A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.
A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.
Nitrogen oxide (NO2). A highly poisonous gas. Exposure produces inflammation of lungs that may only cause slight pain or pass unnoticed, but resulting edema several days later may cause death. (From Merck, 11th ed) It is a major atmospheric pollutant that is able to absorb UV light that does not reach the earth's surface.
Carbon monoxide (CO). A poisonous colorless, odorless, tasteless gas. It combines with hemoglobin to form carboxyhemoglobin, which has no oxygen carrying capacity. The resultant oxygen deprivation causes headache, dizziness, decreased pulse and respiratory rates, unconsciousness, and death. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
The pressure that would be exerted by one component of a mixture of gases if it were present alone in a container. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A highly toxic, colorless, nonflammable gas. It is used as a pharmaceutical aid and antioxidant. It is also an environmental air pollutant.
Continuous recording of the carbon dioxide content of expired air.
The act of blowing a powder, vapor, or gas into any body cavity for experimental, diagnostic, or therapeutic purposes.
Nanometer-sized tubes composed mainly of CARBON. Such nanotubes are used as probes for high-resolution structural and chemical imaging of biomolecules with ATOMIC FORCE MICROSCOPY.
The gaseous envelope surrounding a planet or similar body. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.
The act of breathing with the LUNGS, consisting of INHALATION, or the taking into the lungs of the ambient air, and of EXHALATION, or the expelling of the modified air which contains more CARBON DIOXIDE than the air taken in (Blakiston's Gould Medical Dictionary, 4th ed.). This does not include tissue respiration (= OXYGEN CONSUMPTION) or cell respiration (= CELL RESPIRATION).
A clinical manifestation of abnormal increase in the amount of carbon dioxide in arterial blood.
Stable carbon atoms that have the same atomic number as the element carbon, but differ in atomic weight. C-13 is a stable carbon isotope.
The exchange of OXYGEN and CARBON DIOXIDE between alveolar air and pulmonary capillary blood that occurs across the BLOOD-AIR BARRIER.
The noninvasive measurement or determination of the partial pressure (tension) of oxygen and/or carbon dioxide locally in the capillaries of a tissue by the application to the skin of a special set of electrodes. These electrodes contain photoelectric sensors capable of picking up the specific wavelengths of radiation emitted by oxygenated versus reduced hemoglobin.
A CHROMATOGRAPHY method using supercritical fluid, usually carbon dioxide under very high pressure (around 73 atmospheres or 1070 psi at room temperature) as the mobile phase. Other solvents are sometimes added as modifiers. This is used both for analytical (SFC) and extraction (SFE) purposes.
Measurement of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the blood.
Lasers in which a gas lasing medium is stimulated to emit light by an electric current or high-frequency oscillator.
Any of several processes for the permanent or long-term artificial or natural capture or removal and storage of carbon dioxide and other forms of carbon, through biological, chemical or physical processes, in a manner that prevents it from being released into the atmosphere.
Deliberate introduction of air into the peritoneal cavity.
The volume of air inspired or expired during each normal, quiet respiratory cycle. Common abbreviations are TV or V with subscript T.
Toxic asphyxiation due to the displacement of oxygen from oxyhemoglobin by carbon monoxide.
A solid form of carbon dioxide used as a refrigerant.
Respiratory retention of carbon dioxide. It may be chronic or acute.
A measure of the total greenhouse gas emissions produced by an individual, organization, event, or product. It is measured in units of equivalent kilograms of CARBON DIOXIDE generated in a given time frame.
Inorganic salts that contain the -HCO3 radical. They are an important factor in determining the pH of the blood and the concentration of bicarbonate ions is regulated by the kidney. Levels in the blood are an index of the alkali reserve or buffering capacity.
The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)
The vapor state of matter; nonelastic fluids in which the molecules are in free movement and their mean positions far apart. Gases tend to expand indefinitely, to diffuse and mix readily with other gases, to have definite relations of volume, temperature, and pressure, and to condense or liquefy at low temperatures or under sufficient pressure. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Thorium oxide (ThO2). A radiographic contrast agent that was used in the early 1930s through about 1954. High rates of mortality have been linked to its use and it has been shown to cause liver cancer.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The mixture of gases present in the earth's atmosphere consisting of oxygen, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, and small amounts of other gases.
That part of the RESPIRATORY TRACT or the air within the respiratory tract that does not exchange OXYGEN and CARBON DIOXIDE with pulmonary capillary blood.
The simplest saturated hydrocarbon. It is a colorless, flammable gas, slightly soluble in water. It is one of the chief constituents of natural gas and is formed in the decomposition of organic matter. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Systems that provide for the maintenance of life in an isolated living chamber through reutilization of the material available, in particular, by means of a cycle wherein exhaled carbon dioxide, urine, and other waste matter are converted chemically or by photosynthesis into oxygen, water, and food. (NASA Thesaurus, 1988)
A solvent for oils, fats, lacquers, varnishes, rubber waxes, and resins, and a starting material in the manufacturing of organic compounds. Poisoning by inhalation, ingestion or skin absorption is possible and may be fatal. (Merck Index, 11th ed)
A family of zinc-containing enzymes that catalyze the reversible hydration of carbon dioxide. They play an important role in the transport of CARBON DIOXIDE from the tissues to the LUNG. EC 4.2.1.1.
The effect of GLOBAL WARMING and the resulting increase in world temperatures. The predicted health effects of such long-term climatic change include increased incidence of respiratory, water-borne, and vector-borne diseases.
Total mass of all the organisms of a given type and/or in a given area. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990) It includes the yield of vegetative mass produced from any given crop.
The synthesis by organisms of organic chemical compounds, especially carbohydrates, from carbon dioxide using energy obtained from light rather than from the oxidation of chemical compounds. Photosynthesis comprises two separate processes: the light reactions and the dark reactions. In higher plants; GREEN ALGAE; and CYANOBACTERIA; NADPH and ATP formed by the light reactions drive the dark reactions which result in the fixation of carbon dioxide. (from Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2001)
Clinical manifestation consisting of a deficiency of carbon dioxide in arterial blood.
An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.
A pulmonary ventilation rate faster than is metabolically necessary for the exchange of gases. It is the result of an increased frequency of breathing, an increased tidal volume, or a combination of both. It causes an excess intake of oxygen and the blowing off of carbon dioxide.
Blocking of a blood vessel by air bubbles that enter the circulatory system, usually after TRAUMA; surgical procedures, or changes in atmospheric pressure.
A reduction in the amount of air entering the pulmonary alveoli.
Salts or ions of the theoretical carbonic acid, containing the radical CO2(3-). Carbonates are readily decomposed by acids. The carbonates of the alkali metals are water-soluble; all others are insoluble. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The total volume of gas inspired or expired per unit of time, usually measured in liters per minute.
Any substance in the air which could, if present in high enough concentration, harm humans, animals, vegetation or material. Substances include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; and volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.
A colorless, flammable, poisonous liquid, CS2. It is used as a solvent, and is a counterirritant and has local anesthetic properties but is not used as such. It is highly toxic with pronounced CNS, hematologic, and dermatologic effects.
Anesthesia caused by the breathing of anesthetic gases or vapors or by insufflating anesthetic gases or vapors into the respiratory tract.
Binary compounds of oxygen containing the anion O(2-). The anion combines with metals to form alkaline oxides and non-metals to form acidic oxides.
Derivatives of ACETIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxymethane structure.
A dark-gray, metallic element of widespread distribution but occurring in small amounts; atomic number, 22; atomic weight, 47.90; symbol, Ti; specific gravity, 4.5; used for fixation of fractures. (Dorland, 28th ed)
The circulation of blood through the BLOOD VESSELS of the BRAIN.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
Cells specialized to detect chemical substances and relay that information centrally in the nervous system. Chemoreceptor cells may monitor external stimuli, as in TASTE and OLFACTION, or internal stimuli, such as the concentrations of OXYGEN and CARBON DIOXIDE in the blood.
The cycle by which the element carbon is exchanged between organic matter and the earth's physical environment.
Failure to adequately provide oxygen to cells of the body and to remove excess carbon dioxide from them. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Any method of artificial breathing that employs mechanical or non-mechanical means to force the air into and out of the lungs. Artificial respiration or ventilation is used in individuals who have stopped breathing or have RESPIRATORY INSUFFICIENCY to increase their intake of oxygen (O2) and excretion of carbon dioxide (CO2).
The physical or mechanical action of the LUNGS; DIAPHRAGM; RIBS; and CHEST WALL during respiration. It includes airflow, lung volume, neural and reflex controls, mechanoreceptors, breathing patterns, etc.
Nitrogen oxide (N2O). A colorless, odorless gas that is used as an anesthetic and analgesic. High concentrations cause a narcotic effect and may replace oxygen, causing death by asphyxia. It is also used as a food aerosol in the preparation of whipping cream.
The balance between acids and bases in the BODY FLUIDS. The pH (HYDROGEN-ION CONCENTRATION) of the arterial BLOOD provides an index for the total body acid-base balance.
The processes by which organisms use simple inorganic substances such as gaseous or dissolved carbon dioxide and inorganic nitrogen as nutrient sources. Contrasts with heterotrophic processes which make use of organic materials as the nutrient supply source. Autotrophs can be either chemoautotrophs (or chemolithotrophs), largely ARCHAEA and BACTERIA, which also use simple inorganic substances for their metabolic energy reguirements; or photoautotrophs (or photolithotrophs), such as PLANTS and CYANOBACTERIA, which derive their energy from light. Depending on environmental conditions some organisms can switch between different nutritional modes (autotrophy; HETEROTROPHY; chemotrophy; or PHOTOTROPHY) to utilize different sources to meet their nutrient and energy requirements.
The first chemical element in the periodic table. It has the atomic symbol H, atomic number 1, and atomic weight [1.00784; 1.00811]. It exists, under normal conditions, as a colorless, odorless, tasteless, diatomic gas. Hydrogen ions are PROTONS. Besides the common H1 isotope, hydrogen exists as the stable isotope DEUTERIUM and the unstable, radioactive isotope TRITIUM.
Transparent, tasteless crystals found in nature as agate, amethyst, chalcedony, cristobalite, flint, sand, QUARTZ, and tridymite. The compound is insoluble in water or acids except hydrofluoric acid.
A condition with trapped gas or air in the PERITONEAL CAVITY, usually secondary to perforation of the internal organs such as the LUNG and the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT, or to recent surgery. Pneumoperitoneum may be purposely introduced to aid radiological examination.
The unconsolidated mineral or organic matter on the surface of the earth that serves as a natural medium for the growth of land plants.
Helium. A noble gas with the atomic symbol He, atomic number 2, and atomic weight 4.003. It is a colorless, odorless, tasteless gas that is not combustible and does not support combustion. It was first detected in the sun and is now obtained from natural gas. Medically it is used as a diluent for other gases, being especially useful with oxygen in the treatment of certain cases of respiratory obstruction, and as a vehicle for general anesthetics. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Gases or volatile liquids that vary in the rate at which they induce anesthesia; potency; the degree of circulation, respiratory, or neuromuscular depression they produce; and analgesic effects. Inhalation anesthetics have advantages over intravenous agents in that the depth of anesthesia can be changed rapidly by altering the inhaled concentration. Because of their rapid elimination, any postoperative respiratory depression is of relatively short duration. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p173)
The complete absence, or (loosely) the paucity, of gaseous or dissolved elemental oxygen in a given place or environment. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Carbonic acid (H2C03). The hypothetical acid of carbon dioxide and water. It exists only in the form of its salts (carbonates), acid salts (hydrogen carbonates), amines (carbamic acid), and acid chlorides (carbonyl chloride). (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Measurement of the various processes involved in the act of respiration: inspiration, expiration, oxygen and carbon dioxide exchange, lung volume and compliance, etc.
The use of photothermal effects of LASERS to coagulate, incise, vaporize, resect, dissect, or resurface tissue.
The killing of animals for reasons of mercy, to control disease transmission or maintain the health of animal populations, or for experimental purposes (ANIMAL EXPERIMENTATION).
Argon. A noble gas with the atomic symbol Ar, atomic number 18, and atomic weight 39.948. It is used in fluorescent tubes and wherever an inert atmosphere is desired and nitrogen cannot be used.
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
Any tests done on exhaled air.
Unstable isotopes of carbon that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. C atoms with atomic weights 10, 11, and 14-16 are radioactive carbon isotopes.
The presence of contaminants or pollutant substances in the air (AIR POLLUTANTS) that interfere with human health or welfare, or produce other harmful environmental effects. The substances may include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; or volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.
Derivatives of formic acids. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that are formed with a single carbon carboxy group.
Apparatus for removing exhaled or leaked anesthetic gases or other volatile agents, thus reducing the exposure of operating room personnel to such agents, as well as preventing the buildup of potentially explosive mixtures in operating rooms or laboratories.
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
Any disorder marked by obstruction of conducting airways of the lung. AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION may be acute, chronic, intermittent, or persistent.
Woody, usually tall, perennial higher plants (Angiosperms, Gymnosperms, and some Pterophyta) having usually a main stem and numerous branches.
Inhalation anesthesia where the gases exhaled by the patient are rebreathed as some carbon dioxide is simultaneously removed and anesthetic gas and oxygen are added so that no anesthetic escapes into the room. Closed-circuit anesthesia is used especially with explosive anesthetics to prevent fires where electrical sparking from instruments is possible.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A highly caustic substance that is used to neutralize acids and make sodium salts. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
Relatively complete absence of oxygen in one or more tissues.
Elimination of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS; PESTICIDES and other waste using living organisms, usually involving intervention of environmental or sanitation engineers.
The environment outside the earth or its atmosphere. The environment may refer to a closed cabin (such as a space shuttle or space station) or to space itself, the moon, or other planets.
A transient absence of spontaneous respiration.
The salinated water of OCEANS AND SEAS that provides habitat for marine organisms.
The fourth planet in order from the sun. Its two natural satellites are Deimos and Phobos. It is one of the four inner or terrestrial planets of the solar system.
A group of compounds that contain the general formula R-OCH3.
A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Electric conductors through which electric currents enter or leave a medium, whether it be an electrolytic solution, solid, molten mass, gas, or vacuum.
The unstable triatomic form of oxygen, O3. It is a powerful oxidant that is produced for various chemical and industrial uses. Its production is also catalyzed in the ATMOSPHERE by ULTRAVIOLET RAY irradiation of oxygen or other ozone precursors such as VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS and NITROGEN OXIDES. About 90% of the ozone in the atmosphere exists in the stratosphere (STRATOSPHERIC OZONE).
A type of stress exerted uniformly in all directions. Its measure is the force exerted per unit area. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A measure of the amount of WATER VAPOR in the air.
Supplying a building or house, their rooms and corridors, with fresh air. The controlling of the environment thus may be in public or domestic sites and in medical or non-medical locales. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Removal of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS or contaminants for the general protection of the environment. This is accomplished by various chemical, biological, and bulk movement methods, in conjunction with ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING.
Inorganic compounds that contain calcium as an integral part of the molecule.
A great expanse of continuous bodies of salt water which together cover more than 70 percent of the earth's surface. Seas may be partially or entirely enclosed by land, and are smaller than the five oceans (Atlantic, Pacific, Indian, Arctic, and Antarctic).
Procedure in which patients are induced into an unconscious state through use of various medications so that they do not feel pain during surgery.
The continuous measurement of physiological processes, blood pressure, heart rate, renal output, reflexes, respiration, etc., in a patient or experimental animal; includes pharmacologic monitoring, the measurement of administered drugs or their metabolites in the blood, tissues, or urine.
Cellular processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of CARBOHYDRATES.
Stable oxygen atoms that have the same atomic number as the element oxygen, but differ in atomic weight. O-17 and 18 are stable oxygen isotopes.
A procedure involving placement of a tube into the trachea through the mouth or nose in order to provide a patient with oxygen and anesthesia.
The pressure at any point in an atmosphere due solely to the weight of the atmospheric gases above the point concerned.
One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.
The determination of oxygen-hemoglobin saturation of blood either by withdrawing a sample and passing it through a classical photoelectric oximeter or by electrodes attached to some translucent part of the body like finger, earlobe, or skin fold. It includes non-invasive oxygen monitoring by pulse oximetry.
A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.
Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)
Salts or esters of LACTIC ACID containing the general formula CH3CHOHCOOR.
Any combustible hydrocarbon deposit formed from the remains of prehistoric organisms. Examples are petroleum, coal, and natural gas.
The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.
Isomeric forms and derivatives of octanol (C8H17OH).
Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.
A genus of gram-negative bacteria in the family Eubacteriaceae. Species are homoacetogenic, having the ability to use CARBON DIOXIDE as an electron sink, and to reduce it producing acetate as a typical fermentation product.
Physiological processes and properties of the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM as a whole or of any of its parts.
The fifth planet in order from the sun. It is one of the five outer planets of the solar system. Its sixteen natural satellites include Callisto, Europa, Ganymede, and Io.
The movement and the forces involved in the movement of the blood through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.
Increase in the temperature of the atmosphere near the Earth's surface and in the troposphere, which can contribute to changes in global climate patterns.
Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.
Derivatives of SUCCINIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain a 1,4-carboxy terminated aliphatic structure.
Devices that cover the nose and mouth to maintain aseptic conditions or to administer inhaled anesthetics or other gases. (UMDNS, 1999)
A stable, non-explosive inhalation anesthetic, relatively free from significant side effects.
The longterm manifestations of WEATHER. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A dark powdery deposit of unburned fuel residues, composed mainly of amorphous CARBON and some HYDROCARBONS, that accumulates in chimneys, automobile mufflers and other surfaces exposed to smoke. It is the product of incomplete combustion of carbon-rich organic fuels in low oxygen conditions. It is sometimes called lampblack or carbon black and is used in INK, in rubber tires, and to prepare CARBON NANOTUBES.
The constant checking on the state or condition of a patient during the course of a surgical operation (e.g., checking of vital signs).
Inhalation of oxygen aimed at restoring toward normal any pathophysiologic alterations of gas exchange in the cardiopulmonary system, as by the use of a respirator, nasal catheter, tent, chamber, or mask. (From Dorland, 27th ed & Stedman, 25th ed)
Free-floating minute organisms that are photosynthetic. The term is non-taxonomic and refers to a lifestyle (energy utilization and motility), rather than a particular type of organism. Most, but not all, are unicellular algae. Important groups include DIATOMS; DINOFLAGELLATES; CYANOBACTERIA; CHLOROPHYTA; HAPTOPHYTA; CRYPTOMONADS; and silicoflagellates.
A colorless alkaline gas. It is formed in the body during decomposition of organic materials during a large number of metabolically important reactions. Note that the aqueous form of ammonia is referred to as AMMONIUM HYDROXIDE.
A state in which the environs of hospitals, laboratories, domestic and animal housing, work places, spacecraft, and other surroundings are under technological control with regard to air conditioning, heating, lighting, humidity, ventilation, and other ambient features. The concept includes control of atmospheric composition. (From Jane's Aerospace Dictionary, 3d ed)
A method of mechanical ventilation in which pressure is maintained to increase the volume of gas remaining in the lungs at the end of expiration, thus reducing the shunting of blood through the lungs and improving gas exchange.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The number of times an organism breathes with the lungs (RESPIRATION) per unit time, usually per minute.
Controlled physical activity which is performed in order to allow assessment of physiological functions, particularly cardiovascular and pulmonary, but also aerobic capacity. Maximal (most intense) exercise is usually required but submaximal exercise is also used.
A genus of gram positive, acetogenic, thermophilic bacteria in the family Thermoanaerobacteraceae. Known habitats include HOT SPRINGS, horse manure, emu droppings, and sewage SLUDGE.
The chemical reactions that occur within the cells, tissues, or an organism. These processes include both the biosynthesis (ANABOLISM) and the breakdown (CATABOLISM) of organic materials utilized by the living organism.
A state characterized by loss of feeling or sensation. This depression of nerve function is usually the result of pharmacologic action and is induced to allow performance of surgery or other painful procedures.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
A normal intermediate in the fermentation (oxidation, metabolism) of sugar. The concentrated form is used internally to prevent gastrointestinal fermentation. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
Relating to the size of solids.
Life or metabolic reactions occurring in an environment containing oxygen.
Inorganic or organic salts and esters of nitric acid. These compounds contain the NO3- radical.
The ash, dust, gases, and lava released by volcanic explosion. The gases are volatile matter composed principally of about 90% water vapor, and carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide, hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and nitrogen. The ash or dust is pyroclastic ejecta and lava is molten extrusive material consisting mainly of magnesium silicate. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A pathologic condition of acid accumulation or depletion of base in the body. The two main types are RESPIRATORY ACIDOSIS and metabolic acidosis, due to metabolic acid build up.
Any technique by which an unknown color is evaluated in terms of standard colors. The technique may be visual, photoelectric, or indirect by means of spectrophotometry. It is used in chemistry and physics. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Inorganic compounds that contain potassium as an integral part of the molecule.
The processes by which organisms utilize organic substances as their nutrient sources. Contrasts with AUTOTROPHIC PROCESSES which make use of simple inorganic substances as the nutrient supply source. Heterotrophs can be either chemoheterotrophs (or chemoorganotrophs) which also require organic substances such as glucose for their primary metabolic energy requirements, or photoheterotrophs (or photoorganotrophs) which derive their primary energy requirements from light. Depending on environmental conditions some organisms can switch between different nutritional modes (AUTOTROPHY; heterotrophy; chemotrophy; or PHOTOTROPHY) to utilize different sources to meet their nutrients and energy requirements.
The contamination of indoor air.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the soil. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
One of the CARBONIC ANHYDRASE INHIBITORS that is sometimes effective against absence seizures. It is sometimes useful also as an adjunct in the treatment of tonic-clonic, myoclonic, and atonic seizures, particularly in women whose seizures occur or are exacerbated at specific times in the menstrual cycle. However, its usefulness is transient often because of rapid development of tolerance. Its antiepileptic effect may be due to its inhibitory effect on brain carbonic anhydrase, which leads to an increased transneuronal chloride gradient, increased chloride current, and increased inhibition. (From Smith and Reynard, Textbook of Pharmacology, 1991, p337)
The physical or physiological processes by which substances, tissue, cells, etc. take up or take in other substances or energy.
A colorless, flammable liquid used in the manufacture of FORMALDEHYDE and ACETIC ACID, in chemical synthesis, antifreeze, and as a solvent. Ingestion of methanol is toxic and may cause blindness.
The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.
Product of the oxidation of ethanol and of the destructive distillation of wood. It is used locally, occasionally internally, as a counterirritant and also as a reagent. (Stedman, 26th ed)
A non-invasive technique using ultrasound for the measurement of cerebrovascular hemodynamics, particularly cerebral blood flow velocity and cerebral collateral flow. With a high-intensity, low-frequency pulse probe, the intracranial arteries may be studied transtemporally, transorbitally, or from below the foramen magnum.
Application of a life support system that circulates the blood through an oxygenating system, which may consist of a pump, a membrane oxygenator, and a heat exchanger. Examples of its use are to assist victims of smoke inhalation injury, respiratory failure, and cardiac failure.
A value equal to the total volume flow divided by the cross-sectional area of the vascular bed.
A phylum of ARCHAEA comprising at least seven classes: Methanobacteria, Methanococci, Halobacteria (extreme halophiles), Archaeoglobi (sulfate-reducing species), Methanopyri, and the thermophiles: Thermoplasmata, and Thermococci.
The administration of drugs by the respiratory route. It includes insufflation into the respiratory tract.
The volume of BLOOD passing through the HEART per unit of time. It is usually expressed as liters (volume) per minute so as not to be confused with STROKE VOLUME (volume per beat).
The ratio of alveolar ventilation to simultaneous alveolar capillary blood flow in any part of the lung. (Stedman, 25th ed)
A procedure in which a laparoscope (LAPAROSCOPES) is inserted through a small incision near the navel to examine the abdominal and pelvic organs in the PERITONEAL CAVITY. If appropriate, biopsy or surgery can be performed during laparoscopy.
Diseases of the respiratory system in general or unspecified or for a specific respiratory disease not available.
A series of oxidative reactions in the breakdown of acetyl units derived from GLUCOSE; FATTY ACIDS; or AMINO ACIDS by means of tricarboxylic acid intermediates. The end products are CARBON DIOXIDE, water, and energy in the form of phosphate bonds.
The inanimate matter of Earth, the structures and properties of this matter, and the processes that affect it.
A white, crystalline powder that is commonly used as a pH buffering agent, an electrolyte replenisher, systemic alkalizer and in topical cleansing solutions.
Derivatives of OXALOACETIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that include a 2-keto-1,4-carboxy aliphatic structure.
Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A class of compounds that reduces the secretion of H+ ions by the proximal kidney tubule through inhibition of CARBONIC ANHYDRASES.
Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.
A white powder prepared from lime that has many medical and industrial uses. It is in many dental formulations, especially for root canal filling.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
A nonflammable, halogenated, hydrocarbon anesthetic that provides relatively rapid induction with little or no excitement. Analgesia may not be adequate. NITROUS OXIDE is often given concomitantly. Because halothane may not produce sufficient muscle relaxation, supplemental neuromuscular blocking agents may be required. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p178)
Particles of any solid substance, generally under 30 microns in size, often noted as PM30. There is special concern with PM1 which can get down to PULMONARY ALVEOLI and induce MACROPHAGE ACTIVATION and PHAGOCYTOSIS leading to FOREIGN BODY REACTION and LUNG DISEASES.
Carbonic acid calcium salt (CaCO3). An odorless, tasteless powder or crystal that occurs in nature. It is used therapeutically as a phosphate buffer in hemodialysis patients and as a calcium supplement.
Inorganic compounds that contain carbon as an integral part of the molecule but are not derived from hydrocarbons.
Salts and esters of hydroxybutyric acid.
Derivatives of ACETIC ACID which contain an hydroxy group attached to the methyl carbon.
The period during a surgical operation.
Recording changes in electrical impedance between electrodes placed on opposite sides of a part of the body, as a measure of volume changes in the path of the current. (Stedman, 25th ed)
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in nature. Some species are pathogenic for humans, animals, and plants.
Electric power supply devices which convert biological energy, such as chemical energy of metabolism or mechanical energy of periodic movements, into electrical energy.
A carboxy-lyase that plays a key role in photosynthetic carbon assimilation in the CALVIN-BENSON CYCLE by catalyzing the formation of 3-phosphoglycerate from ribulose 1,5-biphosphate and CARBON DIOXIDE. It can also utilize OXYGEN as a substrate to catalyze the synthesis of 2-phosphoglycolate and 3-phosphoglycerate in a process referred to as photorespiration.
A broad class of substances containing carbon and its derivatives. Many of these chemicals will frequently contain hydrogen with or without oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, phosphorus, and other elements. They exist in either carbon chain or carbon ring form.
The science of the earth and other celestial bodies and their history as recorded in the rocks. It includes the study of geologic processes of an area such as rock formations, weathering and erosion, and sedimentation. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Inorganic compounds that contain barium as an integral part of the molecule.
Apparatus, devices, or supplies intended for one-time or temporary use.
A mass of organic or inorganic solid fragmented material, or the solid fragment itself, that comes from the weathering of rock and is carried by, suspended in, or dropped by air, water, or ice. It refers also to a mass that is accumulated by any other natural agent and that forms in layers on the earth's surface, such as sand, gravel, silt, mud, fill, or loess. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1689)
Oxidoreductases that are specific for ALDEHYDES.

