hexahistidine-tagged PurM has been solved by multiwavelength anomalous diffraction phasing techniques using protein containing 28 selenomethionines per asymmetric unit. The final model of PurM consists of two crystallographically independent dimers and four sulfates. The overall R factor at 2.5 A resolution is 19.2%, with an R(free) of 26.4%. The active site, identified in part by conserved residues, is proposed to be a long groove generated by the interaction of two monomers. A search of the sequence databases suggests that the ATP-binding sites between PurM and PurL may be structurally conserved. CONCLUSIONS: The first structure of a new class of ATP-binding enzyme, PurM, has been solved and a model for the active site has been proposed. The structure is unprecedented, with an extensive and unusual sheet-mediated intersubunit interaction defining the active-site grooves. Sequence searches suggest that two successive enzymes in the purine biosynthetic pathway, proposed to use similar chemistries, will have similar ATP-binding domains.  (+info)

A highly conserved mechanism of regulated ribosome stalling mediated by fungal arginine attenuator peptides that appears independent of the charging status of arginyl-tRNAs. (3/39)

The Arg attenuator peptide (AAP) is an evolutionarily conserved peptide involved in Arg-specific negative translational control. It is encoded as an upstream open reading frame (uORF) in fungal mRNAs specifying the small subunit of Arg-specific carbamoyl phosphate synthetase. We examined the functions of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae CPA1 and Neurospora crassa arg-2 AAPs using translation extracts from S. cerevisiae, N. crassa, and wheat germ. Synthetic RNA containing AAP and firefly luciferase (LUC) sequences were used to program translation; analyses of LUC activity indicated that the AAPs conferred Arg-specific negative regulation in each system. The AAPs functioned either as uORFs or fused in-frame at the N terminus of LUC. Mutant AAPs lacking function in vivo did not function in vitro. Therefore, trans-acting factors conferring AAP-mediated regulation are in both fungal and plant systems. Analyses of ribosome stalling in the fungal extracts by primer extension inhibition (toeprint) assays showed that these AAPs acted similarly to stall ribosomes in the region immediately distal to the AAP coding region in response to Arg. The regulatory effect increased as the Arg concentration increased; all of the arginyl-tRNAs examined appeared maximally charged at low Arg concentrations. Therefore, AAP-mediated Arg-specific regulation appeared independent of the charging status of arginyl-tRNA.  (+info)

The yexA gene product is required for phosphoribosylformylglycinamidine synthetase activity in Bacillus subtilis. (4/39)

The yexA gene encodes an 84 amino acid reading frame; in Bacillus subtilis it is positioned between the purC and purQ genes of the purine biosynthetic operon. Disruption of yexA resulted in a purine-auxotrophic phenotype. When yexA was expressed in trans it was able to complement a yexA mutation. Growth experiments and enzyme analysis of yexA mutant strains revealed a defective phosphoribosylformylglycinamidine synthetase (FGAM synthetase). In the organisms in which FGAM synthetase has been studied a single polypeptide is responsible for activity. In some organisms two separate genes - in B. subtilis the purL and purQ genes - encode polypeptides with similarity to the N-terminal and the C-terminal region, respectively, of the single-polypeptide FGAM synthetase. Thus, active FGAM synthetase in B. subtilis requires the yexA gene product in addition to the purL and purQ gene products. Open reading frames with sequence similarity to yexA are found in other Gram-positive organisms, in a cyanobacterium and in methanogenic archaea. The designation purS is proposed for this novel function in purine biosynthesis in B. subtilis.  (+info)

Evolutionarily conserved features of the arginine attenuator peptide provide the necessary requirements for its function in translational regulation. (5/39)

Neurospora crassa arg-2 mRNA contains an evolutionarily conserved upstream open reading frame (uORF) encoding the Arg attenuator peptide (AAP) that confers negative translational regulation in response to Arg. We examined the regulatory role of the AAP and the RNA encoding it using an N. crassa cell-free translation system. AAPs encoded by uORFs in four fungal mRNAs each conferred negative regulation in response to Arg by causing ribosome stalling at the uORF termination codon. Deleting the AAP non-conserved N terminus did not impair regulation, but deletions extending into the conserved region eliminated it. Introducing many silent mutations into a functional AAP coding region did not eliminate regulation, but a single additional nucleotide change altering the conserved AAP sequence abolished regulation. Therefore, the conserved peptide sequence, but not the mRNA sequence, appeared responsible for regulation. AAP extension at its C terminus resulted in Arg-mediated ribosomal stalling during translational elongation within the extended region and during termination. Comparison of Arg-mediated stalling at a rare or common codon revealed more stalling at the rare codon. These data indicate that the highly evolutionarily conserved peptide core functions within the ribosome to cause stalling; translational events at a potential stall site can influence the extent of stalling there.  (+info)

Neonatal pulmonary hypertension--urea-cycle intermediates, nitric oxide production, and carbamoyl-phosphate synthetase function. (6/39)

BACKGROUND: Endogenous production of nitric oxide is vital for the decrease in pulmonary vascular resistance that normally occurs after birth. The precursor of nitric oxide is arginine, a urea-cycle intermediate. We hypothesized that low concentrations of arginine would correlate with the presence of persistent pulmonary hypertension in newborns and that the supply of this precursor would be affected by a functional polymorphism (the substitution of asparagine for threonine at position 1405 [T1405N]) in carbamoyl-phosphate synthetase, which controls the rate-limiting step of the urea cycle. METHODS: Plasma concentrations of amino acids and genotypes of the carbamoyl-phosphate synthetase variants were determined in 65 near-term neonates with respiratory distress. Plasma nitric oxide metabolites were measured in a subgroup of 10 patients. The results in infants with pulmonary hypertension, as assessed by echocardiography, were compared with those in infants without pulmonary hypertension. The frequencies of the carbamoyl-phosphate synthetase genotypes in the study population were assessed for Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. RESULTS: As compared with infants without pulmonary hypertension, infants with pulmonary hypertension had lower mean (+/-SD) plasma concentrations of arginine (20.2+/-8.8 vs. 39.8+/-17.0 micromol per liter, P<0.001) and nitric oxide metabolites (18.8+/-12.7 vs. 47.2+/-11.2 micromol per liter, P=0.05). As compared with the general population, the infants in the study had a significantly skewed distribution of the genotypes for the carbamoyl-phosphate synthetase variants at position 1405 (P<0.005). None of the infants with pulmonary hypertension were homozygous for the T1405N polymorphism. CONCLUSIONS: Infants with persistent pulmonary hypertension have low plasma concentrations of arginine and nitric oxide metabolites. The simultaneous presence of diminished concentrations of precursors and breakdown products suggests that inadequate production of nitric oxide is involved in the pathogenesis of neonatal pulmonary hypertension. Our preliminary observations suggest that the genetically predetermined capacity of the urea cycle--in particular, the efficiency of carbamoyl-phosphate synthetase--may contribute to the availability of precursors for nitric oxide synthesis.  (+info)

Transfer RNA-dependent amino acid biosynthesis: an essential route to asparagine formation. (7/39)

Biochemical experiments and genomic sequence analysis showed that Deinococcus radiodurans and Thermus thermophilus do not possess asparagine synthetase (encoded by asnA or asnB), the enzyme forming asparagine from aspartate. Instead these organisms derive asparagine from asparaginyl-tRNA, which is made from aspartate in the tRNA-dependent transamidation pathway [Becker, H. D. & Kern, D. (1998) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 95, 12832-12837; and Curnow, A. W., Tumbula, D. L., Pelaschier, J. T., Min, B. & Soll, D. (1998) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 95, 12838-12843]. A genetic knockout disrupting this pathway deprives D. radiodurans of the ability to synthesize asparagine and confers asparagine auxotrophy. The organism's capacity to make asparagine could be restored by transformation with Escherichia coli asnB. This result demonstrates that in Deinococcus, the only route to asparagine is via asparaginyl-tRNA. Analysis of the completed genomes of many bacteria reveal that, barring the existence of an unknown pathway of asparagine biosynthesis, a wide spectrum of bacteria rely on the tRNA-dependent transamidation pathway as the sole route to asparagine.  (+info)

Carbamoyl-phosphate synthetase. Creation of an escape route for ammonia. (8/39)

Carbamoyl-phosphate synthetase catalyzes the production of carbamoyl phosphate through a reaction mechanism requiring one molecule of bicarbonate, two molecules of MgATP, and one molecule of glutamine. The enzyme from Escherichia coli is composed of two polypeptide chains. The smaller of these belongs to the Class I amidotransferase superfamily and contains all of the necessary amino acid side chains required for the hydrolysis of glutamine to glutamate and ammonia. Two homologous domains from the larger subunit adopt conformations that are characteristic for members of the ATP-grasp superfamily. Each of these ATP-grasp domains contains an active site responsible for binding one molecule of MgATP. High resolution x-ray crystallographic analyses have shown that, remarkably, the three active sites in the E. coli enzyme are connected by a molecular tunnel of approximately 100 A in total length. Here we describe the high resolution x-ray crystallographic structure of the G359F (small subunit) mutant protein of carbamoyl phosphate synthetase. This residue was initially targeted for study because it resides within the interior wall of the molecular tunnel leading from the active site of the small subunit to the first active site of the large subunit. It was anticipated that a mutation to the larger residue would "clog" the ammonia tunnel and impede the delivery of ammonia from its site of production to the site of utilization. In fact, the G359F substitution resulted in a complete change in the conformation of the loop delineated by Glu-355 to Ala-364, thereby providing an "escape" route for the ammonia intermediate directly to the bulk solvent. The substitution also effected the disposition of several key catalytic amino acid side chains in the small subunit active site.  (+info)

The structures of formylglycinamide ribonucleotide amidotransferase from S. typhimurium either with an unliganded glutaminase domain or in complex with an ATP analogue revealed that no major conformational changes take place upon formation of the glutamyl thioester intermediate or subsequent ATP complexation; therefore, formylglycinamide ribonucleotide binding is proposed to be the mechanism of activation of catalytic coupling in the enzyme ...
