Soil Pollutants, Radioactive: Pollutants, present in soil, which exhibit radioactivity.Carbon Dioxide: A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.Soil Pollutants: Substances which pollute the soil. Use for soil pollutants in general or for which there is no specific heading.Soil: The unconsolidated mineral or organic matter on the surface of the earth that serves as a natural medium for the growth of land plants.Carbon: A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.Soil Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the soil. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Air Pollutants: Any substance in the air which could, if present in high enough concentration, harm humans, animals, vegetation or material. Substances include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; and volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.Nitrogen Dioxide: Nitrogen oxide (NO2). A highly poisonous gas. Exposure produces inflammation of lungs that may only cause slight pain or pass unnoticed, but resulting edema several days later may cause death. (From Merck, 11th ed) It is a major atmospheric pollutant that is able to absorb UV light that does not reach the earth's surface.Environmental Pollutants: Substances or energies, for example heat or light, which when introduced into the air, water, or land threaten life or health of individuals or ECOSYSTEMS.Sulfur Dioxide: A highly toxic, colorless, nonflammable gas. It is used as a pharmaceutical aid and antioxidant. It is also an environmental air pollutant.Carbon Monoxide: Carbon monoxide (CO). A poisonous colorless, odorless, tasteless gas. It combines with hemoglobin to form carboxyhemoglobin, which has no oxygen carrying capacity. The resultant oxygen deprivation causes headache, dizziness, decreased pulse and respiratory rates, unconsciousness, and death. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Partial Pressure: The pressure that would be exerted by one component of a mixture of gases if it were present alone in a container. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Water Pollutants: Substances or organisms which pollute the water or bodies of water. Use for water pollutants in general or those for which there is no specific heading.Air Pollution: The presence of contaminants or pollutant substances in the air (AIR POLLUTANTS) that interfere with human health or welfare, or produce other harmful environmental effects. The substances may include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; or volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.Capnography: Continuous recording of the carbon dioxide content of expired air.Ozone: The unstable triatomic form of oxygen, O3. It is a powerful oxidant that is produced for various chemical and industrial uses. Its production is also catalyzed in the ATMOSPHERE by ULTRAVIOLET RAY irradiation of oxygen or other ozone precursors such as VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS and NITROGEN OXIDES. About 90% of the ozone in the atmosphere exists in the stratosphere (STRATOSPHERIC OZONE).Atmosphere: The gaseous envelope surrounding a planet or similar body. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Insufflation: The act of blowing a powder, vapor, or gas into any body cavity for experimental, diagnostic, or therapeutic purposes.Environmental Monitoring: The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.Nanotubes, Carbon: Nanometer-sized tubes composed mainly of CARBON. Such nanotubes are used as probes for high-resolution structural and chemical imaging of biomolecules with ATOMIC FORCE MICROSCOPY.Water Pollutants, Chemical: Chemical compounds which pollute the water of rivers, streams, lakes, the sea, reservoirs, or other bodies of water.Oxygen: An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.Particulate Matter: Particles of any solid substance, generally under 30 microns in size, often noted as PM30. There is special concern with PM1 which can get down to PULMONARY ALVEOLI and induce MACROPHAGE ACTIVATION and PHAGOCYTOSIS leading to FOREIGN BODY REACTION and LUNG DISEASES.Biodegradation, Environmental: Elimination of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS; PESTICIDES and other waste using living organisms, usually involving intervention of environmental or sanitation engineers.Respiration: The act of breathing with the LUNGS, consisting of INHALATION, or the taking into the lungs of the ambient air, and of EXHALATION, or the expelling of the modified air which contains more CARBON DIOXIDE than the air taken in (Blakiston's Gould Medical Dictionary, 4th ed.). This does not include tissue respiration (= OXYGEN CONSUMPTION) or cell respiration (= CELL RESPIRATION).Carbon Isotopes: Stable carbon atoms that have the same atomic number as the element carbon, but differ in atomic weight. C-13 is a stable carbon isotope.Hypercapnia: A clinical manifestation of abnormal increase in the amount of carbon dioxide in arterial blood.Environmental Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals.Vehicle Emissions: Gases, fumes, vapors, and odors escaping from the cylinders of a gasoline or diesel internal-combustion engine. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed & Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Carbon Sequestration: Any of several processes for the permanent or long-term artificial or natural capture or removal and storage of carbon dioxide and other forms of carbon, through biological, chemical or physical processes, in a manner that prevents it from being released into the atmosphere.Pulmonary Gas Exchange: The exchange of OXYGEN and CARBON DIOXIDE between alveolar air and pulmonary capillary blood that occurs across the BLOOD-AIR BARRIER.Blood Gas Monitoring, Transcutaneous: The noninvasive measurement or determination of the partial pressure (tension) of oxygen and/or carbon dioxide locally in the capillaries of a tissue by the application to the skin of a special set of electrodes. These electrodes contain photoelectric sensors capable of picking up the specific wavelengths of radiation emitted by oxygenated versus reduced hemoglobin.Chromatography, Supercritical Fluid: A CHROMATOGRAPHY method using supercritical fluid, usually carbon dioxide under very high pressure (around 73 atmospheres or 1070 psi at room temperature) as the mobile phase. Other solvents are sometimes added as modifiers. This is used both for analytical (SFC) and extraction (SFE) purposes.Blood Gas Analysis: Measurement of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the blood.Gases: The vapor state of matter; nonelastic fluids in which the molecules are in free movement and their mean positions far apart. Gases tend to expand indefinitely, to diffuse and mix readily with other gases, to have definite relations of volume, temperature, and pressure, and to condense or liquefy at low temperatures or under sufficient pressure. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Lasers, Gas: Lasers in which a gas lasing medium is stimulated to emit light by an electric current or high-frequency oscillator.Biomass: Total mass of all the organisms of a given type and/or in a given area. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990) It includes the yield of vegetative mass produced from any given crop.Trees: Woody, usually tall, perennial higher plants (Angiosperms, Gymnosperms, and some Pterophyta) having usually a main stem and numerous branches.Pneumoperitoneum, Artificial: Deliberate introduction of air into the peritoneal cavity.Tidal Volume: The volume of air inspired or expired during each normal, quiet respiratory cycle. Common abbreviations are TV or V with subscript T.Carbon Monoxide Poisoning: Toxic asphyxiation due to the displacement of oxygen from oxyhemoglobin by carbon monoxide.Ecosystem: A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Nitrogen: An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.Hydrocarbons, Chlorinated: Hydrocarbon compounds with one or more of the hydrogens replaced by CHLORINE.Dry Ice: A solid form of carbon dioxide used as a refrigerant.Methane: The simplest saturated hydrocarbon. It is a colorless, flammable gas, slightly soluble in water. It is one of the chief constituents of natural gas and is formed in the decomposition of organic matter. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Air Pollution, Indoor: The contamination of indoor air.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Organic Chemicals: A broad class of substances containing carbon and its derivatives. Many of these chemicals will frequently contain hydrogen with or without oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, phosphorus, and other elements. They exist in either carbon chain or carbon ring form.Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.Air: The mixture of gases present in the earth's atmosphere consisting of oxygen, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, and small amounts of other gases.Acidosis, Respiratory: Respiratory retention of carbon dioxide. It may be chronic or acute.Particle Size: Relating to the size of solids.Environmental Remediation: Removal of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS or contaminants for the general protection of the environment. This is accomplished by various chemical, biological, and bulk movement methods, in conjunction with ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING.Carbon Footprint: A measure of the total greenhouse gas emissions produced by an individual, organization, event, or product. It is measured in units of equivalent kilograms of CARBON DIOXIDE generated in a given time frame.Greenhouse Effect: The effect of GLOBAL WARMING and the resulting increase in world temperatures. The predicted health effects of such long-term climatic change include increased incidence of respiratory, water-borne, and vector-borne diseases.Polychlorinated Biphenyls: Industrial products consisting of a mixture of chlorinated biphenyl congeners and isomers. These compounds are highly lipophilic and tend to accumulate in fat stores of animals. Many of these compounds are considered toxic and potential environmental pollutants.Oxygen Consumption: The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)Bicarbonates: Inorganic salts that contain the -HCO3 radical. They are an important factor in determining the pH of the blood and the concentration of bicarbonate ions is regulated by the kidney. Levels in the blood are an index of the alkali reserve or buffering capacity.RNA, Ribosomal, 16S: Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.Oxidants, Photochemical: Compounds that accept electrons in an oxidation-reduction reaction. The reaction is induced by or accelerated by exposure to electromagnetic radiation in the spectrum of visible or ultraviolet light.Water: A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Polycyclic Hydrocarbons, Aromatic: A major group of unsaturated cyclic hydrocarbons containing two or more rings. The vast number of compounds of this important group, derived chiefly from petroleum and coal tar, are rather highly reactive and chemically versatile. The name is due to the strong and not unpleasant odor characteristic of most substances of this nature. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed, p96)Carbon Cycle: The cycle by which the element carbon is exchanged between organic matter and the earth's physical environment.Thorium Dioxide: Thorium oxide (ThO2). A radiographic contrast agent that was used in the early 1930s through about 1954. High rates of mortality have been linked to its use and it has been shown to cause liver cancer.Air Pollutants, Occupational: Air pollutants found in the work area. They are usually produced by the specific nature of the occupation.Agriculture: The science, art or practice of cultivating soil, producing crops, and raising livestock.Epidemiological Monitoring: Collection, analysis, and interpretation of data about the frequency, distribution, and consequences of disease or health conditions, for use in the planning, implementing, and evaluating public health programs.Ecological Systems, Closed: Systems that provide for the maintenance of life in an isolated living chamber through reutilization of the material available, in particular, by means of a cycle wherein exhaled carbon dioxide, urine, and other waste matter are converted chemically or by photosynthesis into oxygen, water, and food. (NASA Thesaurus, 1988)Environmental Pollution: Contamination of the air, bodies of water, or land with substances that are harmful to human health and the environment.Respiratory Dead Space: That part of the RESPIRATORY TRACT or the air within the respiratory tract that does not exchange OXYGEN and CARBON DIOXIDE with pulmonary capillary blood.Seasons: Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Carbon Tetrachloride: A solvent for oils, fats, lacquers, varnishes, rubber waxes, and resins, and a starting material in the manufacturing of organic compounds. Poisoning by inhalation, ingestion or skin absorption is possible and may be fatal. (Merck Index, 11th ed)Photosynthesis: The synthesis by organisms of organic chemical compounds, especially carbohydrates, from carbon dioxide using energy obtained from light rather than from the oxidation of chemical compounds. Photosynthesis comprises two separate processes: the light reactions and the dark reactions. In higher plants; GREEN ALGAE; and CYANOBACTERIA; NADPH and ATP formed by the light reactions drive the dark reactions which result in the fixation of carbon dioxide. (from Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2001)Metals, Heavy: Metals with high specific gravity, typically larger than 5. They have complex spectra, form colored salts and double salts, have a low electrode potential, are mainly amphoteric, yield weak bases and weak acids, and are oxidizing or reducing agents (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Ventilation: Supplying a building or house, their rooms and corridors, with fresh air. The controlling of the environment thus may be in public or domestic sites and in medical or non-medical locales. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Carbon Disulfide: A colorless, flammable, poisonous liquid, CS2. It is used as a solvent, and is a counterirritant and has local anesthetic properties but is not used as such. It is highly toxic with pronounced CNS, hematologic, and dermatologic effects.Fertilizers: Substances or mixtures that are added to the soil to supply nutrients or to make available nutrients already present in the soil, in order to increase plant growth and productivity.Plant Roots: The usually underground portions of a plant that serve as support, store food, and through which water and mineral nutrients enter the plant. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982; Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Carbonic Anhydrases: A family of zinc-containing enzymes that catalyze the reversible hydration of carbon dioxide. They play an important role in the transport of CARBON DIOXIDE from the tissues to the LUNG. EC 18.104.22.168.DNA, Ribosomal: DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Carbonates: Salts or ions of the theoretical carbonic acid, containing the radical CO2(3-). Carbonates are readily decomposed by acids. The carbonates of the alkali metals are water-soluble; all others are insoluble. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Humidity: A measure of the amount of WATER VAPOR in the air.Atmosphere Exposure Chambers: Experimental devices used in inhalation studies in which a person or animal is either partially or completely immersed in a chemically controlled atmosphere.Inhalation Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents by inhaling them.Hypocapnia: Clinical manifestation consisting of a deficiency of carbon dioxide in arterial blood.Silicon Dioxide: Transparent, tasteless crystals found in nature as agate, amethyst, chalcedony, cristobalite, flint, sand, QUARTZ, and tridymite. The compound is insoluble in water or acids except hydrofluoric acid.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Respiratory Tract DiseasesHyperventilation: A pulmonary ventilation rate faster than is metabolically necessary for the exchange of gases. It is the result of an increased frequency of breathing, an increased tidal volume, or a combination of both. It causes an excess intake of oxygen and the blowing off of carbon dioxide.Cities: A large or important municipality of a country, usually a major metropolitan center.Oxides: Binary compounds of oxygen containing the anion O(2-). The anion combines with metals to form alkaline oxides and non-metals to form acidic oxides.Embolism, Air: Blocking of a blood vessel by air bubbles that enter the circulatory system, usually after TRAUMA; surgical procedures, or changes in atmospheric pressure.Nitrous Oxide: Nitrogen oxide (N2O). A colorless, odorless gas that is used as an anesthetic and analgesic. High concentrations cause a narcotic effect and may replace oxygen, causing death by asphyxia. It is also used as a food aerosol in the preparation of whipping cream.Hypoventilation: A reduction in the amount of air entering the pulmonary alveoli.Fossil Fuels: Any combustible hydrocarbon deposit formed from the remains of prehistoric organisms. Examples are petroleum, coal, and natural gas.Anaerobiosis: The complete absence, or (loosely) the paucity, of gaseous or dissolved elemental oxygen in a given place or environment. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Acetates: Derivatives of ACETIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxymethane structure.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Pulmonary Ventilation: The total volume of gas inspired or expired per unit of time, usually measured in liters per minute.Nitrogen Compounds: Inorganic compounds that contain nitrogen as an integral part of the molecule.