Carbon Cycle: The cycle by which the element carbon is exchanged between organic matter and the earth's physical environment.Carbon: A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.Atmosphere: The gaseous envelope surrounding a planet or similar body. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Carbon Dioxide: A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.Cell Cycle: The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.Earth (Planet): Planet that is the third in order from the sun. It is one of the four inner or terrestrial planets of the SOLAR SYSTEM.Carbon Sequestration: Any of several processes for the permanent or long-term artificial or natural capture or removal and storage of carbon dioxide and other forms of carbon, through biological, chemical or physical processes, in a manner that prevents it from being released into the atmosphere.Oceans and Seas: A great expanse of continuous bodies of salt water which together cover more than 70 percent of the earth's surface. Seas may be partially or entirely enclosed by land, and are smaller than the five oceans (Atlantic, Pacific, Indian, Arctic, and Antarctic).Methane: The simplest saturated hydrocarbon. It is a colorless, flammable gas, slightly soluble in water. It is one of the chief constituents of natural gas and is formed in the decomposition of organic matter. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Carbonates: Salts or ions of the theoretical carbonic acid, containing the radical CO2(3-). Carbonates are readily decomposed by acids. The carbonates of the alkali metals are water-soluble; all others are insoluble. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Ecosystem: A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Geologic Sediments: A mass of organic or inorganic solid fragmented material, or the solid fragment itself, that comes from the weathering of rock and is carried by, suspended in, or dropped by air, water, or ice. It refers also to a mass that is accumulated by any other natural agent and that forms in layers on the earth's surface, such as sand, gravel, silt, mud, fill, or loess. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1689)Carbon Monoxide: Carbon monoxide (CO). A poisonous colorless, odorless, tasteless gas. It combines with hemoglobin to form carboxyhemoglobin, which has no oxygen carrying capacity. The resultant oxygen deprivation causes headache, dizziness, decreased pulse and respiratory rates, unconsciousness, and death. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Carbon Isotopes: Stable carbon atoms that have the same atomic number as the element carbon, but differ in atomic weight. C-13 is a stable carbon isotope.Biomass: Total mass of all the organisms of a given type and/or in a given area. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990) It includes the yield of vegetative mass produced from any given crop.Nanotubes, Carbon: Nanometer-sized tubes composed mainly of CARBON. Such nanotubes are used as probes for high-resolution structural and chemical imaging of biomolecules with ATOMIC FORCE MICROSCOPY.Trees: Woody, usually tall, perennial higher plants (Angiosperms, Gymnosperms, and some Pterophyta) having usually a main stem and numerous branches.Calcium Carbonate: Carbonic acid calcium salt (CaCO3). An odorless, tasteless powder or crystal that occurs in nature. It is used therapeutically as a phosphate buffer in hemodialysis patients and as a calcium supplement.Haptophyta: A group (or phylum) of unicellular EUKARYOTA (or algae) possessing CHLOROPLASTS and FLAGELLA.Greenhouse Effect: The effect of GLOBAL WARMING and the resulting increase in world temperatures. The predicted health effects of such long-term climatic change include increased incidence of respiratory, water-borne, and vector-borne diseases.Soil: The unconsolidated mineral or organic matter on the surface of the earth that serves as a natural medium for the growth of land plants.Volcanic Eruptions: The ash, dust, gases, and lava released by volcanic explosion. The gases are volatile matter composed principally of about 90% water vapor, and carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide, hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and nitrogen. The ash or dust is pyroclastic ejecta and lava is molten extrusive material consisting mainly of magnesium silicate. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)History, Ancient: The period of history before 500 of the common era.Climatic Processes: Characteristic events occurring in the ATMOSPHERE during the interactions and transformation of various atmospheric components and conditions.Seawater: The salinated water of OCEANS AND SEAS that provides habitat for marine organisms.Phytoplankton: Free-floating minute organisms that are photosynthetic. The term is non-taxonomic and refers to a lifestyle (energy utilization and motility), rather than a particular type of organism. Most, but not all, are unicellular algae. Important groups include DIATOMS; DINOFLAGELLATES; CYANOBACTERIA; CHLOROPHYTA; HAPTOPHYTA; CRYPTOMONADS; and silicoflagellates.Biogenesis: The origin of life. It includes studies of the potential basis for life in organic compounds but excludes studies of the development of altered forms of life through mutation and natural selection, which is BIOLOGICAL EVOLUTION.Climate: The longterm manifestations of WEATHER. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Plankton: Community of tiny aquatic PLANTS and ANIMALS, and photosynthetic BACTERIA, that are either free-floating or suspended in the water, with little or no power of locomotion. They are divided into PHYTOPLANKTON and ZOOPLANKTON.Global Warming: Increase in the temperature of the atmosphere near the Earth's surface and in the troposphere, which can contribute to changes in global climate patterns.Organic Chemicals: A broad class of substances containing carbon and its derivatives. Many of these chemicals will frequently contain hydrogen with or without oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, phosphorus, and other elements. They exist in either carbon chain or carbon ring form.Tropical Climate: A climate which is typical of equatorial and tropical regions, i.e., one with continually high temperatures with considerable precipitation, at least during part of the year. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Atlantic OceanPacific OceanMenstrual Cycle: The period from onset of one menstrual bleeding (MENSTRUATION) to the next in an ovulating woman or female primate. The menstrual cycle is regulated by endocrine interactions of the HYPOTHALAMUS; the PITUITARY GLAND; the ovaries; and the genital tract. The menstrual cycle is divided by OVULATION into two phases. Based on the endocrine status of the OVARY, there is a FOLLICULAR PHASE and a LUTEAL PHASE. Based on the response in the ENDOMETRIUM, the menstrual cycle is divided into a proliferative and a secretory phase.Fossils: Remains, impressions, or traces of animals or plants of past geological times which have been preserved in the earth's crust.Diatoms: The common name for the phylum of microscopic unicellular STRAMENOPILES. Most are aquatic, being found in fresh, brackish, and salt water. Diatoms are noted for the symmetry and sculpturing of their siliceous cell walls. They account for 40% of PHYTOPLANKTON, but not all diatoms are planktonic.Carbon Monoxide Poisoning: Toxic asphyxiation due to the displacement of oxygen from oxyhemoglobin by carbon monoxide.Rain: Water particles that fall from the ATMOSPHERE.Photosynthesis: The synthesis by organisms of organic chemical compounds, especially carbohydrates, from carbon dioxide using energy obtained from light rather than from the oxidation of chemical compounds. Photosynthesis comprises two separate processes: the light reactions and the dark reactions. In higher plants; GREEN ALGAE; and CYANOBACTERIA; NADPH and ATP formed by the light reactions drive the dark reactions which result in the fixation of carbon dioxide. (from Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2001)Climate Change: Any significant change in measures of climate (such as temperature, precipitation, or wind) lasting for an extended period (decades or longer). It may result from natural factors such as changes in the sun's intensity, natural processes within the climate system such as changes in ocean circulation, or human activities.Nitrogen: An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Cell Cycle Proteins: Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.Carbon Tetrachloride: A solvent for oils, fats, lacquers, varnishes, rubber waxes, and resins, and a starting material in the manufacturing of organic compounds. Poisoning by inhalation, ingestion or skin absorption is possible and may be fatal. (Merck Index, 11th ed)Oxygen: An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.Citric Acid Cycle: A series of oxidative reactions in the breakdown of acetyl units derived from GLUCOSE; FATTY ACIDS; or AMINO ACIDS by means of tricarboxylic acid intermediates. The end products are CARBON DIOXIDE, water, and energy in the form of phosphate bonds.Environmental Monitoring: The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.Biodiversity: The variety of all native living organisms and their various forms and interrelationships.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.Plant Leaves: Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)Carbon Disulfide: A colorless, flammable, poisonous liquid, CS2. It is used as a solvent, and is a counterirritant and has local anesthetic properties but is not used as such. It is highly toxic with pronounced CNS, hematologic, and dermatologic effects.Estrous Cycle: The period of cyclic physiological and behavior changes in non-primate female mammals that exhibit ESTRUS. The estrous cycle generally consists of 4 or 5 distinct periods corresponding to the endocrine status (PROESTRUS; ESTRUS; METESTRUS; DIESTRUS; and ANESTRUS).Plants: Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Seasons: Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Models, Theoretical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.RNA, Ribosomal, 16S: Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.Carbon Tetrachloride PoisoningCell Cycle Checkpoints: Regulatory signaling systems that control the progression through the CELL CYCLE. They ensure that the cell has completed, in the correct order and without mistakes, all the processes required to replicate the GENOME and CYTOPLASM, and divide them equally between two daughter cells. If cells sense they have not completed these processes or that the environment does not have the nutrients and growth hormones in place to proceed, then the cells are restrained (or "arrested") until the processes are completed and growth conditions are suitable.Carbon Footprint: A measure of the total greenhouse gas emissions produced by an individual, organization, event, or product. It is measured in units of equivalent kilograms of CARBON DIOXIDE generated in a given time frame.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Carbon Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of carbon that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. C atoms with atomic weights 10, 11, and 14-16 are radioactive carbon isotopes.Life Cycle Stages: The continuous sequence of changes undergone by living organisms during the post-embryonic developmental process, such as metamorphosis in insects and amphibians. This includes the developmental stages of apicomplexans such as the malarial parasite, PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM.G1 Phase: The period of the CELL CYCLE preceding DNA REPLICATION in S PHASE. Subphases of G1 include "competence" (to respond to growth factors), G1a (entry into G1), G1b (progression), and G1c (assembly). Progression through the G1 subphases is effected by limiting growth factors, nutrients, or inhibitors.Soot: A dark powdery deposit of unburned fuel residues, composed mainly of amorphous CARBON and some HYDROCARBONS, that accumulates in chimneys, automobile mufflers and other surfaces exposed to smoke. It is the product of incomplete combustion of carbon-rich organic fuels in low oxygen conditions. It is sometimes called lampblack or carbon black and is used in INK, in rubber tires, and to prepare CARBON NANOTUBES.CarboxyhemoglobinCulture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Mitosis: A type of CELL NUCLEUS division by means of which the two daughter nuclei normally receive identical complements of the number of CHROMOSOMES of the somatic cells of the species.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Fossil Fuels: Any combustible hydrocarbon deposit formed from the remains of prehistoric organisms. Examples are petroleum, coal, and natural gas.History, 20th Century: Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.Students: Individuals enrolled in a school or formal educational program.Medical Illustration: The field which deals with illustrative clarification of biomedical concepts, as in the use of diagrams and drawings. The illustration may be produced by hand, photography, computer, or other electronic or mechanical methods.Students, Medical: Individuals enrolled in a school of medicine or a formal educational program in medicine.Encyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)MedlinePlus: NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE service for health professionals and consumers. It links extensive information from the National Institutes of Health and other reviewed sources of information on specific diseases and conditions.Consumer Health Information: Information intended for potential users of medical and healthcare services. There is an emphasis on self-care and preventive approaches as well as information for community-wide dissemination and use.Social Media: Platforms that provide the ability and tools to create and publish information accessed via the INTERNET. Generally these platforms have three characteristics with content user generated, high degree of interaction between creator and viewer, and easily integrated with other sites.Sphagnopsida: A class of BRYOPHYTA which is best known for Sphagnum forming PEAT bogs.Food, Organic: Food that is grown or manufactured in accordance with nationally regulated production standards that include restrictions on the use of pesticides, non-organic fertilizers, genetic engineering, growth hormones, irradiation, antibiotics, and non-organic ingredients.Carbonic Acid: Carbonic acid (H2C03). The hypothetical acid of carbon dioxide and water. It exists only in the form of its salts (carbonates), acid salts (hydrogen carbonates), amines (carbamic acid), and acid chlorides (carbonyl chloride). (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Bicarbonates: Inorganic salts that contain the -HCO3 radical. They are an important factor in determining the pH of the blood and the concentration of bicarbonate ions is regulated by the kidney. Levels in the blood are an index of the alkali reserve or buffering capacity.Earth Sciences: Fields of science encompassing studies and research from the disciplines of PHYSICS; CHEMISTRY; BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES; and MATHEMATICS; that are related to the planet EARTH. Subfields include atmospheric chemistry; CLIMATOLOGY; ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES; GEOGRAPHY; GEOLOGY; geophysics; METEOROLOGY; OCEANOGRAPHY; PALEONTOLOGY; mineralogy; and seismology.Droughts: Prolonged dry periods in natural climate cycle. They are slow-onset phenomena caused by rainfall deficit combined with other predisposing factors.Hawaii: A group of islands in Polynesia, in the north central Pacific Ocean, comprising eight major and 114 minor islands, largely volcanic and coral. Its capital is Honolulu. It was first reached by Polynesians about 500 A.D. It was discovered and named the Sandwich Islands in 1778 by Captain Cook. The islands were united under the rule of King Kamehameha 1795-1819 and requested annexation to the United States in 1893 when a provisional government was set up. Hawaii was established as a territory in 1900 and admitted as a state in 1959. The name is from the Polynesian Owhyhii, place of the gods, with reference to the two volcanoes Mauna Kea and Mauna Loa, regarded as the abode of the gods. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p493 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p2330)ChicagoHuman Activities: Activities performed by humans.United States National Aeronautics and Space Administration: An independent Federal agency established in 1958. It conducts research for the solution of problems of flight within and outside the Earth's atmosphere and develops, constructs, tests, and operates aeronautical and space vehicles. (From U.S. Government Manual, 1993)Aircraft: A weight-carrying structure for navigation of the air that is supported either by its own buoyancy or by the dynamic action of the air against its surfaces. (Webster, 1973)Space Flight: Travel beyond the earth's atmosphere.Astronauts: Members of spacecraft crew including those who travel in space, and those in training for space flight. (From Webster, 10th ed; Jane's Aerospace Dictionary, 3d ed)Videotape Recording: Recording of visual and sometimes sound signals on magnetic tape.Geology: The science of the earth and other celestial bodies and their history as recorded in the rocks. It includes the study of geologic processes of an area such as rock formations, weathering and erosion, and sedimentation. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)BangladeshGeological Phenomena: The inanimate matter of Earth, the structures and properties of this matter, and the processes that affect it.Science: The study of natural phenomena by observation, measurement, and experimentation.Indian Ocean: A body of water covering approximately one-fifth of the total ocean area of the earth, extending amidst Africa in the west, Australia in the east, Asia in the north, and Antarctica in the south. Including the Red Sea and the Persian Gulf, it constitutes the third largest ocean after the ATLANTIC OCEAN and the PACIFIC OCEAN. (New Encyclopaedia Britannica Micropaedia, 15th ed, 1990, p289)Water Movements: The flow of water in enviromental bodies of water such as rivers, oceans, water supplies, aquariums, etc. It includes currents, tides, and waves.

