A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.
A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.
Nitrogen oxide (NO2). A highly poisonous gas. Exposure produces inflammation of lungs that may only cause slight pain or pass unnoticed, but resulting edema several days later may cause death. (From Merck, 11th ed) It is a major atmospheric pollutant that is able to absorb UV light that does not reach the earth's surface.
Carbon monoxide (CO). A poisonous colorless, odorless, tasteless gas. It combines with hemoglobin to form carboxyhemoglobin, which has no oxygen carrying capacity. The resultant oxygen deprivation causes headache, dizziness, decreased pulse and respiratory rates, unconsciousness, and death. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
The pressure that would be exerted by one component of a mixture of gases if it were present alone in a container. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A highly toxic, colorless, nonflammable gas. It is used as a pharmaceutical aid and antioxidant. It is also an environmental air pollutant.
Continuous recording of the carbon dioxide content of expired air.
The act of blowing a powder, vapor, or gas into any body cavity for experimental, diagnostic, or therapeutic purposes.
Nanometer-sized tubes composed mainly of CARBON. Such nanotubes are used as probes for high-resolution structural and chemical imaging of biomolecules with ATOMIC FORCE MICROSCOPY.
The gaseous envelope surrounding a planet or similar body. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.
The act of breathing with the LUNGS, consisting of INHALATION, or the taking into the lungs of the ambient air, and of EXHALATION, or the expelling of the modified air which contains more CARBON DIOXIDE than the air taken in (Blakiston's Gould Medical Dictionary, 4th ed.). This does not include tissue respiration (= OXYGEN CONSUMPTION) or cell respiration (= CELL RESPIRATION).
A clinical manifestation of abnormal increase in the amount of carbon dioxide in arterial blood.
Stable carbon atoms that have the same atomic number as the element carbon, but differ in atomic weight. C-13 is a stable carbon isotope.
The exchange of OXYGEN and CARBON DIOXIDE between alveolar air and pulmonary capillary blood that occurs across the BLOOD-AIR BARRIER.
The noninvasive measurement or determination of the partial pressure (tension) of oxygen and/or carbon dioxide locally in the capillaries of a tissue by the application to the skin of a special set of electrodes. These electrodes contain photoelectric sensors capable of picking up the specific wavelengths of radiation emitted by oxygenated versus reduced hemoglobin.
A CHROMATOGRAPHY method using supercritical fluid, usually carbon dioxide under very high pressure (around 73 atmospheres or 1070 psi at room temperature) as the mobile phase. Other solvents are sometimes added as modifiers. This is used both for analytical (SFC) and extraction (SFE) purposes.
Measurement of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the blood.
Lasers in which a gas lasing medium is stimulated to emit light by an electric current or high-frequency oscillator.
Any of several processes for the permanent or long-term artificial or natural capture or removal and storage of carbon dioxide and other forms of carbon, through biological, chemical or physical processes, in a manner that prevents it from being released into the atmosphere.
Deliberate introduction of air into the peritoneal cavity.
The volume of air inspired or expired during each normal, quiet respiratory cycle. Common abbreviations are TV or V with subscript T.
Toxic asphyxiation due to the displacement of oxygen from oxyhemoglobin by carbon monoxide.
A solid form of carbon dioxide used as a refrigerant.
Respiratory retention of carbon dioxide. It may be chronic or acute.
A measure of the total greenhouse gas emissions produced by an individual, organization, event, or product. It is measured in units of equivalent kilograms of CARBON DIOXIDE generated in a given time frame.
Inorganic salts that contain the -HCO3 radical. They are an important factor in determining the pH of the blood and the concentration of bicarbonate ions is regulated by the kidney. Levels in the blood are an index of the alkali reserve or buffering capacity.
The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)
The vapor state of matter; nonelastic fluids in which the molecules are in free movement and their mean positions far apart. Gases tend to expand indefinitely, to diffuse and mix readily with other gases, to have definite relations of volume, temperature, and pressure, and to condense or liquefy at low temperatures or under sufficient pressure. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Thorium oxide (ThO2). A radiographic contrast agent that was used in the early 1930s through about 1954. High rates of mortality have been linked to its use and it has been shown to cause liver cancer.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The mixture of gases present in the earth's atmosphere consisting of oxygen, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, and small amounts of other gases.
That part of the RESPIRATORY TRACT or the air within the respiratory tract that does not exchange OXYGEN and CARBON DIOXIDE with pulmonary capillary blood.
The simplest saturated hydrocarbon. It is a colorless, flammable gas, slightly soluble in water. It is one of the chief constituents of natural gas and is formed in the decomposition of organic matter. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Systems that provide for the maintenance of life in an isolated living chamber through reutilization of the material available, in particular, by means of a cycle wherein exhaled carbon dioxide, urine, and other waste matter are converted chemically or by photosynthesis into oxygen, water, and food. (NASA Thesaurus, 1988)
A solvent for oils, fats, lacquers, varnishes, rubber waxes, and resins, and a starting material in the manufacturing of organic compounds. Poisoning by inhalation, ingestion or skin absorption is possible and may be fatal. (Merck Index, 11th ed)
A family of zinc-containing enzymes that catalyze the reversible hydration of carbon dioxide. They play an important role in the transport of CARBON DIOXIDE from the tissues to the LUNG. EC
The effect of GLOBAL WARMING and the resulting increase in world temperatures. The predicted health effects of such long-term climatic change include increased incidence of respiratory, water-borne, and vector-borne diseases.
Total mass of all the organisms of a given type and/or in a given area. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990) It includes the yield of vegetative mass produced from any given crop.
The synthesis by organisms of organic chemical compounds, especially carbohydrates, from carbon dioxide using energy obtained from light rather than from the oxidation of chemical compounds. Photosynthesis comprises two separate processes: the light reactions and the dark reactions. In higher plants; GREEN ALGAE; and CYANOBACTERIA; NADPH and ATP formed by the light reactions drive the dark reactions which result in the fixation of carbon dioxide. (from Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2001)
Clinical manifestation consisting of a deficiency of carbon dioxide in arterial blood.
An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.
A pulmonary ventilation rate faster than is metabolically necessary for the exchange of gases. It is the result of an increased frequency of breathing, an increased tidal volume, or a combination of both. It causes an excess intake of oxygen and the blowing off of carbon dioxide.
Blocking of a blood vessel by air bubbles that enter the circulatory system, usually after TRAUMA; surgical procedures, or changes in atmospheric pressure.
A reduction in the amount of air entering the pulmonary alveoli.
Salts or ions of the theoretical carbonic acid, containing the radical CO2(3-). Carbonates are readily decomposed by acids. The carbonates of the alkali metals are water-soluble; all others are insoluble. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The total volume of gas inspired or expired per unit of time, usually measured in liters per minute.
Any substance in the air which could, if present in high enough concentration, harm humans, animals, vegetation or material. Substances include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; and volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.
A colorless, flammable, poisonous liquid, CS2. It is used as a solvent, and is a counterirritant and has local anesthetic properties but is not used as such. It is highly toxic with pronounced CNS, hematologic, and dermatologic effects.
Anesthesia caused by the breathing of anesthetic gases or vapors or by insufflating anesthetic gases or vapors into the respiratory tract.
Binary compounds of oxygen containing the anion O(2-). The anion combines with metals to form alkaline oxides and non-metals to form acidic oxides.
Derivatives of ACETIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxymethane structure.
A dark-gray, metallic element of widespread distribution but occurring in small amounts; atomic number, 22; atomic weight, 47.90; symbol, Ti; specific gravity, 4.5; used for fixation of fractures. (Dorland, 28th ed)
The circulation of blood through the BLOOD VESSELS of the BRAIN.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
Cells specialized to detect chemical substances and relay that information centrally in the nervous system. Chemoreceptor cells may monitor external stimuli, as in TASTE and OLFACTION, or internal stimuli, such as the concentrations of OXYGEN and CARBON DIOXIDE in the blood.
The cycle by which the element carbon is exchanged between organic matter and the earth's physical environment.
Failure to adequately provide oxygen to cells of the body and to remove excess carbon dioxide from them. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Any method of artificial breathing that employs mechanical or non-mechanical means to force the air into and out of the lungs. Artificial respiration or ventilation is used in individuals who have stopped breathing or have RESPIRATORY INSUFFICIENCY to increase their intake of oxygen (O2) and excretion of carbon dioxide (CO2).
The physical or mechanical action of the LUNGS; DIAPHRAGM; RIBS; and CHEST WALL during respiration. It includes airflow, lung volume, neural and reflex controls, mechanoreceptors, breathing patterns, etc.
Nitrogen oxide (N2O). A colorless, odorless gas that is used as an anesthetic and analgesic. High concentrations cause a narcotic effect and may replace oxygen, causing death by asphyxia. It is also used as a food aerosol in the preparation of whipping cream.
The balance between acids and bases in the BODY FLUIDS. The pH (HYDROGEN-ION CONCENTRATION) of the arterial BLOOD provides an index for the total body acid-base balance.
The processes by which organisms use simple inorganic substances such as gaseous or dissolved carbon dioxide and inorganic nitrogen as nutrient sources. Contrasts with heterotrophic processes which make use of organic materials as the nutrient supply source. Autotrophs can be either chemoautotrophs (or chemolithotrophs), largely ARCHAEA and BACTERIA, which also use simple inorganic substances for their metabolic energy reguirements; or photoautotrophs (or photolithotrophs), such as PLANTS and CYANOBACTERIA, which derive their energy from light. Depending on environmental conditions some organisms can switch between different nutritional modes (autotrophy; HETEROTROPHY; chemotrophy; or PHOTOTROPHY) to utilize different sources to meet their nutrient and energy requirements.
The first chemical element in the periodic table. It has the atomic symbol H, atomic number 1, and atomic weight [1.00784; 1.00811]. It exists, under normal conditions, as a colorless, odorless, tasteless, diatomic gas. Hydrogen ions are PROTONS. Besides the common H1 isotope, hydrogen exists as the stable isotope DEUTERIUM and the unstable, radioactive isotope TRITIUM.
Transparent, tasteless crystals found in nature as agate, amethyst, chalcedony, cristobalite, flint, sand, QUARTZ, and tridymite. The compound is insoluble in water or acids except hydrofluoric acid.
A condition with trapped gas or air in the PERITONEAL CAVITY, usually secondary to perforation of the internal organs such as the LUNG and the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT, or to recent surgery. Pneumoperitoneum may be purposely introduced to aid radiological examination.
The unconsolidated mineral or organic matter on the surface of the earth that serves as a natural medium for the growth of land plants.
Helium. A noble gas with the atomic symbol He, atomic number 2, and atomic weight 4.003. It is a colorless, odorless, tasteless gas that is not combustible and does not support combustion. It was first detected in the sun and is now obtained from natural gas. Medically it is used as a diluent for other gases, being especially useful with oxygen in the treatment of certain cases of respiratory obstruction, and as a vehicle for general anesthetics. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Gases or volatile liquids that vary in the rate at which they induce anesthesia; potency; the degree of circulation, respiratory, or neuromuscular depression they produce; and analgesic effects. Inhalation anesthetics have advantages over intravenous agents in that the depth of anesthesia can be changed rapidly by altering the inhaled concentration. Because of their rapid elimination, any postoperative respiratory depression is of relatively short duration. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p173)
The complete absence, or (loosely) the paucity, of gaseous or dissolved elemental oxygen in a given place or environment. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Carbonic acid (H2C03). The hypothetical acid of carbon dioxide and water. It exists only in the form of its salts (carbonates), acid salts (hydrogen carbonates), amines (carbamic acid), and acid chlorides (carbonyl chloride). (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Measurement of the various processes involved in the act of respiration: inspiration, expiration, oxygen and carbon dioxide exchange, lung volume and compliance, etc.
The use of photothermal effects of LASERS to coagulate, incise, vaporize, resect, dissect, or resurface tissue.
The killing of animals for reasons of mercy, to control disease transmission or maintain the health of animal populations, or for experimental purposes (ANIMAL EXPERIMENTATION).
Argon. A noble gas with the atomic symbol Ar, atomic number 18, and atomic weight 39.948. It is used in fluorescent tubes and wherever an inert atmosphere is desired and nitrogen cannot be used.
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
Any tests done on exhaled air.
Unstable isotopes of carbon that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. C atoms with atomic weights 10, 11, and 14-16 are radioactive carbon isotopes.
The presence of contaminants or pollutant substances in the air (AIR POLLUTANTS) that interfere with human health or welfare, or produce other harmful environmental effects. The substances may include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; or volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.
Derivatives of formic acids. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that are formed with a single carbon carboxy group.
Apparatus for removing exhaled or leaked anesthetic gases or other volatile agents, thus reducing the exposure of operating room personnel to such agents, as well as preventing the buildup of potentially explosive mixtures in operating rooms or laboratories.
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
Any disorder marked by obstruction of conducting airways of the lung. AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION may be acute, chronic, intermittent, or persistent.
Woody, usually tall, perennial higher plants (Angiosperms, Gymnosperms, and some Pterophyta) having usually a main stem and numerous branches.
Inhalation anesthesia where the gases exhaled by the patient are rebreathed as some carbon dioxide is simultaneously removed and anesthetic gas and oxygen are added so that no anesthetic escapes into the room. Closed-circuit anesthesia is used especially with explosive anesthetics to prevent fires where electrical sparking from instruments is possible.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A highly caustic substance that is used to neutralize acids and make sodium salts. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
Relatively complete absence of oxygen in one or more tissues.
Elimination of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS; PESTICIDES and other waste using living organisms, usually involving intervention of environmental or sanitation engineers.
The environment outside the earth or its atmosphere. The environment may refer to a closed cabin (such as a space shuttle or space station) or to space itself, the moon, or other planets.
A transient absence of spontaneous respiration.
The salinated water of OCEANS AND SEAS that provides habitat for marine organisms.
The fourth planet in order from the sun. Its two natural satellites are Deimos and Phobos. It is one of the four inner or terrestrial planets of the solar system.
A group of compounds that contain the general formula R-OCH3.
A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Electric conductors through which electric currents enter or leave a medium, whether it be an electrolytic solution, solid, molten mass, gas, or vacuum.
The unstable triatomic form of oxygen, O3. It is a powerful oxidant that is produced for various chemical and industrial uses. Its production is also catalyzed in the ATMOSPHERE by ULTRAVIOLET RAY irradiation of oxygen or other ozone precursors such as VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS and NITROGEN OXIDES. About 90% of the ozone in the atmosphere exists in the stratosphere (STRATOSPHERIC OZONE).
A type of stress exerted uniformly in all directions. Its measure is the force exerted per unit area. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A measure of the amount of WATER VAPOR in the air.
Supplying a building or house, their rooms and corridors, with fresh air. The controlling of the environment thus may be in public or domestic sites and in medical or non-medical locales. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Removal of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS or contaminants for the general protection of the environment. This is accomplished by various chemical, biological, and bulk movement methods, in conjunction with ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING.
Inorganic compounds that contain calcium as an integral part of the molecule.
A great expanse of continuous bodies of salt water which together cover more than 70 percent of the earth's surface. Seas may be partially or entirely enclosed by land, and are smaller than the five oceans (Atlantic, Pacific, Indian, Arctic, and Antarctic).
Procedure in which patients are induced into an unconscious state through use of various medications so that they do not feel pain during surgery.
The continuous measurement of physiological processes, blood pressure, heart rate, renal output, reflexes, respiration, etc., in a patient or experimental animal; includes pharmacologic monitoring, the measurement of administered drugs or their metabolites in the blood, tissues, or urine.
Cellular processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of CARBOHYDRATES.
Stable oxygen atoms that have the same atomic number as the element oxygen, but differ in atomic weight. O-17 and 18 are stable oxygen isotopes.
A procedure involving placement of a tube into the trachea through the mouth or nose in order to provide a patient with oxygen and anesthesia.
The pressure at any point in an atmosphere due solely to the weight of the atmospheric gases above the point concerned.
One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.
The determination of oxygen-hemoglobin saturation of blood either by withdrawing a sample and passing it through a classical photoelectric oximeter or by electrodes attached to some translucent part of the body like finger, earlobe, or skin fold. It includes non-invasive oxygen monitoring by pulse oximetry.
A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.
Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)
Salts or esters of LACTIC ACID containing the general formula CH3CHOHCOOR.
Any combustible hydrocarbon deposit formed from the remains of prehistoric organisms. Examples are petroleum, coal, and natural gas.
The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.
Isomeric forms and derivatives of octanol (C8H17OH).
Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.
A genus of gram-negative bacteria in the family Eubacteriaceae. Species are homoacetogenic, having the ability to use CARBON DIOXIDE as an electron sink, and to reduce it producing acetate as a typical fermentation product.
Physiological processes and properties of the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM as a whole or of any of its parts.
The fifth planet in order from the sun. It is one of the five outer planets of the solar system. Its sixteen natural satellites include Callisto, Europa, Ganymede, and Io.
The movement and the forces involved in the movement of the blood through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.
Increase in the temperature of the atmosphere near the Earth's surface and in the troposphere, which can contribute to changes in global climate patterns.
Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.
Derivatives of SUCCINIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain a 1,4-carboxy terminated aliphatic structure.
Devices that cover the nose and mouth to maintain aseptic conditions or to administer inhaled anesthetics or other gases. (UMDNS, 1999)
A stable, non-explosive inhalation anesthetic, relatively free from significant side effects.
The longterm manifestations of WEATHER. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A dark powdery deposit of unburned fuel residues, composed mainly of amorphous CARBON and some HYDROCARBONS, that accumulates in chimneys, automobile mufflers and other surfaces exposed to smoke. It is the product of incomplete combustion of carbon-rich organic fuels in low oxygen conditions. It is sometimes called lampblack or carbon black and is used in INK, in rubber tires, and to prepare CARBON NANOTUBES.
The constant checking on the state or condition of a patient during the course of a surgical operation (e.g., checking of vital signs).
Inhalation of oxygen aimed at restoring toward normal any pathophysiologic alterations of gas exchange in the cardiopulmonary system, as by the use of a respirator, nasal catheter, tent, chamber, or mask. (From Dorland, 27th ed & Stedman, 25th ed)
Free-floating minute organisms that are photosynthetic. The term is non-taxonomic and refers to a lifestyle (energy utilization and motility), rather than a particular type of organism. Most, but not all, are unicellular algae. Important groups include DIATOMS; DINOFLAGELLATES; CYANOBACTERIA; CHLOROPHYTA; HAPTOPHYTA; CRYPTOMONADS; and silicoflagellates.
A colorless alkaline gas. It is formed in the body during decomposition of organic materials during a large number of metabolically important reactions. Note that the aqueous form of ammonia is referred to as AMMONIUM HYDROXIDE.
A state in which the environs of hospitals, laboratories, domestic and animal housing, work places, spacecraft, and other surroundings are under technological control with regard to air conditioning, heating, lighting, humidity, ventilation, and other ambient features. The concept includes control of atmospheric composition. (From Jane's Aerospace Dictionary, 3d ed)
A method of mechanical ventilation in which pressure is maintained to increase the volume of gas remaining in the lungs at the end of expiration, thus reducing the shunting of blood through the lungs and improving gas exchange.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The number of times an organism breathes with the lungs (RESPIRATION) per unit time, usually per minute.
Controlled physical activity which is performed in order to allow assessment of physiological functions, particularly cardiovascular and pulmonary, but also aerobic capacity. Maximal (most intense) exercise is usually required but submaximal exercise is also used.
A genus of gram positive, acetogenic, thermophilic bacteria in the family Thermoanaerobacteraceae. Known habitats include HOT SPRINGS, horse manure, emu droppings, and sewage SLUDGE.
The chemical reactions that occur within the cells, tissues, or an organism. These processes include both the biosynthesis (ANABOLISM) and the breakdown (CATABOLISM) of organic materials utilized by the living organism.
A state characterized by loss of feeling or sensation. This depression of nerve function is usually the result of pharmacologic action and is induced to allow performance of surgery or other painful procedures.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
A normal intermediate in the fermentation (oxidation, metabolism) of sugar. The concentrated form is used internally to prevent gastrointestinal fermentation. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
Relating to the size of solids.
Life or metabolic reactions occurring in an environment containing oxygen.
Inorganic or organic salts and esters of nitric acid. These compounds contain the NO3- radical.
The ash, dust, gases, and lava released by volcanic explosion. The gases are volatile matter composed principally of about 90% water vapor, and carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide, hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and nitrogen. The ash or dust is pyroclastic ejecta and lava is molten extrusive material consisting mainly of magnesium silicate. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A pathologic condition of acid accumulation or depletion of base in the body. The two main types are RESPIRATORY ACIDOSIS and metabolic acidosis, due to metabolic acid build up.
Any technique by which an unknown color is evaluated in terms of standard colors. The technique may be visual, photoelectric, or indirect by means of spectrophotometry. It is used in chemistry and physics. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Inorganic compounds that contain potassium as an integral part of the molecule.
The processes by which organisms utilize organic substances as their nutrient sources. Contrasts with AUTOTROPHIC PROCESSES which make use of simple inorganic substances as the nutrient supply source. Heterotrophs can be either chemoheterotrophs (or chemoorganotrophs) which also require organic substances such as glucose for their primary metabolic energy requirements, or photoheterotrophs (or photoorganotrophs) which derive their primary energy requirements from light. Depending on environmental conditions some organisms can switch between different nutritional modes (AUTOTROPHY; heterotrophy; chemotrophy; or PHOTOTROPHY) to utilize different sources to meet their nutrients and energy requirements.
The contamination of indoor air.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the soil. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
One of the CARBONIC ANHYDRASE INHIBITORS that is sometimes effective against absence seizures. It is sometimes useful also as an adjunct in the treatment of tonic-clonic, myoclonic, and atonic seizures, particularly in women whose seizures occur or are exacerbated at specific times in the menstrual cycle. However, its usefulness is transient often because of rapid development of tolerance. Its antiepileptic effect may be due to its inhibitory effect on brain carbonic anhydrase, which leads to an increased transneuronal chloride gradient, increased chloride current, and increased inhibition. (From Smith and Reynard, Textbook of Pharmacology, 1991, p337)
The physical or physiological processes by which substances, tissue, cells, etc. take up or take in other substances or energy.
A colorless, flammable liquid used in the manufacture of FORMALDEHYDE and ACETIC ACID, in chemical synthesis, antifreeze, and as a solvent. Ingestion of methanol is toxic and may cause blindness.
The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.
Product of the oxidation of ethanol and of the destructive distillation of wood. It is used locally, occasionally internally, as a counterirritant and also as a reagent. (Stedman, 26th ed)
A non-invasive technique using ultrasound for the measurement of cerebrovascular hemodynamics, particularly cerebral blood flow velocity and cerebral collateral flow. With a high-intensity, low-frequency pulse probe, the intracranial arteries may be studied transtemporally, transorbitally, or from below the foramen magnum.
Application of a life support system that circulates the blood through an oxygenating system, which may consist of a pump, a membrane oxygenator, and a heat exchanger. Examples of its use are to assist victims of smoke inhalation injury, respiratory failure, and cardiac failure.
A value equal to the total volume flow divided by the cross-sectional area of the vascular bed.
A phylum of ARCHAEA comprising at least seven classes: Methanobacteria, Methanococci, Halobacteria (extreme halophiles), Archaeoglobi (sulfate-reducing species), Methanopyri, and the thermophiles: Thermoplasmata, and Thermococci.
The administration of drugs by the respiratory route. It includes insufflation into the respiratory tract.
The volume of BLOOD passing through the HEART per unit of time. It is usually expressed as liters (volume) per minute so as not to be confused with STROKE VOLUME (volume per beat).
The ratio of alveolar ventilation to simultaneous alveolar capillary blood flow in any part of the lung. (Stedman, 25th ed)
A procedure in which a laparoscope (LAPAROSCOPES) is inserted through a small incision near the navel to examine the abdominal and pelvic organs in the PERITONEAL CAVITY. If appropriate, biopsy or surgery can be performed during laparoscopy.
Diseases of the respiratory system in general or unspecified or for a specific respiratory disease not available.
A series of oxidative reactions in the breakdown of acetyl units derived from GLUCOSE; FATTY ACIDS; or AMINO ACIDS by means of tricarboxylic acid intermediates. The end products are CARBON DIOXIDE, water, and energy in the form of phosphate bonds.
The inanimate matter of Earth, the structures and properties of this matter, and the processes that affect it.
A white, crystalline powder that is commonly used as a pH buffering agent, an electrolyte replenisher, systemic alkalizer and in topical cleansing solutions.
Derivatives of OXALOACETIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that include a 2-keto-1,4-carboxy aliphatic structure.
Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A class of compounds that reduces the secretion of H+ ions by the proximal kidney tubule through inhibition of CARBONIC ANHYDRASES.
Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.
A white powder prepared from lime that has many medical and industrial uses. It is in many dental formulations, especially for root canal filling.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
A nonflammable, halogenated, hydrocarbon anesthetic that provides relatively rapid induction with little or no excitement. Analgesia may not be adequate. NITROUS OXIDE is often given concomitantly. Because halothane may not produce sufficient muscle relaxation, supplemental neuromuscular blocking agents may be required. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p178)
Particles of any solid substance, generally under 30 microns in size, often noted as PM30. There is special concern with PM1 which can get down to PULMONARY ALVEOLI and induce MACROPHAGE ACTIVATION and PHAGOCYTOSIS leading to FOREIGN BODY REACTION and LUNG DISEASES.
Carbonic acid calcium salt (CaCO3). An odorless, tasteless powder or crystal that occurs in nature. It is used therapeutically as a phosphate buffer in hemodialysis patients and as a calcium supplement.
Inorganic compounds that contain carbon as an integral part of the molecule but are not derived from hydrocarbons.
Salts and esters of hydroxybutyric acid.
Derivatives of ACETIC ACID which contain an hydroxy group attached to the methyl carbon.
The period during a surgical operation.
Recording changes in electrical impedance between electrodes placed on opposite sides of a part of the body, as a measure of volume changes in the path of the current. (Stedman, 25th ed)
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in nature. Some species are pathogenic for humans, animals, and plants.
Electric power supply devices which convert biological energy, such as chemical energy of metabolism or mechanical energy of periodic movements, into electrical energy.
A carboxy-lyase that plays a key role in photosynthetic carbon assimilation in the CALVIN-BENSON CYCLE by catalyzing the formation of 3-phosphoglycerate from ribulose 1,5-biphosphate and CARBON DIOXIDE. It can also utilize OXYGEN as a substrate to catalyze the synthesis of 2-phosphoglycolate and 3-phosphoglycerate in a process referred to as photorespiration.
A broad class of substances containing carbon and its derivatives. Many of these chemicals will frequently contain hydrogen with or without oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, phosphorus, and other elements. They exist in either carbon chain or carbon ring form.
The science of the earth and other celestial bodies and their history as recorded in the rocks. It includes the study of geologic processes of an area such as rock formations, weathering and erosion, and sedimentation. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Inorganic compounds that contain barium as an integral part of the molecule.
Apparatus, devices, or supplies intended for one-time or temporary use.
A mass of organic or inorganic solid fragmented material, or the solid fragment itself, that comes from the weathering of rock and is carried by, suspended in, or dropped by air, water, or ice. It refers also to a mass that is accumulated by any other natural agent and that forms in layers on the earth's surface, such as sand, gravel, silt, mud, fill, or loess. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1689)
Oxidoreductases that are specific for ALDEHYDES.

