Carbon: A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases: A diverse class of enzymes that interact with UBIQUITIN-CONJUGATING ENZYMES and ubiquitination-specific protein substrates. Each member of this enzyme group has its own distinct specificity for a substrate and ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme. Ubiquitin-protein ligases exist as both monomeric proteins multiprotein complexes.Carbon Dioxide: A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.Carbon Monoxide: Carbon monoxide (CO). A poisonous colorless, odorless, tasteless gas. It combines with hemoglobin to form carboxyhemoglobin, which has no oxygen carrying capacity. The resultant oxygen deprivation causes headache, dizziness, decreased pulse and respiratory rates, unconsciousness, and death. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Nanotubes, Carbon: Nanometer-sized tubes composed mainly of CARBON. Such nanotubes are used as probes for high-resolution structural and chemical imaging of biomolecules with ATOMIC FORCE MICROSCOPY.DNA Ligases: Poly(deoxyribonucleotide):poly(deoxyribonucleotide)ligases. Enzymes that catalyze the joining of preformed deoxyribonucleotides in phosphodiester linkage during genetic processes during repair of a single-stranded break in duplex DNA. The class includes both EC 6.5.1.1 (ATP) and EC 6.5.1.2 (NAD).SKP Cullin F-Box Protein Ligases: A subset of ubiquitin protein ligases that are formed by the association of a SKP DOMAIN PROTEIN, a CULLIN DOMAIN PROTEIN and a F-BOX DOMAIN PROTEIN.Carbon Monoxide Poisoning: Toxic asphyxiation due to the displacement of oxygen from oxyhemoglobin by carbon monoxide.Carbon Isotopes: Stable carbon atoms that have the same atomic number as the element carbon, but differ in atomic weight. C-13 is a stable carbon isotope.Cullin Proteins: A family of structurally related proteins that were originally discovered for their role in cell-cycle regulation in CAENORHABDITIS ELEGANS. They play important roles in regulation of the CELL CYCLE and as components of UBIQUITIN-PROTEIN LIGASES.Ubiquitination: The act of ligating UBIQUITINS to PROTEINS to form ubiquitin-protein ligase complexes to label proteins for transport to the PROTEASOME ENDOPEPTIDASE COMPLEX where proteolysis occurs.Carbon Tetrachloride: A solvent for oils, fats, lacquers, varnishes, rubber waxes, and resins, and a starting material in the manufacturing of organic compounds. Poisoning by inhalation, ingestion or skin absorption is possible and may be fatal. (Merck Index, 11th ed)Carbon Sequestration: Any of several processes for the permanent or long-term artificial or natural capture or removal and storage of carbon dioxide and other forms of carbon, through biological, chemical or physical processes, in a manner that prevents it from being released into the atmosphere.Polynucleotide Ligases: Catalyze the joining of preformed ribonucleotides or deoxyribonucleotides in phosphodiester linkage during genetic processes. EC 6.5.1.Ubiquitin: A highly conserved 76-amino acid peptide universally found in eukaryotic cells that functions as a marker for intracellular PROTEIN TRANSPORT and degradation. Ubiquitin becomes activated through a series of complicated steps and forms an isopeptide bond to lysine residues of specific proteins within the cell. These "ubiquitinated" proteins can be recognized and degraded by proteosomes or be transported to specific compartments within the cell.Carbon Disulfide: A colorless, flammable, poisonous liquid, CS2. It is used as a solvent, and is a counterirritant and has local anesthetic properties but is not used as such. It is highly toxic with pronounced CNS, hematologic, and dermatologic effects.Coenzyme A Ligases: Enzymes that catalyze the formation of acyl-CoA derivatives. EC 6.2.1.RING Finger Domains: A zinc-binding domain defined by the sequence Cysteine-X2-Cysteine-X(9-39)-Cysteine-X(l-3)-His-X(2-3)-Cysteine-X2-Cysteine -X(4-48)-Cysteine-X2-Cysteine, where X is any amino acid. The RING finger motif binds two atoms of zinc, with each zinc atom ligated tetrahedrally by either four cysteines or three cysteines and a histidine. The motif also forms into a unitary structure with a central cross-brace region and is found in many proteins that are involved in protein-protein interactions. The acronym RING stands for Really Interesting New Gene.Ubiquitin-Conjugating Enzymes: A class of enzymes that form a thioester bond to UBIQUITIN with the assistance of UBIQUITIN-ACTIVATING ENZYMES. They transfer ubiquitin to the LYSINE of a substrate protein with the assistance of UBIQUITIN-PROTEIN LIGASES.Carbon Tetrachloride PoisoningRNA Ligase (ATP): An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of linear RNA to a circular form by the transfer of the 5'-phosphate to the 3'-hydroxyl terminus. It also catalyzes the covalent joining of two polyribonucleotides in phosphodiester linkage. EC 6.5.1.3.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Carbon Footprint: A measure of the total greenhouse gas emissions produced by an individual, organization, event, or product. It is measured in units of equivalent kilograms of CARBON DIOXIDE generated in a given time frame.F-Box Proteins: A family of proteins that share the F-BOX MOTIF and are involved in protein-protein interactions. They play an important role in process of protein ubiquition by associating with a variety of substrates and then associating into SCF UBIQUITIN LIGASE complexes. They are held in the ubiquitin-ligase complex via binding to SKP DOMAIN PROTEINS.Endosomal Sorting Complexes Required for Transport: A set of protein subcomplexes involved in PROTEIN SORTING of UBIQUITINATED PROTEINS into intraluminal vesicles of MULTIVESICULAR BODIES and in membrane scission during formation of intraluminal vesicles, during the final step of CYTOKINESIS, and during the budding of enveloped viruses. The ESCRT machinery is comprised of the protein products of Class E vacuolar protein sorting genes.Carbon Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of carbon that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. C atoms with atomic weights 10, 11, and 14-16 are radioactive carbon isotopes.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Ubiquitins: A family of proteins that are structurally-related to Ubiquitin. Ubiquitins and ubiquitin-like proteins participate in diverse cellular functions, such as protein degradation and HEAT-SHOCK RESPONSE, by conjugation to other proteins.Nitrogen: An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.Proteasome Endopeptidase Complex: A large multisubunit complex that plays an important role in the degradation of most of the cytosolic and nuclear proteins in eukaryotic cells. It contains a 700-kDa catalytic sub-complex and two 700-kDa regulatory sub-complexes. The complex digests ubiquitinated proteins and protein activated via ornithine decarboxylase antizyme.Biomass: Total mass of all the organisms of a given type and/or in a given area. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990) It includes the yield of vegetative mass produced from any given crop.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Peptide Synthases: Ligases that catalyze the joining of adjacent AMINO ACIDS by the formation of carbon-nitrogen bonds between their carboxylic acid groups and amine groups.Soot: A dark powdery deposit of unburned fuel residues, composed mainly of amorphous CARBON and some HYDROCARBONS, that accumulates in chimneys, automobile mufflers and other surfaces exposed to smoke. It is the product of incomplete combustion of carbon-rich organic fuels in low oxygen conditions. It is sometimes called lampblack or carbon black and is used in INK, in rubber tires, and to prepare CARBON NANOTUBES.CarboxyhemoglobinAtmosphere: The gaseous envelope surrounding a planet or similar body. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Ubiquitin-Protein Ligase Complexes: Complexes of enzymes that catalyze the covalent attachment of UBIQUITIN to other proteins by forming a peptide bond between the C-terminal GLYCINE of UBIQUITIN and the alpha-amino groups of LYSINE residues in the protein. The complexes play an important role in mediating the selective-degradation of short-lived and abnormal proteins. The complex of enzymes can be broken down into three components that involve activation of ubiquitin (UBIQUITIN-ACTIVATING ENZYMES), conjugation of ubiquitin to the ligase complex (UBIQUITIN-CONJUGATING ENZYMES), and ligation of ubiquitin to the substrate protein (UBIQUITIN-PROTEIN LIGASES).Polyubiquitin: An oligomer formed from the repetitive linking of the C-terminal glycine of one UBIQUITIN molecule via an isopeptide bond to a lysine residue on a second ubiquitin molecule. It is structurally distinct from UBIQUITIN C, which is a single protein containing a tandemly arrayed ubiquitin peptide sequence.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Ubiquitin-Activating Enzymes: A class of enzymes that catalyzes the ATP-dependent formation of a thioester bond between itself and UBIQUITIN. It then transfers the activated ubiquitin to one of the UBIQUITIN-PROTEIN LIGASES.Carbon-Oxygen Ligases: Enzymes that catalyze the joining of two molecules by the formation of a carbon-oxygen bond. EC 6.1.Biodegradation, Environmental: Elimination of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS; PESTICIDES and other waste using living organisms, usually involving intervention of environmental or sanitation engineers.Soil: The unconsolidated mineral or organic matter on the surface of the earth that serves as a natural medium for the growth of land plants.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-cbl: Proto-oncogene proteins that negatively regulate RECEPTOR PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE signaling. It is a UBIQUITIN-PROTEIN LIGASE and the cellular homologue of ONCOGENE PROTEIN V-CBL.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Proteolysis: Cleavage of proteins into smaller peptides or amino acids either by PROTEASES or non-enzymatically (e.g., Hydrolysis). It does not include Protein Processing, Post-Translational.Acetates: Derivatives of ACETIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxymethane structure.Graphite: An allotropic form of carbon that is used in pencils, as a lubricant, and in matches and explosives. It is obtained by mining and its dust can cause lung irritation.Carbon Compounds, Inorganic: Inorganic compounds that contain carbon as an integral part of the molecule but are not derived from hydrocarbons.Photosynthesis: The synthesis by organisms of organic chemical compounds, especially carbohydrates, from carbon dioxide using energy obtained from light rather than from the oxidation of chemical compounds. Photosynthesis comprises two separate processes: the light reactions and the dark reactions. In higher plants; GREEN ALGAE; and CYANOBACTERIA; NADPH and ATP formed by the light reactions drive the dark reactions which result in the fixation of carbon dioxide. (from Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2001)Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.Carbohydrate Metabolism: Cellular processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of CARBOHYDRATES.S-Phase Kinase-Associated Proteins: A family of structurally-related proteins that were originally identified by their ability to complex with cyclin proteins (CYCLINS). They share a common domain that binds specifically to F-BOX MOTIFS. They take part in SKP CULLIN F-BOX PROTEIN LIGASES, where they can bind to a variety of F-BOX PROTEINS.Protein Inhibitors of Activated STAT: A family of structurally related proteins that are constitutively expressed and that negatively regulate cytokine-mediated SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS. PIAS proteins inhibit the activity of signal transducers and activators of transcription.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Glucose: A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Oxygen: An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.Catalysis: The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.SUMO-1 Protein: A 1.5-kDa small ubiquitin-related modifier protein that can covalently bind via an isopeptide link to a number of cellular proteins. It may play a role in intracellular protein transport and a number of other cellular processes.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Small Ubiquitin-Related Modifier Proteins: A class of structurally related proteins of 12-20 kDa in size. They covalently modify specific proteins in a manner analogous to UBIQUITIN.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Trees: Woody, usually tall, perennial higher plants (Angiosperms, Gymnosperms, and some Pterophyta) having usually a main stem and numerous branches.Electrodes: Electric conductors through which electric currents enter or leave a medium, whether it be an electrolytic solution, solid, molten mass, gas, or vacuum.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins: Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Methane: The simplest saturated hydrocarbon. It is a colorless, flammable gas, slightly soluble in water. It is one of the chief constituents of natural gas and is formed in the decomposition of organic matter. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Autotrophic Processes: The processes by which organisms use simple inorganic substances such as gaseous or dissolved carbon dioxide and inorganic nitrogen as nutrient sources. Contrasts with heterotrophic processes which make use of organic materials as the nutrient supply source. Autotrophs can be either chemoautotrophs (or chemolithotrophs), largely ARCHAEA and BACTERIA, which also use simple inorganic substances for their metabolic energy reguirements; or photoautotrophs (or photolithotrophs), such as PLANTS and CYANOBACTERIA, which derive their energy from light. Depending on environmental conditions some organisms can switch between different nutritional modes (autotrophy; HETEROTROPHY; chemotrophy; or PHOTOTROPHY) to utilize different sources to meet their nutrient and energy requirements.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Ecosystem: A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Sumoylation: A type of POST-TRANSLATIONAL PROTEIN MODIFICATION by SMALL UBIQUITIN-RELATED MODIFIER PROTEINS (also known as SUMO proteins).Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Amino Acid Motifs: Commonly observed structural components of proteins formed by simple combinations of adjacent secondary structures. A commonly observed structure may be composed of a CONSERVED SEQUENCE which can be represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE.Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.Heme Oxygenase (Decyclizing): A mixed function oxidase enzyme which during hemoglobin catabolism catalyzes the degradation of heme to ferrous iron, carbon monoxide and biliverdin in the presence of molecular oxygen and reduced NADPH. The enzyme is induced by metals, particularly cobalt. EC 1.14.99.3.Adenosine Monophosphate: Adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group esterified to the sugar moiety in the 2'-, 3'-, or 5'-position.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Alkanes: The generic name for the group of aliphatic hydrocarbons Cn-H2n+2. They are denoted by the suffix -ane. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Seawater: The salinated water of OCEANS AND SEAS that provides habitat for marine organisms.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Metabolic Networks and Pathways: Complex sets of enzymatic reactions connected to each other via their product and substrate metabolites.Multienzyme Complexes: Systems of enzymes which function sequentially by catalyzing consecutive reactions linked by common metabolic intermediates. They may involve simply a transfer of water molecules or hydrogen atoms and may be associated with large supramolecular structures such as MITOCHONDRIA or RIBOSOMES.Soil Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the soil. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Citric Acid Cycle: A series of oxidative reactions in the breakdown of acetyl units derived from GLUCOSE; FATTY ACIDS; or AMINO ACIDS by means of tricarboxylic acid intermediates. The end products are CARBON DIOXIDE, water, and energy in the form of phosphate bonds.Partial Pressure: The pressure that would be exerted by one component of a mixture of gases if it were present alone in a container. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Pseudomonas: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in nature. Some species are pathogenic for humans, animals, and plants.Anaerobiosis: The complete absence, or (loosely) the paucity, of gaseous or dissolved elemental oxygen in a given place or environment. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Geologic Sediments: A mass of organic or inorganic solid fragmented material, or the solid fragment itself, that comes from the weathering of rock and is carried by, suspended in, or dropped by air, water, or ice. It refers also to a mass that is accumulated by any other natural agent and that forms in layers on the earth's surface, such as sand, gravel, silt, mud, fill, or loess. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1689)Muscular Atrophy: Derangement in size and number of muscle fibers occurring with aging, reduction in blood supply, or following immobilization, prolonged weightlessness, malnutrition, and particularly in denervation.Greenhouse Effect: The effect of GLOBAL WARMING and the resulting increase in world temperatures. The predicted health effects of such long-term climatic change include increased incidence of respiratory, water-borne, and vector-borne diseases.Lysine: An essential amino acid. It is often added to animal feed.Multiprotein Complexes: Macromolecular complexes formed from the association of defined protein subunits.Cell Cycle Proteins: Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Fermentation: Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.Electrochemistry: The study of chemical changes resulting from electrical action and electrical activity resulting from chemical changes.Repressor Proteins: Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.Arabidopsis Proteins: Proteins that originate from plants species belonging to the genus ARABIDOPSIS. The most intensely studied species of Arabidopsis, Arabidopsis thaliana, is commonly used in laboratory experiments.Biocatalysis: The facilitation of biochemical reactions with the aid of naturally occurring catalysts such as ENZYMES.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Plant Leaves: Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)Arabidopsis: A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.Carbonates: Salts or ions of the theoretical carbonic acid, containing the radical CO2(3-). Carbonates are readily decomposed by acids. The carbonates of the alkali metals are water-soluble; all others are insoluble. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Aerobiosis: Life or metabolic reactions occurring in an environment containing oxygen.Aldehyde Oxidoreductases: Oxidoreductases that are specific for ALDEHYDES.Crystallography, X-Ray: The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Fatty Acids: Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Glycerol: A trihydroxy sugar alcohol that is an intermediate in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. It is used as a solvent, emollient, pharmaceutical agent, and sweetening agent.Organic Chemicals: A broad class of substances containing carbon and its derivatives. Many of these chemicals will frequently contain hydrogen with or without oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, phosphorus, and other elements. They exist in either carbon chain or carbon ring form.Oceans and Seas: A great expanse of continuous bodies of salt water which together cover more than 70 percent of the earth's surface. Seas may be partially or entirely enclosed by land, and are smaller than the five oceans (Atlantic, Pacific, Indian, Arctic, and Antarctic).Plants: Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.Heterotrophic Processes: The processes by which organisms utilize organic substances as their nutrient sources. Contrasts with AUTOTROPHIC PROCESSES which make use of simple inorganic substances as the nutrient supply source. Heterotrophs can be either chemoheterotrophs (or chemoorganotrophs) which also require organic substances such as glucose for their primary metabolic energy requirements, or photoheterotrophs (or photoorganotrophs) which derive their primary energy requirements from light. Depending on environmental conditions some organisms can switch between different nutritional modes (AUTOTROPHY; heterotrophy; chemotrophy; or PHOTOTROPHY) to utilize different sources to meet their nutrients and energy requirements.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Receptors, Autocrine Motility Factor: Cell surface receptors for AUTOCRINE MOTILITY FACTOR, which is the secreted form of GLUCOSE-6-PHOSPHATE ISOMERASE. The receptor has an unusual composition in that it shares some structural similarities with G-PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTORS and functions as an ubiquitin protein ligase when internalized.HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.Hydrogen: The first chemical element in the periodic table. It has the atomic symbol H, atomic number 1, and atomic weight [1.00784; 1.00811]. It exists, under normal conditions, as a colorless, odorless, tasteless, diatomic gas. Hydrogen ions are PROTONS. Besides the common H1 isotope, hydrogen exists as the stable isotope DEUTERIUM and the unstable, radioactive isotope TRITIUM.Anaphase-Promoting Complex-Cyclosome: An E3 ubiquitin ligase primarily involved in regulation of the metaphase-to-anaphase transition during MITOSIS through ubiquitination of specific CELL CYCLE PROTEINS. Enzyme activity is tightly regulated through subunits and cofactors, which modulate activation, inhibition, and substrate specificity. The anaphase-promoting complex, or APC-C, is also involved in tissue differentiation in the PLACENTA, CRYSTALLINE LENS, and SKELETAL MUSCLE, and in regulation of postmitotic NEURONAL PLASTICITY and excitability.HEK293 Cells: A cell line generated from human embryonic kidney cells that were transformed with human adenovirus type 5.Heavy Ion Radiotherapy: The use of a heavy ion particle beam for radiotherapy, such as the HEAVY IONS of CARBON.Water: A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Electrochemical Techniques: The utilization of an electrical current to measure, analyze, or alter chemicals or chemical reactions in solution, cells, or tissues.Molecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.Charcoal: An amorphous form of carbon prepared from the incomplete combustion of animal or vegetable matter, e.g., wood. The activated form of charcoal is used in the treatment of poisoning. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Amino Acids: Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.Gene Expression Regulation, Plant: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.Protein Processing, Post-Translational: Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Methanol: A colorless, flammable liquid used in the manufacture of FORMALDEHYDE and ACETIC ACID, in chemical synthesis, antifreeze, and as a solvent. Ingestion of methanol is toxic and may cause blindness.Two-Hybrid System Techniques: Screening techniques first developed in yeast to identify genes encoding interacting proteins. Variations are used to evaluate interplay between proteins and other molecules. Two-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for protein-protein interactions, one-hybrid for DNA-protein interactions, three-hybrid interactions for RNA-protein interactions or ligand-based interactions. Reverse n-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for mutations or other small molecules that dissociate known interactions.Gases: The vapor state of matter; nonelastic fluids in which the molecules are in free movement and their mean positions far apart. Gases tend to expand indefinitely, to diffuse and mix readily with other gases, to have definite relations of volume, temperature, and pressure, and to condense or liquefy at low temperatures or under sufficient pressure. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Insufflation: The act of blowing a powder, vapor, or gas into any body cavity for experimental, diagnostic, or therapeutic purposes.Succinic Acid: A water-soluble, colorless crystal with an acid taste that is used as a chemical intermediate, in medicine, the manufacture of lacquers, and to make perfume esters. It is also used in foods as a sequestrant, buffer, and a neutralizing agent. (Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed, p1099; McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1851)DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Gene Expression Regulation, Fungal: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in fungi.Acetyl Coenzyme A: Acetyl CoA participates in the biosynthesis of fatty acids and sterols, in the oxidation of fatty acids and in the metabolism of many amino acids. It also acts as a biological acetylating agent.Pulmonary Diffusing Capacity: The amount of a gas taken up, by the pulmonary capillary blood from the alveolar gas, per minute per unit of average pressure of the gradient of the gas across the BLOOD-AIR BARRIER.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Adenosine Triphosphate: An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.Nuclear Proteins: Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.Fullerenes: A polyhedral CARBON structure composed of around 60-80 carbon atoms in pentagon and hexagon configuration. They are named after Buckminster Fuller because of structural resemblance to geodesic domes. Fullerenes can be made in high temperature such as arc discharge in an inert atmosphere.Models, Chemical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Succinates: Derivatives of SUCCINIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain a 1,4-carboxy terminated aliphatic structure.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Fungal Proteins: Proteins found in any species of fungus.Peptide Hydrolases: Hydrolases that specifically cleave the peptide bonds found in PROTEINS and PEPTIDES. Examples of sub-subclasses for this group include EXOPEPTIDASES and ENDOPEPTIDASES.Plant Roots: The usually underground portions of a plant that serve as support, store food, and through which water and mineral nutrients enter the plant. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982; Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Ubiquitin-Specific Proteases: Members of the peptidase C19 family which regulate signal transduction by removing UBIQUITIN from specific protein substrates via a process known as deubiquitination or deubiquitylation.RNA, Ribosomal, 16S: Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.Water Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in water. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Mass Spectrometry: An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.Environmental Monitoring: The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.Heme Oxygenase-1: A ubiquitous stress-responsive enzyme that catalyzes the oxidative cleavage of HEME to yield IRON; CARBON MONOXIDE; and BILIVERDIN.Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Catalytic Domain: The region of an enzyme that interacts with its substrate to cause the enzymatic reaction.Respiration: The act of breathing with the LUNGS, consisting of INHALATION, or the taking into the lungs of the ambient air, and of EXHALATION, or the expelling of the modified air which contains more CARBON DIOXIDE than the air taken in (Blakiston's Gould Medical Dictionary, 4th ed.). This does not include tissue respiration (= OXYGEN CONSUMPTION) or cell respiration (= CELL RESPIRATION).Molecular Conformation: The characteristic three-dimensional shape of a molecule.Pulmonary Gas Exchange: The exchange of OXYGEN and CARBON DIOXIDE between alveolar air and pulmonary capillary blood that occurs across the BLOOD-AIR BARRIER.Air Pollutants: Any substance in the air which could, if present in high enough concentration, harm humans, animals, vegetation or material. Substances include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; and volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.Oxygen Consumption: The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Nitrogen Isotopes: Stable nitrogen atoms that have the same atomic number as the element nitrogen, but differ in atomic weight. N-15 is a stable nitrogen isotope.DNA Repair: The reconstruction of a continuous two-stranded DNA molecule without mismatch from a molecule which contained damaged regions. The major repair mechanisms are excision repair, in which defective regions in one strand are excised and resynthesized using the complementary base pairing information in the intact strand; photoreactivation repair, in which the lethal and mutagenic effects of ultraviolet light are eliminated; and post-replication repair, in which the primary lesions are not repaired, but the gaps in one daughter duplex are filled in by incorporation of portions of the other (undamaged) daughter duplex. Excision repair and post-replication repair are sometimes referred to as "dark repair" because they do not require light.Immunoprecipitation: The aggregation of soluble ANTIGENS with ANTIBODIES, alone or with antibody binding factors such as ANTI-ANTIBODIES or STAPHYLOCOCCAL PROTEIN A, into complexes large enough to fall out of solution.Forestry: The science of developing, caring for, or cultivating forests.GlyoxylatesStereoisomerism: The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)XyloseNAD: A coenzyme composed of ribosylnicotinamide 5'-diphosphate coupled to adenosine 5'-phosphate by pyrophosphate linkage. It is found widely in nature and is involved in numerous enzymatic reactions in which it serves as an electron carrier by being alternately oxidized (NAD+) and reduced (NADH). (Dorland, 27th ed)Protein Transport: The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.Wood: A product of hard secondary xylem composed of CELLULOSE, hemicellulose, and LIGNANS, that is under the bark of trees and shrubs. It is used in construction and as a source of CHARCOAL and many other products.Acetic Acid: Product of the oxidation of ethanol and of the destructive distillation of wood. It is used locally, occasionally internally, as a counterirritant and also as a reagent. (Stedman, 26th ed)Tropical Climate: A climate which is typical of equatorial and tropical regions, i.e., one with continually high temperatures with considerable precipitation, at least during part of the year. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Adsorption: The adhesion of gases, liquids, or dissolved solids onto a surface. It includes adsorptive phenomena of bacteria and viruses onto surfaces as well. ABSORPTION into the substance may follow but not necessarily.Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.Carboxylic Acids: Organic compounds containing the carboxy group (-COOH). This group of compounds includes amino acids and fatty acids. Carboxylic acids can be saturated, unsaturated, or aromatic.Formates: Derivatives of formic acids. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that are formed with a single carbon carboxy group.Muscle Proteins: The protein constituents of muscle, the major ones being ACTINS and MYOSINS. More than a dozen accessory proteins exist including TROPONIN; TROPOMYOSIN; and DYSTROPHIN.PyruvatesMalatesPyruvic Acid: An intermediate compound in the metabolism of carbohydrates, proteins, and fats. In thiamine deficiency, its oxidation is retarded and it accumulates in the tissues, especially in nervous structures. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Phytoplankton: Free-floating minute organisms that are photosynthetic. The term is non-taxonomic and refers to a lifestyle (energy utilization and motility), rather than a particular type of organism. Most, but not all, are unicellular algae. Important groups include DIATOMS; DINOFLAGELLATES; CYANOBACTERIA; CHLOROPHYTA; HAPTOPHYTA; CRYPTOMONADS; and silicoflagellates.Alcohols: Alkyl compounds containing a hydroxyl group. They are classified according to relation of the carbon atom: primary alcohols, R-CH2OH; secondary alcohols, R2-CHOH; tertiary alcohols, R3-COH. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Particle Size: Relating to the size of solids.Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry: A microanalytical technique combining mass spectrometry and gas chromatography for the qualitative as well as quantitative determinations of compounds.Hydrocarbons

