Carbon Dioxide: A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.Carbon: A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.Nitrogen Dioxide: Nitrogen oxide (NO2). A highly poisonous gas. Exposure produces inflammation of lungs that may only cause slight pain or pass unnoticed, but resulting edema several days later may cause death. (From Merck, 11th ed) It is a major atmospheric pollutant that is able to absorb UV light that does not reach the earth's surface.Carbon Monoxide: Carbon monoxide (CO). A poisonous colorless, odorless, tasteless gas. It combines with hemoglobin to form carboxyhemoglobin, which has no oxygen carrying capacity. The resultant oxygen deprivation causes headache, dizziness, decreased pulse and respiratory rates, unconsciousness, and death. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Partial Pressure: The pressure that would be exerted by one component of a mixture of gases if it were present alone in a container. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Sulfur Dioxide: A highly toxic, colorless, nonflammable gas. It is used as a pharmaceutical aid and antioxidant. It is also an environmental air pollutant.Capnography: Continuous recording of the carbon dioxide content of expired air.Insufflation: The act of blowing a powder, vapor, or gas into any body cavity for experimental, diagnostic, or therapeutic purposes.Nanotubes, Carbon: Nanometer-sized tubes composed mainly of CARBON. Such nanotubes are used as probes for high-resolution structural and chemical imaging of biomolecules with ATOMIC FORCE MICROSCOPY.Atmosphere: The gaseous envelope surrounding a planet or similar body. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Oxygen: An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.Respiration: The act of breathing with the LUNGS, consisting of INHALATION, or the taking into the lungs of the ambient air, and of EXHALATION, or the expelling of the modified air which contains more CARBON DIOXIDE than the air taken in (Blakiston's Gould Medical Dictionary, 4th ed.). This does not include tissue respiration (= OXYGEN CONSUMPTION) or cell respiration (= CELL RESPIRATION).Hypercapnia: A clinical manifestation of abnormal increase in the amount of carbon dioxide in arterial blood.Carbon Isotopes: Stable carbon atoms that have the same atomic number as the element carbon, but differ in atomic weight. C-13 is a stable carbon isotope.Pulmonary Gas Exchange: The exchange of OXYGEN and CARBON DIOXIDE between alveolar air and pulmonary capillary blood that occurs across the BLOOD-AIR BARRIER.Blood Gas Monitoring, Transcutaneous: The noninvasive measurement or determination of the partial pressure (tension) of oxygen and/or carbon dioxide locally in the capillaries of a tissue by the application to the skin of a special set of electrodes. These electrodes contain photoelectric sensors capable of picking up the specific wavelengths of radiation emitted by oxygenated versus reduced hemoglobin.Chromatography, Supercritical Fluid: A CHROMATOGRAPHY method using supercritical fluid, usually carbon dioxide under very high pressure (around 73 atmospheres or 1070 psi at room temperature) as the mobile phase. Other solvents are sometimes added as modifiers. This is used both for analytical (SFC) and extraction (SFE) purposes.Blood Gas Analysis: Measurement of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the blood.Lasers, Gas: Lasers in which a gas lasing medium is stimulated to emit light by an electric current or high-frequency oscillator.Carbon Sequestration: Any of several processes for the permanent or long-term artificial or natural capture or removal and storage of carbon dioxide and other forms of carbon, through biological, chemical or physical processes, in a manner that prevents it from being released into the atmosphere.Pneumoperitoneum, Artificial: Deliberate introduction of air into the peritoneal cavity.Tidal Volume: The volume of air inspired or expired during each normal, quiet respiratory cycle. Common abbreviations are TV or V with subscript T.Carbon Monoxide Poisoning: Toxic asphyxiation due to the displacement of oxygen from oxyhemoglobin by carbon monoxide.Dry Ice: A solid form of carbon dioxide used as a refrigerant.Acidosis, Respiratory: Respiratory retention of carbon dioxide. It may be chronic or acute.Carbon Footprint: A measure of the total greenhouse gas emissions produced by an individual, organization, event, or product. It is measured in units of equivalent kilograms of CARBON DIOXIDE generated in a given time frame.Bicarbonates: Inorganic salts that contain the -HCO3 radical. They are an important factor in determining the pH of the blood and the concentration of bicarbonate ions is regulated by the kidney. Levels in the blood are an index of the alkali reserve or buffering capacity.Oxygen Consumption: The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)Gases: The vapor state of matter; nonelastic fluids in which the molecules are in free movement and their mean positions far apart. Gases tend to expand indefinitely, to diffuse and mix readily with other gases, to have definite relations of volume, temperature, and pressure, and to condense or liquefy at low temperatures or under sufficient pressure. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Thorium Dioxide: Thorium oxide (ThO2). A radiographic contrast agent that was used in the early 1930s through about 1954. High rates of mortality have been linked to its use and it has been shown to cause liver cancer.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Air: The mixture of gases present in the earth's atmosphere consisting of oxygen, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, and small amounts of other gases.Respiratory Dead Space: That part of the RESPIRATORY TRACT or the air within the respiratory tract that does not exchange OXYGEN and CARBON DIOXIDE with pulmonary capillary blood.Methane: The simplest saturated hydrocarbon. It is a colorless, flammable gas, slightly soluble in water. It is one of the chief constituents of natural gas and is formed in the decomposition of organic matter. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Ecological Systems, Closed: Systems that provide for the maintenance of life in an isolated living chamber through reutilization of the material available, in particular, by means of a cycle wherein exhaled carbon dioxide, urine, and other waste matter are converted chemically or by photosynthesis into oxygen, water, and food. (NASA Thesaurus, 1988)Carbon Tetrachloride: A solvent for oils, fats, lacquers, varnishes, rubber waxes, and resins, and a starting material in the manufacturing of organic compounds. Poisoning by inhalation, ingestion or skin absorption is possible and may be fatal. (Merck Index, 11th ed)Carbonic Anhydrases: A family of zinc-containing enzymes that catalyze the reversible hydration of carbon dioxide. They play an important role in the transport of CARBON DIOXIDE from the tissues to the LUNG. EC 4.2.1.1.Greenhouse Effect: The effect of GLOBAL WARMING and the resulting increase in world temperatures. The predicted health effects of such long-term climatic change include increased incidence of respiratory, water-borne, and vector-borne diseases.Biomass: Total mass of all the organisms of a given type and/or in a given area. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990) It includes the yield of vegetative mass produced from any given crop.Photosynthesis: The synthesis by organisms of organic chemical compounds, especially carbohydrates, from carbon dioxide using energy obtained from light rather than from the oxidation of chemical compounds. Photosynthesis comprises two separate processes: the light reactions and the dark reactions. In higher plants; GREEN ALGAE; and CYANOBACTERIA; NADPH and ATP formed by the light reactions drive the dark reactions which result in the fixation of carbon dioxide. (from Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2001)Hypocapnia: Clinical manifestation consisting of a deficiency of carbon dioxide in arterial blood.Nitrogen: An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.Hyperventilation: A pulmonary ventilation rate faster than is metabolically necessary for the exchange of gases. It is the result of an increased frequency of breathing, an increased tidal volume, or a combination of both. It causes an excess intake of oxygen and the blowing off of carbon dioxide.Embolism, Air: Blocking of a blood vessel by air bubbles that enter the circulatory system, usually after TRAUMA; surgical procedures, or changes in atmospheric pressure.Hypoventilation: A reduction in the amount of air entering the pulmonary alveoli.Carbonates: Salts or ions of the theoretical carbonic acid, containing the radical CO2(3-). Carbonates are readily decomposed by acids. The carbonates of the alkali metals are water-soluble; all others are insoluble. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Pulmonary Ventilation: The total volume of gas inspired or expired per unit of time, usually measured in liters per minute.Air Pollutants: Any substance in the air which could, if present in high enough concentration, harm humans, animals, vegetation or material. Substances include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; and volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.Carbon Disulfide: A colorless, flammable, poisonous liquid, CS2. It is used as a solvent, and is a counterirritant and has local anesthetic properties but is not used as such. It is highly toxic with pronounced CNS, hematologic, and dermatologic effects.Anesthesia, Inhalation: Anesthesia caused by the breathing of anesthetic gases or vapors or by insufflating anesthetic gases or vapors into the respiratory tract.Oxides: Binary compounds of oxygen containing the anion O(2-). The anion combines with metals to form alkaline oxides and non-metals to form acidic oxides.Acetates: Derivatives of ACETIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxymethane structure.Titanium: A dark-gray, metallic element of widespread distribution but occurring in small amounts; atomic number, 22; atomic weight, 47.90; symbol, Ti; specific gravity, 4.5; used for fixation of fractures. (Dorland, 28th ed)Cerebrovascular Circulation: The circulation of blood through the BLOOD VESSELS of the BRAIN.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Chemoreceptor Cells: Cells specialized to detect chemical substances and relay that information centrally in the nervous system. Chemoreceptor cells may monitor external stimuli, as in TASTE and OLFACTION, or internal stimuli, such as the concentrations of OXYGEN and CARBON DIOXIDE in the blood.Carbon Cycle: The cycle by which the element carbon is exchanged between organic matter and the earth's physical environment.Respiratory Insufficiency: Failure to adequately provide oxygen to cells of the body and to remove excess carbon dioxide from them. (Stedman, 25th ed)Respiration, Artificial: Any method of artificial breathing that employs mechanical or non-mechanical means to force the air into and out of the lungs. Artificial respiration or ventilation is used in individuals who have stopped breathing or have RESPIRATORY INSUFFICIENCY to increase their intake of oxygen (O2) and excretion of carbon dioxide (CO2).Respiratory Mechanics: The physical or mechanical action of the LUNGS; DIAPHRAGM; RIBS; and CHEST WALL during respiration. It includes airflow, lung volume, neural and reflex controls, mechanoreceptors, breathing patterns, etc.Nitrous Oxide: Nitrogen oxide (N2O). A colorless, odorless gas that is used as an anesthetic and analgesic. High concentrations cause a narcotic effect and may replace oxygen, causing death by asphyxia. It is also used as a food aerosol in the preparation of whipping cream.Acid-Base Equilibrium: The balance between acids and bases in the BODY FLUIDS. The pH (HYDROGEN-ION CONCENTRATION) of the arterial BLOOD provides an index for the total body acid-base balance.Autotrophic Processes: The processes by which organisms use simple inorganic substances such as gaseous or dissolved carbon dioxide and inorganic nitrogen as nutrient sources. Contrasts with heterotrophic processes which make use of organic materials as the nutrient supply source. Autotrophs can be either chemoautotrophs (or chemolithotrophs), largely ARCHAEA and BACTERIA, which also use simple inorganic substances for their metabolic energy reguirements; or photoautotrophs (or photolithotrophs), such as PLANTS and CYANOBACTERIA, which derive their energy from light. Depending on environmental conditions some organisms can switch between different nutritional modes (autotrophy; HETEROTROPHY; chemotrophy; or PHOTOTROPHY) to utilize different sources to meet their nutrient and energy requirements.Hydrogen: The first chemical element in the periodic table. It has the atomic symbol H, atomic number 1, and atomic weight [1.00784; 1.00811]. It exists, under normal conditions, as a colorless, odorless, tasteless, diatomic gas. Hydrogen ions are PROTONS. Besides the common H1 isotope, hydrogen exists as the stable isotope DEUTERIUM and the unstable, radioactive isotope TRITIUM.Silicon Dioxide: Transparent, tasteless crystals found in nature as agate, amethyst, chalcedony, cristobalite, flint, sand, QUARTZ, and tridymite. The compound is insoluble in water or acids except hydrofluoric acid.Pneumoperitoneum: A condition with trapped gas or air in the PERITONEAL CAVITY, usually secondary to perforation of the internal organs such as the LUNG and the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT, or to recent surgery. Pneumoperitoneum may be purposely introduced to aid radiological examination.Soil: The unconsolidated mineral or organic matter on the surface of the earth that serves as a natural medium for the growth of land plants.Helium: Helium. A noble gas with the atomic symbol He, atomic number 2, and atomic weight 4.003. It is a colorless, odorless, tasteless gas that is not combustible and does not support combustion. It was first detected in the sun and is now obtained from natural gas. Medically it is used as a diluent for other gases, being especially useful with oxygen in the treatment of certain cases of respiratory obstruction, and as a vehicle for general anesthetics. (Dorland, 27th ed)Anesthetics, Inhalation: Gases or volatile liquids that vary in the rate at which they induce anesthesia; potency; the degree of circulation, respiratory, or neuromuscular depression they produce; and analgesic effects. Inhalation anesthetics have advantages over intravenous agents in that the depth of anesthesia can be changed rapidly by altering the inhaled concentration. Because of their rapid elimination, any postoperative respiratory depression is of relatively short duration. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p173)Anaerobiosis: The complete absence, or (loosely) the paucity, of gaseous or dissolved elemental oxygen in a given place or environment. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Water: A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Carbonic Acid: Carbonic acid (H2C03). The hypothetical acid of carbon dioxide and water. It exists only in the form of its salts (carbonates), acid salts (hydrogen carbonates), amines (carbamic acid), and acid chlorides (carbonyl chloride). (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Respiratory Function Tests: Measurement of the various processes involved in the act of respiration: inspiration, expiration, oxygen and carbon dioxide exchange, lung volume and compliance, etc.Laser Therapy: The use of photothermal effects of LASERS to coagulate, incise, vaporize, resect, dissect, or resurface tissue.Euthanasia, Animal: The killing of animals for reasons of mercy, to control disease transmission or maintain the health of animal populations, or for experimental purposes (ANIMAL EXPERIMENTATION).Argon: Argon. A noble gas with the atomic symbol Ar, atomic number 18, and atomic weight 39.948. It is used in fluorescent tubes and wherever an inert atmosphere is desired and nitrogen cannot be used.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Breath Tests: Any tests done on exhaled air.Carbon Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of carbon that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. C atoms with atomic weights 10, 11, and 14-16 are radioactive carbon isotopes.Air Pollution: The presence of contaminants or pollutant substances in the air (AIR POLLUTANTS) that interfere with human health or welfare, or produce other harmful environmental effects. The substances may include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; or volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.Formates: Derivatives of formic acids. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that are formed with a single carbon carboxy group.Gas Scavengers: Apparatus for removing exhaled or leaked anesthetic gases or other volatile agents, thus reducing the exposure of operating room personnel to such agents, as well as preventing the buildup of potentially explosive mixtures in operating rooms or laboratories.Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Lung Diseases, Obstructive: Any disorder marked by obstruction of conducting airways of the lung. AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION may be acute, chronic, intermittent, or persistent.Trees: Woody, usually tall, perennial higher plants (Angiosperms, Gymnosperms, and some Pterophyta) having usually a main stem and numerous branches.Anesthesia, Closed-Circuit: Inhalation anesthesia where the gases exhaled by the patient are rebreathed as some carbon dioxide is simultaneously removed and anesthetic gas and oxygen are added so that no anesthetic escapes into the room. Closed-circuit anesthesia is used especially with explosive anesthetics to prevent fires where electrical sparking from instruments is possible.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Sodium Hydroxide: A highly caustic substance that is used to neutralize acids and make sodium salts. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Anoxia: Relatively complete absence of oxygen in one or more tissues.Biodegradation, Environmental: Elimination of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS; PESTICIDES and other waste using living organisms, usually involving intervention of environmental or sanitation engineers.Extraterrestrial Environment: The environment outside the earth or its atmosphere. The environment may refer to a closed cabin (such as a space shuttle or space station) or to space itself, the moon, or other planets.Carbon Tetrachloride PoisoningApnea: A transient absence of spontaneous respiration.Seawater: The salinated water of OCEANS AND SEAS that provides habitat for marine organisms.Mars: The fourth planet in order from the sun. Its two natural satellites are Deimos and Phobos. It is one of the four inner or terrestrial planets of the solar system.Methyl Ethers: A group of compounds that contain the general formula R-OCH3.Ecosystem: A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Electrodes: Electric conductors through which electric currents enter or leave a medium, whether it be an electrolytic solution, solid, molten mass, gas, or vacuum.Ozone: The unstable triatomic form of oxygen, O3. It is a powerful oxidant that is produced for various chemical and industrial uses. Its production is also catalyzed in the ATMOSPHERE by ULTRAVIOLET RAY irradiation of oxygen or other ozone precursors such as VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS and NITROGEN OXIDES. About 90% of the ozone in the atmosphere exists in the stratosphere (STRATOSPHERIC OZONE).Pressure: A type of stress exerted uniformly in all directions. Its measure is the force exerted per unit area. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Humidity: A measure of the amount of WATER VAPOR in the air.Ventilation: Supplying a building or house, their rooms and corridors, with fresh air. The controlling of the environment thus may be in public or domestic sites and in medical or non-medical locales. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Environmental Remediation: Removal of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS or contaminants for the general protection of the environment. This is accomplished by various chemical, biological, and bulk movement methods, in conjunction with ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING.Calcium Compounds: Inorganic compounds that contain calcium as an integral part of the molecule.EthersOceans and Seas: A great expanse of continuous bodies of salt water which together cover more than 70 percent of the earth's surface. Seas may be partially or entirely enclosed by land, and are smaller than the five oceans (Atlantic, Pacific, Indian, Arctic, and Antarctic).Anesthesia, General: Procedure in which patients are induced into an unconscious state through use of various medications so that they do not feel pain during surgery.Monitoring, Physiologic: The continuous measurement of physiological processes, blood pressure, heart rate, renal output, reflexes, respiration, etc., in a patient or experimental animal; includes pharmacologic monitoring, the measurement of administered drugs or their metabolites in the blood, tissues, or urine.Carbohydrate Metabolism: Cellular processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of CARBOHYDRATES.Oxygen Isotopes: Stable oxygen atoms that have the same atomic number as the element oxygen, but differ in atomic weight. O-17 and 18 are stable oxygen isotopes.PyruvatesIntubation, Intratracheal: A procedure involving placement of a tube into the trachea through the mouth or nose in order to provide a patient with oxygen and anesthesia.Atmospheric Pressure: The pressure at any point in an atmosphere due solely to the weight of the atmospheric gases above the point concerned.Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.Oximetry: The determination of oxygen-hemoglobin saturation of blood either by withdrawing a sample and passing it through a classical photoelectric oximeter or by electrodes attached to some translucent part of the body like finger, earlobe, or skin fold. It includes non-invasive oxygen monitoring by pulse oximetry.Glucose: A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.Plant Leaves: Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)Lactates: Salts or esters of LACTIC ACID containing the general formula CH3CHOHCOOR.Fossil Fuels: Any combustible hydrocarbon deposit formed from the remains of prehistoric organisms. Examples are petroleum, coal, and natural gas.Environmental Monitoring: The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.Octanols: Isomeric forms and derivatives of octanol (C8H17OH).Fermentation: Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.Acetobacterium: A genus of gram-negative bacteria in the family Eubacteriaceae. Species are homoacetogenic, having the ability to use CARBON DIOXIDE as an electron sink, and to reduce it producing acetate as a typical fermentation product.Respiratory Physiological Phenomena: Physiological processes and properties of the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM as a whole or of any of its parts.Jupiter: The fifth planet in order from the sun. It is one of the five outer planets of the solar system. Its sixteen natural satellites include Callisto, Europa, Ganymede, and Io.Hemodynamics: The movement and the forces involved in the movement of the blood through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.Global Warming: Increase in the temperature of the atmosphere near the Earth's surface and in the troposphere, which can contribute to changes in global climate patterns.Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Succinates: Derivatives of SUCCINIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain a 1,4-carboxy terminated aliphatic structure.Masks: Devices that cover the nose and mouth to maintain aseptic conditions or to administer inhaled anesthetics or other gases. (UMDNS, 1999)Isoflurane: A stable, non-explosive inhalation anesthetic, relatively free from significant side effects.Climate: The longterm manifestations of WEATHER. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Soot: A dark powdery deposit of unburned fuel residues, composed mainly of amorphous CARBON and some HYDROCARBONS, that accumulates in chimneys, automobile mufflers and other surfaces exposed to smoke. It is the product of incomplete combustion of carbon-rich organic fuels in low oxygen conditions. It is sometimes called lampblack or carbon black and is used in INK, in rubber tires, and to prepare CARBON NANOTUBES.Monitoring, Intraoperative: The constant checking on the state or condition of a patient during the course of a surgical operation (e.g., checking of vital signs).Oxygen Inhalation Therapy: Inhalation of oxygen aimed at restoring toward normal any pathophysiologic alterations of gas exchange in the cardiopulmonary system, as by the use of a respirator, nasal catheter, tent, chamber, or mask. (From Dorland, 27th ed & Stedman, 25th ed)Phytoplankton: Free-floating minute organisms that are photosynthetic. The term is non-taxonomic and refers to a lifestyle (energy utilization and motility), rather than a particular type of organism. Most, but not all, are unicellular algae. Important groups include DIATOMS; DINOFLAGELLATES; CYANOBACTERIA; CHLOROPHYTA; HAPTOPHYTA; CRYPTOMONADS; and silicoflagellates.Ammonia: A colorless alkaline gas. It is formed in the body during decomposition of organic materials during a large number of metabolically important reactions. Note that the aqueous form of ammonia is referred to as AMMONIUM HYDROXIDE.Environment, Controlled: A state in which the environs of hospitals, laboratories, domestic and animal housing, work places, spacecraft, and other surroundings are under technological control with regard to air conditioning, heating, lighting, humidity, ventilation, and other ambient features. The concept includes control of atmospheric composition. (From Jane's Aerospace Dictionary, 3d ed)Positive-Pressure Respiration: A method of mechanical ventilation in which pressure is maintained to increase the volume of gas remaining in the lungs at the end of expiration, thus reducing the shunting of blood through the lungs and improving gas exchange.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Respiratory Rate: The number of times an organism breathes with the lungs (RESPIRATION) per unit time, usually per minute.Exercise Test: Controlled physical activity which is performed in order to allow assessment of physiological functions, particularly cardiovascular and pulmonary, but also aerobic capacity. Maximal (most intense) exercise is usually required but submaximal exercise is also used.Moorella: A genus of gram positive, acetogenic, thermophilic bacteria in the family Thermoanaerobacteraceae. Known habitats include HOT SPRINGS, horse manure, emu droppings, and sewage SLUDGE.MalatesMetabolism: The chemical reactions that occur within the cells, tissues, or an organism. These processes include both the biosynthesis (ANABOLISM) and the breakdown (CATABOLISM) of organic materials utilized by the living organism.Anesthesia: A state characterized by loss of feeling or sensation. This depression of nerve function is usually the result of pharmacologic action and is induced to allow performance of surgery or other painful procedures.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Lactic Acid: A normal intermediate in the fermentation (oxidation, metabolism) of sugar. The concentrated form is used internally to prevent gastrointestinal fermentation. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Hydrocarbons, FluorinatedParticle Size: Relating to the size of solids.Aerobiosis: Life or metabolic reactions occurring in an environment containing oxygen.Nitrates: Inorganic or organic salts and esters of nitric acid. These compounds contain the NO3- radical.Volcanic Eruptions: The ash, dust, gases, and lava released by volcanic explosion. The gases are volatile matter composed principally of about 90% water vapor, and carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide, hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and nitrogen. The ash or dust is pyroclastic ejecta and lava is molten extrusive material consisting mainly of magnesium silicate. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Acidosis: A pathologic condition of acid accumulation or depletion of base in the body. The two main types are RESPIRATORY ACIDOSIS and metabolic acidosis, due to metabolic acid build up.Colorimetry: Any technique by which an unknown color is evaluated in terms of standard colors. The technique may be visual, photoelectric, or indirect by means of spectrophotometry. It is used in chemistry and physics. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Potassium Compounds: Inorganic compounds that contain potassium as an integral part of the molecule.Heterotrophic Processes: The processes by which organisms utilize organic substances as their nutrient sources. Contrasts with AUTOTROPHIC PROCESSES which make use of simple inorganic substances as the nutrient supply source. Heterotrophs can be either chemoheterotrophs (or chemoorganotrophs) which also require organic substances such as glucose for their primary metabolic energy requirements, or photoheterotrophs (or photoorganotrophs) which derive their primary energy requirements from light. Depending on environmental conditions some organisms can switch between different nutritional modes (AUTOTROPHY; heterotrophy; chemotrophy; or PHOTOTROPHY) to utilize different sources to meet their nutrients and energy requirements.Air Pollution, Indoor: The contamination of indoor air.Soil Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the soil. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Acetazolamide: One of the CARBONIC ANHYDRASE INHIBITORS that is sometimes effective against absence seizures. It is sometimes useful also as an adjunct in the treatment of tonic-clonic, myoclonic, and atonic seizures, particularly in women whose seizures occur or are exacerbated at specific times in the menstrual cycle. However, its usefulness is transient often because of rapid development of tolerance. Its antiepileptic effect may be due to its inhibitory effect on brain carbonic anhydrase, which leads to an increased transneuronal chloride gradient, increased chloride current, and increased inhibition. (From Smith and Reynard, Textbook of Pharmacology, 1991, p337)Absorption: The physical or physiological processes by which substances, tissue, cells, etc. take up or take in other substances or energy.Methanol: A colorless, flammable liquid used in the manufacture of FORMALDEHYDE and ACETIC ACID, in chemical synthesis, antifreeze, and as a solvent. Ingestion of methanol is toxic and may cause blindness.Heart Rate: The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.Acetic Acid: Product of the oxidation of ethanol and of the destructive distillation of wood. It is used locally, occasionally internally, as a counterirritant and also as a reagent. (Stedman, 26th ed)Ultrasonography, Doppler, Transcranial: A non-invasive technique using ultrasound for the measurement of cerebrovascular hemodynamics, particularly cerebral blood flow velocity and cerebral collateral flow. With a high-intensity, low-frequency pulse probe, the intracranial arteries may be studied transtemporally, transorbitally, or from below the foramen magnum.Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation: Application of a life support system that circulates the blood through an oxygenating system, which may consist of a pump, a membrane oxygenator, and a heat exchanger. Examples of its use are to assist victims of smoke inhalation injury, respiratory failure, and cardiac failure.Blood Flow Velocity: A value equal to the total volume flow divided by the cross-sectional area of the vascular bed.Euryarchaeota: A phylum of ARCHAEA comprising at least seven classes: Methanobacteria, Methanococci, Halobacteria (extreme halophiles), Archaeoglobi (sulfate-reducing species), Methanopyri, and the thermophiles: Thermoplasmata, and Thermococci.Administration, Inhalation: The administration of drugs by the respiratory route. It includes insufflation into the respiratory tract.Cardiac Output: The volume of BLOOD passing through the HEART per unit of time. It is usually expressed as liters (volume) per minute so as not to be confused with STROKE VOLUME (volume per beat).Ventilation-Perfusion Ratio: The ratio of alveolar ventilation to simultaneous alveolar capillary blood flow in any part of the lung. (Stedman, 25th ed)Laparoscopy: A procedure in which a laparoscope (LAPAROSCOPES) is inserted through a small incision near the navel to examine the abdominal and pelvic organs in the PERITONEAL CAVITY. If appropriate, biopsy or surgery can be performed during laparoscopy.Respiration Disorders: Diseases of the respiratory system in general or unspecified or for a specific respiratory disease not available.Citric Acid Cycle: A series of oxidative reactions in the breakdown of acetyl units derived from GLUCOSE; FATTY ACIDS; or AMINO ACIDS by means of tricarboxylic acid intermediates. The end products are CARBON DIOXIDE, water, and energy in the form of phosphate bonds.Geological Phenomena: The inanimate matter of Earth, the structures and properties of this matter, and the processes that affect it.CarboxyhemoglobinSodium Bicarbonate: A white, crystalline powder that is commonly used as a pH buffering agent, an electrolyte replenisher, systemic alkalizer and in topical cleansing solutions.Oxaloacetates: Derivatives of OXALOACETIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that include a 2-keto-1,4-carboxy aliphatic structure.Seasons: Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Blood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitors: A class of compounds that reduces the secretion of H+ ions by the proximal kidney tubule through inhibition of CARBONIC ANHYDRASES.Plants: Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.Calcium Hydroxide: A white powder prepared from lime that has many medical and industrial uses. It is in many dental formulations, especially for root canal filling.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Halothane: A nonflammable, halogenated, hydrocarbon anesthetic that provides relatively rapid induction with little or no excitement. Analgesia may not be adequate. NITROUS OXIDE is often given concomitantly. Because halothane may not produce sufficient muscle relaxation, supplemental neuromuscular blocking agents may be required. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p178)Particulate Matter: Particles of any solid substance, generally under 30 microns in size, often noted as PM30. There is special concern with PM1 which can get down to PULMONARY ALVEOLI and induce MACROPHAGE ACTIVATION and PHAGOCYTOSIS leading to FOREIGN BODY REACTION and LUNG DISEASES.Calcium Carbonate: Carbonic acid calcium salt (CaCO3). An odorless, tasteless powder or crystal that occurs in nature. It is used therapeutically as a phosphate buffer in hemodialysis patients and as a calcium supplement.Carbon Compounds, Inorganic: Inorganic compounds that contain carbon as an integral part of the molecule but are not derived from hydrocarbons.Hydroxybutyrates: Salts and esters of hydroxybutyric acid.Glycolates: Derivatives of ACETIC ACID which contain an hydroxy group attached to the methyl carbon.Intraoperative Period: The period during a surgical operation.Plethysmography, Impedance: Recording changes in electrical impedance between electrodes placed on opposite sides of a part of the body, as a measure of volume changes in the path of the current. (Stedman, 25th ed)Pseudomonas: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in nature. Some species are pathogenic for humans, animals, and plants.Bioelectric Energy Sources: Electric power supply devices which convert biological energy, such as chemical energy of metabolism or mechanical energy of periodic movements, into electrical energy.Ribulose-Bisphosphate Carboxylase: A carboxy-lyase that plays a key role in photosynthetic carbon assimilation in the CALVIN-BENSON CYCLE by catalyzing the formation of 3-phosphoglycerate from ribulose 1,5-biphosphate and CARBON DIOXIDE. It can also utilize OXYGEN as a substrate to catalyze the synthesis of 2-phosphoglycolate and 3-phosphoglycerate in a process referred to as photorespiration.Organic Chemicals: A broad class of substances containing carbon and its derivatives. Many of these chemicals will frequently contain hydrogen with or without oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, phosphorus, and other elements. They exist in either carbon chain or carbon ring form.Geology: The science of the earth and other celestial bodies and their history as recorded in the rocks. It includes the study of geologic processes of an area such as rock formations, weathering and erosion, and sedimentation. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Barium Compounds: Inorganic compounds that contain barium as an integral part of the molecule.Disposable Equipment: Apparatus, devices, or supplies intended for one-time or temporary use.Geologic Sediments: A mass of organic or inorganic solid fragmented material, or the solid fragment itself, that comes from the weathering of rock and is carried by, suspended in, or dropped by air, water, or ice. It refers also to a mass that is accumulated by any other natural agent and that forms in layers on the earth's surface, such as sand, gravel, silt, mud, fill, or loess. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1689)