A kinetic study of ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase from the photosynthetic bacterium Rhodospirillum rubrum. (1/9550)

The activation kinetics of purified Rhodospirillum rubrum ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase were analysed. The equilibrium constant for activation by CO(2) was 600 micron and that for activation by Mg2+ was 90 micron, and the second-order activation constant for the reaction of CO(2) with inactive enzyme (k+1) was 0.25 X 10(-3)min-1 . micron-1. The latter value was considerably lower than the k+1 for higher-plant enzyme (7 X 10(-3)-10 X 10(-3)min-1 . micron-1). 6-Phosphogluconate had little effect on the active enzyme, and increased the extent of activation of inactive enzyme. Ribulose bisphosphate also increased the extent of activation and did not inhibit the rate of activation. This effect might have been mediated through a reaction product, 2-phosphoglycolic acid, which also stimulated the extent of activation of the enzyme. The active enzyme had a Km (CO2) of 300 micron-CO2, a Km (ribulose bisphosphate) of 11--18 micron-ribulose bisphosphate and a Vmax. of up to 3 mumol/min per mg of protein. These data are discussed in relation to the proposed model for activation and catalysis of ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase.  (+info)

Arterial blood gas tensions during upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. (2/9550)

Arterial blood gas tensions were measured before and during upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, with (group I) and without (group 2) sedation with intravenous diazepam. There was a highly significant fall in the PaO2, which occurred in both groups and was therefore not attributable to diazepam. Measurement of FEV, and FVC before endoscopy had no predictive value for those patients whose PaO2 fell the most.  (+info)

Does gill boundary layer carbonic anhydrase contribute to carbon dioxide excretion: a comparison between dogfish (Squalus acanthias) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). (3/9550)

In vivo experiments were conducted on spiny dogfish (Squalus acanthias) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) in sea water to determine the potential role of externally oriented or gill boundary layer carbonic anhydrase in carbon dioxide excretion. This was accomplished by assessing pH changes in expired water using a stopped-flow apparatus. In dogfish, expired water was in acid-base disequilibrium as indicated by a pronounced acidification (delta pH=-0.11+/-0.01; N=22; mean +/- s.e.m.) during the period of stopped flow; inspired water, however, was in acid-base equilibrium (delta pH=-0.002+/-0.01; N=22). The acid-base disequilibrium in expired water was abolished (delta pH=-0.005+/-0.01; N=6) by the addition of bovine carbonic anhydrase (5 mg l-1) to the external medium. Addition of the carbonic anhydrase inhibitor acetazolamide (1 mmol l-1) to the water significantly reduced the magnitude of the pH disequilibrium (from -0.133+/-0.03 to -0.063+/-0.02; N=4). However, after correcting for the increased buffering capacity of the water caused by acetazolamide, the acid-base disequilibrium during stopped flow was unaffected by this treatment (control delta [H+]=99.8+/-22.8 micromol l-1; acetazolamide delta [H+]=81.3+/-21.5 micromol l-1). In rainbow trout, expired water displayed an acid-base disequilibrium (delta pH=0.09+/-0.01; N=6) that also was abolished by the application of external carbonic anhydrase (delta pH=0.02+/-0.01). The origin of the expired water acid-base disequilibrium was investigated further in dogfish. Intravascular injection of acetazolamide (40 mg kg-1) to inhibit internal carbonic anhydrase activity non-specifically and thus CO2 excretion significantly diminished the extent of the expired water disequilibrium pH after 30 min (from -0.123+/-0.01 to -0.065+/-0.01; N=6). Selective inhibition of extracellular carbonic anhydrase activity using a low intravascular dose (1.3 mg kg-1) of the inhibitor benzolamide caused a significant reduction in the acid-base disequilibrium after 5 min (from -0.11+/-0.01 to -0.07+/-0. 01; N=14). These results demonstrate that the expired water acid-base disequilibrium originates, at least in part, from excretory CO2 and that extracellular carbonic anhydrase in dogfish may have a significant role in carbon dioxide excretion. However, externally oriented carbonic anhydrase (if present in dogfish) plays no role in catalysing the hydration of the excretory CO2 in water flowing over the gills and thus is unlikely to facilitate CO2 excretion.  (+info)

Prior protein intake may affect phenylalanine kinetics measured in healthy adult volunteers consuming 1 g protein. kg-1. d-1. (4/9550)

Study of the amino acid metabolism of vulnerable groups, such as pregnant women, children and patients, is needed. Our existing protocol is preceded by 2 d of adaptation to a low 13C formula diet at a protein intake of 1 g. kg-1. d-1 to minimize variations in breath 13CO2 enrichment and protein metabolism. To expand on our potential study populations, a less invasive protocol needs to be developed. We have already established that a stable background 13CO2 enrichment can be achieved on the study day without prior adaptation to the low 13C formula. Therefore, this study investigates phenylalanine kinetics in response to variations in prior protein intake. Healthy adult subjects were each fed nutritionally adequate mixed diets containing 0.8, 1.4 and 2.0 g protein. kg-1. d-1 for 2 d. On d 3, subjects consumed an amino acid-based formula diet containing the equivalent of 1 g protein. kg-1. d-1 hourly for 10 h and primed hourly oral doses of L-[1-13C]phenylalanine for the final 6 h. Phenylalanine kinetics were calculated from plasma-free phenylalanine enrichment and breath 13CO2 excretion. A significant quadratic response of prior protein intake on phenylalanine flux (P = 0.012) and oxidation (P = 0.009) was identified, such that both variables were lower following adaptation to a protein intake of 1.4 g. kg-1. d-1. We conclude that variations in protein intake, between 0.8 and 2.0 g. kg-1. d-1, prior to the study day may affect amino acid kinetics and; therefore, it is prudent to continue to control protein intake prior to an amino acid kinetics study.  (+info)

Role of a novel photosystem II-associated carbonic anhydrase in photosynthetic carbon assimilation in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. (5/9550)

Intracellular carbonic anhydrases (CA) in aquatic photosynthetic organisms are involved in the CO2-concentrating mechanism (CCM), which helps to overcome CO2 limitation in the environment. In the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, this CCM is initiated and maintained by the pH gradient created across the chloroplast thylakoid membranes by photosystem (PS) II-mediated electron transport. We show here that photosynthesis is stimulated by a novel, intracellular alpha-CA bound to the chloroplast thylakoids. It is associated with PSII on the lumenal side of the thylakoid membranes. We demonstrate that PSII in association with this lumenal CA operates to provide an ample flux of CO2 for carboxylation.  (+info)

Nitrate-dependent regulation of acetate biosynthesis and nitrate respiration by Clostridium thermoaceticum. (6/9550)

Nitrate has been shown to shunt the electron flow in Clostridium thermoaceticum from CO2 to nitrate, but it did not influence the levels of enzymes involved in the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway (J. M. Frostl, C. Seifritz, and H. L. Drake, J. Bacteriol. 178:4597-4603, 1996). Here we show that under some growth conditions, nitrate does in fact repress proteins involved in the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway. The CO oxidation activity in crude extracts of nitrate (30 mM)-supplemented cultures was fivefold less than that of nitrate-free cultures, while the H2 oxidation activity was six- to sevenfold lower. The decrease in CO oxidation activity paralleled a decrease in CO dehydrogenase (CODH) protein level, as confirmed by Western blot analysis. Protein levels of CODH in nitrate-supplemented cultures were 50% lower than those in nitrate-free cultures. Western blots analyses showed that nitrate also decreased the levels of the corrinoid iron-sulfur protein (60%) and methyltransferase (70%). Surprisingly, the decrease in activity and protein levels upon nitrate supplementation was observed only when cultures were continuously sparged. Northern blot analysis indicates that the regulation of the proteins involved in the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway by nitrate is at the transcriptional level. At least a 10-fold decrease in levels of cytochrome b was observed with nitrate supplementation whether the cultures were sparged or stoppered. We also detected nitrate-inducible nitrate reductase activity (2 to 39 nmol min-1 mg-1) in crude extracts of C. thermoaceticum. Our results indicate that nitrate coordinately represses genes encoding enzymes and electron transport proteins in the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway and activates transcription of nitrate respiratory proteins. CO2 also appears to induce expression of the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway genes and repress nitrate reductase activity.  (+info)

Glucose kinetics during prolonged exercise in highly trained human subjects: effect of glucose ingestion. (7/9550)

1. The objectives of this study were (1) to investigate whether glucose ingestion during prolonged exercise reduces whole body muscle glycogen oxidation, (2) to determine the extent to which glucose disappearing from the plasma is oxidized during exercise with and without carbohydrate ingestion and (3) to obtain an estimate of gluconeogenesis. 2. After an overnight fast, six well-trained cyclists exercised on three occasions for 120 min on a bicycle ergometer at 50 % maximum velocity of O2 uptake and ingested either water (Fast), or a 4 % glucose solution (Lo-Glu) or a 22 % glucose solution (Hi-Glu) during exercise. 3. Dual tracer infusion of [U-13C]-glucose and [6,6-2H2]-glucose was given to measure the rate of appearance (Ra) of glucose, muscle glycogen oxidation, glucose carbon recycling, metabolic clearance rate (MCR) and non-oxidative disposal of glucose. 4. Glucose ingestion markedly increased total Ra especially with Hi-Glu. After 120 min Ra and rate of disappearance (Rd) of glucose were 51-52 micromol kg-1 min-1 during Fast, 73-74 micromol kg-1 min-1 during Lo-Glu and 117-119 micromol kg-1 min-1 during Hi-Glu. The percentage of Rd oxidized was between 96 and 100 % in all trials. 5. Glycogen oxidation during exercise was not reduced by glucose ingestion. The vast majority of glucose disappearing from the plasma is oxidized and MCR increased markedly with glucose ingestion. Glucose carbon recycling was minimal suggesting that gluconeogenesis in these conditions is negligible.  (+info)

Differences in spontaneous breathing pattern and mechanics in patients with severe COPD recovering from acute exacerbation. (8/9550)