A kinetic study of ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase from the photosynthetic bacterium Rhodospirillum rubrum. (1/9550)

The activation kinetics of purified Rhodospirillum rubrum ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase were analysed. The equilibrium constant for activation by CO(2) was 600 micron and that for activation by Mg2+ was 90 micron, and the second-order activation constant for the reaction of CO(2) with inactive enzyme (k+1) was 0.25 X 10(-3)min-1 . micron-1. The latter value was considerably lower than the k+1 for higher-plant enzyme (7 X 10(-3)-10 X 10(-3)min-1 . micron-1). 6-Phosphogluconate had little effect on the active enzyme, and increased the extent of activation of inactive enzyme. Ribulose bisphosphate also increased the extent of activation and did not inhibit the rate of activation. This effect might have been mediated through a reaction product, 2-phosphoglycolic acid, which also stimulated the extent of activation of the enzyme. The active enzyme had a Km (CO2) of 300 micron-CO2, a Km (ribulose bisphosphate) of 11--18 micron-ribulose bisphosphate and a Vmax. of up to 3 mumol/min per mg of protein. These data are discussed in relation to the proposed model for activation and catalysis of ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase.  (+info)

Arterial blood gas tensions during upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. (2/9550)

Arterial blood gas tensions were measured before and during upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, with (group I) and without (group 2) sedation with intravenous diazepam. There was a highly significant fall in the PaO2, which occurred in both groups and was therefore not attributable to diazepam. Measurement of FEV, and FVC before endoscopy had no predictive value for those patients whose PaO2 fell the most.  (+info)

Does gill boundary layer carbonic anhydrase contribute to carbon dioxide excretion: a comparison between dogfish (Squalus acanthias) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). (3/9550)

In vivo experiments were conducted on spiny dogfish (Squalus acanthias) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) in sea water to determine the potential role of externally oriented or gill boundary layer carbonic anhydrase in carbon dioxide excretion. This was accomplished by assessing pH changes in expired water using a stopped-flow apparatus. In dogfish, expired water was in acid-base disequilibrium as indicated by a pronounced acidification (delta pH=-0.11+/-0.01; N=22; mean +/- s.e.m.) during the period of stopped flow; inspired water, however, was in acid-base equilibrium (delta pH=-0.002+/-0.01; N=22). The acid-base disequilibrium in expired water was abolished (delta pH=-0.005+/-0.01; N=6) by the addition of bovine carbonic anhydrase (5 mg l-1) to the external medium. Addition of the carbonic anhydrase inhibitor acetazolamide (1 mmol l-1) to the water significantly reduced the magnitude of the pH disequilibrium (from -0.133+/-0.03 to -0.063+/-0.02; N=4). However, after correcting for the increased buffering capacity of the water caused by acetazolamide, the acid-base disequilibrium during stopped flow was unaffected by this treatment (control delta [H+]=99.8+/-22.8 micromol l-1; acetazolamide delta [H+]=81.3+/-21.5 micromol l-1). In rainbow trout, expired water displayed an acid-base disequilibrium (delta pH=0.09+/-0.01; N=6) that also was abolished by the application of external carbonic anhydrase (delta pH=0.02+/-0.01). The origin of the expired water acid-base disequilibrium was investigated further in dogfish. Intravascular injection of acetazolamide (40 mg kg-1) to inhibit internal carbonic anhydrase activity non-specifically and thus CO2 excretion significantly diminished the extent of the expired water disequilibrium pH after 30 min (from -0.123+/-0.01 to -0.065+/-0.01; N=6). Selective inhibition of extracellular carbonic anhydrase activity using a low intravascular dose (1.3 mg kg-1) of the inhibitor benzolamide caused a significant reduction in the acid-base disequilibrium after 5 min (from -0.11+/-0.01 to -0.07+/-0. 01; N=14). These results demonstrate that the expired water acid-base disequilibrium originates, at least in part, from excretory CO2 and that extracellular carbonic anhydrase in dogfish may have a significant role in carbon dioxide excretion. However, externally oriented carbonic anhydrase (if present in dogfish) plays no role in catalysing the hydration of the excretory CO2 in water flowing over the gills and thus is unlikely to facilitate CO2 excretion.  (+info)

Prior protein intake may affect phenylalanine kinetics measured in healthy adult volunteers consuming 1 g protein. kg-1. d-1. (4/9550)

Study of the amino acid metabolism of vulnerable groups, such as pregnant women, children and patients, is needed. Our existing protocol is preceded by 2 d of adaptation to a low 13C formula diet at a protein intake of 1 g. kg-1. d-1 to minimize variations in breath 13CO2 enrichment and protein metabolism. To expand on our potential study populations, a less invasive protocol needs to be developed. We have already established that a stable background 13CO2 enrichment can be achieved on the study day without prior adaptation to the low 13C formula. Therefore, this study investigates phenylalanine kinetics in response to variations in prior protein intake. Healthy adult subjects were each fed nutritionally adequate mixed diets containing 0.8, 1.4 and 2.0 g protein. kg-1. d-1 for 2 d. On d 3, subjects consumed an amino acid-based formula diet containing the equivalent of 1 g protein. kg-1. d-1 hourly for 10 h and primed hourly oral doses of L-[1-13C]phenylalanine for the final 6 h. Phenylalanine kinetics were calculated from plasma-free phenylalanine enrichment and breath 13CO2 excretion. A significant quadratic response of prior protein intake on phenylalanine flux (P = 0.012) and oxidation (P = 0.009) was identified, such that both variables were lower following adaptation to a protein intake of 1.4 g. kg-1. d-1. We conclude that variations in protein intake, between 0.8 and 2.0 g. kg-1. d-1, prior to the study day may affect amino acid kinetics and; therefore, it is prudent to continue to control protein intake prior to an amino acid kinetics study.  (+info)

Role of a novel photosystem II-associated carbonic anhydrase in photosynthetic carbon assimilation in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. (5/9550)

Intracellular carbonic anhydrases (CA) in aquatic photosynthetic organisms are involved in the CO2-concentrating mechanism (CCM), which helps to overcome CO2 limitation in the environment. In the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, this CCM is initiated and maintained by the pH gradient created across the chloroplast thylakoid membranes by photosystem (PS) II-mediated electron transport. We show here that photosynthesis is stimulated by a novel, intracellular alpha-CA bound to the chloroplast thylakoids. It is associated with PSII on the lumenal side of the thylakoid membranes. We demonstrate that PSII in association with this lumenal CA operates to provide an ample flux of CO2 for carboxylation.  (+info)

Nitrate-dependent regulation of acetate biosynthesis and nitrate respiration by Clostridium thermoaceticum. (6/9550)

Nitrate has been shown to shunt the electron flow in Clostridium thermoaceticum from CO2 to nitrate, but it did not influence the levels of enzymes involved in the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway (J. M. Frostl, C. Seifritz, and H. L. Drake, J. Bacteriol. 178:4597-4603, 1996). Here we show that under some growth conditions, nitrate does in fact repress proteins involved in the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway. The CO oxidation activity in crude extracts of nitrate (30 mM)-supplemented cultures was fivefold less than that of nitrate-free cultures, while the H2 oxidation activity was six- to sevenfold lower. The decrease in CO oxidation activity paralleled a decrease in CO dehydrogenase (CODH) protein level, as confirmed by Western blot analysis. Protein levels of CODH in nitrate-supplemented cultures were 50% lower than those in nitrate-free cultures. Western blots analyses showed that nitrate also decreased the levels of the corrinoid iron-sulfur protein (60%) and methyltransferase (70%). Surprisingly, the decrease in activity and protein levels upon nitrate supplementation was observed only when cultures were continuously sparged. Northern blot analysis indicates that the regulation of the proteins involved in the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway by nitrate is at the transcriptional level. At least a 10-fold decrease in levels of cytochrome b was observed with nitrate supplementation whether the cultures were sparged or stoppered. We also detected nitrate-inducible nitrate reductase activity (2 to 39 nmol min-1 mg-1) in crude extracts of C. thermoaceticum. Our results indicate that nitrate coordinately represses genes encoding enzymes and electron transport proteins in the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway and activates transcription of nitrate respiratory proteins. CO2 also appears to induce expression of the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway genes and repress nitrate reductase activity.  (+info)

Glucose kinetics during prolonged exercise in highly trained human subjects: effect of glucose ingestion. (7/9550)

1. The objectives of this study were (1) to investigate whether glucose ingestion during prolonged exercise reduces whole body muscle glycogen oxidation, (2) to determine the extent to which glucose disappearing from the plasma is oxidized during exercise with and without carbohydrate ingestion and (3) to obtain an estimate of gluconeogenesis. 2. After an overnight fast, six well-trained cyclists exercised on three occasions for 120 min on a bicycle ergometer at 50 % maximum velocity of O2 uptake and ingested either water (Fast), or a 4 % glucose solution (Lo-Glu) or a 22 % glucose solution (Hi-Glu) during exercise. 3. Dual tracer infusion of [U-13C]-glucose and [6,6-2H2]-glucose was given to measure the rate of appearance (Ra) of glucose, muscle glycogen oxidation, glucose carbon recycling, metabolic clearance rate (MCR) and non-oxidative disposal of glucose. 4. Glucose ingestion markedly increased total Ra especially with Hi-Glu. After 120 min Ra and rate of disappearance (Rd) of glucose were 51-52 micromol kg-1 min-1 during Fast, 73-74 micromol kg-1 min-1 during Lo-Glu and 117-119 micromol kg-1 min-1 during Hi-Glu. The percentage of Rd oxidized was between 96 and 100 % in all trials. 5. Glycogen oxidation during exercise was not reduced by glucose ingestion. The vast majority of glucose disappearing from the plasma is oxidized and MCR increased markedly with glucose ingestion. Glucose carbon recycling was minimal suggesting that gluconeogenesis in these conditions is negligible.  (+info)

Differences in spontaneous breathing pattern and mechanics in patients with severe COPD recovering from acute exacerbation. (8/9550)

