A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.
A diverse class of enzymes that interact with UBIQUITIN-CONJUGATING ENZYMES and ubiquitination-specific protein substrates. Each member of this enzyme group has its own distinct specificity for a substrate and ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme. Ubiquitin-protein ligases exist as both monomeric proteins multiprotein complexes.
A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.
Carbon monoxide (CO). A poisonous colorless, odorless, tasteless gas. It combines with hemoglobin to form carboxyhemoglobin, which has no oxygen carrying capacity. The resultant oxygen deprivation causes headache, dizziness, decreased pulse and respiratory rates, unconsciousness, and death. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
Nanometer-sized tubes composed mainly of CARBON. Such nanotubes are used as probes for high-resolution structural and chemical imaging of biomolecules with ATOMIC FORCE MICROSCOPY.
Poly(deoxyribonucleotide):poly(deoxyribonucleotide)ligases. Enzymes that catalyze the joining of preformed deoxyribonucleotides in phosphodiester linkage during genetic processes during repair of a single-stranded break in duplex DNA. The class includes both EC 6.5.1.1 (ATP) and EC 6.5.1.2 (NAD).
A subset of ubiquitin protein ligases that are formed by the association of a SKP DOMAIN PROTEIN, a CULLIN DOMAIN PROTEIN and a F-BOX DOMAIN PROTEIN.
Toxic asphyxiation due to the displacement of oxygen from oxyhemoglobin by carbon monoxide.
Stable carbon atoms that have the same atomic number as the element carbon, but differ in atomic weight. C-13 is a stable carbon isotope.
A family of structurally related proteins that were originally discovered for their role in cell-cycle regulation in CAENORHABDITIS ELEGANS. They play important roles in regulation of the CELL CYCLE and as components of UBIQUITIN-PROTEIN LIGASES.
The act of ligating UBIQUITINS to PROTEINS to form ubiquitin-protein ligase complexes to label proteins for transport to the PROTEASOME ENDOPEPTIDASE COMPLEX where proteolysis occurs.
A solvent for oils, fats, lacquers, varnishes, rubber waxes, and resins, and a starting material in the manufacturing of organic compounds. Poisoning by inhalation, ingestion or skin absorption is possible and may be fatal. (Merck Index, 11th ed)
Any of several processes for the permanent or long-term artificial or natural capture or removal and storage of carbon dioxide and other forms of carbon, through biological, chemical or physical processes, in a manner that prevents it from being released into the atmosphere.
Catalyze the joining of preformed ribonucleotides or deoxyribonucleotides in phosphodiester linkage during genetic processes. EC 6.5.1.
A highly conserved 76-amino acid peptide universally found in eukaryotic cells that functions as a marker for intracellular PROTEIN TRANSPORT and degradation. Ubiquitin becomes activated through a series of complicated steps and forms an isopeptide bond to lysine residues of specific proteins within the cell. These "ubiquitinated" proteins can be recognized and degraded by proteosomes or be transported to specific compartments within the cell.
A colorless, flammable, poisonous liquid, CS2. It is used as a solvent, and is a counterirritant and has local anesthetic properties but is not used as such. It is highly toxic with pronounced CNS, hematologic, and dermatologic effects.
Enzymes that catalyze the formation of acyl-CoA derivatives. EC 6.2.1.
A zinc-binding domain defined by the sequence Cysteine-X2-Cysteine-X(9-39)-Cysteine-X(l-3)-His-X(2-3)-Cysteine-X2-Cysteine -X(4-48)-Cysteine-X2-Cysteine, where X is any amino acid. The RING finger motif binds two atoms of zinc, with each zinc atom ligated tetrahedrally by either four cysteines or three cysteines and a histidine. The motif also forms into a unitary structure with a central cross-brace region and is found in many proteins that are involved in protein-protein interactions. The acronym RING stands for Really Interesting New Gene.
A class of enzymes that form a thioester bond to UBIQUITIN with the assistance of UBIQUITIN-ACTIVATING ENZYMES. They transfer ubiquitin to the LYSINE of a substrate protein with the assistance of UBIQUITIN-PROTEIN LIGASES.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of linear RNA to a circular form by the transfer of the 5'-phosphate to the 3'-hydroxyl terminus. It also catalyzes the covalent joining of two polyribonucleotides in phosphodiester linkage. EC 6.5.1.3.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A measure of the total greenhouse gas emissions produced by an individual, organization, event, or product. It is measured in units of equivalent kilograms of CARBON DIOXIDE generated in a given time frame.
A family of proteins that share the F-BOX MOTIF and are involved in protein-protein interactions. They play an important role in process of protein ubiquition by associating with a variety of substrates and then associating into SCF UBIQUITIN LIGASE complexes. They are held in the ubiquitin-ligase complex via binding to SKP DOMAIN PROTEINS.
A set of protein subcomplexes involved in PROTEIN SORTING of UBIQUITINATED PROTEINS into intraluminal vesicles of MULTIVESICULAR BODIES and in membrane scission during formation of intraluminal vesicles, during the final step of CYTOKINESIS, and during the budding of enveloped viruses. The ESCRT machinery is comprised of the protein products of Class E vacuolar protein sorting genes.
Unstable isotopes of carbon that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. C atoms with atomic weights 10, 11, and 14-16 are radioactive carbon isotopes.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A family of proteins that are structurally-related to Ubiquitin. Ubiquitins and ubiquitin-like proteins participate in diverse cellular functions, such as protein degradation and HEAT-SHOCK RESPONSE, by conjugation to other proteins.
An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.
A large multisubunit complex that plays an important role in the degradation of most of the cytosolic and nuclear proteins in eukaryotic cells. It contains a 700-kDa catalytic sub-complex and two 700-kDa regulatory sub-complexes. The complex digests ubiquitinated proteins and protein activated via ornithine decarboxylase antizyme.
Total mass of all the organisms of a given type and/or in a given area. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990) It includes the yield of vegetative mass produced from any given crop.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
Ligases that catalyze the joining of adjacent AMINO ACIDS by the formation of carbon-nitrogen bonds between their carboxylic acid groups and amine groups.
A dark powdery deposit of unburned fuel residues, composed mainly of amorphous CARBON and some HYDROCARBONS, that accumulates in chimneys, automobile mufflers and other surfaces exposed to smoke. It is the product of incomplete combustion of carbon-rich organic fuels in low oxygen conditions. It is sometimes called lampblack or carbon black and is used in INK, in rubber tires, and to prepare CARBON NANOTUBES.
The gaseous envelope surrounding a planet or similar body. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
Complexes of enzymes that catalyze the covalent attachment of UBIQUITIN to other proteins by forming a peptide bond between the C-terminal GLYCINE of UBIQUITIN and the alpha-amino groups of LYSINE residues in the protein. The complexes play an important role in mediating the selective-degradation of short-lived and abnormal proteins. The complex of enzymes can be broken down into three components that involve activation of ubiquitin (UBIQUITIN-ACTIVATING ENZYMES), conjugation of ubiquitin to the ligase complex (UBIQUITIN-CONJUGATING ENZYMES), and ligation of ubiquitin to the substrate protein (UBIQUITIN-PROTEIN LIGASES).
An oligomer formed from the repetitive linking of the C-terminal glycine of one UBIQUITIN molecule via an isopeptide bond to a lysine residue on a second ubiquitin molecule. It is structurally distinct from UBIQUITIN C, which is a single protein containing a tandemly arrayed ubiquitin peptide sequence.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
A class of enzymes that catalyzes the ATP-dependent formation of a thioester bond between itself and UBIQUITIN. It then transfers the activated ubiquitin to one of the UBIQUITIN-PROTEIN LIGASES.
Enzymes that catalyze the joining of two molecules by the formation of a carbon-oxygen bond. EC 6.1.
Elimination of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS; PESTICIDES and other waste using living organisms, usually involving intervention of environmental or sanitation engineers.
The unconsolidated mineral or organic matter on the surface of the earth that serves as a natural medium for the growth of land plants.
Proto-oncogene proteins that negatively regulate RECEPTOR PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE signaling. It is a UBIQUITIN-PROTEIN LIGASE and the cellular homologue of ONCOGENE PROTEIN V-CBL.
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
Cleavage of proteins into smaller peptides or amino acids either by PROTEASES or non-enzymatically (e.g., Hydrolysis). It does not include Protein Processing, Post-Translational.
Derivatives of ACETIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxymethane structure.
An allotropic form of carbon that is used in pencils, as a lubricant, and in matches and explosives. It is obtained by mining and its dust can cause lung irritation.
Inorganic compounds that contain carbon as an integral part of the molecule but are not derived from hydrocarbons.
The synthesis by organisms of organic chemical compounds, especially carbohydrates, from carbon dioxide using energy obtained from light rather than from the oxidation of chemical compounds. Photosynthesis comprises two separate processes: the light reactions and the dark reactions. In higher plants; GREEN ALGAE; and CYANOBACTERIA; NADPH and ATP formed by the light reactions drive the dark reactions which result in the fixation of carbon dioxide. (from Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2001)
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
Cellular processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of CARBOHYDRATES.
A family of structurally-related proteins that were originally identified by their ability to complex with cyclin proteins (CYCLINS). They share a common domain that binds specifically to F-BOX MOTIFS. They take part in SKP CULLIN F-BOX PROTEIN LIGASES, where they can bind to a variety of F-BOX PROTEINS.
A family of structurally related proteins that are constitutively expressed and that negatively regulate cytokine-mediated SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS. PIAS proteins inhibit the activity of signal transducers and activators of transcription.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.
The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.
A 1.5-kDa small ubiquitin-related modifier protein that can covalently bind via an isopeptide link to a number of cellular proteins. It may play a role in intracellular protein transport and a number of other cellular processes.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
A class of structurally related proteins of 12-20 kDa in size. They covalently modify specific proteins in a manner analogous to UBIQUITIN.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
Woody, usually tall, perennial higher plants (Angiosperms, Gymnosperms, and some Pterophyta) having usually a main stem and numerous branches.
Electric conductors through which electric currents enter or leave a medium, whether it be an electrolytic solution, solid, molten mass, gas, or vacuum.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
The simplest saturated hydrocarbon. It is a colorless, flammable gas, slightly soluble in water. It is one of the chief constituents of natural gas and is formed in the decomposition of organic matter. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The processes by which organisms use simple inorganic substances such as gaseous or dissolved carbon dioxide and inorganic nitrogen as nutrient sources. Contrasts with heterotrophic processes which make use of organic materials as the nutrient supply source. Autotrophs can be either chemoautotrophs (or chemolithotrophs), largely ARCHAEA and BACTERIA, which also use simple inorganic substances for their metabolic energy reguirements; or photoautotrophs (or photolithotrophs), such as PLANTS and CYANOBACTERIA, which derive their energy from light. Depending on environmental conditions some organisms can switch between different nutritional modes (autotrophy; HETEROTROPHY; chemotrophy; or PHOTOTROPHY) to utilize different sources to meet their nutrient and energy requirements.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).
A type of POST-TRANSLATIONAL PROTEIN MODIFICATION by SMALL UBIQUITIN-RELATED MODIFIER PROTEINS (also known as SUMO proteins).
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
Commonly observed structural components of proteins formed by simple combinations of adjacent secondary structures. A commonly observed structure may be composed of a CONSERVED SEQUENCE which can be represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE.
One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.
A mixed function oxidase enzyme which during hemoglobin catabolism catalyzes the degradation of heme to ferrous iron, carbon monoxide and biliverdin in the presence of molecular oxygen and reduced NADPH. The enzyme is induced by metals, particularly cobalt. EC 1.14.99.3.
Adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group esterified to the sugar moiety in the 2'-, 3'-, or 5'-position.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
The generic name for the group of aliphatic hydrocarbons Cn-H2n+2. They are denoted by the suffix -ane. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
The salinated water of OCEANS AND SEAS that provides habitat for marine organisms.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
Complex sets of enzymatic reactions connected to each other via their product and substrate metabolites.
Systems of enzymes which function sequentially by catalyzing consecutive reactions linked by common metabolic intermediates. They may involve simply a transfer of water molecules or hydrogen atoms and may be associated with large supramolecular structures such as MITOCHONDRIA or RIBOSOMES.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the soil. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
A series of oxidative reactions in the breakdown of acetyl units derived from GLUCOSE; FATTY ACIDS; or AMINO ACIDS by means of tricarboxylic acid intermediates. The end products are CARBON DIOXIDE, water, and energy in the form of phosphate bonds.
The pressure that would be exerted by one component of a mixture of gases if it were present alone in a container. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in nature. Some species are pathogenic for humans, animals, and plants.
The complete absence, or (loosely) the paucity, of gaseous or dissolved elemental oxygen in a given place or environment. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
A mass of organic or inorganic solid fragmented material, or the solid fragment itself, that comes from the weathering of rock and is carried by, suspended in, or dropped by air, water, or ice. It refers also to a mass that is accumulated by any other natural agent and that forms in layers on the earth's surface, such as sand, gravel, silt, mud, fill, or loess. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1689)
Derangement in size and number of muscle fibers occurring with aging, reduction in blood supply, or following immobilization, prolonged weightlessness, malnutrition, and particularly in denervation.
The effect of GLOBAL WARMING and the resulting increase in world temperatures. The predicted health effects of such long-term climatic change include increased incidence of respiratory, water-borne, and vector-borne diseases.
An essential amino acid. It is often added to animal feed.
Macromolecular complexes formed from the association of defined protein subunits.
Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.
The study of chemical changes resulting from electrical action and electrical activity resulting from chemical changes.
Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.
Proteins that originate from plants species belonging to the genus ARABIDOPSIS. The most intensely studied species of Arabidopsis, Arabidopsis thaliana, is commonly used in laboratory experiments.
The facilitation of biochemical reactions with the aid of naturally occurring catalysts such as ENZYMES.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)
A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.
Salts or ions of the theoretical carbonic acid, containing the radical CO2(3-). Carbonates are readily decomposed by acids. The carbonates of the alkali metals are water-soluble; all others are insoluble. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Life or metabolic reactions occurring in an environment containing oxygen.
Oxidoreductases that are specific for ALDEHYDES.
The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A trihydroxy sugar alcohol that is an intermediate in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. It is used as a solvent, emollient, pharmaceutical agent, and sweetening agent.
A broad class of substances containing carbon and its derivatives. Many of these chemicals will frequently contain hydrogen with or without oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, phosphorus, and other elements. They exist in either carbon chain or carbon ring form.
A great expanse of continuous bodies of salt water which together cover more than 70 percent of the earth's surface. Seas may be partially or entirely enclosed by land, and are smaller than the five oceans (Atlantic, Pacific, Indian, Arctic, and Antarctic).
Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.
The processes by which organisms utilize organic substances as their nutrient sources. Contrasts with AUTOTROPHIC PROCESSES which make use of simple inorganic substances as the nutrient supply source. Heterotrophs can be either chemoheterotrophs (or chemoorganotrophs) which also require organic substances such as glucose for their primary metabolic energy requirements, or photoheterotrophs (or photoorganotrophs) which derive their primary energy requirements from light. Depending on environmental conditions some organisms can switch between different nutritional modes (AUTOTROPHY; heterotrophy; chemotrophy; or PHOTOTROPHY) to utilize different sources to meet their nutrients and energy requirements.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
Cell surface receptors for AUTOCRINE MOTILITY FACTOR, which is the secreted form of GLUCOSE-6-PHOSPHATE ISOMERASE. The receptor has an unusual composition in that it shares some structural similarities with G-PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTORS and functions as an ubiquitin protein ligase when internalized.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
The first chemical element in the periodic table. It has the atomic symbol H, atomic number 1, and atomic weight [1.00784; 1.00811]. It exists, under normal conditions, as a colorless, odorless, tasteless, diatomic gas. Hydrogen ions are PROTONS. Besides the common H1 isotope, hydrogen exists as the stable isotope DEUTERIUM and the unstable, radioactive isotope TRITIUM.
An E3 ubiquitin ligase primarily involved in regulation of the metaphase-to-anaphase transition during MITOSIS through ubiquitination of specific CELL CYCLE PROTEINS. Enzyme activity is tightly regulated through subunits and cofactors, which modulate activation, inhibition, and substrate specificity. The anaphase-promoting complex, or APC-C, is also involved in tissue differentiation in the PLACENTA, CRYSTALLINE LENS, and SKELETAL MUSCLE, and in regulation of postmitotic NEURONAL PLASTICITY and excitability.
A cell line generated from human embryonic kidney cells that were transformed with human adenovirus type 5.
The use of a heavy ion particle beam for radiotherapy, such as the HEAVY IONS of CARBON.
A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The utilization of an electrical current to measure, analyze, or alter chemicals or chemical reactions in solution, cells, or tissues.
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
An amorphous form of carbon prepared from the incomplete combustion of animal or vegetable matter, e.g., wood. The activated form of charcoal is used in the treatment of poisoning. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.
Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
A colorless, flammable liquid used in the manufacture of FORMALDEHYDE and ACETIC ACID, in chemical synthesis, antifreeze, and as a solvent. Ingestion of methanol is toxic and may cause blindness.
Screening techniques first developed in yeast to identify genes encoding interacting proteins. Variations are used to evaluate interplay between proteins and other molecules. Two-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for protein-protein interactions, one-hybrid for DNA-protein interactions, three-hybrid interactions for RNA-protein interactions or ligand-based interactions. Reverse n-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for mutations or other small molecules that dissociate known interactions.
The vapor state of matter; nonelastic fluids in which the molecules are in free movement and their mean positions far apart. Gases tend to expand indefinitely, to diffuse and mix readily with other gases, to have definite relations of volume, temperature, and pressure, and to condense or liquefy at low temperatures or under sufficient pressure. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The act of blowing a powder, vapor, or gas into any body cavity for experimental, diagnostic, or therapeutic purposes.
A water-soluble, colorless crystal with an acid taste that is used as a chemical intermediate, in medicine, the manufacture of lacquers, and to make perfume esters. It is also used in foods as a sequestrant, buffer, and a neutralizing agent. (Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed, p1099; McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1851)
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in fungi.
Acetyl CoA participates in the biosynthesis of fatty acids and sterols, in the oxidation of fatty acids and in the metabolism of many amino acids. It also acts as a biological acetylating agent.
The amount of a gas taken up, by the pulmonary capillary blood from the alveolar gas, per minute per unit of average pressure of the gradient of the gas across the BLOOD-AIR BARRIER.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.
Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.
A polyhedral CARBON structure composed of around 60-80 carbon atoms in pentagon and hexagon configuration. They are named after Buckminster Fuller because of structural resemblance to geodesic domes. Fullerenes can be made in high temperature such as arc discharge in an inert atmosphere.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Derivatives of SUCCINIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain a 1,4-carboxy terminated aliphatic structure.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
Proteins found in any species of fungus.
Hydrolases that specifically cleave the peptide bonds found in PROTEINS and PEPTIDES. Examples of sub-subclasses for this group include EXOPEPTIDASES and ENDOPEPTIDASES.
The usually underground portions of a plant that serve as support, store food, and through which water and mineral nutrients enter the plant. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982; Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
Members of the peptidase C19 family which regulate signal transduction by removing UBIQUITIN from specific protein substrates via a process known as deubiquitination or deubiquitylation.
Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in water. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.
The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.
A ubiquitous stress-responsive enzyme that catalyzes the oxidative cleavage of HEME to yield IRON; CARBON MONOXIDE; and BILIVERDIN.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
The region of an enzyme that interacts with its substrate to cause the enzymatic reaction.
The act of breathing with the LUNGS, consisting of INHALATION, or the taking into the lungs of the ambient air, and of EXHALATION, or the expelling of the modified air which contains more CARBON DIOXIDE than the air taken in (Blakiston's Gould Medical Dictionary, 4th ed.). This does not include tissue respiration (= OXYGEN CONSUMPTION) or cell respiration (= CELL RESPIRATION).
The characteristic three-dimensional shape of a molecule.
The exchange of OXYGEN and CARBON DIOXIDE between alveolar air and pulmonary capillary blood that occurs across the BLOOD-AIR BARRIER.
Any substance in the air which could, if present in high enough concentration, harm humans, animals, vegetation or material. Substances include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; and volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.
The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
Stable nitrogen atoms that have the same atomic number as the element nitrogen, but differ in atomic weight. N-15 is a stable nitrogen isotope.
The reconstruction of a continuous two-stranded DNA molecule without mismatch from a molecule which contained damaged regions. The major repair mechanisms are excision repair, in which defective regions in one strand are excised and resynthesized using the complementary base pairing information in the intact strand; photoreactivation repair, in which the lethal and mutagenic effects of ultraviolet light are eliminated; and post-replication repair, in which the primary lesions are not repaired, but the gaps in one daughter duplex are filled in by incorporation of portions of the other (undamaged) daughter duplex. Excision repair and post-replication repair are sometimes referred to as "dark repair" because they do not require light.
The aggregation of soluble ANTIGENS with ANTIBODIES, alone or with antibody binding factors such as ANTI-ANTIBODIES or STAPHYLOCOCCAL PROTEIN A, into complexes large enough to fall out of solution.
The science of developing, caring for, or cultivating forests.
The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
A coenzyme composed of ribosylnicotinamide 5'-diphosphate coupled to adenosine 5'-phosphate by pyrophosphate linkage. It is found widely in nature and is involved in numerous enzymatic reactions in which it serves as an electron carrier by being alternately oxidized (NAD+) and reduced (NADH). (Dorland, 27th ed)
The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.
A product of hard secondary xylem composed of CELLULOSE, hemicellulose, and LIGNANS, that is under the bark of trees and shrubs. It is used in construction and as a source of CHARCOAL and many other products.
Product of the oxidation of ethanol and of the destructive distillation of wood. It is used locally, occasionally internally, as a counterirritant and also as a reagent. (Stedman, 26th ed)
A climate which is typical of equatorial and tropical regions, i.e., one with continually high temperatures with considerable precipitation, at least during part of the year. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The adhesion of gases, liquids, or dissolved solids onto a surface. It includes adsorptive phenomena of bacteria and viruses onto surfaces as well. ABSORPTION into the substance may follow but not necessarily.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.
Organic compounds containing the carboxy group (-COOH). This group of compounds includes amino acids and fatty acids. Carboxylic acids can be saturated, unsaturated, or aromatic.
Derivatives of formic acids. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that are formed with a single carbon carboxy group.
The protein constituents of muscle, the major ones being ACTINS and MYOSINS. More than a dozen accessory proteins exist including TROPONIN; TROPOMYOSIN; and DYSTROPHIN.
An intermediate compound in the metabolism of carbohydrates, proteins, and fats. In thiamine deficiency, its oxidation is retarded and it accumulates in the tissues, especially in nervous structures. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
Free-floating minute organisms that are photosynthetic. The term is non-taxonomic and refers to a lifestyle (energy utilization and motility), rather than a particular type of organism. Most, but not all, are unicellular algae. Important groups include DIATOMS; DINOFLAGELLATES; CYANOBACTERIA; CHLOROPHYTA; HAPTOPHYTA; CRYPTOMONADS; and silicoflagellates.
Alkyl compounds containing a hydroxyl group. They are classified according to relation of the carbon atom: primary alcohols, R-CH2OH; secondary alcohols, R2-CHOH; tertiary alcohols, R3-COH. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Relating to the size of solids.
A microanalytical technique combining mass spectrometry and gas chromatography for the qualitative as well as quantitative determinations of compounds.
The development and use of techniques to study physical phenomena and construct structures in the nanoscale size range or smaller.