The aims of this study were to assess spontaneous breathing patterns in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) recovering from acute exacerbation and to assess the relationship between different breathing patterns and clinical and functional parameters of respiratory impairment. Thirty-four COPD patients underwent assessment of lung function tests, arterial blood gases, haemodynamics, breathing pattern (respiratory frequency (fR), tidal volume (VT), inspiratory and expiratory time (tI and tE), duty cycle (tI/ttot), VT/tI) and mechanics (oesophageal pressure (Poes), work of breathing (WOB), pressure-time product and index, and dynamic intrinsic positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEPi,dyn)). According to the presence (group 1) or absence (group 2) of Poes swings during the expiratory phase (premature inspiration), 20 (59%) patients were included in group 1 and 14 (41%) in group 2. Premature inspirations were observed 4.5+/-6.4 times x min(-1) (range 1-31), i.e. 20+/-21% (3.7-100%) of total fR calculated from VT tracings. In group 1 the coefficient of variation in VT, tE, tI/ttot, PEEPi,dyn, Poes and WOB of the eight consecutive breaths immediately preceding the premature inspiration was greater than that of eight consecutive breaths in group 2. There were no significant differences in the assessed parameters between the two groups in the overall population, whereas patients with chronic hypoxaemia in group 1 showed a more severe impairment in clinical conditions, mechanics and lung function than hypoxaemic patients in group 2. In spontaneously breathing patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease recovering from an acute exacerbation, detectable activity of inspiratory muscles during expiration was found in more than half of the cases. This phenomenon was not associated with any significant differences in anthropometric, demographic, physiological or clinical characteristics.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - Public-Private-People Partnership as a way to reduce carbon dioxide emissions fron residential development. AU - Kuronen, Matti. AU - Majamaa, Wisa. AU - Junnila, Seppo. AU - Niiranen, Ilkka. PY - 2010. Y1 - 2010. KW - carbon dioxide emissions. KW - energy system planning. KW - new residential developments. KW - public-private-people partnership (4P). KW - REB. KW - carbon dioxide emissions. KW - energy system planning. KW - new residential developments. KW - public-private-people partnership (4P). KW - REB. KW - carbon dioxide emissions. KW - energy system planning. KW - new residential developments. KW - public-private-people partnership (4P). KW - REB. UR - http://www.ijspm.vgtu.lt. U2 - 10.3846/ijspm.2010.15. DO - 10.3846/ijspm.2010.15. M3 - Article. VL - 14. SP - 200. EP - 216. JO - International Journal of Strategic Property Management. JF - International Journal of Strategic Property Management. SN - 1648-715X. ER - ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Assessing the effect of elevated carbon dioxide on soil carbon. T2 - A comparison of four meta-analyses. AU - Hungate, Bruce A.. AU - van Groenigen, Kees Jan. AU - Six, Johan. AU - Jastrow, Julie D.. AU - Luo, Yiqi. AU - de Graaff, Marie Anne. AU - van Kessel, Chris. AU - Osenberg, Craig W.. PY - 2009/7/15. Y1 - 2009/7/15. N2 - Soil is the largest reservoir of organic carbon (C) in the terrestrial biosphere and soil C has a relatively long mean residence time. Rising atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations generally increase plant growth and C input to soil, suggesting that soil might help mitigate atmospheric CO2 rise and global warming. But to what extent mitigation will occur is unclear. The large size of the soil C pool not only makes it a potential buffer against rising atmospheric CO2, but also makes it difficult to measure changes amid the existing background. Meta-analysis is one tool that can overcome the limited power of single studies. Four recent meta-analyses ...
ORNL DAAC: The results of published and unpublished experiments investigating the impacts of elevated carbon dioxide on the chemistry (nitrogen and lignin concentration) of leaf litter and the decomposition of plant tissues are assembled in a format appropriate for statistical meta-analysis of the effect of carbon dioxide.
Tools such as the carbon dioxide estimator tool from the UK Waste and Resources Action Programme (WRAP) and Aggregain have been developed to allow engineers to quantify and optimise carbon dioxide emissions associated with aggregate use. An extended WRAP tool methodology has been developed and is illustrated through assessing the relative carbon dioxide performance of different aggregate sourcing options for the large redevelopment project known as Masshouse, in the centre of Birmingham, UK. Previously unconsidered factors such as aggregate quality and highway congestion have been included. It is shown that significant reductions in carbon dioxide emissions can be achieved where site-derived demolition waste is reprocessed for use on site as a recycled aggregate and that relative haulage distances are of particular importance to overall carbon dioxide emissions. As these outcomes depend upon the distances to materials sources and sinks in Birmingham, it is concluded that the carbon dioxide ...
The Energy Information Administration (EIA) reported last week that, according to preliminary estimates, U.S. carbon dioxide emissions from burning fossil fuels decreased by 1.3 percent in 2006, from 5,955 million metric tons of carbon dioxide (MMTCO2) in 2005 to 5,877 MMTCO2 in 2006. Energy demand fell by 0.9%, resulting in a reduction of energy intensity (energy use per unit of GDP) by 4.2%, based on a GDP growth of 3.3%. Carbon dioxide intensity (CO2 emission per unit of GDP) fell by 4.5%. Emissions were driven lower by weather conditions that reduced the demand for heating and cooling services; higher energy prices for natural gas, motor gasoline, and electricity, that reduced energy demand; and the use of a less carbon-intensive fuel mix (more natural gas and non-carbon fuels) in the generation of electricity. Through 2006, total U.S. energy-related carbon dioxide emissions have grown by 17.9 percent since 1990. Energy-related carbon dioxide emissions account for over 80 percent of U.S. greenhouse
Numerous studies and laboratory experiments have shown that plants grown under higher carbon dioxide levels than at present do better - grow faster, bigger, use water more efficiently - than crops grown under atmospheric carbon dioxide levels. This is hardly surprising since most plants, including the progenitors of modern crop varieties, evolved at times when carbon dioxide levels on earth were much higher than today.. In a recent study, scientists examined a different question, how do crops fare under conditions of lower carbon dioxide, particularly carbon dioxide levels experienced during the most recent ice age.. The study in Global Change Biology examines the effect of lower carbon dioxide levels on plant growth. The researchers grew one type of wheat, wild barley, and two types of millet from seed to harvest in a controlled environment under two carbon dioxide levels, 180 parts per million (ppm), the level of carbon dioxide during the last glacial maximum, and 270 ppm, corresponding to the ...
Moving food around uses energy. Usually oil, a non-renewable fossil fuel, is burned in lorries, planes and cars when food is transported. This puts carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. As oil will run out one day, its use should be limited.. However, over in the UK, for example, only 9% of the carbon dioxide emissions related to food is from transport. Look at the chart on the right to see the other food-related contributions to carbon dioxide emission. Note that this pie chart has not included the carbon dioxide emissions involved in importing food to the UK! ...
The main reason for the relatively low specific value of carbon dioxide emissions in Stuttgart can be found in the conversion sector. Due to the very high percentage of nuclear energy (currently about 90 %), power generation contributes with only about 11 % to the total carbon dioxide emissions, even if power generation has a share of about 25 % in the total final energy consumption in Stuttgart ...
Potato (Solanum tuberosum L cv. Bintje) was exposed to ambient and elevated carbon dioxide (CO(2)), to ambient and elevated ozone (O(3)) and to elevated levels of both gases during two growing seasons, 1998 and 1999. Experiments in open-top chambers (OTC) were carried out in Finland, Sweden, Ireland, United Kingdom, Germany and Belgium and a FACE (Free Air Carbon dioxide Enrichment) experiment was carried out in Italy. In OTCs the plants were grown tinder ambient CO(2) concentrations or with 550 and 680 mul 1(-1) CO(2) alone or in combination with ambient or elevated 03 concentrations (target seasonal mean of 60 nl 1(-1) 8 h per day). In the FACE systems the plants were exposed to ambient or 550 mul 1(-1) CO(2). In the OTC experiments the reducing sugar content of potato tubers decreased significantly with increased concentration Of O(3). The starch content of potato tubers decreased, with negative impact on tuber quality, but the ascorbic acid concentration increased as a function of the AOT40 ...
Natural News) As if the conflicting information and endless debates about climate change and carbon dioxide levels were not confusing enough, a new study has found that carbon dioxide levels were actually much lower than previously believed during the last warm period on the planet, illustrating just how difficult it is to make conclusive statements about the topic.. Earths early Eocene period, also known as the Super Greenhouse period, was commonly believed to have concentration levels of carbon dioxide of as much as 2,000 parts per million (ppm). However, Dartmouth College researchers have discovered that it could have been less than 1,000 ppm - a difference of half! This could also mean that carbon dioxide is not the primary driver of planetary warming events, as other factors now have stronger weight on the final result.. To put this in perspective, the levels of carbon dioxide that are currently observed at the Mauna Loa Observatory of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration ...
Elevated carbon dioxide (CO2) has recently been shown to affect chemosensory and auditory behaviour, and activity levels of larval reef fishes, increasing their risk of predation. However, the mechanisms underlying these changes are unknown. Behavioural lateralization is an expression of brain functional asymmetries, and thus provides a unique test of the hypothesis that elevated CO2 affects brain function in larval fishes. We tested the effect of near-future CO2 concentrations (880 μatm) on behavioural lateralization in the reef fish, Neopomacentrus azysron. Individuals exposed to current-day or elevated CO2 were observed in a detour test where they made repeated decisions about turning left or right. No preference for right or left turns was observed at the population level. However, individual control fish turned either left or right with greater frequency than expected by chance. Exposure to elevated-CO2 disrupted individual lateralization, with values that were not different from a random ...
The increasing acidification of ocean waters caused by rising atmospheric carbon dioxide levels could rob sharks of their ability to sense the smell of food, a new study suggests.. Elevated carbon dioxide levels impaired the odor-tracking behavior of the smooth dogfish, a shark whose range includes the Atlantic Ocean off the eastern United States. Adult sharks significantly avoided squid odor after swimming in a pool of water treated with carbon dioxide. The carbon dioxide concentrations tested are consistent with climate forecasts for midcentury and 2100. The study suggests that predator-prey interactions in nature could be influenced by elevated carbon dioxide concentrations of ocean waters.. The sharks tracking behavior and attacking behavior were significantly reduced, said Danielle Dixson, an assistant professor in the School of Biology at the Georgia Institute of Technology in Atlanta. Sharks are like swimming noses, so chemical cues are really important for them in terms of finding ...
If deep-sea ocean sequestration becomes a common practice, long term effects will continue to be investigated to predict future scenarios of deep sea impacts by carbon dioxide.[21] Ocean sequestration of liquid carbon dioxide would not only impact deep-sea ecosystems, but in the long-run would begin to affect surface-water species.[21] It is estimated that organisms not fit for high carbon dioxide levels will begin to experience permanent effects at levels of 400/500ppm of carbon dioxide and/or shifts of 0.1-0.3 units in pH.[19] These levels of carbon dioxide are predicted to be met solely as a result of atmospheric carbon dioxide acidifying the surface waters over a matter of a century, without considering ocean sequestration effects.[19] Although the long-term effects are the most relevant to understand, they are also the most difficult to predict accurately due to the scale of the ocean and the diversity in species sensitivity to elevated carbon dioxide levels. Surface sea organisms have been ...
In the present paper, different Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA) models were developed to model the carbon dioxide emission by using time series data of forty-four years from 1972-2015. The performance of these developed models was assessed with the help of different selection measure criteria and the model having minimum value of these criteria considered as the best forecasting model. Based on findings, it has been observed that out of different ARIMA models, ARIMA (0, 2, 1) is the best fitted model in predicting the emission of carbon dioxide in Bangladesh. Using this best fitted model, the forecasted value of carbon dioxide emission in Bangladesh, for the year 2016, 2017 and 2018 as obtained from ARIMA (0, 2, 1) was obtained as 83.94657 Metric Tons, 89.90464 Metric Tons and 96.28557 Metric Tons respectively.
Mizumura, K.; Sato, J.; Kumazawa, T., 1986: Continuous recording of arterial pressure and carbon dioxide partial pressure and pressure carbon dioxide partial pressure and ph of the cerebrospinal fluid during acute exposure to low oxygen and high carbon dioxide partial pressure environment in dogs
article{reference_tag, author = Haroldo V. Ribeiro, Diego Rybski & Jürgen P. Kropp, title = Effects of changing population or density on urban carbon dioxide emissions, journal = Nature Communications, year = 2019, abstract = The question of whether urbanization contributes to increasing carbon dioxide emissions has been mainly investigated via scaling relationships with population or population density. However, these approaches overlook the correlations between population and area, and ignore possible interactions between these quantities. Here, we propose a generalized framework that simultaneously considers the effects of population and area along with possible interactions between these urban metrics. Our results significantly improve the description of emissions and reveal the coupled role between population and density on emissions. These models show that variations in emissions associated with proportionate changes in population or density may not only depend on the magnitude of ...
Graph and download economic data for Transportation Carbon Dioxide Emissions, LPG (Fuel Use) for Texas (EMISSCO2VHLACBTXA) from 1980 to 2017 about carbon dioxide emissions, used, fuels, transportation, TX, and USA.
Graph and download economic data for Coefficient for Industrial Carbon Dioxide Emissions, Residual Fuel for Massachusetts (EMISSCO2CRFICBMAA) from 1980 to 2017 about coefficient, carbon dioxide emissions, residual, fuels, MA, industry, and USA.
US energy-related carbon dioxide emissions declined by 2.8% in 2019 to 5,130 million metric tons, according to data in the US Energy Information Administrations Monthly Energy Review. Carbon dioxide emissions had increased by 2.9% in 2018, the only annual increase in the past 5 years.
The possible consequences of very high carbon dioxide concentrations in the earths early atmosphere have been investigated with a radiative-convective climate model. The early atmosphere would apparently have been stable against the onset of a runaway greenhouse (that is, the complete evaporation of the oceans) for carbon dioxide pressures up to at least 100 bars. A 10- to 20-bar carbon dioxide atmosphere, such as may have existed during the first several hundred million years of the earths history, would have had a surface temperature of approximately 85 degrees to 110 degrees C. The early stratosphere should have been dry, thereby precluding the possibility of an oxygenic prebiotic atmosphere caused by photodissociation of water vapor followed by escape of hydrogen to space. Earths present atmosphere also appears to be stable against a carbon dioxide-induced runaway greenhouse. ...
0011] According to an aspect of the invention, there is provided a carbon dioxide gas recovery device including: an absorption tower that is configured to introduce a carbon dioxide-containing gas containing carbon dioxide gas and a lean absorbent, bring the carbon dioxide-containing gas and the lean absorbent into contact with each other, and cause the absorbent to absorb carbon dioxide gas in the carbon dioxide-containing gas to generate a rich absorbent; and a regeneration tower that is configured to regenerate the lean absorbent by heating the rich absorbent supplied from the absorption tower to separate carbon dioxide gas from the rich absorbent, wherein the regeneration tower includes: a reboiler system that is configured to lead the absorbent from the regeneration tower, heat the led absorbent, and reintroduce the resultant absorbent into the regeneration tower; and a mixed gas cooling system that is configured to lead a mixed gas of carbon dioxide gas and a vapor fraction of a solute and ...
Carbon Dioxide Emissions have reached a record high over the year of 2018. New outlets everywhere are covering the alarming reports. To find out more about why 2018 has promoted rising carbon dioxide levels than ever before, check out the following links.. https://www.usatoday.com/story/news/world/2018/12/05/carbon-dioxide-earths-atmosphere-soars-highest-level-millions-years/2215508002/. https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2018/nov/22/climate-heating-greenhouse-gases-at-record-levels-says-un. ...
These global volcanic estimates are utterly dwarfed by carbon dioxide emissions from fossil fuel burning, cement production, gas flaring and land use changes; these emissions accounted for some 36,300 million metric tons of carbon dioxide in 2008, according to an international study published in the December 2009 issue of Nature Geoscience. Even if you take the highest estimate of volcanic carbon dioxide emissions, at 270 million metric tons per year, human-emitted carbon dioxide levels are more than 130 times higher than volcanic emissions.. Occasionally, scaled-down versions of the myth surface - for example, Volcanoes produce more carbon dioxide than the worlds cars and industries combined. The truth is that data from the Carbon Dioxide Information and Analysis Center of Oak Ridge National Laboratory and the International Energy Agency indicate that light-duty vehicles (cars, pickup trucks, SUVs, vans, wagons) contribute about 3,040 million metric tons of carbon dioxide per year, and ...
Meteorologists have determined exactly how much carbon dioxide humans can emit into the atmosphere while ensuring that the earth does not heat up by more than two degrees. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) calculated projected temperature changes for various scenarios in 2007 and researchers at the Max Planck Institute for Meteorology in Hamburg have now gone one step further: they have developed a new model that specifies the maximum volumes of carbon dioxide that humans may emit to remain below the critical threshold for climate warming of two degrees Celsius. To do this, the scientists incorporated into their calculations data relating to the carbon cycle, namely the volume of carbon dioxide absorbed and released by the oceans and forests. The aim of the international ENSEMBLES project is to simulate future changes in the global climate and carbon dioxide emissions and thereby to obtain more reliable threshold values on this basis. (Climatic Change, July 21, 2010). The ...
Theres striking new evidence that Earths atmosphere is increasingly saturated with carbon dioxide, the major gas from fossil fuel emissions that trigger climate change. The rise of carbon dioxide levels above 400 parts per million is an indicator that the problem of global warming is getting worse, not better, said Mark Z . Jacobson, a Stanford atmospheric scientist and environmental engineer, in an e-mail. Failure to convert will result in a growing risk of economic, social and political instability as warming and air pollution worsens while fossil-fuel prices rise.
One of the more difficult issues in the debate over policy to reduce carbon dioxide emissions is calculating the cost of a carbon dioxide constraint. In this paper, we calculate the cost of a carbon dioxide constraint in the production of electricity by modeling the replacement of coal generators with natural gas generators. We find: 1) Replacing coal generators with natural gas generators is the most economical way to achieve a target of reducing carbon dioxide emissions by 20 percent. 2) Unless there is a technological breakthrough in carbon sequestration, the carbon intensity of coal means that clean coal cannot be a significant factor in reducing carbon dioxide. Replacing existing coal generation capacity with modern coal generation plants can only reduce total carbon dioxide by 5 percent. 3) The distribution of the efficiency of coal generators in the United States is very concentrated. This concentration restricts the range over which carbon dioxide prices effectively manage the ...
List of Carbon Dioxide Emissions (Carbon Dioxide / Monoxide) companies, manufacturers and suppliers for the Oil, Gas and Refineries industry in Georgia (US) on Air and Climate - Environmental XPRT
Steadily increasing global atmospheric CO2 levels have been shown to affect important plant traits including growth and secondary (defensive) chemistry. This study used 10 maternal families of wild mustard, Brassica nigra, to investigate: 1) whether levels of carbon-based defenses (phenolics) increase and nitrogen-based defenses (protease inhibitors) decrease in Brassica nigra under elevated CO2, as predicted by the Carbon/Nutrient Balance Hypothesis; 2) whether B. nigra encounters nitrogen-based trade-offs between investment in chymotrypsin and trypsin inhibitors, or between investment in these chemical defenses and growth; 3) if so, whether trade-offs are more severe under elevated CO2; 4) whether elevated CO2 will affect the evolutionary potential of carbon-based and nitrogen-based chemical defenses. Results suggest that total biomass of Brassica nigra will increase under elevated CO2. In contrast to the predictions of the CNB Hypothesis, there was no evidence that levels of carbon-based defenses
Alternative Energy Guest Article… While skyrocketing carbon dioxide emissions get all of the attention, theres an equally grave ecological problem: ocean acidification. Ocean acidification is climate changes evil twin, and if we dont curb our carbon footprint, the damage on the marine ecosystem will be irreparable, notes ocean conservation group Oceana. Unbalanced pH Nearly 70 percent of the Earths surface is covered in water and, according to the U.S. Geological Survey, 96.5 percent of our planets water is held in the oceans. Nearly 30 percent of the carbon dioxide that pollutes…. Read More ...
Rising atmospheric carbon dioxide levels are bolstering plant life throughout the world, environmental scientists report in a newly published peer-reviewed study. The findings, published in Geophysical Research Letters, are gleaned from satellite measurements of global plant life, and contradict assertions by activists that global warming is causing deserts to expand, along with devastating droughts.. A team of scientists led by environmental physicist Randall Donohue, a research scientist at the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization in Australia, analyzed satellite data from 1982 through 2010. The scientists documented a carbon dioxide fertilization effect that has caused a gradual greening of the Earth, and particularly the Earths arid regions, since 1982. The satellite data showed rising carbon dioxide levels caused a remarkable 11 percent increase in foliage in arid regions since 1982, versus what would be the case if atmospheric carbon dioxide levels had remained ...
• The carbon dioxide gas is temporarily converted to carbonic acid in red blood cells by the enzyme carbonic anhydrase, and then further converted to hydrogen and bicarbonate ions. • The result of increased carbon dioxide is decreased pH causing the Bohr effect. • Elevated carbon dioxide levels enhance unbinding of oxygen from oxyhemoglobin thereby making oxygen available for actively metabolizing cells. • By contrast, decreased carbon dioxide, as in the alveolar spaces, increases affinity of hemoglobin for oxygen and promotes oxygen loading and transport. • To a limited degree, changes in temperature affect the association and dissociation of O2 with hemoglobin. • The oxygen carrying ability of hemoglobin is unaffected by normal temperatures. • Near metabolically active cells, blood temperature rises, increasing the thermal motion of molecules which promotes the unloading of O2 to continue fueling aerobic metabolism in the tissue cells. • When temperature lowers,