A kinetic study of ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase from the photosynthetic bacterium Rhodospirillum rubrum. (1/9550)

The activation kinetics of purified Rhodospirillum rubrum ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase were analysed. The equilibrium constant for activation by CO(2) was 600 micron and that for activation by Mg2+ was 90 micron, and the second-order activation constant for the reaction of CO(2) with inactive enzyme (k+1) was 0.25 X 10(-3)min-1 . micron-1. The latter value was considerably lower than the k+1 for higher-plant enzyme (7 X 10(-3)-10 X 10(-3)min-1 . micron-1). 6-Phosphogluconate had little effect on the active enzyme, and increased the extent of activation of inactive enzyme. Ribulose bisphosphate also increased the extent of activation and did not inhibit the rate of activation. This effect might have been mediated through a reaction product, 2-phosphoglycolic acid, which also stimulated the extent of activation of the enzyme. The active enzyme had a Km (CO2) of 300 micron-CO2, a Km (ribulose bisphosphate) of 11--18 micron-ribulose bisphosphate and a Vmax. of up to 3 mumol/min per mg of protein. These data are discussed in relation to the proposed model for activation and catalysis of ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase.  (+info)

Arterial blood gas tensions during upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. (2/9550)

Arterial blood gas tensions were measured before and during upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, with (group I) and without (group 2) sedation with intravenous diazepam. There was a highly significant fall in the PaO2, which occurred in both groups and was therefore not attributable to diazepam. Measurement of FEV, and FVC before endoscopy had no predictive value for those patients whose PaO2 fell the most.  (+info)

Does gill boundary layer carbonic anhydrase contribute to carbon dioxide excretion: a comparison between dogfish (Squalus acanthias) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). (3/9550)

In vivo experiments were conducted on spiny dogfish (Squalus acanthias) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) in sea water to determine the potential role of externally oriented or gill boundary layer carbonic anhydrase in carbon dioxide excretion. This was accomplished by assessing pH changes in expired water using a stopped-flow apparatus. In dogfish, expired water was in acid-base disequilibrium as indicated by a pronounced acidification (delta pH=-0.11+/-0.01; N=22; mean +/- s.e.m.) during the period of stopped flow; inspired water, however, was in acid-base equilibrium (delta pH=-0.002+/-0.01; N=22). The acid-base disequilibrium in expired water was abolished (delta pH=-0.005+/-0.01; N=6) by the addition of bovine carbonic anhydrase (5 mg l-1) to the external medium. Addition of the carbonic anhydrase inhibitor acetazolamide (1 mmol l-1) to the water significantly reduced the magnitude of the pH disequilibrium (from -0.133+/-0.03 to -0.063+/-0.02; N=4). However, after correcting for the increased buffering capacity of the water caused by acetazolamide, the acid-base disequilibrium during stopped flow was unaffected by this treatment (control delta [H+]=99.8+/-22.8 micromol l-1; acetazolamide delta [H+]=81.3+/-21.5 micromol l-1). In rainbow trout, expired water displayed an acid-base disequilibrium (delta pH=0.09+/-0.01; N=6) that also was abolished by the application of external carbonic anhydrase (delta pH=0.02+/-0.01). The origin of the expired water acid-base disequilibrium was investigated further in dogfish. Intravascular injection of acetazolamide (40 mg kg-1) to inhibit internal carbonic anhydrase activity non-specifically and thus CO2 excretion significantly diminished the extent of the expired water disequilibrium pH after 30 min (from -0.123+/-0.01 to -0.065+/-0.01; N=6). Selective inhibition of extracellular carbonic anhydrase activity using a low intravascular dose (1.3 mg kg-1) of the inhibitor benzolamide caused a significant reduction in the acid-base disequilibrium after 5 min (from -0.11+/-0.01 to -0.07+/-0. 01; N=14). These results demonstrate that the expired water acid-base disequilibrium originates, at least in part, from excretory CO2 and that extracellular carbonic anhydrase in dogfish may have a significant role in carbon dioxide excretion. However, externally oriented carbonic anhydrase (if present in dogfish) plays no role in catalysing the hydration of the excretory CO2 in water flowing over the gills and thus is unlikely to facilitate CO2 excretion.  (+info)

