Carbon monoxide (CO). A poisonous colorless, odorless, tasteless gas. It combines with hemoglobin to form carboxyhemoglobin, which has no oxygen carrying capacity. The resultant oxygen deprivation causes headache, dizziness, decreased pulse and respiratory rates, unconsciousness, and death. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
Toxic asphyxiation due to the displacement of oxygen from oxyhemoglobin by carbon monoxide.
A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.
Carboxyhemoglobin is a form of hemoglobin in which the heme group is chemically bonded to carbon monoxide, reducing its ability to transport oxygen and leading to toxic effects when present in high concentrations.
A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.
The amount of a gas taken up, by the pulmonary capillary blood from the alveolar gas, per minute per unit of average pressure of the gradient of the gas across the BLOOD-AIR BARRIER.
A mixed function oxidase enzyme which during hemoglobin catabolism catalyzes the degradation of heme to ferrous iron, carbon monoxide and biliverdin in the presence of molecular oxygen and reduced NADPH. The enzyme is induced by metals, particularly cobalt. EC
A ubiquitous stress-responsive enzyme that catalyzes the oxidative cleavage of HEME to yield IRON; CARBON MONOXIDE; and BILIVERDIN.
Oxidoreductases that are specific for ALDEHYDES.
Nanometer-sized tubes composed mainly of CARBON. Such nanotubes are used as probes for high-resolution structural and chemical imaging of biomolecules with ATOMIC FORCE MICROSCOPY.
Porphyrins with four methyl and two propionic acid side chains attached to the pyrrole rings.
Viscous materials composed of complex, high-molecular-weight compounds derived from the distillation of petroleum or the destructive distillation of wood or coal. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Porphyrins with four methyl, two vinyl, and two propionic acid side chains attached to the pyrrole rings. Protoporphyrin IX occurs in hemoglobin, myoglobin, and most of the cytochromes.
The color-furnishing portion of hemoglobin. It is found free in tissues and as the prosthetic group in many hemeproteins.
The therapeutic intermittent administration of oxygen in a chamber at greater than sea-level atmospheric pressures (three atmospheres). It is considered effective treatment for air and gas embolisms, smoke inhalation, acute carbon monoxide poisoning, caisson disease, clostridial gangrene, etc. (From Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992). The list of treatment modalities includes stroke.
Chemical bond cleavage reactions resulting from absorption of radiant energy.
Any substance in the air which could, if present in high enough concentration, harm humans, animals, vegetation or material. Substances include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; and volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.
Any tests done on exhaled air.
Porphyrins with four methyl, two ethyl, and two propionic acid side chains attached to the pyrrole rings.
An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.
Stable carbon atoms that have the same atomic number as the element carbon, but differ in atomic weight. C-13 is a stable carbon isotope.
The oxygen-carrying proteins of ERYTHROCYTES. They are found in all vertebrates and some invertebrates. The number of globin subunits in the hemoglobin quaternary structure differs between species. Structures range from monomeric to a variety of multimeric arrangements.
Measurement of the various processes involved in the act of respiration: inspiration, expiration, oxygen and carbon dioxide exchange, lung volume and compliance, etc.
A conjugated protein which is the oxygen-transporting pigment of muscle. It is made up of one globin polypeptide chain and one heme group.
Systems of enzymes which function sequentially by catalyzing consecutive reactions linked by common metabolic intermediates. They may involve simply a transfer of water molecules or hydrogen atoms and may be associated with large supramolecular structures such as MITOCHONDRIA or RIBOSOMES.
Chloro(7,12-diethenyl-3,8,13,17-tetramethyl-21H,23H-porphine-2,18-dipropanoato(4-)-N(21),N(22),N(23),N(24)) ferrate(2-) dihydrogen.
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
The art or process of comparing photometrically the relative intensities of the light in different parts of the spectrum.
Proteins that contain an iron-porphyrin, or heme, prosthetic group resembling that of hemoglobin. (From Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p480)
Nitrogen oxide (NO2). A highly poisonous gas. Exposure produces inflammation of lungs that may only cause slight pain or pass unnoticed, but resulting edema several days later may cause death. (From Merck, 11th ed) It is a major atmospheric pollutant that is able to absorb UV light that does not reach the earth's surface.
Inorganic salts of HYDROGEN CYANIDE containing the -CN radical. The concept also includes isocyanides. It is distinguished from NITRILES, which denotes organic compounds containing the -CN radical.
The vapor state of matter; nonelastic fluids in which the molecules are in free movement and their mean positions far apart. Gases tend to expand indefinitely, to diffuse and mix readily with other gases, to have definite relations of volume, temperature, and pressure, and to condense or liquefy at low temperatures or under sufficient pressure. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A class of compounds of the type R-M, where a C atom is joined directly to any other element except H, C, N, O, F, Cl, Br, I, or At. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.
The exchange of OXYGEN and CARBON DIOXIDE between alveolar air and pulmonary capillary blood that occurs across the BLOOD-AIR BARRIER.
A highly toxic, colorless, nonflammable gas. It is used as a pharmaceutical aid and antioxidant. It is also an environmental air pollutant.
A free radical gas produced endogenously by a variety of mammalian cells, synthesized from ARGININE by NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE. Nitric oxide is one of the ENDOTHELIUM-DEPENDENT RELAXING FACTORS released by the vascular endothelium and mediates VASODILATION. It also inhibits platelet aggregation, induces disaggregation of aggregated platelets, and inhibits platelet adhesion to the vascular endothelium. Nitric oxide activates cytosolic GUANYLATE CYCLASE and thus elevates intracellular levels of CYCLIC GMP.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
A compound formed by the combination of hemoglobin and oxygen. It is a complex in which the oxygen is bound directly to the iron without causing a change from the ferrous to the ferric state.
Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.
A solvent for oils, fats, lacquers, varnishes, rubber waxes, and resins, and a starting material in the manufacturing of organic compounds. Poisoning by inhalation, ingestion or skin absorption is possible and may be fatal. (Merck Index, 11th ed)
Gases, fumes, vapors, and odors escaping from the cylinders of a gasoline or diesel internal-combustion engine. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed & Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
A phylum of ARCHAEA comprising at least seven classes: Methanobacteria, Methanococci, Halobacteria (extreme halophiles), Archaeoglobi (sulfate-reducing species), Methanopyri, and the thermophiles: Thermoplasmata, and Thermococci.
Nicotine is highly toxic alkaloid. It is the prototypical agonist at nicotinic cholinergic receptors where it dramatically stimulates neurons and ultimately blocks synaptic transmission. Nicotine is also important medically because of its presence in tobacco smoke.
The first chemical element in the periodic table. It has the atomic symbol H, atomic number 1, and atomic weight [1.00784; 1.00811]. It exists, under normal conditions, as a colorless, odorless, tasteless, diatomic gas. Hydrogen ions are PROTONS. Besides the common H1 isotope, hydrogen exists as the stable isotope DEUTERIUM and the unstable, radioactive isotope TRITIUM.
Methemoglobin is a form of hemoglobin where the iron within the heme group is in the ferric (Fe3+) state, unable to bind oxygen and leading to impaired oxygen-carrying capacity of the blood.
A trace element with the atomic symbol Ni, atomic number 28, and atomic weight 58.69. It is a cofactor of the enzyme UREASE.
An enzyme found in bacteria. It catalyzes the reduction of FERREDOXIN and other substances in the presence of molecular hydrogen and is involved in the electron transport of bacterial photosynthesis.
Any of several processes for the permanent or long-term artificial or natural capture or removal and storage of carbon dioxide and other forms of carbon, through biological, chemical or physical processes, in a manner that prevents it from being released into the atmosphere.
Supplying a building or house, their rooms and corridors, with fresh air. The controlling of the environment thus may be in public or domestic sites and in medical or non-medical locales. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
The collective name for the boron hydrides, which are analogous to the alkanes and silanes. Numerous boranes are known. Some have high calorific values and are used in high-energy fuels. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The volume of air that is exhaled by a maximal expiration following a maximal inspiration.
The administration of drugs by the respiratory route. It includes insufflation into the respiratory tract.
The presence of contaminants or pollutant substances in the air (AIR POLLUTANTS) that interfere with human health or welfare, or produce other harmful environmental effects. The substances may include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; or volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.
1,3,6,7-Tetramethyl-4,5-dicarboxyethyl-2,8-divinylbilenone. Biosynthesized from hemoglobin as a precursor of bilirubin. Occurs in the bile of AMPHIBIANS and of birds, but not in normal human bile or serum.
A colorless, flammable, poisonous liquid, CS2. It is used as a solvent, and is a counterirritant and has local anesthetic properties but is not used as such. It is highly toxic with pronounced CNS, hematologic, and dermatologic effects.
The volume of air contained in the lungs at the end of a maximal inspiration. It is the equivalent to each of the following sums: VITAL CAPACITY plus RESIDUAL VOLUME; INSPIRATORY CAPACITY plus FUNCTIONAL RESIDUAL CAPACITY; TIDAL VOLUME plus INSPIRATORY RESERVE VOLUME plus functional residual capacity; or tidal volume plus inspiratory reserve volume plus EXPIRATORY RESERVE VOLUME plus residual volume.
'Smoke' is a complex mixture of gases, fine particles, and volatile compounds, generally produced by combustion of organic substances, which can contain harmful chemicals known to have adverse health effects.
A flammable, poisonous gas with a characteristic odor of rotten eggs. It is used in the manufacture of chemicals, in metallurgy, and as an analytical reagent. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
A hemoglobin-like oxygen-binding hemeprotein present in the nitrogen-fixing root nodules of leguminous plants. The red pigment has a molecular weight approximately 1/4 that of hemoglobin and has been suggested to act as an oxido-reduction catalyst in symbiotic nitrogen fixation.
A genus of motile or nonmotile gram-positive bacteria of the family Clostridiaceae. Many species have been identified with some being pathogenic. They occur in water, soil, and in the intestinal tract of humans and lower animals.
Porphyrins which are combined with a metal ion. The metal is bound equally to all four nitrogen atoms of the pyrrole rings. They possess characteristic absorption spectra which can be utilized for identification or quantitative estimation of porphyrins and porphyrin-bound compounds.
The simplest saturated hydrocarbon. It is a colorless, flammable gas, slightly soluble in water. It is one of the chief constituents of natural gas and is formed in the decomposition of organic matter. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals.
The contamination of indoor air.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of GTP to 3',5'-cyclic GMP and pyrophosphate. It also acts on ITP and dGTP. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC
A bile pigment that is a degradation product of HEME.
'Fires' is not a recognized medical term for a symptom, diagnosis, or condition in patients.
Particles of any solid substance, generally under 30 microns in size, often noted as PM30. There is special concern with PM1 which can get down to PULMONARY ALVEOLI and induce MACROPHAGE ACTIVATION and PHAGOCYTOSIS leading to FOREIGN BODY REACTION and LUNG DISEASES.
Ethane is an organic compound, specifically a hydrocarbon (aliphatic alkane), with the chemical formula C2H6, which consists of two carbon atoms and six hydrogen atoms, and is the second simplest alkane after methane. However, it's important to note that ethane is not a medical term or concept; it's a basic chemistry term.
Pulmonary injury following the breathing in of toxic smoke from burning materials such as plastics, synthetics, building materials, etc. This injury is the most frequent cause of death in burn patients.
Discontinuation of the habit of smoking, the inhaling and exhaling of tobacco smoke.
Measurement of the amount of air that the lungs may contain at various points in the respiratory cycle.
Acetylene is not typically considered a medical term, but rather a chemical compound (C2H2) commonly used in industrial and laboratory settings for its high energy content and reactivity, which may have various applications in medicine such as wound healing and surgical procedures, but it is not a medical diagnosis or disease.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Acetyl CoA participates in the biosynthesis of fatty acids and sterols, in the oxidation of fatty acids and in the metabolism of many amino acids. It also acts as a biological acetylating agent.
The N-glucuronide conjugate of cotinine is a major urinary metabolite of NICOTINE. It thus serves as a biomarker of exposure to tobacco SMOKING. It has CNS stimulating properties.
Vibrio- to spiral-shaped phototrophic bacteria found in stagnant water and mud exposed to light.
Normal adult human hemoglobin. The globin moiety consists of two alpha and two beta chains.
A metallic element with atomic symbol Fe, atomic number 26, and atomic weight 55.85. It is an essential constituent of HEMOGLOBINS; CYTOCHROMES; and IRON-BINDING PROTEINS. It plays a role in cellular redox reactions and in the transport of OXYGEN.
Derivatives of ACETIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxymethane structure.
The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.
A product of hard secondary xylem composed of CELLULOSE, hemicellulose, and LIGNANS, that is under the bark of trees and shrubs. It is used in construction and as a source of CHARCOAL and many other products.
An amorphous form of carbon prepared from the incomplete combustion of animal or vegetable matter, e.g., wood. The activated form of charcoal is used in the treatment of poisoning. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Spectrophotometry in the infrared region, usually for the purpose of chemical analysis through measurement of absorption spectra associated with rotational and vibrational energy levels of molecules. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The unstable triatomic form of oxygen, O3. It is a powerful oxidant that is produced for various chemical and industrial uses. Its production is also catalyzed in the ATMOSPHERE by ULTRAVIOLET RAY irradiation of oxygen or other ozone precursors such as VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS and NITROGEN OXIDES. About 90% of the ozone in the atmosphere exists in the stratosphere (STRATOSPHERIC OZONE).
The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents by inhaling them.
Inorganic compounds that contain barium as an integral part of the molecule.
Enlargement of air spaces distal to the TERMINAL BRONCHIOLES where gas-exchange normally takes place. This is usually due to destruction of the alveolar wall. Pulmonary emphysema can be classified by the location and distribution of the lesions.
An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.
A technique applicable to the wide variety of substances which exhibit paramagnetism because of the magnetic moments of unpaired electrons. The spectra are useful for detection and identification, for determination of electron structure, for study of interactions between molecules, and for measurement of nuclear spins and moments. (From McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science and Technology, 7th edition) Electron nuclear double resonance (ENDOR) spectroscopy is a variant of the technique which can give enhanced resolution. Electron spin resonance analysis can now be used in vivo, including imaging applications such as MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING.
The application of heat to raise the temperature of the environment, ambient or local, or the systems for accomplishing this effect. It is distinguished from HEAT, the physical property and principle of physics.
Drugs that are chemically similar to naturally occurring metabolites, but differ enough to interfere with normal metabolic pathways. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p2033)
Carbon tetrachloride poisoning is a condition characterized by the systemic toxicity induced by exposure to carbon tetrachloride, a volatile chlorinated hydrocarbon solvent, causing central nervous system depression, cardiovascular collapse, and potentially fatal liver and kidney damage.
Volative flammable fuel (liquid hydrocarbons) derived from crude petroleum by processes such as distillation reforming, polymerization, etc.
A superfamily of hundreds of closely related HEMEPROTEINS found throughout the phylogenetic spectrum, from animals, plants, fungi, to bacteria. They include numerous complex monooxygenases (MIXED FUNCTION OXYGENASES). In animals, these P-450 enzymes serve two major functions: (1) biosynthesis of steroids, fatty acids, and bile acids; (2) metabolism of endogenous and a wide variety of exogenous substrates, such as toxins and drugs (BIOTRANSFORMATION). They are classified, according to their sequence similarities rather than functions, into CYP gene families (>40% homology) and subfamilies (>59% homology). For example, enzymes from the CYP1, CYP2, and CYP3 gene families are responsible for most drug metabolism.
Salts or ions of the theoretical carbonic acid, containing the radical CO2(3-). Carbonates are readily decomposed by acids. The carbonates of the alkali metals are water-soluble; all others are insoluble. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of CoA derivatives from ATP, acetate, and CoA to form AMP, pyrophosphate, and acetyl CoA. It acts also on propionates and acrylates. EC
Pathological processes involving any part of the LUNG.
The act of BREATHING out.
Any combustible hydrocarbon deposit formed from the remains of prehistoric organisms. Examples are petroleum, coal, and natural gas.
Large marine mammals of the order CETACEA. In the past, they were commercially valued for whale oil, for their flesh as human food and in ANIMAL FEED and FERTILIZERS, and for baleen. Today, there is a moratorium on most commercial whaling, as all species are either listed as endangered or threatened.
Measure of the maximum amount of air that can be expelled in a given number of seconds during a FORCED VITAL CAPACITY determination . It is usually given as FEV followed by a subscript indicating the number of seconds over which the measurement is made, although it is sometimes given as a percentage of forced vital capacity.
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in nature. Some species are pathogenic for humans, animals, and plants.
A group of methane-based halogenated hydrocarbons containing one or more fluorine and chlorine atoms.
A family of bacteria found in the mouth and intestinal and respiratory tracts of man and other animals as well as in the human female urogenital tract. Its organisms are also found in soil and on cereal grains.
Dithionite. The dithionous acid ion and its salts.

