Carbon Dioxide: A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.Plant Cells: Basic functional unit of plants.Carbon: A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.Plants, Genetically Modified: PLANTS, or their progeny, whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING.Plant Proteins: Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.Plant Leaves: Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)Plant Roots: The usually underground portions of a plant that serve as support, store food, and through which water and mineral nutrients enter the plant. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982; Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Genes, Plant: The functional hereditary units of PLANTS.Nitrogen Dioxide: Nitrogen oxide (NO2). A highly poisonous gas. Exposure produces inflammation of lungs that may only cause slight pain or pass unnoticed, but resulting edema several days later may cause death. (From Merck, 11th ed) It is a major atmospheric pollutant that is able to absorb UV light that does not reach the earth's surface.Plant Shoots: New immature growth of a plant including stem, leaves, tips of branches, and SEEDLINGS.Plant Development: Processes orchestrated or driven by a plethora of genes, plant hormones, and inherent biological timing mechanisms facilitated by secondary molecules, which result in the systematic transformation of plants and plant parts, from one stage of maturity to another.Plant Extracts: Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.Arabidopsis: A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.Carbon Monoxide: Carbon monoxide (CO). A poisonous colorless, odorless, tasteless gas. It combines with hemoglobin to form carboxyhemoglobin, which has no oxygen carrying capacity. The resultant oxygen deprivation causes headache, dizziness, decreased pulse and respiratory rates, unconsciousness, and death. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Plants, Toxic: Plants or plant parts which are harmful to man or other animals.Partial Pressure: The pressure that would be exerted by one component of a mixture of gases if it were present alone in a container. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Sulfur Dioxide: A highly toxic, colorless, nonflammable gas. It is used as a pharmaceutical aid and antioxidant. It is also an environmental air pollutant.DNA, Plant: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of plants.Plants, Medicinal: Plants whose roots, leaves, seeds, bark, or other constituent parts possess therapeutic, tonic, purgative, curative or other pharmacologic attributes, when administered to man or animals.Capnography: Continuous recording of the carbon dioxide content of expired air.Tobacco: A plant genus of the family SOLANACEAE. Members contain NICOTINE and other biologically active chemicals; its dried leaves are used for SMOKING.Insufflation: The act of blowing a powder, vapor, or gas into any body cavity for experimental, diagnostic, or therapeutic purposes.Nanotubes, Carbon: Nanometer-sized tubes composed mainly of CARBON. Such nanotubes are used as probes for high-resolution structural and chemical imaging of biomolecules with ATOMIC FORCE MICROSCOPY.Atmosphere: The gaseous envelope surrounding a planet or similar body. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Plants: Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.Plant Stems: Parts of plants that usually grow vertically upwards towards the light and support the leaves, buds, and reproductive structures. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Arabidopsis Proteins: Proteins that originate from plants species belonging to the genus ARABIDOPSIS. The most intensely studied species of Arabidopsis, Arabidopsis thaliana, is commonly used in laboratory experiments.Oxygen: An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.Carbon Isotopes: Stable carbon atoms that have the same atomic number as the element carbon, but differ in atomic weight. C-13 is a stable carbon isotope.Respiration: The act of breathing with the LUNGS, consisting of INHALATION, or the taking into the lungs of the ambient air, and of EXHALATION, or the expelling of the modified air which contains more CARBON DIOXIDE than the air taken in (Blakiston's Gould Medical Dictionary, 4th ed.). This does not include tissue respiration (= OXYGEN CONSUMPTION) or cell respiration (= CELL RESPIRATION).Plants, Edible: An organism of the vegetable kingdom suitable by nature for use as a food, especially by human beings. Not all parts of any given plant are edible but all parts of edible plants have been known to figure as raw or cooked food: leaves, roots, tubers, stems, seeds, buds, fruits, and flowers. The most commonly edible parts of plants are FRUIT, usually sweet, fleshy, and succulent. Most edible plants are commonly cultivated for their nutritional value and are referred to as VEGETABLES.Hypercapnia: A clinical manifestation of abnormal increase in the amount of carbon dioxide in arterial blood.Genome, Plant: The genetic complement of a plant (PLANTS) as represented in its DNA.Pulmonary Gas Exchange: The exchange of OXYGEN and CARBON DIOXIDE between alveolar air and pulmonary capillary blood that occurs across the BLOOD-AIR BARRIER.Blood Gas Monitoring, Transcutaneous: The noninvasive measurement or determination of the partial pressure (tension) of oxygen and/or carbon dioxide locally in the capillaries of a tissue by the application to the skin of a special set of electrodes. These electrodes contain photoelectric sensors capable of picking up the specific wavelengths of radiation emitted by oxygenated versus reduced hemoglobin.Plant Epidermis: A thin layer of cells forming the outer integument of seed plants and ferns. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Chromatography, Supercritical Fluid: A CHROMATOGRAPHY method using supercritical fluid, usually carbon dioxide under very high pressure (around 73 atmospheres or 1070 psi at room temperature) as the mobile phase. Other solvents are sometimes added as modifiers. This is used both for analytical (SFC) and extraction (SFE) purposes.Plant Structures: The parts of plants, including SEEDS.Plant Growth Regulators: Any of the hormones produced naturally in plants and active in controlling growth and other functions. There are three primary classes: auxins, cytokinins, and gibberellins.Blood Gas Analysis: Measurement of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the blood.Lasers, Gas: Lasers in which a gas lasing medium is stimulated to emit light by an electric current or high-frequency oscillator.Carbon Sequestration: Any of several processes for the permanent or long-term artificial or natural capture or removal and storage of carbon dioxide and other forms of carbon, through biological, chemical or physical processes, in a manner that prevents it from being released into the atmosphere.Biomass: Total mass of all the organisms of a given type and/or in a given area. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990) It includes the yield of vegetative mass produced from any given crop.Cell Wall: The outermost layer of a cell in most PLANTS; BACTERIA; FUNGI; and ALGAE. The cell wall is usually a rigid structure that lies external to the CELL MEMBRANE, and provides a protective barrier against physical or chemical agents.Pneumoperitoneum, Artificial: Deliberate introduction of air into the peritoneal cavity.Tidal Volume: The volume of air inspired or expired during each normal, quiet respiratory cycle. Common abbreviations are TV or V with subscript T.Photosynthesis: The synthesis by organisms of organic chemical compounds, especially carbohydrates, from carbon dioxide using energy obtained from light rather than from the oxidation of chemical compounds. Photosynthesis comprises two separate processes: the light reactions and the dark reactions. In higher plants; GREEN ALGAE; and CYANOBACTERIA; NADPH and ATP formed by the light reactions drive the dark reactions which result in the fixation of carbon dioxide. (from Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2001)Plant Immunity: The inherent or induced capacity of plants to withstand or ward off biological attack by pathogens.Protoplasts: The protoplasm and plasma membrane of plant, fungal, bacterial or archaeon cells without the CELL WALL.Carbon Monoxide Poisoning: Toxic asphyxiation due to the displacement of oxygen from oxyhemoglobin by carbon monoxide.Dry Ice: A solid form of carbon dioxide used as a refrigerant.Agrobacterium tumefaciens: A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria isolated from soil and the stems, leafs, and roots of plants. Some biotypes are pathogenic and cause the formation of PLANT TUMORS in a wide variety of higher plants. The species is a major research tool in biotechnology.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Plant Stomata: Closable openings in the epidermis of plants on the underside of leaves. They allow the exchange of gases between the internal tissues of the plant and the outside atmosphere.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Plant Tumors: A localized proliferation of plant tissue forming a swelling or outgrowth, commonly with a characteristic shape and unlike any organ of the normal plant. Plant tumors or galls usually form in response to the action of a pathogen or a pest. (Holliday, P., A Dictionary of Plant Pathology, 1989, p330)Nitrogen: An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.Pectins: High molecular weight polysaccharides present in the cell walls of all plants. Pectins cement cell walls together. They are used as emulsifiers and stabilizers in the food industry. They have been tried for a variety of therapeutic uses including as antidiarrheals, where they are now generally considered ineffective, and in the treatment of hypercholesterolemia.Acidosis, Respiratory: Respiratory retention of carbon dioxide. It may be chronic or acute.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Oxygen Consumption: The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)Lycopersicon esculentum: A plant species of the family SOLANACEAE, native of South America, widely cultivated for their edible, fleshy, usually red fruit.Bicarbonates: Inorganic salts that contain the -HCO3 radical. They are an important factor in determining the pH of the blood and the concentration of bicarbonate ions is regulated by the kidney. Levels in the blood are an index of the alkali reserve or buffering capacity.Carbon Footprint: A measure of the total greenhouse gas emissions produced by an individual, organization, event, or product. It is measured in units of equivalent kilograms of CARBON DIOXIDE generated in a given time frame.Angiosperms: Members of the group of vascular plants which bear flowers. They are differentiated from GYMNOSPERMS by their production of seeds within a closed chamber (OVARY, PLANT). The Angiosperms division is composed of two classes, the monocotyledons (Liliopsida) and dicotyledons (Magnoliopsida). Angiosperms represent approximately 80% of all known living plants.Soil: The unconsolidated mineral or organic matter on the surface of the earth that serves as a natural medium for the growth of land plants.Gases: The vapor state of matter; nonelastic fluids in which the molecules are in free movement and their mean positions far apart. Gases tend to expand indefinitely, to diffuse and mix readily with other gases, to have definite relations of volume, temperature, and pressure, and to condense or liquefy at low temperatures or under sufficient pressure. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Seeds: The encapsulated embryos of flowering plants. They are used as is or for animal feed because of the high content of concentrated nutrients like starches, proteins, and fats. Rapeseed, cottonseed, and sunflower seed are also produced for the oils (fats) they yield.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Ecological Systems, Closed: Systems that provide for the maintenance of life in an isolated living chamber through reutilization of the material available, in particular, by means of a cycle wherein exhaled carbon dioxide, urine, and other waste matter are converted chemically or by photosynthesis into oxygen, water, and food. (NASA Thesaurus, 1988)Thorium Dioxide: Thorium oxide (ThO2). A radiographic contrast agent that was used in the early 1930s through about 1954. High rates of mortality have been linked to its use and it has been shown to cause liver cancer.Air: The mixture of gases present in the earth's atmosphere consisting of oxygen, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, and small amounts of other gases.Rhizobium: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that activate PLANT ROOT NODULATION in leguminous plants. Members of this genus are nitrogen-fixing and common soil inhabitants.Xylans: Polysaccharides consisting of xylose units.Water: A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Trees: Woody, usually tall, perennial higher plants (Angiosperms, Gymnosperms, and some Pterophyta) having usually a main stem and numerous branches.Methane: The simplest saturated hydrocarbon. It is a colorless, flammable gas, slightly soluble in water. It is one of the chief constituents of natural gas and is formed in the decomposition of organic matter. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Plant Transpiration: The loss of water vapor by plants to the atmosphere. It occurs mainly from the leaves through pores (stomata) whose primary function is gas exchange. The water is replaced by a continuous column of water moving upwards from the roots within the xylem vessels. (Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Ecosystem: A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Respiratory Dead Space: That part of the RESPIRATORY TRACT or the air within the respiratory tract that does not exchange OXYGEN and CARBON DIOXIDE with pulmonary capillary blood.Onions: Herbaceous biennial plants and their edible bulbs, belonging to the Liliaceae.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Zea mays: A plant species of the family POACEAE. It is a tall grass grown for its EDIBLE GRAIN, corn, used as food and animal FODDER.Greenhouse Effect: The effect of GLOBAL WARMING and the resulting increase in world temperatures. The predicted health effects of such long-term climatic change include increased incidence of respiratory, water-borne, and vector-borne diseases.