Prior protein intake may affect phenylalanine kinetics measured in healthy adult volunteers consuming 1 g protein. kg-1. d-1. (4/9550)

Study of the amino acid metabolism of vulnerable groups, such as pregnant women, children and patients, is needed. Our existing protocol is preceded by 2 d of adaptation to a low 13C formula diet at a protein intake of 1 g. kg-1. d-1 to minimize variations in breath 13CO2 enrichment and protein metabolism. To expand on our potential study populations, a less invasive protocol needs to be developed. We have already established that a stable background 13CO2 enrichment can be achieved on the study day without prior adaptation to the low 13C formula. Therefore, this study investigates phenylalanine kinetics in response to variations in prior protein intake. Healthy adult subjects were each fed nutritionally adequate mixed diets containing 0.8, 1.4 and 2.0 g protein. kg-1. d-1 for 2 d. On d 3, subjects consumed an amino acid-based formula diet containing the equivalent of 1 g protein. kg-1. d-1 hourly for 10 h and primed hourly oral doses of L-[1-13C]phenylalanine for the final 6 h. Phenylalanine kinetics were calculated from plasma-free phenylalanine enrichment and breath 13CO2 excretion. A significant quadratic response of prior protein intake on phenylalanine flux (P = 0.012) and oxidation (P = 0.009) was identified, such that both variables were lower following adaptation to a protein intake of 1.4 g. kg-1. d-1. We conclude that variations in protein intake, between 0.8 and 2.0 g. kg-1. d-1, prior to the study day may affect amino acid kinetics and; therefore, it is prudent to continue to control protein intake prior to an amino acid kinetics study.  (+info)

Role of a novel photosystem II-associated carbonic anhydrase in photosynthetic carbon assimilation in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. (5/9550)

Intracellular carbonic anhydrases (CA) in aquatic photosynthetic organisms are involved in the CO2-concentrating mechanism (CCM), which helps to overcome CO2 limitation in the environment. In the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, this CCM is initiated and maintained by the pH gradient created across the chloroplast thylakoid membranes by photosystem (PS) II-mediated electron transport. We show here that photosynthesis is stimulated by a novel, intracellular alpha-CA bound to the chloroplast thylakoids. It is associated with PSII on the lumenal side of the thylakoid membranes. We demonstrate that PSII in association with this lumenal CA operates to provide an ample flux of CO2 for carboxylation.  (+info)

Nitrate-dependent regulation of acetate biosynthesis and nitrate respiration by Clostridium thermoaceticum. (6/9550)

Nitrate has been shown to shunt the electron flow in Clostridium thermoaceticum from CO2 to nitrate, but it did not influence the levels of enzymes involved in the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway (J. M. Frostl, C. Seifritz, and H. L. Drake, J. Bacteriol. 178:4597-4603, 1996). Here we show that under some growth conditions, nitrate does in fact repress proteins involved in the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway. The CO oxidation activity in crude extracts of nitrate (30 mM)-supplemented cultures was fivefold less than that of nitrate-free cultures, while the H2 oxidation activity was six- to sevenfold lower. The decrease in CO oxidation activity paralleled a decrease in CO dehydrogenase (CODH) protein level, as confirmed by Western blot analysis. Protein levels of CODH in nitrate-supplemented cultures were 50% lower than those in nitrate-free cultures. Western blots analyses showed that nitrate also decreased the levels of the corrinoid iron-sulfur protein (60%) and methyltransferase (70%). Surprisingly, the decrease in activity and protein levels upon nitrate supplementation was observed only when cultures were continuously sparged. Northern blot analysis indicates that the regulation of the proteins involved in the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway by nitrate is at the transcriptional level. At least a 10-fold decrease in levels of cytochrome b was observed with nitrate supplementation whether the cultures were sparged or stoppered. We also detected nitrate-inducible nitrate reductase activity (2 to 39 nmol min-1 mg-1) in crude extracts of C. thermoaceticum. Our results indicate that nitrate coordinately represses genes encoding enzymes and electron transport proteins in the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway and activates transcription of nitrate respiratory proteins. CO2 also appears to induce expression of the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway genes and repress nitrate reductase activity.  (+info)

Glucose kinetics during prolonged exercise in highly trained human subjects: effect of glucose ingestion. (7/9550)

1. The objectives of this study were (1) to investigate whether glucose ingestion during prolonged exercise reduces whole body muscle glycogen oxidation, (2) to determine the extent to which glucose disappearing from the plasma is oxidized during exercise with and without carbohydrate ingestion and (3) to obtain an estimate of gluconeogenesis. 2. After an overnight fast, six well-trained cyclists exercised on three occasions for 120 min on a bicycle ergometer at 50 % maximum velocity of O2 uptake and ingested either water (Fast), or a 4 % glucose solution (Lo-Glu) or a 22 % glucose solution (Hi-Glu) during exercise. 3. Dual tracer infusion of [U-13C]-glucose and [6,6-2H2]-glucose was given to measure the rate of appearance (Ra) of glucose, muscle glycogen oxidation, glucose carbon recycling, metabolic clearance rate (MCR) and non-oxidative disposal of glucose. 4. Glucose ingestion markedly increased total Ra especially with Hi-Glu. After 120 min Ra and rate of disappearance (Rd) of glucose were 51-52 micromol kg-1 min-1 during Fast, 73-74 micromol kg-1 min-1 during Lo-Glu and 117-119 micromol kg-1 min-1 during Hi-Glu. The percentage of Rd oxidized was between 96 and 100 % in all trials. 5. Glycogen oxidation during exercise was not reduced by glucose ingestion. The vast majority of glucose disappearing from the plasma is oxidized and MCR increased markedly with glucose ingestion. Glucose carbon recycling was minimal suggesting that gluconeogenesis in these conditions is negligible.  (+info)

Differences in spontaneous breathing pattern and mechanics in patients with severe COPD recovering from acute exacerbation. (8/9550)

The aims of this study were to assess spontaneous breathing patterns in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) recovering from acute exacerbation and to assess the relationship between different breathing patterns and clinical and functional parameters of respiratory impairment. Thirty-four COPD patients underwent assessment of lung function tests, arterial blood gases, haemodynamics, breathing pattern (respiratory frequency (fR), tidal volume (VT), inspiratory and expiratory time (tI and tE), duty cycle (tI/ttot), VT/tI) and mechanics (oesophageal pressure (Poes), work of breathing (WOB), pressure-time product and index, and dynamic intrinsic positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEPi,dyn)). According to the presence (group 1) or absence (group 2) of Poes swings during the expiratory phase (premature inspiration), 20 (59%) patients were included in group 1 and 14 (41%) in group 2. Premature inspirations were observed 4.5+/-6.4 times x min(-1) (range 1-31), i.e. 20+/-21% (3.7-100%) of total fR calculated from VT tracings. In group 1 the coefficient of variation in VT, tE, tI/ttot, PEEPi,dyn, Poes and WOB of the eight consecutive breaths immediately preceding the premature inspiration was greater than that of eight consecutive breaths in group 2. There were no significant differences in the assessed parameters between the two groups in the overall population, whereas patients with chronic hypoxaemia in group 1 showed a more severe impairment in clinical conditions, mechanics and lung function than hypoxaemic patients in group 2. In spontaneously breathing patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease recovering from an acute exacerbation, detectable activity of inspiratory muscles during expiration was found in more than half of the cases. This phenomenon was not associated with any significant differences in anthropometric, demographic, physiological or clinical characteristics.  (+info)

*Carbon dioxide

... is the lasing medium in a carbon dioxide laser, which is one of the earliest type of lasers. Carbon dioxide can ... and Function of Carbon Dioxide Carbon Dioxide - Part One and Carbon Dioxide - Part Two at The Periodic Table of Videos ( ... carbon dioxide behaves as a supercritical fluid known as supercritical carbon dioxide. Carbon dioxide can be obtained by ... Carbon Dioxide CO2 Carbon Dioxide Properties, Uses, Applications Dry Ice information Trends in Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide (NOAA ...

*Carbon dioxide laser

Collisional energy transfer between the nitrogen and the carbon dioxide molecule causes vibrational excitation of the carbon ... The carbon dioxide laser (CO2 laser) was one of the earliest gas lasers to be developed. It was invented by Kumar Patel of Bell ... Carbon dioxide lasers are the highest-power continuous wave lasers that are currently available. They are also quite efficient ... Carbon dioxide lasers have become useful in surgical procedures because water (which makes up most biological tissue) absorbs ...

*Carbon dioxide scrubber

device which absorbs carbon dioxide A carbon dioxide scrubber is a device which absorbs carbon dioxide (CO2). It is used to ... Activated carbon can be used as a carbon dioxide scrubber. Air with high carbon dioxide content, such as air from fruit storage ... Many other methods and materials have been discussed for scrubbing carbon dioxide. Adsorption Regenerative carbon dioxide ... carbon sink Polymer membrane gas separators Reversing heat exchangers Carbon capture and storage Carbon dioxide removal Carbon ...

*Carbon dioxide sensor

A carbon dioxide sensor or CO2 sensor is an instrument for the measurement of carbon dioxide gas. The most common principles ... Measuring carbon dioxide is important in monitoring indoor air quality, the function of the lungs in the form of a capnograph ... NDIR sensors are most often used for measuring carbon dioxide. The best of these have sensitivities of 20-50 PPM. Typical NDIR ...

*Carbon dioxide snow

... may refer to: Dry ice, a solid form of carbon dioxide Carbon dioxide cleaning, an industrial cleaning ...

*Carbon dioxide cleaning

... (CO2 cleaning) comprises a family of methods for parts cleaning and sterilization, using carbon dioxide ... Carbon Dioxide Snow Cleaning. Applied Surface Technologies. Retrieved 13 August 2015. "About Us". Carbon Dioxide Snow Cleaning ... "Carbon dioxide snow agglomeration and acceleration", published Jun 30, 1992 "FAQs". Carbon Dioxide Snow Cleaning. Applied ... Carbon dioxide cleaning was contemplated in the 1930s, and the "pellet" approach was developed in the 1970s by E.E. Rice, C.H. ...

*Carbon dioxide flooding

Carbon dioxide (CO2) flooding is a process whereby carbon dioxide is injected into an oil reservoir in order to increase output ... When a reservoir's pressure is depleted through primary and secondary production, carbon dioxide flooding can be an ideal ... It should also be noted that carbon dioxide flooding is not affected by the lithology of the reservoir area, but simply by the ...

*Supercritical carbon dioxide

... (sCO 2) is a fluid state of carbon dioxide where it is held at or above its critical temperature ... Supercritical carbon dioxide is used in the production of silica, carbon and metal based aerogels. For example, silicon dioxide ... Supercritical carbon dioxide is used in the foaming of polymers. Supercritical carbon dioxide can saturate the polymer with ... Carbon dioxide usually behaves as a gas in air at standard temperature and pressure (STP), or as a solid called dry ice when ...

*Carbon dioxide generator

A Carbon dioxide generator or CO2 generator is a machine used to enhance carbon dioxide levels in order to promote plant growth ... Carbon dioxide generators have been used to help grow marijuana. They can be fueled with propane or natural gas. CO2 generators ...

*Carbon dioxide reforming

Halmann, Martin M. (1993). "Carbon Dioxide Reforming". Chemical fixation of carbon dioxide: methods for recycling CO2 into ... "Catalytic Carbon Dioxide Reforming of Methane to Synthesis Gas over Activated Carbon Catalyst". Industrial & Engineering ... mixtures of hydrogen and carbon monoxide) from the reaction of carbon dioxide with hydrocarbons such as methane. Synthesis gas ... "Effects of preparation methods on the properties of cobalt/carbon catalyst for methane reforming with carbon dioxide to syngas ...

*Carbon dioxide equivalent

... (CDE) and equivalent carbon dioxide (CO2e and CO2eq) are two related but distinct measures for ... million metric tonnes of carbon dioxide equivalents (MMTCDE). For vehicles: g of carbon dioxide equivalents / km (gCDE/km). For ... using the functionally equivalent amount or concentration of carbon dioxide (CO2) as the reference. Carbon dioxide equivalency ... The carbon dioxide equivalency for a gas is obtained by multiplying the mass and the GWP of the gas. The following units are ...

*Carbon dioxide scrubbing

... may refer to: Carbon dioxide scrubber, a device that absorbs carbon dioxide Carbon capture and storage ... the capture of carbon dioxide from large point sources Carbon dioxide removal, the removal of carbon dioxide from ambient air. ...

*Carbon dioxide (data page)

MSDS for solid carbon dioxide is available from Pacific Dry Ice, inc. ‡Second column of table indicates solubility at each ... W.F. Giauque and C.J. Egan, "Carbon Dioxide. The Heat Capacity and Vapor Pressure of the Solid. The Heat of Sublimation. ... Because nitrogen and oxygen are symmetrical and carbon dioxide and water vapor are not, the air in an infrared ... This page provides supplementary chemical data on carbon dioxide. The handling of this chemical may incur notable safety ...

*Metal carbon dioxide complex

... es are coordination complexes that contain carbon dioxide ligands. Aside from the fundamental ... carbon-13) as a diagnostic tool to determine the mode of bonding of carbon dioxide to a metal center". Inorganic Chemistry. 31 ... Carbon dioxide binds to metals in only a few ways. The bonding mode depends on the electrophilicity and basicity of the metal ... "Carbon Dioxide as Chemical Feedstock" Edited by Michele Aresta. Wiley-VCH, Weinheim, 2010. ISBN 978-3-527-32475-0. Gibson, ...

*Photochemical carbon dioxide reduction

"Photochemical Generation of Carbon-Monoxide and Hydrogen by Reduction of Carbon-Dioxide and Water Under Visible-Light ... Photochemical carbon dioxide reduction harnesses solar energy to convert CO2 into higher-energy products. The chemical ... Fujita, Etsuko (1999). "Photochemical carbon dioxide reduction with metal complexes". Coordination Chemistry Reviews. 185-186: ... "The Catalytic Role of N-Heterocyclic Carbene in a Metal-Free Conversion of Carbon Dioxide into Methanol: A Computational ...

*Extracorporeal carbon dioxide removal

... (ECCO2R) is the removal of carbon dioxide (CO2) from the bloodstream in people who have ... elevated levels of carbon dioxide as a result of respiratory failure. The use of extracorporeal carbon dioxide removal is ... Blood is pumped through a machine where the carbon dioxide is filtered out. Morelli, Andrea; Del Sorbo, Lorenzo; Pesenti, ... "Extracorporeal carbon dioxide removal (ECCO2R) in patients with acute respiratory failure". Intensive Care Medicine. 43 (4): ...

*Carbon dioxide in Earth's atmosphere

Atmospheric carbon dioxide plays an integral role in the Earth's carbon cycle whereby carbon dioxide is removed from the ... Carbon dioxide is an integral part of the carbon cycle, a biogeochemical cycle in which carbon is exchanged between the Earth's ... Carbon dioxide is converted into sugars in a process called carbon fixation. Carbon fixation is an endothermic redox reaction, ... Carbon dioxide concentrations have varied widely over the Earth's 4.54 billion year history. Carbon dioxide is believed to have ...

*Gorgon Carbon Dioxide Injection Project

The initial carbon dioxide injections are planned to take place by the end of 2017. Once launched, the Gorgon Carbon Dioxide ... will assist in managing the performance of the injected carbon dioxide in the Dupuy Formation. "Carbon Dioxide Injection , ... The Gorgon Carbon Dioxide Injection Project is part of the Gorgon Project, the world's largest natural gas project. The Gorgon ... The Gorgon Carbon Dioxide Injection Project will compress and pipe separated CO2 to nine injection wells where it will be ...

*Electrochemical reduction of carbon dioxide

The first examples of electrochemical reduction of carbon dioxide are from the 19th century, when carbon dioxide was reduced to ... The electrochemical reduction of carbon dioxide (ERC) is the conversion of carbon dioxide to more reduced chemical species ... and carbon monoxide (CO). In carbon fixation, plants convert carbon dioxide into sugars, from which many biosynthetic pathways ... Electrochemical reduction of carbon dioxide represents a possible means of producing chemicals or fuels, converting carbon ...

*Weyburn-Midale Carbon Dioxide Project

The Weyburn-Midale Carbon Dioxide Project (or IEA GHG Weyburn-Midale CO2 Monitoring and Storage Project) is, as of 2008, the ... The report said that carbon dioxide levels in the soil averaged about 23,000 parts per million, several times higher than is ... Overall, it is anticipated that some 40 Mt of carbon dioxide will be permanently sequestered over the lifespan of the project ... In October 2000, Cenovus (formerly Pan Canadian, Encana) began injecting significant amounts of carbon dioxide into the Weyburn ...

*Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center

The Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC) was an organization within the United States Department of Energy that ... news-oceanacidification-icc.org/2016/12/08/carbon-dioxide-information-analysis-center-cdiac-oceans-ceases-operation-all- ... The Oceanic Trace Gas data have been transitioned to the new Ocean Carbon Data System (OCADS) operated by NOAA's National ... Climate change in the United States Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center https:// ...

*Space-based measurements of carbon dioxide

... (CO2) are used to help answer questions about Earth's carbon cycle. There are a ... February 2013). "Sensitivity of tropical carbon to climate change constrained by carbon dioxide variability". Nature. 494 (7437 ... April 2013). "Towards constraints on fossil fuel emissions from total column carbon dioxide". Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics ... August 2013). "First satellite measurements of carbon dioxide and methane emission ratios in wildfire plumes". Geophysical ...

*Carbon dioxide accumulation in Earth's atmosphere

The following articles relate to Carbon dioxide accumulation in Earth's atmosphere: Carbon dioxide in Earth's atmosphere Global ...

*List of countries by carbon dioxide emissions

This is a list of sovereign states and territories by carbon dioxide emissions due to certain forms of human activity, based on ... The data only considers carbon dioxide emissions from the burning of fossil fuels and cement manufacture, but not emissions ... Global warming portal Ecology portal Environment portal Energy portal List of countries by carbon dioxide emissions per capita ... gas emissions List of countries by greenhouse gas emissions per capita List of countries by ratio of GDP to carbon dioxide ...

*List of countries by carbon dioxide emissions per capita

... carbon dioxide emissions List of countries by ratio of GDP to carbon dioxide emissions Avoiding Dangerous Climate Change Carbon ... Countries are ranked by their metric tonnes of carbon dioxide emissions per capita in 2009. The data only consider carbon ... The carbon dioxide emissions of a country are only an indicator of one greenhouse gas. For a more complete idea of how a ... Carbon dioxide emissions are also known for earlier periods. A study of a global sample of twelve countries provide estimates ...