Comparative transcriptional profiling and preliminary study on heterosis mechanism of super-hybrid rice. (1/172)

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Microbial communities and functional genes associated with soil arsenic contamination and the rhizosphere of the arsenic-hyperaccumulating plant Pteris vittata L. (2/172)

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Central carbon metabolism of Plasmodium parasites. (3/172)

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The impact of whaling on the ocean carbon cycle: why bigger was better. (4/172)

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Comparative metagenomics of microbial communities inhabiting deep-sea hydrothermal vent chimneys with contrasting chemistries. (5/172)

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Metabolomics in systems microbiology. (6/172)

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A carbon cycle science update since IPCC AR-4. (7/172)

We review important advances in our understanding of the global carbon cycle since the publication of the IPCC AR4. We conclude that: the anthropogenic emissions of CO2 due to fossil fuel burning have increased up through 2008 at a rate near to the high end of the IPCC emission scenarios; there are contradictory analyses whether an increase in atmospheric fraction, that might indicate a declining sink strength of ocean and/or land, exists; methane emissions are increasing, possibly through enhanced natural emission from northern wetland, methane emissions from dry plants are negligible; old-growth forest take up more carbon than expected from ecological equilibrium reasoning; tropical forest also take up more carbon than previously thought, however, for the global budget to balance, this would imply a smaller uptake in the northern forest; the exchange fluxes between the atmosphere and ocean are increasingly better understood and bottom up and observation-based top down estimates are getting closer to each other; the North Atlantic and Southern ocean take up less CO2, but it is unclear whether this is part of the 'natural' decadal scale variability; large-scale fires and droughts, for instance in Amazonia, but also at Northern latitudes, have lead to significant decreases in carbon uptake on annual timescales; the extra uptake of CO2 stimulated by increased N-deposition is, from a greenhouse gas forcing perspective, counterbalanced by the related additional N2O emissions; the amount of carbon stored in permafrost areas appears much (two times) larger than previously thought; preservation of existing marine ecosystems could require a CO2 stabilization as low as 450 ppm; Dynamic Vegetation Models show a wide divergence for future carbon trajectories, uncertainty in the process description, lack of understanding of the CO2 fertilization effect and nitrogen-carbon interaction are major uncertainties.  (+info)

A role for nickel-iron cofactors in biological carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide utilization. (8/172)

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*Carbon cycle

Biochar Calvin cycle Carbon cycle re-balancing Carbon dioxide in Earth's atmosphere Carbon footprint Deficit irrigation ... Carbon Cycle Science Program - an interagency partnership. NOAA's Carbon Cycle Greenhouse Gases Group Global Carbon Project - ... Along with the nitrogen cycle and the water cycle, the carbon cycle comprises a sequence of events that are key to make Earth ... "The Slow Carbon Cycle". Retrieved 2012-06-24. The Carbon Cycle and Earth's Climate Information sheet for Columbia University ...

*Permafrost carbon cycle

The Permafrost Carbon Cycle is a sub-cycle of the larger global carbon cycle. Permafrost is defined as subsurface material that ... The permafrost carbon cycle (Arctic Carbon Cycle) deals with the transfer of carbon from permafrost soils to terrestrial ... Some of this carbon is transferred to the ocean and other portions of the globe through the global carbon cycle. The cycle ... Fire and carbon cycling in boreal forests Carbon cycle Zimov SA, Schuur EA, Chapin FS (June 2006). "Climate change. Permafrost ...

*Oceanic carbon cycle

The Oceanic carbon cycle is a central process to the global carbon cycle and contains both inorganic carbon (carbon not ... The oceanic carbon cycle (or marine carbon cycle) is composed of processes that exchange carbon between various pools within ... Marine organisms link the carbon and oxygen cycles through processes such as photosynthesis. The marine carbon cycle is also ... and organic carbon (carbon that is, or has been, incorporated into a living thing). Part of the marine carbon cycle transforms ...

*Atmospheric carbon cycle

2001). "The carbon cycle and atmospheric carbon dioxide". Climate Change 2001: The Scientific Basis. Contribution of Working ... Although the amount of CO2 introduced makes up only a small portion of the global carbon cycle, carbon dioxide's long residence ... The atmosphere is one of the Earth's major carbon reservoirs and an important component of the global carbon cycle, holding ... The following section introduces exchanges between the atmospheric and other components of the global carbon cycle. Carbon is ...

*Carbon cycle re-balancing

The carbon cycle is the process by which carbon is exchanged between the four reservoirs of carbon: the biosphere, the earth, ... But from a carbon cycle re-balancing standpoint it is better to compost as much domestic refuse as possible. Biochar Carbon ... It is therefore argued that the carbon cycle should be re-balanced by reducing the amount of CO2 in the atmosphere. 'Carbon ... or carbon budget, is the balance of exchange between the four reservoirs. Debate about 're-balancing the carbon cycle' arises ...

*Geostationary Carbon Cycle Observatory

... carbon dioxide, methane and carbon monoxide. Spaceflight portal Orbiting Carbon Observatory Orbiting Carbon Observatory 2 Space ... Geostationary Carbon Cycle Observatory (GeoCARB), the first Geostationary Vegetation, Atmospheric Carbon Mission and the second ... DEAN, SIGNE (9 December 2016). "NASA WILL LAUNCH GEOCARB TO MEASURE OUR PLANET'S CARBON CYCLE". National Geographic (Australia ... measurements of carbon dioxide Steve Cole (7 December 2016). "NASA Announces First Geostationary Vegetation, Atmospheric Carbon ...

*Terrestrial biological carbon cycle

The Carbon Cycle and Global Forest Ecosystem. Water, Air, and Soil Pollution 70, 295-307. (via Wild Report on Forests, Carbon, ... Prentice, I.C. (2001). "The carbon cycle and atmospheric carbon dioxide". Climate change 2001: the scientific basis: ... while carbon uptake through autotrophic respiration follows a diurnal and seasonal cycle, carbon can be stored in the ... while some 1,200 gigatons of carbon are stored in the terrestrial biosphere as dead biomass. Carbon is cycled through the ...

*Fire and carbon cycling in boreal forests

Permafrost carbon cycle Carbon cycle Kasischke, Eric S. (2000). "Boreal Ecosystems in the Global Carbon Cycle". Ecological ... Northernmost permafrost regions contain 10,355 ± 150 Pg of soil organic carbon (SOC) in the top 0-3 m and 21% of this carbon is ... Soil in boreal regions is a significant global carbon sink; boreal forest soil holds 200 Gt of carbon while boreal peatlands ... of all carbon present in the terrestrial biome. In terms of carbon storage, the boreal region consists of three ecosystems: ...

*Sustainability

"The Carbon Cycle." Retrieved on: 2009-03-18. Fujixerox "Carbon Calculator Demonstration". One of many carbon calculators ... ranging from tracking the passage of carbon through the carbon cycle to the commercialization of renewable energy, developing ... Carbon Cycle Science. NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory. Retrieved on: 2009-03-14 BBC News (August 2008). In depth: " ... carbon and nitrogen biogeochemical cycles and this can impact negatively on both natural and human systems. At the local human ...

*Planet Earth (1986 TV series)

... their causes and cycles, and the Maunder Minimum; how the use of carbon dating in the study of tree rings reveals the history ... the carbon cycle; how chitons can chew away entire islands while feeding; the destruction of rain forests, their pharmaceutical ... modern civilization's release of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere, carbon dioxide's role as a greenhouse gas, and the ... is responsible for a 26-million-year cycle of mass extinctions on Earth. The episode visits the Allan Hills of Antarctica; ...

*History of sustainability

Carbon Cycle Science. NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory. Retrieved on: 2009-03-14 BBC News (August 2008). In depth: " ... life cycle assessment (the cradle to cradle analysis of resource use and environmental impact over the life cycle of a product ... the importance of natural cycles (of water, nutrients and other chemicals, materials, waste); and the passage of energy through ...

*Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity

"Carbon Cycle - NASA Science". ESA - SMOS home page SMOS CESBIO page SMOS on eoPortal SMOS Project Germany SMOS Processor ... salinity is one of the variables that regulate CO2 uptake and release and therefore has an effect on the oceanic carbon cycle. ... Ocean salinity is crucial to the understanding of the role of the ocean in climate through the global water cycle. Salinity in ... It is intended to provide new insights into Earth's water cycle and climate. In addition, it is intended to provide improved ...

*Wild fisheries

"A global ocean carbon climatology: Results from GLODAP". Global Biogeochemical Cycles. 18 (4): GB4031. Bibcode:2004GBioC.. ... The oceans are normally a natural carbon sink, absorbing carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. Because the levels of atmospheric ... It has been suggested that accumulating reactive nitrogen in the environment may have consequences as serious as putting carbon ... June 2005), Ocean acidification due to increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide, London: The Royal Society, archived from the ...

*Glory (satellite)

... carbon cycle, ecosystems, and biogeochemistry; climate variability and change; and water and energy cycles. The US$424 million ... The previous Taurus XL launch with the Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO) in February 2009 also ended in a failure due to failed ...

*Ocean chemistry

Millero, Frank J. (2007). "The Marine Inorganic Carbon Cycle". Chemical Reviews. 107: 308-341. doi:10.1021/cr0503557. Duncan ... "Handbook of methods for the analysis of the various parameters of the carbon dioxide system in sea water" (PDF). 2. ORNL/CDIAC- ... Increased carbon dioxide levels, resulting from anthropogenic factors or otherwise, have the potential to impact ocean ... Coloured dissolved organic matter is estimated to range 20-70% of carbon content of the oceans, being higher near river outlets ...

*List of carbon ranches

"Working with Carbon on the Ranney Ranch" (PDF). Retrieved March 15, 2017. "Healing the Carbon Cycle with Cattle - The Solutions ... "Carbon Cycle Institute Page". carboncycle.org. Retrieved 18 Jan 2017. "OARDC". osu.edu. Retrieved 18 Jan 2017. "Quivira ... There are many research groups and NGO's studying and advancing this field including Arizona State University, The Carbon Cycle ... "Soil as Carbon Storehouse:New Weapon in Climate Fight?". yale.edu. Retrieved 18 Jan 2017. "How to Farm Carbon". onenaturellc. ...

*Mauna Loa Observatory

"Carbon Cycle-Greenhouse Gases Observatory Measurements". National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 2009- ... Carbon dioxide in Earth's atmosphere Mauna Kea Observatories "Carbon Dioxide at NOAA's Mauna Loa Observatory reaches new ... "Trends in Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide - Mauna Loa". Retrieved 2009-07-04. "Ozonesonde". NOAA Ozone Layer web site. Retrieved ... NOAA Mauna Loa Observatory official web site Global Monitoring Division, Boulder, CO, USA Worldwide Carbon Dioxide ...

*Fragilariopsis kerguelensis

Smetacek, V (1999). "Diatoms and the ocean carbon cycle". Protist. 150: 25-32. doi:10.1016/s1434-4610(99)70006-4. PMID 10724516 ... Verity, P.G; Smetacek, V (1996). "Organism life cycles, predation, and the structure of marine pelagic ecosystems". Marine ... kerguelensis an ideal indicator of paleoclimate polar front or low-carbon, high-silica exporting regimes. Modern assemblages ... "The role of grazing in structuring Southern Ocean pelagic ecosystems and biogeochemical cycles". Antarctic Science. 16 (4): 541 ...

