A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.
A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.
Nitrogen oxide (NO2). A highly poisonous gas. Exposure produces inflammation of lungs that may only cause slight pain or pass unnoticed, but resulting edema several days later may cause death. (From Merck, 11th ed) It is a major atmospheric pollutant that is able to absorb UV light that does not reach the earth's surface.
Carbon monoxide (CO). A poisonous colorless, odorless, tasteless gas. It combines with hemoglobin to form carboxyhemoglobin, which has no oxygen carrying capacity. The resultant oxygen deprivation causes headache, dizziness, decreased pulse and respiratory rates, unconsciousness, and death. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
The pressure that would be exerted by one component of a mixture of gases if it were present alone in a container. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A highly toxic, colorless, nonflammable gas. It is used as a pharmaceutical aid and antioxidant. It is also an environmental air pollutant.
Continuous recording of the carbon dioxide content of expired air.
The act of blowing a powder, vapor, or gas into any body cavity for experimental, diagnostic, or therapeutic purposes.
Nanometer-sized tubes composed mainly of CARBON. Such nanotubes are used as probes for high-resolution structural and chemical imaging of biomolecules with ATOMIC FORCE MICROSCOPY.
The gaseous envelope surrounding a planet or similar body. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.
The act of breathing with the LUNGS, consisting of INHALATION, or the taking into the lungs of the ambient air, and of EXHALATION, or the expelling of the modified air which contains more CARBON DIOXIDE than the air taken in (Blakiston's Gould Medical Dictionary, 4th ed.). This does not include tissue respiration (= OXYGEN CONSUMPTION) or cell respiration (= CELL RESPIRATION).
A clinical manifestation of abnormal increase in the amount of carbon dioxide in arterial blood.
Stable carbon atoms that have the same atomic number as the element carbon, but differ in atomic weight. C-13 is a stable carbon isotope.
The exchange of OXYGEN and CARBON DIOXIDE between alveolar air and pulmonary capillary blood that occurs across the BLOOD-AIR BARRIER.
The noninvasive measurement or determination of the partial pressure (tension) of oxygen and/or carbon dioxide locally in the capillaries of a tissue by the application to the skin of a special set of electrodes. These electrodes contain photoelectric sensors capable of picking up the specific wavelengths of radiation emitted by oxygenated versus reduced hemoglobin.
A CHROMATOGRAPHY method using supercritical fluid, usually carbon dioxide under very high pressure (around 73 atmospheres or 1070 psi at room temperature) as the mobile phase. Other solvents are sometimes added as modifiers. This is used both for analytical (SFC) and extraction (SFE) purposes.
Measurement of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the blood.
Lasers in which a gas lasing medium is stimulated to emit light by an electric current or high-frequency oscillator.
Any of several processes for the permanent or long-term artificial or natural capture or removal and storage of carbon dioxide and other forms of carbon, through biological, chemical or physical processes, in a manner that prevents it from being released into the atmosphere.
Deliberate introduction of air into the peritoneal cavity.
The volume of air inspired or expired during each normal, quiet respiratory cycle. Common abbreviations are TV or V with subscript T.
Toxic asphyxiation due to the displacement of oxygen from oxyhemoglobin by carbon monoxide.
A solid form of carbon dioxide used as a refrigerant.
Respiratory retention of carbon dioxide. It may be chronic or acute.
A measure of the total greenhouse gas emissions produced by an individual, organization, event, or product. It is measured in units of equivalent kilograms of CARBON DIOXIDE generated in a given time frame.
Inorganic salts that contain the -HCO3 radical. They are an important factor in determining the pH of the blood and the concentration of bicarbonate ions is regulated by the kidney. Levels in the blood are an index of the alkali reserve or buffering capacity.
The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)
The vapor state of matter; nonelastic fluids in which the molecules are in free movement and their mean positions far apart. Gases tend to expand indefinitely, to diffuse and mix readily with other gases, to have definite relations of volume, temperature, and pressure, and to condense or liquefy at low temperatures or under sufficient pressure. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Thorium oxide (ThO2). A radiographic contrast agent that was used in the early 1930s through about 1954. High rates of mortality have been linked to its use and it has been shown to cause liver cancer.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The mixture of gases present in the earth's atmosphere consisting of oxygen, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, and small amounts of other gases.
That part of the RESPIRATORY TRACT or the air within the respiratory tract that does not exchange OXYGEN and CARBON DIOXIDE with pulmonary capillary blood.
The simplest saturated hydrocarbon. It is a colorless, flammable gas, slightly soluble in water. It is one of the chief constituents of natural gas and is formed in the decomposition of organic matter. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Systems that provide for the maintenance of life in an isolated living chamber through reutilization of the material available, in particular, by means of a cycle wherein exhaled carbon dioxide, urine, and other waste matter are converted chemically or by photosynthesis into oxygen, water, and food. (NASA Thesaurus, 1988)
A solvent for oils, fats, lacquers, varnishes, rubber waxes, and resins, and a starting material in the manufacturing of organic compounds. Poisoning by inhalation, ingestion or skin absorption is possible and may be fatal. (Merck Index, 11th ed)
A family of zinc-containing enzymes that catalyze the reversible hydration of carbon dioxide. They play an important role in the transport of CARBON DIOXIDE from the tissues to the LUNG. EC 4.2.1.1.
The effect of GLOBAL WARMING and the resulting increase in world temperatures. The predicted health effects of such long-term climatic change include increased incidence of respiratory, water-borne, and vector-borne diseases.
Total mass of all the organisms of a given type and/or in a given area. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990) It includes the yield of vegetative mass produced from any given crop.
The synthesis by organisms of organic chemical compounds, especially carbohydrates, from carbon dioxide using energy obtained from light rather than from the oxidation of chemical compounds. Photosynthesis comprises two separate processes: the light reactions and the dark reactions. In higher plants; GREEN ALGAE; and CYANOBACTERIA; NADPH and ATP formed by the light reactions drive the dark reactions which result in the fixation of carbon dioxide. (from Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2001)
Clinical manifestation consisting of a deficiency of carbon dioxide in arterial blood.
An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.
A pulmonary ventilation rate faster than is metabolically necessary for the exchange of gases. It is the result of an increased frequency of breathing, an increased tidal volume, or a combination of both. It causes an excess intake of oxygen and the blowing off of carbon dioxide.
Blocking of a blood vessel by air bubbles that enter the circulatory system, usually after TRAUMA; surgical procedures, or changes in atmospheric pressure.
A reduction in the amount of air entering the pulmonary alveoli.
Salts or ions of the theoretical carbonic acid, containing the radical CO2(3-). Carbonates are readily decomposed by acids. The carbonates of the alkali metals are water-soluble; all others are insoluble. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The total volume of gas inspired or expired per unit of time, usually measured in liters per minute.
Any substance in the air which could, if present in high enough concentration, harm humans, animals, vegetation or material. Substances include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; and volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.
A colorless, flammable, poisonous liquid, CS2. It is used as a solvent, and is a counterirritant and has local anesthetic properties but is not used as such. It is highly toxic with pronounced CNS, hematologic, and dermatologic effects.
Anesthesia caused by the breathing of anesthetic gases or vapors or by insufflating anesthetic gases or vapors into the respiratory tract.
Binary compounds of oxygen containing the anion O(2-). The anion combines with metals to form alkaline oxides and non-metals to form acidic oxides.
Derivatives of ACETIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxymethane structure.
A dark-gray, metallic element of widespread distribution but occurring in small amounts; atomic number, 22; atomic weight, 47.90; symbol, Ti; specific gravity, 4.5; used for fixation of fractures. (Dorland, 28th ed)
The circulation of blood through the BLOOD VESSELS of the BRAIN.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
Cells specialized to detect chemical substances and relay that information centrally in the nervous system. Chemoreceptor cells may monitor external stimuli, as in TASTE and OLFACTION, or internal stimuli, such as the concentrations of OXYGEN and CARBON DIOXIDE in the blood.
The cycle by which the element carbon is exchanged between organic matter and the earth's physical environment.
Failure to adequately provide oxygen to cells of the body and to remove excess carbon dioxide from them. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Any method of artificial breathing that employs mechanical or non-mechanical means to force the air into and out of the lungs. Artificial respiration or ventilation is used in individuals who have stopped breathing or have RESPIRATORY INSUFFICIENCY to increase their intake of oxygen (O2) and excretion of carbon dioxide (CO2).
The physical or mechanical action of the LUNGS; DIAPHRAGM; RIBS; and CHEST WALL during respiration. It includes airflow, lung volume, neural and reflex controls, mechanoreceptors, breathing patterns, etc.
Nitrogen oxide (N2O). A colorless, odorless gas that is used as an anesthetic and analgesic. High concentrations cause a narcotic effect and may replace oxygen, causing death by asphyxia. It is also used as a food aerosol in the preparation of whipping cream.
The balance between acids and bases in the BODY FLUIDS. The pH (HYDROGEN-ION CONCENTRATION) of the arterial BLOOD provides an index for the total body acid-base balance.
The processes by which organisms use simple inorganic substances such as gaseous or dissolved carbon dioxide and inorganic nitrogen as nutrient sources. Contrasts with heterotrophic processes which make use of organic materials as the nutrient supply source. Autotrophs can be either chemoautotrophs (or chemolithotrophs), largely ARCHAEA and BACTERIA, which also use simple inorganic substances for their metabolic energy reguirements; or photoautotrophs (or photolithotrophs), such as PLANTS and CYANOBACTERIA, which derive their energy from light. Depending on environmental conditions some organisms can switch between different nutritional modes (autotrophy; HETEROTROPHY; chemotrophy; or PHOTOTROPHY) to utilize different sources to meet their nutrient and energy requirements.
The first chemical element in the periodic table. It has the atomic symbol H, atomic number 1, and atomic weight [1.00784; 1.00811]. It exists, under normal conditions, as a colorless, odorless, tasteless, diatomic gas. Hydrogen ions are PROTONS. Besides the common H1 isotope, hydrogen exists as the stable isotope DEUTERIUM and the unstable, radioactive isotope TRITIUM.
Transparent, tasteless crystals found in nature as agate, amethyst, chalcedony, cristobalite, flint, sand, QUARTZ, and tridymite. The compound is insoluble in water or acids except hydrofluoric acid.
A condition with trapped gas or air in the PERITONEAL CAVITY, usually secondary to perforation of the internal organs such as the LUNG and the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT, or to recent surgery. Pneumoperitoneum may be purposely introduced to aid radiological examination.
The unconsolidated mineral or organic matter on the surface of the earth that serves as a natural medium for the growth of land plants.
Helium. A noble gas with the atomic symbol He, atomic number 2, and atomic weight 4.003. It is a colorless, odorless, tasteless gas that is not combustible and does not support combustion. It was first detected in the sun and is now obtained from natural gas. Medically it is used as a diluent for other gases, being especially useful with oxygen in the treatment of certain cases of respiratory obstruction, and as a vehicle for general anesthetics. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Gases or volatile liquids that vary in the rate at which they induce anesthesia; potency; the degree of circulation, respiratory, or neuromuscular depression they produce; and analgesic effects. Inhalation anesthetics have advantages over intravenous agents in that the depth of anesthesia can be changed rapidly by altering the inhaled concentration. Because of their rapid elimination, any postoperative respiratory depression is of relatively short duration. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p173)
The complete absence, or (loosely) the paucity, of gaseous or dissolved elemental oxygen in a given place or environment. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Carbonic acid (H2C03). The hypothetical acid of carbon dioxide and water. It exists only in the form of its salts (carbonates), acid salts (hydrogen carbonates), amines (carbamic acid), and acid chlorides (carbonyl chloride). (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Measurement of the various processes involved in the act of respiration: inspiration, expiration, oxygen and carbon dioxide exchange, lung volume and compliance, etc.
The use of photothermal effects of LASERS to coagulate, incise, vaporize, resect, dissect, or resurface tissue.
The killing of animals for reasons of mercy, to control disease transmission or maintain the health of animal populations, or for experimental purposes (ANIMAL EXPERIMENTATION).
Argon. A noble gas with the atomic symbol Ar, atomic number 18, and atomic weight 39.948. It is used in fluorescent tubes and wherever an inert atmosphere is desired and nitrogen cannot be used.
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
Any tests done on exhaled air.
Unstable isotopes of carbon that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. C atoms with atomic weights 10, 11, and 14-16 are radioactive carbon isotopes.
The presence of contaminants or pollutant substances in the air (AIR POLLUTANTS) that interfere with human health or welfare, or produce other harmful environmental effects. The substances may include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; or volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.
Derivatives of formic acids. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that are formed with a single carbon carboxy group.
Apparatus for removing exhaled or leaked anesthetic gases or other volatile agents, thus reducing the exposure of operating room personnel to such agents, as well as preventing the buildup of potentially explosive mixtures in operating rooms or laboratories.
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
Any disorder marked by obstruction of conducting airways of the lung. AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION may be acute, chronic, intermittent, or persistent.
Woody, usually tall, perennial higher plants (Angiosperms, Gymnosperms, and some Pterophyta) having usually a main stem and numerous branches.
Inhalation anesthesia where the gases exhaled by the patient are rebreathed as some carbon dioxide is simultaneously removed and anesthetic gas and oxygen are added so that no anesthetic escapes into the room. Closed-circuit anesthesia is used especially with explosive anesthetics to prevent fires where electrical sparking from instruments is possible.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A highly caustic substance that is used to neutralize acids and make sodium salts. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
Relatively complete absence of oxygen in one or more tissues.
Elimination of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS; PESTICIDES and other waste using living organisms, usually involving intervention of environmental or sanitation engineers.
The environment outside the earth or its atmosphere. The environment may refer to a closed cabin (such as a space shuttle or space station) or to space itself, the moon, or other planets.
A transient absence of spontaneous respiration.
The salinated water of OCEANS AND SEAS that provides habitat for marine organisms.
The fourth planet in order from the sun. Its two natural satellites are Deimos and Phobos. It is one of the four inner or terrestrial planets of the solar system.
A group of compounds that contain the general formula R-OCH3.
A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Electric conductors through which electric currents enter or leave a medium, whether it be an electrolytic solution, solid, molten mass, gas, or vacuum.
The unstable triatomic form of oxygen, O3. It is a powerful oxidant that is produced for various chemical and industrial uses. Its production is also catalyzed in the ATMOSPHERE by ULTRAVIOLET RAY irradiation of oxygen or other ozone precursors such as VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS and NITROGEN OXIDES. About 90% of the ozone in the atmosphere exists in the stratosphere (STRATOSPHERIC OZONE).
A type of stress exerted uniformly in all directions. Its measure is the force exerted per unit area. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A measure of the amount of WATER VAPOR in the air.
Supplying a building or house, their rooms and corridors, with fresh air. The controlling of the environment thus may be in public or domestic sites and in medical or non-medical locales. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Removal of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS or contaminants for the general protection of the environment. This is accomplished by various chemical, biological, and bulk movement methods, in conjunction with ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING.
Inorganic compounds that contain calcium as an integral part of the molecule.
A great expanse of continuous bodies of salt water which together cover more than 70 percent of the earth's surface. Seas may be partially or entirely enclosed by land, and are smaller than the five oceans (Atlantic, Pacific, Indian, Arctic, and Antarctic).
Procedure in which patients are induced into an unconscious state through use of various medications so that they do not feel pain during surgery.
The continuous measurement of physiological processes, blood pressure, heart rate, renal output, reflexes, respiration, etc., in a patient or experimental animal; includes pharmacologic monitoring, the measurement of administered drugs or their metabolites in the blood, tissues, or urine.
Cellular processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of CARBOHYDRATES.
Stable oxygen atoms that have the same atomic number as the element oxygen, but differ in atomic weight. O-17 and 18 are stable oxygen isotopes.
A procedure involving placement of a tube into the trachea through the mouth or nose in order to provide a patient with oxygen and anesthesia.
The pressure at any point in an atmosphere due solely to the weight of the atmospheric gases above the point concerned.
One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.
The determination of oxygen-hemoglobin saturation of blood either by withdrawing a sample and passing it through a classical photoelectric oximeter or by electrodes attached to some translucent part of the body like finger, earlobe, or skin fold. It includes non-invasive oxygen monitoring by pulse oximetry.
A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.
Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)
Salts or esters of LACTIC ACID containing the general formula CH3CHOHCOOR.
Any combustible hydrocarbon deposit formed from the remains of prehistoric organisms. Examples are petroleum, coal, and natural gas.
The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.
Isomeric forms and derivatives of octanol (C8H17OH).
Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.
A genus of gram-negative bacteria in the family Eubacteriaceae. Species are homoacetogenic, having the ability to use CARBON DIOXIDE as an electron sink, and to reduce it producing acetate as a typical fermentation product.
Physiological processes and properties of the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM as a whole or of any of its parts.
The fifth planet in order from the sun. It is one of the five outer planets of the solar system. Its sixteen natural satellites include Callisto, Europa, Ganymede, and Io.
The movement and the forces involved in the movement of the blood through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.
Increase in the temperature of the atmosphere near the Earth's surface and in the troposphere, which can contribute to changes in global climate patterns.
Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.
Derivatives of SUCCINIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain a 1,4-carboxy terminated aliphatic structure.
Devices that cover the nose and mouth to maintain aseptic conditions or to administer inhaled anesthetics or other gases. (UMDNS, 1999)
A stable, non-explosive inhalation anesthetic, relatively free from significant side effects.
The longterm manifestations of WEATHER. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A dark powdery deposit of unburned fuel residues, composed mainly of amorphous CARBON and some HYDROCARBONS, that accumulates in chimneys, automobile mufflers and other surfaces exposed to smoke. It is the product of incomplete combustion of carbon-rich organic fuels in low oxygen conditions. It is sometimes called lampblack or carbon black and is used in INK, in rubber tires, and to prepare CARBON NANOTUBES.
The constant checking on the state or condition of a patient during the course of a surgical operation (e.g., checking of vital signs).
Inhalation of oxygen aimed at restoring toward normal any pathophysiologic alterations of gas exchange in the cardiopulmonary system, as by the use of a respirator, nasal catheter, tent, chamber, or mask. (From Dorland, 27th ed & Stedman, 25th ed)
Free-floating minute organisms that are photosynthetic. The term is non-taxonomic and refers to a lifestyle (energy utilization and motility), rather than a particular type of organism. Most, but not all, are unicellular algae. Important groups include DIATOMS; DINOFLAGELLATES; CYANOBACTERIA; CHLOROPHYTA; HAPTOPHYTA; CRYPTOMONADS; and silicoflagellates.
A colorless alkaline gas. It is formed in the body during decomposition of organic materials during a large number of metabolically important reactions. Note that the aqueous form of ammonia is referred to as AMMONIUM HYDROXIDE.
A state in which the environs of hospitals, laboratories, domestic and animal housing, work places, spacecraft, and other surroundings are under technological control with regard to air conditioning, heating, lighting, humidity, ventilation, and other ambient features. The concept includes control of atmospheric composition. (From Jane's Aerospace Dictionary, 3d ed)
A method of mechanical ventilation in which pressure is maintained to increase the volume of gas remaining in the lungs at the end of expiration, thus reducing the shunting of blood through the lungs and improving gas exchange.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The number of times an organism breathes with the lungs (RESPIRATION) per unit time, usually per minute.
Controlled physical activity which is performed in order to allow assessment of physiological functions, particularly cardiovascular and pulmonary, but also aerobic capacity. Maximal (most intense) exercise is usually required but submaximal exercise is also used.
A genus of gram positive, acetogenic, thermophilic bacteria in the family Thermoanaerobacteraceae. Known habitats include HOT SPRINGS, horse manure, emu droppings, and sewage SLUDGE.
The chemical reactions that occur within the cells, tissues, or an organism. These processes include both the biosynthesis (ANABOLISM) and the breakdown (CATABOLISM) of organic materials utilized by the living organism.
A state characterized by loss of feeling or sensation. This depression of nerve function is usually the result of pharmacologic action and is induced to allow performance of surgery or other painful procedures.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
A normal intermediate in the fermentation (oxidation, metabolism) of sugar. The concentrated form is used internally to prevent gastrointestinal fermentation. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
Relating to the size of solids.
Life or metabolic reactions occurring in an environment containing oxygen.
Inorganic or organic salts and esters of nitric acid. These compounds contain the NO3- radical.
The ash, dust, gases, and lava released by volcanic explosion. The gases are volatile matter composed principally of about 90% water vapor, and carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide, hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and nitrogen. The ash or dust is pyroclastic ejecta and lava is molten extrusive material consisting mainly of magnesium silicate. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A pathologic condition of acid accumulation or depletion of base in the body. The two main types are RESPIRATORY ACIDOSIS and metabolic acidosis, due to metabolic acid build up.
Any technique by which an unknown color is evaluated in terms of standard colors. The technique may be visual, photoelectric, or indirect by means of spectrophotometry. It is used in chemistry and physics. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Inorganic compounds that contain potassium as an integral part of the molecule.
The processes by which organisms utilize organic substances as their nutrient sources. Contrasts with AUTOTROPHIC PROCESSES which make use of simple inorganic substances as the nutrient supply source. Heterotrophs can be either chemoheterotrophs (or chemoorganotrophs) which also require organic substances such as glucose for their primary metabolic energy requirements, or photoheterotrophs (or photoorganotrophs) which derive their primary energy requirements from light. Depending on environmental conditions some organisms can switch between different nutritional modes (AUTOTROPHY; heterotrophy; chemotrophy; or PHOTOTROPHY) to utilize different sources to meet their nutrients and energy requirements.
The contamination of indoor air.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the soil. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
One of the CARBONIC ANHYDRASE INHIBITORS that is sometimes effective against absence seizures. It is sometimes useful also as an adjunct in the treatment of tonic-clonic, myoclonic, and atonic seizures, particularly in women whose seizures occur or are exacerbated at specific times in the menstrual cycle. However, its usefulness is transient often because of rapid development of tolerance. Its antiepileptic effect may be due to its inhibitory effect on brain carbonic anhydrase, which leads to an increased transneuronal chloride gradient, increased chloride current, and increased inhibition. (From Smith and Reynard, Textbook of Pharmacology, 1991, p337)
The physical or physiological processes by which substances, tissue, cells, etc. take up or take in other substances or energy.
A colorless, flammable liquid used in the manufacture of FORMALDEHYDE and ACETIC ACID, in chemical synthesis, antifreeze, and as a solvent. Ingestion of methanol is toxic and may cause blindness.
The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.
Product of the oxidation of ethanol and of the destructive distillation of wood. It is used locally, occasionally internally, as a counterirritant and also as a reagent. (Stedman, 26th ed)
A non-invasive technique using ultrasound for the measurement of cerebrovascular hemodynamics, particularly cerebral blood flow velocity and cerebral collateral flow. With a high-intensity, low-frequency pulse probe, the intracranial arteries may be studied transtemporally, transorbitally, or from below the foramen magnum.
Application of a life support system that circulates the blood through an oxygenating system, which may consist of a pump, a membrane oxygenator, and a heat exchanger. Examples of its use are to assist victims of smoke inhalation injury, respiratory failure, and cardiac failure.
A value equal to the total volume flow divided by the cross-sectional area of the vascular bed.
A phylum of ARCHAEA comprising at least seven classes: Methanobacteria, Methanococci, Halobacteria (extreme halophiles), Archaeoglobi (sulfate-reducing species), Methanopyri, and the thermophiles: Thermoplasmata, and Thermococci.
The administration of drugs by the respiratory route. It includes insufflation into the respiratory tract.
The volume of BLOOD passing through the HEART per unit of time. It is usually expressed as liters (volume) per minute so as not to be confused with STROKE VOLUME (volume per beat).
The ratio of alveolar ventilation to simultaneous alveolar capillary blood flow in any part of the lung. (Stedman, 25th ed)
A procedure in which a laparoscope (LAPAROSCOPES) is inserted through a small incision near the navel to examine the abdominal and pelvic organs in the PERITONEAL CAVITY. If appropriate, biopsy or surgery can be performed during laparoscopy.
Diseases of the respiratory system in general or unspecified or for a specific respiratory disease not available.
A series of oxidative reactions in the breakdown of acetyl units derived from GLUCOSE; FATTY ACIDS; or AMINO ACIDS by means of tricarboxylic acid intermediates. The end products are CARBON DIOXIDE, water, and energy in the form of phosphate bonds.
The inanimate matter of Earth, the structures and properties of this matter, and the processes that affect it.
A white, crystalline powder that is commonly used as a pH buffering agent, an electrolyte replenisher, systemic alkalizer and in topical cleansing solutions.
Derivatives of OXALOACETIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that include a 2-keto-1,4-carboxy aliphatic structure.
Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A class of compounds that reduces the secretion of H+ ions by the proximal kidney tubule through inhibition of CARBONIC ANHYDRASES.
Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.
A white powder prepared from lime that has many medical and industrial uses. It is in many dental formulations, especially for root canal filling.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
A nonflammable, halogenated, hydrocarbon anesthetic that provides relatively rapid induction with little or no excitement. Analgesia may not be adequate. NITROUS OXIDE is often given concomitantly. Because halothane may not produce sufficient muscle relaxation, supplemental neuromuscular blocking agents may be required. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p178)
Particles of any solid substance, generally under 30 microns in size, often noted as PM30. There is special concern with PM1 which can get down to PULMONARY ALVEOLI and induce MACROPHAGE ACTIVATION and PHAGOCYTOSIS leading to FOREIGN BODY REACTION and LUNG DISEASES.
Carbonic acid calcium salt (CaCO3). An odorless, tasteless powder or crystal that occurs in nature. It is used therapeutically as a phosphate buffer in hemodialysis patients and as a calcium supplement.
Inorganic compounds that contain carbon as an integral part of the molecule but are not derived from hydrocarbons.
Salts and esters of hydroxybutyric acid.
Derivatives of ACETIC ACID which contain an hydroxy group attached to the methyl carbon.
The period during a surgical operation.
Recording changes in electrical impedance between electrodes placed on opposite sides of a part of the body, as a measure of volume changes in the path of the current. (Stedman, 25th ed)
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in nature. Some species are pathogenic for humans, animals, and plants.
Electric power supply devices which convert biological energy, such as chemical energy of metabolism or mechanical energy of periodic movements, into electrical energy.
A carboxy-lyase that plays a key role in photosynthetic carbon assimilation in the CALVIN-BENSON CYCLE by catalyzing the formation of 3-phosphoglycerate from ribulose 1,5-biphosphate and CARBON DIOXIDE. It can also utilize OXYGEN as a substrate to catalyze the synthesis of 2-phosphoglycolate and 3-phosphoglycerate in a process referred to as photorespiration.
A broad class of substances containing carbon and its derivatives. Many of these chemicals will frequently contain hydrogen with or without oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, phosphorus, and other elements. They exist in either carbon chain or carbon ring form.
The science of the earth and other celestial bodies and their history as recorded in the rocks. It includes the study of geologic processes of an area such as rock formations, weathering and erosion, and sedimentation. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Inorganic compounds that contain barium as an integral part of the molecule.
Apparatus, devices, or supplies intended for one-time or temporary use.
A mass of organic or inorganic solid fragmented material, or the solid fragment itself, that comes from the weathering of rock and is carried by, suspended in, or dropped by air, water, or ice. It refers also to a mass that is accumulated by any other natural agent and that forms in layers on the earth's surface, such as sand, gravel, silt, mud, fill, or loess. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1689)
Oxidoreductases that are specific for ALDEHYDES.