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Anesthesia, Inhalation: Anesthesia caused by the breathing of anesthetic gases or vapors or by insufflating anesthetic gases or vapors into the respiratory tract.Autotrophic Processes: The processes by which organisms use simple inorganic substances such as gaseous or dissolved carbon dioxide and inorganic nitrogen as nutrient sources. Contrasts with heterotrophic processes which make use of organic materials as the nutrient supply source. Autotrophs can be either chemoautotrophs (or chemolithotrophs), largely ARCHAEA and BACTERIA, which also use simple inorganic substances for their metabolic energy reguirements; or photoautotrophs (or photolithotrophs), such as PLANTS and CYANOBACTERIA, which derive their energy from light. Depending on environmental conditions some organisms can switch between different nutritional modes (autotrophy; HETEROTROPHY; chemotrophy; or PHOTOTROPHY) to utilize different sources to meet their nutrient and energy requirements.Titanium: A dark-gray, metallic element of widespread distribution but occurring in small amounts; atomic number, 22; atomic weight, 47.90; symbol, Ti; specific gravity, 4.5; used for fixation of fractures. (Dorland, 28th ed)DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Cerebrovascular Circulation: The circulation of blood through the BLOOD VESSELS of the BRAIN.Respiratory Function Tests: Measurement of the various processes involved in the act of respiration: inspiration, expiration, oxygen and carbon dioxide exchange, lung volume and compliance, etc.Climate: The longterm manifestations of WEATHER. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Soot: A dark powdery deposit of unburned fuel residues, composed mainly of amorphous CARBON and some HYDROCARBONS, that accumulates in chimneys, automobile mufflers and other surfaces exposed to smoke. It is the product of incomplete combustion of carbon-rich organic fuels in low oxygen conditions. It is sometimes called lampblack or carbon black and is used in INK, in rubber tires, and to prepare CARBON NANOTUBES.Sulfur Oxides: Inorganic oxides of sulfur.Benzene: Toxic, volatile, flammable liquid hydrocarbon byproduct of coal distillation. It is used as an industrial solvent in paints, varnishes, lacquer thinners, gasoline, etc. Benzene causes central nervous system damage acutely and bone marrow damage chronically and is carcinogenic. It was formerly used as parasiticide.Chemoreceptor Cells: Cells specialized to detect chemical substances and relay that information centrally in the nervous system. Chemoreceptor cells may monitor external stimuli, as in TASTE and OLFACTION, or internal stimuli, such as the concentrations of OXYGEN and CARBON DIOXIDE in the blood.Hydrogen: The first chemical element in the periodic table. It has the atomic symbol H, atomic number 1, and atomic weight [1.00784; 1.00811]. It exists, under normal conditions, as a colorless, odorless, tasteless, diatomic gas. Hydrogen ions are PROTONS. Besides the common H1 isotope, hydrogen exists as the stable isotope DEUTERIUM and the unstable, radioactive isotope TRITIUM.Plant Leaves: Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)Respiratory Insufficiency: Failure to adequately provide oxygen to cells of the body and to remove excess carbon dioxide from them. (Stedman, 25th ed)Acid Rain: Acidic water usually pH 2.5 to 4.5, which poisons the ecosystem and adversely affects plants, fishes, and mammals. It is caused by industrial pollutants, mainly sulfur oxides and nitrogen oxides, emitted into the atmosphere and returning to earth in the form of acidic rain water.Extraterrestrial Environment: The environment outside the earth or its atmosphere. The environment may refer to a closed cabin (such as a space shuttle or space station) or to space itself, the moon, or other planets.HydrocarbonsMars: The fourth planet in order from the sun. Its two natural satellites are Deimos and Phobos. It is one of the four inner or terrestrial planets of the solar system.Respiration, Artificial: Any method of artificial breathing that employs mechanical or non-mechanical means to force the air into and out of the lungs. Artificial respiration or ventilation is used in individuals who have stopped breathing or have RESPIRATORY INSUFFICIENCY to increase their intake of oxygen (O2) and excretion of carbon dioxide (CO2).Respiration Disorders: Diseases of the respiratory system in general or unspecified or for a specific respiratory disease not available.Respiratory Mechanics: The physical or mechanical action of the LUNGS; DIAPHRAGM; RIBS; and CHEST WALL during respiration. It includes airflow, lung volume, neural and reflex controls, mechanoreceptors, breathing patterns, etc.Ammonia: A colorless alkaline gas. It is formed in the body during decomposition of organic materials during a large number of metabolically important reactions. Note that the aqueous form of ammonia is referred to as AMMONIUM HYDROXIDE.Nitrates: Inorganic or organic salts and esters of nitric acid. These compounds contain the NO3- radical.Acid-Base Equilibrium: The balance between acids and bases in the BODY FLUIDS. The pH (HYDROGEN-ION CONCENTRATION) of the arterial BLOOD provides an index for the total body acid-base balance.Nitrogen Oxides: Inorganic oxides that contain nitrogen.Seawater: The salinated water of OCEANS AND SEAS that provides habitat for marine organisms.Pneumoperitoneum: A condition with trapped gas or air in the PERITONEAL CAVITY, usually secondary to perforation of the internal organs such as the LUNG and the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT, or to recent surgery. Pneumoperitoneum may be purposely introduced to aid radiological examination.Breath Tests: Any tests done on exhaled air.Helium: Helium. A noble gas with the atomic symbol He, atomic number 2, and atomic weight 4.003. It is a colorless, odorless, tasteless gas that is not combustible and does not support combustion. It was first detected in the sun and is now obtained from natural gas. Medically it is used as a diluent for other gases, being especially useful with oxygen in the treatment of certain cases of respiratory obstruction, and as a vehicle for general anesthetics. (Dorland, 27th ed)Pseudomonas: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in nature. Some species are pathogenic for humans, animals, and plants.Weather: The state of the ATMOSPHERE over minutes to months.Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Anesthetics, Inhalation: Gases or volatile liquids that vary in the rate at which they induce anesthesia; potency; the degree of circulation, respiratory, or neuromuscular depression they produce; and analgesic effects. Inhalation anesthetics have advantages over intravenous agents in that the depth of anesthesia can be changed rapidly by altering the inhaled concentration. Because of their rapid elimination, any postoperative respiratory depression is of relatively short duration. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p173)Plants: Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.Carbon Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of carbon that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. C atoms with atomic weights 10, 11, and 14-16 are radioactive carbon isotopes.United States Environmental Protection Agency: An agency in the Executive Branch of the Federal Government. It was created as an independent regulatory agency responsible for the implementation of federal laws designed to protect the environment. Its mission is to protect human health and the ENVIRONMENT.Biodiversity: The variety of all native living organisms and their various forms and interrelationships.Formates: Derivatives of formic acids. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that are formed with a single carbon carboxy group.Argon: Argon. A noble gas with the atomic symbol Ar, atomic number 18, and atomic weight 39.948. It is used in fluorescent tubes and wherever an inert atmosphere is desired and nitrogen cannot be used.Geologic Sediments: A mass of organic or inorganic solid fragmented material, or the solid fragment itself, that comes from the weathering of rock and is carried by, suspended in, or dropped by air, water, or ice. It refers also to a mass that is accumulated by any other natural agent and that forms in layers on the earth's surface, such as sand, gravel, silt, mud, fill, or loess. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1689)Crops, Agricultural: Cultivated plants or agricultural produce such as grain, vegetables, or fruit. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982)Carbonic Acid: Carbonic acid (H2C03). The hypothetical acid of carbon dioxide and water. It exists only in the form of its salts (carbonates), acid salts (hydrogen carbonates), amines (carbamic acid), and acid chlorides (carbonyl chloride). (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Industrial Waste: Worthless, damaged, defective, superfluous or effluent material from industrial operations.Hexachlorobenzene: An agricultural fungicide and seed treatment agent.Laser Therapy: The use of photothermal effects of LASERS to coagulate, incise, vaporize, resect, dissect, or resurface tissue.Poaceae: A large family of narrow-leaved herbaceous grasses of the order Cyperales, subclass Commelinidae, class Liliopsida (monocotyledons). Food grains (EDIBLE GRAIN) come from members of this family. RHINITIS, ALLERGIC, SEASONAL can be induced by POLLEN of many of the grasses.Euthanasia, Animal: The killing of animals for reasons of mercy, to control disease transmission or maintain the health of animal populations, or for experimental purposes (ANIMAL EXPERIMENTATION).Rain: Water particles that fall from the ATMOSPHERE.Tropical Climate: A climate which is typical of equatorial and tropical regions, i.e., one with continually high temperatures with considerable precipitation, at least during part of the year. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Gas Scavengers: Apparatus for removing exhaled or leaked anesthetic gases or other volatile agents, thus reducing the exposure of operating room personnel to such agents, as well as preventing the buildup of potentially explosive mixtures in operating rooms or laboratories.Aerobiosis: Life or metabolic reactions occurring in an environment containing oxygen.Petroleum: Naturally occurring complex liquid hydrocarbons which, after distillation, yield combustible fuels, petrochemicals, and lubricants.Lung Diseases, Obstructive: Any disorder marked by obstruction of conducting airways of the lung. AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION may be acute, chronic, intermittent, or persistent.Anesthesia, Closed-Circuit: Inhalation anesthesia where the gases exhaled by the patient are rebreathed as some carbon dioxide is simultaneously removed and anesthetic gas and oxygen are added so that no anesthetic escapes into the room. Closed-circuit anesthesia is used especially with explosive anesthetics to prevent fires where electrical sparking from instruments is possible.Humic Substances: Organic matter in a state of advanced decay, after passing through the stages of COMPOST and PEAT and before becoming lignite (COAL). It is composed of a heterogenous mixture of compounds including phenolic radicals and acids that polymerize and are not easily separated nor analyzed. (E.A. Ghabbour & G. Davies, eds. Humic Substances, 2001).Urban Health: The status of health in urban populations.Sodium Hydroxide: A highly caustic substance that is used to neutralize acids and make sodium salts. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Fungi: A kingdom of eukaryotic, heterotrophic organisms that live parasitically as saprobes, including MUSHROOMS; YEASTS; smuts, molds, etc. They reproduce either sexually or asexually, and have life cycles that range from simple to complex. Filamentous fungi, commonly known as molds, refer to those that grow as multicellular colonies.Anoxia: Relatively complete absence of oxygen in one or more tissues.Nitric Acid: Nitric acid (HNO3). A colorless liquid that is used in the manufacture of inorganic and organic nitrates and nitro compounds for fertilizers, dye intermediates, explosives, and many different organic chemicals. Continued exposure to vapor may cause chronic bronchitis; chemical pneumonitis may occur. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Air Movements: The motion of air currents.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Sewage: Refuse liquid or waste matter carried off by sewers.Volatilization: A phase transition from liquid state to gas state, which is affected by Raoult's law. It can be accomplished by fractional distillation.Carbon Tetrachloride PoisoningApnea: A transient absence of spontaneous respiration.Calcium Compounds: Inorganic compounds that contain calcium as an integral part of the molecule.Methyl Ethers: A group of compounds that contain the general formula R-OCH3.Pesticides: Chemicals used to destroy pests of any sort. The concept includes fungicides (FUNGICIDES, INDUSTRIAL); INSECTICIDES; RODENTICIDES; etc.Asthma: A form of bronchial disorder with three distinct components: airway hyper-responsiveness (RESPIRATORY HYPERSENSITIVITY), airway INFLAMMATION, and intermittent AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION. It is characterized by spasmodic contraction of airway smooth muscle, WHEEZING, and dyspnea (DYSPNEA, PAROXYSMAL).Carbohydrate Metabolism: Cellular processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of CARBOHYDRATES.Electrodes: Electric conductors through which electric currents enter or leave a medium, whether it be an electrolytic solution, solid, molten mass, gas, or vacuum.Models, Theoretical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Hazardous Substances: Elements, compounds, mixtures, or solutions that are considered severely harmful to human health and the environment. They include substances that are toxic, corrosive, flammable, or explosive.Atmospheric Pressure: The pressure at any point in an atmosphere due solely to the weight of the atmospheric gases above the point concerned.Pressure: A type of stress exerted uniformly in all directions. Its measure is the force exerted per unit area. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)FiresMaternal Exposure: Exposure of the female parent, human or animal, to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals that may affect offspring. It includes pre-conception maternal exposure.Fresh Water: Water containing no significant amounts of salts, such as water from RIVERS and LAKES.Water Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in water. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Dust: Earth or other matter in fine, dry particles. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Glucose: A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.Oxygen Isotopes: Stable oxygen atoms that have the same atomic number as the element oxygen, but differ in atomic weight. O-17 and 18 are stable oxygen isotopes.Oceans and Seas: A great expanse of continuous bodies of salt water which together cover more than 70 percent of the earth's surface. Seas may be partially or entirely enclosed by land, and are smaller than the five oceans (Atlantic, Pacific, Indian, Arctic, and Antarctic).Genes, rRNA: Genes, found in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes, which are transcribed to produce the RNA which is incorporated into RIBOSOMES. Prokaryotic rRNA genes are usually found in OPERONS dispersed throughout the GENOME, whereas eukaryotic rRNA genes are clustered, multicistronic transcriptional units.EthersPentachlorophenol: An insecticide and herbicide that has also been used as a wood preservative. Pentachlorphenol is a widespread environmental pollutant. Both chronic and acute pentachlorophenol poisoning are medical concerns. The range of its biological actions is still being actively explored, but it is clearly a potent enzyme inhibitor and has been used as such as an experimental tool.Dioxins: Chlorinated hydrocarbons containing heteroatoms that are present as contaminants of herbicides. Dioxins are carcinogenic, teratogenic, and mutagenic. They have been banned from use by the FDA.Smog: A mixture of smoke and fog polluting the atmosphere. (Dorland, 27th ed)Meteorological Concepts: The atmospheric properties, characteristics and other atmospheric phenomena especially pertaining to WEATHER or CLIMATE.Fermentation: Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.Climate Change: Any significant change in measures of climate (such as temperature, precipitation, or wind) lasting for an extended period (decades or longer). It may result from natural factors such as changes in the sun's intensity, natural processes within the climate system such as changes in ocean circulation, or human activities.Anesthesia, General: Procedure in which patients are induced into an unconscious state through use of various medications so that they do not feel pain during surgery.Volcanic Eruptions: The ash, dust, gases, and lava released by volcanic explosion. The gases are volatile matter composed principally of about 90% water vapor, and carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide, hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and nitrogen. The ash or dust is pyroclastic ejecta and lava is molten extrusive material consisting mainly of magnesium silicate. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Fatty Acids: Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Plastics in landfills can leak pollutants into the surrounding soil; incinerating creates gaseous pollutants, such as carbon ... dioxide. Plastic-bitumen composite roads need not be especially discriminating with the plastics used, thus increasing the ... This is beneficial to the environment since asphalt is responsible for 2% of global carbon emissions. Modular plastic pieces ...
