Enzymes that catalyze the transposition of a sulfur-sulfur bond. EC 5.3.4.
Enzymes that catalyze the shifting of a carbon-carbon double bond from one position to another within the same molecule. EC 5.3.3.
A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.
Enzymes that catalyze the interconversion of aldose and ketose compounds.
A class of enzymes that catalyze geometric or structural changes within a molecule to form a single product. The reactions do not involve a net change in the concentrations of compounds other than the substrate and the product.(from Dorland, 28th ed) EC 5.
An enzyme that catalyzes the isomerization of proline residues within proteins. EC 5.2.1.8.
A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.
Enzymes that catalyze either the racemization or epimerization of chiral centers within amino acids or derivatives. EC 5.1.1.
Carbon monoxide (CO). A poisonous colorless, odorless, tasteless gas. It combines with hemoglobin to form carboxyhemoglobin, which has no oxygen carrying capacity. The resultant oxygen deprivation causes headache, dizziness, decreased pulse and respiratory rates, unconsciousness, and death. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
Nanometer-sized tubes composed mainly of CARBON. Such nanotubes are used as probes for high-resolution structural and chemical imaging of biomolecules with ATOMIC FORCE MICROSCOPY.
Enzymes that catalyze the epimerization of chiral centers within carbohydrates or their derivatives. EC 5.1.3.
Sulfur-sulfur bond isomerases that catalyze the rearrangement of disulfide bonds within proteins during folding. Specific protein disulfide-isomerase isoenzymes also occur as subunits of PROCOLLAGEN-PROLINE DIOXYGENASE.
Enzymes that catalyze the transposition of double bond(s) in a steroid molecule. EC 5.3.3.
A family of peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerases that bind to CYCLOSPORINS and regulate the IMMUNE SYSTEM. EC 5.2.1.-
A carbon-carbon double bond isomerase that catalyzes the movement double bond from C3 to C2 of an unsaturated acyl-CoA. The enzyme plays a key role in allowing acyl-CoA substrates to re-enter the beta-oxidation pathway.
Toxic asphyxiation due to the displacement of oxygen from oxyhemoglobin by carbon monoxide.
Stable carbon atoms that have the same atomic number as the element carbon, but differ in atomic weight. C-13 is a stable carbon isotope.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Members of a family of highly conserved proteins which are all cis-trans peptidyl-prolyl isomerases (PEPTIDYLPROLYL ISOMERASE). They bind the immunosuppressant drugs CYCLOSPORINE; TACROLIMUS and SIROLIMUS. They possess rotamase activity, which is inhibited by the immunosuppressant drugs that bind to them.
FATTY ACIDS in which the carbon chain contains one or more double or triple carbon-carbon bonds.
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
A family of immunophilin proteins that bind to the immunosuppressive drugs TACROLIMUS (also known as FK506) and SIROLIMUS. EC 5.2.1.-
The phenomenon whereby certain chemical compounds have structures that are different although the compounds possess the same elemental composition. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
A solvent for oils, fats, lacquers, varnishes, rubber waxes, and resins, and a starting material in the manufacturing of organic compounds. Poisoning by inhalation, ingestion or skin absorption is possible and may be fatal. (Merck Index, 11th ed)
The hydroxy salt of ammonium ion. It is formed when AMMONIA reacts with water molecules in solution.
A 17-KDa cytoplasmic PEPTIDYLPROLYL ISOMERASE involved in immunoregulation. It is a member of the cyclophilin family of proteins that binds to CYCLOSPORINE.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Any of several processes for the permanent or long-term artificial or natural capture or removal and storage of carbon dioxide and other forms of carbon, through biological, chemical or physical processes, in a manner that prevents it from being released into the atmosphere.
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
Unsaturated hydrocarbons of the type Cn-H2n, indicated by the suffix -ene. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed, p408)
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
A colorless, flammable, poisonous liquid, CS2. It is used as a solvent, and is a counterirritant and has local anesthetic properties but is not used as such. It is highly toxic with pronounced CNS, hematologic, and dermatologic effects.
The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.
A class of carbohydrates that contains five carbon atoms.
Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).
A family of enzymes that catalyze the stereoselective, regioselective, or chemoselective syn-dehydrogenation reactions. They function by a mechanism that is linked directly to reduction of molecular OXYGEN.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
An aldose-ketose isomerase that catalyzes the reversible interconversion of glucose 6-phosphate and fructose 6-phosphate. In prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms it plays an essential role in glycolytic and gluconeogenic pathways. In mammalian systems the enzyme is found in the cytoplasm and as a secreted protein. This secreted form of glucose-6-phosphate isomerase has been referred to as autocrine motility factor or neuroleukin, and acts as a cytokine which binds to the AUTOCRINE MOTILITY FACTOR RECEPTOR. Deficiency of the enzyme in humans is an autosomal recessive trait, which results in CONGENITAL NONSPHEROCYTIC HEMOLYTIC ANEMIA.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
The characteristic three-dimensional shape of a molecule.
Chemical groups containing the covalent disulfide bonds -S-S-. The sulfur atoms can be bound to inorganic or organic moieties.
An enzyme that catalyzes the reversible isomerization of D-mannose-6-phosphate to form D-fructose-6-phosphate, an important step in glycolysis. EC 5.3.1.8.
Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The class of all enzymes catalyzing oxidoreduction reactions. The substrate that is oxidized is regarded as a hydrogen donor. The systematic name is based on donor:acceptor oxidoreductase. The recommended name will be dehydrogenase, wherever this is possible; as an alternative, reductase can be used. Oxidase is only used in cases where O2 is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p9)
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
An enzyme that catalyzes reversibly the conversion of D-glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate to dihydroxyacetone phosphate. A deficiency in humans causes nonspherocytic hemolytic disease (ANEMIA, HEMOLYTIC, CONGENITAL NONSPHEROCYTIC). EC 5.3.1.1.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Addition of hydrogen to a compound, especially to an unsaturated fat or fatty acid. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A plant genus of the family ASTERACEAE. Members contain CAROTENOIDS, essential oils (OILS, VOLATILE), flavonoids, mucilage, SAPONINS, and STEROLS. The plants are used both topically and internally. The common name of Marigold is also used for TAGETES.
Fractionation of a vaporized sample as a consequence of partition between a mobile gaseous phase and a stationary phase held in a column. Two types are gas-solid chromatography, where the fixed phase is a solid, and gas-liquid, in which the stationary phase is a nonvolatile liquid supported on an inert solid matrix.
An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.
A microanalytical technique combining mass spectrometry and gas chromatography for the qualitative as well as quantitative determinations of compounds.
Processes involved in the formation of TERTIARY PROTEIN STRUCTURE.