The aims of this study were to assess spontaneous breathing patterns in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) recovering from acute exacerbation and to assess the relationship between different breathing patterns and clinical and functional parameters of respiratory impairment. Thirty-four COPD patients underwent assessment of lung function tests, arterial blood gases, haemodynamics, breathing pattern (respiratory frequency (fR), tidal volume (VT), inspiratory and expiratory time (tI and tE), duty cycle (tI/ttot), VT/tI) and mechanics (oesophageal pressure (Poes), work of breathing (WOB), pressure-time product and index, and dynamic intrinsic positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEPi,dyn)). According to the presence (group 1) or absence (group 2) of Poes swings during the expiratory phase (premature inspiration), 20 (59%) patients were included in group 1 and 14 (41%) in group 2. Premature inspirations were observed 4.5+/-6.4 times x min(-1) (range 1-31), i.e. 20+/-21% (3.7-100%) of total fR calculated from VT tracings. In group 1 the coefficient of variation in VT, tE, tI/ttot, PEEPi,dyn, Poes and WOB of the eight consecutive breaths immediately preceding the premature inspiration was greater than that of eight consecutive breaths in group 2. There were no significant differences in the assessed parameters between the two groups in the overall population, whereas patients with chronic hypoxaemia in group 1 showed a more severe impairment in clinical conditions, mechanics and lung function than hypoxaemic patients in group 2. In spontaneously breathing patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease recovering from an acute exacerbation, detectable activity of inspiratory muscles during expiration was found in more than half of the cases. This phenomenon was not associated with any significant differences in anthropometric, demographic, physiological or clinical characteristics.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - Public-Private-People Partnership as a way to reduce carbon dioxide emissions fron residential development. AU - Kuronen, Matti. AU - Majamaa, Wisa. AU - Junnila, Seppo. AU - Niiranen, Ilkka. PY - 2010. Y1 - 2010. KW - carbon dioxide emissions. KW - energy system planning. KW - new residential developments. KW - public-private-people partnership (4P). KW - REB. KW - carbon dioxide emissions. KW - energy system planning. KW - new residential developments. KW - public-private-people partnership (4P). KW - REB. KW - carbon dioxide emissions. KW - energy system planning. KW - new residential developments. KW - public-private-people partnership (4P). KW - REB. UR - http://www.ijspm.vgtu.lt. U2 - 10.3846/ijspm.2010.15. DO - 10.3846/ijspm.2010.15. M3 - Article. VL - 14. SP - 200. EP - 216. JO - International Journal of Strategic Property Management. JF - International Journal of Strategic Property Management. SN - 1648-715X. ER - ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Assessing the effect of elevated carbon dioxide on soil carbon. T2 - A comparison of four meta-analyses. AU - Hungate, Bruce A.. AU - van Groenigen, Kees Jan. AU - Six, Johan. AU - Jastrow, Julie D.. AU - Luo, Yiqi. AU - de Graaff, Marie Anne. AU - van Kessel, Chris. AU - Osenberg, Craig W.. PY - 2009/7/15. Y1 - 2009/7/15. N2 - Soil is the largest reservoir of organic carbon (C) in the terrestrial biosphere and soil C has a relatively long mean residence time. Rising atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations generally increase plant growth and C input to soil, suggesting that soil might help mitigate atmospheric CO2 rise and global warming. But to what extent mitigation will occur is unclear. The large size of the soil C pool not only makes it a potential buffer against rising atmospheric CO2, but also makes it difficult to measure changes amid the existing background. Meta-analysis is one tool that can overcome the limited power of single studies. Four recent meta-analyses ...
ORNL DAAC: The results of published and unpublished experiments investigating the impacts of elevated carbon dioxide on the chemistry (nitrogen and lignin concentration) of leaf litter and the decomposition of plant tissues are assembled in a format appropriate for statistical meta-analysis of the effect of carbon dioxide.
Tools such as the carbon dioxide estimator tool from the UK Waste and Resources Action Programme (WRAP) and Aggregain have been developed to allow engineers to quantify and optimise carbon dioxide emissions associated with aggregate use. An extended WRAP tool methodology has been developed and is illustrated through assessing the relative carbon dioxide performance of different aggregate sourcing options for the large redevelopment project known as Masshouse, in the centre of Birmingham, UK. Previously unconsidered factors such as aggregate quality and highway congestion have been included. It is shown that significant reductions in carbon dioxide emissions can be achieved where site-derived demolition waste is reprocessed for use on site as a recycled aggregate and that relative haulage distances are of particular importance to overall carbon dioxide emissions. As these outcomes depend upon the distances to materials sources and sinks in Birmingham, it is concluded that the carbon dioxide ...
The Energy Information Administration (EIA) reported last week that, according to preliminary estimates, U.S. carbon dioxide emissions from burning fossil fuels decreased by 1.3 percent in 2006, from 5,955 million metric tons of carbon dioxide (MMTCO2) in 2005 to 5,877 MMTCO2 in 2006. Energy demand fell by 0.9%, resulting in a reduction of energy intensity (energy use per unit of GDP) by 4.2%, based on a GDP growth of 3.3%. Carbon dioxide intensity (CO2 emission per unit of GDP) fell by 4.5%. Emissions were driven lower by weather conditions that reduced the demand for heating and cooling services; higher energy prices for natural gas, motor gasoline, and electricity, that reduced energy demand; and the use of a less carbon-intensive fuel mix (more natural gas and non-carbon fuels) in the generation of electricity. Through 2006, total U.S. energy-related carbon dioxide emissions have grown by 17.9 percent since 1990. Energy-related carbon dioxide emissions account for over 80 percent of U.S. greenhouse
Numerous studies and laboratory experiments have shown that plants grown under higher carbon dioxide levels than at present do better - grow faster, bigger, use water more efficiently - than crops grown under atmospheric carbon dioxide levels. This is hardly surprising since most plants, including the progenitors of modern crop varieties, evolved at times when carbon dioxide levels on earth were much higher than today.. In a recent study, scientists examined a different question, how do crops fare under conditions of lower carbon dioxide, particularly carbon dioxide levels experienced during the most recent ice age.. The study in Global Change Biology examines the effect of lower carbon dioxide levels on plant growth. The researchers grew one type of wheat, wild barley, and two types of millet from seed to harvest in a controlled environment under two carbon dioxide levels, 180 parts per million (ppm), the level of carbon dioxide during the last glacial maximum, and 270 ppm, corresponding to the ...
Moving food around uses energy. Usually oil, a non-renewable fossil fuel, is burned in lorries, planes and cars when food is transported. This puts carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. As oil will run out one day, its use should be limited.. However, over in the UK, for example, only 9% of the carbon dioxide emissions related to food is from transport. Look at the chart on the right to see the other food-related contributions to carbon dioxide emission. Note that this pie chart has not included the carbon dioxide emissions involved in importing food to the UK! ...
The main reason for the relatively low specific value of carbon dioxide emissions in Stuttgart can be found in the conversion sector. Due to the very high percentage of nuclear energy (currently about 90 %), power generation contributes with only about 11 % to the total carbon dioxide emissions, even if power generation has a share of about 25 % in the total final energy consumption in Stuttgart ...
Potato (Solanum tuberosum L cv. Bintje) was exposed to ambient and elevated carbon dioxide (CO(2)), to ambient and elevated ozone (O(3)) and to elevated levels of both gases during two growing seasons, 1998 and 1999. Experiments in open-top chambers (OTC) were carried out in Finland, Sweden, Ireland, United Kingdom, Germany and Belgium and a FACE (Free Air Carbon dioxide Enrichment) experiment was carried out in Italy. In OTCs the plants were grown tinder ambient CO(2) concentrations or with 550 and 680 mul 1(-1) CO(2) alone or in combination with ambient or elevated 03 concentrations (target seasonal mean of 60 nl 1(-1) 8 h per day). In the FACE systems the plants were exposed to ambient or 550 mul 1(-1) CO(2). In the OTC experiments the reducing sugar content of potato tubers decreased significantly with increased concentration Of O(3). The starch content of potato tubers decreased, with negative impact on tuber quality, but the ascorbic acid concentration increased as a function of the AOT40 ...
Natural News) As if the conflicting information and endless debates about climate change and carbon dioxide levels were not confusing enough, a new study has found that carbon dioxide levels were actually much lower than previously believed during the last warm period on the planet, illustrating just how difficult it is to make conclusive statements about the topic.. Earths early Eocene period, also known as the Super Greenhouse period, was commonly believed to have concentration levels of carbon dioxide of as much as 2,000 parts per million (ppm). However, Dartmouth College researchers have discovered that it could have been less than 1,000 ppm - a difference of half! This could also mean that carbon dioxide is not the primary driver of planetary warming events, as other factors now have stronger weight on the final result.. To put this in perspective, the levels of carbon dioxide that are currently observed at the Mauna Loa Observatory of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration ...
Elevated carbon dioxide (CO2) has recently been shown to affect chemosensory and auditory behaviour, and activity levels of larval reef fishes, increasing their risk of predation. However, the mechanisms underlying these changes are unknown. Behavioural lateralization is an expression of brain functional asymmetries, and thus provides a unique test of the hypothesis that elevated CO2 affects brain function in larval fishes. We tested the effect of near-future CO2 concentrations (880 μatm) on behavioural lateralization in the reef fish, Neopomacentrus azysron. Individuals exposed to current-day or elevated CO2 were observed in a detour test where they made repeated decisions about turning left or right. No preference for right or left turns was observed at the population level. However, individual control fish turned either left or right with greater frequency than expected by chance. Exposure to elevated-CO2 disrupted individual lateralization, with values that were not different from a random ...
The increasing acidification of ocean waters caused by rising atmospheric carbon dioxide levels could rob sharks of their ability to sense the smell of food, a new study suggests.. Elevated carbon dioxide levels impaired the odor-tracking behavior of the smooth dogfish, a shark whose range includes the Atlantic Ocean off the eastern United States. Adult sharks significantly avoided squid odor after swimming in a pool of water treated with carbon dioxide. The carbon dioxide concentrations tested are consistent with climate forecasts for midcentury and 2100. The study suggests that predator-prey interactions in nature could be influenced by elevated carbon dioxide concentrations of ocean waters.. The sharks tracking behavior and attacking behavior were significantly reduced, said Danielle Dixson, an assistant professor in the School of Biology at the Georgia Institute of Technology in Atlanta. Sharks are like swimming noses, so chemical cues are really important for them in terms of finding ...
If deep-sea ocean sequestration becomes a common practice, long term effects will continue to be investigated to predict future scenarios of deep sea impacts by carbon dioxide.[21] Ocean sequestration of liquid carbon dioxide would not only impact deep-sea ecosystems, but in the long-run would begin to affect surface-water species.[21] It is estimated that organisms not fit for high carbon dioxide levels will begin to experience permanent effects at levels of 400/500ppm of carbon dioxide and/or shifts of 0.1-0.3 units in pH.[19] These levels of carbon dioxide are predicted to be met solely as a result of atmospheric carbon dioxide acidifying the surface waters over a matter of a century, without considering ocean sequestration effects.[19] Although the long-term effects are the most relevant to understand, they are also the most difficult to predict accurately due to the scale of the ocean and the diversity in species sensitivity to elevated carbon dioxide levels. Surface sea organisms have been ...
In the present paper, different Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA) models were developed to model the carbon dioxide emission by using time series data of forty-four years from 1972-2015. The performance of these developed models was assessed with the help of different selection measure criteria and the model having minimum value of these criteria considered as the best forecasting model. Based on findings, it has been observed that out of different ARIMA models, ARIMA (0, 2, 1) is the best fitted model in predicting the emission of carbon dioxide in Bangladesh. Using this best fitted model, the forecasted value of carbon dioxide emission in Bangladesh, for the year 2016, 2017 and 2018 as obtained from ARIMA (0, 2, 1) was obtained as 83.94657 Metric Tons, 89.90464 Metric Tons and 96.28557 Metric Tons respectively.
Mizumura, K.; Sato, J.; Kumazawa, T., 1986: Continuous recording of arterial pressure and carbon dioxide partial pressure and pressure carbon dioxide partial pressure and ph of the cerebrospinal fluid during acute exposure to low oxygen and high carbon dioxide partial pressure environment in dogs
article{reference_tag, author = Haroldo V. Ribeiro, Diego Rybski & Jürgen P. Kropp, title = Effects of changing population or density on urban carbon dioxide emissions, journal = Nature Communications, year = 2019, abstract = The question of whether urbanization contributes to increasing carbon dioxide emissions has been mainly investigated via scaling relationships with population or population density. However, these approaches overlook the correlations between population and area, and ignore possible interactions between these quantities. Here, we propose a generalized framework that simultaneously considers the effects of population and area along with possible interactions between these urban metrics. Our results significantly improve the description of emissions and reveal the coupled role between population and density on emissions. These models show that variations in emissions associated with proportionate changes in population or density may not only depend on the magnitude of ...
Graph and download economic data for Transportation Carbon Dioxide Emissions, LPG (Fuel Use) for Texas (EMISSCO2VHLACBTXA) from 1980 to 2017 about carbon dioxide emissions, used, fuels, transportation, TX, and USA.
Graph and download economic data for Coefficient for Industrial Carbon Dioxide Emissions, Residual Fuel for Massachusetts (EMISSCO2CRFICBMAA) from 1980 to 2017 about coefficient, carbon dioxide emissions, residual, fuels, MA, industry, and USA.
US energy-related carbon dioxide emissions declined by 2.8% in 2019 to 5,130 million metric tons, according to data in the US Energy Information Administrations Monthly Energy Review. Carbon dioxide emissions had increased by 2.9% in 2018, the only annual increase in the past 5 years.
The possible consequences of very high carbon dioxide concentrations in the earths early atmosphere have been investigated with a radiative-convective climate model. The early atmosphere would apparently have been stable against the onset of a runaway greenhouse (that is, the complete evaporation of the oceans) for carbon dioxide pressures up to at least 100 bars. A 10- to 20-bar carbon dioxide atmosphere, such as may have existed during the first several hundred million years of the earths history, would have had a surface temperature of approximately 85 degrees to 110 degrees C. The early stratosphere should have been dry, thereby precluding the possibility of an oxygenic prebiotic atmosphere caused by photodissociation of water vapor followed by escape of hydrogen to space. Earths present atmosphere also appears to be stable against a carbon dioxide-induced runaway greenhouse. ...
0011] According to an aspect of the invention, there is provided a carbon dioxide gas recovery device including: an absorption tower that is configured to introduce a carbon dioxide-containing gas containing carbon dioxide gas and a lean absorbent, bring the carbon dioxide-containing gas and the lean absorbent into contact with each other, and cause the absorbent to absorb carbon dioxide gas in the carbon dioxide-containing gas to generate a rich absorbent; and a regeneration tower that is configured to regenerate the lean absorbent by heating the rich absorbent supplied from the absorption tower to separate carbon dioxide gas from the rich absorbent, wherein the regeneration tower includes: a reboiler system that is configured to lead the absorbent from the regeneration tower, heat the led absorbent, and reintroduce the resultant absorbent into the regeneration tower; and a mixed gas cooling system that is configured to lead a mixed gas of carbon dioxide gas and a vapor fraction of a solute and ...
Carbon Dioxide Emissions have reached a record high over the year of 2018. New outlets everywhere are covering the alarming reports. To find out more about why 2018 has promoted rising carbon dioxide levels than ever before, check out the following links.. https://www.usatoday.com/story/news/world/2018/12/05/carbon-dioxide-earths-atmosphere-soars-highest-level-millions-years/2215508002/. https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2018/nov/22/climate-heating-greenhouse-gases-at-record-levels-says-un. ...
These global volcanic estimates are utterly dwarfed by carbon dioxide emissions from fossil fuel burning, cement production, gas flaring and land use changes; these emissions accounted for some 36,300 million metric tons of carbon dioxide in 2008, according to an international study published in the December 2009 issue of Nature Geoscience. Even if you take the highest estimate of volcanic carbon dioxide emissions, at 270 million metric tons per year, human-emitted carbon dioxide levels are more than 130 times higher than volcanic emissions.. Occasionally, scaled-down versions of the myth surface - for example, Volcanoes produce more carbon dioxide than the worlds cars and industries combined. The truth is that data from the Carbon Dioxide Information and Analysis Center of Oak Ridge National Laboratory and the International Energy Agency indicate that light-duty vehicles (cars, pickup trucks, SUVs, vans, wagons) contribute about 3,040 million metric tons of carbon dioxide per year, and ...
Meteorologists have determined exactly how much carbon dioxide humans can emit into the atmosphere while ensuring that the earth does not heat up by more than two degrees. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) calculated projected temperature changes for various scenarios in 2007 and researchers at the Max Planck Institute for Meteorology in Hamburg have now gone one step further: they have developed a new model that specifies the maximum volumes of carbon dioxide that humans may emit to remain below the critical threshold for climate warming of two degrees Celsius. To do this, the scientists incorporated into their calculations data relating to the carbon cycle, namely the volume of carbon dioxide absorbed and released by the oceans and forests. The aim of the international ENSEMBLES project is to simulate future changes in the global climate and carbon dioxide emissions and thereby to obtain more reliable threshold values on this basis. (Climatic Change, July 21, 2010). The ...
Theres striking new evidence that Earths atmosphere is increasingly saturated with carbon dioxide, the major gas from fossil fuel emissions that trigger climate change. The rise of carbon dioxide levels above 400 parts per million is an indicator that the problem of global warming is getting worse, not better, said Mark Z . Jacobson, a Stanford atmospheric scientist and environmental engineer, in an e-mail. Failure to convert will result in a growing risk of economic, social and political instability as warming and air pollution worsens while fossil-fuel prices rise.
One of the more difficult issues in the debate over policy to reduce carbon dioxide emissions is calculating the cost of a carbon dioxide constraint. In this paper, we calculate the cost of a carbon dioxide constraint in the production of electricity by modeling the replacement of coal generators with natural gas generators. We find: 1) Replacing coal generators with natural gas generators is the most economical way to achieve a target of reducing carbon dioxide emissions by 20 percent. 2) Unless there is a technological breakthrough in carbon sequestration, the carbon intensity of coal means that clean coal cannot be a significant factor in reducing carbon dioxide. Replacing existing coal generation capacity with modern coal generation plants can only reduce total carbon dioxide by 5 percent. 3) The distribution of the efficiency of coal generators in the United States is very concentrated. This concentration restricts the range over which carbon dioxide prices effectively manage the ...
List of Carbon Dioxide Emissions (Carbon Dioxide / Monoxide) companies, manufacturers and suppliers for the Oil, Gas and Refineries industry in Georgia (US) on Air and Climate - Environmental XPRT
Steadily increasing global atmospheric CO2 levels have been shown to affect important plant traits including growth and secondary (defensive) chemistry. This study used 10 maternal families of wild mustard, Brassica nigra, to investigate: 1) whether levels of carbon-based defenses (phenolics) increase and nitrogen-based defenses (protease inhibitors) decrease in Brassica nigra under elevated CO2, as predicted by the Carbon/Nutrient Balance Hypothesis; 2) whether B. nigra encounters nitrogen-based trade-offs between investment in chymotrypsin and trypsin inhibitors, or between investment in these chemical defenses and growth; 3) if so, whether trade-offs are more severe under elevated CO2; 4) whether elevated CO2 will affect the evolutionary potential of carbon-based and nitrogen-based chemical defenses. Results suggest that total biomass of Brassica nigra will increase under elevated CO2. In contrast to the predictions of the CNB Hypothesis, there was no evidence that levels of carbon-based defenses
Alternative Energy Guest Article… While skyrocketing carbon dioxide emissions get all of the attention, theres an equally grave ecological problem: ocean acidification. Ocean acidification is climate changes evil twin, and if we dont curb our carbon footprint, the damage on the marine ecosystem will be irreparable, notes ocean conservation group Oceana. Unbalanced pH Nearly 70 percent of the Earths surface is covered in water and, according to the U.S. Geological Survey, 96.5 percent of our planets water is held in the oceans. Nearly 30 percent of the carbon dioxide that pollutes…. Read More ...
Rising atmospheric carbon dioxide levels are bolstering plant life throughout the world, environmental scientists report in a newly published peer-reviewed study. The findings, published in Geophysical Research Letters, are gleaned from satellite measurements of global plant life, and contradict assertions by activists that global warming is causing deserts to expand, along with devastating droughts.. A team of scientists led by environmental physicist Randall Donohue, a research scientist at the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization in Australia, analyzed satellite data from 1982 through 2010. The scientists documented a carbon dioxide fertilization effect that has caused a gradual greening of the Earth, and particularly the Earths arid regions, since 1982. The satellite data showed rising carbon dioxide levels caused a remarkable 11 percent increase in foliage in arid regions since 1982, versus what would be the case if atmospheric carbon dioxide levels had remained ...
• The carbon dioxide gas is temporarily converted to carbonic acid in red blood cells by the enzyme carbonic anhydrase, and then further converted to hydrogen and bicarbonate ions. • The result of increased carbon dioxide is decreased pH causing the Bohr effect. • Elevated carbon dioxide levels enhance unbinding of oxygen from oxyhemoglobin thereby making oxygen available for actively metabolizing cells. • By contrast, decreased carbon dioxide, as in the alveolar spaces, increases affinity of hemoglobin for oxygen and promotes oxygen loading and transport. • To a limited degree, changes in temperature affect the association and dissociation of O2 with hemoglobin. • The oxygen carrying ability of hemoglobin is unaffected by normal temperatures. • Near metabolically active cells, blood temperature rises, increasing the thermal motion of molecules which promotes the unloading of O2 to continue fueling aerobic metabolism in the tissue cells. • When temperature lowers,
This documentary paints a clear picture to me that no matter what we do now as human beings, because of our release of massive amounts of carbon dioxide into our atmosphere, we will continue to move into an era of a hotter planet. This means higher sea levels and warmer temperatures globally. The documentary does not address the volatility of the weather and weather extremes, but from other research, reading, and both documentary viewing and podcast listening I understand thats also a piece of our future together.. About 33 minutes into the documentary, I loved the exploration which highlighted the temperature variability of our planet over the past 500 years.. At about 1 hour and 4 minutes, I loved the sequence and story of an incredible earth core sample taken from the middle of a Russian lake in the middle of the winter, and all that it revealed and confirmed about our planets climate history.. At about 1 hour and 25 minutes, the sequence of showing how carbon dioxide levels are measured ...
It has been suggested that antioxidants play a role in regulating or modulating senescence dynamics of plant tissues. Ethylene has been shown to promote early plant senescence while controlled atmospheres (CA; reduced O2 levels and elevated CO2 levels) can delay its onset and/or severity. In order to examine the possible importance of various antioxidants in the regulation of senescence, detached spinach ( Spinacia oleracea L.) leaves were stored for 35 d at 10 °C in one of three different atmospheres: (1) ambient air (0.3% CO2, 21.5% O2, 78.5% N2), (2) ambient air+10 ppm ethylene to promote senescence, or (3) CA (10% CO2, 0.8% O2 and 89.2% N2) to delay senescence. At weekly intervals, material was assessed for activities of the antioxidant enzymes ascorbate peroxidase (ASPX; EC 1.11.1.11), catalase (CAT; EC 1.11.1.6), dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR; EC 1.8.5.4), glutathione reductase (GR; EC 1.6.4.2), monodehydroascorbate reductase (MDHAR; EC 1.6.5.4), and superoxide dismutase (SOD; EC ...
If you give off carbon dioxide emissions, you may need to pay a carbon tax. In which case, it is reasonable to be paid to remove carbon dioxide from the atmosphere.. The latest report from the IPCC was clear. We need to drastically reduce emissions of greenhouse gases already today if global climate targets are to be achievable. One way to reduce the amount of carbon dioxide in the air and raised in the report is to use so called negative emissions, that is to say, in one way or other, to be able to suck the carbon dioxide out of the atmosphere and store it.. One way of doing this is to cultivate vegetation that uses carbon dioxide from the air to grow. If you then burn this vegetation, you can produce district heating and electricity, but you can also get carbon dioxide emissions, the same amount as the vegetation has locked in. But if instead of releasing the carbon dioxide, it can be captured and stored, you will then have created a carbon sink. You can also convert vegetation into biochar, ...
A consortium led by VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland has developed a new technology that captures the carbon dioxide emissions of power plants more economically and ecologically. The International Energy Agency IEA regards carbon dioxide capture as essential if the emission reduction targets set for greenhouse gases are to be met.