In situ bioremediation
The end products of the remediation for hydrocarbons are Carbon Dioxide and water. Hydrocarbons vary in ease of degradation ... through either accelerated or natural monitored attenuation be utilized to neutralize within the soil hydrocarbon pollutants. ... Naturally occurring within the soil are microbial populations that utilize hydrocarbons as a source of energy and Carbon. ... Within aerobic metabolism the nutrient added to the soil can be solely Oxygen. Anaerobic in situ bioremediation often requires ...
... surfaces keep the pollutants in place in the soil or other material underlying the roadway, and allow water ... In the void spaces, naturally occurring micro-organisms digest car oils, leaving little but carbon dioxide and water. Rainwater ... For clay-based soils, or other low to 'non'-draining soils, it is important to increase the depth of the crushed drain rock ... A "structural-soil" pavement base combines structural aggregate with soil; a porous surface admits vital air and water to the ...
... in soils has shown to be a persistent pollutant. Methamphetamine is largely degraded within 30 days in a study ... is reacted with two equivalents of N-methylformamide to produce the formyl amide of methamphetamine plus carbon dioxide and ... and by-products in soil". Chemosphere. 85 (6): 1002-9. doi:10.1016/j.chemosphere.2011.06.102. PMID 21777940. Bagnall J, Malia L ...
Soil Air: 20.6% Atmosphere: 20.9% Carbon Dioxide: Soil Air: 0.25% Atmosphere: 0.04% Gas molecules in soil are in continuous ... Soil gases can diffuse into buildings, the chief concerns among these pollutants are radon which is radioactive and causes ... The primary natural soil gases include nitrogen, carbon dioxide and oxygen. The oxygen is critical because it allows for ... the soil. This aeration network becomes blocked when water enters soil pores. Not only are both soil air and soil water very ...
... with carbon dioxide and water as the main byproducts, using a small pump house, two tanks and a network of pipes under the ... nitrogen and other nutrients into the soil to help bacteria naturally present underground to digest the pollutants - which ... In the early 1980s, Snyder reported that the process had been used to successfully treat a soil sample from the Lipari landfill ... After a pipe burst at the company's New Jersey facilities, 33,000 gallons of chemicals contaminated the soil and groundwater at ...
This means that, as a whole, the balance between production and consumption, both oxygen and carbon dioxide, follows an eternal ... soil, vegetation, fauna, pollutant production) can continue to be depleted without restrictions until reaching irreversible ... soils, and mineral resources. The Orinoco basin covers an area of almost 989000 km2 of which 643480 km2 or slightly more than ...
... in the soil.Thirteen metals are considered priority pollutants (Sb, As, Be, Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, Ni, Se, Ag, Tl, Zn, Hg). Soils and ... carbon dioxide (See carbon sequestration), or as artificial reservoirs for natural gas. Understanding microbial activity within ... Microbial remediation is used in soils to remove contaminants and pollutants. Microbes play a key role in many biogeochemistry ... Many heavy metals, such as chromium (Cr), at low concentrations are essential micronutrients in the soil, however they can be ...
... phytostabilization focuses mainly on sequestering pollutants in soil near the roots but not in plant tissues. Pollutants become ... These complex and recalcitrant compounds cannot be broken down to basic molecules (water, carbon-dioxide, etc.) by plant ... Traditional methods that are used for cleaning up heavy metal-contaminated soil disrupt soil structure and reduce soil ... Mercury, selenium and organic pollutants such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have been removed from soils by transgenic ...
Environmental impact of concrete
Another approach is to pump liquid carbon dioxide into the concrete before mixing. This can reduce the carbon emissions from ... It should break down pollutants that come in contact with the concrete, thanks to the use of titanium dioxide absorbing ... Concrete is used to create hard surfaces which contribute to surface runoff that may cause soil erosion, water pollution and ... The carbon dioxide CO2 produced for the manufacture of one tonne of structural concrete (using ~14% cement) is estimated at 410 ...
Heather C. Allen
Environmental impact of agriculture
... they absorb carbon dioxide, an unwanted greenhouse gas, out of the atmosphere. Removing trees releases carbon dioxide into the ... pollutants, soil degradation, and waste. Climate change and agriculture are interrelated processes, both of which take place on ... However, if the soil is under irrigated, it gives poor soil salinity control which leads to increased soil salinity with ... decline in soil structure quality, loss of fertility, changes in soil acidity, alkalinity, salinity, and erosion. Soil ...
There will be more carbon dioxide in the atmosphere in 2004 than in 1994. There will be more nitrous oxide in the atmosphere in ... Emissions of the air pollutant sulfur dioxide in Asia will be significantly greater in 2004 than in 1994. There will be less ... There will be less agricultural soil per person in 2004 than 1994. There will be on average less rice and wheat grown per ...
Carbon Dioxide: Soil Air: 0.25% Atmosphere: 0.04%. Gas molecules in soil are in continuous thermal motion according to the ... Soil gases can diffuse into buildings, the chief concerns among these pollutants are radon which is radioactive and causes ... Soil gases are the gases found in the air space between soil components. The primary soil gases include nitrogen, carbon ... the soil. This aeration network becomes blocked when water enters soil pores. Not only are both soil air and soil water very ...
Soil: heavy metals, herbicides, pesticides, PCBs. *Air: particulate matter, carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, ... "Criteria Air Pollutants." EPA. Environmental Protection Agency, 2 Mar. 2017. Web. "USEPA List of Priority Pollutants." The ... Examples include coal dust, asbestos fibers or finely divided silicon dioxide, all of which can ultimately be fatal if inhaled ... These hazards can be physical or chemical, and present in air, water, and/or soil. These conditions can cause extensive harm to ...
... circulation of air throughout the globe results in a ready mixing and remarkably constant content of oxygen and carbon dioxide ... preventing them from entering water and becoming pollutants. They sequester nitrogen and other nutrients that might otherwise ... Soil ecology is the study of the interactions among soil organisms, and between biotic and abiotic aspects of the soil ... Killham, 1994, Soil Ecology, Cambridge University Press Metting, 1993,Soil Microbial Ecology, Marcel Dekker "Soil Ecology ...
... biologists analyze the plant and animal contributions to carbon dioxide fluxes, and specialists such as meteorologists and ... As an example study of soils erosion, calculations would be made of surface runoff by soil scientists. Fluvial geomorphologists ... evaporation of a solvent containing lake to yield solvent as an air pollutant), and chemical effects upon biota. As an example ... As a method to resolve or understand the extent of soil contamination and subsurface transport of solvent, a computer model ...
... an increase in carbon dioxide from the burning of fossil fuels to produce the biofuels as well as nitrous oxide from the soil, ... The total emissions of air pollutants such as nitrogen oxides will rise due the growing use of bioethanol. There is ... Burning produces carbon dioxide, airborne carbon particulates, carbon monoxide and nitrous oxides. The WHO estimates 3.7 ... due to already carbon rich soils (existing woodland) plus lower yields. Soils already rich in carbon includes peatland and ...
... includes white rot fungi that are able to degrade the woody polymer lignin to carbon dioxide. This is achieved, ... White rot fungi have been used in bioremediation efforts to break down potentially harmful chemicals in soil and in water. For ... These peroxidases are also able to mediate oxidation of a wide variety of organic pollutants. The genome of Phanerochaete ...
... an increase in carbon dioxide from the burning of fossil fuels to produce the biofuels as well as nitrous oxide from the soil, ... A problem with the combustion of solid biomass fuels is that it emits considerable amounts of pollutants, such as particulates ... Biofuels are in theory carbon-neutral because the carbon dioxide that is absorbed by the plants is equal to the carbon dioxide ... Burning produces carbon dioxide, airborne carbon particulates, carbon monoxide and nitrous oxides. The WHO estimates 3.7 ...
Mercury nano-trap water filtration
Mercury is considered to be one of the most notorious metal pollutants present in food, water, air and soil, but the process of ... manganese dioxide nanowhiskers, carbon nanotube−silverNP composites, silver NPs, silver NP-decorated silicaspheres, gold NP- ... earth's crust and made into solutions with ground water through certain natural processing and pH changes occurring in the soil ...
Kettleman Hills Hazardous Waste Facility
... air pollutants, arsenic, lead, soil and soil gas contaminants. The Cal/EPA found higher than normal levels of arsenic in tap ... carbon dioxide or atmospheric particulate matter (PM) with a diameter of 2.5 micrometers or less at the facility's boundary The ... for agricultural lands Climate Impact Carbon dioxide emissions associated with the expansion project are not new emissions The ... The facility collected soil, vegetation, and air samples at the perimeter of the CWM Facility to be tested in a State-certified ...
Menon and Hashem Akbari estimated that an increase of global pavement albedo of 35 to 39 percent could reduce carbon dioxide ... Permeable pavements also act as a filter, removing dust, dirt, and pollutants from the water before it seeps into the Earth's ... Permeable pavements reduce stormwater runoff by allowing water to soak into the pavement and soil. Permeable pavements can ... Geographical region Local climate Labor contractors Time of year Site accessibility Underlying soils Project size Expected ...
Pelican Island National Wildlife Refuge
... nitrogen dioxide, ozone, particulate matter, and sulfur dioxide. The primary producers of these pollutants are vehicle ... Soil. "The general soils in the Pelican Island Refuge are Canaveral-Captiva-Palm Beach, which is characterized by the ... A few problems dealing with air pollution are carbon monoxide, lead, ... Augustine, which is characterized by level, somewhat poorly drained soils mixed with sand and shell fragments." Other soils ...
... carbon dioxide and some pollutants (chlorinated solvents, explosives, oxidized metals, and radionuclides). Electron donors ... During landfarming, contaminated soils, sediments, or sludges are incorporated into the soil surface and periodically turned ... Composting accelerates pollutant biodegradation by mixing the waste to be treated with a bulking agent, forming into piles, and ... To survive, a signal (the pollutant) is required. In the absence of the signal, a suicide gene is expressed which will lead to ...