A kinetic study of ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase from the photosynthetic bacterium Rhodospirillum rubrum. (1/9550)

The activation kinetics of purified Rhodospirillum rubrum ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase were analysed. The equilibrium constant for activation by CO(2) was 600 micron and that for activation by Mg2+ was 90 micron, and the second-order activation constant for the reaction of CO(2) with inactive enzyme (k+1) was 0.25 X 10(-3)min-1 . micron-1. The latter value was considerably lower than the k+1 for higher-plant enzyme (7 X 10(-3)-10 X 10(-3)min-1 . micron-1). 6-Phosphogluconate had little effect on the active enzyme, and increased the extent of activation of inactive enzyme. Ribulose bisphosphate also increased the extent of activation and did not inhibit the rate of activation. This effect might have been mediated through a reaction product, 2-phosphoglycolic acid, which also stimulated the extent of activation of the enzyme. The active enzyme had a Km (CO2) of 300 micron-CO2, a Km (ribulose bisphosphate) of 11--18 micron-ribulose bisphosphate and a Vmax. of up to 3 mumol/min per mg of protein. These data are discussed in relation to the proposed model for activation and catalysis of ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase.  (+info)

Arterial blood gas tensions during upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. (2/9550)

Arterial blood gas tensions were measured before and during upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, with (group I) and without (group 2) sedation with intravenous diazepam. There was a highly significant fall in the PaO2, which occurred in both groups and was therefore not attributable to diazepam. Measurement of FEV, and FVC before endoscopy had no predictive value for those patients whose PaO2 fell the most.  (+info)

Does gill boundary layer carbonic anhydrase contribute to carbon dioxide excretion: a comparison between dogfish (Squalus acanthias) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). (3/9550)

In vivo experiments were conducted on spiny dogfish (Squalus acanthias) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) in sea water to determine the potential role of externally oriented or gill boundary layer carbonic anhydrase in carbon dioxide excretion. This was accomplished by assessing pH changes in expired water using a stopped-flow apparatus. In dogfish, expired water was in acid-base disequilibrium as indicated by a pronounced acidification (delta pH=-0.11+/-0.01; N=22; mean +/- s.e.m.) during the period of stopped flow; inspired water, however, was in acid-base equilibrium (delta pH=-0.002+/-0.01; N=22). The acid-base disequilibrium in expired water was abolished (delta pH=-0.005+/-0.01; N=6) by the addition of bovine carbonic anhydrase (5 mg l-1) to the external medium. Addition of the carbonic anhydrase inhibitor acetazolamide (1 mmol l-1) to the water significantly reduced the magnitude of the pH disequilibrium (from -0.133+/-0.03 to -0.063+/-0.02; N=4). However, after correcting for the increased buffering capacity of the water caused by acetazolamide, the acid-base disequilibrium during stopped flow was unaffected by this treatment (control delta [H+]=99.8+/-22.8 micromol l-1; acetazolamide delta [H+]=81.3+/-21.5 micromol l-1). In rainbow trout, expired water displayed an acid-base disequilibrium (delta pH=0.09+/-0.01; N=6) that also was abolished by the application of external carbonic anhydrase (delta pH=0.02+/-0.01). The origin of the expired water acid-base disequilibrium was investigated further in dogfish. Intravascular injection of acetazolamide (40 mg kg-1) to inhibit internal carbonic anhydrase activity non-specifically and thus CO2 excretion significantly diminished the extent of the expired water disequilibrium pH after 30 min (from -0.123+/-0.01 to -0.065+/-0.01; N=6). Selective inhibition of extracellular carbonic anhydrase activity using a low intravascular dose (1.3 mg kg-1) of the inhibitor benzolamide caused a significant reduction in the acid-base disequilibrium after 5 min (from -0.11+/-0.01 to -0.07+/-0. 01; N=14). These results demonstrate that the expired water acid-base disequilibrium originates, at least in part, from excretory CO2 and that extracellular carbonic anhydrase in dogfish may have a significant role in carbon dioxide excretion. However, externally oriented carbonic anhydrase (if present in dogfish) plays no role in catalysing the hydration of the excretory CO2 in water flowing over the gills and thus is unlikely to facilitate CO2 excretion.  (+info)

Prior protein intake may affect phenylalanine kinetics measured in healthy adult volunteers consuming 1 g protein. kg-1. d-1. (4/9550)

Study of the amino acid metabolism of vulnerable groups, such as pregnant women, children and patients, is needed. Our existing protocol is preceded by 2 d of adaptation to a low 13C formula diet at a protein intake of 1 g. kg-1. d-1 to minimize variations in breath 13CO2 enrichment and protein metabolism. To expand on our potential study populations, a less invasive protocol needs to be developed. We have already established that a stable background 13CO2 enrichment can be achieved on the study day without prior adaptation to the low 13C formula. Therefore, this study investigates phenylalanine kinetics in response to variations in prior protein intake. Healthy adult subjects were each fed nutritionally adequate mixed diets containing 0.8, 1.4 and 2.0 g protein. kg-1. d-1 for 2 d. On d 3, subjects consumed an amino acid-based formula diet containing the equivalent of 1 g protein. kg-1. d-1 hourly for 10 h and primed hourly oral doses of L-[1-13C]phenylalanine for the final 6 h. Phenylalanine kinetics were calculated from plasma-free phenylalanine enrichment and breath 13CO2 excretion. A significant quadratic response of prior protein intake on phenylalanine flux (P = 0.012) and oxidation (P = 0.009) was identified, such that both variables were lower following adaptation to a protein intake of 1.4 g. kg-1. d-1. We conclude that variations in protein intake, between 0.8 and 2.0 g. kg-1. d-1, prior to the study day may affect amino acid kinetics and; therefore, it is prudent to continue to control protein intake prior to an amino acid kinetics study.  (+info)

Role of a novel photosystem II-associated carbonic anhydrase in photosynthetic carbon assimilation in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. (5/9550)

Intracellular carbonic anhydrases (CA) in aquatic photosynthetic organisms are involved in the CO2-concentrating mechanism (CCM), which helps to overcome CO2 limitation in the environment. In the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, this CCM is initiated and maintained by the pH gradient created across the chloroplast thylakoid membranes by photosystem (PS) II-mediated electron transport. We show here that photosynthesis is stimulated by a novel, intracellular alpha-CA bound to the chloroplast thylakoids. It is associated with PSII on the lumenal side of the thylakoid membranes. We demonstrate that PSII in association with this lumenal CA operates to provide an ample flux of CO2 for carboxylation.  (+info)

Nitrate-dependent regulation of acetate biosynthesis and nitrate respiration by Clostridium thermoaceticum. (6/9550)

Nitrate has been shown to shunt the electron flow in Clostridium thermoaceticum from CO2 to nitrate, but it did not influence the levels of enzymes involved in the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway (J. M. Frostl, C. Seifritz, and H. L. Drake, J. Bacteriol. 178:4597-4603, 1996). Here we show that under some growth conditions, nitrate does in fact repress proteins involved in the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway. The CO oxidation activity in crude extracts of nitrate (30 mM)-supplemented cultures was fivefold less than that of nitrate-free cultures, while the H2 oxidation activity was six- to sevenfold lower. The decrease in CO oxidation activity paralleled a decrease in CO dehydrogenase (CODH) protein level, as confirmed by Western blot analysis. Protein levels of CODH in nitrate-supplemented cultures were 50% lower than those in nitrate-free cultures. Western blots analyses showed that nitrate also decreased the levels of the corrinoid iron-sulfur protein (60%) and methyltransferase (70%). Surprisingly, the decrease in activity and protein levels upon nitrate supplementation was observed only when cultures were continuously sparged. Northern blot analysis indicates that the regulation of the proteins involved in the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway by nitrate is at the transcriptional level. At least a 10-fold decrease in levels of cytochrome b was observed with nitrate supplementation whether the cultures were sparged or stoppered. We also detected nitrate-inducible nitrate reductase activity (2 to 39 nmol min-1 mg-1) in crude extracts of C. thermoaceticum. Our results indicate that nitrate coordinately represses genes encoding enzymes and electron transport proteins in the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway and activates transcription of nitrate respiratory proteins. CO2 also appears to induce expression of the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway genes and repress nitrate reductase activity.  (+info)

Glucose kinetics during prolonged exercise in highly trained human subjects: effect of glucose ingestion. (7/9550)