cytosol, phosphoribosylamine-glycine ligase activity, phosphoribosylformylglycinamidine cyclo-ligase activity, purine nucleotide biosynthetic process
Numerous significant hits to phosphoribosylformylglycinamidine cyclo-ligase (5-phosphoribosyl-5-aminoimidazole synthetase) proteins in gapped BLAST; e.g. residues 4-343 are 58% similar to gb,AAF95370.1, phosphoribosylformylglycinamidine cyclo-ligase of Vibrio cholerae, residues 3-332 are 59% similar to 10186025 phosphoribosylaminoimidazole synthetase of Escherichia coli, residues 3-332 are 58% similar to 1562541 5-phosphoribosyl-5-aminoimidazole synthetase of Salmonella typhimurium ...
InterPro provides functional analysis of proteins by classifying them into families and predicting domains and important sites. We combine protein signatures from a number of member databases into a single searchable resource, capitalising on their individual strengths to produce a powerful integrated database and diagnostic tool.
p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.,/p> ,p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.,/p> ,p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).,/p> ,p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x,sup>64,/sup> + x,sup>4,/sup> + x,sup>3,/sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. ,/p> ,p class=publication>Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.,br /> ,strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums,/strong>,br /> ,a href=http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php>Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993),/a>),/p> Checksum:i ...
With its passion for pure, natural fibers and exceptional design, Purl Soho is best known for bringing a modern sensibility to traditional crafts. Shop for beautiful yarn, fabric and supplies. Also at purlsoho.com, find the much-loved Purl Bee, our popular resource for free Purl Soho patterns and tons of inspiration!, Collections: Pins + Needles
SWISS-MODEL Repository entry for Q02Y55 (PURL_LACLS), Phosphoribosylformylglycinamidine synthase subunit PurL. Lactococcus lactis subsp cremoris (strain SK11)
SWISS-MODEL Repository entry for Q72IH7 (PURL_THET2), Phosphoribosylformylglycinamidine synthase subunit PurL. Thermus thermophilus (strain HB27 / ATCC BAA-163 / DSM 7039)
With its passion for pure, natural fibers and exceptional design, Purl Soho is best known for bringing a modern sensibility to traditional crafts. Shop for beautiful yarn, fabric and supplies. Also at purlsoho.com, find the much-loved Purl Bee, our popular resource for free Purl Soho patterns and tons of inspiration!
Phosphoribosylformylglycinamidine synthaseATP + N2-formyl-N1-(5-phospho-D-ribosyl)glycinamide + L-glutamine + H2O = ADP + phosphate + 2-(formamido)-N1-(5-phospho-D-ribosyl)acetamidine + L-glutamate ...
purl bee kitchener stitch. One of the things that specify the sweetness of the purl bee kitchener stitch may be the style of the area. One of the styles that people must attempt may be the Bohemian type.
prefix dcterms: ,http://purl.org/dc/terms/, . @prefix xsd: ,http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#, . @prefix bibo: ,http://purl.org/ontology/bibo/, . @prefix dbpprop: ,http://dbpedia.org/property/, . @prefix gcis: ,http://data.globalchange.gov/gcis.owl#, . @prefix prov: ,http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#, . @prefix fabio: ,http://purl.org/spar/fabio/, . @prefix cito: ,http://purl.org/spar/cito/, . @prefix biro: ,http://purl.org/spar/biro/, . ,https://data.globalchange.gov/article/10.1890/08-1863.1, dcterms:identifier 10.1890/08-1863.1; dcterms:title Forecasting the dynamics of a coastal fishery species using a coupled climate-population model^^xsd:string; dcterms:isPartOf ,https://data.globalchange.gov/journal/ecological-applications,; bibo:volume 20; bibo:pages 452-464; dbpprop:pubYear 2010^^xsd:gYear; bibo:doi 10.1890/08-1863.1; a gcis:AcademicArticle, fabio:Article . ## Contributors: ## Person and his/her role in the creation of the entity: ...
prefix dcterms: ,http://purl.org/dc/terms/, . @prefix xsd: ,http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#, . @prefix bibo: ,http://purl.org/ontology/bibo/, . @prefix dbpprop: ,http://dbpedia.org/property/, . @prefix gcis: ,http://data.globalchange.gov/gcis.owl#, . @prefix prov: ,http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#, . @prefix fabio: ,http://purl.org/spar/fabio/, . @prefix cito: ,http://purl.org/spar/cito/, . @prefix biro: ,http://purl.org/spar/biro/, . ,https://data.globalchange.gov/article/10.1016/j.landurbplan.2011.03.006, dcterms:identifier 10.1016/j.landurbplan.2011.03.006; dcterms:title Urban green zones and related pollen allergy: A review. Some guidelines for designing spaces with low allergy impact^^xsd:string; dcterms:isPartOf ,https://data.globalchange.gov/journal/landscape-urban-planning,; bibo:volume 101; bibo:pages 205-214; dbpprop:pubYear 2011^^xsd:gYear; bibo:doi 10.1016/j.landurbplan.2011.03.006; a gcis:AcademicArticle, fabio:Article . ## Contributors: ## Person and his/her role in the ...