Role of nitric oxide-derived oxidants in vascular injury from carbon monoxide in the rat. (1/232)

Studies were conducted with rats to investigate whether exposure to CO at concentrations frequently found in the environment caused nitric oxide (NO)-mediated vessel wall changes. Exposure to CO at concentrations of 50 parts per million or higher for 1 h increased the concentration of nitrotyrosine in the aorta. Immunologically reactive nitrotyrosine was localized in a discrete fashion along the endothelial lining, and this was inhibited by pretreatment with the NO synthase (NOS) inhibitor Nomega-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME). The CO-induced elevations of aortic nitrotyrosine were not altered by neutropenia or thrombocytopenia, and CO caused no change in the concentration of endothelial NOS. Consequences from NO-derived stress on the vasculature included an enhanced transcapillary efflux of albumin within the first 3 h after CO exposure and leukocyte sequestration that became apparent 18 h after CO exposure. Oxidized plasma low-density lipoprotein was found immediately after CO exposure, but this was not inhibited by L-NAME pretreatment. We conclude that exposure to relatively low CO concentrations can alter vascular status by several mechanisms and that many changes are linked to NO-derived oxidants.  (+info)

Carbon monoxide poisoning treated with hyperbaric oxygen: metabolic acidosis as a predictor of treatment requirements. (2/232)

A retrospective case note analysis was made of patients who received hyperbaric oxygen for carbon monoxide poisoning and were admitted to the Royal Naval Hospital Haslar between 1991 and 1995. Males predominated (38 v 10) as did cases of deliberate self poisoning (31 v 17). The most common presenting feature was unconsciousness, which is an indication for hyperbaric oxygen and therefore reflects referral patterns. If patients had not recovered completely after one hyperbaric exposure further treatments were given. The initial hydrogen ion concentration of those requiring more than one treatment was significantly higher than those who recovered after the first treatment. The initial carboxyhaemoglobin (COHb) concentration showed only a trend to being higher in the multiple treatment group. Although metabolic acidosis is well recognised, its relationship to treatment requirements has not been shown previously. Initial COHb does not always correlate well with severity of poisoning which relates to the mechanism of toxicity of carbon monoxide: binding of carbon monoxide to the intracellular oxygen carrying proteins (for example cytochromes) rather than solely to haemoglobin. These findings are consistent with this mechanism and suggests that initial acidosis is a better predictor of treatment requirements and severity than initial COHb.  (+info)

British Hyperbaric Association carbon monoxide database, 1993-96. (3/232)

OBJECTIVES: To study the referral pattern of patients, poisoned with carbon monoxide and subsequently transferred to British hyperbaric oxygen facilities, from April 1993 until March 1996 inclusive. METHODS: A standard dataset was used by hyperbaric facilities within the British Hyperbaric Association. The data on each patient were sent in confidence to the Hyperbaric Unit at Whipps Cross Hospital for analysis. The epidemiology of poisoning and the population studied were analysed. Times of removal from exposure, referral to a hyperbaric facility, arrival at the hyperbaric facility, and start of treatment were recorded. Data on the outcome of the episode were documented in one of the contributing facilities. RESULTS: 575 patients exposed to carbon monoxide were reported as being referred to British hyperbaric facilities in the three years, the busiest facilities being in London and Peterborough. The proportions of accidental and non-accidental exposures were 1:1.05. Of the accidental exposures, central heating faults were responsible in 71.5% of cases (n = 206). Smoke inhalation from fires was responsible for a further 13.5% (n = 39). The mean delay to arrival in a hyperbaric oxygen facility was 9 hours and 15 minutes after removal from exposure. Recovery after treatment was sometimes incomplete. CONCLUSIONS: The reported pattern of referral was regionally weighted towards the south east of England. Smoke inhalation victims were often not referred for hyperbaric oxygen treatment. The delay to treatment was multifactorial; and the mean delay was well in excess of six hours. There is room for improvement in the consistency and speed of referral. Treatment schedules require standardisation. A central advice and referral service would be helpful.  (+info)

An unusual case of carbon monoxide poisoning. (4/232)

Carbon monoxide, a gas originating from incomplete combustion of carbon-based fuels, is an important cause of human deaths. In this paper, we describe an unusual carbon monoxide poisoning in a dwelling without obvious sources of combustion gases, for which two adults had to be treated in a hyperbaric chamber. Carbon monoxide readings were taken in the house and in the neighboring homes. Methane gas and nitrogen oxide levels were also monitored in the house air. Soil samples were collected around the house and tested for hydrocarbon residues. The investigation revealed the presence of a pocket of carbon monoxide under the foundation of the house. The first readings revealed carbon monoxide levels of 500 ppm in the basement. The contamination lasted for a week. The investigation indicated that the probable source of contamination was the use of explosives at a nearby rain sewer construction site. The use of explosives in a residential area can constitute a major source of carbon monoxide for the neighboring populations. This must be investigated, and public health authorities, primary-care physicians, governmental authorities, and users and manufacturers of explosives must be made aware of this problem.  (+info)

A healthy home environment? (5/232)

Over the past seven years, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has consistently ranked indoor air pollution among the top five risks to public health. One of the most dangerous indoor air pollutants is carbon monoxide (CO). CO can be lethal, but perhaps more important, many people suffer ill health from chronic, often undetected exposure to low levels of this gas, resulting in fatigue, headache, dizziness, nausea, and vomiting. Another dangerous pollutant is volatile organic compounds (VOCs), which come from sources including building products, cleaning agents, and paints. One VOC, formaldehyde, can act as an irritant to the conjunctiva and upper and lower respiratory tract. Formaldehyde is also known to cause nasal cancer in test animals.  (+info)

Validation of the end-expired method for measuring carboxyhaemoglobin levels for the use in occupational and environmental exposure studies. (6/232)

Carbon monoxide is one of the most common toxins encountered in work settings, the gas being emitted in situations where there is incomplete combustion of carbon-containing substances. Its acute and chronic health effects have been well-documented. While identification of dangerous situations and evaluation of control measures are conducted by environmental monitoring, the body burden due to inhalation of carbon monoxide is measured by an individual's blood carboxyhaemoglobin level. Carboxyhaemoglobin level can be measured directly from a blood sample or, indirectly, by measuring the end-expired carbon monoxide level and using the charts provided to read the corresponding carboxyhaemoglobin level. As the end-expired method is not an intervention method, and is therefore easy to conduct, it is being used widely in epidemiological studies and it could also be used for individual measurements. This study presents a better statistical method for validating the end-expired method than the correlation method used and described in previous studies.  (+info)

The clinical and functional measurement of cortical (in)activity in the visual brain, with special reference to the two subdivisions (V4 and V4 alpha) of the human colour centre. (7/232)

We argue below that, at least in studying the visual brain, the old and simple methods of detailed clinical assessment and perimetric measurement still yield important insights into the organization of the visual brain as a whole, as well as the organization of the individual areas within it. To demonstrate our point, we rely especially on the motion and colour systems, emphasizing in particular how clinical observations predicted an important feature of the organization of the colour centre in the human brain. With the use of data from functional magnetic resonance imaging analysed by statistical parametric mapping and independent component analysis, we show that the colour centre is composed of two subdivisions, V4 and V4 alpha the two together constituting the V4 complex of the human brain. These two subdivisions are intimately linked anatomically and act cooperatively. The new evidence about the architecture of the colour centre might help to explain why the syndrome, cerebral achromatopsia, produced by lesions in it is so variable.  (+info)

Carbon monoxide poisoning associated with use of LPG-powered (propane) forklifts in industrial settings--Iowa, 1998. (8/232)

In 1998, the Iowa Department of Public Health (IDPH) and Iowa State University (ISU) Extension Department, with the assistance of local health departments, investigated a series of carbon monoxide (CO) poisonings associated with the use of liquified petroleum gas (LPG)-powered forklifts in light industry. In each episode, forklifts emitting high CO concentration levels were operated in inadequately ventilated warehouse and production facilities, which resulted in high CO accumulations. Employees at each site developed symptoms of CO poisoning, and some employees received inadequate or inappropriate medical care. This report summarizes the investigations and provides recommendations to prevent such incidents.  (+info)

Carbon monoxide (CO) is a colorless, odorless, and tasteless gas that is slightly less dense than air. It is toxic to hemoglobic animals when encountered in concentrations above about 35 ppm. This compound is a product of incomplete combustion of organic matter, and is a major component of automobile exhaust.

Carbon monoxide is poisonous because it binds to hemoglobin in red blood cells much more strongly than oxygen does, forming carboxyhemoglobin. This prevents the transport of oxygen throughout the body, which can lead to suffocation and death. Symptoms of carbon monoxide poisoning include headache, dizziness, weakness, nausea, vomiting, confusion, and disorientation. Prolonged exposure can lead to unconsciousness and death.

Carbon monoxide detectors are commonly used in homes and other buildings to alert occupants to the presence of this dangerous gas. It is important to ensure that these devices are functioning properly and that they are placed in appropriate locations throughout the building. Additionally, it is essential to maintain appliances and heating systems to prevent the release of carbon monoxide into living spaces.

Carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning is a medical condition that occurs when carbon monoxide gas is inhaled, leading to the accumulation of this toxic gas in the bloodstream. Carbon monoxide is a colorless, odorless, and tasteless gas produced by the incomplete combustion of fossil fuels such as natural gas, propane, oil, wood, or coal.

When carbon monoxide is inhaled, it binds to hemoglobin, the protein in red blood cells responsible for carrying oxygen throughout the body. This binding forms carboxyhemoglobin (COHb), which reduces the oxygen-carrying capacity of the blood and leads to hypoxia, or insufficient oxygen supply to the body's tissues and organs.

The symptoms of carbon monoxide poisoning can vary depending on the level of exposure and the duration of exposure. Mild to moderate CO poisoning may cause symptoms such as headache, dizziness, weakness, nausea, vomiting, chest pain, and confusion. Severe CO poisoning can lead to loss of consciousness, seizures, heart failure, respiratory failure, and even death.

Carbon monoxide poisoning is a medical emergency that requires immediate treatment. Treatment typically involves administering high-flow oxygen therapy to help eliminate carbon monoxide from the body and prevent further damage to tissues and organs. In some cases, hyperbaric oxygen therapy may be used to accelerate the elimination of CO from the body.

Prevention is key in avoiding carbon monoxide poisoning. It is essential to ensure that all fuel-burning appliances are properly maintained and ventilated, and that carbon monoxide detectors are installed and functioning correctly in homes and other enclosed spaces.

In the context of medical definitions, 'carbon' is not typically used as a standalone term. Carbon is an element with the symbol C and atomic number 6, which is naturally abundant in the human body and the environment. It is a crucial component of all living organisms, forming the basis of organic compounds, such as proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, and nucleic acids (DNA and RNA).

Carbon forms strong covalent bonds with various elements, allowing for the creation of complex molecules that are essential to life. In this sense, carbon is a fundamental building block of life on Earth. However, it does not have a specific medical definition as an isolated term.

Carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) is a form of hemoglobin that has bonded with carbon monoxide (CO), a colorless, odorless gas. Normally, hemoglobin in red blood cells binds with oxygen (O2) to carry it throughout the body. However, when exposed to CO, hemoglobin preferentially binds with it, forming carboxyhemoglobin, which reduces the amount of oxygen that can be carried by the blood. This can lead to hypoxia (lack of oxygen in tissues) and potentially serious medical consequences, including death. Carbon monoxide exposure can occur from sources such as smoke inhalation, vehicle exhaust, or faulty heating systems.

Carbon dioxide (CO2) is a colorless, odorless gas that is naturally present in the Earth's atmosphere. It is a normal byproduct of cellular respiration in humans, animals, and plants, and is also produced through the combustion of fossil fuels such as coal, oil, and natural gas.

In medical terms, carbon dioxide is often used as a respiratory stimulant and to maintain the pH balance of blood. It is also used during certain medical procedures, such as laparoscopic surgery, to insufflate (inflate) the abdominal cavity and create a working space for the surgeon.

Elevated levels of carbon dioxide in the body can lead to respiratory acidosis, a condition characterized by an increased concentration of carbon dioxide in the blood and a decrease in pH. This can occur in conditions such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), asthma, or other lung diseases that impair breathing and gas exchange. Symptoms of respiratory acidosis may include shortness of breath, confusion, headache, and in severe cases, coma or death.

Pulmonary diffusing capacity, also known as pulmonary diffusion capacity, is a measure of the ability of the lungs to transfer gas from the alveoli to the bloodstream. It is often used to assess the severity of lung diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and pulmonary fibrosis.

The most common measurement of pulmonary diffusing capacity is the diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide (DLCO), which reflects the transfer of carbon monoxide from the alveoli to the red blood cells in the capillaries. The DLCO is measured during a spirometry test, which involves breathing in a small amount of carbon monoxide and then measuring how much of it is exhaled.

A reduced DLCO may indicate a problem with the lung's ability to transfer oxygen to the blood, which can be caused by a variety of factors including damage to the alveoli or capillaries, thickening of the alveolar membrane, or a decrease in the surface area available for gas exchange.

It is important to note that other factors such as hemoglobin concentration, carboxyhemoglobin level, and lung volume can also affect the DLCO value, so these should be taken into account when interpreting the results of a diffusing capacity test.

Heme Oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is an inducible enzyme that catalyzes the degradation of heme into biliverdin, iron, and carbon monoxide. It is a rate-limiting enzyme in the oxidative degradation of heme. HO-1 is known to play a crucial role in cellular defense against oxidative stress and inflammation. It is primarily located in the microsomes of many tissues, including the spleen, liver, and brain. Induction of HO-1 has been shown to have cytoprotective effects, while deficiency in HO-1 has been associated with several pathological conditions, such as vascular diseases, neurodegenerative disorders, and cancer.

Aldehyde oxidoreductases are a class of enzymes that catalyze the oxidation of aldehydes to carboxylic acids using NAD+ or FAD as cofactors. They play a crucial role in the detoxification of aldehydes generated from various metabolic processes, such as lipid peroxidation and alcohol metabolism. These enzymes are widely distributed in nature and have been identified in bacteria, yeast, plants, and animals.

The oxidation reaction catalyzed by aldehyde oxidoreductases involves the transfer of electrons from the aldehyde substrate to the cofactor, resulting in the formation of a carboxylic acid and reduced NAD+ or FAD. The enzymes are classified into several families based on their sequence similarity and cofactor specificity.

One of the most well-known members of this family is alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), which catalyzes the oxidation of alcohols to aldehydes or ketones as part of the alcohol metabolism pathway. Another important member is aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH), which further oxidizes the aldehydes generated by ADH to carboxylic acids, thereby preventing the accumulation of toxic aldehydes in the body.

Deficiencies in ALDH enzymes have been linked to several human diseases, including alcoholism and certain types of cancer. Therefore, understanding the structure and function of aldehyde oxidoreductases is essential for developing new therapeutic strategies to treat these conditions.

Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are defined in medical literature as hollow, cylindrical structures composed of rolled graphene sheets, with diameters typically measuring on the nanoscale (ranging from 1 to several tens of nanometers) and lengths that can reach several micrometers. They can be single-walled (SWCNTs), consisting of a single layer of graphene, or multi-walled (MWCNTs), composed of multiple concentric layers of graphene.

Carbon nanotubes have unique mechanical, electrical, and thermal properties that make them promising for various biomedical applications, such as drug delivery systems, biosensors, and tissue engineering scaffolds. However, their potential toxicity and long-term effects on human health are still under investigation, particularly concerning their ability to induce oxidative stress, inflammation, and genotoxicity in certain experimental settings.

Deuteroporphyrins are porphyrin derivatives that contain two carboxylic acid side chains. They are intermediates in the biosynthesis of heme and chlorophyll, which are essential molecules for biological processes such as oxygen transport and photosynthesis, respectively.

Deuteroporphyrins can be further classified into isomers based on the position of the carboxylic acid side chains. The most common isomer is deuteroporphyrin IX, which has the carboxylic acid side chains located at positions 1 and 2 relative to the pyrrole nitrogen atoms.

Deuteroporphyrins have been studied in various medical contexts, including as potential markers of porphyria, a group of metabolic disorders characterized by the accumulation of porphyrin precursors. Additionally, deuteroporphyrins and their derivatives have been investigated for their potential use in photodynamic therapy, a treatment modality that uses light-activated drugs to destroy cancer cells.

"Tars" is not a recognized medical term. However, "tarso-" is a prefix in anatomy that refers to the ankle or hind part of an organ. For example, the tarsal bones are the bones that make up the ankle and the rear part of the foot. Additionally, tarsus can refer to the thickened portion of the eyelid which contains the eyelashes. It is important to ensure you have the correct term when seeking medical information.

Protoporphyrins are organic compounds that are the immediate precursors to heme in the porphyrin synthesis pathway. They are composed of a porphyrin ring, which is a large, complex ring made up of four pyrrole rings joined together, with an acetate and a propionate side chain at each pyrrole. Protoporphyrins are commonly found in nature and are important components of many biological systems, including hemoglobin, the protein in red blood cells that carries oxygen throughout the body.

There are several different types of protoporphyrins, including protoporphyrin IX, which is the most common form found in humans and other animals. Protoporphyrins can be measured in the blood or other tissues as a way to diagnose or monitor certain medical conditions, such as lead poisoning or porphyrias, which are rare genetic disorders that affect the production of heme. Elevated levels of protoporphyrins in the blood or tissues can indicate the presence of these conditions and may require further evaluation and treatment.

Heme is not a medical term per se, but it is a term used in the field of medicine and biology. Heme is a prosthetic group found in hemoproteins, which are proteins that contain a heme iron complex. This complex plays a crucial role in various biological processes, including oxygen transport (in hemoglobin), electron transfer (in cytochromes), and chemical catalysis (in peroxidases and catalases).

The heme group consists of an organic component called a porphyrin ring, which binds to a central iron atom. The iron atom can bind or release electrons, making it essential for redox reactions in the body. Heme is also vital for the formation of hemoglobin and myoglobin, proteins responsible for oxygen transport and storage in the blood and muscles, respectively.

In summary, heme is a complex organic-inorganic structure that plays a critical role in several biological processes, particularly in electron transfer and oxygen transport.

Hyperbaric oxygenation is a medical treatment in which a patient breathes pure oxygen in a pressurized chamber, typically at greater than one atmosphere absolute (ATA). This process results in increased levels of oxygen being dissolved in the blood and delivered to body tissues, thereby promoting healing, reducing inflammation, and combating infection. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy is used to treat various medical conditions, including carbon monoxide poisoning, decompression sickness, gangrene, and wounds that are slow to heal due to diabetes or radiation injury.

Photolysis is a term used in medical and scientific contexts to describe a chemical reaction that is initiated by the absorption of light or photons. In this process, a molecule absorbs a photon, which provides sufficient energy to break a bond within the molecule, leading to the formation of two or more smaller molecules or radicals. This phenomenon is particularly relevant in fields such as pharmacology and toxicology, where photolysis can alter the chemical structure and biological activity of drugs and other substances upon exposure to light.

Air pollutants are substances or mixtures of substances present in the air that can have negative effects on human health, the environment, and climate. These pollutants can come from a variety of sources, including industrial processes, transportation, residential heating and cooking, agricultural activities, and natural events. Some common examples of air pollutants include particulate matter, nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide, ozone, carbon monoxide, and volatile organic compounds (VOCs).

Air pollutants can cause a range of health effects, from respiratory irritation and coughing to more serious conditions such as bronchitis, asthma, and cancer. They can also contribute to climate change by reacting with other chemicals in the atmosphere to form harmful ground-level ozone and by directly absorbing or scattering sunlight, which can affect temperature and precipitation patterns.

Air quality standards and regulations have been established to limit the amount of air pollutants that can be released into the environment, and efforts are ongoing to reduce emissions and improve air quality worldwide.

A breath test is a medical or forensic procedure used to analyze a sample of exhaled breath in order to detect and measure the presence of various substances, most commonly alcohol. The test is typically conducted using a device called a breathalyzer, which measures the amount of alcohol in the breath and converts it into a reading of blood alcohol concentration (BAC).

In addition to alcohol, breath tests can also be used to detect other substances such as drugs or volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that may indicate certain medical conditions. However, these types of breath tests are less common and may not be as reliable or accurate as other diagnostic tests.

Breath testing is commonly used by law enforcement officers to determine whether a driver is impaired by alcohol and to establish probable cause for arrest. It is also used in some healthcare settings to monitor patients who are being treated for alcohol abuse or dependence.

Mesoporphyrins are a type of porphyrin, which are organic compounds containing four pyrrole rings connected by methine bridges in a cyclic arrangement. Porphyrins are important components of various biological molecules such as hemoglobin, myoglobin, and cytochromes.

Mesoporphyrins have a specific structure with two propionic acid side chains and two acetic acid side chains attached to the pyrrole rings. They are intermediates in the biosynthesis of heme, which is a complex formed by the insertion of iron into protoporphyrin IX, a type of porphyrin.

Mesoporphyrins have been used in medical research and clinical settings as photosensitizers for photodynamic therapy (PDT), a treatment that uses light to activate a photosensitizing agent to destroy abnormal cells or tissues. In particular, mesoporphyrin IX has been used for the PDT treatment of various types of cancer, such as bladder, esophageal, and lung cancer, as well as for the treatment of age-related macular degeneration (AMD), a leading cause of vision loss in older adults.

It is important to note that mesoporphyrins are not typically used as a diagnostic tool or a therapeutic agent in routine clinical practice, but rather as part of experimental research and clinical trials.

Oxygen is a colorless, odorless, tasteless gas that constitutes about 21% of the earth's atmosphere. It is a crucial element for human and most living organisms as it is vital for respiration. Inhaled oxygen enters the lungs and binds to hemoglobin in red blood cells, which carries it to tissues throughout the body where it is used to convert nutrients into energy and carbon dioxide, a waste product that is exhaled.

Medically, supplemental oxygen therapy may be provided to patients with conditions such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), pneumonia, heart failure, or other medical conditions that impair the body's ability to extract sufficient oxygen from the air. Oxygen can be administered through various devices, including nasal cannulas, face masks, and ventilators.

Carbon isotopes are variants of the chemical element carbon that have different numbers of neutrons in their atomic nuclei. The most common and stable isotope of carbon is carbon-12 (^{12}C), which contains six protons and six neutrons. However, carbon can also come in other forms, known as isotopes, which contain different numbers of neutrons.