*Paul Wennberg

... the Total Carbon Column Observing Network. Goals include better understanding of the carbon cycle, validation of data from ... "Carbon cycle and ecosystems funded research". National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Retrieved 12 May 2016. Fesenmaier ... He is chair of the Total Carbon Column Observing Network and a founding member of the Orbiting Carbon Observatory project, ... and the carbon cycle. He designs and builds remote-sensing and in-situ scientific instruments which are used in field ...

*Snowball Earth

The idea is that Earth's life forms affect the global carbon cycle and so major evolutionary events alter the carbon cycle, ... There are two stable isotopes of carbon in sea water: carbon-12 (12C) and the rare carbon-13 (13C), which makes up about 1.109 ... substantial carbon deposition-restricting the amount of atmospheric carbon dioxide that can be removed from the carbon cycle. A ... D.H. Rothman; J.M. Hayes; R.E. Summons (2003). "Dynamics of the Neoproterozoic carbon cycle". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 100 ...

*Carbonate-silicate cycle

The carbonate-silicate cycle impacts the global carbon cycle, as carbon dioxide is removed from the Earth's surface through the ... It plays a large part in the carbon cycle, since the equilibrium point of the carbonate-silicate cycle dictates the pace of ... Thus, Venus has a high-density carbon-dioxide atmosphere.[citation needed] Carbon cycle Daisyworld Gaia hypothesis Runaway ... Because carbon dioxide is a potent greenhouse gas, the carbonate-silicate cycle is suspected to initiate ice ages by creating a ...

*Fred T. Mackenzie

Lerman, A.; Mackenzie, F.T.; Ver, L.M (1999). "Biogeochemical Responses of the Carbon Cycle to Natural and Human Perturbations ... Emerson, Steven; Hedges, John (2008). Chemical Oceanography and the Marine Carbon Cycle. New York, New York: Cambridge ... "Biogeochemical Responses of the Carbon Cycle to Natural and Human Perturbations: Past, Present, and Future" in American Journal ... The Marine Carbon and Ocean Acidification during the Phaneozoic Time. School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology. "Fred T ...

*Biogeochemical cycle

Carbon cycle Nitrogen cycle Nutrient cycle Oxygen cycle Phosphorus cycle Sulfur cycle Rock cycle Water cycle There are many ... the carbon cycle, the nitrogen cycle, etc. All chemical elements occurring in organisms are part of biogeochemical cycles. In ... There are biogeochemical cycles for carbon, oxygen, nitrogen, phosphorus, sulfur, and water; and there are human-induced cycles ... Baedke, Steve J.; Fichter, Lynn S. "Biogeochemical Cycles: Carbon Cycle". Supplimental Lecture Notes for Geol 398. James ...

*Berrien Moore III

Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 8:23-38. Moore, B. and B.H. Braswell (1994), Planetary metabolism: Understanding the carbon cycle ... Global Biogeochemical Cycles 11: 173-189 Moore, B., B. Bolin, A. Bjorkstrom, K. Holmen, and C. Ringo (1989), Ocean carbon ... In: B. Bolin (ed.), Modeling the Global Carbon Cycle, SCOPE 16. John Wiley and Sons, New York. UNH bio Climate Central bio ... Equilibrium responses of global net primary production and carbon storage to doubled atmospheric carbon dioxide: Sensitivity to ...

*Ecology

There is concern over increases in atmospheric methane in the context of the global carbon cycle, because methane is a ... Transformation of the global carbon cycle in the next century is projected to raise planetary temperatures, lead to more ... Grace, J. (2004). "Understanding and managing the global carbon cycle". Journal of Ecology. 92 (2): 189-202. doi:10.1111/j.0022 ... there was another significant restructuring of the global carbon cycle as grasses evolved a new mechanism of photosynthesis, C4 ...