1CLI: X-ray crystal structure of aminoimidazole ribonucleotide synthetase (PurM), from the Escherichia coli purine biosynthetic pathway at 2.5 A resolution.
context: https://springernature.github.io/scigraph/jsonld/sgcontext.json, about: [ { id: http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/0604, inDefinedTermSet: http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/, name: Genetics, type: DefinedTerm }, { id: http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/06, inDefinedTermSet: http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/, name: Biological Sciences, type: DefinedTerm }, { inDefinedTermSet: https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/, name: Cell Line, type: DefinedTerm }, { inDefinedTermSet: https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/, name: Gene Expression Regulation, type: DefinedTerm }, { inDefinedTermSet: https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/, name: Gene Products, rev, type: DefinedTerm }, { inDefinedTermSet: https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/, name: Gene Products, tat, type: DefinedTerm }, { inDefinedTermSet: https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/, name: Gene Transfer ...
context: https://springernature.github.io/scigraph/jsonld/sgcontext.json, about: [ { id: http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/0601, inDefinedTermSet: http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/, name: Biochemistry and Cell Biology, type: DefinedTerm }, { id: http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/06, inDefinedTermSet: http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/, name: Biological Sciences, type: DefinedTerm }, { inDefinedTermSet: https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/, name: Amino Acid Transport Systems, type: DefinedTerm }, { inDefinedTermSet: https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/, name: Amino Acids, type: DefinedTerm }, { inDefinedTermSet: https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/, name: Anion Transport Proteins, type: DefinedTerm }, { inDefinedTermSet: https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/, name: Gene Expression Regulation, Plant, type: DefinedTerm }, { inDefinedTermSet: ...
Accepted name: phosphoribosylformylglycinamidine cyclo-ligase. Reaction: ATP + 2-(formamido)-N1-(5-phospho-D-ribosyl)acetamidine = ADP + phosphate + 5-amino-1-(5-phospho-D-ribosyl)imidazole. For reaction pathway click here.. Other name(s): phosphoribosylaminoimidazole synthetase; AIR synthetase; 5-aminoimidazole ribonucleotide synthetase. Systematic name: 2-(formamido)-N1-(5-phosphoribosyl)acetamidine cyclo-ligase (ADP-forming). Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, Metacyc, PDB, CAS registry number: 9023-53-4. References:. 1. Levenberg, B. and Buchanan, J.M. Properties of the purines. XII. Structure, enzymatic synthesis, and metabolism of 5-aminoimidazole ribotide. J. Biol. Chem. 224 (1957) 1005-1018.. 2. Levenberg, B. and Buchanan, J.M. Properties of the purines. XIII. Structure, enzymatic synthesis, and metabolism of (α-N-formyl)-glycinamidine ribotide. J. Biol. Chem. 224 (1957) 1018-1027.. ...
Rock + Purl Patterns - Lichen Mists Pattern - Detailed Description. Rock + Purl Patterns - Lichen Mists Pattern is available now at Jimmy Beans Wool with Free U.S. Flat Rate shipping for orders over $75, $4 U.S. Flat Rate shipping on all other orders!
1 R. Caliandro, D. Dibenedetto, G. L. Cascarano, A. Mazzone and G. Nico Automatic [alpha]-helix identification in Patterson maps Acta Cryst. D68, 1-12 2 A. Sharma, G. J. Palm, M. Kumari, S. Panjikar, M. V. Jagannadham and W. Hinrichs Purification, crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of banyan peroxidase Acta Cryst. F68, 931-934 3 E. Dall and H. Brandstetter Activation of legumain involves proteolytic and conformational events, resulting in a context- and substrate-dependent activity profile Acta Cryst. F68, 24-31 5 Ruggiero, Alessia; Smaldone, Giovanni; Squeglia, Flavia; Berisio, Rita Enhanced Crystallizability by Protein Engineering Approaches: A General Overview Protein and Peptide Letters V19, 732-742. 6 A. Hoeppner, F. Thomas, A. Rueppel, R. Hensel, W. Blankenfeldt, P. Bayer and A. Faust Structure of the corrinoid:coenzyme M methyltransferase MtaA from Methanosarcina mazei Acta Cryst. D68, 1549-1557. 7 A. S. Tanwar, M. Morar, S. Panjikar and R. Anand Formylglycinamide ...
The bifunctional human enzyme phosphoribosylaminoimidazole carboxylase and phosphoribosylaminoimidazolesuccinocarboxamide synthetase (PAICS) catalyzes two essential steps in the de novo purine biosynthesis pathway. PAICS is overexpressed in many cancers and could be a promising target for the development of cancer therapeutics. Here, using gene knockdowns and clonogenic survival and cell viability assays, we demonstrate that PAICS is required for growth and survival of prostate cancer cells. PAICS catalyzes the carboxylation of aminoimidazole ribonucleotide (AIR) and the subsequent conversion of carboxyaminoimidazole ribonucleotide (CAIR) and L-aspartate to N-succinylcarboxamide-5-aminoimidazole ribonucleotide (SAICAR). Of note, we present the first structures of human octameric PAICS in complexes with native ligands. In particular, we report the structure of PAICS with CAIR bound in the active sites of both domains and SAICAR bound in one of the SAICAR synthetase domains. Moreover, we report ...
Models, ,Model name=Allergy, ,Field name=allergic_reaction_title,Anaphylaxis,/Field, ,Field name=allergic_reaction_system,http://purl.bioontology.org/ontology/SNOMEDCT/,/Field, ,Field name=allergic_reaction_identifier,39579001,/Field, ,Field name=category_title,Drug allergy,/Field, ,Field name=category_system,http://purl.bioontology.org/ontology/SNOMEDCT/,/Field, ,Field name=category_identifier,416098002,/Field, ,Field name=drug_class_allergen_title,Sulfonamide Antibacterial,/Field, ,Field name=drug_class_allergen_system,http://purl.bioontology.org/ontology/NDFRT/,/Field, ,Field name=drug_class_allergen_identifier,N0000175503,/Field, ,Field name=severity_title,Severe,/Field, ,Field name=severity_system,http://purl.bioontology.org/ontology/SNOMEDCT/,/Field, ,Field name=severity_identifier,24484000,/Field, ,/Model, ,Model name=AllergyExclusion, ,Field name=name_title,No known allergies,/Field, ,Field name=name_identifier,160244002,/Field, ,Field name = ...
Horoscope and natal chart of Linda Purl, born on 1955/09/02: you will find in this page an excerpt of the astrological portrait and the interpration of the planetary dominants.
This domain is found in carbamoyl dehydratase HypE, which is involved in the maturation of NifE hydrogenase; AIR synthase (PurM) and FGAM synthase (PurL), which are involved in de novo purine biosynthesis; and selenide, water dikinase, an enzyme which synthesizes selenophosphate from selenide and ATP.. In PurM this domain, which has an alpha-beta-type fold, is found at the C terminus of the protein [(PUBMED:10508786)].. ...
rdf:RDF xmlns:dcterms=http://purl.org/dc/terms/ xmlns:dc=http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/ xmlns:rdf=http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns# xmlns:bibo=http://purl.org/ontology/bibo/ xmlns:dspace=http://digital-repositories.org/ontologies/dspace/0.1.0# xmlns:foaf=http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/ xmlns:void=http://rdfs.org/ns/void# xmlns:xsd=http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema# , ,rdf:Description rdf:about=https://kops.uni-konstanz.de/rdf/resource/123456789/38838, ,dc:contributor,Schober, Steffen,/dc:contributor, ,dcterms:title,Differentiation of ncRNAs from small mRNAs in Escherichia coli O157:H7 EDL933 (EHEC) by combined RNAseq and RIBOseq - ryhB encodes the regulatory RNA RyhB and a peptide, RyhP,/dcterms:title, ,dc:creator,Smith, Cameron,/dc:creator, ,dspace:hasBitstream rdf:resource=https://kops.uni-konstanz.de/bitstream/123456789/38838/1/Neuhaus_0-403860.pdf/, ,dc:contributor,Landstorfer, Richard,/dc:contributor, ,dc:creator,Wright, Patrick R.,/dc:creator, ...
rdf:RDF xmlns:dcterms=http://purl.org/dc/terms/ xmlns:dc=http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/ xmlns:rdf=http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns# xmlns:bibo=http://purl.org/ontology/bibo/ xmlns:dspace=http://digital-repositories.org/ontologies/dspace/0.1.0# xmlns:foaf=http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/ xmlns:void=http://rdfs.org/ns/void# xmlns:xsd=http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema# , ,rdf:Description rdf:about=https://kops.uni-konstanz.de/rdf/resource/123456789/40242, ,dc:contributor,Wörner, Hans Jakob,/dc:contributor, ,dc:creator,Jaun, Bernhard,/dc:creator, ,dcterms:issued,2003-12-05,/dcterms:issued, ,dspace:isPartOfCollection rdf:resource=https://kops.uni-konstanz.de/rdf/resource/123456789/29/, ,dc:creator,Rueping, Magnus,/dc:creator, ,dcterms:title,Molecular Dynamics Simulations of Small Peptides : Can One Derive Conformational Preferences from ROESY Spectra?,/dcterms:title, ,dc:language,eng,/dc:language, ,dc:contributor,Jaun, Bernhard,/dc:contributor, ,foaf:homepage ...