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Carbonic Anhydrases: A family of zinc-containing enzymes that catalyze the reversible hydration of carbon dioxide. They play an important role in the transport of CARBON DIOXIDE from the tissues to the LUNG. EC 188.8.131.52.Carbon Tetrachloride: A solvent for oils, fats, lacquers, varnishes, rubber waxes, and resins, and a starting material in the manufacturing of organic compounds. Poisoning by inhalation, ingestion or skin absorption is possible and may be fatal. (Merck Index, 11th ed)Carbohydrate Metabolism: Cellular processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of CARBOHYDRATES.Gene Expression Regulation, Plant: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.Acetates: Derivatives of ACETIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxymethane structure.Plant Physiological Phenomena: The physiological processes, properties, and states characteristic of plants.Soybeans: An annual legume. The SEEDS of this plant are edible and used to produce a variety of SOY FOODS.Fabaceae: The large family of plants characterized by pods. Some are edible and some cause LATHYRISM or FAVISM and other forms of poisoning. Other species yield useful materials like gums from ACACIA and various LECTINS like PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS from PHASEOLUS. Many of them harbor NITROGEN FIXATION bacteria on their roots. Many but not all species of "beans" belong to this family.Cellulose: A polysaccharide with glucose units linked as in CELLOBIOSE. It is the chief constituent of plant fibers, cotton being the purest natural form of the substance. As a raw material, it forms the basis for many derivatives used in chromatography, ion exchange materials, explosives manufacturing, and pharmaceutical preparations.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Autotrophic Processes: The processes by which organisms use simple inorganic substances such as gaseous or dissolved carbon dioxide and inorganic nitrogen as nutrient sources. Contrasts with heterotrophic processes which make use of organic materials as the nutrient supply source. Autotrophs can be either chemoautotrophs (or chemolithotrophs), largely ARCHAEA and BACTERIA, which also use simple inorganic substances for their metabolic energy reguirements; or photoautotrophs (or photolithotrophs), such as PLANTS and CYANOBACTERIA, which derive their energy from light. Depending on environmental conditions some organisms can switch between different nutritional modes (autotrophy; HETEROTROPHY; chemotrophy; or PHOTOTROPHY) to utilize different sources to meet their nutrient and energy requirements.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Hypocapnia: Clinical manifestation consisting of a deficiency of carbon dioxide in arterial blood.Air Pollutants: Any substance in the air which could, if present in high enough concentration, harm humans, animals, vegetation or material. Substances include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; and volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.Hyperventilation: A pulmonary ventilation rate faster than is metabolically necessary for the exchange of gases. It is the result of an increased frequency of breathing, an increased tidal volume, or a combination of both. It causes an excess intake of oxygen and the blowing off of carbon dioxide.Seedling: Very young plant after GERMINATION of SEEDS.Chloroplasts: Plant cell inclusion bodies that contain the photosynthetic pigment CHLOROPHYLL, which is associated with the membrane of THYLAKOIDS. Chloroplasts occur in cells of leaves and young stems of plants. They are also found in some forms of PHYTOPLANKTON such as HAPTOPHYTA; DINOFLAGELLATES; DIATOMS; and CRYPTOPHYTA.Embolism, Air: Blocking of a blood vessel by air bubbles that enter the circulatory system, usually after TRAUMA; surgical procedures, or changes in atmospheric pressure.Carbonates: Salts or ions of the theoretical carbonic acid, containing the radical CO2(3-). Carbonates are readily decomposed by acids. The carbonates of the alkali metals are water-soluble; all others are insoluble. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Hypoventilation: A reduction in the amount of air entering the pulmonary alveoli.Carbon Cycle: The cycle by which the element carbon is exchanged between organic matter and the earth's physical environment.Pulmonary Ventilation: The total volume of gas inspired or expired per unit of time, usually measured in liters per minute.Carbon Disulfide: A colorless, flammable, poisonous liquid, CS2. It is used as a solvent, and is a counterirritant and has local anesthetic properties but is not used as such. It is highly toxic with pronounced CNS, hematologic, and dermatologic effects.Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Oxides: Binary compounds of oxygen containing the anion O(2-). The anion combines with metals to form alkaline oxides and non-metals to form acidic oxides.Anesthesia, Inhalation: Anesthesia caused by the breathing of anesthetic gases or vapors or by insufflating anesthetic gases or vapors into the respiratory tract.Symbiosis: The relationship between two different species of organisms that are interdependent; each gains benefits from the other or a relationship between different species where both of the organisms in question benefit from the presence of the other.Pseudomonas syringae: A species of gram-negative, fluorescent, phytopathogenic bacteria in the genus PSEUDOMONAS. It is differentiated into approximately 50 pathovars with different plant pathogenicities and host specificities.Titanium: A dark-gray, metallic element of widespread distribution but occurring in small amounts; atomic number, 22; atomic weight, 47.90; symbol, Ti; specific gravity, 4.5; used for fixation of fractures. (Dorland, 28th ed)Poaceae: A large family of narrow-leaved herbaceous grasses of the order Cyperales, subclass Commelinidae, class Liliopsida (monocotyledons). Food grains (EDIBLE GRAIN) come from members of this family. RHINITIS, ALLERGIC, SEASONAL can be induced by POLLEN of many of the grasses.Cerebrovascular Circulation: The circulation of blood through the BLOOD VESSELS of the BRAIN.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Plant Components, Aerial: The above-ground plant without the roots.Plant Diseases: Diseases of plants.Indoleacetic Acids: Acetic acid derivatives of the heterocyclic compound indole. (Merck Index, 11th ed)Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.Chemoreceptor Cells: Cells specialized to detect chemical substances and relay that information centrally in the nervous system. Chemoreceptor cells may monitor external stimuli, as in TASTE and OLFACTION, or internal stimuli, such as the concentrations of OXYGEN and CARBON DIOXIDE in the blood.Flowers: The reproductive organs of plants.Respiratory Insufficiency: Failure to adequately provide oxygen to cells of the body and to remove excess carbon dioxide from them. (Stedman, 25th ed)Polygalacturonase: A cell wall-degrading enzyme found in microorganisms and higher plants. It catalyzes the random hydrolysis of 1,4-alpha-D-galactosiduronic linkages in pectate and other galacturonans. EC 184.108.40.206.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Silicon Dioxide: Transparent, tasteless crystals found in nature as agate, amethyst, chalcedony, cristobalite, flint, sand, QUARTZ, and tridymite. The compound is insoluble in water or acids except hydrofluoric acid.Nitrous Oxide: Nitrogen oxide (N2O). A colorless, odorless gas that is used as an anesthetic and analgesic. High concentrations cause a narcotic effect and may replace oxygen, causing death by asphyxia. It is also used as a food aerosol in the preparation of whipping cream.Respiration, Artificial: Any method of artificial breathing that employs mechanical or non-mechanical means to force the air into and out of the lungs. Artificial respiration or ventilation is used in individuals who have stopped breathing or have RESPIRATORY INSUFFICIENCY to increase their intake of oxygen (O2) and excretion of carbon dioxide (CO2).Chromosomes, Plant: Complex nucleoprotein structures which contain the genomic DNA and are part of the CELL NUCLEUS of PLANTS.Respiratory Mechanics: The physical or mechanical action of the LUNGS; DIAPHRAGM; RIBS; and CHEST WALL during respiration. It includes airflow, lung volume, neural and reflex controls, mechanoreceptors, breathing patterns, etc.Light: That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared range.Solanum tuberosum: A plant species of the genus SOLANUM, family SOLANACEAE. The starchy roots are used as food. SOLANINE is found in green parts.Daucus carota: A plant species of the family APIACEAE that is widely cultivated for the edible yellow-orange root. The plant has finely divided leaves and flat clusters of small white flowers.Hydrogen: The first chemical element in the periodic table. It has the atomic symbol H, atomic number 1, and atomic weight [1.00784; 1.00811]. It exists, under normal conditions, as a colorless, odorless, tasteless, diatomic gas. Hydrogen ions are PROTONS. Besides the common H1 isotope, hydrogen exists as the stable isotope DEUTERIUM and the unstable, radioactive isotope TRITIUM.Acid-Base Equilibrium: The balance between acids and bases in the BODY FLUIDS. The pH (HYDROGEN-ION CONCENTRATION) of the arterial BLOOD provides an index for the total body acid-base balance.Carbon Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of carbon that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. C atoms with atomic weights 10, 11, and 14-16 are radioactive carbon isotopes.Biodegradation, Environmental: Elimination of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS; PESTICIDES and other waste using living organisms, usually involving intervention of environmental or sanitation engineers.Anaerobiosis: The complete absence, or (loosely) the paucity, of gaseous or dissolved elemental oxygen in a given place or environment. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Pneumoperitoneum: A condition with trapped gas or air in the PERITONEAL CAVITY, usually secondary to perforation of the internal organs such as the LUNG and the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT, or to recent surgery. Pneumoperitoneum may be purposely introduced to aid radiological examination.Transformation, Genetic: Change brought about to an organisms genetic composition by unidirectional transfer (TRANSFECTION; TRANSDUCTION, GENETIC; CONJUGATION, GENETIC, etc.) and incorporation of foreign DNA into prokaryotic or eukaryotic cells by recombination of part or all of that DNA into the cell's genome.Peas: A variable annual leguminous vine (Pisum sativum) that is cultivated for its rounded smooth or wrinkled edible protein-rich seeds, the seed of the pea, and the immature pods with their included seeds. (From Webster's New Collegiate Dictionary, 1973)Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Helium: Helium. A noble gas with the atomic symbol He, atomic number 2, and atomic weight 4.003. It is a colorless, odorless, tasteless gas that is not combustible and does not support combustion. It was first detected in the sun and is now obtained from natural gas. Medically it is used as a diluent for other gases, being especially useful with oxygen in the treatment of certain cases of respiratory obstruction, and as a vehicle for general anesthetics. (Dorland, 27th ed)Fungi: A kingdom of eukaryotic, heterotrophic organisms that live parasitically as saprobes, including MUSHROOMS; YEASTS; smuts, molds, etc. They reproduce either sexually or asexually, and have life cycles that range from simple to complex. Filamentous fungi, commonly known as molds, refer to those that grow as multicellular colonies.Plant Poisoning: Poisoning by the ingestion of plants or its leaves, berries, roots or stalks. The manifestations in both humans and animals vary in severity from mild to life threatening. In animals, especially domestic animals, it is usually the result of ingesting moldy or fermented forage.Triticum: A plant genus of the family POACEAE that is the source of EDIBLE GRAIN. A hybrid with rye (SECALE CEREALE) is called TRITICALE. The seed is ground into FLOUR and used to make BREAD, and is the source of WHEAT GERM AGGLUTININS.Glucans: Polysaccharides composed of repeating glucose units. They can consist of branched or unbranched chains in any linkages.Plastids: Self-replicating cytoplasmic organelles of plant and algal cells that contain pigments and may synthesize and accumulate various substances. PLASTID GENOMES are used in phylogenetic studies.Anesthetics, Inhalation: Gases or volatile liquids that vary in the rate at which they induce anesthesia; potency; the degree of circulation, respiratory, or neuromuscular depression they produce; and analgesic effects. Inhalation anesthetics have advantages over intravenous agents in that the depth of anesthesia can be changed rapidly by altering the inhaled concentration. Because of their rapid elimination, any postoperative respiratory depression is of relatively short duration. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p173)Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Lignin: The most abundant natural aromatic organic polymer found in all vascular plants. Lignin together with cellulose and hemicellulose are the major cell wall components of the fibers of all wood and grass species. Lignin is composed of coniferyl, p-coumaryl, and sinapyl alcohols in varying ratios in different plant species. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Pollen: The fertilizing element of plants that contains the male GAMETOPHYTES.Carbonic Acid: Carbonic acid (H2C03). The hypothetical acid of carbon dioxide and water. It exists only in the form of its salts (carbonates), acid salts (hydrogen carbonates), amines (carbamic acid), and acid chlorides (carbonyl chloride). (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Root Nodules, Plant: Knobbed structures formed from and attached to plant roots, especially of LEGUMES, which result from symbiotic infection by nitrogen fixing bacteria such as RHIZOBIUM or FRANKIA. Root nodules are structures related to MYCORRHIZAE formed by symbiotic associations with fungi.Soil Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the soil. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Air Pollution: The presence of contaminants or pollutant substances in the air (AIR POLLUTANTS) that interfere with human health or welfare, or produce other harmful environmental effects. The substances may include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; or volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.Respiratory Function Tests: Measurement of the various processes involved in the act of respiration: inspiration, expiration, oxygen and carbon dioxide exchange, lung volume and compliance, etc.Argon: Argon. A noble gas with the atomic symbol Ar, atomic number 18, and atomic weight 39.948. It is used in fluorescent tubes and wherever an inert atmosphere is desired and nitrogen cannot be used.