The propeptides of the vitamin K-dependent proteins possess different affinities for the vitamin K-dependent carboxylase. (1/225)

The vitamin K-dependent gamma-glutamyl carboxylase catalyzes the modification of specific glutamates in a number of proteins required for blood coagulation and associated with bone and calcium homeostasis. All known vitamin K-dependent proteins possess a conserved eighteen-amino acid propeptide sequence that is the primary binding site for the carboxylase. We compared the relative affinities of synthetic propeptides of nine human vitamin K-dependent proteins by determining the inhibition constants (Ki) toward a factor IX propeptide/gamma-carboxyglutamic acid domain substrate. The Ki values for six of the propeptides (factor X, matrix Gla protein, factor VII, factor IX, PRGP1, and protein S) were between 2-35 nM, with the factor X propeptide having the tightest affinity. In contrast, the inhibition constants for the propeptides of prothrombin and protein C are approximately 100-fold weaker than the factor X propeptide. The propeptide of bone Gla protein demonstrates severely impaired carboxylase binding with an inhibition constant of at least 200,000-fold weaker than the factor X propeptide. This study demonstrates that the affinities of the propeptides of the vitamin K-dependent proteins vary over a considerable range; this may have important physiological consequences in the levels of vitamin K-dependent proteins and the biochemical mechanism by which these substrates are modified by the carboxylase.  (+info)

Osteocalcin binds tightly to the gamma-glutamylcarboxylase at a site distinct from that of the other known vitamin K-dependent proteins. (2/225)

Vitamin K-dependent proteins contain a propeptide that is required for recognition by the enzyme gamma-glutamylcarboxylase. Substrates used in vitro for carboxylation studies lacking a prosequence are characterized by Km values in the millimolar range, whereas the Km for peptides containing a prosequence is three or four orders of magnitude smaller. Here we report that descarboxy-osteocalcin is an exception in this respect. With descarboxy-osteocalcin in purified propeptide-free recombinant carboxylase, the Km was 1.8 microM. Furthermore, osteocalcin was an inhibitor of descarboxy-osteocalcin carboxylation with a Ki of 76 microM. In contrast with the other vitamin K-dependent proteins, free propeptides do not inhibit descarboxy-osteocalcin carboxylation. Moreover, propeptide-containing substrates were inhibited neither by osteocalcin nor by its propeptide. From our studies we conclude that descarboxy-osteocalcin must have an internal recognition sequence that binds to gamma-glutamylcarboxylase at a site different from the propeptide-recognition site.  (+info)

Genetic and biochemical characterization of the alpha and beta components of a propionyl-CoA carboxylase complex of Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2). (3/225)

Two genes, accA1 and accA2, with nearly identical nucleotide sequences were cloned from Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2). The deduced amino acid sequences of the product of these two genes showed high similarity to BcpA2 of Saccharopolyspora erythraea and other biotin-containing proteins from different organisms assumed to be the alpha subunit of a propionyl-CoA carboxylase. A gene, pccB, encoding the carboxyl transferase subunit of this enzyme complex was also characterized. Strains disrupted in accA1 did not show any change in acetyl- or propionyl-CoA carboxylase activity, whilst cell-free extracts of a pccB mutant strain contained a reduced level of propionyl-CoA carboxylase. No mutants in accA2 could be isolated, suggesting that the gene may be essential. Heterologous expression of accA1, accA2 and pccB in Escherichia col and in vitro reconstitution of enzyme activity confirmed that PccB is the beta subunit of a propionyl-CoA carboxylase and that either AccA1 or AccA2 could act as the alpha component of this enzyme complex. The fact that accA2 mutants appear to be inviable suggests that this gene encodes a biotinylated protein that might be shared with other carboxyl transferases essential for the growth of S. coelicolor.  (+info)

Molecular characterization of the non-biotin-containing subunit of 3-methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase. (4/225)

The biotin enzyme, 3-methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase (MCCase) (3-methylcrotonyl-CoA:carbon-dioxide ligase (ADP-forming), EC 6.4.1. 4), catalyzes a pivotal reaction required for both leucine catabolism and isoprenoid metabolism. MCCase is a heteromeric enzyme composed of biotin-containing (MCC-A) and non-biotin-containing (MCC-B) subunits. Although the sequence of the MCC-A subunit was previously determined, the primary structure of the MCC-B subunit is unknown. Based upon sequences of biotin enzymes that use substrates structurally related to 3-methylcrotonyl-CoA, we isolated the MCC-B cDNA and gene of Arabidopsis. Antibodies directed against the bacterially produced recombinant protein encoded by the MCC-B cDNA react solely with the MCC-B subunit of the purified MCCase and inhibit MCCase activity. The primary structure of the MCC-B subunit shows the highest similarity to carboxyltransferase domains of biotin enzymes that use methyl-branched thiol esters as substrate or products. The single copy MCC-B gene of Arabidopsis is interrupted by nine introns. MCC-A and MCC-B mRNAs accumulate in all cell types and organs, with the highest accumulation occurring in rapidly growing and metabolically active tissues. In addition, these two mRNAs accumulate coordinately in an approximately equal molar ratio, and they each account for between 0.01 and 0.1 mol % of cellular mRNA. The sequence of the Arabidopsis MCC-B gene has enabled the identification of animal paralogous MCC-B cDNAs and genes, which may have an impact on the molecular understanding of the lethal inherited metabolic disorder methylcrotonylglyciuria.  (+info)

Identification of a Drosophila vitamin K-dependent gamma-glutamyl carboxylase. (5/225)

Using reduced vitamin K, oxygen, and carbon dioxide, gamma-glutamyl carboxylase post-translationally modifies certain glutamates by adding carbon dioxide to the gamma position of those amino acids. In vertebrates, the modification of glutamate residues of target proteins is facilitated by an interaction between a propeptide present on target proteins and the gamma-glutamyl carboxylase. Previously, the gastropod Conus was the only known invertebrate with a demonstrated vitamin K-dependent carboxylase. We report here the discovery of a gamma-glutamyl carboxylase in Drosophila. This Drosophila enzyme is remarkably similar in amino acid sequence to the known mammalian carboxylases; it has 33% sequence identity and 45% sequence similarity to human gamma-glutamyl carboxylase. The Drosophila carboxylase is vitamin K-dependent, and it has a K(m) toward a model pentapeptide substrate, FLEEL, of about 4 mm. However, unlike the human gamma-glutamyl carboxylase, it is not stimulated by human blood coagulation factor IX propeptides. We found the mRNA for Drosophila gamma-glutamyl carboxylase in virtually every embryonic and adult stage that we investigated, with the highest concentration evident in the adult head.  (+info)

An acyl-coenzyme A carboxylase encoding gene associated with jadomycin biosynthesis in Streptomyces venezuelae ISP5230. (6/225)

Analysis of a region of chromosomal DNA lying between jadR1 and jadI in the gene cluster for jadomycin biosynthesis in Streptomyces venezuelae ISP5230 detected an ORF encoding 584 amino acids similar in sequence to the biotin carboxylase (BC) and biotin carboxyl carrier protein (BCCP) components of acyl-coenzyme A carboxylases. Multiple sequence alignments of the deduced Jad protein with acyl-coenzyme A carboxylases from various sources located the BC and BCCP components in the N- and C-terminal regions, respectively, of the deduced polypeptides. The organization and amino acid sequence of the deduced polypeptide most closely resembled those in other Gram-positive bacteria broadly classified as actinomycetes. Disrupting the gene, designated jadJ, severely reduced but did not eliminate jadomycin production. The disruption had no effect on growth or morphology of the organism, implying that the product of jadJ is not essential for fatty acid biosynthesis. It is concluded that jadJ supplies malonyl-coenzyme A for biosynthesis of the polyketide intermediate that is eventually processed to form the antibiotic jadomycin B.  (+info)

A conserved motif within the vitamin K-dependent carboxylase gene is widely distributed across animal phyla. (7/225)

The vitamin K-dependent gamma-glutamyl carboxylase catalyzes the posttranslational conversion of glutamic acid to gamma-carboxyglutamic acid, an amino acid critical to the function of the vitamin K-dependent blood coagulation proteins. Given the functional similarity of mammalian vitamin K-dependent carboxylases and the vitamin K-dependent carboxylase from Conus textile, a marine invertebrate, we hypothesized that structurally conserved regions would identify sequences critical to this common functionality. Furthermore, we examined the diversity of animal species that maintain vitamin K-dependent carboxylation to generate gamma-carboxyglutamic acid. We have cloned carboxylase homologs in full-length or partial form from the beluga whale (Delphinapterus leucas), toadfish (Opsanus tau), chicken (Gallus gallus), hagfish (Myxine glutinosa), horseshoe crab (Limulus polyphemus), and cone snail (Conus textile) to compare these structures to the known bovine, human, rat, and mouse cDNA sequences. Comparison of the predicted amino acid sequences identified a nearly perfectly conserved 38-amino acid residue region in all of these putative carboxylases. In addition, this amino acid motif is also present in the Drosophila genome and identified a Drosophila homolog of the gamma-carboxylase. Assay of hagfish liver demonstrated vitamin K-dependent carboxylase activity in this hemichordate. These results demonstrate the broad distribution of the vitamin K-dependent carboxylase gene, including a highly conserved motif that is likely critical for enzyme function. The vitamin K-dependent biosynthesis of gamma-carboxyglutamic acid appears to be a highly conserved function in the animal kingdom.  (+info)

A topological study of the human gamma-glutamyl carboxylase. (8/225)

gamma-Glutamyl carboxylase (GC), a polytopic membrane protein found in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), catalyzes vitamin K-dependent posttranslational modification of glutamate to gamma-carboxyl glutamate. In an attempt to delineate the structure of this important enzyme, in vitro translation and in vivo mapping were used to study its membrane topology. Using terminus-tagged full-length carboxylase, expressed in 293 cells, it was demonstrated that the amino-terminus of the GC is on the cytoplasmic side of the ER, while the carboxyl-terminus is on the lumenal side. In addition, a series of fusions were made to encode each predicted transmembrane domain (TMD) followed by a leader peptidase (Lep) reporter tag, as analyzed by the computer algorithm TOPPRED II. Following in vitro translation of each fusion in the presence of canine microsomes, the topological orientation of the Lep tag was determined by proteinase K digestion and endoglycosidase H (Endo H) cleavage. From the topological orientation of the Lep tag in each fusion, the GC spans the ER membrane at least 5 times, with its N-terminus in the cytoplasm and its C-terminus in the lumen.  (+info)