This documentary paints a clear picture to me that no matter what we do now as human beings, because of our release of massive amounts of carbon dioxide into our atmosphere, we will continue to move into an era of a hotter planet. This means higher sea levels and warmer temperatures globally. The documentary does not address the volatility of the weather and weather extremes, but from other research, reading, and both documentary viewing and podcast listening I understand thats also a piece of our future together.. About 33 minutes into the documentary, I loved the exploration which highlighted the temperature variability of our planet over the past 500 years.. At about 1 hour and 4 minutes, I loved the sequence and story of an incredible earth core sample taken from the middle of a Russian lake in the middle of the winter, and all that it revealed and confirmed about our planets climate history.. At about 1 hour and 25 minutes, the sequence of showing how carbon dioxide levels are measured ...
It has been suggested that antioxidants play a role in regulating or modulating senescence dynamics of plant tissues. Ethylene has been shown to promote early plant senescence while controlled atmospheres (CA; reduced O2 levels and elevated CO2 levels) can delay its onset and/or severity. In order to examine the possible importance of various antioxidants in the regulation of senescence, detached spinach ( Spinacia oleracea L.) leaves were stored for 35 d at 10 °C in one of three different atmospheres: (1) ambient air (0.3% CO2, 21.5% O2, 78.5% N2), (2) ambient air+10 ppm ethylene to promote senescence, or (3) CA (10% CO2, 0.8% O2 and 89.2% N2) to delay senescence. At weekly intervals, material was assessed for activities of the antioxidant enzymes ascorbate peroxidase (ASPX; EC, catalase (CAT; EC, dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR; EC, glutathione reductase (GR; EC, monodehydroascorbate reductase (MDHAR; EC, and superoxide dismutase (SOD; EC ...
If you give off carbon dioxide emissions, you may need to pay a carbon tax. In which case, it is reasonable to be paid to remove carbon dioxide from the atmosphere.. The latest report from the IPCC was clear. We need to drastically reduce emissions of greenhouse gases already today if global climate targets are to be achievable. One way to reduce the amount of carbon dioxide in the air and raised in the report is to use so called negative emissions, that is to say, in one way or other, to be able to suck the carbon dioxide out of the atmosphere and store it.. One way of doing this is to cultivate vegetation that uses carbon dioxide from the air to grow. If you then burn this vegetation, you can produce district heating and electricity, but you can also get carbon dioxide emissions, the same amount as the vegetation has locked in. But if instead of releasing the carbon dioxide, it can be captured and stored, you will then have created a carbon sink. You can also convert vegetation into biochar, ...
A consortium led by VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland has developed a new technology that captures the carbon dioxide emissions of power plants more economically and ecologically. The International Energy Agency IEA regards carbon dioxide capture as essential if the emission reduction targets set for greenhouse gases are to be met.
TY - GEN. T1 - Policies for effective trading scheme to reduce carbon dioxide emissions. AU - Wong, Kaufui V.. AU - Plackemeier, John. PY - 2010/12/1. Y1 - 2010/12/1. N2 - The World Bank and the Intergovernmental panel on climate change have concluded that human activities such as fossil fuel combustion have caused higher average temperatures, more violent weather patterns and higher sea levels. Governments, politicians and corporations have started to take steps to curb emissions of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases to reduce its imbalance in the atmosphere, and in so doing, diminish the impacts it will have in the near future. While these parties have recognized the importance of significantly reducing emissions in the coming decades, there are currently no policies in the USA to accomplish these goals. At the same time that the need to reduce emissions become more and more apparent, the realization that the worlds current economy is highly carbon-dependent and that shifting to ...
South Surrey, British Columbia-based Mantra Energy Alternatives has reached an agreement with Lafarge Canada to deploy an electrochemical reduction technology at its No. 9 Road cement plant in Richmond, B.C., as part of a pilot project. The technology will convert carbon dioxide emissions into useful chemicals, such as formic acid and formate salts.. This will be the first pilot plant of its kind in the world, said Mantras Vice President Patrick Dodd in a press release. If the system works as advertised it could be deployed at all of Lafarges facilities.. The pilot plant will convert 100 kg/day of carbon dioxide emitted from the cement plant into concentrated formate salts. Mantra plans to use the formic acid for use in its patented fuel cells, which it bills as a significantly less expensive fuel cell with greater power density.. Colin Oloman and Hui Li of the Clean Energy Research Centre developed the technology at the University of British Columbia. Mantra Venture Group then purchased it ...
Fossil fuel combustion is the primary anthropogenic source of both CO2 and Hg to the atmosphere. On a global scale, most Hg that enters ecosystems is derived from atmospheric Hg that deposits onto the land surface. Increasing concentrations of atmospheric CO2 may affect Hg deposition to terrestrial systems and storage in soils through CO(2)-mediated changes in plant and soil properties. We show, using free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE) experiments, that soil Hg concentrations are almost 30% greater under elevated atmospheric CO2 in two temperate forests. There were no direct CO2 effects, however, on litterfall, throughfall or stemflow Hg inputs. Soil Hg was positively correlated with percent soil organic matter (SOM), suggesting that CO(2)-mediated changes in SOM have influenced soil Hg concentrations. Through its impacts on SOM, elevated atmospheric CO2 may increase the Hg storage capacity of soils and modulate the movement of Hg through the biosphere. Such effects of rising CO2, ones that ...
Russell Long, executive director of the Bluewater Network, a San Francisco-based environmental group that proposed the bill, said some states are regulating carbon dioxide emissions from power plants. But no other state has tried to control carbon dioxide from autos, he said ...
growth and gas-exchange of three C4 species differing in CO2 leak rates. Physiol. Plant. 105: 74-80. Sicher, R. C. 1999. Photosystem-II activity is decreased by yellowing of barley primary leaves during growth in elevated carbon dioxide. Int. J. Plant Sci. 160: 849-854. Sicher, R. C. and Bunce, J. A. 1999. Photosynthetic enhancement and conductance to water vapor of field-grown Solanum tuberosum (L.) in response to CO2 enrichment. Photosyn. Res. 62: 155-163. Sicher, R. C. and Bunce J.A. 1999. Protein adjustments in wheat flag leaves in response to atmospheric CO2 enrichment. In: Photosynthesis: Mechanisms and Effects. Proceedings of the XI International Congress on Photosynthesis, G. Garab, ed., Kluwer Academic Publishers, The Hague, vol. V, 4744 pp. (Conference Proceeding). Bunce, J. A. and Sicher, R. C. Water stress and day-to-day variation in apparent photosynthetic acclimation of field-grown soybeans to elevated carbon dioxide concentration. Photosynthetica 39: 95-101. 2001 ...
Downloadable (with restrictions)! We use a model of domestic and international tourist numbers and flows to estimate the impact of the recent and proposed changes in the Air Passenger Duty (APD) of the United Kingdom. We look at four different scenarios (abolishing the APD, keeping the 2001 APD level, the 2007 APD and the Conservative Partys Green Miles proposal) using base, high and very high elasticity levels as well as assumptions about the substitutability between domestic and international holidays and the effects of a carbon tax. We find that the recent doubling of the APD has the perverse effect of increasing carbon dioxide emissions, albeit only slightly, because it reduces the relative price difference between near and far holidays. Tourists arriving into the UK would fall slightly. The number of tourists travelling from the UK would fall in the countries near to the UK, and this drop would be only partly offset by displaced tourists from the UK. Tourists leaving the UK for countries further
We wanted to know how cassava copes with elevated carbon dioxide, said RIPE Deputy Director Donald Ort, Robert Emerson Professor of Crop Sciences and Plant Biology at Illinois Carl R. Woese Institute for Genomic Biology. Sometimes, plants cannot make use of extra carbohydrates, which then triggers the plant to down-regulate photosynthesis. We found cassava could maintain photosynthetic efficiency and nutritional quality.. To take in carbon dioxide, plants open tiny pores in their leaves (called stomata) that allow water to exit through transpiration. This study found that when carbon dioxide levels increase from 400 to 600 ppm, cassava leaves could conserve 58 percent more water on average by optimizing stomatal conductance, which is the rate that carbon enters compared to water exiting the leaf.. Cassavas natural ability to produce high yields with little water is part of what makes this crop a staple in drought-prone regions across sub-Saharan Africa, said co-author Amanda De Souza, a ...
Problem  Clean natural environment is a public good  Environmental pollution generates complex external effects  Housing causes 15 % of total CO 2 Emission in Germany  External effects especially carbon dioxide emissions caused by residential heating and air- conditioning have to be internalised  Therefore residents in the European Union are living in a carbon-constrained world (e.g. European Energy Performance of Buildings Directive EPBD)  Internalisation of the external effects comes at a cost, both politically and economically  Most common recommendation in environmental economics: polluters pay a fee based on the volume of pollution they create (polluter-pays-principle)  However, it is not always possible to identify the polluter  If possible, it is not always economical feasible to refinance investments in order to reduce greenhouse gas emissions  Needed: financial burden-sharing model between owners, occupants and the public  Analysis and data based on housing
Carbon dioxide levels have risen so much in the last 150 years that plant pores, which plants effectively breathe through have decreased in size by up to 34%. As a result plants are restricted in the amount of water vapor that they release into the atmosphere.
A senior scientist at NOAAs Global Monitoring Laboratory, Pieter Tans, said that if there had not been an economic slowdown, it would have been the highest increase on record. As things current stand, the carbon dioxide levels in the atmosphere are at a point comparable to the Mid-Pliocene Warm Period, when the temperature was 7 degrees hotter and the sea level was roughly 78 feet higher than today ...
A normal carbon dioxide level for humans is 23 to 29 milliequivalents per liter, states MedlinePlus. CO2 is primarily found in the form of bicarbonate. A b
Data & statistics on Carbon Dioxide Emissions per Unit of GDP: CO2 Emissions per Unit of GDP in 2020, EU-25 CO2 Emissions per Unit of GDP - Scenario Comparison, Development of CO2 emissions per unit of GDP in the period 2000-2050...
TY - PAT. T1 - Sensor for measuring carbon dioxide levels in gases or liquids comprises a basic acceptor which is a polybasic inorganic anion or an organic anion. AU - Klimant, Ingo. AU - Brinz, Thomas. AU - Lewis, Jane. AU - Apostolidis, Athanas. AU - Wolfbeis, Otto. N1 - Anmelder: Robert Bosch GmbH;. PY - 2007/9/14. Y1 - 2007/9/14. M3 - Patent. M1 - CH 696675 A5. ER - ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Physiological responses of three species of unionid mussels to intermittent exposure to elevated carbon dioxide. AU - Hannan, Kelly D.. AU - Jeffrey, Jennifer D.. AU - Hasler, Caleb T.. AU - Suski, Cory D.. PY - 2016. Y1 - 2016. N2 - Freshwater systems are at risk owing to increasing carbon dioxide (CO2) levels, and one of the possible reasons for these elevations is the deployment of non-physical fish barriers to prevent invasive fish movements. Carbon dioxide barriers have the potential to create short, chronic and intermittent exposures of CO2 for surrounding freshwater biota. Although intermittent exposures to a stressor may be more ecologically relevant, the majority of laboratory tests use chronic or short-term time periods to determine how organisms will respond to an environmental stressor. Measurements of the physiological responses of three species of unionid mussel, giant floaters (Pyganodon grandis), threeridge (Amblema plicata) and plain pocketbook (Lampsilis ...
Effect of supercritical carbon dioxide on micro-mechanical properties of electrodesposited goldEffect of supercritical carbon dioxide on micro-mechanical properties of electrodesposited gold ...
Effects of Probiotic Additions to Feed and Manure on Temperature, Humidity, and Carbon Dioxide Emissions in Hanwoo Manure during Summer - A Field Study - Probiotics;Temperature;Humidity;Carbon dioxide emission;Feed;Hanwoo manure;
TY - JOUR. T1 - Highly porous organic nanoparticles formed from supercritical carbon dioxide mediated sol-emulsion-gel method. AU - Lee, Jun Young. AU - Kim, Jung Hyun. PY - 2004/5/5. Y1 - 2004/5/5. N2 - Highly porous organic nanoparticles have been prepared by adapting a novel method, sol-emulsion-gel process, through stable dispersion of nanometer-scaled emulsion droplets into continuous phase of supercritical carbon dioxide (ScCO2), sol-gel chemistry in emulsion droplets, and then supercritical drying. This principle offers faithful preparation of nanoparticles (35-90 nm in diameter) having pores of 1-3 nm in radius and high specific surface area (over 2000 m2/g).. AB - Highly porous organic nanoparticles have been prepared by adapting a novel method, sol-emulsion-gel process, through stable dispersion of nanometer-scaled emulsion droplets into continuous phase of supercritical carbon dioxide (ScCO2), sol-gel chemistry in emulsion droplets, and then supercritical drying. This principle offers ...
Relationship between serum total carbon dioxide concentration and bicarbonate concentration in patients undergoing hemodialysis - Acid base balance;Bicarbonate;Hemodialysis;Serum total carbon dioxide
Subcutaneous carbon dioxide insufflations popular in Central und Eastern Europe are a safe and inexpensive treatment modality in complementary medicine and are used mainly in musculoskeletal pain and vascular conditions. However, no rigorous trial exists on their efficacy.. The study is designed as a double blind sham controlled randomized trial to evaluate whether patients with acute non specific neck pain get pain free sooner, if treated with subcutaneous carbon dioxide insufflations compared to sham ultrasound.Since acute non specific neck pain is often self limiting, speed of recovery rather than outcome at fixed points in time is evaluated.. Participants receive either a maximum number of 9 subcutaneous carbon dioxide insufflations or a maximum number of 9 sham ultrasound administered by 4 therapists in a randomized order, thrice weekly. Carbon dioxide gas is insufflated subcutaneously at the locations of neck muscle tenderness. Per tender location 25 ml carbon dioxide gas is ...
Investigators evaluate the effect of patient position (Trendelenburg and reverse Trendelenburg) on arterial, end-tidal and transcutaneous carbon dioxide partial pressure in patients undergoing laparoscopic surgery. Arterial carbon dioxide partial pressure is assessed intermittently before, during, and after pneumoperitoneum. End-tidal and transcutaneous carbon dioxide partial pressure are continuously monitored ...
Background. There may be significant difference between measurement of end-tidal carbon dioxide partial pressure (PetCO(2)) and arterial carbon dioxide partial pressure (PaCO2) during one-lung ventilation with low tidal volume for thoracic surgeries. Transcutaneous carbon dioxide partial pressure (PtcCO(2)) monitoring can be used continuously to evaluate PaCO2 in a noninvasive fashion. In this study, we compared the accuracy between PetCO(2) and PtcCO(2) in predicting PaCO2 during prolonged one-lung ventilation with low tidal volume for thoracic surgeries.. Methods. Eighteen adult patients who underwent thoracic surgeries with one-lung ventilation longer than two hours were included in this study. Their PetCO(2), PtcCO(2), and PaCO2 values were collected at five time points before and during one-lung ventilation. Agreement among measures was evaluated by Bland-Altman analysis.. Results. Ninety sample sets were obtained. The bias and precision when PtcCO(2) and PaCO2 were compared were 4.1 +/- ...
Bush/ shrub encroachment is a great concern for rangeland managers in southern African savannas, especially because there is still no consensus about the main mechanisms behind the spread of woody species at the expense of grasses. Although much work has been done on the effects of fire, grazing, water and nutrient availability on rangeland productivity, the role of climate change, namely changes in CO2 concentrations and rainfall, and their potential interaction with manageable factors, such as grazing and fire, is not understood. This study focuses on investigating the combined role of elevated CO2, drought and land use on the balance between shrubs and grasses in southern African savannas. We used a climate gradient in Namibia, to set up experiments at a nested scale of realism and detail. I conducted semi-controlled to more controlled experiments in Germany, in the greenhouse and climate chambers, respectively. Here, the intention was to investigate how tree-grass interactions at a seedling ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Does greening of neotropical cities considerably mitigate carbon dioxide emissions? The case of Medellin, Colombia. AU - Reynolds, Carley C.. AU - Escobedo, Francisco J.. AU - Clerici, Nicola. AU - Zea-Camaño, Jorge. PY - 2017. Y1 - 2017. N2 - Cities throughout the world are advocating highly promoted tree plantings as a climate change mitigation measure. Assessing the carbon offsets associated with urban trees relative to other climate change policies is vital for sustainable development, planning, and solving environmental and socio-economic problems, but is difficult in developing countries. We estimated and assessed carbon dioxide (CO2) storage, sequestration, and emission offsets by public trees in the Medellin Metropolitan Area, Colombia, as a viable Nature-Based Solution for the Neotropics. While previous studies have discussed nature-based solutions and explored urban tree carbon dynamics in high income countries, few have been conducted in tropical cities in ...
Although increased concentrations of CO2 stimulate photosynthesis, this stimulation is often lost during prolonged exposure to elevated carbon dioxide, leading to an attenuation of the potential gain in yield. Under these conditions, a wide variety of species accumulates non-structural carbohydrates in leaves. It has been proposed that starch accumulation directly inhibits photosynthesis, that the rate of sucrose and starch synthesis limits photosynthesis, or that accumulation of sugars triggers changes in gene expression resulting in lower activities of Rubisco and inhibition of photosynthesis. To distinguish these explanations, transgenic plants unable to accumulate transient starch due to leaf mesophyll-specific antisense expression of AGP B were grown at ambient and elevated carbon dioxide. There was a positive correlation between the capacity for starch synthesis and the rate of photosynthesis at elevated CO2 concentrations, showing that the capability to synthesize leaf starch is essential for
The need is pressing to investigate soil CO2(carbon dioxide) emissions and soil organic carbon dynamics under water-saving irrigation practices in agricultural systems for exploring the potentials...
The solubility of heptanoic acid and octanoic acid in supercritical carbon dioxide has been determined at temperatures of (313.15, 323.15, and 333.15) K over a pressure range of (8.5 to 30.0) MPa, depending upon the solute. The solubility of heptanoic acid ranged from a solute concentration of (0.08 ± 0.03) kg • m -3 (T = 323.15 K, p = 8.5 MPa) to (147 ± 0.2) kg • m -3 (T = 323.15 K, p = 20.0 MPa). The lowest octanoic acid solubility obtained was a solute concentration of (0.40 ± 0.1) kg • m -3 (T = 333.15 K, p = 10.0 MPa), while the highest solute concentration was (151 ± 2) kg • m -3 (T = 333.15 K, p = 26.7 MPa). In addition, solubility experiments were performed for nonanoic acid in supercritical carbon dioxide at 323.15 K and pressures of (10.0 to 30.0) MPa to add to the solubility data previously published by the authors. In general, carboxylic acid solubility increased with increasing solvent density. The results also showed that the solubility of the solutes decreased with ...
Rice has won a $3.3 million Department of Energy grant to develop a method to convert natural gas into carbon nanotubes for materials that can replace metals in large-scale applications. The goal is to save energy and stem carbon dioxide emissions from metal manufacturing while concurrently generating clean hydrogen and fixing fossil-sourced carbon in solid materials.
Capturing carbon dioxide under the cryogenic conditions has attracted more attention in the industrial applications. Despite of several large scale studies, the cryogenic carbon dioxide capture has not been well studied for the small scale power generation systems. In this study, a cryogenic carbon dioxide system is proposed for the small scale applications. The liquid carbon dioxide is collected in the liquefied natural gas vaporizer during the regasification process. The proposed design is simulated for the 30, 65, and 200 kW microturbines. In addition to the liquid carbon dioxide, the condensed water and the gas mixture of nitrogen-oxygen are collected as the byproducts of the system. The best carbon dioxide capture ratio is aimed with the minimum energy losses since the generated power rate is a key criterion. The proposed systems are evaluated according to the thermodynamic, environmental, and enviroeconomic perspectives. From the viewpoint of thermodynamics, the systems are found feasible ...
An end tidal carbon dioxide addition device coupling to a nasal cannula used on patients under general anesthesia or sedated, to continuously measure the carbon dioxide content of the expired breath. A first embodiment device has a body a pair of nasal ducts with clips to attach to a nasal cannula. A pair of oral ducts collects exhaled oral gases which are combined with the nasal gasses to be analyzed for tidal carbon dioxide content. A pair of posts adjacent the oral ducts stabilize the device on a sedated patient. A second embodiment integrates a nasal cannula with the body to provide an economical disposable device and substitutes a flattened region with an array of apertures for the oral ducts.
Power plants in Texas are among those that lead the nation in emissions that contribute to global warming and pollution, according to a new report.. The report, Benchmarking Air Emmissions, compiled by M.J. Bradley & Associates, a Massachusetts energy consulting firm, examines air emissions from plants owned by the top 100 merchant power companies in the U.S. Houstons Exelon is fourth; NRG Energy is eighth; Calpine Corp. is tenth and Dynegy is eleventh. Many power plants, particularly those that are coal-fired, produce sulfur dioxide, carbon dioxide, mercury and nitrogen oxides, which contribute to pollution, global warming and respiratory problems. As of 2015, power plants accounted for more than half of the sulfur dioxide emissions in the U.S. and 38 percent of the carbon dioxide emissions, according to the study.. Most the countrys emissions from power plants came from a handful of the top companies - nearly a quarter of the power industrys sulfur dioxide and carbon dioxide emissions ...
Look! Oatly cartons come with carbon dioxide …. We made a nice webpage all about the carbon dioxide equivalents were sticking on the front of our packages and why we want the food industry to join us. Hey food industry! Show us your nuers. Now, the one problem with all these nuers is they dont really 7 surprising things about the carbon footprint of your food. 2018/6/13· Everything we buy has a carbon footprint and food is no exception. Yearly, we produce five billion tonnes of carbon dioxide equivalent from crop and livestock production. From seed to mouth, it can be easy to forget how much in terms of production goes into our Carbon Dioxide and Nitrogen , Food Storage FAQ, …. Carbon dioxide (CO 2) and nitrogen (N 2) are commonly used in packaging both fresh and shelf-stable foods, in order to extend their shelf lives. Fresh foods are outside the scope of this work so attention shall be focused on those foods suitable for use in storage. Carbon dioxide emissions still rising in the Vale ...
