Carbon Monoxide: Carbon monoxide (CO). A poisonous colorless, odorless, tasteless gas. It combines with hemoglobin to form carboxyhemoglobin, which has no oxygen carrying capacity. The resultant oxygen deprivation causes headache, dizziness, decreased pulse and respiratory rates, unconsciousness, and death. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Carbon Monoxide Poisoning: Toxic asphyxiation due to the displacement of oxygen from oxyhemoglobin by carbon monoxide.Carbon: A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.CarboxyhemoglobinCarbon Dioxide: A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.Pulmonary Diffusing Capacity: The amount of a gas taken up, by the pulmonary capillary blood from the alveolar gas, per minute per unit of average pressure of the gradient of the gas across the BLOOD-AIR BARRIER.Heme Oxygenase (Decyclizing): A mixed function oxidase enzyme which during hemoglobin catabolism catalyzes the degradation of heme to ferrous iron, carbon monoxide and biliverdin in the presence of molecular oxygen and reduced NADPH. The enzyme is induced by metals, particularly cobalt. EC Oxygenase-1: A ubiquitous stress-responsive enzyme that catalyzes the oxidative cleavage of HEME to yield IRON; CARBON MONOXIDE; and BILIVERDIN.Aldehyde Oxidoreductases: Oxidoreductases that are specific for ALDEHYDES.Nanotubes, Carbon: Nanometer-sized tubes composed mainly of CARBON. Such nanotubes are used as probes for high-resolution structural and chemical imaging of biomolecules with ATOMIC FORCE MICROSCOPY.Deuteroporphyrins: Porphyrins with four methyl and two propionic acid side chains attached to the pyrrole rings.Tars: Viscous materials composed of complex, high-molecular-weight compounds derived from the distillation of petroleum or the destructive distillation of wood or coal. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Protoporphyrins: Porphyrins with four methyl, two vinyl, and two propionic acid side chains attached to the pyrrole rings. Protoporphyrin IX occurs in hemoglobin, myoglobin, and most of the cytochromes.Heme: The color-furnishing portion of hemoglobin. It is found free in tissues and as the prosthetic group in many hemeproteins.Hyperbaric Oxygenation: The therapeutic intermittent administration of oxygen in a chamber at greater than sea-level atmospheric pressures (three atmospheres). It is considered effective treatment for air and gas embolisms, smoke inhalation, acute carbon monoxide poisoning, caisson disease, clostridial gangrene, etc. (From Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992). The list of treatment modalities includes stroke.Photolysis: Chemical bond cleavage reactions resulting from absorption of radiant energy.Air Pollutants: Any substance in the air which could, if present in high enough concentration, harm humans, animals, vegetation or material. Substances include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; and volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.Breath Tests: Any tests done on exhaled air.Mesoporphyrins: Porphyrins with four methyl, two ethyl, and two propionic acid side chains attached to the pyrrole rings.Oxygen: An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.Carbon Isotopes: Stable carbon atoms that have the same atomic number as the element carbon, but differ in atomic weight. C-13 is a stable carbon isotope.Hemoglobins: The oxygen-carrying proteins of ERYTHROCYTES. They are found in all vertebrates and some invertebrates. The number of globin subunits in the hemoglobin quaternary structure differs between species. Structures range from monomeric to a variety of multimeric arrangements.Respiratory Function Tests: Measurement of the various processes involved in the act of respiration: inspiration, expiration, oxygen and carbon dioxide exchange, lung volume and compliance, etc.Myoglobin: A conjugated protein which is the oxygen-transporting pigment of muscle. It is made up of one globin polypeptide chain and one heme group.Multienzyme Complexes: Systems of enzymes which function sequentially by catalyzing consecutive reactions linked by common metabolic intermediates. They may involve simply a transfer of water molecules or hydrogen atoms and may be associated with large supramolecular structures such as MITOCHONDRIA or RIBOSOMES.Hemin: Chloro(7,12-diethenyl-3,8,13,17-tetramethyl-21H,23H-porphine-2,18-dipropanoato(4-)-N(21),N(22),N(23),N(24)) ferrate(2-) dihydrogen.Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Spectrophotometry: The art or process of comparing photometrically the relative intensities of the light in different parts of the spectrum.Hemeproteins: Proteins that contain an iron-porphyrin, or heme, prosthetic group resembling that of hemoglobin. (From Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p480)Nitrogen Dioxide: Nitrogen oxide (NO2). A highly poisonous gas. Exposure produces inflammation of lungs that may only cause slight pain or pass unnoticed, but resulting edema several days later may cause death. (From Merck, 11th ed) It is a major atmospheric pollutant that is able to absorb UV light that does not reach the earth's surface.Cyanides: Inorganic salts of HYDROGEN CYANIDE containing the -CN radical. The concept also includes isocyanides. It is distinguished from NITRILES, which denotes organic compounds containing the -CN radical.Gases: The vapor state of matter; nonelastic fluids in which the molecules are in free movement and their mean positions far apart. Gases tend to expand indefinitely, to diffuse and mix readily with other gases, to have definite relations of volume, temperature, and pressure, and to condense or liquefy at low temperatures or under sufficient pressure. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Organometallic Compounds: A class of compounds of the type R-M, where a C atom is joined directly to any other element except H, C, N, O, F, Cl, Br, I, or At. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Pulmonary Gas Exchange: The exchange of OXYGEN and CARBON DIOXIDE between alveolar air and pulmonary capillary blood that occurs across the BLOOD-AIR BARRIER.Sulfur Dioxide: A highly toxic, colorless, nonflammable gas. It is used as a pharmaceutical aid and antioxidant. It is also an environmental air pollutant.Nitric Oxide: A free radical gas produced endogenously by a variety of mammalian cells, synthesized from ARGININE by NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE. Nitric oxide is one of the ENDOTHELIUM-DEPENDENT RELAXING FACTORS released by the vascular endothelium and mediates VASODILATION. It also inhibits platelet aggregation, induces disaggregation of aggregated platelets, and inhibits platelet adhesion to the vascular endothelium. Nitric oxide activates cytosolic GUANYLATE CYCLASE and thus elevates intracellular levels of CYCLIC GMP.