Effect of the hypocholesterolemic agent YM-16638 on cholesterol biosynthesis activity and apolipoprotein B secretion in HepG2 and monkey liver. (1/145)

YM-16638 ([[5-[[3-(4-acetyl-3-hydroxy-2-propylphenoxy)propyl]thio]-1,3,4-++ +thiadiazol-2-yl] thio] acetic acid) showed a strong hypocholesterolemic effect in humans and monkeys. To clarify the mechanism of this hypocholesterolemic effect, the action of YM-16638 on cholesterol biosynthesis in the cultured human hepatoma cell line HepG2 and cynomolgus monkey liver was examined. Cholesterol biosynthesis activity derived from [14C]acetic acid, [3H/14C]mevalonic acid or [14C]isopentenyl pyrophosphate substrates was significantly decreased, but not that from [3H]farnesyl pyrophosphate or [3H]squalene substrates in HepG2 cells treated with YM-16638. Simultaneously, treatment of these cells with YM-16638 changed neither the rate of apolipoprotein B synthesis from [35S]methionine nor its secretion. In addition, the activities of hepatic cholesterol biosynthesis enzymes HMG-CoA reductase, mevalonate kinase (MK), isopentenyl pyrophosphate isomerase (IPPI), farnesyl pyrophosphate synthase (FPPS), squalene synthase and squalene epoxidase were measured in monkeys fed a diet supplemented with YM-16638. Among these enzymes, MK, IPPI and FPPS activities in the YM-16638-treated group significantly decreased by 38%, 56% and 30%, respectively, when compared to those from control animals receiving no drug treatment. These results indicate that YM-16638 has the characteristics of a cholesterol biosynthesis inhibitor.  (+info)