The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of increasing the atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide on plant growth and leaf rust severity (caused by Hemileia vastatrix) on coffee (Coffea arabica). The Obata IAC 1669-20 and Catuai Vermelho IAC 144 cultivars, moderately resistant and susceptible to the disease, respectively, were used. The treatments consisted of 400 and 508 mu mol mol(-1) atmospheric CO2, in two types of open-top chambers (OTC). Plants of the two cultivars, grown in OTCs with addition of CO2, showed increased leaf area, and increased growth rate of height and stem diameter, in comparison with plants in OTCs with ambient CO2 concentration; however, the cultivars did not differ for leaf-wax content. On Catuai Vermelho IAC 144, rust severity reduced at increased CO2 concentration, for number of lesions, lesioned leaf area, number of sporulated lesions, sporulated leaf area, percentage of lesioned area, and area under disease progress curve; however, on Obata ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Modeling of diffusivities in supercritical carbon dioxide using a linear solvation energy relationship. AU - Wang, Tao. AU - Wang, Xiuyun. AU - Smith, Richard L.. PY - 2005/8/1. Y1 - 2005/8/1. N2 - A linear solvation energy relationship (LSER) method was used to develop a predictive model for the diffusivities of organic solutes in supercritical CO2 at infinite dilution. The LSER model was based on the diffusivities of 18 solutes and 104 data points for sc-CO2 in the range of 32-60°C and 8-100 MPa. The independent variables in the model were empirically determined descriptors of the solute molecules and the dipolarity/polarizability of CO2 at a given density. The model was tested for prediction accuracy by using the diffusivities of 10 solutes not included in the database. The model provided relative deviations less than 10% in the correlation and prediction of the diffusivities in supercritical CO 2 of the organic solutes considered. The accuracy of the proposed LSER model is ...
Synopsis During the late Pliocene and early Pleistocene Series of the Cenozoic Era, 3.6 to 2.2 Ma (million years ago), the Arctic was much warmer than it is at the present day (with summer temperatures from 3.6-3.4 Ma some 8oC warmer than today). That is a key finding of research into a lake-sediment core obtained in Eastern Siberia, which is of exceptional importance because it has provided the longest continuous late Cenozoic land-based sedimentary record thus far. The sedimentary sequence dates from recent times back to 3.6 Ma when the lake was formed by a large extraterrestrial impact. During the warm period, atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations were close to those of today, at around 400 parts per million, indicative of a strong climate sensitivity signal in the Arctic, which has again warmed very rapidly in recent decades. The lake sediment record has thus provided us with a snapshot of how the Arctic may look in the near future.
Carbon Capture and Storage: Carbon Dioxide Pressure Dissipates in Underground Reservoirs, Study Shows. The debate surrounding carbon capture and storage intensifies as scientists from the Earth Sciences Division at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) examine the capacity for storing carbon dioxide underground, in a study published today in the new journal Greenhouse Gases: Science & Technology.. The study debates some of the conclusions drawn in an earlier study by Ehlig-Economides and Economides1, countering their claims that carbon dioxide cannot feasibly be stored underground. These earlier findings, according to the Berkeley Lab researchers, only considered closed-system subsurface formations, with limited mechanisms for relieving the pressure.. Carbon capture and storage (CCS) is controversial in the eyes of the general public. Pressure build-up in the subsurface induced by the injection of carbon dioxide from industrial-scale projects is a key constraint for the amount ...
RH Alasbahi , The present paper deals with a literature review of the different aspects of supercritical carbon dioxide extraction (SFE). It summarized the general properties of SFE as an advanced and excellent alternative to conventional extractions methods, as well as the advantage and disadvantage of using supercritical CO2 as an environmentally safe and effective solvent. The study also covered the different applications of SFE in food and pharmaceutical processing, and to extract valuable compounds with bioactivities such as antioxidant, antitumor and antibacterial from plant species as well as to produce valuable compounds form industry by-products and new functional ingredients that can be used by the food industry. The study also highlighted the use of SFE in food safety and environmental protection such as the detection/quantification as well as the removal of food and environmental pollutants.. ...
0057]Use of a carbon dioxide supplying means for muscle strengthening in accordance with the present invention is not particularly limited as long as it allows a living body to absorb carbon dioxide. However, a local absorption means is preferred. An example of the carbon dioxide supplying means for allowing a living body to absorb carbon dioxide may include the followings. [0058](1) A composition for preparing carbon dioxide agents for external use, for example, carbon dioxide agents for external use obtained from the following a) and b): a) a composition for preparing a carbon dioxide agent for external use characterized by comprising a substance generating an acid after being hydrolyzed, a carbonate, a thickener, and water as essential components, and further comprising a gelating agent being gelated by calcium ion, and a water-insoluble or poorly-soluble calcium salt (National Publication of International Patent Application No. 2006/80398), or b) a composition for preparing a carbon dioxide ...
The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of the gas: liquid ratio (GLR) on carbon dioxide removal and heat loss across a forced-ventilated trickling filter (TF) used as bioreactor. The effect of 8 different GLRs (1.2-15.7) on carbon dioxide removal and heat loss from water passing a trickling filter were tested in random order. The TF was part of a pilot scale fresh water intensive recirculating aquaculture system and had a media bed height of 1.8 m, a diameter of 0.9 m, a specific surface area of 200 m2/m3 and was operated at a fixed hydraulic surface load of 9.42 m3/m2.h, a mean inlet water temperature of 27.0-27.5 °C, and a mean inlet pH ranging from 7.02-7.12. For each GLR, CO2 removal from water was calculated from CO2 measurements in the inlet and outlet air of the TF using an online infrared probe (developed for agriculture and greenhouses) and from 12 water measurements done once every 3 h during 2 subsequent days. The water inlet CO2 concentrations varied between ...
A theory for the ocean-atmosphere partitioning of anthropogenic carbon dioxide on centennial timescales is presented. The partial pressure of atmospheric CO2 (PCO2) is related to the external CO2 input (Δ∑C) at air-sea equilibrium by: PCO2 = 280 ppm exp(Δ∑C/[IA + IO/R]), where IA, IO, and R are the pre-industrial values of the atmospheric CO2 inventory, the oceanic dissolved inorganic carbon inventory, and the Revelle buffer factor of seawater, respectively. This analytical expression is tested with two- and three-box ocean models, as well as for a version of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology general circulation model (MIT GCM) with a constant circulation field, and found to be valid by at least 10% accuracy for emissions lower than 4500 GtC. This relationship provides the stable level that PCO2 reaches for a given emission size, until atmospheric carbon is reduced on weathering timescales. On the basis of the MIT GCM, future carbon emissions must be restricted to a total of 700 ...
Enzymes have been used in supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2) rather than in the conventional media to make enzyme reactions greener. This review introduces some enzymatic asymmetric synthesis in scCO2 such as esterification by a lipase and reduction by an alcohol dehydrogenase. A carboxylation by a decarbo
TY - JOUR. T1 - Selective extraction of phospholipids from whey protein phospholipid concentrate using supercritical carbon dioxide and ethanol as a co-solvent. AU - Sprick, B.. AU - Linghu, Z.. AU - Amamcharla, J. K.. AU - Metzger, L. E.. AU - Smith, J. S.. N1 - Funding Information: We thank Midwest Dairy Foods Research Center (St. Paul, MN) for their financial support. This project is Kansas State Research and Extension contribution number 18-150-J. This work was partially supported by the USDA National Institute of Food and Agriculture, Hatch project 1014344. PY - 2019/12. Y1 - 2019/12. N2 - In recent years, using dairy phospholipids (PL) as functional ingredients has increased because PL have nutritional benefits and functional properties. In this study, a novel 2-step supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) process was used to extract whey protein phospholipid concentrate (WPPC), a dairy co-product obtained during the manufacture of whey protein isolate, for PL enrichment. In the first step, ...
Jennifer Wilcox, the University of Pennsylvanias new Presidential Distinguished Professor of Chemical Engineering and Energy Policy, is one of the worlds leading experts on carbon capture. While reducing carbon dioxide emissions is the prime goal in addressing the planets mounting climate crisis, the problem now must be addressed on both sides by removing carbon that has already been released into the atmosphere.. To that end, Wilcox played a key role in the publication of a free, digital publication on the subject. This Carbon Dioxide Removal Primer is written to reach a broad audience in an effort to maximize the adoption of these techniques.. Avoiding carbon and actively removing it from the atmosphere on the scale of gigatons will ultimately be required for meeting our climate goals, says Wilcox. It is my hope that this primer will help in creating the human capital required to meet this gigaton-scale challenge.. Wilcox, who has appointments in the Kleinman Center for Energy Policy, ...
A. Generally. By this regulation, the Virginia Racing Commission prohibits the feeding or administration to a horse on race day of any bicarbonate-containing substance or other alkalinizing substance that effectively alters the serum or plasma pH or concentration of bicarbonates or carbon dioxide in the horse. B. Test values. A serum or plasma total carbon dioxide level exceeding 37.0 millimoles per liter constitutes a positive test. C. Testing procedure. The stewards or commission veterinarian may, at their discretion and at any time, order the collection of test samples from any horses present within the enclosure for determination of serum or plasma pH or concentration of bicarbonate, carbon dioxide, or electrolytes. Preracing testing or post-race testing may be done at a time and manner directed by the commission veterinarian. Whether prerace or post-race, the sample shall consist of at least two blood tubes taken from the horse to determine the serum total carbon dioxide concentration. If ...
This Tutorial Review focuses on supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2), and discusses some of the problems that have frustrated its wide use on an industrial scale. It gives some recent examples where strategies have been developed to reduce the energy requirements, including sequential reactions and gas-expan Green Chemistry
This page includes the following topics and synonyms: End-Tidal CO2, End-Tidal pCO2, EtCO2, End Tidal Carbon Dioxide, End-Tidal CO2 Concentration, Expired Carbon Dioxide Concentration, Capnography, End Tidal Carbon Dioxide Tension, Capnometry, Infrared Capnography.
Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Brayton cycles can be used in conjunction with a host of heat sources associated with different magnitudes of net power generation. In this paper, the overall design features of the turbomachinery, namely the turbine and compressor are evaluated for kilowatt to Gigawatt range of net cycle power using a commercial design tool - AxSTREAM®. The thermodynamic cycle considered in all cases is a simple recuperated Brayton cycle with turbine and compressor inlet temperatures of 540 °C and 45 °C respectively. The highest and lowest pressures in the cycle are 210 bar and 85 bar respectively. The preliminary design is carried out using an inverse algorithm with a meanline solver that generates many geometries for the given boundary conditions using standard loss correlations to account for different losses in turbomachines. It, thus, provides the general design features of the compressor and turbine which include - machine size, shaft speed at design point, overall ...
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Mass transfer studies on the dehydration of supercritical carbon dioxide using dense polymeric membranes. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
The removal of excess water from organic materials, specifically distillers grains, employing the use of supercritical carbon dioxide. The method includes the use of a heat exchanger system which is a
Phytantriol-based organogels as a new type of immobilisation matrix were tested for their potential application as solid-phase catalysts with both isooctane and supercritical carbon dioxide as external solvents. It was shown that Mucor miehei lipase immobilised in such organogels is capable of catalysing the esterification of 1-propanol and lauric acid in both solvents. In order to determine the operational stability of the immobilised lipase in phytantriol-based organogels, reuse experiments were conducted in isooctane. They showed that the catalytic activity is quite well preserved despite the fact that a loss of phytantriol occurs due to its extraction from the gel ...
TY - GEN. T1 - A Novel Process for the Production of Polyolefins in Supercritical Carbon Dioxide. AU - Kemmere, M.F.. AU - Vries, de, T.J.. AU - Vorstman, M.A.G.. AU - Keurentjes, J.T.F.. PY - 2000. Y1 - 2000. M3 - Conference contribution. SP - 122. EP - 125. BT - 1st European Conference Reaction Engineering of Polyolefins. CY - Lyon. T2 - conference; 1st European Conference Reaction Engineering of Polyolefins; 2000-07-03; 2000-07-06. Y2 - 3 July 2000 through 6 July 2000. ER - ...
Author: Pandey, S. et al.; Genre: Journal Article; Published in Print: 2002-02-21; Title: The photophysics of 6-(1-pyrenyl)hexyl-11(1-pyrenyl)undecanoate dissolved in organic liquids and supercritical carbon dioxide: Impact on olefin metathesis
The target of this project is the screening of the opportunities, resulting of the combination of treating Cellulosic bodies with supercritical carbon dioxide. In general, the change of the porous structure depending on the way of fiber drying and the opportunity to incorporate active compounds and the development of analytical methods to track them within Cellulosic bodies.
Mouna Lazrag, Cecile Lemaitre, Christophe Castel, Romain Privat, Danielle Barth. Supercritical carbon dioxide drying of monoliths and composites organogels: from pilot to industrial scale process. 4th International Seminar on Aerogels Properties-Manufacture-Applications, Sep 2018, Hamburg, Germany. 2018. ⟨hal-03263960⟩ ...
Rivers are generally supersaturated with respect to carbon dioxide, resulting in large gas evasion fluxes that can be a significant component of regional net carbon budgets. Amazonian rivers were recently shown to outgas more than ten times the amount of carbon exported to the ocean in the form of total organic carbon or dissolved inorganic carbon. High carbon dioxide concentrations in rivers originate largely from in situ respiration of organic carbon, but little agreement exists about the sources or turnover times of this carbon. Here we present results of an extensive survey of the carbon isotope composition ({sup 13}C and {sup 14}C) of dissolved inorganic carbon and three size-fractions of organic carbon across the Amazonian river system. We find that respiration of contemporary organic matter (less than 5 years old) originating on land and near rivers is the dominant source of excess carbon dioxide that drives outgassing in mid-size to large rivers, although we find that bulk organic carbon
Rice straw can serve as potential material for bioenergy production. However, the quantitative effects of increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration [CO2] on rice straw quality and the resulting consequences for bioenergy utilization are largely unknown. In this study, two rice varieties, WYJ and LY, that have been shown previously to have a weak and strong stimulatory response to rising [CO2], respectively, were grown with and without additional CO2 at China free-air carbon dioxide enrichment (FACE) platform. Qualitative and quantitative measurements in response to [CO2] included straw biomass (including leaf, sheath, and stem), the concentration of nonstructural and structural carbohydrates, the syringyl-to-guaiacyl (S/G) ratio of lignin, glucose and xylose release from structural carbohydrate, total sugar release by enzymatic saccharification, and sugar yield and the ratio of cellulose and hemicellulose degradation. Elevated [CO2] significantly increased straw biomass and ...
Carbon dioxide equivalent. Carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2-e) is a measure used to convert the masses of each of the greenhouse gases to a mass of CO2 that would give the equivalent global warming potential generally over a 100 year timeframe. Carbon dioxide equivalency thus reflects the time-integrated radiative forcing of a quantity of emissions or rate of greenhouse gas emission. For example, methane has a CO2-e 25 times that of CO2, and nitrous oxide 298 times. Carbon dioxide intensity and carbon dioxide per capita Alternatives to total emissions for measuring a nation?s greenhouse gas emissions. Carbon intensity measures emissions per unit of gross domestic product. Carbon dioxide per capita measures emissions per person. Both measures can be used to look at emission differences between nations. For example, while China has recently taken the lead in total greenhouse gas emissions, its per capita emissions level is far lower than that in most industrial countries. ...
Different types of enzymes such as lipases, several phosphatases, dehydrogenases, oxidases, amylases and others are well suited for the reactions in SC-CO2. The stability and the activity of enzymes exposed to carbon dioxide under high pressure depend on enzyme species, water content in the solution and on the pressure and temperature of the reaction system. The three-dimensional structure of enzymes may be significantly altered under extreme conditions, causing their denaturation and consequent loss of activity. If the conditions are less adverse, the protein structure may be largely retained. Minor structural changes may induce an alternative active protein state with altered enzyme activity, specificity and stability.
Elevated carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration in seawater has previously been demonstrated to have a range of negative impacts on marine fish. While ocean acidification is a well-known context in which elevated CO2 occurs, fish reared in recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS) may also be exposed to elevated CO2, and at concentrations which are even many times higher. The yellowtail kingfish (Seriola lalandi) and snapper (Chrysophrys auratus) are two marine fish species of high economic value in New Zealand which may be affected by elevated CO2 concentrations. To assess the effect of elevated CO2 on the growth, feed conversion, and respiratory physiology of yellowtail kingfish, juvenile kingfish (~230g) were reared in a 54 day growth-trial under the following CO2concentrations: (1) ,5mgL-1(ambient-control), (2) 10-15mgL-1, (3) ~20mgL-1, (4) ~30mgL-1, (5) ~40mgL-1 Specific growth rates (SGRM) were greatest in ambient CO2 concentration (1), but this did not significantly differ from concentration ...
Author(s): Wells, JD; Majid, AAA; Creek, JL; Sloan, ED; Borglin, SE; Kneafsey, TJ; Koh, CA | Abstract: There is an interest to ensure sub-saturated water content in lines containing carbon dioxide in applications such as enhanced oil recovery and carbon sequestration, to reduce risks of hydrate blockage and corrosion. The water content of carbon dioxide at various temperatures and pressures has been measured in the past, but there is no consistent set of measurements that could be used for carbon dioxide storage and transportation design work. The solubility of water in a carbon dioxide rich gas phase at hydrate forming conditions was measured in this work. Pressures ranged from 12.06 to 29.30 bar along two isotherms, 1 °C and −7 °C, all within the gaseous carbon dioxide and hydrate stability zone. For the first time in these types of measurements, the solid phase was also characterized and confirmed to be carbon dioxide hydrate via X-ray computed tomography, simultaneous with water content
End-tidal carbon dioxide monitoring refers to the noninvasive measurement of exhaled carbon dioxide and is most useful when applied directly to patient care.1 Although commonly used in intubated patients receiving mechanical ventilation, this technique is sometimes used in non-intubated patients.2-,4 The term capnometry refers to the measurement and display of the concentration of exhaled carbon dioxide either as a percentage (%) or as partial pressure in millimeters of mercury (mm Hg). If the gas measuring device also includes a calibrated, visual waveform recording of the concentrations of inspired and exhaled carbon dioxide that can be examined on a breath-by-breath basis or for long-term trends, the instrument is called a capnograph.4 Although this respiratory monitoring technology is not new to the critical care environment, controversy still exists regarding potential benefits and limitations in clinical practice..... ...
... is the lasing medium in a carbon-dioxide laser, which is one of the earliest type of lasers. Carbon dioxide can ... Reactions, Thermochemistry, Uses, and Function of Carbon Dioxide Carbon Dioxide - Part One and Carbon Dioxide - Part Two at The ... Carbon Dioxide CO2 Carbon Dioxide Properties, Uses, Applications Dry Ice information Trends in Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide (NOAA ... 49 M yrs ago Bosch reaction Carbon dioxide removal - Removal of atmospheric carbon dioxide (from the atmosphere) Carbon dioxide ...
Carbon dioxide (CO2) flooding is a process whereby carbon dioxide is injected into oil reservoirs in order to increase output ... When a reservoir's pressure is depleted through primary and secondary production, carbon dioxide flooding can be an ideal ... "A review of developments in carbon dioxide storage". Applied Energy. 208: 1389-1419. doi:10.1016/j.apenergy.2017.09.015. hdl: ...
Halmann, Martin M. (1993). "Carbon Dioxide Reforming". Chemical fixation of carbon dioxide: methods for recycling CO2 into ... Carbon dioxide reforming (also known as dry reforming) is a method of producing synthesis gas (mixtures of hydrogen and carbon ... "Catalysts for Thermal Conversion of Carbon Dioxide to Carbon Monoxide or Synthesis Gas Using Fuels". Retrieved 18 April 2022. ( ... A challenge to the commercialization of this process is that the hydrogen that is produced tends to react with carbon dioxide. ...
Activated carbon can be used as a carbon dioxide scrubber. Air with high carbon dioxide content, such as air from fruit storage ... A carbon dioxide scrubber is a piece of equipment that absorbs carbon dioxide (CO2). It is used to treat exhaust gases from ... Many other methods and materials have been discussed for scrubbing carbon dioxide. Adsorption Regenerative carbon dioxide ... by blowing low carbon dioxide air, such as ambient air, through the bed. This will release the carbon dioxide from the bed, and ...
... is a diagnostic radiographic technique in which a carbon dioxide (CO2) based contrast medium is used ... "Carbon dioxide in Angiography to reduce the Risk of Contrast-Induced Nephropathy", Radiol Clin N Am, 2009. K. Cho, "Carbon ... Carbon dioxide is a negative contrast medium and it has a low radiopacity (while iodinated contrast media are defined as ... Carbon dioxide is highly soluble, allowing multiple injections without a maximum dosage (per procedure, while it is 100 mL per ...
A carbon dioxide recorder (or CO2 recorder) is a machine that can record the level of carbon dioxide at different times. It is ... The chemical carbon dioxide recorder, sucks the gas through a chemical that absorbs carbon dioxide. They include the Simmance ... The Arndt carbon dioxide recorder used a potassium hydroxide solution to absorb carbon dioxide. The Uehling recorder uses the ... The physical carbon dioxide recorder, includes Webster CO2 recorder. The Remarex carbon dioxide recorder uses vanes spinning in ...
The carbon-dioxide laser (CO2 laser) was one of the earliest gas lasers to be developed. It was invented by Kumar Patel of Bell ... The carbon dioxide molecules then transition to their {v20(0)} vibrational mode ground state from {v1(1)} or {v20(2)} by ... Carbon-dioxide lasers are the highest-power continuous-wave lasers that are currently available. They are also quite efficient ... Carbon Dioxide Amplifier at Brookhaven National Lab. F. J. Duarte (ed.), Tunable Lasers Handbook (Academic, New York, 1995) ...
... (sCO 2) is a fluid state of carbon dioxide where it is held at or above its critical temperature ... Supercritical carbon dioxide is used in the production of silica, carbon and metal based aerogels. For example, silicon dioxide ... Supercritical carbon dioxide is used in the foaming of polymers. Supercritical carbon dioxide can saturate the polymer with ... Carbon dioxide usually behaves as a gas in air at standard temperature and pressure (STP), or as a solid called dry ice when ...
... This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title Carbon dioxide enrichment. If an ... Carbon dioxide enrichment can mean: CO2 fertilization effect Free-air concentration enrichment (FACE) For use in greenhouses ...