*List of food additives

... flour treatment agent Carbon black - color (brown and black) Carbon dioxide - acidity regulator, propellant Cardamom - carmines ... Sesame seed - Shellac - glazing agent Silicon dioxide - anti-caking agent Silver - color (silver) Luohanguo Sodium acetate - ... Sulfur dioxide - preservative, antioxidant Sulfuric acid - acidity regulator Sumac - Sunflower oil - a common cooking oil, also ... Vegetable carbon - color (brown and black) Vinegar - Violaxanthin - color Vitamin - Vitamin A (Retinol) - Vitamin B1 (Thiamine ...
ORNL DAAC: The results of published and unpublished experiments investigating the impacts of elevated carbon dioxide on the chemistry (nitrogen and lignin concentration) of leaf litter and the decomposition of plant tissues are assembled in a format appropriate for statistical meta-analysis of the effect of carbon dioxide.
Numerous studies and laboratory experiments have shown that plants grown under higher carbon dioxide levels than at present do better - grow faster, bigger, use water more efficiently - than crops grown under atmospheric carbon dioxide levels. This is hardly surprising since most plants, including the progenitors of modern crop varieties, evolved at times when carbon dioxide levels on earth were much higher than today.. In a recent study, scientists examined a different question, how do crops fare under conditions of lower carbon dioxide, particularly carbon dioxide levels experienced during the most recent ice age.. The study in Global Change Biology examines the effect of lower carbon dioxide levels on plant growth. The researchers grew one type of wheat, wild barley, and two types of millet from seed to harvest in a controlled environment under two carbon dioxide levels, 180 parts per million (ppm), the level of carbon dioxide during the last glacial maximum, and 270 ppm, corresponding to the ...
Moving food around uses energy. Usually oil, a non-renewable fossil fuel, is burned in lorries, planes and cars when food is transported. This puts carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. As oil will run out one day, its use should be limited.. However, over in the UK, for example, only 9% of the carbon dioxide emissions related to food is from transport. Look at the chart on the right to see the other food-related contributions to carbon dioxide emission. Note that this pie chart has not included the carbon dioxide emissions involved in importing food to the UK! ...
Potato (Solanum tuberosum L cv. Bintje) was exposed to ambient and elevated carbon dioxide (CO(2)), to ambient and elevated ozone (O(3)) and to elevated levels of both gases during two growing seasons, 1998 and 1999. Experiments in open-top chambers (OTC) were carried out in Finland, Sweden, Ireland, United Kingdom, Germany and Belgium and a FACE (Free Air Carbon dioxide Enrichment) experiment was carried out in Italy. In OTCs the plants were grown tinder ambient CO(2) concentrations or with 550 and 680 mul 1(-1) CO(2) alone or in combination with ambient or elevated 03 concentrations (target seasonal mean of 60 nl 1(-1) 8 h per day). In the FACE systems the plants were exposed to ambient or 550 mul 1(-1) CO(2). In the OTC experiments the reducing sugar content of potato tubers decreased significantly with increased concentration Of O(3). The starch content of potato tubers decreased, with negative impact on tuber quality, but the ascorbic acid concentration increased as a function of the AOT40 ...
Natural News) As if the conflicting information and endless debates about climate change and carbon dioxide levels were not confusing enough, a new study has found that carbon dioxide levels were actually much lower than previously believed during the last "warm" period on the planet, illustrating just how difficult it is to make conclusive statements about the topic.. Earths early Eocene period, also known as the Super Greenhouse period, was commonly believed to have concentration levels of carbon dioxide of as much as 2,000 parts per million (ppm). However, Dartmouth College researchers have discovered that it could have been less than 1,000 ppm - a difference of half! This could also mean that carbon dioxide is not the primary driver of planetary warming events, as other factors now have stronger weight on the final result.. To put this in perspective, the levels of carbon dioxide that are currently observed at the Mauna Loa Observatory of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration ...
Elevated carbon dioxide (CO2) has recently been shown to affect chemosensory and auditory behaviour, and activity levels of larval reef fishes, increasing their risk of predation. However, the mechanisms underlying these changes are unknown. Behavioural lateralization is an expression of brain functional asymmetries, and thus provides a unique test of the hypothesis that elevated CO2 affects brain function in larval fishes. We tested the effect of near-future CO2 concentrations (880 μatm) on behavioural lateralization in the reef fish, Neopomacentrus azysron. Individuals exposed to current-day or elevated CO2 were observed in a detour test where they made repeated decisions about turning left or right. No preference for right or left turns was observed at the population level. However, individual control fish turned either left or right with greater frequency than expected by chance. Exposure to elevated-CO2 disrupted individual lateralization, with values that were not different from a random ...
The increasing acidification of ocean waters caused by rising atmospheric carbon dioxide levels could rob sharks of their ability to sense the smell of food, a new study suggests.. Elevated carbon dioxide levels impaired the odor-tracking behavior of the smooth dogfish, a shark whose range includes the Atlantic Ocean off the eastern United States. Adult sharks significantly avoided squid odor after swimming in a pool of water treated with carbon dioxide. The carbon dioxide concentrations tested are consistent with climate forecasts for midcentury and 2100. The study suggests that predator-prey interactions in nature could be influenced by elevated carbon dioxide concentrations of ocean waters.. "The sharks tracking behavior and attacking behavior were significantly reduced," said Danielle Dixson, an assistant professor in the School of Biology at the Georgia Institute of Technology in Atlanta. "Sharks are like swimming noses, so chemical cues are really important for them in terms of finding ...
In the present paper, different Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA) models were developed to model the carbon dioxide emission by using time series data of forty-four years from 1972-2015. The performance of these developed models was assessed with the help of different selection measure criteria and the model having minimum value of these criteria considered as the best forecasting model. Based on findings, it has been observed that out of different ARIMA models, ARIMA (0, 2, 1) is the best fitted model in predicting the emission of carbon dioxide in Bangladesh. Using this best fitted model, the forecasted value of carbon dioxide emission in Bangladesh, for the year 2016, 2017 and 2018 as obtained from ARIMA (0, 2, 1) was obtained as 83.94657 Metric Tons, 89.90464 Metric Tons and 96.28557 Metric Tons respectively.
Mizumura, K.; Sato, J.; Kumazawa, T., 1986: Continuous recording of arterial pressure and carbon dioxide partial pressure and pressure carbon dioxide partial pressure and ph of the cerebrospinal fluid during acute exposure to low oxygen and high carbon dioxide partial pressure environment in dogs
article{reference_tag, author = "Haroldo V. Ribeiro, Diego Rybski & Jürgen P. Kropp", title = "Effects of changing population or density on urban carbon dioxide emissions", journal = "Nature Communications", year = 2019, abstract = "The question of whether urbanization contributes to increasing carbon dioxide emissions has been mainly investigated via scaling relationships with population or population density. However, these approaches overlook the correlations between population and area, and ignore possible interactions between these quantities. Here, we propose a generalized framework that simultaneously considers the effects of population and area along with possible interactions between these urban metrics. Our results significantly improve the description of emissions and reveal the coupled role between population and density on emissions. These models show that variations in emissions associated with proportionate changes in population or density may not only depend on the magnitude of ...
The possible consequences of very high carbon dioxide concentrations in the earths early atmosphere have been investigated with a radiative-convective climate model. The early atmosphere would apparently have been stable against the onset of a runaway greenhouse (that is, the complete evaporation of the oceans) for carbon dioxide pressures up to at least 100 bars. A 10- to 20-bar carbon dioxide atmosphere, such as may have existed during the first several hundred million years of the earths history, would have had a surface temperature of approximately 85 degrees to 110 degrees C. The early stratosphere should have been dry, thereby precluding the possibility of an oxygenic prebiotic atmosphere caused by photodissociation of water vapor followed by escape of hydrogen to space. Earths present atmosphere also appears to be stable against a carbon dioxide-induced runaway greenhouse. ...
0011] According to an aspect of the invention, there is provided a carbon dioxide gas recovery device including: an absorption tower that is configured to introduce a carbon dioxide-containing gas containing carbon dioxide gas and a lean absorbent, bring the carbon dioxide-containing gas and the lean absorbent into contact with each other, and cause the absorbent to absorb carbon dioxide gas in the carbon dioxide-containing gas to generate a rich absorbent; and a regeneration tower that is configured to regenerate the lean absorbent by heating the rich absorbent supplied from the absorption tower to separate carbon dioxide gas from the rich absorbent, wherein the regeneration tower includes: a reboiler system that is configured to lead the absorbent from the regeneration tower, heat the led absorbent, and reintroduce the resultant absorbent into the regeneration tower; and a mixed gas cooling system that is configured to lead a mixed gas of carbon dioxide gas and a vapor fraction of a solute and ...
These global volcanic estimates are utterly dwarfed by carbon dioxide emissions from fossil fuel burning, cement production, gas flaring and land use changes; these emissions accounted for some 36,300 million metric tons of carbon dioxide in 2008, according to an international study published in the December 2009 issue of Nature Geoscience. Even if you take the highest estimate of volcanic carbon dioxide emissions, at 270 million metric tons per year, human-emitted carbon dioxide levels are more than 130 times higher than volcanic emissions.. Occasionally, scaled-down versions of the myth surface - for example, "Volcanoes produce more carbon dioxide than the worlds cars and industries combined." The truth is that data from the Carbon Dioxide Information and Analysis Center of Oak Ridge National Laboratory and the International Energy Agency indicate that light-duty vehicles (cars, pickup trucks, SUVs, vans, wagons) contribute about 3,040 million metric tons of carbon dioxide per year, and ...
Meteorologists have determined exactly how much carbon dioxide humans can emit into the atmosphere while ensuring that the earth does not heat up by more than two degrees. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) calculated projected temperature changes for various scenarios in 2007 and researchers at the Max Planck Institute for Meteorology in Hamburg have now gone one step further: they have developed a new model that specifies the maximum volumes of carbon dioxide that humans may emit to remain below the critical threshold for climate warming of two degrees Celsius. To do this, the scientists incorporated into their calculations data relating to the carbon cycle, namely the volume of carbon dioxide absorbed and released by the oceans and forests. The aim of the international ENSEMBLES project is to simulate future changes in the global climate and carbon dioxide emissions and thereby to obtain more reliable threshold values on this basis. (Climatic Change, July 21, 2010). The ...
Theres striking new evidence that Earths atmosphere is increasingly saturated with carbon dioxide, the major gas from fossil fuel emissions that trigger climate change. The rise of carbon dioxide levels above 400 parts per million is an indicator that the problem of global warming is getting worse, not better, said Mark Z . Jacobson, a Stanford atmospheric scientist and environmental engineer, in an e-mail. Failure to convert will result in a growing risk of economic, social and political instability as warming and air pollution worsens while fossil-fuel prices rise.
One of the more difficult issues in the debate over policy to reduce carbon dioxide emissions is calculating the cost of a carbon dioxide constraint. In this paper, we calculate the cost of a carbon dioxide constraint in the production of electricity by modeling the replacement of coal generators with natural gas generators. We find: 1) Replacing coal generators with natural gas generators is the most economical way to achieve a target of reducing carbon dioxide emissions by 20 percent. 2) Unless there is a technological breakthrough in carbon sequestration, the carbon intensity of coal means that "clean coal" cannot be a significant factor in reducing carbon dioxide. Replacing existing coal generation capacity with modern coal generation plants can only reduce total carbon dioxide by 5 percent. 3) The distribution of the efficiency of coal generators in the United States is very concentrated. This concentration restricts the range over which carbon dioxide prices effectively manage the ...
Steadily increasing global atmospheric CO2 levels have been shown to affect important plant traits including growth and secondary (defensive) chemistry. This study used 10 maternal families of wild mustard, Brassica nigra, to investigate: 1) whether levels of carbon-based defenses (phenolics) increase and nitrogen-based defenses (protease inhibitors) decrease in Brassica nigra under elevated CO2, as predicted by the Carbon/Nutrient Balance Hypothesis; 2) whether B. nigra encounters nitrogen-based trade-offs between investment in chymotrypsin and trypsin inhibitors, or between investment in these chemical defenses and growth; 3) if so, whether trade-offs are more severe under elevated CO2; 4) whether elevated CO2 will affect the evolutionary potential of carbon-based and nitrogen-based chemical defenses. Results suggest that total biomass of Brassica nigra will increase under elevated CO2. In contrast to the predictions of the CNB Hypothesis, there was no evidence that levels of carbon-based defenses
Alternative Energy Guest Article… While skyrocketing carbon dioxide emissions get all of the attention, theres an equally grave ecological problem: ocean acidification. Ocean acidification is climate changes "evil twin," and if we dont curb our carbon footprint, the damage on the marine ecosystem will be irreparable, notes ocean conservation group Oceana. Unbalanced pH Nearly 70 percent of the Earths surface is covered in water and, according to the U.S. Geological Survey, 96.5 percent of our planets water is held in the oceans. Nearly 30 percent of the carbon dioxide that pollutes…. Read More ...
Rising atmospheric carbon dioxide levels are bolstering plant life throughout the world, environmental scientists report in a newly published peer-reviewed study. The findings, published in Geophysical Research Letters, are gleaned from satellite measurements of global plant life, and contradict assertions by activists that global warming is causing deserts to expand, along with devastating droughts.. A team of scientists led by environmental physicist Randall Donohue, a research scientist at the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization in Australia, analyzed satellite data from 1982 through 2010. The scientists documented a carbon dioxide "fertilization effect" that has caused a gradual greening of the Earth, and particularly the Earths arid regions, since 1982. The satellite data showed rising carbon dioxide levels caused a remarkable 11 percent increase in foliage in arid regions since 1982, versus what would be the case if atmospheric carbon dioxide levels had remained ...
• The carbon dioxide gas is temporarily converted to carbonic acid in red blood cells by the enzyme carbonic anhydrase, and then further converted to hydrogen and bicarbonate ions. • The result of increased carbon dioxide is decreased pH causing the Bohr effect. • Elevated carbon dioxide levels enhance unbinding of oxygen from oxyhemoglobin thereby making oxygen available for actively metabolizing cells. • By contrast, decreased carbon dioxide, as in the alveolar spaces, increases affinity of hemoglobin for oxygen and promotes oxygen loading and transport. • To a limited degree, changes in temperature affect the association and dissociation of O2 with hemoglobin. • The oxygen carrying ability of hemoglobin is unaffected by normal temperatures. • Near metabolically active cells, blood temperature rises, increasing the thermal motion of molecules which promotes the unloading of O2 to continue fueling aerobic metabolism in the tissue cells. • When temperature lowers,
This documentary paints a clear picture to me that no matter what we do now as human beings, because of our release of massive amounts of carbon dioxide into our atmosphere, we will continue to move into an era of a hotter planet. This means higher sea levels and warmer temperatures globally. The documentary does not address the volatility of the weather and weather extremes, but from other research, reading, and both documentary viewing and podcast listening I understand thats also a piece of our future together.. About 33 minutes into the documentary, I loved the exploration which highlighted the temperature variability of our planet over the past 500 years.. At about 1 hour and 4 minutes, I loved the sequence and story of an incredible earth core sample taken from the middle of a Russian lake in the middle of the winter, and all that it revealed and confirmed about our planets climate history.. At about 1 hour and 25 minutes, the sequence of showing how carbon dioxide levels are measured ...
It has been suggested that antioxidants play a role in regulating or modulating senescence dynamics of plant tissues. Ethylene has been shown to promote early plant senescence while controlled atmospheres (CA; reduced O2 levels and elevated CO2 levels) can delay its onset and/or severity. In order to examine the possible importance of various antioxidants in the regulation of senescence, detached spinach ( Spinacia oleracea L.) leaves were stored for 35 d at 10 °C in one of three different atmospheres: (1) ambient air (0.3% CO2, 21.5% O2, 78.5% N2), (2) ambient air+10 ppm ethylene to promote senescence, or (3) CA (10% CO2, 0.8% O2 and 89.2% N2) to delay senescence. At weekly intervals, material was assessed for activities of the antioxidant enzymes ascorbate peroxidase (ASPX; EC 1.11.1.11), catalase (CAT; EC 1.11.1.6), dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR; EC 1.8.5.4), glutathione reductase (GR; EC 1.6.4.2), monodehydroascorbate reductase (MDHAR; EC 1.6.5.4), and superoxide dismutase (SOD; EC ...
If you give off carbon dioxide emissions, you may need to pay a carbon tax. In which case, it is reasonable to be paid to remove carbon dioxide from the atmosphere.. The latest report from the IPCC was clear. We need to drastically reduce emissions of greenhouse gases already today if global climate targets are to be achievable. One way to reduce the amount of carbon dioxide in the air and raised in the report is to use so called negative emissions, that is to say, in one way or other, to be able to suck the carbon dioxide out of the atmosphere and store it.. One way of doing this is to cultivate vegetation that uses carbon dioxide from the air to grow. If you then burn this vegetation, you can produce district heating and electricity, but you can also get carbon dioxide emissions, the same amount as the vegetation has locked in. But if instead of releasing the carbon dioxide, it can be captured and stored, you will then have created a carbon sink. You can also convert vegetation into biochar, ...
A consortium led by VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland has developed a new technology that captures the carbon dioxide emissions of power plants more economically and ecologically. The International Energy Agency IEA regards carbon dioxide capture as essential if the emission reduction targets set for greenhouse gases are to be met.
Fossil fuel combustion is the primary anthropogenic source of both CO2 and Hg to the atmosphere. On a global scale, most Hg that enters ecosystems is derived from atmospheric Hg that deposits onto the land surface. Increasing concentrations of atmospheric CO2 may affect Hg deposition to terrestrial systems and storage in soils through CO(2)-mediated changes in plant and soil properties. We show, using free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE) experiments, that soil Hg concentrations are almost 30% greater under elevated atmospheric CO2 in two temperate forests. There were no direct CO2 effects, however, on litterfall, throughfall or stemflow Hg inputs. Soil Hg was positively correlated with percent soil organic matter (SOM), suggesting that CO(2)-mediated changes in SOM have influenced soil Hg concentrations. Through its impacts on SOM, elevated atmospheric CO2 may increase the Hg storage capacity of soils and modulate the movement of Hg through the biosphere. Such effects of rising CO2, ones that ...
growth and gas-exchange of three C4 species differing in CO2 leak rates. Physiol. Plant. 105: 74-80. Sicher, R. C. 1999. Photosystem-II activity is decreased by yellowing of barley primary leaves during growth in elevated carbon dioxide. Int. J. Plant Sci. 160: 849-854. Sicher, R. C. and Bunce, J. A. 1999. Photosynthetic enhancement and conductance to water vapor of field-grown Solanum tuberosum (L.) in response to CO2 enrichment. Photosyn. Res. 62: 155-163. Sicher, R. C. and Bunce J.A. 1999. Protein adjustments in wheat flag leaves in response to atmospheric CO2 enrichment. In: Photosynthesis: Mechanisms and Effects. Proceedings of the XI International Congress on Photosynthesis, G. Garab, ed., Kluwer Academic Publishers, The Hague, vol. V, 4744 pp. (Conference Proceeding). Bunce, J. A. and Sicher, R. C. Water stress and day-to-day variation in apparent photosynthetic acclimation of field-grown soybeans to elevated carbon dioxide concentration. Photosynthetica 39: 95-101. 2001 ...
Downloadable (with restrictions)! We use a model of domestic and international tourist numbers and flows to estimate the impact of the recent and proposed changes in the Air Passenger Duty (APD) of the United Kingdom. We look at four different scenarios (abolishing the APD, keeping the 2001 APD level, the 2007 APD and the Conservative Partys Green Miles proposal) using base, high and very high elasticity levels as well as assumptions about the substitutability between domestic and international holidays and the effects of a carbon tax. We find that the recent doubling of the APD has the perverse effect of increasing carbon dioxide emissions, albeit only slightly, because it reduces the relative price difference between near and far holidays. Tourists arriving into the UK would fall slightly. The number of tourists travelling from the UK would fall in the countries near to the UK, and this drop would be only partly offset by displaced tourists from the UK. Tourists leaving the UK for countries further
Problem  Clean natural environment is a public good  Environmental pollution generates complex external effects  Housing causes 15 % of total CO 2 Emission in Germany  External effects especially carbon dioxide emissions caused by residential heating and air- conditioning have to be internalised  Therefore residents in the European Union are living in a carbon-constrained world (e.g. European Energy Performance of Buildings Directive EPBD)  Internalisation of the external effects comes at a cost, both politically and economically  Most common recommendation in environmental economics: polluters pay a fee based on the volume of pollution they create (polluter-pays-principle)  However, it is not always possible to identify the polluter  If possible, it is not always economical feasible to refinance investments in order to reduce greenhouse gas emissions  Needed: financial burden-sharing model between owners, occupants and the public  Analysis and data based on housing
Carbon dioxide levels have risen so much in the last 150 years that plant pores, which plants effectively breathe through have decreased in size by up to 34%. As a result plants are restricted in the amount of water vapor that they release into the atmosphere.
Data & statistics on Carbon Dioxide Emissions per Unit of GDP: CO2 Emissions per Unit of GDP in 2020, EU-25 CO2 Emissions per Unit of GDP - Scenario Comparison, Development of CO2 emissions per unit of GDP in the period 2000-2050...
Watch this video with Lawrence Harper to learn how the latest technologies from Anton Paar Ltd can be used to accurately measure and analyze liquids and other materials. The density sensors discussed here are frequently used to monitor the product quality of liquids online during production. The instruments enable concentrations such as %Brix, %Alcohol and carbon dioxide levels to be accurately measured. Interview filmed by SelectScience at the Leatherhead Food Research Food Innovation Day 2012.
U.S. Public Support to Climate Change Initiatives?: Setting Stricter Carbon Dioxide Emission Limits on Power Plants: 10.4018/978-1-5225-0440-5.ch026: The Obama Administration Climate Action Plan is enforcing goals to reduce greenhouse gas emissions below 2005 levels by 2020, regulating both stationary and