Molecular association of cancer cell metastasis with signaling pathways has been explicated so as to aid in the development of new prognostic models for better cancer therapies. However, those metastatic signaling pathways are barely explored to take account of the functions of enzymes involved in cellular metabolism. Particularly, the metabolic enzymes in de novo purine biosynthesis have been overlooked for their potential roles in cancer cell metastasis even though they have been successfully validated anti-cancer drug targets. Meanwhile, several lines of recent discoveries on de novo purine biosynthesis suggest that the spatiotemporal assembly of purine biosynthetic enzymes, the purinosome, is under controls of signaling pathways in cancer cells. The results of the inquiry reveal an unanticipated mechanism of action of 3-phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase 1 (PDK1) signaling pathways in regulation of purine biosynthesis in an Akt-independent manner. Considering the biological action of ...
uuid: dec02343-a86f-4ab4-bf21-4fc1b0ebb88d, type: records, etag: 32e1356bf3c3ca2c60ea19eaffefdfa874393c3e, data: { dwc:county: Missoula County, dwc:recordedBy: E. Bartholomew, dwc:fieldNumber: s.n., dcterms:accessRights: http://kiki.huh.harvard.edu/databases/addenda.html#policy, dwc:occurrenceID: http://purl.oclc.org/net/edu.harvard.huh/guid/uuid/7a1ecd76-79c9-4c7c-8597-46e5f3be110e, dcterms:language: en, dwc:scientificNameAuthorship: (Linnaeus) Quélet, dcterms:rightsHolder: President and Fellows of Harvard College, dwc:stateProvince: Montana, dwc:eventDate: 1917-07-16, dwc:collectionID: urn:lsid:biocol.org:col:13199, dwc:country: United States of America, dwc:collectionCode: FH, dcterms:source: http://purl.oclc.org/net/edu.harvard.huh/guid/uuid/7a1ecd76-79c9-4c7c-8597-46e5f3be110e, dwc:basisOfRecord: PreservedSpecimen, dwc:family: Polyporaceae, dwc:continent: North America, dwc:preparations: Packet, dwc:sex: ...
uuid: 1682e5c2-96b2-4a8f-b7b5-2dbfde1354d4, type: records, etag: 7043019a0b6112302a7eb118a25b72c4e5c0d089, data: { dwc:recordedBy: D. H. Linder, dwc:fieldNumber: 817, dcterms:accessRights: http://kiki.huh.harvard.edu/databases/addenda.html#policy, dwc:occurrenceID: http://purl.oclc.org/net/edu.harvard.huh/guid/uuid/85c35bb0-936c-4b18-8614-67b5e1aaaf5f, dcterms:language: en, dwc:scientificNameAuthorship: Lloyd, dcterms:rightsHolder: President and Fellows of Harvard College, dwc:ownerInstitutionCode: Harvard University, dwc:eventDate: 1924-01-16, dwc:collectionID: urn:lsid:biocol.org:col:13199, dwc:country: Guyana, dwc:collectionCode: FH, dcterms:source: http://purl.oclc.org/net/edu.harvard.huh/guid/uuid/85c35bb0-936c-4b18-8614-67b5e1aaaf5f, dwc:basisOfRecord: PreservedSpecimen, dwc:family: Phallaceae, dwc:continent: South America, dwc:preparations: Packet, dwc:sex: undetermined, dwc:locality: Bartica, British ...
PREFIX bibo: ,http://purl.org/ontology/bibo/, PREFIX dct: ,http://purl.org/dc/terms/, PREFIX rdfs: ,http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#, CONSTRUCT { # constructing properties of http://bnb.data.bl.uk/id/resource/013241080 ,http://bnb.data.bl.uk/id/resource/013241080, bibo:isbn10 ?var_1_0 . ,http://bnb.data.bl.uk/id/resource/013241080, dct:contributor ?var_2_0 . ?var_2_0 rdfs:label ?var_2_1_0 . ,http://bnb.data.bl.uk/id/resource/013241080, dct:title ?var_3_0 . ,http://bnb.data.bl.uk/id/resource/013241080, ?var_4_0_prop ?var_4_0 . ?var_4_0 rdfs:label ?var_4_1_0 . } WHERE { # identifying properties of http://bnb.data.bl.uk/id/resource/013241080 { ,http://bnb.data.bl.uk/id/resource/013241080, bibo:isbn10 ?var_1_0 . } UNION { ,http://bnb.data.bl.uk/id/resource/013241080, dct:contributor ?var_2_0 . OPTIONAL { ?var_2_0 rdfs:label ?var_2_1_0 . } } UNION { ,http://bnb.data.bl.uk/id/resource/013241080, dct:title ?var_3_0 . } UNION { ,http://bnb.data.bl.uk/id/resource/013241080, ?var_4_0_prop ?var_4_0 . ...
Of the various embroidery needles I have, my favorite are the small, overpriced (though perhaps not, since I love the so much) Sajou needles I got from the Purl Soho website last year. At the time, I had just discovered Sajou online and was trying to figure out if there was any way I could swing that lovely set of all of their Retours Du Nord embroidery thread (I spent a lot of time on the English version of their website calculating exchange rates and horrified by the cost of shipping to the U.S. from France!). I even tried to think of anyone I knew who might be going to France and asked one friend of my mothers if she would have time on her next business trip to Paris to go out to the Sajou headquarters (she didnt). I finally ordered a selection of individual thread cards from Purl Soho, along with some of the Sajou linen, and the packet of embroidery needles. I love the thread, though I still havent tested its color-fastness and have only used it on a few small cross-stitch samples that ...
Of the various embroidery needles I have, my favorite are the small, overpriced (though perhaps not, since I love the so much) Sajou needles I got from the Purl Soho website last year. At the time, I had just discovered Sajou online and was trying to figure out if there was any way I could swing that lovely set of all of their Retours Du Nord embroidery thread (I spent a lot of time on the English version of their website calculating exchange rates and horrified by the cost of shipping to the U.S. from France!). I even tried to think of anyone I knew who might be going to France and asked one friend of my mothers if she would have time on her next business trip to Paris to go out to the Sajou headquarters (she didnt). I finally ordered a selection of individual thread cards from Purl Soho, along with some of the Sajou linen, and the packet of embroidery needles. I love the thread, though I still havent tested its color-fastness and have only used it on a few small cross-stitch samples that ...