A carbon dioxide sensor or CO2 sensor is an instrument for the measurement of carbon dioxide gas. The most common principles ... Measuring carbon dioxide is important in monitoring indoor air quality, the function of the lungs in the form of a capnograph ... Vincent, T.A.; Gardner, J.W. (November 2016). "A low cost MEMS based NDIR system for the monitoring of carbon dioxide in breath ... NDIR sensors are most often used for measuring carbon dioxide. The best of these have sensitivities of 20-50 PPM. Typical NDIR ...
... (CO2 cleaning) comprises a family of methods for parts cleaning and sterilization, using carbon dioxide ... Carbon Dioxide Snow Cleaning. Applied Surface Technologies. Retrieved 13 August 2015. "About Us". Carbon Dioxide Snow Cleaning ... "Carbon dioxide snow agglomeration and acceleration", published Jun 30, 1992 "FAQs". Carbon Dioxide Snow Cleaning. Applied ... Carbon dioxide cleaning was contemplated in the 1930s, and the "pellet" approach was developed in the 1970s by E.E. Rice, C.H. ...
... may refer to: Carbon dioxide scrubber, a device that absorbs carbon dioxide Carbon capture and storage ... the capture of carbon dioxide from large point sources Carbon dioxide removal, the removal of carbon dioxide from ambient air ... This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title Carbon dioxide scrubbing. If an internal link led you here, ...
Carbon dioxide hydrate or carbon dioxide clathrate is a snow-like crystalline substance composed of water ice and carbon ... "Carbon dioxide clathrate hydrate epitaxial growth: spectroscopic evidence for formation of the simple type-II carbon dioxide ... clathrate should be important for storing carbon dioxide. In the conditions of the subsurface ocean in Europa, carbon dioxide ... proposed pumping carbon dioxide into subsurface methane clathrates, thereby releasing the methane and storing the carbon ...
Carbon sequestration is the process of storing carbon in a carbon pool.: 2248 Carbon dioxide (CO 2) is naturally captured from ... Carbon dioxide removal (CDR), also known as negative CO2 emissions, is a process in which carbon dioxide gas (CO2) is removed ... but does not reduce the amount of carbon dioxide already in the atmosphere. The likely need for CDR (carbon dioxide removal) as ... the effectiveness of Blue Carbon as a carbon dioxide removal solution remains highly contested. Bioenergy with carbon capture ...
... is a type of liquid which is formed from highly compressed and cooled gaseous carbon dioxide. It does not ... Liquid carbon dioxide is the liquid state of carbon dioxide (CO 2), which cannot occur under atmospheric pressure. It can only ... Liquid carbon dioxide is being considered as a means of CO2 transportation for underground or subsea storage purposes. Due to ... The liquid carbon dioxide not only reduces combustion by displacing oxygen, but also cools the burning surface to avoid further ...
A carbon dioxide generator or CO2 generator is a machine used to enhance carbon dioxide levels in order to promote plant growth ... Carbon dioxide generators have been used to help grow marijuana. They can be fueled with propane or natural gas. CO2 generators ...
... may refer to: Dry ice, a solid form of carbon dioxide Carbon dioxide cleaning, an industrial cleaning ... method This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title Carbon dioxide snow. If an internal link led you here ...
MSDS for solid carbon dioxide is available from Pacific Dry Ice, inc. ‡Second column of table indicates solubility at each ... Giauque, W. F.; Egan, C. J. (1937). "Carbon Dioxide. The Heat Capacity and Vapor Pressure of the Solid. The Heat of Sublimation ... CS1 maint: date and year, Use dmy dates from June 2013, Carbon dioxide, Chemical data pages, Chemical data pages cleanup). ... Because nitrogen and oxygen are symmetrical and carbon dioxide and water vapor are not, the air in an infrared ...
... (ECCO2R) is the removal of carbon dioxide (CO2) from the bloodstream in people who have ... elevated levels of carbon dioxide as a result of respiratory failure. The use of extracorporeal carbon dioxide removal is ... Blood is pumped through a machine where the carbon dioxide is filtered out. Morelli, Andrea; Del Sorbo, Lorenzo; Pesenti, ... "Extracorporeal carbon dioxide removal (ECCO2R) in patients with acute respiratory failure". Intensive Care Medicine. 43 (4): ...
... es are coordination complexes that contain carbon dioxide ligands. Aside from the fundamental ... carbon-13) as a diagnostic tool to determine the mode of bonding of carbon dioxide to a metal center". Inorganic Chemistry. 31 ... Carbon dioxide binds to metals in only a few ways. The bonding mode depends on the electrophilicity and basicity of the metal ... "Carbon Dioxide as Chemical Feedstock" Edited by Michele Aresta. Wiley-VCH, Weinheim, 2010. ISBN 978-3-527-32475-0. Gibson, ...
... (COTR) is the measurement of the amount of carbon dioxide gas that passes through a substance ... Test Method for the Determination of Carbon Dioxide Gas Transmission Rate (Co 2TR) Through Barrier Materials Using An Infrared ... Standard Test Method for Determining the Carbon Dioxide Loss of Beverage Containers ASTM F2476 - ...
The electrochemical reduction of carbon dioxide, also known as electrolysis of carbon dioxide, is the conversion of carbon ... The first examples of electrochemical reduction of carbon dioxide are from the 19th century, when carbon dioxide was reduced to ... Matsuo T (2006). "From Carbon Dioxide to Methane: Homogeneous Reduction of Carbon Dioxide with Hydrosilanes Catalyzed by ... Carbon Dioxide (Reduction). Upton, NY (United States): Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL). Neelameggham NR. "Carbon Dioxide ...
The Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC) was an organization within the United States Department of Energy that ... "CaltechDATA". Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center v t e (Articles with short description, Short description is different ... "Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC-Oceans) ceases operation, all activities to transition to NOAA". Ocean ... The Oceanic Trace Gas data have been transitioned to the new Ocean Carbon Data System (OCADS) operated by NOAA's National ...
The Weyburn-Midale Carbon Dioxide Project (or IEA GHG Weyburn-Midale CO2 Monitoring and Storage Project) is, as of 2008, the ... The report said that carbon dioxide levels in the soil averaged about 23,000 parts per million, several times higher than is ... Overall, it is anticipated that some 40 Mt of carbon dioxide will be permanently sequestered over the lifespan of the project ... In October 2000, Cenovus (formerly Pan Canadian, Encana) began injecting significant amounts of carbon dioxide into the Weyburn ...
Carbon dioxide is converted into sugars in a process called carbon fixation. Carbon fixation is an endothermic redox reaction, ... On Earth, carbon dioxide is the most relevant, direct anthropologically influenced greenhouse gas. Carbon dioxide is often ... "Trends in Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide". Earth System Research Laboratory. NOAA. Vaughan, A (6 May 2015). "Global carbon dioxide ... "Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide Growth Rate". "Frequently Asked Questions". Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC). ...
... also known as photoelectrolysis of carbon dioxide, is a chemical process whereby carbon dioxide is reduced to carbon monoxide ... Artificial photosynthesis Electrochemical reduction of carbon dioxide Photochemical reduction of carbon dioxide ... doi:10.1016/0022-0728(88)80355-3. Junfu, Liu; Baozhu, ChunYu (1992). "Photoelectrochemical reduction of carbon dioxide on a p+/ ... Halmann, M. (1978). "Photoelectrochemical reduction of aqueous carbon dioxide on p-type gallium phosphide in liquid junction ...
"Curiosity Spots Carbon Dioxide-Ice Clouds in Martian Skies". Science News. Retrieved April 15, 2022. "Carbon Dioxide Ice Clouds ... Due to low temperatures, especially at Mars's polar caps, carbon dioxide gas can freeze in Mars's atmosphere to form ice ... "Mars Express Science Highlights: #9. Unambiguous Detection of Carbon Dioxide Clouds". Mars Express. September 19, 2019. ... CS1 maint: url-status, Wikipedia Student Program, Atmosphere of Mars, Carbon dioxide, Clouds). ...
Carbon dioxide injections commenced in 2019. Once operating at full capacity, the Gorgon Carbon Dioxide Injection Project will ... "SITE SELECTION ‐ GORGON CARBON DIOXIDE INJECTION PROJECT" (PDF). Kemp, John (2013-09-10). "World's largest carbon capture ... The Gorgon Carbon Dioxide Injection Project is part of the Gorgon Project, one of the world's largest natural gas projects. The ... The Gorgon Carbon Dioxide Injection Project will compress and pipe separated CO2 to nine injection wells where it will be ...
Artificial photosynthesis Electrochemical reduction of carbon dioxide Photoelectrochemical reduction of carbon dioxide ... "Photochemical Generation of Carbon-Monoxide and Hydrogen by Reduction of Carbon-Dioxide and Water Under Visible-Light ... Photochemical reduction of carbon dioxide harnesses solar energy to convert CO2 into higher-energy products. Environmental ... Tokyo Institute of Technology (August 22, 2022). "Efficient carbon dioxide reduction under visible light with a novel, ...
The following articles relate to Carbon dioxide accumulation in Earth's atmosphere: Carbon dioxide in Earth's atmosphere Global ... warming Greenhouse effect This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title Carbon dioxide accumulation in ...
... flour treatment agent Carbon black - color (brown and black) Carbon dioxide - acidity regulator, propellant Cardamom - carmines ... Sesame seed - Shellac - glazing agent Silicon dioxide - anti-caking agent Silver - color (silver) Luohanguo Sodium acetate - ... Sulfur dioxide - preservative, antioxidant Sulfuric acid - acidity regulator Sumac - Sunflower oil - a common cooking oil, also ... Vegetable carbon - color (brown and black) Vinegar - Violaxanthin - color Vitamin - Vitamin A (Retinol) - Vitamin B1 (Thiamine ...
When a sulfide burns it produces sulfur dioxide (SO2) gas. Hydrogen sulfide, some of its salts, and almost all organic sulfides ... whereas carbon disulfide has no S-S bond, being S=C=S (linear molecule analog to CO2). Most often in sulfur chemistry and in ...
... may be as much of a problem to Earth's ecology as carbon dioxide production. Studies have shown that beaver dams along a stream ... The study also suggested potential to improve carbon sequestration. Beaver ponds can cause the removal of nutrients from the ... which influences the levels of both carbon and water. In a 2017 study of beaver dam hydrology, monitored beaver dams in a Rocky ...
As carbon dioxide is heavier than the air, patients can use it as dry spa, if certain safety regulations are complied with. The ... is a name applied to a volcanic discharge consisting chiefly of carbon dioxide, often associated with other vapours, ...
Because of a possible climatic warm-up, we do not wish to accelerate humus oxidation and the concomitant flux of carbon dioxide ... The carbon and nitrogen cycles of ecosystems will be curtailed and soil stability endangered. ...
The success of Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) hinges upon being able to reliably contain the materials within the storage ... in silica dioxide whereas the range is reduced to 400 m.w.e. for 100 GeV muons. This range varies if the material is different ... Another application is the usage of muon tomography to monitor potential underground sites used for carbon sequestration. The ... Deep Carbon, MuScan, Muon-Tides". Boulby Underground Science Facility. Retrieved 15 September 2013. Fishbine, Brian. "Muon ...
The emission pathways that reach 1.5 °C contained in the report assume the use of carbon dioxide removal (CDR) to offset for ... Pathways that overshoot the goal rely on CDR to remove carbon dioxide at a rate that exceeds remaining emissions in order to ... such as black carbon and sulphur dioxide, respectively, as well as long-lived greenhouse gases, such as nitrous oxide or some ... like afforestation or carbon dioxide removal). Examples of actions consistent with the 1.5 °C pathway include "shifting to low ...
... countries with significant endowments in fossil fuel resources emit more carbon dioxide to generate the same amount of economic ... The causes that fuel-rich countries succumb to the carbon curse are that a carbon-intensive fuel production sector is very ... Researchers of this effect coined the term carbon curse, and suggested that the UK and Norway are the only two fossil fuel ... Friedrichs, Jörg; Inderwildi, Oliver R. (November 2013). "The carbon curse: Are fuel rich countries doomed to high CO2 ...
According to the USDA, soil respiration refers to the quantity of carbon dioxide released from soil. This excess carbon dioxide ... The primary soil gases are nitrogen, carbon dioxide and oxygen. Oxygen is critical because it allows for respiration of both ... Given the importance of both soil gases to soil life, significant fluctuation of carbon dioxide and oxygen can result in ... large sudden changes in soil respiration can cause increased flux of soil gases such as carbon dioxide and methane, which are ...
As a photoautotroph the major carbon source is carbon dioxide and water is a source of electrons to perform CO2 reduction. ...
This would be followed by a buildup in carbon dioxide, causing an urgent feeling of a need to breathe, and if this cycle is not ... This is partly due to the carbon dioxide absorbent in the scrubber, and is related to the distance the gas passes through the ... In rebreather scuba, the system recycles the exhaled gas, removes carbon dioxide, and compensates for the used oxygen before ... The first versions were inflated from a small disposable carbon dioxide cylinder, later with a small direct coupled air ...
These GreenPower accredited units enable Snowy Hydro to save approximately 3,137 tonnes (3,458 short tons) of carbon dioxide ...
The natural gas fed into the LNG plant will be treated to remove water, hydrogen sulfide, carbon dioxide, benzene and other ... The "acidic" elements such as hydrogen sulphide (H2S) and carbon dioxide (CO2), together with oil, mud, water, and mercury, are ... For an equivalent amount of heat, burning natural gas produces about 30 percent less carbon dioxide than burning petroleum and ... They claimed that, while natural gas power plants emit approximately half the carbon dioxide of an equivalent coal power plant ...
The reaction produces carbon dioxide, oxyluciferin, and blue light. As an intermediate, a 1,2-dioxetane ring is formed; this ...
They will also reduce the usage of CO2e (carbon dioxide equivalent) by about 110,000 metric tons by their fleet over the coming ... The company has developed programs that will enable it to reduce emissions by 2.5 million tons of carbon dioxide equivalent ... will include approximately 41,000 solar panels to power 1,900 local households and reduce carbon emissions by more than 14,000 ... with a concomitant reduction in carbon emissions. In July 2016 Republic Services and Mas Energy launched a new renewable energy ...
The ore, after being crushed and ground, is first treated with hot concentrated sulfuric acid, evolving carbon dioxide, ... Recently, the requirement for a low-carbon society has led to a significant demand for energy-saving technologies such as ... lamp light Neodymium compounds in normal daylight Organoneodymium compounds are compounds that have a neodymium-carbon bond. ...
During advanced stages of organic decay, all electron acceptors become depleted except carbon dioxide. Carbon dioxide is a ... and carbon dioxide. Without methanogenesis, a great deal of carbon (in the form of fermentation products) would accumulate in ... It may not be a net contributor in the sense that it works on organic material which used up atmospheric carbon dioxide when it ... The two best described pathways involve the use of acetic acid or inorganic carbon dioxide as terminal electron acceptors: CO2 ...
... and potentially also by large emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2) from the lake's bottom (compare Lake Nyos), although Bermin is ...
... but the EPA describes it as the initial step in adoption within the United States of international carbon dioxide emission ...
In photosynthetic prokaryotes the mechanisms of carbon fixation are more diverse. Here, carbon dioxide can be fixed by the ... C4 carbon fixation and CAM photosynthesis. These differ by the route that carbon dioxide takes to the Calvin cycle, with C3 ... This oxidation releases carbon dioxide as a waste product. In anaerobic conditions, glycolysis produces lactate, through the ... Finally, the acetyl group on acetyl-CoA is oxidized to water and carbon dioxide in the citric acid cycle and electron transport ...
The program also checks the carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide levels for rooms, which provide more information about air flow ... and installed dehumidifiers purchased and installed to decrease the level of moisture installation of smoke and carbon monoxide ...
Data from the state of Delaware found that Bloom's fuel cells produce about 823 pounds of carbon dioxide per megawatt hour. ...
... and carbon dioxide, water, and heat). Excretion of nutrients is, therefore, basic to metabolism.": 1230-1231 The units in ... including both minerals and gases such as carbon dioxide. These chemical reactions require energy, which mainly comes from the ... Ecologists employ stoichiometry to analyze the ratios of the main elements found in all organisms: carbon (C), nitrogen (N), ... which obtain their sole source of carbon from the atmosphere, mixotrophs (such as carnivorous plants), which are autotrophic ...
... particularly the use of OCO orders for buying and selling stocks and options on a contingent basis Carbon dioxide, with ... Oort cloud object, distant bodies of the solar system Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2, successfully launched in 2014, or the ... original Orbiting Carbon Observatory, lost to a launch vehicle failure in 2009. Overseas Contingency Operation, a name for the ...
It uses the Calvin Benson Bassham cycle to fixate carbon dioxide and use it as a carbon source. In fact concentrations of CO2 ... It uses ammonium, nitrate or atmospheric nitrogen as a nitrogen source and fixes carbon dioxide. Due to the presence of a ... Methylacidiphilum fumariolicumSolV Uses the Calvin-Benson-Bassham Cycle for Carbon Dioxide Fixation". J Bacteriol. 193 (17): ... Khadem, A. et al (2012). "Genomic and Physiological Analysis of Carbon Storage in the Verrucomicrobial Methanotroph "Ca. ...
... and even carbon dioxide (R-744, GWP = 1). The alternative refrigerants have much lower GWP than R-410A. Thermophysical ...
By comparison, sunlight on Mars has about 40% of the intensity of that on Earth, though if high levels of carbon dioxide are ...
Getty's company sought some of the funding to bury carbon dioxide in salt caverns near Two Hills. On February 26, 2016, Getty ... In July 2008, after Ed Stelmach announced $2 billion in funding to industry to develop carbon capture technology, ...
However, condensable gases, such as water vapour, ammonia, carbon dioxide, and pump-oil vapors may be in gaseous form in the ...
The resulting chemical reaction creates carbon dioxide bubbles as a byproduct, which in turn creates the foam. Stress balls, ...
Both the ACGIH and NIOSH cite studies indicating that continuous exposure to between 1.5 and 3 percent carbon dioxide (15,000 ... Carbon dioxide is a colorless, odorless, noncombustible gas.. Both the ACGIH (1986/Ex. 1-3) and NIOSH (1976a, as cited in ACGIH ... OSHAs former limit for carbon dioxide was 5000 ppm as an 8-hour TWA. The ACGIH has a 5000-ppm TLV-TWA with a 30,000-ppm TLV- ... It is appropriate in our view for OSHA to adopt the 3-percent [30,000-ppm] short-term exposure limit for carbon dioxide. There ...
A panicked reaction to carbon dioxide inhalation appears to predict an increased risk of developing combat-related anxiety and ... LA JOLLA, California - A panicked reaction to a single inhalation of 35% carbon dioxide (CO2) may predict risk for anxiety and ... Cite this: Carbon Dioxide Challenge May Predict PTSD Risk - Medscape - Apr 10, 2013. ...
A CO2 blood test measures the amount of carbon dioxide in your blood. Too much or too little CO2 in the blood can indicate a ... What is a Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Blood Test?. A carbon dioxide (CO2) blood test measures the amount of carbon dioxide in your ... Your blood carries carbon dioxide to your lungs. When you exhale, you breathe out carbon dioxide. Having too much or too little ... Other names: carbon dioxide content, CO2 content, carbon dioxide blood test, bicarbonate blood test, bicarbonate test, total ...
Your body just released carbon dioxide, a colorless gas thats essential to life on Earth. ... We produce carbon dioxide when we burn fossil fuels like coal, oil, and natural gas. The more carbon dioxide there is in the ... Oceans absorb carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. Plants use carbon dioxide and sunlight to make their own food. Animals and ... Your body just released carbon dioxide, a colorless gas thats essential to life on Earth. Carbon dioxide is one of the ...
NPRs John Nielsen reports that President Bush made a last-minute decision to keep carbon dioxide unregulated by the federal ... Bush on Carbon Dioxide NPRs John Nielsen reports that President Bush made a last-minute decision to keep carbon dioxide ... NPRs John Nielsen reports that President Bush made a last-minute decision to keep carbon dioxide unregulated by the federal ...
Nitrogen Dioxide, Tetrachloroethylene. The ATSDR Interaction Profile succintly characterizes the toxicologic and adverse health ... Carbon Monoxide, Formaldehyde, Methylene Chloride, Nitrogen Dioxide, Tetrachloroethylene. ... Carbon Monoxide, Formaldehyde, Methylene Chloride, Nitrogen Dioxide, Tetrachloroethylene. *Chloroform, 1,1-Dichloroethylene, ...
The EPAs finding doesnt say carbon dioxide, or CO2, is by itself a pollutant -- it is, after all, a gas that humans exhale ... The Environmental Protection Agencys decision to classify rising carbon-dioxide emissions as a hazard to human health is the ...
A carbon dioxide tax with refund is fair because the people responsible for the most emissions would pay the most. The tax ... U.S. consumers and industry need to reduce carbon dioxide emissions. A refunded carbon dioxide tax is the best way to achieve ... A carbon dioxide tax with refund can be implemented easily. It can be collected at a few key links in the supply chain: ... A carbon dioxide tax with refund is fair because the people responsible for the most emissions would pay the most. The tax ...
carbon dioxide. Latest Carbon dioxide levels just hit a scary new high. Atmospheric carbon dioxide levels reached a new record ... Latest carbon dioxide. Carbon dioxide levels are the highest in 3 million years Despite the increasing number of regulations ...
A simple device for anaesthetizing mosquitos with carbon dioxide  Bruce-Chwatt, Leonard Jan; World Health Organization (‎World ...
These graphs show carbon dioxides increasing greenhouse effect at two locations on the Earths surface. The first graph shows ... Scientists have observed an increase in carbon dioxides greenhouse effect at the Earths surface for the first time. The ... The scientists measured atmospheric carbon dioxides contribution to radiative forcing at two sites, one in Oklahoma and one on ... measured atmospheric carbon dioxides increasing capacity to absorb thermal radiation emitted from the Earths surface over an ...
Carbon-intense technologies, over-burdened sinks make CO2 levels accelerate. ... Carbon sinks. As the burning of fossil fuels puts carbon dioxide into the atmosphere, natural carbon sinks (such as plants and ... With the rate of carbon dioxide emissions increasing, these sinks just cant keep up. The percentage of emitted carbon dioxide ... The result is that carbon intensity globally now has increased. So carbon dioxide is not only being added by the construction ...
5. Liquid Carbon Dioxide in the Oceans. Although carbon dioxide cannot exist as a liquid at atmospheric pressure, it can at ... Carbon dioxide is a waste product of respiration. An individual human exhales about 1 kg of carbon dioxide every day. This ... Carbon dioxide snow has been seen on Mars - atmosphere 96% carbon dioxide, the rest mostly argon and nitrogen. ... The ones on Mars are mainly water ice, but also contain a lot of frozen carbon dioxide. 25-30% of Mars carbon dioxide ...
Forecast of the annual rise in atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration measured at the Mauna Loa, Hawaii for 2021 ... Mauna Loa carbon dioxide forecast for 2021 Forecast of the annual rise in atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration measured at ... Mauna Loa carbon dioxide forecast for 2020 * Mauna Loa carbon dioxide forecast for 2020 - revised to account for reduced ... Mauna Loa carbon dioxide forecast for 2016 (paper with method description) * Detailed verification of Mauna Loa carbon dioxide ...
When it comes to Carbon Dioxide Calibration Gas, you can count on Grainger. Supplies and solutions for every industry, plus ... Carbon Monoxide/Hydrogen Sulfide/Methane/Pentane/Oxygen/Nitrogen. *. Carbon Monoxide/Hydrogen Sulfide/Methane/Propane/Oxygen/ ... Carbon Monoxide/Hydrogen Sulfide/Methane/Oxygen/Nitrogen. *. ... Carbon Monoxide. *. Carbon Monoxide/Hydrogen Sulfide/Hexane/Air ... Carbon Monoxide/Sulfur Dioxide/Methane/Oxygen/Nitrogen. *. Carbon Monoxide/Sulfur Dioxide/Pentane/Oxygen/Nitrogen. ...
... to carbon dioxide and L-lactic acid under laboratory conditions. While a minimal dose of carbon dioxide [‎90 ppm]‎ activated ... Omrani, S.M., Vatandoost, H., Oshaghi, M.A. & Rahimi, A. (‎2012)‎. Upwind responses of Anopheles stephensi to carbon dioxide ... Excretion of carbon dioxide and L-lactic acid through exhalation and perspiration provides olfactory signals to mosquitoes ... Upwind responses of Anopheles stephensi to carbon dioxide and L-lactic acid: an olfactometer study. ...
