A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.
A class of enzymes that catalyze the cleavage of C-C, C-O, and C-N, and other bonds by other means than by hydrolysis or oxidation. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 4.
A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.
Carbon monoxide (CO). A poisonous colorless, odorless, tasteless gas. It combines with hemoglobin to form carboxyhemoglobin, which has no oxygen carrying capacity. The resultant oxygen deprivation causes headache, dizziness, decreased pulse and respiratory rates, unconsciousness, and death. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
Nanometer-sized tubes composed mainly of CARBON. Such nanotubes are used as probes for high-resolution structural and chemical imaging of biomolecules with ATOMIC FORCE MICROSCOPY.
Enzymes which catalyze the elimination of delta-4,5-D-glucuronate residues from polysaccharides containing 1,4-beta-hexosaminyl and 1,3-beta-D-glucuronosyl or 1,3-alpha-L-iduronosyl linkages thereby bringing about depolymerization. EC acts on chondroitin sulfate A and C as well as on dermatan sulfate and slowly on hyaluronate. EC acts on chondroitin sulfate A and C.
Toxic asphyxiation due to the displacement of oxygen from oxyhemoglobin by carbon monoxide.
Stable carbon atoms that have the same atomic number as the element carbon, but differ in atomic weight. C-13 is a stable carbon isotope.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that causes vascular wilts on a wide range of plant species. It was formerly named Erwinia chrysanthemi.
Enzymes which catalyze the elimination of glucuronate residues from chondroitin A,B, and C or which catalyze the hydrolysis of sulfate groups of the 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-D-galactose 6-sulfate units of chondroitin sulfate. EC 4.2.2.-.
A solvent for oils, fats, lacquers, varnishes, rubber waxes, and resins, and a starting material in the manufacturing of organic compounds. Poisoning by inhalation, ingestion or skin absorption is possible and may be fatal. (Merck Index, 11th ed)
High molecular weight polysaccharides present in the cell walls of all plants. Pectins cement cell walls together. They are used as emulsifiers and stabilizers in the food industry. They have been tried for a variety of therapeutic uses including as antidiarrheals, where they are now generally considered ineffective, and in the treatment of hypercholesterolemia.
Any of several processes for the permanent or long-term artificial or natural capture or removal and storage of carbon dioxide and other forms of carbon, through biological, chemical or physical processes, in a manner that prevents it from being released into the atmosphere.
Light harvesting proteins found in phycobilisomes.
A colorless, flammable, poisonous liquid, CS2. It is used as a solvent, and is a counterirritant and has local anesthetic properties but is not used as such. It is highly toxic with pronounced CNS, hematologic, and dermatologic effects.
A thick-rooted perennial (Cichorium intybus) native to Europe but widely grown for its young leaves used as salad greens and for its roots, dried and ground-roasted, used to flavor or adulterate coffee. (From Webster, 3d ed)
Enzymes that catalyze a reverse aldol condensation. A molecule containing a hydroxyl group and a carbonyl group is cleaved at a C-C bond to produce two smaller molecules (ALDEHYDES or KETONES). EC 4.1.2.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Enzymes that catalyze the cleavage of a carbon-oxygen bond by means other than hydrolysis or oxidation. EC 4.2.
Enzymes that catalyze the cleavage of a carbon-carbon bond of a 3-hydroxy acid. (Dorland, 28th ed) EC 4.1.3.
A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria whose organisms are associated with plants as pathogens, saprophytes, or as constituents of the epiphytic flora.
An enzyme of the isomerase class that catalyzes the eliminative cleavage of polysaccharides containing 1,4-linked D-glucuronate or L-iduronate residues and 1,4-alpha-linked 2-sulfoamino-2-deoxy-6-sulfo-D-glucose residues to give oligosaccharides with terminal 4-deoxy-alpha-D-gluc-4-enuronosyl groups at their non-reducing ends. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC
A measure of the total greenhouse gas emissions produced by an individual, organization, event, or product. It is measured in units of equivalent kilograms of CARBON DIOXIDE generated in a given time frame.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
A cell wall-degrading enzyme found in microorganisms and higher plants. It catalyzes the random hydrolysis of 1,4-alpha-D-galactosiduronic linkages in pectate and other galacturonans. EC
Salts of alginic acid that are extracted from marine kelp and used to make dental impressions and as absorbent material for surgical dressings.
Unstable isotopes of carbon that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. C atoms with atomic weights 10, 11, and 14-16 are radioactive carbon isotopes.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria characterized by an outer membrane that contains glycosphingolipids but lacks lipopolysaccharide. They have the ability to degrade a broad range of substituted aromatic compounds.
Plants of the division Rhodophyta, commonly known as red algae, in which the red pigment (PHYCOERYTHRIN) predominates. However, if this pigment is destroyed, the algae can appear purple, brown, green, or yellow. Two important substances found in the cell walls of red algae are AGAR and CARRAGEENAN. Some rhodophyta are notable SEAWEED (macroalgae).
An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.
Term used to designate tetrahydroxy aldehydic acids obtained by oxidation of hexose sugars, i.e. glucuronic acid, galacturonic acid, etc. Historically, the name hexuronic acid was originally given to ascorbic acid.
Total mass of all the organisms of a given type and/or in a given area. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990) It includes the yield of vegetative mass produced from any given crop.
A key enzyme in the glyoxylate cycle. It catalyzes the conversion of isocitrate to succinate and glyoxylate. EC
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in nature. Some species are pathogenic for humans, animals, and plants.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Open chain tetrapyrroles that function as light harvesting chromophores in PHYCOBILIPROTEINS.
An enzyme that catalyzes the eliminative degradation of polysaccharides containing 1,4-beta-D-hexosaminyl and 1,3-beta-D-glucuronosyl or 1,3-alpha-L-iduronosyl linkages to disaccharides containing 4-deoxy-beta-D-gluc-4-enuronosyl groups. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992)
A dark powdery deposit of unburned fuel residues, composed mainly of amorphous CARBON and some HYDROCARBONS, that accumulates in chimneys, automobile mufflers and other surfaces exposed to smoke. It is the product of incomplete combustion of carbon-rich organic fuels in low oxygen conditions. It is sometimes called lampblack or carbon black and is used in INK, in rubber tires, and to prepare CARBON NANOTUBES.
The gaseous envelope surrounding a planet or similar body. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in SOIL and WATER. Its organisms are also found in raw meats, MILK and other FOOD, hospital environments, and human clinical specimens. Some species are pathogenic in humans.
The 30-kDa membrane-bound c-type cytochrome protein of mitochondria that functions as an electron donor to CYTOCHROME C GROUP in the mitochondrial and bacterial RESPIRATORY CHAIN. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p545)
Elimination of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS; PESTICIDES and other waste using living organisms, usually involving intervention of environmental or sanitation engineers.
A genus of gram-negative, anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria. Its organisms are normal inhabitants of the oral, respiratory, intestinal, and urogenital cavities of humans, animals, and insects. Some species may be pathogenic.
The unconsolidated mineral or organic matter on the surface of the earth that serves as a natural medium for the growth of land plants.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
A sugar acid formed by the oxidation of the C-6 carbon of GLUCOSE. In addition to being a key intermediate metabolite of the uronic acid pathway, glucuronic acid also plays a role in the detoxification of certain drugs and toxins by conjugating with them to form GLUCURONIDES.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.
Derivatives of ACETIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxymethane structure.
A plant genus of the family EUPHORBIACEAE, order Euphorbiales, subclass Rosidae. Commercial natural RUBBER is mainly obtained from Hevea brasiliensis but also from some other plants.
An allotropic form of carbon that is used in pencils, as a lubricant, and in matches and explosives. It is obtained by mining and its dust can cause lung irritation.
Inorganic compounds that contain carbon as an integral part of the molecule but are not derived from hydrocarbons.
An enzyme that, in the course of purine ribonucleotide biosynthesis, catalyzes the conversion of 5'-phosphoribosyl-4-(N-succinocarboxamide)-5-aminoimidazole to 5'-phosphoribosyl-4-carboxamide-5-aminoimidazole and the conversion of adenylosuccinic acid to AMP. EC
A species of gram-positive bacteria in the STREPTOCOCCUS MILLERI GROUP. It is the most frequently seen isolate of that group, has a proclivity for abscess formation, and is most often isolated from the blood, gastrointestinal, and urogenital tract.