Decarbonization of the Electricity Sector. One of the strategies for reducing carbon dioxide emissions was to decarbonize the generating sector-mainly by reducing coal and increasing renewable energy, particularly wind and solar power. This strategy has been part of the plan for the European Union and for the United States under former President Barack Obamas Clean Power Plan.. An interesting result from the BP data is that the world has essentially made no progress towards decarbonizing its electricity sector over the last 32 years. In 1985, 36 percent of the worlds electricity was generated from low-carbon sources (hydro, nuclear, renewable energy). In 2017, 33 percent of the worlds electricity was generated from low-carbon sources. Increased generation from non-hydroelectric renewables (solar, wind, biomass) provided only about half of the increase in world electricity demand over the last ten years.. China and India remain large generators of coal-fired electricity, producing 67 percent ...
Carbon dioxide emissions control concept. 3d rendering of co2 cloud on fresh spring meadow with blue sky in background. - Buy this stock illustration and explore similar illustrations at Adobe Stock
The decline in energy-related carbon dioxide emissions occurred when the U.S. economy grew in 2012. "Although GDP increased by 2.8 percent in 2012, energy consumption fell by 2.4 percent," EIA said. "With population growth of about 0.7 percent, per capita output rose by about 2 percent in 2012. The emissions decline was the largest in a year with positive growth in per capita output and the only year to show a decline where per capita output increased 2 percent or more.". ...
Even if carbon dioxide emissions came to a sudden halt, the carbon dioxide already in Earths atmosphere could continue to warm our planet for hundreds of years, according to Princeton University-led research published in the journal Nature Climate Change.. The study suggests that it might take a lot less carbon than previously thought to reach the global temperature scientists deem unsafe.. The researchers simulated an Earth on which, after 1,800 billion tons of carbon entered the atmosphere, all carbon dioxide emissions suddenly stopped. Scientists commonly use the scenario of emissions screeching to a stop to gauge the heat-trapping staying power of carbon dioxide. Within a millennium of this simulated shutoff, the carbon itself faded steadily with 40 percent absorbed by Earths oceans and landmasses within 20 years and 80 percent soaked up at the end of the 1,000 years.. By itself, such a decrease of atmospheric carbon dioxide should lead to cooling. But the heat trapped by the carbon ...
Carbon dioxide emissions, adaptation of Kyoto protocol and Africas importance in these discussions.Footage include:General outside views of Le Bourget COP21 with countries flags. General inside...
Elevated concentrations of carbon dioxide are a hallmark of the climate crisis since they are associated with higher temperatures, melting ice and sea level rise, among other effects.. University of Exeter geography professor Richard Betts, head of the climate impacts division at the UKs national weather service, expects this years CO2 concentrations to be 10 percent higher than normal, with one or two percent of that carbon rise attributed to the Australia wildfires, as NBC News reported. The fires, which raged for nearly five months, released about 900 million tons of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere.. The Pliocene Era from 5 to 2.6 million years ago provides a window of what a world with such high carbon dioxide concentrations can look like. It was a period well before humans evolved. Temperatures at the poles then were likely about 15 degrees Fahrenheit higher than they are now, according to Siegert, who spoke to NBC News.. "There would have been a lot less ice on the planet - there ...
Two aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.) clones, differing in O3 tolerance, were grown in a free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE) facility near Rhinelander, Wisconsin, and exposed to ambient air, elevated CO2,
The CO2 concentration in the atmosphere has increased significantly in recent decades and is projected to rise in the future. The effects of elevated CO2 concentrations on morphological and anatomical characteristics, and nutrient accumulation have been determined in several plant species. Carrot is an important vegetable and the effects of elevated CO2 on carrots remain unclear. To investigate the effects of elevated CO2 on the growth of carrots, two carrot cultivars (Kurodagosun and Deep purple) were treated with ambient CO2 (a[CO2], 400 μmol⋅mol-1) and elevated CO2 (e[CO2], 3000 μmol⋅mol-1) concentrations. Under e[CO2] conditions, taproot and shoot fresh weights and the root/shoot ratio of carrot significantly decreased as compared with the control group. Elevated CO2 resulted in obvious changes in anatomy and ascorbic acid accumulation in carrot roots. Moreover, the transcript profiles of 12 genes related to AsA biosynthesis and recycling were altered in response to e[CO2]. The
In this study, I evaluated the impact of elevated CO2 and insect herbivory on the genotypic response of Arabidopsis thaliana . I performed greenhouse and field experiments to examine plant ecological traits related to life history, fitness, and resistance and their variation under different abiotic and biotic conditions. Results from a greenhouse experiment provided evidence that herbivory by the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella, can modify the fitness response of A. thaliana to enriched CO2 conditions. Even though elevated CO 2 significantly enhanced plant fitness in the absence of herbivores, diamondback moth herbivory either decreased or suppressed the fitness response of A. thaliana to elevated CO2 (fitness decreased by 22--50% across genotypes). I further tested the hypothesis that elevated CO2 and herbivory can disrupt and restructure functional associations among plant fitness-related traits. This investigation demonstrated that elevated CO2 alone, and CO2 combined with herbivory ...
Total carbon dioxide (TCO2) and computations of partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO2) had been examined in Northerneastern region of Indian Ocean. It exhibit seasonal and spatial variability. North-south gradients in the pCO2 levels were closely related to gradients in salinity caused by fresh water discharge received from rivers. Eddies observed in this region helped to elevate the nutrients availability and the biological controls by increasing the productivity. These phenomena elevated the carbon dioxide draw down during the fair seasons. Seasonal fluxes estimated from local wind speed and air-sea carbon dioxide difference indicate that during southwest monsoon, the northeastern Indian Ocean acts as a strong sink of carbon dioxide (-20.04 mmol m -2 d-1 ). Also during fall intermonsoon the area acts as a weak sink of carbon dioxide (-4.69 mmol m -2 d-1 ). During winter monsoon, this region behaves as a weak carbon dioxide source with an average sea to air flux of 4.77 mmol m-2 d-1. In the ...
Carbon dioxide retention in copd - What is carbon dioxide narcosis in relation to copd? Cause of death. Carbon dioxide buildup happens as COPD worsens. In an acut exacerbation (sudden worsening), co2 will rapidly accumulate. This can lead to confusion, sedation, and decreased respiratory drive. If not promptly treated it will lead to death.
Carbon dioxide is largely used in the food manufacturing business. Carbonated drinks are treated with carbon dioxide to give that sparkly taste. Decaffeinated coffee is produced by soaking the coffee beans in water infused with sufficient carbon dioxide to flush out and eventually absorb the caffeine content. Even some soda crackers are injected with carbon dioxide not only to make them crispy but to extend their shelf life as well. And of course, wine and beer makers have been making use of carbon dioxide not only as a fermenting agent once mixed with yeast, but for storage as well since carbon dioxide greatly minimizes and delays the oxidation process.. Carbon dioxide can be easily produced, especially by us humans. We breathe in oxygen and breathe out carbon dioxide. Some household activities such as cooking can also result in the production of carbon dioxide. One very good example of this is bread making. Mixing in yeast to the dough releases carbon dioxide causing it to rise. One other ...
Background: Although assessing arterial blood gas (ABG) is recommended, prognostic values of arterial carbon dioxide (CO2) levels in patients with acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF) are not well-established. Thus, we investigated the relationship between partial pressure of arterial carbon dioxide (PaCO2) levels and long-term mortality in patients with ADHF.. Methods: A cohort of 2300 patients consecutively admitted to the cardiac intensive-care unit from 2007 to 2011 were studied. Among them, patients admitted due to ADHF (defined according to the current guideline) are enrolled. Patients with other life-threatening condition such as neoplasm and shock were excluded. Baseline data were collected at the time of patients arrival to the hospital. All eligible patients were categorized according to the tertiles of PaCO2 on admission. The risk of PaCO2 levels for all-cause mortality was assessed by multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression analysis with backward elimination.. Results: ...
Lots of papers have shown an average increase in vegetation across the globe, and there is a lot of speculation about whats causing that," said Donohue of CSIROs Land and Water research division, who is lead author of the new study. "Up until this point, theyve linked the greening to fairly obvious climatic variables, such as a rise in temperature where it is normally cold or a rise in rainfall where it is normally dry. Lots of those papers speculated about the CO2 effect, but it has been very difficult to prove ...
0025] An embodiment described herein is a carbon dioxide separating and recovering system including an absorption tower configured to cause carbon dioxide to be absorbed in an absorbing solution, and exhaust a rich solution as the absorbing solution in which the carbon dioxide is absorbed, and a regeneration tower configured to release the carbon dioxide from the rich solution, and exhaust a lean solution as the absorbing solution having a dissolved carbon dioxide concentration lower than a dissolved carbon dioxide concentration in the rich solution. The system further includes at least one measuring apparatus configured to measure an ultrasound propagation speed in the absorbing solution flowing in the system. Each of the at least one measuring apparatus includes a temperature measuring unit configured to measure a temperature of the absorbing solution, an ultrasound generator configured to generate ultrasound in the absorbing solution, and an ultrasound propagation speed measuring unit ...
Carbon dioxide is a potent cerebral vasodilator. We have identified a significant source of low-frequency variation in blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) signal at 3 T arising from spontaneous fluctuations in arterial carbon dioxide level in volunteers at rest. Fluctuations in the partial pressure of end-tidal carbon dioxide (Pet(CO(2))) of +/-1.1 mm Hg in the frequency range 0-0.05 Hz were observed in a cohort of nine volunteers. Correlating with these fluctuations were significant generalized grey and white matter BOLD signal fluctuations. We observed a mean (+/-standard error) regression coefficient across the group of 0.110 +/- 0.033% BOLD signal change per mm Hg CO(2) for grey matter and 0.049 +/- 0.022% per mm Hg in white matter. Pet(CO(2))-related BOLD signal fluctuations showed regional differences across the grey matter, suggesting variability of the responsiveness to carbon dioxide at rest. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) results were corroborated
Inside these chambers are small trees that are being exposed to high levels of carbon dioxide. The experiment is testing the long-term effects of carbon dioxide on the growth of radiata pine and red beech. It is part of research into the impact of global climate change on ecosystems, which is being carried out near Christchurch by a group that includes researchers from local and international universities, and Crown research institutes.. ...
Carbon dioxide is a chemical compound consisting of two oxygen atoms covalently linked to a central carbon atom, and so can be represented with the chemical formula CO2. Carbon dioxide is essential for the process of photosynthesis which occurs in the chloroplasts of plants. This is a process in which the carbon dioxide from the air (around 0.0360% of the air is carbon dioxide) [1]: produced by respiration by living organisms, as well as by the combustion of fossil fuels, is utilised by the plants to produce the sugars they require to grow. Plants may also store this sugar in the form of starch. Carbon dioxide is a chemical compound consisting of two oxygen atoms that are covalently linked to a central carbon atom, and so can be represented with the chemical formula CO2. Carbon dioxide is essential for the process of photosynthesis which occurs in the chloroplasts of plants. This is a process in which the carbon dioxide from the air (around 0.0360% of the air is carbon dioxide): produced by ...
In the IEO2007 reference case, which does not include specific policies to limit greenhouse gas emissions, energy-related carbon dioxide emissions are projected to rise from 26.9 billion metric tons in 2004 to 33.9 billion metric tons in 2015 and 42.9 billion metric tons in 2030. From 2003 to 2004, carbon dioxide emissions from the non-OECD countries grew by almost 10 percent, while emissions in the OECD countries grew by less than 2 percent. The result of the large increase in non-OECD emissions was that 2004 marked the first time in history that emissions from the non-OECD exceeded those from the OECD countries. Further, because of the expectation that non-OECD countries will rely on fossil fuels to supply much of their future energy demand growth, carbon dioxide emissions from the non-OECD countries in 2030 are projected to exceed those from the OECD by 57 percent ...
Posted on 06/01/2012 4:36:50 PM PDT by CedarDave. WASHINGTON -- The worlds air has reached what scientists call a troubling new milestone for carbon dioxide, the main global warming pollutant. Monitoring stations across the Arctic this spring are measuring more than 400 parts per million of the heat-trapping gas in the atmosphere. Carbon dioxide is the chief greenhouse gas and stays in the atmosphere for 100 years. Some carbon dioxide is natural, mainly from decomposing dead plants and animals. Before the Industrial Age, levels were about 275 ppm ...
Underappreciated player in carbon storage should be included in global change models, researcher says. Elevated levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide accelerate carbon cycling and soil carbon loss in forests, new research led by an Indiana University biologist has found.. The new evidence supports an emerging view that although forests remove a substantial amount of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere, much of the carbon is being stored in living woody biomass rather than as dead organic matter in soils.. Richard P. Phillips, lead author on the paper and an assistant professor of biology in the IU College of Arts and Sciences, said that after nearly two decades of research on forest ecosystem responses to global change, some of the uncertainty has been lifted about how forests are storing carbon in the wake of rising carbon dioxide levels.. "Its been suggested that as trees take up more carbon dioxide from the atmosphere, a greater amount of carbon will go to roots and fungi to acquire nutrients, ...
The advantages of the electrochemical conversion of carbon dioxide to fuels using renewable energy sources are two-fold: (1) it has the potential to accomplish a carbon-neutral energy cycle and (2) it can provide an approach to tackle the environmental challenges caused by anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions. Although thermodynamically possible, the kinetics of carbon dioxide reduction to fuels remains challenging and therefore, an efficient and robust electrocatalyst is needed to promote the reaction. The ideal catalyst for the electrochemical CO2 reduction must be capable of mediating multiple proton-coupled electron transfer reactions at low overpotentials, suppressing the concurrent hydrogen evolution reaction, converting CO2 to desired chemicals with high selectivity, and achieving long-term stability. Extensive research has been carried out on metallic electrocatalysts during the past three decades; however, none of these materials are simultaneously efficient and stable for practical purposes.
The data collected (as seen in Figure 10) shows an average of 0 carbon dioxide bubbles per minute at 0 degrees Celsius, an average of 11.5 bubbles per minute at 19 degrees Celsius, and an average of 76.8 bubbles per minute at 83 degrees Celsius.. The test at 83 deg. C showed a near-constant decline in the amount of bubbles as time passed. This mostly occurred because enzymes denatured and could no longer catalyse the reaction. The high number of bubbles at the beginning is probably due to the rapid expansion of gas at high temperatures and does not actually represent carbon dioxide (See Fig. 6). The test at 0 degrees Celsius showed no production of carbon dioxide, presumably because the low temperatures froze the yeast. (See Fig. 7). The room temperature test (19 deg. C) showed a fairly even level of carbon dioxide production, but not enough to be useful in the making of leavened bread. (See Fig. 8). We incurred two experimental errors in the first testing at 0 degrees Celsius. By beginning the ...
Carbon dioxide indicator for receiving gas containing carbon dioxide and for providing a visible indication of the presence of carbon dioxide in the gas, the indicator includes a connector for removably connecting the indicator to a source of gas containing carbon dioxide and which connector is for communicating at least a portion of such gas to the indicator. The carbon dioxide indicator may be a disk indicator and the connector may be a male luer or a locking male luer. The carbon dioxide indicator may include removable ultraviolet radiation shielding permitting the carbon dioxide indicator to be preassembled to a patients respiratory or breathing circuits or to a resuscitator.
BOURNE, MASS.-Scientific and medical research links carbon dioxide (CO2) levels to discomfort and lost productivity among occupants in offices, schools, healthcare facilities, and dwellings. Facility managers and building engineers are often responsible for ensuring optimal ventilation in these spaces, yet many are unfamiliar with the methods for achieving such control. To address this issue, Onset, a leader in data loggers, has published a new white paper that examines the risks of elevated carbon dioxide and how data loggers can be used to cost-effectively monitor CO2 and maintain safe levels.. The Onset white paper, "Managing Carbon Dioxide Risk: What You Should Know," was developed by Greg Lowitz, founder and CEO of Buildera. Lowitz is a globally-recognized expert in structural monitoring, including indoor building air quality analysis, crack measurement, and energy and water resource management.. Lowitz begins by discussing how CO2 concentration is a key indicator of indoor-air quality and ...
Kevin Trenberth, Distinguished Senior Scientist, Climate Analysis Section, National Center for Atmospheric Research "Carbon dioxide concentrations are up some 43 percent from 280 ppm just over 100 years ago. Moreover, more than 60 percent of the increase has occurred since 1970 and attempts to slow the rate of rise, like the Kyoto Protocol, have failed. It is a sign of a flourishing industrialized economy and human well-being that is unprecedented. But it has unintended consequences in air quality and climate change. It provides a strong sign of our inability to control excesses that provide threats not so evident now but in the future. Yet in 2012 the U.S. experienced a taste with the enhanced drought, heat waves and wildfires. Superstorm Sandy was another harbinger of expected stronger storms and deluges. The often-unrecognized, tremendous costs already present rain down on the innocent, and we all suffer the consequences. There are too many people with too big an environmental footprint ...
Asset Management (28) Automation (7) Big Data (1) Biogas (1) Black Powder (3) Carbon Dioxide Transport (14) Cathodic Protection (4) Cleaning (5) Climate Challenges (7) Coating (38) Composite Repair (8) Compressor Stations (16) Construction (74) Construction Machinery (8) Corrosion (45) Crack Detection (15) Cyber Security (7) Decommissioning (2) Digitalization (7) Direct Assessment (9) Drag Reducing Agents (6) Emergency Response (4) Energy Recovery (3) Environmental Impact (9) Environmental Protection (12) Fiber Optic Sensing (10) Geohazards (16) GIS (6) Hot Tapping (3) Hydrogen (7) Hydrostatic Testing (3) Illegal Tapping (10) Inline Inspection (113) Instrumentation (15) Integrity Management (101) Internet of Things (3) Leak Detection (80) Life Cycle Extension Strategies (11) LNG (3) Logistics (5) Management Systems (16) Materials (44) Monitoring (27) Offshore (74) Oil (28) Operational Improvements (4) Pipe Tracking (3) Planning and Design (105) Power to Gas (5) Products (2) Public Perception ...
This left the little suffocating blobs with three options. They could stay remain tiny (as the picoplankton did) to minimise diffusion differences and therefore still survive dispite the low carbon dioxide levels. Or they could try to change the way Rubisco worked, but Rubisco has a rather compromised active site as it is, having to both distinguish between carbon dioxide and oxygen and trying to keep carbon dioxide processing levels high. Rubisco is often criticised as being an inefficient enzyme, and compared to other enzymes it is, but with carbon dioxide levels at the level they are in the sea its only ever working at half of its maximum speed. Carbon dioxide is the clear limiting factor ...
This book focuses on the interactive effects of environmental stresses with plant and ecosystem functions, especially with respect to changes in the abundance of carbon dioxide. The interaction of stresses with elevated carbon dioxide are presented from the cellular through whole plant ecosystem level. The book carefully considers not only the responses of the above-ground portion of the plant, but also emphasizes the critical role of below-ground (rhizosphere) components (e.g., roots, microbes, soil) in determining the nature and magnitude of these interactions. * Will rising CO2 alter the importance of environmental stress in natural and agricultural ecosystems? * Will environmental stress on plants reduce their capacity to remove CO2 from the atmosphere? * Are some stresses more important than others as we concern ourselves with global change? * Can we develop predictive models useful for scientists and policy-makers? * Where should future research efforts be focused?
Human influence on the Earths atmosphere touched what climate scientists called a dire milestone Friday as concentrations of heat-trapping carbon dioxide nudged up to a level unseen in some about 3 m...
Research has identified, for the first time, how global warming is related to the amount of carbon emitted.. A team of researchers from the universities of Southampton, Bristol and Liverpool have derived the first theoretical equation to demonstrate that global warming is a direct result of the build-up of carbon emissions since the late 1800s when human-made carbon emissions began. The results are in accord with previous data from climate models.. The theoretical equation reveals the complex relationship between carbon dioxide levels and the ocean system. Burning fossil fuels increases atmospheric carbon dioxide levels leading to global warming and the greenhouse effect, which is partly offset by the oceans taking in both heat and carbon.. The results show every million-million tonnes of carbon emitted will generate one degree Celsius of global warming. They also show that the build-up of carbon emitted over the last 200 years will then last for many centuries to millennia, even if carbon ...
Have the students stand up and go to the area of the world they think has the highest population. Now have students go to the area of the world they think has the lowest population. Next have students go to the area of the world they think emits the most carbon dioxide. Then have them go to the area of the world they think emits the least carbon dioxide. Have all but 19 students return to their seats ...
Besides the numerous disadvantages carbon dioxide has, the by-product of breathing also has some benefits. For example, it is required by green plants for photosynthesis. Moreover, the plentiful Asian carps that invaded Great Lakes could be controlled using CO2.. Both silver and bighead Asian carp could invade Great Lakes after escaping into the wild during flood episodes. They are considered a threat to other fish and fishing mainly because they are disturbed by the passing motorboats. When disturbed they jump out of the water and sometimes land in the boats.. In order to block the spread of the carp, specialists tried to create an electric barrier. However, but that is not the only solution. Another solution would be carbon dioxide gas infusing into the water would encourage the carp to move into a research pond created in Wisconsin and operated by U.S. Geological Survey.. The specialists have not yet found the exact way in which carbon dioxide can be used against the fish, but according to ...
In this article we apply geodemographic consumer segmentation data in an input−output framework to understand the direct and indirect carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions associated with consumer behavior of different lifestyles in the United Kingdom. In a subsequent regression analysis, we utilize the lifestyle segments contained in the dataset to control for aspects of behavioral differences related to lifestyles in an analysis of the impact of various socioeconomic variables on CO2 emissions, such as individual aspirations and peoples attitudes toward the environment, as well as the physical context in which people act.. This approach enables us to (1) test for the significance of lifestyles in determining CO2 emissions, (2) quantify the importance of a variety of individual socioeconomic determinants, and (3) provide a visual representation of "where" the various factors exert the greatest impact, by exploiting the spatial information contained in the lifestyle data.. Our results indicate the ...
Atmospheric carbon dioxide continued its rapid rise in 2019, with the average for May peaking at 414.7 parts per million (ppm) at NOAAs Mauna Loa Atmospheric Baseline Observatory.