The most widely used supercritical fluid, however, is supercritical carbon dioxide (SCD), and while gaseous carbon dioxide is a ... the properties of carbon dioxide as a chemical compound, and the bulk properties of supercritical carbon dioxide need to be ... Supercritical Carbon Dioxide. $82.00. Yizhak Marcus. Emeritus Professor of Chemistry, Institute of Chemistry, Edmund Safra ... Home / Shop / Books / Science and Technology / Chemistry / Special Topics / Supercritical Carbon Dioxide. ...
The annual peak in atmospheric carbon dioxide levels hit a new record high this May, averaging 421 parts per million (ppm), an ... a new study suggests that the increasing acidification of ocean waters caused by rising atmospheric carbon dioxide levels could ... The focus of its mission is to provide definitive information about the role of forests in the carbon cycle, and as such, in ... carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, phosphorus and nitrogen. Then a very long time for the chemical soup to stew. The rover Curiosity has ...
Carbon dioxide has been discovered by the Hubble Space Telescope in the atmosphere of a planet orbiting another star. The ... enough to balance the heating effects of the increasing amounts of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. Composed ... ... Samueli School of Engineering and Applied Science have recently announced a new method to reduce emissions of carbon dioxide, a ... Institute for Sustainable Energy at the University of Calgary in Canada are developing a method for capturing carbon dioxide ...
Rising temperatures and high carbon dioxide emissions are the means through which humans are inadvertently causing the decline ... But Sugahara and Sakamoto also found that the concentration of carbon dioxide within the tight ball of bees was a whopping 3.6 ... Regardless of CO2 levels, they can withstand temperatures of 50-51C but when carbon dioxide levels are high, hornets just cant ... The buzzing defenders generally produce the most heat and carbon dioxide within the first five minutes of heatballing. Sugahara ...
... the carbon dioxide already in Earths atmosphere could continue to warm our planet for hundreds of years. Thus, it might take a ... lot less carbon than previously thought to reach the global temperature scientists deem unsafe. ... Princeton University-led research suggests that even if carbon-dioxide emissions came to a sudden halt, ... Even if carbon dioxide emissions came to a sudden halt, the carbon dioxide already in Earths atmosphere could continue to warm ...
"The phase relation between atmospheric carbon dioxide and global temperature" worth a read, as well as the rest of the blog. ...
Can vacuuming carbon dioxide out of the air reverse climate change? By Clive Thompson , Climate Change ...
A new electrocatalyst converts carbon dioxide and water into ethanol with very high energy efficiency and high selectivity for ... In a study published in Nature Energy, researchers discovered a new electrocatalyst that efficiently converts carbon dioxide ... The process resulting from this catalyst would contribute to the circular carbon economy, which entails the reuse of carbon ... dioxide.. Research Details. *The electrocatalytic selectivity, or ​"Faradaic efficiency," of the process is over 90%, higher ...
The amount of carbon dioxide in the earths atmosphere grew at record rate in 2016 to a level not seen for millions of years, ... carbon dioxideChinaclimate talksdroughtsemerging economiesfloodsfossil fuelsgreenhouse gas emissionsIndiaKyoto ProtocolPoland ... Carbon dioxide levels grew at record pace in 2016, UN says. Reuters News Service. October 30, 2017. ...
... By Jacob Wiegmann on November 30, 2013 ... monitoring the ongoing experiments and using the phytoplankton farms to lower carbon-dioxide levels in areas of need across the ... cultivating microscopic marine organisms known as phytoplankton that produce oxygen and aid in reducing the carbon dioxide in ...
... acceptance of raised concentrations of carbon dioxide in mechanically ventilated patients) may be associated with increased ... Carbon dioxide and the critically ill--too little of a good thing? Lancet. 1999 Oct 9;354(9186):1283-6. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736 ... Accumulating clinical and basic scientific evidence points to an active role for carbon dioxide in organ injury, in which ... We hypothesise that therapeutic hypercapnia might be tested in severely ill patients to see whether supplemental carbon dioxide ...
That carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases trap heat is something scientists have known about for more than a 150 years. ... That carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases trap heat is something scientists have known about for more than a 150 years. ... That carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases trap heat is something scientists have known about for more than a 150… ... Earths carbon dioxide levels are about 420 parts per million, compared to 280 before the industrial revolution and the Earth ...
Mars Carbon Dioxide Glaciers are on the Move. In 1666, famed Italian astronomer and mathematician Giovanni Cassini (the man ... The presence of carbon dioxide glaciers in Mars southern polar region was first confirmed in 2011 by the Mars Reconnaissance ... "dry ice"). According to new research led by the Planetary Science Institute (PSI), glaciers of carbon dioxide ice have been ... flow laws) of the carbon dioxide glaciers to determine why this was happening. Their results indicated that under the types of ...
... to remove and sequester carbon dioxide from the atmosphere will be an essen ... A Sponge to Soak Up Carbon Dioxide in the Air. A Q&A with Berkeley Lab scientist Jeffrey Long on a material for capturing CO2. ... We made a serendipitous discovery a few years ago that certain MOFs can capture carbon dioxide through an unprecedented switch- ... We showed that the capture and release of carbon dioxide from the MOF could be accomplished using much smaller temperature ...
  • Carbon dioxide is one of the greenhouse gases that absorbs and holds heat in Earth's atmosphere, keeping our planet warm enough for life to exist. (amnh.org)
  • But humans are increasing carbon dioxide levels in the atmosphere above natural levels. (amnh.org)
  • Oceans absorb carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. (amnh.org)
  • This cycle has kept a healthy balance of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere--just enough to keep Earth's temperatures within a certain range and for life to exist. (amnh.org)
  • When we burn fossil fuels, we are rapidly releasing carbon that had been locked within Earth into the atmosphere. (amnh.org)
  • The more carbon dioxide there is in the atmosphere, the more heat is absorbed, and the warmer the planet gets. (amnh.org)
  • Today, the atmosphere contains more carbon dioxide than at any time in at least the past 800,000 years. (amnh.org)
  • The ocean holds over fifty times more carbon dioxide than the atmosphere. (amnh.org)
  • The Environmental Protection Agency's decision to classify rising carbon-dioxide emissions as a hazard to human health is the latest twist in a debate that has raged for decades among politicians, scientists and industry: whether a natural component of the earth's atmosphere should be considered a pollutant. (wsj.com)
  • Fossil fuel combustion and the consequent release of carbon dioxide continues as the dominant cause of increasing amounts of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. (rand.org)
  • Each year the United States releases into the atmosphere over 6 billion tons of carbon dioxide, roughly a quarter of global emissions. (rand.org)
  • Carbon dioxide levels in the atmosphere are rising faster than predicted, largely due to a burgeoning global economy and the hampering of overburdened natural carbon-storage mechanisms on land and in the ocean, a new study finds. (livescience.com)
  • This economic boom has indeed increased the number of carbon-emitting sources, especially coal-burning power plants, and has fueled a steady rise in the amount of the greenhouse gas emitted into the atmosphere, says study author Josep Canadell of the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization in Australia. (livescience.com)
  • As the burning of fossil fuels puts carbon dioxide into the atmosphere, natural carbon sinks (such as plants and the ocean) take some of it out. (livescience.com)
  • So the amount of carbon dioxide that stays in the atmosphere is actually only a fraction of what is emitted. (livescience.com)
  • Carbon dioxide snow has been seen on Mars - atmosphere 96% carbon dioxide, the rest mostly argon and nitrogen. (chemicool.com)
  • 25-30% of Mars' carbon dioxide atmosphere is frozen at its poles. (chemicool.com)
  • Carbon dioxide will continue to build up in the atmosphere in 2021 due to ongoing emissions from fossil fuel burning, land use change and cement production. (metoffice.gov.uk)
  • Our prediction of a smaller atmospheric CO 2 rise this year is due to natural climate variability being expected to temporarily strengthen natural carbon sinks, causing a temporary slowing of the rate of build-up of CO 2 in the atmosphere. (metoffice.gov.uk)
  • The most widely used supercritical fluid, however, is supercritical carbon dioxide (SCD), and while gaseous carbon dioxide is a hothouse gas that needs to be captured from flue gases and the atmosphere, the compacted form of SCD is a useful tool for chemistry. (novapublishers.com)
  • Carbon dioxide has been discovered by the Hubble Space Telescope in the atmosphere of a planet orbiting another star. (thefutureofthings.com)
  • Researchers at the University of Arizona are developing an ambitious space sunshade system that could reduce the sunlight reaching the Earth by 2%, enough to balance the heating effects of the increasing amounts of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. (thefutureofthings.com)
  • But Sugahara and Sakamoto also found that the concentration of carbon dioxide within the tight ball of bees was a whopping 3.6%, around 5 times higher than the levels around a typical hive and 100 times higher than levels in the atmosphere. (scienceblogs.com)
  • Even if carbon dioxide emissions came to a sudden halt, the carbon dioxide already in Earth's atmosphere could continue to warm our planet for hundreds of years, according to Princeton University-led research published in the journal Nature Climate Change. (princeton.edu)
  • The researchers simulated an Earth on which, after 1,800 billion tons of carbon entered the atmosphere, all carbon dioxide emissions suddenly stopped. (princeton.edu)
  • To avoid that point would mean humans have to keep cumulative carbon dioxide emissions below 1,000 billion tons of carbon, about half of which has already been put into the atmosphere since the dawn of industry. (princeton.edu)
  • Although carbon dioxide steadily dissipates, Frölicher and his co-authors were able to see that the oceans that remove heat from the atmosphere gradually take up less. (princeton.edu)
  • The amount of carbon dioxide in the earth's atmosphere grew at record rate in 2016 to a level not seen for millions of years, potentially fuelling a. (cyprus-mail.com)
  • The spherical structure is designed to be a semi-submersible laboratory garden, cultivating microscopic marine organisms known as phytoplankton that produce oxygen and aid in reducing the carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. (mymodernmet.com)
  • The greenhouse effect is when that heat tries to escape Earth, but some of it is trapped by different chemicals in the atmosphere, such as water vapor, carbon dioxide and methane. (wtop.com)
  • Our atmosphere, thrown as a barrier across the terrestrial rays, produces a local heightening of the temperature at the Earth's surface," Irish physicist John Tyndall said in 1862, identifying water vapor and carbon dioxide as natural greenhouse gases trapping heat. (wtop.com)
  • Newswise - Human activity is now leading to the equivalent of 40 billion tons of carbon dioxide emitted into the atmosphere each year, putting us on track to increase the planet's temperature by 1.5 degrees Celsius over pre-industrial levels by 2040. (newswise.com)
  • Increasingly, scientists are recognizing that negative emissions technologies (NETs) to remove and sequester carbon dioxide from the atmosphere will be an essential component in the strategy to mitigate climate change. (newswise.com)
  • This partitioning underestimates the full magnitude of the technology challenge associated with stabilizing the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. (nsf.gov)
  • Ocean-based carbon dioxide removal can help us achieve 'net negative emissions' as the seas hold 50 times more carbon than the atmosphere. (weforum.org)
  • This helps keep the carbon dioxide it has stored in glucose out of the atmosphere for a longer period of time and allows the plant to continue scrubbing carbon dioxide out of the atmosphere. (brighthub.com)
  • This creates a natural buffer to control how quickly carbon dioxide is allowed to re-enter the atmosphere. (brighthub.com)
  • If the plant is then harvested and eaten, the carbon is released back into the atmosphere instead of remaining sequestered. (brighthub.com)
  • As plants start to die after a longer life cycle where they have stored more glucose, they will release the sequestered carbon back into the atmosphere. (brighthub.com)
  • The amount of heat-trapping carbon dioxide in the atmosphere has shot past a key milestone - more than 50% higher than pre-industrial times - and is at levels not seen since millions of years ago when Earth was a hothouse ocean-inundated planet, federal scientists announced Friday. (fox59.com)
  • Before the industrial revolution in the late 19th century carbon dioxide levels were at 280 parts per million, scientists said, so humans have significantly changed the atmosphere. (fox59.com)
  • Both changes were small compared to how much carbon dioxide is pumped into the atmosphere each year, especially considering that carbon dioxide stays in the atmosphere hundreds to a thousand years , Tans said. (fox59.com)
  • The planet's average surface temperature has risen about 2 degrees Fahrenheit since the late 19th century, "a change driven largely by increased carbon dioxide and other human-made emissions into the atmosphere," the agencies said in a joint statement. (wisconsingazette.com)
  • Hence, there is an urgent need for countries to come up with solutions to reduce the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. (nus.edu.sg)
  • The third objective was to examine if water features and greenery will result in lower carbon dioxide level in the atmosphere. (nus.edu.sg)
  • This could conclude that greenery do reduce the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere significantly. (nus.edu.sg)
  • An associate professor of Earth and Space Exploration at Arizona State University and a member of the JWST Transiting Exoplanet Community Early Release Science Team, Mike Line, said obtaining evidence of carbon dioxide in a planet's atmosphere can help to determine the history and formation of the planet. (theusbport.com)
  • but JWST had deployed its Near-Infrared Spectrograph, a more powerful and sensitive infra-red capability, to detect the presence of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere of the planet orbiting a star. (theusbport.com)
  • The rising level of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere means that crops are becoming less nutritious, and that change could lead to higher rates of malnutrition that predispose people to various diseases. (stanford.edu)
  • The right climate for carbon taxes : creating economic incentives to protect the atmosphere / Roger G. Dower and Mary Beth Zimmerman. (who.int)
  • Carbon dioxide stays in the atmosphere for hundreds of years , and this accumulation drives climate change. (greenpeace.org)
  • But as the lava comes out, carbon dioxide bubbles out with it and a lot of carbon dioxide goes into the atmosphere to the point that we estimate the carbon dioxide levels hit 3,000 parts per million. (dissidentvoice.org)
  • Our activities, such as fossil fuel burning and deforestation, are pushing the cycle out of its natural balance, adding more and more carbon dioxide to the atmosphere. (scienceblog.com)
  • Right now, the land and the ocean are taking up almost half of the carbon dioxide we add to the atmosphere by burning fossil fuels, but the future is fundamentally unknown," said Paul Wennberg, a professor of atmospheric chemistry at the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena. (scienceblog.com)
  • But droughts and wildfires can turn forests into carbon sources, releasing the stored carbon back into the atmosphere. (scienceblog.com)
  • Carbon dioxide concentrations in the atmosphere are measured in parts per million, the number of molecules of carbon dioxide there are in every million molecules of air. (scienceblog.com)
  • Additionally, increased carbon dioxide in the atmosphere changes ocean chemistry and harms reef-building corals. (noaa.gov)
  • Antarctic ice core evidence shows that the big jump in atmospheric carbon dioxide of the past century is extraordinary. (amnh.org)
  • Atmospheric carbon dioxide levels reached a new record high based on a new report from scientists studying the trends. (bgr.com)
  • The researchers, led by scientists from the US Department of Energy's Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab), measured atmospheric carbon dioxide's increasing capacity to absorb thermal radiation emitted from the Earth's surface over an eleven-year period at two locations in North America. (lbl.gov)
  • The scientists measured atmospheric carbon dioxide's contribution to radiative forcing at two sites, one in Oklahoma and one on the North Slope of Alaska, from 2000 to the end of 2010. (lbl.gov)
  • To stop the increase in atmospheric carbon dioxide , it would take the development and widespread adoption of more carbon-efficient technologies. (livescience.com)
  • Although carbon dioxide cannot exist as a liquid at atmospheric pressure, it can at higher pressures. (chemicool.com)
  • The annual peak in atmospheric carbon dioxide levels hit a new record high this May, averaging 421 parts per million (ppm), an increase of nearly 1.9 ppm over this time last year, and more than 50 percent higher than the pre-industrial average of 280 ppm. (unknowncountry.com)
  • It seems that climate change is impacting life across the whole planet in the most unexpected ways: a new study suggests that the increasing acidification of ocean waters caused by rising atmospheric carbon dioxide levels could rob sharks of their ability to sense the smell of food. (unknowncountry.com)
  • By itself, such a decrease of atmospheric carbon dioxide should lead to cooling. (princeton.edu)
  • The lingering warming effect the researchers found, however, suggests that the 2-degree point may be reached with much less carbon, said first author Thomas Frölicher, who conducted the work as a postdoctoral researcher in Princeton's Program in Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences under co-author Jorge Sarmiento , the George J. Magee Professor of Geoscience and Geological Engineering. (princeton.edu)
  • The phase relation between atmospheric carbon dioxide and global temperature? (scienceblogs.com)
  • If you've seen the latest septic drivel (the clearest example of the need for open peer review that I've seen for a while) then you may find Comment on "The phase relation between atmospheric carbon dioxide and global temperature" worth a read, as well as the rest of the blog. (scienceblogs.com)
  • Its creators said the cube represents the space that one metric ton of carbon dioxide would occupy if stored at standard atmospheric pressure -- specifically, a space that is the equivalent of 27 feet cubed, or 19,683 cubic feet. (latimes.com)
  • Even with more vigorous growth, we need more plants to keep atmospheric carbon dioxide at reasonable levels at a time when we see decreasing forest canopy due to immediately pressing agricultural concerns. (brighthub.com)
  • Effects of Rising Atmospheric Concentrations of Carbon Dioxide on Plants. (brighthub.com)
  • The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration said its long-time monitoring station at Mauna Loa, Hawaii, averaged 421 parts per million of carbon dioxide for the month of May, which is when the crucial greenhouse gas hits its yearly high. (fox59.com)
  • The panel's calculations mean carbon dioxide alone accounts for between 1 and 3 degrees warming, said MIT atmospheric scientist Kerry Emanuel. (wisconsingazette.com)
  • The attraction of cap and trade for its supporters is that the cap sets a limit on emissions of carbon dioxide. (rand.org)
  • Researchers from the UCLA Henry Samueli School of Engineering and Applied Science have recently announced a new method to reduce emissions of carbon dioxide, a greenhouse gas produced by burning fossil fuels, using genetically engineered bacteria. (thefutureofthings.com)
  • Reducing global emissions of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) over the coming century will be more challenging than society has been led to believe, according to a research commentary appearing this week in the journal Nature . (nsf.gov)
  • It's another path to carbon sequestration -one American company is working to develop nanotube membranes for use directly in carbon-spewing smoke stacks. (good.is)
  • Various strategies, including shifting fuel utilization pattern from fossil fuel to renewable energy, increasing the efficiency of engines, carbon dioxide sequestration, and chemical utilization, have been proposed to combat the ever-increasing concentration of CO 2 . (hindawi.com)
  • The additional glucose production also acts as carbon sequestration. (brighthub.com)
  • This technology, known as carbon capture and sequestration (CCS), could provide deep emission cuts, particularly from coal power generation, on a worldwide basis. (ssrn.com)
  • The carbon combines with oxygen in the air to form carbon dioxide. (amnh.org)
  • Green plants use energy from the sun to react carbon dioxide and water to produce carbohydrate and oxygen. (chemicool.com)
  • Carbon dioxide is denser than air, and it lurks silently in the vats, banishing oxygen. (chemicool.com)
  • Carbon dioxide fights fire in two ways: cooling it and denying it oxygen. (chemicool.com)
  • It is widely recognised that living entities have three basic requirements: standing water, an energy source and the five chemical elements, carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, phosphorus and nitrogen. (unknowncountry.com)
  • The photosynthesis process uses carbon dioxide and produces oxygen and glucose. (brighthub.com)
  • Calcium and Chemical Looping Technology for Power Generation and Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Capture reviews the fundamental principles, systems, oxygen carriers, and carbon dioxide carriers relevant to chemical looping and combustion. (elsevier.com)
  • There were no significant differences between the effects of wearing an N95 FFR on pregnant and non-pregnant women with respect to their heart rate and function, breathing rate, percentage of oxygen and carbon dioxide in their arteries, ear temperature, and blood pressure, as well as their impressions of any warmth or exertion associated with the respirator. (cdc.gov)
  • The association showed a significant correlation for few prevalent indicators: dyspnea, decrease in partial pressure of oxygen/hypoxemia, increase in accessory muscle use, abnormal breathing pattern, tachypnea, bradypnea, a decrease in carbon dioxide and, arterial blood gases. (bvsalud.org)
  • A carbon dioxide (CO2) blood test measures the amount of carbon dioxide in your blood. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Some prescription and over-the-counter medicines can increase or decrease the amount of carbon dioxide in your blood. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Over the course of the 20th century, technologies advanced and became more efficient in terms of the amount of carbon it took to produce a unit of wealth. (livescience.com)
  • drought, for example, hampers plant growth, which reduces the amount of carbon dioxide that goes into that sink. (livescience.com)
  • This amount of carbon dioxide is absorbed by about 250 square meters of a temperate climate commercial conifer plantation. (chemicool.com)
  • A major highlight obtained from the field measurements showed that two different spots with close proximity with each other could have a very significant difference in the amount of carbon dioxide. (nus.edu.sg)
  • Using the technologies discussed in this chapter, the total amount of carbon abatement is approximately 13.5 million TC. (nzdl.org)
  • The spark that ignited the field of heterogeneous photocatalysis can be traced to the discovery around 1970 that titanium dioxide, TiO 2 , displayed photocatalytic activity under irradiation with ultraviolet light, most notably for the generation of hydrogen from water in the aqueous phase. (advancedsciencenews.com)
  • Details for: Carbon black, titanium dioxide, and talc. (who.int)
  • Decoration of a functionalized multiwalled carbon nanotube (f-MWCNT) surface with titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) was designed to improve its photocatalytic degradation performance. (itb.ac.id)
  • Bin, G.G., George, Z.C. & Puma, I.G., Carbon Nanotubes/Titanium Dioxide (Cnts/Tio2) Nanocomposites Prepared by Conventional and Novel Surfactant Wrapping Sol-Gel Methods Exhibiting Enhanced Photocatalytic Activity, Appl Catal B Environ, 89, pp. 503-209, 2009. (itb.ac.id)