Carbon-13 (^{13}C) is a stable isotope of carbon that contains seven neutrons in its nucleus. It makes up about 1.1% of all carbon found on Earth and is used in various scientific applications, such as in tracing the metabolic pathways of organisms or in studying the age of fossilized materials.

Carbon-14 (^{14}C), also known as radiocarbon, is a radioactive isotope of carbon that contains eight neutrons in its nucleus. It is produced naturally in the atmosphere through the interaction of cosmic rays with nitrogen gas. Carbon-14 has a half-life of about 5,730 years, which makes it useful for dating organic materials, such as archaeological artifacts or fossils, up to around 60,000 years old.

Carbon isotopes are important in many scientific fields, including geology, biology, and medicine, and are used in a variety of applications, from studying the Earth's climate history to diagnosing medical conditions.

Hemoglobin (Hb or Hgb) is the main oxygen-carrying protein in the red blood cells, which are responsible for delivering oxygen throughout the body. It is a complex molecule made up of four globin proteins and four heme groups. Each heme group contains an iron atom that binds to one molecule of oxygen. Hemoglobin plays a crucial role in the transport of oxygen from the lungs to the body's tissues, and also helps to carry carbon dioxide back to the lungs for exhalation.

There are several types of hemoglobin present in the human body, including:

* Hemoglobin A (HbA): This is the most common type of hemoglobin, making up about 95-98% of total hemoglobin in adults. It consists of two alpha and two beta globin chains.
* Hemoglobin A2 (HbA2): This makes up about 1.5-3.5% of total hemoglobin in adults. It consists of two alpha and two delta globin chains.
* Hemoglobin F (HbF): This is the main type of hemoglobin present in fetal life, but it persists at low levels in adults. It consists of two alpha and two gamma globin chains.
* Hemoglobin S (HbS): This is an abnormal form of hemoglobin that can cause sickle cell disease when it occurs in the homozygous state (i.e., both copies of the gene are affected). It results from a single amino acid substitution in the beta globin chain.
* Hemoglobin C (HbC): This is another abnormal form of hemoglobin that can cause mild to moderate hemolytic anemia when it occurs in the homozygous state. It results from a different single amino acid substitution in the beta globin chain than HbS.

Abnormal forms of hemoglobin, such as HbS and HbC, can lead to various clinical disorders, including sickle cell disease, thalassemia, and other hemoglobinopathies.

Respiratory Function Tests (RFTs) are a group of medical tests that measure how well your lungs take in and exhale air, and how well they transfer oxygen and carbon dioxide into and out of your blood. They can help diagnose certain lung disorders, measure the severity of lung disease, and monitor response to treatment.

RFTs include several types of tests, such as:

1. Spirometry: This test measures how much air you can exhale and how quickly you can do it. It's often used to diagnose and monitor conditions like asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and other lung diseases.
2. Lung volume testing: This test measures the total amount of air in your lungs. It can help diagnose restrictive lung diseases, such as pulmonary fibrosis or sarcoidosis.
3. Diffusion capacity testing: This test measures how well oxygen moves from your lungs into your bloodstream. It's often used to diagnose and monitor conditions like pulmonary fibrosis, interstitial lung disease, and other lung diseases that affect the ability of the lungs to transfer oxygen to the blood.
4. Bronchoprovocation testing: This test involves inhaling a substance that can cause your airways to narrow, such as methacholine or histamine. It's often used to diagnose and monitor asthma.
5. Exercise stress testing: This test measures how well your lungs and heart work together during exercise. It's often used to diagnose lung or heart disease.

Overall, Respiratory Function Tests are an important tool for diagnosing and managing a wide range of lung conditions.

Myoglobin is a protein found in the muscle tissue, particularly in red or skeletal muscles. It belongs to the globin family and has a similar structure to hemoglobin, another oxygen-binding protein found in red blood cells. Myoglobin's primary function is to store oxygen within the muscle cells, making it readily available for use during periods of increased oxygen demand, such as during physical exertion.

Myoglobin contains heme groups that bind to and release oxygen molecules. The protein has a higher affinity for oxygen than hemoglobin, allowing it to maintain its bound oxygen even in low-oxygen environments. When muscle cells are damaged or undergo necrosis (cell death), myoglobin is released into the bloodstream and can be detected in serum or urine samples. Elevated levels of myoglobin in the blood or urine may indicate muscle injury, trauma, or diseases affecting muscle integrity, such as rhabdomyolysis or muscular dystrophies.

Multienzyme complexes are specialized protein structures that consist of multiple enzymes closely associated or bound together, often with other cofactors and regulatory subunits. These complexes facilitate the sequential transfer of substrates along a series of enzymatic reactions, also known as a metabolic pathway. By keeping the enzymes in close proximity, multienzyme complexes enhance reaction efficiency, improve substrate specificity, and maintain proper stoichiometry between different enzymes involved in the pathway. Examples of multienzyme complexes include the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex, the citrate synthase complex, and the fatty acid synthetase complex.

Hemin is defined as the iron(III) complex of protoporphyrin IX, which is a porphyrin derivative. It is a naturally occurring substance that is involved in various biological processes, most notably in the form of heme, which is a component of hemoglobin and other hemoproteins. Hemin is also used in medical research and therapy, such as in the treatment of methemoglobinemia and lead poisoning.

Oxidation-Reduction (redox) reactions are a type of chemical reaction involving a transfer of electrons between two species. The substance that loses electrons in the reaction is oxidized, and the substance that gains electrons is reduced. Oxidation and reduction always occur together in a redox reaction, hence the term "oxidation-reduction."

In biological systems, redox reactions play a crucial role in many cellular processes, including energy production, metabolism, and signaling. The transfer of electrons in these reactions is often facilitated by specialized molecules called electron carriers, such as nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+/NADH) and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD/FADH2).

The oxidation state of an element in a compound is a measure of the number of electrons that have been gained or lost relative to its neutral state. In redox reactions, the oxidation state of one or more elements changes as they gain or lose electrons. The substance that is oxidized has a higher oxidation state, while the substance that is reduced has a lower oxidation state.

Overall, oxidation-reduction reactions are fundamental to the functioning of living organisms and are involved in many important biological processes.

Spectrophotometry is a technical analytical method used in the field of medicine and science to measure the amount of light absorbed or transmitted by a substance at specific wavelengths. This technique involves the use of a spectrophotometer, an instrument that measures the intensity of light as it passes through a sample.

In medical applications, spectrophotometry is often used in laboratory settings to analyze various biological samples such as blood, urine, and tissues. For example, it can be used to measure the concentration of specific chemicals or compounds in a sample by measuring the amount of light that is absorbed or transmitted at specific wavelengths.

In addition, spectrophotometry can also be used to assess the properties of biological tissues, such as their optical density and thickness. This information can be useful in the diagnosis and treatment of various medical conditions, including skin disorders, eye diseases, and cancer.

Overall, spectrophotometry is a valuable tool for medical professionals and researchers seeking to understand the composition and properties of various biological samples and tissues.

Heme proteins are a type of protein that contain a heme group, which is a prosthetic group composed of an iron atom contained in the center of a large organic ring called a porphyrin. The heme group gives these proteins their characteristic red color. Hemeproteins have various important functions in biological systems, including oxygen transport (e.g., hemoglobin), electron transfer (e.g., cytochromes), and enzymatic catalysis (e.g., peroxidases and catalases). The heme group can bind and release gases, such as oxygen and carbon monoxide, and can participate in redox reactions due to the ease with which iron can change its oxidation state.

Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) is a gaseous air pollutant and respiratory irritant. It is a reddish-brown toxic gas with a pungent, choking odor. NO2 is a major component of smog and is produced from the combustion of fossil fuels in vehicles, power plants, and industrial processes.

Exposure to nitrogen dioxide can cause respiratory symptoms such as coughing, wheezing, and difficulty breathing, especially in people with asthma or other respiratory conditions. Long-term exposure has been linked to the development of chronic lung diseases, including bronchitis and emphysema. NO2 also contributes to the formation of fine particulate matter (PM2.5), which can penetrate deep into the lungs and cause additional health problems.

Cyanides are a group of chemical compounds that contain the cyano group, -CN, which consists of a carbon atom triple-bonded to a nitrogen atom. They are highly toxic and can cause rapid death due to the inhibition of cellular respiration. Cyanide ions (CN-) bind to the ferric iron in cytochrome c oxidase, a crucial enzyme in the electron transport chain, preventing the flow of electrons and the production of ATP, leading to cellular asphyxiation.

Common sources of cyanides include industrial chemicals such as hydrogen cyanide (HCN) and potassium cyanide (KCN), as well as natural sources like certain fruits, nuts, and plants. Exposure to high levels of cyanides can occur through inhalation, ingestion, or skin absorption, leading to symptoms such as headache, dizziness, nausea, vomiting, rapid heartbeat, seizures, coma, and ultimately death. Treatment for cyanide poisoning typically involves the use of antidotes that bind to cyanide ions and convert them into less toxic forms, such as thiosulfate and rhodanese.

In medical terms, gases refer to the state of matter that has no fixed shape or volume and expands to fill any container it is placed in. Gases in the body can be normal, such as the oxygen, carbon dioxide, and nitrogen that are present in the lungs and blood, or abnormal, such as gas that accumulates in the digestive tract due to conditions like bloating or swallowing air.

Gases can also be used medically for therapeutic purposes, such as in the administration of anesthesia or in the treatment of certain respiratory conditions with oxygen therapy. Additionally, measuring the amount of gas in the body, such as through imaging studies like X-rays or CT scans, can help diagnose various medical conditions.

Organometallic compounds are a type of chemical compound that contain at least one metal-carbon bond. This means that the metal is directly attached to carbon atom(s) from an organic molecule. These compounds can be synthesized through various methods, and they have found widespread use in industrial and medicinal applications, including catalysis, polymerization, and pharmaceuticals.

It's worth noting that while organometallic compounds contain metal-carbon bonds, not all compounds with metal-carbon bonds are considered organometallic. For example, in classical inorganic chemistry, simple salts of metal carbonyls (M(CO)n) are not typically classified as organometallic, but rather as metal carbonyl complexes. The distinction between these classes of compounds can sometimes be subtle and is a matter of ongoing debate among chemists.

A lung is a pair of spongy, elastic organs in the chest that work together to enable breathing. They are responsible for taking in oxygen and expelling carbon dioxide through the process of respiration. The left lung has two lobes, while the right lung has three lobes. The lungs are protected by the ribcage and are covered by a double-layered membrane called the pleura. The trachea divides into two bronchi, which further divide into smaller bronchioles, leading to millions of tiny air sacs called alveoli, where the exchange of gases occurs.

Pulmonary gas exchange is the process by which oxygen (O2) from inhaled air is transferred to the blood, and carbon dioxide (CO2), a waste product of metabolism, is removed from the blood and exhaled. This process occurs in the lungs, primarily in the alveoli, where the thin walls of the alveoli and capillaries allow for the rapid diffusion of gases between them. The partial pressure gradient between the alveolar air and the blood in the pulmonary capillaries drives this diffusion process. Oxygen-rich blood is then transported to the body's tissues, while CO2-rich blood returns to the lungs to be exhaled.

Sulfur dioxide (SO2) is not a medical term per se, but it's an important chemical compound with implications in human health and medicine. Here's a brief definition:

Sulfur dioxide (SO2) is a colorless gas with a sharp, pungent odor. It is primarily released into the atmosphere as a result of human activities such as the burning of fossil fuels (like coal and oil) and the smelting of metals. SO2 is also produced naturally during volcanic eruptions and some biological processes.

In medical terms, exposure to high levels of sulfur dioxide can have adverse health effects, particularly for people with respiratory conditions like asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). SO2 can irritate the eyes, nose, throat, and lungs, causing coughing, wheezing, shortness of breath, and a tight feeling in the chest. Prolonged exposure to elevated levels of SO2 may exacerbate existing respiratory issues and lead to decreased lung function.

Regulations are in place to limit sulfur dioxide emissions from industrial sources to protect public health and reduce air pollution.

Nitric oxide (NO) is a molecule made up of one nitrogen atom and one oxygen atom. In the body, it is a crucial signaling molecule involved in various physiological processes such as vasodilation, immune response, neurotransmission, and inhibition of platelet aggregation. It is produced naturally by the enzyme nitric oxide synthase (NOS) from the amino acid L-arginine. Inhaled nitric oxide is used medically to treat pulmonary hypertension in newborns and adults, as it helps to relax and widen blood vessels, improving oxygenation and blood flow.

In the context of medicine and pharmacology, "kinetics" refers to the study of how a drug moves throughout the body, including its absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (often abbreviated as ADME). This field is called "pharmacokinetics."

1. Absorption: This is the process of a drug moving from its site of administration into the bloodstream. Factors such as the route of administration (e.g., oral, intravenous, etc.), formulation, and individual physiological differences can affect absorption.

2. Distribution: Once a drug is in the bloodstream, it gets distributed throughout the body to various tissues and organs. This process is influenced by factors like blood flow, protein binding, and lipid solubility of the drug.

3. Metabolism: Drugs are often chemically modified in the body, typically in the liver, through processes known as metabolism. These changes can lead to the formation of active or inactive metabolites, which may then be further distributed, excreted, or undergo additional metabolic transformations.

4. Excretion: This is the process by which drugs and their metabolites are eliminated from the body, primarily through the kidneys (urine) and the liver (bile).

Understanding the kinetics of a drug is crucial for determining its optimal dosing regimen, potential interactions with other medications or foods, and any necessary adjustments for special populations like pediatric or geriatric patients, or those with impaired renal or hepatic function.

Oxyhemoglobin is the form of hemoglobin that is combined with oxygen in red blood cells. It's created when oxygen molecules bind to the iron-containing heme groups of the hemoglobin protein inside the lungs, allowing for the transportation of oxygen from the lungs to body tissues. The affinity of hemoglobin for oxygen is influenced by factors such as pH, carbon dioxide concentration, and temperature, which can affect the release of oxygen from oxyhemoglobin in different parts of the body based on their specific needs.

Smoking is not a medical condition, but it's a significant health risk behavior. Here is the definition from a public health perspective:

Smoking is the act of inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning tobacco that is commonly consumed through cigarettes, pipes, and cigars. The smoke contains over 7,000 chemicals, including nicotine, tar, carbon monoxide, and numerous toxic and carcinogenic substances. These toxins contribute to a wide range of diseases and health conditions, such as lung cancer, heart disease, stroke, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and various other cancers, as well as adverse reproductive outcomes and negative impacts on the developing fetus during pregnancy. Smoking is highly addictive due to the nicotine content, which makes quitting smoking a significant challenge for many individuals.

Carbon tetrachloride is a colorless, heavy, and nonflammable liquid with a mild ether-like odor. Its chemical formula is CCl4. It was previously used as a solvent and refrigerant, but its use has been largely phased out due to its toxicity and ozone-depleting properties.

Inhalation, ingestion, or skin contact with carbon tetrachloride can cause harmful health effects. Short-term exposure can lead to symptoms such as dizziness, headache, nausea, and vomiting. Long-term exposure has been linked to liver and kidney damage, as well as an increased risk of cancer.

Carbon tetrachloride is also a potent greenhouse gas and contributes to climate change. Its production and use are regulated by international agreements aimed at protecting human health and the environment.

'Vehicle Emissions' is not a term typically used in medical definitions. However, in a broader context, it refers to the gases and particles released into the atmosphere by vehicles such as cars, trucks, buses, and airplanes. The main pollutants found in vehicle emissions include carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NOx), particulate matter (PM), and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Exposure to these pollutants can have negative health effects, including respiratory symptoms, cardiovascular disease, and cancer. Therefore, vehicle emissions are a significant public health concern.

Euryarchaeota is a phylum within the domain Archaea, which consists of a diverse group of microorganisms that are commonly found in various environments such as soil, oceans, and the digestive tracts of animals. This group includes methanogens, which are archaea that produce methane as a metabolic byproduct, and extreme halophiles, which are archaea that thrive in highly saline environments.

The name Euryarchaeota comes from the Greek words "eury," meaning wide or broad, and "archaios," meaning ancient or primitive. This name reflects the phylum's diverse range of habitats and metabolic capabilities.

Euryarchaeota are characterized by their unique archaeal-type cell walls, which contain a variety of complex polysaccharides and proteins. They also have a distinct type of intracellular membrane called the archaellum, which is involved in motility. Additionally, Euryarchaeota have a unique genetic code that differs from that of bacteria and eukaryotes, with some codons specifying different amino acids.

Overall, Euryarchaeota are an important group of archaea that play a significant role in global carbon and nitrogen cycles, as well as in the breakdown of organic matter in various environments.

Nicotine is defined as a highly addictive psychoactive alkaloid and stimulant found in the nightshade family of plants, primarily in tobacco leaves. It is the primary component responsible for the addiction to cigarettes and other forms of tobacco. Nicotine can also be produced synthetically.

When nicotine enters the body, it activates the release of several neurotransmitters such as dopamine, norepinephrine, and serotonin, leading to feelings of pleasure, stimulation, and relaxation. However, with regular use, tolerance develops, requiring higher doses to achieve the same effects, which can contribute to the development of nicotine dependence.

Nicotine has both short-term and long-term health effects. Short-term effects include increased heart rate and blood pressure, increased alertness and concentration, and arousal. Long-term use can lead to addiction, lung disease, cardiovascular disease, and reproductive problems. It is important to note that nicotine itself is not the primary cause of many tobacco-related diseases, but rather the result of other harmful chemicals found in tobacco smoke.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Hydrogen" is not a medical term. It is a chemical element with the symbol H and atomic number 1. It is the lightest and most abundant chemical element in the universe, making up about 75% of its elemental mass.

In a medical context, hydrogen can be discussed in terms of molecular hydrogen (H2) which has been studied for potential therapeutic benefits. Some research explores its use as an antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agent, but more studies are needed to confirm these effects and understand the mechanisms behind them.

Methemoglobin is a form of hemoglobin in which the iron within the heme group is in the ferric (Fe3+) state instead of the ferrous (Fe2+) state. This oxidation reduces its ability to bind and transport oxygen effectively, leading to methemoglobinemia when methemoglobin levels become too high. Methemoglobin has a limited capacity to release oxygen to tissues, which can result in hypoxia (reduced oxygen supply) and cyanosis (bluish discoloration of the skin and mucous membranes).

Methemoglobin is normally present in small amounts in the blood, but certain factors such as exposure to oxidizing agents, genetic predisposition, or certain medications can increase its levels. Elevated methemoglobin levels can be treated with methylene blue, which helps restore the iron within hemoglobin back to its ferrous state and improves oxygen transport capacity.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Nickel" is not a medical term. It is a chemical element with the symbol Ni and atomic number 28. Nickel is a hard, silvery-white lustrous metal with a slight golden tinge. It is one of four elements that are ferromagnetic and is used as a common component in various alloys due to its properties such as resistance to corrosion and heat.

However, in a medical context, nickel may refer to:

* Nickel allergy: A type of allergic contact dermatitis caused by an immune system response to the presence of nickel in jewelry, clothing fasteners, or other items that come into contact with the skin. Symptoms can include redness, itching, and rash at the site of exposure.
* Nickel carbonyl: A highly toxic chemical compound (Ni(CO)4) that can cause respiratory and neurological problems if inhaled. It is produced during some industrial processes involving nickel and carbon monoxide and poses a health risk to workers if proper safety measures are not taken.

If you have any concerns about exposure to nickel or symptoms related to nickel allergy, it's best to consult with a healthcare professional for further evaluation and treatment.

Hydrogenase is not a medical term per se, but a biochemical term. It is used to describe an enzyme that catalyzes the reversible conversion between molecular hydrogen (H2) and protons (H+) or vice versa. These enzymes are found in certain bacteria, algae, and archaea, and they play a crucial role in their energy metabolism, particularly in processes like hydrogen production and consumption.