TY - GEN. T1 - Policies for effective trading scheme to reduce carbon dioxide emissions. AU - Wong, Kaufui V.. AU - Plackemeier, John. PY - 2010/12/1. Y1 - 2010/12/1. N2 - The World Bank and the Intergovernmental panel on climate change have concluded that human activities such as fossil fuel combustion have caused higher average temperatures, more violent weather patterns and higher sea levels. Governments, politicians and corporations have started to take steps to curb emissions of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases to reduce its imbalance in the atmosphere, and in so doing, diminish the impacts it will have in the near future. While these parties have recognized the importance of significantly reducing emissions in the coming decades, there are currently no policies in the USA to accomplish these goals. At the same time that the need to reduce emissions become more and more apparent, the realization that the worlds current economy is highly carbon-dependent and that shifting to ...
South Surrey, British Columbia-based Mantra Energy Alternatives has reached an agreement with Lafarge Canada to deploy an electrochemical reduction technology at its No. 9 Road cement plant in Richmond, B.C., as part of a pilot project. The technology will convert carbon dioxide emissions into useful chemicals, such as formic acid and formate salts.. This will be the first pilot plant of its kind in the world, said Mantras Vice President Patrick Dodd in a press release. If the system works as advertised it could be deployed at all of Lafarges facilities.. The pilot plant will convert 100 kg/day of carbon dioxide emitted from the cement plant into concentrated formate salts. Mantra plans to use the formic acid for use in its patented fuel cells, which it bills as a significantly less expensive fuel cell with greater power density.. Colin Oloman and Hui Li of the Clean Energy Research Centre developed the technology at the University of British Columbia. Mantra Venture Group then purchased it ...
Fossil fuel combustion is the primary anthropogenic source of both CO2 and Hg to the atmosphere. On a global scale, most Hg that enters ecosystems is derived from atmospheric Hg that deposits onto the land surface. Increasing concentrations of atmospheric CO2 may affect Hg deposition to terrestrial systems and storage in soils through CO(2)-mediated changes in plant and soil properties. We show, using free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE) experiments, that soil Hg concentrations are almost 30% greater under elevated atmospheric CO2 in two temperate forests. There were no direct CO2 effects, however, on litterfall, throughfall or stemflow Hg inputs. Soil Hg was positively correlated with percent soil organic matter (SOM), suggesting that CO(2)-mediated changes in SOM have influenced soil Hg concentrations. Through its impacts on SOM, elevated atmospheric CO2 may increase the Hg storage capacity of soils and modulate the movement of Hg through the biosphere. Such effects of rising CO2, ones that ...
Russell Long, executive director of the Bluewater Network, a San Francisco-based environmental group that proposed the bill, said some states are regulating carbon dioxide emissions from power plants. But no other state has tried to control carbon dioxide from autos, he said ...
growth and gas-exchange of three C4 species differing in CO2 leak rates. Physiol. Plant. 105: 74-80. Sicher, R. C. 1999. Photosystem-II activity is decreased by yellowing of barley primary leaves during growth in elevated carbon dioxide. Int. J. Plant Sci. 160: 849-854. Sicher, R. C. and Bunce, J. A. 1999. Photosynthetic enhancement and conductance to water vapor of field-grown Solanum tuberosum (L.) in response to CO2 enrichment. Photosyn. Res. 62: 155-163. Sicher, R. C. and Bunce J.A. 1999. Protein adjustments in wheat flag leaves in response to atmospheric CO2 enrichment. In: Photosynthesis: Mechanisms and Effects. Proceedings of the XI International Congress on Photosynthesis, G. Garab, ed., Kluwer Academic Publishers, The Hague, vol. V, 4744 pp. (Conference Proceeding). Bunce, J. A. and Sicher, R. C. Water stress and day-to-day variation in apparent photosynthetic acclimation of field-grown soybeans to elevated carbon dioxide concentration. Photosynthetica 39: 95-101. 2001 ...
Downloadable (with restrictions)! We use a model of domestic and international tourist numbers and flows to estimate the impact of the recent and proposed changes in the Air Passenger Duty (APD) of the United Kingdom. We look at four different scenarios (abolishing the APD, keeping the 2001 APD level, the 2007 APD and the Conservative Partys Green Miles proposal) using base, high and very high elasticity levels as well as assumptions about the substitutability between domestic and international holidays and the effects of a carbon tax. We find that the recent doubling of the APD has the perverse effect of increasing carbon dioxide emissions, albeit only slightly, because it reduces the relative price difference between near and far holidays. Tourists arriving into the UK would fall slightly. The number of tourists travelling from the UK would fall in the countries near to the UK, and this drop would be only partly offset by displaced tourists from the UK. Tourists leaving the UK for countries further
We wanted to know how cassava copes with elevated carbon dioxide, said RIPE Deputy Director Donald Ort, Robert Emerson Professor of Crop Sciences and Plant Biology at Illinois Carl R. Woese Institute for Genomic Biology. Sometimes, plants cannot make use of extra carbohydrates, which then triggers the plant to down-regulate photosynthesis. We found cassava could maintain photosynthetic efficiency and nutritional quality.. To take in carbon dioxide, plants open tiny pores in their leaves (called stomata) that allow water to exit through transpiration. This study found that when carbon dioxide levels increase from 400 to 600 ppm, cassava leaves could conserve 58 percent more water on average by optimizing stomatal conductance, which is the rate that carbon enters compared to water exiting the leaf.. Cassavas natural ability to produce high yields with little water is part of what makes this crop a staple in drought-prone regions across sub-Saharan Africa, said co-author Amanda De Souza, a ...
Problem  Clean natural environment is a public good  Environmental pollution generates complex external effects  Housing causes 15 % of total CO 2 Emission in Germany  External effects especially carbon dioxide emissions caused by residential heating and air- conditioning have to be internalised  Therefore residents in the European Union are living in a carbon-constrained world (e.g. European Energy Performance of Buildings Directive EPBD)  Internalisation of the external effects comes at a cost, both politically and economically  Most common recommendation in environmental economics: polluters pay a fee based on the volume of pollution they create (polluter-pays-principle)  However, it is not always possible to identify the polluter  If possible, it is not always economical feasible to refinance investments in order to reduce greenhouse gas emissions  Needed: financial burden-sharing model between owners, occupants and the public  Analysis and data based on housing
Carbon dioxide levels have risen so much in the last 150 years that plant pores, which plants effectively breathe through have decreased in size by up to 34%. As a result plants are restricted in the amount of water vapor that they release into the atmosphere.
A senior scientist at NOAAs Global Monitoring Laboratory, Pieter Tans, said that if there had not been an economic slowdown, it would have been the highest increase on record. As things current stand, the carbon dioxide levels in the atmosphere are at a point comparable to the Mid-Pliocene Warm Period, when the temperature was 7 degrees hotter and the sea level was roughly 78 feet higher than today ...
A normal carbon dioxide level for humans is 23 to 29 milliequivalents per liter, states MedlinePlus. CO2 is primarily found in the form of bicarbonate. A b
Data & statistics on Carbon Dioxide Emissions per Unit of GDP: CO2 Emissions per Unit of GDP in 2020, EU-25 CO2 Emissions per Unit of GDP - Scenario Comparison, Development of CO2 emissions per unit of GDP in the period 2000-2050...
TY - PAT. T1 - Sensor for measuring carbon dioxide levels in gases or liquids comprises a basic acceptor which is a polybasic inorganic anion or an organic anion. AU - Klimant, Ingo. AU - Brinz, Thomas. AU - Lewis, Jane. AU - Apostolidis, Athanas. AU - Wolfbeis, Otto. N1 - Anmelder: Robert Bosch GmbH;. PY - 2007/9/14. Y1 - 2007/9/14. M3 - Patent. M1 - CH 696675 A5. ER - ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Physiological responses of three species of unionid mussels to intermittent exposure to elevated carbon dioxide. AU - Hannan, Kelly D.. AU - Jeffrey, Jennifer D.. AU - Hasler, Caleb T.. AU - Suski, Cory D.. PY - 2016. Y1 - 2016. N2 - Freshwater systems are at risk owing to increasing carbon dioxide (CO2) levels, and one of the possible reasons for these elevations is the deployment of non-physical fish barriers to prevent invasive fish movements. Carbon dioxide barriers have the potential to create short, chronic and intermittent exposures of CO2 for surrounding freshwater biota. Although intermittent exposures to a stressor may be more ecologically relevant, the majority of laboratory tests use chronic or short-term time periods to determine how organisms will respond to an environmental stressor. Measurements of the physiological responses of three species of unionid mussel, giant floaters (Pyganodon grandis), threeridge (Amblema plicata) and plain pocketbook (Lampsilis ...
Effect of supercritical carbon dioxide on micro-mechanical properties of electrodesposited goldEffect of supercritical carbon dioxide on micro-mechanical properties of electrodesposited gold ...
Effects of Probiotic Additions to Feed and Manure on Temperature, Humidity, and Carbon Dioxide Emissions in Hanwoo Manure during Summer - A Field Study - Probiotics;Temperature;Humidity;Carbon dioxide emission;Feed;Hanwoo manure;
TY - JOUR. T1 - Highly porous organic nanoparticles formed from supercritical carbon dioxide mediated sol-emulsion-gel method. AU - Lee, Jun Young. AU - Kim, Jung Hyun. PY - 2004/5/5. Y1 - 2004/5/5. N2 - Highly porous organic nanoparticles have been prepared by adapting a novel method, sol-emulsion-gel process, through stable dispersion of nanometer-scaled emulsion droplets into continuous phase of supercritical carbon dioxide (ScCO2), sol-gel chemistry in emulsion droplets, and then supercritical drying. This principle offers faithful preparation of nanoparticles (35-90 nm in diameter) having pores of 1-3 nm in radius and high specific surface area (over 2000 m2/g).. AB - Highly porous organic nanoparticles have been prepared by adapting a novel method, sol-emulsion-gel process, through stable dispersion of nanometer-scaled emulsion droplets into continuous phase of supercritical carbon dioxide (ScCO2), sol-gel chemistry in emulsion droplets, and then supercritical drying. This principle offers ...
Relationship between serum total carbon dioxide concentration and bicarbonate concentration in patients undergoing hemodialysis - Acid base balance;Bicarbonate;Hemodialysis;Serum total carbon dioxide
Subcutaneous carbon dioxide insufflations popular in Central und Eastern Europe are a safe and inexpensive treatment modality in complementary medicine and are used mainly in musculoskeletal pain and vascular conditions. However, no rigorous trial exists on their efficacy.. The study is designed as a double blind sham controlled randomized trial to evaluate whether patients with acute non specific neck pain get pain free sooner, if treated with subcutaneous carbon dioxide insufflations compared to sham ultrasound.Since acute non specific neck pain is often self limiting, speed of recovery rather than outcome at fixed points in time is evaluated.. Participants receive either a maximum number of 9 subcutaneous carbon dioxide insufflations or a maximum number of 9 sham ultrasound administered by 4 therapists in a randomized order, thrice weekly. Carbon dioxide gas is insufflated subcutaneously at the locations of neck muscle tenderness. Per tender location 25 ml carbon dioxide gas is ...
Investigators evaluate the effect of patient position (Trendelenburg and reverse Trendelenburg) on arterial, end-tidal and transcutaneous carbon dioxide partial pressure in patients undergoing laparoscopic surgery. Arterial carbon dioxide partial pressure is assessed intermittently before, during, and after pneumoperitoneum. End-tidal and transcutaneous carbon dioxide partial pressure are continuously monitored ...
Background. There may be significant difference between measurement of end-tidal carbon dioxide partial pressure (PetCO(2)) and arterial carbon dioxide partial pressure (PaCO2) during one-lung ventilation with low tidal volume for thoracic surgeries. Transcutaneous carbon dioxide partial pressure (PtcCO(2)) monitoring can be used continuously to evaluate PaCO2 in a noninvasive fashion. In this study, we compared the accuracy between PetCO(2) and PtcCO(2) in predicting PaCO2 during prolonged one-lung ventilation with low tidal volume for thoracic surgeries.. Methods. Eighteen adult patients who underwent thoracic surgeries with one-lung ventilation longer than two hours were included in this study. Their PetCO(2), PtcCO(2), and PaCO2 values were collected at five time points before and during one-lung ventilation. Agreement among measures was evaluated by Bland-Altman analysis.. Results. Ninety sample sets were obtained. The bias and precision when PtcCO(2) and PaCO2 were compared were 4.1 +/- ...
Bush/ shrub encroachment is a great concern for rangeland managers in southern African savannas, especially because there is still no consensus about the main mechanisms behind the spread of woody species at the expense of grasses. Although much work has been done on the effects of fire, grazing, water and nutrient availability on rangeland productivity, the role of climate change, namely changes in CO2 concentrations and rainfall, and their potential interaction with manageable factors, such as grazing and fire, is not understood. This study focuses on investigating the combined role of elevated CO2, drought and land use on the balance between shrubs and grasses in southern African savannas. We used a climate gradient in Namibia, to set up experiments at a nested scale of realism and detail. I conducted semi-controlled to more controlled experiments in Germany, in the greenhouse and climate chambers, respectively. Here, the intention was to investigate how tree-grass interactions at a seedling ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Does greening of neotropical cities considerably mitigate carbon dioxide emissions? The case of Medellin, Colombia. AU - Reynolds, Carley C.. AU - Escobedo, Francisco J.. AU - Clerici, Nicola. AU - Zea-Camaño, Jorge. PY - 2017. Y1 - 2017. N2 - Cities throughout the world are advocating highly promoted tree plantings as a climate change mitigation measure. Assessing the carbon offsets associated with urban trees relative to other climate change policies is vital for sustainable development, planning, and solving environmental and socio-economic problems, but is difficult in developing countries. We estimated and assessed carbon dioxide (CO2) storage, sequestration, and emission offsets by public trees in the Medellin Metropolitan Area, Colombia, as a viable Nature-Based Solution for the Neotropics. While previous studies have discussed nature-based solutions and explored urban tree carbon dynamics in high income countries, few have been conducted in tropical cities in ...
Although increased concentrations of CO2 stimulate photosynthesis, this stimulation is often lost during prolonged exposure to elevated carbon dioxide, leading to an attenuation of the potential gain in yield. Under these conditions, a wide variety of species accumulates non-structural carbohydrates in leaves. It has been proposed that starch accumulation directly inhibits photosynthesis, that the rate of sucrose and starch synthesis limits photosynthesis, or that accumulation of sugars triggers changes in gene expression resulting in lower activities of Rubisco and inhibition of photosynthesis. To distinguish these explanations, transgenic plants unable to accumulate transient starch due to leaf mesophyll-specific antisense expression of AGP B were grown at ambient and elevated carbon dioxide. There was a positive correlation between the capacity for starch synthesis and the rate of photosynthesis at elevated CO2 concentrations, showing that the capability to synthesize leaf starch is essential for
The need is pressing to investigate soil CO2(carbon dioxide) emissions and soil organic carbon dynamics under water-saving irrigation practices in agricultural systems for exploring the potentials...
The solubility of heptanoic acid and octanoic acid in supercritical carbon dioxide has been determined at temperatures of (313.15, 323.15, and 333.15) K over a pressure range of (8.5 to 30.0) MPa, depending upon the solute. The solubility of heptanoic acid ranged from a solute concentration of (0.08 ± 0.03) kg • m -3 (T = 323.15 K, p = 8.5 MPa) to (147 ± 0.2) kg • m -3 (T = 323.15 K, p = 20.0 MPa). The lowest octanoic acid solubility obtained was a solute concentration of (0.40 ± 0.1) kg • m -3 (T = 333.15 K, p = 10.0 MPa), while the highest solute concentration was (151 ± 2) kg • m -3 (T = 333.15 K, p = 26.7 MPa). In addition, solubility experiments were performed for nonanoic acid in supercritical carbon dioxide at 323.15 K and pressures of (10.0 to 30.0) MPa to add to the solubility data previously published by the authors. In general, carboxylic acid solubility increased with increasing solvent density. The results also showed that the solubility of the solutes decreased with ...
Rice has won a $3.3 million Department of Energy grant to develop a method to convert natural gas into carbon nanotubes for materials that can replace metals in large-scale applications. The goal is to save energy and stem carbon dioxide emissions from metal manufacturing while concurrently generating clean hydrogen and fixing fossil-sourced carbon in solid materials.
Capturing carbon dioxide under the cryogenic conditions has attracted more attention in the industrial applications. Despite of several large scale studies, the cryogenic carbon dioxide capture has not been well studied for the small scale power generation systems. In this study, a cryogenic carbon dioxide system is proposed for the small scale applications. The liquid carbon dioxide is collected in the liquefied natural gas vaporizer during the regasification process. The proposed design is simulated for the 30, 65, and 200 kW microturbines. In addition to the liquid carbon dioxide, the condensed water and the gas mixture of nitrogen-oxygen are collected as the byproducts of the system. The best carbon dioxide capture ratio is aimed with the minimum energy losses since the generated power rate is a key criterion. The proposed systems are evaluated according to the thermodynamic, environmental, and enviroeconomic perspectives. From the viewpoint of thermodynamics, the systems are found feasible ...
An end tidal carbon dioxide addition device coupling to a nasal cannula used on patients under general anesthesia or sedated, to continuously measure the carbon dioxide content of the expired breath. A first embodiment device has a body a pair of nasal ducts with clips to attach to a nasal cannula. A pair of oral ducts collects exhaled oral gases which are combined with the nasal gasses to be analyzed for tidal carbon dioxide content. A pair of posts adjacent the oral ducts stabilize the device on a sedated patient. A second embodiment integrates a nasal cannula with the body to provide an economical disposable device and substitutes a flattened region with an array of apertures for the oral ducts.
Power plants in Texas are among those that lead the nation in emissions that contribute to global warming and pollution, according to a new report.. The report, Benchmarking Air Emmissions, compiled by M.J. Bradley & Associates, a Massachusetts energy consulting firm, examines air emissions from plants owned by the top 100 merchant power companies in the U.S. Houstons Exelon is fourth; NRG Energy is eighth; Calpine Corp. is tenth and Dynegy is eleventh. Many power plants, particularly those that are coal-fired, produce sulfur dioxide, carbon dioxide, mercury and nitrogen oxides, which contribute to pollution, global warming and respiratory problems. As of 2015, power plants accounted for more than half of the sulfur dioxide emissions in the U.S. and 38 percent of the carbon dioxide emissions, according to the study.. Most the countrys emissions from power plants came from a handful of the top companies - nearly a quarter of the power industrys sulfur dioxide and carbon dioxide emissions ...
Look! Oatly cartons come with carbon dioxide …. We made a nice webpage all about the carbon dioxide equivalents were sticking on the front of our packages and why we want the food industry to join us. Hey food industry! Show us your nuers. Now, the one problem with all these nuers is they dont really 7 surprising things about the carbon footprint of your food. 2018/6/13· Everything we buy has a carbon footprint and food is no exception. Yearly, we produce five billion tonnes of carbon dioxide equivalent from crop and livestock production. From seed to mouth, it can be easy to forget how much in terms of production goes into our Carbon Dioxide and Nitrogen , Food Storage FAQ, …. Carbon dioxide (CO 2) and nitrogen (N 2) are commonly used in packaging both fresh and shelf-stable foods, in order to extend their shelf lives. Fresh foods are outside the scope of this work so attention shall be focused on those foods suitable for use in storage. Carbon dioxide emissions still rising in the Vale ...
The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of increasing the atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide on plant growth and leaf rust severity (caused by Hemileia vastatrix) on coffee (Coffea arabica). The Obata IAC 1669-20 and Catuai Vermelho IAC 144 cultivars, moderately resistant and susceptible to the disease, respectively, were used. The treatments consisted of 400 and 508 mu mol mol(-1) atmospheric CO2, in two types of open-top chambers (OTC). Plants of the two cultivars, grown in OTCs with addition of CO2, showed increased leaf area, and increased growth rate of height and stem diameter, in comparison with plants in OTCs with ambient CO2 concentration; however, the cultivars did not differ for leaf-wax content. On Catuai Vermelho IAC 144, rust severity reduced at increased CO2 concentration, for number of lesions, lesioned leaf area, number of sporulated lesions, sporulated leaf area, percentage of lesioned area, and area under disease progress curve; however, on Obata ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Modeling of diffusivities in supercritical carbon dioxide using a linear solvation energy relationship. AU - Wang, Tao. AU - Wang, Xiuyun. AU - Smith, Richard L.. PY - 2005/8/1. Y1 - 2005/8/1. N2 - A linear solvation energy relationship (LSER) method was used to develop a predictive model for the diffusivities of organic solutes in supercritical CO2 at infinite dilution. The LSER model was based on the diffusivities of 18 solutes and 104 data points for sc-CO2 in the range of 32-60°C and 8-100 MPa. The independent variables in the model were empirically determined descriptors of the solute molecules and the dipolarity/polarizability of CO2 at a given density. The model was tested for prediction accuracy by using the diffusivities of 10 solutes not included in the database. The model provided relative deviations less than 10% in the correlation and prediction of the diffusivities in supercritical CO 2 of the organic solutes considered. The accuracy of the proposed LSER model is ...
Synopsis During the late Pliocene and early Pleistocene Series of the Cenozoic Era, 3.6 to 2.2 Ma (million years ago), the Arctic was much warmer than it is at the present day (with summer temperatures from 3.6-3.4 Ma some 8oC warmer than today). That is a key finding of research into a lake-sediment core obtained in Eastern Siberia, which is of exceptional importance because it has provided the longest continuous late Cenozoic land-based sedimentary record thus far. The sedimentary sequence dates from recent times back to 3.6 Ma when the lake was formed by a large extraterrestrial impact. During the warm period, atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations were close to those of today, at around 400 parts per million, indicative of a strong climate sensitivity signal in the Arctic, which has again warmed very rapidly in recent decades. The lake sediment record has thus provided us with a snapshot of how the Arctic may look in the near future.
Carbon Capture and Storage: Carbon Dioxide Pressure Dissipates in Underground Reservoirs, Study Shows. The debate surrounding carbon capture and storage intensifies as scientists from the Earth Sciences Division at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) examine the capacity for storing carbon dioxide underground, in a study published today in the new journal Greenhouse Gases: Science & Technology.. The study debates some of the conclusions drawn in an earlier study by Ehlig-Economides and Economides1, countering their claims that carbon dioxide cannot feasibly be stored underground. These earlier findings, according to the Berkeley Lab researchers, only considered closed-system subsurface formations, with limited mechanisms for relieving the pressure.. Carbon capture and storage (CCS) is controversial in the eyes of the general public. Pressure build-up in the subsurface induced by the injection of carbon dioxide from industrial-scale projects is a key constraint for the amount ...
RH Alasbahi , The present paper deals with a literature review of the different aspects of supercritical carbon dioxide extraction (SFE). It summarized the general properties of SFE as an advanced and excellent alternative to conventional extractions methods, as well as the advantage and disadvantage of using supercritical CO2 as an environmentally safe and effective solvent. The study also covered the different applications of SFE in food and pharmaceutical processing, and to extract valuable compounds with bioactivities such as antioxidant, antitumor and antibacterial from plant species as well as to produce valuable compounds form industry by-products and new functional ingredients that can be used by the food industry. The study also highlighted the use of SFE in food safety and environmental protection such as the detection/quantification as well as the removal of food and environmental pollutants.. ...
0057]Use of a carbon dioxide supplying means for muscle strengthening in accordance with the present invention is not particularly limited as long as it allows a living body to absorb carbon dioxide. However, a local absorption means is preferred. An example of the carbon dioxide supplying means for allowing a living body to absorb carbon dioxide may include the followings. [0058](1) A composition for preparing carbon dioxide agents for external use, for example, carbon dioxide agents for external use obtained from the following a) and b): a) a composition for preparing a carbon dioxide agent for external use characterized by comprising a substance generating an acid after being hydrolyzed, a carbonate, a thickener, and water as essential components, and further comprising a gelating agent being gelated by calcium ion, and a water-insoluble or poorly-soluble calcium salt (National Publication of International Patent Application No. 2006/80398), or b) a composition for preparing a carbon dioxide ...
The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of the gas: liquid ratio (GLR) on carbon dioxide removal and heat loss across a forced-ventilated trickling filter (TF) used as bioreactor. The effect of 8 different GLRs (1.2-15.7) on carbon dioxide removal and heat loss from water passing a trickling filter were tested in random order. The TF was part of a pilot scale fresh water intensive recirculating aquaculture system and had a media bed height of 1.8 m, a diameter of 0.9 m, a specific surface area of 200 m2/m3 and was operated at a fixed hydraulic surface load of 9.42 m3/m2.h, a mean inlet water temperature of 27.0-27.5 °C, and a mean inlet pH ranging from 7.02-7.12. For each GLR, CO2 removal from water was calculated from CO2 measurements in the inlet and outlet air of the TF using an online infrared probe (developed for agriculture and greenhouses) and from 12 water measurements done once every 3 h during 2 subsequent days. The water inlet CO2 concentrations varied between ...
A theory for the ocean-atmosphere partitioning of anthropogenic carbon dioxide on centennial timescales is presented. The partial pressure of atmospheric CO2 (PCO2) is related to the external CO2 input (Δ∑C) at air-sea equilibrium by: PCO2 = 280 ppm exp(Δ∑C/[IA + IO/R]), where IA, IO, and R are the pre-industrial values of the atmospheric CO2 inventory, the oceanic dissolved inorganic carbon inventory, and the Revelle buffer factor of seawater, respectively. This analytical expression is tested with two- and three-box ocean models, as well as for a version of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology general circulation model (MIT GCM) with a constant circulation field, and found to be valid by at least 10% accuracy for emissions lower than 4500 GtC. This relationship provides the stable level that PCO2 reaches for a given emission size, until atmospheric carbon is reduced on weathering timescales. On the basis of the MIT GCM, future carbon emissions must be restricted to a total of 700 ...