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Oxyhemoglobins: A compound formed by the combination of hemoglobin and oxygen. It is a complex in which the oxygen is bound directly to the iron without causing a change from the ferrous to the ferric state.Smoking: Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.Carbon Tetrachloride: A solvent for oils, fats, lacquers, varnishes, rubber waxes, and resins, and a starting material in the manufacturing of organic compounds. Poisoning by inhalation, ingestion or skin absorption is possible and may be fatal. (Merck Index, 11th ed)Vehicle Emissions: Gases, fumes, vapors, and odors escaping from the cylinders of a gasoline or diesel internal-combustion engine. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed & Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Euryarchaeota: A phylum of ARCHAEA comprising at least seven classes: Methanobacteria, Methanococci, Halobacteria (extreme halophiles), Archaeoglobi (sulfate-reducing species), Methanopyri, and the thermophiles: Thermoplasmata, and Thermococci.Nicotine: Nicotine is highly toxic alkaloid. It is the prototypical agonist at nicotinic cholinergic receptors where it dramatically stimulates neurons and ultimately blocks synaptic transmission. Nicotine is also important medically because of its presence in tobacco smoke.Hydrogen: The first chemical element in the periodic table. It has the atomic symbol H, atomic number 1, and atomic weight [1.00784; 1.00811]. It exists, under normal conditions, as a colorless, odorless, tasteless, diatomic gas. Hydrogen ions are PROTONS. Besides the common H1 isotope, hydrogen exists as the stable isotope DEUTERIUM and the unstable, radioactive isotope TRITIUM.MethemoglobinNickel: A trace element with the atomic symbol Ni, atomic number 28, and atomic weight 58.69. It is a cofactor of the enzyme UREASE.Hydrogenase: An enzyme found in bacteria. It catalyzes the reduction of FERREDOXIN and other substances in the presence of molecular hydrogen and is involved in the electron transport of bacterial photosynthesis.Carbon Sequestration: Any of several processes for the permanent or long-term artificial or natural capture or removal and storage of carbon dioxide and other forms of carbon, through biological, chemical or physical processes, in a manner that prevents it from being released into the atmosphere.Ventilation: Supplying a building or house, their rooms and corridors, with fresh air. The controlling of the environment thus may be in public or domestic sites and in medical or non-medical locales. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Boranes: The collective name for the boron hydrides, which are analogous to the alkanes and silanes. Numerous boranes are known. Some have high calorific values and are used in high-energy fuels. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Vital Capacity: The volume of air that is exhaled by a maximal expiration following a maximal inspiration.Administration, Inhalation: The administration of drugs by the respiratory route. It includes insufflation into the respiratory tract.Air Pollution: The presence of contaminants or pollutant substances in the air (AIR POLLUTANTS) that interfere with human health or welfare, or produce other harmful environmental effects. The substances may include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; or volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.Biliverdine: 1,3,6,7-Tetramethyl-4,5-dicarboxyethyl-2,8-divinylbilenone. Biosynthesized from hemoglobin as a precursor of bilirubin. Occurs in the bile of AMPHIBIANS and of birds, but not in normal human bile or serum.Carbon Disulfide: A colorless, flammable, poisonous liquid, CS2. It is used as a solvent, and is a counterirritant and has local anesthetic properties but is not used as such. It is highly toxic with pronounced CNS, hematologic, and dermatologic effects.Total Lung Capacity: The volume of air contained in the lungs at the end of a maximal inspiration. It is the equivalent to each of the following sums: VITAL CAPACITY plus RESIDUAL VOLUME; INSPIRATORY CAPACITY plus FUNCTIONAL RESIDUAL CAPACITY; TIDAL VOLUME plus INSPIRATORY RESERVE VOLUME plus functional residual capacity; or tidal volume plus inspiratory reserve volume plus EXPIRATORY RESERVE VOLUME plus residual volume.SmokeHydrogen Sulfide: A flammable, poisonous gas with a characteristic odor of rotten eggs. It is used in the manufacture of chemicals, in metallurgy, and as an analytical reagent. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Leghemoglobin: A hemoglobin-like oxygen-binding hemeprotein present in the nitrogen-fixing root nodules of leguminous plants. The red pigment has a molecular weight approximately 1/4 that of hemoglobin and has been suggested to act as an oxido-reduction catalyst in symbiotic nitrogen fixation.Clostridium: A genus of motile or nonmotile gram-positive bacteria of the family Clostridiaceae. Many species have been identified with some being pathogenic. They occur in water, soil, and in the intestinal tract of humans and lower animals.Metalloporphyrins: Porphyrins which are combined with a metal ion. The metal is bound equally to all four nitrogen atoms of the pyrrole rings. They possess characteristic absorption spectra which can be utilized for identification or quantitative estimation of porphyrins and porphyrin-bound compounds.Methane: The simplest saturated hydrocarbon. It is a colorless, flammable gas, slightly soluble in water. It is one of the chief constituents of natural gas and is formed in the decomposition of organic matter. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Environmental Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals.Air Pollution, Indoor: The contamination of indoor air.Guanylate Cyclase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of GTP to 3',5'-cyclic GMP and pyrophosphate. It also acts on ITP and dGTP. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC A bile pigment that is a degradation product of HEME.FiresParticulate Matter: Particles of any solid substance, generally under 30 microns in size, often noted as PM30. There is special concern with PM1 which can get down to PULMONARY ALVEOLI and induce MACROPHAGE ACTIVATION and PHAGOCYTOSIS leading to FOREIGN BODY REACTION and LUNG DISEASES.EthaneSmoke Inhalation Injury: Pulmonary injury following the breathing in of toxic smoke from burning materials such as plastics, synthetics, building materials, etc. This injury is the most frequent cause of death in burn patients.Smoking Cessation: Discontinuation of the habit of smoking, the inhaling and exhaling of tobacco smoke.Lung Volume Measurements: Measurement of the amount of air that the lungs may contain at various points in the respiratory cycle.AcetyleneTime Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Acetyl Coenzyme A: Acetyl CoA participates in the biosynthesis of fatty acids and sterols, in the oxidation of fatty acids and in the metabolism of many amino acids. It also acts as a biological acetylating agent.Cotinine: The N-glucuronide conjugate of cotinine is a major urinary metabolite of NICOTINE. It thus serves as a biomarker of exposure to tobacco SMOKING. It has CNS stimulating properties.Rhodospirillum rubrum: Vibrio- to spiral-shaped phototrophic bacteria found in stagnant water and mud exposed to light.Hemoglobin A: Normal adult human hemoglobin. The globin moiety consists of two alpha and two beta chains.Iron: A metallic element with atomic symbol Fe, atomic number 26, and atomic weight 55.85. It is an essential constituent of HEMOGLOBINS; CYTOCHROMES; and IRON-BINDING PROTEINS. It plays a role in cellular redox reactions and in the transport of OXYGEN.Acetates: Derivatives of ACETIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxymethane structure.Environmental Monitoring: The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.Wood: A product of hard secondary xylem composed of CELLULOSE, hemicellulose, and LIGNANS, that is under the bark of trees and shrubs. It is used in construction and as a source of CHARCOAL and many other products.Charcoal: An amorphous form of carbon prepared from the incomplete combustion of animal or vegetable matter, e.g., wood. The activated form of charcoal is used in the treatment of poisoning. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Spectrophotometry, Infrared: Spectrophotometry in the infrared region, usually for the purpose of chemical analysis through measurement of absorption spectra associated with rotational and vibrational energy levels of molecules. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Ozone: The unstable triatomic form of oxygen, O3. It is a powerful oxidant that is produced for various chemical and industrial uses. Its production is also catalyzed in the ATMOSPHERE by ULTRAVIOLET RAY irradiation of oxygen or other ozone precursors such as VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS and NITROGEN OXIDES. About 90% of the ozone in the atmosphere exists in the stratosphere (STRATOSPHERIC OZONE).Inhalation Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents by inhaling them.Barium Compounds: Inorganic compounds that contain barium as an integral part of the molecule.Pulmonary Emphysema: Enlargement of air spaces distal to the TERMINAL BRONCHIOLES where gas-exchange normally takes place. This is usually due to destruction of the alveolar wall. Pulmonary emphysema can be classified by the location and distribution of the lesions.Nitrogen: An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.Electron Spin Resonance Spectroscopy: A technique applicable to the wide variety of substances which exhibit paramagnetism because of the magnetic moments of unpaired electrons. The spectra are useful for detection and identification, for determination of electron structure, for study of interactions between molecules, and for measurement of nuclear spins and moments. (From McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science and Technology, 7th edition) Electron nuclear double resonance (ENDOR) spectroscopy is a variant of the technique which can give enhanced resolution. Electron spin resonance analysis can now be used in vivo, including imaging applications such as MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING.Heating: The application of heat to raise the temperature of the environment, ambient or local, or the systems for accomplishing this effect. It is distinguished from HEAT, the physical property and principle of physics.Antimetabolites: Drugs that are chemically similar to naturally occurring metabolites, but differ enough to interfere with normal metabolic pathways. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p2033)Carbon Tetrachloride PoisoningGasoline: Volative flammable fuel (liquid hydrocarbons) derived from crude petroleum by processes such as distillation reforming, polymerization, etc.Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System: A superfamily of hundreds of closely related HEMEPROTEINS found throughout the phylogenetic spectrum, from animals, plants, fungi, to bacteria. They include numerous complex monooxygenases (MIXED FUNCTION OXYGENASES). In animals, these P-450 enzymes serve two major functions: (1) biosynthesis of steroids, fatty acids, and bile acids; (2) metabolism of endogenous and a wide variety of exogenous substrates, such as toxins and drugs (BIOTRANSFORMATION). They are classified, according to their sequence similarities rather than functions, into CYP gene families (>40% homology) and subfamilies (>59% homology). For example, enzymes from the CYP1, CYP2, and CYP3 gene families are responsible for most drug metabolism.Carbonates: Salts or ions of the theoretical carbonic acid, containing the radical CO2(3-). Carbonates are readily decomposed by acids. The carbonates of the alkali metals are water-soluble; all others are insoluble. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Acetate-CoA Ligase: An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of CoA derivatives from ATP, acetate, and CoA to form AMP, pyrophosphate, and acetyl CoA. It acts also on propionates and acrylates. EC Diseases: Pathological processes involving any part of the LUNG.Exhalation: The act of BREATHING out.Fossil Fuels: Any combustible hydrocarbon deposit formed from the remains of prehistoric organisms. Examples are petroleum, coal, and natural gas.Whales: Large marine mammals of the order CETACEA. In the past, they were commercially valued for whale oil, for their flesh as human food and in ANIMAL FEED and FERTILIZERS, and for baleen. Today, there is a moratorium on most commercial whaling, as all species are either listed as endangered or threatened.Forced Expiratory Volume: Measure of the maximum amount of air that can be expelled in a given number of seconds during a FORCED VITAL CAPACITY determination . It is usually given as FEV followed by a subscript indicating the number of seconds over which the measurement is made, although it is sometimes given as a percentage of forced vital capacity.Pseudomonas: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in nature. Some species are pathogenic for humans, animals, and plants.Chlorofluorocarbons, Methane: A group of methane-based halogenated hydrocarbons containing one or more fluorine and chlorine atoms.Peptococcaceae: A family of bacteria found in the mouth and intestinal and respiratory tracts of man and other animals as well as in the human female urogenital tract. Its organisms are also found in soil and on cereal grains.Dithionite: Dithionite. The dithionous acid ion and its salts.