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Formates: Derivatives of formic acids. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that are formed with a single carbon carboxy group.Laser Therapy: The use of photothermal effects of LASERS to coagulate, incise, vaporize, resect, dissect, or resurface tissue.Pseudomonas: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in nature. Some species are pathogenic for humans, animals, and plants.Euthanasia, Animal: The killing of animals for reasons of mercy, to control disease transmission or maintain the health of animal populations, or for experimental purposes (ANIMAL EXPERIMENTATION).Breath Tests: Any tests done on exhaled air.Ozone: The unstable triatomic form of oxygen, O3. It is a powerful oxidant that is produced for various chemical and industrial uses. Its production is also catalyzed in the ATMOSPHERE by ULTRAVIOLET RAY irradiation of oxygen or other ozone precursors such as VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS and NITROGEN OXIDES. About 90% of the ozone in the atmosphere exists in the stratosphere (STRATOSPHERIC OZONE).Gas Scavengers: Apparatus for removing exhaled or leaked anesthetic gases or other volatile agents, thus reducing the exposure of operating room personnel to such agents, as well as preventing the buildup of potentially explosive mixtures in operating rooms or laboratories.Seawater: The salinated water of OCEANS AND SEAS that provides habitat for marine organisms.Lung Diseases, Obstructive: Any disorder marked by obstruction of conducting airways of the lung. AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION may be acute, chronic, intermittent, or persistent.Sodium Hydroxide: A highly caustic substance that is used to neutralize acids and make sodium salts. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Anesthesia, Closed-Circuit: Inhalation anesthesia where the gases exhaled by the patient are rebreathed as some carbon dioxide is simultaneously removed and anesthetic gas and oxygen are added so that no anesthetic escapes into the room. Closed-circuit anesthesia is used especially with explosive anesthetics to prevent fires where electrical sparking from instruments is possible.Botany: The study of the origin, structure, development, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of plants.Pressure: A type of stress exerted uniformly in all directions. Its measure is the force exerted per unit area. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Hordeum: A plant genus of the family POACEAE. The EDIBLE GRAIN, barley, is widely used as food.Oxylipins: Eighteen-carbon cyclopentyl polyunsaturated fatty acids derived from ALPHA-LINOLENIC ACID via an oxidative pathway analogous to the EICOSANOIDS in animals. Biosynthesis is inhibited by SALICYLATES. A key member, jasmonic acid of PLANTS, plays a similar role to ARACHIDONIC ACID in animals.Power Plants: Units that convert some other form of energy into electrical energy.Nitrates: Inorganic or organic salts and esters of nitric acid. These compounds contain the NO3- radical.Anoxia: Relatively complete absence of oxygen in one or more tissues.Extraterrestrial Environment: The environment outside the earth or its atmosphere. The environment may refer to a closed cabin (such as a space shuttle or space station) or to space itself, the moon, or other planets.Mycorrhizae: Symbiotic combination (dual organism) of the MYCELIUM of FUNGI with the roots of plants (PLANT ROOTS). The roots of almost all higher plants exhibit this mutually beneficial relationship, whereby the fungus supplies water and mineral salts to the plant, and the plant supplies CARBOHYDRATES to the fungus. There are two major types of mycorrhizae: ectomycorrhizae and endomycorrhizae.Bryopsida: A class of plants within the Bryophyta comprising the mosses, which are found in both damp (including freshwater) and drier situations. Mosses possess erect or prostrate leafless stems, which give rise to leafless stalks bearing capsules. Spores formed in the capsules are released and grow to produce new plants. (Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990). Many small plants bearing the name moss are in fact not mosses. The "moss" found on the north side of trees is actually a green alga (CHLOROPHYTA). Irish moss is really a red alga (RHODOPHYTA). Beard lichen (beard moss), Iceland moss, oak moss, and reindeer moss are actually LICHENS. Spanish moss is a common name for both LICHENS and an air plant (TILLANDSIA usneoides) of the pineapple family. Club moss is an evergreen herb of the family LYCOPODIACEAE.Humidity: A measure of the amount of WATER VAPOR in the air.Carbon Tetrachloride PoisoningApnea: A transient absence of spontaneous respiration.Electrodes: Electric conductors through which electric currents enter or leave a medium, whether it be an electrolytic solution, solid, molten mass, gas, or vacuum.Cyclopentanes: A group of alicyclic hydrocarbons with the general formula R-C5H9.Methyl Ethers: A group of compounds that contain the general formula R-OCH3.Mars: The fourth planet in order from the sun. Its two natural satellites are Deimos and Phobos. It is one of the four inner or terrestrial planets of the solar system.Environmental Remediation: Removal of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS or contaminants for the general protection of the environment. This is accomplished by various chemical, biological, and bulk movement methods, in conjunction with ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING.PolysaccharidesEnvironmental Monitoring: The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.Genetic Complementation Test: A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.Glucose: A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.Chlorophyll: Porphyrin derivatives containing magnesium that act to convert light energy in photosynthetic organisms.Climate: The longterm manifestations of WEATHER. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)MalatesSalicylic Acid: A compound obtained from the bark of the white willow and wintergreen leaves. It has bacteriostatic, fungicidal, and keratolytic actions.Adaptation, Physiological: The non-genetic biological changes of an organism in response to challenges in its ENVIRONMENT.
By contrast, plants and animals are made up of many cells. Crucially, each cell of a plant or animal is organised very ... They produce carbon dioxide and water as waste. To produce ATP, mitochondria require abundant supplies of oxygen. Some single- ... Amongst other things, animal and plant cells (which are special cases of what is known as 'eukaryotic' cells) contain ... In addition to ordinary carbon dioxide, the distinctive waste product of hydrogenosomes is hydrogen: The hydrogen they produce ...
Fotosynteza C4, wolna encyklopedia
Carbon Dioxide Fixation in Sugarcane Leaves.. „Plant physiology". 2 (40), s. 209-13, 1965. PMID: 16656075. ... Intracellular localization of phosphoenolopyruvate carboxykinase in bundle sheath cells of C4 plants. Plant Cell Physiol. 25, ... Mechanism of C(4) Photosynthesis: The Size and Composition of the Inorganic Carbon Pool in Bundle Sheath Cells.. „Plant Physiol ... Further studies on a new pathway of photosynthetic carbon dioxide fixation in sugar-cane and its occurrence in other plant ...
When these sodium-rich plants are burned, the carbon dioxide that is produced presumably reacts with this sodium to form sodium ... The vacuole of a plant cell can occupy 80% of the cell's volume; most of a halophyte plant cell's sodium can be sequestered in ... Cells of the boatlily plant Rhoeo discolor. The large pink region in each cell is a vacuole. Sodium is sequestered in vacuoles ... Thus, most plants, and especially most crop plants, are "glycophytes", and suffer damage when planted in saline soils. ...
Therefore, plants cannot gain carbon dioxide without simultaneously losing water vapour. Ordinarily, carbon dioxide is fixed to ... An asymmetrical cell division occurs in protodermal cells resulting in one large cell that is fated to become a pavement cell ... Air enters the plant through these openings by gaseous diffusion, and contains carbon dioxide and oxygen, which are used in ... Carbon dioxide, a key reactant in photosynthesis, is present in the atmosphere at a concentration of about 400 ppm. Most plants ...
Photosynthesis, a process whereby carbon dioxide and water are transformed into a number of organic molecules in plant cells. ... The most well-known of these indigestible compounds is cellulose; the basic chemical polymer in the makeup of plant cell walls ... Assimilation is occurring in every cell of the body to help develop new cells. Anabolism Biochemistry L. R. Cleveland, " ... Nitrogen fixation from the soil into organic molecules by symbiotic bacteria which live in the roots of certain plants, such as ...
Green plants produce carbon dioxide and water as respiratory products. In green plants, the carbon dioxide released during ... are forced from the interior of the plant by hydrostatic pressures inside the plant and by absorptive forces of plant cells. ... Plants also excrete some waste substances into the soil around them. In animals, the main excretory products are carbon dioxide ... Oxygen is a by product generated during photosynthesis, and exits through stomata, root cell walls, and other routes. Plants ...
Green plants produce carbon dioxide and water as respiratory products. In green plants, the carbon dioxide released during ... are forced from the interior of the plant by hydrostatic pressures inside the plant and by absorptive forces of plant cells. ... In animals, the main excretory products are carbon dioxide, ammonia (in ammoniotelics), urea (in ureotelics), uric acid (in ... Oxygen is a by product generated during photosynthesis, and exits through stomata, root cell walls, and other routes. Plants ...
Hydrogen-cooled turbo generator
Carbon dioxide is favored as due to the very high density difference it easily displaces the hydrogen. The carbon dioxide is ... Hydrogen is often produced on-site using a plant consisting of an array of electrolysis cells, compressors and storage vessels ... Carbon dioxide or nitrogen can be used for this purpose, as they do not form combustible mixtures with hydrogen and are ... Then air is admitted to the top, pushing the carbon dioxide out at the bottom. Purging is best done with the generator stopped ...
The algal or cyanobacterial cells are photosynthetic and, as in plants, they reduce atmospheric carbon dioxide into organic ... Each cell or group of cells of the photobiont is usually individually wrapped by hyphae, and in some cases penetrated by an ... When growing on plants, lichens are not parasites; they do not consume any part of the plant nor poison it. Lichens produce ... When they grow on plants, they do not live as parasites, but instead use the plants as a substrate. Lichens occur from sea ...
Lichen anatomy and physiology
The algal or cyanobacterial cells are photosynthetic, and as in plants they reduce atmospheric carbon dioxide into organic ... In many species the fungus penetrates the algal cell wall, forming penetration pegs or haustoria similar to those produced by ... Some of these lichenized fungi occur in orders with nonlichenized fungi that live as saprotrophs or plant parasites (for ... The layer of tissue containing the cells of the photobiont is called the "photobiontic layer". "Clorococcoid" means a green ...
This is canceled out by the greater uptake of carbon dioxide by the plants as they grow to produce the biomass. When compared ... Cellulosic ethanol offers promise because cellulose fibers, a major and universal component in plant cells walls, can be used ... ethanol is a particulate-free burning fuel source that combusts with oxygen to form carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, water and ... During combustion, ethanol reacts with oxygen to produce carbon dioxide, water, and heat: C2H5OH + 3 O2 → 2 CO2 + 3 H2O + heat ...
The plant stores the carbon dioxide it takes in as malic acid, retaining it until daylight returns, and only then using it in ... Air spaces were needed between the cells to allow carbon dioxide to diffuse inwards. The center of the stem, the cortex, ... Transpiration, during which carbon dioxide enters the plant and water escapes, does not take place during the day at the same ... Schematic illustration of CAM Photosynthesis requires plants to take in carbon dioxide gas (CO2). As they do so, they lose ...
... is the metabolic pathway used by plants in which solar energy is used to synthesize glucose from carbon dioxide and water. This ... In a cell, the ratio of ATP to ADP concentrations is known as the "energy charge" of the cell. A cell can use this energy ... When a cell has a higher concentration of ATP than ADP (i.e. has a high energy charge), the cell can undergo glycolysis, ... After glucose is synthesized, the plant cell can undergo photophosphorylation to produce ATP. In August 1960, Robert K. Crane ...
The slight separation of the cells provides maximum absorption of carbon dioxide. Sun leaves have a multi-layered palisade ... Esau, Katherine (2006) . Evert, Ray F (ed.). Esau's Plant Anatomy: Meristems, Cells, and Tissues of the Plant Body: Their ... epidermal hair cells (trichomes), cells in the stomatal complex; guard cells and subsidiary cells. The epidermal cells are the ... "The Plant Cell Online. 22 (7): 2104. doi:10.1105/tpc.110.220711. PMC 2929115. PMID 20647343.. ...
Carbon dioxide, a key reactant in photosynthesis, is present in the atmosphere at a concentration of about 400 ppm. Most plants ... An asymmetrical cell division occurs in protodermal cells resulting in one large cell that is fated to become a pavement cell ... Ordinarily, carbon dioxide is fixed to ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate (RuBP) by the enzyme RuBisCO in mesophyll cells exposed ... The gene HIC (high carbon dioxide) encodes a negative regulator for the development of stomata in plants. Research into the ...
Proposed carbon dioxide concentrating mechanism in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Eukaryotic cell, 6(8), 1251-1259. PMID 17557885 ... The Plant Cell, 24(5), 1860-1875 PMID 22634764 Xiang, Y., Zhang, J., & Weeks, D. P. (2001). The Cia5 gene controls formation of ... Plant and Cell Physiology, 51(9), 1453-1468.PMID 20660228 McKay, R. M. L., Gibbs, S. P., & Vaughn, K. C. (1991). RuBisCo ... The Plant Cell, 24(5), 1876-1893. PMID 22634760 Badger, M. R., & Price, G. D. (2003). CO2 concentrating mechanisms in ...