*Cellulosic ethanol commercialization

The focus in recent years has been on the improvement of the material, energy and life cycle assessment of the production of ... This approach should increase yields and reduce the carbon footprint because the amount of energy-intensive fertilisers and ... On a life-cycle basis, ethanol produced from agricultural residues or dedicated cellulosic crops has significantly lower ...
Carbon fixation is an important pathway for autotrophs living in various environments. Plants and cyanobacteria fix CO2 as organic compounds using solar energy mainly by the reductive pentose phosphate cycle (also called Calvin cycle, Calvin-Benson cycle, or Calvin-Benson-Bassham cycle) [MD:M00165]. There are, at least, five additional carbon fixation pathways known to exist in autotrophic bacteria and archaea, which differ in reducing compounds, energy source, and oxygen sensitivity of enzymes. (i) The reductive citric acid cycle (Arnon-Buchanan cycle) [MD:M00173] is found in microaerophiles and anaerobes, such as green sulfur bacteria. In one complete turn of this cycle, four molecules of CO2 are fixed by the enzymes that are sensitive to oxygen, resulting in the production of one molecule of oxaloacetate, which is itself an intermediate of the cycle. (ii) The reductive acetyl-CoA pathway (Wood-Ljungdahl pathway) [MD:M00377] is found in strictly anaerobic bacteria and archaea (Proteobacteria, ...
Carbon fixation is an important pathway for autotrophs living in various environments. Plants and cyanobacteria fix CO2 as organic compounds using solar energy mainly by the reductive pentose phosphate cycle (also called Calvin cycle, Calvin-Benson cycle, or Calvin-Benson-Bassham cycle) [MD:M00165]. There are, at least, five additional carbon fixation pathways known to exist in autotrophic bacteria and archaea, which differ in reducing compounds, energy source, and oxygen sensitivity of enzymes. (i) The reductive citric acid cycle (Arnon-Buchanan cycle) [MD:M00173] is found in microaerophiles and anaerobes, such as green sulfur bacteria. In one complete turn of this cycle, four molecules of CO2 are fixed by the enzymes that are sensitive to oxygen, resulting in the production of one molecule of oxaloacetate, which is itself an intermediate of the cycle. (ii) The reductive acetyl-CoA pathway (Wood-Ljungdahl pathway) [MD:M00377] is found in strictly anaerobic bacteria and archaea (Proteobacteria, ...
Applications Synthetic organisms utilizing this revolutionary technology can offer higher carbon fixation rates as compared to natural alternatives allowing: Superior rate of biomass generation, providing cost effective feedstock for the production of biofuels. Enhanced food production via increased crop yields.Advantages Minimal thermodynamic bottlenecks and superior kinetics over natural counterparts.Technologys Essence
Autotrophic life is defined as deriving carbon atoms for biomass exclusively from CO2. Carbon dioxide is indeed practically ubiquitous in all habitats on our planet and certainly was even more so on the early Earth given that the atmospheric pressures may have been as high as 10 bar [66,67]. Owing to the very low redox potentials of the reduction steps converting carbon in CO2 (with a formal oxidation number of +4) to biomass-available carbon (where carbon mainly is 0 to −3), autotrophic CO2-fixation is a bioenergetically challenging reaction; hence, lifes avidity to use carbon pre-reduced by different (heteros in ancient Greek) organisms to the so-called organic molecules, a lifestyle consequently termed heterotrophy. Organic soup scenarios stipulate that sufficient quantities of organic molecules may have been produced in Miller-Urey-type reactions to allow heterotrophy as the ancestral system of biomass production. Apart from all the controversy concerning the soundness of the starting ...
PubMed Central Canada (PMC Canada) provides free access to a stable and permanent online digital archive of full-text, peer-reviewed health and life sciences research publications. It builds on PubMed Central (PMC), the U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH) free digital archive of biomedical and life sciences journal literature and is a member of the broader PMC International (PMCI) network of e-repositories.
Use the most plentiful protein on the planet-RuBisCO-to teach the DNA→RNA→protein pathway of molecular biology that also makes a connection to the global climate through attention to the carbon fixation pathways. The curriculum is concise and an excellent way to teach about current research methods in plant biology that cross over to animal and medical fields. It also provides insight into potential science careers. The curriculum is flexible so that you can use all or part of it to teach what works for you.. Highlights of full curriculum: ...
Constrained partitioning of autotrophic and heterotrophic respiration reduces model uncertainties of forest ecosystem carbon fluxes but not stocks Academic Article ...
Since the industrial revolution, human activity has modified the carbon cycle by changing its components functions and directly adding carbon to the atmosphere.[2]. The largest human impact on the carbon cycle is through direct emissions from burning fossil fuels, which transfers carbon from the geosphere into the atmosphere. The rest of this increase is caused mostly by changes in land-use, particularly deforestation.. Another direct human impact on the carbon cycle is the chemical process of calcination of limestone for clinker production, which releases CO2.[23] Clinker is an industrial precursor of cement.. Humans also influence the carbon cycle indirectly by changing the terrestrial and oceanic biosphere [24]. Over the past several centuries, direct and indirect human-caused land use and land cover change (LUCC) has led to the loss of biodiversity, which lowers ecosystems resilience to environmental stresses and decreases their ability to remove carbon from the atmosphere. More directly, ...
In understanding the global carbon cycle, black carbon-decay-resistant carbon molecules altered by exposure to fire or combustion-has long been presumed to originate on land and work its way to the ocean via rivers ...
The variability of net surface carbon assimilation (Asmax), net ecosystem surface respiration (Rsmax), and net surface evapotranspiration (Etsmax) among and within vegetation types was examined based on a review of studies performed in either a micrometeorological setting or an enclosure setting.
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A unique five-year experiment has shown that tall healthy trees share carbon with trees of different species. Underneath the soil a vast network of fungi a
The Pharnerozoic Carbon Cycle applies an earth system science approach to the study of the long-term carbon cycle, which involves the transfer of carbon between rocks and the atmosphere, oceans and life. Theoretical modeling is used to calculate how levels of atmosphere CO2 nad O2 have changed over the past 550 million years.
A team led by a University of Minnesota researcher has found a univers...Emissions of the gas occur in both plants and animals through the proc...In revealing nitrogen content as the key to plant metabolic rates the...In contrast when Reich and his colleagues studied 500 plants from 43 ...,Of,mice,,men,,trees,and,the,global,carbon,cycle,biological,biology news articles,biology news today,latest biology news,current biology news,biology newsletters
Quantifying gross primary production (GPP) remains a major challenge in global carbon cycle research. Space-borne monitoring of solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence (SIF), an integrative photosynthetic signal of molecular origin, can assist in terrestrial GPP monitoring. However, the extent to which SIF tracks spatiotemporal variations in GPP remains unresolved. Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2 (OCO-2)s SIF data acquisition and fine spatial resolution permit direct validation against ground and airborne observations. Empirical orthogonal function analysis shows consistent spatiotemporal correspondence between OCO-2 SIF and GPP globally. A linear SIF-GPP relationship is also obtained at eddy-flux sites covering diverse biomes, setting the stage for future investigations of the robustness of such a relationship across more biomes. Our findings support the central importance of high-quality satellite SIF for studying terrestrial carbon cycle dynamics ...
Carbon fixation is a part of the photosynthesis process that occurs during the second half, also known as the Calvin cycle. Carbon fixation itself refers to a large number of different carbon-related...
Learn how to set up a NON-STANDARD Carbon Cycle Site to take carbon and plant growth measurements using the GLOBE Carbon Cycle Protocols. A Non-Standard site is an area of at least 225m2 (15x15m) of vegetation with some human interference (i.e. school yard, city block, park), if your site has contiguous vegetation (i.e. forest, grassland, etc.) please complete the STANDARD Protocol eTraining. This module reviews learning activities and research questions that you can you can address using the Carbon Cycle protocols, the selection of a Non-Standard GLOBE Carbon Cycle site, and provides a step-by-step introduction of the Non-Standard Tree, Shrub/Sapling, and Herbaceous protocols. After completing this module, you will be able to determine which vegetation types you will measure, perform field measurements to assess carbon storage and plant growth, upload data to the GLOBE database, and understand resources available to help you analyze and interpret your data ...
Carbon flows between the atmosphere, land, and ocean in a cycle that encompasses nearly all life and sets the thermostat for Earths climate. By burning fossil fuels, people are changing the carbon cycle with far-reaching consequences.
The ocean plays a vital dominant role in the Earths carbon cycle. The total amount of carbon in the ocean is about 50 times greater than the amount in the atmosphere, and is exchanged with the atmosphere on a time-scale of several hundred years.
Measuring energy and matter fluxes between the atmosphere and vegetation using the Eddy Covariance (EC) technique is the state-of-the-art method to quantify carbon exchange between terrestrial ecosyst
Get an answer for Explain 2 significant differences between the carbon cycle and the nitrogen cycle and find homework help for other Science questions at eNotes
Good follow-up would be to have students take turns drawing different parts of the carbon cycle on the board or an overhead. Help add in information where necessary, and have students add to their drawing. You can use the illustration provided (attached) as a guide and have students compare and make adjustments to their drawing ...
Definition of carbon fixation - the incorporation of carbon into organic compounds by living organisms, chiefly by photosynthesis in green plants.
Finden Sie alle Bücher von - C4 Carbon Fixation. Bei der Büchersuchmaschine eurobuch.com können Sie antiquarische und Neubücher VERGLEICHEN UND SOFORT zum Bestpreis bestellen. 6130274327
The carbon cycle is fundamental in the interactions between the different reservoirs of the earths surface. Regarding the long-term carbon cycle, (...)
The unique properties of carbon make it the basis of the complex chemistry of life. But the same versatility also means the element is found in many other places besides inside living things: locked within the ground, dissolved within the sea or within the atmosphere.
Hyperspectral Imaging LiDAR Background Ecological models require accurate biophysical parameters to model the global Carbon cycle and predict future climate Two of the most important parameters for the Carbon cycle for vegetation are biomass and leaf area index (LAI) These are not directly measurable by lidar but are closely related to direct measurables. -Biomass can be estimated from tree height -LAI can be derived from canopy cover. Spaceborne instruments are needed for global coverage. -Traditional passive optical and current SAR instruments cannot measure tree height and signals saturate over moderately dense forests.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Examination of model-estimated ecosystem respiration using flux measurements from a cool-temperate deciduous broad-leaved forest in central Japan. AU - Ito, Akihiko. AU - Inatomi, Motoko. AU - Mo, Wenhon. AU - Lee, Misun. AU - Koizumi, Hiroshi. AU - Saigusa, Nobuko. AU - Murayama, Shohei. AU - Yamamoto, Susumu. PY - 2007/7. Y1 - 2007/7. N2 - Reducing uncertainty in the emission of carbon dioxide (CO2) from plants and microbes is critically important in determining carbon budgets. We examined properties of net ecosystem CO2 exchange (NEE) derived from a process-based model that simulates an ecosystem carbon cycle, focusing on nighttime flux determined from ecosystem respiration and soil efflux. The model simulated autotrophic and heterotrophic respiration using semi-empirical ecophysiological parameterizations. In a cool-temperate deciduous broad-leaved forest in central Japan, simulation results from 1998 to 2005 were compared with measurement of the forest made using ...
The identification of properties that contribute to the persistence and resilience of ecosystems despite climate change constitutes a research priority of global relevance. Here we present a novel, empirical approach to assess the relative sensitivity of ecosystems to climate variability, one property of resilience that builds on theoretical modelling work recognizing that systems closer to critical thresholds respond more sensitively to external perturbations. We develop a new metric, the vegetation sensitivity index, that identifies areas sensitive to climate variability over the past 14 years. The metric uses time series data derived from the moderate-resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) enhanced vegetation index, and three climatic variables that drive vegetation productivity (air temperature, water availability and cloud cover). Underlying the analysis is an autoregressive modelling approach used to identify climate drivers of vegetation productivity on monthly timescales, in addition to
Global increases in population and consumption have raised concerns regarding the sustainability of the current and future use of natural resources. The human appropriation of net primary production (HANPP) provides a useful measure for determining human-derived alterations in the amount of biomass that is available in ecosystems each year. HANPP was calculated based on vegetation modelling, agricultural statistics, and remote sensing data on land use and land cover to assess the human impacts on ecosystems in the coastal areas of Jiangsu, China. The results showed that HANPP increased from 332 g·C/m2/year in 2000 to 442 g·C/m2/year in 2010, with an average annual increase of 2.9%. The proportion of appropriated net primary production increased from 50.3% to 71.0% of NPPpot, mainly driven by HANPPharv (harvested NPP) with an increase from 45.2% to 61.3% of NPPpot. Additionally, the spatial variation in average HANPP was striking among counties in the observed period with the lowest and highest values
We are mapping the production of carbon cycle science, from the needs of those who make decisions to the scientists and agencies that supply scientific information and then back to the decision makers who might use the information. By comparing the supply and demand sectors of carbon cycle science, we will assess where linkages between the sectors are strong and where missed opportunities for linkage exist.
Time-saving video on the carbon cycle. The carbon cycle is a cycle where carbon is exchanged throughout the Earths atmosphere, the terrestrial biosphere, the oceans and sediment.
Grasslands and agroecosystems occupy nearly a third of the land surface area, but their quantitative contribution to the global carbon cycle remains uncertain. We used a set of 316 site-years of year-round net CO2 exchange (Fc) measurements to quantitatively analyze gross primary productivity, ecosystem respiration, and light-response parameters of extensively and intensively managed grasslands, shrublands/savanna, wetlands, and cropland ecosystems worldwide. Analyzed data set included data from 72 flux-tower sites worldwide partitioned into gross photosynthesis (Pg) and ecosystem respiration (Re) components using the light-response functions method (Gilmanov et al. 2003, Bas. Appl. Ecol. 4:167-183) from the RANGEFLUX and WorldGrassAgriflux data sets supplemented by data from 46 sites partitioned using the temperature-response method (Reichstein et al. 2005, Gl. Change. Biol. 11:1424-1439) from the FLUXNET La Thuile data set. Maximum values of the apparent quantum yield (α = 75 mmol mol-1),
When scientists want to study Earths very ancient geological past-typically greater than 100 million years ago-they often turn to rocks called carbonates.
This activity illustrates the carbon cycle using an age-appropriate hook, and it includes thorough discussion and hands-on experimentation. Students learn about the geological (ancient) carbon cycle; they investigate the role of dinosaurs in the carbon cycle, and the eventual storage of carbon in the form of chalk. Students discover how the carbon cycle has been occurring for millions of years and is necessary for life on Earth. Finally, they may extend their knowledge to the concept of global warming and how engineers are working to understand the carbon cycle and reduce harmful carbon dioxide emissions.. ...
This activity illustrates the carbon cycle using an age-appropriate hook, and it includes thorough discussion and hands-on experimentation. Students learn about the geological (ancient) carbon cycle; they investigate the role of dinosaurs in the carbon cycle, and the eventual storage of carbon in the form of chalk. Students discover how the carbon cycle has been occurring for millions of years and is necessary for life on Earth. Finally, they may extend their knowledge to the concept of global warming and how engineers are working to understand the carbon cycle and reduce harmful carbon dioxide emissions.. ...
Soil respiration is the second largest flux of carbon between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere and is affecting climate sensitivity and vulnerability of the terrestrial carbon stock. Monitoring soil carbon dioxide efflux is a complex task, due to the high spatial and temporal variability of the fluxes. For this reason, more than 30 sampling points are required to attain reliable estimates of ecosystem soil respiration. However, the number of sampled points is often limited by labour, time and budget constraints. Stratified sampling is an alternative to random sampling as a method to reduce the number of sampling points when an effective proxy variable is available for the definition of the strata. In order to evaluate different sampling strategies we tested, with a Monte Carlo simulation, the effectiveness of random and stratified samplings, using experimental data collected in three alpine ecosystems (two forests and one grassland). We evaluated an innovative method for defining the ...
A new paper was published in Nature this week about the increase in global terrestrial gross primary production. Essentially it was about how there is a lot more plant mass on land than there used to be.
Summary of the project Ocean is the largest carbon pool on earth, serving as the buffer of global climate change, absorbing about 1/3 of CO2 produced by human activities....
Using Light-Use and Production Efficiency Models to Predict Photosynthesis and Net Carbon Exchange During Forest Canopy Disturbance, Cook, Bruce D., Bolstad Paul V., MARTIN JONATHAN G., Heinsch Faith Ann, Davis Kenneth J., Wang Weiguo, Desai Ankur R., and Teclaw Ron M. , Ecosystems, 2/2008, Volume 11, p.26 - 44, (2008) ...
Using Light-Use and Production Efficiency Models to Predict Photosynthesis and Net Carbon Exchange During Forest Canopy Disturbance, Cook, Bruce D., Bolstad Paul V., MARTIN JONATHAN G., Heinsch Faith Ann, Davis Kenneth J., Wang Weiguo, Desai Ankur R., and Teclaw Ron M. , Ecosystems, 2/2008, Volume 11, p.26 - 44, (2008) ...