Internal electron transfer between hemes and Cu(II) bound at cysteine beta93 promotes methemoglobin reduction by carbon monoxide. (1/2768)

Previous studies showed that CO/H2O oxidation provides electrons to drive the reduction of oxidized hemoglobin (metHb). We report here that Cu(II) addition accelerates the rate of metHb beta chain reduction by CO by a factor of about 1000. A mechanism whereby electron transfer occurs via an internal pathway coupling CO/H2O oxidation to Fe(III) and Cu(II) reduction is suggested by the observation that the copper-induced rate enhancement is inhibited by blocking Cys-beta93 with N-ethylmaleimide. Furthermore, this internal electron-transfer pathway is more readily established at low Cu(II) concentrations in Hb Deer Lodge (beta2His --> Arg) and other species lacking His-beta2 than in Hb A0. This difference is consistent with preferential binding of Cu(II) in Hb A0 to a high affinity site involving His-beta2, which is ineffective in promoting electron exchange between Cu(II) and the beta heme iron. Effective electron transfer is thus affected by Hb type but is not governed by the R left arrow over right arrow T conformational equilibrium. The beta hemes in Cu(II)-metHb are reduced under CO at rates close to those observed for cytochrome c oxidase, where heme and copper are present together in the oxygen-binding site and where internal electron transfer also occurs.  (+info)