Environmental health ethics
A few examples of air pollutants include particulate matter, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, carbon oxides, ... which are naturally present in the soil). the common misconception is that chemicals leaking into the soil will be diluted over ... Chemical regulation, including carbon particles and nanotubes and nanotechnology, are very new technologies whose long-term ... Some of these pollutants are DDT, aldrin, chlordane, dieldrin, endrin, heptachlor, hexachlorobenzene, and toxaphene. With these ...
Impacts also include reducing soil moisture and a reduction in reabsorption of carbon dioxide emissions. The occurrence of ... When rain occurs in these large cities, the rain filters down the pollutants such as CO2 and other green house gases in the air ... Much of the solar energy that reaches rural areas is consumed by evaporation of water from vegetation and soil. In cities, ... where there is less vegetation and exposed soil, most of the sun's energy is instead absorbed by buildings and asphalt; leading ...
Environmental issues in India
However, India was the third largest emitter of total carbon dioxide in 2009 at 1.65 Gt per year, after China (6.9 Gt per year ... Rapid urbanization has caused a buildup of heavy metals in the soil of the city of Ghaziabad, and these metals are being ... Since then, for the first time in Indian history, major air pollutant concentrations have dropped in every 5-year period. ... India was the third largest emitter of carbon dioxide, a major greenhouse gas, in 2009 at 1.65 Gt per year, after China and the ...
Rising levels of carbon dioxide are resulting in influx of this gas into the ocean, increasing its acidity. Marine organisms ... Due to the older timeframe and the soil chemistry on the continent, very little subfossil preservation evidence exists relative ... organic pollutants and mercury, and ecosystem disturbances of terrestrial and marine environments. Approximately 17,000 ... Using chemical proxies from Antarctic ice cores, researchers have estimated the fluctuations of carbon dioxide (CO2) and ...
They also react with carbon dioxide and carbon tetrachloride, so that normal fire extinguishers are counterproductive when used ... caesium is not a major chemical environmental pollutant. The median lethal dose (LD50) value for caesium chloride in mice ... and because potassium is bound by silicates in soil and what potassium leaches is absorbed far more readily by plant life than ... They easily react with carbon dioxide to form carbonates or bicarbonates, or with hydrogen sulfide to form sulfides or ...
However, there are sources of renewable methanol made using carbon dioxide or biomass as feedstock, making their production ... Jatropha has been cited as a high-yield source of biodiesel but yields are highly dependent on climatic and soil conditions. ... to be transferred to kinetic energy while avoiding combustion and pollutant byproducts. The hand-sized square piece of metal ... higher yield of hydrogen gas can be harnessed by further oxidizing carbon monoxide to produce more hydrogen and carbon dioxide ...
The Scottish chemist Joseph Black (the first experimental chemist) and the Dutchman J.B. van Helmont discovered carbon dioxide ... how atmospheric ozone is formed and how environmental pollutants are degraded (ecology), the properties of the soil on the moon ... In a blast furnace, iron oxide, a compound, reacts with carbon monoxide to form iron, one of the chemical elements, and carbon ... For example, all atoms with 6 protons in their nuclei are atoms of the chemical element carbon, but atoms of carbon may have ...
Sulfur dioxide based bleaches, whose active agent is sulfur dioxide, possibly from the decomposition of some oxosulfur anion. ... "Chemical Sampling Information: Carbon Tetrachloride". OSHA. 16 June 2004. Retrieved 4 December 2009.. ... Further, the role of hypochlorite pollution is assumed as negligible in soils. ... the use of elemental chlorine in the bleaching of wood pulp produces organochlorines and persistent organic pollutants, ...
ഓക്സൈഡ് - വിക്കിപീഡിയ
In some cases these are distinguished by specifying the number of atoms as in carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide, and in other ... Nitrous oxide ("laughing gas") is a potent greenhouse gas produced by soil bacteria. ... Carbon dioxide CO. 2CO. 2 Constituent of the atmosphere of Earth, the most abundant and important greenhouse gas, used by ... Carbon monoxide is the product of the incomplete combustion of carbon-based fuels and precursor to many useful chemicals. ...
Because carbon adsorbs carbon dioxide (CO2) at a greater rate than methane (CH4), carbon dioxide injected into the formation ... Wanty, Richard B. (1993). Field studies of radon in rocks, soils, and water. Chelsea, Michigan: C.K. Smoley. p. 216. ISBN 0- ... a high-risk area for radon as an indoor air pollutant. From the surface exposures along the northern and eastern margins, ... resulting in a reduction of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, and the seawater where it was deposited. Named members of the ...
NASA Clean Air Study
Its results suggested that, in addition to absorbing carbon dioxide and releasing oxygen through photosynthesis, certain common ... A different study in 2004 has also shown that the micro-organisms in the soil of a potted plant remove benzene from the air, ... 1984). Foliage plants for removing indoor air pollutants from energy-efficient homes. Economic Botany 38(2), 224-28. ... 1993). Plants and soil microorganisms: removal of formaldehyde, xylene, and ammonia from the indoor environment. Journal of the ...
PlantsNeedCO2.org claims that carbon dioxide is not a pollutant and is good for the environment. ... carbon dioxide has become the limiting factor. In a controlled greenhouse, irrigation may be trivial, and soils may be fertile ... In: Carbon dioxide enrichment of greenhose crops". CRC press.. *^ Wittwer, SH; Robb, WM (1964). "Carbon dioxide enrichment of ... Carbon dioxide enrichmentEdit. The possibility of using carbon dioxide enrichment in greenhouse cultivation to enhance plant ...
... no new carbon enters the carbon cycle and the atmospheric concentration of CO2 is not affected. Carbon dioxide traps heat in ... Landfill gases can seep out of the landfill and into the surrounding air and soil. Methane is a greenhouse gas, and is ... Eventually, every landfill liner will leak, allowing pollutants to contaminate groundwater. ... "CO2 101: Why is carbon dioxide bad?". Mother Nature Network. Retrieved November 30, 2016.. ...
They remove carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and store large quantities of carbon in their tissues. Trees and forests provide ... In the soil, the roots encounter the hyphae of fungi. Many of these are known as mycorrhiza and form a mutualistic relationship ... They can provide shade and cooling through evapotranspiration, absorb greenhouse gases and pollutants, intercept rainfall, and ... Within a few weeks lateral roots branch out of the side of this and grow horizontally through the upper layers of the soil. In ...
... have a GWP many thousands of times greater than carbon dioxide by volume. Because these pollutants are easily captured and ... Soil management projects attempt to preserve or increase the amount of carbon sequestered in soil. ... Carbon offsets represent multiple categories of greenhouse gases, including carbon dioxide (CO. 2), methane (CH4), nitrous ... A carbon offset is a reduction in emissions of carbon dioxide or other greenhouse gases made in order to compensate for ...
Reflective surfaces (climate engineering)
This is because a 93-square-metre (1,000 sq ft) white roof will offset 10 tons of carbon dioxide over its 20-year lifetime. ... and reducing emission of greenhouse gases and air pollutants". Energy Efficiency. 3 (1): 53-109. doi:10.1007/s12053-008-9038-2 ... the energy savings of cool roofs can diminish over time due to albedo degradation and soiling. ... and pavements in cities would generate a global cooling effect equivalent to offsetting up to 150 gigatonnes of carbon dioxide ...
Scientific opinion on climate change
Greenhouse gases include carbon dioxide as well as methane, nitrous oxide and other gases. They are emitted from fossil fuel ... American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America. In May, 2011, the ... A warmer and more variable climate threatens to lead to higher levels of some air pollutants, increase transmission of diseases ... including carbon dioxide, to avert dangerous climate change." *^ AMA Climate Change and Human Health - 2004, 2004. [permanent ...
Plants absorb atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) and release breathable oxygen (O2) through photosynthesis. The process of Carbon ... to remove chemicals and also to hold the soil and prevent erosion of contaminated soil decreasing the spread of pollutants and ... A new measurement is active carbon (AC), which is the most usable portoin of the total organic carbon (TOC) in the soil. This ... Carbon footprint. As mentioned above, the energy-efficient nature of urban agriculture can reduce each city's carbon ...
It has been suggested that accumulating reactive nitrogen in the environment may prove as serious as putting carbon dioxide in ... "Journal of Soil and Water Conservation. 51: 160-166.. *^ Buol, S. W. (1995). "Sustainability of Soil Use". Annual Review of ... Reducing the amount of pollutants that reach a watershed can be achieved through the protection of its forest cover, reducing ... Soil retentionEdit. Nutrients from human activities tend to accumulate in soils and remain there for years. It has been shown[ ...
... plastic will contribute greenhouse gases in the equivalent of 850 million tons of carbon dioxide (CO2) to the atmosphere. In ... Their abundance has been found to transport persistent organic pollutants, also known as POPs. These pollutants have been ... "Plastic planet: How tiny plastic particles are polluting our soil". unenvironment.org. 3 April 2019. Retrieved 19 July 2019.. ... A 2017 study found that 83% of tap water samples taken around the world contained plastic pollutants. This was the ...
If carbon dioxide or other low molecular weight gas is mixed with contaminated water at high pressure and low temperature, gas ... Soil and rock layers naturally filter the ground water to a high degree of clarity and often, it does not require additional ... or environmental persistent pharmaceutical pollutants. The choice of method will depend on the quality of the water being ... Chlorine dioxide can be supplied as an aqueous solution and added to water to avoid gas handling problems; chlorine dioxide gas ...
... is often used by aquarium hobbyists to generate carbon dioxide (CO2) to nourish plants in planted aquaria. CO2 levels ... Sláviková E, Vadkertiová R (2003). "The diversity of yeasts in the agricultural soil". Journal of Basic Microbiology. 43 (5): ... Zinjarde S, Apte M, Mohite P, Kumar AR (2014). "Yarrowia lipolytica and pollutants: Interactions and applications". ... By fermentation, the yeast species Saccharomyces cerevisiae converts carbohydrates to carbon dioxide and alcohols - for ...
"National Pollutant Inventory. Commonwealth of Australia. Retrieved 8 November 2018.. *^ Assfalg, M; Banci, L; Bertini, I; ... Chromium is extremely hard, and is the third hardest element behind carbon (diamond) and boron. Its Mohs hardness is 8.5, which ... Because chromium compounds were used in dyes, paints, and leather tanning compounds, these compounds are often found in soil ... "Chromium Dioxide". The foundations of magnetic recording. Academic Press. p. 32. ISBN 978-0-12-466626-9. ...
... some thousands of times more powerful agents of radiative forcing than carbon dioxide over the short and medium term. Thus ... 2O), a stable, long-lived gas produced by soil bacteria, from the Earth's surface could affect the amount of nitric oxide (NO) ... Pollutant release and transfer register. *Polluter pays principle. *Pollution control. *Pollution prevention ...
When does carbon dioxide become a pollutant?". Environmentalchemistry.com.. *^ "Graphic: The relentless rise of carbon dioxide" ... soil and surrounding gardens can produce pollen, dust, and mold. Indoors, the lack of air circulation allows these airborne ... "The Worst Climate Pollution Is Carbon Dioxide". Scientific American.. *^ Johnson, Keith (18 April 2009). "How Carbon Dioxide ... and nitrogen dioxide (NO2), as well as sulphur dioxide (SO2), and carbon monoxide (CO). The latter two pollutants provided ...
Since ammonia contains no carbon, its combustion cannot produce carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons, or soot. ... Some plants rely on ammonia and other nitrogenous wastes incorporated into the soil by decaying matter. Others, such as ... Ammonia neutralizes the nitrogen oxide (NOx) pollutants emitted by diesel engines. This technology, called SCR (selective ... Ammonia manufacturing consumes 1 to 2% of total global energy and is responsible for approximately 3% of global carbon dioxide ...
The carbon dioxide is released in this step again and can be fed back into the process circuit. The carbon dioxide comes in ... Ethylene glycol is a high-production-volume chemical; it breaks down in air in about 10 days and in water or soil in a few ... Hazardous air pollutants. *Commodity chemicals. *Vicinal diols. Hidden categories: *CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown ... In the OMEGA process, the ethylene oxide is first converted with carbon dioxide (CO2) to ethylene carbonate. This ring is then ...
Carbon dioxide - Chemical warfare - Enzymes - Fat - Fatty acid - Free radicals - Fuel cell - Gasoline - Green chemistry - ... how atmospheric ozone is formed and how environmental pollutants are degraded (ecology), the properties of the soil on the moon ... Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are an allotrope of carbon. They take the form of cylindrical carbon molecules and have novel ... Carbon6C12.011 Nitro-gen7N14.007 Oxy-gen8O15.999 Fluor-ine9F18.998 Neon10Ne20.180 ...
... the net carbon balance of the forest including soils) is usually positive - old-growth forests accumulate carbon for centuries ... Although old-growth forests therefore serve as a global carbon dioxide sink, they are not protected by international treaties, ... and other pollutants, in some cases at levels above those from traditional fuel sources such as coal or natural gas.[31 ... SoilEdit. Intact soils harbor many life forms that rely on them. Intact soils generally have very well-defined horizons, or ...
... carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide. Tetrachloroethylene is degraded by hydrolysis, and is also persistent under aerobic ... Australian National Pollutant Inventory (NPI) page. *"Toxic Fumes May Have Made Gunman Snap", by Julian Kesner, New York Daily ... Tetrachloroethylene is a common soil contaminant. With a specific gravity greater than 1, tetrachloroethylene will be present ... This reaction can be catalyzed by a mixture of potassium chloride and aluminium chloride or by activated carbon. ...
Black carbon (BC), or carbon black, or elemental carbon (EC), often called soot, is composed of pure carbon clusters, skeleton ... Pollutants and Their Effect on the Water and Radiation Budgets Archived 16 December 2008 at the Wayback Machine. Australian ... J.R. Balmes, J.M. Fine, D. Sheppard Symptomatic bronchoconstriction after short-term inhalation of sulfur dioxide Am. Rev. ... ". "Primary and Secondary Sources of Aerosols: Soil dust". Climate Change 2001: Working Group 1. UNEP. 2001. Perraud, V.; Bruns ...
The Effects of Acid Rain on Monuments | Sciencing
The carbonic acid further breaks down into water and carbon dioxide. Calcium sulfate is water-soluble so washes away from the ... Granite, while much more resistant to acid, still can be etched and stained by acid rain and the pollutants it carries. Cement ... Natural buffers in the soil usually mediate this mildly acidic rain.. Naturally Occurring Acid Rain. Naturally occurring acid ... As water vapor bounces around in the atmosphere, some of the water molecules react with carbon dioxide molecules to form ...
Is There a Relationship between Carbon Dioxide and Climate Change
Detecting Common Soil Pollutants with EPR. From Bruker BioSpin - NMR, EPR and Imaging 10 Jun 2019 ... Is There a Relationship between Carbon Dioxide and Climate Change. *Request Quote ... Producing Clean Hydrogen with Near-Zero Carbon Emissions with The Hazer Process. Geoff Pocock ... Founder of the Hazer Group talks to AZoCleantech about how the Hazer Process is producing clean hydrogen with Near-Zero Carbon ...
Continental Shelves Become Important Carbon Dioxide Sinks
As carbon dioxide enters the atmosphere, the global ocean takes in the excess, storing almost 30% of the CO2 emissions ... Detecting Common Soil Pollutants with EPR. From Bruker BioSpin - NMR, EPR and Imaging 10 Jun 2019 ... Researchers Reduce Carbon Dioxide into Carbon Monoxide with Nitrogen-Doped Carbon Nanotubes ... The possibility of shelves becoming a more important carbon dioxide sink in the future should be considered in global carbon ...
New tool predicts how long pollutants will stay in soil
NASA Computer Model Provides a New Portrait of Carbon Dioxide. Black Holes Come to the Big Screen ... "For many years, we ve made predictions with a method that doesn t work very well on many chemical pollutants in soil. This new ... This requires an understanding of how these pollutants interact with soil, which is a mixture of minerals and natural organic ... New tool predicts how long pollutants will stay in soil. 27.08.2004 ...
Effects of soil amendment on gas depth profiles in soil monoliths using direct mass spectrometric measurement
... in soils. With everincreasing production of domestic sewage sludge and the prohibition of disposal at sea, pressure on waste ... Soil * Soil Pollutants * Carbon Dioxide * Nitric Oxide * Argon * lime * Nitrogen * Methane * Oxygen ... Effects of soil amendment on gas depth profiles in soil monoliths using direct mass spectrometric measurement Bioresour Technol ... Scottish soil and their effects on gas depth profiles monitored as indicators of microbial processes of the soil ecosystem. The ...
Plastic roads - Wikipedia
Plastics in landfills can leak pollutants into the surrounding soil; incinerating creates gaseous pollutants, such as carbon ... dioxide. Plastic-bitumen composite roads need not be especially discriminating with the plastics used, thus increasing the ... This is beneficial to the environment since asphalt is responsible for 2% of global carbon emissions. Modular plastic pieces ...
Houseplants help clean indoor air
Soil and roots were also found to play an important role in removing air-borne pollutants. Micro-organisms in the soil become ... Plant physiologists already knew that plants absorb carbon dioxide and release oxygen as part of the photosynthetic process. ... Some pollutants are also absorbed and rendered harmless in the soil.. ... Their effectiveness is increased if lower leaves that cover the soil surface are removed, so there is as much soil contact with ...
Farming lobby to MEPs: We will quit EU if emissions capped - EURACTIV.com
Methane is a more short-lived but much more powerful global-warming greenhouse gas than carbon dioxide. It also tranforms into ... ozone, an air pollutant. Ammonia causes soil nitrification and acidification.. ,,Read: Agriculture poses immense threat to ... National ceilings for six pollutants (sulphur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, ammonia, methane, particulate matter and volatile ... Or do they mean all European farms (houses, live-stock and soil) will quit and move to, say, Kazakhstan? Now that would be ...
In situ bioremediation - Wikipedia
The end products of the remediation for hydrocarbons are Carbon Dioxide and water. Hydrocarbons vary in ease of degradation ... through either accelerated or natural monitored attenuation be utilized to neutralize within the soil hydrocarbon pollutants. ... Naturally occurring within the soil are microbial populations that utilize hydrocarbons as a source of energy and Carbon. ... Within aerobic metabolism the nutrient added to the soil can be solely Oxygen. Anaerobic in situ bioremediation often requires ...
ASLA Releases New Guide to Green Infrastructure | asla.org
MG2 Plants and Their Environment | University of Missouri Extension
Soil atmosphere. Air in the soil usually contains more carbon dioxide than atmospheric air, with concentrations of up to 10 ... One further benefit plants offer is that of cleansing, of absorbing pollutants from soil, water and air. Sewage lagoons and ... The higher levels of carbon dioxide result from the respiration of many organisms in the soil, including plant roots. In soil ... The carbon dioxide that is necessary for photosynthesis enters the plant through the stomata. Generally, carbon dioxide is ...
Contaminated Soil Burning Plant News on Environmental XPRT
Get the latest contaminated soil burning plant news on Environmental XPRT, the worlds largest environmental industry ... methane and carbon dioxide, which all contribute to climate change. Frequently described as ... ... Four Ways to Reduce Health Risks from Climate Pollutants The World Health Organisation and the Climate and Clean Air Coalition ... contaminated soil burning plant News. Related terms for "contaminated soil burning plant ": contaminated soil news , ...
EU emissions limits for agricultural gases face uncertain future - EURACTIV.com
... than carbon dioxide. It also transforms into ozone, an air pollutant. Ammonia causes soil nitrification and acidification, and ... The bill caps six major pollutants - nitrogen oxides (NOX), particular matter (PM2.5), sulphur dioxide (SO2), methane (CH4), ... Many of the policies grow out of a 2005 strategy on air pollution, which sought to cut sulphur dioxide (SO2) emissions by 82%, ... Air quality: MEPs approve new national caps on pollutants. *Air quality: Environment MEPs call for tougher new national caps on ...
Xpert search results for Environmental
Xpert search results for Living in an era of global terr
JoVE | Peer Reviewed Scientific Video Journal - Methods and Protocols
The soil bacterium C. metallidurans is able to grow chemolithoautotrophically on hydrogen and carbon dioxide allowing a strong ... The biofilm growth on soil particles allows coping with starvation or bad conditions of pH, temperature and pollutants. Its ... The soil bacterium Cupriavidus metallidurans CH34 contains a high number of heavy metal resistance genes making it an ... The self-transmissible, broad-host-range (BHR) plasmid pMOL98 was previously isolated from polluted soil using a triparental ...
Common examples include carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide and chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs).. *Water pollution occurs via surface ... Examples include air pollution, water pollution and soil contamination. The effect pollutants have on human health is serious ... Soil can become infertile and unsuitable for plants.. Our firm is experienced in these type cases and holds a $700 million ... Soil contamination is often caused by hydrocarbons, heavy metals, MTBE, herbicides, pesticides and chlorinated hydrocarbons. ...
View source for Flooded Soils - microbewiki
... and soil organisms (Sylvia, 2005), and is lost from the soil system in the form of carbon dioxide (CO,sub>2,/sub>). ... Kate lec #5]]]] [[Image:phenomena in pollutant plume.png,thumb,200px,Order of electron acceptor in pollutant plume from [[USGS ... Also, numerous fermentation products, such as carbon dioxide, fatty acid, lactic, alcohols, are released into soils. These ... Gleyed Soils and Recovery to Aerobic Conditions==== [[Image:Gleyed soil.png,thumb,200px,left,Gleyed soil from Prof. Scows ...
The Temperature Record Reliability Attack | ScienceBlogs
... repeat NOT A POLLUTANT.. pollutant (p-ltnt). A substance or condition that contaminates air, water, or soil. Pollutants can be ... such as oil or carbon dioxide, that occur in harmful concentrations in a given environment. Heat transmitted to natural ... 1. CO2 - is not a pollutant - repeat NOT A POLLUTANT.. 2. There are pollutants that we have to worry about - lead (already ... You have a bloody carbon footprint with your cars, houses, boats and cities. Why the hell cant you be like those people in the ...
WO2008127283A2 - Engineered metabolic pathways - Google Patents
Air pollutants may be compounds such as carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), and nitrogen oxides. Soil ... In aspects of the invention, an environmental pollutant may be a water, air, or soil pollutant. Water pollutants may be ... carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, sulfur, etc.). Aspects of the invention also may be used for energy generation. In some ... These may be responsive to different toxins or pollutants and either may process them to reduce their toxicity and/or provide a ...
Plants and flowers can help purify the air in your home by absorbing harmful pollutants with carbon dioxide. In addition, ... microorganisms in the potting soil can destroy pollutants and convert them into new plant tissue. And as an added bonus, plants ... Aloe vera releases oxygen and absorbs carbon dioxide at night. You can use it in your kitchen or bedroom and can spread its gel ... A few minutes of fresh air can be enough to help reduce harmful air pollutants. Even so, chances are you have some type of air ...
Clean Energy: Steam Reformation Technology
... containing mostly hydrogen and carbon monoxide, and a smaller amount of methane, carbon dioxide, water vapour, and other ... and emitting harmful pollutants into our air, water and soil. In a landfill the biodegradable components of waste decompose and ... which is at least 21 times more harmful than carbon dioxide and the cause of significant environmental problems . ... The produced pollutants should be removed to produce clean energy products. Contaminates (e.g. tar, acid gases, ammonia, and ...
Down and dirty: Airborne ozone can alter forest soil
The scientists exposed forest stands to increased levels of two atmospheric pollutants, ozone and carbon dioxide. Soil carbon ... soil in the plots exposed to an ozone/carbon dioxide mixture gained only half the carbon as plots fumigated with carbon dioxide ... "Under conditions of elevated ozone, the amount of soil carbon formed is reduced." Because increased carbon dioxide tends to ... "Reduction of Soil Carbon Formation by Tropospheric Ozone Under Elevated Carbon Dioxide," are Dr. John King, an assistant ...
Newly found bacteria fights climate change, soil pollutants
Cornell researchers have found a new species of soil bacteria-which they named in memory of the Cornell professor who first ... On Mars or Earth, biohybrid can turn carbon dioxide into new products ... Because its such a large amount of carbon going through the soil, small changes in how we manage soil could make a big impact ... Understanding how bacteria break down carbon in soil could hold the key to the sustainability of soil and the ability to ...
Impact of composting strategies on the treatment of soils contaminated with organic pollutants. - Lancaster EPrints
... which can degrade pollutants to innocuous compounds such as carbon dioxide and water. These microorganisms can also ... This review discusses the interactions of pollutants with soils; look critically at the clean up of soils contaminated with a ... Impact of composting strategies on the treatment of soils contaminated with organic pollutants. ... Impact of composting strategies on the treatment of soils contaminated with organic pollutants. Environmental Pollution, 112 (2 ...
what's up with the weather: the debate: stephen h. schneider
Number one, if you look at all the carbon dioxide thats been emitted into the atmosphere in the last 100 years, 80 percent of ... They dont produce nearly as many pollutants. They dont require a large balance of payments deficit for oil-importing ... because those aerosols are not only bad for ecosystems when they rain acids into the lakes and streams and soils, but theyre ... Several people have said: Well, isnt it a good thing that our industrial progress has produced not just carbon dioxide but ...
Dirty pool: Soil's large carbon stores could be freed by increased CO2, plant growth | EurekAlert! Science News
... soil. The researchers developed the first computer model to show at a global scale the complex interaction between carbon, ... the atmosphere could initiate a chain reaction between plants and microorganisms that would unsettle one of the largest carbon ... Researchers based at Princeton University report that an increase in human-made carbon dioxide in ... moisture and the carbon that plants contribute to soil.. Although a greenhouse gas and pollutant, carbon dioxide also supports ...