The propeptides of the vitamin K-dependent proteins possess different affinities for the vitamin K-dependent carboxylase. (1/225)

The vitamin K-dependent gamma-glutamyl carboxylase catalyzes the modification of specific glutamates in a number of proteins required for blood coagulation and associated with bone and calcium homeostasis. All known vitamin K-dependent proteins possess a conserved eighteen-amino acid propeptide sequence that is the primary binding site for the carboxylase. We compared the relative affinities of synthetic propeptides of nine human vitamin K-dependent proteins by determining the inhibition constants (Ki) toward a factor IX propeptide/gamma-carboxyglutamic acid domain substrate. The Ki values for six of the propeptides (factor X, matrix Gla protein, factor VII, factor IX, PRGP1, and protein S) were between 2-35 nM, with the factor X propeptide having the tightest affinity. In contrast, the inhibition constants for the propeptides of prothrombin and protein C are approximately 100-fold weaker than the factor X propeptide. The propeptide of bone Gla protein demonstrates severely impaired carboxylase binding with an inhibition constant of at least 200,000-fold weaker than the factor X propeptide. This study demonstrates that the affinities of the propeptides of the vitamin K-dependent proteins vary over a considerable range; this may have important physiological consequences in the levels of vitamin K-dependent proteins and the biochemical mechanism by which these substrates are modified by the carboxylase.  (+info)

Osteocalcin binds tightly to the gamma-glutamylcarboxylase at a site distinct from that of the other known vitamin K-dependent proteins. (2/225)

Vitamin K-dependent proteins contain a propeptide that is required for recognition by the enzyme gamma-glutamylcarboxylase. Substrates used in vitro for carboxylation studies lacking a prosequence are characterized by Km values in the millimolar range, whereas the Km for peptides containing a prosequence is three or four orders of magnitude smaller. Here we report that descarboxy-osteocalcin is an exception in this respect. With descarboxy-osteocalcin in purified propeptide-free recombinant carboxylase, the Km was 1.8 microM. Furthermore, osteocalcin was an inhibitor of descarboxy-osteocalcin carboxylation with a Ki of 76 microM. In contrast with the other vitamin K-dependent proteins, free propeptides do not inhibit descarboxy-osteocalcin carboxylation. Moreover, propeptide-containing substrates were inhibited neither by osteocalcin nor by its propeptide. From our studies we conclude that descarboxy-osteocalcin must have an internal recognition sequence that binds to gamma-glutamylcarboxylase at a site different from the propeptide-recognition site.  (+info)

Genetic and biochemical characterization of the alpha and beta components of a propionyl-CoA carboxylase complex of Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2). (3/225)

Two genes, accA1 and accA2, with nearly identical nucleotide sequences were cloned from Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2). The deduced amino acid sequences of the product of these two genes showed high similarity to BcpA2 of Saccharopolyspora erythraea and other biotin-containing proteins from different organisms assumed to be the alpha subunit of a propionyl-CoA carboxylase. A gene, pccB, encoding the carboxyl transferase subunit of this enzyme complex was also characterized. Strains disrupted in accA1 did not show any change in acetyl- or propionyl-CoA carboxylase activity, whilst cell-free extracts of a pccB mutant strain contained a reduced level of propionyl-CoA carboxylase. No mutants in accA2 could be isolated, suggesting that the gene may be essential. Heterologous expression of accA1, accA2 and pccB in Escherichia col and in vitro reconstitution of enzyme activity confirmed that PccB is the beta subunit of a propionyl-CoA carboxylase and that either AccA1 or AccA2 could act as the alpha component of this enzyme complex. The fact that accA2 mutants appear to be inviable suggests that this gene encodes a biotinylated protein that might be shared with other carboxyl transferases essential for the growth of S. coelicolor.  (+info)

Molecular characterization of the non-biotin-containing subunit of 3-methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase. (4/225)

The biotin enzyme, 3-methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase (MCCase) (3-methylcrotonyl-CoA:carbon-dioxide ligase (ADP-forming), EC 6.4.1. 4), catalyzes a pivotal reaction required for both leucine catabolism and isoprenoid metabolism. MCCase is a heteromeric enzyme composed of biotin-containing (MCC-A) and non-biotin-containing (MCC-B) subunits. Although the sequence of the MCC-A subunit was previously determined, the primary structure of the MCC-B subunit is unknown. Based upon sequences of biotin enzymes that use substrates structurally related to 3-methylcrotonyl-CoA, we isolated the MCC-B cDNA and gene of Arabidopsis. Antibodies directed against the bacterially produced recombinant protein encoded by the MCC-B cDNA react solely with the MCC-B subunit of the purified MCCase and inhibit MCCase activity. The primary structure of the MCC-B subunit shows the highest similarity to carboxyltransferase domains of biotin enzymes that use methyl-branched thiol esters as substrate or products. The single copy MCC-B gene of Arabidopsis is interrupted by nine introns. MCC-A and MCC-B mRNAs accumulate in all cell types and organs, with the highest accumulation occurring in rapidly growing and metabolically active tissues. In addition, these two mRNAs accumulate coordinately in an approximately equal molar ratio, and they each account for between 0.01 and 0.1 mol % of cellular mRNA. The sequence of the Arabidopsis MCC-B gene has enabled the identification of animal paralogous MCC-B cDNAs and genes, which may have an impact on the molecular understanding of the lethal inherited metabolic disorder methylcrotonylglyciuria.  (+info)