1. The objectives of this study were (1) to investigate whether glucose ingestion during prolonged exercise reduces whole body muscle glycogen oxidation, (2) to determine the extent to which glucose disappearing from the plasma is oxidized during exercise with and without carbohydrate ingestion and (3) to obtain an estimate of gluconeogenesis. 2. After an overnight fast, six well-trained cyclists exercised on three occasions for 120 min on a bicycle ergometer at 50 % maximum velocity of O2 uptake and ingested either water (Fast), or a 4 % glucose solution (Lo-Glu) or a 22 % glucose solution (Hi-Glu) during exercise. 3. Dual tracer infusion of [U-13C]-glucose and [6,6-2H2]-glucose was given to measure the rate of appearance (Ra) of glucose, muscle glycogen oxidation, glucose carbon recycling, metabolic clearance rate (MCR) and non-oxidative disposal of glucose. 4. Glucose ingestion markedly increased total Ra especially with Hi-Glu. After 120 min Ra and rate of disappearance (Rd) of glucose were 51-52 micromol kg-1 min-1 during Fast, 73-74 micromol kg-1 min-1 during Lo-Glu and 117-119 micromol kg-1 min-1 during Hi-Glu. The percentage of Rd oxidized was between 96 and 100 % in all trials. 5. Glycogen oxidation during exercise was not reduced by glucose ingestion. The vast majority of glucose disappearing from the plasma is oxidized and MCR increased markedly with glucose ingestion. Glucose carbon recycling was minimal suggesting that gluconeogenesis in these conditions is negligible.  (+info)

Differences in spontaneous breathing pattern and mechanics in patients with severe COPD recovering from acute exacerbation. (8/9550)

The aims of this study were to assess spontaneous breathing patterns in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) recovering from acute exacerbation and to assess the relationship between different breathing patterns and clinical and functional parameters of respiratory impairment. Thirty-four COPD patients underwent assessment of lung function tests, arterial blood gases, haemodynamics, breathing pattern (respiratory frequency (fR), tidal volume (VT), inspiratory and expiratory time (tI and tE), duty cycle (tI/ttot), VT/tI) and mechanics (oesophageal pressure (Poes), work of breathing (WOB), pressure-time product and index, and dynamic intrinsic positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEPi,dyn)). According to the presence (group 1) or absence (group 2) of Poes swings during the expiratory phase (premature inspiration), 20 (59%) patients were included in group 1 and 14 (41%) in group 2. Premature inspirations were observed 4.5+/-6.4 times x min(-1) (range 1-31), i.e. 20+/-21% (3.7-100%) of total fR calculated from VT tracings. In group 1 the coefficient of variation in VT, tE, tI/ttot, PEEPi,dyn, Poes and WOB of the eight consecutive breaths immediately preceding the premature inspiration was greater than that of eight consecutive breaths in group 2. There were no significant differences in the assessed parameters between the two groups in the overall population, whereas patients with chronic hypoxaemia in group 1 showed a more severe impairment in clinical conditions, mechanics and lung function than hypoxaemic patients in group 2. In spontaneously breathing patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease recovering from an acute exacerbation, detectable activity of inspiratory muscles during expiration was found in more than half of the cases. This phenomenon was not associated with any significant differences in anthropometric, demographic, physiological or clinical characteristics.  (+info)