A stretch knit upper adds texture and a custom fit to a streamlined bootie set on a low block heel. Super easy to wear and comfy enough to wear all day. We love the graphite color to break up an all black outfit. 1 3/4 heel 5 shaft
1B6S: Three-dimensional structure of N5-carboxyaminoimidazole ribonucleotide synthetase: a member of the ATP grasp protein superfamily.
div xmlns:dct=http://purl.org/dc/terms/ xmlns:cc=http://creativecommons.org/ns# class=oip_media about=https://www.openbeelden.nl/files/10/48/1048297.1048294.VKH0389_099_1-NAT00Z034VG.mp4,,video height=288 width=512 poster=https://www.openbeelden.nl/images/1048334/Bladeren_van_de_linde_spec_in_beeld_%280_15%29.png controls=controls,,source type=video/mp4; codecs=avc1.42E01E,mp4a.40.2 src=https://www.openbeelden.nl/files/10/48/1048297.1048294.VKH0389_099_1-NAT00Z034VG.mp4/,,source type=video/mp4; codecs=avc1.42E01E,mp4a.40.2 src=https://www.openbeelden.nl/files/10/48/1048294.VKH0389_099_1-NAT00Z034VG.mp4/,,source type=video/ogg; codecs=theora,vorbis src=https://www.openbeelden.nl/files/10/48/1048303.1048294.VKH0389_099_1-NAT00Z034VG.ogv/,,source type=application/x-mpegurl src=https://www.openbeelden.nl/files/10/48/1048307.1048294.VKH0389_099_1_NAT00Z034VG.m3u8/,,/video,,span class=license,,a href=https://www.openbeelden.nl/media/1048290 rel=cc:attributionURL ...
Taxonomy URI: http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/NCBITaxon_4932. Synonyms: yeast, lager beer yeast, brewers yeast, bakers yeast. ...
There is the option of purchasing 4 PDF files have lots of work-in-progress colour photos and additional tips to work the embroidery. The 4 PDF files combined with the instructions will give you a well rounded learning in the technique but the PDF files are not essential to work the landscape. The last few pictures in the picture gallery show some of the pages in the PDF files.. PDF #1 has 24 pages: Design Transfer and the Blue Mountains in Long and short Stitch.. PDF #2 has 13 pages: Green Grass in Long Split Stitch. PDF #3 has 16 pages: Tree in Split Stitch and Pearl Purl Outline. PDF #4 has 10 pages: Finishing the Embroidery Ready for Display. Each tree on the landscape comes out slightly different making the landscape fun and unique to the person who stitches it. View some of my online class students finished landscapes.. Finishing: There are a variety of methods that the landscape embroidery can be finished and displayed. The landscape can be displayed in the traditional fashion in a frame, ...
UBERON ,alt_id= ,comment=Editor notes - note the distinction between this and skeleton of limb ,created_by= ,def=Skeletal subdivision that is a segment of the limb skeleton. [VSAO:0005018, VSAO:NI] ,derives_from= ,develops_from= ,disjoint_from= ,has_quality= ,id=UBERON:0010712 ,is_a=UBERON:0010912 ,is_obsolete= ,located_in= ,name=limb skeleton subdivision ,namespace=FANTOM ,obo_creation_date= ,part_of=UBERON:0002101;;UBERON:0002091;;UBERON:0002101 ,preceded_by= ,property_value=IAO:0000412 http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/uberon.owl ,subset= ,synonym= ,union_of= ,xref=VSAO:0005018 ...
Also available via Internet from the GPO Access web site. Addresses as of 8/17/07: http://frwebgate.access.gpo.gov/cgi-bin/getdoc.cgi?dbname=109h̲ ouseh̲earings&docid=f:35566.wais (text version); http://frwebgate.access.gpo.gov/cgi-bin/getdoc.cgi?dbname=109h̲ ouseh̲earings&docid=f:35566.pdf (PDF version) current access is available via PURLs ...
A respiratory failure that is characterized by deficiency of the surfactant coating the inner surface of the lungs, by failure of the lungs to expand and contract properly during breathing with resulting collapse, and by the accumulation of a protein-containing film lining the alveoli and their ducts. [ http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/ECO_0007643 ...
*This listing is for the end of bolt, this is usually your last chance to grab an item and at a discount! Please note, the end of the bolt does contain slight dust/debris but often washes out. This rib knit is smooth and soft with beautiful drape. It has a 8x4 rib texture meaning 8 knit stitches and 4 purl stitches ar
Mode of access: Internet from the NTRS web site. Address as of 1/30/07: http://ntrs.nasa.gov/archive/nasa/casi.ntrs.nasa.g ov/20010004249%5F2001002276.pdf; current access is available via PURL ...
Master and use copy. Digital master created according to Benchmark for Faithful Digital Reproductions of Monographs and Serials, Version 1. Digital Library Federation, December 2002. http://purl.oclc.org/DLF/ ...
context: https://purl.imsglobal.org/spec/case/v1p0/context/imscasev1p0_context_v1p0.jsonld, type: CFRubric, uri: https://sandbox.casenetwork.imsglobal.org/uri/02f10a60-d590-4ae0-a421-943d238cb59e, identifier: 02f10a60-d590-4ae0-a421-943d238cb59e, lastChangeDateTime: 2019-08-06T15:48:37+00:00, title: Grade 3 Report Card Teacher Rubric, description: These rubrics are a tool to define the learning expectations and guide teachers in assessing student understanding of grade level standards. The intent of these rubrics is to clarify the path of learning towards mastery. The rubrics should support and be used along with teacher discretion, observation, and collection of evidence. Student level represents the most recent display of understanding., CFRubricCriteria: [ { uri: https://sandbox.casenetwork.imsglobal.org/uri/630ab4bf-966a-49a8-b34f-674c1835c4d2, identifier: 630ab4bf-966a-49a8-b34f-674c1835c4d2, lastChangeDateTime: 2019-08-06T15:48:37+00:00, ...
t d NlryuIeln for I eNe IInco I will gIns you a recIpe that Is I n dead lint on then pett 1 hree parti cornmeal corn-meal n purl of RrnnnUted tugar mix scull nater n , thai II eon he inoldetl up In little plcrea one half as large ni lulled I IiI huts lresI 1 the e three a bye nml the fourth day add flOe elahth oinp of Ktryehnlno cryntallln I en ralrle 1 doc I Imvo n teals for prnn ulateil nfar elirnnry Is l the month o plve Dili to them I faro one do Its the ulegt nn1 plekml lip twenty , ix iiiUlte of thilr boles at one time taiiM I ...
I have Beth Brown-Reisels gansey book which I used to design a gansey to invoke the boyfriend curse (it worked Yay!) The directions in the book were awesome, I really learned a lot of new shaping techniques and was amazed at how clever a lot of the little details were. When I got the sweater back from the ex a little while ago, I seriously contemplated ripping it to make something else out of my handspun - but the diamond shaped arm gussets, the sideways neck gusset. The fake knit/purl seams... I just couldnt do it, and have actually taken to wearing the sweater on a very regular basis! (After I washed the patchouli smell out of it of course ...
PREFIX dcterms: ,http://purl.org/dc/terms/, PREFIX nfo: ,http://www.semanticdesktop.org/ontologies/2007/03/22/nfo#, PREFIX parl: ,http://data.parliament.uk/schema/parl#, PREFIX rdfs: ,http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#, PREFIX skos: ,http://www.w3.org/2004/02/skos/core#, CONSTRUCT {?item parl:tablingMemberPrinted ?___6 . ?item parl:hansardHeading ?___7 . ?item parl:legislature ?___8 . ?___8 skos:prefLabel ?___9 . ?item parl:answeringDeptSortName ?___10 . ?item parl:answeringDeptShortName ?___11 . ?item parl:answer ?___12 . ?___12 parl:questionFirstAnswered ?___13 . ?___12 parl:attachment ?___14 . ?___14 nfo:fileName ?___15 . ?___14 dcterms:title ?___16 . ?___12 parl:questionFirstMinisteriallyCorrected ?___17 . ?___12 parl:answeringMemberConstituency ?___18 . ?___12 parl:answeringMemberPrinted ?___19 . ?___12 parl:isMinisterialCorrection ?___20 . ?___12 parl:dateOfAnswer ?___21 . ?___12 parl:answeringMember ?___22 . ?___22 rdfs:label ?___23 . ?___12 parl:previousAnswerVersion ?___24 . ?___24 ...