Our atmosphere is a remarkable window to space which allows sunlight to stream through to the earths surface while forming an opaque ozone screen to the deadly ultraviolet rays of the sun and a shield against the loss of excessive amounts of heat radiation from the surface to space. The atmosphere and plant life evolved together through several billion years, with plants using carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and releasing to the atmosphere oxygen and water. It is a magnificent system with which mankind is now tampering through industrial, agricultural and land use activities. The increasing burning of fossil fuels and destruction of forests has released carbon dioxide gas to the atmosphere from storage. Today, we have 20 years of continuous measurements of the carbon dioxide concentration of the atmosphere and there is absolutely no question concerning the current rate of increase. Carbon dioxide is a gas which is transparent to solar radiation--but it is absorbed by the long-wave radiant ...
According to The Hill and other news organizations, "President Obama will sign an executive order [today] ordering federal government agencies to slash their greenhouse gas emissions.". "A White House official said the order is a way for the government to "lead by example" by curbing emissions of carbon dioxide and other gases believed to cause global warming.. "Several major companies that supply goods to the federal government will announce their own voluntary effects to cut greenhouse gases, the White House said.. "Since the federal government is the largest single consumer of energy in the country, its actions can make a major dent in the greenhouse gas emissions of the country as a whole.". But according to The Federalist, the president is bypassing the Constitution, and that the "president, who believes that climate change is the greatest threat facing mankind, was unable to rally Democrats majorities in both houses to pass cap-and-trade legislation when he had a chance.". POLITICO says ...
The present invention is directed to providing a method of producing synthetic fuels and organic chemicals from atmospheric carbon dioxide. Carbon dioxide gas is extracted from the atmosphere, hydrogen gas is obtained by splitting water, a mixture of the carbon dioxide gas and the hydrogen gas (synthesis gas) is generated, and the synthesis gas is converted into synthetic fuels and/or organic products. The present invention is also directed to utilizing a nuclear power reactor to provide power for the method of the present invention.
The effects of carbon dioxide stimulation and resistance breathing are first considered, pooling measurements made in the control, relaxant, and recovery time periods, and values are given as medians and quartiles. Respiratory frequency, tidal volume, minute ventilation, and the pressure-time product were increased by carbon dioxide stimulation as expected. End-tidal carbon dioxide concentration increased from 5%(QV, 4.8-5.3%) to 6.5%(QV, 6.2-6.5%), and the change in end tidal carbon dioxide in individuals was 1.45%(QV, 1.2-1.6%). Minute ventilation increased from 6.9 l/min (QV, 6.5-7.7 l/min) to 16.6 l/min (QV, 14-18.7 l/min). These changes were accompanied by a reduction in airway resistance, from 1.2 (QV, 0.67-1.72) cm H2O [center dot] I sup -1 [center dot] s to 0.8 (QV, 0.46-1.33) cm H2O [center dot] I sup -1 [center dot] s. As expected, the pressure-time product increased, from 117 (QV, 83-138) cm H2O [center dot] s [center dot] min sup -1 to 275 (QV, 223-442) cm H2O [center dot] s [center ...
The Earths climate is continually changing. Since the planet was born some 4.5 billion years ago, it has undergone ice ages and warm periods due to natural changes in its orbit around the sun and other factors on its surface. But since the Industrial Revolution, humans have been the main factor in the Earths warming. Since pre-industrial times, the Earths surface has warmed some 1.5 degrees celsius. And with 2.4 million pounds of carbon dioxide (CO2) being released into the air every second, we are on track to get a lot warmer still. So when did we realize climate change was happening and who is responsible? The science behind climate change was first understood by Swedish chemist Svante Arrhenius in 1896; he thought the results would be positive for humans. Arrhenius realized that burning fossil fuels would have a greenhouse effect on the planet and would likely warm the planet by several degrees. Throughout the 20th century, the planets human population increased by more than 280 percent and
Carbon dioxide is in the air like never before, but not just as measurable parts per million in the earths atmosphere. Increasingly the subject of everyday conversation and cultural discourse, rising CO2 emissions are seen by many as no less a threat than terrorism or uncontrolled immigration.
A new model has been constructed for calculating the level of atmospheric CO(2) during the past 570 million years. A series of successive steady states for CO(2) is used in order to calculate CO(2) level from a feedback function for the weathering of silicate minerals. Processes considered are: sedi …
The warmest global climates of the past 65 million years occurred during the early Eocene epoch (about 55 to 48 million years ago), when the Equator-to-pole temperature gradients were much smaller than today1, 2 and atmospheric carbon dioxide levels were in excess of one thousand parts per million by volume3, 4. Recently the early Eocene has received considerable interest because it may provide insight into the response of Earth s climate and biosphere to the high atmospheric carbon dioxide levels that are expected in the near future5 as a consequence of unabated anthropogenic carbon emissions4, 6. Climatic conditions of the early Eocene greenhouse world , however, are poorly constrained in critical regions, particularly Antarctica. Here we present a well-dated record of early Eocene climate on Antarctica from an ocean sediment core recovered off the Wilkes Land coast of East Antarctica. The information from biotic climate proxies (pollen and spores) and independent organic geochemical climate ...
The following as been excerpted from Twilight of Abundance: Why Life in the 21st Century will be Nasty, Brutish, and Short by David Archibald, which is available at Amazon: |The United States is needlessly penalizing itself and squandering its resource endowment, all because of the big lie that carbon dioxide is causing dangerous global warming.…
The amount of climate-warming carbon dioxide in the atmosphere topped 400 parts per million at a key observing station in Hawaii for the first time since measurement began in 1958, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration said on Friday.
Carbon dioxide - the gas scientists say is most responsible for global warming - reached its highest level in recorded history last month, at 410 parts per million.
Washington Post - The new plan to remove a trillion tons of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere: Bury it - "It sounds like an idea plucked from science fiction, but the reality is that trees and plants already do it. Last month, carbon dioxide levels in the atmosphere surpassed 415 parts per million, the highest in human history. Environmental experts say the world is increasingly on a path toward a climate crisis. The most prominent efforts to prevent that crisis involve reducing carbon emissions. But another idea is also starting to gain traction - sucking all that carbon out of the atmosphere and storing it underground. It sounds like an idea plucked from science fiction, but the reality is that trees and plants already do it, breathing carbon dioxide and then depositing it via roots and decay into the soil. Thats why consumers and companies often "offset" their carbon emissions by planting carbon-sucking trees elsewhere in the world. But an upstart company, -Boston-based Indigo AG, now wants ...
p,,strong,BACKGROUND: ,/strong,Early life adversities are risk factors for anxiety disorders and for pain syndromes, which are, in turn, highly comorbid with anxiety disorders. Repeated cross-fostering mouse pups to adoptive lactating females induces epigenetic modification and heightened mRNA-expression of the acid-sensing-ion-channel-1 gene, altered nociception, and hypersensitivity to 6% carbon dioxide air mixtures, a trait marker of specific human anxiety disorders such as, most clearly and prominently, panic disorder.,/p,. ,p,,strong,AIMS: ,/strong,We hypothesized that the acid-sensing ion channel inhibitor amiloride can modulate repeated cross-fostering animals exaggerated responses to carbon dioxide and nociceptive thermal stimulation.,/p,. ,p,,strong,METHODS: ,/strong,Respiratory carbon dioxide sensitivity was assessed by plethysmography during 6% carbon dioxide air mixture challenges, and nociception was assessed by latency of paw withdrawal to thermal stimulation, in repeated ...
The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, U.S. Department of Transportations National Highway and Traffic Safety Administration, and the California Air Resources Board have recently released proposed new regulations for greenhouse gas emissions and fuel economy for light-duty vehicles and trucks in model years 2017-2025. These proposed regulations intend to significantly reduce greenhouse gas emissions and increase fleet fuel economy from current levels. At the fleet level, these rules the proposed regulations represent a 50% reduction in greenhouse gas emissions by new vehicles in 2025 compared to current fleet levels. At the same time, global growth, especially in developing economies, should continue to drive demand for crude oil and may lead to further fuel price increases. Both of these trends will therefore require light duty vehicles (LDV) to significantly improve their greenhouse gas emissions over the next 5-15 years to meet regulatory requirements and customer demand. In this paper, ...
Increasing global emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2), a heat-trapping gas, are pushing the world into dangerous territory, closing the window of time to avert...
The Canadian Nuclear Factbook 2020 was released by the Canadian Nuclear Association. Page 22 compares the amount of carbon dioxide (CO2) generated by different forms of power generation over its entire lifecycle. This lifecycles includes its construction, the recovery of the fuel (if necessary), power plant operation, and decommissioning. ...
10/05/05, Cooperation for more efficient removal and storage of natural gas carbon dioxide, , , , BASF and JGC Corporation, Japan, are jointly developing a new technology for removing and storing the carb...
Global carbon dioxide emissions may be dropping ever so slightly this year, spurred by a dramatic plunge in Chinese pollution, according to a surprising new study released Monday. The unexpected dip could either be a temporary blip or true hope that the world is about to turn the corner on carbon pollution as climate talks continue in Paris, said the studys authors, a scientific team that regularly tracks heat-trapping pollution. If it is indeed a decrease, however, study authors said this would be the first time global carbon dioxide emissions have dropped, even if only slightly, while the world economy grows.
Click here to download the full report in PDF format. Driessen explains in detail where carbon dioxide comes from, why it spurs plant growth, how it fights pollution, and its many other benefits. "Eliminate CO2, and plants would shrivel and die. So would lake and ocean algae or phytoplankton, grasses, kelp and other water plants. After that, animal and human life would disappear. Even reducing carbon dioxide levels too much - sending it back to pre-industrial levels, for example - would have terrible consequences for crops, other plants, animals and humans.". "Carbon dioxide performs as many miracles for our planet as antibiotics and immunizations have for mankind. That is an amazing feat for a colorless, odorless, tasteless gas that represents just 0.04 percent of our atmosphere: the equivalent of just 40 cents out of $1,000 or 1.4 inches on a football field!". ...
In the human body, carbon dioxide (CO2) is a metabolic waste product of aerobic metabolism. Specifically, two catabolic processes, pyruvate decarboxylation and the Krebs cycle, both of which occur in the mitochondria of cells, produce CO2. As a result of these processes, the concentration of CO2 increases proportionally to metabolic activity within tissues, leading to an increased partial pressure of carbon dioxide (Pco2). This pressure gradient drives CO2, a highly lipid-soluble molecule, out of tissues, across cell membranes, and into the blood of systemic capillaries. Once it has diffused into the capillaries, CO2 is transported to the lungs by three mechanisms. ...
With so much world attention on human-generated carbon dioxide emissions, it s easy to forget that carbon dioxide also comes from natural sources. For example, Redoubt Volcano on the west side of Alaska s Cook Inlet is spewing carbon dioxide into the atmosphere during its current eruption. According...
Key Points:1. This indicator tracks the global monthly average concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, capturing both seasonal and interannual trends. Carbon dioxide concentration is an important measure of how human activity has increased the heat-trapping capacity of the atmosphere.2. Global monthly average concentrations of carbon dioxide have risen steadily from 339 parts per million in 1980 (averaged over the year) to 402 parts per million in 2016, an increase of about 19% in just over 30 years.
Crops with deeper roots could help bring down the atmospheric carbon dioxide levels, says a leading University of Manchester scientist.
This image was created with data acquired by the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder instrument (AIRS) on NASAs Aqua satellite during July 2009. The image shows large-scale patterns of carbon dioxide concentrations that are transported around Earth by the general circulation of the atmosphere. Dark blue corresponds to a concentration of 382 parts per million and dark red corresponds to a concentration of almost 390 parts per million. The northern hemisphere mid-latitude jet stream effectively sets the northern limit of enhanced carbon dioxide. A belt of enhanced carbon dioxide girdles the globe in the southern hemisphere, following the zonal flow of the southern hemisphere mid-latitude jet stream. This belt of carbon dioxide is fed by biogenesis activity in South America (carbon dioxide is released into the atmosphere through the respiration and decomposition of vegetation), forest fires in both South America and Central Africa, and clusters of gasification plants in South Africa and power generation plants
Substantial changes to algae, animals and microorganisms. For their study, the researchers visited natural leaks of CO2 in the sandy seabed off the coast of Sicily. They compared the local ecosystem with locations without CO2-venting. In addition, they exchanged sand between sites with and without CO2-venting in order to study how the bottom-dwellers respond and if they can adapt. Their conclusion: Increased CO2 levels drastically alter the ecosystem. "Most of the animals inhabiting the site disappeared due to the effect of the leaking CO2", Massimiliano Molari reports. "The functioning of the ecosystem was also disrupted - and whats more, long-term. Even a year after the CO2-vented sediment had been transported to undisturbed sites, its typical sandy sediment community had not established.". The researchers report the following details:. ...
McNamara, Niall P. and Plant, T. and Ward, Susan and Wood, C. and Ostle, N. (2008) Gully hotspot contribution to landscape methane and carbon dioxide fluxes in a northern peatland. Science of the Total Environment, 404. pp. 354-360. ISSN 0048-9697 Full text not available from this repository ...
The Northern Hemisphere experienced the first full month with the greenhouse gas at or above the symbolic 400 parts per million level.
A process for separating a feed gas into at least one product gas includes: (a) providing a gas separation apparatus with at least one adsorption layer including a lithium-exchanged FAU adsorbent having water desorption characteristics, defined by drying curves, similar to those for the corresponding fully sodium-exchanged FAU, a heat of adsorption for carbon dioxide equal to or lower than that for the corresponding fully sodium-exchanged FAU at high loadings of carbon dioxide, and onto which the adsorption layer water and/or carbon dioxide adsorb; (b) feeding into the gas separation apparatus a feed gas including nitrogen, oxygen, and at least one of water and carbon dioxide; and (c) collecting from a product end of the gas separation apparatus at least one product gas containing oxygen.
The study reviewed 13 scenarios from nine different scientific groups. The scenarios were all able to reduce greenhouse gas emissions to meet the 2-degree target by 2020 by using a combination of the following:. Improving energy efficiency: primary energy production would need to drop up to 11 per cent from business-as-usual models in 2020, and the amount of energy used per unit of GDP would need to fall 1.1-2.3 per cent each year from 2005 to 2020.. Up to 28 per cent of total primary energy would need to come from non-fossil sources in 2020 (up from 18.5 per cent in 2005).. Up to 17 per cent of total primary energy in 2020 would come from biomass (up from about 10.5 per cent in 2005).. Up to 9 per cent of total primary energy in 2020 would come from non-biomass renewable energy (solar, wind, hydroelectricity and the like).. Non-CO2 emissions would fall by up to 19 per cent relative to business as usual by 2020.. The reports authors note that all the scenarios examined had different mixes of ...
Although scientists are confident about humankinds role in climate change, they still have a lot to learn about the magnitude and timing of future climate shifts.
Waterboarding: "Finally, you would like to use a technique called the "water-board." In this procedure, the individual is bound securely on an inclined bench, which is approximately four feet by seven feet. The individuals feet are generally elevated. A cloth is placed over the forehead and eyes. Water is then applied to the cloth in a controlled manner. As this is done, the cloth is lowered until it covers both the nose and mouth. Once the cloth is saturated and completely covers the mouth and nose, air now is slightly restricted for 20 to 40 seconds due to the presence of the cloth. This causes an increase in carbon dioxide level in the individuals blood. This increase in the carbon dioxide level stimulates increased effort to breathe. This effort plus the cloth produces the perception of suffocation and incipient panic, i.e.,the perception of drowning. The individual does not breathe any water into his lungs. During those 20 to 40 seconds, water is continuously applied from a beight of 12 ...
Effect of supercritical carbon dioxide on micro-mechanical properties of electrodesposited goldEffect of supercritical carbon dioxide on micro-mechanical properties of electrodesposited gold ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Highly Fluorous Complexes of Ruthenium and Osmium and Their Solubility in Supercritical Carbon Dioxide. AU - Berven, Bradley. AU - Koutsantonis, George. AU - Skelton, Brian. AU - Trengove, R.D.. AU - White, Allan. PY - 2009. Y1 - 2009. N2 - A series of ruthenium and osmium complexes containing highly fluorous diphosphine ligands FPPF = (F13C6C6H4-p)2P(CH2)2P(p-C6H4C6F13)2 (dfppe) and (F13C6C6H4-p)2P(CH2)3P(p-C6H4C6F13)2 (dfppp) has been prepared. The fluorous diphosphine ligands incorporate four C6F13 "fluoro-ponytails", and these have been effective in solubilizing the complexes in supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2). Precise solubility measurements in scCO2 were performed for some of the complexes. The new complexes [MX2(FPPF)2] and [MX(FPPF)(η-C5H5)], M = Ru, Os, X = Cl, Br, have been characterized by a number of spectroscopic techniques and their electrochemical properties measured, three of the ruthenium complexes also being characterized by single-crystal X-ray studies. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Ventilatory constraints influence physiological dead space in heart failure. AU - Smith, Joshua R.. AU - Olson, Thomas P. PY - 2018/1/1. Y1 - 2018/1/1. N2 - New Findings: What is the central question of this study? The goal of this study was to investigate the effect of alterations in tidal volume and alveolar volume on the elevated physiological dead space and the contribution of ventilatory constraints thereof in heart failure patients during submaximal exercise. What is the main finding and its importance? We found that physiological dead space was elevated in heart failure via reduced tidal volume and alveolar volume. Furthermore, the degree of ventilatory constraints was associated with physiological dead space and alveolar volume. Abstract: Patients who have heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) exhibit impaired ventilatory efficiency [i.e. greater ventilatory equivalent for carbon dioxide (VE/VCO2 slope] and elevated physiological dead space (VD/VT). ...
article{06a0fa51-d918-47e3-bae1-d676141a2089, abstract = {We describe the implementation of a biochemical model of isoprene emission that depends on the electron requirement for isoprene synthesis into the Farquhar-Ball-Berry leaf model of photosynthesis and stomatal conductance that is embedded within a global chemistry-climate simulation framework. The isoprene production is calculated as a function of electron transport-limited photosynthesis, intercellular and atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration, and canopy temperature. The vegetation biophysics module computes the photosynthetic uptake of carbon dioxide coupled with the transpiration of water vapor and the isoprene emission rate at the 30 min physical integration time step of the global chemistry-climate model. In the model, the rate of carbon assimilation provides the dominant control on isoprene emission variability over canopy temperature. A control simulation representative of the present-day climatic state that uses 8 plant ...
China Fractional Carbon Dioxide Laser Vaginal Tightening Scar Removal Machine, Find details about China CO2 Fractional Laser, CO2 Laser from Fractional Carbon Dioxide Laser Vaginal Tightening Scar Removal Machine - Beijing ADSS Development Co., Ltd.
TY - JOUR. T1 - The short pulse carbon dioxide laser versus the colorado needle tip with electrocautery for upper and lower eyelid blepharoplasty. AU - Rokhsar, Cameron K.. AU - Ciocon, David H.. AU - Detweiler, Susan. AU - Fitzpatrick, Richard E.. PY - 2008/2. Y1 - 2008/2. N2 - Background/Objective: Various techniques for blepharoplasty have been described, including those performed with the assistance of the short pulse carbon dioxide laser and those performed with the assistance of the Colorado microdissection needle attached to an electrocautery unit. Although the superiority of the carbon dioxide laser to cold steel has been demonstrated for the performance of eyelid blepharoplasty, no studies have ever compared the carbon dioxide laser to the Colorado needle. Study Design/Materials and Methods: This is a paired comparison study in which 12 healthy patients underwent bilateral blepharoplasty of their upper and/or lower eyelids by a single surgeon. For each patient, a short pulse carbon ...
Five individuals who meet the eligibility criteria will take part in this study. They will have a variety of assessments performed throughout the treatment period in order to evaluate both dermatomyositis and calcinosis severity and their potential response to fractional carbon dioxide and sodium thiosulfate treatment. A medical history will be taken and baseline assessments will be performed during the screening period. Serum creatinine kinase levels will be determined on this visit and repeated at the end of the study (week 20); these levels will be one measure of monitoring disease activity during the study. One calcinosis lesion will be treated, assessed, and followed. If a second calcinosis lesion is present, it will act as a control (not treated). Two weeks prior to the first treatment session, an optional (not required) skin biopsy of the target (treated) calcinosis lesion will be offered to the the first 3 patients ≥ 18 years of age to determine optimal fractional carbon dioxide laser ...
This study was performed to determine whether stimulation of the carotid chemoreceptors increases total or regional cerebral blood flow and whether activation of arterial chemoreceptors contributes to cerebral vasodilation during systemic hypoxemia. In anesthetized and ventilated dogs, carotid chemoreceptors were stimulated with nicotine or hypoxic and hypercapnic blood. To measure total and regional cerebral blood flow, we used labeled 15-mu microspheres. Stimulation of chemoreceptors did not increase cerebral blood flow or produce significant redistribution of cerebral blood flow, even though the chemoreflex was intact in these animals (as manifested by vasoconstriction in muscle, kidney, and small bowel) and the cerebral vessels dilated in response to systemic hypercapnia. In other studies in anesthetized, ventilated dogs and rhesus monkeys, cerebral vasodilator responses to systemic hypoxemia were observed before and after denervation of carotid and aortic chemoreceptors. Systemic hypoxemia ...
This is a short term open, randomized cross over trial to explore and compare the efficacy of pharmacological carbonic anhydrase (CA) inhibition on obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) related hypertension. Patients will be randomized to receive Acetazolamide(Diamox®)(ACZ), Continuous Positive Airway Pressure (CPAP)or CPAP plus ACZ for 2 weeks. Following a 2 week wash-out period all study participants will receive the alternative treatment regimen. The total length of the study will be 10 weeks. The effects of carbonic anhydrase inhibition on blood pressure,hemodynamics and sleep apnea will be investigated.. Study hypothesis:. Carbonic anhydrase inhibition alone or in combination with nCPAP will prominently reduce blood pressure in patients with OSA. Further it is hypothesized that CA inhibition will induce a direct pharmacological effects on vascular stiffness as evidenced in overnight non-invasive assessments of vascular stiffness and that this effect will be particularly strong in patients also ...