  • While the United States and Europe are longstanding leaders in carbon output, scientists have in recent years cited the main reason for increasing carbon dioxide levels as the growing global economy, especially the explosion of economies in developing countries such as China and India. (livescience.com)
  • This doesn't mean we need not worry about increasing carbon dioxide levels. (brighthub.com)
  • Animals and plants alike release carbon dioxide through respiration and when they decay. (amnh.org)
  • Carbon dioxide is a waste product of respiration. (chemicool.com)
  • A human who lives for 80 years will produce about 29 metric tons of carbon dioxide through respiration. (chemicool.com)
  • Ohashi, M, Gyokusen, K & Saito, A 1995, ' Effects of Carbon Dioxide Concentration and Wind Speed Using the Chamber Method on Soil Respiration ', Nihon Ringakkai Shi/Journal of the Japanese Forestry Society , vol. 77, no. 6, pp. 599-601. (elsevier.com)
  • A recent study in the Journal of Geophysical Researc h found that carbon dioxide uptake in the North Atlantic Ocean has slowed down dramatically since the mid-1990s. (livescience.com)
  • Results of the real-time monitoring found that carbon dioxide concentrations exceeded recommended levels in the employee office area when the building was occupied. (cdc.gov)
  • We showed that the capture and release of carbon dioxide from the MOF could be accomplished using much smaller temperature changes than required for other technologies, giving it a big advantage over conventional ways to capture CO2. (newswise.com)
  • The presence of carbon dioxide glaciers in Mars' southern polar region was first confirmed in 2011 by the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO). (universetoday.com)
  • Permissive hypercapnia (acceptance of raised concentrations of carbon dioxide in mechanically ventilated patients) may be associated with increased survival as a result of less ventilator-associated lung injury. (nih.gov)
  • Accumulating clinical and basic scientific evidence points to an active role for carbon dioxide in organ injury, in which raised concentrations of carbon dioxide are protective, and low concentrations are injurious. (nih.gov)
  • But trees process carbon dioxide, while nanotubes simply store it. (good.is)
  • The technology being developed at Edinburgh won't be commercially available for a few years, but in theory, this is how it would function: After the nanotubes have done their work, they'd be relieved of their carbon dioxide burden. (good.is)
  • This paper presents the experimental investigation of copper loaded carbon nanotubes (CNTs) electrocatalysts for the electrochemical reduction of carbon dioxide. (hindawi.com)
  • A new process called "microcombing" has been developed to created ultra-strong and highly conductive carbon nanotubes (CNTs). (electrochem.org)
  • Just as a greenhouse traps heat or a blanket keeps you warm , carbon dioxide, methane and other gases - nicknamed greenhouse gases - trap heat from the sun that would otherwise bounce back into space. (wtop.com)
  • The resulting porous graphene was then tested on a range of gases including "hydrogen, carbon dioxide, argon, nitrogen, methane and sulphur hexaflouride -- which range in size from 0.29 to 0.49 nanometers. (ieee.org)
  • Electrochemical reduction of carbon dioxide (ERC) is one of the most promising methods for CO 2 mitigation because (A) it uses CO 2 , a greenhouse gas, and water as feed, (B) it produces high economic value products like methanol, methane, ethylene, formic acid, and synthesis gas, (C) it operates at room temperature and pressure, and (D) it provides possibility of using renewable sources of energy for the process. (hindawi.com)
  • Gas hydrate is an ice-like crystalline form of water and low molecular weight gas (e.g., methane, ethane, carbon dioxide). (usgs.gov)
  • Natural cave passages penetrating coastal aquifers in the Yucatan Peninsula (Quintana Roo, Mexico) were accessed to investigate how regional meteorology and hydrology control dissolved organic carbon and methane dynamics in karst subterranean estuaries, the region of aquifers where fresh and saline waters mix. (usgs.gov)
  • Los cuerpos aórticos detectan el PH y las concentraciones de DIÓXIDO DE CARBONO y de OXÍGENO en la sangre, participando en el control de la RESPIRACIÓN. (bvsalud.org)
  • The oceans actually have the capacity to uptake most of the carbon dioxide that we're emitting, most of it, but it's just that it takes thousands of years for the ocean to very slowly, but surely, do all the cleaning," Canadell told LiveScience . (livescience.com)
  • Mollusks use carbon dioxide dissolved in the oceans to make seashells. (chemicool.com)
  • Within a millennium of this simulated shutoff, the carbon itself faded steadily with 40 percent absorbed by Earth's oceans and landmasses within 20 years and 80 percent soaked up at the end of the 1,000 years. (princeton.edu)
  • The researchers found while carbon dioxide steadily dissipates, the absorption of heat the oceans decreases, especially in the polar oceans such as off of Antarctica (above). (princeton.edu)
  • The world puts about 10 billion metric tons of carbon in the air each year, much of it gets drawn down by oceans and plants. (fox59.com)
  • Why on earth do we attribute any heating of the oceans to carbon dioxide, when there is a far more obvious culprit, and when such a straightforward examination of the thermodynamics render it impossible. (newscats.org)
  • Carbon dioxide, we are told, traps heat that has been irradiated by the oceans, and this warms the oceans and melts the polar ice caps. (newscats.org)
  • Without greenhouse gases like carbon dioxide, Earth's surface would be frozen! (amnh.org)
  • Greenhouse gases, especially carbon dioxide, "correspond to sort of holes" in the light spectrum that would otherwise allow heat to escape, but they block the exits, Mann said. (wtop.com)
  • But if there are natural greenhouse gases why do small changes in carbon dioxide levels matter? (wtop.com)
  • Carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) is one of the major greenhouse gases. (hindawi.com)
  • Out of all the waste gases produced by human activity -- manufacturing, agriculture, electricity production, transportation -- carbon dioxide is the biggest byproduct and is fingered as the leading culprit behind global warming. (cnn.com)
  • Engineers working to reverse the proliferation of greenhouse gases know that in addition to reducing carbon dioxide emissions we will also need to remove carbon dioxide from power plant fumes or from the skies. (lifeboat.com)
  • EPA Administrator Scott Pruitt said measuring the effect of human activity on the climate is "very challenging" and that "there's tremendous disagreement about the degree of impact" of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases. (wisconsingazette.com)
  • Carbon dioxide is both one of the best measured greenhouse gases and one of the least measured. (scienceblog.com)
  • Fewer than 20 percent of these measurements will be sufficiently cloud-free to allow an accurate estimate of carbon dioxide, but that number will still yield 100 to 200 times as many measurements as the currently observing Japanese Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite (GOSAT) mission. (scienceblog.com)
  • Air is forwarded to catalytic converter chamber E. This removes gases like carbon monoxide and nitrogen oxide. (electronicsforu.com)
  • When the spring thaw comes at a Martian pole, the solid carbon dioxide sublimes producing wind speeds of up to 250 mph (400 km/h). (chemicool.com)
  • This is the depth of the Champagne hydrothermal vent, from which a stream emerges that is almost 90% liquid carbon dioxide. (chemicool.com)
  • The Dry Ice Blasting process uses pellets made through a process of taking Liquid Carbon Dioxide (CO2) and expanding it to produce a snow like substance, that is compressed to make hard Dry Ice Pellets. (irishpropane.com)
  • Webb's success here offers evidence that it could also be able to detect and measure carbon dioxide in the thinner atmospheres of smaller rocky planets in the future. (theusbport.com)
  • OCO-2 will not be the first satellite to measure carbon dioxide, but it's the first with the observational strategy, precision, resolution and coverage needed to answer these questions about these little-monitored regions, according to Ralph Basilio, OCO-2 project manager at JPL. (scienceblog.com)
  • The only effective way to begin reducing greenhouse gas emissions and slow global climate change is to make it more expensive to emit carbon dioxide. (rand.org)
  • Can vacuuming carbon dioxide out of the air reverse climate change? (thebulletin.org)
  • Climate Questions: How does carbon dioxide trap heat? (wtop.com)
  • Then in 1896, Swedish chemist Svante Arrhenius took it one step further and calculated that changes in carbon dioxide may affect the climate. (wtop.com)
  • The nanotube technology is also a kind of geoengineering , which aims to slow climate change by capturing carbon. (good.is)
  • The size of the installation is crucial: The average citizen of an industrialized country releases one metric ton of carbon dioxide per month, according to a report from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. (latimes.com)
  • Climate change, greenhouse gasses-these are all words that have been bandied about for several decades at this point, but what if we can find a positive side to extra carbon dioxide in the air? (brighthub.com)
  • University of Illinois climate scientist Donald Wuebbles said without cuts in carbon pollution "we will see ever more damaging levels of climate change, more heat waves, more flooding, more droughts, more large storms and higher sea levels. (fox59.com)
  • Pruitt is a longtime ally of Big Oil, which has led a campaign of disinformation about the role of carbon dioxide in climate change. (wisconsingazette.com)
  • Carbon dioxide is the biggest heat trapping force and is responsible for about 33 times more added warming than natural causes, according to calculations from the Nobel Prize winning Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change organized by the United Nations. (wisconsingazette.com)
  • All seven climate scientists who responded said Pruitt was wrong and that carbon dioxide is the primary driver of global warming. (wisconsingazette.com)
  • The EPA says on its website that "carbon dioxide is the primary greenhouse gas that is contributing to recent climate change. (wisconsingazette.com)
  • VIA VIKING ON CLIMATE CHANGE DENIAL AND THE RESURGENCE OF CARBON-FUELED IDEOLOGY April 11, 2018 By William T. Vollmann In the time when I lived, it was still possible to meet Americans who disbelieved in global warming, although the ones I knew became shyer and rarer in about 2013. (pierrejoris.com)
  • Press release by the Stockholm Resilience Centre, the International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA), and the Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research On the eve of this year's Earth hour (25 March), researchers propose a solution in the journal Science (24 March) for the global economy to rapidly reduce carbon emissions. (pierrejoris.com)
  • In addition to rapid greenhouse gas emission reductions, carbon dioxide removal (CDR) will also be needed to avoid the worst impacts of climate change and realize the U.S. national target of net-zero greenhouse gas emissions by 2050 . (wri.org)
  • Investing in the development of a diverse portfolio of carbon removal approaches and technologies will help maximize the likelihood that CDR solutions can meet the climate challenge across the United States. (wri.org)
  • Natural processes are working hard to keep the carbon cycle in balance by absorbing about half of our carbon emissions, limiting the extent of climate change. (scienceblog.com)
  • This Article considers the role of property rights in efforts to sequester underground hundreds of millions of tons of carbon dioxide (CO2) per year from power plants and other industrial facilities in order to mitigate climate change. (ssrn.com)
  • Scientists have observed an increase in carbon dioxide's greenhouse effect at the Earth's surface for the first time. (lbl.gov)
  • These graphs show carbon dioxide's increasing greenhouse effect at two locations on the Earth's surface. (lbl.gov)
  • Earth's carbon dioxide levels are about 420 parts per million, compared to 280 before the industrial revolution and the Earth has warmed about 2 degrees (1.1 degrees Celsius) in that time. (wtop.com)
  • The winds are changing there, and carbon dioxide uptake may change too. (scienceblog.com)
  • The study suggests that it might take a lot less carbon than previously thought to reach the global temperature scientists deem unsafe. (princeton.edu)
  • The Model CDSN Carbon Dioxide Transmitter accurately monitors the CO2 concentration and temperature in schools, office buildings, and other indoor environments to help achieve LEED® certification and energy savings. (dwyer-inst.com)
  • The second visit also included real-time monitoring of temperature, relative humidity, and concentrations of carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide in the Student Health Service employee office area where respiratory problems have been reported and in the clinic area where there have been no complaints. (cdc.gov)
  • We produce carbon dioxide when we burn fossil fuels like coal, oil, and natural gas. (amnh.org)
  • Global energy demand is projected to grow rapidly, and these huge new demands must be met by largely carbon-neutral energy sources--sources that either do not use fossil fuels or that capture and store any emitted CO 2 . (nsf.gov)
  • Similarly, over one-third of global carbon emissions from fossil fuels and cement over the past half-century can be directly traced to 20 companies , primarily producers of oil and gas. (greenpeace.org)
  • But these sinks, especially the ocean, absorb carbon dioxide slowly in comparison to the rate at which it is emitted. (livescience.com)
  • The percentage of emitted carbon dioxide they absorb has declined in the past 50 years and will keep declining, Canadell says. (livescience.com)
  • Like all other molecules, carbon dioxide molecules absorb only certain colors of light, producing a unique pattern of dark features in the spectrum. (scienceblog.com)
  • The second objective was to test if industrial area has higher carbon dioxide emission as compared with a business area. (nus.edu.sg)
  • To understand where that carbon dioxide is going, we need precise, comprehensive, ongoing data about carbon dioxide absorption and emission by forests, the ocean and many other regions. (scienceblog.com)
  • Seven counties (14% of the population) reported persons hospitalized for the following flood-related illnesses or injuries: carbon monoxide poisoning (related to the indoor use of gasoline-powered generators), hypothermia, electrocution, wound infections, and exacerbation of chronic illnesses. (cdc.gov)
  • Carbon dioxide is a colorless, odorless, noncombustible gas. (cdc.gov)
  • Your body just released carbon dioxide, a colorless gas that's essential to life on Earth. (amnh.org)
  • According to the Energy Information Administration (EIA), U.S. energy-related carbon dioxide emissions fell in 2019 by 2.6 percent (150 million metric tons). (instituteforenergyresearch.org)
  • If our results are correct, the total carbon emissions required to stay below 2 degrees of warming would have to be three-quarters of previous estimates, only 750 billion tons instead of 1,000 billion tons of carbon," said Frölicher, now a researcher at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Zurich. (princeton.edu)
  • Thus, limiting the warming to 2 degrees would require keeping future cumulative carbon emissions below 250 billion tons, only half of the already emitted amount of 500 billion tons. (princeton.edu)
  • We could reduce carbon dioxide emissions by between 461 million tons and 923 million tons -- equivalent to taking from almost 24 million to 47 million vehicles off the road or removing between 11% and 22% of all vehicles on the road in the U.S. today. (cleanedge.com)
  • Under high pressure conditions, carbon dioxide can become a supercritical fluid. (chemicool.com)
  • This year's carbon dioxide level is nearly 1.9 ppm more than a year ago , a slightly bigger jump than from May 2020 to May 2021. (fox59.com)
  • Scientists commonly use the scenario of emissions screeching to a stop to gauge the heat-trapping staying power of carbon dioxide. (princeton.edu)
  • A permanent staff of scientists, researchers, and marine biologists would live aboard the vessel, monitoring the ongoing experiments and using the phytoplankton farms to lower carbon-dioxide levels in areas of need across the globe. (mymodernmet.com)
  • The reason for the IPCC's underestimate of carbon intensity changes lies partly in the way the IPCC emissions scenarios partition future emissions changes into those that will occur spontaneously and those that are policy-driven, say the scientists. (nsf.gov)
  • Forests remove carbon from the air during photosynthesis and store it in wood and roots, making these forests what scientists call carbon sinks. (scienceblog.com)
  • OCO-2's spectrometers can detect changes of one or two carbon dioxide molecules out of the 400 - an unprecedented level of precision, and one that scientists think will be adequate to detect changes in natural sources and sinks, once enough measurements have been collected. (scienceblog.com)
  • At each end, the scientists added carbon to this electrolyte to form electrodes that push the ions back and forth through the electrolyte as the battery charges and discharges. (electrochem.org)
  • The slowdown from the pandemic did cut global carbon emissions a bit in 2020, but they rebounded last year. (fox59.com)
  • The greenhouse effect, which is natural but then put on steroids by carbon pollution, is responsible for conditions that make life on Earth possible. (wtop.com)
  • Jeffrey Sparshott's otherwise excellent article "Putin Cabinet approves signing of Kyoto protocol" (Business, Friday) unwittingly promotes the alarmist view that carbon dioxide emissions (one of the "greenhouse-gas emissions" he mentions)are necessarily "pollution" and, consequently, that the United States is the "world's heaviest polluter. (cei.org)
  • Pruitt "is spewing corporate polluter talking points rather than fulfilling the EPA's mission of protecting our air, our water and our communities," Brune said, noting that EPA has a legal responsibility to address carbon pollution. (wisconsingazette.com)
  • Matteo Cargnello, a chemical engineer at Stanford University, is working to turn it into other useful chemicals, such as propane, butane or other hydrocarbon fuels that are made up of long chains of carbon and hydrogen. (lifeboat.com)
  • It produced 1,000 times more butane-the longest hydrocarbon it could produce under its maximum pressure-than the standard catalyst given the same amounts of carbon dioxide , hydrogen, catalyst, pressure, heat and time. (lifeboat.com)
  • Biden Professes Support for Carbon Capture, But. (instituteforenergyresearch.org)
  • A promising technology under development for NETs is carbon capture using a material called a MOF, or metal-organic framework. (newswise.com)
  • We made a serendipitous discovery a few years ago that certain MOFs can capture carbon dioxide through an unprecedented switch-like mechanism. (newswise.com)
  • For the carbon capture part of BECCS (or bioenergy with carbon capture and storage, an emerging negative emissions technology), where you're essentially growing trees or crops, combusting them for fuel, then capturing and sequestering that CO 2 , I think MOFs could also do the capture part better than any other material. (newswise.com)
  • Ultimately, it is envisioned that widespread commercial deployment of such technology could result in a dramatic reduction in the cost and energy associated with carbon capture, as it necessarily becomes implemented across the globe. (newswise.com)
  • She founded the startup in 2009 and immediately got to work developing technology to capture carbon dioxide and recycle it. (cnn.com)
  • To capture as much carbon as possible, you want the longest chain hydrocarbons. (lifeboat.com)
  • We make these products with lower carbon dioxide emissions and we can possibly lower the production costs. (cnn.com)
  • Results of search for 'su:{Carbon dioxide. (who.int)
  • The EPA's finding doesn't say carbon dioxide, or CO2, is by itself a pollutant -- it is, after all, a gas that humans exhale and plants inhale. (wsj.com)
  • Rising temperatures and high carbon dioxide emissions are the means through which humans are inadvertently causing the decline of several species. (scienceblogs.com)
  • Simply by breathing, humans have played a small part in the planet-wide balancing act called the carbon cycle throughout our existence. (scienceblog.com)
  • Avoidance of 20% carbon dioxide-enriched air with humans. (bvsalud.org)
  • Eventually, the residual heat offsets the cooling that occurred due to dwindling amounts of carbon dioxide. (princeton.edu)
  • This reduction potential amounts to about 16 per cent of the SNE reference projection for carbon emissions in that year. (nzdl.org)
  • That's because of the geometry, spin and vibration of carbon molecules block the specific infrared wavelength of light that's trying to escape Earth, Mann said. (wtop.com)
  • The intensity of the dark features increases as the number of carbon dioxide molecules increases in the air that the spectrometer is looking through. (scienceblog.com)
  • As photosynthesis takes place, more carbon dioxide is removed from the air. (brighthub.com)
  • Photosynthesis produces _____ carbon sugars. (proprofs.com)
  • Plants use carbon dioxide and sunlight to make their own food. (amnh.org)
  • But in the past seven years, that trend has reversed as China, India and other countries have undergone bursts in development and built more carbon-intense coal-burning plants. (livescience.com)
  • So carbon dioxide is not only being added by the construction of new power plants, but by the construction of new heavily-polluting plants. (livescience.com)
  • There would be no animal life or green plants without carbon dioxide. (chemicool.com)
  • We take carbon dioxide from its source [like power plants or factories], add water and electricity to it, and create liquid fuels and chemicals such as ethylene glycol and glycolic acid," said Cole. (cnn.com)
  • We all know that plants use carbon dioxide for food. (brighthub.com)
  • Some studies have found that excess carbon dioxide can actually help plants grow larger adn more green, while at the same time becoming more water efficient. (brighthub.com)
  • Higher levels of carbon dioxide in the air actually causes plants to photosynthesize and grow faster. (brighthub.com)
  • In addition to providing faster plant growth, the excess carbon dioxide in the air is also causing plants to live longer and not die off as quickly. (brighthub.com)
  • Plants in higher carbon dioxide environments don't open their stomata as wide. (brighthub.com)
  • Because plants use carbon dioxide when making glucose, it acts as a carbon sink. (brighthub.com)
  • Plants in the northern hemisphere start sucking up more carbon dioxide in the summer as they grow. (fox59.com)
  • Recently, an American beverage manufacturer has started to dissolve nitrous oxide, also known as laughing gas, in addition to carbon dioxide in energy drinks. (anton-paar.com)
  • That's why May is the peak for global carbon dioxide emissions. (fox59.com)
  • Usually carbon dioxide is added artificially, but in some sparkling wines and beers it is there naturally. (chemicool.com)
  • Research has already shown that crops like wheat and rice produce lower levels of essential nutrients when exposed to higher levels of carbon dioxide, thanks to experiments that artificially increased CO2 concentrations in agricultural fields. (stanford.edu)
  • The fizz shows up as bubbles when carbon dioxide exits the solution and returns to the gas phase. (chemicool.com)
  • Carbon dioxide is not toxic and its supercritical phase is used as a solvent to remove as much as 99% of the caffeine from green coffee beans while leaving intact the 1,000 or so chemicals responsible for the aroma and taste of coffee. (chemicool.com)
  • Like water moves through the water cycle, carbon moves through the carbon cycle. (amnh.org)
  • Marine animals use carbon dissolved in water to make their shells. (amnh.org)
  • The ones on Mars are mainly water ice, but also contain a lot of frozen carbon dioxide. (chemicool.com)
  • water damages electrical equipment, but carbon dioxide does not. (chemicool.com)
  • Carbon dioxide dissolves in water to produce carbonic acid. (chemicool.com)
  • A new electrocatalyst converts carbon dioxide and water into ethanol with very high energy efficiency and high selectivity for the desired final product and at low cost. (anl.gov)
  • Their results indicated that under the types of conditions that exist around the southern polar region, carbon dioxide ice flows were almost 100 times faster than water ice glaciers. (universetoday.com)
  • Liquid Light is the first company that's developed a catalyst (a combination of water, sunlight, electricity and other chemicals) to make other chemicals out of carbon dioxide. (cnn.com)
  • Time: In the Greenhouse: Forests Get More Water Efficient as Carbon Dioxide Levels Rise. (brighthub.com)
  • Frozen carbon dioxide, often called dry ice, doesn't melt. (chemicool.com)
  • In 2011, they learned that unlike the northermost ice sheet, the southern cap is largely composed of frozen carbon dioxide (aka. (universetoday.com)

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