Plants. Main article: Photosynthesis. Plants use carbon dioxide gas in the process of photosynthesis, and exhale oxygen gas as ... It reclaims the energy to power chemical reactions in cells. In so doing the carbon atoms and their electrons are combined with ... Plant respiration is limited by the process of diffusion. Plants take in carbon dioxide through holes, known as stomata, that ... and a partial pressure of carbon dioxide of 5.3 kPa (40 mmHg) (i.e. the same as the oxygen and carbon dioxide gas tensions as ...
A plant cell which contains chloroplasts is known as a chlorenchyma cell. A typical chlorenchyma cell of a land plant contains ... RuBisCo Carbon fixation Reduction 3-phosphoglycerate 3-phosphoglycerate Carbon dioxide 1,3-biphosphoglycerate Glyceraldehyde-3- ... Plants lack specialized immune cells-all plant cells participate in the plant immune response. Chloroplasts, along with the ... Chloroplasts cannot be made by the plant cell and must be inherited by each daughter cell during cell division. With one ...
... facilitated increased uptake of carbon dioxide despite concurrent declines in atmospheric CO2 concentrations, and allowed the ... these nuclei are segregated into separate cells by cytokinesis to producing 3 antipodal cells, 2 synergid cells and an egg cell ... The second sperm cell fuses with both central cell nuclei, producing a triploid (3n) cell. As the zygote develops into an ... involving two successive cell divisions) to produce four cells (megaspores) with haploid nuclei. One of these four cells ( ...
Evert RF, Eichhorn SE (2006). Esau's Plant Anatomy: Meristems, Cells, and Tissues of the Plant Body: Their Structure, Function ... which are subsequently shuttled to mitochondria where they are eventually broken down to carbon dioxide and water. In yeast and ... "Peroxisomes as a source of reactive oxygen species and nitric oxide signal molecules in plant cells". Trends in Plant Science. ... The peroxisome of plant cells is polarised when fighting fungal penetration. Infection causes a glucosinolate molecule to play ...
... such as plant pheromones) in and out of plant cells. Graham LE, Graham JM, Wilcox LW (2006) Plant Biology (Second Edition). ... It acts as a diffusion chamber connected with intercellular air spaces and allows rapid diffusion of carbon dioxide and other ... In plants, the substomatal cavity is the cavity located immediately proximal to the stoma. ...
Since plants are autotrophic, they do not need food from other living things to survive but instead use carbon dioxide, water ... epidermal hair cells (trichomes), cells in the stomatal complex; guard cells and subsidiary cells. The epidermal cells are the ... The slight separation of the cells provides maximum absorption of carbon dioxide. Sun leaves have a multi-layered palisade ... Esau's Plant Anatomy: Meristems, Cells, and Tissues of the Plant Body: Their Structure, Function, and Development (3rd. ed.). ...
Peroxisomes in plant cells are involved in photorespiration (the use of oxygen and production of carbon dioxide) and symbiotic ... The presence of catalase in bacterial cells depends on both the growth condition and the medium used to grow the cells. ... In 1900, Oscar Loew was the first to give it the name catalase, and found it in many plants and animals. In 1937 catalase from ... Alberts B, Johnson A, Lewis J, Raff M, Roberts K, Walter P (2002). "Peroxisomes". Molecular Biology of the Cell (4th ed.). New ...
Ycf9 protein domain
Both ATP and NADPH are subsequently used in the light-independent reactions to convert carbon dioxide to glucose using the ... Plant Cell. 13 (6): 1347-67. doi:10.2307/3871300. PMC 135574 . PMID 11402165. Kamiya N, Shen JR (January 2003). "Crystal ... located in the cell membranes of cyanobacteria and in the thylakoid membranes of chloroplasts in plants and algae. Photosystem ... It is a transmembrane protein and therefore is located in the thylakoid membrane of chloroplasts in cyanobacteria and plants. ...
Genetically modified rice
... the plants must produce specialized cells in a precise arrangement: one set of cells to capture the carbon dioxide and to ... to boost growth by capturing carbon dioxide and concentrated it in specialized leaf cells. C4P is the reason corn and sugarcane ... The Chinese scientists put recombinant HSA protein promoters into 25 rice plants using Agrobacterium. Out of the 25 plants, ... Some (possibly dozens of) genes involved in producing these cells remain to be identified. Other C3P crops that could exploit ...
... also cools plants, changes osmotic pressure of cells, and enables mass flow of mineral nutrients and water from ... associated with the opening of the stomata to allow the diffusion of carbon dioxide gas from the air for photosynthesis. ... The effect of wind velocity on the transpiration rate of plants. The effect of humidity on the transpiration rate of plants. ... The stomata are bordered by guard cells and their stomatal accessory cells (together known as stomatal complex) that open and ...
Through a process known as photosynthesis, most plants use the energy in sunlight to convert carbon dioxide from the atmosphere ... Just as in animals, plant cells differentiate and develop into multiple cell types. Totipotent meristematic cells can ... history of plants Leaf sensor Plant cognition Plant defense against herbivory Plant identification Plants in space The Plant ... All of these plants have eukaryotic cells with cell walls composed of cellulose, and most obtain their energy through ...
Leaf - Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The slight separation of the cells provides maximum absorption of carbon dioxide. Sun leaves have a multi-layered palisade ... The epidermis is the outer layer of cells covering the leaf. It forms the boundary separating the plant's inner cells from the ... An upper palisade layer of tightly packed, vertical cells, one to two cells thick. Its cells contain many chloroplasts. The ... Carnivorous plants secrete digestive enzymes from trichomes. Shape[change , change source]. What leaves look like on the plant ...
The slight separation of the cells provides maximum absorption of carbon dioxide. Sun leaves have a multi-layered palisade ... Esau, Katherine (2006) . Evert, Ray F (ed.). Esau's Plant Anatomy: Meristems, Cells, and Tissues of the Plant Body: Their ... epidermal hair cells (trichomes), cells in the stomatal complex; guard cells and subsidiary cells. The epidermal cells are the ... carbon dioxide and water vapor can diffuse into and out of the leaf and access the mesophyll cells during respiration, ...
... (physiology), transporting oxygen and carbon dioxide between cells and the external environment *Respiratory system ... Root respiration, exchange of gases between plant roots and the atmosphere. *Photorespiration, enzymatic combination of RuBP ... Carbon respiration, a concept used in calculating carbon (as CO. 2) flux occurring in the atmosphere ... Ecosystem respiration, measurement of gross carbon dioxide production by all organisms in an ecosystem ...
"As soon they evolved, they became the dominant metabolism for producing fixed carbon in the form of sugars from carbon dioxide ... Several cells may live together, forming filaments (or colonies). Andres 09:28, 11 Aug 2004 (UTC). *If someone knows more (or ... They are also considerad the ancestors of chloroplasts in plants and algae.. Narayanese 16:47, 30 November 2007 (UTC). Sadly, I ... As far as I am aware, nothing classified as an "animal" respirates Carbon Dioxide for energy and emits Oxygen. Redwood Elf ( ...
They also react with carbon dioxide and carbon tetrachloride, so that normal fire extinguishers are counterproductive when used ... Potassium is the major cation (positive ion) inside animal cells, while sodium is the major cation outside animal cells.[ ... Potassium compounds are often used as fertilisers:73 as potassium is an important element for plant nutrition. ... They easily react with carbon dioxide to form carbonates or bicarbonates, or with hydrogen sulfide to form sulfides or ...
... forming carbon dioxide (CO2). Production. Activated carbon is carbon produced from carbonaceous source materials such as ... Plants that rely on thermal regeneration of activated carbon have to be of a certain size before it is economically viable to ... to higher temperatures and either combusted to do work or in the case of hydrogen gas extracted for use in a hydrogen fuel cell ... "Effect of steam and carbon dioxide activation in the micropore size distribution of activated carbon". Carbon. 34 (4): 505-509 ...
It allows carbon dioxide to exit the egg and oxygen gas to enter the egg. The albumin (9) further protects the embryo and ... helping to grind up plant matter. Fossil gastroliths have been found associated with both ornithopods and sauropods, ... Cell. 25 (4): 326-328. doi:10.1016/j.devcel.2013.05.011. PMID 23725759.. ... but several lines of agamas and iguanas have evolved to live wholly or partly on plants. ...
The primary by-products of metabolism are carbon dioxide and water; carbon dioxide is expelled through the respiratory system. ... In this process, fats, obtained from adipose tissue, or fat cells, are broken down into glycerol and fatty acids, which can be ... When the body is expending more energy than it is consuming (e.g. when exercising), the body's cells rely on internally stored ...
... which have global warming potential higher than that of carbon dioxide, cellulose does not produce significant gaseous ... Compared to closed cell, Polyurethane foam insulation (R=5.5 to 6.5 per inch), cellulose has a lower R-value per inch, but is ... Cellulose insulation is plant fiber used in wall and roof cavities to insulate, draught proof and reduce free noise. ... The word cellulose comes from the French word cellule, for a living cell, and glucose, which is sugar. Building insulation is ...
Recently, methanol fuel has been produced using renewable energy and carbon dioxide as a feedstock. Carbon Recycling ... "First Commercial Plant". Carbon Recycling International. Archived from the original on 3 July 2013. Retrieved 11 July 2012.. ... Fuel cell vehicle. *Hydrogen economy. *Hydrogen vehicle. *Hydrogen internal combustion engine vehicle ... It can also be synthesized from CO2 (carbon dioxide) and hydrogen. ...
Acetic acid is also broken down into methane and carbon dioxide directly, by acetotrophic archaea. These acetotrophs are ... Further information: Cell wall § Archaeal cell walls. Most archaea (but not Thermoplasma and Ferroplasma) possess a cell wall.[ ... Plants and other organisms consume the latter.. In the sulfur cycle, archaea that grow by oxidizing sulfur compounds ... Cell division is controlled in a cell cycle; after the cell's chromosome is replicated and the two daughter chromosomes ...
... s are in theory carbon-neutral because the carbon dioxide that is absorbed by the plants is equal to the carbon dioxide ... Syngas may be burned directly in internal combustion engines, turbines or high-temperature fuel cells. The wood gas ... Burning produces carbon dioxide, airborne carbon particulates, carbon monoxide and nitrous oxides. The WHO estimates 3.7 ... Forests and Carbon Sequestration. Scientific research (20th century) shows that carbon dioxide emissions from all forms ...
فهرست یهودیان برنده جایزه نوبل - ویکیپدیا، دانشنامهٔ آزاد
"for his research on the carbon dioxide assimilation in plants" ۱۹۶۲ ماکس پراتز United Kingdom "for their studies of the ... "for their discovery of جی پروتئینs and the role of these proteins in ورارسانی پیام in cells" ... "for his researches on plant pigments, especially سبزینه" ۱۹۱۸ فریتس هابر آلمان "for the synthesis of ammonia from its ... "for their discoveries concerning the interaction between tumour viruses and the genetic material of the cell" ...
Protonated carbon dioxide. *Protonated hydrogen cyanide. *Silicon tricarbide. *Thioformaldehyde. *Tricarbon monoxide. * ... To reduce that waste and the ecological footprint of a-Si:H-based solar cells further several recycling efforts have been ... "Analysis of a silane explosion in a photovoltaic fabrication plant". Process Safety Progress. 25 (3): 237-244. doi:10.1002/prs. ... Another commercial production of silane involves reduction of silicon dioxide (SiO2) under Al and H2 gas in a mixture of NaCl ...
Acute inhalation injury
... carbon monoxide, and sulfur dioxide. Chlorine is a relatively common gas in industry with a variety of uses. It is used to ... 57:51-9. Tang PS, Mura M, Seth R, Liu M. (2008) Acute lung injury and cell death: how many ways can cells die? Am J Physiol 294 ... Because of safety issues, phosgene is almost always produced and consumed within the same plant and extraordinary measures are ... There are two types of alveolar epithelial cells - Type 1 pneumocytes represent 90% of the cell surface area, and are easily ...
However, there are sources of renewable methanol made using carbon dioxide or biomass as feedstock, making their production ... Hydrogen fuel cells background information Fuel cells operate similar to a battery in that electricity is harnessed from ... In tropical regions, such as Malaysia and Indonesia, plants that produce palm oil are being planted at a rapid pace to supply ... Plant Research International (2012-03-08). "JATROPT (Jatropha curcas): Applied and technical research into plant properties". ...
The Scottish chemist Joseph Black (the first experimental chemist) and the Dutchman J.B. van Helmont discovered carbon dioxide ... Instead, these substances are discussed in terms of formula units or unit cells as the smallest repeating structure within the ... extracting chemicals from plants for medicine and perfume, rendering fat into soap, making glass, and making alloys like bronze ... In a blast furnace, iron oxide, a compound, reacts with carbon monoxide to form iron, one of the chemical elements, and carbon ...