Identification of a Drosophila vitamin K-dependent gamma-glutamyl carboxylase. (5/225)

Using reduced vitamin K, oxygen, and carbon dioxide, gamma-glutamyl carboxylase post-translationally modifies certain glutamates by adding carbon dioxide to the gamma position of those amino acids. In vertebrates, the modification of glutamate residues of target proteins is facilitated by an interaction between a propeptide present on target proteins and the gamma-glutamyl carboxylase. Previously, the gastropod Conus was the only known invertebrate with a demonstrated vitamin K-dependent carboxylase. We report here the discovery of a gamma-glutamyl carboxylase in Drosophila. This Drosophila enzyme is remarkably similar in amino acid sequence to the known mammalian carboxylases; it has 33% sequence identity and 45% sequence similarity to human gamma-glutamyl carboxylase. The Drosophila carboxylase is vitamin K-dependent, and it has a K(m) toward a model pentapeptide substrate, FLEEL, of about 4 mm. However, unlike the human gamma-glutamyl carboxylase, it is not stimulated by human blood coagulation factor IX propeptides. We found the mRNA for Drosophila gamma-glutamyl carboxylase in virtually every embryonic and adult stage that we investigated, with the highest concentration evident in the adult head.  (+info)

An acyl-coenzyme A carboxylase encoding gene associated with jadomycin biosynthesis in Streptomyces venezuelae ISP5230. (6/225)

Analysis of a region of chromosomal DNA lying between jadR1 and jadI in the gene cluster for jadomycin biosynthesis in Streptomyces venezuelae ISP5230 detected an ORF encoding 584 amino acids similar in sequence to the biotin carboxylase (BC) and biotin carboxyl carrier protein (BCCP) components of acyl-coenzyme A carboxylases. Multiple sequence alignments of the deduced Jad protein with acyl-coenzyme A carboxylases from various sources located the BC and BCCP components in the N- and C-terminal regions, respectively, of the deduced polypeptides. The organization and amino acid sequence of the deduced polypeptide most closely resembled those in other Gram-positive bacteria broadly classified as actinomycetes. Disrupting the gene, designated jadJ, severely reduced but did not eliminate jadomycin production. The disruption had no effect on growth or morphology of the organism, implying that the product of jadJ is not essential for fatty acid biosynthesis. It is concluded that jadJ supplies malonyl-coenzyme A for biosynthesis of the polyketide intermediate that is eventually processed to form the antibiotic jadomycin B.  (+info)

A conserved motif within the vitamin K-dependent carboxylase gene is widely distributed across animal phyla. (7/225)

The vitamin K-dependent gamma-glutamyl carboxylase catalyzes the posttranslational conversion of glutamic acid to gamma-carboxyglutamic acid, an amino acid critical to the function of the vitamin K-dependent blood coagulation proteins. Given the functional similarity of mammalian vitamin K-dependent carboxylases and the vitamin K-dependent carboxylase from Conus textile, a marine invertebrate, we hypothesized that structurally conserved regions would identify sequences critical to this common functionality. Furthermore, we examined the diversity of animal species that maintain vitamin K-dependent carboxylation to generate gamma-carboxyglutamic acid. We have cloned carboxylase homologs in full-length or partial form from the beluga whale (Delphinapterus leucas), toadfish (Opsanus tau), chicken (Gallus gallus), hagfish (Myxine glutinosa), horseshoe crab (Limulus polyphemus), and cone snail (Conus textile) to compare these structures to the known bovine, human, rat, and mouse cDNA sequences. Comparison of the predicted amino acid sequences identified a nearly perfectly conserved 38-amino acid residue region in all of these putative carboxylases. In addition, this amino acid motif is also present in the Drosophila genome and identified a Drosophila homolog of the gamma-carboxylase. Assay of hagfish liver demonstrated vitamin K-dependent carboxylase activity in this hemichordate. These results demonstrate the broad distribution of the vitamin K-dependent carboxylase gene, including a highly conserved motif that is likely critical for enzyme function. The vitamin K-dependent biosynthesis of gamma-carboxyglutamic acid appears to be a highly conserved function in the animal kingdom.  (+info)

A topological study of the human gamma-glutamyl carboxylase. (8/225)

gamma-Glutamyl carboxylase (GC), a polytopic membrane protein found in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), catalyzes vitamin K-dependent posttranslational modification of glutamate to gamma-carboxyl glutamate. In an attempt to delineate the structure of this important enzyme, in vitro translation and in vivo mapping were used to study its membrane topology. Using terminus-tagged full-length carboxylase, expressed in 293 cells, it was demonstrated that the amino-terminus of the GC is on the cytoplasmic side of the ER, while the carboxyl-terminus is on the lumenal side. In addition, a series of fusions were made to encode each predicted transmembrane domain (TMD) followed by a leader peptidase (Lep) reporter tag, as analyzed by the computer algorithm TOPPRED II. Following in vitro translation of each fusion in the presence of canine microsomes, the topological orientation of the Lep tag was determined by proteinase K digestion and endoglycosidase H (Endo H) cleavage. From the topological orientation of the Lep tag in each fusion, the GC spans the ER membrane at least 5 times, with its N-terminus in the cytoplasm and its C-terminus in the lumen.  (+info)