While not directly related to medical terminology, understanding the function of hydrogenase can be important in fields such as microbiology, molecular biology, and environmental science, which can have implications for human health in areas like infectious diseases, biofuels, and waste management.

Carbon sequestration is the process of capturing and storing atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2), a greenhouse gas, to mitigate climate change. It can occur naturally through processes such as photosynthesis in plants and absorption by oceans. Artificial or engineered carbon sequestration methods include:

1. Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS): This process captures CO2 emissions from large point sources, like power plants, before they are released into the atmosphere. The captured CO2 is then compressed and transported to suitable geological formations for long-term storage.

2. Ocean Sequestration: This method involves directly injecting CO2 into the deep ocean or enhancing natural processes that absorb CO2 from the atmosphere, such as growing more phytoplankton (microscopic marine plants) through nutrient enrichment.

3. Soil Carbon Sequestration: Practices like regenerative agriculture, agroforestry, and cover cropping can enhance soil organic carbon content by increasing the amount of carbon stored in soils. This not only helps mitigate climate change but also improves soil health and productivity.

4. Biochar Sequestration: Biochar is a type of charcoal produced through pyrolysis (heating biomass in the absence of oxygen). When added to soils, biochar can increase soil fertility and carbon sequestration capacity, as it has a high resistance to decomposition and can store carbon for hundreds to thousands of years.

5. Mineral Carbonation: This method involves reacting CO2 with naturally occurring minerals (like silicate or oxide minerals) to form stable mineral carbonates, effectively locking away the CO2 in solid form.

It is important to note that while carbon sequestration can help mitigate climate change, it should be considered as one of many strategies to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and transition towards a low-carbon or carbon-neutral economy.

Ventilation, in the context of medicine and physiology, refers to the process of breathing, which is the exchange of air between the lungs and the environment. It involves both inspiration (inhaling) and expiration (exhaling). During inspiration, air moves into the lungs, delivering oxygen to the alveoli (air sacs) where gas exchange occurs. Oxygen is taken up by the blood and transported to the body's cells, while carbon dioxide, a waste product, is expelled from the body during expiration.

In a medical setting, ventilation may also refer to the use of mechanical devices, such as ventilators or respirators, which assist or replace the breathing process for patients who are unable to breathe effectively on their own due to conditions like respiratory failure, sedation, neuromuscular disorders, or injuries. These machines help maintain adequate gas exchange and prevent complications associated with inadequate ventilation, such as hypoxia (low oxygen levels) and hypercapnia (high carbon dioxide levels).

Boranes are a group of chemical compounds that contain only boron and hydrogen. The most well-known borane is BH3, also known as diborane. These compounds are highly reactive and have unusual structures, with the boron atoms bonded to each other in three-center, two-electron bonds. Boranes are used in research and industrial applications, including as reducing agents and catalysts. They are highly flammable and toxic, so they must be handled with care.

Vital capacity (VC) is a term used in pulmonary function tests to describe the maximum volume of air that can be exhaled after taking a deep breath. It is the sum of inspiratory reserve volume, tidal volume, and expiratory reserve volume. In other words, it's the total amount of air you can forcibly exhale after inhaling as deeply as possible. Vital capacity is an important measurement in assessing lung function and can be reduced in conditions such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), asthma, and other respiratory disorders.

"Inhalation administration" is a medical term that refers to the method of delivering medications or therapeutic agents directly into the lungs by inhaling them through the airways. This route of administration is commonly used for treating respiratory conditions such as asthma, COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease), and cystic fibrosis.

Inhalation administration can be achieved using various devices, including metered-dose inhalers (MDIs), dry powder inhalers (DPIs), nebulizers, and soft-mist inhalers. Each device has its unique mechanism of delivering the medication into the lungs, but they all aim to provide a high concentration of the drug directly to the site of action while minimizing systemic exposure and side effects.

The advantages of inhalation administration include rapid onset of action, increased local drug concentration, reduced systemic side effects, and improved patient compliance due to the ease of use and non-invasive nature of the delivery method. However, proper technique and device usage are crucial for effective therapy, as incorrect usage may result in suboptimal drug deposition and therapeutic outcomes.

Air pollution is defined as the contamination of air due to the presence of substances or harmful elements that exceed the acceptable limits. These pollutants can be in the form of solid particles, liquid droplets, gases, or a combination of these. They can be released from various sources, including industrial processes, vehicle emissions, burning of fossil fuels, and natural events like volcanic eruptions.

Exposure to air pollution can have significant impacts on human health, contributing to respiratory diseases, cardiovascular issues, and even premature death. It can also harm the environment, damaging crops, forests, and wildlife populations. Stringent regulations and measures are necessary to control and reduce air pollution levels, thereby protecting public health and the environment.

Biliverdine is a greenish pigment that is a byproduct of the breakdown of heme, which is a component of hemoglobin in red blood cells. It is formed when bilirubin, another byproduct of heme degradation, is reduced in the liver. Biliverdine is then converted back to bilirubin and excreted from the body as part of bile.

Elevated levels of biliverdine in the blood can indicate liver dysfunction or other medical conditions that affect the breakdown of heme. It may also be present in high concentrations in certain types of hemolytic anemia, where there is excessive destruction of red blood cells and subsequent release of large amounts of heme into the circulation.

Carbon disulfide is a colorless, volatile, and flammable liquid with the chemical formula CS2. It has a unique odor that is often described as being similar to that of rotten eggs or garlic. In industry, carbon disulfide is primarily used as a solvent in the production of rayon and cellophane.

In medicine, exposure to carbon disulfide has been linked to various health problems, including neurological disorders, cardiovascular disease, and reproductive issues. Long-term exposure can lead to symptoms such as headaches, dizziness, memory loss, and peripheral neuropathy. It is also considered a potential occupational carcinogen, meaning that it may increase the risk of cancer with prolonged exposure.

It's important for individuals who work in industries where carbon disulfide is used to follow proper safety protocols, including using appropriate personal protective equipment and monitoring air quality to minimize exposure.

Total Lung Capacity (TLC) is the maximum volume of air that can be contained within the lungs at the end of a maximal inspiration. It includes all of the following lung volumes: tidal volume, inspiratory reserve volume, expiratory reserve volume, and residual volume. TLC can be measured directly using gas dilution techniques or indirectly by adding residual volume to vital capacity. Factors that affect TLC include age, sex, height, and lung health status.

'Smoke' is not typically defined in a medical context, but it can be described as a mixture of small particles and gases that are released when something burns. Smoke can be composed of various components including carbon monoxide, particulate matter, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), benzene, toluene, styrene, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Exposure to smoke can cause a range of health problems, including respiratory symptoms, cardiovascular disease, and cancer.

In the medical field, exposure to smoke is often referred to as "secondhand smoke" or "passive smoking" when someone breathes in smoke from another person's cigarette, cigar, or pipe. This type of exposure can be just as harmful as smoking itself and has been linked to a range of health problems, including respiratory infections, asthma, lung cancer, and heart disease.

Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a colorless, flammable, and extremely toxic gas with a strong odor of rotten eggs. It is a naturally occurring compound that is produced in various industrial processes and is also found in some natural sources like volcanoes, hot springs, and swamps.

In the medical context, hydrogen sulfide is known to have both toxic and therapeutic effects on the human body. At high concentrations, it can cause respiratory failure, unconsciousness, and even death. However, recent studies have shown that at low levels, hydrogen sulfide may act as a signaling molecule in the human body, playing a role in various physiological processes such as regulating blood flow, reducing inflammation, and protecting against oxidative stress.

It's worth noting that exposure to high levels of hydrogen sulfide can be life-threatening, and immediate medical attention is required in case of exposure.

Leghemoglobin is a type of protein known as a hemeprotein, found in the root nodules of leguminous plants (plants belonging to the family Fabaceae or Leguminosae). These root nodules are formed through a symbiotic relationship with nitrogen-fixing bacteria called Rhizobia.

The primary function of leghemoglobin is to facilitate the process of nitrogen fixation by maintaining an optimal oxygen concentration within the root nodule cells, where the Rhizobia reside. By binding and releasing oxygen reversibly, leghemoglobin protects the nitrogen-fixing enzyme, nitrogenase, from being inactivated by excess oxygen. This ensures that the Rhizobia can effectively convert atmospheric nitrogen gas (N2) into ammonia (NH3), which is then utilized by the plant for its growth and development.

In summary, leghemoglobin is a crucial protein in the process of biological nitrogen fixation, allowing leguminous plants to grow without the need for added nitrogen fertilizers.

'Clostridium' is a genus of gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria that are widely distributed in nature, including in soil, water, and the gastrointestinal tracts of animals and humans. Many species of Clostridium are anaerobic, meaning they can grow and reproduce in environments with little or no oxygen. Some species of Clostridium are capable of producing toxins that can cause serious and sometimes life-threatening illnesses in humans and animals.

Some notable species of Clostridium include:

* Clostridium tetani, which causes tetanus (also known as lockjaw)
* Clostridium botulinum, which produces botulinum toxin, the most potent neurotoxin known and the cause of botulism
* Clostridium difficile, which can cause severe diarrhea and colitis, particularly in people who have recently taken antibiotics
* Clostridium perfringens, which can cause food poisoning and gas gangrene.

It is important to note that not all species of Clostridium are harmful, and some are even beneficial, such as those used in the production of certain fermented foods like sauerkraut and natto. However, due to their ability to produce toxins and cause illness, it is important to handle and dispose of materials contaminated with Clostridium species carefully, especially in healthcare settings.

Metalloporphyrins are a type of porphyrin molecule that contain a metal ion at their center. Porphyrins are complex organic compounds containing four modified pyrrole rings connected to form a planar, aromatic ring known as a porphine. When a metal ion is incorporated into the center of the porphyrin ring, it forms a metalloporphyrin.

These molecules have great biological significance, as they are involved in various essential processes within living organisms. For instance, heme, a type of iron-containing porphyrin, plays a crucial role in oxygen transport and storage in the body by forming part of hemoglobin and myoglobin molecules. Chlorophyll, another metalloporphyrin with magnesium at its center, is essential for photosynthesis in plants, algae, and some bacteria.

Metalloporphyrins have also found applications in several industrial and medical fields, including catalysis, sensors, and pharmaceuticals. Their unique structure and properties make them valuable tools for researchers and scientists to study and utilize in various ways.

Methane is not a medical term, but it is a chemical compound that is often mentioned in the context of medicine and health. Medically, methane is significant because it is one of the gases produced by anaerobic microorganisms during the breakdown of organic matter in the gut, leading to conditions such as bloating, cramping, and diarrhea. Excessive production of methane can also be a symptom of certain digestive disorders like irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO).

In broader terms, methane is a colorless, odorless gas that is the primary component of natural gas. It is produced naturally by the decomposition of organic matter in anaerobic conditions, such as in landfills, wetlands, and the digestive tracts of animals like cows and humans. Methane is also a potent greenhouse gas with a global warming potential 25 times greater than carbon dioxide over a 100-year time frame.

Environmental exposure refers to the contact of an individual with any chemical, physical, or biological agent in the environment that can cause a harmful effect on health. These exposures can occur through various pathways such as inhalation, ingestion, or skin contact. Examples of environmental exposures include air pollution, water contamination, occupational chemicals, and allergens. The duration and level of exposure, as well as the susceptibility of the individual, can all contribute to the risk of developing an adverse health effect.

Indoor air pollution refers to the contamination of air within buildings and structures due to presence of particles, gases, or biological materials that can harmfully affect the health of occupants. These pollutants can originate from various sources including cooking stoves, heating systems, building materials, furniture, tobacco products, outdoor air, and microbial growth. Some common indoor air pollutants include particulate matter, carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and mold. Prolonged exposure to these pollutants can cause a range of health issues, from respiratory problems to cancer, depending on the type and level of exposure. Effective ventilation, air filtration, and source control are some of the strategies used to reduce indoor air pollution.

Guanylate cyclase is an enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of guanosine triphosphate (GTP) to cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP), which acts as a second messenger in various cellular signaling pathways. There are two main types of guanylate cyclases: soluble and membrane-bound. Soluble guanylate cyclase is activated by nitric oxide, while membrane-bound guanylate cyclase can be activated by natriuretic peptides. The increased levels of cGMP produced by guanylate cyclase can lead to a variety of cellular responses, including smooth muscle relaxation, neurotransmitter release, and regulation of ion channels. Dysregulation of guanylate cyclase activity has been implicated in several diseases, such as hypertension, heart failure, and cancer.

Bilirubin is a yellowish pigment that is produced by the liver when it breaks down old red blood cells. It is a normal byproduct of hemoglobin metabolism and is usually conjugated (made water-soluble) in the liver before being excreted through the bile into the digestive system. Elevated levels of bilirubin can cause jaundice, a yellowing of the skin and eyes. Increased bilirubin levels may indicate liver disease or other medical conditions such as gallstones or hemolysis. It is also measured to assess liver function and to help diagnose various liver disorders.

I believe there may be some confusion in your question. "Fires" is not a medical term that I am aware of. In a general context, a fire refers to the rapid oxidation of a material in the chemical process of combustion, releasing heat, light, and various reaction products. If you are asking about a specific medical term or condition, could you please provide more context or clarify your question? I'm here to help!

Particulate Matter (PM) refers to the mixture of tiny particles and droplets in the air that are solid or liquid in nature. These particles vary in size, with some being visible to the naked eye while others can only be seen under a microscope. PM is classified based on its diameter:

* PM10 includes particles with a diameter of 10 micrometers or smaller. These particles are often found in dust, pollen, and smoke.
* PM2.5 includes particles with a diameter of 2.5 micrometers or smaller. These fine particles are produced from sources such as power plants, industrial processes, and vehicle emissions. They can also come from natural sources like wildfires.

Exposure to particulate matter has been linked to various health problems, including respiratory issues, cardiovascular disease, and premature death. The smaller the particle, the deeper it can penetrate into the lungs, making PM2.5 particularly harmful to human health.

Ethane is not a medical term, but it is a chemical compound that is part of the human environment. Ethane is a hydrocarbon, which means it contains only hydrogen and carbon atoms. Specifically, ethane is made up of two carbon atoms and six hydrogen atoms (C2H6). It is a colorless gas at room temperature and has no smell or taste.

In the context of human health, ethane is not considered to be harmful in small amounts. However, exposure to high levels of ethane can cause respiratory irritation and other symptoms. Ethane is also a greenhouse gas, which means that it contributes to global warming when released into the atmosphere.

Ethane is produced naturally during the breakdown of organic matter, such as plants and animals. It is also produced in small amounts during the digestion of food in the human body. However, most ethane used in industry is extracted from natural gas and petroleum deposits. Ethane is used as a fuel and as a raw material in the production of plastics and other chemicals.

Smoke inhalation injury is a type of damage that occurs to the respiratory system when an individual breathes in smoke, most commonly during a fire. This injury can affect both the upper and lower airways and can cause a range of symptoms, including coughing, wheezing, shortness of breath, and chest pain.

Smoke inhalation injury can also lead to more severe complications, such as chemical irritation of the airways, swelling of the throat and lungs, and respiratory failure. In some cases, it can even be fatal. The severity of the injury depends on several factors, including the duration and intensity of the exposure, the individual's underlying health status, and the presence of any pre-existing lung conditions.

Smoke inhalation injury is caused by a combination of thermal injury (heat damage) and chemical injury (damage from toxic substances present in the smoke). The heat from the smoke can cause direct damage to the airways, leading to inflammation and swelling. At the same time, the chemicals in the smoke can irritate and corrode the lining of the airways, causing further damage.

Some of the toxic substances found in smoke include carbon monoxide, cyanide, and various other chemicals released by burning materials. These substances can interfere with the body's ability to transport oxygen and can cause metabolic acidosis, a condition characterized by an excessively acidic environment in the body.

Treatment for smoke inhalation injury typically involves providing supportive care to help the individual breathe more easily, such as administering oxygen or using mechanical ventilation. In some cases, medications may be used to reduce inflammation and swelling in the airways. Severe cases of smoke inhalation injury may require hospitalization and intensive care.

Smoking cessation is the process of discontinuing tobacco smoking. This can be achieved through various methods such as behavioral modifications, counseling, and medication. The goal of smoking cessation is to improve overall health, reduce the risk of tobacco-related diseases, and enhance quality of life. It is a significant step towards preventing lung cancer, heart disease, stroke, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and other serious health conditions.

Lung volume measurements are clinical tests that determine the amount of air inhaled, exhaled, and present in the lungs at different times during the breathing cycle. These measurements include:

1. Tidal Volume (TV): The amount of air inhaled or exhaled during normal breathing, usually around 500 mL in resting adults.
2. Inspiratory Reserve Volume (IRV): The additional air that can be inhaled after a normal inspiration, approximately 3,000 mL in adults.
3. Expiratory Reserve Volume (ERV): The extra air that can be exhaled after a normal expiration, about 1,000-1,200 mL in adults.
4. Residual Volume (RV): The air remaining in the lungs after a maximal exhalation, approximately 1,100-1,500 mL in adults.
5. Total Lung Capacity (TLC): The total amount of air the lungs can hold at full inflation, calculated as TV + IRV + ERV + RV, around 6,000 mL in adults.
6. Functional Residual Capacity (FRC): The volume of air remaining in the lungs after a normal expiration, equal to ERV + RV, about 2,100-2,700 mL in adults.
7. Inspiratory Capacity (IC): The maximum amount of air that can be inhaled after a normal expiration, equal to TV + IRV, around 3,500 mL in adults.
8. Vital Capacity (VC): The total volume of air that can be exhaled after a maximal inspiration, calculated as IC + ERV, approximately 4,200-5,600 mL in adults.

These measurements help assess lung function and identify various respiratory disorders such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), asthma, and restrictive lung diseases.

Acetylene is defined as a colorless, highly flammable gas with a distinctive odor, having the chemical formula C2H2. It is the simplest and lightest hydrocarbon in which two carbon atoms are bonded together by a triple bond. Acetylene is used as a fuel in welding and cutting torches, and it can also be converted into other chemicals, such as vinyl acetate and acetic acid. In medical terms, acetylene is not a substance that is commonly used or discussed.

In the field of medicine, "time factors" refer to the duration of symptoms or time elapsed since the onset of a medical condition, which can have significant implications for diagnosis and treatment. Understanding time factors is crucial in determining the progression of a disease, evaluating the effectiveness of treatments, and making critical decisions regarding patient care.

For example, in stroke management, "time is brain," meaning that rapid intervention within a specific time frame (usually within 4.5 hours) is essential to administering tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), a clot-busting drug that can minimize brain damage and improve patient outcomes. Similarly, in trauma care, the "golden hour" concept emphasizes the importance of providing definitive care within the first 60 minutes after injury to increase survival rates and reduce morbidity.

Time factors also play a role in monitoring the progression of chronic conditions like diabetes or heart disease, where regular follow-ups and assessments help determine appropriate treatment adjustments and prevent complications. In infectious diseases, time factors are crucial for initiating antibiotic therapy and identifying potential outbreaks to control their spread.

Overall, "time factors" encompass the significance of recognizing and acting promptly in various medical scenarios to optimize patient outcomes and provide effective care.

Acetyl Coenzyme A, often abbreviated as Acetyl-CoA, is a key molecule in metabolism, particularly in the breakdown and oxidation of carbohydrates, fats, and proteins to produce energy. It is a coenzyme that plays a central role in the cellular process of transforming the energy stored in the chemical bonds of nutrients into a form that the cell can use.