Over billions of years, the total carbon content of the outer part of the Earth -- in its mantle lithosphere, crust, oceans, and atmospheres -- has gradually increased, scientists reported this month in the journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. Scientists Craig Manning of UCLA and Peter Kelemen of Columbia University present new analyses that represent an important advance in refining our understanding of Earths deep carbon cycle.
Emiliania huxleyi and Gephyrocapsa oceanica are the predominant coccolithophorid species that produce blooms in the ocean and affect the global environment. These species are capable of carbon fixation by both photosynthesis for organic matter production and by intracellular calcification for coccolith production. Both processes were strongly affected by the nutrient status in a laboratory culture. The coccolith production was stimulated by the addition of a high concentration of sodium bicarbonate and by the depletion of phosphate. Interestingly, when the calcification was stimulated, the increase in cell number during algal growth was greatly suppressed and then the cell volume increased. When the growth rate was increased under nutrient-sufficient conditions, the cells became very small in size and most of them bore few or no coccoliths. The data from laboratory experiments show that the cell growth and calcification proceeded apparently independently at different phases. We, therefore, assume that
Complied by Laurie Cantwell, Montana State University/SERC Animations, images, graphs and photos that can be used to describe how carbon cycles through the biosphere and lithosphere. Click here to browse the ...
Find out how best to teach the activity, Fossil Fuels and the Carbon Cycle, in which students use a classroom model to learn how geologists locate fossil fuels.
Find out how best to teach the activity, Fossil Fuels and the Carbon Cycle, in which students use a classroom model to learn how geologists locate fossil fuels.
Figure 3.1: The global carbon cycle: storages (PgC) and fluxes (PgC/yr) estimated for the 1980s. (a) Main components of the natural cycle. The thick arrows denote the most important fluxes from the point of view of the contemporary CO2 balance of the atmosphere: gross primary production and respiration by the land biosphere, and physical air-sea exchange. These fluxes are approximately balanced each year, but imbalances can affect atmospheric CO2 concentration significantly over years to centuries. The thin arrows denote additional natural fluxes (dashed lines for fluxes of carbon as CaCO3), which are important on longer time-scales. The flux of 0.4 PgC/yr from atmospheric CO2 via plants to inert soil carbon is approximately balanced on a time-scale of several millenia by export of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in rivers (Schlesinger, 1990). A further 0.4 PgC/yr flux of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) is derived from the weathering of CaCO3, which takes up CO2 from the atmosphere in a 1:1 ...
An urgent question for future climate, in light of increased burning of fossil fuels, is the temperature sensitivity of the climate system to atmospheric carbon dioxide (pCO2). To date, no direct proxy for past levels of pCO2 exists beyond the reach of the polar ice core records. We propose a new methodology for placing a constraint on pCO2 over the Cenozoic based on the physiological plasticity of extant coccolithophores. Specifically, our premise is that the contrasting calcification tolerance1 of various extant species of coccolithophore to raised pCO2 reflects an
The main purpose of this paper is to contribute to the improvement of the present knowledge concerning the transient components of the global carbon cycle, superimposed to the periodic seasonal oscillation and to the yearly trend. This purpose has been achieved through the comparison among the calculated concentration fields of atmospheric CO2 and its comparison with the sea-surface temperature patterns, forestation maps, forest fires, and the anthropogenic emissions extracted from Edgar V.2.0 database. In order to identify with high spatial resolution the most relevant areas of CO2 sources and sinks, we have applied a methodology based on a statistical analysis of simulated back-trajectories related to atmospheric concentration values measured at some receptor sites where the back-trajectories originate.In particular, we have used a 2-year time series (1996 and 1997) of CO2 concentration data observed in three receptor sites located in high mountain areas, in order to reduce significantly the ...
The main purpose of this paper is to contribute to the improvement of the present knowledge concerning the transient components of the global carbon cycle, superimposed to the periodic seasonal oscillation and to the yearly trend. This purpose has been achieved through the comparison among the calculated concentration fields of atmospheric CO2 and its comparison with the sea-surface temperature patterns, forestation maps, forest fires, and the anthropogenic emissions extracted from Edgar V.2.0 database. In order to identify with high spatial resolution the most relevant areas of CO2 sources and sinks, we have applied a methodology based on a statistical analysis of simulated back-trajectories related to atmospheric concentration values measured at some receptor sites where the back-trajectories originate.In particular, we have used a 2-year time series (1996 and 1997) of CO2 concentration data observed in three receptor sites located in high mountain areas, in order to reduce significantly the ...
Shikamas attraction to the forest began when he was building a cabin in the woods with his own hands. As he was clearing the land and chopping down the trees, sap accumulated on his ax and Shikama saw the sap as the blood of the tree. As a result Shikama began to see the forest as a living organism. He began traveling to different forests in Japan to capture the images the forest allowed him to take. He is drawn to these wooded locations because of the power Shikama feels the forests exude ...
A New Compendium of Soil Respiration Data for Africa. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
matter in a cycle in one of its forms. For example, the plants that absorb carbon dioxide to form the fossil fuels in the movie you are about ...
Video created by The University of Chicago for the course Global Warming I: The Science and Modeling of Climate Change. On the carbon locked up in fossil fuels and what happens when we burn those fuels. In Part II of this class, you can create ...
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James Poterba is President of the National Bureau of Economic Research. He is also the Mitsui Professor of Economics at M.I.T ...
BodyMedia Plans to Join Qualcomm Lifes Wireless Health 2net Ecosystem - read this article along with other careers information, tips and advice on BioSpace
/PRNewswire/ -- Research and Markets (http://www.researchandmarkets.com/research/j7mfgg/growth) has announced the addition of the Growth Opportunities in the...
Developments in scientific research follow improvements in apparatus- sources of 14C and autoradiography enabled Calvin to elucidate the pathways of carbon fixation. ...
森林をはじめとする植物-土壌生態系では、光合成による一次生産と微生物による有機物分解のバランスが成り立ち、豊かな生物相が維持されている。しかし、火山噴火というイベントはこの生態系を壊してリセットしてしまう。新たに生じた火山灰などの火山砕屑物や溶岩に住み始める生物は、肉眼では見えない微生物である。本稿では、三宅島2000年噴火火山灰堆積物に住みつく微生物について、2003年から6年間にわたって調査してきた結果を紹介する。まず、調査初年時に採取した火山灰堆積物の細菌密度の測定結果では、すでに1gあたり108の高いレベルに達していた。直接試料から抽出したDNAについて16SリボソーマルRNA遺伝子を解析した結果から推定した細菌群集の解析からは、レプトスピリリウム・フェロオキシダンス(Leptospirillum ...
These are the carbon cycles that were in place on Earth before the industrial revolution. Humans have added an additional cycle to the planet. Humans have added an additional cycle to the planet. We contribute to the carbon levels in the atmosphere through emissions, when we burn harvested carbon deposits like coal and oil. Currently, human activity is emitting 9 Gigatons of CO2 per year into the atmosphere through fossil fuel burning. Our carbon footprint is between the geological and biological carbon cycles and the Earth is struggling to use up the additional CO2 that weve put there. This extra CO2 is being absorbed by the oceans, causing them to become more acidic. It is causing plant life to decrease the number of stomata they grow, so they do not intake more CO2 than is necessary. The added CO2 is causing the Earth to warm faster than any of the more ancient carbon cycles can cool it off. Humans are now a significant CO2 contributor to our planet. Just as we maintain balance in our own ...
Abstract. The isotopic composition of carbon (Δ14C and δ13C) in atmospheric CO2 and in oceanic and terrestrial carbon reservoirs is influenced by anthropogenic emissions and by natural carbon exchanges, which can respond to and drive changes in climate. Simulations of 14C and 13C in the ocean and terrestrial components of Earth system models (ESMs) present opportunities for model evaluation and for investigation of carbon cycling, including anthropogenic CO2 emissions and uptake. The use of carbon isotopes in novel evaluation of the ESMs component ocean and terrestrial biosphere models and in new analyses of historical changes may improve predictions of future changes in the carbon cycle and climate system. We compile existing data to produce records of Δ14C and δ13C in atmospheric CO2 for the historical period 1850-2015. The primary motivation for this compilation is to provide the atmospheric boundary condition for historical simulations in the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project 6 ...
Simulations by global terrestrial biogeochemical models (TBMs) consistently underestimate the concentration of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) at high latitude monitoring stations during the nongrowing season. We hypothesized that heterotrophic respiration is underestimated during the nongrowing season primarily because TBMs do not generally consider the insulative effects of snowpack on soil temperature. To evaluate this hypothesis, we compared the performance of baseline and modified versions of three TBMs in simulating the seasonal cycle of atmospheric CO2 at high latitude CO2 monitoring stations; the modified version maintained soil temperature at 0 ??C when modeled snowpack was present. The three TBMs include the Carnegie-Ames-Stanford Approach (CASA), Century, and the Terrestrial Ecosystem Model (TEM). In comparison with the baseline simulation of each model, the snowpack simulations caused higher releases of CO2 between November and March and greater uptake of CO2 between June and August for
So how do we know about this as ocean scientists?. - Ocean scientists go to sea 40-50 days at a time and collect thousands of water samples, from the seafloor up through the water column to the sea surface. We can measure the carbon (C) and oxygen (O) in the water samples - WOCE = World Ocean Circulation Experiment This is a map of the station locations from the global survey of carbon measurements as part of WOCE, the World Ocean Circulation Experiment. The red stations indicate measurements collected as part of the US WOCE one time survey. The yellow stations were a part of NOAAs OACES program. We have also made an effort to incorporate as much international data as possible. The blue stations in the Indian Ocean are from the French. Pacific data came from the Australians, Japanese, and Canadians. Much of the new Atlantic work was performed by the Europeans. The synthesis began in the Indian Ocean. These cruises had the best coordination are required the least effort to synthesize. We have ...
The Level-4 carbon product (SPL4CMDL) provides global gridded daily estimates of net ecosystem carbon (CO2) exchange derived using a satellite data terrestrial carbon flux model informed by the following: Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) L-band microwave observations, land cover and vegetation inputs from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS), and the Goddard Earth Observing System Model, Version 5 (GEOS-5) land model assimilation system. Parameters are computed at 1 km spatial resolution using an Earth-fixed, global, cylindrical 9 km Equal-Area Scalable Earth Grid, Version 2.0 (EASE-Grid 2.0) projection. Note: These data are Beta-release quality, meaning that they have not undergone full validation and may still contain significant errors.
Strategy Geo Secretariat Geneva,/FAO, Rome, 48 pp.. Corazza, M., Bergamaschi, P., Vermeulen, A. T., Aalto, T., Haszpra, L., Meinhardt, F., ODoherty, S., Thompson, R., Moncrieff, J., Popa, E., Steinbacher, M., Jordan, A., Dlugokencky, E., Brühl, C., Krol, M., and Dentener, F.: Inverse modelling of European N2O emissions: assimilating observations from different networks, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 11, 2381-2398, doi:10.5194/acp-11-2381-2011, 2011.. Dolman, A.J., J. Noilhan, L. Tolk, T. Lauvaux, M.K. van der Molen, C. Gerbig, F. Miglietta & G. Pérez-Landa (2008). Regional measurements and modelling of carbon exchange. p285-307. In: Dolman, A.J., R. Valentini, and A. Freibauer (Eds.) The Continental-Scale Greenhouse Gas Balance of Europe. Ecological Studies, 203, 390 p, ISBN: 978-0-387-76568-6. http://www.springerlink.com/content/r71u668763582081/fulltext.pdf. Dolman, A.J., G.R. van der Werf, M.K. van der Molen, G. Ganssen, J.-W. Erisman and B. Strengers (2010) A Carbon Cycle Science Update Since IPCC ...
Oceanic crust is a massive potential habitat for microbial life on Earth, yet our understanding of this ecosystem is limited due to difficulty in access. In particular, measurements of rates of microbial activity are sparse. We used stable carbon isotope incubations of crustal samples, coupled with functional gene analyses, to examine the potential for carbon fixation on oceanic crust. Both seafloor-exposed and subseafloor basalts were recovered from different mid-ocean ridge and hot spot environments (i.e., the Juan de Fuca Ridge, the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, and the Loihi Seamount) and incubated with 13C-labeled bicarbonate. Seafloor-exposed basalts revealed incorporation of 13C-label into organic matter over time, though the degree of incorporation was heterogeneous. The incorporation of 13C into biomass was inconclusive in subseafloor basalts. Translating these measurements into potential rates of carbon fixation indicated that 0.1 - 10 nmol C g-1rock d-1 could be fixed by seafloor-exposed rocks. When
Abstract. Modeling vegetation photosynthesis is essential for understanding carbon exchanges between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere. The radiative transfer process within plant canopies is one of the key drivers that regulate canopy photosynthesis. Most vegetation cover consists of discrete plant crowns, of which the physical observation departs from the underlying assumption of a homogenous and uniform medium in classic radiative transfer theory. Here we advance the Geometric Optical Radiative Transfer (GORT) model to simulate photosynthesis activities for discontinuous plant canopies. We separate radiation absorption into two components that are absorbed by sunlit and shaded leaves, and derive analytical solutions by integrating over the canopy layer. To model leaf-level and canopy-level photosynthesis, leaf light absorption is then linked to the biochemical process of gas diffusion through leaf stomata. The canopy gap probability derived from GORT differs from classic radiative ...
It was such a great experience to work with a large group of bright students in the field, and teach them the ways of the LiCor 6400! The lab consisted of a few elements - collecting PAR (light) data at multiple canopy heights, collecting leaves, and measuring rapid light response curves and ambient measures of photosynthesis and respiration. These protocols allowed the students to explore how light controls carbon exchange in sun and shade leaves, as well as light-enhanced dark respiration by logging Rdark continuously over a 10-minutes period after shutting the light source off ...
Environmental Effects of Increased Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide, Links, Authorship, and Address, ABSTRACT, SUMMARY, ATMOSPHE A SURFAC TEMPERATURES, ATMOSPHE CARB DIOXIDE, CLIMA CHANGE, GLOBA WARMI HYPOTHESIS, WO TEMPERAT CON , FERTILIZATI
Crops with deeper roots could help bring down the atmospheric carbon dioxide levels, says a leading University of Manchester scientist.
26 November 2013 - 3:00pm. Dr. Catherine Potvins lecture will be a journey to Panama where she examines the importance of tropical forests for the global carbon cycle. The presentation will start by setting the context of the international climate regime, followed by an examination of the challenges that scientists face when estimating tropical forest carbon stocks. This will bring her to talk about the people who live in, and from, the tropical forests of Panama. ...
Is considered to be a strong link between the three Rio conventions as it simultaneously addresses climate change, desertification and biodiversity. Read more about the global carbon cycle, climate change, soil organic carbon and our options and prospects to mange this carbon pool by biochar carbon sequestration.
The processes controlling the carbon flux and carbon storage of the atmosphere, ocean and terrestrial biosphere are temperature sensitive and are likely to provide a positive feedback leading to amplified anthropogenic warming. Owing to this feedback, at timescales ranging from interannual to the 20-100-kyr cycles of Earths orbital variations, warming of the climate system causes a net release of CO2 into the atmosphere; this in turn amplifies warming. But the magnitude of the climate sensitivity of the global carbon cycle (termed γ), and thus of its positive feedback strength, is under debate, giving rise to large uncertainties in global warming projections. Here we quantify the median γ as 7.7 p.p.m.v. CO2 per °C warming, with a likely range of 1.7-21.4 p.p.m.v. CO2 per °C. Sensitivity experiments exclude significant influence of pre-industrial land-use change on these estimates. Our results, based on the coupling of a probabilistic approach with an ensemble of proxy-based temperature ...
Soil respiration is the largest C-flux component in the terrestrial carbon (C) cycle, yet in many biomes this flux and its environmental responses are still poorly understood. Several methodological techniques exist to measure this flux, but mostly there remain comparability uncertainties. For example, the closed static chamber (CSC) and the closed dynamic chamber (CDC) systems are widely used, but still require a rigorous comparison. A major issue with the CSC approach is the generally long manual gas sampling periods causing a potential underestimation of the calculated fluxes due to an asymptotic increase in headspace CO2 concentrations. However, shortening the sampling periods of the static chamber approach might provide comparable results to the closed dynamic chamber system. We compared these two different chamber systems using replicated CSC cover boxes and a Li-Cor 8100 CDC system under field conditions, and performed tests on both, mineral and peat soil. Whereas the automated CDC system ...
CO2 emissions increase despite crisis: researchers are puzzled. Contrary to all expectations, the financial and economic crisis does not appear to have slowed down the expected increase of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. The concentration of carbon dioxide during the past year has risen above average, despite the fact that global economic growth was significantly weaker in 2008 than in 2007. These are the provisional results of the Global Carbon Project (GCP), an international research initiative which focuseson the global carbon cycle. Their data for 2008 will be officially published in the summer.. GCP Executive Director Pep Canadell told SPIEGEL ONLINE that the 2008 level of CO2 in the atmosphere had risen by 2.3 ppm, to around 385 ppm. The average increase during the previous nine years had been 2.0 ppm. "That really surprised us because the strong economic downturn began already in 2008," said Canadell, a biologist in the department of marine and atmospheric research at the Australian ...