Michio Sugahara; Fumio Sakamoto (2009). "Heat and carbon dioxide generated by honeybees jointly act to kill hornets". ... Plants, Pollinators, and the Price of Almonds. "Flowers set more seeds when visited by wild insects, and the more plants that ... beginning with cleaning out their own cell after eating through their capped brood cell): feed brood, receive nectar, clean ... As such, they can provide some pollination to many plants, especially non-native crops, but most native plants have some native ...
Bocobza SE, Aharoni A (2008). "Switching the light on plant riboswitches". Trends Plant Sci. 13 (10): 526-33. doi:10.1016/j. ... Protonated carbon dioxide. *Protonated hydrogen cyanide. *Silicon tricarbide. *Thioformaldehyde. *Tricarbon monoxide. * ... This is done in modern cells by ribosomes, a complex of several RNA molecules known as rRNA together with many proteins. The ... In segmented RNA viruses, "mating" can occur when a host cell is infected by at least two virus particles. If these viruses ...
The acid reacts with the carbonate ([CO3]2−) group, which causes the affected area to effervesce, giving off carbon dioxide gas ... Cell Biology and Mineral Deposition. by Kenneth Simkiss; Karl M. Wilbur On Biomineralization. by Heinz A. Lowenstam; Stephen ... He divided the natural world into three kingdoms - plants, animals, and minerals - and classified each with the same hierarchy. ... These rare compounds contain organic carbon, but can be formed by a geologic process. For example, whewellite, CaC2O4⋅H2O is an ...
This balances the concentrations of carbon monoxide, steam, carbon dioxide and hydrogen. C. O. +. H. 2. O. ↔. C. O. 2. +. H. 2 ... This type of plant is often referred to as a wood biomass CHP unit but is a plant with seven different processes: biomass ... Even fuel cells may potentially be used, but these have rather severe requirements regarding the purity of the gas. ... The gasification process occurs as the char reacts with steam and carbon dioxide to produce carbon monoxide and hydrogen, via ...
In a QDSC, a mesoporous layer of titanium dioxide nanoparticles forms the backbone of the cell, much like in a DSSC. This TiO. ... of bifacial solar cells, early landmarks of Isofoton's production were the 20kWp power plant in San Agustín de Guadalix, built ... Energy volume of Si solar cells and oil harnessed by human beings per dollar; Carbon intensity of some key electricity ... Perovskite solar cells. Main article: Perovskite solar cell. Perovskite solar cells are solar cells that include a ...
... for example the rapid expansion of land plants in the Devonian period removed more carbon dioxide from the atmosphere, reducing ... This change in the atmosphere increased their effectiveness as nurseries of evolution. While eukaryotes, cells with complex ... Paleobotany focuses on the study of fossil plants, but traditionally includes the study of fossil algae and fungi. Palynology, ... Multicellular life is composed only of eukaryotic cells, and the earliest evidence for it is the Francevillian Group Fossils ...
Carbon dioxide sensor. *Carbon monoxide detector. *Catalytic bead sensor. *Chemical field-effect transistor ... Flow through a large penstock such as used at a hydroelectric power plant can be measured by averaging the flow velocity over ... Load cell. *Magnetic level gauge. *Nuclear density gauge. *Piezoelectric sensor. *Strain gauge ...
2009 United Nations Climate Change Conference
Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (14 July 2009). "Carbon dioxide emissions (CO2), thousand metric tons of CO2 (CDIAC ... "UNEP and Daimler Call for Infrastructure for Electric and Fuel-cell Vehicles". Climate-L.org. 4 July 2008. Archived from the ... Effects on plant biodiversity. *Effects on health. *Effects on humans. *Effects on marine mammals ... To reduce emissions between 10% to 20% below 1990 levels by 2020 if a global agreement is secured that limits carbon dioxide ...
Fermentation in food processing
The production of carbon dioxide is used to leaven bread. The production of organic acids is exploited to preserve and flavor ... Nevertheless, it was known that yeast extracts can ferment sugar even in the absence of living yeast cells. While studying this ... Corn smut - A fungal plant disease on maize and teosint. * Fermentation. * Fermentation in winemaking ... fermentation is the conversion of sugars and other carbohydrates into alcohol or preservative organic acids and carbon dioxide ...
A common dry cell is the zinc-carbon battery, sometimes called the dry Leclanché cell, with a nominal voltage of 1.5 volts, the ... zinc-manganese dioxide). Zn. MnO2. 1.5. 1.15. 0.4-0.59. Moderate energy density.. Good for high- and low-drain uses.. 30 ... Other primary wet cells are the Leclanche cell, Grove cell, Bunsen cell, Chromic acid cell, Clark cell, and Weston cell. The ... From top to bottom: a large 4.5-volt (3R12) battery, a D Cell, a C cell, an AA cell, an AAA cell, an AAAA cell, an A23 battery ...
نوبل انعام برائے کیمیا وصول کنندگان کی فہرست - آزاد دائرۃ المعارف، ویکیپیڈیا
"for his research on the carbon dioxide assimilation in plants " 1962 میکس پیروٹز برطانیہ "for their studies of the ... "for discoveries concerning channels in cell membranes [...] for structural and mechanistic studies of ion channels" ... "for his method to use carbon-14 for age determination in archaeology, geology, geophysics, and other branches of science" ... "for discoveries concerning channels in cell membranes [...] for the discovery of water channels" ...
In the 2000s, he proposed a method of climate engineering to restore carbon dioxide-consuming algae. He has been an outspoken ... Savannah River nuclear weapons plant of the Second World War. Wild plants and animals do not perceive radiation as dangerous, ... Lovelock said that he did create an instrument during his time studying causes of damage to living cells and tissue, which had ... You can't win people round by saying they are guilty for putting (carbon dioxide) in the air. ...
8] Numbers in circles indicate counts of carbon atoms in molecules, C6 is glucose C6H12O6, C1 carbon dioxide CO2. Mitochondrial ... Nutrients that are commonly used by animal and plant cells in respiration include sugar, amino acids and fatty acids, and the ... The products of this process are carbon dioxide and water, but the energy transferred is used to break bonds in ADP as the ... In yeast, the waste products are ethanol and carbon dioxide. This type of fermentation is known as alcoholic or ethanol ...
Large size biogas-fed Solid Oxide Fuel Cell power plants with carbon dioxide management: Technical and economic optimization -...
The hybrid SOFC is potentially able to reach an effi- ciency above 70% when FU is 90%. Carbon capture entails a penalty of more ... FU is the design variable that most affects the plant performance. Pressurized SOFC with hybridization with a gas turbine ... For most of the proposed plant configurations, the electrical efficiency ranges in the interval 50e62% (LHV biogas) when a ... power plants. Both atmospheric and pressurized operation is analysed with CO2 vented or captured. The SOFC module produces a ...
Characterization of Carbon Dioxide Stress-Induced Ethylene Biosynthesis in Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) Fruit : Plant and Cell...
... and phosphoprotein phospbatase activity in carbon dioxide stress-induced ethylene biosynthesis. Carbon dioxide stimulated ... and phosphoprotein phospbatase activity in carbon dioxide stress-induced ethylene biosynthesis. Carbon dioxide stimulated ... Cycloheximide blocked carbon dioxide stress-induced ethylene biosynthesis while cordycepin had no effect. Dibucaine and 6- ... In the present study, we have investigated the mechanism through which carbon dioxide induces ethylene biosynthesis in cucumber ...
Flu vaccines, food waste, astronaut team-building, indoor air pollution, the 2020 census, and more at the AAAS Annual Meeting...
Xpert search results for Orchestrating cell separation in plants : what are the risks and benefits?start=4360
By definition, a plant is a living thing that produces its own food through photosynthesis. This process uses carbon dioxide ... Specifically, this module covers non-turf plants in the landscape, plant life cycle, plant physiology, and how to select plants ... NASA KSNN Why do plants grow upwards?. Find out more about experiments in growing plants in space and compare plant growth in ... Cell Biology Improvement Drive. Wikiversity participants with an interest in Cell biology can participate in the "Cell biology ...
Respiration - Revision 4 - National 5 Biology - BBC Bitesize
5 Biology find out how aerobic respiration and fermentation release energy from food to produce the ATP required for cell ... End products: animal cells. Lactate (lactic acid) Carbon dioxide and water. End products: plant and yeast cells Carbon dioxide ... sometimes referred to as lactic acid). In plant and yeast cells pyruvate is converted into carbon dioxide and a type of alcohol ... This process is irreversible as carbon dioxide diffuses away.. Comparison of fermentation and aerobic respiration. Fermentation ...
Desert dogma revisited: coupling of stomatal conductance and photosynthesis in the desert shrub, Larrea tridentata - Ogle -...
I. carbon dioxide exchange characteristics of intact leaves. Plant Physiology 61, 406-410. *CrossRef, ... Leuning R. (1995) A critical appraisal of a combined stomatal-photosynthesis model for C3 plants. Plant, Cell and Environment ... Interactive effects of elevated carbon dioxide and growth temperature on photosynthesis in cotton leaves. Plant Growth ... Aphalo P.J. & Jarvis P.G. (1991) Do stomata respond to relative humidity? Plant, Cell and Environment 14, 127-132. Direct Link: ...
Frontiers | Elevated Carbon Dioxide Altered Morphological and Anatomical Characteristics, Ascorbic Acid Accumulation, and...
... and nutrient accumulation have been determined in several plant species. Carrot is an important vegetable and the effects of ... and nutrient accumulation have been determined in several plant species. Carrot is an important vegetable and the effects of ... cell compartment (Zechmann et al., 2011), and carbon dioxide. Under concentration of CO2 (400-1200 μmol⋅mol-1), the consistency ... Jolliffe, P. A., and Ehret, D. L. (2011). Growth of bean plants at elevated carbon dioxide concentrations. Can. J. Bot. 63, ...
Plant And Animal Cells Flashcards by Tayla Wilson | Brainscape
Study Plant And Animal Cells flashcards from Tayla Wilson ... carbon dioxide, glucose ... Not all plant cells photosynthesise E.g. Root hair cells Cells that do not photosynthesise do not need chloroplasts ... Plant is supported by cell wall around each cell and the vacuole in each cell when it is full ... Plant And Animal Cells Flashcards Preview Biology Mock Yr10 , Plant And Animal Cells , Flashcards ...
Gesunde Pflanzen unter zukünftigem Klima | SpringerLink
Plant Cell Environ 14: 729-739Google Scholar. *. Luo Y, Mooney HA (eds) (1999) Carbon Dioxide and Environmental Stress. ... Weigel HJ (2004) Air Pollutants: Interactions with Elevated Carbon Dioxide. In: Encyclopedia of Plant and Crop Science. Marcel ... Morison JIL, Lawlor DW (1999) Interactions between increasing CO2 concentration and temperature on plant growth. Plant Cell ... potential effects of increased atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2), ozone (O3), and ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation on plant ...
Professor Tiina Roose | Southampton Marine and Maritime Institute | University of Southampton
Soil carbon dioxide venting through rice roots. Plant, Cell and Environment. DOI: 10.1111/pce.13638 ... levels for better plant P acquisition. Plant, Cell & Environment, 38(1), 118-128. DOI: 10.1111/pce.12376 ... Plant, Cell and Environment. DOI: 10.1111/pce.12983. *Naveed, M., Brown, L. K., Raffan, A. C., George, T. S., Bengough, A. G., ... Plant, Cell and Environment, 34(12), 2038-2046. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-3040.2011.02401.x ...
Dr Tiina Roose | Engineering | University of Southampton
Soil carbon dioxide venting through rice roots. Plant, Cell and Environment. DOI: 10.1111/pce.13638 ... levels for better plant P acquisition. Plant, Cell & Environment, 38(1), 118-128. DOI: 10.1111/pce.12376 ... Plant, Cell and Environment. DOI: 10.1111/pce.12983. *Naveed, M., Brown, L. K., Raffan, A. C., George, T. S., Bengough, A. G., ... Plant, Cell and Environment, 34(12), 2038-2046. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-3040.2011.02401.x ...
Breathing And Respiration Flashcards by Patrick Stewart | Brainscape
All animal and plant cells 2 The respiration word equation? Glucose + oxygen -> water + carbon dioxide + energy. -Delivered ... Carbon dioxide can be detected using __________ which turns from _________ to __________ in the presence of carbon dioxide. ... red/orange to ____________ in the presence of carbon dioxide. Red/orange to ____________ when carbon dioxide is removed. ... the blood will lose waste carbon dioxide into the air in your lungs. •your diaphragm relaxes and moves up. Muscles relax and ...