Acetyl-CoA consists of an acetyl group (two carbon atoms) linked to coenzyme A, a complex organic molecule. This linkage is facilitated by an enzyme called acetyltransferase. Once formed, Acetyl-CoA can enter various metabolic pathways. In the citric acid cycle (also known as the Krebs cycle), Acetyl-CoA is further oxidized to release energy in the form of ATP, NADH, and FADH2, which are used in other cellular processes. Additionally, Acetyl-CoA is involved in the biosynthesis of fatty acids, cholesterol, and certain amino acids.

In summary, Acetyl Coenzyme A is a vital molecule in metabolism that connects various biochemical pathways for energy production and biosynthesis.

Cotinine is the major metabolite of nicotine, which is formed in the body after exposure to tobacco smoke or other sources of nicotine. It is often used as a biomarker for nicotine exposure and can be measured in various biological samples such as blood, urine, saliva, and hair. Cotinine has a longer half-life than nicotine, making it a more reliable indicator of long-term exposure to tobacco smoke or nicotine products.

"Rhodospirillum rubrum" is a gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, photosynthetic bacteria species. It is commonly found in freshwater and soil environments, and it has the ability to carry out both photosynthesis and respiration, depending on the availability of light and oxygen. The bacteria contain bacteriochlorophyll and carotenoid pigments, which give them a pinkish-red color, hence the name "rubrum." They are known to be important organisms in the study of photosynthesis, nitrogen fixation, and other metabolic processes.

Hemoglobin A is the most common form of hemoglobin, which is the oxygen-carrying protein in red blood cells. Hemoglobin A is a tetramer composed of two alpha and two beta globin chains, each containing a heme group that binds to oxygen. It is typically measured in laboratory tests to assess for various medical conditions such as anemia or diabetes. In the context of diabetes, the measurement of hemoglobin A1c (a form of hemoglobin A that is glycated or bound to glucose) is used to monitor long-term blood sugar control.

In the context of medicine, iron is an essential micromineral and key component of various proteins and enzymes. It plays a crucial role in oxygen transport, DNA synthesis, and energy production within the body. Iron exists in two main forms: heme and non-heme. Heme iron is derived from hemoglobin and myoglobin in animal products, while non-heme iron comes from plant sources and supplements.

The recommended daily allowance (RDA) for iron varies depending on age, sex, and life stage:

* For men aged 19-50 years, the RDA is 8 mg/day
* For women aged 19-50 years, the RDA is 18 mg/day
* During pregnancy, the RDA increases to 27 mg/day
* During lactation, the RDA for breastfeeding mothers is 9 mg/day

Iron deficiency can lead to anemia, characterized by fatigue, weakness, and shortness of breath. Excessive iron intake may result in iron overload, causing damage to organs such as the liver and heart. Balanced iron levels are essential for maintaining optimal health.

Acetates, in a medical context, most commonly refer to compounds that contain the acetate group, which is an functional group consisting of a carbon atom bonded to two hydrogen atoms and an oxygen atom (-COO-). An example of an acetate is sodium acetate (CH3COONa), which is a salt formed from acetic acid (CH3COOH) and is often used as a buffering agent in medical solutions.

Acetates can also refer to a group of medications that contain acetate as an active ingredient, such as magnesium acetate, which is used as a laxative, or calcium acetate, which is used to treat high levels of phosphate in the blood.

In addition, acetates can also refer to a process called acetylation, which is the addition of an acetyl group (-COCH3) to a molecule. This process can be important in the metabolism and regulation of various substances within the body.

Environmental monitoring is the systematic and ongoing surveillance, measurement, and assessment of environmental parameters, pollutants, or other stressors in order to evaluate potential impacts on human health, ecological systems, or compliance with regulatory standards. This process typically involves collecting and analyzing data from various sources, such as air, water, soil, and biota, and using this information to inform decisions related to public health, environmental protection, and resource management.

In medical terms, environmental monitoring may refer specifically to the assessment of environmental factors that can impact human health, such as air quality, water contamination, or exposure to hazardous substances. This type of monitoring is often conducted in occupational settings, where workers may be exposed to potential health hazards, as well as in community-based settings, where environmental factors may contribute to public health issues. The goal of environmental monitoring in a medical context is to identify and mitigate potential health risks associated with environmental exposures, and to promote healthy and safe environments for individuals and communities.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Wood" is not a medical term. It is a common name for various hard, fibrous tissues that make up the trunks and branches of trees and shrubs, as well as a term used for a wide range of items made from these materials. If you have any medical concerns or questions, I would be happy to try and help answer those for you.

The medical definition of 'charcoal' is referred to as activated charcoal, which is a fine, black powder made from coconut shells, wood, or other natural substances. It is used in medical situations to absorb poison or drugs in the stomach, thereby preventing their absorption into the body and reducing their toxic effects. Activated charcoal works by binding to certain chemicals and preventing them from being absorbed through the digestive tract.

Activated charcoal is generally safe for most people when taken as directed, but it can cause side effects such as black stools, constipation, and regurgitation of the charcoal. It should be used under medical supervision and not as a substitute for seeking immediate medical attention in case of poisoning or overdose.

It's important to note that activated charcoal is different from regular charcoal, which is not safe to consume and can contain harmful chemicals or substances.

Spectrophotometry, Infrared is a scientific analytical technique used to measure the absorption or transmission of infrared light by a sample. It involves the use of an infrared spectrophotometer, which directs infrared radiation through a sample and measures the intensity of the radiation that is transmitted or absorbed by the sample at different wavelengths within the infrared region of the electromagnetic spectrum.

Infrared spectroscopy can be used to identify and quantify functional groups and chemical bonds present in a sample, as well as to study the molecular structure and composition of materials. The resulting infrared spectrum provides a unique "fingerprint" of the sample, which can be compared with reference spectra to aid in identification and characterization.

Infrared spectrophotometry is widely used in various fields such as chemistry, biology, pharmaceuticals, forensics, and materials science for qualitative and quantitative analysis of samples.

Ozone (O3) is not a substance that is typically considered a component of health or medicine in the context of human body or physiology. It's actually a form of oxygen, but with three atoms instead of two, making it unstable and reactive. Ozone is naturally present in the Earth's atmosphere, where it forms a protective layer in the stratosphere that absorbs harmful ultraviolet (UV) radiation from the sun.

However, ozone can have both beneficial and detrimental effects on human health depending on its location and concentration. At ground level or in indoor environments, ozone is considered an air pollutant that can irritate the respiratory system and aggravate asthma symptoms when inhaled at high concentrations. It's important to note that ozone should not be confused with oxygen (O2), which is essential for human life and breathing.

Inhalation exposure is a term used in occupational and environmental health to describe the situation where an individual breathes in substances present in the air, which could be gases, vapors, fumes, mist, or particulate matter. These substances can originate from various sources, such as industrial processes, chemical reactions, or natural phenomena.

The extent of inhalation exposure is determined by several factors, including:

1. Concentration of the substance in the air
2. Duration of exposure
3. Frequency of exposure
4. The individual's breathing rate
5. The efficiency of the individual's respiratory protection, if any

Inhalation exposure can lead to adverse health effects, depending on the toxicity and concentration of the inhaled substances. Short-term or acute health effects may include irritation of the eyes, nose, throat, or lungs, while long-term or chronic exposure can result in more severe health issues, such as respiratory diseases, neurological disorders, or cancer.

It is essential to monitor and control inhalation exposures in occupational settings to protect workers' health and ensure compliance with regulatory standards. Various methods are employed for exposure assessment, including personal air sampling, area monitoring, and biological monitoring. Based on the results of these assessments, appropriate control measures can be implemented to reduce or eliminate the risks associated with inhalation exposure.

Barium compounds are inorganic substances that contain the metallic element barium (Ba) combined with one or more other elements. Barium is an alkaline earth metal that is highly reactive and toxic in its pure form. However, when bound with other elements to form barium compounds, it can be used safely for various medical and industrial purposes.

In medicine, barium compounds are commonly used as a contrast material for X-ray examinations of the digestive system. When a patient swallows a preparation containing barium sulfate, the dense compound coats the lining of the esophagus, stomach, and intestines, making them visible on an X-ray image. This allows doctors to diagnose conditions such as ulcers, tumors, or blockages in the digestive tract.

Other barium compounds include barium carbonate, barium chloride, and barium hydroxide, which are used in various industrial applications such as drilling muds, flame retardants, and pigments for paints and plastics. However, these compounds can be toxic if ingested or inhaled, so they must be handled with care.

Pulmonary emphysema is a chronic respiratory disease characterized by abnormal, permanent enlargement of the airspaces distal to the terminal bronchioles, accompanied by destruction of their walls and without obvious fibrosis. This results in loss of elastic recoil, which leads to trappling of air within the lungs and difficulty exhaling. It is often caused by cigarette smoking or long-term exposure to harmful pollutants. The disease is part of a group of conditions known as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), which also includes chronic bronchitis.

Nitrogen is not typically referred to as a medical term, but it is an element that is crucial to medicine and human life.

In a medical context, nitrogen is often mentioned in relation to gas analysis, respiratory therapy, or medical gases. Nitrogen (N) is a colorless, odorless, and nonreactive gas that makes up about 78% of the Earth's atmosphere. It is an essential element for various biological processes, such as the growth and maintenance of organisms, because it is a key component of amino acids, nucleic acids, and other organic compounds.

In some medical applications, nitrogen is used to displace oxygen in a mixture to create a controlled environment with reduced oxygen levels (hypoxic conditions) for therapeutic purposes, such as in certain types of hyperbaric chambers. Additionally, nitrogen gas is sometimes used in cryotherapy, where extremely low temperatures are applied to tissues to reduce pain, swelling, and inflammation.

However, it's important to note that breathing pure nitrogen can be dangerous, as it can lead to unconsciousness and even death due to lack of oxygen (asphyxiation) within minutes.

Electron Spin Resonance (ESR) Spectroscopy, also known as Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) Spectroscopy, is a technique used to investigate materials with unpaired electrons. It is based on the principle of absorption of energy by the unpaired electrons when they are exposed to an external magnetic field and microwave radiation.

In this technique, a sample is placed in a magnetic field and microwave radiation is applied. The unpaired electrons in the sample absorb energy and change their spin state when the energy of the microwaves matches the energy difference between the spin states. This absorption of energy is recorded as a function of the magnetic field strength, producing an ESR spectrum.

ESR spectroscopy can provide information about the number, type, and behavior of unpaired electrons in a sample, as well as the local environment around the electron. It is widely used in physics, chemistry, and biology to study materials such as free radicals, transition metal ions, and defects in solids.

In the context of medical terminology, "heating" generally refers to the application of heat to an area of the body for therapeutic purposes. This can be done using various methods such as hot packs, heating pads, warm compresses, or even heated wax. The goal of applying heat is to increase blood flow, reduce pain and muscle spasms, and promote healing in the affected area. It's important to note that excessive heating or application of heat to sensitive areas should be avoided, as it can lead to burns or other injuries.

Antimetabolites are a class of drugs that interfere with the normal metabolic processes of cells, particularly those involved in DNA replication and cell division. They are commonly used as chemotherapeutic agents to treat various types of cancer because many cancer cells divide more rapidly than normal cells. Antimetabolites work by mimicking natural substances needed for cell growth and division, such as nucleotides or amino acids, and getting incorporated into the growing cells' DNA or protein structures, which ultimately leads to the termination of cell division and death of the cancer cells. Examples of antimetabolites include methotrexate, 5-fluorouracil, and capecitabine.

Carbon tetrachloride poisoning refers to the harmful effects on the body caused by exposure to carbon tetrachloride, a volatile and toxic chemical compound. This substance has been widely used in various industrial applications, such as a solvent for fats, oils, and rubber, a fire extinguishing agent, and a refrigerant. However, due to its high toxicity, the use of carbon tetrachloride has been significantly reduced or phased out in many countries.

Ingestion, inhalation, or skin absorption of carbon tetrachloride can lead to poisoning, which may cause various symptoms depending on the severity and duration of exposure. Acute exposure to high concentrations of carbon tetrachloride can result in:

1. Central nervous system depression: Dizziness, headache, confusion, drowsiness, and, in severe cases, loss of consciousness or even death.
2. Respiratory irritation: Coughing, wheezing, shortness of breath, and pulmonary edema (fluid accumulation in the lungs).
3. Cardiovascular effects: Increased heart rate, low blood pressure, and irregular heart rhythms.
4. Gastrointestinal symptoms: Nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, and diarrhea.
5. Liver damage: Hepatitis, jaundice, and liver failure in severe cases.
6. Kidney damage: Acute kidney injury or failure.

Chronic exposure to carbon tetrachloride can lead to long-term health effects, including:

1. Liver cirrhosis (scarring of the liver) and liver cancer.
2. Kidney damage and kidney disease.
3. Peripheral neuropathy (damage to the nerves in the limbs), causing numbness, tingling, or weakness.
4. Increased risk of miscarriage and birth defects in pregnant women exposed to carbon tetrachloride.

Treatment for carbon tetrachloride poisoning typically involves supportive care, such as oxygen therapy, fluid replacement, and monitoring of vital signs. In some cases, specific treatments like activated charcoal or gastric lavage may be used to remove the substance from the body. Prevention is crucial in minimizing exposure to this harmful chemical by following safety guidelines when handling it and using appropriate personal protective equipment (PPE).

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "gasoline" is not a medical term. It is a petroleum-derived liquid used as fuel in internal combustion engines. If you have any questions about medical terms or concepts, I would be happy to help with those!

The Cytochrome P-450 (CYP450) enzyme system is a group of enzymes found primarily in the liver, but also in other organs such as the intestines, lungs, and skin. These enzymes play a crucial role in the metabolism and biotransformation of various substances, including drugs, environmental toxins, and endogenous compounds like hormones and fatty acids.

The name "Cytochrome P-450" refers to the unique property of these enzymes to bind to carbon monoxide (CO) and form a complex that absorbs light at a wavelength of 450 nm, which can be detected spectrophotometrically.

The CYP450 enzyme system is involved in Phase I metabolism of xenobiotics, where it catalyzes oxidation reactions such as hydroxylation, dealkylation, and epoxidation. These reactions introduce functional groups into the substrate molecule, which can then undergo further modifications by other enzymes during Phase II metabolism.

There are several families and subfamilies of CYP450 enzymes, each with distinct substrate specificities and functions. Some of the most important CYP450 enzymes include:

1. CYP3A4: This is the most abundant CYP450 enzyme in the human liver and is involved in the metabolism of approximately 50% of all drugs. It also metabolizes various endogenous compounds like steroids, bile acids, and vitamin D.
2. CYP2D6: This enzyme is responsible for the metabolism of many psychotropic drugs, including antidepressants, antipsychotics, and beta-blockers. It also metabolizes some endogenous compounds like dopamine and serotonin.
3. CYP2C9: This enzyme plays a significant role in the metabolism of warfarin, phenytoin, and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs).
4. CYP2C19: This enzyme is involved in the metabolism of proton pump inhibitors, antidepressants, and clopidogrel.
5. CYP2E1: This enzyme metabolizes various xenobiotics like alcohol, acetaminophen, and carbon tetrachloride, as well as some endogenous compounds like fatty acids and prostaglandins.

Genetic polymorphisms in CYP450 enzymes can significantly affect drug metabolism and response, leading to interindividual variability in drug efficacy and toxicity. Understanding the role of CYP450 enzymes in drug metabolism is crucial for optimizing pharmacotherapy and minimizing adverse effects.

Carbonates are a class of chemical compounds that consist of a metal or metalloid combined with carbonate ions (CO32-). These compounds form when carbon dioxide (CO2) reacts with a base, such as a metal hydroxide. The reaction produces water (H2O), carbonic acid (H2CO3), and the corresponding carbonate.

Carbonates are important in many biological and geological processes. In the body, for example, calcium carbonate is a major component of bones and teeth. It also plays a role in maintaining pH balance by reacting with excess acid in the stomach to form carbon dioxide and water.

In nature, carbonates are common minerals found in rocks such as limestone and dolomite. They can also be found in mineral waters and in the shells of marine organisms. Carbonate rocks play an important role in the global carbon cycle, as they can dissolve or precipitate depending on environmental conditions, which affects the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere.

Hydrogen-ion concentration, also known as pH, is a measure of the acidity or basicity of a solution. It is defined as the negative logarithm (to the base 10) of the hydrogen ion activity in a solution. The standard unit of measurement is the pH unit. A pH of 7 is neutral, less than 7 is acidic, and greater than 7 is basic.

In medical terms, hydrogen-ion concentration is important for maintaining homeostasis within the body. For example, in the stomach, a high hydrogen-ion concentration (low pH) is necessary for the digestion of food. However, in other parts of the body such as blood, a high hydrogen-ion concentration can be harmful and lead to acidosis. Conversely, a low hydrogen-ion concentration (high pH) in the blood can lead to alkalosis. Both acidosis and alkalosis can have serious consequences on various organ systems if not corrected.

Acetate-CoA ligase is an enzyme that plays a role in the metabolism of acetate in cells. The enzyme catalyzes the conversion of acetate and coenzyme A (CoA) to acetyl-CoA, which is a key molecule in various metabolic pathways, including the citric acid cycle (also known as the Krebs cycle).

The reaction catalyzed by Acetate-CoA ligase can be summarized as follows:

acetate + ATP + CoA → acetyl-CoA + AMP + PPi

In this reaction, acetate is activated by combining it with ATP to form acetyl-AMP, which then reacts with CoA to produce acetyl-CoA. The reaction also produces AMP and pyrophosphate (PPi) as byproducts.

There are two main types of Acetate-CoA ligases: the short-chain fatty acid-CoA ligase, which is responsible for activating acetate and other short-chain fatty acids, and the acyl-CoA synthetase, which activates long-chain fatty acids. Both types of enzymes play important roles in energy metabolism and the synthesis of various biological molecules.

Lung diseases refer to a broad category of disorders that affect the lungs and other structures within the respiratory system. These diseases can impair lung function, leading to symptoms such as coughing, shortness of breath, chest pain, and wheezing. They can be categorized into several types based on the underlying cause and nature of the disease process. Some common examples include:

1. Obstructive lung diseases: These are characterized by narrowing or blockage of the airways, making it difficult to breathe out. Examples include chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), asthma, bronchiectasis, and cystic fibrosis.
2. Restrictive lung diseases: These involve stiffening or scarring of the lungs, which reduces their ability to expand and take in air. Examples include idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, sarcoidosis, and asbestosis.
3. Infectious lung diseases: These are caused by bacteria, viruses, fungi, or parasites that infect the lungs. Examples include pneumonia, tuberculosis, and influenza.
4. Vascular lung diseases: These affect the blood vessels in the lungs, impairing oxygen exchange. Examples include pulmonary embolism, pulmonary hypertension, and chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH).
5. Neoplastic lung diseases: These involve abnormal growth of cells within the lungs, leading to cancer. Examples include small cell lung cancer, non-small cell lung cancer, and mesothelioma.
6. Other lung diseases: These include interstitial lung diseases, pleural effusions, and rare disorders such as pulmonary alveolar proteinosis and lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM).

It is important to note that this list is not exhaustive, and there are many other conditions that can affect the lungs. Proper diagnosis and treatment of lung diseases require consultation with a healthcare professional, such as a pulmonologist or respiratory therapist.

Exhalation is the act of breathing out or exhaling, which is the reverse process of inhalation. During exhalation, the diaphragm relaxes and moves upwards, while the chest muscles also relax, causing the chest cavity to decrease in size. This decrease in size puts pressure on the lungs, causing them to deflate and expel air.

Exhalation is a passive process that occurs naturally after inhalation, but it can also be actively controlled during activities such as speaking, singing, or playing a wind instrument. In medical terms, exhalation may also be referred to as expiration.

Fossil fuels are not a medical term, but rather a term used in the field of earth science and energy production. They refer to fuels formed by natural processes such as anaerobic decomposition of buried dead organisms. The age of the organisms and their resulting fossil fuels is typically millions of years, and sometimes even hundreds of millions of years.