ORNL DAAC: The results of published and unpublished experiments investigating the impacts of elevated carbon dioxide on the chemistry (nitrogen and lignin concentration) of leaf litter and the decomposition of plant tissues are assembled in a format appropriate for statistical meta-analysis of the effect of carbon dioxide.
Numerous studies and laboratory experiments have shown that plants grown under higher carbon dioxide levels than at present do better - grow faster, bigger, use water more efficiently - than crops grown under atmospheric carbon dioxide levels. This is hardly surprising since most plants, including the progenitors of modern crop varieties, evolved at times when carbon dioxide levels on earth were much higher than today.. In a recent study, scientists examined a different question, how do crops fare under conditions of lower carbon dioxide, particularly carbon dioxide levels experienced during the most recent ice age.. The study in Global Change Biology examines the effect of lower carbon dioxide levels on plant growth. The researchers grew one type of wheat, wild barley, and two types of millet from seed to harvest in a controlled environment under two carbon dioxide levels, 180 parts per million (ppm), the level of carbon dioxide during the last glacial maximum, and 270 ppm, corresponding to the ...
Moving food around uses energy. Usually oil, a non-renewable fossil fuel, is burned in lorries, planes and cars when food is transported. This puts carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. As oil will run out one day, its use should be limited.. However, over in the UK, for example, only 9% of the carbon dioxide emissions related to food is from transport. Look at the chart on the right to see the other food-related contributions to carbon dioxide emission. Note that this pie chart has not included the carbon dioxide emissions involved in importing food to the UK! ...
The main reason for the relatively low specific value of carbon dioxide emissions in Stuttgart can be found in the conversion sector. Due to the very high percentage of nuclear energy (currently about 90 %), power generation contributes with only about 11 % to the total carbon dioxide emissions, even if power generation has a share of about 25 % in the total final energy consumption in Stuttgart ...
Potato (Solanum tuberosum L cv. Bintje) was exposed to ambient and elevated carbon dioxide (CO(2)), to ambient and elevated ozone (O(3)) and to elevated levels of both gases during two growing seasons, 1998 and 1999. Experiments in open-top chambers (OTC) were carried out in Finland, Sweden, Ireland, United Kingdom, Germany and Belgium and a FACE (Free Air Carbon dioxide Enrichment) experiment was carried out in Italy. In OTCs the plants were grown tinder ambient CO(2) concentrations or with 550 and 680 mul 1(-1) CO(2) alone or in combination with ambient or elevated 03 concentrations (target seasonal mean of 60 nl 1(-1) 8 h per day). In the FACE systems the plants were exposed to ambient or 550 mul 1(-1) CO(2). In the OTC experiments the reducing sugar content of potato tubers decreased significantly with increased concentration Of O(3). The starch content of potato tubers decreased, with negative impact on tuber quality, but the ascorbic acid concentration increased as a function of the AOT40 ...
Natural News) As if the conflicting information and endless debates about climate change and carbon dioxide levels were not confusing enough, a new study has found that carbon dioxide levels were actually much lower than previously believed during the last warm period on the planet, illustrating just how difficult it is to make conclusive statements about the topic.. Earths early Eocene period, also known as the Super Greenhouse period, was commonly believed to have concentration levels of carbon dioxide of as much as 2,000 parts per million (ppm). However, Dartmouth College researchers have discovered that it could have been less than 1,000 ppm - a difference of half! This could also mean that carbon dioxide is not the primary driver of planetary warming events, as other factors now have stronger weight on the final result.. To put this in perspective, the levels of carbon dioxide that are currently observed at the Mauna Loa Observatory of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration ...
Elevated carbon dioxide (CO2) has recently been shown to affect chemosensory and auditory behaviour, and activity levels of larval reef fishes, increasing their risk of predation. However, the mechanisms underlying these changes are unknown. Behavioural lateralization is an expression of brain functional asymmetries, and thus provides a unique test of the hypothesis that elevated CO2 affects brain function in larval fishes. We tested the effect of near-future CO2 concentrations (880 μatm) on behavioural lateralization in the reef fish, Neopomacentrus azysron. Individuals exposed to current-day or elevated CO2 were observed in a detour test where they made repeated decisions about turning left or right. No preference for right or left turns was observed at the population level. However, individual control fish turned either left or right with greater frequency than expected by chance. Exposure to elevated-CO2 disrupted individual lateralization, with values that were not different from a random ...
The increasing acidification of ocean waters caused by rising atmospheric carbon dioxide levels could rob sharks of their ability to sense the smell of food, a new study suggests.. Elevated carbon dioxide levels impaired the odor-tracking behavior of the smooth dogfish, a shark whose range includes the Atlantic Ocean off the eastern United States. Adult sharks significantly avoided squid odor after swimming in a pool of water treated with carbon dioxide. The carbon dioxide concentrations tested are consistent with climate forecasts for midcentury and 2100. The study suggests that predator-prey interactions in nature could be influenced by elevated carbon dioxide concentrations of ocean waters.. The sharks tracking behavior and attacking behavior were significantly reduced, said Danielle Dixson, an assistant professor in the School of Biology at the Georgia Institute of Technology in Atlanta. Sharks are like swimming noses, so chemical cues are really important for them in terms of finding ...
If deep-sea ocean sequestration becomes a common practice, long term effects will continue to be investigated to predict future scenarios of deep sea impacts by carbon dioxide.[22] Ocean sequestration of liquid carbon dioxide would not only impact deep-sea ecosystems, but in the long-run would begin to affect surface-water species.[22] It is estimated that organisms not fit for high carbon dioxide levels will begin to experience permanent effects at levels of 400/500ppm of carbon dioxide and/or shifts of 0.1-0.3 units in pH.[20] These levels of carbon dioxide are predicted to be met solely as a result of atmospheric carbon dioxide acidifying the surface waters over a matter of a century, without considering ocean sequestration effects.[20] Although the long-term effects are the most relevant to understand, they are also the most difficult to predict accurately due to the scale of the ocean and the diversity in species sensitivity to elevated carbon dioxide levels. Surface sea organisms have been ...
In the present paper, different Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA) models were developed to model the carbon dioxide emission by using time series data of forty-four years from 1972-2015. The performance of these developed models was assessed with the help of different selection measure criteria and the model having minimum value of these criteria considered as the best forecasting model. Based on findings, it has been observed that out of different ARIMA models, ARIMA (0, 2, 1) is the best fitted model in predicting the emission of carbon dioxide in Bangladesh. Using this best fitted model, the forecasted value of carbon dioxide emission in Bangladesh, for the year 2016, 2017 and 2018 as obtained from ARIMA (0, 2, 1) was obtained as 83.94657 Metric Tons, 89.90464 Metric Tons and 96.28557 Metric Tons respectively.
Mizumura, K.; Sato, J.; Kumazawa, T., 1986: Continuous recording of arterial pressure and carbon dioxide partial pressure and pressure carbon dioxide partial pressure and ph of the cerebrospinal fluid during acute exposure to low oxygen and high carbon dioxide partial pressure environment in dogs
article{reference_tag, author = Haroldo V. Ribeiro, Diego Rybski & Jürgen P. Kropp, title = Effects of changing population or density on urban carbon dioxide emissions, journal = Nature Communications, year = 2019, abstract = The question of whether urbanization contributes to increasing carbon dioxide emissions has been mainly investigated via scaling relationships with population or population density. However, these approaches overlook the correlations between population and area, and ignore possible interactions between these quantities. Here, we propose a generalized framework that simultaneously considers the effects of population and area along with possible interactions between these urban metrics. Our results significantly improve the description of emissions and reveal the coupled role between population and density on emissions. These models show that variations in emissions associated with proportionate changes in population or density may not only depend on the magnitude of ...
Graph and download economic data for Transportation Carbon Dioxide Emissions, LPG (Fuel Use) for Texas (EMISSCO2VHLACBTXA) from 1980 to 2017 about carbon dioxide emissions, used, fuels, transportation, TX, and USA.
Graph and download economic data for Coefficient for Industrial Carbon Dioxide Emissions, Residual Fuel for Massachusetts (EMISSCO2CRFICBMAA) from 1980 to 2017 about coefficient, carbon dioxide emissions, residual, fuels, MA, industry, and USA.
The possible consequences of very high carbon dioxide concentrations in the earths early atmosphere have been investigated with a radiative-convective climate model. The early atmosphere would apparently have been stable against the onset of a runaway greenhouse (that is, the complete evaporation of the oceans) for carbon dioxide pressures up to at least 100 bars. A 10- to 20-bar carbon dioxide atmosphere, such as may have existed during the first several hundred million years of the earths history, would have had a surface temperature of approximately 85 degrees to 110 degrees C. The early stratosphere should have been dry, thereby precluding the possibility of an oxygenic prebiotic atmosphere caused by photodissociation of water vapor followed by escape of hydrogen to space. Earths present atmosphere also appears to be stable against a carbon dioxide-induced runaway greenhouse. ...
0011] According to an aspect of the invention, there is provided a carbon dioxide gas recovery device including: an absorption tower that is configured to introduce a carbon dioxide-containing gas containing carbon dioxide gas and a lean absorbent, bring the carbon dioxide-containing gas and the lean absorbent into contact with each other, and cause the absorbent to absorb carbon dioxide gas in the carbon dioxide-containing gas to generate a rich absorbent; and a regeneration tower that is configured to regenerate the lean absorbent by heating the rich absorbent supplied from the absorption tower to separate carbon dioxide gas from the rich absorbent, wherein the regeneration tower includes: a reboiler system that is configured to lead the absorbent from the regeneration tower, heat the led absorbent, and reintroduce the resultant absorbent into the regeneration tower; and a mixed gas cooling system that is configured to lead a mixed gas of carbon dioxide gas and a vapor fraction of a solute and ...
These global volcanic estimates are utterly dwarfed by carbon dioxide emissions from fossil fuel burning, cement production, gas flaring and land use changes; these emissions accounted for some 36,300 million metric tons of carbon dioxide in 2008, according to an international study published in the December 2009 issue of Nature Geoscience. Even if you take the highest estimate of volcanic carbon dioxide emissions, at 270 million metric tons per year, human-emitted carbon dioxide levels are more than 130 times higher than volcanic emissions.. Occasionally, scaled-down versions of the myth surface - for example, Volcanoes produce more carbon dioxide than the worlds cars and industries combined. The truth is that data from the Carbon Dioxide Information and Analysis Center of Oak Ridge National Laboratory and the International Energy Agency indicate that light-duty vehicles (cars, pickup trucks, SUVs, vans, wagons) contribute about 3,040 million metric tons of carbon dioxide per year, and ...
Meteorologists have determined exactly how much carbon dioxide humans can emit into the atmosphere while ensuring that the earth does not heat up by more than two degrees. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) calculated projected temperature changes for various scenarios in 2007 and researchers at the Max Planck Institute for Meteorology in Hamburg have now gone one step further: they have developed a new model that specifies the maximum volumes of carbon dioxide that humans may emit to remain below the critical threshold for climate warming of two degrees Celsius. To do this, the scientists incorporated into their calculations data relating to the carbon cycle, namely the volume of carbon dioxide absorbed and released by the oceans and forests. The aim of the international ENSEMBLES project is to simulate future changes in the global climate and carbon dioxide emissions and thereby to obtain more reliable threshold values on this basis. (Climatic Change, July 21, 2010). The ...
Theres striking new evidence that Earths atmosphere is increasingly saturated with carbon dioxide, the major gas from fossil fuel emissions that trigger climate change. The rise of carbon dioxide levels above 400 parts per million is an indicator that the problem of global warming is getting worse, not better, said Mark Z . Jacobson, a Stanford atmospheric scientist and environmental engineer, in an e-mail. Failure to convert will result in a growing risk of economic, social and political instability as warming and air pollution worsens while fossil-fuel prices rise.
One of the more difficult issues in the debate over policy to reduce carbon dioxide emissions is calculating the cost of a carbon dioxide constraint. In this paper, we calculate the cost of a carbon dioxide constraint in the production of electricity by modeling the replacement of coal generators with natural gas generators. We find: 1) Replacing coal generators with natural gas generators is the most economical way to achieve a target of reducing carbon dioxide emissions by 20 percent. 2) Unless there is a technological breakthrough in carbon sequestration, the carbon intensity of coal means that clean coal cannot be a significant factor in reducing carbon dioxide. Replacing existing coal generation capacity with modern coal generation plants can only reduce total carbon dioxide by 5 percent. 3) The distribution of the efficiency of coal generators in the United States is very concentrated. This concentration restricts the range over which carbon dioxide prices effectively manage the ...
List of Carbon Dioxide Emissions (Carbon Dioxide / Monoxide) companies, manufacturers and suppliers for the Oil, Gas and Refineries industry in Georgia (US) on Air and Climate - Environmental XPRT
Steadily increasing global atmospheric CO2 levels have been shown to affect important plant traits including growth and secondary (defensive) chemistry. This study used 10 maternal families of wild mustard, Brassica nigra, to investigate: 1) whether levels of carbon-based defenses (phenolics) increase and nitrogen-based defenses (protease inhibitors) decrease in Brassica nigra under elevated CO2, as predicted by the Carbon/Nutrient Balance Hypothesis; 2) whether B. nigra encounters nitrogen-based trade-offs between investment in chymotrypsin and trypsin inhibitors, or between investment in these chemical defenses and growth; 3) if so, whether trade-offs are more severe under elevated CO2; 4) whether elevated CO2 will affect the evolutionary potential of carbon-based and nitrogen-based chemical defenses. Results suggest that total biomass of Brassica nigra will increase under elevated CO2. In contrast to the predictions of the CNB Hypothesis, there was no evidence that levels of carbon-based defenses
Alternative Energy Guest Article… While skyrocketing carbon dioxide emissions get all of the attention, theres an equally grave ecological problem: ocean acidification. Ocean acidification is climate changes evil twin, and if we dont curb our carbon footprint, the damage on the marine ecosystem will be irreparable, notes ocean conservation group Oceana. Unbalanced pH Nearly 70 percent of the Earths surface is covered in water and, according to the U.S. Geological Survey, 96.5 percent of our planets water is held in the oceans. Nearly 30 percent of the carbon dioxide that pollutes…. Read More ...
Rising atmospheric carbon dioxide levels are bolstering plant life throughout the world, environmental scientists report in a newly published peer-reviewed study. The findings, published in Geophysical Research Letters, are gleaned from satellite measurements of global plant life, and contradict assertions by activists that global warming is causing deserts to expand, along with devastating droughts.. A team of scientists led by environmental physicist Randall Donohue, a research scientist at the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization in Australia, analyzed satellite data from 1982 through 2010. The scientists documented a carbon dioxide fertilization effect that has caused a gradual greening of the Earth, and particularly the Earths arid regions, since 1982. The satellite data showed rising carbon dioxide levels caused a remarkable 11 percent increase in foliage in arid regions since 1982, versus what would be the case if atmospheric carbon dioxide levels had remained ...
• The carbon dioxide gas is temporarily converted to carbonic acid in red blood cells by the enzyme carbonic anhydrase, and then further converted to hydrogen and bicarbonate ions. • The result of increased carbon dioxide is decreased pH causing the Bohr effect. • Elevated carbon dioxide levels enhance unbinding of oxygen from oxyhemoglobin thereby making oxygen available for actively metabolizing cells. • By contrast, decreased carbon dioxide, as in the alveolar spaces, increases affinity of hemoglobin for oxygen and promotes oxygen loading and transport. • To a limited degree, changes in temperature affect the association and dissociation of O2 with hemoglobin. • The oxygen carrying ability of hemoglobin is unaffected by normal temperatures. • Near metabolically active cells, blood temperature rises, increasing the thermal motion of molecules which promotes the unloading of O2 to continue fueling aerobic metabolism in the tissue cells. • When temperature lowers,
This documentary paints a clear picture to me that no matter what we do now as human beings, because of our release of massive amounts of carbon dioxide into our atmosphere, we will continue to move into an era of a hotter planet. This means higher sea levels and warmer temperatures globally. The documentary does not address the volatility of the weather and weather extremes, but from other research, reading, and both documentary viewing and podcast listening I understand thats also a piece of our future together.. About 33 minutes into the documentary, I loved the exploration which highlighted the temperature variability of our planet over the past 500 years.. At about 1 hour and 4 minutes, I loved the sequence and story of an incredible earth core sample taken from the middle of a Russian lake in the middle of the winter, and all that it revealed and confirmed about our planets climate history.. At about 1 hour and 25 minutes, the sequence of showing how carbon dioxide levels are measured ...
It has been suggested that antioxidants play a role in regulating or modulating senescence dynamics of plant tissues. Ethylene has been shown to promote early plant senescence while controlled atmospheres (CA; reduced O2 levels and elevated CO2 levels) can delay its onset and/or severity. In order to examine the possible importance of various antioxidants in the regulation of senescence, detached spinach ( Spinacia oleracea L.) leaves were stored for 35 d at 10 °C in one of three different atmospheres: (1) ambient air (0.3% CO2, 21.5% O2, 78.5% N2), (2) ambient air+10 ppm ethylene to promote senescence, or (3) CA (10% CO2, 0.8% O2 and 89.2% N2) to delay senescence. At weekly intervals, material was assessed for activities of the antioxidant enzymes ascorbate peroxidase (ASPX; EC 1.11.1.11), catalase (CAT; EC 1.11.1.6), dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR; EC 1.8.5.4), glutathione reductase (GR; EC 1.6.4.2), monodehydroascorbate reductase (MDHAR; EC 1.6.5.4), and superoxide dismutase (SOD; EC ...
If you give off carbon dioxide emissions, you may need to pay a carbon tax. In which case, it is reasonable to be paid to remove carbon dioxide from the atmosphere.. The latest report from the IPCC was clear. We need to drastically reduce emissions of greenhouse gases already today if global climate targets are to be achievable. One way to reduce the amount of carbon dioxide in the air and raised in the report is to use so called negative emissions, that is to say, in one way or other, to be able to suck the carbon dioxide out of the atmosphere and store it.. One way of doing this is to cultivate vegetation that uses carbon dioxide from the air to grow. If you then burn this vegetation, you can produce district heating and electricity, but you can also get carbon dioxide emissions, the same amount as the vegetation has locked in. But if instead of releasing the carbon dioxide, it can be captured and stored, you will then have created a carbon sink. You can also convert vegetation into biochar, ...
A consortium led by VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland has developed a new technology that captures the carbon dioxide emissions of power plants more economically and ecologically. The International Energy Agency IEA regards carbon dioxide capture as essential if the emission reduction targets set for greenhouse gases are to be met.
TY - GEN. T1 - Policies for effective trading scheme to reduce carbon dioxide emissions. AU - Wong, Kaufui V.. AU - Plackemeier, John. PY - 2010/12/1. Y1 - 2010/12/1. N2 - The World Bank and the Intergovernmental panel on climate change have concluded that human activities such as fossil fuel combustion have caused higher average temperatures, more violent weather patterns and higher sea levels. Governments, politicians and corporations have started to take steps to curb emissions of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases to reduce its imbalance in the atmosphere, and in so doing, diminish the impacts it will have in the near future. While these parties have recognized the importance of significantly reducing emissions in the coming decades, there are currently no policies in the USA to accomplish these goals. At the same time that the need to reduce emissions become more and more apparent, the realization that the worlds current economy is highly carbon-dependent and that shifting to ...
Fossil fuel combustion is the primary anthropogenic source of both CO2 and Hg to the atmosphere. On a global scale, most Hg that enters ecosystems is derived from atmospheric Hg that deposits onto the land surface. Increasing concentrations of atmospheric CO2 may affect Hg deposition to terrestrial systems and storage in soils through CO(2)-mediated changes in plant and soil properties. We show, using free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE) experiments, that soil Hg concentrations are almost 30% greater under elevated atmospheric CO2 in two temperate forests. There were no direct CO2 effects, however, on litterfall, throughfall or stemflow Hg inputs. Soil Hg was positively correlated with percent soil organic matter (SOM), suggesting that CO(2)-mediated changes in SOM have influenced soil Hg concentrations. Through its impacts on SOM, elevated atmospheric CO2 may increase the Hg storage capacity of soils and modulate the movement of Hg through the biosphere. Such effects of rising CO2, ones that ...
Russell Long, executive director of the Bluewater Network, a San Francisco-based environmental group that proposed the bill, said some states are regulating carbon dioxide emissions from power plants. But no other state has tried to control carbon dioxide from autos, he said ...