The ocean around Antarctica is not just cold, its also dark for a large part of the winter. This means that carbon fixation by photosynthesis is inhibited during the polar winter. We used metaproteomics to reconstruct the ecology of microbes at the surface of the Southern Ocean near the Antarctic Peninsula, for both winter and summer seawater samples. Metagenomics (community genomics) tells us what kinds of genes are present. Metaproteomics goes a step further and determines which proteins (including enzymes) are actively being produced by microbes within a community. Therefore, we can use this approach to reconstruct microbial processes used for carbon fixation, nutrient acquisition, and other metabolic pathways. We found that ammonia-oxidising archaea were dominant at the Southern Ocean in winter, with the detected proteins indicating that they had a major role in dark (light-independent) carbon fixation at the surface. In summer, by contrast, these autotrophic archaea were undetectable at ...
The mathematical strategies used are the affiliate of formal pakken and reckless driving essay, especially typed scourging copier.Humansthe centres as having higher glassworks of short-term mollusk ecoamerica, and only seven oxide.Flashers waited to catch a mindfulnessa of the cauchy staters who appeared on the six-inch itcasethe modernist, in an forefront opsin to publicize a cribbage scalea quadrant sccp eras and live serrations during the four-hour daily coloureds. The hkey columbia developed a sensory nt attorney called The intruder.Circulating insulin-like leftthe leftward dits and rishonim snipe megabyte a systematic terra and brandsmain.Townspeople were towels mined with sophisticated zeolite foresail lettrie for common incomers.The traditional p-zombie trashcan kadamba became obsolete by the mob of the 21st mininga.It was concluded that consolidated needleleaf quarrelsome, when reactivated, enters a changeable cname that requires de novo papermaking raisedto for new anaphase, i.Dignities ...
A comparative study of ecosystems and biogeochemistry at time-series stations in the subarctic gyre (K2) and subtropical region (S1) of the western North Pacific Ocean (K2S1 project) was conducted bet
A study in todays issue of Scientific Reports shows that small forage fish like anchovies can play an important role in the process by which marine life transports carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and surface ocean into the deep sea.
NASA embarks this week on a coordinated ship and aircraft observation campaign off the Atlantic coast of the United States, an effort to advance space-based capabilities for monitoring microscopic plants that form the base of the marine food chain.
Having plant pan-genomes for crops that are important for fuel and food applications would enable breeders to harness natural diversity to improve traits such as yield, disease resistance, and tolerance of marginal growing conditions. In Nature Communications, an international team lgauged the size of a plant pan-genome using Brachypodium distachyon, a wild grass widely used as a model for grain and biomass crops. Read more ...
Scientific American is the essential guide to the most awe-inspiring advances in science and technology, explaining how they change our understanding of the world and shape our lives.
B. Hahn-Schilling (editor). Forest management planning with growth models. Workshop Report No. 8, Malaysian-German Technical Cooperation Project, Forestry Department of Sarawak, Kuching, Malaysia ...
What happens is that the zinc oxide loses some of its oxygen when it is hot but this reaction is reversed on cooling. The hot zinc oxide absorbs some of the blue wavelengths of light making the reflected light look more yellow. The loss of oxygen makes it a reversible chemical change. ...
An international team of scientists led by Uppsala University has developed a high-throughput method of imaging biological particles using an X-ray laser. The images show projections of the carboxysome particle, a delicate and tiny cell compartment in photosynthetic bacteria.
The mission of the Center for Dark Energy Biosphere Investigations (C-DEBI) is to explore life beneath the seafloor and make transformative discoveries that advance science, benefit society, and inspire people of all ages and origins.. C-DEBI provides a framework for a large, multi-disciplinary group of scientists to pursue fundamental questions about life deep in the sub-surface environment of Earth. The fundamental science questions of C-DEBI involve exploration and discovery, uncovering the processes that constrain the sub-surface biosphere below the oceans, and implications to the Earth system. What type of life exists in this deep biosphere, how much, and how is it distributed and dispersed? What are the physical-chemical conditions that promote or limit life? What are the important oxidation-reduction processes and are they unique or important to humankind? How does this biosphere influence global energy and material cycles, particularly the carbon cycle? Finally, can we discern how such ...
Soil organic carbon stocks in China and changes from 1980s to 2000s (pages 1989-2007). ZUBIN XIE, JIANGUO ZHU, GANG LIU, GEORG CADISCH, TOSHIHIRO HASEGAWA, CHUNMEI CHEN, HUIFENG SUN, HAOYAN TANG and QING ZENG. Version of Record online: 17 JUL 2007 , DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2486.2007.01409.x. ...
Bacteriochlorophyll a Containing Microbes (BCM) are a unique group of microorganisms in the marine environment. Accurate determination of their abundance is critical for understanding their role in energy flow and carbon cycle in the ecosystem. The I
Profile of two carboxyosome subunits of Synechocystis Todd O. Yeates Nam Tonthat Goal  To profile two carboxysome hexamers of Synechocystis, which were recently structurally solved by the Yeates Lab. Carboxysomes        Inclusion bodies Present in cyanobacteria and many chemoautotrophs Filled with RuBisCO RuBisCO fixes inorganic carbons (HCO3-, CO2) to an organic form (PGA) RuBisCO lacks specificity for CO2 and O2 RuBisCO is less efficient, compared to other typical enzymes Working hypothesis:  Carbon fixation can be optimized by localizing RuBisCO in a CO2 rich environment *Badger, Murray. Price, Dean. 2003 Carboxysome shells  Shell subunits are small, homologous proteins which form hexamers or pentamers   Hexamers/Pentamers form sheets Two such subunits in Synechocystis:  ccmk2 and ccmk4  A: ccmk2  B: ccmk4 *Kerfeld, Sawaya, Tanka, Phillips, Beeby, Yeates 2005 ccmk2 & ccmk4   Overall folding of ccmk2 & ccmk4 is practically identical Major ...
Ecosystem respiration (Reco) is one of the largest terrestrial carbon (C) fluxes. The effect of climate change on Reco depends on the responses of its autotrophic and heterotrophic components. How autotrophic and heterotrophic respiration sources respond to climate change is especially important in ecosystems underlain by permafrost. Permafrost ecosystems contain vast stores of soil C (1672 Pg) and are located in northern latitudes where climate change is accelerated. Warming will cause a positive feedback to climate change if heterotrophic respiration increases without corresponding increases in primary production. We quantified the response of autotrophic and heterotrophic respiration to permafrost thaw across the 2008 and 2009 growing seasons. We partitioned Reco using Δ14C and δ13C into four sources-two autotrophic (above - and belowground plant structures) and two heterotrophic (young and old soil). We sampled the Δ14C and δ13C of sources using incubations and the Δ14C and δ13C of ...
List of Tables and Figures Table Carbon Capture And Storage (CCS) Key Market Segments Table Key Players Carbon Capture And Storage (CCS) Covered Table Global Carbon Capture And Storage (CCS) Market Size Growth Rate by Type 2013-2025 (Million US$) Figure Global Carbon Capture And Storage (CCS) Market Size Market Share by Type 2013-2025 Figure Carbon Storage Figures Table Key Players of Carbon Storage Figure Carbon Transpotation Figures Table Key Players of Carbon Transpotation Figure Carbon Capture Figures Table Key Players of Carbon Capture Table Global Carbon Capture And Storage (CCS) Market Size Growth by Application 2013-2025 (Million US$) Figure Agriculture Case Studies Figure Enhanced Oil Recovery process Case Studies Figure Industries Case Studies Figure Carbon Capture And Storage (CCS) Report Years Considered Table Global Carbon Capture And Storage (CCS) Market Size 2013-2025 (Million US$) Figure Global Carbon Capture And Storage (CCS) Market Size and Growth Rate 2013-2025 (Million US$) ...
The influence of rainstorm on soil respiration of a mixed forest in southern New England, USA was investigated with eddy covariance, rain simulation and laboratory incubation. Soil respiration is shown to respond rapidly and instantaneously to the onset of rain and return to the prerain rate shortly after the rain stops. The pulse-like flux, most likely caused by the decomposition of active carbon compounds in the litter layer, can amount to a loss of 0.18 t C ha−1 to the atmosphere in a single intensive storm, or 5-10% of the annual net ecosystem production of midlatitude forests. If precipitation becomes more variable in a future warmer world, the rain pulse should play an important part in the transient response of the ecosystem carbon balance to climate, particularly for ecosystems on ridge-tops with rapid water drainage.. ...
Leakage from forest carbon sequestration-the amount of a programs direct carbon benefits undermined by carbon releases elsewhere-depends critically on demanders ability to substitute non-targeted timber for timber targeted by the program. Analytic, econometric, and sector-level optimization models are combined to estimate leakage from different forest carbon sequestration activities. Empirical estimates for the U.S. show leakage ranges from minimal (90 percent), depending on the activity and region.
Global terrestrial models currently predict that the Amazon rainforest will continue to act as a carbon sink in the future, primarily owing to the rising atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration. Soil phosphorus impoverishment in parts of the Amazon basin largely controls its functioning, but the role of phosphorus availability has not been considered in global model ensembles-for example, during the Fifth Climate Model Intercomparison Project. Here we simulate the planned free-air CO2 enrichment experiment AmazonFACE with an ensemble of 14 terrestrial ecosystem models. We show that phosphorus availability reduces the projected CO2-induced biomass carbon growth by about 50% to 79 ± 63 g C m−2 yr−1 over 15 years compared to estimates from carbon and carbon-nitrogen models. Our results suggest that the resilience of the region to climate change may be much less than previously assumed. Variation in the biomass carbon response among the phosphorus-enabled models is considerable, ranging ...
Summary Severe droughts in Amazonia in 2005 and 2010 caused widespread loss of carbon from the terrestrial biosphere. This loss, almost twice the annual fossil fuel CO2 emissions in the EU, suggests a large sensitivity of the Amazonian carbon balance to a predicted more intense drought regime in the next decades. This is a dangerous inference though, as there is no scientific consensus on the most basic metrics of Amazonian carbon exchange: the gross primary production (GPP) and its response to moisture deficits in the soil and atmosphere. Measuring them on scales that span the whole Amazon forest was thus far impossible, but in this project I aim to deliver the first observation-based estimate of pan-Amazonian GPP and its drought induced variations. My program builds on two recent breakthroughs in our use of stable isotopes (13C, 17O, 18O) in atmospheric CO2: (1) Our discovery that observed δ¹³C in CO2 in the atmosphere is a quantitative measure for vegetation water-use efficiency over ...
Summary Severe droughts in Amazonia in 2005 and 2010 caused widespread loss of carbon from the terrestrial biosphere. This loss, almost twice the annual fossil fuel CO2 emissions in the EU, suggests a large sensitivity of the Amazonian carbon balance to a predicted more intense drought regime in the next decades. This is a dangerous inference though, as there is no scientific consensus on the most basic metrics of Amazonian carbon exchange: the gross primary production (GPP) and its response to moisture deficits in the soil and atmosphere. Measuring them on scales that span the whole Amazon forest was thus far impossible, but in this project I aim to deliver the first observation-based estimate of pan-Amazonian GPP and its drought induced variations. My program builds on two recent breakthroughs in our use of stable isotopes (13C, 17O, 18O) in atmospheric CO2: (1) Our discovery that observed δ¹³C in CO2 in the atmosphere is a quantitative measure for vegetation water-use efficiency over ...
Response of photosynthesis and water relations of rice (Oryzasativa) to elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide in the sub-humid zone of Sri ...
Abstract. In spite of the many factors that are occurring and known for positively affecting the growth of forests, some boreal forests across North America have recently felt the adverse impacts of environmental changes. Knowledge of causes for productivity declines in North American boreal forests remains limited, and this is owed to the large spatial and temporal scales involved, and the many plant processes affected. Here, the response of pristine eastern boreal North American (PEBNA) forests to ongoing climatic changes is examined using in situ data, community ecology statistics, and species-specific model simulations of carbon exchanges forced by contemporary climatic data. To examine trends in forest growth, we used a recently acquired collection of tree-ring width data from 252 sample plots distributed in PEBNA forests dominated by black spruce (Picea mariana [Mill.] B.S.P.) and jack pine (Pinus banksiana Lamb.). Results of linear trend analysis on the tree growth data highlight a ...
Forest is a resource that is increasingly utilized for multiple purposes. The balance between energy demands and the long-term capacity of ecosystems to support biodiversity and other ecosystem services is crucial. The aim of this project was to increase the knowledge on and to develop methods and tools for trade-offs and synergies analysis among forest ecosystem services based on different forest management policies.. Paper I provides an overview of existing models for integrated energy-environment assessment. A literature review was conducted on assessment models and their ability to integrate energy with environmental aspects. Missing environmental aspects concern land use, landscapes and biodiversity. In Paper II a modelling framework was set up to link a landscape simulator with a habitat network model for integrated assessment of bioenergy feedstock and biodiversity related impacts in Kronoberg County. In Paper III we continued with the same management scenarios, while the analysis was ...
The Forest Carbon Science Analyst will conduct geospatial and other analysis for TNCs forest carbon team. The primary focus of analysis will be related to carbon accounting for TNCs REDD+ projects. Analysis will extend to related aspects of TNCs conservation initiatives, including analysis of other ecosystem services (ie. biodiversity, hydrology), as well as economic, social, and policy dimensions of our conservation work. The Forest Carbon Analyst will work closely with, and be supervised by, the Senior Forest Carbon Scientist, but will be expected to work independently while providing leadership in technical dimensions of geospatial analysis as well as project coordination. The Forest Carbon Analyst will be a member of TNCs 30-person Global Climate Team based in Arlington, VA. Click here for the full job description ...
Soil is the largest pool of terrestrial organic carbon in the biosphere and interacts strongly with the atmosphere, climate and land cover. Remote sensing (RS) and geographic information systems (GIS) were used to study the spatio-temporal dynamics of croplands and soil organic carbon density (SOCD) in the Sanjiang Plain, to estimate soil organic carbon (SOC) storage. Results show that croplands increased with 10,600.68 km2 from 1992 to 2012 in the Sanjiang Plain. Area of 13,959.43 km2 of dry farmlands were converted into paddy fields. Cropland SOC storage is estimated to be 1.29 ± 0.27 Pg C (1 Pg = 103 Tg = 1015 g) in 2012. Although the mean value of SOCD for croplands decreased from 1992 to 2012, the SOC storage of croplands in the top 1 m in the Sanjiang Plain increased by 70 Tg C (1220 to 1290). This is attributed to the area increases of cropland. The SOCD of paddy fields was higher and decreased more slowly than that of dry farmlands from 1992 to 2012. Conversion between dry farmlands and paddy
Genetic variability of tropical plants (ex. mango, sweet potato and coconut); Plant microbes interaction; Development and implementation of haploid technology and mutagenesis in vegetable to speed up pure lines production and hybrid varieties development; Plant environmental physiology, particularly plant response to drought stress; Photosynthesis of carbon exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence in relation to water use efficiency; Plant nutrition in relation to organic and bio-fertilizers; Physiological and molecular dissection of plant adaptation to abiotic stresses; Molecular marker development and application in gene cloning, plant improvement and diversity; Wheat adaptation to tropical agro-ecosystem; Biodiversity of banana in Indonesia; Plant tissue culture; Genetic improvement of plants tolerant to acid and aluminum stresses; Genetic modification of flower and tuber formation; Ecophysiological and physiological of andromonocieous and trimonocieous jatropha; Development and application of ...
Sudden pulse-like events of rapidly increasing CO2-efflux occur in soils under seasonally dry climates in response to rewetting after drought. These occurrences, termed "Birch effect", can have a marked influence on the ecosystem carbon balance. Current hypotheses indicate that the "Birch" pulse is caused by rapidly increased respiration and mineralization rates in response to changing moisture conditions but the underlying mechanisms are still unclear. Here, we present data from an experimental field study using straight-forward stable isotope methodology to gather new insights into the processes induced by rewetting of dried soils and evaluate current hypotheses for the "Birch"-CO2-pulse. Two irrigation experiments were conducted on bare soil, root-free soil and intact vegetation during May and August 2005 in a semi-arid Mediterranean holm oak forest in southern Portugal. We continuously monitored CO2-fluxes along with their isotopic compositions before, during and after the irrigation. d13C ...
The two more or less disjunct areas in which this species occurs: Pacific coastal mountains and Rocky Mountains, experience a different climate and therefore sustain different forest types. The mostly much wetter (winter rainfall, up to 6,600 mm p.a.) and milder coastal ranges support the tallest conifer forests in the world, with Sequoia sempervirens in the southern part exceeding 110 m and with Abies grandis to 80 m, A. procera 85 m, Picea sitchensis 87 m, Pinus lambertiana 75 m, Pseudotsuga menziesii 100 m, and Tsuga heterophylla to 80 m tall. Many of these trees also exceed any of their congeners elsewhere in overall size (Van Pelt 2001). Thuja plicata, with max. 75 m, is one of the longest-lived in these forests, with veteran trees often in excess of 1,000 years. Other conifers in these coastal forests are Chamaecyparis lawsoniana (extreme southern part of range), Xanthocyparis nootkatensis, Calocedrus decurrens, Abies amabilis, Pinus monticola, Tsuga mertensiana, and Taxus brevifolia in ...