There are three main types of fossil fuels: coal, petroleum, and natural gas. Coal is primarily composed of carbon and hydrogen, and it is formed from the remains of plants that lived hundreds of millions of years ago in swamps and peat bogs. Petroleum, also known as crude oil, is a liquid mixture of hydrocarbons and other organic compounds, formed from the remains of marine organisms such as algae and zooplankton. Natural gas is primarily composed of methane and other light hydrocarbons, and it is found in underground reservoirs, often in association with petroleum deposits.

Fossil fuels are a major source of energy for transportation, heating, and electricity generation, but their combustion also releases large amounts of carbon dioxide and other pollutants into the atmosphere, contributing to climate change and air pollution.

I believe there may be some confusion in your question. Whales are not a medical term but rather large marine mammals. They belong to the Cetacean family, which includes dolphins and porpoises. If you're asking about a medical condition or something similar that might be associated with the word "whales," I would need more information to provide an accurate response.

Forced Expiratory Volume (FEV) is a medical term used to describe the volume of air that can be forcefully exhaled from the lungs in one second. It is often measured during pulmonary function testing to assess lung function and diagnose conditions such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) or asthma.

FEV is typically expressed as a percentage of the Forced Vital Capacity (FVC), which is the total volume of air that can be exhaled from the lungs after taking a deep breath in. The ratio of FEV to FVC is used to determine whether there is obstruction in the airways, with a lower ratio indicating more severe obstruction.

There are different types of FEV measurements, including FEV1 (the volume of air exhaled in one second), FEV25-75 (the average volume of air exhaled during the middle 50% of the FVC maneuver), and FEV0.5 (the volume of air exhaled in half a second). These measurements can provide additional information about lung function and help guide treatment decisions.

"Pseudomonas" is a genus of Gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria that are widely found in soil, water, and plants. Some species of Pseudomonas can cause disease in animals and humans, with P. aeruginosa being the most clinically relevant as it's an opportunistic pathogen capable of causing various types of infections, particularly in individuals with weakened immune systems.

P. aeruginosa is known for its remarkable ability to resist many antibiotics and disinfectants, making infections caused by this bacterium difficult to treat. It can cause a range of healthcare-associated infections, such as pneumonia, bloodstream infections, urinary tract infections, and surgical site infections. In addition, it can also cause external ear infections and eye infections.

Prompt identification and appropriate antimicrobial therapy are crucial for managing Pseudomonas infections, although the increasing antibiotic resistance poses a significant challenge in treatment.

Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and methane are both greenhouse gases that contribute to global warming and climate change. However, they are distinct substances with different chemical structures and sources.

Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) are synthetic compounds made up of carbon, chlorine, and fluorine atoms. They were commonly used in refrigerants, aerosol sprays, and foam blowing agents until they were phased out due to their harmful effects on the ozone layer. CFCs have high global warming potential, meaning that they trap heat in the atmosphere many times more effectively than carbon dioxide.

Methane, on the other hand, is a naturally occurring gas made up of one carbon atom and four hydrogen atoms (CH4). It is produced by the decomposition of organic matter, such as in landfills, wetlands, and the digestive tracts of animals like cattle. Methane is also released during the extraction and transportation of fossil fuels like coal, oil, and natural gas. While methane has a shorter lifespan in the atmosphere than CFCs, it is an even more potent greenhouse gas, trapping heat at a rate 25 times greater than carbon dioxide over a 100-year period.

Therefore, while both CFCs and methane are harmful to the climate, they are distinct substances with different sources and impacts.

Peptococcaceae is a family of obligately anaerobic, non-spore forming, gram-positive cocci that are found as normal flora in the human gastrointestinal tract. These bacteria are commonly isolated from feces and are known to be associated with various human infections, particularly intra-abdominal abscesses, bacteremia, and brain abscesses. The genus Peptococcus includes several species, such as Peptococcus niger and Peptococcus saccharolyticus, which are known to be associated with human infections. However, it is important to note that the taxonomy of this group of bacteria has undergone significant revisions in recent years, and some species previously classified as Peptococcaceae have been reassigned to other families.

Dithionite is a chemical compound with the formula Na2S2O4. It is also known as sodium hydrosulfite or sodium dithionite. Dithionite is a white crystalline solid that is highly soluble in water and is commonly used as a reducing agent in various industrial and laboratory applications, including the reduction of iron and copper salts, the bleaching of textiles and pulp, and the removal of sulfur dioxide from flue gases.

In medical contexts, dithionite may be used as a reducing agent in some pharmaceutical preparations or as an antidote for certain types of poisoning. However, it is important to note that dithionite can be toxic and corrosive in concentrated forms, and should be handled with care.