Subunit dissociation in fish hemoglobins. (2/2768)

The tetramer-dimer dissociation equilibria (K 4,2) of several fish hemoglobins have been examined by sedimentation velocity measurements with a scanner-computer system for the ultracentrifuge and by flash photolysis measurements using rapid kinetic methods. Samples studied in detail included hemoglobins from a marine teleost, Brevoortia tyrannus (common name, menhaden); a fresh water teleost, Cyprinus carpio, (common name, carp); and an elasmobranch Prionace glauca (common name, blue shark). For all three species in the CO form at pH 7, in 0.1 M phosphate buffer, sedimentation coefficients of 4.3 S (typical of tetrameric hemoglobin) are observed in the micromolar concentration range. In contrast, mammalian hemoglobins dissociate appreciably to dimers under these conditions. The inability to detect dissociation in three fish hemoglobins at the lowest concentrations examined indicates that K 4,2 must have a value of 10(-8) M or less. In flash photolysis experiments on very dilute solutions in long path length cells, two kinetic components were detected with their proportions varying as expected for an equilibrium between tetramers (the slower component) and dimers (the faster component); values of K 4,2 for the three fish hemoglobins in the range 10(-9) to 10(-8) M were calculated from these data. Thus, the values of K 4,2 for liganded forms of the fish hemoglobins appear to be midway between the value for liganded human hemoglobin (K 4,2 approximately 10(-6) M) and unliganded human hemoglobin (K 4,2 approximately 10(-12) M). This conclusion is supported by measurements on solutions containing guanidine hydrochloride to enhance the degree of dissociation. All three fish hemoglobins are appreciably dissociated at guanidine concentrations of about 0.8 M, which is roughly midway between the guanidine concentrations needed to cause comparable dissociation of liganded human hemoglobin (about 0.4 M) and unliganded human hemoglobin (about 1.6 M). Kinetic measurements on solutions containing guanidine hydrochloride indicated that there are changes in both the absolute rates and the proportions of the fast and slow components, which along with other factors complicated the analysis of the data in terms of dissociation constants. Measurements were also made in solutions containing urea to promote dissociation, but with this agent very high concentrations (about 6 M) were required to give measureable dissociation and the fish hemoglobins were unstable under these conditions, with appreciable loss of absorbance spectra in both the sedimentation and kinetic experiments.  (+info)