Enzymes have been used in supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2) rather than in the conventional media to make enzyme reactions greener. This review introduces some enzymatic asymmetric synthesis in scCO2 such as esterification by a lipase and reduction by an alcohol dehydrogenase. A carboxylation by a decarbo
TY - JOUR. T1 - Selective extraction of phospholipids from whey protein phospholipid concentrate using supercritical carbon dioxide and ethanol as a co-solvent. AU - Sprick, B.. AU - Linghu, Z.. AU - Amamcharla, J. K.. AU - Metzger, L. E.. AU - Smith, J. S.. N1 - Funding Information: We thank Midwest Dairy Foods Research Center (St. Paul, MN) for their financial support. This project is Kansas State Research and Extension contribution number 18-150-J. This work was partially supported by the USDA National Institute of Food and Agriculture, Hatch project 1014344. PY - 2019/12. Y1 - 2019/12. N2 - In recent years, using dairy phospholipids (PL) as functional ingredients has increased because PL have nutritional benefits and functional properties. In this study, a novel 2-step supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) process was used to extract whey protein phospholipid concentrate (WPPC), a dairy co-product obtained during the manufacture of whey protein isolate, for PL enrichment. In the first step, ...
Jennifer Wilcox, the University of Pennsylvanias new Presidential Distinguished Professor of Chemical Engineering and Energy Policy, is one of the worlds leading experts on carbon capture. While reducing carbon dioxide emissions is the prime goal in addressing the planets mounting climate crisis, the problem now must be addressed on both sides by removing carbon that has already been released into the atmosphere.. To that end, Wilcox played a key role in the publication of a free, digital publication on the subject. This Carbon Dioxide Removal Primer is written to reach a broad audience in an effort to maximize the adoption of these techniques.. Avoiding carbon and actively removing it from the atmosphere on the scale of gigatons will ultimately be required for meeting our climate goals, says Wilcox. It is my hope that this primer will help in creating the human capital required to meet this gigaton-scale challenge.. Wilcox, who has appointments in the Kleinman Center for Energy Policy, ...
A. Generally. By this regulation, the Virginia Racing Commission prohibits the feeding or administration to a horse on race day of any bicarbonate-containing substance or other alkalinizing substance that effectively alters the serum or plasma pH or concentration of bicarbonates or carbon dioxide in the horse. B. Test values. A serum or plasma total carbon dioxide level exceeding 37.0 millimoles per liter constitutes a positive test. C. Testing procedure. The stewards or commission veterinarian may, at their discretion and at any time, order the collection of test samples from any horses present within the enclosure for determination of serum or plasma pH or concentration of bicarbonate, carbon dioxide, or electrolytes. Preracing testing or post-race testing may be done at a time and manner directed by the commission veterinarian. Whether prerace or post-race, the sample shall consist of at least two blood tubes taken from the horse to determine the serum total carbon dioxide concentration. If ...
This Tutorial Review focuses on supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2), and discusses some of the problems that have frustrated its wide use on an industrial scale. It gives some recent examples where strategies have been developed to reduce the energy requirements, including sequential reactions and gas-expan Green Chemistry
This page includes the following topics and synonyms: End-Tidal CO2, End-Tidal pCO2, EtCO2, End Tidal Carbon Dioxide, End-Tidal CO2 Concentration, Expired Carbon Dioxide Concentration, Capnography, End Tidal Carbon Dioxide Tension, Capnometry, Infrared Capnography.
Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Brayton cycles can be used in conjunction with a host of heat sources associated with different magnitudes of net power generation. In this paper, the overall design features of the turbomachinery, namely the turbine and compressor are evaluated for kilowatt to Gigawatt range of net cycle power using a commercial design tool - AxSTREAM®. The thermodynamic cycle considered in all cases is a simple recuperated Brayton cycle with turbine and compressor inlet temperatures of 540 °C and 45 °C respectively. The highest and lowest pressures in the cycle are 210 bar and 85 bar respectively. The preliminary design is carried out using an inverse algorithm with a meanline solver that generates many geometries for the given boundary conditions using standard loss correlations to account for different losses in turbomachines. It, thus, provides the general design features of the compressor and turbine which include - machine size, shaft speed at design point, overall ...
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Mass transfer studies on the dehydration of supercritical carbon dioxide using dense polymeric membranes. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
The removal of excess water from organic materials, specifically distillers grains, employing the use of supercritical carbon dioxide. The method includes the use of a heat exchanger system which is a
Phytantriol-based organogels as a new type of immobilisation matrix were tested for their potential application as solid-phase catalysts with both isooctane and supercritical carbon dioxide as external solvents. It was shown that Mucor miehei lipase immobilised in such organogels is capable of catalysing the esterification of 1-propanol and lauric acid in both solvents. In order to determine the operational stability of the immobilised lipase in phytantriol-based organogels, reuse experiments were conducted in isooctane. They showed that the catalytic activity is quite well preserved despite the fact that a loss of phytantriol occurs due to its extraction from the gel ...
TY - GEN. T1 - A Novel Process for the Production of Polyolefins in Supercritical Carbon Dioxide. AU - Kemmere, M.F.. AU - Vries, de, T.J.. AU - Vorstman, M.A.G.. AU - Keurentjes, J.T.F.. PY - 2000. Y1 - 2000. M3 - Conference contribution. SP - 122. EP - 125. BT - 1st European Conference Reaction Engineering of Polyolefins. CY - Lyon. T2 - conference; 1st European Conference Reaction Engineering of Polyolefins; 2000-07-03; 2000-07-06. Y2 - 3 July 2000 through 6 July 2000. ER - ...
Author: Pandey, S. et al.; Genre: Journal Article; Published in Print: 2002-02-21; Title: The photophysics of 6-(1-pyrenyl)hexyl-11(1-pyrenyl)undecanoate dissolved in organic liquids and supercritical carbon dioxide: Impact on olefin metathesis
The target of this project is the screening of the opportunities, resulting of the combination of treating Cellulosic bodies with supercritical carbon dioxide. In general, the change of the porous structure depending on the way of fiber drying and the opportunity to incorporate active compounds and the development of analytical methods to track them within Cellulosic bodies.
Mouna Lazrag, Cecile Lemaitre, Christophe Castel, Romain Privat, Danielle Barth. Supercritical carbon dioxide drying of monoliths and composites organogels: from pilot to industrial scale process. 4th International Seminar on Aerogels Properties-Manufacture-Applications, Sep 2018, Hamburg, Germany. 2018. ⟨hal-03263960⟩ ...
Rivers are generally supersaturated with respect to carbon dioxide, resulting in large gas evasion fluxes that can be a significant component of regional net carbon budgets. Amazonian rivers were recently shown to outgas more than ten times the amount of carbon exported to the ocean in the form of total organic carbon or dissolved inorganic carbon. High carbon dioxide concentrations in rivers originate largely from in situ respiration of organic carbon, but little agreement exists about the sources or turnover times of this carbon. Here we present results of an extensive survey of the carbon isotope composition ({sup 13}C and {sup 14}C) of dissolved inorganic carbon and three size-fractions of organic carbon across the Amazonian river system. We find that respiration of contemporary organic matter (less than 5 years old) originating on land and near rivers is the dominant source of excess carbon dioxide that drives outgassing in mid-size to large rivers, although we find that bulk organic carbon
Rice straw can serve as potential material for bioenergy production. However, the quantitative effects of increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration [CO2] on rice straw quality and the resulting consequences for bioenergy utilization are largely unknown. In this study, two rice varieties, WYJ and LY, that have been shown previously to have a weak and strong stimulatory response to rising [CO2], respectively, were grown with and without additional CO2 at China free-air carbon dioxide enrichment (FACE) platform. Qualitative and quantitative measurements in response to [CO2] included straw biomass (including leaf, sheath, and stem), the concentration of nonstructural and structural carbohydrates, the syringyl-to-guaiacyl (S/G) ratio of lignin, glucose and xylose release from structural carbohydrate, total sugar release by enzymatic saccharification, and sugar yield and the ratio of cellulose and hemicellulose degradation. Elevated [CO2] significantly increased straw biomass and ...
Carbon dioxide equivalent. Carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2-e) is a measure used to convert the masses of each of the greenhouse gases to a mass of CO2 that would give the equivalent global warming potential generally over a 100 year timeframe. Carbon dioxide equivalency thus reflects the time-integrated radiative forcing of a quantity of emissions or rate of greenhouse gas emission. For example, methane has a CO2-e 25 times that of CO2, and nitrous oxide 298 times. Carbon dioxide intensity and carbon dioxide per capita Alternatives to total emissions for measuring a nation?s greenhouse gas emissions. Carbon intensity measures emissions per unit of gross domestic product. Carbon dioxide per capita measures emissions per person. Both measures can be used to look at emission differences between nations. For example, while China has recently taken the lead in total greenhouse gas emissions, its per capita emissions level is far lower than that in most industrial countries. ...
Different types of enzymes such as lipases, several phosphatases, dehydrogenases, oxidases, amylases and others are well suited for the reactions in SC-CO2. The stability and the activity of enzymes exposed to carbon dioxide under high pressure depend on enzyme species, water content in the solution and on the pressure and temperature of the reaction system. The three-dimensional structure of enzymes may be significantly altered under extreme conditions, causing their denaturation and consequent loss of activity. If the conditions are less adverse, the protein structure may be largely retained. Minor structural changes may induce an alternative active protein state with altered enzyme activity, specificity and stability.
Elevated carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration in seawater has previously been demonstrated to have a range of negative impacts on marine fish. While ocean acidification is a well-known context in which elevated CO2 occurs, fish reared in recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS) may also be exposed to elevated CO2, and at concentrations which are even many times higher. The yellowtail kingfish (Seriola lalandi) and snapper (Chrysophrys auratus) are two marine fish species of high economic value in New Zealand which may be affected by elevated CO2 concentrations. To assess the effect of elevated CO2 on the growth, feed conversion, and respiratory physiology of yellowtail kingfish, juvenile kingfish (~230g) were reared in a 54 day growth-trial under the following CO2concentrations: (1) ,5mgL-1(ambient-control), (2) 10-15mgL-1, (3) ~20mgL-1, (4) ~30mgL-1, (5) ~40mgL-1 Specific growth rates (SGRM) were greatest in ambient CO2 concentration (1), but this did not significantly differ from concentration ...
Author(s): Wells, JD; Majid, AAA; Creek, JL; Sloan, ED; Borglin, SE; Kneafsey, TJ; Koh, CA | Abstract: There is an interest to ensure sub-saturated water content in lines containing carbon dioxide in applications such as enhanced oil recovery and carbon sequestration, to reduce risks of hydrate blockage and corrosion. The water content of carbon dioxide at various temperatures and pressures has been measured in the past, but there is no consistent set of measurements that could be used for carbon dioxide storage and transportation design work. The solubility of water in a carbon dioxide rich gas phase at hydrate forming conditions was measured in this work. Pressures ranged from 12.06 to 29.30 bar along two isotherms, 1 °C and −7 °C, all within the gaseous carbon dioxide and hydrate stability zone. For the first time in these types of measurements, the solid phase was also characterized and confirmed to be carbon dioxide hydrate via X-ray computed tomography, simultaneous with water content
End-tidal carbon dioxide monitoring refers to the noninvasive measurement of exhaled carbon dioxide and is most useful when applied directly to patient care.1 Although commonly used in intubated patients receiving mechanical ventilation, this technique is sometimes used in non-intubated patients.2-,4 The term capnometry refers to the measurement and display of the concentration of exhaled carbon dioxide either as a percentage (%) or as partial pressure in millimeters of mercury (mm Hg). If the gas measuring device also includes a calibrated, visual waveform recording of the concentrations of inspired and exhaled carbon dioxide that can be examined on a breath-by-breath basis or for long-term trends, the instrument is called a capnograph.4 Although this respiratory monitoring technology is not new to the critical care environment, controversy still exists regarding potential benefits and limitations in clinical practice..... ...
Carbon dioxide production[edit]. About 19.64 pounds (8.91 kg) of carbon dioxide (CO2) are produced from burning 1 U.S. gallon ( ... "How much carbon dioxide is produced by burning gasoline and diesel fuel?". U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA). ... Combustion of 1 U.S. gallon (3.8 L) of gasoline produces 8.74 kilograms (19.3 lb) of carbon dioxide (2.3 kg/l), a greenhouse ... is the effect on the climate through the production of carbon dioxide.[87] Unburnt gasoline and evaporation from the tank, when ...
If the occupant's breathing is the only consumer of oxygen and producer of carbon dioxide in the room, then carbon dioxide ... Carbon dioxide concerns[edit]. Sheltering in place is generally only used for a short period of time, typically a few, around 3 ... In radiological/fallout scenarios, if the shelter is airtight and carbon dioxide and body heat build up is thus a concern, ... However if the outdoor hazard persists, the "~3 hour" period can be extended if the occupants have an accurate Carbon dioxide ...
Carbon dioxide reduction catalysts[edit]. In nature, carbon fixation is done by green plants using the enzyme RuBisCO as a part ... Light-driven carbon dioxide reduction is another process studied, that replicates natural carbon fixation. ... water and carbon dioxide to "create the carbon building blocks from which resins, plastics and fibers can be synthesized."[37] ... Photoelectrochemical cells that reduce carbon dioxide into carbon monoxide (CO), formic acid (HCOOH) and methanol (CH3OH) are ...
At greater depths, carbon dioxide can have more effect: at depths to about 200 km, the temperatures of initial melting of a ... Effects of water and carbon dioxide. The change of rock composition most responsible for the creation of magma is the addition ... The addition of carbon dioxide is relatively a much less important cause of magma formation than the addition of water, but ... In the presence of carbon dioxide, experiments document that the peridotite solidus temperature decreases by about 200 °C in a ...
Carbon dioxide[edit]. Bubbling CO. 2 through algal cultivation systems can greatly increase productivity and yield (up to a ... Carbon Dioxide Capture with Algae. Docstoc.com. Retrieved 15 April 2012. *^ "Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Project at the ... "Accelerating the uptake of CCS: Industrial use of captured carbon dioxide". Global CCS Institute. Retrieved 25 February 2012.. ... These estimates assume that carbon dioxide is available at no cost.[143] If the annual biomass production capacity is increased ...
Carbon dioxide[edit]. New Zealand has a long-term record of atmospheric carbon dioxide similar to the Keeling Curve. In 1970, ... Zealand's per capita carbon dioxide emissions roughly doubled from 1970 to 2000 and then exceeded the per capita carbon dioxide ... because trees absorb carbon dioxide (CO2) from the atmosphere in a process known as carbon sequestration potentially helping ... Carbon dioxide, Baring Head, New Zealand, NIWA *^ Lowe, David (2006). "The changing composition of the Earth's atmosphere: ...
Carbon dioxide extraction[edit]. A third process, supercritical carbon dioxide extraction, combines the best aspects of the ... Supercritical carbon dioxide extraction, yielding a concrete that may be marketed as a concrete, absolute or CO2 extract. ... When carbon dioxide is put under at least 72.9 atm (73,900 mb) of pressure and at a temperature of at least 31.1 °C (88.0 °F) ( ...
Ad Hoc Study Group on Carbon Dioxide and Climate (1979). "Carbon Dioxide and Climate: A Scientific Assessment" (PDF). National ... Sensitivity to carbon dioxide forcing[edit]. Climate sensitivity is often evaluated in terms of the change in equilibrium ... Although climate sensitivity is usually used in the context of radiative forcing by carbon dioxide (CO2), it is thought of as a ... Thus, the sensitivity of temperature to gasses in the atmosphere (most notably carbon dioxide) is often expressed in terms of ...
In this process the light isotope of carbon (C. 12) would be most likely to leave the atmosphere. Hence, the carbon dioxide ... Ultraviolet light from the Sun could strike a carbon dioxide molecule, breaking it into carbon monoxide and oxygen. A second ... Carbon dioxide carving[edit]. Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter images suggest an unusual erosion effect occurs based on Mars' unique ... In the spring and autumn wind due to the carbon dioxide sublimation process is so strong that it can be a cause of the global ...
In 2000, he modelled the fans and spots' dynamics as a complex process of carbon dioxide (CO2) and water sublimation and re- ... Thus, Mars seems to have a dynamic process of recycling of its near surface crust of carbon dioxide. Growth process is rapid, ... Some teams propose dry venting of carbon dioxide (CO2) gas and sand, occurring between the ice and the underlying bedrock. It ... The seasonal frosting and defrosting of carbon dioxide ice results in the appearance of a number of features, such dark dune ...
Carbon dioxide neutralizes network modifiers, so dissolved carbon dioxide increases the viscosity. Higher-temperature melts are ... Water vapor is typically the most abundant magmatic gas, followed by carbon dioxide[41] and sulfur dioxide. Other principal ... At greater depths, carbon dioxide can have more effect: at depths to about 200 km, the temperatures of initial melting of a ... Carbon dioxide is much less soluble in magmas than water, and frequently separates into a distinct fluid phase even at great ...
Liquid carbon dioxide superfluids[edit]. Main article: Carbon dioxide flooding. Carbon dioxide (CO2) is particularly effective ... Use of both water and carbon dioxide also lowers the mobility of carbon dioxide, making the gas more effective at displacing ... "could help sequester between 200 million and 2.2 billion metric tons of carbon dioxide" [48] and bring down carbon capture and ... Carbon dioxide as a solvent has the benefit of being more economical than other similarly miscible fluids such as propane and ...
Carbon dioxide. 1.00045 Liquids at 20 °C Water. 1.333 Ethanol. 1.36 ...
Carbon dioxide. Carbon dioxide concentration during the mid Pliocene has been estimated at around 400 ppmv from 13C/12C ratio ... "The last time carbon dioxide concentrations were around 400ppm: a snapshot from Arctic Siberia". Skeptical Science. Retrieved ... The intensity of the sunlight reaching the earth, the global geography, and carbon dioxide concentrations were similar to ... C warmer than today and carbon dioxide concentration 400 ppmv and resulted in open waters in the Ross Sea.[14] Global sea-level ...
Most carbon compounds CO2 Carbon dioxide Determining the point group is a useful way to predict polarity of a molecule. In ... Carbon dioxide (CO2) has two polar C=O bonds, but the geometry of CO2 is linear so that the two bond dipole moments cancel and ... Carbon dioxide has two polar C-O bonds in a linear geometry. ... Carbon monoxide HAx Molecules with a single H HF Hydrogen ... In the methane molecule (CH4) the four C−H bonds are arranged tetrahedrally around the carbon atom. Each bond has polarity ( ...
This supercritical carbon dioxide forms a kind of sea that covers the entire surface of Venus. This sea of supercritical carbon ... Sulfuric acid is produced in the upper atmosphere by the Sun's photochemical action on carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide, and ... carbon dioxide, 3.5% nitrogen, and traces of other gases, most notably sulfur dioxide.[13] The amount of nitrogen in the ... Ultraviolet photons of wavelengths less than 169 nm can photodissociate carbon dioxide into carbon monoxide and atomic oxygen. ...
Carbon dioxide: Sublimation point at atmospheric pressure (common cooling agent; for reference) ...
carbon dioxide: 0. *carbon monoxide: 0.112 D. *ozone: 0.53 D. *phosgene: 1.17 D ...
Silica is converted to silicon by reduction with carbon. Fluorine reacts with silicon dioxide to form SiF4 and O2 whereas the ... Silicon dioxide, also known as silica, silicic acid or silicic acid anydride is an oxide of silicon with the chemical formula ... Dimeric silicon dioxide, (SiO2)2 has been prepared by reacting O2 with matrix isolated dimeric silicon monoxide, (Si2O2). In ... Silicon dioxide acts as a Lux-Flood acid, being able to react with bases under certain conditions. As it does not contain any ...
"Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center.. *^ ESRL Web Team (14 January 2008). "Trends in carbon dioxide". Esrl.noaa.gov. ... See also: List of countries by carbon dioxide emissions, List of countries by carbon dioxide emissions per capita, List of ... "Executive summary". The Carbon Cycle and Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide. Archived from the original on 7 December 2009.. , in IPCC ... It is more comprehensive than the commonly used carbon footprint, which measures only carbon dioxide, one of many greenhouse ...
Carbon dioxide (CO2) is a natural product of metabolism. People typically exhale around 200mL of CO2 per minute at rest and ... Wong, KL (1996). "Carbon Dioxide". In N.R. Council. Spacecraft maximum allowable concentrations for selected airborne ... Son, Chang H.; Zapata, Jorge L.; Lin, Chao-Hsin (2002). "Investigation of Airflow and Accumulation of Carbon Dioxide in the ... James, JT (2007). "fThe headache of carbon dioxide exposures". Society of Automotive Engineers: 071CES-42. Bacal, K; Beck, G; ...
Carbon dioxide 5.7 MPa 57 42753 20 Estimating vapor pressure from molecular structure[edit]. Several empirical methods exist to ...
m Carbon dioxide‎; 10:15 . . (+139)‎ . . ‎. Kiantsu. (talk , contribs)‎ (Added new section for additional media and 3D model of ... Sulfur dioxide‎; 22:20 . . (-13)‎ . . ‎. 209.232.116.88. (talk)‎ (→‎Production). *(diff , hist) . . Sulfur dioxide‎; 22:17 . . ... Titanium dioxide‎; 08:30 . . (0)‎ . . ‎. Ayanwiki. (talk , contribs)‎ (→‎Nanotubes). *(diff , hist) . . Titanium dioxide‎; 08: ... Titanium dioxide‎; 08:17 . . (+47)‎ . . ‎. Ayanwiki. (talk , contribs)‎ (→‎Nanotubes). *(diff , hist) . . Titanium dioxide‎; 08 ...
Raj, A. B. M. (1996). "Aversive reactions of turkeys to argon, carbon dioxide and a mixture of carbon dioxide and argon". ... Gaseous (Carbon dioxide). This method can be used for sheep, calves and swine. The animal is asphyxiated by the use of CO2 gas ... "When is carbon dioxide stunning used in abattoirs?". RSPCA. Retrieved June 14, 2013.. ... Jongman, E.C; Barnett, J.L; Hemsworth, P.H (2000). "The aversiveness of carbon dioxide stunning in pigs and a comparison of the ...
represents the partial pressure of carbon dioxide measured by the capnogram as a function of time t. {\displaystyle t}. since ... represents the alveolar partial pressure of carbon dioxide.. *. α. {\displaystyle \alpha }. represents the inverse of the dead ... Capnography is the monitoring of the concentration or partial pressure of carbon dioxide (CO. 2) in the respiratory gases. Its ... Raemer DB, Calalang I (April 1991). "Accuracy of end-tidal carbon dioxide tension analyzers". J Clin Monit. 7 (2): 195-208. doi ...
Exhaled gas must be passed through a carbon dioxide scrubber where the carbon dioxide is absorbed before the gas is made ... to remove carbon dioxide from breathing gases to prevent CO2 retention and carbon dioxide poisoning.[1][2] ... The reaction mechanism of carbon dioxide with soda lime can be decomposed in three elementary steps: 1) CO2 (g) → CO2 (aq) (CO2 ... During the administration of general anaesthesia, the gases expired by a patient, which contain carbon dioxide, are passed ...
Carbon dioxide, CO. 2 is a reaction product when urea is used as the reductant. ... Another catalyst based on activated carbon was also developed which is applicable for the removal of NOx at low temperatures.[3 ...
Carbon Dioxide controllers. *Microwave susceptors. *Moisture control: Water activity, Moisture vapor transmission rate, etc. ...
Arterial blood carbon dioxide tension. PaCO2 - Partial pressure of carbon dioxide at sea level (765 mmHg) in arterial blood is ... Venous blood carbon dioxide tension. PvCO2 - Partial pressure of carbon dioxide at sea level in venous blood is between 40 mmHg ... Carbon dioxide tension[edit]. Carbon dioxide is a by-product of food metabolism and in high amounts has toxic effects including ... the carbon dioxide tension[3] (PxCO2) and carbon monoxide tension[3] (PxCO). The subscript x in each symbol represents the ...
Because burning natural gas produces both water and carbon dioxide, it produces less carbon dioxide per unit of energy released ... of carbon dioxide for every megawatt-hour (MWh) generated, which is almost double the carbon dioxide released by natural gas- ... which produces mostly carbon dioxide. Burning natural gas produces only about half the carbon dioxide per kilowatt-hour (kWh) ... "How much carbon dioxide is produced when different fuels are burned?". U.S. Energy Information Administration (eia).. ...
Carbon dioxide (kg/m3). Methane (kg/m3). Nitrous oxide (kg/m3) ... carbon dioxide and other components that will freeze (e.g., ... The "acidic" elements such as hydrogen sulphide (H2S) and carbon dioxide (CO2), together with oil, mud, water, and mercury, are ... For an equivalent amount of heat, burning natural gas produces about 30 percent less carbon dioxide than burning petroleum and ... The Energy Information Administration reports the following emissions in million Tonnes of carbon dioxide: *Natural gas: 5,840 ...
... an the transport o carbon dioxide in the opposite direction. ...
... and carbon dioxide, water, and heat). Excretion of nutrients is, therefore, basic to metabolism."[28]:1230-1231 The units in ... including both minerals and gases such as carbon dioxide. These chemical reactions require energy, which mainly comes from the ... A gradient exists between trophic levels running from complete autotrophs that obtain their sole source of carbon from the ... Ecologists employ stoichiometry to analyze the ratios of the main elements found in all organisms: carbon (C), nitrogen (N), ...
... which are able to assimilate carbon dioxide and water more efficiently than C3 grasses, expanded to become ecologically ... "The impact of Miocene atmospheric carbon dioxide fluctuations on climate and the evolution of terrestrial ecosystems". ... The higher organic content and water retention of the deeper and richer grassland soils, with long term burial of carbon in ... sediments, produced a carbon and water vapor sink. This, combined with higher surface albedo and lower evapotranspiration of ...