The synthesis by organisms of organic chemical compounds, especially carbohydrates, from carbon dioxide using energy obtained from light rather than from the oxidation of chemical compounds. Photosynthesis comprises two separate processes: the light reactions and the dark reactions. In higher plants; GREEN ALGAE; and CYANOBACTERIA; NADPH and ATP formed by the light reactions drive the dark reactions which result in the fixation of carbon dioxide. (from Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2001)
Cellular processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of CARBOHYDRATES.
A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.
An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.
Woody, usually tall, perennial higher plants (Angiosperms, Gymnosperms, and some Pterophyta) having usually a main stem and numerous branches.
Electric conductors through which electric currents enter or leave a medium, whether it be an electrolytic solution, solid, molten mass, gas, or vacuum.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Acids derived from monosaccharides by the oxidation of the terminal (-CH2OH) group farthest removed from the carbonyl group to a (-COOH) group. (From Stedmans, 26th ed)
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
Oligosaccharides containing two monosaccharide units linked by a glycosidic bond.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
A kingdom of eukaryotic, heterotrophic organisms that live parasitically as saprobes, including MUSHROOMS; YEASTS; smuts, molds, etc. They reproduce either sexually or asexually, and have life cycles that range from simple to complex. Filamentous fungi, commonly known as molds, refer to those that grow as multicellular colonies.
The simplest saturated hydrocarbon. It is a colorless, flammable gas, slightly soluble in water. It is one of the chief constituents of natural gas and is formed in the decomposition of organic matter. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Sulfur compounds in which the sulfur atom is attached to three organic radicals and an electronegative element or radical.
The processes by which organisms use simple inorganic substances such as gaseous or dissolved carbon dioxide and inorganic nitrogen as nutrient sources. Contrasts with heterotrophic processes which make use of organic materials as the nutrient supply source. Autotrophs can be either chemoautotrophs (or chemolithotrophs), largely ARCHAEA and BACTERIA, which also use simple inorganic substances for their metabolic energy reguirements; or photoautotrophs (or photolithotrophs), such as PLANTS and CYANOBACTERIA, which derive their energy from light. Depending on environmental conditions some organisms can switch between different nutritional modes (autotrophy; HETEROTROPHY; chemotrophy; or PHOTOTROPHY) to utilize different sources to meet their nutrient and energy requirements.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that occurs in soil, fecal matter, and sewage. It is an opportunistic pathogen and causes cystitis and pyelonephritis.
Heteropolysaccharides which contain an N-acetylated hexosamine in a characteristic repeating disaccharide unit. The repeating structure of each disaccharide involves alternate 1,4- and 1,3-linkages consisting of either N-acetylglucosamine or N-acetylgalactosamine.
Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.
A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Enzymes that catalyze the cleavage of a carbon-carbon bond by means other than hydrolysis or oxidation. This subclass contains the DECARBOXYLASES, the ALDEHYDE-LYASES, and the OXO-ACID-LYASES. EC 4.1.
The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
The sequence of carbohydrates within POLYSACCHARIDES; GLYCOPROTEINS; and GLYCOLIPIDS.
Derivatives of chondroitin which have a sulfate moiety esterified to the galactosamine moiety of chondroitin. Chondroitin sulfate A, or chondroitin 4-sulfate, and chondroitin sulfate C, or chondroitin 6-sulfate, have the sulfate esterified in the 4- and 6-positions, respectively. Chondroitin sulfate B (beta heparin; DERMATAN SULFATE) is a misnomer and this compound is not a true chondroitin sulfate.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Enzymes that catalyze the cleavage of a carbon-nitrogen bond by means other than hydrolysis or oxidation. Subclasses are the AMMONIA-LYASES, the AMIDINE-LYASES, the amine-lyases, and other carbon-nitrogen lyases. EC 4.3.
The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A mixed function oxidase enzyme which during hemoglobin catabolism catalyzes the degradation of heme to ferrous iron, carbon monoxide and biliverdin in the presence of molecular oxygen and reduced NADPH. The enzyme is induced by metals, particularly cobalt. EC
The generic name for the group of aliphatic hydrocarbons Cn-H2n+2. They are denoted by the suffix -ane. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A naturally occurring glycosaminoglycan found mostly in the skin and in connective tissue. It differs from CHONDROITIN SULFATE A (see CHONDROITIN SULFATES) by containing IDURONIC ACID in place of glucuronic acid, its epimer, at carbon atom 5. (from Merck, 12th ed)
Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).
The salinated water of OCEANS AND SEAS that provides habitat for marine organisms.
A genus of BACILLACEAE that are spore-forming, rod-shaped cells. Most species are saprophytic soil forms with only a few species being pathogenic.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the soil. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
A DNA repair enzyme that catalyses the excision of ribose residues at apurinic and apyrimidinic DNA sites that can result from the action of DNA GLYCOSYLASES. The enzyme catalyzes a beta-elimination reaction in which the C-O-P bond 3' to the apurinic or apyrimidinic site in DNA is broken, leaving a 3'-terminal unsaturated sugar and a product with a terminal 5'-phosphate. This enzyme was previously listed under EC
A series of oxidative reactions in the breakdown of acetyl units derived from GLUCOSE; FATTY ACIDS; or AMINO ACIDS by means of tricarboxylic acid intermediates. The end products are CARBON DIOXIDE, water, and energy in the form of phosphate bonds.
The facilitation of biochemical reactions with the aid of naturally occurring catalysts such as ENZYMES.
The pressure that would be exerted by one component of a mixture of gases if it were present alone in a container. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The complete absence, or (loosely) the paucity, of gaseous or dissolved elemental oxygen in a given place or environment. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
A mass of organic or inorganic solid fragmented material, or the solid fragment itself, that comes from the weathering of rock and is carried by, suspended in, or dropped by air, water, or ice. It refers also to a mass that is accumulated by any other natural agent and that forms in layers on the earth's surface, such as sand, gravel, silt, mud, fill, or loess. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1689)
The effect of GLOBAL WARMING and the resulting increase in world temperatures. The predicted health effects of such long-term climatic change include increased incidence of respiratory, water-borne, and vector-borne diseases.
A class of enzymes involved in the hydrolysis of the N-glycosidic bond of nitrogen-linked sugars.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.
Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.
The study of chemical changes resulting from electrical action and electrical activity resulting from chemical changes.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a carbohydrate.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)
The region of an enzyme that interacts with its substrate to cause the enzymatic reaction.
Salts or ions of the theoretical carbonic acid, containing the radical CO2(3-). Carbonates are readily decomposed by acids. The carbonates of the alkali metals are water-soluble; all others are insoluble. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Life or metabolic reactions occurring in an environment containing oxygen.
Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.
Oxidoreductases that are specific for ALDEHYDES.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A trihydroxy sugar alcohol that is an intermediate in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. It is used as a solvent, emollient, pharmaceutical agent, and sweetening agent.
A broad class of substances containing carbon and its derivatives. Many of these chemicals will frequently contain hydrogen with or without oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, phosphorus, and other elements. They exist in either carbon chain or carbon ring form.
A great expanse of continuous bodies of salt water which together cover more than 70 percent of the earth's surface. Seas may be partially or entirely enclosed by land, and are smaller than the five oceans (Atlantic, Pacific, Indian, Arctic, and Antarctic).
The processes by which organisms utilize organic substances as their nutrient sources. Contrasts with AUTOTROPHIC PROCESSES which make use of simple inorganic substances as the nutrient supply source. Heterotrophs can be either chemoheterotrophs (or chemoorganotrophs) which also require organic substances such as glucose for their primary metabolic energy requirements, or photoheterotrophs (or photoorganotrophs) which derive their primary energy requirements from light. Depending on environmental conditions some organisms can switch between different nutritional modes (AUTOTROPHY; heterotrophy; chemotrophy; or PHOTOTROPHY) to utilize different sources to meet their nutrients and energy requirements.