Reactivity of cyanate with valine-1 (alpha) of hemoglobin. A probe of conformational change and anion binding. (3/2768)

The 3-fold increase in the carbamylation rate of Val-1 (alpha) of hemoglobin upon deoxygenation described earlier is now shown to be a sensitive probe of conformational change. Thus, whereas this residue in methemoglobin A is carbamylated at the same rate as in liganded hemoglobin, upon addition of inositol hexaphosphate its carbamylation rate is enhanced 30% as much as the total change in the rate between the CO and deoxy states. For CO-hemoglobin Kansas in the presence of the organic phosphate, the relative increase in the carbamylation rate of this residue is about 50%. These results indicate that methemoglobin A and hemoglobin Kansas in the presence of inositol hexaphosphate do not assume a conformation identical with deoxyhemoglobin but rather form either a mixture of R and T states or an intermediate conformation in the region around Val-1 (alpha). Studies on the mechanism for the rate enhancement in deoxyhemoglobin suggest that the cyanate anion binds to groups in the vicinity of Val-1 (alpha) prior to proton transfer and carbamylation of this NH2-terminal residue. Thus, specific removal with carboxypeptidase B of Arg-141 (alpha), which is close to Val-1 (alpha) in deoxyhemoglobin, abolishes the enhancement in carbamylation. Chloride, which has the same valency as cyanate, is a better competitive inhibitor of the carbamylation of deoxyhemoglobin (Ki = 50 mM) compared with liganded hemoglobin. Nitrate and iodide are also effective inhibitors of the carbamylation of Val-1 (alpha) of deoxyhemoglobin (Ki = 35 mM); inorganic phosphate, sulfate, and fluoride are poor competitive inhibitors. The change in pKa of Val-1 (alpha) upon deoxygenation may be due to its differential interaction with chloride.  (+info)

Condensation of carbon in radioactive supernova gas. (4/2768)

Chemistry resulting in the formation of large carbon-bearing molecules and dust in the interior of an expanding supernova was explored, and the equations governing their abundances were solved numerically. Carbon dust condenses from initially gaseous carbon and oxygen atoms because energetic electrons produced by radioactivity in the supernova cause dissociation of the carbon monoxide molecules, which would otherwise form and limit the supply of carbon atoms. The resulting free carbon atoms enable carbon dust to grow faster by carbon association than the rate at which the dust can be destroyed by oxidation. The origin of presolar micrometer-sized carbon solids that are found in meteorites is thereby altered.  (+info)

Structural dynamics of ligand diffusion in the protein matrix: A study on a new myoglobin mutant Y(B10) Q(E7) R(E10). (5/2768)

A triple mutant of sperm whale myoglobin (Mb) [Leu(B10) --> Tyr, His(E7) --> Gln, and Thr(E10) --> Arg, called Mb-YQR], investigated by stopped-flow, laser photolysis, crystallography, and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, proved to be quite unusual. Rebinding of photodissociated NO, O2, and CO from within the protein (in a "geminate" mode) allows us to reach general conclusions about dynamics and cavities in proteins. The 3D structure of oxy Mb-YQR shows that bound O2 makes two H-bonds with Tyr(B10)29 and Gln(E7)64; on deoxygenation, these two residues move toward the space occupied by O2. The bimolecular rate constant for NO binding is the same as for wild-type, but those for CO and O2 binding are reduced 10-fold. While there is no geminate recombination with O2 and CO, geminate rebinding of NO displays an unusually large and very slow component, which is pretty much abolished in the presence of xenon. These results and MD simulations suggest that the ligand migrates in the protein matrix to a major "secondary site," located beneath Tyr(B10)29 and accessible via the motion of Ile(G8)107; this site is different from the "primary site" identified by others who investigated the photolyzed state of wild-type Mb by crystallography. Our hypothesis may rationalize the O2 binding properties of Mb-YQR, and more generally to propose a mechanism of control of ligand binding and dissociation in hemeproteins based on the dynamics of side chains that may (or may not) allow access to and direct temporary sequestration of the dissociated ligand in a docking site within the protein. This interpretation suggests that very fast (picosecond) fluctuations of amino acid side chains may play a crucial role in controlling O2 delivery to tissue at a rate compatible with physiology.  (+info)