3-Methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase deficiency (MCCC2-related) is a pan-ethnic, autosomal recessive disease caused by pathogenic variants in the MCCC2 gene. These variants impair the ability of the enzyme 3-methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase to break down proteins that contain the amino acid leucine. Presentation in childhood or early infancy is characterized by feeding difficulties, vomiting and diarrhea, excessive fatigue, and hypotonia. If detected early, the condition can be managed with a low-protein diet. If untreated, this disorder can eventually cause developmental delay, seizures, and coma. However, most individuals with this condition remain asymptomatic into adulthood. Life expectancy depends on the severity of presentation. No clear genotype-phenotype correlation has been noted.. For information about carrier frequency and residual risk, please see the Expanded Carrier Screen brochure.. ...
Vitamin K1 2,3-epoxide (CAS: 25486-55-9) is a vitamin K derivative. Vitamin K is needed for the posttranslational modification of certain proteins, mostly required for blood coagulation. Within the cell, vitamin K undergoes electron reduction to a reduced form of vitamin K (called vitamin K hydroquinone) by the enzyme vitamin K epoxide reductase (or VKOR). Another enzyme then oxidizes vitamin K hydroquinone to allow carboxylation of glutamate into gamma-carboxyglutamate (Gla). This enzyme is called the gamma-glutamyl carboxylase or the vitamin K-dependent carboxylase. The carboxylation reaction will only proceed if the carboxylase enzyme is able to oxidize vitamin K hydroquinone into vitamin K epoxide at the same time; the carboxylation and epoxidation reactions are said to be coupled reactions. Vitamin K epoxide is then re-converted into vitamin K by the vitamin K epoxide reductase. These two enzymes comprise the so-called vitamin K cycle. One of the reasons why vitamin K is rarely deficient in ...
putative acyl-CoA carboxylase alpha subunit [putative Acyl-CoA carboxylase] ATGAGCGCCGCCCTCCTAGGCCTCCGTCAGGCCCGCATACGCAAGGTGTTGATCGCCAAC CGTGGCGAAATCGCTGTTCGTGTCGCCCGGGCGTGCCGAGACGCCGGTATCGCGAGCGTG GCGGTGTACGCCGAGCCGGACCGGGACGCACTGCATGTGCGGGCCGCGGACGAGGCGTTC GCGCTGGGCGGTGACACCCCCGCGACCAGCTACCTCGACATGGCCAAGGTGCTGCAGGCC GCCAAGGACTCCGGCGCGGACGCCATCCACCCCGGTTACGGCTTCCTTTCCGAGAACGCC GACTTCGCCCAGGCCGTCCTGGACGCCCAGCTGATCTGGATCGGCCCGCCGCCGCAGGCG ATTCGCGACCTGGGTGACAAGGCCCATATCGCCCAGCGCGCCGGCGCCCCGCTGGTCGCC GGCACCCCCGACCCGGTCTCGGGCTCGGACGAGGTCGTCGCCTTCGCGGAGGAGCACGGG CTGCCGATCGCCATCAAGGCCGCCTTCGGTGGCGGTGGCCGCGGTCTGAAGGTCGCCCGC ACCCTGGAAGAAGTCCCCGAGCTGTACGACTCGGCCGTCCGCGAGGCGGTGGCCGCCTTC GGCCGCGGTGAGTGCTTCGTCGAGCGCTACCTCGACAAGCCCCGGCACGTGGAGACCCAG TGCCTGGCCGACTCCCACGGCAACGTGGTCGTCGTCTCCACCCGCGACTGCTCACTGCAG CGCCGCCACCAGAAGCTGGTCGAGGAGGCGCCCGCGCCGTTCCTCTCCGACGAGCAGGTC GCCGAGCTGTACTCCTCTTCGAAGGCCATCCTCAAGGAGGCCGGCTATGTCGGCGCCGGG ACCGTGGAGTTCCTGGTCGGCACGGACGGCACGATCTCCTTCCTGGAGGTCAACACCCGC ...
3-Hydroxyisovalerylcarnitine is structual derivative of 3-hydroxyisovaleric acid and carnitine. Due to its increased concentration in blood, 3-hydroxyisovalerylcarnitine (C5OH-I) is an important indicator for the diagnosis of organic acidemias in newborns (PMID: 18088573 ). Analysis of acylcarnitines by tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) has recently been used to screen newborns for organic acidemias and fatty acid oxidation defects (PMID: 7494654 , 9216448 , 11427446 , 12127323 , 14578311 ). These diseases cause the accumulation of acyl-CoA, which is esterified to acylcarnitine by carnitine acyltransferase. Acylcarnitine is then eliminated in the urine, thus acylcarnitine concentration serves as an excellent indicator for these diseases (PMID: 6361812 ). 3-Hydroxyisovalerylcarnitine (C5OH-I) is an indicator for diagnoses of multiple carboxylase deficiency (MCD), 3-methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase deficiency and 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA lyase deficiency (PMID: 18088573 ), which are inborn ...
There is much debate as to the clinical significance of 3-methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase deficiency (3MCC deficiency). In thinking about this issue, I recently read a paper by Arnold et al, (Mol Genet Metab. 2012 Aug;106(4):439-41) that describes their retrospective analysis of 35 cases of 3-MCC deficiency identified by newborn screening and confirmed by enzyme and/or molecular analysis. One of the most […]. ...
PMID 25681132] Impact of gamma-glutamyl carboxylase gene polymorphisms on warfarin dose requirement: A systematic review and meta-analysis ...
New technology enables expansion of newborn screening (NBS) of inborn errors aimed to prevent adverse outcome. In conditions with a large share of asymptomatic phenotypes, the potential harm created by NBS must carefully be weighed against benefit. Policies vary throughout the United States, Australia, and Europe due to limited data on outcome and treatability of candidate screening conditions. We elaborated the rationale for decision making in 3-methylcrotonyl-coenzyme A (CoA) carboxylase deficiency (MCCD), which afflicts leucine catabolism, with reported outcomes ranging from asymptomatic to death. In Bavaria, we screened 677,852 neonates for 25 conditions, including MCCD, based on elevated concentrations of 3-hydroxyisovalerylcarnitine (3-HIVA-C). Genotypes of MCCA (MCCC1) and MCCB (MCCC2) were assessed in identified newborns, their relatives, and in individuals (n = 17) from other regions, and correlated to biochemical and clinical phenotypes. NBS revealed eight newborns and six relatives ...
In the light of the structure-based comparisons identifying the PfSUB1 prodomain Prodp9 as the best template for SUB1-ProM, we further examined the predicted structural similarities between these proteins. Like other subtilisins, immediately following cleavage at the propeptide-catalytic domain junction, the propeptides of PfSUB1 and PvSUB1 remain tightly bound to their cognate catalytic domain, primarily through interactions between the beta sheet of the propeptide and two prominent surface-located parallel alpha helices of the catalytic domain [14,41]. In the case of PfSUB1, key contributions to propeptide binding include hydrophobic interactions with the sidechain of Ile178, located at the beta hairpin turn linking two strands of the Prodp9 beta sheet, which plugs into a hydrophobic pocket on the catalytic domain surface (Figure 5a and Supplementary Figure S5a). Interestingly, Prodp9 Ile178 is replaced by a Leu residue (Leu115) in SUB1-ProM, the sidechain of which could be accommodated in the ...
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The peptide substrate commonly used in vitamin K-dependent carboxylation, Phe-Leu-Glu-Glu-Val, has been shown, by the use of high-voltage paper electrophoresis, to be degraded from the N-terminus by a microsomal leucine amino-peptidase. The replacement of phenylalanine with a N-t-butoxycarbonyl group resulted in a tetrapeptide substrate with a blocked N-terminus resistant to enzymic degradation. Vitamin K-dependent carboxylation of this non-degradable substrate gave a unique carboxylated product, which was separated from microsomal protein and unchanged substrate by using DEAE-Sephadex A25 as a final step. The carboxylated product was subsequently decarboxylated in 2HCl and analysed by using g.l.c. coupled to a mass spectrometer. This showed that only the first glutamic acid residue in the peptide substrate was carboxylated. ...
Matrix gla protein (MGP) is member of a family of vitamin-K2 dependent, Gla-containing proteins. MGP has a high affinity binding to calcium ions, similar to other Gla-containing proteins. The protein acts as an inhibitor of vascular mineralization and plays a role in bone organization. MGP is found in number body tissues in mammals, birds, and fish. Its mRNA is present in bone, cartilage, heart, and kidney. It is present in bone together with the related vitamin K2-dependent protein osteocalcin. In bone, its production is increased by vitamin D. The MGP was linked to the short arm of chromosome 12 in 1990. Its mRNA sequence length is 585 bases long in humans. MGP and osteocalcin are both calcium-binding proteins that may participate in the organisation of bone tissue. Both have glutamate residues that are post-translationally carboxylated by the enzyme gamma-glutamyl carboxylase in a reaction that requires Vitamin K hydroquinone. This process also occurs with a number of proteins involved in ...
Biotin-dependent carboxylases include acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), propionyl-CoA carboxylase (PCC), 3-methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase (MCC), geranyl-CoA carboxylase, pyruvate carboxylase (PC), and...
Promotes healthy glucose metabolism and nerve health; helps support healthy nails Biotin is a water-soluble B vitamin that is an essential co-factor for a number of metabolic carboxylation reactions. Biotin forms a covalent bond to the following carboxylase enzymes: pyruvate carboxylase for glucose metabolism, acetyl CoA carboxylase for fatty acid oxidation, and propionyl-CoA carboxylase and methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase for amino acid metabolism. A clinical study reported that high dose administration of biotin helped promote healthy glucose metabolism. A number of animal studies support this claim. Biotin may also act to promote transcription and translation of glucokinase, an enzyme found in the liver and pancreas that participates in the metabolism of glucose to form glycogen. Studies have also indicated that biotin is supportive of nervous system health and function. A clinical study revealed that biotin promotes nerve cell health. In addition, a double-blind study reported that biotin
WHAT DOES BIOTIN DO FOR US ?. 1. Carboxyle enzymes:. - The first one, Acetyl-CoA carboxylase, starts the process for creating fatty acids. Most of us want beautiful shiny hair and strong healthy fingernails. Biotin is involved in the creation of fatty acids. One group of fatty acids called phospholipids is a necessary part of the structure of cell membranes including those which make up our hair and nails.. - The second one, Pyruvate carboxylase is critical for the process called gluconeogenesis. Gluconeogenesis is the process which creates glucose out of fats and amino acids to use for energy when the body cant get it from carbohydrates. Those low or no carb diets weve all heard about or perhaps have tried, start the process of gluconeogenesis. The fat stores in our bodies and unfortunately some of the proteins we eat are used for energy instead of the carbohydrates we would ordinarily consume.. - The third one, Methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase is used in the creation of energy from the ...
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A vitamin K-dependent carboxylation converts glutamate residues on prothrombin, which are weak chelators of Ca2+, into gamma-carboxyglutamate, a much stronger chelator. The binding of Ca2+ by prothrombin anchors it to the phospholipid membranes derived from blood platlets following injury. This binding of prothrombin brings it into close contact with two enzymes which regulate its conversion into thrombin, which can then activate fibrinogen in the plasma to fill the breach.. Sources:. Vitamin K is found in green leafy vegetables.. Fascinating Fact: To prevent excessive clotting after an operation the vitamin K antagonist, Warfarin (rat poison) is administered in carefully controlled doses.. ...
Protein C is a vitamin K-dependent serine protease that regulates blood coagulation by inactivating factors Va and VIIIa in the presence of calcium ions and phospholipids. Exerts a protective effect on the endothelial cell barrier function.
PCCB antibody [N2C3] (propionyl CoA carboxylase, beta polypeptide) for ICC/IF, IHC-P, WB. Anti-PCCB pAb (GTX105204) is tested in Human, Mouse samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
Expression of MCCC1 (MCCA) in cancer tissue. The cancer tissue page shows antibody staining of the protein in 20 different cancers.
Paracetamol is recommended as a first-line analgesic and antipyretic therapy in patients receiving short- and long-term oral anticoagulation, especially elderly patient.However,Increased INR was previously observed in patients treated with warfarin and paracetamol given at the maximum recommended dose (4g/day).. To date, the mechanism of this interaction has not been determined.A recent in vitro study suggested that the toxic metabolite N-acetyl-para-benzoquinoneimine (NAPQI) appeared to interfere with vitamin K-dependent γ-carboxylase (VKD-carb) and vitamin K epoxide reductase (VKOR) activites12. The question remaining to be dealt with is whether this in vitro observation can explain the in vivo paracetamol-warfarin interaction. We aim to evaluate the effect of paracetamol at the most widely used doses 2 and 3g/day on INR in stable patients treated with warfarin in a double blind randomized placebo-controlled trial and to identify the mechanism involved in this interaction in vivo. ...
endoplasmic reticulum sites of Gla protein synthesis. In the case of the blood coagulation proteins, the sole site of synthesis is the liver. Each carboxylated protein has a C-terminal propeptide sequence that binds the carboxylase enzyme, and directs a coordinated series of carboxylations of the recipient gluta-myl residues, before the propeptide is removed and the fully carboxylated protein is then secreted into the extracellular space for transport into the plasma.. Vitamin K acts as the essential recycling cofactor (or cosubstrate) for all protein carboxylation, Gla-forming reactions (Figure 3). In its dihydro or quinol form, the vitamin reacts with molecular oxygen, thereby creating a highly reactive, high-energy carba-nion at the Glu site for insertion of carbon dioxide, creating a new Gla residue. This vitamin K quinol oxidation step provides the essential energy for the endothermic carboxylation step. The other product of the reaction is the epoxide of vitamin K, comprising a ...