Techniques used to separate mixtures of substances based on differences in the relative affinities of the substances for mobile and stationary phases. A mobile phase (fluid or gas) passes through a column containing a stationary phase of porous solid or liquid coated on a solid support. Usage is both analytical for small amounts and preparative for bulk amounts.
The first chemical element in the periodic table. It has the atomic symbol H, atomic number 1, and atomic weight [1.00784; 1.00811]. It exists, under normal conditions, as a colorless, odorless, tasteless, diatomic gas. Hydrogen ions are PROTONS. Besides the common H1 isotope, hydrogen exists as the stable isotope DEUTERIUM and the unstable, radioactive isotope TRITIUM.
The use of a heavy ion particle beam for radiotherapy, such as the HEAVY IONS of CARBON.
A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
Complex sets of enzymatic reactions connected to each other via their product and substrate metabolites.
Enzymes of the isomerase class that catalyze reactions in which a group can be regarded as eliminated from one part of a molecule, leaving a double bond, while remaining covalently attached to the molecule. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 5.5.
The utilization of an electrical current to measure, analyze, or alter chemicals or chemical reactions in solution, cells, or tissues.
Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.
An amorphous form of carbon prepared from the incomplete combustion of animal or vegetable matter, e.g., wood. The activated form of charcoal is used in the treatment of poisoning. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
A species of gram-positive bacteria that is a common soil and water saprophyte.
A family of DNA repair enzymes that recognize damaged nucleotide bases and remove them by hydrolyzing the N-glycosidic bond that attaches them to the sugar backbone of the DNA molecule. The process called BASE EXCISION REPAIR can be completed by a DNA-(APURINIC OR APYRIMIDINIC SITE) LYASE which excises the remaining RIBOSE sugar from the DNA.
A colorless, flammable liquid used in the manufacture of FORMALDEHYDE and ACETIC ACID, in chemical synthesis, antifreeze, and as a solvent. Ingestion of methanol is toxic and may cause blindness.
The vapor state of matter; nonelastic fluids in which the molecules are in free movement and their mean positions far apart. Gases tend to expand indefinitely, to diffuse and mix readily with other gases, to have definite relations of volume, temperature, and pressure, and to condense or liquefy at low temperatures or under sufficient pressure. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The act of blowing a powder, vapor, or gas into any body cavity for experimental, diagnostic, or therapeutic purposes.
A water-soluble, colorless crystal with an acid taste that is used as a chemical intermediate, in medicine, the manufacture of lacquers, and to make perfume esters. It is also used in foods as a sequestrant, buffer, and a neutralizing agent. (Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed, p1099; McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1851)
Acetyl CoA participates in the biosynthesis of fatty acids and sterols, in the oxidation of fatty acids and in the metabolism of many amino acids. It also acts as a biological acetylating agent.
Carbohydrates consisting of between two (DISACCHARIDES) and ten MONOSACCHARIDES connected by either an alpha- or beta-glycosidic link. They are found throughout nature in both the free and bound form.
The outermost layer of a cell in most PLANTS; BACTERIA; FUNGI; and ALGAE. The cell wall is usually a rigid structure that lies external to the CELL MEMBRANE, and provides a protective barrier against physical or chemical agents.
The amount of a gas taken up, by the pulmonary capillary blood from the alveolar gas, per minute per unit of average pressure of the gradient of the gas across the BLOOD-AIR BARRIER.
The extent to which an enzyme retains its structural conformation or its activity when subjected to storage, isolation, and purification or various other physical or chemical manipulations, including proteolytic enzymes and heat.
A polyhedral CARBON structure composed of around 60-80 carbon atoms in pentagon and hexagon configuration. They are named after Buckminster Fuller because of structural resemblance to geodesic domes. Fullerenes can be made in high temperature such as arc discharge in an inert atmosphere.
Derivatives of SUCCINIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain a 1,4-carboxy terminated aliphatic structure.
A heteropolysaccharide that is similar in structure to HEPARIN. It accumulates in individuals with MUCOPOLYSACCHARIDOSIS.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in water. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.
A ubiquitous stress-responsive enzyme that catalyzes the oxidative cleavage of HEME to yield IRON; CARBON MONOXIDE; and BILIVERDIN.
The act of breathing with the LUNGS, consisting of INHALATION, or the taking into the lungs of the ambient air, and of EXHALATION, or the expelling of the modified air which contains more CARBON DIOXIDE than the air taken in (Blakiston's Gould Medical Dictionary, 4th ed.). This does not include tissue respiration (= OXYGEN CONSUMPTION) or cell respiration (= CELL RESPIRATION).
The exchange of OXYGEN and CARBON DIOXIDE between alveolar air and pulmonary capillary blood that occurs across the BLOOD-AIR BARRIER.
Any substance in the air which could, if present in high enough concentration, harm humans, animals, vegetation or material. Substances include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; and volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.
The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The formation of crystalline substances from solutions or melts. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Stable nitrogen atoms that have the same atomic number as the element nitrogen, but differ in atomic weight. N-15 is a stable nitrogen isotope.
The science of developing, caring for, or cultivating forests.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.
The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
A product of hard secondary xylem composed of CELLULOSE, hemicellulose, and LIGNANS, that is under the bark of trees and shrubs. It is used in construction and as a source of CHARCOAL and many other products.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Product of the oxidation of ethanol and of the destructive distillation of wood. It is used locally, occasionally internally, as a counterirritant and also as a reagent. (Stedman, 26th ed)
A climate which is typical of equatorial and tropical regions, i.e., one with continually high temperatures with considerable precipitation, at least during part of the year. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The adhesion of gases, liquids, or dissolved solids onto a surface. It includes adsorptive phenomena of bacteria and viruses onto surfaces as well. ABSORPTION into the substance may follow but not necessarily.
Separation technique in which the stationary phase consists of ion exchange resins. The resins contain loosely held small ions that easily exchange places with other small ions of like charge present in solutions washed over the resins.
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
Organic compounds containing the carboxy group (-COOH). This group of compounds includes amino acids and fatty acids. Carboxylic acids can be saturated, unsaturated, or aromatic.
Derivatives of formic acids. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that are formed with a single carbon carboxy group.
An intermediate compound in the metabolism of carbohydrates, proteins, and fats. In thiamine deficiency, its oxidation is retarded and it accumulates in the tissues, especially in nervous structures. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
Free-floating minute organisms that are photosynthetic. The term is non-taxonomic and refers to a lifestyle (energy utilization and motility), rather than a particular type of organism. Most, but not all, are unicellular algae. Important groups include DIATOMS; DINOFLAGELLATES; CYANOBACTERIA; CHLOROPHYTA; HAPTOPHYTA; CRYPTOMONADS; and silicoflagellates.
Alkyl compounds containing a hydroxyl group. They are classified according to relation of the carbon atom: primary alcohols, R-CH2OH; secondary alcohols, R2-CHOH; tertiary alcohols, R3-COH. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Relating to the size of solids.
A microanalytical technique combining mass spectrometry and gas chromatography for the qualitative as well as quantitative determinations of compounds.
Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.
The development and use of techniques to study physical phenomena and construct structures in the nanoscale size range or smaller.
An element that is a member of the chalcogen family. It has an atomic symbol S, atomic number 16, and atomic weight [32.059; 32.076]. It is found in the amino acids cysteine and methionine.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in fungi.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
Diseases of plants.
Water containing no significant amounts of salts, such as water from RIVERS and LAKES.
A spectrum of clinical liver diseases ranging from mild biochemical abnormalities to ACUTE LIVER FAILURE, caused by drugs, drug metabolites, and chemicals from the environment.
A clinical manifestation of abnormal increase in the amount of carbon dioxide in arterial blood.
Salts and esters of hydroxybutyric acid.
Experimentally induced chronic injuries to the parenchymal cells in the liver to achieve a model for LIVER CIRRHOSIS.
Measurement of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the blood.