What If There Were No Future? Some Overlooked Consequences Of Exponential Growth, By Peter Russell | Carolyn Baker
The increasing emission of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere, stemming from the accelerating consumption of fossil fuels, has ... On the other side of the equation, rapid growth in industrialization has led to an accelerating profusion of pollutants in the ... air, soil, and sea. Some are now being released thousands of times faster than the planet can break them down. ...
ASAE, American Forests Partner to Plant 5,000 Trees at 2012 Annual Meeting & Exposition
The term "carbon offset" refers to six main types of greenhouse gases from methane to carbon dioxide. Each carbon offset equals ... enriching soil, provide wildlife habitat, and soak up air pollutants. It is also just a wonderful thing to be able to say that ... one tree can absorb as much as 48 pounds of carbon dioxide per year and can sequester-absorb and store-one ton of carbon ... Forest trees not only remove carbon dioxide from the atmosphere, they also provide the majority of our clean water, ...
Water Quality Stewardship Guide | Northern Virginia Soil and Water Conservation District
Grass is also a highly efficient converter of carbon dioxide to oxygen, which helps clean the air. ... Land uses preventing soil erosion, heavy runoff of stormwater, and pollutants characterize a well-managed watershed. On the ... adding water and nutrient-holding capacity to sandy soils, and adding essential nutrients to any soil. Improving the soil is ... Thick grass prevents soil erosion, filters contaminants from rainwater, and absorbs many types of airborne pollutants such as ...
AcidicAtmosphereAcid rainEmissionsMethaneAtmosphereSulfurSulphurParticulate matterErosionClimate ChangeAmmoniaPollutionEmissionNutrientsMicrobesMicroorganismsHarmfulBiologicalCompoundsPhotosynthesisResearchersSource of carbon dioxideConcentrations of carbon dioxideOceansBacteriaDegradationVariety of pollutantsGaseous pollutantsOzoneEcosystemHabitatsAcidificationOrganismsParticlesStormwaterContributesFossil fuelsMicrobialPlantParticulatesEarth'sEcosystemsHelp mitigateIndoor pollutantsPrimary pollutantsCleanup of contaminatedTreesExcessWaterways
- Geoff Pocock, Managing Director and Founder of the Hazer Group talks to AZoCleantech about how the Hazer Process is producing clean hydrogen with Near-Zero Carbon Emissions. (azocleantech.com)
- As increasing amounts of carbon dioxide enters the atmosphere, the global ocean seems to soak up much of the excess, storing almost 30% of the carbon dioxide emissions generated from human activities. (azocleantech.com)
- Understanding how carbon travels between land, water and air is crucial for predicting how much greenhouse gas emissions the atmosphere, earth and ocean can tolerate over a given time period to keep climate change and global warming at thresholds considered to be tolerable. (azocleantech.com)
- This is beneficial to the environment since asphalt is responsible for 2% of global carbon emissions. (wikipedia.org)
- Microbial transformations of elements in anaerobic soils play a large role in biogeochemical cycling of nutrients and in greenhouse gas emissions. (kenyon.edu)
- Buckley's lab focused on the bacterium's role in the carbon cycle-the natural cycling of carbon through the Earth and the atmosphere, which scientists say has been thrown out of whack by excess human carbon emissions. (phys.org)
- Soils, every year, process about seven times more carbon than all of the human emissions from cars, power plants and heating units, all over the world, just in their natural work of decomposing plant material. (phys.org)
- He also explains how the challenge of finding new carbon free energy sources can be met, and why the 1997 Kyoto Protocol on reducing greenhouse gas emissions was a crucial event for the world, even if it is not ratified by the United States. (pbs.org)
- This effect counters current key projections regarding Earth's future carbon cycle, particularly that greater plant growth could offset carbon dioxide emissions as flora take up more of the gas, said first author Benjamin Sulman, who conducted the modeling work as a postdoctoral researcher at the Princeton Environmental Institute. (eurekalert.org)
- Whether carbon emissions from soil rise or fall, the researchers' model depicts an intricate soil-carbon system that contrasts starkly with existing models that portray soil as a simple carbon repository, Sulman said. (eurekalert.org)
- I urge other associations to consider ways they can reduce their carbon emissions when possible. (asaecenter.org)
- As part of the Meeting ReLeaf program, associations can work with American Forests to calculate and offset their carbon emissions. (asaecenter.org)
- The partnership is a next step in ASAE's efforts to address meetings-related carbon emissions. (asaecenter.org)
- For example, the Catalytic Converter was developed following regulations to protect local air quality, and resulted in significant reduction in emissions of pollutants such as NOx and SOx from vehicles (Kemp and Foxon, 2007). (123helpme.com)
- The main contributor of primary pollutants to the atmosphere, however, is motor vehicle emissions. (worldatlas.com)
- They provide sinks for carbon dioxide, which can mitigate greenhouse-gas emissions and filter pollutants to provide us with clean water. (news24.com)
- Healthy soils can help reduce the impact of climate change by storing (or sequestering ) up to 10 percent of the world's carbon dioxide emissions. (nature.org)
- This has serious ecological consequences like loss of biodiversity, soil degradation and increased carbon dioxide emissions. (wikihow.com)
- They've also chosen to test plants native to Vermont and the use of biochar, a carbon-rich soil additive produced without the creation of carbon dioxide emissions. (uvm.edu)
- Air pollutants include sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, and volatile organic compounds (VOCs), which originate from sources such as vehicle emissions, power plants, refineries, and industrial and laboratory processes. (hindawi.com)
- In order to compare the effect of different greenhouse gases, emissions are converted into carbon dioxide equivalents 2 . (naturvardsverket.se)
- Industrial carbon dioxide is produced by purifying the carbon dioxide emissions from combustion, fermentation and production of ammonia 4 . (naturvardsverket.se)
- However, emissions from anthropogenic sources contribute to the rising carbon dioxide levels in the atmosphere, affecting the natural carbon cycle. (naturvardsverket.se)
- Land use change (mainly deforestation) also contribute to emissions of carbon dioxide 6,7 . (naturvardsverket.se)
- In Sweden the largest emissions sources of carbon dioxide are larger point sources within the energy sector, production and processing of paper and wood and iron and steel production. (naturvardsverket.se)
- The UN Protocol on PRTRs and the EU E-PRTR regulation regulate how data on carbon dioxide emissions is made available. (naturvardsverket.se)
- We are also losing millions of trees to drought in some areas, and also to the growing number of severe wildfires, which are both worsened by climate change and simultaneously contributing to climate change through additional carbon emissions, in a vicious cycle (AKA a feedback loop). (thegreenspotlight.com)
- Here we determined carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) and methane (CH 4 ) emissions from sediment cores exposed to a drying and rewetting cycle. (wur.nl)
- We acquired the emissions data reported in the Canadian National Pollutant Release Inventory ( n = 18) and identified CHD patients born in Alberta from 2003-2010 ( n = 2413). (mdpi.com)
- One important technical initiative in 2017 will be a comprehensive review of the emission inventories of all Member States on which the implementation of the Directive relies, to ensure robust accounting of the actual pollutant emissions in Europe. (europa.eu)
- By analysing the change of exceedances over time (comparative static analysis) an indication of the effects of changing air pollutant emissions over time is obtained. (europa.eu)
- emissions because of large differences in their ability to sequester carbon in the soil. (trb.org)
- emission reductions with biodiesel, and a direct comparison of competing biodiesel feedstock crops has not been made with respect to net carbon emissions. (trb.org)
- Some explanation for the changes in soil gas concentration was provided by reference to the microorganism assemblages and the gases associated with biochemistry of nitrification, denitrification, methane oxidation and methanogenesis. (nih.gov)
- Methane is a more short-lived but much more powerful global-warming greenhouse gas than carbon dioxide. (euractiv.com)
- National ceilings for six pollutants (sulphur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, ammonia, methane, particulate matter and volatile organic compounds) were set for countries to reach by 2030 by MEPs in the Environment Committee. (euractiv.com)
- They backed binding targets for 2025 for all the pollutants, except methane. (euractiv.com)
- The bill caps six major pollutants - nitrogen oxides (NOX), particular matter (PM2.5), sulphur dioxide (SO2), methane (CH4), ammonia (NH3) and non-methane volatile organic compounds. (euractiv.com)
- In a landfill the biodegradable components of waste decompose and emit methane - a greenhouse gas, which is at least 21 times more harmful than carbon dioxide and the cause of significant environmental problems . (biofuelsdigest.com)
- Steam Reformation is a thermo-chemical process and is based on carbonaceous materials reaction with steam without the participation of oxygen or air at elevated temperatures above 700°C. The main product of the reactions is a synthesis gas (syngas) containing mostly hydrogen and carbon monoxide, and a smaller amount of methane, carbon dioxide, water vapour, and other hydrocarbons. (biofuelsdigest.com)
- The term "carbon offset" refers to six main types of greenhouse gases from methane to carbon dioxide. (asaecenter.org)
- Measurements of the main heat-trapping greenhouse gases that cause global warming - carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) - haven't been done. (greeleytribune.com)
- Record-high atmospheric levels of carbon dioxide and methane are expected this year, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration officials said Thursday. (greeleytribune.com)
- Other natural soil gases are atmospheric methane and radon. (wikipedia.org)
- Soil gases can diffuse into buildings, the chief concerns among these pollutants are radon which is radioactive and causes cancer and methane which can be flammable at only 4.4% concentration. (wikipedia.org)
- Organisms living in the soil also "play a key role in the release of carbon dioxide, methane and other greenhouse gases from the land into the atmosphere," scientists associated with the project said as part of the UNEP statement today. (ens-news.com)
- Methane is a particularly problematic greenhouse gas because its impact on climate change is more than 20 times that of carbon dioxide. (wikihow.com)
- These changes could affect N and C compounds in the soil that in turn can influence soil microbial activity and processes involved in the emission of N oxides, methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2), but these effects have been scarcely studied. (usda.gov)
- Non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs) influence air quality and global climate change through their effects on secondary air pollutants and climate forcers. (noaa.gov)
- Besides the carbon dioxide directly emitted from fossil fuel agriculture, nitrous oxide is emitted from nitrogen fertilizers based on fossil fuels, and methane is emitted from factory farms and food waste. (commondreams.org)
- Bamboo clothing (both mechanically and chemically manufactured) is 100% biodegradable and can be completely decomposed in the soil by micro-organisms and sunlight without decomposing into any pollutants such as methane gas which is commonly produced as a by-product of decomposition in landfills and dumps. (outspokes.com)
- The analysis exposed that, while the amount of carbon dioxide in the open ocean is growing at the same rate as in the atmosphere, these same carbon dioxide concentrations are indeed increasing more slowly in the coastal ocean. (azocleantech.com)
- If this conclusion is confirmed by future observations, it would mean that the coastal ocean will become more and more efficient at removing carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. (azocleantech.com)
- For instance, in higher latitudes such as Greenland and northern Canada, coastal waters generally behave as carbon sinks, absorbing huge amounts of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. (azocleantech.com)
- These nutrients are responsible for stimulating the growth of algae within the continental shelves, which consequently removes more carbon dioxide from the atmosphere, the researchers said. (azocleantech.com)
- Because increased carbon dioxide tends to cause plants to grow more quickly and take in more carbon from the atmosphere, some scientists and policymakers have speculated that forests could become "carbon sinks," absorbing carbon dioxide and mitigating its greenhouse effects. (innovations-report.com)
- Researchers based at Princeton University report that an increase in human-made carbon dioxide in the atmosphere could initiate a chain reaction between plants and microorganisms that would unsettle one of. (eurekalert.org)
- An increase in human-made carbon dioxide in the atmosphere could initiate a chain reaction between plants and microorganisms that would unsettle one of the largest carbon reservoirs on the planet -- soil. (eurekalert.org)
- Researchers based at Princeton University report in the journal Nature Climate Change that the carbon in soil -- which contains twice the amount of carbon in all plants and Earth's atmosphere combined -- could become increasingly volatile as people add more carbon dioxide to the atmosphere, largely because of increased plant growth. (eurekalert.org)
- As trees and other vegetation flourish in a carbon dioxide-rich future, their roots could stimulate microbial activity in soil that in turn accelerates the decomposition of soil carbon and its release into the atmosphere as carbon dioxide, the researchers found. (eurekalert.org)
- Forest trees not only remove carbon dioxide from the atmosphere, they also provide the majority of our clean water, enriching soil, provide wildlife habitat, and soak up air pollutants. (asaecenter.org)
- These pollutants mix into the atmosphere and concentrations don't respond quickly to changes. (greeleytribune.com)
- The more carbon dioxide there is in the atmosphere, the more it is absorbed by plants of every description -- and the faster and better they grow, even under adverse conditions like limited water, extremely hot air temperatures, or infestations of insects, weeds and other pests. (townhall.com)
- Research on environmental health has indicated an increased amount of pollutants in the Earth's atmosphere, waterways, and soil. (worldatlas.com)