NEW DEADLINE! Minority Corporate Counsel Association. Application Deadline: June 30, 2006 The Minority Corporate Counsel Association is pleased to announce the continuation of an initiative designed to support entering first year law students nationwide who have been accepted into an accredited law school. The program is open to all students entering law school in fall 2006. MCCA will award 10 fellowships at $10,000 per year for each of the three years in law school. The total commitment per student fellow will be $30,000. In addition, approximately, 7-8 students will receive a one-time scholarship gift of $10,000 in support of their law school education. The deadline for receipt of completed applications has been extended to June 30, 2006. Scholarship information is available at www.mcca.com. The application process is administered for MCCA by UNCF (United Negro College Fund) and students may apply online at www.uncf.org. For questions, contact Kimbery Hall at UNCF at (703) 205-3443.. The ...
Coagulation. Coagulation results in the generation of thrombin, which converts soluble fibrinogen to fibrin. Coagulation occurs through the action of discrete enzyme complexes, which are composed of a vitamin K-dependent enzyme and a non-enzyme cofactor, and assemble on anionic phospholipid membranes in a calcium-dependent fashion. Each enzyme complex activates a vitamin K-dependent substrate that becomes the enzyme component of the subsequent complex. Together, these complexes generate a small amount of thrombin, which amplifies its own generation by activating the non-enzyme cofactors and platelets, which then provide an anionic surface on which the complexes assemble. The three enzyme complexes involved in thrombin generation are extrinsic tenase, intrinsic tenase, and prothrombinase. Although extrinsic tenase initiates the system under most circumstances, the contact system also plays a role in some situations.. Extrinsic Tenase (FVIIa-TF complex). This complex forms upon exposure of tissue ...
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RK2A_LIRTU (Q0G9F5 ), RK2A_POPAL (Q14F95 ), RK2A_SOYBN (P18663 ), RK2B_CHLSC (A6MMI6 ), RK2B_COFAR (A0A398 ), RK2B_LIRTU (Q0G9H8 ), RK2B_POPAL (Q14FB6 ), RK2B_SOYBN (Q2PMM3 ), RK2_ACOAM (A9LYE2 ), RK2_ACOCL (Q3V4X1 ), RK2_ADICA (Q85FI1 ), RK2_AETCO (A4QJF6 ), RK2_AETGR (A4QJP0 ), RK2_AGRST (A1EA50 ), RK2_AMBTC (P60406 ), RK2_ANEMR (B0YPR7 ), RK2_ANGEV (A2T375 ), RK2_ANTFO (Q85B65 ), RK2_ARAHI (A4QK59 ), RK2_ARATH (P56791 ), RK2_BARVE (A4QKE6 ), RK2_BIGNA (Q06J61 ), RK2_BUXMI (A6MM78 ), RK2_CALFG (Q7YJT7 ), RK2_CAPBU (A4QKN3 ), RK2_CARPA (B1A976 ), RK2_CERDE (A8SEE5 ), RK2_CHAGL (Q8M9U7 ), RK2_CHAVU (Q1ACF6 ), RK2_CHLAT (Q19VA8 ), RK2_CHLRE (Q8HTL2 ), RK2_CHLVU (P56367 ), RK2_CITSI (Q09MB2 ), RK2_CRUWA (A4QKX2 ), RK2_CRYJA (B1VKD7 ), RK2_CUCSA (Q4VZK5 ), RK2_CUSEX (A8W3G2 ), RK2_CUSRE (A7M9A4 ), RK2_CYACA (Q9TLT5 ), RK2_CYAM1 (Q85FW0 ), RK2_CYAPA (P15764 ), RK2_CYCTA (A6H5M3 ), RK2_DAUCA (Q0G9P9 ), RK2_DIOEL (A6MMP9 ), RK2_DRANE (A4QL60 ), RK2_DRIGR (Q06GT2 ), RK2_EIMTE (Q7YN79 ), RK2_EMIHU ...
Research demonstrates that children are the most deficient of the essential nutrient vitamin K2, creating serious skeletal and vascular implications for growing bodies. Fortunately, there is a simple, proven solution: studies have shown that supplementation with 45-50 mcg of vitamin K2 as MK-7 daily supports bone mineral density, reduces fractures, and may contribute toward cardiovascular health in children - laying the strong foundation for their transition from adolescence into adulthood.. Vitamin K is actually a group of fat-soluble vitamins. It was first recognized for its essential role in the functioning of several proteins involved in blood clotting or coagulation, which is important to prevent excessive bleeding after an injury. In fact, the "K" in vitamin K is derived from the German word "koagulation." Now, vitamin K is understood to offer additional benefits, including its role activating vitamin K-dependent proteins that are necessary for bone mineralization (e.g., helping to keep ...
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abbr.: PCCase; EC 6.4.1.3; an enzyme that catalyses a reaction between ATP, propanoyl‐CoA, and HCO3− to form (S)‐methylmalonyl‐CoA, ADP, and orthophosphate; biotin is a coenzyme. It is an enzyme in ... ...
Reactome is pathway database which provides intuitive bioinformatics tools for the visualisation, interpretation and analysis of pathway knowledge.
Perform reliable qPCR with Bio-Rads pre-validated GGCX primer pair, for the Dog genome. Designed for SYBR Green-based detection.
The phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) gene family of Arabidopsis is composed of four genes. Based on sequence analysis it was deduced that Atppc1, Atppc2 and Atppc3 genes encode plant-type PEPCs,
Patients with ICH whose INR is elevated because of VKA should have their VKA withheld, receive therapy to replace vitamin K-dependent factors and correct the INR, and receive intravenous vitamin K (Class I; Level of Evidence C). PCCs may have fewer complications and correct the INR more rapidly than FFP and might be considered over FFP (Class IIb; Level of Evidence B). rFVIIa does not replace all clotting factors, and although the INR may be lowered, clotting may not be restored in vivo; therefore, rFVIIa is not recommended for VKA reversal in ICH (Class III; Level of Evidence C). (Revised from the previous guideline ...
Patients with ICH whose INR is elevated because of VKA should have their VKA withheld, receive therapy to replace vitamin K-dependent factors and correct the INR, and receive intravenous vitamin K (Class I; Level of Evidence C). PCCs may have fewer complications and correct the INR more rapidly than FFP and might be considered over FFP (Class IIb; Level of Evidence B). rFVIIa does not replace all clotting factors, and although the INR may be lowered, clotting may not be restored in vivo; therefore, rFVIIa is not recommended for VKA reversal in ICH (Class III; Level of Evidence C). (Revised from the previous guideline ...
The Michigan Community College Association provides leadership on issues affecting member colleges. Providing legislative and government advocacy for its members, MCCA members also benefit from initiatives that leverage the combined efforts of multiple colleges, resulting in more efficient and effective programs.
Protein S human is a vitamin K-dependent plasma glycoprotein which has antcoagulant properties [A19561]. It serves as a negative feedback mechanism in the coagulation cascade.
Prevents the return of vitamin K to its reduced form, and therefore the gamma-carboxylation of vitamin-K dependent clotting factors (II, VII, IX, X), as well as Protein C and Protein S ...
ACCA Revision Series: Managing People Paper 1.3 by ACCA, 9780748353071, available at Book Depository with free delivery worldwide.
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Prothrombin and thrombin are involved in diverse biological functions. The structure of prothrombin has been studied extensively and its cDNA has been cloned fr...
This protein is a component of the acetyl coenzyme A carboxylase complex; first, biotin carboxylase catalyzes the carboxylation of the carrier protein and then the transcarboxylase transfers the carboxyl group to form malonyl-CoA.
Tecarfarin sodium (ATI-5923 sodium) is a novel orally active non-competitive vitamin K epoxide reductase (VKOR) antagonist, impairs the activation of the vitamin K-dependent clotting factors II, VII, IX and X. Tecarfarin sodium has the antithrombotic activity ...
Propionyl bromide 598-22-1 MSDS report, Propionyl bromide MSDS safety technical specifications search, Propionyl bromide safety information specifications ect.
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Acetyl-CoA Carboxylase 1 antibody (acetyl-CoA carboxylase alpha) for ICC/IF, IHC-P, WB. Anti-Acetyl-CoA Carboxylase 1 pAb (GTX132081) is tested in Human, Mouse, Rat samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
GPR88, an orphan receptor richly expressed in the striatum, is implicated in a number of basal ganglia-associated disorders. In order to elucidate the functions of GPR88, an in vivo probe appropriate for CNS investigation is required. We previously reported that 2-PCCA was able to modulate GPR88-mediated cAMP production through a G alpha(i)-coupled pathway. Early structure-activity relationship (SAR) studies suggested that the aniline moiety of 2-PCCA is a suitable site for diverse modifications.
Case Description (1): A type 1 diabetic 57-year-old woman fractured her ankle during a ski accident in March 2009. The patient underwent three reconst...
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International Accounting Standard IAS 41, Agriculture, is the first standard that specifically covers the primary sector. The Standard becomes operative for annual financial statements covering periods beginning on or after 1 January 2003 with earlier application encouraged.
Looking for online definition of 3-hydroxyisovaleric acid in the Medical Dictionary? 3-hydroxyisovaleric acid explanation free. What is 3-hydroxyisovaleric acid? Meaning of 3-hydroxyisovaleric acid medical term. What does 3-hydroxyisovaleric acid mean?
In this study, the pathophysiology of A−β+ KPD was investigated comprehensively using a two-step discovery method. First, fasting plasma metabolomics compared KPD patients to nondiabetic obese subjects. Hypotheses generated from key differences were tested by kinetic tracer studies targeting the suspected metabolic pathways in a fresh cohort of patients and control subjects.. The metabolomic analysis revealed signals of altered BCAA catabolism in KPD associated with changes in glutamine/glutamate. We hypothesized that the lack of elevated leucine in KPD was due to accelerated catabolism of this amino acid, indicated by decreased C5-AC and elevated glutamate (33,34). Evidence that accelerated leucine catabolism extended beyond isovaleryl CoA to β-methylcrotonyl CoA and ketogenesis was provided by the lower level of 3-hydroxyisovaleryl-carnitine (C5-OH). Concomitantly, glutamine was 50% lower, whereas glutamate was 175% higher, in KPD. Glutamine and glutamate are nitrogen sinks for catabolism ...
In this study, the pathophysiology of A−β+ KPD was investigated comprehensively using a two-step discovery method. First, fasting plasma metabolomics compared KPD patients to nondiabetic obese subjects. Hypotheses generated from key differences were tested by kinetic tracer studies targeting the suspected metabolic pathways in a fresh cohort of patients and control subjects.. The metabolomic analysis revealed signals of altered BCAA catabolism in KPD associated with changes in glutamine/glutamate. We hypothesized that the lack of elevated leucine in KPD was due to accelerated catabolism of this amino acid, indicated by decreased C5-AC and elevated glutamate (33,34). Evidence that accelerated leucine catabolism extended beyond isovaleryl CoA to β-methylcrotonyl CoA and ketogenesis was provided by the lower level of 3-hydroxyisovaleryl-carnitine (C5-OH). Concomitantly, glutamine was 50% lower, whereas glutamate was 175% higher, in KPD. Glutamine and glutamate are nitrogen sinks for catabolism ...
Vitamin K-dependent oral anticoagulants effectively prevent AF-related thromboembolism, consistent with underlying red-thrombus pathophysiology.55 Newer agents targeting factor Xa or thrombin will increasingly replace vitamin K-dependent oral anticoagulants in the future.88 The pathophysiology of AF-related thrombus formation (Figure 8) suggests interesting additional/ancillary approaches. If remodeling-related inflammatory and endothelial protection-suppressing changes are important, upstream therapies may be valuable. Changes in the coagulation system may also provide targets. AF-related stasis clearly plays a central role in thrombus formation. There has been much interest in preventing AF-induced atrial hypocontractility, but the multiplicity of underlying mechanisms suggests that any single target may be limited and upstream targeting may be more effective.60 The primary role of the LA appendage is consistent with the predictive value of LA thrombus on echocardiography and with the ...
Complications of Biotin deficiency including hidden complications, secondary medical conditions, symptoms, or other types of Biotin deficiency complication.
ビタミンK依存性Gla化蛋白オステオカルシンはテリパラチドの骨治癒促進効果に影響する. The effect of Vitamin K-dependent Gla protein osteocalcin to accelerate bone repair ...
The purpose of this study is to estimate the number of pregnant women who, during pregnancy, have low levels of the vitamin biotin. The hypothesis of this study is that a large number of pregnant women will have low biotin levels. This information will be used to later determine if low biotin levels during pregnancy cause certain birth defects ...
Bleeding symptoms are common in healthy children but occasionally may indicate an underlying congenital or acquired bleeding diathesis. The rare bleeding disorders (RBDs) comprise inherited deficiencies of coagulation factors I (congenital fibrinogen deficiencies), II, V, VII, X, XI, and XIII and combined factor deficiencies, most notably of factors V and VIII and of vitamin K-dependent factors. These disorders often manifest during childhood and may present with recurrent or even serious or life-threatening bleeding episodes, particularly during the neonatal period. Accordingly, primary care and other nonhematologist pediatric providers should be familiar with the clinical presentation and initial evaluation of these rare disorders. Bleeding manifestations generally vary within the same RBD and may be indistinguishable from 1 RBD to another or from other more common bleeding disorders. Serious bleeding events such as intracranial hemorrhage may be heralded by less serious bleeding symptoms. The ...
07/17/2017 Pace University, ACCA USA, to Train Finance Professionals to Stymie Cyberattacks this Summer. New York, N.Y. -ACCA USA (the Association of Chartered Certified Accountants), the global body for professional accountants, and the Seidenberg School of Computer Science and Information Systems at Pace University in New York, a National Security Agency and Department of Homeland Security-certified Center of Academic Excellence in Information Assurance Education, today unveiled their first-ever cyberdefense course.. The course-which will be held on August 4 at Pace in Lower Manhattan-will provide professional development credits to accountants and other finance industry professionals. It was designed in the wake of an increasing pattern of cyberattacks that have struck private and public entities here in the United States and abroad.. "ACCA understands the challenges that accountants face and is determined to provide them with the necessary knowledge and training to address these ...