3-Methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase deficiency (MCCC2-related) is a pan-ethnic, autosomal recessive disease caused by pathogenic variants in the MCCC2 gene. These variants impair the ability of the enzyme 3-methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase to break down proteins that contain the amino acid leucine. Presentation in childhood or early infancy is characterized by feeding difficulties, vomiting and diarrhea, excessive fatigue, and hypotonia. If detected early, the condition can be managed with a low-protein diet. If untreated, this disorder can eventually cause developmental delay, seizures, and coma. However, most individuals with this condition remain asymptomatic into adulthood. Life expectancy depends on the severity of presentation. No clear genotype-phenotype correlation has been noted.. For information about carrier frequency and residual risk, please see the Expanded Carrier Screen brochure.. ...
Vitamin K1 2,3-epoxide (CAS: 25486-55-9) is a vitamin K derivative. Vitamin K is needed for the posttranslational modification of certain proteins, mostly required for blood coagulation. Within the cell, vitamin K undergoes electron reduction to a reduced form of vitamin K (called vitamin K hydroquinone) by the enzyme vitamin K epoxide reductase (or VKOR). Another enzyme then oxidizes vitamin K hydroquinone to allow carboxylation of glutamate into gamma-carboxyglutamate (Gla). This enzyme is called the gamma-glutamyl carboxylase or the vitamin K-dependent carboxylase. The carboxylation reaction will only proceed if the carboxylase enzyme is able to oxidize vitamin K hydroquinone into vitamin K epoxide at the same time; the carboxylation and epoxidation reactions are said to be coupled reactions. Vitamin K epoxide is then re-converted into vitamin K by the vitamin K epoxide reductase. These two enzymes comprise the so-called vitamin K cycle. One of the reasons why vitamin K is rarely deficient in ...
Regulation of the expression of the gene(s) coding for the 78-kD, biotin-containing subunit of [beta]-methylcrotonyl-coenzyme A carboxylase (MCCase) was investigated in different organs of tomato (Lycopersicon esculantus) plants. The specific activity of MCCase is highest in extracts from roots, followed in descending order by ripe and ripening fruits, stems, and leaves. The specific activity is 10-fold higher in roots than in leaves. However, the steady-state levels of the 78-kD subunit of MCCase and its mRNA are approximately equal in both roots and leaves. Instead, the difference in MCCase activity between these two organs is directly correlated to the biotinylation status of the enzymes biotin-containing subunit. Thus, the lower activity of MCCase in leaves is attributed to the reduced biotinylation of the biotin-containing subunit of the enzyme. Consistent with this model, a pool of nonbiotinylated enzyme is present in leaves, whereas the nonbiotinylated enzyme is undetectable in roots. ...
putative acyl-CoA carboxylase alpha subunit [putative Acyl-CoA carboxylase] ATGAGCGCCGCCCTCCTAGGCCTCCGTCAGGCCCGCATACGCAAGGTGTTGATCGCCAAC CGTGGCGAAATCGCTGTTCGTGTCGCCCGGGCGTGCCGAGACGCCGGTATCGCGAGCGTG GCGGTGTACGCCGAGCCGGACCGGGACGCACTGCATGTGCGGGCCGCGGACGAGGCGTTC GCGCTGGGCGGTGACACCCCCGCGACCAGCTACCTCGACATGGCCAAGGTGCTGCAGGCC GCCAAGGACTCCGGCGCGGACGCCATCCACCCCGGTTACGGCTTCCTTTCCGAGAACGCC GACTTCGCCCAGGCCGTCCTGGACGCCCAGCTGATCTGGATCGGCCCGCCGCCGCAGGCG ATTCGCGACCTGGGTGACAAGGCCCATATCGCCCAGCGCGCCGGCGCCCCGCTGGTCGCC GGCACCCCCGACCCGGTCTCGGGCTCGGACGAGGTCGTCGCCTTCGCGGAGGAGCACGGG CTGCCGATCGCCATCAAGGCCGCCTTCGGTGGCGGTGGCCGCGGTCTGAAGGTCGCCCGC ACCCTGGAAGAAGTCCCCGAGCTGTACGACTCGGCCGTCCGCGAGGCGGTGGCCGCCTTC GGCCGCGGTGAGTGCTTCGTCGAGCGCTACCTCGACAAGCCCCGGCACGTGGAGACCCAG TGCCTGGCCGACTCCCACGGCAACGTGGTCGTCGTCTCCACCCGCGACTGCTCACTGCAG CGCCGCCACCAGAAGCTGGTCGAGGAGGCGCCCGCGCCGTTCCTCTCCGACGAGCAGGTC GCCGAGCTGTACTCCTCTTCGAAGGCCATCCTCAAGGAGGCCGGCTATGTCGGCGCCGGG ACCGTGGAGTTCCTGGTCGGCACGGACGGCACGATCTCCTTCCTGGAGGTCAACACCCGC ...
3-Hydroxyisovalerylcarnitine is structual derivative of 3-hydroxyisovaleric acid and carnitine. Due to its increased concentration in blood, 3-hydroxyisovalerylcarnitine (C5OH-I) is an important indicator for the diagnosis of organic acidemias in newborns (PMID: 18088573 ). Analysis of acylcarnitines by tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) has recently been used to screen newborns for organic acidemias and fatty acid oxidation defects (PMID: 7494654 , 9216448 , 11427446 , 12127323 , 14578311 ). These diseases cause the accumulation of acyl-CoA, which is esterified to acylcarnitine by carnitine acyltransferase. Acylcarnitine is then eliminated in the urine, thus acylcarnitine concentration serves as an excellent indicator for these diseases (PMID: 6361812 ). 3-Hydroxyisovalerylcarnitine (C5OH-I) is an indicator for diagnoses of multiple carboxylase deficiency (MCD), 3-methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase deficiency and 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA lyase deficiency (PMID: 18088573 ), which are inborn ...
There is much debate as to the clinical significance of 3-methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase deficiency (3MCC deficiency). In thinking about this issue, I recently read a paper by Arnold et al, (Mol Genet Metab. 2012 Aug;106(4):439-41) that describes their retrospective analysis of 35 cases of 3-MCC deficiency identified by newborn screening and confirmed by enzyme and/or molecular analysis. One of the most […]. ...
The first committed step of fatty acid and polyketides biosynthesis, the biotin-dependent carboxylation of an acyl-CoA, is catalyzed by acyl-CoA carboxylases (ACCases) such as acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) and propionyl-CoA carboxylase (PCC). ACC and PCC in Streptomyces coelicolor are homologues multisubunit complexes that can carboxylate different short chain acyl-CoAs. While ACC is able to carboxylate acetyl-, propionyl-, or butyryl-CoA with approximately the same specificity, PCC only recognizes propionyl- and butyryl-CoA as substrates. How ACC and PCC have such different specificities towards these substrates is only partially understood. To further understand the molecular basis of how the active site residues can modulate the substrate recognition, we mutated D422, N80, R456 and R457 of PccB, the catalytic beta subunit of PCC. The crystal structures of six PccB mutants and the wild type crystal structure were compared systematically to establish the sequence-structure-function relationship ...
PMID 25681132] Impact of gamma-glutamyl carboxylase gene polymorphisms on warfarin dose requirement: A systematic review and meta-analysis ...
Effects of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin or 2,2,4,4,5,5-hexachlorobiphenyl on vitamin K-dependent blood coagulation in male and female WAG/Rij-rats.: N
New technology enables expansion of newborn screening (NBS) of inborn errors aimed to prevent adverse outcome. In conditions with a large share of asymptomatic phenotypes, the potential harm created by NBS must carefully be weighed against benefit. Policies vary throughout the United States, Australia, and Europe due to limited data on outcome and treatability of candidate screening conditions. We elaborated the rationale for decision making in 3-methylcrotonyl-coenzyme A (CoA) carboxylase deficiency (MCCD), which afflicts leucine catabolism, with reported outcomes ranging from asymptomatic to death. In Bavaria, we screened 677,852 neonates for 25 conditions, including MCCD, based on elevated concentrations of 3-hydroxyisovalerylcarnitine (3-HIVA-C). Genotypes of MCCA (MCCC1) and MCCB (MCCC2) were assessed in identified newborns, their relatives, and in individuals (n = 17) from other regions, and correlated to biochemical and clinical phenotypes. NBS revealed eight newborns and six relatives ...
In the light of the structure-based comparisons identifying the PfSUB1 prodomain Prodp9 as the best template for SUB1-ProM, we further examined the predicted structural similarities between these proteins. Like other subtilisins, immediately following cleavage at the propeptide-catalytic domain junction, the propeptides of PfSUB1 and PvSUB1 remain tightly bound to their cognate catalytic domain, primarily through interactions between the beta sheet of the propeptide and two prominent surface-located parallel alpha helices of the catalytic domain [14,41]. In the case of PfSUB1, key contributions to propeptide binding include hydrophobic interactions with the sidechain of Ile178, located at the beta hairpin turn linking two strands of the Prodp9 beta sheet, which plugs into a hydrophobic pocket on the catalytic domain surface (Figure 5a and Supplementary Figure S5a). Interestingly, Prodp9 Ile178 is replaced by a Leu residue (Leu115) in SUB1-ProM, the sidechain of which could be accommodated in the ...
Signed-off-by: Hans-Kristian Arntzen ,post at arntzen-software.no, --- tests/d3d12.c , 321 +++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++--- 1 file changed, 306 insertions(+), 15 deletions(-) diff --git a/tests/d3d12.c b/tests/d3d12.c index 56f9e45..a499115 100644 --- a/tests/d3d12.c +++ b/tests/d3d12.c @@ -29260,7 +29260,7 @@ static void test_hull_shader_fork_phase_dxil(void) test_hull_shader_fork_phase(true); } -static void test_line_tessellation(void) +static void test_line_tessellation(bool use_dxil) { ID3D12Resource *vb, *so_buffer, *readback_buffer; D3D12_QUERY_DATA_SO_STATISTICS *so_statistics; @@ -29324,21 +29324,21 @@ static void test_line_tessellation(void) [domain(isoline)] void ds_main(patch_constant_data input, - float tess_factor[2] : SV_TessFactor, + // float tess_factor[2] : SV_TessFactor, DXC refused to compile, register overlap float2 tess_coord : SV_DomainLocation, - float3 color : COLOR, - uint prim_id : PRIMITIVE_ID, + //float3 color : COLOR, DXC refused to compile, ...
Signed-off-by: Hans-Kristian Arntzen ,post at arntzen-software.no, --- tests/d3d12.c , 231 +++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++--- 1 file changed, 218 insertions(+), 13 deletions(-) diff --git a/tests/d3d12.c b/tests/d3d12.c index 47a1a3a..6bc0358 100644 --- a/tests/d3d12.c +++ b/tests/d3d12.c @@ -28356,7 +28356,7 @@ static void test_tessellation_dcl_index_range(void) destroy_test_context(&context); } -static void test_hull_shader_control_point_phase(void) +static void test_hull_shader_control_point_phase(bool use_dxil) { static const float white[] = {1.0f, 1.0f, 1.0f, 1.0f}; D3D12_GRAPHICS_PIPELINE_STATE_DESC pso_desc; @@ -28366,19 +28366,58 @@ static void test_hull_shader_control_point_phase(void) ID3D12CommandQueue *queue; HRESULT hr; - static const DWORD vs_code[] = - { #if 0 - void main() - { - } + void main() + { + } #endif + static const DWORD vs_code_dxbc[] = + { 0x43425844, 0x590b08ae, 0x11d28adb, 0x825a5628, 0x34c0c208, 0x00000001, 0x00000064, 0x00000003, 0x0000002c, ...
MCCA Antikörper (B-7) ist ein monoklonaler Anti-MCCA Antikörper, der m, r, und h MCCA in WB, IP, IF und ELISA detektiert. Zitiert in 1 Publikationen
When asking the question of carboxylated vs. non-carboxylated, the answer comes down to an adhesion coating controlled by carboxylation.
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The peptide substrate commonly used in vitamin K-dependent carboxylation, Phe-Leu-Glu-Glu-Val, has been shown, by the use of high-voltage paper electrophoresis, to be degraded from the N-terminus by a microsomal leucine amino-peptidase. The replacement of phenylalanine with a N-t-butoxycarbonyl group resulted in a tetrapeptide substrate with a blocked N-terminus resistant to enzymic degradation. Vitamin K-dependent carboxylation of this non-degradable substrate gave a unique carboxylated product, which was separated from microsomal protein and unchanged substrate by using DEAE-Sephadex A25 as a final step. The carboxylated product was subsequently decarboxylated in 2HCl and analysed by using g.l.c. coupled to a mass spectrometer. This showed that only the first glutamic acid residue in the peptide substrate was carboxylated. ...
Summary of Facts and Submissions. I. The patent proprietors lodged an appeal against the interlocutory decision of the opposition division issued 4 February 1998 whereby the European patent No. 0. 363 126 with title Method for the purification of vitamin K-dependent proteins, which had been opposed by one party on grounds of Article 100(a) EPC (lack of novelty and lack of inventive step), was maintained in amended form on the basis of the auxiliary request then on file. Claim 1 therein read as follows:. A method for recovering and purifying vitamin K-dependent proteins from a cell culture medium of cells which produce vitamin K-dependent proteins, said medium containing forms of the desired vitamin K-dependent protein that differ in -carboxyglutamate content and therefore in specific activity, said method comprising:. a. removing divalent cations from the medium;. b. contacting the medium with a protein-binding ion-exchange resin under conditions such that the protein is bound to the ...
Protein C is a precursor of plasma serine proteinases, and its active form inactivates specifically blood coagulation Factor V and Factor VIII. Since a specific and sensitive synthetic substrate for the activated protein C was not known, we studied its amidolytic activity toward 25 fluorogenic peptides of the type peptidyl-4-methylcoumaryl-7-amide (peptidyl MCA). The activated protein C, namely, bovine protein C activated by bovine alpha-thrombin, showed the highest activity toward Boc-Leu-Ser-Thr-Arg-MCA. The enzymes Km and Kcat values for this substrate were calculated to be 3.3 x 10(-4) M and 8.4 s-1, respectively. Optimum conditions for measurement of activated protein C activity were studied with this substrate. Optimum pH was 8.5. For the maximum activity at pH 8.5, concentrations of 0.1 M NaCl and 1 mM CaCl2 had to be maintained in the reaction mixture. The fluorogenic peptide Boc-Leu-Ser-Thr-Arg-MCA was successfully applied to a simple and accurate assay of protein C during its ...
Matrix gla protein (MGP) is member of a family of vitamin-K2 dependent, Gla-containing proteins. MGP has a high affinity binding to calcium ions, similar to other Gla-containing proteins. The protein acts as an inhibitor of vascular mineralization and plays a role in bone organization. MGP is found in number body tissues in mammals, birds, and fish. Its mRNA is present in bone, cartilage, heart, and kidney. It is present in bone together with the related vitamin K2-dependent protein osteocalcin. In bone, its production is increased by vitamin D. The MGP was linked to the short arm of chromosome 12 in 1990. Its mRNA sequence length is 585 bases long in humans. MGP and osteocalcin are both calcium-binding proteins that may participate in the organisation of bone tissue. Both have glutamate residues that are post-translationally carboxylated by the enzyme gamma-glutamyl carboxylase in a reaction that requires Vitamin K hydroquinone. This process also occurs with a number of proteins involved in ...
Biotin-dependent carboxylases include acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), propionyl-CoA carboxylase (PCC), 3-methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase (MCC), geranyl-CoA carboxylase, pyruvate carboxylase (PC), and...