Heterotropic effectors exert more significant strain on monoligated than on unligated hemoglobin. (6/2768)

The effect of allosteric effectors, such as inositol hexakisphosphate and/or bezafibrate, has been investigated on the unliganded human adult hemoglobin both spectroscopically (employing electronic absorption, circular dichroism, resonance Raman, and x-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopies) and functionally (following the kinetics of the first CO binding step up to a final 4% ligand saturation degree). All data indicate that the unliganded T-state is not perturbed by the interaction with either one or both effectors, suggesting that their functional influence is only exerted when a ligand molecule is bound to the heme. This is confirmed by the observation that CO dissociation from partially liganded hemoglobin ( +info)

Evaluation of passive smoking by measuring urinary trans, trans-muconic acid and exhaled carbon monoxide levels. (7/2768)

No method has yet been established to evaluate the exposure to tobacco smoke in passive smoking (PS). We therefore conducted a study on the possibility that the levels of urinary trans, trans-muconic acid (MA) and the exhaled carbon monoxide (CO) could be indices of the passive exposure to tobacco smoke. The moderate correlation was observed between urinary MA levels and the number of consumed cigarettes per day in smokers. The mean urinary MA level of the PS (+) group was significantly higher than that with the PS (-) group. Among the PS (+) group, the mean MA level in the urine obtained in the afternoon was higher than that obtained in the morning. A high correlation was observed between the exhaled CO levels and the number of consumed cigarettes per day in smokers. Like the urinary MA level, the mean exhaled CO level in the PS (+) group, too, gave a significantly higher level than in the PS (-) group. Because the biological half life of MA (7.5 +/- 0.85 h) was longer than that of CO (3.0 +/- 0.36 h), the measurement of urinary MA level is recommended for evaluating the exposure of passive smoking. The measurement of exhaled CO levels is useful only for chain smokers and nonsmokers with PS just before measurement.  (+info)

Chlamydomonas chloroplast ferrous hemoglobin. Heme pocket structure and reactions with ligands. (8/2768)

We report the optical and resonance Raman spectral characterization of ferrous recombinant Chlamydomonas LI637 hemoglobin. We show that it is present in three pH-dependent equilibrium forms including a 4-coordinate species at acid pH, a 5-coordinate high spin species at neutral pH, and a 6-coordinate low spin species at alkaline pH. The proximal ligand to the heme is the imidazole group of a histidine. Kinetics of the reactions with ligands were determined by stopped-flow spectroscopy. At alkaline pH, combination with oxygen, nitric oxide, and carbon monoxide displays a kinetic behavior that is interpreted as being rate-limited by conversion of the 6-coordinate form to a reactive 5-coordinate form. At neutral pH, combination rates of the 5-coordinate form with oxygen and carbon monoxide were much faster (>10(7) microM-1 s-1). The dissociation rate constant measured for oxygen is among the slowest known, 0.014 s-1, and is independent of pH. Replacement of the tyrosine 63 (B10) by leucine or of the putative distal glutamine by glycine increases the dissociation rate constant 70- and 30-fold and increases the rate of autoxidation 20- and 90-fold, respectively. These results are consistent with at least two hydrogen bonds stabilizing the bound oxygen molecule, one from tyrosine B10 and the other from the distal glutamine. In addition, the high frequency (232 cm-1) of the iron-histidine bond suggests a structure that lacks any proximal strain thus contributing to high ligand affinity.  (+info)