- Instead, these pollutants are formed when 2 or more primary pollutants react with each other in the atmosphere. (worldatlas.com)
- Another example of a secondary pollutant occurs when nitrogen oxide and sulphur dioxide react with water in the atmosphere, creating acid rain. (worldatlas.com)
- How Do Primary Pollutants React In The Atmosphere? (worldatlas.com)
- As previously mentioned, several factors can contribute to the creation of secondary pollutants in the atmosphere. (worldatlas.com)
- When pollutants in the atmosphere present as smog, they may reduce the visibility of an area or cause respiratory and cardiac problems in humans. (worldatlas.com)
- In addition, ozone depletion is one of the effects of primary and secondary pollutants in the atmosphere. (worldatlas.com)
- The reason given for not classifying CO 2 as a pollutant is based upon the fact that it is a natural component of the atmosphere and needed by plants in order to carry out photosynthesis. (environmentalchemistry.com)
- No one would argue the fact that carbon dioxide is a necessary component of the atmosphere any more than one would argue the fact that Vitamin D is necessary in the human diet. (environmentalchemistry.com)
- According to BBC Weather (2) , the present amount of carbon dioxide taken out of the atmosphere every year by plants is almost perfectly balanced by amount of carbon dioxide put back into the atmosphere by respiration and decay. (environmentalchemistry.com)
- As living organisms undergo respiration (the metabolism of sugars to produce energy for basic metabolic needs), or as organisms die and decompose, the carbon compounds are broken down and add CO 2 to the atmosphere. (environmentalchemistry.com)
- Because the organisms did not decay completely, the carbon was never released into the atmosphere as CO 2 . (environmentalchemistry.com)
- But, if soils are managed poorly or cultivated through unsustainable agricultural practices, soil carbon can be released into the atmosphere in the form of carbon dioxide, which can contribute to climate change . (nature.org)
- An air pollutant is a substance present in the atmosphere in concentrations that disturb the natural equilibrium of the atmosphere and produces undesirable effects on humans and environment. (houghtonlakeboard.org)
- Today Dr. James E. Hansen of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration told a Congressional committee that it was 99 percent certain that the warming trend was not a natural variation but was caused by a buildup of carbon dioxide and other artificial gases in the atmosphere. (icecap.us)
- Carbon dioxide exists naturally in the atmosphere and is included in the natural carbon cycle. (naturvardsverket.se)
- Carbon dioxide exists naturally in the atmosphere and is essential for the photosynthesis. (naturvardsverket.se)
- Several people have said: 'Well, isn't it a good thing that our industrial progress has produced not just carbon dioxide but sulfur aerosols, which cool us back down? (pbs.org)
- Sulfur dioxide is considered to be one of the most dangerous air pollutants in the environment since it reacts with other pollutants in the air. (360training.com)
- The main sources of sulfur dioxide are power plans, metal extracting facilities, volcanoes, ships and trains that burn sulfur content for energy. (360training.com)
- So long, sulfur dioxide. (greeleytribune.com)
- Decreases since January were even more abrupt, by 80% in the case of sulfur dioxide downtown. (greeleytribune.com)
- A toxic gas that comes mostly from industrial burning of coal and other fossil fuels, sulfur dioxide weakens lung defenses and impairs breathing. (greeleytribune.com)
- For example, sulfur dioxide is an air pollutant identified in the Clean Air Act passed by Congress. (usf.edu)
- The EPA decides what levels of sulfur dioxide are safe, sets limits for how much sulfur dioxide industries can legally emit into the air, and determines penalties for exceeding these emission limits. (usf.edu)
- PEF (Process Engineered Fuel) generates significantly less Sulfur Dioxide (SO2) which causes "Acid Rain" when compared to using Coal as fuel. (hubpages.com)
- Rather, they are formed as a consequence of interaction with primary pollutants, for example photochemical smog, which is a mixture of smoke and fog, sulphuric acid (acid rain), which forms when sulphur dioxide dissolves in rainwater, and nitric acid which forms when nitrogen dioxide dissolves in rainwater. (houghtonlakeboard.org)
- Sulphur dioxide (SO 2 ) is emitted by power generation, industry, shipping and households. (europa.eu)
- Deposition of sulphur and nitrogen compounds contributes to the acidification of soils and freshwaters. (europa.eu)
- Land uses preventing soil erosion, heavy runoff of stormwater, and pollutants characterize a well-managed watershed. (fairfaxcounty.gov)
- Soils depleted in such organisms are more prone to drought and run-off, which in turn increases the risk of flooding and erosion with consequences for river water and coral reefs. (ens-news.com)
- Stabilize soil and prevent erosion. (springsgov.com)
- These hardy plants not only thrive on the coast, they provide the added benefits of erosion control and stabilization of soils, a filter for pollutants, wildlife habitat, and beauty. (mass.gov)
- Massive soil erosion aggravates flood situation in two ways. (preservearticles.com)
- Due to deforestation and extensive soil erosion in water sheds of almost all major rivers in India total area of land affected by floods has been rising steadily (Ehrich 1980). (preservearticles.com)
- The extensive root system of bamboo holds soil together, prevents soil erosion, and retains water in the watershed. (outspokes.com)
- They also contribute to a reduction in land degradation by soil erosion, particularly on sloping lands, thereby protecting the local environment. (iaea.org)
- The bacteria living in soils not only help plants grow, cope with stress and fight off pests, they're also essential to understanding climate change. (phys.org)
- Because it's such a large amount of carbon going through the soil, small changes in how we manage soil could make a big impact on climate change. (phys.org)
- Researchers have identified a link between primary pollutants and global climate change. (worldatlas.com)
- In August of 2006 EPA General Counsel Robert Fabricant concluded that since the Clean Air Act does not specifically authorize regulation to address climate change, CO 2 is not a pollutant (1) . (environmentalchemistry.com)
- Carbon dioxide is regulated by the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), as well as by the EU MMR regulation (525/2013/EU) and the EU ETS (2003/87/EU). (naturvardsverket.se)
- When critical loads are exceeded the actual damage to sensitive elements of an ecosystem may involve a time delay, dependent on soil, water and vegetation properties as well as combined effects due to for example climate change. (europa.eu)
- Ammonia causes soil nitrification and acidification. (euractiv.com)
- Ammonia causes soil nitrification and acidification, and transforms naturally to become fine particles harmful to human health. (euractiv.com)
- One species of pseudomonas has been found to eat caffeine, breaking it down into carbon dioxide and ammonia. (inhabitat.com)
- Examples include air pollution, water pollution and soil contamination. (beasleyallen.com)
- Particulates pollution, nitric oxide and nitrogen dioxide also decreased this month around metro Denver - by up to 50% in some areas - compared with concentrations a year ago, the data shows. (greeleytribune.com)
- This article focuses on the types of pollutants found in air pollution: primary and secondary. (worldatlas.com)
- CO2 Pollution and Global Warming: When does carbon dioxide become a pollutant? (environmentalchemistry.com)
- Not only do oxygenates fail to improve air quality, their production creates soil and water pollution, and they are more costly than other approaches to cleaner fuel. (reason.org)
- The goal 'avert adverse impacts' aims at climate protection, soil conservation and the conservation of water resources, as well as the reduction of noise pollution and immission of pollutants. (bfn.de)
- Water, Air and Soil Pollution 85: 1665-1670. (harvard.edu)
- Air pollution also has impacts on the environment, affecting the quality of fresh water, soil, and ecosystems. (europa.eu)
- The city is expecting up to 1.5 billion pounds of carbon dioxide emission to be avoided or absorbed through green infrastructure each year, the equivalent of removing close to 3,400 vehicles from roadways. (asla.org)
- Some important details include: pollutant source, manner of emission, and interactions in the environment. (worldatlas.com)
- A secondary pollutant is not a direct emission from a single source. (worldatlas.com)
- The most important anthropogenic emission sources of carbon dioxide are combustion of fossil fuels, cement production and other industrial processes. (naturvardsverket.se)
- Some of these substances are beneficial for agriculture and forestry because they provide nutrients for the growth of crops and forests or accelerate the natural weathering of soil minerals. (berkeley.edu)
- The production of specific nutrients, such as ammonium created by microbial metabolic functions, helps to enrich the the soil for plant use. (kenyon.edu)
- The food web in the soil environment is necessary to maintain the soil nutrients, biological activity, and detoxifying pollutants. (kenyon.edu)
- When the ground turns acidic, vital nutrients are leached from the soil, which eventually may result in reduced forest growth. (naturvardsverket.se)
- When choosing plants for a coastal garden this spring, look for native plants that are well adapted to wind, salt spray, dry sandy soils, low nutrients, and even sand burial. (mass.gov)
- Fungi form communication networks beneath the soil, allowing trees to share messages and deliver nutrients to their kin. (flywayjournal.org)
- Negative effects are the leaching of plant nutrients from soils and damage to flora and fauna (changes in biodiversity). (europa.eu)
- The soil food web consists of microbes who play multiple essential roles in soil ecosystem. (kenyon.edu)
- The hyphae within the soil environment and the microbes help form large, stable aggregates in the soil habitat. (kenyon.edu)
- Bioremediation can refer to the use of microbes, fungi (mycoremediation) or plants (phytoremediation) that have the ability to remove pollutants from the environment. (inhabitat.com)
- Biological approaches to break down pollutants using plants or microbes are slow, and only work for low concentrations of certain contaminants. (gardeningchannel.com)
- But so far, this probiotic approach has had mixed results in the field, sometimes because the introduced bacteria are outcompeted by naturally present soil microbes. (acs.org)
- A teaspoon of soil teems with billions of microbes that are vital to all life on Earth. (ucdavis.edu)
- Even though microbes in soil are essential for life on earth, scientists readily admit they still know relatively little about them. (ucdavis.edu)
- The addition of extraneous microorganisms to a site is termed bioaugmentation and is used when a particular microorganism is effective at degrading the pollutant at the site and is not found either naturally or at a high enough population to be effective. (wikipedia.org)
- Accelerated in situ bioremediation is utilized when the desired population of microorganisms within a site is not naturally present at a sufficient level to effectively degrade the pollutants. (wikipedia.org)
- In addition, microorganisms in the potting soil can destroy pollutants and convert them into new plant tissue. (purposefairy.com)
- Composting matrices and composts are rich sources of xenobiotic-degrading microorganisms including bacteria, actinomycetes and lignolytic fungi, which can degrade pollutants to innocuous compounds such as carbon dioxide and water. (lancs.ac.uk)
- Still other substances are detrimental because they cause stress in plants, animals, or microorganisms, alter surface and ground water quality, aggravate nutrient deficiencies in soils, or accelerate the soiling, weathering, or corrosion of engineering and cultural materials. (berkeley.edu)
- There are more microorganisms in a handful of healthy soil than the number of people who have ever lived! (nature.org)
- Some microorganisms produce and release poisons called biotoxins into air, water, soil, or food. (cdc.gov)
- Nor can we assume all harmful pollutants can be removed in this manner. (umn.edu)
- Plants and flowers can help purify the air in your home by absorbing harmful pollutants with carbon dioxide. (purposefairy.com)
- A few minutes of fresh air can be enough to help reduce harmful air pollutants. (purposefairy.com)
- Typically, the waste is sent to landfills and the energy in waste is essentially lost, creating mountains of trash, and emitting harmful pollutants into our air, water and soil. (biofuelsdigest.com)
- The industrial pollutant ozone, long known to be harmful to many kinds of plants, can also affect the very earth in which they grow. (innovations-report.com)
- Environmental pollutants come from a range of different sources and each of them has a unique and harmful effect on us. (360training.com)
- With prolonged exposure, this harmful substance poisons the air, soil and water which ultimately affects crops. (360training.com)
- To remove the harmful substance, the laser light heats up the pollutant locally, reaching temperatures of thousands of degrees Celsius. (gardeningchannel.com)
- One definition is: The contamination of air, water, or soil by substances that are harmful to living organisms (as defined by The American Heritage Science Dictionary, Houghton Mifflin Company). (usf.edu)
- The risk is estimated by reference to the 'critical level' for ozone for each location, this being a quantitative estimate of the exposure to these pollutants below which significant and harmful effects do not occur in the long term at present knowledge. (europa.eu)
- The interactions observed in soil food web include not only based on biological interactions, which directly affects the nutrient cycling and degradation of pollutants, but also the creation of soil structure, e.g. of aggregates. (kenyon.edu)
- The presence of substances in soil that are not naturally produced by biological species is of great public concern. (britannica.com)
- Although human exposure to these substances is primarily through inhalation or drinking water , soils play an important role because they affect the mobility and biological impact of these toxins. (britannica.com)
- Tropical forests in a changing climate: the future of biological diversity and impact on carbon cycle. (harvard.edu)
- Biological pollutants, allergens and chemicals are in the air surrounding us all the time. (h2pdx.com)
- The presence or overgrowth of biological pollutants and allergens can aggravate indoor air quality. (h2pdx.com)