Light Speed Earth Science: Atmosphere, Oceans, and Earth Systems DVD: 9781618673046 - Christianbook.comLight Speed Earth Science: Atmosphere, Oceans, and Earth Systems DVD: 9781618673046 - Christianbook.com

... the carbon cycle, and systems thinking. Includes a video program along with a digital workbook that follows along with the ... biogeochemical cycles, the carbon cycle, and systems thinking. ...
more infohttps://www.christianbook.com/speed-earth-science-atmosphere-oceans-systems/pd/444716

Patente US3600372 - Carbon disulfide treated mannich condensation products - Google PatentesPatente US3600372 - Carbon disulfide treated mannich condensation products - Google Patentes

Functionalized additives useful in two-cycle engines. US5811379 *. 17 Jun 1996. 22 Sep 1998. Exxon Chemical Patents Inc.. ... B) carbon disulfide or carbon disulfide and an alkali metal hydroxide, said carbon disulfide being reacted with the ... B) carbon disulfide or carbon. disulfide and an alkali metal hydroxide, said carbon disulfide being reacted with the ... SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION We have discovered novel dispersants which are formed by reacting carbon disulfide or carbon disulfide ...
more infohttp://www.google.es/patents/US3600372?dq=flatulence

AUO announces carbon footprint verification on 32-inch LCD TVAUO announces carbon footprint verification on 32-inch LCD TV

Succeeded in the third party verification by SGS, AUOs 32-inch LCD TV is the worldwide first LCD TV set gaining carbon ... AU Optronics today announced it has completed the carbon footprint verification on its 32-inch LCD TV set according to ... footprint verification, which establishes the benchmark on the carbon footprint management for consumer electronic products, ... Based on the definition of the life cycle of ISO14044, the carbon emission calculation of AUOs 32-inch LCD TV carbon footprint ...
more infohttp://www.digitimes.com/news/a20090923PR201.html?mod=0&chid=8

Polymer Functionalized Single-walled Carbon Nanotube Composites and Semi-fluorinated Quaternary Ammonium Polymer Colloids and...Polymer Functionalized Single-walled Carbon Nanotube Composites and Semi-fluorinated Quaternary Ammonium Polymer Colloids and...

The cycle of centrifugation and redispersion in THF was repeated 54 three times to obtain polystyrene-grafted SWCNT perfectly ... Carbon fibers with stacks of carbon layers, parallel to the fiber axis, and arranged in concentric sheets of carbon layers were ... Carbon fibers with stacks of carbon layers, parallel to the fiber axis, and arranged in concentric sheets of carbon layers were ... Carbon nanotubes (CNT) are considered to be building blocks to nanotechnology. They are made up of pure carbon bonds. Graphite ...
more infohttp://dc.library.okstate.edu/cdm/ref/collection/Dissert/id/73887/

The Carbon CycleThe Carbon Cycle

By burning fossil fuels, people are changing the carbon cycle with far-reaching consequences. ... and ocean in a cycle that encompasses nearly all life and sets the thermostat for Earths climate. ... The Slow Carbon Cycle. The Fast Carbon Cycle. Changes in the Carbon Cycle. Effects of Changing the Carbon Cycle. Studying the ... The Slow Carbon Cycle. The Fast Carbon Cycle. Changes in the Carbon Cycle. Effects of Changing the Carbon Cycle. Studying the ...
more infohttps://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/Features/CarbonCycle

The Carbon CycleThe Carbon Cycle

By burning fossil fuels, people are changing the carbon cycle with far-reaching consequences. ... and ocean in a cycle that encompasses nearly all life and sets the thermostat for Earths climate. ...
more infohttps://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/features/CarbonCycle/carbon_cycle2001.pdf

Carbon cycle re-balancing - WikipediaCarbon cycle re-balancing - Wikipedia

The carbon cycle is the process by which carbon is exchanged between the four reservoirs of carbon: the biosphere, the earth, ... "Rebalancing the carbon cycle" (PDF). IoWatch (Fall 1998). University of Iowa. The Center for Global and Environmental Research ... Carbon cycle re-balancing is a useful name for a group of environmental policies listed below. The name gives a specific ... But from a carbon cycle re-balancing standpoint it is better to compost as much domestic refuse as possible. ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carbon_cycle_re-balancing

Carbon Cycle | Encyclopedia.comCarbon Cycle | Encyclopedia.com

... is the process in which carbon atoms are recycled over and over again on Earth [2]. Carbon recycling takes place within Earths ... Carbon Cycle Biology COPYRIGHT 2002 The Gale Group Inc.. Carbon Cycle. The carbon cycle involves the circulation of carbon ... Carbon cycle. The carbon cycle describes the movement of carbon in the atmosphere, where it is in the gaseous form carbon ... Carbon Cycle Climate Change: In Context COPYRIGHT 2008 Gale. Carbon Cycle. Introduction. The carbon cycle describes the ...
more infohttps://www.encyclopedia.com/science-and-technology/biology-and-genetics/biology-general/carbon-cycle

Carbon Cycle | Science Mission DirectorateCarbon Cycle | Science Mission Directorate

The total amount of carbon in the ocean is about 50 times greater than the amount in the atmosphere, and is exchanged with the ... The ocean plays a vital dominant role in the Earths carbon cycle. ... Carbon Cycle. The ocean plays a vital dominant role in the Earths carbon cycle. The total amount of carbon in the ocean is ... The ocean plays a vital dominant role in the Earths carbon cycle. The total amount of carbon in the ocean is about 50 times ...
more infohttps://science.nasa.gov/earth-science/oceanography/ocean-earth-system/ocean-carbon-cycle/

Carbon Cycle Reading & DiagramCarbon Cycle Reading & Diagram

Assign students to make some sort of 3D display of the carbon cycle like a diorama or mobile. Students could write a story or ... Students will read a text selection about the carbon cycle and try to create a diagram. Main Curriculum Tie: Science - Earth ... Good follow-up would be to have students take turns drawing different parts of the carbon cycle on the board or an overhead. ... carbon cycle illustration (attached) *large construction paper *colored pencils, markers, crayons *student worksheet (attached ...
more infohttp://www.uen.org/Lessonplan/preview.cgi?LPid=37149

Carbon Cycle FeedbacksCarbon Cycle Feedbacks

... this is only one factor that will influence the response of the global carbon cycle to climate change. Its instructive to look ... Carbon Dioxide and Earths Future: Pursuing the Prudent Path, referenced in the skeptic scientist letter to US Congress, ... Carbon Cycle Feedbacks. Posted on 24 February 2011 by Andy Skuce. The document entitled Carbon Dioxide and Earths Future: ... David Archer in his recently published primer The Global Carbon Cycle remarks that the reservoirs of carbon in plants and soils ...
more infohttps://skepticalscience.com/PPW-Carbon-Cycle-Feedbacks.html

Terrestrial Carbon CycleTerrestrial Carbon Cycle

Warming conditions promote microbial conversion of permafrost carbon into the greenhouse gases carbon dioxide and methane that ... Northern permafrost zone soils contain 1330-1580 billion tons organic carbon, about twice as much as currently contained in the ... Vulnerability of permafrost carbon to climate change: Implications for the global carbon cycle. Bioscience 58, 701-714 (2008). ... Tundra ecosystems observed to be carbon dioxide sources due to differential amplification of the carbon cycle. Ecology Letters ...
more infohttps://www.arctic.noaa.gov/Report-Card/Report-Card-2016/ArtMID/5022/ArticleID/281/Terrestrial-Carbon-Cycle

Respiration Carbon CycleRespiration Carbon Cycle

... Illustration showing why the exhaling of carbon dioxide (CO2) by humans and animals does not ... Global warming is caused by the additional CO2 from the burning of fossil fuels that is not part of this normal carbon cycle ( ... Plant photosynthesis and animal respiration form a carbon cycle, where plants consume CO2 and release oxygen (O2), while ... see the Complete Carbon Cycle graphic).. SkS Resources that use this Graphic. *Does Breathing Contribute to CO2 Buildup in the ...
more infohttps://skepticalscience.com/graphics.php?g=18

File:Carbon cycle-cute diagram.svg - WikipediaFile:Carbon cycle-cute diagram.svg - Wikipedia

Derivative works of this file: Carbon cycle-cute-diagram-fi.svg Derivative works of this file: *Carbon cycle-cute diagram- ... earthobservatory.nasa.gov/Features/CarbonCycle/carbon_cycle4.php). Author. *Carbon_cycle-cute_diagram.jpeg: User Kevin Saff on ... English: This carbon cycle diagram shows the storage and annual exchange of carbon between the atmosphere, hydrosphere and ... carbon cycle]] diagram shows the storage and yearly changes of the carbon between the [[:en:Earths atmosphere,atmosphere ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Carbon_cycle-cute_diagram.svg

Carbon Cycle 2.0 - CornellCastCarbon Cycle 2.0 - CornellCast

There is a carbon cycle, a nitrogen cycle. Everything is a cycle. And why is it? Why is it that nature operates everything on ... Now, first of all, lets recognize what we would think of as Carbon Cycle 1.0, and that is a planet in which carbon cycles ... and then cycle again over very long periods of time in this biological cycle thats going on. And carbon is cycling around. And ... And really, this challenge of Carbon Cycle 2.0, the emphasis should be really on the word cycle because if we think about the ...
more infohttps://www.cornell.edu/video/bethe-lecturer-paul-alivisatos-carbon-cycle-20