Characterizing Regulatory and Functional Differentiation between Maize Mesophyll and Bundle Sheath Cells by Transcriptomic...
1996) Carbon dioxide diffusion inside leaves. Plant Physiol 110: 339-346. OpenUrlCrossRefPubMed ... and C4 BS cells. C4 plants regulate the expression of these cell wall-related genes in an organ- and cell-specific manner to ... 1974). Intracellular localization of carbon metabolism in mesophyll cells of C4 plants. In M Avron, ed, III International ... Let c1 be the percentage contamination of the isolated M cells by BS cells. That is, c1 is the proportion of BS cells in the ...
Report Says Carbon Dioxide Rise May Hurt Plants - The New York Times
Chemical reactions in the cells convert carbon dioxide and water into sugar and other carbohydrates used by plants as building ... the level of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere "may already represent a massive carbon dioxide overload to some ecosystems." ... Plants may already be near a saturation point, Dr. Arnone said, beyond which they cannot remove carbon dioxide from the air any ... Both sets of plants grew vigorously, Dr. Arnone said, but the high-carbon-dioxide group produced no more weight of vegetation ...
Carbonic anhydrase, carbondioxide levels and growth of Nitrosomonas | SpringerLink
Plant Cell Envir 1:185-197Google Scholar. *. Rickli E, Ghazanfar S, Gibbons B, Edsall J (1964) Carbonic anhydrases from human ... Nitrosomonas europaea Carbonic anhydrase Carbon dioxide Bicarbonate Growth rates Scientific Contribution Number 1241 from the ... Kern DM (1960) The hydration of carbon dioxide. J Chem Educ 37:14-23Google Scholar ... Graham D (1982) Carbonic anhydrases (carbonate dehydratases) from plants. In: Mitsui A, Black CC (eds) CRC handbook of biosolar ...
Quiz & Worksheet - How to Teach Photosynthesis | Study.com
1. How does increased carbon dioxide levels affect oxygen production in plant cells?. ... The process of using oxygen and carbon dioxide to make glucose and ATP The process of using NADPH and carbon dioxide to make ... water and carbon dioxide to make glucose and oxygen The process using oxygen and glucose to make ATP and carbon dioxide ... Interpreting information - verify that you can read information regarding increased carbon dioxide levels and interpret it ...
Photosynthesis & Cell Respiration | Smore Newsletters
Cell Respiration - Gemma Schmidt & Addison Ramirez (5th period) by Gemma Schmidt , This newsletter was created with Smore, an ... Cellular respiration in an animal cell is very similar to a plant cell. The cell takes in oxygen and releases carbon dioxide in ... Cellular respiration in plants takes in oxygen and produces carbon dioxide in the lungs through the respiratory gas carried in ... Plant Cell Photosynthesis is a process used by plants to convert light energy from the sun into chemical energy. Basically in a ...
Wiley Online Library: Search Results Page
The interaction between elevated carbon dioxide and nitrogen nutrition: the physiological and molecular background. Plant, Cell ... nitrogen metabolism and growth to elevated carbon dioxide in tobacco. Plant, Cell & Environment. Volume 22, Issue 10, October ... Plant water relations at elevated CO2- implications for water-limited environments. Plant, Cell & Environment. Volume 25, Issue ... Plant, Cell & Environment. Volume 24, Issue 11, November 2001, Pages: 1119-1137, P. Matt, M. Geiger, P. Walch-Liu, C. Engels, A ...
What Process Takes Place Inside Chloroplasts? | Reference.com
Photosynthesis is the process by which plants turn sunlight into... ... the plant uses these thylakoids to convert sunlight and carbon dioxide to glucose, a sugar that is usable by the plant. Plants ... Photosynthesis takes place inside of chloroplasts, which are inside plant cells. Photosynthesis is the process by which plants ... They produce their energy by combining carbon dioxide, nutrients, water and sunlight. Thylakoids are disc-like shapes that trap ...
Unit 1 Cell Biology - National 5 Biology
Breakdown of glucose to alcohol/ethanol and carbon dioxide via pyruvate in plant and yeast cells. ... Limiting factors: carbon dioxide concentration, light intensity and temperature and their impact on photosynthesis and cell ... Animal cells can burst or shrink and plant cells can become turgid or plasmolysed in different solutions. ... Cell ultrastructure and functions to include: cell walls, mitochondria, chloroplasts, cell membrane, vacuole, nucleus, ...
Cell fusion 'eats up' the 'attractive cell' in flowering plants
NASA Computer Model Provides a New Portrait of Carbon Dioxide. Black Holes Come to the Big Screen ... Cell to cell fusion is known to be extremely rare in plant cells due to the presence of the relatively tough cell wall. Only ... Arabidopsis »Nagoya »disorganization »fertilization »flowering plants »multicellular »organism »plant cells »techniques »tubes ... have examined the ovules of plant cells by live-imaging to reveal a novel cell-elimination system based on an unusual cell ...
Gene controlling plant cell growth discovered
NASA Computer Model Provides a New Portrait of Carbon Dioxide. Black Holes Come to the Big Screen ... epidermal cell »hair-like outgrowth on plants »plant cell »plant cell growth »plant cells grow »plant science research » ... epidermal cell , hair-like outgrowth on plants , plant cell , plant cell growth , plant cells grow , plant science research , ... Gene controlling plant cell growth discovered 07.09.2009. Understanding how plant cells grow and develop is essential to ...
Frontiers | Photosynthetic Response of an Alpine Plant, Rhododendron delavayi Franch, to Water Stress and Recovery: The Role of...
After re-watering, the recovery of AN, gs and gm was rapid, although remaining below the levels of the control plants, while ... After re-watering, the recovery of AN, gs and gm was rapid, although remaining below the levels of the control plants, while ... To understand the water stress coping mechanisms of R. delavayi, we analysed the plants photosynthetic performance during ... To understand the water stress coping mechanisms of R. delavayi, we analysed the plants photosynthetic performance during ...
Science Show - ABC Radio National (Australian Broadcasting Corporation)
Genes delivered to plants drive the concentration of carbon dioxide within cells. The result is increased growth. This work has ... Removing fossil fuels as our source of energy wont be enough to fix the growing problem of excess carbon dioxide in the ... Much of the excess carbon dioxide entering the atmosphere dissolves in sea water and moves south joining the Antarctic ...
Carbon Dioxide Properties | Free Carbon Dioxide Properties Templates
Quickly get a head-start when creating your own carbon dioxide properties. ... A free customizable carbon dioxide properties template is provided to download and print. ... Carbon Dioxide Properties Template. A free customizable carbon dioxide properties illustration template is provided to download ...
How plants react to fungi | EurekAlert! Science News
... plants recognize when they are at risk of fungal infection. This new finding could help cultivate resistant crops and reduce ... In this way they regulate the exchange of water and carbon dioxide with the environment. ... The guard cells also function in plant defense: they use special receptors to recognise attacking fungi. A recent discovery by ... With the help of specialised guard cells, which flank each stomatal pore, plants can change the opening width of the pores and ...
Will Elevated Carbon Dioxide Concentration Amplify the Benefits of Nitrogen Fixation in Legumes? | Plant Physiology
Soybean nodulation and N2 fixation response to drought under carbon dioxide enrichment. Plant Cell Environ 21: 491-500. ... Increased C availability at elevated carbon dioxide concentration improves N assimilation in a legume. Plant Cell Environ 29: ... Karowe DN (2007) Are legume-feeding herbivores buffered against direct effects of elevated carbon dioxide on host plants? A ... Zavala JA, Casteel CL, DeLucia EH, Berenbaum MR (2008) Anthropogenic increase in carbon dioxide compromises plant defense ...
How do plants make oxygen? | Reference.com
Plants make oxygen by using light energy to convert water and carbon dioxide into sugar and oxygen molecules. This occurs ... contains stomata cells that help prevent water loss and regulate the exchange of gases such as oxygen and carbon dioxide, ... Animals breathe in this oxygen when they inhale and release carbon dioxide when they exhale. Plants use the carbon dioxide ... Why do plants release oxygen?. A: Plants release oxygen as a by-product of photosynthesis, a process in which carbon dioxide is ...
Cells by Chrystina Anderson on Prezi
Give an example of diffusion of oxygen or carbon dioxide in the body:. Define osmosis:. Give an example of osmosis in plant ... sex cells or body cells. (Circle one). True or False An egg cell is a body cell.. True or False A muscle cell is a body cell.. ... sex cells or body cells. (Circle one). True or false an egg cell is a body cell.. True or false a muscle cell is a body cell.. ... Sex cells True or False: An egg cell is a body cell? False.. True or False: A muscle cell is a body cell? True. True or False: ...
Bringing Oxygen Into Every Cell of Your Body with Sulfur
He explains in this interview how sulfur brings more oxygen into the cells. ... require carbon dioxide for cell regeneration, and plants can store sulfur, while man cannot. Man eliminates carbon dioxide, and ... Kristin Comella - Biohacking and Adult Stem Cell Therapy - Great Look at Using Our Own Stem Cells Naturally and Giving a Boost ... "Cancer" in plants is linked to too much intracellular oxygen, or aerobic metabolism. The use of a gas we are intended to ...