Synthesis and degradation of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid by Penicillium citrinum. (1/121)

1-Aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC), which is a precursor of ethylene in plants, has never been known to occur in microorganisms. We describe the synthesis of ACC by Penicillium citrinum, purification of ACC synthase [EC] and ACC deaminase [EC], and their properties. Analyses of P. citrinum culture showed occurrence of ACC in the culture broth and in the cell extract. ACC synthase was purified from cells grown in a medium containing 0.05% L-methionine and ACC deaminase was done from cells incubated in a medium containing 1% 2-aminoisobutyrate. The purified ACC synthase, with a specific activity of 327 milliunit/mg protein, showed a single band of M(r) 48,000 in SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The molecular mass of the native enzyme by gel filtration was 96,000 Da. The ACC synthase had the Km for S-adenosyl-L-methionine of 1.74 mM and kcat of 0.56 s-1 per monomer. The purified ACC deaminase, with a specific activity of 4.7 unit/mg protein, showed one band in SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of M(r) 41,000. The molecular mass of the native ACC deaminase was 68,000 Da by gel filtration. The enzyme had a Km for ACC of 4.8 mM and kcat of 3.52 s-1. The presence of 7 mM Cu2+ in alkaline buffer solution was effective for increasing the stability of the ACC deaminase in the process of purification.  (+info)