growth and gas-exchange of three C4 species differing in CO2 leak rates. Physiol. Plant. 105: 74-80. Sicher, R. C. 1999. Photosystem-II activity is decreased by yellowing of barley primary leaves during growth in elevated carbon dioxide. Int. J. Plant Sci. 160: 849-854. Sicher, R. C. and Bunce, J. A. 1999. Photosynthetic enhancement and conductance to water vapor of field-grown Solanum tuberosum (L.) in response to CO2 enrichment. Photosyn. Res. 62: 155-163. Sicher, R. C. and Bunce J.A. 1999. Protein adjustments in wheat flag leaves in response to atmospheric CO2 enrichment. In: Photosynthesis: Mechanisms and Effects. Proceedings of the XI International Congress on Photosynthesis, G. Garab, ed., Kluwer Academic Publishers, The Hague, vol. V, 4744 pp. (Conference Proceeding). Bunce, J. A. and Sicher, R. C. Water stress and day-to-day variation in apparent photosynthetic acclimation of field-grown soybeans to elevated carbon dioxide concentration. Photosynthetica 39: 95-101. 2001 ...
Downloadable (with restrictions)! We use a model of domestic and international tourist numbers and flows to estimate the impact of the recent and proposed changes in the Air Passenger Duty (APD) of the United Kingdom. We look at four different scenarios (abolishing the APD, keeping the 2001 APD level, the 2007 APD and the Conservative Partys Green Miles proposal) using base, high and very high elasticity levels as well as assumptions about the substitutability between domestic and international holidays and the effects of a carbon tax. We find that the recent doubling of the APD has the perverse effect of increasing carbon dioxide emissions, albeit only slightly, because it reduces the relative price difference between near and far holidays. Tourists arriving into the UK would fall slightly. The number of tourists travelling from the UK would fall in the countries near to the UK, and this drop would be only partly offset by displaced tourists from the UK. Tourists leaving the UK for countries further
Problem  Clean natural environment is a public good  Environmental pollution generates complex external effects  Housing causes 15 % of total CO 2 Emission in Germany  External effects especially carbon dioxide emissions caused by residential heating and air- conditioning have to be internalised  Therefore residents in the European Union are living in a carbon-constrained world (e.g. European Energy Performance of Buildings Directive EPBD)  Internalisation of the external effects comes at a cost, both politically and economically  Most common recommendation in environmental economics: polluters pay a fee based on the volume of pollution they create (polluter-pays-principle)  However, it is not always possible to identify the polluter  If possible, it is not always economical feasible to refinance investments in order to reduce greenhouse gas emissions  Needed: financial burden-sharing model between owners, occupants and the public  Analysis and data based on housing
Carbon dioxide levels have risen so much in the last 150 years that plant pores, which plants effectively breathe through have decreased in size by up to 34%. As a result plants are restricted in the amount of water vapor that they release into the atmosphere.
A normal carbon dioxide level for humans is 23 to 29 milliequivalents per liter, states MedlinePlus. CO2 is primarily found in the form of bicarbonate. A b
Data & statistics on Carbon Dioxide Emissions per Unit of GDP: CO2 Emissions per Unit of GDP in 2020, EU-25 CO2 Emissions per Unit of GDP - Scenario Comparison, Development of CO2 emissions per unit of GDP in the period 2000-2050...
Watch this video with Lawrence Harper to learn how the latest technologies from Anton Paar Ltd can be used to accurately measure and analyze liquids and other materials. The density sensors discussed here are frequently used to monitor the product quality of liquids online during production. The instruments enable concentrations such as %Brix, %Alcohol and carbon dioxide levels to be accurately measured. Interview filmed by SelectScience at the Leatherhead Food Research Food Innovation Day 2012.
U.S. Public Support to Climate Change Initiatives?: Setting Stricter Carbon Dioxide Emission Limits on Power Plants: 10.4018/978-1-5225-0440-5.ch026: The Obama Administration Climate Action Plan is enforcing goals to reduce greenhouse gas emissions below 2005 levels by 2020, regulating both stationary and
Decarbonization of the Electricity Sector. One of the strategies for reducing carbon dioxide emissions was to decarbonize the generating sector-mainly by reducing coal and increasing renewable energy, particularly wind and solar power. This strategy has been part of the plan for the European Union and for the United States under former President Barack Obamas Clean Power Plan.. An interesting result from the BP data is that the world has essentially made no progress towards decarbonizing its electricity sector over the last 32 years. In 1985, 36 percent of the worlds electricity was generated from low-carbon sources (hydro, nuclear, renewable energy). In 2017, 33 percent of the worlds electricity was generated from low-carbon sources. Increased generation from non-hydroelectric renewables (solar, wind, biomass) provided only about half of the increase in world electricity demand over the last ten years.. China and India remain large generators of coal-fired electricity, producing 67 percent ...
Carbon dioxide emissions control concept. 3d rendering of co2 cloud on fresh spring meadow with blue sky in background. - Buy this stock illustration and explore similar illustrations at Adobe Stock
Democratic governors are being squeezed by the mandate in President Barack Obamas climate change plan to cut carbon dioxide emissions - perhaps none more than Montanas Steve Bullock, the one governor in a coal-producing state who faces re-election next year.. The Obama plan puts a big target on Bullocks back as he tries to avoid the fate of other Democrats tossed on the slag heap in the nations coal belt.. Republicans control most of the states where Obamas Clean Power Plan is a major issue, but Democrats in Montana hold most statewide offices, including governor.. The Clean Power Plan may be the single biggest threat to Bullocks chances for re-election, Carroll College political scientist Jeremy Johnson said Friday. Presumably, Republicans will relentlessly focus on the issue during the gubernatorial campaign.. The emissions rule was an issue in this months gubernatorial election in Kentucky, where Attorney General Jack Conway lost to Republican Matt Bevin, despite Conway joining a ...
The decline in energy-related carbon dioxide emissions occurred when the U.S. economy grew in 2012. Although GDP increased by 2.8 percent in 2012, energy consumption fell by 2.4 percent, EIA said. With population growth of about 0.7 percent, per capita output rose by about 2 percent in 2012. The emissions decline was the largest in a year with positive growth in per capita output and the only year to show a decline where per capita output increased 2 percent or more.. ...
Free Essay: There is much controversy concerning Carbon Dioxide emissions in recent years and the effect these emissions have on the environment. As people...
Monthly power sector carbon dioxide emissions reach 27-year low in April - - Oilfield Equipment including New, Used, Remanufactured and Surplus Oilfield Supply
ISO has published an air-quality standard for measuring the ratio between biogenic and fossil-derived carbon dioxide emissions from stationary sources.
Even if carbon dioxide emissions came to a sudden halt, the carbon dioxide already in Earths atmosphere could continue to warm our planet for hundreds of years, according to Princeton University-led research published in the journal Nature Climate Change.. The study suggests that it might take a lot less carbon than previously thought to reach the global temperature scientists deem unsafe.. The researchers simulated an Earth on which, after 1,800 billion tons of carbon entered the atmosphere, all carbon dioxide emissions suddenly stopped. Scientists commonly use the scenario of emissions screeching to a stop to gauge the heat-trapping staying power of carbon dioxide. Within a millennium of this simulated shutoff, the carbon itself faded steadily with 40 percent absorbed by Earths oceans and landmasses within 20 years and 80 percent soaked up at the end of the 1,000 years.. By itself, such a decrease of atmospheric carbon dioxide should lead to cooling. But the heat trapped by the carbon ...
Carbon dioxide emissions, adaptation of Kyoto protocol and Africas importance in these discussions.Footage include:General outside views of Le Bourget COP21 with countries flags. General inside...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Physiological responses of three species of unionid mussels to intermittent exposure to elevated carbon dioxide. AU - Hannan, Kelly D.. AU - Jeffrey, Jennifer D.. AU - Hasler, Caleb T.. AU - Suski, Cory D.. PY - 2016. Y1 - 2016. N2 - Freshwater systems are at risk owing to increasing carbon dioxide (CO2) levels, and one of the possible reasons for these elevations is the deployment of non-physical fish barriers to prevent invasive fish movements. Carbon dioxide barriers have the potential to create short, chronic and intermittent exposures of CO2 for surrounding freshwater biota. Although intermittent exposures to a stressor may be more ecologically relevant, the majority of laboratory tests use chronic or short-term time periods to determine how organisms will respond to an environmental stressor. Measurements of the physiological responses of three species of unionid mussel, giant floaters (Pyganodon grandis), threeridge (Amblema plicata) and plain pocketbook (Lampsilis ...
Effect of supercritical carbon dioxide on micro-mechanical properties of electrodesposited goldEffect of supercritical carbon dioxide on micro-mechanical properties of electrodesposited gold ...
Effects of Probiotic Additions to Feed and Manure on Temperature, Humidity, and Carbon Dioxide Emissions in Hanwoo Manure during Summer - A Field Study - Probiotics;Temperature;Humidity;Carbon dioxide emission;Feed;Hanwoo manure;
TY - JOUR. T1 - Highly porous organic nanoparticles formed from supercritical carbon dioxide mediated sol-emulsion-gel method. AU - Lee, Jun Young. AU - Kim, Jung Hyun. PY - 2004/5/5. Y1 - 2004/5/5. N2 - Highly porous organic nanoparticles have been prepared by adapting a novel method, sol-emulsion-gel process, through stable dispersion of nanometer-scaled emulsion droplets into continuous phase of supercritical carbon dioxide (ScCO2), sol-gel chemistry in emulsion droplets, and then supercritical drying. This principle offers faithful preparation of nanoparticles (35-90 nm in diameter) having pores of 1-3 nm in radius and high specific surface area (over 2000 m2/g).. AB - Highly porous organic nanoparticles have been prepared by adapting a novel method, sol-emulsion-gel process, through stable dispersion of nanometer-scaled emulsion droplets into continuous phase of supercritical carbon dioxide (ScCO2), sol-gel chemistry in emulsion droplets, and then supercritical drying. This principle offers ...
Relationship between serum total carbon dioxide concentration and bicarbonate concentration in patients undergoing hemodialysis - Acid base balance;Bicarbonate;Hemodialysis;Serum total carbon dioxide
Subcutaneous carbon dioxide insufflations popular in Central und Eastern Europe are a safe and inexpensive treatment modality in complementary medicine and are used mainly in musculoskeletal pain and vascular conditions. However, no rigorous trial exists on their efficacy.. The study is designed as a double blind sham controlled randomized trial to evaluate whether patients with acute non specific neck pain get pain free sooner, if treated with subcutaneous carbon dioxide insufflations compared to sham ultrasound.Since acute non specific neck pain is often self limiting, speed of recovery rather than outcome at fixed points in time is evaluated.. Participants receive either a maximum number of 9 subcutaneous carbon dioxide insufflations or a maximum number of 9 sham ultrasound administered by 4 therapists in a randomized order, thrice weekly. Carbon dioxide gas is insufflated subcutaneously at the locations of neck muscle tenderness. Per tender location 25 ml carbon dioxide gas is ...
Investigators evaluate the effect of patient position (Trendelenburg and reverse Trendelenburg) on arterial, end-tidal and transcutaneous carbon dioxide partial pressure in patients undergoing laparoscopic surgery. Arterial carbon dioxide partial pressure is assessed intermittently before, during, and after pneumoperitoneum. End-tidal and transcutaneous carbon dioxide partial pressure are continuously monitored ...
Background. There may be significant difference between measurement of end-tidal carbon dioxide partial pressure (PetCO(2)) and arterial carbon dioxide partial pressure (PaCO2) during one-lung ventilation with low tidal volume for thoracic surgeries. Transcutaneous carbon dioxide partial pressure (PtcCO(2)) monitoring can be used continuously to evaluate PaCO2 in a noninvasive fashion. In this study, we compared the accuracy between PetCO(2) and PtcCO(2) in predicting PaCO2 during prolonged one-lung ventilation with low tidal volume for thoracic surgeries.. Methods. Eighteen adult patients who underwent thoracic surgeries with one-lung ventilation longer than two hours were included in this study. Their PetCO(2), PtcCO(2), and PaCO2 values were collected at five time points before and during one-lung ventilation. Agreement among measures was evaluated by Bland-Altman analysis.. Results. Ninety sample sets were obtained. The bias and precision when PtcCO(2) and PaCO2 were compared were 4.1 +/- ...
Bush/ shrub encroachment is a great concern for rangeland managers in southern African savannas, especially because there is still no consensus about the main mechanisms behind the spread of woody species at the expense of grasses. Although much work has been done on the effects of fire, grazing, water and nutrient availability on rangeland productivity, the role of climate change, namely changes in CO2 concentrations and rainfall, and their potential interaction with manageable factors, such as grazing and fire, is not understood. This study focuses on investigating the combined role of elevated CO2, drought and land use on the balance between shrubs and grasses in southern African savannas. We used a climate gradient in Namibia, to set up experiments at a nested scale of realism and detail. I conducted semi-controlled to more controlled experiments in Germany, in the greenhouse and climate chambers, respectively. Here, the intention was to investigate how tree-grass interactions at a seedling ...
Although increased concentrations of CO2 stimulate photosynthesis, this stimulation is often lost during prolonged exposure to elevated carbon dioxide, leading to an attenuation of the potential gain in yield. Under these conditions, a wide variety of species accumulates non-structural carbohydrates in leaves. It has been proposed that starch accumulation directly inhibits photosynthesis, that the rate of sucrose and starch synthesis limits photosynthesis, or that accumulation of sugars triggers changes in gene expression resulting in lower activities of Rubisco and inhibition of photosynthesis. To distinguish these explanations, transgenic plants unable to accumulate transient starch due to leaf mesophyll-specific antisense expression of AGP B were grown at ambient and elevated carbon dioxide. There was a positive correlation between the capacity for starch synthesis and the rate of photosynthesis at elevated CO2 concentrations, showing that the capability to synthesize leaf starch is essential for
The need is pressing to investigate soil CO2(carbon dioxide) emissions and soil organic carbon dynamics under water-saving irrigation practices in agricultural systems for exploring the potentials...
The solubility of heptanoic acid and octanoic acid in supercritical carbon dioxide has been determined at temperatures of (313.15, 323.15, and 333.15) K over a pressure range of (8.5 to 30.0) MPa, depending upon the solute. The solubility of heptanoic acid ranged from a solute concentration of (0.08 ± 0.03) kg • m -3 (T = 323.15 K, p = 8.5 MPa) to (147 ± 0.2) kg • m -3 (T = 323.15 K, p = 20.0 MPa). The lowest octanoic acid solubility obtained was a solute concentration of (0.40 ± 0.1) kg • m -3 (T = 333.15 K, p = 10.0 MPa), while the highest solute concentration was (151 ± 2) kg • m -3 (T = 333.15 K, p = 26.7 MPa). In addition, solubility experiments were performed for nonanoic acid in supercritical carbon dioxide at 323.15 K and pressures of (10.0 to 30.0) MPa to add to the solubility data previously published by the authors. In general, carboxylic acid solubility increased with increasing solvent density. The results also showed that the solubility of the solutes decreased with ...
Rice has won a $3.3 million Department of Energy grant to develop a method to convert natural gas into carbon nanotubes for materials that can replace metals in large-scale applications. The goal is to save energy and stem carbon dioxide emissions from metal manufacturing while concurrently generating clean hydrogen and fixing fossil-sourced carbon in solid materials.
Capturing carbon dioxide under the cryogenic conditions has attracted more attention in the industrial applications. Despite of several large scale studies, the cryogenic carbon dioxide capture has not been well studied for the small scale power generation systems. In this study, a cryogenic carbon dioxide system is proposed for the small scale applications. The liquid carbon dioxide is collected in the liquefied natural gas vaporizer during the regasification process. The proposed design is simulated for the 30, 65, and 200 kW microturbines. In addition to the liquid carbon dioxide, the condensed water and the gas mixture of nitrogen-oxygen are collected as the byproducts of the system. The best carbon dioxide capture ratio is aimed with the minimum energy losses since the generated power rate is a key criterion. The proposed systems are evaluated according to the thermodynamic, environmental, and enviroeconomic perspectives. From the viewpoint of thermodynamics, the systems are found feasible ...
An end tidal carbon dioxide addition device coupling to a nasal cannula used on patients under general anesthesia or sedated, to continuously measure the carbon dioxide content of the expired breath. A first embodiment device has a body a pair of nasal ducts with clips to attach to a nasal cannula. A pair of oral ducts collects exhaled oral gases which are combined with the nasal gasses to be analyzed for tidal carbon dioxide content. A pair of posts adjacent the oral ducts stabilize the device on a sedated patient. A second embodiment integrates a nasal cannula with the body to provide an economical disposable device and substitutes a flattened region with an array of apertures for the oral ducts.
Power plants in Texas are among those that lead the nation in emissions that contribute to global warming and pollution, according to a new report.. The report, Benchmarking Air Emmissions, compiled by M.J. Bradley & Associates, a Massachusetts energy consulting firm, examines air emissions from plants owned by the top 100 merchant power companies in the U.S. Houstons Exelon is fourth; NRG Energy is eighth; Calpine Corp. is tenth and Dynegy is eleventh. Many power plants, particularly those that are coal-fired, produce sulfur dioxide, carbon dioxide, mercury and nitrogen oxides, which contribute to pollution, global warming and respiratory problems. As of 2015, power plants accounted for more than half of the sulfur dioxide emissions in the U.S. and 38 percent of the carbon dioxide emissions, according to the study.. Most the countrys emissions from power plants came from a handful of the top companies - nearly a quarter of the power industrys sulfur dioxide and carbon dioxide emissions ...
Look! Oatly cartons come with carbon dioxide …. We made a nice webpage all about the carbon dioxide equivalents were sticking on the front of our packages and why we want the food industry to join us. Hey food industry! Show us your nuers. Now, the one problem with all these nuers is they dont really 7 surprising things about the carbon footprint of your food. 2018/6/13· Everything we buy has a carbon footprint and food is no exception. Yearly, we produce five billion tonnes of carbon dioxide equivalent from crop and livestock production. From seed to mouth, it can be easy to forget how much in terms of production goes into our Carbon Dioxide and Nitrogen , Food Storage FAQ, …. Carbon dioxide (CO 2) and nitrogen (N 2) are commonly used in packaging both fresh and shelf-stable foods, in order to extend their shelf lives. Fresh foods are outside the scope of this work so attention shall be focused on those foods suitable for use in storage. Carbon dioxide emissions still rising in the Vale ...
Synopsis During the late Pliocene and early Pleistocene Series of the Cenozoic Era, 3.6 to 2.2 Ma (million years ago), the Arctic was much warmer than it is at the present day (with summer temperatures from 3.6-3.4 Ma some 8oC warmer than today). That is a key finding of research into a lake-sediment core obtained in Eastern Siberia, which is of exceptional importance because it has provided the longest continuous late Cenozoic land-based sedimentary record thus far. The sedimentary sequence dates from recent times back to 3.6 Ma when the lake was formed by a large extraterrestrial impact. During the warm period, atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations were close to those of today, at around 400 parts per million, indicative of a strong climate sensitivity signal in the Arctic, which has again warmed very rapidly in recent decades. The lake sediment record has thus provided us with a snapshot of how the Arctic may look in the near future.
Carbon Capture and Storage: Carbon Dioxide Pressure Dissipates in Underground Reservoirs, Study Shows. The debate surrounding carbon capture and storage intensifies as scientists from the Earth Sciences Division at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) examine the capacity for storing carbon dioxide underground, in a study published today in the new journal Greenhouse Gases: Science & Technology.. The study debates some of the conclusions drawn in an earlier study by Ehlig-Economides and Economides1, countering their claims that carbon dioxide cannot feasibly be stored underground. These earlier findings, according to the Berkeley Lab researchers, only considered closed-system subsurface formations, with limited mechanisms for relieving the pressure.. Carbon capture and storage (CCS) is controversial in the eyes of the general public. Pressure build-up in the subsurface induced by the injection of carbon dioxide from industrial-scale projects is a key constraint for the amount ...
0057]Use of a carbon dioxide supplying means for muscle strengthening in accordance with the present invention is not particularly limited as long as it allows a living body to absorb carbon dioxide. However, a local absorption means is preferred. An example of the carbon dioxide supplying means for allowing a living body to absorb carbon dioxide may include the followings. [0058](1) A composition for preparing carbon dioxide agents for external use, for example, carbon dioxide agents for external use obtained from the following a) and b): a) a composition for preparing a carbon dioxide agent for external use characterized by comprising a substance generating an acid after being hydrolyzed, a carbonate, a thickener, and water as essential components, and further comprising a gelating agent being gelated by calcium ion, and a water-insoluble or poorly-soluble calcium salt (National Publication of International Patent Application No. 2006/80398), or b) a composition for preparing a carbon dioxide ...
The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of the gas: liquid ratio (GLR) on carbon dioxide removal and heat loss across a forced-ventilated trickling filter (TF) used as bioreactor. The effect of 8 different GLRs (1.2-15.7) on carbon dioxide removal and heat loss from water passing a trickling filter were tested in random order. The TF was part of a pilot scale fresh water intensive recirculating aquaculture system and had a media bed height of 1.8 m, a diameter of 0.9 m, a specific surface area of 200 m2/m3 and was operated at a fixed hydraulic surface load of 9.42 m3/m2.h, a mean inlet water temperature of 27.0-27.5 °C, and a mean inlet pH ranging from 7.02-7.12. For each GLR, CO2 removal from water was calculated from CO2 measurements in the inlet and outlet air of the TF using an online infrared probe (developed for agriculture and greenhouses) and from 12 water measurements done once every 3 h during 2 subsequent days. The water inlet CO2 concentrations varied between ...