PREFIX dcterms: ,http://purl.org/dc/terms/, PREFIX nfo: ,http://www.semanticdesktop.org/ontologies/2007/03/22/nfo#, PREFIX parl: ,http://data.parliament.uk/schema/parl#, PREFIX rdfs: ,http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#, PREFIX skos: ,http://www.w3.org/2004/02/skos/core#, CONSTRUCT {?item parl:tablingMemberPrinted ?___6 . ?item parl:hansardHeading ?___7 . ?item parl:legislature ?___8 . ?___8 skos:prefLabel ?___9 . ?item parl:answeringDeptSortName ?___10 . ?item parl:answeringDeptShortName ?___11 . ?item parl:answer ?___12 . ?___12 parl:questionFirstAnswered ?___13 . ?___12 parl:attachment ?___14 . ?___14 nfo:fileName ?___15 . ?___14 dcterms:title ?___16 . ?___12 parl:questionFirstMinisteriallyCorrected ?___17 . ?___12 parl:answeringMemberConstituency ?___18 . ?___12 parl:answeringMemberPrinted ?___19 . ?___12 parl:isMinisterialCorrection ?___20 . ?___12 parl:dateOfAnswer ?___21 . ?___12 parl:answeringMember ?___22 . ?___22 rdfs:label ?___23 . ?___12 parl:previousAnswerVersion ?___24 . ?___24 ...
The purinosome is a putative multi-enzyme complex that carries out de novo purine biosynthesis within the cell. It is postulated to include all six of the human enzymes identified as direct participants in this ten-step biosynthetic pathway converting phosphoribosyl pyrophosphate to inosine monophosphate: The enzymes of the multi-step de novo purine biosynthesis pathway have been postulated to form a multi-enzyme complex to facilitate substrate channeling between each enzyme of the pathway. Slight variations of the pathway exists between phyla; however, there are 13 enzymes that can be considered part of this biosynthetic pathway. Several individual enzymatic functions have consolidated onto single bifunctional or trifunctional polypeptide chains in higher organisms, suggesting stable physical interactions exist between enzymes. The functional consolidation of steps 2,3, and 5 of the pathway into a single enzyme in higher organisms such as humans suggests physical local proximity of the enzyme ...
Glycinamide ribonucleotide synthetase (GAR-syn) catalyzes the second step of the de novo purine biosynthetic pathway; the conversion of phosphoribosylamine,glycine, and ATP to glycinamide ribonucleotide (GAR), ADP, and Pi. GAR-syncontaining an N-terminal polyhistidine tag was expressed as the SeMetincorporated protein for crystallographic studies. In addition, the protein asisolated contains a Pro294Leu mutation. This protein was crystallized, and thestructure solved using multiple-wavelength anomalous diffraction (MAD) phasedetermination and refined to 1.6 A resolution. GAR-syn adopts an alpha/betastructure that consists of four domains labeled N, A, B, and C. The N, A, and Cdomains are clustered to form a large central core structure whereas the smaller B domain is extended outward. Two hinge regions, which might readily facilitateinterdomain movement, connect the B domain and the main core. A search ofstructural databases showed that the structure of GAR-syn is similar toD-alanine:D-alanine ...
I pulled out about 30 rows in the middle zig-zag column, back down to the misplaced eyelet, and attempted to fix it. I used a long piece of styrofoam and a handful of T pins to keep track of the individual stitches. I turned the sleeve inside out because it is much easier to use a crochet hook to fix knit stitches than purl stitches. And one by one, I started re-knitting the row. This is not for the impatient or the faint of heart. As it turns out, it made me sick to my stomach. Literally. After repairing about 15 rows, I was huddled in a ball on the couch, moaning. And feeling chills. And my husband watched me nervously. After a sleepless night, an offer of a visit to the hospital, and a very unproductive day at work, we decided that it probably wasnt the knitting, but rather an unfortunately timed bout of food poisoning. Something similar happened to me many years ago after my first Yoga class. Ive never returned to Yoga.. Tonight, I decided to cling to my Addis and tempt fate with another ...
MATCH (gathered_predicate0:Term)-[:parent_term,synonym_of*0..]-,(:Term{ uri: http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/UBERON_0001032 }) WITH collect(DISTINCT gathered_predicate0) AS gathered_predicate0s MATCH (page:Page)-[:trait]-,(trait:Trait), (trait)-[:object_term]-,(object_term0:Term)-[:parent_term,synonym_of*0..]-,(tgt_object_term0:Term), (trait)-[:predicate]-,(pred:Term) WHERE pred IN gathered_predicate0s AND tgt_object_term0.uri = https://www.wikidata.org/entity/Q1326528 WITH DISTINCT trait RETURN trait.eol_pk LIMIT ...
collection href=http://opendepot.org/sword-app/deposit/buffer, ,atom:title,Repository Review,/atom:title, ,accept,*/*,/accept, ,sword:acceptPackaging q=0.2,http://www.loc.gov/METS/,/sword:acceptPackaging, ,sword:acceptPackaging q=1.0,http://eprints.org/ep2/data/2.0,/sword:acceptPackaging, ,sword:acceptPackaging q=0.2,http://www.imsglobal.org/xsd/imscp_v1p1,/sword:acceptPackaging, ,sword:acceptPackaging q=0.2,http://purl.org/net/sword-types/METSDSpaceSIP,/sword:acceptPackaging, ,sword:collectionPolicy/, ,sword:treatment, Deposited items will undergo the review process. Upon approval, items will appear in the live repository. ,/sword:treatment, ,sword:mediation,true,/sword:mediation, ,dcterms:abstract,This is the repository review.,/dcterms:abstract, ,/collection ...
... carbon-nitrogen ligases with glutamine as amide-n-donor MeSH D08.811.464.259.400.300 - carbamoyl-phosphate synthase (glutamine- ... amide synthases MeSH D08.811.464.259.200.200 - aspartate-ammonia ligase MeSH D08.811.464.259.200.600 - glutamate-ammonia ligase ... valine-tRNA ligase MeSH D08.811.464.267.500 - coenzyme a ligases MeSH D08.811.464.267.500.200 - acetate-coa ligase MeSH D08.811 ... 500.600 - succinate-coa ligases MeSH D08.811.464.754.600 - dna ligases MeSH D08.811.464.754.720 - rna ligase (atp) MeSH D08.811 ...
... specifically those forming carbon-nitrogen bonds carbon-nitrogen ligases with glutamine as amido-N-donor. The systematic name ... The amidotransferase domain is responsible for removal of the amide nitrogen from the glutamine substrate. The class I ... L-glutamine amido-ligase (AMP-forming). This enzyme participates in purine metabolism and glutamate metabolism. At least one ... GMP synthase is also involved in amino acid metabolism because it generates L-glutamate from L-glutamine. This enzyme is widely ...
CPS III (EC is a ligase (3.) that forms carbon-nitrogen bonds (6.3.) with glutamine as amido-N-donor (6.3.5.) (see ... and a C-terminal glutamine amide transferase domain (GAT) located between Thr166 and Ile407. The cysteine residue Cyst294 along ... The main function of the OUC is to convert highly toxic nitrogen waste (NH3) in urea, which shows less toxicity. This cycle ... The difference between them is that CPS III uses glutamine as substrate while CPS I use ammonia. It is believed that these ...
One-carbon units in a variety of oxidation states may be attached to the N5 nitrogen atom of the pteridine ring and/or the N10 ... Alternative carbon sources include formate which by the catalytic action of formate-tetrahydrofolate ligase add a 1C unit to ... Rubio IT, Cao Y, Hutchins LF, Westbrook KC, Klimberg VS (May 1998). "Effect of glutamine on methotrexate efficacy and toxicity ... heterocyclic ring is linked by a methylene bridge to a p-aminobenzoyl group that in turn is bonded through an amide linkage to ...
Carbon-Nitrogen Ligases with Glutamine as Amide-N-Donor Descripteur en anglais: Carbon-Nitrogen Ligases with Glutamine as Amide ... Carbon-Nitrogen Ligases with Glutamine as Amide-N-Donor - Concept préféré Concept UI. M0029295. ... Carbon-Nitrogen Ligases with Glutamine as Amide-N-Donor [D08.811.464.259.400] ... Carbon-Nitrogen Ligases with Glutamine as Amide-N-Donor Synonymes. Carbone-azote ligases avec glutamine comme donneur N-amide ...