- The researchers developed the first computer model to show at a global scale the complex interaction between carbon, plants and soil, which includes numerous bacteria, fungi, minerals and carbon compounds that respond in complex ways to temperature, moisture and the carbon that plants contribute to soil. (eurekalert.org)
- The abundance of xenobiotic compounds in soil has been increased dramatically by the accelerated rate of extraction of minerals and fossil fuels and by highly technological industrial processes. (britannica.com)
- Not all soil pollutants are xenobiotic compounds. (britannica.com)
- In one study, soil contaminated with diesel oil was inoculated with oyster mushroom mycelia, resulting in a 95 percent reduction of toxic compounds after a one-month period. (inhabitat.com)
- This is a result of having evolved in rare terrestrial habitats where the soil is naturally high in certain compounds that would be toxic to most plants, such as the case with Rinorea niccolifera, a distant relative of violets from an island in the Philippines, where nickel levels in the soil are off the charts. (inhabitat.com)
- compounds: water, carbon dioxide, nitrogen dioxide etc. (majortests.com)
- All living things on earth are composed of compounds based on the element carbon. (majortests.com)
- Inorganic pollutants consist of inorganic salts, silt (sediment), mineral acids, finely divided metals and their compounds as well as complexes of metals with organics in natural water. (houghtonlakeboard.org)
- Building on an idea developed by medicinal chemists, Johns Hopkins researchers have devised a new mathematical tool that accurately predicts how long certain pollutants -- including pesticides and pharmaceuticals -- will remain in soil. (innovations-report.com)
- The work is timely because researchers and public officials have become increasingly concerned about pharmaceuticals and personal care products that have been detected in soil and water. (innovations-report.com)
- The new approach will help them decide whether the pollutants need to be removed and how best to accomplish this, the researchers say. (innovations-report.com)
- On the other hand, microbial activity initiated by root growth could lock carbon onto mineral particles and protect it from decomposition, which would increase long-term storage of carbon in soils, the researchers report. (eurekalert.org)
- U.S. researchers discovered that sugarcane grown in sunlit greenhouses at 720 ppm CO2 and 11 degrees F (6 degrees C) higher than outside ambient air produced stem juice an amazing 124% higher in volume than sugarcane grown at ambient temperature and 360 ppm carbon dioxide. (townhall.com)
- Toepfer said researchers are now realizing that the world's soils, especially topical soils, are teeming with life. (ens-news.com)
- By directly breaking down pollutants, researchers say, high-powered lasers can now be more efficient and cheaper than conventional decontamination techniques. (gardeningchannel.com)
- To demonstrate that the new method is feasible, the researchers tested it on a simulated soil made from porous silica. (gardeningchannel.com)
- This phenomenon is widely exploited by researchers in pollutant remediation and other beneficial reactions. (hindawi.com)
Source of carbon dioxide2
Concentrations of carbon dioxide1
- Warming oceans slowly released some of the carbon dioxide stored in their waters. (townhall.com)
- Nitrogen fertilizers are destabilizing the climate, creating dead zones in the oceans and desertifying the soils. (commondreams.org)
- Today about 25x10' tons of precious top soil flows into oceans as silt and sediments every year. (preservearticles.com)
- This means that the newly identified bacteria could be a candidate for biodegradation research and an important player in the soil carbon cycle . (phys.org)
- We know remarkably little about how soil bacteria operate," Buckley said. (phys.org)
- Understanding how bacteria break down carbon in soil could hold the key to the sustainability of soil and the ability to predict the future of global climate. (phys.org)
- Since soil microbial diversity is immense, with all three domains of life: Archaea, Bacteria and Eukarya represented in the soil environment, it is not possible to discuss each microbial species (many of which have not even been described! (kenyon.edu)
- Bacteria and fungi in the soil can clean drinking water sources. (ens-news.com)
- Solids or liquids with size less than 100 microns that remain suspended in the air are called particulate pollutants, for example dust, smoke, fog, mist, bacteria and fumes. (houghtonlakeboard.org)
- Introducing symbiotic, pollutant-destroying bacteria to the plants has shown even more promise in lab tests, because carrying the bacteria seems to help plants stay healthier during the process and remove more pollutants. (acs.org)
- But are there similar "good bacteria" for plants and soils? (ucdavis.edu)
Variety of pollutants1
- It also tranforms into ozone, an air pollutant. (euractiv.com)
- Ozone is commonly introduced to the soil in either a dissolved or gaseous state. (wikipedia.org)
- Soil carbon formation dropped off dramatically in the plots fumigated with a mix of ozone and carbon dioxide compared to carbon dioxide alone. (innovations-report.com)
- Reductions we have observed in plant growth under elevated ozone appear to result in similar reductions in soil carbon formation. (innovations-report.com)
- The findings could have implications for the health of forests in areas with high levels of ozone, says Dr. Wendy Loya, the lead author of the paper and a postdoctoral research scientist at Michigan Tech. "Under normal conditions, forest litter, which is made up of fallen leaves, twigs and dead roots, decomposes and releases carbon that is then stored in the soil," she says. (innovations-report.com)
- Under conditions of elevated ozone, the amount of soil carbon formed is reduced. (innovations-report.com)
- However, the soil in the plots exposed to an ozone/carbon dioxide mixture gained only half the carbon as plots fumigated with carbon dioxide alone. (innovations-report.com)
- Thus, plants and soils may be less able to clean the air of excess carbon dioxide when ozone levels are high. (innovations-report.com)
- Nitrogen dioxide is a highly sensitive gas that reacts to other substances very quickly leading to the formation of ground level ozone. (360training.com)
- A precursor to nitrogen dioxide and ground-level ozone (O3), which worsens respiratory problems and is linked to thousands of premature deaths, it comes from burning fossil fuels. (greeleytribune.com)
- Scottish soil and their effects on gas depth profiles monitored as indicators of microbial processes of the soil ecosystem. (nih.gov)
- The soil ecosystem in an important environment that allows both plants and animals to survive, grow and reproduce. (kenyon.edu)
- The significance of the soil as an ecosystem is at times overlooked despite its major contributions to the environment. (kenyon.edu)
- Given each zone is a small component of the larger soil ecosystem, rhizosphere accounts for only 5 to 7 percent of the soil environments but contains over "70 percent of the bacterial- and fungal-feeding nematodes. (kenyon.edu)
- When one substance is present in excess and as a result threatens the wellbeing of an ecosystem, it becomes toxic, and could be considered to be a pollutant, despite the fact that it is required in small quantities. (environmentalchemistry.com)
- By promoting sustainable agricultural practices, we can help to preserve our healthy soils that are so essential for food production, water filtration, carbon sequestration and a myriad of other ecosystem services. (nature.org)
- The area where the deposition of acidifying and eutrophying pollutants is in exceedance of critical loads provides also an indication of the extent of European ecosystem area which is at risk of damage to biodiversity. (europa.eu)
- The risk of damage of a sensitive ecosystem receptor at a certain location can be evaluated by comparing the estimated deposition of acidifying and eutrophying air pollutants to the critical load for that location. (europa.eu)
- 2008). Thus, an ecosystem is at risk of acidification or eutrophication when its critical load is exceeded by acidifying and eutrophying air pollutants, respectively. (europa.eu)
- But soil is actually a living entity, a diverse ecosystem that is one of the most complex on the planet. (ucdavis.edu)
- Micro-organisms in the soil become more adept at using trace amounts of these materials as a food source, as they were exposed to them for longer periods of time. (umn.edu)
- The plants and organisms inhabiting the soil contribute to its thriving diversity. (kenyon.edu)
- Only a few representative groups of each domain will be discussed to provide examples of the roles these organisms play in soil. (kenyon.edu)
- Earthworms, termites and other soil burrowing organisms influence the amount of rainwater soils can absorb. (ens-news.com)
- And how many different types of organisms might be in the soil? (ucdavis.edu)
- These numbers are difficult to guess and keep getting adjusted as we learn more about the soil microbiome through sequencing efforts," says Scow, referencing genomic sequencing, which identifies organisms by their unique genetic traits. (ucdavis.edu)
- Moreover, animal agriculture contributes more pollutants to our waterways than other human activities combined. (sfexaminer.com)
- Because all Na + (sodium) and K + (potassium) and many Ca 2+ (calcium) and Mg 2+ (magnesium) salts of chloride, sulfide, and carbonate are readily soluble, it is this set of metal ions that contributes most to soil salinity. (britannica.com)
- Carbon dioxide is a greenhouse gas that contributes to the increased greenhouse gas effect 8 . (naturvardsverket.se)
- Carbon dioxide, the chief greenhouse gas, is emitted by burning forests to create animal pastures and by combustion of fossil fuels to operate farm machinery, trucks, refrigeration equipment, factory farms and slaughterhouses. (sfexaminer.com)
- Animal agriculture generates carbon dioxide by burning forests to create animal pastures and by combustion of fossil fuels to confine, feed, transport, and slaughter animals. (farmusa.org)
- The carbon found in fossil fuels was laid down over millions of years. (environmentalchemistry.com)
- They created the system that we live in, and they sustain it," said Dan Buckley, professor of microbial ecology in the Section of Soil and Crop Sciences in the School of Integrative Plant Science. (phys.org)
- The soil environment is a complex and varied microbial habitat. (kenyon.edu)
- Kate Scow, a professor of soil science and soil microbial ecology at UC Davis, keeps plastic bags filled with soil on her desk. (ucdavis.edu)
- Kate Scow is a professor of soil science and microbial ecology in the Department of Land, Air and Water Resources and director of the Russell Ranch Sustainable Agriculture Facility. (ucdavis.edu)
- SDE is in the final stages of building the second power plant in a series of 3 power plants that will be built on Chinese soil. (environmental-expert.com)
- The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has finalized a plan to clean up contaminated soil from residential properties at the Sherwin-Williams/Hilliards Creek Superfund site in Gibbsboro and Voorhees, N.J. The site includes a former paint manufacturing plant and the waters of Hilliards Creek, which flow into Kirkwood Lake. (environmental-expert.com)
- Although a greenhouse gas and pollutant, carbon dioxide also supports plant growth. (eurekalert.org)
- Plant residues contribute to the soil's carbon source. (kenyon.edu)
- Soil-dwelling beneficial life forms may also play a role in reducing crop, livestock and human diseases, UNEP said today, as they attack and neutralize plant, animal and human pests and pathogens. (ens-news.com)
- Rinorea absorbs up to 1,000 times as much nickel as most other plants, making it theoretically possible to plant fields of it in nickel-rich soils and then extract the metal from the harvested crop. (inhabitat.com)
- Faculty, students and staff selected plant and soil types to analyze the effectiveness of existing combinations already commonly deployed on green roofs -- for example, different species of sedum and chives planted in a lightweight soil. (uvm.edu)
- A separate area of the roof will remain plant and soil-less, serving as the all-important control by which to measure the other efforts. (uvm.edu)
- The story of how soil can come to be polluted is explained by the history of manufactured gas plant (MGP) sites. (usf.edu)
- Adequate plant cover keeps the soil temperature lower. (preservearticles.com)
- At all depths up to 70 cm a higher temperature is observed in soil devoid of plant cover. (preservearticles.com)
- With plant cover gone the battering action of wind and rains loosen the top soil which is thus carried along with water or air currents and deposited elsewhere. (preservearticles.com)
- Measurements will include inputs such as those due to plant and mycorrhizal fungal production, and outputs including soil respiration. (trb.org)
- Bamboo grows naturally without the need for agricultural tending and large diesel exhaust-spewing tractors to plant seeds and cultivate the soil. (outspokes.com)
- Primary pollutants in particular are known for their corrosive properties, which can cause damage to ecosystems as well as manmade infrastructure. (worldatlas.com)
- Many of these so-called xenobiotic (from Greek xenos , "stranger," and bios , "life") chemicals have been found to be carcinogens or may accumulate in the environment with toxic effects on ecosystems (see the table of major soil pollutants). (britannica.com)
- Excess deposition of air pollutants can lead to disturbances in the function and structure of ecosystems. (europa.eu)
- Primary pollutants are produced directly from a source but secondary pollutants are produced by reactions between primary pollutants and other chemicals. (worldatlas.com)
- Many experts report that secondary pollutants can cause much greater damage to the environment than primary pollutants. (worldatlas.com)
- Additionally, these substances are of particular concern given their variability and propensity to form from a wide range of primary pollutants. (worldatlas.com)
Cleanup of contaminated2
- Our collaboration with American Forests provides us with a great opportunity to help the local climate by planting trees and reducing our carbon footprint. (asaecenter.org)
- Organizations can make a real difference in the health of our planet by planting trees to offset the carbon footprint of their meetings and conventions," says Scott Steen FASAE, CAE, CEO and president at American Forests. (asaecenter.org)
- Planting trees in carefully chosen forest restoration projects is one of the most cost effective ways to sequester carbon, plus it has all sorts of added benefits for the environment. (asaecenter.org)
- However, when trees are used for building construction, furniture, etc, the carbon is not released rapidly into the environment. (environmentalchemistry.com)
- Trees also filter some pollutants out of the water and soil, and they can prevent or control flooding . (thegreenspotlight.com)