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In 2005, the CPSC reported 94 generator-related carbon monoxide poisoning deaths. Carbon monoxide is colorless, odorless, and ... Carbon monoxide (data page) - Chemical data page Breath carbon monoxide Carbon monoxide detector - Device that measures carbon ... For example, in certain bacteria, carbon monoxide is produced via the reduction of carbon dioxide by the enzyme carbon monoxide ... Carbon Monoxide-NIOSH Workplace Safety and Health Topic-CDC Carbon Monoxide Poisoning-Frequently Asked Questions-CDC External ...
Goldstein, Mark (December 2008). "Carbon Monoxide Poisoning". Journal of Emergency Nursing. 34 (6): 538-542. doi:10.1016/j.jen. ... Fields, C. E.; Farmer, R.; Petermann, I.; Iliadis, C.; Timmes, F. X. (20 May 2016). "Properties of Carbon-Oxygen White Dwarfs ...
Air or gas embolism Carbon monoxide poisoning Carbon Monoxide Poisoning Complicated by Cyanide Poisoning Central retinal artery ... "Carbon Monoxide". Archived from the original on 2008-07-25. Retrieved 2008-05-19. Piantadosi CA (2004). "Carbon monoxide ... "Cyanide Poisoning". Archived from the original on 2008-07-25. Retrieved 2008-05-19. Hall AH, Rumack BH (September 1986). " ... poisoning". Undersea Hyperb Med. 31 (1): 167-77. PMID 15233173. Archived from the original on February 16, 2009. Retrieved 2008 ...
It can be caused by anemia or: Carbon monoxide poisoning, in which carbon monoxide combines with the hemoglobin, to form ... Carbon monoxide competes with oxygen for binding sites on hemoglobin molecules. As carbon monoxide binds with hemoglobin ... can be used to calculate the amount of carbon monoxide-bound hemoglobin. For example, at carbon monoxide level of 5 ppm, = 5 − ... Carbon monoxide poisoning can occur acutely, as with smoke intoxication, or over a period of time, as with cigarette smoking. ...
People who survive severe carbon monoxide poisoning may suffer long-term health problems. Carbon monoxide from the air is ... Carbon monoxide is one of the products from incomplete combustion. The formation of carbon monoxide produces less heat than ... Breathing carbon monoxide causes headache, dizziness, vomiting, and nausea. If carbon monoxide levels are high enough, humans ... carbon and carbon monoxide are produced instead of carbon dioxide. For most fuels, such as diesel oil, coal, or wood, pyrolysis ...
... in carbon monoxide poisoning is bright red, because carbon monoxide causes the formation of carboxyhemoglobin. In cyanide ... since it can create a build-up of carbon monoxide in the air. Some carbon monoxide binds to hemoglobin when smoking tobacco. ... Blumenthal I (June 2001). "Carbon monoxide poisoning". Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine. 94 (6): 270-2. doi:10.1177/ ... Carbon monoxide, for example, is extremely dangerous when carried to the blood via the lungs by inhalation, because carbon ...
Carbon monoxide poisoning was the proximate cause of death. Natural gas, introduced in the 1960s, is composed of methane, ... carbon monoxide. Catalytic converters found on all modern automobiles eliminate over 99% of carbon monoxide produced. As a ... Charcoal-burning suicide induces death from carbon monoxide poisoning. Originally used in Hong Kong, it spread to Japan, where ... Vossberg B, Skolnick J (1999). "The role of catalytic converters in automobile carbon monoxide poisoning: a case report". Chest ...
Carbon monoxide poisoning; Carbon monoxide poisoning complicated by cyanide poisoning; Central retinal artery occlusion; ... "Carbon Monoxide". Retrieved 2011-08-21. Piantadosi CA (2004). "Carbon monoxide poisoning". Undersea & Hyperbaric Medicine. 31 ( ... In cases where a pregnant woman has carbon monoxide poisoning there is evidence that lower pressure (2.0 ATA) HBOT treatments ... In 1962 Smith and Sharp reported successful treatment of carbon monoxide poisoning with hyperbaric oxygen. The Undersea Medical ...
... carbon monoxide poisoning; homicide; suicide; the use of drugs in adolescent suicide; drowning; childhood asphyxiation and ...
Carbon monoxide poisoning, gas gangrene, and decompression sickness (the 'bends') are sometimes addressed with this therapy. ... Piantadosi CA (2004). "Carbon monoxide poisoning". Undersea Hyperb Med. 31 (1): 167-77. PMID 15233173. Archived from the ... Increased O 2 concentration in the lungs helps to displace carbon monoxide from the heme group of hemoglobin. Oxygen gas is ... "Carbon Monoxide". Archived from the original on July 25, 2008. Retrieved September 22, 2008. ...
"Ohio State Trooper and wife found dead; carbon monoxide poisoning". February 3, 2011. Archived from the original on ... an Ohio Highway Trooper and his wife died from carbon monoxide poisoning from a running generator that built up gas in their ... Carbon County) and 1 inch (2.5 cm) in Easton and Martins Creek (Northampton County). Representative ice accretions included 0.5 ...
A well known monoxide is carbon monoxide; see carbon monoxide poisoning. The prefix mono (Greek for "one") is used in chemical ... rather than potassium monoxide. Among monoxides, carbon monoxide is neutral, germanium(II) oxide is distinctly acidic, and both ... A monoxide is any oxide containing only one atom of oxygen. ...
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"Carbon Monoxide Poisoning" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 1 January 2022. Retrieved 12 December 2021. "Carbon ... The presence of these oxygenates reduces the amount of carbon monoxide and unburned fuel in the exhaust. In many areas ... University of Utah Poison Control Center (24 June 2014), Dos and Don'ts in Case of Gasoline Poisoning, University of Utah, ... Fuel from carbon monoxide and hydrogenPages displaying short descriptions of redirect targets Octane rating - Standard measure ...
Ledingham (1967) Carbon Monoxide Poisoning. p.73 Hideo H. Itabashi, MD, John M. Andrews, MD, Uwamie Tomiyasu, MD (2007) ... It is typically, though not necessarily, related to carbon monoxide poisoning or heroin overdose. It occurs in roughly 2.8% of ... Evidence for this theory comes from the observation of pathological lesions mimicking those of carbon monoxide poisoning where ... Grinker's myelinopathy is diagnosed by establishing a clinical history of carbon monoxide poisoning, narcotic overdose, ...
Melinda Mary Bloch (Six Feet Under), carbon monoxide poisoning. The Bloody Baron (Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows), in a ... Kizuku (Norwegian Wood), carbon monoxide poisoning. Makoto Kobayashi (Colorful), overdoses on pills. Nagito Komaeda ( ... Julian Osborne, the same character in the 1959 film, commits suicide via carbon monoxide poisoning. Mrs. Ota (Thousand Cranes ... Lux Lisbon (The Virgin Suicides), poisons herself with carbon monoxide. Mary Lisbon (The Virgin Suicides), overdoses on ...
Death occurs by carbon monoxide poisoning. As the charcoal burns, the concentration of carbon monoxide (CO), produced by the ... "Carbon Monoxide and Health Effects". The Engineering Toolbox. Retrieved 22 February 2021. Hopper, Christopher P.; Zambrana, ... "A brief history of carbon monoxide and its therapeutic origins". Nitric Oxide. 111-112: 45-63. doi:10.1016/j.niox.2021.04.001. ... incomplete combustion of carbon, gradually increases. CO concentrations of as little as one part per thousand can be fatal if ...
One pathologist suggests carbon monoxide poisoning. Dr. Harris, the chief of surgery, has twice reproached Susan about her ... The patients are rendered brain-dead via carbon monoxide being pumped from a hidden tank in the basement to the anesthesia ...
29 November - Douglas Munatsi, 51, CEO of Zimbabwe Investment and Development Agency; carbon monoxide poisoning following house ...
"Alcohol poisoning" and carbon monoxide have been ruled out. Dr. Litha Matiwane, Eastern Cape provincial deputy director for ... "Tavern tragedy: Carbon monoxide poisoning suspected". News24. Archived from the original on 29 June 2022. Retrieved 29 June ... On 29 June, news reports said the investigators suspect carbon monoxide poisoning from a petrol generator that was operating in ... Crane, Emily (29 June 2022). "21 teens found dead in South African nightclub may have been poisoned". New York Post. Archived ...
Died from accidental carbon monoxide poisoning. 27 December 1984 - Leslie Compton, 72, who played senior football and cricket ...
Field, Alexandra (2014-02-24). "One dead from carbon monoxide poisoning". CNN.Com. Turner Broadcasting System, Inc. Archived ... He also pledged to be at the forefront of legislative efforts to require the use of carbon monoxide detectors in commercial ... President & CEO of Legal Sea Foods, Roger Berkowitz, said that the company would install carbon monoxide detectors and conduct ... a carbon monoxide leak killed the manager of the Legal Sea Foods branch at the Walt Whitman Shops in Huntington Station, New ...
A father and daughter in McKeesport were killed by carbon monoxide poisoning, as a result of improper usage of a generator ... they died of carbon monoxide poisoning. In Delaware, officials investigated 8 deaths in New Castle County related to the storm ... "Father, Daughter Dead In McKeesport; Carbon Monoxide Suspected". WTAE. Archived from the original on 10 February 2010. ...
Pinto died in his home in Cedar Falls of accidental carbon monoxide poisoning in 2006 at the age of 66. Obituary of Miguel ... "UNI professor dies from carbon monoxide poisoning". Waterloo Courier. October 5, 2006. Retrieved July 17, 2009. (All articles ... Deaths from carbon monoxide poisoning, American vocal coaches, Cedar Falls, Iowa, 20th-century American pianists, American male ...
The man's dog also died in another room of the man's apartment; this was attributed to carbon monoxide poisoning. In December ...
Four people were killed in Oregon by carbon monoxide poisoning. 9.9 inches (25 cm) of snow also fell in Boise, Idaho, during ... Brackett, Ron; Jan Wesner Childs (February 16, 2021). "Texas Officials Warn Of Carbon Monoxide Poisoning; At Least 17 Deaths ... including a mother and a child due to carbon monoxide poisoning. By January 2, 2022, the Texas State Government revised the ...
Three were killed by carbon monoxide poisoning. 2 July 1979 K-116 (Echo II) suffered a reactor accident (a leak of core coolant ... Fourteen dead due to carbon monoxide poisoning. 10 September 1981 K-45 (Echo I) collided with Soviet fishing trawler ...
"Ware suffers carbon monoxide poisoning at Sonoma". Jayski's Silly Season Site. June 24, 2019. Archived from the original on May ... At Sonoma, he was forced to exit the race on lap 64 when broken air conditioning caused him to suffer carbon monoxide poisoning ... "Cody Ware to miss Richmond, Bristol following carbon monoxide poisoning at Darlington". Jayski's Silly Season Site. NASCAR ... missed the Richmond playoff race and was substituted by Garrett Smithley after he was sidelined with carbon monoxide poisoning ...
Fourteen died from carbon monoxide poisoning and one from burns as a result of the fire. 21 April 1976 - Great Bookie Robbery ... The family died from carbon monoxide poisoning. 13 April 1991 - Karmein Chan was kidnapped and murdered (unsolved). 29 June ... A middle-aged man was found dead, presumably poisoned, at Somerton Beach near Glenelg, South Australia. 12 October 1950 - 40- ...
In a state that doesnt require carbon monoxide alarms in homes, they had no warning they were poisoning themselves. ... Read more: How to prevent carbon monoxide poisoning in your home]. When Bekele went back inside 30 minutes later, he found ... "When I see people who die of hypothermia, or carbon monoxide poisoning, when I see the disruption to the business community, ... Medical staff were treating so many people for carbon monoxide poisoning that the department was running out of beds and oxygen ...
Carbon monoxide poisoning has plagued coal miners for many centuries. In the context of mining, carbon monoxide is widely known ... Carbon monoxide poisoning typically occurs from breathing in carbon monoxide (CO) at excessive levels. Symptoms are often ... carbon monoxide poisoning is the most common cause of injury and death due to poisoning worldwide. Poisoning is typically more ... Carbon monoxide is not ejected due to acid, therefore carbon monoxide poisoning disturbs this physiological process hence the ...
Protect Yourself from Carbon Monoxide Poisoning. Running time 2:09. Learn about carbon monoxide - a colorless, odorless gas - ... Carbon Monoxide Poisoning and Boating. *Carbon Monoxide Poisoning Prevention Clinical Education (Web On Demand) ...
... estimates and surveillance activities rely on data sources that were not primarily designed for carbon monoxide poisoning ... In the absence of an active national surveillance system for carbon monoxide poisoning, ... non-fire related carbon monoxide poisoning in the U.S.. *Iqbal S, Clower JH, King ME, Bell J, Yip FY. "National Carbon Monoxide ... non-fire related carbon monoxide poisoning because approaches to preventing intentional and fire-related carbon monoxide ...
Breathing in carbon monoxide is very dangerous. It is the leading cause of poisoning death in the United States. ... Breathing in carbon monoxide is very dangerous. It is the leading cause of poisoning death in the United States. ... Carbon monoxide is an odorless gas that causes thousands of deaths each year in North America. ... Carbon monoxide is an odorless gas that causes thousands of deaths each year in North America. ...
Install battery-operated carbon monoxide detectors or plug-in carbon monoxide detectors with battery back-up in your home, ... The carbon monoxide detectors should conform to the latest safety standards for carbon monoxide detectors (UL 2034, IAS 6-96, ... Test your carbon monoxide detectors frequently and replace dead batteries.. *If your carbon monoxide detector indicates high ... Remember that you cannot see or smell carbon monoxide and portable generators can produce high levels of carbon monoxide very ...
First responders rushed to a downtown Nashville building to treat people for Carbon monoxide poisoning. ... First responders rushed to a downtown Nashville building to treat people for Carbon monoxide poisoning. ... First responders rushed to a downtown Nashville building to treat people for Carbon monoxide poisoning. ...
... died from carbon monoxide poisoning on Monday. A law enforcement source said they were using a 3D printer that vented into ... A San Francisco couple and their two cats died from poisoning from carbon monoxide poisoning. ... Source: Carbon Monoxide Poisoning Killed Berkeley Couple « CBS San Francisco. *Memorial held for Berkeley couple found dead in ... San Francisco couple and their two cats found dead after they were poisoned by carbon monoxide. *Roger and Valerie Morash died ...
... Carbon monoxide (CO) is an invisible, odorless, tasteless gas that is produced when a ... Topic 8: Carbon Monoxide (CO) Poisoning. *What Is Carbon Monoxide Poisoning?. *Preventing CO Poisoning Before You Go Boating ... Early symptoms of CO poisoning include irritated eyes, headache, nausea, weakness, and dizziness. They often are confused with ... carbon-based fuel burns. CO can make you sick in seconds. In high enough concentrations, even a few breaths can be fatal. ...
Carbon monoxide (CO) is an odorless, colorless gas that can cause sudden illness and death if inhaled. Learn how to stay safe ... Clinical Guidance for Carbon Monoxide (CO) Poisoning After a Disaster. Public Service Announcements. *Avoiding Carbon Monoxide ... Clinical Guidance for Carbon Monoxide (CO) Poisoning After a Disaster. Public Service Announcements. *Avoiding Carbon Monoxide ... Carbon Monoxide Poisoningplus icon *Preventing Carbon Monoxide Poisoning. *Clinical Guidance for Carbon Monoxide Poisoning ...
Use of carbon monoxide alarms to prevent poisonings during a power outage---North Carolina, December 2002. MMWR 2004;53:189--92 ... Carbon Monoxide Poisoning from Hurricane-Associated Use of Portable Generators --- Florida, 2004. ... in Florida attributed to carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning (CPSC, unpublished data, 2004). The Florida Department of Health and ... Second, only cases of CO poisoning among persons treated at hospital EDs and at two HBO2 chambers were included in the study; ...
Carbon monoxide poisoning is responsible for hundreds of deaths each year and thousands of hospital emergency room visits. ... Signs of Carbon Monoxide Poisoning. You probably already know that carbon monoxide is invisible and odorless. In fact, it is ... Also, be sure to install carbon monoxide detectors near all of the sleeping areas in your home. Often carbon monoxide poisoning ... Prevention is the Best Medicine: Install Carbon Monoxide Detectors. The scariest aspect of carbon monoxide poisoning is the ...
... -- Connecticut, November 1993-March 1994 ... Fatal unintended carbon monoxide poisoning in West Virginia from nonvehicular sources. Am J Public Health 1989;79:1656-8.. 4. ... Unintentional carbon monoxide poisoning in Colorado, 1986 through 1991. Am J Public Health 1995;85:988-90.. 3. Baron RC, Backer ... Unintentional Carbon Monoxide Poisonings in Residential Settings -- Connecticut, November 1993-March 1994 MMWR 44(41);765-7 ...
If this guide is followed, the cause for the carbon monoxide poisoning incident may be determined, and corrective action ... Significance and Use 3.1 This guide is intended for use by individuals who investigate incidents involving carbon monoxide ... Standard Guide for Field Investigation of Carbon Monoxide Poisoning Incidents. Standard Guide for Field Investigation of Carbon ... Monoxide Poisoning Incidents E2292-21 ASTM,E2292-21,en-US Standard Guide for Field Investigation of Carbon Monoxide Poisoning ...
Carbon Monoxide Poisoning. by Debra Wood, RN. Definition. Carbon monoxide poisoning can be fatal. It happens after inhaling ... Carbon monoxide poisoning is more common in infants or older people. Other factors that may increase your risk of carbon ... Carbon monoxide poisoning is caused by inhaling CO gas. Exposure can happen when any gas appliance is faulty or poorly ... Symptoms related to carbon monoxide poisoning are usually vague. They can be split into acute (immediate) and chronic symptoms. ...
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BCN) - A married couple who were found dead last week from suspected carbon monoxide poisoning at their Santa Rosa apartment ... BCN) - A married couple who were found dead last week from suspected carbon monoxide poisoning at their Santa Rosa apartment ... Two found dead from carbon monoxide poisoning identified as married couple by: Bay City News ... The other 11 units at the apartment complex were checked for carbon monoxide exposure but none was detected. ...
The link you selected is for a destination outside of the Federal Government. CPSC does not control this external site or its privacy policy and cannot attest to the accuracy of the information it contains. You may wish to review the privacy policy of the external site as its information collection practices may differ from ours. Linking to this external site does not constitute an endorsement of the site or the information it contains by CPSC or any of its employees.. Click Ok if you wish to continue to the website; otherwise, click Cancel to return to our site.. ...
... The Man was burned Saturday night and many Burners are ... And as the Reno Gazette-Journal reports, a toxicology report suggests that Billingham died of carbon monoxide poisoning, with " ... The toxicology report, shared by the Pershing County Sheriffs Office, said that the concentration of carbon monoxide in ...
Two dead in Mason City from carbon monoxide poisoning. by Radio Iowa Contributor , Jan 20, 2014 , Fires/Accidents/Disasters, ... Mason City police confirm two area residents have died from carbon monoxide poisoning. Mason City police say they received a ... Police say the level of carbon monoxide was so high in the house that an officer was overcome and had to be taken to Mercy ...
What are the signs of carbon monoxide poisoning? The first signs of carbon monoxide poisoning are headaches, nausea, fatigue, ... Installing a carbon monoxide detector. It is also recommended that you install a carbon monoxide detector in your home, ... Carbon monoxide poisoning is responsible for around 100 deaths every year in France, and 1,300 cases are reported each year. ... Frances public health body has released information on how to protect your home against carbon monoxide poisoning after an ...
Although most people are not aware what is happening to them when they are poisoned by carbon monoxide, more than 150 people ... Beware Dangers of Carbon Monoxide Poisoning. Carbon monoxide is an odorless, colorless and poisonous gas. It is created by ... Symptoms of Carbon Monoxide Poisoning. Since the gas itself cannot be detected by human senses, people do not immediately know ... Preventing Carbon Monoxide Poisoning. When installing appliances that use gas or solid fuel, it is important to follow the ...
More than 400 Americans die each year from carbon monoxide poisoning, often from improper home heating. ... Carbon monoxide poisoning is a significant issue, sending as many as 20,000 people a year to the emergency room. ... How to Avoid Carbon Monoxide Poisoning Carbon monoxide poisoning is a significant issue, sending as many as 20,000 people a ... Carbon monoxide can be fatal without prompt treatment. If you suspect someone has carbon monoxide poisoning, call 9-1-1. You ...
John Cooper and his wife Susan were poisoned after the room next door to them was sprayed with pesticide ... A mother-of-three said her family is broken after a coroner ruled her parents were killed by carbon monoxide poisoning while ... Family left broken after British couple died from carbon monoxide poisoning in Egypt hotel. ... leading to carbon monoxide poisoning, is shocking and deeply concerning.. Its now vital that lessons are learned to ensure a ...
"So in the last four years, weve lost more people to carbon monoxide poisoning after the storm than we have to storm surge." ... Fourteen of the deaths were caused by carbon monoxide poisoning from unsafe use of emergency generators.. ... Fourteen of the deaths were caused by carbon monoxide poisoning from unsafe use of emergency generators. ... At least 39 people have died after hurricanes from carbon monoxide poisoning since 2017. ...
But with some heating systems comes a hidden danger: carbon monoxide. ... But with some heating systems comes a hidden danger: carbon monoxide. What is carbon monoxide?. Carbon monoxide, also ... Why is carbon monoxide dangerous?. CO is extremely harmful, and it can poison you. Mayo Clinic says that carbon monoxide ... What are the symptoms of carbon monoxide poisoning?. The CDC says that the most common symptoms of carbon monoxide include ...
Carbon Monoxide (CO). Carbon monoxide (CO) is a deadly poisonous gas which cannot be seen, smelled or tasted. Signs and ... If you think you or someone you know is experiencing carbon monoxide poisoning, seek medical care immediately. If the carbon ... Install carbon monoxide detectors in all sleeping areas.. If you have a question about carbon monoxide, remember help is just a ... Unintentional carbon monoxide poisoning is common during severe weather conditions and when the heating system is first started ...
Personal injury lawyer Robert Munley III discusses the dangers of carbon monoxide poisoning and provides the warning signs and ... in Maine were also taken to a local hospital and treated for carbon monoxide poisoning due to a high level of carbon monoxide ... In January of this year, a Saint Clair man died of carbon monoxide poisoning after the flue pipe of a coal furnace he was using ... Pennsylvania personal injury lawyer warns of the dangers of carbon monoxide poisoning. There was news this past weekend of many ...
Kansas Mom And 2 Young Sons Die Of Suspected Carbon Monoxide Poisoning In Camper. by Rob Aiers Carbon Monoxide, Incidents, News ... Two Americans found dead due to suspected Carbon Monoxide poisoning in Mexican luxury hotel.. by Rob Aiers Carbon Monoxide, ... Father & two children found dead in Muncie, Indiana home from suspected carbon monoxide poisoning. by Rob Aiers Carbon Monoxide ... 5 Hospitalised By Suspected Carbon Monoxide Exposure In Florida Prison. by Rob Aiers Carbon Monoxide, Incidents, News 0 ...
  • Efforts to prevent poisoning include carbon monoxide detectors, proper venting of gas appliances, keeping chimneys clean, and keeping exhaust systems of vehicles in good repair. (
  • Install battery-operated carbon monoxide detectors or plug-in carbon monoxide detectors with battery back-up in your home, according to the manufacturer's installation instructions. (
  • The carbon monoxide detectors should conform to the latest safety standards for carbon monoxide detectors (UL 2034, IAS 6-96, or CSA 6.19.01). (
  • Test your carbon monoxide detectors frequently and replace dead batteries. (
  • You may not think your home is at risk, but if you any, any gas appliances, these carbon monoxide detectors are a must. (
  • While you cannot detect the presence of carbon monoxide buildup in your home, carbon monoxide detectors can. (
  • Carbon monoxide detectors are an easy, inexpensive, and very effective defense. (
  • When installing carbon monoxide detectors there are a few basic rules to follow. (
  • Also, be sure to install carbon monoxide detectors near all of the sleeping areas in your home. (
  • It is also recommended that you install a carbon monoxide detector in your home, although unlike smoke detectors, they are not mandatory in France. (
  • When installed in a home, these detectors are successful in alerting home occupants when carbon monoxide is present. (
  • Install carbon monoxide detectors in all sleeping areas. (
  • Officials said Ogden City has discounted carbon monoxide detectors for sale at the Municipal Building on 2549 South Washington Blvd. (
  • SPEARFISH, SD - The Spearfish Fire Department has responded to several calls for service involving carbon monoxide recently and encourages everyone to take preventative measures to protect themselves by installing carbon monoxide detectors in their homes. (
  • Fire Chief Ladson explained that in addition to having smoke detectors that are regularly tested and maintained, residents should install carbon monoxide detectors on each level of livable space in their home. (
  • To prepare for winter weather, Wisconsin residents should ensure their source of heat and their carbon monoxide detectors are in good working order. (
  • While carbon monoxide detectors are required in Wisconsin residences, McKeown also encourages hunters and other campers to invest in a battery-powered carbon monoxide detector for use in cabins, tents, RVs, or wherever they may be camping. (
  • In many cases, the injuries or deaths could have been prevented by the use of carbon monoxide detectors and proper maintenance of heating systems and generators. (
  • One of the biggest contributors to this statistic is hotels and motels without carbon monoxide detectors. (
  • Texas, like many other states, does not require by law that hotels and motels place carbon monoxide detectors in guest rooms. (
  • What Does Texas Law say About Carbon Monoxide Detectors? (
  • When it comes to hotel carbon monoxide poisoning, here's what you need to know in Texas: To-date, only fourteen states in the U.S. require hotels and motels to install carbon monoxide detectors in their rooms. (
  • Since hotels are not required to install carbon monoxide detectors, guests are always in jeopardy at hotels in Victoria, Texas. (
  • When checking into a hotel, don't hesitate to ask the hotel or motel if they have carbon monoxide detectors in your room or if they've had any problems with carbon monoxide leaks in the past. (
  • Carbon monoxide detectors alerted first responders to high levels of the gas in the basement and first floors of the home. (
  • Carbon monoxide detectors, adequate venting of furnaces and other sources of indoor combustion, and not allowing a car to run in an enclosed space (for example, a closed garage) help prevent carbon monoxide poisoning. (
  • Carbon monoxide detectors are readily available. (
  • Install a carbon monoxide detector on each floor of your home. (
  • If your carbon monoxide detector indicates high levels of carbon monoxide, leave the building immediately and call 911. (
  • That these symptoms are usually the only signs of carbon monoxide in your home is a pretty clear mandate that you need to install a carbon monoxide detector. (
  • A properly placed carbon monoxide detector will wake you up in time to vacate your home if it senses dangerous levels of the gas. (
  • Install a carbon monoxide detector. (
  • It is a good idea to install a carbon monoxide detector in your home and check batterie. (
  • Install a carbon monoxide detector in your home and check batteries regularly. (
  • A carbon monoxide detector needs to be installed in the same room as the gas boiler or heater in your home, between one and three metres away from the appliance (to prevent false alarms). (
  • Installing a carbon monoxide detector can warn you if dangerous levels of the gas are in your home. (
  • If the carbon monoxide detector is sounding, leave the house immediately and call the gas company or fire department. (
  • Make sure to have a carbon monoxide detector in your home and consider buying one with a digital readout. (
  • If your carbon monoxide detector is sounding continuously, if you are feeling light-headed or nauseous without any other explanation, if you smell an odor like exhaust - please get everyone in the home outside to fresh air immediately and call 911. (
  • If you suspect you may be experiencing carbon monoxide poisoning, or your detector sounds an alarm, head outside immediately for fresh air and call 911. (
  • Since carbon monoxide is both odorless and invisible, the first line of defence is a high-quality carbon monoxide detector . (
  • Ten days after the incident, the complex provided her with a carbon monoxide detector and destroyed the furnace, which her attorneys said was an effort to destroy the evidence. (
  • Because people often fail to promptly recognize symptoms of carbon monoxide , they may continue to be exposed to the gas in the absence of a detector or alarm, increasing the risk of permanent brain damage or death. (