Enzymes have been used in supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2) rather than in the conventional media to make enzyme reactions greener. This review introduces some enzymatic asymmetric synthesis in scCO2 such as esterification by a lipase and reduction by an alcohol dehydrogenase. A carboxylation by a decarbo
TY - JOUR. T1 - Selective extraction of phospholipids from whey protein phospholipid concentrate using supercritical carbon dioxide and ethanol as a co-solvent. AU - Sprick, B.. AU - Linghu, Z.. AU - Amamcharla, J. K.. AU - Metzger, L. E.. AU - Smith, J. S.. N1 - Funding Information: We thank Midwest Dairy Foods Research Center (St. Paul, MN) for their financial support. This project is Kansas State Research and Extension contribution number 18-150-J. This work was partially supported by the USDA National Institute of Food and Agriculture, Hatch project 1014344. PY - 2019/12. Y1 - 2019/12. N2 - In recent years, using dairy phospholipids (PL) as functional ingredients has increased because PL have nutritional benefits and functional properties. In this study, a novel 2-step supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) process was used to extract whey protein phospholipid concentrate (WPPC), a dairy co-product obtained during the manufacture of whey protein isolate, for PL enrichment. In the first step, ...
A. Generally. By this regulation, the Virginia Racing Commission prohibits the feeding or administration to a horse on race day of any bicarbonate-containing substance or other alkalinizing substance that effectively alters the serum or plasma pH or concentration of bicarbonates or carbon dioxide in the horse. B. Test values. A serum or plasma total carbon dioxide level exceeding 37.0 millimoles per liter constitutes a positive test. C. Testing procedure. The stewards or commission veterinarian may, at their discretion and at any time, order the collection of test samples from any horses present within the enclosure for determination of serum or plasma pH or concentration of bicarbonate, carbon dioxide, or electrolytes. Preracing testing or post-race testing may be done at a time and manner directed by the commission veterinarian. Whether prerace or post-race, the sample shall consist of at least two blood tubes taken from the horse to determine the serum total carbon dioxide concentration. If ...
This Tutorial Review focuses on supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2), and discusses some of the problems that have frustrated its wide use on an industrial scale. It gives some recent examples where strategies have been developed to reduce the energy requirements, including sequential reactions and gas-expan Green Chemistry
Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Brayton cycles can be used in conjunction with a host of heat sources associated with different magnitudes of net power generation. In this paper, the overall design features of the turbomachinery, namely the turbine and compressor are evaluated for kilowatt to Gigawatt range of net cycle power using a commercial design tool - AxSTREAM®. The thermodynamic cycle considered in all cases is a simple recuperated Brayton cycle with turbine and compressor inlet temperatures of 540 °C and 45 °C respectively. The highest and lowest pressures in the cycle are 210 bar and 85 bar respectively. The preliminary design is carried out using an inverse algorithm with a meanline solver that generates many geometries for the given boundary conditions using standard loss correlations to account for different losses in turbomachines. It, thus, provides the general design features of the compressor and turbine which include - machine size, shaft speed at design point, overall ...
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Mass transfer studies on the dehydration of supercritical carbon dioxide using dense polymeric membranes. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
Phytantriol-based organogels as a new type of immobilisation matrix were tested for their potential application as solid-phase catalysts with both isooctane and supercritical carbon dioxide as external solvents. It was shown that Mucor miehei lipase immobilised in such organogels is capable of catalysing the esterification of 1-propanol and lauric acid in both solvents. In order to determine the operational stability of the immobilised lipase in phytantriol-based organogels, reuse experiments were conducted in isooctane. They showed that the catalytic activity is quite well preserved despite the fact that a loss of phytantriol occurs due to its extraction from the gel ...
Author: Pandey, S. et al.; Genre: Journal Article; Published in Print: 2002-02-21; Title: The photophysics of 6-(1-pyrenyl)hexyl-11(1-pyrenyl)undecanoate dissolved in organic liquids and supercritical carbon dioxide: Impact on olefin metathesis
The target of this project is the screening of the opportunities, resulting of the combination of treating Cellulosic bodies with supercritical carbon dioxide. In general, the change of the porous structure depending on the way of fiber drying and the opportunity to incorporate active compounds and the development of analytical methods to track them within Cellulosic bodies.
Rivers are generally supersaturated with respect to carbon dioxide, resulting in large gas evasion fluxes that can be a significant component of regional net carbon budgets. Amazonian rivers were recently shown to outgas more than ten times the amount of carbon exported to the ocean in the form of total organic carbon or dissolved inorganic carbon. High carbon dioxide concentrations in rivers originate largely from in situ respiration of organic carbon, but little agreement exists about the sources or turnover times of this carbon. Here we present results of an extensive survey of the carbon isotope composition ({sup 13}C and {sup 14}C) of dissolved inorganic carbon and three size-fractions of organic carbon across the Amazonian river system. We find that respiration of contemporary organic matter (less than 5 years old) originating on land and near rivers is the dominant source of excess carbon dioxide that drives outgassing in mid-size to large rivers, although we find that bulk organic carbon
Rice straw can serve as potential material for bioenergy production. However, the quantitative effects of increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration [CO2] on rice straw quality and the resulting consequences for bioenergy utilization are largely unknown. In this study, two rice varieties, WYJ and LY, that have been shown previously to have a weak and strong stimulatory response to rising [CO2], respectively, were grown with and without additional CO2 at China free-air carbon dioxide enrichment (FACE) platform. Qualitative and quantitative measurements in response to [CO2] included straw biomass (including leaf, sheath, and stem), the concentration of nonstructural and structural carbohydrates, the syringyl-to-guaiacyl (S/G) ratio of lignin, glucose and xylose release from structural carbohydrate, total sugar release by enzymatic saccharification, and sugar yield and the ratio of cellulose and hemicellulose degradation. Elevated [CO2] significantly increased straw biomass and ...
Carbon dioxide equivalent. Carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2-e) is a measure used to convert the masses of each of the greenhouse gases to a mass of CO2 that would give the equivalent global warming potential generally over a 100 year timeframe. Carbon dioxide equivalency thus reflects the time-integrated radiative forcing of a quantity of emissions or rate of greenhouse gas emission. For example, methane has a CO2-e 25 times that of CO2, and nitrous oxide 298 times. Carbon dioxide intensity and carbon dioxide per capita Alternatives to total emissions for measuring a nation?s greenhouse gas emissions. Carbon intensity measures emissions per unit of gross domestic product. Carbon dioxide per capita measures emissions per person. Both measures can be used to look at emission differences between nations. For example, while China has recently taken the lead in total greenhouse gas emissions, its per capita emissions level is far lower than that in most industrial countries. ...
Different types of enzymes such as lipases, several phosphatases, dehydrogenases, oxidases, amylases and others are well suited for the reactions in SC-CO2. The stability and the activity of enzymes exposed to carbon dioxide under high pressure depend on enzyme species, water content in the solution and on the pressure and temperature of the reaction system. The three-dimensional structure of enzymes may be significantly altered under extreme conditions, causing their denaturation and consequent loss of activity. If the conditions are less adverse, the protein structure may be largely retained. Minor structural changes may induce an alternative active protein state with altered enzyme activity, specificity and stability.
Elevated carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration in seawater has previously been demonstrated to have a range of negative impacts on marine fish. While ocean acidification is a well-known context in which elevated CO2 occurs, fish reared in recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS) may also be exposed to elevated CO2, and at concentrations which are even many times higher. The yellowtail kingfish (Seriola lalandi) and snapper (Chrysophrys auratus) are two marine fish species of high economic value in New Zealand which may be affected by elevated CO2 concentrations. To assess the effect of elevated CO2 on the growth, feed conversion, and respiratory physiology of yellowtail kingfish, juvenile kingfish (~230g) were reared in a 54 day growth-trial under the following CO2concentrations: (1) ,5mgL-1(ambient-control), (2) 10-15mgL-1, (3) ~20mgL-1, (4) ~30mgL-1, (5) ~40mgL-1 Specific growth rates (SGRM) were greatest in ambient CO2 concentration (1), but this did not significantly differ from concentration ...
Introduction: Carbon dioxide has a many commercial and industrial applications. In liquid and solid form known as dry ice, carbon dioxide is an important refrigerant, especially in food industry, where they are used during the transportation and storage of ice-cream and other frozen foods. Carbon dioxide is used to produce carbonated soft drinks and soda water.. Carbon dioxide is often used as an inexpensive, non-flammable pressurized gas. Life jackets often have canisters of carbon dioxide for quick inflation.. Steel capsules are also sold as supplies of compressed gas for airguns, paintball markers, and for making seltzer. Rapid vaporization of liquid CO2 is used for blasting in coal mines.. Liquid carbon dioxide is a good solvent for many organic compounds, and is used to remove caffeine from coffee. It has begun to attract attention in the pharmaceutical and other chemical processing industries as a less toxic alternative to more traditional solvents.. ...
Looking for online definition of carbon dioxide combining power in the Medical Dictionary? carbon dioxide combining power explanation free. What is carbon dioxide combining power? Meaning of carbon dioxide combining power medical term. What does carbon dioxide combining power mean?
A fairly large portion of patients receiving surgical or intensive care will need mechanical ventilation at some point. The potential ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI) is thus of interest. One of the main causal factors in VILI is the cyclic energy shifts, i.e. tidal volumes, in the lung during mechanical ventilation. The problem can be approached in two ways. Firstly, one can utilize apneic oxygenation and thus not cause any tidal injuries at all. Secondly, and more traditionally, one can simply lower the tidal volumes and respiratory rates used. The following describes a series of animal experiments exploring these options.. In the first two papers, I explored and improved upon the methodology of apneic oxygenation. There is a generally held belief that it is only possible to perform apneic oxygenation by prior denitrogenation and by using 100% oxygen during the apnea. As 100% oxygen is toxic, this has prevented apneic oxygenation from more widespread use. The first paper proves that it is ...
Abstract: Carbon dioxide retention is common in divers during water immersion. This puts divers at risk for carbon dioxide toxicity. The carotid body chemoreceptors contribute to the control of ventilation and when blood oxygen content is high, ventilation decreases. This results in the increased risk of carbon dioxide retention. Therefore, we are investigating the role of the carotid body chemoreceptors in ventilatory control during hyperbaric exposures when blood oxygen content is elevated ...
My posts about stuff like THIS usually elicit only yawns or a few snarky comments from global-warming deniers. But I intend to persist.The amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere underwent one of its biggest single-year jumps ever in 2012, according to researchers at the National Oceanic Atmospheric Administration. Between the end of 2011 and the beginning of 2013, carbon dioxide levels increased by 2.67 parts per million a rise topped only by the spike in 1998.By comparison, global carbon levels averaged a yearly rise of just under 2 parts per million from 2000 to 2010, and ... Read more
Alibaba.com offers 198 supercritical co2 fluid extraction device products. About 56% of these are other pharmaceutical machinery, 1% are oil pressers, and 1% are laser beauty equipment. A wide variety of supercritical co2 fluid extraction device options are available to you,
Greenshift Industrial Design Corporation (GIDC) has acquired technology that uses a blue-green algae that grows in the environment of hot flue gases found in smokestack. The algae uses photosynthesis to combine water and the CO2 in the flue gas to grow additional algae and form oxygen and water vapor. The organisms also absorb nitrogen oxide and sulfur dioxide, which contribute to acid rain. GDIC obtained a non-exclusive license from Ohio University for its patented bioreactor technology for reducing greenhouse gas emissions from the smokestacks of fossil fueled power plants and exclusive rights to the technology for the air pollution control of exhaust gas streams from all other sources. The reactor is composed of parabolic mirrors, fiber optic cables and slabs of acrylic plastic called glow plates. The algae grow on membranes of woven fibers resembling window screens interspersed between the glow plates. Capillary action wicks water to the algae, fiber optic cables channel sunlight into the glow
Today, U.S. Energy Secretary Steven Chu announced a series of initiatives at the Department of Energy to more broadly implement cool roof technologies on DOE facilities and buildings across the federal government. As part of the effort to make the federal government more energy efficient, Chu has directed all DOE offices to install cool roofs, whenever cost effective over the lifetime of the roof, when constructing new roofs or replacing old ones at DOE facilities. Additionally, the Secretary has also issued a letter to the heads of other federal agencies, encouraging them to take similar steps at their facilities.. Cool roofs are one of the quickest and lowest cost ways we can reduce our global carbon emissions and begin the hard work of slowing climate change, said Chu. By demonstrating the benefits of cool roofs on our facilities, the federal government can lead the nation toward more sustainable building practices, while reducing the federal carbon footprint and saving money for ...
But scientists at the University of Leeds and the World Land Trust have found that up to nine times as much carbon dioxide will be emitted using biofuels compared to conventional petrol and diesel because biofuel crops are typically grown on land which is burnt and reclaimed from tropical forests. The report concludes that protecting and restoring natural forests and grasslands is a much better way to reduce carbon dioxide emissions.. Study co-author Dominick Spracklen of the School of Earth and the Environment at the University of Leeds says: This study shows that if your primary concern is reducing carbon dioxide emissions, growing biofuels is not the best way to do it. In fact it can have a perverse impact elsewhere in the world. The amount of carbon that is released when you clear forests to make way for the biofuel crop is much more than the amount you get back from growing biofuels over a 30-year period.. You cant convert your car to run on biofuel and keep on driving and think that ...
The introduction of polar cosolvents is not only able to dramatically increase solubilities of polar organic solids in supercritical CO2 but also can make supercritical CO2 extraction more attractive in various separation applications. In this study, we have measured the solubility of aspirin in methanol-modified and ethanol-modified supercritical CO 2 by means of a dynamic saturation method. Experimental results show the aspirin solubility can be greatly enhanced up to 14 times by introducing 3.0 mol% methanol or ethanol. This enhancement, as believed, is mainly attributed to the strong attractive molecular interactions between the polar cosolvent and the polar solute. The aspirin ternary solubility data are fairly well described by using the Peng-Robinson equation of state model with an AARD ranging from 14 to 23%. © 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved ...
The proposed plant to convert sunlight and carbon dioxide to transportation fuels will utilize a Counter-Rotating Ring Receiver Reactor Recuperator (CR5) to convert carbon dioxide into carbon monoxide gas and oxygen gas. The CR5 is a solar chemical heat engine that provides an environment for the continuous reduction/oxidation of iron oxide, which allows for the reaction of carbon dioxide to carbon monoxide and oxygen. The plant will contain 150 CR5s each attached to its own parabolic mirror dish in order to collect sunlight. A carbon dioxide feed of approximately 25,070 kg/hr will be used to produce 9,520 kg/hr carbon monoxide. The devices will then feed a mixture of carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide gas to both a water gas shift reactor and a Fischer-Tropsch reactor. The Fischer- Tropsch reactor will use the carbon monoxide along with hydrogen gas produced from the water gas shift reactor to produce a range of hydrocarbon products following an Anderson- Schulz-Flory distribution centered around
It seems like you are asking about proxies that are useful on the scale of tens to hundreds of millions of years. We have great proxies that going back thousands of years (tree rings, peat cores, lake sediments), and quite a few that go back around a million or so (speleothem, ice cores), but beyond that the data is in sediments and rocks.. Deep sea sediment cores are probably the most important source of proxy material going back tens of millions of years, and carbonates the most useful lithology for retrieving proxy data from those cores. Changing CO2 values affect the PH of the ocean, and this has various effects on the plankton fossils and carbonate chemistry. One effect is that the chemical speciation of boron in their shells will be affected. High CO2 dissolves in the ocean as carbonic acid, acidifying the water and causing there to be more B(OH)3 relative to B(OH)4. B(OH)3 is relatively more likely to form with the heavy isotope of Boron, Boron-11. Several other isotope systems can be ...
... carbon dioxide could be converted to charcoal (elemental carbon), then burnt to produce carbon dioxide. It is referred to in ... Carbon Dioxide , Cold Fusion Knight-Ridder/Tribune Business News: Clearwater man puts technology to work Tampa Tribune (Tampa, ... It was further claimed the car "emits only oxygen rather than the usual carbon". Pakistani man Agha Waqar Ahmad claimed in July ... The process of converting borates to elemental boron and back might be compared with the analogous process involving carbon: ...
Carbon dioxide. The influence of CO2 on most silicate melts is fairly minor but in some cases, especially carbonatite, but also ... the presence of carbon dioxide and calcite in the melt or accessory phases derives erroneous normative mineralogy. This is ... because if carbon is not analyzed, there is excess calcium, causing normative silica undersaturation, and increasing the ...
National Academies Press (US). Langford, Nigel J. (2005-12-01). "Carbon Dioxide Poisoning". Toxicological Reviews. 24 (4): 229- ... Carbon, in the form of petroleum coke, and hydrogen may also be produced as petroleum products. The hydrogen produced is often ... Carbon steel is resistant to the most common forms of corrosion, particularly from hydrocarbon impurities at temperatures below ... From a materials standpoint, carbon steel is used for upwards of 80 percent of refinery components, which is beneficial due to ...
A concept to scrub carbon dioxide from breathing air is to use re-usable amine bead carbon dioxide scrubbers. While one carbon ... One idea to remove carbon dioxide is to use a zeolite molecular sieve, and then later the carbon dioxide can be removed from ... carbon dioxide and 16% oxygen, along with 78% nitrogen, plus about 0.2 to 0.3 liters of water. Carbon dioxide slowly becomes ... Martian carbon dioxide tends to block ultraviolet light of wavelengths shorter than about 190 nm, however above that there is ...
A carbogen mixture of 95% oxygen and 5% carbon dioxide can be used as part of the early treatment of central retinal artery ... Carbogen is used in biology research to study in vivo oxygen and carbon dioxide flows, as well as to oxygenate the aCSF ... Carbogen, also called Meduna's Mixture after its inventor Ladislas Meduna, is a mixture of carbon dioxide and oxygen gas. ... Then we would administer carbogen: Meduna's mixture of carbon dioxide and oxygen. We usually gave them about three inhalations ...
The wood gas is only usable as fuel and consists typically of 17% methane; 2% hydrogen; 23% carbon monoxide; 38% carbon dioxide ... The solid residue, charcoal, is mainly carbon (about 70%) and small amounts of tarry substances which can be driven off or ... in this case producing sulfur dioxide (SO2) or sulfur trioxide (SO3) gas which can be dissolved in water to obtain sulfuric ...
"R744 (Carbon dioxide)". Archived from the original on 15 September 2013. Retrieved 5 July 2013. Kilicarslon, Ali; Müller, ...
An electrocatalysis by a copper complex helps reduce carbon dioxide to oxalic acid; this conversion uses carbon dioxide as a ... February 2009). "Electro-reduction of carbon dioxide to formate on lead electrode in aqueous medium". Journal of Applied ... An electrochemical carboxylation of a para-isobutylbenzyl chloride to Ibuprofen is promoted under supercritical carbon dioxide ... Sakakura, Toshiyasu; Choi, Jun-Chul; Yasuda, Hiroyuki (13 June 2007). "Transformation of Carbon dioxide". Chemical Reviews. ...
"Trends in Carbon Dioxide". NOAA/ESRL. Retrieved 11 December 2009. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) Etheridge, D. M.; L. ... The conferences seek to address the threat of global warming caused by greenhouse gas emissions like carbon dioxide. Between ... of the global carbon dioxide emissions due to the lack of participation of Canada, Japan, Russia, Belarus, Ukraine, New Zealand ... The concentration of carbon dioxide in Earth's atmosphere has reached 391 ppm (parts per million) as of October 2012[update] ...
Carbon dioxide (CO2) is produced by the metabolism in the human body and can cause carbon dioxide poisoning. When breathing gas ... Carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide are common poisons which may contaminate breathing gases. There are many other possibilities ... Other specified contaminants are carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, oil, and volatile hydrocarbons, which are limited by toxic ... the carbon dioxide is removed by scrubbers before the gas is re-used. Carbon monoxide (CO) is a highly toxic gas that competes ...