Hereditary combined vitamin K-dependent clotting factors deficiency (VKCFD) is a rare congenital bleeding disorder resulting from variably decreased levels of coagulation factors II, VII, IX and X as well as natural anticoagulants protein C, protein S and protein Z. The spectrum of bleeding symptoms ranges from mild to severe with onset in the neonatal period in severe cases. The bleeding symptoms are often life-threatening, occur both spontaneously and in a surgical setting, and usually involve the skin and mucosae. A range of non-haemostatic symptoms are often present, including developmental and skeletal anomalies. VKCFD is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutations in the genes of either gamma-glutamyl carboxylase or vitamin K2,3-epoxide reductase complex. These two proteins are necessary for gamma-carboxylation, a post-synthetic modification that allows coagulation proteins to display their proper function. The developmental and skeletal anomalies seen in VKCFD are the result of defective
Promotes healthy glucose metabolism and nerve health; helps support healthy nails Biotin is a water-soluble B vitamin that is an essential co-factor for a number of metabolic carboxylation reactions. Biotin forms a covalent bond to the following carboxylase enzymes: pyruvate carboxylase for glucose metabolism, acetyl CoA carboxylase for fatty acid oxidation, and propionyl-CoA carboxylase and methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase for amino acid metabolism. A clinical study reported that high dose administration of biotin helped promote healthy glucose metabolism. A number of animal studies support this claim. Biotin may also act to promote transcription and translation of glucokinase, an enzyme found in the liver and pancreas that participates in the metabolism of glucose to form glycogen. Studies have also indicated that biotin is supportive of nervous system health and function. A clinical study revealed that biotin promotes nerve cell health. In addition, a double-blind study reported that biotin
WHAT DOES BIOTIN DO FOR US ?. 1. Carboxyle enzymes:. - The first one, Acetyl-CoA carboxylase, starts the process for creating fatty acids. Most of us want beautiful shiny hair and strong healthy fingernails. Biotin is involved in the creation of fatty acids. One group of fatty acids called phospholipids is a necessary part of the structure of cell membranes including those which make up our hair and nails.. - The second one, Pyruvate carboxylase is critical for the process called gluconeogenesis. Gluconeogenesis is the process which creates glucose out of fats and amino acids to use for energy when the body cant get it from carbohydrates. Those low or no carb diets weve all heard about or perhaps have tried, start the process of gluconeogenesis. The fat stores in our bodies and unfortunately some of the proteins we eat are used for energy instead of the carbohydrates we would ordinarily consume.. - The third one, Methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase is used in the creation of energy from the ...
Shop Propionyl-CoA carboxylase regulator ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Propionyl-CoA carboxylase regulator Antibody at MyBioSource. Custom ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Antibody are available.
A vitamin K-dependent carboxylation converts glutamate residues on prothrombin, which are weak chelators of Ca2+, into gamma-carboxyglutamate, a much stronger chelator. The binding of Ca2+ by prothrombin anchors it to the phospholipid membranes derived from blood platlets following injury. This binding of prothrombin brings it into close contact with two enzymes which regulate its conversion into thrombin, which can then activate fibrinogen in the plasma to fill the breach.. Sources:. Vitamin K is found in green leafy vegetables.. Fascinating Fact: To prevent excessive clotting after an operation the vitamin K antagonist, Warfarin (rat poison) is administered in carefully controlled doses.. ...
Protein C is a vitamin K-dependent serine protease that regulates blood coagulation by inactivating factors Va and VIIIa in the presence of calcium ions and phospholipids. Exerts a protective effect on the endothelial cell barrier function.
Vitamin K-dependent proteins, including matrix Gla-protein, have been shown to inhibit vascular calcification. Activation of these proteins via carboxylation...
Viegas CSB, Simes DC, Laizé V, Williamson MK, Price PA, M. Cancela L. Gla-rich protein (GRP), a new vitamin K-dependent protein identified from sturgeon cartilage and highly conserved in vertebrates. J Biol Chem. 2008;283(52):36655-64. doi:10.1074/jbc.M802761200 ...
PCCB antibody [N2C3] (propionyl CoA carboxylase, beta polypeptide) for ICC/IF, IHC-P, WB. Anti-PCCB pAb (GTX105204) is tested in Human, Mouse samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
Expression of MCCC1 (MCCA) in cancer tissue. The cancer tissue page shows antibody staining of the protein in 20 different cancers.
Paracetamol is recommended as a first-line analgesic and antipyretic therapy in patients receiving short- and long-term oral anticoagulation, especially elderly patient.However,Increased INR was previously observed in patients treated with warfarin and paracetamol given at the maximum recommended dose (4g/day).. To date, the mechanism of this interaction has not been determined.A recent in vitro study suggested that the toxic metabolite N-acetyl-para-benzoquinoneimine (NAPQI) appeared to interfere with vitamin K-dependent γ-carboxylase (VKD-carb) and vitamin K epoxide reductase (VKOR) activites12. The question remaining to be dealt with is whether this in vitro observation can explain the in vivo paracetamol-warfarin interaction. We aim to evaluate the effect of paracetamol at the most widely used doses 2 and 3g/day on INR in stable patients treated with warfarin in a double blind randomized placebo-controlled trial and to identify the mechanism involved in this interaction in vivo. ...
Erika Jensen-Jarolim holds the professorship for Comparative Medicine, a double appointment between the Medical and Veterinary Universities Vienna since August 1st, 2011, at the interdisciplinary Messerli Research Institute. Before she served during 5 years as head of the IPA - Dept. of Pathophysiology and Allergy Research of the Medical University Vienna. She holds an MD, is specialized in pathophysiology and immunology and is member of the senate of the Medical University Vienna, and was member of the university council of the Universiy of Veterinary Medicine Vienna between 2008 and 2011. Her research is dedicated to the evaluation of pathophysiological mechanisms to improve diagnosis and therapy in the allergy, oncology and allergooncology fields. Major highlights were mimotope vaccines and mechanisms of food allergy, as well as more recently, comparative research in terms of the One health principle.. Proposed PhD research projects: ...
endoplasmic reticulum sites of Gla protein synthesis. In the case of the blood coagulation proteins, the sole site of synthesis is the liver. Each carboxylated protein has a C-terminal propeptide sequence that binds the carboxylase enzyme, and directs a coordinated series of carboxylations of the recipient gluta-myl residues, before the propeptide is removed and the fully carboxylated protein is then secreted into the extracellular space for transport into the plasma.. Vitamin K acts as the essential recycling cofactor (or cosubstrate) for all protein carboxylation, Gla-forming reactions (Figure 3). In its dihydro or quinol form, the vitamin reacts with molecular oxygen, thereby creating a highly reactive, high-energy carba-nion at the Glu site for insertion of carbon dioxide, creating a new Gla residue. This vitamin K quinol oxidation step provides the essential energy for the endothermic carboxylation step. The other product of the reaction is the epoxide of vitamin K, comprising a ...
NEW DEADLINE! Minority Corporate Counsel Association. Application Deadline: June 30, 2006 The Minority Corporate Counsel Association is pleased to announce the continuation of an initiative designed to support entering first year law students nationwide who have been accepted into an accredited law school. The program is open to all students entering law school in fall 2006. MCCA will award 10 fellowships at $10,000 per year for each of the three years in law school. The total commitment per student fellow will be $30,000. In addition, approximately, 7-8 students will receive a one-time scholarship gift of $10,000 in support of their law school education. The deadline for receipt of completed applications has been extended to June 30, 2006. Scholarship information is available at www.mcca.com. The application process is administered for MCCA by UNCF (United Negro College Fund) and students may apply online at www.uncf.org. For questions, contact Kimbery Hall at UNCF at (703) 205-3443.. The ...
Coagulation. Coagulation results in the generation of thrombin, which converts soluble fibrinogen to fibrin. Coagulation occurs through the action of discrete enzyme complexes, which are composed of a vitamin K-dependent enzyme and a non-enzyme cofactor, and assemble on anionic phospholipid membranes in a calcium-dependent fashion. Each enzyme complex activates a vitamin K-dependent substrate that becomes the enzyme component of the subsequent complex. Together, these complexes generate a small amount of thrombin, which amplifies its own generation by activating the non-enzyme cofactors and platelets, which then provide an anionic surface on which the complexes assemble. The three enzyme complexes involved in thrombin generation are extrinsic tenase, intrinsic tenase, and prothrombinase. Although extrinsic tenase initiates the system under most circumstances, the contact system also plays a role in some situations.. Extrinsic Tenase (FVIIa-TF complex). This complex forms upon exposure of tissue ...
Two High-Dose Formulas• Two high dose biotins: 5 mg and 100 mg• Biotin is an essential coenzyme for carboxylation reactions, and is involved in the metabolism of fats, sugars and amino acids*• Biotin plays a role in supporting the health of the hair, skin, and nails.*Each capsule of Biotin 5000 contains 5000 μg (micrograms) of biotin, which is another way to denote 5 mg (milligrams). Each capsule
Find and order Lysates and products like PCCB 293T Cell Transient Overexpression Lysate(Denatured) on www.antibodies-online.com. Order product ABIN1332882.
RK2A_LIRTU (Q0G9F5 ), RK2A_POPAL (Q14F95 ), RK2A_SOYBN (P18663 ), RK2B_CHLSC (A6MMI6 ), RK2B_COFAR (A0A398 ), RK2B_LIRTU (Q0G9H8 ), RK2B_POPAL (Q14FB6 ), RK2B_SOYBN (Q2PMM3 ), RK2_ACOAM (A9LYE2 ), RK2_ACOCL (Q3V4X1 ), RK2_ADICA (Q85FI1 ), RK2_AETCO (A4QJF6 ), RK2_AETGR (A4QJP0 ), RK2_AGRST (A1EA50 ), RK2_AMBTC (P60406 ), RK2_ANEMR (B0YPR7 ), RK2_ANGEV (A2T375 ), RK2_ANTFO (Q85B65 ), RK2_ARAHI (A4QK59 ), RK2_ARATH (P56791 ), RK2_BARVE (A4QKE6 ), RK2_BIGNA (Q06J61 ), RK2_BUXMI (A6MM78 ), RK2_CALFG (Q7YJT7 ), RK2_CAPBU (A4QKN3 ), RK2_CARPA (B1A976 ), RK2_CERDE (A8SEE5 ), RK2_CHAGL (Q8M9U7 ), RK2_CHAVU (Q1ACF6 ), RK2_CHLAT (Q19VA8 ), RK2_CHLRE (Q8HTL2 ), RK2_CHLVU (P56367 ), RK2_CITSI (Q09MB2 ), RK2_CRUWA (A4QKX2 ), RK2_CRYJA (B1VKD7 ), RK2_CUCSA (Q4VZK5 ), RK2_CUSEX (A8W3G2 ), RK2_CUSRE (A7M9A4 ), RK2_CYACA (Q9TLT5 ), RK2_CYAM1 (Q85FW0 ), RK2_CYAPA (P15764 ), RK2_CYCTA (A6H5M3 ), RK2_DAUCA (Q0G9P9 ), RK2_DIOEL (A6MMP9 ), RK2_DRANE (A4QL60 ), RK2_DRIGR (Q06GT2 ), RK2_EIMTE (Q7YN79 ), RK2_EMIHU ...
Research demonstrates that children are the most deficient of the essential nutrient vitamin K2, creating serious skeletal and vascular implications for growing bodies. Fortunately, there is a simple, proven solution: studies have shown that supplementation with 45-50 mcg of vitamin K2 as MK-7 daily supports bone mineral density, reduces fractures, and may contribute toward cardiovascular health in children - laying the strong foundation for their transition from adolescence into adulthood.. Vitamin K is actually a group of fat-soluble vitamins. It was first recognized for its essential role in the functioning of several proteins involved in blood clotting or coagulation, which is important to prevent excessive bleeding after an injury. In fact, the K in vitamin K is derived from the German word koagulation. Now, vitamin K is understood to offer additional benefits, including its role activating vitamin K-dependent proteins that are necessary for bone mineralization (e.g., helping to keep ...
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abbr.: PCCase; EC 6.4.1.3; an enzyme that catalyses a reaction between ATP, propanoyl‐CoA, and HCO3− to form (S)‐methylmalonyl‐CoA, ADP, and orthophosphate; biotin is a coenzyme. It is an enzyme in ... ...
Factor X is a vitamin K-dependent protein zymogen which is synthesized in the liver and circulates in plasma as a two chain molecule linked by a disulfide bond. Prior to
Reactome is pathway database which provides intuitive bioinformatics tools for the visualisation, interpretation and analysis of pathway knowledge.
Perform reliable qPCR with Bio-Rads pre-validated GGCX primer pair, for the Dog genome. Designed for SYBR Green-based detection.
The phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) gene family of Arabidopsis is composed of four genes. Based on sequence analysis it was deduced that Atppc1, Atppc2 and Atppc3 genes encode plant-type PEPCs,
Patients with ICH whose INR is elevated because of VKA should have their VKA withheld, receive therapy to replace vitamin K-dependent factors and correct the INR, and receive intravenous vitamin K (Class I; Level of Evidence C). PCCs may have fewer complications and correct the INR more rapidly than FFP and might be considered over FFP (Class IIb; Level of Evidence B). rFVIIa does not replace all clotting factors, and although the INR may be lowered, clotting may not be restored in vivo; therefore, rFVIIa is not recommended for VKA reversal in ICH (Class III; Level of Evidence C). (Revised from the previous guideline ...
Patients with ICH whose INR is elevated because of VKA should have their VKA withheld, receive therapy to replace vitamin K-dependent factors and correct the INR, and receive intravenous vitamin K (Class I; Level of Evidence C). PCCs may have fewer complications and correct the INR more rapidly than FFP and might be considered over FFP (Class IIb; Level of Evidence B). rFVIIa does not replace all clotting factors, and although the INR may be lowered, clotting may not be restored in vivo; therefore, rFVIIa is not recommended for VKA reversal in ICH (Class III; Level of Evidence C). (Revised from the previous guideline ...
The Michigan Community College Association provides leadership on issues affecting member colleges. Providing legislative and government advocacy for its members, MCCA members also benefit from initiatives that leverage the combined efforts of multiple colleges, resulting in more efficient and effective programs.
Protein S human is a vitamin K-dependent plasma glycoprotein which has antcoagulant properties [A19561]. It serves as a negative feedback mechanism in the coagulation cascade.
Prevents the return of vitamin K to its reduced form, and therefore the gamma-carboxylation of vitamin-K dependent clotting factors (II, VII, IX, X), as well as Protein C and Protein S ...
ACCA Revision Series: Managing People Paper 1.3 by ACCA, 9780748353071, available at Book Depository with free delivery worldwide.