  • As your reset your clocks and "fall back", be sure to check the batteries on your carbon monoxide detector! (
  • Without a mandated carbon monoxide detector it is hard to tell if you and your loved ones are safe when staying in a hotel or motel in Victoria, Texas. (
  • To avoid the health risks linked to carbon monoxide as much as possible, it's vital to install a carbon monoxide detector. (
  • The most frequently reported symptoms of CO poisoning were headache (80.0%), nausea (51.5%), dizziness (50.9%), vomiting (31.5%), shortness of breath (16.4%), and loss of consciousness (14.5%) ( Table ). (
  • A case was defined as two or more symptoms consistent with CO poisoning (i.e., headache, nausea, diarrhea, dizziness, dry mouth, drowsiness, or vomiting) or CO poisoning diagnosed by a physician and a carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) level greater than 10% (normal concentration: less than 2% for nonsmokers, 5%-9% for smokers). (
  • The most common symptoms of carbon monoxide poisoning include headache, dizziness, nausea, chest pain and confusion. (
  • The first signs of carbon monoxide poisoning are headaches, nausea, fatigue, feeling uncomfortable, and sore muscles/muscle paralysis. (
  • The first symptoms of moderate poisoning are nausea, fatigue, headache, dizziness and shortness of breath. (
  • Fire crews responded to the home after all four members of the family reportedly began experiencing dizziness, nausea, and headaches - hallmark symptoms of carbon monoxide poisoning. (
  • The first symptoms of poisoning are headache, dizziness and nausea, as well as vomiting, blurred vision, shortness of breath or stomach pain. (
  • Chronic CO poisoning may not elicit the typical symptoms of (acute) CO poisoning such as headache, nausea, weakness, dizziness, etc. (
  • Even paint supplies, charcoal grills, cigarette smoke, and kerosene- and propane-fueled appliances can be sources of carbon monoxide. (
  • What are sources of carbon monoxide emission? (
  • Oil and gas furnaces are some of the primary sources of carbon monoxide leaks. (
  • There are many sources of carbon monoxide. (
  • Police say the level of carbon monoxide was so high in the house that an officer was overcome and had to be taken to Mercy Medical Center-North Iowa, where he was treated and released. (
  • The rescue center (Häirekeskus) responded to an emergency call Saturday morning, and first responders using sensors found that the bathroom where the child's body was located gave a high level of carbon monoxide. (
  • Carbon monoxide poisoning is diagnosed by measuring the level of carbon monoxide in the blood. (
  • As a result of exposure to carbon monoxide gas that leaked from a furnace at the apartment complex, Lompe was left with permanent brain damage. (
  • Any evidence of smoke should be considered as an indicator of exposure to carbon monoxide. (
  • Prolonged exposure to carbon monoxide can lead to irreversible brain damage and other serious issues. (
  • Any appliances or equipment using these types of fuel can produce carbon monoxide. (
  • One of the most important things to remember is that you should never use anything that might produce carbon monoxide unless you have good ventilation. (
  • At least 11 deaths have been confirmed and more than 1,400 people sought care at emergency rooms and urgent care clinics for carbon monoxide poisoning during the weeklong Texas outage, just 400 shy of the total for 2020. (
  • From 1999 through 2004 there were 439 unintentional, non-fire related carbon monoxide poisoning deaths annually in the U.S. (
  • Carbon monoxide is an odorless gas that causes thousands of deaths each year in North America. (
  • After the hurricanes, the Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) investigated six deaths in Florida attributed to carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning (CPSC, unpublished data, 2004). (
  • Carbon monoxide poisoning is responsible for hundreds of deaths each year and thousands of hospital emergency room visits. (
  • Carbon monoxide is one of the leading causes of accidental poisoning deaths in America. (
  • Carbon monoxide poisoning is responsible for around 100 deaths every year in France, and 1,300 cases are reported each year. (
  • This number excludes automotive-related deaths from carbon monoxide. (
  • Dr James Adeley, senior coroner for Lancashire sitting at Preston Coroner's Court, ruled that the deaths on August 21 2018 were caused by the spraying of the pesticide containing the chemical, dichloromethane, in the adjoining room and the couple then inhaling the vapour resulting in their deaths from carbon monoxide poisoning. (
  • Fourteen of the deaths were caused by carbon monoxide poisoning from unsafe use of emergency generators. (
  • In 2015, 36 percent of carbon monoxide-related deaths took place in December, January, or February, according to the CDC . (
  • Authorities in Boone, N.C., stated on Monday, June 10, 2013, that carbon monoxide poisoning in a hotel room at the Best Western Plus Blue Ridge Plaza may be responsible for the death of an 11-year-old boy and the hospitalization of his mother on Saturday, June 8, as well as the deaths of a couple mysteriously found in the same room earlier this year. (
  • Autopsies performed Wednesday by the North Carolina Medical Examiner determined that all three deaths were the result of carbon monoxide poisoning, according to the sheriff's office. (
  • Causing some 60 deaths in England and Wales each year, it is important to know how to recognise the symptoms of carbon monoxide poisoning. (
  • Carbon monoxide is one of the most common causes of poisoning deaths. (
  • There are more than 4,000 carbon monoxide-related hospitalizations and more than 400 deaths each year in this country. (
  • In the UK, every year studies show that there are 200 admissions with carbon monoxide poisoning which can lead up to 50 deaths. (
  • Remember that you cannot see or smell carbon monoxide and portable generators can produce high levels of carbon monoxide very quickly. (
  • Santa Rosa firefighters detected high levels of carbon monoxide using air monitoring equipment. (
  • Any improperly maintained or unvented equipment such as automobile engines, generators, furnaces, portable space heaters, wood stoves or charcoal grills can produce high levels of carbon monoxide in indoor spaces. (
  • High levels of carbon monoxide exposure can cause unconsciousness and death. (
  • One domestic water heater produced high levels of carbon monoxide which entered into the occupied areas of the dwelling. (
  • Remember if you think you have been exposed to high levels of carbon monoxide, go straight to our local Accident and Emergency Department. (
  • 3.4 Since there is the potential for investigators to become victims of elevated carbon monoxide levels themselves, extreme care should be taken to assure the safety of investigators and anyone else at risk of continuing carbon monoxide exposure. (
  • The harmful effects of carbon monoxide are generally considered to be due to tightly binding with the prosthetic heme moiety of hemoproteins that results in interference with cellular operations, for example: carbon monoxide binds with hemoglobin to form carboxyhemoglobin which affects gas exchange and cellular respiration. (
  • 3.3 Be aware of the effects of carbon monoxide on humans and pets. (
  • 1.2 This guide is not intended to address the medical effects of carbon monoxide exposure. (
  • Gas ranges, ovens and kerosene heaters that are not been properly ventilated can leak carbon monoxide into your home. (
  • It's a good idea to have the exhaust system checked each year to make sure that carbon monoxide doesn't leak into your car. (
  • July 14th 2023 - Wilmington, Delaware: The CO Poisoning incident in 900 N. Madison Street on Friday July 14th, 2023, involving a carbon monoxide leak, sent shockwaves through the Wilmington community as emergency response teams sprang into action. (
  • Responding personnel discovered that the family had left their car running in the garage, causing a slow carbon monoxide leak into the home. (
  • If the carbon monoxide alarm goes off or you suspect a carbon monoxide leak, leave the house immediately to get fresh air and call 911. (
  • The surveillance framework outlined here focuses only on unintentional, non-fire related carbon monoxide poisoning because approaches to preventing intentional and fire-related carbon monoxide exposures greatly differ from those for prevention of unintentional exposures. (
  • In 2007, there were 2,302 hospitalizations for confirmed cases of unintentional, non-fire related carbon monoxide poisoning in the U.S. (
  • All medical records were reviewed from participating hospitals in which a patient received a diagnosis of unintentional CO poisoning ( International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision code 986) during August 13--October 15, 2004. (
  • Any case involving a diagnosis of unintentional CO poisoning not related to a fire was included. (
  • Carbon monoxide (CO) gas is an environmental hazard, and unintentional CO poisonings have occurred in multiple settings, including residences, motor vehicles, and workplaces. (
  • Unintentional carbon monoxide poisoning is common during severe weather conditions and when the heating system is first started every fall. (
  • This can occur from motor vehicles, heaters, or cooking equipment that run on carbon-based fuels. (
  • Many carbon monoxide poisonings occur in the winter months when furnaces, gas fireplaces, and portable heaters are being used and windows are closed. (
  • How to avoid carbon monoxide poisoning: Many poisonings occur during the winter months when heaters are in high use and windows are closed. (
  • These generators and heaters can emit toxic gases, including carbon monoxide - an odourless, colourless gas, which is undetectable unless you have a working alarm in your home. (
  • According to Johns Hopkins University , unvented gas or kerosene space heaters are the primary cause of residential carbon monoxide poisoning. (
  • If improperly vented, automobiles, furnaces, hot water heaters, gas heaters, kerosene heaters, and stoves (including wood stoves and stoves with charcoal briquettes) can cause carbon monoxide poisoning. (
  • Some people with long-standing, mild carbon monoxide poisoning caused by furnaces or heaters may mistake their symptoms for other conditions, such as the flu or other viral infections. (
  • Carbon monoxide primarily causes adverse effects by combining with hemoglobin to form carboxyhemoglobin (HbCO) preventing the blood from carrying oxygen and expelling carbon dioxide as carbaminohemoglobin. (
  • The carbon monoxide tolerance level for any person is altered by several factors, including genetics (hemoglobin mutations), behavior such as activity level, rate of ventilation, a pre-existing cerebral or cardiovascular disease, cardiac output, anemia, sickle cell disease and other hematological disorders, geography and barometric pressure, and metabolic rate. (
  • When inhaled, carbon monoxide binds with hemoglobin in the blood, creating carboxyhemoglobin (COHb). (
  • The affinity of carbon monoxide for hemoglobin is approximately 200 times greater than the affinity of oxygen for hemoglobin. (
  • Carbon monoxide is so deadly because hemoglobin has a higer binding affinity for it than it does for oxygen. (
  • In the presence of both, hemoglobin binds to the carbon monoxide. (
  • Thr higher the concentration of carbon in the body, the lower the PH, the less O2 taken up by hemoglobin. (
  • Inhaled carbon monoxide attaches to hemoglobin, the protein in red blood cells that gives blood its red color and enables it to carry oxygen. (
  • Use of gas-powered appliances such as generators, and charcoal or gas grills following a storm increases the number of carbon monoxide poisoning cases and fatalities. (
  • Burning fuels such as gas, wood, propane and charcoal all create carbon monoxide. (
  • After a winter storm, power outages may cause people to seek out alternative heat and light sources-like generators, camping stoves , portable gas lanterns , or charcoal grills -that can result in a carbon monoxide buildup if used improperly. (
  • Clinicians should also ask about exposure to any fuel or power sources that place a person at increased risk for CO poisoning, including gas-powered generators, charcoal grills, propane stoves, charcoal briquettes, and other indoor heating and cooking devices. (
  • Treatment of poisoning generally consists of giving 100% oxygen along with supportive care. (
  • When you breathe in carbon monoxide, the poison replaces the oxygen in your bloodstream. (
  • The Florida Department of Health and CDC analyzed demographic and CO exposure data from these fatal poisoning cases and from nonfatal poisoning cases among 167 persons treated at 10 hospitals, including two with hyperbaric oxygen (HBO 2 ) chambers. (
  • The doctor will give you oxygen until your symptoms go away and carbon monoxide levels in your blood drop. (
  • Hyperbaric oxygen for carbon monoxide poisoning. (
  • When this happens the body replaces oxygen in the red blood cells with carbon monoxide. (
  • Carbon monoxide replaces oxygen in our blood within a very short time period. (
  • More specifically, the carbon monoxide produced during incomplete combustion is inhaled by an individual and attaches to their red blood cells (these carry oxygen in the blood). (
  • The health effects become more severe as the duration of exposure increases (in other words, as carbon monoxide spreads through the blood and replaces oxygen). (
  • Carbon monoxide prevents the blood from carrying oxygen so the body's tissues do not get enough oxygen. (
  • The body begins to replace the oxygen in the blood with carbon monoxide, so the brain and other organs aren't getting what they need. (
  • When carbon monoxide mixes with haemoglobin it forms carboxyhaemoglobin and is unable to carry or deliver oxygen to the cells or tissues within the body encouraging them to die. (
  • Clinical examination of 3 patients with delayed neuropsychiatric encephalopathy induced by carbon monoxide poisoning, who recovered from severe neurocognitive impairment by repetitive hyperbaric oxygen therapy]. (
  • We performed hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) therapy for 3 patients with delayed neuropsychiatric encephalopathy induced by carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning . (
  • Administer 100% oxygen to persons in whom a diagnosis of CO poisoning is known or suspected until the patient is symptom-free or until a diagnosis of CO poisoning has been ruled out. (
  • Publicity resulting from this and other CO poisoning incidents prompted concern that gas furnaces have been a primary cause of residential CO poisonings in Connecticut. (
  • That means furnaces, fireplaces, and other heating equipment will be getting a work out, and the Wisconsin Department of Health Services (DHS) wants to remind residents to take action to avoid carbon monoxide poisoning. (
  • In their desperation, thousands of Texans unwittingly unleashed deadly gases into homes and apartments that, in many cases, were not equipped with potentially lifesaving carbon monoxide alarms, resulting in the country's "biggest epidemic of CO poisoning in recent history," according to Dr. Neil Hampson , a retired doctor who has spent more than 30 years researching carbon monoxide poisoning and prevention. (
  • You should call if you have any questions about poisoning or poison prevention. (
  • The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recently have provided 30- and 15-second carbon monoxide awareness public service announcements in English and Spanish. (
  • According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, around 420 people die each year due to accidental CO poisoning, and around 100,000 people are taken to the emergency room each year due to being poisoned by carbon monoxide. (
  • Encourage parents and caregivers to ask you about CO poison prevention with this eye-catching table top display. (
  • According to the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, carbon monoxide poisoning kills about 500 people in the U.S. annually, and is linked to about 15,000 emergency room visits. (
  • Prevention of exposure to dangerous carbon monoxide levels is better than treatment for it! (
  • These trips to the ER for carbon monoxide poisoning are preventable when people are prepared. (
  • While the idea of carbon monoxide poisoning can be scary, it's entirely preventable if you follow these simple steps. (
  • What are the symptoms of carbon monoxide poisoning? (
  • Within the first few minutes of exposure to the gas, the person experiences the initial symptoms of carbon monoxide poisoning. (
  • Poisonings occur more often in the winter, particularly from the use of portable generators during power outages. (
  • Public health practitioners should recognize that post-hurricane environments present challenges to the safe operation of portable generators and should educate the public on the hazards of CO poisoning in these settings. (
  • Carbon Monoxide Poisoning, Electrocution and Fire are all Potentially Fatal Risks of Misusing Portable Generators. (
  • Follow Accuweather's tips for operating generators safely to avoid carbon monoxide poisoning and other very real risks. (
  • HBOT is instrumental in treating decompression sickness, arterial gas embolisms, and acute carbon monoxide poisoning. (
  • All local poison control centers in the United States use this national number. (
  • In general, 30% COHb is considered severe carbon monoxide poisoning. (
  • Severe carbon monoxide poisoning is often fatal. (
  • Rarely, weeks after apparent recovery from severe carbon monoxide poisoning, symptoms such as memory loss, poor coordination, movement disorders, depression, and psychosis (which are referred to as delayed neuropsychiatric symptoms) develop. (
  • Consequently, someone with mild poisoning can go to sleep and continue to breathe the carbon monoxide until severe poisoning or death occurs. (
  • The longer you are exposed to carbon monoxide, the more severe your symptoms can become which can eventually lead to unconsciousness. (
  • All patients were male and around 50 years old, and they had not received HBO therapy within 24 h after CO poisoning , even though they showed severe consciousness disturbance. (
  • Signs and clinical manifestations of severe CO poisoning include tachycardia, tachypnea, hypotension, various neurologic findings including impaired memory, cognitive and sensory disturbances, metabolic acidosis, arrhythmias, myocardial ischemia or infarction, and noncardiogenic pulmonary edema, although any organ system might be involved. (
  • This CO information bookmark stresses the need for carbon monoxide (CO) alarms and offers parents tips for protecting children from CO poisoning on the back: Install CO alarms in all bedrooms and on all levels of. (
  • Since many of these symptoms can occur with viral illnesses, carbon monoxide poisoning is often confused with these conditions. (
  • When power outages occur during natural disasters and other emergencies, the use of alternative sources of fuel or electricity for heating or cooking can cause CO to build up in a home, garage, or camper and to poison the people and animals inside. (
  • While carbon monoxide poisoning can occur at any time of the year, there is an uptick in cases every winter. (
  • For poisoning to occur, carbon monoxide first has to be released. (
  • Many poisonings occur during the night, with victims becoming intoxicated in their sleep and never waking up. (
  • When power outages occur during emergencies such as hurricanes or winter storms, the use of alternative sources of fuel or electricity for heating, cooling, or cooking can cause CO to build up in a home, garage, or camper and poison the people and animals inside. (
  • A person can be poisoned by a small amount of carbon monoxide over a longer period or a larger amount of carbon monoxide over a shorter time. (
  • In certain cases, if there is a large amount of carbon monoxide present it can be less than two hours before consciousness is lost. (
  • The toxicology report, shared by the Pershing County Sheriff's Office, said that the concentration of carbon monoxide in Billingham's blood "would be poisonous to human life. (
  • Carbon monoxide (CO) is a deadly poisonous gas which cannot be seen, smelled or tasted. (
  • Carbon monoxide is a poisonous gas with no smell or taste, so it's very to detect if you are being exposed. (
  • Carbon monoxide (CO) is an odorless, colorless, poisonous gas that can cause sudden illness and death if present in sufficient concentration in the ambient air. (
  • Levels in Homes: Average carbon monoxide levels in homes without gas stoves may vary from 0.5 to 5 parts per million, or ppm. (
  • In homes with properly maintained gas stoves, carbon monoxide levels range from 5 to 15 ppm. (
  • Carbon monoxide sensors have been mandatory in all dwelling-places where a gas appliance connected to a chimney is located, and from next year, sensors will be mandatory in all buildings with solid fuel stoves or fireplaces as well. (
  • 14 June 2023: Two Americans were found dead in their hotel room suspected Carbon Monoxide poisoningat a luxury resort in Baja California Sur, Mexico, according to authorities. (
  • 29 May 2023: Muncie, Indiana- A father and his two young children were found dead from suspected carbon monoxide poisoning. (
  • It is the most common type of fatal poisoning in many countries. (
  • Carbon monoxide poisoning can be fatal. (
  • Carbon monoxide can be fatal without prompt treatment. (
  • Carbon monoxide poisoning can lead to hospitalisation, or even be fatal. (
  • For example, when the exhaust pipe of a running car is blocked by piled-up snow or another object, carbon monoxide levels rise inside the car rapidly and can be fatal. (
  • Although CO poisoning can be fatal to anyone, children, pregnant women, and older adults as well as persons with chronic illness are particularly vulnerable to CO poisoning. (
  • Carbon monoxide is not toxic to all forms of life, and the toxicity is a classical dose-dependent example of hormesis. (
  • When used in industry, the machine's use of lasers on certain types of plastics can emit toxic gasses, including carbon monoxide and hydrogen cyanide. (
  • Lasers used on types of plastics can emit toxic gasses, including carbon monoxide. (
  • Carbon monoxide is a significantly toxic gas that is colorless, odorless, tasteless and lacks any sort of irritating factor that could allow someone to detect its presence. (
  • Learn more about how Motley Rice catastrophic injury lawyers represent victims and families who have experienced serious injury or death resulting from toxic exposure such as carbon monoxide inhalation, unexpected or uncontrollable fires, unsafe working conditions, defective or dangerous consumer products, roadway defects and other negligent acts. (
  • Overview of Poisoning Poisoning is the harmful effect that occurs when a toxic substance is swallowed, is inhaled, or comes in contact with the skin, eyes, or mucous membranes, such as those of the mouth or nose. (
  • Opening doors and windows or using fans will not prevent carbon monoxide build-up in the home. (
  • If this guide is followed, the cause for the carbon monoxide poisoning incident may be determined, and corrective action may be identified to prevent future incidents. (
  • The Texas Health & Safety Code only mandates that the state administers information to hotels about how carbon monoxide alarms can prevent carbon monoxide poisoning and how to effectively maintain and use appliances that emit carbon monoxide. (
  • How can you prevent carbon monoxide poisoning? (
  • Appropriate and prompt diagnostic testing and treatment are crucial to reduce morbidity and prevent mortality from CO poisoning. (
  • Inhaling tobacco smoke produces carbon monoxide in the blood, but usually not enough to result in symptoms of poisoning. (
  • During 2006-2010, municipal fire departments in the U.S. responded to an annual average of 72,000 non-fire related carbon monoxide incidents. (
  • A total of 167 persons had nonfatal CO poisoning diagnosed during the study period, representing a total of 51 exposure incidents. (
  • 3.1 This guide is intended for use by individuals who investigate incidents involving carbon monoxide poisoning. (
  • 1.1 This guide covers collection and preservation of information and physical evidence related to incidents involving the poisoning of individuals by carbon monoxide. (
  • If you think you or someone else has been poisoned, call 911 right away. (
  • While outside of the house, three of the children, a 4-year-old girl, a 6-year-old boy, and a 10-year-old girl, began showings signs of carbon monoxide poisoning, police said. (
  • The signs of carbon monoxide poisoning are often overlooked or mistaken for something else. (
  • The symptoms and signs of carbon monoxide poisoning are variable and nonspecific. (
  • In a state that doesn't require carbon monoxide alarms in homes, they had no warning they were poisoning themselves. (
  • That choice caps more than a decade of ignored warnings and inaction that resulted in Texas being one of just six states with no statewide requirement for carbon monoxide alarms in homes, ProPublica, The Texas Tribune and NBC News found. (
  • Carbon Monoxide alarms are displayed in a Home Depot store in Illinois. (
  • Carbon monoxide poisoning typically occurs from breathing in carbon monoxide (CO) at excessive levels. (
  • As pioneered by Esther Killick, different species and different people across diverse demographics may have different carbon monoxide tolerance levels. (
  • It happens when an overabundance of carbon monoxide is produced by fuel burning appliances, fixtures, or vehicles in your home, after which dangerous levels of this odorless and invisible gas builds up. (
  • At high levels, carbon monoxide can cause death within minutes. (
  • Lompe's injuries occurred on February 1, 2011, when carbon monoxide levels in her apartment reached 500 parts per million, more than 10 times higher than what is considered a safe exposure. (
  • Extreme levels of carbon monoxide can cause loss of consciousness or even death. (
  • Like carboxyhemoglobin levels, vital sign abnormalities do not predict the severity of poisoning. (
  • Small amounts are not usually harmful, but poisoning occurs if levels of carbon monoxide in the blood become too high. (
  • Chronic CO poisoning usually involves lower levels of the gas in the air and lower blood CO (COHb) concentrations. (
  • Carbon monoxide (CO) is an odorless, colorless gas that can cause sudden illness and death if inhaled. (
  • Carbon monoxide is an odorless and colorless gas, so you can't see it or smell it. (
  • If you have the slightest doubt about possible carbon monoxide poisoning, immediately ventilate the room, turn off your combustion devices and contact 999. (
  • Injury description: A person was taken to the hospital as a precaution for possible carbon monoxide poisoning. (
  • At least 39 people have died after hurricanes from carbon monoxide poisoning since 2017. (
  • Carbon monoxide poisoning is relatively common, resulting in more than 20,000 emergency room visits a year in the United States. (
  • If you or someone you are with has an exposure, call the local emergency number (such as 911), or the local poison control center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere in the United States. (
  • If you have a poisoning emergency, call the national Poison Information Center number at (800) 222-1222. (
  • Carbon monoxide poisoning is a significant issue, sending as many as 20,000 people a year to the emergency room. (
  • As soon as colder weather arrives, we begin to see more emergency room visits due to carbon monoxide poisoning," said Karen McKeown, State Health Officer. (
  • On average, carbon monoxide poisoning sends about 450 people per year to the emergency room in Wisconsin, according to the Wisconsin Environmental Public Health Tracking Program. (
  • Annually, around 20,000 people have to seek care at the emergency room for carbon monoxide poisoning. (
  • If you have any of the following symptoms and think you have been exposed to carbon monoxide, get out into fresh air and call for emergency medical care. (
  • Another unfortunate but common cause of carbon monoxide poisoning is the improper use of a generator. (
  • More than 400 Americans die each year from carbon monoxide poisoning, often from improper home heating. (
  • Chronic CO poisoning is often misdiagnosed as chronic fatigue syndrome, a viral or bacterial pulmonary or gastrointestinal infection, a "run-down" condition, immune deficiency, etc. (
  • Learn about carbon monoxide - a colorless, odorless gas - and how to protect yourself and your family. (
  • Carbon monoxide is a product of incomplete combustion. (
  • When there is insufficient air for complete combustion, carbon monoxide can become a major product of combustion. (
  • Properly-operating internal combustion engines may also generate carbon monoxide concentrations on the order of 10 000 ppm or higher. (
  • Smoke from fires commonly contains carbon monoxide, particularly when combustion of fuels is incomplete. (
  • Any of these can cause deadly concentrations of carbon monoxide to materialize as well. (
  • In those same appliances, malfunctions can potentially result in significantly higher carbon monoxide concentrations (10 000 ppm to 100 000 ppm, or higher). (
  • Fire Chief Travis Ladson said, explaining gas-powered heat sources are often the culprits behind carbon monoxide leaks. (
  • In the case of prokaryotes, some bacteria produce, consume and respond to carbon monoxide whereas certain other microbes are susceptible to its toxicity. (
  • Primitive cavemen probably discovered the toxicity of carbon monoxide upon introducing fire into their dwellings. (
  • Apart from the toxicity of carbon monoxide, indigenous Native Americans may have experienced the neuroactive properties of carbon monoxide through shamanistic fireside rituals. (
  • Carbon monoxide toxicity. (
  • The clinical presentation of CO poisoning is the result of its underlying systemic toxicity. (