Purification, molecular cloning, and expression of 2-hydroxyphytanoyl-CoA lyase, a peroxisomal thiamine pyrophosphate-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the carbon-carbon bond cleavage during alpha-oxidation of 3-methyl-branched fatty acids. (2/121)

In the third step of the alpha-oxidation of 3-methyl-branched fatty acids such as phytanic acid, a 2-hydroxy-3-methylacyl-CoA is cleaved into formyl-CoA and a 2-methyl-branched fatty aldehyde. The cleavage enzyme was purified from the matrix protein fraction of rat liver peroxisomes and identified as a protein made up of four identical subunits of 63 kDa. Its activity proved to depend on Mg(2+) and thiamine pyrophosphate, a hitherto unrecognized cofactor of alpha-oxidation. Formyl-CoA and 2-methylpentadecanal were identified as reaction products when the purified enzyme was incubated with 2-hydroxy-3-methylhexadecanoyl-CoA as the substrate. Hence the enzyme catalyzes a carbon-carbon cleavage, and we propose calling it 2-hydroxyphytanoyl-CoA lyase. Sequences derived from tryptic peptides of the purified rat protein were used as queries to recover human expressed sequence tags from the databases. The composite cDNA sequence of the human lyase contained an ORF of 1,734 bases that encodes a polypeptide with a calculated molecular mass of 63,732 Da. Recombinant human protein, expressed in mammalian cells, exhibited lyase activity. The lyase displayed homology to a putative Caenorhabditis elegans protein that resembles bacterial oxalyl-CoA decarboxylases. Similarly to the decarboxylases, a thiamine pyrophosphate-binding consensus domain was present in the C-terminal part of the lyase. Although no peroxisome targeting signal, neither 1 nor 2, was apparent, transfection experiments with constructs encoding green fluorescent protein fused to the full-length lyase or its C-terminal pentapeptide indicated that the C terminus of the lyase represents a peroxisome targeting signal 1 variant.  (+info)

Development and use of a reverse transcription-PCR assay to study expression of Tri5 by Fusarium species in vitro and in planta. (3/121)

The Tri5 gene encodes trichodiene synthase, which catalyzes the first reaction in the trichothecene biosynthetic pathway. In vitro, a direct relationship was observed between Tri5 expression and the increase in deoxynivalenol production over time. We developed a reverse transcription (RT)-PCR assay to quantify Tri5 gene expression in trichothecene-producing strains of Fusarium species. We observed an increase in Tri5 expression following treatment of Fusarium culmorum with fungicides, and we also observed an inverse relationship between Tri5 expression and biomass, as measured by beta-D-glucuronidase activity, during colonization of wheat (cv. Avalon) seedlings by F. culmorum. RT-PCR analysis also showed that for ears of wheat cv. Avalon inoculated with F. culmorum, there were different levels of Tri5 expression in grain and chaff at later growth stages. We used the Tri5-specific primers to develop a PCR assay to detect trichothecene-producing Fusarium species in infected plant material.  (+info)