They capture the energy in sunlight and use it to make simple sugars, such as glucose and sucrose, from carbon dioxide and ... The slight separation of the cells provides maximum absorption of carbon dioxide. Sun leaves have a multi-layered palisade ... carbon dioxide and water vapor can diffuse into and out of the leaf and access the mesophyll cells during respiration, ... openings called stomata which open or close to regulate the rate exchange of carbon dioxide, oxygen, and water vapor into and ...
... (physiology), transporting oxygen and carbon dioxide between cells and the external environment *Respiratory system ... Carbon respiration, a concept used in calculating carbon (as CO. 2) flux occurring in the atmosphere ... Ecosystem respiration, measurement of gross carbon dioxide production by all organisms in an ecosystem ...
... sulfur dioxide and carbon disulfide.[22] The four top gases in 67P's halo were water, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, and ... The Rosetta mission found carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, ammonia, methane and methanol in the Coma of Comet 67P, as well as ... are responsible for the degradation of water and carbon dioxide molecules released from the comet nucleus into its coma.[6][7] ... In 2015, it was noted that the ALICE instrument on the ESA Rosetta spacecraft to comet 67/P, detected hydrogen, oxygen, carbon ...
"As soon they evolved, they became the dominant metabolism for producing fixed carbon in the form of sugars from carbon dioxide ... As far as I am aware, nothing classified as an "animal" respirates Carbon Dioxide for energy and emits Oxygen. Redwood Elf ( ... Necessary, but not sufficient: Raman identification of disordered carbon as a signature of ancient life Pasteris JD, Wopenka B ...
... usually using chlorine over an activated silicon dioxide catalyst or nitrogen dioxide over a copper salt. It is also formed ... The two cyano groups are bonded together at their carbon atoms: N≡C−C≡N, although other isomers have been detected.[6] The name ... Cyanogen produces the second-hottest-known natural flame (after carbon subnitride) with a temperature of over 4,525 °C (8,177 ° ... with most of the carbon atoms being of sp2 type and localized domains of π conjugation.[13] ...
Organic matter is mineralized, liberating gaseous carbon dioxide (CO2) in the porewater, which, depending on the conditions, ...
Rising levels of carbon dioxide are resulting in influx of this gas into the ocean, increasing its acidity. Marine organisms ... Using chemical proxies from Antarctic ice cores, researchers have estimated the fluctuations of carbon dioxide (CO2) and ... atmospheric carbon dioxide and methane levels fluctuated in a pattern which was different from the Pleistocene epoch before it. ... carbon dioxide), deforestation and territorial clearance practices associated with agricultural development may be contributing ...
Oxygen vented through a relief valve into space, carrying away heat, moisture, and exhaled carbon dioxide. The space suit ...
They also react with carbon dioxide and carbon tetrachloride, so that normal fire extinguishers are counterproductive when used ... They easily react with carbon dioxide to form carbonates or bicarbonates, or with hydrogen sulfide to form sulfides or ... Reaction with carbon Lithium is the only metal that reacts directly with carbon to give dilithium acetylide. Na and K can react ... Sodium peroxide and potassium superoxide react with carbon dioxide to form the alkali metal carbonate and oxygen gas, which ...
... and carbon dioxide and waste substances to diffuse from cells back into circulation. They also allow organs to resist ...
... an order to enjoin the defendants from continued violation of their rights and to develop a plan to mitigate carbon dioxide ...
... proof of concept and are completing a prototype device that will use concentrated solar energy to reenergize carbon dioxide or ... This will form carbon monoxide, hydrogen, and oxygen, which ultimately could be used to synthesize liquid fuels in an ...
... essential oil can be obtained from the fruits by either steam distillation or extraction using supercritical carbon dioxide.[14 ...
... forming carbon dioxide (CO2). Production[edit]. Activated carbon is carbon produced from carbonaceous source materials such as ... "Effect of steam and carbon dioxide activation in the micropore size distribution of activated carbon". Carbon. 34 (4): 505-509 ... Woven carbon[edit]. There is a technology of processing technical rayon fiber into activated carbon cloth for carbon filtering ... Carbon tetrachloride activity[edit]. Measurement of the porosity of an activated carbon by the adsorption of saturated carbon ...
It allows carbon dioxide to exit the egg and oxygen gas to enter the egg. The albumin (9) further protects the embryo and ...
Fermentation can be simply defined, in this context, as the conversion of sugar molecules into ethanol and carbon dioxide by ...
Ti and Ta carbides have high melting points due to covalent carbon networks although carbon vacancies often exist in these ... thorium dioxide (ThO2),[7][8] tantalum carbide (TaC)[9] and their associated composites.[10] ... 2002). "A thermoanalytical study on the oxidation of ZrC and HfC powders with formation of carbon". Solid State Ionics. 149 (3- ... Metal carbides are brittle due to the strong bonds that exist between carbon atoms. The largest class of carbides, including Hf ...
Carbon dioxide - CO2. *Carbon disulfide - CS2. *Carbon monoxide - CO. *Carbon tetrabromide - CBr4 ...
The primary by-products of metabolism are carbon dioxide and water; carbon dioxide is expelled through the respiratory system. ...
... which have global warming potential higher than that of carbon dioxide, cellulose does not produce significant gaseous ...
The dried pasta is then packaged: Fresh pasta is sealed in a clear, airtight plastic container with a mixture of carbon dioxide ...
According to WHO veterinary documents, B. anthracis sporulates when it sees oxygen instead of the carbon dioxide present in ... Under conditions of starvation, especially the lack of carbon and nitrogen sources, a single endospore forms within some of the ... They also function as a carbon and energy source for the development of a vegetative bacterium during germination. ...
Carbon dioxide metabolismEdit. Although air-breathing fish can absorb oxygen through their lungs, the lungs tend to be ... ineffective for discharging carbon dioxide. In tetrapods, the ability of lungs to discharge CO2 came about gradually, and was ...
... phosphate and carbon dioxide". J. Biol. Chem. 234: 1799-1805. PMID 13672967.. ...
... including rising levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide, global warming, and pollution.[156] Indeed, some analysts claim that ... "The best way to reduce your carbon footprint is one the government isn't telling you about". Science. Retrieved December 9, ... published in Environmental Research Letters argued that the most significant way individuals could mitigate their own carbon ...
Activated carbon[edit]. Activated carbon can be used as a carbon dioxide scrubber. Air with high carbon dioxide content, such ... Device which absorbs carbon dioxide from circulated gas A carbon dioxide scrubber is a piece of equipment that absorbs carbon ... Regenerative carbon dioxide removal system[edit]. The regenerative carbon dioxide removal system (RCRS) on the space shuttle ... to remove carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. It reacts with carbon dioxide to form lithium carbonate.[10] Recently lithium ...
Your body just released carbon dioxide, a colorless gas thats essential to life on Earth. ... We produce carbon dioxide when we burn fossil fuels like coal, oil, and natural gas. The more carbon dioxide there is in the ... Oceans absorb carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. Plants use carbon dioxide and sunlight to make their own food. Animals and ... Your body just released carbon dioxide, a colorless gas thats essential to life on Earth. Carbon dioxide is one of the ...
Cyborg bacteria turn carbon dioxide into chemicals and fuels with zero waste Forget about Tony Stark or the Bionic Man, the ... Carbon dioxide may soon be used to make fuel A newly developed, solar powered "leaf" mimics photosynthesis, converting CO2 into ... This Swiss facility is sucking carbon dioxide out of the air for growing veggies (Video) Run on waste heat, this commercial ... In what is said to be a first for automakers, Ford is developing foams and plastics using captured carbon dioxide, which could ...
... sellers and brokers of carbon-dioxide discharge permits convenes in Germany. Getting rid of the waste gas blamed for global ... Summit: Carbon Dioxide Traders. Buyers, sellers, brokers and lawyers, even specialists in carbon asset creation management, ... If carbon dioxide had a color, if people saw the sky getting darker, people would have no problem recognizing whats going on ... Whats going on is that the worlds daily output of manmade carbon dioxide, from burning coal, oil and other fossil fuels, is ...
Metal carbon dioxide complexes are coordination complexes that contain carbon dioxide ligands. Aside from the fundamental ... carbon-13) as a diagnostic tool to determine the mode of bonding of carbon dioxide to a metal center". Inorganic Chemistry. 31 ... Illustrative structures of transition metal carbon dioxide complexes, from the left: Ni(η2-CO2)(PCy3)2, Rh(η1-CO2)ClL4 (L4 = ( ... Carbon dioxide can also bind to ligands on a metal complex (vs just the metal), e.g. by converting hydroxy ligands to carbonato ...
Carbon Dioxide. Carbon dioxide is a naturally occurring chemical compound composed of two oxygen atoms covalently bonded to a ... as part of the carbon cycle, plants, algae, and cyanobacteria use light energy to photosynthesize carbohydrate from carbon ... single carbon atom. it is a gas at standard temperature and pressure and exists in earths atmosphere in this state, as a trace ...
pig iron and carbon dioxide:. 2 Fe2O3 + 3 C → 4 Fe + 3 CO2. Yeast metabolizes sugar to produce carbon dioxide and ethanol, also ... Liquid carbon dioxide forms only at pressures above 5.1 atm; the triple point of carbon dioxide is about 518 kPa at −56.6 °C ( ... High concentrations of carbon dioxide can also be used to kill pests, such as the Common Clothes Moth.. Carbon dioxide is used ... Carbon dioxide. 2008/9 Schools Wikipedia Selection. Related subjects: Chemical compounds. Carbon dioxide. ...
Since the middle of the 19th century, the level of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere has been rising because of the extensive ... The atmospheric level of carbon dioxide climbed from about 0.028 percent in 1860 to 0.032 percent by 1958 (when improved ... The rates of these reactions can be increased somewhat by increasing the carbon dioxide concentration. ... stage of photosynthesis are the chemical reactions by which organic compounds are formed by using carbon dioxide as a carbon ...
Opinion Journal: Carbon Dioxides Champions. CO2 Coalition Director Rodney Nichols on a new scientific coalition devoted to ...
The primary human source of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the atmosphere is from the burning of fossil fuels for energy production ... Learn more about deforestation and carbon dioxide emissions.. Learn more about climate science:. Carbon dioxide Super ... Deforestation and carbon dioxide emissions. Most CO2 emissions from deforestation stem from the destruction of tropical forests ... Sometime in 2007, China passed the US to become the worlds largest emitter of carbon dioxide. Most of Chinas CO2 comes from ...
To transform carbon dioxide into these valuable chemicals, the first step is to break down carbon dioxide into carbon monoxide ... "We are working on turning carbon dioxide, which is considered a bad gas, and using it as a carbon source to produce the ... Advancing carbon dioxide catalysis. University of Delaware. Funder. Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency and ... For example, you might drive a hybrid car to reduce your use of fossil fuels, which release carbon dioxide into the atmosphere ...
Carbon dioxide can be stored underground for ten times the length needed to avoid climatic impact. 28 Jul 2016 Study of natural ... New research shows that the natural reactions taking place in some of the underground reservoirs used to store carbon dioxide ... The first comprehensive overview of the worlds largest terrestrial pool of carbon highlights the importance of soil carbon ... of sea ice caused the release of huge amounts of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. ...
The chokedamp (see damp ) of mines, pits, and old, unused wells is largely carbon dioxide. Carbon dioxide is a raw material for ... This extra carbon dioxide fuels the greenhouse effect, warming the atmosphere and further disrupting the natural carbon dioxide ... There are three principal commercial sources for carbon dioxide. High-purity carbon dioxide is produced from some wells. The ... removing enough heat so that the rest of it cools into solid carbon dioxide snow. A standard test for the presence of carbon ...
This is a good introductory activity to carbon emissions. It shows students the amount of carbon dioxide emitted by different ... Next have students go to the area of the world they think emits the most carbon dioxide. Then have them go to the area of the ... Discuss with students whether or not different lifestyles would result in the use of more carbon dioxide. *Have the students ... This demonstration shows students the amount of carbon dioxide emitted by different areas of the world. It also has them ...
"Schlumberger Carbon Services provides comprehensive geological storage solutions for carbon dioxide (CO2), consistent with care ... However, fears of the byproducts of burning coal, most notably the emission of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere, have many ...
Trends in Carbon Dioxide from NOAA.. *↑ Annual Mean Growth Rate for Mauna Loa, Hawaii. Trends in Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide. ... Carbon dioxide (CO2) is a chemical compound composed of two oxygen atoms covalently bonded to a single carbon atom. It is a gas ... Wikipedia also has an article on Carbon dioxide. This article may use content from the Wikipedia article under the terms of the ... Carbon dioxide is also generated as a by-product of the combustion of fossil fuels or the burning of vegetable matter like ...
Britains carbon dioxide shortage has been caused by an unusually high number of closures of the factories which produce the ... We are aware of some issues with the current supply of carbon dioxide across Europe. Carbon dioxide is an important input in ... Britains carbon dioxide shortage has been caused by an unusually high number of closures of the factories which produce the ... Carbon dioxide is widely used, including to slaughter farm animals, package food and provide the fizz in carbonated drinks. ...
What if excess carbon dioxide could be sent into space? Thats the plan of UCLA environmental physicist Alfred Wong, who thinks ... A Space Elevator for Carbon Dioxide. What if excess carbon dioxide could be sent into space? ...
... especially with respect to changes in the abundance of carbon dioxide. The interaction of stresses with elevated carbon dioxide ... especially with respect to changes in the abundance of carbon dioxide. The interaction of stresses with elevated carbon dioxide ... especially with respect to changes in the abundance of carbon dioxide. The interaction of stresses with elevated carbon dioxide ... acclimation ambient CO2 antioxidative Arctic availability Bazzaz biomass C3 plants canopy carbohydrate carbon dioxide climate ...
... carrying a NASA science satellite to survey where carbon dioxide, a greenhouse gas tied to climate change, is moving into and ... "Its really the fate of carbon dioxide once its in the atmosphere that were trying put our finger on," Gunson said. ... OCO 2 is NASAs first mission dedicated to studying carbon dioxide, said Betsy Edwards, program executive at NASA Headquarters ... even if we continue to consume more and more fossil fuels and emit more and more carbon dioxide into the atmosphere," Gunson ...
... carbon dioxide. The device uses a two-stage thermochemical reaction to break down carbon dioxide to produce carbon monoxide, ... is to capture carbon-dioxide emissions and reuse them as fuel. "Were also looking at ways to pull carbon dioxide out of the ... separate chamber containing carbon dioxide. Having given up its oxygen, the ceramic reacts with the carbon dioxide, stealing ... "Carbon dioxide is a combustion product, so what were doing is reversing combustion," he says. The carbon monoxide can then ...
A Utah legislator says double the carbon dioxide in our atmosphere, an Idaho bill would allow doctors to refuse service to gays ... Fringe Factor: More Carbon Dioxide, Please. A Utah legislator says double the carbon dioxide in our atmosphere, an Idaho bill ... Utah Rep: More Carbon Dioxide, Please. Utah state Rep. Jerry Anderson wants to redefine the term "air contaminants" in proposed ... "We are short of carbon dioxide for the needs of the plants," Anderson said. "Concentrations reached 600 parts per million at ...
Carbon Dioxide Levels. The food preservation processes based on carbon dioxide level use the property that increases level of ... level of oxygen and carbon dioxide at high humidity. In particular, the concentration of carbon dioxide is reduced and that of ... around half of the solid carbon dioxide sublimes into the gaseous state. The heat required to convert solid carbon dioxide into ... carbon dioxide decreases the ethylene concentration. Enriched carbon dioxide levels significantly reduce respiration, hinder ...
A current theory postulates that carbon dioxide regulates the temperature of the earth. This raises an interesting question: ... carbon dioxide controls temperature because the carbon dioxide molecules in the air absorb infrared radiation. The carbon ... Much of the carbon dioxide in the atmospheres of past geologic epochs now lies buried in the carbon dioxide reservoir of the ... The carbon dioxide theory may well account for these temperature fluctuations.. A decline in the carbon dioxide concentration ...
If carbon dioxide emissions and, as a result, atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations continue to increase unchecked, a ... In order to achieve the long-term stabilization of the atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration, fossil carbon dioxide ... According to the model, admissible carbon dioxide emissions will increase from approximately seven billion tons of carbon in ... is to simulate future changes in the climate and carbon dioxide emissions in a single scenario in which the carbon dioxide ...
Source for information on Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Emissions: Environmental Science: In Context dictionary. ... EmissionsIntroductionCarbon dioxide (CO2) is released into Earths atmosphere mostly by the burning of carbon-containing fuels ... It is removed from the atmosphere mostly by plants, which extract carbon from CO2 to build their tissues, and by the oceans, in ... Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Emissions Environmental Science: In Context COPYRIGHT 2009 Gale. Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Emissions. ...
... at Harvard have developed a system that uses renewable electricity to electrochemically transform carbon dioxide into carbon ... they bind to carbon dioxide molecules, creating water and carbon monoxide. "The challenge is that most catalysts that are known ... produced a material that was eager to react with carbon dioxide and willing to release the resulting carbon monoxide. ... Catalyzing carbon dioxide System developed at Harvards Rowland Institute can transform CO2 into CO for use in industry ...
Follow the Carbon. Model the carbon cycle and its principal reservoirs and flow rates using rice. ...
carbon dioxide: (CO 2), a colourless gas having a faint, sharp odour and a sour taste; it is a minor component of Earths ... atmosphere (about 3 volumes in 10,000), formed in combustion of carbon... ... oxide: Carbon dioxide. Carbon dioxide is produced when any form of carbon or almost any carbon compound is burned in an excess ... carbon dioxide - Student Encyclopedia (Ages 11 and up). A colorless gas, carbon dioxide has a faint, sharp odor and a slightly ...
What are the most important things to know about carbon dioxide in an emergency? ... What are other names or identifying information for carbon dioxide? What is the WHMIS 1988 classification? ... Carbon Dioxide. CLOSE ALL. What are other names or identifying information for carbon dioxide?. CAS Registry No.: 124-38-9. ... Other Names: CO2, Liquefied carbon dioxide, Refrigerated carbon dioxide. Main Uses: Manufacture of other chemicals, food ...
  • Carbon dioxide scrubbers are also used in controlled atmosphere (CA) storage. (wikipedia.org)
  • In particular, lithium hydroxide was used aboard spacecraft , such as in the Apollo program , to remove carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. (wikipedia.org)
  • Carbon dioxide is one of the greenhouse gases that absorbs and holds heat in Earth's atmosphere, keeping our planet warm enough for life to exist. (amnh.org)
  • But humans are increasing carbon dioxide levels in the atmosphere above natural levels. (amnh.org)
  • Oceans absorb carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. (amnh.org)
  • This cycle has kept a healthy balance of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere--just enough to keep Earth's temperatures within a certain range and for life to exist. (amnh.org)
  • When we burn fossil fuels, we are rapidly releasing carbon that had been locked within Earth into the atmosphere. (amnh.org)
  • The more carbon dioxide there is in the atmosphere, the more heat is absorbed, and the warmer the planet gets. (amnh.org)
  • Today, the atmosphere contains more carbon dioxide than at any time in at least the past 800,000 years. (amnh.org)
  • The ocean holds over fifty times more carbon dioxide than the atmosphere. (amnh.org)
  • In fact, the Kyoto treaty itself is not yet in force, because it hasn't been ratified, as required, by industrial countries emitting a total of 55 percent of 'greenhouse gases,' such as carbon dioxide, that trap heat in the atmosphere that Earth otherwise would give off. (wired.com)
  • Since the middle of the 19th century, the level of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere has been rising because of the extensive combustion of fossil fuels, cement production, and land-use changes associated with deforestation . (britannica.com)
  • If the level of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere increases, more carbon dioxide could enter through a smaller opening of the stomata, so more photosynthesis could occur with a given supply of water. (britannica.com)
  • The primary human source of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the atmosphere is from the burning of fossil fuels for energy production and transport. (greenpeace.org)
  • Industrialized nations have large economies that have burned fossil fuels for a long time - for this reason, they are responsible for most of the human-caused carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. (greenpeace.org)
  • For example, you might drive a hybrid car to reduce your use of fossil fuels, which release carbon dioxide into the atmosphere during combustion. (eurekalert.org)
  • These approaches reduce the amount of carbon dioxide added to the atmosphere. (eurekalert.org)
  • Some scientists are also working on ways to subtract carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. (eurekalert.org)
  • A new study of how the structure of the ocean has changed since the end of the last ice age suggest that the melting of a vast 'lid' of sea ice caused the release of huge amounts of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. (cam.ac.uk)
  • New research shows that the natural reactions taking place in some of the underground reservoirs used to store carbon dioxide may prevent carbon emissions from being transported to greater depths, where it may be less likely to leak into the atmosphere. (cam.ac.uk)
  • Researchers from the University of Cambridge have developed advanced molecular 'sieves' which could be used to filter carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases from the atmosphere. (cam.ac.uk)
  • For the last 800,000 years the carbon dioxide in the atmosphere has oscillated over tens of thousands of years between 180 to 280 parts per million (ppm), but since the Industrial Revolution it has steadily increased above 280 ppm in a relatively brief time, reaching 400 ppm in 2013. (factmonster.com)
  • This extra carbon dioxide fuels the greenhouse effect, warming the atmosphere and further disrupting the natural carbon dioxide cycle (see global warming ). (factmonster.com)
  • However, fears of the byproducts of burning coal, most notably the emission of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere, have many people worried. (thenewamerican.com)
  • As of January 2012, carbon dioxide in the Earth's atmosphere is at a concentration of 391 parts per million (ppm) by volume. (sourcewatch.org)
  • [4] Since the beginning of the Industrial revolution, the burning of fossil fuels has substantially increased the levels of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, which the United Nations ' Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change has correlated to warming average temperatures. (sourcewatch.org)
  • CAPE CANAVERAL Fla. (Reuters) - An unmanned Delta 2 rocket blasted off from California on Wednesday, carrying a NASA science satellite to survey where carbon dioxide, a greenhouse gas tied to climate change, is moving into and out of Earth's atmosphere, a NASA Television broadcast showed. (yahoo.com)
  • Every year about 40 billion tons of carbon end up in Earth's atmosphere, an amount that is increasing as the developing world modernizes, said atmospheric scientist Michael Gunson of NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, Calif. (yahoo.com)
  • Understanding the details of those processes will give us some insight into the future and what's likely to happen over the next decades, even if we continue to consume more and more fossil fuels and emit more and more carbon dioxide into the atmosphere," Gunson said. (yahoo.com)
  • It's really the fate of carbon dioxide once it's in the atmosphere that we're trying put our finger on," Gunson said. (yahoo.com)
  • A Utah legislator says double the carbon dioxide in our atmosphere, an Idaho bill would allow doctors to refuse service to gays and single mothers, and an ex-border patrol vigilante is running for California governor. (thedailybeast.com)
  • Joe Andrade, a retired University of Utah engineering professor countered Anderson's claims, telling the Salt Lake Tribune that such carbon levels may not be toxic to humans but would be toxic to the atmosphere, acidifying the oceans and warming the planet. (thedailybeast.com)
  • Controlled atmosphere (CA) is another method that uses carbon dioxide as one of the preservatives. (ehow.com)
  • He attributed climatic temperature-changes to variations in the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. (scientificamerican.com)
  • The carbon dioxide and other gases in the atmosphere are virtually transparent to the visible radiation that delivers the sun's energy to the earth. (scientificamerican.com)
  • Because the carbon dioxide blanket prevents its escape into space, the trapped radiation warms up the atmosphere. (scientificamerican.com)
  • In addition, nearly all water vapor remains close to the ground, while carbon dioxide diffuses more evenly through the atmosphere. (scientificamerican.com)
  • Thus throughout most of the atmosphere carbon dioxide is the main factor determining changes in the radiation flux. (scientificamerican.com)
  • The 2.3 X 10 12 (2,300 billion) tons of carbon dioxide in the earth's present atmosphere constitute some .03 per cent of its total mass. (scientificamerican.com)
  • The quantity of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere is determined by the amounts supplied and withdrawn from three other great reservoirs: oceans, rocks and living organisms. (scientificamerican.com)
  • The oceans exchange about 200 billion tons of carbon dioxide with the atmosphere each year. (scientificamerican.com)
  • Both the atmosphere and the oceans continuously exchange carbon dioxide with rocks and with living organisms [ see illustration on pages 44-45 ]. (scientificamerican.com)
  • The concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere caused by the combustion of fossil fuels (gas, oil) has increased by around 35 percent since the beginning of the Industrial Revolution. (redorbit.com)
  • The model used for this study is based on a low-resolution spatial grid with a grid spacing of around 400 kilometers, which takes the atmosphere, plus the land surface, the ocean, including sea ice, and the marine and terrestrial carbon cycle into account. (redorbit.com)
  • The overall aim of the study is to simulate future changes in the climate and carbon dioxide emissions in a single scenario in which the carbon dioxide equivalent concentrations in the atmosphere are stabilized in the long term at 450 parts per million (ppm), so that global warming increases to a maximum of two degrees above the pre-industrial level. (redorbit.com)
  • Carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) is released into Earth's atmosphere mostly by the burning of carbon-containing fuels and the decay of wood and other plant matter. (encyclopedia.com)
  • It is removed from the atmosphere mostly by plants, which extract carbon from CO 2 to build their tissues, and by the oceans, in which CO 2 dissolves. (encyclopedia.com)
  • On any given day, more than 2 million pounds of carbon dioxide are pumped into the atmosphere from factories, emissions from cars and trucks and the burning of coal and natural gas to generate electricity. (eurekalert.org)
  • Ultimately, though, the hope is that the system could one day be scaled up enough to scrub carbon dioxide from the atmosphere in an effort to combat global climate change. (eurekalert.org)
  • it is a minor component of Earth's atmosphere (about 3 volumes in 10,000), formed in combustion of carbon -containing materials, in fermentation , and in respiration of animals and employed by plants in the photosynthesis of carbohydrates . (britannica.com)
  • The average concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere was 410.31 parts per million (ppm) for the month of April, according to the Keeling Curve measurement series. (usatoday.com)
  • It's also a 30% increase in carbon dioxide concentration in the global atmosphere since the Keeling Curve began in 1958. (usatoday.com)
  • Carbon dioxide is called a greenhouse gas for its ability to trap solar radiation and keep it confined to the atmosphere. (usatoday.com)
  • The major push back and political grandstanding against the proposed EPA rules is what, if anything, should be done about the release of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. (globalwarming.org)
  • Carbon dioxide, a potential fingerprint of life, has been discovered for the first time in the atmosphere of a planet orbiting another star. (space.com)
  • This is the first detection of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere of an extrasolar planet, which means that three of the Big Four biomarkers for habitable/inhabited worlds have now been seen: water, methane, and now carbon dioxide," explained Alan Boss, a planet-formation theorist at the Carnegie Institution of Washington who was not involved in the finding. (space.com)
  • WASHINGTON (Reuters) - The Southern Ocean around Antarctica is so loaded with carbon dioxide that it can barely absorb any more, so more of the gas will stay in the atmosphere to warm up the planet, scientists reported on Thursday. (reuters.com)
  • When carbon is in a sink - whether it's an ocean or a forest, both of which can lock up carbon dioxide - it stays out of the atmosphere and does not contribute to global warming. (reuters.com)
  • Since the beginning of the industrial revolution the world's oceans have absorbed about a quarter of the 500 gigatons (500 billion tons) of carbon emitted into the atmosphere by humans," Chris Rapley of the British Antarctic Survey said in a statement. (reuters.com)
  • 1. This indicator tracks the global monthly average concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, capturing both seasonal and interannual trends. (globalchange.gov)
  • Carbon dioxide concentration is an important measure of how human activity has increased the heat-trapping capacity of the atmosphere. (globalchange.gov)
  • Greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide trap heat in the atmosphere. (globalchange.gov)
  • The Annual Greenhouse Gas Index (AGGI) shows that over the past decade, increases in carbon dioxide are responsible for about 84% of the increase in the heat-trapping capacity of the atmosphere. (globalchange.gov)
  • Rep. Lamar Smith said climate change "alarmists" ignore the "positive impacts" of more carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, such as increased food production and quality. (factcheck.org)
  • WASHINGTON (Reuters) - The amount of climate-warming carbon dioxide in the atmosphere topped 400 parts per million at a key observing station in Hawaii for the first time since measurement began in 1958, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration said on Friday. (reuters.com)
  • It's important mainly as a milestone that marks a steady progress of increasing carbon dioxide in the atmosphere," said James Butler of NOAA's Earth System Research Laboratory. (reuters.com)
  • Whether or not that occurs, Earth's atmosphere hasn't had this much carbon dioxide in it for at least 800,000 years, and possibly for as long as 5 million years. (reuters.com)
  • Carbon dioxide, a heat-trapping greenhouse gas, remains in the atmosphere for hundreds of years. (reuters.com)
  • A United Nations agency says the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere shot up to its highest level in 800,000 years. (usatoday.com)
  • Over the course of a tree's life it absorbs carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and then releases this carbon dioxide when it either decomposes naturally or is burned. (answers.com)
  • For this reason, no extra CO2 is added to the atmosphere, it simply releases the carbon dioxide that was previously accumulated back into the environment. (answers.com)
  • So vegetation, especially large forests, are very important for removing carbon from the atmosphere. (answers.com)
  • When you breath in, you are breathing in everything in the atmosphere, oxygen, carbon dioxide, nitrogen and argon. (answers.com)
  • With that as his basis, Wong believes it should be possible to artificially coax carbon dioxide molecules into leaving the planet's atmosphere in larger numbers. (treehugger.com)
  • Though still in its infancy, Wong has already determined that the energy needs of his project, even if met by fossil-fuel powered electricity, would result in less carbon dioxide being put into the atmosphere than shipped out. (treehugger.com)
  • The team's study reveals new information on how carbon dioxide, which directly contributes to climate change, is distributed in Earth's atmosphere and moves around our world. (redorbit.com)
  • Chahine, the instrument's science team leader, said the research products will be used by scientists to refine models of the processes that transport carbon dioxide within Earth's atmosphere. (redorbit.com)
  • The combination of carbon dioxide data from AIRS and the Orbiting Carbon Observatory will allow scientists to determine the distribution of carbon dioxide in the lower atmosphere, above Earth's surface. (redorbit.com)
  • Carbon dioxide is a colorless, non-organic compound that is a gas at room temperature and comprises about 0.03 percent of Earth's atmosphere. (reference.com)
  • It is produced when materials that contain carbon are combusted, and it is one of the most prevalent greenhouse gases that trap heat within the Earth's atmosphere. (reference.com)
  • Whenever you exhale, you are excreting carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. (reference.com)
  • Experts believe that the increased carbon dioxide in the atmosphere is contributing to global warming, and that reducing carbon dioxide emissions can help slow this process. (reference.com)
  • According to Space.com, the atmosphere on Mars is around 100 times thinner compared to that of the Earth's and is composed of about 95 percent carbon dioxi. (reference.com)
  • The mesosphere, which is the third innermost layer of the Earth's atmosphere, is comprised largely of nitrogen, oxygen and carbon dioxide. (reference.com)
  • What Is the Process That Removes Carbon Dioxide From the Atmosphere? (reference.com)
  • Carbon dioxide is also removed from the atmosphere when it mixes wit. (reference.com)
  • Carbon dioxide is important to the ecosystem, and not everyone's concerned about our premature introduction of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. (howstuffworks.com)
  • To offset our CO 2 emissions, some suggest capturing gaseous carbon dioxide before it can escape into the atmosphere. (howstuffworks.com)
  • They have done so by demonstrating how the graphite electrodes used in the lithium-ion batteries that power electric automobiles can be replaced with carbon material recovered from the atmosphere. (newswise.com)
  • This approach not only produces better batteries but it also establishes a value for carbon dioxide recovered from the atmosphere that is associated with the end-user battery cost unlike most efforts to reuse CO2 that are aimed at low-valued fuels, like methanol, that cannot justify the cost required to produce them," said Pint. (newswise.com)
  • Human influence on the Earth's atmosphere touched what climate scientists called a dire milestone Friday as concentrations of heat-trapping carbon dioxide nudged up to a level unseen in about 3 million to 5 million years - long before modern humans. (washingtonpost.com)
  • For the first time in human history, the concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere has reached 400 parts per million (ppm). (washingtonpost.com)
  • And scientists at the Scripps Institution of Oceanography and elsewhere have estimated that about 3 million to 5 million years have passed since so much carbon dioxide wafted in the Earth's atmosphere. (washingtonpost.com)
  • This generation has altered the composition of the atmosphere on a global scale," President Lyndon Johnson told Congress in 1965, through "a steady increase in carbon dioxide from the burning of fossil fuels. (go.com)
  • In California, a seemingly counterintuitive approach - converting one greenhouse gas, methane, into another, carbon dioxide - holds promise for returning the atmosphere to pre-industrial concentrations of methane, a powerful driver of global warming, says the Stanford Woods Institute for the Environment. (biofuelsdigest.com)
  • Carbon dioxide levels in the atmosphere are now at the highest level they've been since the Pilocene Era, 3 million years ago, when giant camels roamed arid land above the Arctic Circle. (inhabitat.com)
  • we are returning that carbon to the atmosphere in just a few hundred years. (inhabitat.com)
  • WASHINGTON (AP) - There is a positive note to the country's economic woes and last summer's $4-per-gallon gasoline: The nation in 2008 had a record decline in the amount of climate-changing carbon dioxide released into the atmosphere. (mercurynews.com)
  • CLIMBING CARBON The rate of extra carbon currently entering the atmosphere is unmatched in at least 66 million years. (sciencenews.org)
  • Some carbon dioxide from the Martian atmosphere freezes on the ground during winter and sublimates back to gaseous form as spring approaches. (nasa.gov)
  • MAUNA LOA OBSERVATORY, Hawaii - Carbon dioxide, the gas largely blamed for global warming, has reached record-high levels in the atmosphere after growing at an accelerated pace in the last year, say scientists monitoring the sky from this 2-mile-high station atop a Hawaiian volcano. (latimes.com)
  • Before the industrial age and extensive use of fossil fuels, the concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere stood at about 280 parts per million, scientists have determined. (latimes.com)
  • Carbon dioxide levels in atmosphere pass 400 milestone. (latimes.com)
  • As the source of available carbon in the carbon cycle, atmospheric carbon dioxide is the primary carbon source for life on Earth and its concentration in Earth's pre-industrial atmosphere since late in the Precambrian has been regulated by photosynthetic organisms and geological phenomena. (wikipedia.org)
  • Carbon dioxide is the most significant long-lived greenhouse gas in Earth's atmosphere. (wikipedia.org)
  • Without greenhouse gases like carbon dioxide, Earth's surface would be frozen! (amnh.org)
  • The results , reported in the journal Science, could lead to a reinterpretation of how the carbon cycle has evolved over Earth's history, and how this has impacted the evolution of Earth's habitability. (cam.ac.uk)
  • Its natural removal depends upon the absorption and eventual sequestration in the oceans or land as part of the earth's carbon cycle. (sourcewatch.org)
  • The launch was timed so that NASA's Orbiting Carbon Observatory, or OCO, would end up at the front of a train of polar-orbiting environmental satellites that cross Earth's equator every afternoon. (yahoo.com)
  • The Earth's blackbody temperature is around 285°K but the absorption lines of carbon dioxide that are relevant peak between 193-220°K. The amount of radiation from Earth absorbed by carbon dioxide is thus going to be more significant in parts of the world that are very cold, and we do see significant warming in Alaska, but Antarctica is actually getting colder. (eskimo.com)
  • But to the degree with carbon dioxide affects Earth's temperature directly those are the places that are going to be affected directly. (eskimo.com)
  • PASADENA, Calif. - A NASA team has published the first global satellite maps of the key greenhouse gas carbon dioxide in Earth's mid-troposphere, an area about 8 kilometers, or 5 miles, above Earth. (redorbit.com)
  • A research team led by Moustafa Chahine of NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., found the distribution of carbon dioxide in the mid-troposphere is strongly influenced by major surface sources of carbon dioxide and by large-scale atmospheric circulation patterns, such as the jet streams and weather systems in Earth's mid-latitudes. (redorbit.com)
  • Chahine said the AIRS data will complement existing and planned ground and aircraft measurements of carbon dioxide, as well as upcoming satellite missions to study Earth's carbon cycle and climate. (redorbit.com)
  • These belts lift carbon dioxide from Earth's surface into the middle and upper troposphere. (redorbit.com)
  • The researchers say the flow of air in this belt over South America's high Andes Mountains lifts carbon dioxide from major sources on Earth's surface, such as the respiration of plants, as well as forest fires and facilities used for synthetic fuel production and power generation. (redorbit.com)
  • Atop the Mauna Loa Observatory on the Big Island of Hawaii, sensors tracking all the substances swirling around in Earth's atmospheric soup are -- for the first time -- recording carbon dioxide at levels higher than at any time in human history. (go.com)
  • [2] Atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide fluctuate slightly with the change of the seasons, driven primarily by seasonal plant growth in the Northern Hemisphere. (sourcewatch.org)
  • Concentrations of carbon dioxide fall during the northern spring and summer as plants consume the gas, and rise during the northern autumn and winter as plants go dormant, die and decay. (sourcewatch.org)
  • 2. Global monthly average concentrations of carbon dioxide have risen steadily from 339 parts per million in 1980 (averaged over the year) to 402 parts per million in 2016, an increase of about 19% in just over 30 years. (globalchange.gov)
  • The new maps reveal enhanced concentrations of carbon dioxide south of the northern hemisphere jet stream, in a band between 30 and 40 degrees north latitude. (redorbit.com)
  • In the southern hemisphere, a belt of mid-tropospheric air containing enhanced concentrations of carbon dioxide emerged between 30 and 40 degrees south latitude. (redorbit.com)
  • Airborne concentrations of carbon dioxide vary by season and location on Earth. (washingtonpost.com)
  • So it makes sense fish would want to avoid dense concentrations of carbon dioxide. (upi.com)
  • To transform carbon dioxide into these valuable chemicals, the first step is to break down carbon dioxide into carbon monoxide. (eurekalert.org)
  • Then, the team uses a special copper catalyst to reduce the carbon monoxide into ethylene and acetic acid. (eurekalert.org)
  • The device uses a two-stage thermochemical reaction to break down carbon dioxide to produce carbon monoxide, says Nathan Siegel, a senior member of technical staffat Sandia's Solar Technologies Department and one of the researchers developing the technology. (go.com)
  • The carbon monoxide can then readily be employed to produce a range of different fuels, including hydrogen, methanol, and gasoline, using conventional technologies. (go.com)
  • The result is the production of carbon monoxide. (go.com)
  • It will work with either carbon dioxide to make carbon monoxide or with water to make hydrogen," says Siegel. (go.com)
  • Despite the huge potential, there is currently very little research into finding ways to harness solar energy to produce carbon monoxide from carbon dioxide, says Siegel. (go.com)
  • A Fellow at the Rowland Institute at Harvard, Wang and his research team have developed a system that uses renewable electricity to electrochemically transform carbon dioxide into carbon monoxide - a key commodity used in any number of industrial processes. (eurekalert.org)
  • These protons move to the other chamber where - with the help of a carefully designed metal single atom catalyst - they bind to carbon dioxide molecules, creating water and carbon monoxide. (eurekalert.org)
  • In addition, they can all very easily be poisoned by carbon monoxide," he added. (eurekalert.org)
  • Dr. Samira Siahrostami, a staff scientist from Prof. Nørskov group rationalized the nature of active sites by atomic scale modeling and discovered that dispersing nickel metals into isolated single atoms, which are trapped in graphene vacancies, produced a material that was eager to react with carbon dioxide and willing to release the resulting carbon monoxide. (eurekalert.org)
  • That carbon monoxide, Wang said, can then be used in a host of industrial processes. (eurekalert.org)
  • Carbon monoxide is a very important industry product," Wang said. (eurekalert.org)
  • above 1,700 °C (3,100 °F) it partially decomposes into carbon monoxide and oxygen . (britannica.com)
  • Hydrogen or carbon also convert it to carbon monoxide at high temperatures. (britannica.com)
  • Carbon Monoxide on the other hand forms so stable a complex with haemoglobin that neither oxygen nor carbon dioxide can displace it at atmospheric pressures. (everything2.com)
  • Solar-powered reactors can take carbon dioxide and turn it into carbon monoxide. (telegraph.co.uk)
  • Carbon dioxide is pumped in, and the deoxidised cerium steals one of the oxygen molecules, creating carbon monoxide and cerium oxide. (telegraph.co.uk)
  • Another team, the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Zurich, uses a similar system, but with calcium oxide, zinc oxide and steam, which can create a stream of hydrogen and carbon monoxide. (telegraph.co.uk)
  • As a bonus, they also detected carbon monoxide. (slate.com)
  • How Can You Tell the Difference of Carbon Monoxide Vs. Carbon Dioxide? (reference.com)
  • Only an appropriate detector or instrument can quickly and reliably distinguish between carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide gases. (reference.com)
  • Struggling with carbon monoxide and volatile organic compounds (VOC) emissions? (shell.com)
  • Under the long-term agreement, Praxair will build, own and operate a 450-ton-per-day carbon dioxide purification and liquefaction plant at the refinery, producing beverage-quality liquid carbon dioxide for distribution into the Northeastern US merchant market. (environmentalleader.com)
  • Researchers at the Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute introduced liquid carbon dioxide to a beaker on the ocean floor at 3,600 meters (around 12,000 feet). (howstuffworks.com)
  • The earliest description of solid carbon dioxide (dry ice) was given by the French inventor Adrien-Jean-Pierre Thilorier, who in 1835 opened a pressurized container of liquid carbon dioxide, only to find that the cooling produced by the rapid evaporation of the liquid yielded a "snow" of solid CO2. (wikipedia.org)
  • A second issue is that increased carbon dioxide levels reduce the amount of oxygen that can be dissolved in the water. (eskimo.com)
  • The rates of these reactions can be increased somewhat by increasing the carbon dioxide concentration. (britannica.com)
  • The decreased carbon dioxide concentration inside the leaves and the increased leaf temperatures favour the wasteful process of photorespiration. (britannica.com)
  • In particular, the concentration of carbon dioxide is reduced and that of oxygen is increased. (ehow.com)
  • The food preservation processes based on carbon dioxide level use the property that increases level of carbon dioxide decreases the ethylene concentration. (ehow.com)
  • When the carbon dioxide concentration is sufficiently high, even its weaker absorption bands become effective, and a greater amount of infrared radiation is absorbed [ see chart on page 42 ]. (scientificamerican.com)
  • With the help of new models for a prescribed atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration, scientists from all over Europe have now calculated for the first time the extent to which the global carbon dioxide emissions must be reduced to halt global warming. (redorbit.com)
  • In order to achieve the long-term stabilization of the atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration, the emissions will then have to be reduced by 56 percent by the year 2050 and approach zero towards the end of this century. (redorbit.com)
  • To do this, Erich Roeckner and his team adopted the methodology proposed by the International Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) for simulations being carried out for the future Fifth IPCC Assessment Report: earth system models that incorporate the carbon cycle were used to estimate the anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions that are compatible with a prescribed concentration pathway. (redorbit.com)
  • In order to achieve the long-term stabilization of the atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration, fossil carbon dioxide emissions must be reduced to around zero by the end of the century. (redorbit.com)
  • This is a very finely balanced equilibrium and if the external carbon dioxide concentration rises too high then it prevents the red blood cells from picking up oxygen in the lungs . (everything2.com)
  • Although the atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide fluctuates over seasonal cycles, as illustrated by the saw-tooth pattern in the graph, the overall trend has been a steady increase since data collection began. (globalchange.gov)
  • Certain symptoms may indicate that the concentration of carbon dioxide in the blood is abnormal. (brighthub.com)
  • With the widespread burning of coal and oil during the Industrial Revolution, the concentration of carbon dioxide rose to about 290 ppm by the end of the 19th century, Butler said. (reuters.com)
  • Courtesy of College of st. benedict/st. john's university When the concentration of atmospheric carbon dioxide passed 400 parts per million in June 2016, I felt a sense of urgency. (asbmb.org)
  • It gives us the chance to mark the ongoing increase in [carbon dioxide] concentration and talk about why it's a problem for the climate. (washingtonpost.com)
  • According to the theory, carbon dioxide controls temperature because the carbon dioxide molecules in the air absorb infrared radiation. (scientificamerican.com)
  • To many scientists, crossing the 400 ppm threshold, which means that there are 400 molecules of carbon dioxide for every million molecules in the air, is a bit like the Dow Jones Industrial Average rising above 15,000 points. (reuters.com)
  • He proposes doing this by first ionizing more carbon dioxide molecules (one idea is to zap dust in the sky with lasers to release more electrons) and then guiding the resultant carbon dioxide ions to the appropriate altitude from which they could then drift into space through a series of natural processes. (treehugger.com)
  • Scientists express the level of carbon dioxide according to how many molecules of CO2 are floating around in a million molecules of air -- the "parts per million" measurement, or "ppm. (go.com)
  • Carbon dioxide also dissolves into the oceans , where it reacts with water molecules to produce carbonic acid and lower pH levels. (inhabitat.com)
  • Carbon dioxide molecules consist of a carbon atom covalently double bonded to two oxygen atoms. (wikipedia.org)
  • By 'fertilizing the oceans,' icebergs are actually helping to sequester more carbon. (treehugger.com)
  • The oceans contain some 1.3 X 10 14 tons of carbon dioxide-about 50 times as much as the air. (scientificamerican.com)
  • When the equilibrium is disturbed, the oceans may engulf or disgorge billions of additional tons of carbon dioxide. (scientificamerican.com)
  • To do this, the scientists incorporated into their calculations data relating to the carbon cycle, namely the volume of carbon dioxide absorbed and released by the oceans and forests. (redorbit.com)
  • In this case, the emissions depend solely on the proportion of the anthropogenic carbon in the model that is absorbed by the land surface and the oceans. (redorbit.com)
  • Carbon dioxide sinks (absorbers) include the oceans,which become more acidic as they absorb CO 2 , and green plants, including not only the familiar grasses, trees, and shrubs that grow on land but the trillions of single-celled phytoplankton that float in the top few meters of the world's oceans. (encyclopedia.com)
  • I believe a larger concern are the chemical effects of carbon dioxide most notably on the worlds oceans. (eskimo.com)
  • Presently, there is about 50 times as much carbon dioxide dissolved in the ocean as present in the air, so there is already significant carbon dioxide in the oceans. (eskimo.com)
  • So we've got four big things driving lower oxygen levels lower in the oceans, three of which are completely carbon dioxide related, one of which is indirectly related. (eskimo.com)
  • The oceans are huge carbon sinks for the world. (planetsave.com)
  • Oceans' growing carbon dioxide levels may threaten coral. (latimes.com)
  • The atmospheric level of carbon dioxide climbed from about 0.028 percent in 1860 to 0.032 percent by 1958 (when improved measurements began) and to 0.040 percent by 2016. (britannica.com)
  • There is no one setting suitable for all types of produce, and the level of carbon dioxide is determined based on stage of maturity, cultivation pattern and environmental condition in the region. (ehow.com)
  • Other indications which might signal to a doctor that there is a problem with the level of carbon dioxide in the blood is prolonged vomiting. (brighthub.com)
  • Bicarbonate is the predominant form and is used to determine the level of carbon dioxide in the blood. (brighthub.com)
  • Reykjavík Energy's CarbFix project has found that carbon dioxide injected into volcanic bedrock rapidly turns into minerals that stay locked away permanently. (technologyreview.com)
  • The report, unsurprisingly, found that carbon dioxide reached an all-time high in 2018 since pre-industrial amounts. (forbes.com)
  • In that case, the Supreme Court found that carbon dioxide is a "pollutant" within the scope of the Clean Air Act, allowing the EPA to regulate it. (slate.com)
  • Amounts of carbon dioxide are emitted from volcanoes and other geothermal processes such as hot springs and geysers and by the dissolution of carbonates in crustal rocks. (sourcewatch.org)
  • Increasing amounts of carbon dioxide and other gases are enhancing the planet's natural "greenhouse effect. (usatoday.com)
  • The plan needed revision: Releasing large amounts of carbon dioxide into the ocean can upset the ocean's ecosystem. (howstuffworks.com)
  • This increase in carbon dioxide directly increases plant photosynthesis, but the size of the increase depends on the species and physiological condition of the plant. (britannica.com)
  • The Independent explains the trend: "In the 1990s, annual average emissions of carbon dioxide rose by 1 per cent, and in the past decade they increased at an average annual rate of 2.5 per cent. (sourcewatch.org)
  • Worldwide emissions of carbon dioxide - the gas most responsible for global warming - are on the rise again in 2017 after three years of little-to-no growth. (usatoday.com)
  • According to the EPA, emissions of carbon dioxide in the United States increased about 10 percent from 1990 to 2011. (reference.com)
  • We produce carbon dioxide when we burn fossil fuels like coal, oil, and natural gas. (amnh.org)
  • What's going on is that the world's daily output of manmade carbon dioxide, from burning coal, oil and other fossil fuels, is 11 percent greater today than a decade ago. (wired.com)
  • Carbon dioxide is generated as a byproduct of the combustion of fossil fuels or vegetable matter, among other chemical processes. (mcgill.ca)
  • All fossil fuels are made up of hydrocarbons, and release carbon dioxide when burned. (greenpeace.org)
  • Jiao is also the principal investigator of a new $1 million grant from the DOE's Office of Fossil Energy to develop a new two-step electrochemical process to produce ethylene and acetic acid from carbon dioxide emitted from coal-fired power plants. (eurekalert.org)
  • The rule would establish a new source performance standard (NSPS) for carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from fossil-fuel electric generating units (EGUs). (globalwarming.org)
  • The technology is considered critical for the survival of coal in a carbon-constrained world, considering that the fossil fuel produces almost 50 percent of U.S. electricity and about a third of the nation's carbon dioxide emissions. (scientificamerican.com)