... ton carbon dioxide). Carbon dioxide is one of the greenhouse gases that enhances radiative forcing and contributes to global ... Natural gas is often described as the cleanest fossil fuel, producing less carbon dioxide per joule delivered than either coal ... In 2013 the burning of fossil fuels produced around 32 billion tonnes (32 gigatonnes) of carbon dioxide and additional air ... Richard Heede, "Tracing anthropogenic carbon dioxide and methane emissions to fossil fuel and cement producers, 1854-2010", ...
carbon dioxide partial pressure. pH (indirectly affected by carbon dioxide concentration). They are particularly sensitive to ... They are important in measuring partial pressures of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the blood, and blood pH. The aortic bodies ...
As a result, exposure to carbon dioxide may exceed its OELs (0.5% by volume for 8-hour shift; 1.4% for 15 minutes exposure) ... Popova, Anna (ed.) (2018). "Substance #2138 Carbon dioxide". Hygienic standard 2.2.5.3532-18.Occupational exposure limits for ... some models may provide a stronger exposure to carbon dioxide. For example, IDLH for CO2 = 4%, but filtering facepiese " ... effects on breathing resistance and inhaled carbon dioxide". Annals of Occupational Hygiene. Oxford University Press. 57 (3): ...
Commercial carbon dioxide (CO2) lasers can emit many hundreds of watts in a single spatial mode which can be concentrated into ... "The Carbon Dioxide Laser". Davidson Physics. Retrieved August 17, 2014. Csele, Mark (2004). "The TEA Nitrogen Gas Laser". ... Mumma, Michael J (April 3, 1981). "Discovery of Natural Gain Amplification in the 10-Micrometer Carbon Dioxide Laser Bands on ...
... carbon dioxide builds up in the bloodstream. Chemoreceptors in the bloodstream note the high carbon dioxide levels. The brain ... This carbon dioxide build-up may be due to the decrease of output of the brainstem regulating the chest wall or pharyngeal ... Blood levels of carbon dioxide, and the neurological feedback mechanism that monitors them, do not react quickly enough to ... Oxygen and carbon dioxide receptors in the blood stream (called chemoreceptors) send nerve impulses to the brain, which then ...
Actions include carbon dioxide removal from the Carbon dioxide in Earth's atmosphere, which, in combination with emissions ... technology that captures carbon dioxide (CO2) directly from the atmosphere. One key recommendation of the Rand Corporation ... Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide". NOAA. ISSN 0362-4331. America's Climate Choices: Panel on Advancing the Science of Climate Change ... The removed carbon would be sequestered or used as a construction material. On November 13th 2020, an open letter, put together ...
Abolhasani, Milad; Günther, Axel; Kumacheva, Eugenia (2014-06-24). "Microfluidic Studies of Carbon Dioxide". Angewandte Chemie ... FLP consisting of a phosphine and a borane were used to selectively capture and release carbon dioxide. When a solution of the ... "Reversible Metal-Free Carbon Dioxide Binding by Frustrated Lewis Pairs" (PDF). Angewandte Chemie International Edition. 48 (36 ... borane-Catalyzed Deoxygenative Hydrosilylation of Carbon Dioxide". Journal of the American Chemical Society. 132 (31): 10660- ...
While normally carbon dioxide forms molecular crystals, where individual molecules are bound by Van der Waals forces, in ... Amorphous carbonia, also called a-carbonia or a-CO2, is an exotic amorphous solid form of carbon dioxide that is analogous to ... The discovery has implications for astrophysics, as interiors of massive planets may contain amorphous solid carbon dioxide. ... CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) Carbon dioxide glass created in the lab 15 June 2006, www.newscientisttech.com. ...
... most significantly our carbon dioxide emissions. Carbon dioxide is a greenhouse gas that attracts heat in order to keep our ... Following the carbon cycle, carbon dioxide enters our oceans where it reacts with the water molecules and produces a substance ... Carbon dioxide emissions and partitioning Petroleum extraction disrupts the equilibrium of earth's carbon cycle by transporting ... Based on of our current levels of carbon dioxide our oceans could have a pH level of 7.8 by the end of this century. Modern ...
The carbon dioxide was usually wasted.) Later process schemes made recycling unused ammonia and carbon dioxide practical. This ... For use in industry, urea is produced from synthetic ammonia and carbon dioxide. As large quantities of carbon dioxide are ... Instead of feeding carbon dioxide gas directly to the reactor with the ammonia, as in the total recycle process, the stripping ... Because the carbon dioxide feed is recovered from ammonia synthesis gas, it contains traces of hydrogen that can mingle with ...
Goklany, Indur M. (October 15, 2015). "Carbon Dioxide: The Good News". The Heartland Institute. Goklany, Indur M. (December 1, ... claims that there is a lack of consensus for global warming among scientists and that increased atmospheric carbon dioxide is ...
... it was well established that the increase of atmospheric carbon dioxide was ongoing and due to anthropogenic emissions. Carbon ... "Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide Growth Rate". Neftel, A.; Moor, E.; Oeschger, H.; Stauffer, B. (1985). "Evidence from polar ice ... "The Carbon Dioxide Greenhouse Effect". history.aip.org. Retrieved 2018-11-24. Harris, Daniel C. (2010). "Charles David Keeling ... Brown, Horace Tabberer; Escombe, F. (1905). "On the variations in the amount of carbon dioxide in the air of Kew during the ...
Oxidation also discharges carbon dioxide. Some muck land has been reclaimed and restored as wetlands for wildlife preserves.[ ...
Solid carbon dioxide can cause frostbite when in contact with the skin, by sticking to the moist tissue, such as wet skin or ... Solid carbon dioxide undergoes sublimation upon exposure to air. This means it transforms directly from the solid phase to the ... 2NaOH(aq) + CO2(g) ⇌ Na2CO3(aq) + H2O(l) When dry ice is added to water, it sublimes to carbon dioxide gas rapidly because the ... "Carbon Dioxide Properties" (PDF). Vanderblit University. 2012. "Indicators and dry ice demonstration- Learn Chemistry". www.rsc ...
Jiang, Z.; Xiao, T.; Kuznetsov, V. L.; Edwards, P. P. (2010). "Turning carbon dioxide into fuel". Phil. Trans. R. Soc. A. 368 ( ... Transforming carbon dioxide into jet fuel using an organic combustion-synthesized Fe-Mn-K catalyst. Nature Communications, 11(1 ... "Energy Storage via Carbon-Neutral Fuels Made From CO2, Water, and Renewable Energy". Proceedings of the IEEE. 100 (2): 440-460 ...
Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center. Oak Ridge National Laboratory. 1994. Archived from the original on 2014-02-01. ... Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center. "Radiocarbon dating". University of Utrecht. Retrieved 2008-02-19. USNRC, United ... Other nuclides, like carbon-14, which is present in all living organisms, are continuously created by cosmic rays. These levels ...
"Carbon Dioxide emissions from SnOasis". sNOasis Concern. Retrieved 1 December 2008. Official site Official site BBC Suffolk ... incinerator on land adjacent to the site was also proposed and they also plan to plant 130,000 trees to act as a carbon sink. " ...
"The Carbon Dioxide Greenhouse Effect". history.aip.org. Retrieved 2019-02-09. "Knut Angstrom on Atmospheric Absorption" (PDF). ... Rubens, H.; Aschkinass, E. (1898-10-01). "Observations on the Absorption and Emission of Aqueous Vapor and Carbon Dioxide in ...
Weart, S. (2008). "The Carbon Dioxide Greenhouse Effect". Retrieved 27 May 2008. Fleming, J R (1999). "Joseph Fourier, the " ...
... less commonly carbon dioxide and nitrogen. A common theme among these techniques is the use of a fine (100-10−3 Torr) or high ( ...
... an the transport o carbon dioxide in the opposite direction. ...
... and carbon dioxide, water, and heat). Excretion of nutrients is, therefore, basic to metabolism."[28]:1230-1231 The units in ... including both minerals and gases such as carbon dioxide. These chemical reactions require energy, which mainly comes from the ... A gradient exists between trophic levels running from complete autotrophs that obtain their sole source of carbon from the ... Ecologists employ stoichiometry to analyze the ratios of the main elements found in all organisms: carbon (C), nitrogen (N), ...
... which are able to assimilate carbon dioxide and water more efficiently than C3 grasses, expanded to become ecologically ... "The impact of Miocene atmospheric carbon dioxide fluctuations on climate and the evolution of terrestrial ecosystems". ... The higher organic content and water retention of the deeper and richer grassland soils, with long term burial of carbon in ... sediments, produced a carbon and water vapor sink. This, combined with higher surface albedo and lower evapotranspiration of ...
They capture the energy in sunlight and use it to make simple sugars, such as glucose and sucrose, from carbon dioxide and ... The slight separation of the cells provides maximum absorption of carbon dioxide. Sun leaves have a multi-layered palisade ... carbon dioxide and water vapor can diffuse into and out of the leaf and access the mesophyll cells during respiration, ... openings called stomata which open or close to regulate the rate exchange of carbon dioxide, oxygen, and water vapor into and ...
... (physiology), transporting oxygen and carbon dioxide between cells and the external environment *Respiratory system ... Carbon respiration, a concept used in calculating carbon (as CO. 2) flux occurring in the atmosphere ... Ecosystem respiration, measurement of gross carbon dioxide production by all organisms in an ecosystem ...
... sulfur dioxide and carbon disulfide.[22] The four top gases in 67P's halo were water, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, and ... The Rosetta mission found carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, ammonia, methane and methanol in the Coma of Comet 67P, as well as ... are responsible for the degradation of water and carbon dioxide molecules released from the comet nucleus into its coma.[6][7] ... In 2015, it was noted that the ALICE instrument on the ESA Rosetta spacecraft to comet 67/P, detected hydrogen, oxygen, carbon ...
"As soon they evolved, they became the dominant metabolism for producing fixed carbon in the form of sugars from carbon dioxide ... As far as I am aware, nothing classified as an "animal" respirates Carbon Dioxide for energy and emits Oxygen. Redwood Elf ( ... Necessary, but not sufficient: Raman identification of disordered carbon as a signature of ancient life Pasteris JD, Wopenka B ...
... usually using chlorine over an activated silicon dioxide catalyst or nitrogen dioxide over a copper salt. It is also formed ... The two cyano groups are bonded together at their carbon atoms: N≡C−C≡N, although other isomers have been detected.[6] The name ... Cyanogen produces the second-hottest-known natural flame (after carbon subnitride) with a temperature of over 4,525 °C (8,177 ° ... with most of the carbon atoms being of sp2 type and localized domains of π conjugation.[13] ...
Organic matter is mineralized, liberating gaseous carbon dioxide (CO2) in the porewater, which, depending on the conditions, ...
Rising levels of carbon dioxide are resulting in influx of this gas into the ocean, increasing its acidity. Marine organisms ... Using chemical proxies from Antarctic ice cores, researchers have estimated the fluctuations of carbon dioxide (CO2) and ... atmospheric carbon dioxide and methane levels fluctuated in a pattern which was different from the Pleistocene epoch before it. ... carbon dioxide), deforestation and territorial clearance practices associated with agricultural development may be contributing ...
Oxygen vented through a relief valve into space, carrying away heat, moisture, and exhaled carbon dioxide. The space suit ...
They also react with carbon dioxide and carbon tetrachloride, so that normal fire extinguishers are counterproductive when used ... They easily react with carbon dioxide to form carbonates or bicarbonates, or with hydrogen sulfide to form sulfides or ... Reaction with carbon Lithium is the only metal that reacts directly with carbon to give dilithium acetylide. Na and K can react ... Sodium peroxide and potassium superoxide react with carbon dioxide to form the alkali metal carbonate and oxygen gas, which ...
... and carbon dioxide and waste substances to diffuse from cells back into circulation. They also allow organs to resist ...
... an order to enjoin the defendants from continued violation of their rights and to develop a plan to mitigate carbon dioxide ...
... proof of concept and are completing a prototype device that will use concentrated solar energy to reenergize carbon dioxide or ... This will form carbon monoxide, hydrogen, and oxygen, which ultimately could be used to synthesize liquid fuels in an ...
Carbon dioxide. 1.00045 Liquids at 20 °C Water. 1.333 Ethanol. 1.36 ...
... essential oil can be obtained from the fruits by either steam distillation or extraction using supercritical carbon dioxide.[14 ...
... forming carbon dioxide (CO2). Production[edit]. Activated carbon is carbon produced from carbonaceous source materials such as ... "Effect of steam and carbon dioxide activation in the micropore size distribution of activated carbon". Carbon. 34 (4): 505-509 ... Woven carbon[edit]. There is a technology of processing technical rayon fiber into activated carbon cloth for carbon filtering ... Carbon tetrachloride activity[edit]. Measurement of the porosity of an activated carbon by the adsorption of saturated carbon ...
It allows carbon dioxide to exit the egg and oxygen gas to enter the egg. The albumin (9) further protects the embryo and ...
Fermentation can be simply defined, in this context, as the conversion of sugar molecules into ethanol and carbon dioxide by ...
Ti and Ta carbides have high melting points due to covalent carbon networks although carbon vacancies often exist in these ... thorium dioxide (ThO2),[7][8] tantalum carbide (TaC)[9] and their associated composites.[10] ... 2002). "A thermoanalytical study on the oxidation of ZrC and HfC powders with formation of carbon". Solid State Ionics. 149 (3- ... Metal carbides are brittle due to the strong bonds that exist between carbon atoms. The largest class of carbides, including Hf ...
Carbon dioxide - CO2. *Carbon disulfide - CS2. *Carbon monoxide - CO. *Carbon tetrabromide - CBr4 ...
The primary by-products of metabolism are carbon dioxide and water; carbon dioxide is expelled through the respiratory system. ...
... which have global warming potential higher than that of carbon dioxide, cellulose does not produce significant gaseous ...
The dried pasta is then packaged: Fresh pasta is sealed in a clear, airtight plastic container with a mixture of carbon dioxide ...
According to WHO veterinary documents, B. anthracis sporulates when it sees oxygen instead of the carbon dioxide present in ... Under conditions of starvation, especially the lack of carbon and nitrogen sources, a single endospore forms within some of the ... They also function as a carbon and energy source for the development of a vegetative bacterium during germination. ...
... phosphate and carbon dioxide". J. Biol. Chem. 234: 1799-1805. PMID 13672967.. ...
... including rising levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide, global warming, and pollution.[156] Indeed, some analysts claim that ... "The best way to reduce your carbon footprint is one the government isn't telling you about". Science. Retrieved December 9, ... published in Environmental Research Letters argued that the most significant way individuals could mitigate their own carbon ...
Get carbon dioxide (CO2) out of the body. When the body makes energy, carbon dioxide gets left over. The body needs to get rid ... This helps the person breathe out the extra carbon dioxide. Once the amount of carbon dioxide in the blood is normal again, the ... The brainstem measures how much carbon dioxide is in a person's blood. If there is too much carbon dioxide, the medulla tells ... extra carbon dioxide comes out and goes into the lungs. This is called gas exchange: basically, oxygen and carbon dioxide are ...
Recently, methanol fuel has been produced using renewable energy and carbon dioxide as a feedstock. Carbon Recycling ... It can also be synthesized from CO2 (carbon dioxide) and hydrogen.[1] ... "Carbon Recycling International. 2011. Archived from the original on 17 June 2013. Retrieved 11 July 2012.. ... "Carbon Recycling International. Archived from the original on 3 July 2013. Retrieved 11 July 2012.. ...
This is a good introductory activity to carbon emissions. It shows students the amount of carbon dioxide emitted by different ... Next have students go to the area of the world they think emits the most carbon dioxide. Then have them go to the area of the ... Discuss with students whether or not different lifestyles would result in the use of more carbon dioxide. *Have the students ... This demonstration shows students the amount of carbon dioxide emitted by different areas of the world. It also has them ...
... especially with respect to changes in the abundance of carbon dioxide. The interaction of stresses with elevated carbon dioxide ... especially with respect to changes in the abundance of carbon dioxide. The interaction of stresses with elevated carbon dioxide ... especially with respect to changes in the abundance of carbon dioxide. The interaction of stresses with elevated carbon dioxide ... acclimation ambient CO2 antioxidative Arctic availability Bazzaz biomass C3 plants canopy carbohydrate carbon dioxide climate ...
If carbon dioxide emissions and, as a result, atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations continue to increase unchecked, a ... In order to achieve the long-term stabilization of the atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration, fossil carbon dioxide ... According to the model, admissible carbon dioxide emissions will increase from approximately seven billion tons of carbon in ... is to simulate future changes in the climate and carbon dioxide emissions in a single scenario in which the carbon dioxide ...
... atmosphere touched what climate scientists called a dire milestone Friday as concentrations of heat-trapping carbon dioxide ... Carbon dioxide is a primary greenhouse gas, efficient at trapping heat from the sun. The colorless gas is released from power ... Airborne concentrations of carbon dioxide vary by season and location on Earth. But the measurements from the Mauna Loa monitor ... In 2012, global carbon dioxide emissions soared to a record high of 35.6 billion tons, up 2.6 percent from 2011. ...
Simply put, the more carbon dioxide, the hotter we get. Scientists express the level of carbon dioxide according to how many ... 400 parts per million milestone for carbon dioxide should not by itself affect our general concern about rising carbon dioxide ... Todays rate of carbon dioxide increase is more than 100 times faster than the increase that occurred when the last ice age ... "The carbon dioxide concentration in air tells two stories. It varies like a clock, rhythmically marking the annual cycle of the ...
There is much controversy concerning Carbon Dioxide emissions in recent years and the effect these emissions have on the ... The concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere of Barrow, Alaska, reached 400 parts per million (ppm) this spring, ... Reports of increasing carbon dioxide gas levels, increasing temperatures, melting ice caps and mountain glaciers and rising sea ... More about Controversy Concerning Carbon Dioxide Emissions and Its Effects. *. Cause And Effect Of Global Warming. 953 Words , ...
Carbon Dioxide Could Warm Earth for Centuries. Even if carbon dioxide emissions came to a sudden halt, the carbon dioxide ... Even if carbon dioxide emissions came to a sudden halt, the carbon dioxide already in Earths atmosphere could continue to warm ... By itself, such a decrease of atmospheric carbon dioxide should lead to cooling. But the heat trapped by the carbon dioxide ... To avoid that point would mean humans have to keep cumulative carbon dioxide emissions below 1,000 billion tons of carbon, ...
Halmann, Martin M. (1993). "Carbon Dioxide Reforming". Chemical fixation of carbon dioxide: methods for recycling CO 2 into ... Carbon dioxide reforming (also known as dry reforming) is a method of producing synthesis gas (mixtures of hydrogen and carbon ... ISBN 978-0-8493-4428-2. Fan, M.-S.; Abdullah, A.Z.; Bhatia, S. (2009). "Catalytic Technology for Carbon Dioxide Reforming of ... from the reaction of carbon dioxide with hydrocarbons such as methane. Synthesis gas is conventionally produced via the steam ...
Supercritical carbon dioxide (sCO 2) is a fluid state of carbon dioxide where it is held at or above its critical temperature ... Supercritical carbon dioxide is used in the production of silica, carbon and metal based aerogels. For example, silicon dioxide ... Supercritical carbon dioxide is used in the foaming of polymers. Supercritical carbon dioxide can saturate the polymer with ... Carbon dioxide usually behaves as a gas in air at standard temperature and pressure (STP), or as a solid called dry ice when ...
Activated carbon[edit]. Activated carbon can be used as a carbon dioxide scrubber. Air with high carbon dioxide content, such ... Device which absorbs carbon dioxide from circulated gas A carbon dioxide scrubber is a piece of equipment that absorbs carbon ... Regenerative carbon dioxide removal system[edit]. The regenerative carbon dioxide removal system (RCRS) on the space shuttle ... to remove carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. It reacts with carbon dioxide to form lithium carbonate.[10] Recently lithium ...
Cyborg bacteria turn carbon dioxide into chemicals and fuels with zero waste Forget about Tony Stark or the Bionic Man, the ... Carbon dioxide may soon be used to make fuel A newly developed, solar powered "leaf" mimics photosynthesis, converting CO2 into ... This Swiss facility is sucking carbon dioxide out of the air for growing veggies (Video) Run on waste heat, this commercial ... In what is said to be a first for automakers, Ford is developing foams and plastics using captured carbon dioxide, which could ...
... sellers and brokers of carbon-dioxide discharge permits convenes in Germany. Getting rid of the waste gas blamed for global ... Summit: Carbon Dioxide Traders. Buyers, sellers, brokers and lawyers, even specialists in carbon asset creation management, ... If carbon dioxide had a color, if people saw the sky getting darker, people would have no problem recognizing whats going on ... Whats going on is that the worlds daily output of manmade carbon dioxide, from burning coal, oil and other fossil fuels, is ...
Metal carbon dioxide complexes are coordination complexes that contain carbon dioxide ligands. Aside from the fundamental ... carbon-13) as a diagnostic tool to determine the mode of bonding of carbon dioxide to a metal center". Inorganic Chemistry. 31 ... Illustrative structures of transition metal carbon dioxide complexes, from the left: Ni(η2-CO2)(PCy3)2, Rh(η1-CO2)ClL4 (L4 = ( ... Carbon dioxide can also bind to ligands on a metal complex (vs just the metal), e.g. by converting hydroxy ligands to carbonato ...
pig iron and carbon dioxide:. 2 Fe2O3 + 3 C → 4 Fe + 3 CO2. Yeast metabolizes sugar to produce carbon dioxide and ethanol, also ... Liquid carbon dioxide forms only at pressures above 5.1 atm; the triple point of carbon dioxide is about 518 kPa at −56.6 °C ( ... High concentrations of carbon dioxide can also be used to kill pests, such as the Common Clothes Moth.. Carbon dioxide is used ... Carbon dioxide. 2008/9 Schools Wikipedia Selection. Related subjects: Chemical compounds. Carbon dioxide. ...
Since the middle of the 19th century, the level of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere has been rising because of the extensive ... The atmospheric level of carbon dioxide climbed from about 0.028 percent in 1860 to 0.032 percent by 1958 (when improved ... The rates of these reactions can be increased somewhat by increasing the carbon dioxide concentration. ... stage of photosynthesis are the chemical reactions by which organic compounds are formed by using carbon dioxide as a carbon ...
Opinion Journal: Carbon Dioxides Champions. CO2 Coalition Director Rodney Nichols on a new scientific coalition devoted to ...
The primary human source of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the atmosphere is from the burning of fossil fuels for energy production ... Learn more about deforestation and carbon dioxide emissions.. Learn more about climate science:. Carbon dioxide Super ... Deforestation and carbon dioxide emissions. Most CO2 emissions from deforestation stem from the destruction of tropical forests ... Sometime in 2007, China passed the US to become the worlds largest emitter of carbon dioxide. Most of Chinas CO2 comes from ...