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BEGIN PGP PUBLIC KEY BLOCK----- mQQNBFUoCGgBIADFLp+QonWyK8L6SPsNrnhwgfCxCk6OUHRIHReAsgAUXegpfg0b rsoHbeI5W9s5to/MUGwULHj59M6AvT+DS5rmrThgrND8Dt0dO+XW88bmTXHsFg9K jgf1wUpTLq73iWnSBo1m1Z14BmvkROG6M7+vQneCXBFOyFZxWdUSQ15vdzjr4yPR oMZjxCIFxe+QL+pNpkXd/St2b6UxiKB9HT9CXaezXrjbRgIzCeV6a5TFfcnhncpO ve59rGK3/az7cmjd6cOFo1Iw0J63TGBxDmDTZ0H3ecQvwDnzQSbgepiqbx4VoNmH OxpInVNv3AAluIJqN7RbPeWrkohh3EQ1j+lnYGMhBktX0gAyyYSrkAEKmaP6Kk4j /ZNkniw5iqMBY+v/yKW4LCmtLfe32kYs5OdreUpSv5zWvgL9sZ+4962YNKtnaBK3 1hztlJ+xwhqalOCeUYgc0Clbkw+sgqFVnmw5lP4/fQNGxqCO7Tdy6pswmBZlOkmH XXfti6hasVCjT1MhemI7KwOmz/KzZqRlzgg5ibCzftt2GBcV3a1+i357YB5/3wXE j0vkd+SzFioqdq5Ppr+//IK3WX0jzWS3N5Lxw31q8fqfWZyKJPFbAvHlJ5ez7wKA 1iS9krDfnysv0BUHf8elizydmsrPWN944Flw1tOFjW46j4uAxSbRBp284wiFmV8N TeQjBI8Ku8NtRDleriV3djATCg2SSNsDhNxSlOnPTM5U1bmh+Ehk8eHE3hgn9lRp 2kkpwafD9pXaqNWJMpD4Amk60L3N+yUrbFWERwncrk3DpGmdzge/tl/UBldPoOeK p3shjXMdpSIqlwlB47Xdml3Cd8HkUz8r05xqJ4DutzT00ouP49W4jqjWU9bTuM48 LRhrOpjvp5uPu0aIyt4BZgpce5QGLwXONTRX+bsTyEFEN3EO6XLeLFJb2jhddj7O ...
BEGIN PGP PUBLIC KEY BLOCK----- mQQNBFUoCGgBIADFLp+QonWyK8L6SPsNrnhwgfCxCk6OUHRIHReAsgAUXegpfg0b rsoHbeI5W9s5to/MUGwULHj59M6AvT+DS5rmrThgrND8Dt0dO+XW88bmTXHsFg9K jgf1wUpTLq73iWnSBo1m1Z14BmvkROG6M7+vQneCXBFOyFZxWdUSQ15vdzjr4yPR oMZjxCIFxe+QL+pNpkXd/St2b6UxiKB9HT9CXaezXrjbRgIzCeV6a5TFfcnhncpO ve59rGK3/az7cmjd6cOFo1Iw0J63TGBxDmDTZ0H3ecQvwDnzQSbgepiqbx4VoNmH OxpInVNv3AAluIJqN7RbPeWrkohh3EQ1j+lnYGMhBktX0gAyyYSrkAEKmaP6Kk4j /ZNkniw5iqMBY+v/yKW4LCmtLfe32kYs5OdreUpSv5zWvgL9sZ+4962YNKtnaBK3 1hztlJ+xwhqalOCeUYgc0Clbkw+sgqFVnmw5lP4/fQNGxqCO7Tdy6pswmBZlOkmH XXfti6hasVCjT1MhemI7KwOmz/KzZqRlzgg5ibCzftt2GBcV3a1+i357YB5/3wXE j0vkd+SzFioqdq5Ppr+//IK3WX0jzWS3N5Lxw31q8fqfWZyKJPFbAvHlJ5ez7wKA 1iS9krDfnysv0BUHf8elizydmsrPWN944Flw1tOFjW46j4uAxSbRBp284wiFmV8N TeQjBI8Ku8NtRDleriV3djATCg2SSNsDhNxSlOnPTM5U1bmh+Ehk8eHE3hgn9lRp 2kkpwafD9pXaqNWJMpD4Amk60L3N+yUrbFWERwncrk3DpGmdzge/tl/UBldPoOeK p3shjXMdpSIqlwlB47Xdml3Cd8HkUz8r05xqJ4DutzT00ouP49W4jqjWU9bTuM48 LRhrOpjvp5uPu0aIyt4BZgpce5QGLwXONTRX+bsTyEFEN3EO6XLeLFJb2jhddj7O ...
List of Penicillium species MycoBank Straininfo of Penicillium emmonsii Q. Ashton Acton, PhD (2012). Carbon-Carbon Ligases: ...
In the EC scheme, such carboxylases are classed under EC 6.3.4, "Other Carbon-Nitrogen Ligases". Another example is the ... Braunstein, Pierre; Matt, Dominique; Nobel, Dominique (August 1988). "Reactions of Carbon Dioxide with Carbon-Carbon Bond ... Carbon-based life originates from carboxylation that couples atmospheric carbon dioxide to a sugar. The process is usually ... Carboxylation is a chemical reaction in which a carboxylic acid group is produced by treating a substrate with carbon dioxide. ...
It appears that the ZTP/ZMP purine derivatives can be used to regulate one-carbon metabolism by indirectly sensing a shortage ... Most obviously, for example, formate-tetrahydrofolate ligase synthesizes 10-formyltetrahydrofolate. The glyA and folD convert ... The genes presumed to be regulated by pfl RNAs relate to one-carbon metabolism. ... a Master Regulator of One-Carbon Metabolism". Structure. 23: 1375-1381. doi:10.1016/j.str.2015.05.016. PMC 4685959. PMID ...
... carbon-nitrogen ligases with glutamine as amide-n-donor MeSH D08.811.464.259.400.300 - carbamoyl-phosphate synthase (glutamine- ... valine-tRNA ligase MeSH D08.811.464.267.500 - coenzyme a ligases MeSH D08.811.464.267.500.200 - acetate-coa ligase MeSH D08.811 ... 500.600 - succinate-coa ligases MeSH D08.811.464.754.600 - dna ligases MeSH D08.811.464.754.720 - rna ligase (atp) MeSH D08.811 ... alanine-tRNA ligase MeSH D08.811.464.263.200.100 - arginine-tRNA ligase MeSH D08.811.464.263.200.150 - aspartate-tRNA ligase ...
6.2: Carbon-Sulfur. *Succinyl coenzyme A synthetase. *Acetyl-CoA synthetase. *Long-chain-fatty-acid-CoA ligase ... An aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase (aaRS or ARS), also called tRNA-ligase, is an enzyme that attaches the appropriate amino acid onto ...
Ligases: carbon-carbon ligases (EC 6.4). Biotin dependent carboxylation. *Pyruvate carboxylase. *Acetyl-CoA carboxylase ...
6.2: Carbon-Sulfur. *Succinyl coenzyme A synthetase. *Acetyl-CoA synthetase. *Long-chain-fatty-acid-CoA ligase ... E3 ligase activity[edit]. The E3 ubiquitin ligase MDM2 is a negative regulator of the p53 tumor suppressor protein. MDM2 binds ... ubiquitin protein ligase activity. • NEDD8 ligase activity. • disordered domain specific binding. • protein domain specific ... The RING domain of Mdm2 confers E3 ubiquitin ligase activity and is sufficient for E3 ligase activity in Mdm2 RING ...
... ligases used to form carbon-oxygen bonds EC 6.2 includes ligases used to form carbon-sulfur bonds EC 6.3 includes ligases used ... ligases used to form carbon-carbon bonds EC 6.5 includes ligases used to form phosphoric ester bonds EC 6.6 includes ligases ... The common names of ligases often include the word "ligase", such as DNA ligase, an enzyme commonly used in molecular biology ... Ligases are classified as EC 6 in the EC number classification of enzymes. Ligases can be further classified into six ...
P-coumaric acid then acts as the starter unit which gets loaded with coenzyme A by 4-coumaroyl:CoA-ligase (4CL). The starter ... and undergoes a general phenylpropanoid pathway where the shikimate derived aromatic ring is shifted to the adjacent carbon of ... The process begins with phenylalanine ligase (PAL) cleaving the amino group from L-Phe forming the unsaturated carboxylic acid ...
This enzyme belongs to the family of ligases, specifically those forming carbon-nitrogen bonds carbon-nitrogen ligases with ... L-glutamine amido-ligase, (ADP-forming), 2-N-formyl-1-N-(5-phospho-D-ribosyl)glycinamide:L-glutamine, and amido-ligase (ADP- ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is N2-formyl-N1-(5-phospho-D-ribosyl)glycinamide:L-glutamine amido-ligase (ADP-forming ...
Carbon Catabolite Repression-Negative On TATA-less, or CCR4-Not, is a multiprotein complex that functions in gene expression. ... The complex has multiple enzymatic activities as both a poly(A) 3′-5′ exonuclease and a ubiquitin ligase. The complex is ... The human CCR4-Not complex is composed of structural (non-catalytic) subunits and those that have exonuclease and E3 ligase ... "Identification of a ubiquitin-protein ligase subunit within the CCR4-NOT transcription repressor complex". The EMBO Journal. ...
6.2: Carbon-Sulfur. *Succinyl coenzyme A synthetase. *Acetyl-CoA synthetase. *Long-chain-fatty-acid-CoA ligase ... Stage two involves four key Mur ubiquitin ligase enzymes: MurC (EC),[1] MurD (EC),[2] MurE (EC) [3] and MurF (EC).[4] These ... 6-diaminopimelate ligase (MurE), and UDP-N-acetylmuramoyl-tripeptide-D-alanyl-D-alanine ligase (MurF). This entry also includes ... All four Mur ligases are topologically similar to one another, even though they display low sequence identity. They are each ...
Metabolism As an autotroph, "A. aeolicus" has the ability to obtain all necessary carbon by fixing CO2 from the environment. ... succinate-CoA ligase, aconitase and citratesynthase. Moreover, this bacterium uses oxygen, hydrogen, and mineral salts as its ...
Beta-oxidation of fatty acids is performed by a long-chain fatty acid-CoA ligase, three fatty acid dehydrogenases, a crotonase ... Instead, it relies on peptides for carbon and energy. Secreted proteases result in a mixture of amino acids and oligopeptides ... Flavobacterium psychrophilum has a strictly aerobic metabolism, but is unable to use carbohydrates as a source of carbon and ... Gene FP1110 and FP1111 encode for cyanophycinase and cyanophycin synthetase may serve as a storage compound for carbon, ...
For example, carbon monoxide poisoning is caused by the competitive binding of carbon monoxide as opposed to oxygen in ... and ligases. For instance, the transferase hexokinase catalyzes the phosphorylation of glucose to make glucose-6-phosphate. ... Carbon monoxide's high affinity may outcompete oxygen in the presence of low oxygen concentration. In these circumstances, the ... In the context of the blood, an example of competitive binding is carbon monoxide which competes with oxygen for the active ...
... and adding two methyl groups at the para-hydroxyl and the meta carbon position. This modified tyrosine reacts with the original ... biosynthesis of trabectedin in Candidatus Endoecteinascidia frumentensis starts with a fatty acid loading onto the acyl-ligase ... adding several functional groups and making a sulfide bridge between the original cysteine residue and the beta-carbon of the ...
Benzaldehyde reacts with pyruvic acid to attach a 2 carbon unit. This product then undergoes transamination and methylation to ... proposed suggests that phenylalanine first forms cinnamoyl-CoA via the enzymes phenylalanine ammonia-lyase and acyl CoA ligase. ...
During the preparatory phase, each 6-carbon glucose molecule is broken into two 3-carbon molecules. Thus, in glycolysis ... or a GDP-forming succinate-CoA ligase (G-SUCL, EC 6.2.1.4). The ADP-forming succinate-CoA ligase is potentially the only matrix ... Succinate-CoA ligase is a heterodimer composed of an invariant α-subunit and a substrate-specific ß-subunit, encoded by either ... This combination results in either an ADP-forming succinate-CoA ligase (A-SUCL, EC 6.2.1.5) ...
Then flap endonuclease removes the flap, and this is followed by DNA ligase to seal the strand. At this point there has been a ... DNA methylation levels were associated both with recent and chronic exposure to Black Carbon as well as benzene. After injury, ... Abdou I, Poirier GG, Hendzel MJ, Weinfeld M (January 2015). "DNA ligase III acts as a DNA strand break sensor in the cellular ... adding a single cytosine to pair with the pre-existing guanine in the complementary strand and then DNA ligase to seal the cut ...
The enzyme 3-hydroxybenzoate-CoA ligase uses ATP, 3-hydroxybenzoate and CoA to produce AMP, diphosphate and 3-hydroxybenzoyl- ... 4-Hydroxybenzoic acid is produced commercially from potassium phenoxide and carbon dioxide in the Kolbe-Schmitt reaction. It ... It can be found in Klebsiella aerogenes (Aerobacter aerogenes). The enzyme 4-hydroxybenzoate-CoA ligase transforms ATP, 4- ...
For all standard amino acids, except glycine, the α-carbon is a chiral center. In the case of glycine, the α-carbon has two ... Okazaki fragments are covalently joined by DNA ligase to form a continuous strand. Then, to complete DNA replication, RNA ... Proline has a functional group on the α-carbon that forms a ring with the amino group. One major step in amino acid ... In the case of methionine, the methyl carbon is derived from serine and the sulfur group, but in most organisms, it is derived ...
Once AnkB is anchored into the LCV membrane, it interacts with the SCF1 ubiquitin ligase complex and functions as a platform ... Type II-secreted degradative enzymes may provide an additional strategy to generate carbon and energy sources. The ... The amino acids are the primary carbon and energy source of L. pneumophila, that have almost 12 classes of ABC-transporters, ... and as sources of carbon and nitrogen. However, promotion of proteasomal degradation for the obtention of amino acids may not ...
TunM is thought to catalyze the formation of a new bond between the 5' carbon of uridine and the 6' carbon of UDP-6'-deoxy-5-6- ... TunL and a fatty acyl-ACP ligase are used to load metabolic fatty acids onto the acyl carrier protein, TunK. TunC then attaches ... carbon. A nearby cysteine donates a proton to the hydroxyl group as it leaves as water. NADH donates a hydride to the 4' carbon ... Once uridine and UDP-6'-deoxy-5-6-ene-GalNAc are produced, TunB catalyzes their linkage at the 6' carbon of UDP-6'-deoxy-5-6- ...
The bicarbonate ion's carbon is added to the middle carbon of propionyl-CoA, forming a D-methylmalonyl-CoA. However, the D ... Long-chain-fatty-acid-CoA ligase catalyzes the reaction between a fatty acid with ATP to give a fatty acyl adenylate, plus ... Long-chain fatty acids with an odd number of carbon atoms are found particularly in ruminant fat and milk. Chains with an odd- ... It is named as such because the beta carbon of the fatty acid undergoes oxidation to a carbonyl group. Beta-oxidation is ...
... and a carbon atom from bicarbonate (1). Formyl groups build carbon-2 and carbon-8 in the purine ring system, which are the ones ... catalyzed by phosphoribosylamine-glycine ligase (GAR synthetase). Due to the chemical lability of PRA, which has a half-life of ... The amino acid glycine contributes all its carbon (2) and nitrogen (1) atoms, with additional nitrogen atoms from glutamine (2 ... while fumarate is transported to the citric acid cycle which can then skip the carbon dioxide evolution steps to produce malate ...
6.2: Carbon-Sulfur. *Succinyl coenzyme A synthetase. *Acetyl-CoA synthetase. *Long-chain-fatty-acid-CoA ligase ...
6.2: Carbon-Sulfur. *Succinyl coenzyme A synthetase. *Acetyl-CoA synthetase. *Long-chain-fatty-acid-CoA ligase ... L-glutamine amido-ligase (AMP-forming).[1][2][3][4][5][6] This enzyme catalyses the following chemical reaction ...
Category:Ligases (EC 6) (Ligase)Edit. Category:EC 6.1 (form carbon-oxygen bonds)Edit. 6-carboxytetrahydropterin synthase ... 6 Category:Ligases (EC 6) (Ligase) *6.1 Category:EC 6.1 (form carbon-oxygen bonds) ... Category:EC 4.1 (carbon-carbon lyases)Edit. *Category:EC 4.1.1 *Ornithine decarboxylase (EC 4.1.1.17) ... Category:EC 6.2 (form carbon-sulfur bonds)Edit. *EC 6.2.1.1: Acetate--CoA ligase ...
... every carbon bond is occupied by a hydrogen atom or a single bond to another carbon in the carbon chain, or they can be ... Ligases then joins the sticky ends to the corresponding sticky ends of the foreign DNA fragments creating a recombinant DNA ... These monosaccharides consist of a five to six carbon ring that contains carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen - typically in a 1:2:1 ... Glycerol is a simple polyol that has a formula of C3H5(OH)3. Fatty acids are long carbon chains that have a carboxylic acid ...
Pyruvate Carboxylase Genes and a PutativeEscherichia coli-Type Bifunctional Biotin Protein Ligase Gene (bpl/birA) Exhibit a ...
Forming carbon-nitrogen bonds [6.3] <5>. (59,78). (58,59,38). 0: Other carbon--nitrogen ligases [6.3.4] <24>. (28,31). (27,28, ... Phosphoribosylamine--glycine ligase [6.3.4.13]. (6,6). (6,6,6). - 1: Ribose-5-phosphate--ammonia ligase [6.3.4.7]. (0,0). (0,0, ... ligase ,, Biotin--[propionyl-CoA-carboxylase (ATP-hydrolyzing)] ligase ,, Biotin--[biotin carboxyl-carrier protein] ligase. ... Glutamate--methylamine ligase [6.3.4.12]. (0,0). (0,0,0). - 1: Imidazoleacetate--phosphoribosyldiphosphate ligase [6.3.4.8]. (0 ...
EC 6.2 includes ligases used to form carbon-sulfur bonds. *EC 6.3 includes ligases used to form carbon-nitrogen bonds ( ... The common names of ligases often include the word "ligase", such as DNA ligase, an enzyme commonly used in molecular biology ... DNA ligase. References[edit]. *^ "Synthases and ligases". chem.qmul.ac.uk. Archived from the original on October 15, 2012. ... This article is about general ligases. For DNA specific ligases, see DNA ligase. ...
List of Penicillium species MycoBank Straininfo of Penicillium emmonsii Q. Ashton Acton, PhD (2012). Carbon-Carbon Ligases: ...
ligase activity, forming carbon-nitrogen bonds Source: InterPro. *magnesium ion binding Source: UniProtKB-UniRule ... Belongs to the Pup ligase/Pup deamidase family. Pup-conjugating enzyme subfamily.UniRule annotation. Manual assertion according ... sp,D2ATU8,PAFA_STRRD Pup--protein ligase OS=Streptosporangium roseum (strain ATCC 12428 / DSM 43021 / JCM 3005 / NI 9100) OX= ...
In the EC scheme, such carboxylases are classed under EC 6.3.4, "Other Carbon-Nitrogen Ligases". Another example is the ... Braunstein, Pierre; Matt, Dominique; Nobel, Dominique (August 1988). "Reactions of Carbon Dioxide with Carbon-Carbon Bond ... Carbon-based life originates from carboxylation that couples atmospheric carbon dioxide to a sugar. The process is usually ... Carboxylation is a chemical reaction in which a carboxylic acid group is produced by treating a substrate with carbon dioxide. ...