PMF1-BGLAP, 0.5 mg. This locus represents naturally occurring read-through transcription between the neighboring PMF1 (polyamine-modulated factor 1) and BGLAP (bone gamma-carboxyglutamate Gla protein) genes on chromosome 1.
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Carboxyl Gold NanoUrchins. Carboxyl functionalized gold nanourchins are ideal for conjugation of proteins and other primary amine containing ligands using standard EDC/NHS coupling chemistry. Our carboxylated gol
Biotin (vitamin H or vitamin B7) is the essential cofactor of biotin-dependent carboxylases, such as pyruvate carboxylase and acetyl-CoA carboxylase. Mammals cannot synthesize biotin, while in bacteria, fungi, and plants it is synthesized from pimelate thioester through different pathways. In E. coli and many organisms, pimelate thioester is derived from malonyl-ACP. The pathway starts with the methylation to malonyl-ACP methyl ester, followed by the fatty acid chain elongation cycle to form pimeloyl-ACP methyl ester, which is then demethylated to form pimeloyl-ACP [MD:M00572]. Pimeloyl-ACP is converted to biotin through the final four steps in the biotin bicyclic ring assembly, which are conserved among biotin-producing organisms [MD:M00123]. In B. subtilis, biotin is derived from pimeloyl-ACP formed by oxidative cleavage of long-chain acyl-ACPs [MD:M00573]. Some bacteria synthesize biotin from pimeloyl-CoA derived from pimelate [MD:M00577]. Biotin is covalently attached to biotin-dependent ...
Biotin (vitamin H or vitamin B7) is the essential cofactor of biotin-dependent carboxylases, such as pyruvate carboxylase and acetyl-CoA carboxylase. Mammals cannot synthesize biotin, while in bacteria, fungi, and plants it is synthesized from pimelate thioester through different pathways. In E. coli and many organisms, pimelate thioester is derived from malonyl-ACP. The pathway starts with the methylation to malonyl-ACP methyl ester, followed by the fatty acid chain elongation cycle to form pimeloyl-ACP methyl ester, which is then demethylated to form pimeloyl-ACP [MD:M00572]. Pimeloyl-ACP is converted to biotin through the final four steps in the biotin bicyclic ring assembly, which are conserved among biotin-producing organisms [MD:M00123]. In B. subtilis, biotin is derived from pimeloyl-ACP formed by oxidative cleavage of long-chain acyl-ACPs [MD:M00573]. Some bacteria synthesize biotin from pimeloyl-CoA derived from pimelate [MD:M00577]. Biotin is covalently attached to biotin-dependent ...
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Propionic acidemia is a rare genetic condition resulting from a defective metabolic enzyme that can cause life-threatening neurological symptoms.
|p||strong|Prothrombin|/strong| (coagulation factor II) (H2N-Tyr-Ile-His-Pro-OH) is produced in the liver and is post-translationally modified in a vitamin K-dependent reaction that converts ten glutamic acids on prothrombin into gamma-carboxyglutamic aci
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The redox interactions between HAuCl4 and a series of π-conjugated organic donors, namely carboxylated dithiafulvenes and tetrathiafulvalene vinylogues, were investigated. Interestingly, the dithiafulvene derivative with two carboxylic groups showed the ability to directly induce the formation of Au(0) nanop
5-(3-((3-(methylthio)propionyl)amino)-1-propenyl)-2-deoxyuridine-5-triphosphate: structure given in first source; can be incorporated into a primer-template DNA complex with Klenow enzyme
BioFlax 20 is ...the hands-down choice for coat, skin and hoof problems - Horse Journal, June 2000 issue. Biotin supplementation has been shown to be helpful in improving hoof qu...
Biomat has developed a Carboxylated surface which binds through the use of specif linkers as EDC the amino groups of molecules. 96 well microplates. Material: Polystyrene ...
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Warfarin is an oral anticoagulant used for prevention of thromboembolism in children. Its dosing is difficult due to the narrow therapeutic index & individual variability in effective dosage. Genetic polymorphism in 2 enzymes involved in warfarin metabolism, vitamin K epoxide reductase (VKORC) & cytochrome P450 isoenzyme 2C9 (CYP2C9), have been associated with lower dose requirements in adults. Testing for these polymorphisms is now recommended and being performed to guide dosing in adult patients(pts). Currently there is no information available on these polymorphisms & warfarin dosing in children. To examine the relationship between warfarin dosing & polymorphisms of CYP2C9 & VKORC1 in pediatric patients. Pts 0 -18 years old on warfarin for minimum 2 weeks were included. Data included ethnicity, age, weight, body surface area, gender, indication, dose, INR, target INR, medical illness or medications & adverse effects. Blood sample tested for CYP2C9 & VKORC1 genotypes & correlated with above ...
Introduction: Because of the unique lack of genetic diversity despite the multiethnicity in the Asian population, we hypothesize that single-nucleotide polymorphisms in cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2C9 (CYP2C9*3) and vitamin K epoxide reductase complex subunit 1 (VKORC1) at position 381, used to infer VKORC1haplotype in combination with demographic factors, can accurately predict warfarin doses. The aims of this study were to derive a pharmacogenetics-based dosing algorithm by use of retrospective information and to validate it through a data-splitting method in a separate cohort of equal size. Methods: We used 215 records of warfarin patients recruited into a CYP2C9/VKORC1 genotyping study to perform this analysis. Univariate analyses for individual predictors, including age, weight, gender, serum albumin concentration, ethnic group, international normalized ratio, and CYP2C9 and VKORC1 381 genotypes, were conducted to select variables with P < .1 for further inclusion into the multivariate ...
The aim of the study is to explore the contribution of genetic factors related either to drug metabolism (cytochrome P450 2C9) or to drug target (vitamin K epoxide reductase) to variability in the response to acenocoumarol among 222 healthy volunteers after a single oral dose. Associations between a pharmacodynamic index (reduction in factor VII activity and international normalized ratio [INR] change) and several genetic polymorphisms (VKORC1: -4931T,C, -4451C,A, -2659G,C, -1877A,G, -1639G,A, 497C,G, 1173C,T, and CYP2C9*3) were investigated using haplotype and univariate analyses. VKORC1 haplotypes were associated with the pharmacologic response, and this association can be explained only by the effect of the -1639G,A polymorphism (or alternatively by 1173C,T, which is in complete association with it). Indeed, it explains about one third of the variability of the pharmacologic response (37% of factor VII decrease and 30% of INR change). Moreover, the previously observed effect of the CYP2C9*3 ...
The human gene VKORC1 encodes for the enzyme, Vitamin K epOxide Reductase Complex (VKORC) subunit 1. This enzymatic protein complex is responsible for reducing vitamin K 2,3-epoxide to its active form, which is important for effective clotting. In humans, mutations in this gene can be associated with deficiencies in vitamin-K-dependent clotting factors. The VKORC1 protein is a key enzyme in the vitamin K cycle. VKORC1 is a 163 amino acid integral membrane protein associated with the endoplasmic reticulum and VKORC1 mRNA is broadly expressed in many different tissues. VKORC1 is involved in the vitamin K cycle by reduction of vitamin K epoxide to vitamin K, which is the rate-limiting step in the physiological process of vitamin K recycling. The availability of reduced vitamin K is of importance for activation vitamin K 2,3-epoxide. The reduction of vitamin K epoxide is then responsible for the carboxylation of glutamic acid residues in some blood-clotting proteins, including factor VII, factor IX, ...
The Colleen Giblin Laboratories, in the context of the Division of Pediatric Neurology at the Columbia University Medical Center, enjoy a distinguished tradition of metabolic disease research and discovery. The Laboratories and the Division also remain at the forefront of investigative and clinical excellence in other areas such as sickle cell encephalopathy, pediatric brain tumors, pediatric epilepsy, storage diseases, fetal neurotoxicity and functional neuroimaging. Diseases like Reye syndrome, glucose transporter deficiency (Glut-1 DS), carnitine deficiency, pyruvate dehydrogenase deficiency and pyruvate carboxylase deficiency, among other mitochondrial disorders, were first identified/treated by members of the Division.. An unusually large patient base comprising referrals from every part of the world is available for metabolic research. A tissue culture bank containing some 1,000 samples with accompanying clinical descriptions has been established by Dr. De Vivo and constitutes a unique ...
Approach and Results-This study is an observational, prospective study of 167 individuals with stages 3 to 5 chronic kidney disease. Survival ≤4 years was assessed in all participants, and CAC progression was measured in a subset of 86 patients. Participants with the CG/GG genotype of VKORC1 had higher baseline CAC scores (median score, 112 versus 299; P=0.036). Of those 86 patients who had a 4-year CAC score, those with the CG/GG genotype had an increased risk of progressive CAC (adjusted for age, diabetes mellitus, estimated glomerular filtration rate, and hypertension) compared with those with the CC genotype. Four-year mortality risk was 4 times higher for individuals with the CG/GG genotypes compared with individuals with the CC genotype (odds ratio, 3.8; 95% confidence interval, 1.2-12.5; P=0.02), adjusted for age, sex, diabetes mellitus, estimated glomerular filtration rate, baseline CAC, and hypertension.. ...
This gene encodes a member of the osteocalcin/matrix Gla family of proteins. The encoded vitamin K-dependent protein is secreted by chondrocytes and vascular smooth muscle cells, and functions as a physiological inhibitor of ectopic tissue calcification. Carboxylation status of the encoded protein is associated with calcification of the vasculature in human patients with cardiovascular disease and calcification of the synovial membranes in osteoarthritis patients. Mutations in this gene cause Keutel syndrome in human patients, which is characterized by abnormal cartilage calcification, peripheral pulmonary stenosis and facial hypoplasia. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2016 ...
1. The normal development of the key enzymes of gluconeogenesis in rat liver, glucose 6-phosphatase, hexose diphosphatase, phosphopyruvate carboxylase and pyruvate carboxylase, was measured during the neonatal period. 2. Glucose 6-phosphatase, hexose diphosphatase and pyruvate carboxylase are all present in the late foetal liver, but all the enzymes show an increase in activity after birth. 3. Phosphopyruvate carboxylase is not present in liver extracts from foetal rats, but activity appears immediately after birth and increases rapidly over the first day and then more slowly to reach its maximum at the fourth postnatal day. 4. The fluorinated synthetic glucocorticoid, triamcinolone, was administered to foetal rats at various gestation times by intraperitoneal injection in utero and the animals were killed at intervals between 4 and 48hr. later. 5. The administration of triamcinolone results in slight depression of glucose 6-phosphatase, and a more significant depression of hexose diphosphatase ...
... (PROP) is a rare genetic condition. PROP results from a mutation or error in a persons DNA or genes. Due to this mistake, people with PROP have problems with breaking down certain fats properly. PROP occurs when the body does not make enough or makes non-working PROP enzyme, propionyl-CoA carboxylase (PCC). Enzymes are special proteins that help break down the food we eat into the pieces our body can use for energy. In this case, the job of the PCC enzyme is to break down the amino acids isoleucine, valine, methionine, and threonine and a type of fat called odd-chain fats. Those with PROP cant use these materials for energy because they cant be broken down. This also causes a build-up of too many unused odd-chain fatty acids and amino acids, which can be harmful to the body.. Those affected by PROP can show symptoms usually within a few days after birth. Symptoms may include sleeping longer or more than usual, tiredness, vomiting, poor appetite, and weak muscle tone ...
An abundance of human clinical data reveals that vitamin K plays a critical role in maintaining healthy bone density by facilitating the transport of calcium from the bloodstream into the bone. Vitamin K is also required by calcium-regulating proteins in the arteries. Matrix Gla-protein (MGP) is a vitamin K-dependent protein, and it must be carboxylated to function properly. Poor vitamin K status leads to inactive uncarboxylated MGP (ucMGP), which accumulates at sites of arterial calcification. Since MGP is a potent local inhibitor of arterial calcification, MGP is important in relation to the health of the entire cardiovascular system. Without adequate vitamin K, calcium in the blood can bind to the arterial wall resulting in calcification. As people age, even a subclinical vitamin K deficiency can pose risks to the vascular system. Poor vitamin K status also results in increased circulating levels of undercarboxylated osteocalcin that is shown to be associated with increased bone loss in ...
The multiple nutrient needs of bones: Review - Nutra USA, 10/26/11 - According to the new review of the literature, the majority of studies concerning bone health have shown that "vitamin B complex and vitamins C, E, and K correlated positively with bone mineral density (BMD) at multiple skeletal sites and/or were associated with reduced risk of fracture, independent of BMD" ... Animal data has "confirmed" that vitamin E, and particularly the tocotrienol form of vitamin E, had anti-osteoporotic activities ... Biological plausibility does exist for vitamin K, since osteocalcin is a vitamin K-dependent protein and it is essential for the body to use calcium in bone tissue. Without adequate vitamin K, the osteocalcin remains inactive, and this not effective - [Abstract]. How cannabis causes cognitive chaos in the brain - Science Daily, 10/25/11 - While the effects of the drug on individual brain regions were subtle, the drug completely disrupted co-ordinated brain waves across the hippocampus ...