Carbon-Nitrogen Ligases. Carbon-Nitrogen Ligases with Glutamine as Amide-N-Donor ...
Carbon-Nitrogen Ligases with Glutamine as Amide-N-Donor [D08.811.464.259.400] ... Amino-acid ligases Entry term(s):. Acid Amino Acid Ligases. Acid-Amino-Acid Ligases. Ligases, Acid-Amino-Acid. Peptide ... Ligases that catalyze the joining of adjacent AMINO ACIDS by the formation of carbon-nitrogen bonds between their carboxylic ... Ligases that catalyze the joining of adjacent AMINO ACIDS by the formation of carbon-nitrogen bonds between their carboxylic ...
ligase activity, forming carbon-nitrogen bonds. IEP. Enrichment. MF. GO:0016887. ATPase. IEP. Enrichment. ... glutamine family amino acid metabolic process. IEP. Enrichment. BP. GO:0009084. glutamine family amino acid biosynthetic ... oxidoreductase activity, acting on the aldehyde or oxo group of donors, NAD or NADP as acceptor. IEP. Enrichment. ... amide transport. IEP. Enrichment. MF. GO:0043167. ion binding. IEP. Enrichment. MF. GO:0043168. anion binding. IEP. Enrichment ...
The results showed that the final degradation rate of dissolved organic carbon and dissolved organic nitrogen of four AAs ... Oral glutamine dipeptide or oral glutamine free amino acid reduces burned injury progression in rats / O dipeptídeo de ... Glycine was reported as the most abundant amino acid residue in both donor and acceptor profiles, and N-Hâ ¯O was the most ... A number of purine arabinosides containing chiral amino acid amides at the C6 position of the purine were synthesized using a ...
Inosine is a purine nucleoside that has hypoxanthine linked by the N9 nitrogen to the C1 carbon of ribose. It is an ... Glutamine donates an ammonium group which reacts with beta-aspartyl-AMP to form asparagine and free AMP. Since the asparagine ... All fucosyltransferases utilize a nucleotide-activated form of fucose, GDP-fucose, as a fucose donor in the construction of ... A reaction between asparagine and reducing sugars or reactive carbonyls produces acrylamide (acrylic amide) in food when heated ...
... l glutamine and sodium bicarbonate 6829 fitm human peripheral blood mononuclear cells ( h pbmc ) , single donor 6830 fitm human ... modified 3935 yeast morphology agar 3936 yeast nitrogen base 3937 yeast nitrogen base agar ( twin pack ) 3938 yeast nitrogen ... on carbon 11609 platinum, 5% on carbon 11610 polyacrylamide 11611 polyanetholesulphonic acid sodium salt 11612 polyclar at™ ... proteus vulgaris 7866 t4 dna ligase 7867 dh5a competent cells 7868 bl21 ( de3 ) competent cells 7869 xl1 blue competent cells ...
... the nitrogen for this reaction [74->] is derived from ammonia; in higher animals, glutamine is the nitrogen donor. ... The glutamine thus formed gives up the amide nitrogen in the kidney tubules. As a result glutamate is formed once again, and ... The numbers at the carbon atoms in step [13->] indicate that carbon 1 of 6-phosphogluconate forms carbon dioxide.) ... A polynucleotide ligase that effects the formation of the phosphate bond between adjacent sugar molecules is concerned with the ...
Carbon-Nitrogen Ligases with Glutamine as Amide-N-Donor / antagonists & inhibitors Actions ... Each point represents a metabolite and is colored by the ratio of carbon-carbon double bonds to the acyl chain number. i, ... Carbon-Nitrogen Ligases with Glutamine as Amide-N-Donor / genetics Actions. * Search in PubMed ... Carbon-Nitrogen Ligases with Glutamine as Amide-N-Donor / metabolism Actions. * Search in PubMed ...
The linkage is in the form of a carbon-nitrogen bond. EC 6.3.5.. Terms. Carbon-Nitrogen Ligases with Glutamine as Amide-N-Donor ... Carbon-Nitrogen Ligases with Glutamine as Amide-N-Donor [D08.811.464.259.400] * Carbamoyl-Phosphate Synthase (Glutamine- ... Carbon-Nitrogen Ligases with Glutamine as Amide-N-Donor Preferred Concept UI. M0029295. Registry Number. EC 6.3.5.-. Scope Note ... Carbon-Nitrogen Ligases with Glutamine as Amide-N-Donor. Tree Number(s). D08.811.464.259.400. Unique ID. D019733. RDF Unique ...
6. Ligases. 6.3 Forming carbon-nitrogen bonds. 6.3.5 Carbon-nitrogen ligases with glutamine as amido-N-donor. carbamoyl ... 3.5 Acting on carbon-nitrogen bonds, other than peptide bonds. 3.5.2 In cyclic amides. dihydroorotase. 428659 (CAD). ... 2.1 Transferring one-carbon groups. 2.1.3 Carboxy- and carbamoyltransferases. aspartate carbamoyltransferase. 428659 ( ... synthase (glutamine-hydrolysing). 428659 (CAD). Peptidases and inhibitors [BR:gga01002]. Cysteine peptidases. Family C26: gamma ...
The linkage is in the form of a carbon-nitrogen bond. EC 6.3.5.. Terms. Carbon-Nitrogen Ligases with Glutamine as Amide-N-Donor ... Carbon-Nitrogen Ligases with Glutamine as Amide-N-Donor [D08.811.464.259.400] * Carbamoyl-Phosphate Synthase (Glutamine- ... Carbon-Nitrogen Ligases with Glutamine as Amide-N-Donor Preferred Concept UI. M0029295. Registry Number. EC 6.3.5.-. Scope Note ... Carbon-Nitrogen Ligases with Glutamine as Amide-N-Donor. Tree Number(s). D08.811.464.259.400. Unique ID. D019733. RDF Unique ...
Carbon-nitrogen ligases with glutamine as amide-n-donor/immunology (1). *Cell line (1) ...
D8.811.520.224 Carbon-Nitrogen Ligases D8.586.464.259 D8.811.464.259 Carbon-Nitrogen Ligases with Glutamine as Amide-N-Donor ... D3.494.154 Carbon-Carbon Double Bond Isomerases D8.586.399.475.400 D8.811.399.475.400 Carbon-Carbon Ligases D8.586.464.257 ... D8.586.464.259.400 D8.811.464.259.400 Carbon-Nitrogen Lyases D8.586.520.232 D8.811.520.232 Carbon-Oxygen Ligases D8.586.464.263 ... D8.811.464.263 Carbon-Oxygen Lyases D8.586.520.241 D8.811.520.241 Carbon-Sulfur Ligases D8.586.464.267 D8.811.464.267 Carbon- ...
Carbon-Carbon Lyases N0000167762 Carbon-Nitrogen Ligases N0000167763 Carbon-Nitrogen Ligases with Glutamine as Amide-N-Donor ... Carbon-Nitrogen Lyases N0000167775 Carbon-Oxygen Ligases N0000008169 Carbon-Oxygen Lyases N0000167749 Carbon-Sulfur Ligases ... N0000166327 Carbon Tetrachloride N0000168091 Carbon-Carbon Double Bond Isomerases N0000167753 Carbon-Carbon Ligases N0000168041 ... Carbon Dioxide N0000166211 Carbon Disulfide N0000166117 Carbon Isotopes N0000005737 Carbon Monoxide N0000166118 Carbon ...
acid-ammonia (or amide) ligase activity. IEP. Neighborhood. MF. GO:0016884. carbon-nitrogen ligase activity, with glutamine as ... oxidoreductase activity, acting on a sulfur group of donors. IEP. Neighborhood. MF. GO:0016673. oxidoreductase activity, acting ... carbon-sulfur lyase activity. IEP. Neighborhood. MF. GO:0016879. ligase activity, forming carbon-nitrogen bonds. IEP. ... asparagine synthase (glutamine-hydrolyzing) activity. IEP. Neighborhood. MF. GO:0004071. aspartate-ammonia ligase activity. IEP ...