Carbon dioxide can be stored underground for ten times the length needed to avoid climatic impact. 28 Jul 2016 Study of natural ... New research shows that the natural reactions taking place in some of the underground reservoirs used to store carbon dioxide ... The first comprehensive overview of the worlds largest terrestrial pool of carbon highlights the importance of soil carbon ... of sea ice caused the release of huge amounts of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. ...
The chokedamp (see damp ) of mines, pits, and old, unused wells is largely carbon dioxide. Carbon dioxide is a raw material for ... This extra carbon dioxide fuels the greenhouse effect, warming the atmosphere and further disrupting the natural carbon dioxide ... There are three principal commercial sources for carbon dioxide. High-purity carbon dioxide is produced from some wells. The ... removing enough heat so that the rest of it cools into solid carbon dioxide snow. A standard test for the presence of carbon ...
"Schlumberger Carbon Services provides comprehensive geological storage solutions for carbon dioxide (CO2), consistent with care ... However, fears of the byproducts of burning coal, most notably the emission of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere, have many ...
Trends in Carbon Dioxide from NOAA.. *↑ Annual Mean Growth Rate for Mauna Loa, Hawaii. Trends in Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide. ... Carbon dioxide (CO2) is a chemical compound composed of two oxygen atoms covalently bonded to a single carbon atom. It is a gas ... Wikipedia also has an article on Carbon dioxide. This article may use content from the Wikipedia article under the terms of the ... Carbon dioxide is also generated as a by-product of the combustion of fossil fuels or the burning of vegetable matter like ...
Britains carbon dioxide shortage has been caused by an unusually high number of closures of the factories which produce the ... We are aware of some issues with the current supply of carbon dioxide across Europe. Carbon dioxide is an important input in ... Britains carbon dioxide shortage has been caused by an unusually high number of closures of the factories which produce the ... Carbon dioxide is widely used, including to slaughter farm animals, package food and provide the fizz in carbonated drinks. ...
What if excess carbon dioxide could be sent into space? Thats the plan of UCLA environmental physicist Alfred Wong, who thinks ... A Space Elevator for Carbon Dioxide. What if excess carbon dioxide could be sent into space? ...
... carrying a NASA science satellite to survey where carbon dioxide, a greenhouse gas tied to climate change, is moving into and ... "Its really the fate of carbon dioxide once its in the atmosphere that were trying put our finger on," Gunson said. ... OCO 2 is NASAs first mission dedicated to studying carbon dioxide, said Betsy Edwards, program executive at NASA Headquarters ... even if we continue to consume more and more fossil fuels and emit more and more carbon dioxide into the atmosphere," Gunson ...
... carbon dioxide. The device uses a two-stage thermochemical reaction to break down carbon dioxide to produce carbon monoxide, ... is to capture carbon-dioxide emissions and reuse them as fuel. "Were also looking at ways to pull carbon dioxide out of the ... separate chamber containing carbon dioxide. Having given up its oxygen, the ceramic reacts with the carbon dioxide, stealing ... "Carbon dioxide is a combustion product, so what were doing is reversing combustion," he says. The carbon monoxide can then ...
A Utah legislator says double the carbon dioxide in our atmosphere, an Idaho bill would allow doctors to refuse service to gays ... Fringe Factor: More Carbon Dioxide, Please. A Utah legislator says double the carbon dioxide in our atmosphere, an Idaho bill ... Utah Rep: More Carbon Dioxide, Please. Utah state Rep. Jerry Anderson wants to redefine the term "air contaminants" in proposed ... "We are short of carbon dioxide for the needs of the plants," Anderson said. "Concentrations reached 600 parts per million at ...
Carbon Dioxide Levels. The food preservation processes based on carbon dioxide level use the property that increases level of ... level of oxygen and carbon dioxide at high humidity. In particular, the concentration of carbon dioxide is reduced and that of ... around half of the solid carbon dioxide sublimes into the gaseous state. The heat required to convert solid carbon dioxide into ... carbon dioxide decreases the ethylene concentration. Enriched carbon dioxide levels significantly reduce respiration, hinder ...
A current theory postulates that carbon dioxide regulates the temperature of the earth. This raises an interesting question: ... carbon dioxide controls temperature because the carbon dioxide molecules in the air absorb infrared radiation. The carbon ... Much of the carbon dioxide in the atmospheres of past geologic epochs now lies buried in the carbon dioxide reservoir of the ... The carbon dioxide theory may well account for these temperature fluctuations.. A decline in the carbon dioxide concentration ...
Source for information on Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Emissions: Environmental Science: In Context dictionary. ... EmissionsIntroductionCarbon dioxide (CO2) is released into Earths atmosphere mostly by the burning of carbon-containing fuels ... It is removed from the atmosphere mostly by plants, which extract carbon from CO2 to build their tissues, and by the oceans, in ... Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Emissions Environmental Science: In Context COPYRIGHT 2009 Gale. Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Emissions. ...
Follow the Carbon. Model the carbon cycle and its principal reservoirs and flow rates using rice. ...
carbon dioxide: (CO 2), a colourless gas having a faint, sharp odour and a sour taste; it is a minor component of Earths ... atmosphere (about 3 volumes in 10,000), formed in combustion of carbon... ... oxide: Carbon dioxide. Carbon dioxide is produced when any form of carbon or almost any carbon compound is burned in an excess ... carbon dioxide - Student Encyclopedia (Ages 11 and up). A colorless gas, carbon dioxide has a faint, sharp odor and a slightly ...
What are the most important things to know about carbon dioxide in an emergency? ... What are other names or identifying information for carbon dioxide? What is the WHMIS 1988 classification? ... Carbon Dioxide. CLOSE ALL. What are other names or identifying information for carbon dioxide?. CAS Registry No.: 124-38-9. ... Other Names: CO2, Liquefied carbon dioxide, Refrigerated carbon dioxide. Main Uses: Manufacture of other chemicals, food ...
Subject: Carbon dioxide in soda Posted by Sayre Payne. Grade level: 4-6. School: Jasper Elementary. City: Jasper State/Province ... Re: Carbon dioxide in soda Current Queue , Current Queue for Chemistry , Chemistry archives Try the links in the MadSci Library ... What CAUSES the immediate release of carbon dioxide in carbonated beverages when salt is added? My science fair experiment is ...
Solid carbon dioxide is more commonly referred to as dry ice. It is a white powdery solid. Carbon dioxide is toxic in ... oxygen in/carbon dioxide out). This is a very finely balanced equilibrium and if the external carbon dioxide concentration ... Carbon Monoxide on the other hand forms so stable a complex with haemoglobin that neither oxygen nor carbon dioxide can ... All the carbon dioxide ends up in the wood. It works the other way, too. Burn sugar completely, and you get this: plant stuff ...
  • Human influence on the Earth's atmosphere touched what climate scientists called a dire milestone Friday as concentrations of heat-trapping carbon dioxide nudged up to a level unseen in about 3 million to 5 million years - long before modern humans. (washingtonpost.com)
  • For the first time in human history, the concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere has reached 400 parts per million (ppm). (washingtonpost.com)
  • And scientists at the Scripps Institution of Oceanography and elsewhere have estimated that about 3 million to 5 million years have passed since so much carbon dioxide wafted in the Earth's atmosphere. (washingtonpost.com)
  • The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Association has emphasized that conditions regarding CO2 emissions are critical as carbon dioxide levels in the atmosphere are increasing on a constant basis. (bartleby.com)
  • The concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere of Barrow, Alaska, reached 400 parts per million (ppm) this spring, according to NOAA measurements, the first time a monthly average measurement for the greenhouse gas attained the 400 ppm mark in a remote location. (bartleby.com)
  • In which case, it is reasonable to be paid to remove carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. (kth.se)
  • One way to reduce the amount of carbon dioxide in the air and raised in the report is to use so called negative emissions, that is to say, in one way or other, to be able to suck the carbon dioxide out of the atmosphere and store it. (kth.se)
  • If we could create rules that mean you are paid to remove carbon dioxide from the atmosphere, it could be profitable. (kth.se)
  • The same scientists suggested that if carbon dioxide was to double in quantity in the atmosphere, water released by the plant life would be dramatically reduced. (justmeans.com)
  • Volcanoes add far more carbon dioxide to the oceans and atmosphere than humans. (earthmagazine.org)
  • Moreover, the book and other purveyors of this myth never explain, nor cite sources that explain, how it is known that volcanoes wholly outdo humans in adding carbon dioxide to the oceans and atmosphere. (earthmagazine.org)
  • Coal and crude oil contain carbon that plants have pulled out of the atmosphere through photosynthesis over million of years. (nationofchange.org)
  • However, in short order, human activity has returned that trapped carbon back into the atmosphere, as NOAA reported. (nationofchange.org)
  • The fires, which raged for nearly five months, released about 900 million tons of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. (nationofchange.org)
  • Carbon dioxide in the atmosphere is also notable for its contribution to ocean acidification. (nationofchange.org)
  • Even though power plants and cars were very much unheard of 56 million years ago, the same carbon was released into the atmosphere. (naturalnews.com)
  • Despite their useful finding, it is still uncertain what could have triggered the warming that spurred the release of the extra carbon into the planet's atmosphere . (naturalnews.com)
  • They have done so by demonstrating how the graphite electrodes used in the lithium-ion batteries that power electric automobiles can be replaced with carbon material recovered from the atmosphere. (ultimatescience.org)
  • We find: 1) Replacing coal generators with natural gas generators is the most economical way to achieve a target of reducing carbon dioxide emissions by 20 percent. (rice.edu)
  • As energy-related carbon dioxide emissions account for the majority of greenhouse gas emissions, the plan proposed carbon pollution standards for both new and existing plants. (igi-global.com)
  • See the EIA's report on Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions by State for technical notes and documentation. (stlouisfed.org)
  • A monitoring station in Hawaii recorded carbon dioxide concentrations of 400 parts per million Friday, dramatically up from the 316 parts per million recorded when the station made its first measurements in 1958. (washingtonpost.com)
  • Airborne concentrations of carbon dioxide vary by season and location on Earth. (washingtonpost.com)
  • Carbon Dioxide concentrations are an effective measure of how many fossil fuels we are burning. (nationofchange.org)
  • Elevated concentrations of carbon dioxide are a hallmark of the climate crisis since they are associated with higher temperatures, melting ice and sea level rise , among other effects. (nationofchange.org)
  • University of Exeter geography professor Richard Betts, head of the climate impacts division at the UK's national weather service, expects this year's CO2 concentrations to be 10 percent higher than normal, with one or two percent of that carbon rise attributed to the Australia wildfires, as NBC News reported. (nationofchange.org)
  • The Pliocene Era from 5 to 2.6 million years ago provides a window of what a world with such high carbon dioxide concentrations can look like. (nationofchange.org)
  • They used sediment samples taken from deep-sea and land drilling sites and assessed their carbon dioxide concentrations . (naturalnews.com)
  • Now, Cui says the challenge is reconstructing past carbon dioxide concentrations and using the knowledge gleaned to inform current thinking. (naturalnews.com)
  • Although discussions of volcanic carbon dioxide emissions make up less than 5 percent of "Heaven and Earth's" text, the alleged predominance of volcanic over human carbon dioxide emissions is one of its most publicized takeaway messages. (earthmagazine.org)
  • Earth's early Eocene period, also known as the Super Greenhouse period, was commonly believed to have concentration levels of carbon dioxide of as much as 2,000 parts per million (ppm). (naturalnews.com)
  • The advantages of the electrochemical conversion of carbon dioxide to fuels using renewable energy sources are two-fold: (1) it has the potential to accomplish a carbon-neutral energy cycle and (2) it can provide an approach to tackle the environmental challenges caused by anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions. (sc.edu)
  • Scientists have firmly linked rising atmospheric carbon dioxide to higher global temperatures, which have increased nearly a degree Fahrenheit, on average, since 1950. (washingtonpost.com)
  • An interdisciplinary team of scientists has worked out a way to make electric vehicles that are not only carbon neutral, but carbon negative, capable of actually reducing the amount of atmospheric carbon dioxide as they operate. (ultimatescience.org)
  • With this assertion, Plimer brings volcanic carbon dioxide degassing front and center in the climate change debate, reviving and reinforcing this wildly mistaken notion. (earthmagazine.org)
  • The treatment of volcanic versus anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions in this book illustrates one of the pathways by which myths, misrepresentations and spurious information get injected into the climate change debate. (earthmagazine.org)
  • Democratic governors are being squeezed by the mandate in President Barack Obama's climate change plan to cut carbon dioxide emissions - perhaps none more than Montana's Steve Bullock, the one governor in a coal-producing state who faces re-election next year. (earth.com)
  • Dartmouth College Obering Postdoctoral Fellow Ying Cui said, "This changes our understanding of what the concentration of carbon dioxide should be in relationship to global temperature as well as how we should revisit climate models in order to better project future climate change. (naturalnews.com)
  • C) showed a fairly even level of carbon dioxide production, but not enough to be useful in the making of leavened bread. (wikibooks.org)
  • If one hyperventilates more than the increase in metabolism, then level of carbon dioxide with be reduced, because it is being eliminated by exhalation. (healthtap.com)
  • these emissions accounted for some 36,300 million metric tons of carbon dioxide in 2008, according to an international study published in the December 2009 issue of Nature Geoscience. (earthmagazine.org)
  • Even if you take the highest estimate of volcanic carbon dioxide emissions, at 270 million metric tons per year, human-emitted carbon dioxide levels are more than 130 times higher than volcanic emissions. (earthmagazine.org)
  • The truth is that data from the Carbon Dioxide Information and Analysis Center of Oak Ridge National Laboratory and the International Energy Agency indicate that light-duty vehicles (cars, pickup trucks, SUVs, vans, wagons) contribute about 3,040 million metric tons of carbon dioxide per year, and industry adds another 6,100 million metric tons of carbon dioxide. (earthmagazine.org)
  • According to the Environmental Protection Agency, the average carbon dioxide emission rate from coal-fired power generation in the United States is 1.02 metric tons per megawatt-hour. (earthmagazine.org)
  • Thus, one of these submarine hot springs allegedly generates "far more" than 9 million metric tons of carbon dioxide per year - or far more than three times the annual baseline output of Kilauea Volcano in Hawaii! (earthmagazine.org)
  • The evidence is conclusive that the strong growth of global [carbon dioxide] emissions from the burning of coal, oil and natural gas is driving the acceleration. (washingtonpost.com)
  • In 2012, global carbon dioxide emissions soared to a record high of 35.6 billion tons, up 2.6 percent from 2011. (washingtonpost.com)
  • California creates nearly 7 percent of global carbon dioxide emissions and motor vehicles generate 57 percent of the carbon dioxide the state produces. (newson6.com)
  • Like several climate skeptic publications, blogs and websites, "Heaven and Earth" does not provide the published estimates of the present-day global carbon dioxide emission rate from volcanoes. (earthmagazine.org)
  • NOAA: Carbon dioxide levels reach milestone at Arctic sites) A series of human activities and the burning of fossil fuels in particular are largely responsible for the fact that even remote locations are starting to report alarming CO2 levels. (bartleby.com)
  • The estimated cost of removing carbon dioxide is roughly half the carbon tax that can be payable if you burn fossil fuels and release carbon dioxide. (kth.se)
  • The generator would provide electricity, heat and a concentrated source of carbon dioxide that would boost the performance of the STEP process. (ultimatescience.org)
  • This experiment shows that carbon dioxide production from yeast increases with increased temperature, as the number of carbon dioxide bubbles increased as the temperature rose. (wikibooks.org)
  • The partial pressures of oxygen and carbon dioxide in alveoli are what compared to their partial pressures in air? (healthtap.com)
  • STEP uses solar energy to provide both the electrical and thermal energy necessary to break down carbon dioxide into carbon and oxygen and to produce carbon nanotubes that are stable, flexible, conductive and stronger than steel. (ultimatescience.org)
  • Inside these chambers are small trees that are being exposed to high levels of carbon dioxide. (teara.govt.nz)
  • BOURNE, MASS.-Scientific and medical research links carbon dioxide (CO2) levels to discomfort and lost productivity among occupants in offices, schools, healthcare facilities, and dwellings. (greenlodgingnews.com)
  • To address this issue, Onset, a leader in data loggers, has published a new white paper that examines the risks of elevated carbon dioxide and how data loggers can be used to cost-effectively monitor CO2 and maintain safe levels. (greenlodgingnews.com)
  • According to a recent National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) report , the last time carbon dioxide levels were this high was 3 million years ago "when temperature was 2°-3°C (3.6°-5.4°F) higher than during the pre-industrial era, and sea level was 15-25 meters (50-80 feet) higher than today. (nationofchange.org)
  • Carbon dioxide levels can elevate in COPD patients due to the inability to ventilate properly. (healthtap.com)
  • How do elevated carbon dioxide levels affect the brain? (healthtap.com)
  • Could levels of carbon dioxide and nitrogen affect a person with sinus problems? (healthtap.com)
  • To put this in perspective, the levels of carbon dioxide that are currently observed at the Mauna Loa Observatory of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) are roughly 400 ppm. (naturalnews.com)
  • The researchers turned to a new method to help reconstruct the levels of carbon dioxide that have been associated with the rises in temperature during the early Eocene period. (naturalnews.com)
  • Elevated carbon dioxide (CO2) has recently been shown to affect chemosensory and auditory behaviour, and activity levels of larval reef fishes, increasing their risk of predation. (edu.au)
  • One way of doing this is to cultivate vegetation that uses carbon dioxide from the air to grow. (kth.se)
  • Occasionally, scaled-down versions of the myth surface - for example, "Volcanoes produce more carbon dioxide than the world's cars and industries combined. (earthmagazine.org)
  • When mixed with bread dough, the yeast converts sugar molecules into carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), alcohol and water. (wikibooks.org)
  • At current prices for fuels, a carbon price of approximately $30/metric ton (MT) will shut down 10 percent of coal generator capacity, and a price of $45/MT will shut down 90 percent of coal generator capacity. (rice.edu)
  • 5) The carbon prices implied by the transition from coal to gas will have very little impact on transportation fuels. (rice.edu)
  • Consumption of transportation fuels would only be reduced by about 5 percent or less by carbon dioxide prices that are compatible with the transition from coal to gas. (rice.edu)
  • Although thermodynamically possible, the kinetics of carbon dioxide reduction to fuels remains challenging and therefore, an efficient and robust electrocatalyst is needed to promote the reaction. (sc.edu)
  • Setting Stricter Carbon Dioxide Emission Limits on Power Plants. (igi-global.com)
  • The purpose of this chapter is to analyze factors predicting which groups are supportive and non-supportive on setting stricter carbon dioxide emission limits on coal-fired electricity generating power plants. (igi-global.com)
  • 2) Unless there is a technological breakthrough in carbon sequestration, the carbon intensity of coal means that "clean coal" cannot be a significant factor in reducing carbon dioxide. (rice.edu)
  • The test at 0 degrees Celsius showed no production of carbon dioxide, presumably because the low temperatures froze the yeast. (wikibooks.org)
  • If this is neither seen nor measured, then how does Plimer know how much carbon dioxide a hot spring emits? (earthmagazine.org)
  • It gives us the chance to mark the ongoing increase in [carbon dioxide] concentration and talk about why it's a problem for the climate. (washingtonpost.com)
  • The increase in carbon dioxide by about 100 parts per million has had a profound effect on the number of stomata and, to a lesser extent, the size of the stomata," said Research Scientist in Biology and Professor Emeritus in Geology, David Dilcher who is the co-author of the paper. (justmeans.com)
  • Then, this statement: "One hot spring can release far more carbon dioxide than a 1,000-megawatt coal-fired power station yet they are neither seen nor measured. (earthmagazine.org)
  • In this paper, we calculate the cost of a carbon dioxide constraint in the production of electricity by modeling the replacement of coal generators with natural gas generators. (rice.edu)
  • Replacing existing coal generation capacity with modern coal generation plants can only reduce total carbon dioxide by 5 percent. (rice.edu)
  • This concentration restricts the range over which carbon dioxide prices effectively manage the displacement of coal by gas. (rice.edu)
  • 4) The narrow range for the price of carbon dioxide means that coal generator capacity is very sensitive to the price of carbon dioxide emissions. (rice.edu)
  • The project builds upon a solar thermal electrochemical process (STEP) that can create carbon nanofibers from ambient carbon dioxide developed by the Licht group and described in the journal Nano Letters last August. (ultimatescience.org)
  • The team adapted a solar-powered process that converts carbon dioxide into carbon so that it produces carbon nanotubes and demonstrated that the nanotubes can be incorporated into both lithium-ion batteries like those used in electric vehicles and electronic devices and low-cost sodium-ion batteries under development for large-scale applications, such as the electric grid. (ultimatescience.org)
  • The majority of plant life use pores known as stomata that are located on the underside of leaves, which are used to absorb carbon dioxide and release moisture. (justmeans.com)