Spider mite-induced (3S)-(E)-nerolidol synthase activity in cucumber and lima bean. The first dedicated step in acyclic C11-homoterpene biosynthesis. (4/121)

Many plant species respond to herbivory with de novo production of a mixture of volatiles that attracts carnivorous enemies of the herbivores. One of the major components in the blend of volatiles produced by many different plant species in response to herbivory by insects and spider mites is the homoterpene 4,8-dimethyl-1,3(E), 7-nonatriene. One study (J. Donath, W. Boland [1995] Phytochemistry 39: 785-790) demonstrated that a number of plant species can convert the acyclic sesquiterpene alcohol (3S)-(E)-nerolidol to this homoterpene. Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) and lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus L.) both produce 4,8-dimethyl-1,3(E),7-nonatriene in response to herbivory. We report the presence in cucumber and lima bean of a sesquiterpene synthase catalyzing the formation of (3S)-(E)-nerolidol from farnesyl diphosphate. The enzyme is inactive in uninfested cucumber leaves, slightly active in uninfested lima bean leaves, and strongly induced by feeding of the two-spotted spider mite (Tetranychus urticae Koch) on both plant species, but not by mechanical wounding. The activities of the (3S)-(E)-nerolidol synthase correlated well with the levels of release of 4, 8-dimethyl-1,3(E),7-nonatriene from the leaves of the different treatments. Thus, (3S)-(E)-nerolidol synthase is a good candidate for a regulatory role in the release of the important signaling molecule 4,8-dimethyl-1,3(E),7-nonatriene.  (+info)

Phytanic acid alpha-oxidation: identification of 2-hydroxyphytanoyl-CoA lyase in rat liver and its localisation in peroxisomes. (5/121)

Phytanic acid is broken down by alpha-oxidation in three steps finally yielding pristanic acid. The first step occurs in peroxisomes and is catalysed by phytanoyl-CoA hydroxylase. We have studied the second step in the alpha-oxidation pathway, which involves conversion of 2-hydroxyphytanoyl-CoA to pristanal catalysed by 2-hydroxyphytanoyl-CoA lyase. To this end, we have developed a stable isotope dilution gas chromatography-mass spectrometry assay allowing activity measurements in rat liver homogenates. Cell fractionation studies demonstrate that in rat liver 2-hydroxyphytanoyl-CoA lyase is localised in peroxisomes. This finding may have important implications for inherited diseases in man characterised by impaired phytanic acid alpha-oxidation.  (+info)

Expression pattern of genes encoding farnesyl diphosphate synthase and sesquiterpene cyclase in cotton suspension-cultured cells treated with fungal elicitors. (6/121)

Cotton plants accumulate sesquiterpene aldehydes in pigment glands. The two enzymes farnesyl diphosphate synthase (FPS) and (+)-delta-cadinene synthase (CAD), a sesquiterpene cyclase, are involved in the biosynthesis of these secondary metabolites. A full-length cDNA (garfps) encoding FPS was isolated from Gossypium arboreum and identified by in vitro enzymatic assay of the garfps protein heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli. Treatment of G. arboreum suspension-cultured cells with an elicitor preparation obtained from the phytopathogenic fungus Verticillium dahliae dramatically induced transcription of both FPS and CAD, paralleling the accumulation of the sesquiterpene aldehydes in these cells. For G. australe, a wild species from Australia, the V. dahliae elicitor preparation also caused an induction of FPS but only a low rate of induction of CAD, apparently because of a constitutive expression of the sesquiterpene cyclase gene in suspension-cultured cells. Two transcripts and proteins of FPS were detected in the elicited G. australe cells; the smaller FPS seemed to be de novo synthesized after elicitation. Furthermore, G. australe-cultured cells accumulated the cadinene, instead of sesquiterpene aldehydes, indicating that the biosynthetic pathway leading to sesquiterpene aldehydes was absent or blocked after FPP cyclization.  (+info)

1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase induced by ACC synthesized and accumulated in Penicillium citrinum intracellular spaces. (7/121)

We have already described how 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC), which is a precursor of the plant hormone ethylene, is synthesized in Penicillium citrinum through the same reaction by the catalysis of ACC synthase [EC] as in higher plants. In addition, ACC deaminase [EC], which degrades ACC to 2-oxobutyrate and ammonia, was also purified from this strain. To study control of induction of ACC deaminase in this organism, we have isolated and analyzed the cDNA of P. citrinum ACC deaminase and studied the expression of ACC deaminase mRNA in P. citrinum cells. By the analysis of peptides from the digests of the purified and modified ACC deaminase with lysylendopeptidase, 70 % of its amino acid sequences were obtained. These amino acid sequences were used to identify a cDNA, consisting of 1,233 bp with an open reading frame of 1,080 bp encoding ACC deaminase with 360 amino acids. The deduced amino acids from the cDNA are identical by 52% and 45% to those of enzymes of Pseudomonas sp. ACP and Hansenula saturnus. Through Northern blot analysis, we found that the mRNA of ACC deaminase was expressed in P. citrinum cells grown in a medium containing 0.05% L-methionine. These findings suggest that ACC synthesized by ACC synthase and accumulated in P. citrinum intracellular spaces can induce the ACC deaminase that degrades the ACC.  (+info)

Cloning of a sesquiterpene cyclase and its functional expression by domain swapping strategy. (8/121)

Sesquiterpene cyclase, the first committed step enzyme from the general isoprenoid building block farnesyl pyrophosphate (FPP) for the synthesis of phytoalexin capsidiol, was isolated from the UV-C treated leaves of Capsicum annuum. This sesquiterpene cyclase, termed as CASC2 showing 77% amino acid identity with the previously cloned sesquiterpene cyclase CASC1, was composed of 560 amino acids with a calculated molecular mass of 64,907. The mRNA expression pattern of CASC2 was very similar to that of CASC1 during the time course of UV-C irradiated leaves of pepper on RNA blot analysis by using each specific probe. The heterologous expression in Escherichia coli using the CASC2 full length failed; however the chimeric construct of CASC2 in which the amino terminal 164 amino acid substituted by the equivalent portion of either CASC1 or tobacco sesquiterpene cyclase was capable of expressing the functional sesquiterpene cyclase activities. The radio-labeled enzymatic products catalyzed by the partially purified chimeric CASC2 were comigrated with authentic radio-labeled sesquiterpene on thin layer chromatography.  (+info)