  • Some scientists say the human use of fossil fuels is releasing too much carbon dioxide (C02) into the air, amplifying the "greenhouse effect" that is warming the earth, melting glacial ice, and causing more wildfires and wetter winters. (csmonitor.com)
  • Fossil fuels on the other hand, are not carbon neutral. (answers.com)
  • Carbon dioxide is released when fossil fuels such as coal, gasoline and natural gas are burned for heat, electricity and transportation. (reference.com)
  • Our climate change solution is two fold: (1) to transform the greenhouse gas carbon dioxide into valuable products and (2) to provide greenhouse gas emission-free alternatives to today's industrial and transportation fossil fuel processes," said Licht. (newswise.com)
  • Carbon dioxide, shorthanded as "CO2," is the primary greenhouse gas emitted into the air when people burn fossil fuels. (go.com)
  • Carbon dioxide concentrations are rising mostly because of the fossil fuels that people are burning for energy," the report said. (inhabitat.com)
  • Carbon dioxide from the burning of fossil fuels accounts for about 80 percent of total greenhouse gas emissions. (mercurynews.com)
  • Carbon dioxide, mostly from burning of coal, gasoline and other fossil fuels, traps heat that otherwise would radiate into space. (latimes.com)
  • The evidence is conclusive that the strong growth of global [carbon dioxide] emissions from the burning of coal, oil and natural gas is driving the acceleration. (washingtonpost.com)
  • In 2012, global carbon dioxide emissions soared to a record high of 35.6 billion tons, up 2.6 percent from 2011. (washingtonpost.com)
  • Dec. 17, 2007 -- Could concentrated solar energy be used to reverse combustion and convert carbon dioxide back into gasoline? (go.com)
  • They found that the combination of two mutations could help convert carbon dioxide into biomass by plants more efficiently. (biofuelsdigest.com)
  • By using sunlight, along with Copper Aluminum Sulphate and Zinc Sulphide, they were able to convert carbon dioxide salts into a fuel source. (biofuelsdigest.com)
  • Included among the rate-limiting steps of the dark stage of photosynthesis are the chemical reactions by which organic compounds are formed by using carbon dioxide as a carbon source. (britannica.com)
  • In hot and arid climates the stomata may close to conserve water, but this closure limits the entry of carbon dioxide and hence the rate of photosynthesis. (britannica.com)
  • Carbon dioxide is a raw material for photosynthesis in green plants and is a product of animal respiration . (factmonster.com)
  • Carbon dioxide is used by plants during photosynthesis to make sugars, and is emitted during respiration by plants, animals, fungi and microorganisms that depend either directly or indirectly on plants for food. (sourcewatch.org)
  • they lose carbon dioxide to the weathering of rock and the photosynthesis of plants. (scientificamerican.com)
  • Animals and plants alike release carbon dioxide through respiration and when they decay. (amnh.org)
  • Enriched carbon dioxide levels significantly reduce respiration, hinder textural softening and slow down the biological processes associated with ripening. (ehow.com)
  • Carbon dioxide gas is produced and excreted naturally by animals as a byproduct of respiration. (reference.com)
  • For students who have already covered the topic of breathing and respiration, and know that carbon dioxide is a significant component of exhaled air, the focus in this experiment can be transferred to the nature of the chemical reaction. (rsc.org)
  • He used this phenomenon to illustrate that carbon dioxide is produced by animal respiration and microbial fermentation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Furthermore, most scientists maintain that increasing levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide affect climate, increasing global temperatures and changing rainfall patterns. (britannica.com)
  • Authored by a large team of scientists from the United States, the United Kingdom, Australia, and European countries, a Global Carbon Project report now predicts CO2 emissions from burning coal, oil and gas will reach their highest in history in 2010: "A new analysis of 2009 global greenhouse gas emissions shows increased coal use has boosted global greenhouse gas emissions to the second highest level on record. (sourcewatch.org)
  • Its path around the planet will take it over the same spot at the same time every 16 days, allowing scientists to detect patterns in carbon dioxide levels over weeks, months and years. (yahoo.com)
  • That's what scientists at Sandia National Laboratories, in Albuquerque, NM, aim to find out by building a novel reactor that can chemically "reenergize" carbon dioxide. (go.com)
  • The scientists used a new method with which they reconstructed historical emission pathways on the basis of already-calculated carbon dioxide concentrations. (redorbit.com)
  • Carbon dioxide - the gas scientists say is most responsible for global warming - reached its highest level in recorded history last month, at 410 parts per million. (usatoday.com)
  • But the discovery nonetheless has scientists excited, because carbon dioxide is one of four chemicals that life can generate, so being able to detect it shows that astronomers have the ability to find the signs of life on other worlds. (space.com)
  • One such machine, the Counter Rotating Ring Receiver Reactor Recuperator (CR5), created by a team of scientists at Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico, captures carbon dioxide from power plant exhaust fumes. (telegraph.co.uk)
  • Earth has experienced carbon dioxide levels much higher than current levels, which was discovered by the same climate scientists who now warn of the dangers associated with current greenhouse gas emissions. (forbes.com)
  • Some biodegradable plastics could in the future be made using sugar and carbon dioxide, replacing unsustainable plastics made from crude oil, following research by scientists from the Centre for Sustainable Chemical Technologies (CSCT) at the University of Bath. (bath.ac.uk)
  • Now scientists at Bath have developed a much safer, even more sustainable alternative which adds carbon dioxide to the sugar at low pressures and at room temperature. (bath.ac.uk)
  • While carbon dioxide does no direct damage to people, plants or animals, scientists say it causes harm indirectly, because global warming - increases in the atmosphere's temperature triggered by gases that trap sunlight - damages ecosystems. (baltimoresun.com)
  • Newswise - An interdisciplinary team of scientists has worked out a way to make electric vehicles that are not only carbon neutral, but carbon negative, capable of actually reducing the amount of atmospheric carbon dioxide as they operate. (newswise.com)
  • Scientists have firmly linked rising atmospheric carbon dioxide to higher global temperatures, which have increased nearly a degree Fahrenheit, on average, since 1950. (washingtonpost.com)
  • The Global Carbon Project is a group of international scientists who track emissions. (yahoo.com)
  • In some fire extinguishers carbon dioxide is expelled through a nozzle and settles on the flame, smothering it. (factmonster.com)
  • How Do Carbon Dioxide Fire Extinguishers Work? (ehow.com)
  • Carbon dioxide is used as a refrigerant, in fire extinguishers , for inflating life rafts and life jackets, blasting coal , foaming rubber and plastics, promoting the growth of plants in greenhouses, immobilizing animals before slaughter, and in carbonated beverages. (britannica.com)
  • In liquid form carbon dioxide is used in fire extinguishers for electrical and similar fires as it does not conduct electricity . (everything2.com)
  • Why Is Carbon Dioxide Used in Fire Extinguishers? (ehow.com)
  • Carbon dioxide is used in fire extinguishers for its ability to put out flames. (ehow.com)
  • The increase in gases such as carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide is fueling climate change and making "the planet more dangerous and inhospitable for future generations," the World Meteorological Organization has said. (usatoday.com)
  • The burning of the oil, gas and coal for energy releases greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide and methane. (usatoday.com)
  • Methane is a far more potent greenhouse gas than carbon dioxide, perhaps two hundred times as potent, both because the absorption lines of methane aren't yet saturated, and because they lie nearer the peak of the blackbody radiation from the Earth. (eskimo.com)
  • Add greenhouse methane emissions from those cows and the carbon-hydrogen infrared stretch they see each day in the lab, and climate change can become real. (asbmb.org)
  • Dickens, G. R., O'Neil, J. R., Rea, D. K. & Owen, R. M. Dissociation of oceanic methane hydrate as a cause of the carbon-isotope excursion at the end of the Paleocene. (nature.com)
  • During the last 800,000 years, the level of atmospheric carbon dioxide fluctuated between 180 ppm and 280 ppm. (reuters.com)
  • Carbon dioxide is found in three forms in the blood - dissolved carbon dioxide, carbonic acid, and bicarbonate. (brighthub.com)
  • Carbon dioxide also causes ocean acidification because it dissolves in water to form carbonic acid. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) calculated projected temperature changes for various scenarios in 2007 and researchers at the Max Planck Institute for Meteorology in Hamburg have now gone one step further: they have developed a new model that specifies the maximum volumes of carbon dioxide that humans may emit to remain below the critical threshold for climate warming of two degrees Celsius. (redorbit.com)
  • An "endangerment" finding by the Environmental Protection Agency could pave the way for the government to require businesses that emit carbon dioxide and five other greenhouse gases to make costly changes in machinery to reduce emissions -- even if Congress doesn't pass pending climate-change legislation. (wsj.com)
  • The process of burning wood also does not emit any additional carbon dioxide than the natural biodegradation of the wood if it were left to rot on the forest floor. (answers.com)
  • There is no doubt that we should do our best to rest lightly on the planet and there is no doubt that we should do our best to emit as few waste products as possible, but, having said that, whether carbon dioxide is quite the environmental villain that some people make it out to be is not yet proven. (theage.com.au)
  • The ideal locations for carbon capture and storage (CCS) systems are at the very power plants that emit tons of carbon dioxide every day. (howstuffworks.com)
  • Once we've captured the carbon dioxide we emit, where do we put it? (howstuffworks.com)
  • In a study published Thursday in the journal Earth System Science Data , the researchers write that preliminary figures show the world will have put 37 billion tons of carbon dioxide into the air during 2020, down from 40.1 billion tons in 2019. (yahoo.com)
  • On average, about 2.57 million pounds of carbon dioxide is emitted into the air every second. (usatoday.com)
  • If carbon dioxide emissions and, as a result, atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations continue to increase unchecked, a drastic increase in the global temperature can be expected before the end of this century. (redorbit.com)
  • Figure 1: The variations in atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations and relative changes in air temperature determined from the Vostok, Antarctica ice core are tightly correlated and reveal no obvious, substantial lead-lag relationship. (nature.com)
  • The first comprehensive overview of the world's largest terrestrial pool of carbon highlights the importance of soil carbon conservation in mitigating global climate change. (cam.ac.uk)
  • An article from our July 1959 issue examined climate change: "A current theory postulates that carbon dioxide regulates the temperature of the earth. (scientificamerican.com)
  • A 2005 Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change report on carbon capture and storage, which guided Shaffer's modeling, said it was 'very likely' that 99 percent of stored C02 would stay in place over the first 100 years and 'likely' that the same percentage would stay in place over 1,000 years. (scientificamerican.com)
  • Thank you for soliciting my testimony on the nature of Carbon Dioxide as a "pollutant" with regard to global climate change. (cato.org)
  • The final possibility is qualitatively compatible with both 'consensus' views of climate change and the opinions of those who are more impressed with the manifestly adverse consequences of carbon-mitigation to human reproduction and survival. (repec.org)
  • For the first time, the shipping sector will have to monitor its carbon emissions under a law agreed upon by the European Union Wednesday (26 November), intended as a step towards tackling a growing source of pollutants linked to climate change. (euractiv.com)
  • Henry Jakubowski talks to a local Rotary Club in Minnesota about climate change and a carbon fee-and-dividend economic approach to reduce CO 2 emissions. (asbmb.org)
  • THE Opposition Leader, Tony Abbott, has again questioned the scientific evidence for climate change, saying he does not accept that carbon dioxide is a proven ''environmental villain'' or that cutting greenhouse gas emissions is the most important environmental challenge. (theage.com.au)
  • Despite once famously saying the settled science of climate change was ''absolute crap'', Mr Abbott has more recently repeatedly stated that he accepts the science and has told his MPs their debate with the government should be about the Prime Minister's broken promise, the impact of the carbon price and the relative merit of the Coalition's ''direct action'' climate policy, and not about climate science. (theage.com.au)
  • If you'd like more info on Carbon Dioxide, check out NASA's The Global Climate Change . (universetoday.com)
  • Your body just released carbon dioxide, a colorless gas that's essential to life on Earth. (amnh.org)
  • A colorless gas, carbon dioxide has a faint, sharp odor and a slightly sour taste. (britannica.com)
  • Carbon dioxide (CO2) is an odorless, colorless gas. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Carbon dioxide (chemical formula CO 2) is an acidic colorless gas with a density about 53% higher than that of dry air. (wikipedia.org)
  • In this method, the food is exposed to liquefied gases such as carbon dioxide and nitrogen at a temperature below -76 degrees Fahrenheit (-60 degrees Celsius). (ehow.com)
  • If fuels can be made entirely from atmospheric carbon, running a car on that fuel would be carbon neutral . (telegraph.co.uk)
  • The decrease is due to car and plane travel plummeting, but even with this drop, the world on average put 1,185 tons of heat-trapping carbon dioxide into the air every second this year. (yahoo.com)
  • Ignited magnesium continues to burn in carbon dioxide, but the gas does not support the combustion of most materials. (britannica.com)
  • Why can't candles burn in carbon dioxide? (answers.com)
  • What CAUSES the immediate release of carbon dioxide in carbonated beverages when salt is added? (madsci.org)
  • STEP uses solar energy to provide both the electrical and thermal energy necessary to break down carbon dioxide into carbon and oxygen and to produce carbon nanotubes that are stable, flexible, conductive and stronger than steel. (newswise.com)
  • It reacts with carbon dioxide to form lithium carbonate . (wikipedia.org)
  • Ammonia reacts with carbon dioxide under pressure to form ammonium carbamate, then urea , an important component of fertilizers and plastics . (britannica.com)
  • Each molecule of carbon dioxide consists of one atom of carbon and two atoms of oxygen. (britannica.com)
  • Chemically, each molecule of carbon dioxide is composed of one atom or carbon and two atoms of oxygen, covalently bound together. (reference.com)
  • books.google.com - This book focuses on the interactive effects of environmental stresses with plant and ecosystem functions, especially with respect to changes in the abundance of carbon dioxide. (google.com)
  • Imagine this, when a person or animal suffocates due to "lack of oxygen" it is not actually the lack of oxygen that kills them, it is the over abundance of carbon dioxide. (answers.com)
  • Carbon dioxide is a naturally occurring chemical compound composed of two oxygen atoms covalently bonded to a single carbon atom. (thenextweb.com)
  • Having given up its oxygen, the ceramic reacts with the carbon dioxide, stealing oxygen atoms off it. (go.com)
  • It is made up of one atom of carbon and two atoms of oxygen. (britannica.com)
  • The CO 2 molecule is linear with the carbon atom in the centre between two oxygen atoms which are both double bonded to it. (everything2.com)
  • A convenient property for this purpose is that solid carbon dioxide sublimes directly into the gas phase leaving no liquid. (mcgill.ca)
  • Solid carbon dioxide, known as dry ice, is used as a refrigerating agent. (factmonster.com)
  • During cryogenic freezing, around half of the solid carbon dioxide sublimes into the gaseous state. (ehow.com)
  • The heat required to convert solid carbon dioxide into gas is drawn from the food items, thus cooling them further in the process. (ehow.com)
  • Solid carbon dioxide is more commonly referred to as dry ice . (everything2.com)
  • Sean McCoy, an engineer at Carnegie Mellon University , said that the stability of stored gas increases over time because C02 dissolves in briny water and eventually forms solid carbon formations, making it less likely to creep back up the surface. (scientificamerican.com)
  • Carbon dioxide reacts with quicklime (calcium oxide) to form limestone ( calcium carbonate ), [3] in a process called carbonate looping. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, calcium carbonate (CaCO 3 ) produces carbon dioxide and calcium oxide (CaO). (britannica.com)
  • Under neither interpretation does this qualify carbon dioxide as a climatic "pollutant. (cato.org)
  • Officials gather in Copenhagen this week for an international climate summit, but business leaders are focusing even more on Washington, where the Obama administration is expected as early as Monday to formally declare carbon dioxide a dangerous pollutant. (wsj.com)
  • The Obama administration is expected to formally declare carbon dioxide a dangerous pollutant. (wsj.com)
  • WASHINGTON - Carbon dioxide, the chief cause of global warming, cannot be regulated as a pollutant, the Environmental Protection Agency ruled yesterday. (baltimoresun.com)
  • If the Bush administration had decided that carbon dioxide is a pollutant and harmful, it could have required expensive new pollution controls on new cars and perhaps on power plants, which together are the main sources of so-called greenhouse gases. (baltimoresun.com)
  • Justice Alito declares carbon dioxide is not a pollutant. (slate.com)
  • In still another embodiment, the present invention relates to a method of producing carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) sensors having lithium phosphate (Li 3 PO 4 ) as an electrolyte and sensing electrode comprising a combination of lithium carbonate (Li 2 CO 3 ) and barium carbonate (BaCO 3 ). (freepatentsonline.com)
  • A technology developed at a national lab for improving carbon capture at power plants may be able to help craft breweries capture and reuse CO2 from their fermentation processes, while also slashing costs. (treehugger.com)
  • Technological advancements have led to development of several food preservation processes and techniques using carbon dioxide. (ehow.com)
  • Hoff and his colleagues at SINTEF are developing chemical scrubbing processes for capturing carbon dioxide, the greenhouse gas that is spewed out by factories and as flue gases from coal and gas-fired power stations. (innovations-report.com)
  • Carbon dioxide is given off by many fermentation processes (wine, beer, etc.) and is a major component of flue gas. (inchem.org)
  • Carbon dioxide is produced during the processes of decay of organic materials and the fermentation of sugars in bread, beer and wine making. (wikipedia.org)
  • For regions with adequate space and little recycling infrastructure, disposing of bottles in landfill generates a lower carbon footprint than recycling or incineration. (theecologist.org)
  • So the UK's carbon footprint must be shrinking, right? (globalwarming.org)
  • Nonetheless, the country's carbon footprint was 20% bigger in 2009 than in 1990. (globalwarming.org)
  • As one blogger commented , "The UK's outsourced emissions almost double its carbon footprint. (globalwarming.org)
  • A coal plant in Saskatchewan will capture most of its carbon pollution-and use it to extract oil from the ground. (technologyreview.com)
  • When natural carbon is brought up to the surface by the winds, it is harder for the Southern Ocean to accommodate more human-generated carbon, which comes from factories, coal-fired power plants and petroleum-powered motor vehicle exhaust. (reuters.com)
  • With the coronavirus pandemic causing people to cut back on commuting and traveling, the world's carbon dioxide emissions dropped by 7 percent in 2020, the Global Carbon Project said. (yahoo.com)
  • According to the model, admissible carbon dioxide emissions will increase from approximately seven billion tons of carbon in the year 2000 to a maximum value of around ten billion tons in 2015. (redorbit.com)
  • The decision, which reverses a 1998 Clinton administration position, means the Bush administration won't be able to use the Clean Air Act to reduce carbon-dioxide emissions from cars. (baltimoresun.com)
  • The 1997 Kyoto Protocol would oblige ratifying countries to reduce carbon dioxide emissions according to set schedules, to minimize potential global warming. (latimes.com)
  • As carbon dioxide levels rise, so do global temperatures. (amnh.org)
  • The amount of carbon in the air would increase even faster and the levels of air pollution would sky rocket. (uen.org)
  • Prior to the onset of the Industrial Revolution, carbon dioxide levels had fluctuated over the millennia but had never exceeded 300 parts per million. (usatoday.com)
  • Levels of carbon dioxide go up and down each year, reaching their highest levels in May and then going back down in the fall as plants absorb the gas. (usatoday.com)
  • Unless the seepage rate of sequestered carbon dioxide can be held to 1 percent every 1,000 years, overall temperature rise could still reach dangerous levels that cause sea level rise and ocean acidification , concludes the research published yesterday in Nature Geoscience . (scientificamerican.com)
  • Increases in carbon dioxide levels won't change this appreciably but they will broaden the absorption line. (eskimo.com)
  • Information about global carbon dioxide concentrations can inform emissions policies at national and international levels. (globalchange.gov)
  • Another disease which causes low carbon dioxide levels is diabetic ketoacidosis. (brighthub.com)
  • Consuming wood alcohol or products that contain ethylene glycol can cause poisoning and result in low carbon dioxide levels. (brighthub.com)
  • We are in an unprecedented era, at no point in human history has carbon dioxide levels been this high, presenting concerning questions over what lies ahead. (forbes.com)
  • If Earth has seen an order of magnitude higher carbon dioxide levels than present, why are we to worry? (forbes.com)
  • Generally speaking, there are two reasons why humans should be concerned over the recent unprecedented rise in carbon dioxide levels. (forbes.com)
  • Global levels of carbon emissions have skyrocketed in recent decades. (usatoday.com)
  • Download Audio The planet's atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations reached a new record high in 2013, driven by a surge in carbon dioxide levels. (fsrn.org)
  • The team attributed the increased levels of carbon dioxide detected over the western North Atlantic to emissions transported from the Southeast U.S. on warm atmospheric "conveyor belts. (redorbit.com)
  • Normal CO2 or carbon dioxide levels are between 23 to 30 mEq/L in humans, according to WebMD. (reference.com)
  • China on Thursday launched a satellite to monitor carbon dioxide levels, state media said, making the Asian giant the third country to track the potent contributor to global warming from space. (livemint.com)
  • Prolonged exposure of humans to concentrations of 5 percent carbon dioxide may cause unconsciousness and death. (britannica.com)
  • NOAA points a finger directly at humans, noting that the atmospheric carbon dioxide has increased about 100 times faster annually over the past 60 years than from previous natural increases. (inhabitat.com)
  • Our process uses carbon dioxide instead of the highly toxic chemical phosgene, and produces a plastic that is free from BPA, so not only is the plastic safer, but the manufacture process is cleaner too. (bath.ac.uk)
  • The carbon combines with oxygen in the air to form carbon dioxide. (amnh.org)
  • The study suggests industrial hog farms should take carbon dioxide into account when examining ventilation and workers' safety equipment. (organicconsumers.org)
  • It is not clear how long the shortage will go on for, with producers making contingency plans to maintain production while using less carbon dioxide. (telegraph.co.uk)
  • Peter Kelemen, a professor of earth and environmental sciences at Columbia University, describes how to capture and store carbon dioxide by speeding up a reaction found naturally in certain rocks. (technologyreview.com)
  • A bicarbonate test measures the total carbon dioxide level in the blood. (brighthub.com)
  • Natural mineral waters such as Vichy water sparkle (effervesce) because excess carbon dioxide that dissolved in them under pressure collects in bubbles and escapes when the pressure is released. (factmonster.com)
  • What if excess carbon dioxide could be sent into space? (wired.com)
  • The real potential, however, is to capture carbon-dioxide emissions and reuse them as fuel. (go.com)
  • A carbon dioxide scrubber is a piece of equipment that absorbs carbon dioxide (CO 2 ). (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1772, English chemist Joseph Priestley published a paper entitled Impregnating Water with Fixed Air in which he described a process of dripping sulfuric acid (or oil of vitriol as Priestley knew it) on chalk in order to produce carbon dioxide, and forcing the gas to dissolve by agitating a bowl of water in contact with the gas. (wikipedia.org)
  • This process produces carbon dioxide, water, and other chemical by-products. (answers.com)
  • The team adapted a solar-powered process that converts carbon dioxide into carbon so that it produces carbon nanotubes and demonstrated that the nanotubes can be incorporated into both lithium-ion batteries like those used in electric vehicles and electronic devices and low-cost sodium-ion batteries under development for large-scale applications, such as the electric grid. (newswise.com)
  • Ralph Keeling and his late father Charles David Keeling have kept carbon dioxide (CO2) measurements at the Mauna Loa Observatory in Hawaii since 1958. (usatoday.com)
  • The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Global Monitoring Division has measured carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases for several decades through a globally distributed network of about 70 air sampling sites, including the Mauna Loa Observatory in Hawai'i. (globalchange.gov)
  • Average readings at the 11,141-foot Mauna Loa Observatory, where carbon dioxide density peaks each northern winter, hovered around 379 parts per million on Friday, compared with about 376 a year ago. (latimes.com)
  • It will however support combustion of magnesium to give magnesium oxide and carbon. (factmonster.com)
  • Carbon dioxide is a combustion product, so what we're doing is reversing combustion," he says. (go.com)
  • Carbon dioxide was recognized as a gas different from others early in the 17th century by a Belgian chemist, Jan Baptista van Helmont , who observed it as a product of both fermentation and combustion. (britannica.com)
  • The pre-combustion method requires separating the carbon dioxide from original energy sources, so it's not present when the fuel is burned. (howstuffworks.com)
  • Oxyfuel combustion adds nearly pure oxygen to captured CO 2 , and when burned together, easily separates the carbon dioxide out, making it easier to capture as waste. (howstuffworks.com)
  • Sometime in 2007, China passed the US to become the world's largest emitter of carbon dioxide. (greenpeace.org)
  • The biggest test of cap-and-trade to date may be too timid to make much of a difference for the world's largest carbon polluter. (technologyreview.com)
  • Praxair has fired up its carbon dioxide purification facility at the Honeywell Resins & Chemicals site in Hopewell, Va. Under a long-term agreement, Praxair will purchase CO2 from Honeywell Resins & Chemicals, one of the world's largest producers of nylon resin and caprolactam, a critical feedstock used for nylon production. (environmentalleader.com)