NitrogenConcentrationPhysiologyConvertOrganismsNucleusGlucoseIncreased carbon dioxide levelsUptakeMembraneRelease carbon dioxideIncreasesRespirationHydrogenPotting soilDecreased carbon dioxide concentrationConcentration of carbon dioxideInducesConcentrations of carbon dioxideLevels of carbon dioxideNutrientNutrientsPhysiologyRequire carbon dioxideMitochondriaSpeciesProduce carbon dioxideBundle Sheath CellsCytoplasmCelluloseOrganismAtmosphericStarchProducesCellularFungiEukaryotesMechanismsPhotosynthetic carbonCarbohydratePyruvateRegulateLightGreenhouseProtein kinasesResponsesChemicalScientistsMesophyllAbsorptionAssimilationMembranesGaseousGenes
- Glucose can still be broken down in the absence of oxygen in order to meet the cells' energy requirements. (bbc.com)
- The chemical energy stored in glucose must be released by all cells through a series of enzyme-controlled reactions called respiration . (google.com)
- The breakdown of each glucose molecule via pyruvate to carbon dioxide and water in the presence of oxygen yields 38 molecules of ATP . (google.com)
- Green Biomass Pretreatment for Biofuels Production reviews a range of pretreatment methods such as ammonium fiber explosion, steam explosion, dilute acid hydrolysis, alkali hydrolysis, and supercritical carbon dioxide explosion focusing on their final sugar yields from hemicellulose, glucose yields from cellulose, as well as on their feasibilities in bioenergy production processes at various scales. (indigo.ca)
- In the Calvin cycle plants use the NADPH and ATP made in the light reaction cycle and convert it to glucose. (glogster.com)
- Plants can use light energy to convert carbon dioxide and water into glucose and oxygen. (purchon.com)
- This process combines light energy, usually from the sun, with carbon dioxide and water to manufacture energy, which is stored in the form of glucose. (enotes.com)
- Glucose and other sugars are cell food-they are the power source for cell activities in almost all living things. (tutorhub.com)
- When glucose is stored as glycogen or taken in as starch, it must be broken down into individual molecules before cells are able to use it. (tutorhub.com)
- In cells use oxygen to release energy stored in sugars such as glucose. (tutorhub.com)
- It captures carbon dioxide and solar energy to produce glucose. (jove.com)
- Metabolism is usually divided into two categories: catabolism, the breaking down of organic matter for example, the breaking down of glucose to pyruvate, by cellular respiration, and anabolism, the building up of components of cells such as proteins and nucleic acids. (wikipedia.org)
- Amino acids also contribute to cellular energy metabolism by providing a carbon source for entry into the citric acid cycle (tricarboxylic acid cycle), especially when a primary source of energy, such as glucose, is scarce, or when cells undergo metabolic stress. (wikipedia.org)
Increased carbon dioxide levels1
- water nutrient and carbon dioxide uptake and growth rates and crop maturity. (midwestsupplies.com)
- Increases water, nutrient, and carbon dioxide uptake. (hydroponics.com)
- Acting as a bio-catalyst, Cal-Mag Plus helps plants increase water and nutrient uptake and defends against dry, withered flowers and fruit. (1000bulbs.com)
- Most plants have a dense, fibrous network of roots, and this provides a large surface area for the uptake of water and minerals. (encyclopedia.com)
- Second, it allows for the uptake of carbon dioxide, a key chemical in producing plant energy. (asknature.org)
- The cell membrane consists of lipids and proteins and is selectively permeable . (google.com)
- They need to have something (transport proteins) to get them in and out of the cell membrane. (prezi.com)
- Within the root nodule, a bacteroid, containing differentiated rhizobia, is isolated from the host cell by a peribacteroid membrane. (plantphysiol.org)
- All cells have an outer covering called a plasma membrane. (encyclopedia.com)
- The plasma membrane holds the cell together and permits the passage of substances into and out of the cell. (encyclopedia.com)
- A tough outer covering that overlies the plasma membrane of bacteria and plant cells. (encyclopedia.com)
- The semifluid substance of a cell containing organelles and enclosed by the cell membrane. (encyclopedia.com)
- The cell wall also gives protection to the cell membrane and the cell in general. (prezi.com)
- The chemical breaks down the cell membrane on the leaf, allowing faster penetration of the glyphosate. (gardenguides.com)
- A plant cell is encased in a cell wall as well as a waxy cell membrane. (ehow.com)
- In the Krebs cycle pyruvic acid is broken down to form ATP, NADH, and FADH2 (electron carriers) this occurs in the mitochondrial membrane for eukaryotes and in the cell membrane for prokaryotes. (glogster.com)
- Stanford researchers have simulated how a transporter protein moves a sugar molecule through a cell membrane, a phenomenon with relevance to drug delivery. (phys.org)
- Now Stanford researchers have created a realistic simulation of a transporter protein moving a sugar molecule across a cell membrane. (phys.org)
- Transporter proteins sit snugly in the cell membrane . (phys.org)
- Simulations show how sugar is transported across the cell membrane. (phys.org)
- Plants are unique among the eukaryotes, organisms whose cells have membrane-enclosed nuclei and organelles, because they can manufacture their own food. (fsu.edu)
- Cell Wall - Like their prokaryotic ancestors, plant cells have a rigid wall surrounding the plasma membrane. (fsu.edu)
- Cell Membrane , on the Life Science Connections website, and The Cell Membrane , on the University of South Dakota website. (sciencenetlinks.com)
- What is the major function of a cell membrane? (sciencenetlinks.com)
- Why did the first site depict the cell membrane as a gate? (sciencenetlinks.com)
- How is the structure of the cell membrane related to its function? (sciencenetlinks.com)
- Chromaffin granule Kurloff cell "granule" at Dorland's Medical Dictionary André J, Rouiller CH (1957) L'ultrastructure de la membrane nucléaire des ovocytes del l'araignée (Tegenaria domestica Clark). (wikipedia.org)
- Eukaryotes are organisms, such as plants, some algae and animals, whose cells have a membrane surrounding the nucleus and other organelles that are inside them. (livescience.com)
- The respiratory processes are carried out by tiny membrane-bound organelles called mitochondria, which are present in both plant and animal cells. (icr.org)
- At the cellular level, atmospheric CO2 has to pass through the cell wall and three membranes (the plasma membrane and the two membranes of the chloroplast envelope) to reach the chloroplast stroma. (deepdyve.com)
- Their main structural uses are as part of biological membranes both internal and external, such as the cell membrane, or as a source of energy. (wikipedia.org)
Release carbon dioxide3
- Animals breathe in this oxygen when they inhale and release carbon dioxide when they exhale. (reference.com)
- After combustion, human beings and animals release carbon dioxide in respiration. (infobarrel.com)
- While these fires release carbon dioxide, they improve the quality of the grasslands overall, in turn increasing the amount of carbon retained in the humic material. (wikipedia.org)
- Dibucaine and 6-dimethylaminopurine, inhibitors of protein kinases, blocked carbon dioxide stress-induced increases in ethylene production, ACC synthase activity, and ACC content but not the increase in ACC oxidase activity. (oup.com)
- The scientists also found that increased doses of carbon dioxide produced increases in the fine-root structure of plants, leading to a doubling of the amount of carbon dioxide given off by the soil in which they grew. (nytimes.com)
- Understanding how plant cells grow and develop is essential to achieving increases in the size and yield of crops, one of the fundamental goals of plant science research. (innovations-report.com)
- Increases cell division and plant tissue development. (hydroponics.com)
- Elevated carbon dioxide plus chronic warming causes dramatic increases in leaf angle in tomato, which correlates with reduced plant growth. (usda.gov)
- This is also essential for carbon metabolism which increases the biomass production, its partitioning and ultimately the yield of crop plants (Blevins, 1994). (science20.com)
- Cellular respiration in plants takes in oxygen and produces carbon dioxide in the lungs through the respiratory gas carried in the blood stream. (smore.com)
- The plant cells break down sugar through cellular respiration then the sugar particles produce energy. (smore.com)
- Cellular respiration in an animal cell is very similar to a plant cell. (smore.com)
- Cell Respiration occurs in the mitochondria of the cell, as you can see below. (smore.com)
- The chemical energy in sugar is available for respiration or can be converted into plant products such as starch and cellulose . (google.com)
- Where does respiration take place in an animal cell? (prezi.com)
- In fact, this process has its own name very similar to breathing, cellular respiration - the respiration of cell. (wikibooks.org)
- Respiration is the process by which cells make ATP by breaking down organic compounds. (glogster.com)
- Both types of respiration occur in the cytoplasm (prokaryote)or the mitochondria (eukaryote) of a cell. (glogster.com)
- Cellular respiration is the process conducted by animal cells to produce energy the cell can use for its life processes. (enotes.com)
- what is aerobic respiration in plants? (tutorhub.com)
- Cells can release energy in two basic processes: cellular respiration and fermentation. (tutorhub.com)
- In fact, most of the energy used by the cells in your body is provided by cellular respiration. (tutorhub.com)
- Remember that mitochondria are in both plant cells and animal cells, so both kinds of cells release energy through cellular respiration. (tutorhub.com)
- Some of the energy produced during cellular respiration is transferred to other molecules, which then carry the energy where it is needed for the activities of the cell. (tutorhub.com)
- Carbon dioxide formed during cellular respiration is released by the cell. (tutorhub.com)
- Remember that respiration is not the same as breathing, so take care - plants do not breathe. (tutorhub.com)
- Respiration uses oxygen and produces carbon dioxide. (tutorhub.com)
- For instance, human beings undergo the process of respiration by inhaling oxygen and exhaling carbon dioxide. (tutorhub.com)
- Respiration, digestion and metabolism, plants and animals result in some transfer of carbon back to the atmosphere. (majortests.com)
- happens in every cell of the plant) High activity of respiration in sinks. (majortests.com)
- Hydrogen and ATP produced by the light reaction is used with carbon dioxide to produce sugar. (google.com)
- Carbon dioxide and hydrogen to form Carbon compounds. (infobarrel.com)
- A compound consisting of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen found in plants and used as a food by humans and other animals. (encyclopedia.com)
- Except instead of converting carbon dioxide into sugar, the artificial leaf converts the gaseous compound into synthesis gas - a mixture of hydrogen and carbon monoxide. (csmonitor.com)
- When light strikes the "leaf," hydrogen and carbon monoxide bubble from the cathode, while free oxygen and hydrogen ions are released from the anode. (csmonitor.com)
- Stanford, California [RenewableEnergyAccess.com] What if all the vehicles now on the road in the United States were suddenly powered by hydrogen fuel cells? (renewableenergyworld.com)
- If you take methane, the main component of natural gas, and expose it to steam, the final products are primarily carbon dioxide and hydrogen. (renewableenergyworld.com)
- The third hydrogen production method the researchers analyzed is coal gasification, in which hydrogen could be produced at centralized plants, compressed and most likely transported in trucks. (renewableenergyworld.com)
- Coal is mostly carbon, but also contains hydrogen and sulfur. (renewableenergyworld.com)
- So the end products are primarily carbon dioxide and hydrogen gas. (renewableenergyworld.com)
- Since coal contains more carbon per unit energy than does natural gas, making a given amount of hydrogen from coal produces a lot more carbon dioxide than does making it from natural gas. (renewableenergyworld.com)
- Hybrid vehicles were better at reducing carbon dioxide than vehicles using hydrogen from coal gasification, Jacobson said. (renewableenergyworld.com)
Decreased carbon dioxide concentration1
Concentration of carbon dioxide1
- In the present study, we have investigated the mechanism through which carbon dioxide induces ethylene biosynthesis in cucumber ( Cucumis sativus L.) fruit. (oup.com)
- The study, published online on April 23, 2015 in the journal Cell, outlines the complicated mechanism of communication between plant cells, where an unusual cell fusion induces selective elimination of the cell responsible for pollen tube attraction after successful fertilization. (innovations-report.com)
- Although the role of synergid cells has been identified, we did not exactly know how the persistent synergid cell is degenerated and induces the polytubey block mechanism upon successful fertilization," says Daisuke Maruyama, an Assistant Professor at Nagoya University who is the first author and leader of this research. (innovations-report.com)
- Ethylene induces the formation of lysigenous aerenchyma, which consists of internal gas spaces created by programmed cell death of cortical cells, in roots of gramineous plants under oxygen-deficient conditions. (plantcell.org)
Concentrations of carbon dioxide1
Levels of carbon dioxide1
- The effects of elevated CO 2 concentrations on morphological and anatomical characteristics, and nutrient accumulation have been determined in several plant species. (frontiersin.org)
- Botanicare Cal-Mag™ Plus (2-0-0) is a custom plant supplement designed to help with calcium, magnesium and iron deficiencies in nutrient fertilizer programs. (midwestsupplies.com)
- Cal-Mag Plus is a specialized calcium, magnesium & iron, plant supplement designed to compensate for deficiencies in some commercial and hydroponic nutrient programs. (hydroponics.com)
- Botanicare Cal-Mag Plus (NPK Ratio 2-0-0) 1 quart hydroponic plant nutrient solution is a proprietary blend of calcium, magnesium, iron, and other nutrients designed to maximize flower and fruit yield as well as prevent blossom end rot and tip burn. (1000bulbs.com)
- The soil also lost nutrients at the high carbon dioxide level. (nytimes.com)
- We find it alarming," the scientists said in their report, "that carbon dioxide fertilization can produce losses of soil carbon and the release of nutrients. (nytimes.com)
- Green leaves in green plants are labs of chemical compositions that result in green plants manufacturing their own food nutrients for nourishment, energy, growth and reproduction. (infobarrel.com)
- Other nutrients manufactured by the green plants are fats, oils and proteins. (infobarrel.com)
- Inside every plant or animal, proteins called transporters act as cellular doorkeepers, letting nutrients and other molecules in or out as need be. (phys.org)
- Plant tissue consisting of elongated cells that transport carbohydrates and other nutrients. (encyclopedia.com)
- Common plant disorders are caused by a shortage of plant nutrients, by waterlogged or polluted soil, and by polluted air. (encyclopedia.com)
- The amount of nutrients needed by plant species varies significantly, but nine elements are generally considered to be necessary in relatively large amounts. (fsu.edu)
- Balanced fertilizer nutrients can also play a vital role in sustaining high yield of medicinal plants as well as maintaining fertility status of soils on long-term basis. (science20.com)
Require carbon dioxide1
- Mitochondria are also involved in other cell processes such as cell division and growth, as well as cell death. (prezi.com)