Delta3,5,7,Delta2,4,6-trienoyl-CoA isomerase, a novel enzyme that functions in the beta-oxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids with conjugated double bonds. (2/145)

The mitochondrial metabolism of unsaturated fatty acids with conjugated double bonds at odd-numbered positions, e.g. 9-cis, 11-trans-octadecadienoic acid, was investigated. These fatty acids are substrates of beta-oxidation in isolated rat liver mitochondria and hence are expected to yield 5,7-dienoyl-CoA intermediates. 5, 7-Decadienoyl-CoA was used to study the degradation of these intermediates. After introduction of a 2-trans-double bond by acyl-CoA dehydrogenase or acyl-CoA oxidase, the resultant 2,5, 7-decatrienoyl-CoA can either continue its pass through the beta-oxidation cycle or be converted by Delta3,Delta2-enoyl-CoA isomerase to 3,5,7-decatrienoyl-CoA. The latter compound was isomerized by a novel enzyme, named Delta3,5,7,Delta2,4, 6-trienoyl-CoA isomerase, to 2,4,6-decatrienoyl-CoA, which is a substrate of 2,4-dienoyl-CoA reductase (Wang, H.-Y. and Schulz, H. (1989) Biochem. J. 264, 47-52) and hence can be completely degraded via beta-oxidation. Delta3,5,7,Delta2,4,6-Trienoyl-CoA isomerase was purified from pig heart to apparent homogeneity and found to be a component enzyme of Delta3,5,Delta2,4-dienoyl-CoA isomerase. Although the direct beta-oxidation of 2,5,7-decatrienoyl-CoA seems to be the major pathway, the degradation via 2,4,6-trienoyl-CoA makes a significant contribution to the total beta-oxidation of this intermediate.  (+info)

Molecular cloning and expression of a novel human cDNA related to the diazepam binding inhibitor. (3/145)

In order to isolate the unidentified autoantigens in autoimmune diabetes, a human pancreatic islet cDNA library was constructed and screened with the sera from the diabetic patients. From the library screening, one clone (DRS-1) that strongly reacted with the sera was isolated. Subsequent sequence analysis revealed that the clone was a novel cDNA related to the diazepam binding inhibitor. DRS-1 was expressed in most tissues including liver, lung, tonsil, and thymus, in addition to pancreatic islets. DRS-1 was in vitro translated and the recombinant DRS-1 protein was expressed in Escherichia coli and purified. The size of the in vitro translated or bacterially expressed DRS-1 protein was in agreement with the conceptually translated polypeptide of DRS-1 cDNA. Further studies are required to test whether or not DRS-1 is a new autoantigen in autoimmune diabetes.  (+info)

Characterization of PECI, a novel monofunctional Delta(3), Delta(2)-enoyl-CoA isomerase of mammalian peroxisomes. (4/145)

We report here the identification and characterization of human and mouse PECI, a novel gene that encodes a monofunctional peroxisomal Delta(3),Delta(2)-enoyl-CoA isomerase. Human and mouse PECI were identified on the basis of their sequence similarity to Eci1p, a recently characterized peroxisomal Delta(3),Delta(2)-enoyl-CoA isomerase from the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Cloning and sequencing of the human PECI cDNA revealed the presence of a 1077-base pair open reading frame predicted to encode a 359-amino acid protein with a mass of 39.6 kDa. The corresponding mouse cDNA contains a 1074-base pair open reading frame that encodes a 358-amino acid-long protein with a deduced mass of 39.4 kDa. Northern blot analysis demonstrated human PECI mRNA is expressed in all tissues. A bacterially expressed form of human PECI catalyzed the isomerization of 3-cis-octenoyl-CoA to 2-trans-octenoyl-CoA with a specific activity of 27 units/mg of protein. The human and mouse PECI proteins contain type-1 peroxisomal targeting signals, and human PECI was localized to peroxisomes by both subcellular fractionation and immunofluorescence microscopy techniques. The potential roles for this monofunctional Delta(3),Delta(2)-enoyl-CoA isomerase in peroxisomal metabolism are discussed.  (+info)