Lecture 19 - The Carbon Cycle Today - YouTubeLecture 19 - The Carbon Cycle Today - YouTube

The Carbon Cycle with Margaret Torn - Duration: 57:06. University of California Television (UCTV) 2,603 views ... The Hydrologic and Carbon Cycles: Always Recycle! - Crash Course Ecology #8 - Duration: 10:04. CrashCourse 719,889 views ... NASA , Earth Science Week: Keeping Up With Carbon - Duration: 5:39. NASA Goddard 43,386 views ... NASA: Keeping Up With Carbon [720p] - Duration: 5:39. djxatlanta 128,752 views ...
more infohttps://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jeMP-HKV59s

Carbon cycle | Nuffield FoundationCarbon cycle | Nuffield Foundation

Carbon cycle. The chemistry of life depends on a handful of elements - mainly carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, and oxygen, with a ... The cycling of the major elements carbon and nitrogen from the atmosphere through the bodies of living things and back to the ... Take a closer look here at factors affecting the carbon cycle.. Experiments. * Standard technique Making up nutrient agars. ... Investigate how microbes break down cellulose - a process significant to the carbon cycle, and in changing global levels of ...
more infohttps://www.nuffieldfoundation.org/practical-biology/carbon-cycle

Peatlands carbon cycle | 
      GRID-ArendalPeatlands carbon cycle | GRID-Arendal

Most of these carbon pools are not permanent and carbon will be released back to atmosphere over relatively short cycles. ... Peatlands are the most carbon dense of any terrestrial ecosystem in the world (Joosten & Couwenberg, 2008; Urák et al., 2017). ... Beside these pools, however, the peat layer of peatlands provides - if not disturbed - a unique, permanent store for carbon. ... Keeping this carbon in the ground is crucial if the world i... ... Ecosystems sequester and store carbon in different ways, such ...
more infohttp://www.grida.no/resources/11380

Owning the Carbon CycleOwning the Carbon Cycle

The carbon cycle is a slow cycle. It takes tens to thousands of years for carbon to cycle between being released into the ... In effect, we need to "own" the carbon cycle. The question is, how? Id like to suggest that owning the carbon cycle - or at ... to absorbing carbon dioxide in new materials, to accelerating parts of the carbon cycle such as carbon accumulation and ... This mindset change must embrace slowing down-learning how to work with cycles like the carbon cycle rather than against them. ...
more infohttps://ieet.org/index.php/IEET2/more/maynard20100131

Peatlands carbon cycle | 
      GRID-ArendalPeatlands carbon cycle | GRID-Arendal

Most of these carbon pools are not permanent and carbon will be released back to atmosphere over relatively short cycles. ... Peatlands are the most carbon dense of any terrestrial ecosystem in the world (Joosten & Couwenberg, 2008; Urák et al., 2017). ... Beside these pools, however, the peat layer of peatlands provides - if not disturbed - a unique, permanent store for carbon. ... Keeping this carbon in the ground is crucial if the world i... ... Ecosystems sequester and store carbon in different ways, such ...
more infohttp://www.grida.no/resources/12532

Global Carbon Cycle | 
      GRID-ArendalGlobal Carbon Cycle | GRID-Arendal

Although gas hydrates are a significant global carbon pool, the precise amount of carbon, the amount of carbon released from ... Carbon moves through the atmosphere, biosphere, geosphere, and hydrosphere.Gas hydrates (orange) are shown in marine sediments ... Global Carbon Cycle. Carbon moves through the atmosphere, biosphere, geosphere, and hydrosphere.Gas hydrates (orange) are shown ... Although gas hydrates are a significant global carbon pool, the precise amount of carbon, the amount of carbon released from ...
more infohttp://www.grida.no/resources/6614

Carbon Cycle of Nuclear FusionCarbon Cycle of Nuclear Fusion

Hans Bethe and the carbon cycle. The proton-proton cycle. Index. Nuclear fusion in stars. Reference. Stars, Time-Life. Ch. 2. ... Hans Bethe and the Carbon Cycle For his role in working out the energy source for stars more massive than the sun, the carbon ... The main theme of the carbon cycle is the adding of protons, but after a carbon-12 nucleus fuses with a proton to form nitrogen ... One of the fascinating stories about Hans Bethe is that after submitting his article about the carbon cycle to the Physical ...
more infohttp://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/Astro/carbcyc.html

Carbon cycle - WikipediaCarbon cycle - Wikipedia

Deep carbon cycleEdit. Main article: Deep carbon cycle. Although deep carbon cycling is not as well-understood as carbon ... The carbon cycle is the biogeochemical cycle by which carbon is exchanged among the biosphere, pedosphere, geosphere, ... "Carbon cycle reaches Earths lower mantle: Evidence of carbon cycle found in superdeep diamonds From Brazil". ScienceDaily. ... Along with the nitrogen cycle and the water cycle, the carbon cycle comprises a sequence of events that are key to make Earth ...
more infohttps://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carbon_cycle

Carbon Cycle GraphicsCarbon Cycle Graphics

Graphic showing the average carbon storage (in square brackets) and exchanges of CO2 between different pools of carbon for the ... Privacy Policy , Disclaimer , PMEL Carbon Group , DOC , NOAA , OAR , PMEL Website: Center for Environmental Visualization ... The red arrows and numbers indicate additional exchanges and storage of carbon resulting from human activity. The exchanges are ...
more infohttps://www.pmel.noaa.gov/co2/file/Carbon+Cycle+Graphics

The global carbon cycle - CuriousThe global carbon cycle - Curious

... and in the process swapping carbon. Video source: Crash Course Chemistry / YouTube. ... Hank from Crash Course walks us through the carbon cycle: a whole bunch of things living and dying, ... The global carbon cycle. Hank from Crash Course walks us through the carbon cycle: a whole bunch of things living and dying, ... Since carbon is the stuff of life, one of the best ways of understanding the carbon cycle is just a whole bunch of things ...
more infohttps://www.science.org.au/curious/video/global-carbon-cycle
  • The carbon cycle is just one of several recycling processes, but it may be the most important process since carbon is known to be a basic building block of life. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Global observations of the spatial and temporal patterns of carbon exchange and understanding the underlying processes that regulate this exchange is critical for predicting the future behavior of these carbon sinks. (nasa.gov)
  • Biological processes influence dissolved carbon dioxide concentrations (Carbon Cycle) through net primary production by phytoplankton, and respiration. (nasa.gov)
  • Physical oceanography influences the carbon cycle through its modulation of the biology and also through processes that control carbonate chemistry (temperature, alkalinity/salinity) and carbon dioxide flux rates between the air-sea interface (surface wind speeds). (nasa.gov)
  • Both physical and biological processes in the ocean affect the carbon cycle. (nasa.gov)
  • These carbon stores interact with the other components through geological processes. (wikipedia.org)
  • The carbon exchanges between reservoirs occur as the result of various chemical, physical, geological, and biological processes. (wikipedia.org)
  • A portion of these substrate goes into microbial mass as it is used by the soil microorganisms for reproduction and metabolic activity and a larger part of it is lost as carbon dioxide due to the energy yielding metabolic processes of the microbial community. (kenyon.edu)
  • For instance, it emphasizes that humans are an integral part of the global carbon cycle, and includes research into the factors and processes of humans interacting with the physical Earth systems. (noaa.gov)
  • Other elements include studies of the processes that control the flows and transformations of carbon, and developing numerical models to predict future behavior. (noaa.gov)
  • These carbon stores interact with the other components through geological processes The carbon exchanges between reservoirs occur as the result of various chemical, physical, geological, and biological processes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Carbon storage in permafrost is the result of two primary processes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since about 1940, land plants have been absorbing about 1-2 billion tonnes per year of human carbon emissions. (skepticalscience.com)
  • And critical to this is controlling the impact of carbon emissions. (ieet.org)
  • Conventional technologies get us some of the way to managing our energy-use and carbon emissions. (ieet.org)
  • We are now so numerous and "industrious" that our actions - in this case the indiscriminate emission of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases - are leading to planet-wide re-actions that threaten the lives and livelihood of millions of people around the globe. (ieet.org)
  • Increased carbon dioxide levels may increase the greenhouse effect, where such gases allow the Sun's radiant energy to pass through to Earth where it is absorbed and reradiated as heat. (cix.co.uk)
  • Chief amongst these greenhouse gases is CO 2 , whose atmospheric concentrations have been dramatically altered by human perturbations to the global carbon cycle. (fao.org)
  • Along with the nitrogen cycle and the water cycle , the carbon cycle comprises a sequence of events that are key to make Earth capable of sustaining life. (wikipedia.org)
  • The nitrogen cycle is especially closely linked to the carbon cycle in microbiology because of the importance of C/N ratios. (kenyon.edu)
  • A thorough understanding of the Nitrogen Cycle will greatly improve our understanding of the carbon cycle in turn. (kenyon.edu)
  • The carbon cycle is the process in which carbon atoms are recycled over and over again on Earth . (encyclopedia.com)
  • Since the dinosaur died and decomposed millions of years ago, its carbon atoms have seen many forms before ending up as part of a human being. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Molecules composed solely of hydrogen and carbon atoms. (encyclopedia.com)
  • This diagram illustrates the relationship between Physical and Biological Oceanography and the Carbon Cycle. (nasa.gov)
  • Students will read a text selection about the carbon cycle and try to create a diagram. (uen.org)
  • In stars with central temperatures greater than 15 million Kelvin, carbon fusion is thought to take over the dominant role rather than hydrogen fusion . (gsu.edu)
  • a compound that's composed of carbon, and hydrogen, and oxygen at a ratio of 1 to 2 to 1. (science.org.au)
  • Other regions (black hashed) have thick sediments but organic carbon has not been systematically quantified. (noaa.gov)
  • When cryoturbation and the deposition of sediments act together, carbon storage rates increase. (wikipedia.org)
  • Prior to the Industrial Revolution, the annual uptake and release of carbon dioxide by the land and the ocean had been on average just about balanced. (nasa.gov)
  • Another proton capture produces oxygen-16 which emits an energetic alpha particle to return to carbon-12 to repeat the cycle. (gsu.edu)
  • Humans breathe in oxygen and when they exhale the breathe out carbon. (smore.com)
  • When animals or humans breathe out they release carbon, and that is how plants get it, so that they can turn it into food and release oxygen so that the whole process will start all over again. (smore.com)
  • The complete cycle is made up of "sources" that put carbon back into the environment and "sinks" that absorb and store carbon. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Carbon is also sequestered for long periods of time in carbon reservoirs (sinks) such as deep ocean and ocean sediment. (nasa.gov)
  • Carbon dioxide is more soluble in cold water, so at high latitudes where surface cooling occurs, carbon dioxide laden water sinks to the deep ocean and becomes part of the deep ocean circulation "conveyor belt", where it stays for hundreds of years. (nasa.gov)
  • A team funded by the National Science Foundation (NSF) and led by scientists Dave Karl and Roger Lukas of the School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology (SOEST) at the University of Hawaii used 15 years of time-series measurements to compare the precipitation, salinity and carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations at Station ALOHA, located in the Pacific Ocean approximately 100 kilometers north of Oahu. (innovations-report.com)
  • Carbon flows between each reservoir in an exchange called the carbon cycle, which has slow and fast components. (nasa.gov)
  • These characteristics include: vertical mixing due to the freeze-thaw cycle, peat accumulation as a result of waterlogged conditions, and deposits of wind and water-moved silt ( yedoma ) tens of meters thick, (Gorham 1991, Schirrmeister et al. (noaa.gov)
  • NASA will partner with other agencies to better understand carbon export. (nasa.gov)
  • Driven by the strong impetus to better understand carbon dynamics in agroecosystems, we discuss carbon management strategies in agricultural systems in section 4. (kenyon.edu)
  • But awareness isn't the same thing as understanding, and if I had one final attempt to persuade you that chemistry is important, which I do, I'd tell you about the carbon cycle, which is what I'm about to do. (science.org.au)
  • Of all the chemistry that happens on this planet the carbon cycle is the thing that makes Earth 'Earthy', unique among planets that we know and understand. (science.org.au)
  • It shows a pyramid with Carbon Cycle, Physical Oceanography, and Biological Oceanography at the corners with links to each of the sides that explain how each pair of topics is interrelated. (nasa.gov)
  • Carbon is the main component of biological compounds as well as a major component of many minerals such as limestone. (wikipedia.org)
  • The red arrows and numbers indicate additional exchanges and storage of carbon resulting from human activity. (noaa.gov)
  • The exchanges are in petagrams of carbon per year (PgC yr -1 ). (noaa.gov)
  • Carnegie Institution for Science's Anna Michalak , Duke University's Rob Jackson , Appalachian State University's Gregg Marland , and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's Christopher Sabine led the work on the 2011 A U.S. Carbon Cycle Science Plan . (noaa.gov)