Carbon-Nitrogen Ligases. Carbon-Nitrogen Ligases with Glutamine as Amide-N-Donor ...
Carbon-Carbon Ligases Carbon-Carbon Lyases Carbon-Nitrogen Ligases Carbon-Nitrogen Ligases with Glutamine as Amide-N-Donor ... Carbon-Nitrogen Lyases Carbon-Oxygen Ligases Carbon-Oxygen Lyases Carbon-Sulfur Ligases Carbon-Sulfur Lyases Carbonated ... Carbon Cycle Carbon Dioxide Carbon Disulfide Carbon Footprint Carbon Isotopes Carbon Monoxide Carbon Monoxide Poisoning Carbon ... Carbon Tetrachloride Carbon Tetrachloride Poisoning Carbon-13 Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy Carbon-Carbon Double Bond ...
cyclo-ligase activity. IEP. Neighborhood. MF. GO:0016884. carbon-nitrogen ligase activity, with glutamine as amido-N-donor. IEP ... amide transport. IEP. Neighborhood. BP. GO:0042991. obsolete transcription factor import into nucleus. IEP. Neighborhood. ... ligase activity, forming carbon-nitrogen bonds. IEP. Neighborhood. MF. GO:0016882. ... cellular nitrogen compound biosynthetic process. IEP. Neighborhood. BP. GO:0044281. small molecule metabolic process. IEP. ...
Class Ligases;Forming carbon-nitrogen bonds;Acid-D-ammonia (or amine) ligases (amide synthases)BRITE hierarchy Sysname citrate: ... L-glutamine = CoA + N-acyl-L-glutamine [RN:R00577] Reaction(KEGG) R00577 Reaction Substrate acyl-CoA [CPD:C00040]; L-glutamine ... Acting on paired donors, with incorporation or reduction of molecular oxygen;With reduced flavin or flavoprotein as one donor, ... Carbon-carbon lyases;Carboxy-lyasesBRITE hierarchy Sysname phosphatidyl-L-serine carboxy-lyase (phosphatidylethanolamine- ...
This list contains a list of EC numbers for the sixth group, EC 6, ligases, placed in numerical order as determined by the ... EC 6.3.5: Carbon-nitrogen ligases with glutamine as amido-N-donor[]. *EC NAD+ synthase (glutamine-hydrolysing) ... EC 6.3: Forming Carbon-Nitrogen Bonds[]. EC 6.3.1: Acid-Ammonia (or Amine) Ligases (Amide Synthases)[]. *EC aspartate- ... 3.5 EC 6.3.5: Carbon-nitrogen ligases with glutamine as amido-N-donor ...
... glutamine (0.03 mg/mL) at 37C in 5% carbon dioxide. MET-1 cells are an HTLV-1 positive cell line derived from a patient with ... ligase family. Crystal structures of the apoenzyme and of complexes of the enzyme with bound inhibitors, natural substrates, ... The second carboxyl group at Metoprolol the or positions forms hydrogen bonds to the hydroxyl and amide groups of Ser415 and to ... One testis for each animal was immediately frozen in liquid nitrogen and stored at ?80 C for subsequent molecular analyses. The ...
... s311 s310 purkynjei fbxo11 archae trichocarpa s302 s301 s300 truthful cardiosphere h3po4 pisum s1m1 echinacea wiethe carbon ... aminocyclopentenol plumieri parinaroyl ligate bensultap amoa hostel elliptical c129 c127 c123 egghead amp2 c121 amp1 ligase ... sgk3 sgk2 ectodermal sgk1 commercially extrapulmonary migrate sarcodina gustometer oswestry hexuronide gyrodinium donors ... tositumomab aplasia titres ambition haemophila unlink persian nonvalved hirsutella griesinger forster dehaloperoxidase amides ...
Glutamine. -OOC. H. OH. O. O. -OOC. C. H +. NH3. CH H3N. CH2. CH2. C NH2. +. Fig. 15.2 Donor compounds in phase II conjugation ... Heterocyclic amines are organic compounds that contain at least one atom of carbon and at least one atom of nitrogen within ... Dealkylation of Ether, Amide, or Carboxylic Acid. The cleavage of ether, amide, or carboxylic acid is a common CYP450-catalyzed ... which is catalyzed by acyl-CoA ligase. The resulting acyl-CoA subsequently reacts with an amino acid, giving rise to acylated ...
C-terminal functional groups include amide, amide lower alkyl, amide di(lower alkyl), lower alkoxy, hydroxy, and carboxy, and ... Interaction between the donor and acceptor proteins can be monitored by a change in the ratio of light emitted by the ... In some embodiments, the alkylating agent is a nitrogen mustard. In other embodiments, the alkylating agent is an ethylenimine ... The agents may comprise cyclical carbon or heterocyclic structures and/or aromatic or polyaromatic structures substituted with ...
001019439 0.4 DNA ligase 1 isoform 1 Lig1 Rattus norvegicus " DNA ligase that seals nicks in double-stranded DNA during DNA ... 077046 0.7 fatty-acid amide hydrolase 1 Faah Rattus norvegicus " Degrades bioactive fatty acid amides like oleamide, the ... Heme oxygenase 2 could be implicated in the production of carbon monoxide in brain where it could act as a neurotransmitter. " ... The component A is thought to be regenerated by transferring its prenylated Rab back to the donor membrane. " P37727.1 ...
Participates with glutamine synthetase in ammonia assimilation processes. The enzyme is specific for NADH, L-glutamine and 2- ... NAD + Coenzyme A + 2-Ketobutyric acid → NADH + propionyl-CoA + Carbon dioxide NADH + (4-hydroxyphenyl)pyruvic acid + hydron → ... Involved in ligase activity. Specific function:. Catalyzes the activation of alpha-aminoadipate by ATP- dependent adenylation ... Specifically phosphorylates NAD in the presence of ATP, dATP, or CTP as phosphoryl donors. Gene Name:. UTR1. Uniprot ID:. ...
... sulfate acid sulfates acid sulphate acid sulphates acid thiol ligase acid-thiol ligase acid thiol ligases acid-thiol ligases ... acrylates butylagarose butyl alcohol butyl alcohols butylamide butyl amide butyl-amide butylamides butyl amides butyl-amides ... cuvieri cad CAD cadang cadang viroid cadang-cadang viroid CADASIL cadastral cadaver cadavera cadaver donor cadaver donors ... blood transfusions blood tumor blood tumors blood type blood types blood typing blood urea nitrogen blood urea nitrogens blood ...
  • Ligases that catalyze the joining of adjacent AMINO ACIDS by the formation of carbon-nitrogen bonds between their carboxylic acid groups and amine groups. (bvsalud.org)
  • Abstract This study was carried out to evaluate the effect of Glutamine, as a dipeptide or a free amino acid form, on the progression of burn injuries in rats. (bvsalud.org)
  • The animals were randomized into three groups (n=10): saline solution (G1-Control) and treated groups that orally received Glutamine as dipeptide (G2-Dip) or free amino acid (G3-FreeAA). (bvsalud.org)
  • Enzymes that catalyze the joining of glutamine-derived ammonia and another molecule. (bvsalud.org)
  • The linkage is in the form of a carbon-nitrogen bond. (bvsalud.org)
  • Glutamine donates an ammonium group which reacts with beta-aspartyl-AMP to form asparagine and free AMP. (smpdb.ca)
  • Enzymes that catalyze the joining of glutamine-derived ammonia and another molecule. (nih.gov)
  • Regulates E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase activity of RNF19A (By similarity). (nih.gov)
  • This list contains a list of EC numbers for the sixth group, EC 6 , ligases , placed in numerical order as determined by the Nomenclature Committee of the International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology . (wikibedia.ru)