Carbon-Oxygen Ligases [D08.811.464.263]. *Amino Acyl-tRNA Synthetases [D08.811.464.263.200] ... "Alanine-tRNA Ligase" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical ... This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Alanine-tRNA Ligase" by people in Harvard Catalyst Profiles by ... Below are the most recent publications written about "Alanine-tRNA Ligase" by people in Profiles. ...
Glutamate-Cysteine Ligase: One of the enzymes active in the gamma-glutamyl cycle. It catalyzes the synthesis of gamma- ... Ligases: 2113*Carbon-Nitrogen Ligases*Peptide Synthases: 6*Glutamate-Cysteine Ligase: 110*human glutamate-cysteine ligase ... Glutamate-Cysteine Ligase. Subscribe to New Research on Glutamate-Cysteine Ligase One of the enzymes active in the gamma- ... Glutamylcysteine Synthetase; Glutamate Cysteine Ligase; Ligase, Glutamate-Cysteine; Synthetase, Glutamylcysteine; Synthetase, ...
Phenylalanine-tRNA Ligase information including symptoms, causes, diseases, symptoms, treatments, and other medical and health ... Ligase Terms associated with Phenylalanine-tRNA Ligase:. Terms Similar to Phenylalanine-tRNA Ligase:. *Phenylalanyl T RNA ... Introduction: Phenylalanine-tRNA Ligase. Description of Phenylalanine-tRNA Ligase. Phenylalanine-tRNA Ligase: An enzyme that ... Hierarchical classifications of Phenylalanine-tRNA Ligase. The following list attempts to classify Phenylalanine-tRNA Ligase ...
ligase activity, forming carbon-nitrogen bonds. id: GO:0016879. name: ligase activity, forming carbon-nitrogen bonds. namespace ... Description: Catalysis of the joining of two molecules, or two groups within a single molecule, via a carbon-nitrogen bond, ... acid-amino acid ligase activity. GO:0016882. cyclo-ligase activity. GO:0016884. carbon-nitrogen ligase activity, with glutamine ... acid-ammonia (or amide) ligase activity. GO:0016881. ... citrate-L-glutamate ligase activity. Parent Functions. id. name ...
6.2: Carbon-Sulfur. *Succinyl coenzyme A synthetase. *Acetyl-CoA synthetase. *Long-chain-fatty-acid-CoA ligase ... An aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase (aaRS or ARS), also called tRNA-ligase, is an enzyme that attaches the appropriate amino acid onto ...
ligase activity, forming carbon-nitrogen bonds. acid-amino acid ligase activity. ubiquitin-protein ligase activity. ... E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase which is a component of the N-end rule pathway. Recognizes and binds to proteins bearing specific N ... Kume K, Iizumi Y, Shimada M, Ito Y, Kishi T, Yamaguchi Y, Handa H: Role of N-end rule ubiquitin ligases UBR1 and UBR2 in ... Showing Protein E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase UBR2 (HMDBP09274). IdentificationBiological propertiesGene propertiesProtein ...
ligase activity. ligase activity, forming carbon-nitrogen bonds. acid-amino acid ligase activity. ... May also act as a E3 ubiquitin- protein ligase which accepts ubiquitin from an E2 ubiquitin- conjugating enzyme in the form of ... Involved in acid-amino acid ligase activity. Specific Function. Involved in membrane trafficking via some guanine nucleotide ... Showing Protein Probable E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase HERC1 (HMDBP08447). IdentificationBiological propertiesGene properties ...
threonine-trna ligase activity. ligase activity, forming carbon-oxygen bonds. ligase activity, forming aminoacyl-trna and ... Showing Protein Threonine--tRNA ligase, mitochondrial (HMDBP09249). IdentificationBiological propertiesGene propertiesProtein ...
Carbon-Carbon Ligases * glutamyl carboxylase Grant support * HL03240/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/United States ...
Carbon-Carbon Ligases / biosynthesis* * Carbon-Carbon Ligases / genetics* * Carbon-Carbon Ligases / physiology ...
Carbon-oxygen Ligases. Enzymes that catalyze the joining of two molecules by the formation of a carbon-oxygen bond. EC 6.1. ... Carbon-oxygen Lyases. Enzymes that catalyze the cleavage of a carbon-oxygen bond by means other than hydrolysis or oxidation. ... A protocol for three-component reactions of cyclic ethers, α-diazo esters, and weak nitrogen, oxygen, carbon, and sulfur ...
... graphitic carbon nitride (CN) polymer contains weak hydrogen bond and van der Waals (vdWs) interactions besides strong covalent ... Carbon-carbon Ligases. Enzymes that catalyze the joining of two molecules by the formation of a carbon-carbon bond. These are ... Carbon-carbon Double Bond Isomerases. Enzymes that catalyze the shifting of a carbon-carbon double bond from one position to ... enzymes shifting a carbon-carbon double bond (CARBON-CARBON DOUBLE BOND ISOMERASES), and enzymes transposing S-S bonds (SULFUR- ...
propionyl-CoA:carbon dioxide ligase alpha subunit. Additional Information & Resources. Tests Listed in the Genetic Testing ...
propanoyl-CoA:carbon dioxide ligase beta subunit. *propionyl CoA carboxylase, beta polypeptide ...
ligase activity, forming carbon-oxygen bonds. RNA processing. To understand the potential gene interactions during WSSV ...
ligase activity, forming carbon-nitrogen bonds. down. 2.30E-09. acid-amino acid ligase activity ... Decrease in ligase activity was ranked at the top (Table 3). Subsequently, decreases in response to oxidative stress and ... ubiquitin-protein ligase activity were included. Next, pathway analysis was also performed, by IPA. As in GO analysis, protein ...
Propanoyl-CoA:carbon dioxide ligase. ,p>This subsection of the ,a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names%5Fand%5Ftaxonomy% ...
6.2: Carbon-Sulfur. *Succinyl coenzyme A synthetase. *Acetyl-CoA synthetase. *Long-chain-fatty-acid-CoA ligase ... Kamura T, Conaway JW, Conaway RC (2002). "Roles of SCF and VHL ubiquitin ligases in regulation of cell growth". Prog. Mol. ... The main action of the VHL protein is thought to be its E3 ubiquitin ligase activity that results in specific target proteins ... and possesses ubiquitin ligase E3 activity. This protein is involved in the ubiquitination and degradation of hypoxia-inducible ...
DR GO; GO:0016879; F:ligase activity, forming carbon-nitrogen bonds; IEA:UniProtKB-UniRule. DR GO; GO:0006400; P:tRNA ... Ligase {ECO:0000256,HAMAP-Rule:MF_01161, ECO:0000256,SAAS:SAAS00054817, KW ECO:0000313,EMBL:CAL99742.1}; KW Nucleotide-binding ...
... acyl AMP ligase family member required for biosynthesis of phthiocerol dimycocerosate lipid found in the cell wall of ... a fatty -acyl AMP ligase family member required for biosynthesis of phthiocerol dimycocerosate lipid found in the cell wall of ...
GO:0016879: ligase activity, forming carbon-nitrogen bonds molecular_function. GO:0019941: modification-dependent protein ... Iyer, et al (2008) first suggested that PafA is the ligase for Pup, a ubiquitin analog attached to an epsilon-amino group of a ... Members of this family are the Pup--protein ligase PafA (proteasome accessory factor A), a protein shown to regulate steady- ... RN [2] RM PMID:22910360 RT Structures of Pup ligase PafA and depupylase Dop from the prokaryotic ubiquitin-like modification ...
Monoclonal Antibody Carbon-Nitrogen Ligase Activity Monoclonal Antibody Carbon-Nitrogen Ligase Activity: Monoclonal Antibody - ...
6. Ligases. 6.3 Forming carbon-nitrogen bonds. 6.3.5 Carbon-nitrogen ligases with glutamine as amido-N-donor. 6.3.5.4 ...
Carbon-Nitrogen Ligases. Papers overview. Semantic Scholar uses AI to extract papers important to this topic. ...
  • In biochemistry , a ligase is an enzyme that can catalyze the joining of two large molecules by forming a new chemical bond , usually with accompanying hydrolysis of a small pendant chemical group on one of the larger molecules or the enzyme catalyzing the linking together of two compounds, e.g., enzymes that catalyze joining of C-O, C-S, C-N, etc. (wikipedia.org)
  • The common names of ligases often include the word "ligase", such as DNA ligase , an enzyme commonly used in molecular biology laboratories to join together DNA fragments. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is also said that a synthase is a lyase (a lyase is an enzyme that catalyzes the breaking of various chemical bonds by means other than hydrolysis and oxidation, often forming a new double bond or a new ring structure) and does not require any energy, whereas a synthetase is a ligase (a ligase is an enzyme that binds two chemicals or compounds) and thus requires energy. (wikipedia.org)
  • An aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase ( aaRS or ARS ), also called tRNA-ligase, is an enzyme that attaches the appropriate amino acid onto its tRNA . (wikipedia.org)
  • This enzyme belongs to the family of ligases, specifically those forming carbon-sulfur bonds as acid-thiol ligases. (creative-enzymes.com)
  • This enzyme belongs to the family of ligases, specifically those forming carbon-nitrogen bonds carbon-nitrogen ligases with glutamine as amido-N-donor. (wikibooks.org)
  • The systematic name of this enzyme class is xanthosine-5'-phosphate:L-glutamine amido-ligase (AMP-forming). (wikibooks.org)
  • The systematic name of this enzyme class is 7,8-dihydropteroate:L-glutamate ligase (ADP-forming) . (wikidoc.org)
  • BirA acts both as a biotin-operon repressor and as the enzyme that synthesizes the corepressor, acetyl-CoA:carbon-dioxide ligase. (acris-antibodies.com)
  • Carbamoyl Phosphate Synthetase I is a ligase enzyme located in the mitochondria involved in the production of urea. (omicsgroup.org)
  • An R. palustris mutant carrying a disrupted 4-hydroxybenzoate-coenzyme A ligase gene was unable to grow with 4-hydroxybenzoate under anaerobic conditions, indicating that the enzyme is essential for anaerobic degradation of this compound. (asm.org)
  • Our interest in fatty acyl-CoA synthetase stems from the identification of this enzyme, long-chain fatty acyl-CoA ligase (LCFA) by microarray analysis. (hindawi.com)
  • On the basis of the data presented in this work, we propose that long-chain fatty acyl-CoA ligase enzyme serves as an important protein and a potential target candidate for development of selective inhibitors against leishmaniasis. (hindawi.com)
  • One interesting target which emerged from our microarray experiments [ 4 ] was long-chain fatty acid-CoA ligase (EC 6.2.1.3) (GenBank Accession No. XM_001681734), a key enzyme involved in the metabolism of fatty acids in all organisms [ 5 - 9 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Long-chain fatty acyl-CoA ligase is critical enzyme processing long-chain fatty acid acylation which is essential for lysophosphatidylinositol (lyso-PI) incorporation into glycosyl phosphatidylinositols (GPIs) [ 16 , 17 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Ligases are used in catalysis where two substrates are ligated and the formation of carbon-carbon, carbon-sulfide, carbon-nitrogen, and carbon-oxygen bonds due to condensation reactions. (wikibooks.org)
  • Other common names for ligases include the word "synthetase", because they are used to synthesize new molecules. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mammalian DHOase (S-dihydroorotate amidohydrolase, EC 3.5.2.3) is part of a large multifunctional protein called CAD, which also has a carbamoyl-phosphate synthetase [carbon-dioxide: L-glutamine amido-ligase (ADP-forming, carbamate-phosphorylating), EC 6.3.5.5] and aspartate transcarbamoylase (carbamoyl-phosphate: L-aspartate carbamoyltransferase, EC 2.1.3.2) activities. (pnas.org)
  • This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Glutamate-Cysteine Ligase" by people in this website by year, and whether "Glutamate-Cysteine Ligase" was a major or minor topic of these publications. (uchicago.edu)
  • Below are the most recent publications written about "Glutamate-Cysteine Ligase" by people in Profiles. (uchicago.edu)
  • Alterations in glutamate cysteine ligase content in the retina of two retinitis pigmentosa animal models. (nih.gov)
  • Title: Alteration of Nrf2 and Glutamate Cysteine Ligase expression contribute to lesions growth and fibrogenesis in ectopic endometriosis. (nih.gov)
  • Data show that the catalytic subunit of glutamate cysteine ligase (Gclc)-derived glutathione buffers reactive oxygen species (ROS), and regulates metabolic reprogramming. (nih.gov)
  • De novo sphingolipid biosynthesis starts with the condensation of serine and the product of long-chain fatty acyl-CoA ligase. (hindawi.com)
  • E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase which is a component of the N-end rule pathway. (hmdb.ca)
  • The protein encoded by this gene is a component of the protein complex that includes elongin B, elongin C, and cullin-2, and possesses ubiquitin ligase E3 activity. (wikidoc.org)
  • The main action of the VHL protein is thought to be its E3 ubiquitin ligase activity that results in specific target proteins being 'marked' for degradation. (wikidoc.org)
  • Members of this family are the Pup--protein ligase PafA (proteasome accessory factor A), a protein shown to regulate steady-state levels of certain proteasome targets in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. (jcvi.org)
  • Ozz directs destruction of â-catenin by assembling an active ubiquitin ligase complex, Ozz-E3, which breaks down this pool of the protein in muscle cells. (innovations-report.com)
  • Structure guided design of biotin protein ligase inhibitors for antibiotic discovery. (embl-heidelberg.de)
  • Biotin protein ligase (BPL) represents a promising target for the discovery of new antibacterial chemotherapeutics. (embl-heidelberg.de)
  • Carboxylation is a chemical reaction in which a carboxylic acid group is produced by treating a substrate with carbon dioxide. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sodium salicylate, precursor to aspirin, is commercially prepared by treating sodium phenolate (the sodium salt of phenol) with carbon dioxide at high pressure (100 atm) and high temperature (390 K) - a method known as the Kolbe-Schmitt reaction. (wikipedia.org)
  • Carbon-based life originates from carboxylation that couples atmospheric carbon dioxide to a sugar. (wikipedia.org)
  • Microalgae are photosynthetic microorganisms that can grow using carbon dioxide as sole carbon source and with minimal nutrient requirements. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Lastly, two different groups of methanogens, the hydrogenotrophic methanogens and the acetotrophic methanogens, complete the process by converting acetate, formate, and hydrogen produced by other microorganisms to methane and carbon dioxide. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Building upon this conviction, we have assessed extant types of energy and carbon metabolism for their appropriateness to conditions probably pertaining in those settings of the Hadean planet that fulfil the thermodynamic requirements for life to come into being. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • The quest for the earliest type of biomass-generating carbon metabolism is mostly informed by either or both of two distinct but equally concerned disciplines: palaeogeochemistry and biology. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • In the past, attempts towards deducing the nature of the ancestral carbon metabolism were frequently torn between apparently opposing exigencies exerted by geochemistry, on the one hand, and by biology, on the other hand. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • More recently, inferences towards an ancestral carbon metabolism have increasingly tried to integrate requirements from both geochemistry and biology [ 1 - 5 ]. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • In short, thinking about the earliest carbon metabolism and about the origin of life in general has turned to searching extant carbon fixation pathways which do not conflict with geochemical boundary conditions and which, furthermore, directly couple energy metabolism to the biomass-generating process, both of which obviously need to be coupled to the abiotically available sources of free energy. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Expression of Formate-Tetrahydrofolate Ligase Did Not Improve Growth but Interferes With Nitrogen and Carbon Metabolism ofSynechocystissp. (mpg.de)