Propionic Acidaemia Synonyms: propionyl-CoA carboxylase deficiency, ketotic hyperglycinaemia. Propionic Acidaemia is a rare metabolic disorder.
VKORC1 overexpression lysate, 0.1 mg. Transient overexpression lysate of vitamin K epoxide reductase complex, subunit 1 (VKORC1), transcript variant 1
Essentials Fiix-prothrombin time (PT) monitoring of warfarin measuring factor (F) II and X, is effective. Plasma obtained during warfarin induction and stable phase in Fiix-trial was assayed. Fiix-PT stabilized anticoagulation earlier than monitoring with traditional PT-INR. FVII had little effect on thrombin generation that was mainly determined by FII and FX. SUMMARY: Background The prothrombin time (PT) is equally prolonged by reduction of each of the vitamin K-dependent (VKD) factors (F) II, VII and X. The Fiix-PT is only affected by FII and FX, the main contributors to thrombin generation (TG). Objective To test the hypothesis that variability in warfarin anticoagulation is reduced early during monitoring with the normalized PT-ratio calculated from Fiix-PT (Fiix-International Normalized Ratio [INR]) compared with traditional PT-INR monitoring. Also, that because of its insensitivity to FVII, Fiix-PT more accurately reflects TG when Fiix-INR and PT-INR are discrepant. Methods Samples from ...
pep:known chromosome:VEGA66:7:127893063:127895617:-1 gene:OTTMUSG00000031112 transcript:OTTMUST00000077081 gene_biotype:protein_coding transcript_biotype:protein_coding gene_symbol:Vkorc1 description:vitamin K epoxide reductase complex, subunit 1 ...
Beckman and Munshi reports a reversible CO2 carrier (RCC) for the carboxylation of ketone to β-ketoester under ambient CO2 pressure and temperature.. RCC has been synthesized by immobilizing 1,8-diazabicyclo[5.4.0]undec-7-ene (DBU) on methylhydrosiloxane support and reacting with CO2 with 100% degree of functionalisation. RCC is found to be recyclable and shows retention of activity in 5 recycles. CO2 absorption under ambient temperature and desorption at 120 °C renders the material suitable for carrying out carboxylation reactions at 25 °C with excellent yields. The yield of the reaction can reach up to 100% with TON 200 in 4 h. The extent of the reaction primarily depends upon enol content of the substrate. β-Ketoacid produced during the reaction can be isolated and converted to its corresponding methyl ester derivative by reacting with methyl iodide.. ...
As of March 2016, 6.36 Mb of sequence (83 genes, 1557 exons) generated in our lab was compared between Sanger and NextGen methodologies. We detected no differences between the two methods. The comparison involved 6400 total sequence variants (differences from the reference sequences). Of these, 6144 were nucleotide substitutions and 256 were insertions or deletions. About 65% of the variants were heterozygous and 35% homozygous. The insertions and deletions ranged in length from 1 to over 100 nucleotides.. In silico validation of insertions and deletions in 20 replicates of 5 genes was also performed. The validation included insertions and deletions of lengths between 1 and 100 nucleotides. Insertions tested in silico: 2200 between 1 and 5 nucleotides, 625 between 6 and 10 nucleotides, 29 between 11 and 20 nucleotides, 25 between 21 and 49 nucleotides, and 23 at or greater than 50 nucleotides, with the largest at 98 nucleotides. All insertions were detected. Deletions tested in silico: 1813 ...
... Vitamin-K plays a principle role in post translational modification of various blood clotting factors, in which it serves as a coenzyme in the carboxylation of certain glutamic acid and certain residu
Biotin is a member of the B vitamin family that functions in the manufacture and utilization of fats and amino acids. Biotin deficiency is characterized by dry, scaly skin and seborrhea. Biotin supplementation has been shown to increase the strength of nails and promote healthy hair.*
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An individual with Propionic Acidemia in his third decade of life who is cared for in our institution recently developed hearing loss. The patients mother brought to our attention that on one of the family support group websites for Propionic Acidemia she noticed another affected adult wearing hearing aids. This was a complication I had not previously encountered in this disorder. However, in looking through the literature this has been reported before (Brosch S, et al. HNO. 2008 Jan;56(1):37-42; Lam C, et al Mol Genet Metab. 2011;103:338-40). It is becoming apparent that many of the later complications of Propionic Acidemia are very reminiscent of classical mitochondrial disorders including sudden onset optic atrophy and now hearing loss.. Hilary Vernon MD PhD. ...
6.2: Carbon-Sulfur. *Succinyl coenzyme A synthetase. *Acetyl-CoA synthetase. *Long-chain-fatty-acid-CoA ligase ... An aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase (aaRS or ARS), also called tRNA-ligase, is an enzyme that attaches the appropriate amino acid onto ...
6.2: Carbon-Sulfur. *Succinyl coenzyme A synthetase. *Acetyl-CoA synthetase. *Long-chain-fatty-acid-CoA ligase ... E3 ligase activity[edit]. The E3 ubiquitin ligase MDM2 is a negative regulator of the p53 tumor suppressor protein. MDM2 binds ... ubiquitin protein ligase activity. • NEDD8 ligase activity. • disordered domain specific binding. • protein domain specific ... The RING domain of Mdm2 confers E3 ubiquitin ligase activity and is sufficient for E3 ligase activity in Mdm2 RING ...
List of Penicillium species MycoBank Straininfo of Penicillium emmonsii Q. Ashton Acton, PhD (2012). Carbon-Carbon Ligases: ...
... specifically those forming carbon-carbon bonds. The systematic name of this enzyme class is acetone:carbon-dioxide ligase (AMP- ... This enzyme belongs to the family of ligases, ...
This enzyme belongs to the family of ligases, specifically those forming carbon-carbon bonds. The systematic name of this ...
The systematic name of this enzyme class is biotin-carboxyl-carrier-protein:carbon-dioxide ligase (ADP-forming). This enzyme is ... This enzyme belongs to the family of ligases, specifically those forming generic carbon-nitrogen bonds. ...
This enzyme belongs to the family of ligases, specifically those forming generic carbon-nitrogen bonds. The systematic name of ... this enzyme class is 5-phospho-alpha-D-ribose 1-diphosphate:nicotinate ligase (ADP, diphosphate-forming) . Other names in ...
The systematic name of this enzyme class is urea:carbon-dioxide ligase (ADP-forming). Other names in common use include urease ... This enzyme belongs to the family of ligases, specifically those forming generic carbon-nitrogen bonds. ...
The systematic name of this enzyme class is 5-amino-1-(5-phospho-D-ribosyl)imidazole:carbon-dioxide ligase (ADP-forming). Other ... This enzyme belongs to the family of ligases, specifically those forming generic carbon-nitrogen bonds. ...
This enzyme belongs to the family of ligases, specifically the cyclo-ligases, which form carbon-nitrogen bonds. The systematic ... carbon-dioxide cyclo-ligase (ADP-forming). This enzyme is also called desthiobiotin synthase. This enzyme participates in ...
The systematic name of this enzyme class is [acetyl-CoA:carbon-dioxide ligase (ADP-forming)]-phosphate phosphohydrolase. ...
This enzyme belongs to the family of ligases, specifically the cyclo-ligases, which form carbon-nitrogen bonds. The systematic ... arginine cyclo-ligase (AMP-forming). This enzyme participates in clavulanic acid biosynthesis. Miller, M. T.; Bachmann, B. O.; ... name of this enzyme class is L-N2-(2-carboxyethyl)arginine cyclo-ligase (AMP-forming). This enzyme is also called L-2-N-(2- ...
This enzyme belongs to the family of ligases, specifically those forming carbon-nitrogen bonds carbon-nitrogen ligases with ... L-glutamine amido-ligase, (ADP-forming), 2-N-formyl-1-N-(5-phospho-D-ribosyl)glycinamide:L-glutamine, and amido-ligase (ADP- ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is N2-formyl-N1-(5-phospho-D-ribosyl)glycinamide:L-glutamine amido-ligase (ADP-forming ...
This enzyme belongs to the family of ligases, specifically those forming carbon-sulfur bonds as acid-thiol ligases. The ... systematic name of this enzyme class is trans-ferulate:CoASH ligase (ATP-hydrolysing). This enzyme is also called trans- ...
... (EC 6.4.1.8) is an enzyme with systematic name acetophenone:carbon-dioxide ligase (ADP-forming). This ...
This enzyme belongs to the family of ligases, specifically those forming carbon-nitrogen bonds as acid-D-amino-acid ligases ( ... The gene encoding the Carnosine synthase is ATPGD1, a member of the "ATP-grasp family" of ligases. Because of its involvement ... peptide synthases). The systematic name of this enzyme class is 'L-histidine:beta-alanine ligase (AMP-forming)' (incorrect on ...
Its C-terminal domain is a synthetase and has an ATP-grasp family fold that is usually found in carbon-nitrogen ligases. The N- ... This enzyme belongs to the family of ligases, specifically those forming carbon-nitrogen bonds as acid-D-ammonia (or amine) ... ligases (amide synthases). The systematic name of this enzyme class is glutathionylspermidine:glutathione ligase (ADP-forming ...
This enzyme belongs to the family of ligases, specifically those forming carbon-nitrogen bonds as acid-D-amino-acid ligases ( ... L-glutamate gamma-ligase (ADP-forming), tetrahydropteroyl-[gamma-Glu]n:L-glutamate gamma-ligase, and (ADP-forming). This enzyme ... Cossins EA, Chen L (1997). "Folates and one-carbon metabolism in plants and fungi". Phytochemistry. 45 (3): 437-52. doi:10.1016 ... L-glutamate gamma-ligase (ADP-forming). Other names in common use include folylpolyglutamate synthase, folate polyglutamate ...
This enzyme belongs to the family of ligases, specifically those forming carbon-nitrogen bonds as acid-D-amino-acid ligases ( ... peptide synthases). The systematic name of this enzyme class is gamma-L-glutamyl-L-cysteine:beta-alanine ligase (ADP-forming). ...
This enzyme belongs to the family of ligases, specifically those forming carbon-nitrogen bonds as acid-D-amino-acid ligases ( ... peptide synthases). The systematic name of this enzyme class is citrate:N6-acetyl-N6-hydroxy-L-lysine ligase (ADP-forming). ... This enzyme is also called citrate:6-N-acetyl-6-N-hydroxy-L-lysine ligase (ADP-forming). This enzyme participates in lysine ...
This enzyme belongs to the family of ligases, specifically those forming carbon-nitrogen bonds as acid-D-amino-acid ligases ( ... L-lysine ligase (ADP-forming). Glass NL, Kosuge T (1986). "Cloning of the gene for indoleacetic acid-lysine synthetase from ... peptide synthases). The systematic name of this enzyme class is (indol-3-yl)acetate:L-lysine ligase (ADP-forming). This enzyme ...
This enzyme belongs to the family of ligases, specifically those forming carbon-nitrogen bonds as acid-D-amino-acid ligases ( ... Cossins EA, Chen L (1997). "Folates and one-carbon metabolism in plants and fungi". Phytochemistry. 45 (3): 437-52. doi:10.1016 ... L-glutamate ligase (ADP-forming), and DHFS. This enzyme participates in folate biosynthesis. As of late 2007, 3 structures have ... peptide synthases). The systematic name of this enzyme class is 7,8-dihydropteroate:L-glutamate ligase (ADP-forming). Other ...
This enzyme belongs to the family of ligases, specifically those forming carbon-nitrogen bonds as acid-D-amino-acid ligases ( ... peptide synthases). The systematic name of this enzyme class is L-glutamate:histamine ligase. Other names in common use include ...
This enzyme belongs to the family of ligases, specifically those forming carbon-nitrogen bonds carbon-nitrogen ligases with ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is aspartyl-tRNAAsn:L-glutamine amido-ligase (ADP-forming). Other names in common use ... include Asp-AdT, Asp-tRNAAsn amidotransferase, aspartyl-tRNAAsn amidotransferase, and Asn-tRNAAsn:L-glutamine amido-ligase (ADP ...
This enzyme belongs to the family of ligases, specifically those forming carbon-nitrogen bonds as acid-D-ammonia (or amine) ... ligases (amide synthases). The systematic name of this enzyme class is gamma-L-glutamyl-L-cysteinyl-glycine:spermidine ligase ( ... spermidine ligase (ADP-forming). This enzyme participates in glutathione metabolism. It employs one cofactor, magnesium. As of ...
This enzyme belongs to the family of ligases, specifically those forming carbon-nitrogen bonds carbon-nitrogen ligases with ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is adenosylcobyrinic-acid-a,c-diamide:L-glutamine amido-ligase (ADP-forming). Other ... amido-ligase, and Ado-cobyric acid synthase [glutamine hydrolyzing]. This enzyme participates in porphyrin and chlorophyll ...
This enzyme belongs to the family of ligases, specifically those forming carbon-nitrogen bonds as acid-D-ammonia (or amine) ... ligases (amide synthases). The systematic name of this enzyme class is deamido-NAD+:ammonia ligase (AMP-forming). Other names ...
We recently found that carbon black (CB), a chemically inert carbon nanoparticle present in diesel exhaust particles (13), ... and WW domain containing E3 ubiquitin protein ligase 2 (ratio, 2.3 to 1), ubiquitin-specific protease 31 (ratio, 1.7 to 1), ... Jia G, Wang H, Yan L, Wang X, Pei R, Yan T, Zhao Y, and Guo X. Cytotoxicity of carbon nanomaterials: single-wall nanotube, ... Lam CW, James JT, McCluskey R, and Hunter RL. Pulmonary toxicity of single-wall carbon nanotubes in mice 7 and 90 days after ...
Pyruvate Carboxylase Genes and a PutativeEscherichia coli-Type Bifunctional Biotin Protein Ligase Gene (bpl/birA) Exhibit a ...
EC 6.2 includes ligases used to form carbon-sulfur bonds. *EC 6.3 includes ligases used to form carbon-nitrogen bonds ( ... The common names of ligases often include the word "ligase", such as DNA ligase, an enzyme commonly used in molecular biology ... DNA ligase. References[edit]. *^ "Synthases and ligases". chem.qmul.ac.uk. Archived from the original on October 15, 2012. ... This article is about general ligases. For DNA specific ligases, see DNA ligase. ...