- Mitochondria (singular mitochondrion) are the 'electric generators' of cells. (wikibooks.org)
- Mitochondria are a power plants in our cell because they programme cell death. (wikibooks.org)
- At the same time, oxygen enters the cell and travels into the mitochondria. (tutorhub.com)
- For their experiments, Dr. Korner and Dr. Arnone built identical sets of greenhouses and recreated complete rain-forest ecologies in each, including 15 species planted in typical rain forest soil and maintained at appropriate temperatures and humidity levels. (nytimes.com)
- Biologists have identified about 500,000 species of plants, although there are many undiscovered species, especially in tropical rain forests. (encyclopedia.com)
- Reactive oxygen species ( ROS ) produced by the NADPH oxidase, respiratory burst oxidase homolog (RBOH), trigger signal transduction in diverse biological processes in plants. (plantcell.org)
- Radiation intensity and quality from sole-source light-emitting diodes affect seedling quality and subsequent flowering of long-day bedding plant species. (usda.gov)
- So far, scientists have named 400,000 separate plant species. (factmonster.com)
- Although plants (and their typical cells) are non-motile, some species produce gametes that do exhibit flagella and are, therefore, able to move about. (fsu.edu)
- It is estimated that there are at least 260,000 species of plants in the world today. (fsu.edu)
- found that one species of such cyanobacteria, Leptolyngbya , survives on the scraps of leftover light that other photosynthetic cells can't use. (sciencemag.org)
- It also plays a key role in the nitrogen fixation pathway in legume root nodules: here it functions in concert with glutamine, glutamate and asparagine synthetases and aspartate amido transferase, to synthesise aspartate and asparagine, the major nitrogen transport compounds in various amine-transporting plant species [ PMID: 1421147 ]. (ebi.ac.uk)
- Molecularly, the nuage is a tightly interwoven network of differentially localized RNA-binding proteins, which in turn localize specific mRNA species for differential storage, asymmetric segregation (as needed for asymmetric cell division), differential splicing and/or translational control. (wikipedia.org)
- The availability of field chambers for growing trees, and long-term exposure studies of tree species to elevated carbon dioxide, has changed much of our views on carbon dioxide acting as a fertiliser. (springer.com)
- And if there are variations in species responses to growth due to elevated carbon dioxide, only some species are going to dominate the natural vegetation. (springer.com)
- Each plant species is adapted to a range of environmental factors. (britannica.com)
- By contrast, another plant species provided with such carbon dioxide enrichment might be able to use more sucrose, because it had more carbon-demanding organs, and would continue to photosynthesize and to grow faster throughout most of its life cycle. (britannica.com)
- Certain plants-including the important crops sugarcane and corn (maize), as well as other diverse species that are thought to have expanded their geographic ranges into tropical areas-have developed a special mechanism of carbon fixation that largely prevents photorespiration. (britannica.com)
- Sugarcane and certain other plants that employ this pathway have the highest annual yields of biomass of all species. (britannica.com)
- In addition to C 3 and C 4 species, there are many succulent plants that make use of a third photosynthetic pathway: crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM). (britannica.com)
- The genus, Asparagus comprises 150 species (Drost 1997) and consists of herbs, shrubs and vines which are widespread in the Old World and represents highly valuable plant species having therapeutical and nutraceutical importance in addition to being consumed as food (Shasnay et al. (science20.com)
Produce carbon dioxide1
Bundle Sheath Cells1
- It plays a similar role in the cell walls of fungi as cellulose does in plants. (eurekalert.org)
- Brown rot decay removes cellulose and hemicelluloses from wood, residual lignin contributing up to 30% of forest soil carbon, and is derived from an ancestral white rot saprotrophy where both lignin and cellulose are decomposed. (usda.gov)
- Because of the vast number of plants that exist, cellulose is the most abundant organic compound on Earth. (encyclopedia.com)
- It is estimated that forests absorb between 10 and 20 tons of carbon dioxide per hectare each year, through photosynthetic conversion into starch, cellulose, lignin, and wooden biomass. (wikipedia.org)
- More recalcitrant organic carbon polymers such as cellulose, hemi-cellulose, lignin, aliphatic compounds, waxes and terpenoids are collectively retained as humus. (wikipedia.org)
- grow transformed cells to produce a GM organism . (google.com)
- The cell is the basic unit of a living organism. (encyclopedia.com)
- A thin, flexible layer of plant or animal tissue that covers, lines, separates or holds together, or connects parts of an organism. (encyclopedia.com)
- That in plants and animals, all the organ systems function together to support life in the organism. (issuu.com)
- A plant is any organism in the kingdom Plantae. (encyclopedia.com)
- The respiratory system is an integrated network of organs and tubes that coordinates the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide between an organism and its environment. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
- Functional responses of plants to elevated atmospheric CO 2 - do photosynthetic and productivity data from FACE experiments support early predictions? (wiley.com)
- The atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration has risen from about 270 parts per million (ppm) before 1700 to about 355 ppm today. (nap.edu)
- The atmospheric level of carbon dioxide climbed from about 0.028 percent in 1860 to 0.032 percent by 1958 (when improved measurements began) and to 0.040 percent by 2016. (britannica.com)
- Furthermore, most scientists maintain that increasing levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide affect climate, increasing global temperatures and changing rainfall patterns. (britannica.com)
- Some of this atmospheric carbon gets dissolved in the oceans and then completes the cycle. (majortests.com)
- Moreover, plants exposed to high carbon dioxide formed "massive" amounts of starch grains in their uppermost leaves, he said. (nytimes.com)
- Just how toxic this may be to plants we do not know, but if leaves build up too much starch they behave abnormally. (nytimes.com)
- It serves as small container of starch in plant cell. (wikipedia.org)
- And they find it takes oxygen, produces carbon dioxide and ATPs! (wikibooks.org)
- This chemical process produces waste that the plant excretes (gets rid of). (factmonster.com)
- While the production of carbon dioxide, a greenhouse gas, is undesirable, the process produces about 55 percent less carbon dioxide than does internal combustion, Jacobson said. (renewableenergyworld.com)
- Less carbon dioxide is captured, and light collected by plant cells produces free radicals. (beefmagazine.com)
- This energy can be used for cellular activities including muscle cell contraction, cell division, protein synthesis and transmission of nerve impulses. (google.com)
- Sulfur enables the transport of oxygen across cell membranes, and oxygen is necessary for healthy cellular regeneration in mammals. (oneradionetwork.com)
- The use of a gas we are intended to eliminate for cellular regeneration is not a healthy program for plants or man. (oneradionetwork.com)
- That animal and plant cells contain many organelles with specific cellular functions, some shared and some different. (issuu.com)
- Plants are under constant pressure from fungi and other microorganisms. (eurekalert.org)
- The guard cells also function in plant defense: they use special receptors to recognise attacking fungi. (eurekalert.org)
- Efficient and complete degradation of woody plant cell walls requires the concerted action of hydrolytic and oxidative systems possessed by a relatively small group of filamentous basidiomycetous fungi. (usda.gov)
- Specialized fungi have evolved to efficiently deconstruct woody plant cell walls. (usda.gov)
- Fungi, plants, and animals are thought to have evolved from protoctist ancestors. (factmonster.com)
- Like the fungi, another kingdom of eukaryotes, plant cells have retained the protective cell wall structure of their prokaryotic ancestors. (fsu.edu)
- While mechanisms governing plant cell growth are known to exist, the genetic origins of such mechanisms have remained unclear. (innovations-report.com)
- Its discovery constitutes a key step toward understanding the mechanisms of plant cell growth, offering new directions for research and promising further advances in agricultural production. (innovations-report.com)
- 1966. Mechanisms of guard cell action. (asknature.org)
- The beta cells closely control the release, and use unusual mechanisms to do so. (wikipedia.org)
- Within this normal range of conditions, complex regulatory mechanisms in the plant's cells adjust the activities of enzymes (i.e., organic catalysts). (britannica.com)
- Carbon dioxide is also used efficiently in carbohydrate synthesis in the bundle sheath. (britannica.com)
- By using the energy of light to fix carbon dioxide into carbohydrate, it gives the plant fuel to grow. (truthinaging.com)
- Carbohydrate reserves are accumulated in crowns, stolons or rhizomes in the autumn and used to keep dormant buds and below-ground plant parts alive from the end of the growing season to spring green-up. (unl.edu)
- What's tougher is helping the machinery inside the carbohydrate factory of each plant perform efficiently when it's too hot or too dry. (beefmagazine.com)
- Plants use carbohydrate to repair this damage at night, he notes. (beefmagazine.com)
- GTL1 is the first transcription factor to have been found to actively down-regulate the growth of plant cells. (innovations-report.com)
- Scientists identify new details of how a sugar-signaling molecule helps regulate oil production in plant cells. (newswise.com)
- For example, one could treat diseases like diabetes by creating drugs that bind to and regulate transporters," he said, "and preventing drugs from getting thrown out of cells by transporters would help avoid problems such as antibiotic resistance. (phys.org)
- Heterotrimeric G proteins regulate guard cell ion channels ( Zhang, 2011 ). (tcdb.org)
- Which Indoor Plants Thrive in Low Light? (nottingham.ac.uk)
- 2. A student observes an aquatic plant under a bright light and notices there are bubbles on the plant. (study.com)
- A recent discovery by researchers led by the plant scientist Professor Rainer Hedrich from Julius-Maximilians-Universität (JMU) Würzburg in Bavaria, Germany, has shed valuable light on the mechanics of this process. (eurekalert.org)
- Shaped like a rod, these cells have a light-sensitive region that contains numerous disks. (encyclopedia.com)
- When the pigment receives light from the outside environment, nerve cells in the eye are triggered to send a nerve impulse in the brain. (encyclopedia.com)
- Robert Hook was the first scientist to observe plant and animal cells using a simple light microscope over 300 years ago. (issuu.com)
- Plants obtain energy from light. (ehow.com)
- We were using a new technique employing epifluorescence microscopy: Fluorescent dyes specifically labeled nucleic acids, making bacterial cells fluoresce green when excited with blue light. (whoi.edu)
- Although it is possible to see them under a light microscope, there is no way to tell what they do while they are in the cell. (wikibooks.org)
- Comparison of supplemental lighting provided by high-pressure sodium lamps or light-emitting diodes for the propagation and finishing of bedding plants in a commercial greenhouse. (usda.gov)
- Therefore, a delicate balance must be maintained that allows light and gases to pass between cells, and does not put the plant at risk for dehydration. (asknature.org)
- Like plants in a jungle, these cells have to compete for access to light. (sciencemag.org)
- Plants respire all the time, whether it is dark or light. (tutorhub.com)
- Environmentalists are already worried about rising carbon dioxide levels for another reason: its role in the so-called greenhouse warming effect. (nytimes.com)
- The placement of individual plants was carefully replicated in each test greenhouse. (nytimes.com)
- Now for the first time, the CO2 emissions of 50,000 power plants worldwide, the globe's most concentrated source of greenhouse gases, have been compiled into a massive new data base, called CARMA-Carbon Monitoring for Action. (azocleantech.com)
- Electrophysiological and behavioral responses of the kudzu bug, Megacopta cribrari (Hemiptera: Plataspidae to volatile compounds identified from, kudzu and soybean plants. (usda.gov)
- This simple explanation belies the underlying complexity of guard-cell turgor regulation and whole-plant responses. (asknature.org)
- These cells allow a greater range of pore size and quicker stomatal responses. (newswise.com)
- However, many of the earlier studies were based on instantaneous responses of plants grown in pots. (springer.com)
- Even if the carbon dioxide acts as a fertilizer, the responses are more pronounced only in young trees. (springer.com)
- It is expected to provide basic knowledge and skills related to production and chemical features of essences and extracts from local plants in Iberian Peninsula. (nottingham.ac.uk)
- Most cell activity requires chemical energy. (bbc.com)
- This process converts stored energy into a chemical that cells consume. (smore.com)
- Interactions among plants, insects, and microbes: elucidation of inter-organismal chemical communications in agricultural ecology. (usda.gov)
- To open, the cells are triggered by one of many possible environmental or chemical signals. (asknature.org)
- A carbon sink is a natural or artificial reservoir that accumulates and stores some carbon-containing chemical compound for an indefinite period. (wikipedia.org)
- Plant litter and other biomass including charcoal accumulates as organic matter in soils, and is degraded by chemical weathering and biological degradation. (wikipedia.org)
- Many scientists believe that an excess of carbon dioxide, partly the result of such human activities as burning fossil fuels, will produce widespread changes in climate. (nytimes.com)
- In a new study reported in Cell, scientists at WPI-ITbM, Nagoya University have examined the ovules of plant cells to reveal a novel cell-elimination system based on an unusual cell fusion. (innovations-report.com)
- Lithium-carbon dioxide prototype batteries can match the cycle life of lithium-ion after scientists at a US university developed a method of preventing the traditional failure modes of the technology. (bestmag.co.uk)
- So the scientists break up the cell, put its parts into a centrifuge (a spinning device in which different substances are separated, i.e. heavier objects lie further from the centre). (wikibooks.org)
- The carbon-fixation pathway begins in the mesophyll cells, where carbon dioxide is converted into bicarbonate, which is then added to the three-carbon acid phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) by an enzyme called phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase. (britannica.com)
- PEP carboxylase, which is located in the mesophyll cells, is an essential enzyme in C 4 plants. (britannica.com)
- Mazhar Adli, PhD, of the University of Virginia School of Medicine, has developed a technique to view genes inside living cells in real time. (phys.org)
- Adli, of the University of Virginia School of Medicine's Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Genetics, has developed a way to track genes inside living cells. (phys.org)
- Multiple genes control how plants respond to many external stresses, Kupatt notes. (beefmagazine.com)