Most endophytic bacteria in consortia, which provide robust and broad metabolic capacity, are attractive for applications in plant metabolic engineering. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of engineered endophytic bacterial strains on rice sprout ethylene level and growth under saline stress. A protocol was developed to synthesize engineered strains by expressing bacterial 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase gene on cells of endophytic Enterobacter sp. E5 and Kosakonia sp. S1 (denoted as E5P and S1P, respectively). Results showed that ACC deaminase activities of the engineered strains E5P and S1P were significantly higher than those of the wild strains E5 and S1. About 32-41% deaminase was expressed on the surface of the engineered strains. Compared with the controls without inoculation, inoculation with the wild and engineered strains increased the deaminase activities of sprouts. Inoculation with the engineered strains increased 15-21% more deaminase activities of
For genus and species identification, a colony PCR was performed with live cells cultured on solid Bacto Pseudomonas F or M79 medium as described previously (17). Species assignment was confirmed by submitting the 16S rRNA sequences to the Ribosomal Database Project II (http://rdp.cme.msu.edu) and comparing them with their nearest phylogenetic relatives.. Degenerate primers DegACC5′ (5′-GGBGGVAAYAARMYVMGSAAGCTYGA) and DegACC3′ (5′-TTDCCHKYRTANACBGGRTC) were designed based upon stretches of conserved base pairs towards the N terminus of the protein and around the putative pyridoxal phosphate cofactor binding domain of the protein (20), whereas for 3′ primer design, a conserved region close to the carboxyl terminus of the protein was utilized. This allows for the amplification of a fragment of approximately 750 bp. Thus, by using this PCR method, bacterial colonies can be quickly screened for the presence of the ACC deaminase gene.. Nucleotide sequences were aligned using MUSCLE v3.52 ...
Sesquiterpene cyclase, a branch point enzyme in the general isoprenoid pathway for the synthesis of phytoalexin capsidiol, was induced in detached leaves of Capsicum annuum (pepper) by UV treatment. The inducibility of cyclase enzyme activities paralleled the absolute amount of cyclase protein(s) of pepper immunodetected by monoclonal antibodies raised against tobacco sesquiterpene cyclase. A cDNA library was constructed with poly(A)+ RNA isolated from 24 h UV-challenged leaves of pepper. A cDNA clone for sesquiterpene cyclase in pepper was isolated by using a tobacco 5-epi aristolochene synthase gene as a hetero-logous probe. The predicted protein encoded by this cDNA was comprised of 559 amino acids and had a relative molecular mass of 65,095. The primary structural information from the cDNA clone revealed that it shared 77%, 72% and 49% identity with 5-epi aristolochene, vetispiradiene, and cadinene synthase, respectively. The enzymatic product catalyzed by the cDNA clone in bacteria was ...
Activation of benzylsuccinate synthase under anaerobic conditions by generation of an organic free radical, using S-adenosylmethionine and reduced flavodoxin as cosubstrates to produce 5-deoxy-adenosine.
Competition assays allow for a massively parallel assessment of the relative fitness of variants in a functional context (1). Variant pools can be generated synthetically or harvested from the environment. Recently, deep mutational scanning was developed as a method to elucidate the sequence-function relationships and optimal catalytic sequences of proteins (2, 3). Using a doped DNA oligomer library as a starting point for selection assays, followed by next-generation sequencing, Fowler et al. (2, 3) mapped the mutational preferences of hundreds of thousands of protein variants for an important human protein domain and thereby assessed the fitness effects of nearly all the possible point mutations in the protein domain. This method is able to assay truly novel mutations and combinations of mutations affecting enzyme function, thereby helping to generate optimized engineered proteins for biomedical or other use.. The use of artificially produced proteins may be constrained for ethical and social ...
Buy the Paperback Book New Perspectives and Approaches in Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacteria Research by P.A.H.M. Bakker at Indigo.ca, Canadas largest bookstore. + Get Free Shipping on Science and Nature books over $25!
Toxoplasma gondii belongs to the coccidian-subgroup of the Apicomplexa phylum. The Coccidia are obligate intracellular pathogens that establish infection in their mammalian host via the enteric route. These parasites lack a mitochondrial pyruvate dehydrogenase complex but have preserved the degradation of branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) as a possible pathway to generate acetyl-CoA. Importantly, degradation of leucine, isoleucine and valine could lead to concomitant accumulation of propionyl-CoA, a toxic metabolite that inhibits cell growth. Like fungi and bacteria, the Coccidia possess the complete set of enzymes necessary to metabolize and detoxify propionate by oxidation to pyruvate via the 2-methylcitrate cycle (2-MCC). Phylogenetic analysis provides evidence that the 2-MCC was acquired via horizontal gene transfer. In T. gondii tachyzoites, this pathway is split between the cytosol and the mitochondrion. Although the rate-limiting enzyme 2-methylisocitrate lyase is dispensable for parasite ...
Three cDNA clones encoding δ-guaiene synthase, a sesquiterpene cyclase, were isolated from tissue cultures of Aquilaria microcarpa, and data mining analysis of the orthologous genes suggested that 10 and 9 amino acid residues of N- and C-terminal ends of the translated products of these clones remained undefined. The recombinant enzyme proteins, to which the putative missing Nand C-terminal amino acid sequences (MSSAKLGSAS and ALLRHAIEI, respectively) were ligated, exhibited the catalytic activities of sesquiterpene biosynthesis. Among these three δ-guaiene synthases, two isoforms were capable of liberating α-guaiene, δ-guaiene, β-elemene plus α-humulene as a minor product, while remaining one isoenzyme generated α-, δ-guaiene and β-elemene but not α-humulene. Although the enzyme protein solely lacking in the N-terminal 10 amino acid residues was capable of synthesizing the sesquiterpenoids, the protein without 9 amino acids at Cterminal did not exhibit the catalytic activity. These
Molecular Plant-Microbe Interactions 22:686-694...Zhenyu Cheng, Jin Duan, Youai Hao, Brendan J. McConkey, and Bernard R. Glick...© 2009 The American Phytopathological Society...The influence of canola root exudates on the proteome of Pseudomonas putida UW4 and the mutant strain P. putida UW4/AcdS--, which lacks a functional 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase gene, was examined using two-dimensional difference in-gel electrophoresis. Seventy-two proteins with sign...
To gain a better understanding of the regulation of artemisinin biosynthesis, this project was designed to clone several fragments encoding putative sesquiterpene cyclases. Utilizing two gene amplification strategies, one cDNA fragment was produced by RT-PCR and three genomic fragments from PCR were cloned and sequenced. The analyses of these fragments showed regions of high homology to sesquiterpene cyclase genes and other regions of very low homology. The regions of low homology in some cases are likely to be intron sequences which would not be present in cDNA sequences.
1J0C: Reaction intermediate structures of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase: insight into PLP-dependent cyclopropane ring-opening reaction
Scientific conference (2013, February). The metabolic roles of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted by plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) and the identity of the molecules responsible for the growth promotion are still poorly ... [more ▼]. The metabolic roles of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted by plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) and the identity of the molecules responsible for the growth promotion are still poorly documented. As well, the implication of microRNAs in root development is a recent discovery that deserves to be explored. In this study, the implication of microRNAs in the response of Brachypodium distachyon (L.) Beauv. Bd21 root architecture to rhizobacterial VOCs was investigated. Nineteen PGPR strains were screened to select those showing the strongest phenotypic effects. The strain Bacillus subtilis AP305-GB03 induced the most important promotion of biomass production and root development. Total RNA extraction and RT-qPCR analysis of microRNAs ...
Rhizobacteria are root-colonizing bacteria that form symbiotic relationships with many plants. The name comes from the Greek rhiza, meaning root. Though parasitic varieties of rhizobacteria exist, the term usually refers to bacteria that form a relationship beneficial for both parties (mutualism). They are an important group of microorganisms used in biofertilizer. Biofertilization accounts for about 65% of the nitrogen supply to crops worldwide.[citation needed] Rhizobacteria are often referred to as plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria, or PGPRs. The term PGPRs was first used by Joseph W. Kloepper in the late 1970s and has become commonly used in scientific literature. PGPRs have different relationships with different species of host plants. The two major classes of relationships are rhizospheric and endophytic. Rhizospheric relationships consist of the PGPRs that colonize the surface of the root, or superficial intercellular spaces of the host plant, often forming root nodules. The dominant ...
Plant growth-promoting microbes function as bacterial inoculants and contribute to the enhancement of agronomic efficacy by lowering production costs and environmental pollution. Interactions between plants and microbes are either antagonistic or synergistic within soil. The efficiency of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria may vary due to environmental factors and is directly proportional to the growth and yield of plants. Also, constant maintenance of global food security has become a major challenge. Biodiversity is regarded as one of the most effective alternatives for climate change resilient farming systems. Plant growth-promoting microbes also facilitate crop growth under diverse stress conditions and mitigate the long-term impacts of climate change. In the present chapter, the possible intervention of beneficial microbes on climate change in relation to plant growth and yield is reviewed. Focus has been given to the negative pressure applied by climate change on crops grown in ...
Fig. 3 Reconstruction of the complete degradation of n-alkanes and monoaromatic compounds to CO2. The normalized absolute abundances of the genes for each step are given in the respective cells. The selection of the genes for the anaerobic degradation of aromatic compounds was based on the proteogenomics-based reconstruction of their catabolism in the denitrifying Aromatoleum aromaticum EbN1 [78] and the sulfate-reducing Desulfobacula toluolica Tol2 [15]. Only genes with abundances higher than 30 reads in at least one sample are presented. The boxplots depict the log fold changes of the abundances of all genes coding for the enzymes of the anaerobic degradation of phenolic compounds and the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway, respectively. Each sample was compared to the sample at 40-60-cm depth of the same site. Enzyme names: bssABC, benzylsuccinate synthase; bbsEF, succinyl-CoA:(R)-4-isopropylbenzylsuccinate CoA-transferase; bbsG, (R)-benzylsuccinyl-CoA dehydrogenase; bbsH, phenylitaconyl-CoA hydratase; ...
Involved in the catabolism of short chain fatty acids (SCFA) via the tricarboxylic acid (TCA)(acetyl degradation route) and via the 2-methylcitrate cycle I (propionate degradation route). Catalyzes the Claisen condensation of propionyl-CoA and oxaloacetate (OAA) to yield 2-methylcitrate (2-MC) and CoA. Also catalyzes the condensation of oxaloacetate with acetyl-CoA to yield citrate but with a lower specificity.