6.2: Carbon-Sulfur. *Succinyl coenzyme A synthetase. *Acetyl-CoA synthetase. *Long-chain-fatty-acid-CoA ligase ... An aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase (aaRS or ARS), also called tRNA-ligase, is an enzyme that attaches the appropriate amino acid onto ...
Glutamate-Cysteine Ligase: One of the enzymes active in the gamma-glutamyl cycle. It catalyzes the synthesis of gamma- ... Ligases: 2113*Carbon-Nitrogen Ligases*Peptide Synthases: 6*Glutamate-Cysteine Ligase: 110*human glutamate-cysteine ligase ... Glutamate-Cysteine Ligase. Subscribe to New Research on Glutamate-Cysteine Ligase One of the enzymes active in the gamma- ... Glutamylcysteine Synthetase; Glutamate Cysteine Ligase; Ligase, Glutamate-Cysteine; Synthetase, Glutamylcysteine; Synthetase, ...
Phenylalanine-tRNA Ligase information including symptoms, causes, diseases, symptoms, treatments, and other medical and health ... Ligase Terms associated with Phenylalanine-tRNA Ligase:. Terms Similar to Phenylalanine-tRNA Ligase:. *Phenylalanyl T RNA ... Introduction: Phenylalanine-tRNA Ligase. Description of Phenylalanine-tRNA Ligase. Phenylalanine-tRNA Ligase: An enzyme that ... Hierarchical classifications of Phenylalanine-tRNA Ligase. The following list attempts to classify Phenylalanine-tRNA Ligase ...
Carbon-oxygen Ligases. Enzymes that catalyze the joining of two molecules by the formation of a carbon-oxygen bond. EC 6.1. ... Carbon-oxygen Lyases. Enzymes that catalyze the cleavage of a carbon-oxygen bond by means other than hydrolysis or oxidation. ... A protocol for three-component reactions of cyclic ethers, α-diazo esters, and weak nitrogen, oxygen, carbon, and sulfur ...
... graphitic carbon nitride (CN) polymer contains weak hydrogen bond and van der Waals (vdWs) interactions besides strong covalent ... Carbon-carbon Ligases. Enzymes that catalyze the joining of two molecules by the formation of a carbon-carbon bond. These are ... Carbon-carbon Double Bond Isomerases. Enzymes that catalyze the shifting of a carbon-carbon double bond from one position to ... enzymes shifting a carbon-carbon double bond (CARBON-CARBON DOUBLE BOND ISOMERASES), and enzymes transposing S-S bonds (SULFUR- ...
Carbon-Nitrogen Ligases / chemistry * Carbon-Nitrogen Ligases / genetics * Carbon-Nitrogen Ligases / metabolism* ...
ligase activity, forming carbon-oxygen bonds. RNA processing. To understand the potential gene interactions during WSSV ...
ligase activity, forming carbon-nitrogen bonds. down. 2.30E-09. acid-amino acid ligase activity ... Decrease in ligase activity was ranked at the top (Table 3). Subsequently, decreases in response to oxidative stress and ... ubiquitin-protein ligase activity were included. Next, pathway analysis was also performed, by IPA. As in GO analysis, protein ...
Carbon-Nitrogen Ligases* * Conserved Sequence / genetics * Crystallography, X-Ray * DNA-Binding Proteins / chemistry ...
threonine-trna ligase activity. ligase activity, forming carbon-oxygen bonds. ligase activity, forming aminoacyl-trna and ... Showing Protein Threonine--tRNA ligase, mitochondrial (HMDBP09249). IdentificationBiological propertiesGene propertiesProtein ...
6.2: Carbon-Sulfur. *Succinyl coenzyme A synthetase. *Acetyl-CoA synthetase. *Long-chain-fatty-acid-CoA ligase ... Kamura T, Conaway JW, Conaway RC (2002). "Roles of SCF and VHL ubiquitin ligases in regulation of cell growth". Prog. Mol. ... The main action of the VHL protein is thought to be its E3 ubiquitin ligase activity that results in specific target proteins ... and possesses ubiquitin ligase E3 activity. This protein is involved in the ubiquitination and degradation of hypoxia-inducible ...
DR GO; GO:0016879; F:ligase activity, forming carbon-nitrogen bonds; IEA:UniProtKB-UniRule. DR GO; GO:0006400; P:tRNA ... Ligase {ECO:0000256,HAMAP-Rule:MF_01161, ECO:0000256,SAAS:SAAS00054817, KW ECO:0000313,EMBL:CAL99742.1}; KW Nucleotide-binding ...
... acyl AMP ligase family member required for biosynthesis of phthiocerol dimycocerosate lipid found in the cell wall of ... a fatty -acyl AMP ligase family member required for biosynthesis of phthiocerol dimycocerosate lipid found in the cell wall of ...
GO:0016879: ligase activity, forming carbon-nitrogen bonds molecular_function. GO:0019941: modification-dependent protein ... Iyer, et al (2008) first suggested that PafA is the ligase for Pup, a ubiquitin analog attached to an epsilon-amino group of a ... Members of this family are the Pup--protein ligase PafA (proteasome accessory factor A), a protein shown to regulate steady- ... RN [2] RM PMID:22910360 RT Structures of Pup ligase PafA and depupylase Dop from the prokaryotic ubiquitin-like modification ...
Monoclonal Antibody Carbon-Nitrogen Ligase Activity Monoclonal Antibody Carbon-Nitrogen Ligase Activity: Monoclonal Antibody - ...
This enzyme belongs to the family of ligases, specifically those forming generic carbon-nitrogen bonds. The systematic name of ... In enzymology, a ribose-5-phosphate-ammonia ligase (EC 6.3.4.7) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction ATP + ribose ... this enzyme class is ribose-5-phosphate:ammonia ligase (ADP-forming). Other names in common use include 5-phosphoribosylamine ...
This enzyme belongs to the family of ligases, specifically those forming generic carbon-nitrogen bonds. The systematic name of ... In enzymology, a formate-dihydrofolate ligase (EC 6.3.4.17) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction ATP + formate + ... this enzyme class is formate:dihydrofolate ligase (ADP-forming). Other names in common use include formyltransferase, ...
6. Ligases. 6.3 Forming carbon-nitrogen bonds. 6.3.5 Carbon-nitrogen ligases with glutamine as amido-N-donor. 6.3.5.4 ...
Carbon-Nitrogen Ligases. Papers overview. Semantic Scholar uses AI to extract papers important to this topic. ...
C12Y601/00-Ligases forming carbon-oxygen bonds (6.1) * C12Y601/01-Ligases forming aminoacyl-tRNA and related compounds (6.1.1) ... polymeric or dendrimeric molecule obtained otherwise than by reactions only involving carbon-to-carbon unsaturated bonds, e.g. ... polymeric or dendrimeric molecule obtained otherwise than by reactions only involving carbon-to-carbon unsaturated bonds, e.g. ...
... carbon dioxide ligase subunit alpha; DE Flags: Precursor; GN Name=MCCC1; Synonyms=MCCA; OS Homo sapiens (Human). OC Eukaryota; ... Ligase; Mitochondrion; KW Nucleotide-binding; Polymorphism; Reference proteome; Transit peptide. FT TRANSIT 1 41 Mitochondrion ...
Carbon-nitrogen ligase activity, with glutamine as amido-n-donor. Specific Function. Not Available. Gene Name. pam. Uniprot ID ...
  • Microalgae are photosynthetic microorganisms that can grow using carbon dioxide as sole carbon source and with minimal nutrient requirements. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Lastly, two different groups of methanogens, the hydrogenotrophic methanogens and the acetotrophic methanogens, complete the process by converting acetate, formate, and hydrogen produced by other microorganisms to methane and carbon dioxide. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The systematic name of this enzyme class is urea:carbon-dioxide ligase. (worldofchemicals.com)
  • Urease functionally, belong to the superfamily of amidohydrolases and phosphotriestreases.It is an enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of urea into carbon dioxide and ammonia.In 1926, James B. Sumner, an assistant professor at Cornell University, showed that urease is a protein by examining its crystallized form.Urease is produced by numerous taxonomically diverse bacterial species, including normal flora and nonpathogens. (worldofchemicals.com)
  • Also, urease has been demonstrated as a potent virulence factor for some species.Ureases are nickel-dependent enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of urea into 2 molecules of ammonia and 1 of carbon dioxide.Urease is a highly efficient catalyst for the hydrolysis of urea with a rate approximately 10 14 times the rate of the noncatalyzed reaction. (worldofchemicals.com)
  • The main action of the VHL protein is thought to be its E3 ubiquitin ligase activity that results in specific target proteins being 'marked' for degradation. (wikidoc.org)
  • In enzymology, a ribose-5-phosphate-ammonia ligase (EC 6.3.4.7) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction ATP + ribose 5-phosphate + NH3 ⇌ {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } ADP + phosphate + 5-phosphoribosylamine The 3 substrates of this enzyme are ATP, ribose 5-phosphate, and NH3, whereas its 3 products are ADP, phosphate, and 5-phosphoribosylamine. (wikipedia.org)
  • The systematic name of this enzyme class is ribose-5-phosphate:ammonia ligase (ADP-forming). (wikipedia.org)
  • This unusual regulatory behavior prompted us to study the regulation of carbon substrate utilization in different bioprocess conditions on a genome wide scale. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Peroxisomal and methanol utilization genes were confirmed to be subject to carbon substrate repression in excess glucose or glycerol, but were found to be strongly de-repressed in limiting glucose-conditions (as are often applied in fed batch cultivations) in addition to induction by methanol. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Doping-induced enhancement of crystallinity in polymeric carbon nitride nanosheets to improve their visible-light photocatalytic activity. (bioportfolio.com)
  • The researchers showed that the delicate balance between accumulation and removal of â-catenin at a specific cellular site, the sarcolemma - the membrane covering each muscle fiber - is achieved by the activity of the Ozz-E3 ligase. (innovations-report.com)
  • In a previous study, ethanol synthesis was obtained by introducing pyruvate decarboxylase and alcohol dehydrogenase genes from Z. mobilis into a unicellular cyanobacterium, Synechococcus [ 14 ], indicating the feasibility of constructing an integrated system for converting solar energy and inorganic carbon source into biofuel directly. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This selective carbon utilization is reflected in the differential regulation of genes and enzymes that support the uptake and catabolism of specific carbon sources. (asm.org)
  • For example, DNA ligases are used with restriction enzymes to insert DNA fragments, often genes, into plasmids. (chemeurope.com)
  • As a result, this major pathogen of humans retains enzymes required for the utilization of physiologically relevant carbon sources such as lactic acid and fatty acids, allowing it to continue to use these host nutrients even when glucose is available. (asm.org)
  • Its ability to use methanol as a carbon and energy source, its non-fermentative utilization of glucose and its efficient growth on glycerol are key metabolic features that make it attractive for bioprocess development. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Transcript profiling has suggested that Candida albicans , a major pathogen of humans, regulates its carbon assimilation in an analogous fashion to the model yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae , repressing metabolic pathways required for the use of alterative nonpreferred carbon sources when sugars are available. (asm.org)
  • We conclude that evolutionary rewiring of ubiquitination targets has meant that following glucose exposure, C. albicans retains key metabolic functions, allowing it to continue to assimilate alternative carbon sources. (asm.org)
  • Current views about carbon assimilation in the pathogenic yeast Candida albicans are strongly influenced by the Saccharomyces cerevisiae paradigm in which cells faced with choices of nutrients first use energetically favorable sugars, degrading enzymes required for the assimilation of less favorable alternative carbon sources. (asm.org)
  • The dependence of the enzyme on pyridoxal 5′-phosphate and the production of 3H4P with the release of ammonia indicate that it is a carbon-nitrogen lyase. (plantphysiol.org)
  • The Escherichia coli lac operon provides a classic example of this, mediating lactose utilization only after the preferred carbon source, glucose, is exhausted ( 1 , 2 ). (asm.org)
  • In biochemistry , a ligase is an enzyme that can catalyze the joining of two large molecules by forming a new chemical bond , usually with accompanying hydrolysis of a small pendant chemical group on one of the larger molecules or the enzyme catalyzing the linking together of two compounds, e.g., enzymes that catalyze joining of C-O, C-S, C-N, etc. (wikipedia.org)
  • 6. The method of claim 1, wherein said nucleotide sequence encoding a 4-coumarate-CoA ligase comprises the nucleotide sequence of SEQ ID No.: 1 from the nucleotide at position 11 to the nucleotide at position 1621, or comprises the sequence of SEQ ID No. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • 9. A chimeric DNA comprising a nucleotide sequence encoding a 4-coumarate-CoA ligase, operably linked to a heterologous plant-expressible promoter, a transcription termination, and a polyadenylation region. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • Ligase can join two complementary fragments of nucleic acid and repair single stranded breaks that arise in double stranded DNA during replication. (wikipedia.org)
  • An ester formed between the aldehydic carbon of RIBOSE and the terminal phosphate of ADENOSINE DIPHOSPHATE. (healthmatics.info)
  • P. pastoris cells grown in excess glycerol or glucose have similar transcript profiles in contrast to S. cerevisiae cells, in which the transcriptional response to these carbon sources is very different. (biomedcentral.com)
  • 8. The sensor of claim 4 wherein the sensing element is an antibody and the antibody is immobilized with a polymer on the carbon nanotube. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Template free synthesis of lithium doped three-dimensional macroporous graphitic carbon nitride for photocatalytic N fixation: the effect of Li-N active sites. (bioportfolio.com)
  • To avoid confusion and allow us to focus on the key points of carbon fixation that are the subject of this paper, the bioenergetic aspects of the discussion have been framed in largely conventional terms. (royalsocietypublishing.org)