Highly porous organic nanoparticles formed from supercritical carbon dioxide mediated sol-emulsion-gel method<...Highly porous organic nanoparticles formed from supercritical carbon dioxide mediated sol-emulsion-gel method<...

Lee, J. Y., & Kim, J. H. (2004). Highly porous organic nanoparticles formed from supercritical carbon dioxide mediated sol- ... Lee, JY & Kim, JH 2004, Highly porous organic nanoparticles formed from supercritical carbon dioxide mediated sol-emulsion-gel ... Highly porous organic nanoparticles formed from supercritical carbon dioxide mediated sol-emulsion-gel method. / Lee, Jun Young ... Highly porous organic nanoparticles formed from supercritical carbon dioxide mediated sol-emulsion-gel method. In: Chemistry ...
more infohttps://yonsei.pure.elsevier.com/en/publications/highly-porous-organic-nanoparticles-formed-from-supercritical-car

How To Make Dry Ice | Equipment and MaterialsHow To Make Dry Ice | Equipment and Materials

Carbon dioxide extinguisher. Small cloth bag Duct tape. Gloves. Tongs. *Prepare for dry ice handling. Dry ice is dangerous and ... The compressed carbon dioxide will quickly spray into the cloth bag. You should notice the can of the extinguisher getting cold ... The pressure needed to compress the solid form of carbon dioxide into dry ice is not something you will have at home. You can ... Attach the cloth bag to the carbon dioxide extinguisher. Use the duct tape to secure the bag around the nozzle of the ...
more infohttp://www.howtodothings.com/hobbies/how-to-make-dry-ice

Estimated dead space fraction and the ventilatory ratio are associated with mortality in early ARDS | Annals of Intensive Care ...Estimated dead space fraction and the ventilatory ratio are associated with mortality in early ARDS | Annals of Intensive Care ...

Wexler HR, Lok P. A simple formula for adjusting arterial carbon dioxide tension. Can Anaesth Soc J. 1981;28:370-2. ... Approximation methods for estimating dead space fraction do not require direct measurement of exhaled carbon dioxide, are less ...
more infohttps://annalsofintensivecare.springeropen.com/articles/10.1186/s13613-019-0601-0

What Is Dry Ice? | Juniors BookWhat Is Dry Ice? | Junior's Book

When frozen carbon dioxide is exposed to the air, it evaporates slowly as a gas without going through the melting stage in the ... Dry ice is a frozen form of a gas called carbon dioxide. You may be familiar with dry ice as the frosty pellets that ice-cream ...
more infohttp://www.juniorsbook.com/tell-me-why/what-is-dry-ice/

Carbon Dioxide |
TreeHuggerCarbon Dioxide | TreeHugger

Cyborg bacteria turn carbon dioxide into chemicals and fuels with zero waste Forget about Tony Stark or the Bionic Man, the ... Carbon dioxide may soon be used to make fuel A newly developed, solar powered "leaf" mimics photosynthesis, converting CO2 into ... This Swiss facility is sucking carbon dioxide out of the air for growing veggies (Video) Run on waste heat, this commercial ... In what is said to be a first for automakers, Ford is developing foams and plastics using captured carbon dioxide, which could ...
more infohttps://www.treehugger.com/tag/carbon-dioxide/

Carbon dioxide scrubber - WikipediaCarbon dioxide scrubber - Wikipedia

Activated carbon[edit]. Activated carbon can be used as a carbon dioxide scrubber. Air with high carbon dioxide content, such ... Device which absorbs carbon dioxide from circulated gas A carbon dioxide scrubber is a piece of equipment that absorbs carbon ... Regenerative carbon dioxide removal system[edit]. The regenerative carbon dioxide removal system (RCRS) on the space shuttle ... to remove carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. It reacts with carbon dioxide to form lithium carbonate.[10] Recently lithium ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carbon_dioxide_scrubber

Carbon dioxideCarbon dioxide

pig iron and carbon dioxide:. 2 Fe2O3 + 3 C → 4 Fe + 3 CO2. Yeast metabolizes sugar to produce carbon dioxide and ethanol, also ... Liquid carbon dioxide forms only at pressures above 5.1 atm; the triple point of carbon dioxide is about 518 kPa at −56.6 °C ( ... High concentrations of carbon dioxide can also be used to kill pests, such as the Common Clothes Moth.. Carbon dioxide is used ... Carbon dioxide. 2008/9 Schools Wikipedia Selection. Related subjects: Chemical compounds. Carbon dioxide. ...
more infohttp://www.cs.mcgill.ca/~rwest/link-suggestion/wpcd_2008-09_augmented/wp/c/Carbon_dioxide.htm

Underground Carbon DioxideUnderground Carbon Dioxide

"Schlumberger Carbon Services provides comprehensive geological storage solutions for carbon dioxide (CO2), consistent with care ... However, fears of the byproducts of burning coal, most notably the emission of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere, have many ...
more infohttps://www.thenewamerican.com/tech/environment/item/6653-underground-carbon-dioxide

Metal carbon dioxide complex - WikipediaMetal carbon dioxide complex - Wikipedia

Metal carbon dioxide complexes are coordination complexes that contain carbon dioxide ligands. Aside from the fundamental ... carbon-13) as a diagnostic tool to determine the mode of bonding of carbon dioxide to a metal center". Inorganic Chemistry. 31 ... Illustrative structures of transition metal carbon dioxide complexes, from the left: Ni(η2-CO2)(PCy3)2, Rh(η1-CO2)ClL4 (L4 = ( ... Carbon dioxide can also bind to ligands on a metal complex (vs just the metal), e.g. by converting hydroxy ligands to carbonato ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Metal_carbon_dioxide_complex

carbon dioxidecarbon dioxide

... is emitted when goods are manufactured for export in, say, China, and then again when those goods are ... Electricity generation accounts for about one-third of the 2005 U. S. total of six billion metric tons of carbon dioxide ... The rule would establish a new source performance standard (NSPS) for carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from fossil-fuel electric ... of the carbon dioxide emissions produced. Natural gas use would go down considerably. EPRI projects that electric rates would ...
more infohttp://www.globalwarming.org/tag/carbon-dioxide/

Carbon dioxide - SourceWatchCarbon dioxide - SourceWatch

Trends in Carbon Dioxide from NOAA.. *↑ Annual Mean Growth Rate for Mauna Loa, Hawaii. Trends in Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide. ... Carbon dioxide (CO2) is a chemical compound composed of two oxygen atoms covalently bonded to a single carbon atom. It is a gas ... Wikipedia also has an article on Carbon dioxide. This article may use content from the Wikipedia article under the terms of the ... Carbon dioxide is also generated as a by-product of the combustion of fossil fuels or the burning of vegetable matter like ...
more infohttps://www.sourcewatch.org/index.php?title=CO2

Carbon Dioxide EmissionsCarbon Dioxide Emissions

This is a good introductory activity to carbon emissions. It shows students the amount of carbon dioxide emitted by different ... Next have students go to the area of the world they think emits the most carbon dioxide. Then have them go to the area of the ... Discuss with students whether or not different lifestyles would result in the use of more carbon dioxide. *Have the students ... This demonstration shows students the amount of carbon dioxide emitted by different areas of the world. It also has them ...
more infohttp://www.uen.org/Lessonplan/preview.cgi?LPid=37147

carbon dioxide | FactMonstercarbon dioxide | FactMonster

The chokedamp (see damp ) of mines, pits, and old, unused wells is largely carbon dioxide. Carbon dioxide is a raw material for ... This extra carbon dioxide fuels the greenhouse effect, warming the atmosphere and further disrupting the natural carbon dioxide ... There are three principal commercial sources for carbon dioxide. High-purity carbon dioxide is produced from some wells. The ... removing enough heat so that the rest of it cools into solid carbon dioxide snow. A standard test for the presence of carbon ...
more infohttps://www.factmonster.com/encyclopedia/science/chemistry/elements/carbon-dioxide

Summit: Carbon Dioxide Traders | WIREDSummit: Carbon Dioxide Traders | WIRED

... sellers and brokers of carbon-dioxide discharge permits convenes in Germany. Getting rid of the waste gas blamed for global ... Summit: Carbon Dioxide Traders. Buyers, sellers, brokers and lawyers, even specialists in carbon asset creation management, ... If carbon dioxide had a color, if people saw the sky getting darker, people would have no problem recognizing whats going on ... Whats going on is that the worlds daily output of manmade carbon dioxide, from burning coal, oil and other fossil fuels, is ...
more infohttps://www.wired.com/2004/06/summit-carbon-dioxide-traders/

Carbon dioxideCarbon dioxide

The Densities of Coexisting Liquid and Gaseous Carbon Dioxide and the Solubility of Water in Liquid Carbon Dioxide., J. Am. ... Morrison, G., Effect of water on the critical points of carbon dioxide and ethane, J. Phys. Chem., 1981, 85, 759-61. [all data ... The Methanol-Carbon Dioxide-Ethane System, Russ. J. Phys. Chem. (Engl. Transl.), 1972, 46, 237-239. [all data] ... Giauque, W.F.; Egan, C.J., Carbon Dioxide. The Heat Capacity and Vapor Pressure of the Solid. The Heat of Sublimation. ...
more infohttps://webbook.nist.gov/cgi/cbook.cgi?Source=1976ANG%2FARM0B&

Carbon dioxideCarbon dioxide

... carbon dioxide, and nitrous oxide. Evidence for association of carbon dioxide with methanol in the gas phase, J. Phys. Chem., ... Lord, A.; Pritchard, H.O., Thermodynamics of the reaction between carbon dioxide and carbon tetrachloride, J. Chem. Thermodyn. ... Carbon dioxide with Cl-, H3O+, HCO2+ and HCO+, J. Chem. Phys., 1986, 84, 2091. [all data] ... Other names: Carbon oxide (CO2); Carbonic acid, gas; Carbonic anhydride; Dry ice; CO2; Anhydride carbonique; Carbonica; ...
more infohttps://webbook.nist.gov/cgi/cbook.cgi?ID=C124389&

Carbon DioxideCarbon Dioxide

2) Carbon dioxide The atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) measurements made at Mauna Loa Observatory, Hawaii since 1958 provide ... Thus, this record is taken as a reliable index of long-term carbon dioxide growth. The average CO2 concentration increase at ... Loa Observatory is located at an elevation of 3350 m on the flank of Mauna Loa volcano and is an ideal site for carbon dioxide ...
more infohttp://www.cpc.noaa.gov/products/assessments/assess_97/co2.html

carbon dioxidecarbon dioxide

... , USP UN1013 NON-FLAMMABLE GAS 2 Rx only WARNING: Administration of Carbon Dioxide may be ... CARBON DIOXIDE (UNII: 142M471B3J) (CARBON DIOXIDE - UNII:142M471B3J) CARBON DIOXIDE. 995 mL in 1 L. ... CARBON DIOXIDE, REFRIGERATED LIQUID USP UN2187 NON-FLAMMABLE GAS 2 Always keep container in upright position WARNING: USP Rx ... Administration of Carbon Dioxide may be hazardous or contraindicated. For use only by or under the supervision of a licensed ...
more infohttps://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/fda/fdaDrugXsl.cfm?setid=81a70f82-9fa1-4751-b81f-1c622045634f&type=display

Photosynthesis - Carbon dioxide | Britannica.comPhotosynthesis - Carbon dioxide | Britannica.com

Since the middle of the 19th century, the level of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere has been rising because of the extensive ... The atmospheric level of carbon dioxide climbed from about 0.028 percent in 1860 to 0.032 percent by 1958 (when improved ... The rates of these reactions can be increased somewhat by increasing the carbon dioxide concentration. ... stage of photosynthesis are the chemical reactions by which organic compounds are formed by using carbon dioxide as a carbon ...
more infohttps://www.britannica.com/science/photosynthesis/Carbon-dioxide

Carbon Dioxide | The EcologistCarbon Dioxide | The Ecologist

New report demands Carbon Quotas be introduced 30th March 2009 Personal Carbon Quotas need to be introduced at a community ... A drive to persuade county councils to cut their carbon dioxide emissions by 40 per cent by 2020 could result in as many as ... Capturing and then burying carbon dioxide deep underground in a bid to reduce emissions may lead to a contamination of water ... Oxfam ran a competition for low-carbon lifestyles in 2008 - and all three winners were part of the same DIY carbon rationing ...
more infohttps://theecologist.org/tag/carbon-dioxide

carbon dioxide - Everything2.comcarbon dioxide - Everything2.com

Solid carbon dioxide is more commonly referred to as dry ice. It is a white powdery solid. Carbon dioxide is toxic in ... oxygen in/carbon dioxide out). This is a very finely balanced equilibrium and if the external carbon dioxide concentration ... Carbon Monoxide on the other hand forms so stable a complex with haemoglobin that neither oxygen nor carbon dioxide can ... All the carbon dioxide ends up in the wood. It works the other way, too. Burn sugar completely, and you get this: plant stuff ...
more infohttps://everything2.com/title/Carbon+dioxide

Carbon DIoxide - FSRNCarbon DIoxide - FSRN

... driven by a surge in carbon dioxide levels. Thats according to a report released this week by the United... ... U.S. & China announce carbon emissions deal; but the non-binding agreement is sparse on specifics The worlds two most ...
more infohttp://fsrn.org/tag/carbon-dioxide/

Carbon Dioxide and Organometallics | SpringerLinkCarbon Dioxide and Organometallics | SpringerLink

The Carbon Dioxide Molecule and the Effects of Its Interaction with Electrophiles and Nucleophiles ... Transition Metal-Catalyzed Carboxylation of Organic Substrates with Carbon Dioxide Marcel Brill, Faïma Lazreg, Catherine S. J. ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/book/10.1007/978-3-319-22078-9

carbon dioxide | University of Cambridgecarbon dioxide | University of Cambridge

Carbon dioxide can be stored underground for ten times the length needed to avoid climatic impact. 28 Jul 2016 Study of natural ... New research shows that the natural reactions taking place in some of the underground reservoirs used to store carbon dioxide ... The first comprehensive overview of the worlds largest terrestrial pool of carbon highlights the importance of soil carbon ... of sea ice caused the release of huge amounts of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. ...
more infohttps://www.cam.ac.uk/subjects/carbon-dioxide

Carbon Dioxide (CO2)Carbon Dioxide (CO2)

If you would like to schedule an appointment with one of our nationally ranked specialists or Primary Care physicians please click or call 800-881-7385.. ...
more infohttps://www.nationwidechildrens.org/specialties/laboratory-services/lab-test-directory/carbon-dioxide
  • Its natural removal depends upon the absorption and eventual sequestration in the oceans or land as part of the earth's carbon cycle. (sourcewatch.org)
  • The results , reported in the journal Science, could lead to a reinterpretation of how the carbon cycle has evolved over Earth's history, and how this has impacted the evolution of Earth's habitability. (cam.ac.uk)
  • The Vice Chancellor of the University of Cambridge is to lead a delegation of academics to the annual meeting of the World Economic Forum at Davos, Switzerland, in January 2016, to explore issues including carbon reduction technologies and how science and engineering can best address society's greatest challenges. (cam.ac.uk)
  • So the UK's carbon footprint must be shrinking, right? (globalwarming.org)
  • Nonetheless, the country's carbon footprint was 20% bigger in 2009 than in 1990. (globalwarming.org)
  • For regions with adequate space and little recycling infrastructure, disposing of bottles in landfill generates a lower carbon footprint than recycling or incineration. (theecologist.org)
  • The filling gas within the discharge tube consists of around 10-20% carbon dioxide (CO 2), around 10-20% nitrogen (N 2), a few percent hydrogen (H 2) and/or xenon (Xe) (usually only used in a sealed tube), and the remainder of the gas mixture helium (He). (wikipedia.org)
  • Carbon dioxide is produced during the processes of decay of organic materials and the fermentation of sugars in bread, beer and wine making. (wikipedia.org)
  • Amounts of carbon dioxide are emitted from volcanoes and other geothermal processes such as hot springs and geysers and by the dissolution of carbonates in crustal rocks. (sourcewatch.org)
  • Carbon dioxide was first liquefied (at elevated pressures) in 1823 by Humphry Davy and Michael Faraday. (wikipedia.org)
  • The role of bicarbonate transporters and carbonic anhydrase could be studied in coral formation and the global carbon cycle. (asbmb.org)
  • Carbon dioxide also causes ocean acidification because it dissolves in water to form carbonic acid. (wikipedia.org)
  • at −23 to −12 °C (−10 to 10 °F). By the mid-20th century, most carbon dioxide was sold as the liquid. (britannica.com)
  • By 'fertilizing the oceans,' icebergs are actually helping to sequester more carbon. (treehugger.com)
  • The oceans contain some 1.3 X 10 14 tons of carbon dioxide-about 50 times as much as the air. (scientificamerican.com)
  • When the equilibrium is disturbed, the oceans may engulf or disgorge billions of additional tons of carbon dioxide. (scientificamerican.com)
  • In what is said to be a first for automakers, Ford is developing foams and plastics using captured carbon dioxide, which could be integrated into the company's vehicles within five years. (treehugger.com)
  • A technology developed at a national lab for improving carbon capture at power plants may be able to help craft breweries capture and reuse CO2 from their fermentation processes, while also slashing costs. (treehugger.com)
  • Natural mineral waters such as Vichy water sparkle (effervesce) because excess carbon dioxide that dissolved in them under pressure collects in bubbles and escapes when the pressure is released. (factmonster.com)
  • They have also been researched for carbon capture as a means of combating global warming . (wikipedia.org)
  • CarbonExpo, in the cavernous congress halls of Cologne, Germany, is a three-day trade fair for those who would deal in carbon dioxide - buying and selling permits to discharge the waste gas chiefly blamed for global warming. (wired.com)