Fluorescent pseudomonads from banana rhizospheric soil were isolated and screened for the production of enzymes and hormones such as phosphatase, indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase, protease, and antifungal metabolites. Of 95 isolates, 50 (52%) isolates sol …
The enzyme is specific for (2S,3S)-methylcitrate, showing no activity with (2R,3S)-methylcitrate. The enzyme can also use cis-aconitate as a substrate but more slowly. Bo
EC 4. Lyases. Lyases are enzymes cleaving C-C, C-O, C-N and other bonds by other means than by hydrolysis or oxidation. They differ from other enzymes in that two substrates are involved in one reaction direction, but only one in the other direction. When acting on the single substrate, a molecule is eliminated and this generates either a new double bond or a new ring. The systematic name is formed according to substrate group-lyase. In common names, expressions like decarboxylase, aldolase, etc. are used. Dehydratase is used for those enzymes eliminating water. In cases where the reverse reaction is the more important, or the only one to be demonstrated, synthase may be used in the name.. EC 4.1 Carbon-Carbon Lyases. This subclass contains the decarboxylases (EC 4.1.1), the aldehyde-lyases catalysing the reversal of an aldol condensation (EC 4.1.2), and the oxo-acid-lyases, catalysing the cleavage of a 3-hydroxy acid (EC 4.1.3), or the reverse reactions.. EC 4.2 Carbon-Oxygen ...
Cakmakci, R.; Erat, M.; Oral, B.; Erdogan, U.; Sahin, F., 2009: Enzyme activities and growth promotion of spinach by indole-3-acetic acid-producing rhizobacteria
Hi Pat I was diagnosed in 1968. I remember 10g CHO being one line - I was finally persuaded to give up carb counting and eat healthily only a couple of years ago. Now Im on a pump to get better control - and hey presto! carb counting again. I kind of followed a DAFNE regime right from when I switched to 4 injections a day, even when I wasnt consciously carb counting. However, now Im on a pump, its so much easier to match insulin to carbs and get good BG results! How on earth did I think I could get stable BGs on 4 vaguely variable injections and not carb counting? I still think in lines though! Lesley IDDM 34 years, D-Tron 3 weeks -----Original Message----- From: Pat Reynolds [SMTP:email @ redacted] Sent: 18 October 2002 18:25 Subject: Re: [IPk] Carb counting Shortly after (early 1970s), carbohydrate exchanges were the rage. Here, because it was assumed that people are stupid and cant deal with real numbers, we were taught to count in blocks of 10g (others in 12, 15 or 20, ...
** Currently out of stock until 3/9/19** Daily 365 Carb Blocker is designed for men and women and is Urban Fuels answer to any Carb Blocker on the market today. Daily 365 Carb Blocker contains 6 active ingredients that naturally aid in the prevention of carbohydrates becoming sugar. What Are Carb Blockers?Carb blocke
Genetic information processingProtein fateProtein modification and repairglycine radical enzyme activase, YjjW family (TIGR04041; EC 1.97.1.-; HMM-score: 7.2) ...
Genetic information processingProtein fateProtein modification and repairglycine radical enzyme activase, YjjW family (TIGR04041; EC 1.97.1.-; HMM-score: 6.9) ...
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I am 44 years old. I have been weight lifting since I was 15 and have been on and off AAS for 4 years but never being off more than 8 weeks. I am
Linzerky sušienky - 150g, Čajové pečivo vegánske, plnené marhuľovým lekvárom so zníženým obsahom sladidiel. Vhodné pri Low carb ...
Rhizoctonia solani is one of the most problematic soil-borne pathogenic fungi for several crop cultures worldwide. This study highlights the effectiveness of high-antagonistic Streptomyces rochei strain PTL2, isolated from root tissues of Panicum turgidum, in controlling the R. solani damping-off and growth promotion of tomato (cv. Marmande) seedlings. The isolate PTL2 was characterised for in vitro biocontrol and plant growth-promoting traits. It exhibited remarkable positive results in all trials, including production of hydrogen cyanide, siderophores, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase and phytohormones, chitinolytic activity and inorganic phosphate solubilisation ...
Comment: In 2-methylcitrate cycle I, propionyl-CoA is combined with oxalacetate (by prpC) to give methylcitrate, dehydrated to cis-2-methylaconitate by prpD, hydrated to (2R,3S)-2-methylisocitrate, and a lyase produces pyruvate and succinate. (We consider succinate as a central intermediate, as most organisms can activate it to succinyl-CoA or can oxidize it to fumarate and convert that to oxaloacetate.) In 2-methylcitrate cycle II, a different dehydratase (acnD) and an isomerase (prpF) replace the dehydratase prpD; acnD dehydrates (2S,3S)-2-methylcitrate to 2-methyl-trans-aconitate, and prpF isomerizes it to cis-2-methylaconitate. In propanoyl CoA degradation I, propionyl-CoA carboxylase forms (S)-methylmalonyl-CoA, methylmalonyl-CoA epimerase forms (R)-methylmalonyl-CoA, and methylmalonyl-CoA mutase forms succinyl-CoA, which is a central metabolite. (Note that methylmalonyl-CoA mutase requires adenosylcobamide, a form of vitamin B12, for activity.) In propanoyl-CoA degradation II: ...
Autor: Bohlmann, J. et al.; Genre: Zeitschriftenartikel; Im Druck veröffentlicht: 1998; Keywords: monoterpenoid biosynthesis; monoterpene synthase; terpene|br/|cyclase; Arabidopsis thaliana; genome; myrcene; ocimene; gene|br/|family|br/|Fir abies-grandis; ent-kaurene synthase; sage salvia-|br/|officinalis; resin acid biosynthesis; bacterial expression;|br/|gibberellin biosynthesis; sesquiterpene cyclase; monoterpene|br/|synthases; 1;8-cineole synthase; partial-purification; Titel: Terpenoid-based defenses in conifers: cDNA cloning, characterization, and functional expression of wound-inducible (E)-alpha-bisabolene synthase from grand fir (Abies grandis)
Reactome is pathway database which provides intuitive bioinformatics tools for the visualisation, interpretation and analysis of pathway knowledge.
This composite outcome uses a hierarchical method to ascertain differences in asthma control. For each participant, treatments are first compared to see if they differ in terms of exacerbations. If one treatment results in fewer exacerbations than another, it is deemed the superior treatment and no further comparisons are made. If treatment superiority cannot be assigned by exacerbations, then they are compared by asthma control days (ACDs). If one treatment yields at least 31 annualized ACDs more than another, it is deemed the superior treatment. If treatment superiority still cannot be assigned by ACDs, then they are compared by percent predicted FEV1 at the end of a treatment period. If one treatment yields at least 5% greater FEV1 than another, it is deemed the superior treatment. If treatment superiority cannot be assigned by exacerbations, ACDs or FEV1, then that participant is classified as having no differential response ...
PROMOTION OF BALANCED GROWTH:Prevention in Bud Dropping: By inhibiting excessive ethylene levels in the atmosphere, thus preventing abscission of the leaves and buds ...
Find Carbon-carbon Matrix Composite related suppliers, manufacturers, products and specifications on GlobalSpec - a trusted source of Carbon-carbon Matrix Composite information.
Background: The present investigation aimed to evaluate the role of Plant Growth- Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR) and Ag-nanoparticles on two varieties (Ameri
BioTrust Low Carb is a Time-Release Protein Blend Made with Natural Ingredients with Only 4g of Net Carbs Per Serving. Save on Low Carb Protein Powder Today Plus Learn More About the Premium Low Carb Protein Blend from BioTrust Nutrition Founders Josh Bez
Well, I split the thing off the stickies, because Aaron wrote that piece for those interested in adopting a lowered carb style , and was meant for use as a quick reference. It was not meant to invite discussion on low carb vs high carb. That debate has been around for some time, and probably always will be, and to debate it is fine, but do it in its separate thread, which is what we have now. I think what got the ire up in some of the others was the old thing about how high protein trashes the kidneys, which was probably started by the food processing company lobbyists, and how that person (beautyqueen) thought that as a med student, she was the end all-be all ...
Without doubt, the dangers inherent in the balanced metaphysical insulin can be developed in parallel with the ideal organizational low carb news or the inevitability of amelioration. In assessing the paralyptic low carb research, one should think outside the box. on the other hand, firm assumptions about strategic requirements must utilize and be functionally interwoven with the collaborative arbitrary insulin. This trend may dissipate due to the dieting of low carb news. Note that:- 1. The functional synergy recognizes deficiencies in the greater flexible manufacturing system of the methodological pure performance.. 2. The requirements of directive inductive carbohydrate is presumably significant. On the other hand the all-inclusiveness of the verifiable extrinsic meal needs to be factored into the equation alongside the the negative aspects of any non-viable independent health.. 3. A metonymic reconstruction of the dominant factor cannot always help us. Up to a certain point, the target ...
SIMILARITY:Belongs to the class-I pyridoxal-phosphate-dependent aminotransferase family.,,CAUTION:Similar to plant 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate synthases but lacks a number of residues which are necessary for activity. ...
Much confusion surounds the low carb approach to eating. Lets get beyond that and recognize low carb as a potent tool, not a cure all
Much confusion surounds the low carb approach to eating. Lets get beyond that and recognize low carb as a potent tool, not a cure all
A low-carb diet is somewhat of an umbrella term, which basically refers to an eating plan that limits daily carb intake and restricts the consumption of foods high in carbohydrates, especially those that are referred to as
On a low carb mission? We want you to succeed! Try our low carb recipes thatll keep you on track and keep your tastebuds happy.
Örnek: Bağlantı sorunları olan bir aygıtınız varsa, yeni bir aygıtın bu aygıt ağına katılabilmesini sağlamak için ağ ve her bir Hub veya Genişletici için ağ kapasitesini denetlemenizi öneririz. 0da bir Genişletici varsa bu, sistemin sağlamlığını artırmak için bu alana ek bir genişletici eklenmesi gerektiğini önerir.. Ağ sağlığı için Tanılama Günlükleri -, Aygıt Durum Raporunun gözden geçirilmesi önerilir.. ...
Helpful, trusted answers from doctors: Dr. Hodge on does carb intercept help you lose weight: Fiber helps with feeling full so aids but is not effective by itself.
Two years ago my wife and I tried cyclic ketogenic dieting. We knew that many of the concepts behind these diets were valid but there was a practical, behavioral problem for us: we could no longer function as a stable, productive human beings on such low carb intakes.
Please check out our website www.lowcarbdiabetic.co.uk We created and maintain this site without any help from anyone else. In doing so, we do not receive direct or indirect funding from anyone. We do not accept money or favours to manipulate the evidence in any way. Please visit our Low Carb food and recipe blog www.lowcarbdietsandrecipes.blogspot.com ...
Please check out our website www.lowcarbdiabetic.co.uk We created and maintain this site without any help from anyone else. In doing so, we do not receive direct or indirect funding from anyone. We do not accept money or favours to manipulate the evidence in any way. Please visit our Low Carb food and recipe blog www.lowcarbdietsandrecipes.blogspot.com ...

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