  • Genes subject to glucose repression were mainly involved in the metabolism of alternative carbon sources including the control of glycerol uptake and metabolism. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In the present study, we confirm the presence of long-chain fatty acyl-CoA ligase gene in the genome of clinical isolates of Leishmania donovani collected from the disease endemic area in India. (hindawi.com)
  • This selection of specific long-chain fatty acyl-CoA reflects the presence of myristoyl-specific long-chain fatty acyl-CoA ligase in Leishmania [ 21 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Biotin--[acetyl-CoA-carboxylase] ligase. (cathdb.info)
  • Biotin--[methylcrotonoyl-CoA-carboxylase] ligase. (expasy.org)
  • This unusual regulatory behavior prompted us to study the regulation of carbon substrate utilization in different bioprocess conditions on a genome wide scale. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Peroxisomal and methanol utilization genes were confirmed to be subject to carbon substrate repression in excess glucose or glycerol, but were found to be strongly de-repressed in limiting glucose-conditions (as are often applied in fed batch cultivations) in addition to induction by methanol. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Interestingly, in aap2 seeds, total carbon (C) levels were unchanged, while fatty acid levels were elevated. (plantcell.org)
  • As a result, this major pathogen of humans retains enzymes required for the utilization of physiologically relevant carbon sources such as lactic acid and fatty acids, allowing it to continue to use these host nutrients even when glucose is available. (asm.org)
  • Its ability to use methanol as a carbon and energy source, its non-fermentative utilization of glucose and its efficient growth on glycerol are key metabolic features that make it attractive for bioprocess development. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Transcript profiling has suggested that Candida albicans , a major pathogen of humans, regulates its carbon assimilation in an analogous fashion to the model yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae , repressing metabolic pathways required for the use of alterative nonpreferred carbon sources when sugars are available. (asm.org)
  • We conclude that evolutionary rewiring of ubiquitination targets has meant that following glucose exposure, C. albicans retains key metabolic functions, allowing it to continue to assimilate alternative carbon sources. (asm.org)
  • Doping-induced enhancement of crystallinity in polymeric carbon nitride nanosheets to improve their visible-light photocatalytic activity. (bioportfolio.com)
  • The researchers showed that the delicate balance between accumulation and removal of â-catenin at a specific cellular site, the sarcolemma - the membrane covering each muscle fiber - is achieved by the activity of the Ozz-E3 ligase. (innovations-report.com)
  • GO annotations related to this gene include hydrolase activity and carbon-nitrogen ligase activity, with glutamine as amido-N-donor . (genecards.org)
  • FAAH2 has several biochemical functions, for example, carbon-nitrogen ligase activity, with glutamine as amido-N-donor, hydrolase activity. (creativebiomart.net)
  • Iyer, et al (2008) first suggested that PafA is the ligase for Pup, a ubiquitin analog attached to an epsilon-amino group of a Lys side-chain to direct the target to the proteasome. (jcvi.org)
  • RN [2] RM PMID:22910360 RT Structures of Pup ligase PafA and depupylase Dop from the prokaryotic ubiquitin-like modification pathway. (jcvi.org)
  • Current views about carbon assimilation in the pathogenic yeast Candida albicans are strongly influenced by the Saccharomyces cerevisiae paradigm in which cells faced with choices of nutrients first use energetically favorable sugars, degrading enzymes required for the assimilation of less favorable alternative carbon sources. (asm.org)
  • In the first step, an amino group given by glutamine is attached at carbon 1 of PRPP. (wikibooks.org)
  • Nitrogen (N) and carbon (C) are two of the most important nutrients for plant growth, and in the majority of plant species, they are transported in the phloem to sink organs in the form of amino acids and sucrose, respectively. (plantcell.org)
  • The deduced gene product showed about 20% amino acid identity with bacterial coenzyme A ligases involved in aerobic degradation of aromatic acids. (asm.org)
  • 5. The method of claim 1, wherein said 4-coumarate-CoA ligase comprises the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID No. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • 13. The chimeric DNA of claim 9, wherein said 4-coumarate-CoA ligase comprises the amino acid sequence of according to SEQ ID No. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • Catalysis of the joining of two molecules, or two groups within a single molecule, via a carbon-nitrogen bond, with the concomitant hydrolysis of the diphosphate bond in ATP or a similar triphosphate. (systemsbiology.net)
  • An ester formed between the aldehydic carbon of RIBOSE and the terminal phosphate of ADENOSINE DIPHOSPHATE. (healthmatics.info)
  • A protocol for three-component reactions of cyclic ethers, α-diazo esters, and weak nitrogen, oxygen, carbon, and sulfur nucleophiles (pKa = 2.2-14.8) to afford a variety of structurally complex α-o. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Journal Article] The Arabidopsis ubiquitin ligases ATL31 and ATL6 control the defense response as well as the carbon/nitrogen response. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Alanine-tRNA Ligase" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (harvard.edu)
  • The Escherichia coli lac operon provides a classic example of this, mediating lactose utilization only after the preferred carbon source, glucose, is exhausted ( 1 , 2 ). (asm.org)
  • Arrestin-related trafficking proteins are important regulators of the endocytic pathway in yeast, facilitating selective ubiquitylation of target proteins by the E3 ubiquitin ligase, Rsp5. (upv.es)
  • In develops on a nonfermentable carbon resource such as, e.g., ethanol, gluconeogenic enzymes are indicated and relatively long-lived. (sciencethroughsport.com)
  • These enzymes are conditionally short-lived substrates from the Pro/N-degron pathway (Amount S1C).24,26,61 The structure of individual Gid4 comprises an various other and antiparallel yeasts underwent a complete genome duplication.74C78 Counterparts of Gid4 and various other subunits from the GID Ub ligase can be found generally in most eukaryotes, including budding yeast whose lineage didn't undergo a complete genome duplication. (sciencethroughsport.com)
  • A number of limitation enzymes (useful for plasmid building), T4 DNA ligase, and Q5 DNA polymerase had been from New Britain Biolabs. (sciencethroughsport.com)
  • An important gene associated with Neurodevelopmental Disorder with Microcephaly, Epilepsy, and Hypomyelination is MTHFS (Methenyltetrahydrofolate Synthetase), and among its related pathways/superpathways is One carbon pool by folate . (malacards.org)
  • These are fatty acids with an aliphatic tail that contains between 13 and 21 carbon atoms. (ymdb.ca)
  • ˈ θ aɪ ˌ ɒ l / ) is an organosulfur compound that contains a carbon-bonded sulfhydryl (-C-SH or R-SH) group (where R represents an alkane, alkene, or other carbon-containing group of atoms). (leparisien.fr)
  • Medium-chain fatty acids (MCFAs), being eight to ten carbon atoms long, are used as health supplements in weight-loss applications, since they had been frequently discovered to result in greater weight reduction than diet long-chain essential fatty acids [2]. (healthychoicess.net)
  • These are purine nucleotides in which the oxygen atoms linked to the C3 and C5 carbon atoms of the ribose moiety are both bonded the same phosphorus atom of the phosphate group. (drugbank.com)
  • Identification and characterisation of the alpha and beta subunits of succinyl CoA ligase of tomato. (mpg.de)
  • Expression of Formate-Tetrahydrofolate Ligase Did Not Improve Growth but Interferes With Nitrogen and Carbon Metabolism of Synechocystissp. (mpg.de)
  • This study aimed to decipher the responses of the GABA shunt and related carbon-nitrogen metabolism in poplar seedlings ( Populus alba × Populus glandulosa ) treated with different NaCl and CdCl 2 concentrations for 30 h. (moleculardevices.com)
  • Thus, these results suggested that the carbon-nitrogen balance could be altered by activating the GABA shunt when main TCA-cycle intermediates were inhibited under NaCl and CdCl 2 stresses. (moleculardevices.com)
  • The accumulation and reduction of nitrate in the presence of the nitrogen metabolites asparagine (Asn) and glutamine (Gln) and the carbon metabolite sucrose (Suc) were examined in maize (Zea mays L.) seedlings in an attempt to separate their effects on the nitrate uptake system and the nitrate reduction system. (usda.gov)
  • NADH happens when NAD + accepts a hydride atom-a hydrogen atom with an extra electron or two electrons total (H - ). From the hydride electron pair, one electron is transferred to the positively charged nitrogen of the nicotinamide ring of NAD + , and the second hydrogen atom transferred to the C4 carbon atom opposite the nitrogen atom. (lifevantage.com)
  • A platform for engineering peptide ligase for building next generation peptide therapeutics. (sbir.gov)
  • Here, we show, using mice with Treg-specific ablation of the catalytic subunit of glutamate cysteine ligase (Gclc), that GSH loss in Tregs alters serine import and synthesis and that the integrity of this feedback loop is critical for Treg suppressive capacity. (helmholtz-hzi.de)
  • Oxidative tension continues to be also defined as an attribute of experimental types of fibrosis and cirrhosis bile duct ligation (BDL) or carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) intoxication recommending their possible part in liver organ fibrosis. (healthychoicess.net)
  • The balance between the activity of ubiquitin ligases and that of proteases controls the level of ubiquitylation. (sebbm.es)
  • 2002). Evidence is thus accumulating that suggests T6P has an important regulatory role in carbon utilization of Arabidopsis seedlings (Schluepmann et al. (ijbiotech.com)
  • It involves the formation of a thioether linkage between a 15-carbon or 20-carbon isoprenoid moiety and one or two cysteine residues near the C-terminus of the target protein. (jenabioscience.com)
  • Scharf DH, Dworschak JD, Chankhamjon P, Scherlach K, Heinekamp T, Brakhage AA, Hertweck C (2018) Reconstitution of enzymatic carbon-sulfur bond formation reveals detoxification-like strategy in fungal toxin biosynthesis. (leibniz-hki.de)
  • Meanwhile, the expression levels of GAD s, GABA-T s SDH s, succinyl-CoA ligases ( SCS s), and succinic acid aldehyde dehydrogenases ( SSADH s) were also increased. (moleculardevices.com)
  • Reduced Expression of Succinyl CoA Ligase can be Compensated for by an Upregulation of the {gamma}-amino-butyrate (GABA) Shunt in Illuminated Tomato Leaves. (mpg.de)
  • Reduced expression of aconitase results in an enhanced rate of photosynthesis and marked shifts in carbon partitioning in illuminated leaves of wild species tomato. (mpg.de)
  • Environmental variables such as light, temperature and nutrition affect the rate of carbon assimilation in photosynthesis. (ijbiotech.com)
  • Nevertheless, the lacking of genetic tools in cyanobacteria, especially the knockdown strategies for essential pathways, has seriously restricted the attempts to re-direct carbon flux from the central carbohydrate metabolism to the synthesis of bioproducts. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Unlike many organisms, schistosomes cannot synthesize essential fatty acids synthesis, while FAS-II further elongates FASI items to generate essential fatty acids comprising longer carbon stores, which usually possess specific features [17]. (colinsbraincancer.com)
  • PAF-like items are formed once the phospholipids from the mobile membrane suffers oxidative E-7050 harm, resulting in substances that have constructions with shorter peroxidized residues at their second carbon which mimic the actions of PAF [32]. (bmn-673.com)
  • Sugars, irrespective of their roles as a rich sources of carbon and energy have an important signaling role in plant growth and development. (ijbiotech.com)
  • 2000). When supplied to the medium, trehalose spurs the massive accumulation of starch in the source tissue whereas traditional sinks like meristems and roots remain carbon starved and thus growth is inhibited. (ijbiotech.com)
  • The market research includes historical and forecast market data, demand, application details, price trends, and company shares of the leading E3 Ubiquitin Protein Ligase XIAP by geography. (khabarsouthasia.com)
  • Among them, photosynthetic cyanobacteria have attracted significant attention as promising chassis for producing green fuels and chemicals due to their capability to utilizing sunlight and CO 2 as the sole energy and carbon sources, respectively [ 3 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Finally, the report provides detailed profile and data information analysis of leading E3 Ubiquitin Protein Ligase XIAP company. (khabarsouthasia.com)
  • may be the principal aspect that regulates p53 turnover in mammals which function demonstrates which the E2 ligase dRad6 is crucial for the control of ABT-263 (Navitoclax) DMP53 degradation in DMP53 (22 23 isn't known. (biongenex.com)
  • Here, we reported the molecular function of a RING finger E3 ligase, Oryza sativa Drought, Heat and Salt-induced RING finger protein 1 (OsDHSRP1), involved in regulating plant abiotic stress tolerance via the Ub/26S proteasome system. (officialavajade.com)
  • heparan results the other virilization, reverse and deacetylase DNA( electromagnetic ligases), enzyme, and the resilient functions time nucleolus. (erik-mill.de)
  • At the same time, we classify E3 Ubiquitin Protein Ligase XIAP according to the type, application by geography. (khabarsouthasia.com)
  • First, this report covers the present status and the future prospects of the global E3 Ubiquitin Protein Ligase XIAP market for 2015-2024. (khabarsouthasia.com)
  • Single-wall carbon nanotubes present unique opportunities for medication delivery but never have advanced in to the center. (biongenex.com)
  • Global E3 Ubiquitin Protein Ligase XIAP Market Report offers an entire study of the Impact of COVID-19 on E3 Ubiquitin Protein Ligase XIAP Market, Industry Outlook, Opportunities in Market, and Expansion By 2026 and also taking into consideration key factors like drivers, challenges, recent trends, opportunities, advancements, and competitive landscape. (khabarsouthasia.com)
  • EN] Cell viability requires adaptation to changing environmental conditions. (upv.es)