Escherichia coli open reading frame 696 is idi, a nonessential gene encoding isopentenyl diphosphate isomerase. (5/145)

Isopentenyl diphosphate isomerase catalyzes the interconversion of isopentenyl diphosphate (IPP) and dimethylallyl diphosphate (DMAPP). In eukaryotes, archaebacteria, and some bacteria, IPP is synthesized from acetyl coenzyme A by the mevalonate pathway. The subsequent isomerization of IPP to DMAPP activates the five-carbon isoprene unit for subsequent prenyl transfer reactions. In Escherichia coli, the isoprene unit is synthesized from pyruvate and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate by the recently discovered nonmevalonate pathway. An open reading frame (ORF696) encoding a putative IPP isomerase was identified in the E. coli chromosome at 65.3 min. ORF696 was cloned into an expression vector; the 20.5 kDa recombinant protein was purified in three steps, and its identity as an IPP isomerase was established biochemically. The gene for IPP isomerase, idi, is not clustered with other known genes for enzymes in the isoprenoid pathway. E. coli FH12 was constructed by disruption of the chromosomal idi gene with the aminoglycoside 3'-phosphotransferase gene and complemented by the wild-type idi gene on plasmid pFMH33 with a temperature-sensitive origin of replication. FH12/pFMH33 was able to grow at the restrictive temperature of 44 degrees C and FH12 lacking the plasmid grew on minimal medium, thereby establishing that idi is a nonessential gene. Although the V(max) of the bacterial protein was 20-fold lower than that of its yeast counterpart, the catalytic efficiencies of the two enzymes were similar through a counterbalance in K(m)s. The E. coli protein requires Mg(2+) or Mn(2+) for activity. The enzyme contains conserved cysteine and glutamate active-site residues found in other IPP isomerases.  (+info)

Rat peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors and brown adipose tissue function during cold acclimatization. (6/145)

Brown adipose tissue (BAT) hyperplasia is a fundamental physiological response to cold; it involves an acute phase of mitotic cell growth followed by a prolonged differentiation phase. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are key regulators of fatty acid metabolism and adipocyte differentiation and may therefore mediate important metabolic changes during non-shivering thermogenesis. In the present study we have investigated PPAR mRNA expression in relation to peroxisome proliferation in rat BAT during cold acclimatization. By immunoelectron microscopy we show that the number of peroxisomes per cytoplasmic volume and acyl-CoA oxidase immunolabeling density remained constant (thus increasing in parallel with tissue mass and cell number) during the initial proliferative phase and the acute thermogenic response but increased after 14 days of cold exposure, correlating with terminal differentiation of BAT. A pronounced decrease in BAT PPARalpha and PPARgamma mRNA levels was found within hours of exposure to cold, which was reversed after 14 days, suggesting a role for either or both of these subtypes in the proliferation and induction of peroxisomes and peroxisomal beta-oxidation enzymes. In contrast, PPARdelta mRNA levels increased progressively during cold exposure. Transactivation assays in HIB 1B and HEK-293 cells demonstrated an adrenergic stimulation of peroxisome proliferator response element reporter activity via PPAR, establishing a role for these nuclear receptors in hormonal regulation of gene transcription in BAT.  (+info)

Alternatives to the isomerase-dependent pathway for the beta-oxidation of oleic acid are dispensable in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Identification of YOR180c/DCI1 encoding peroxisomal delta(3,5)-delta(2,4)-dienoyl-CoA isomerase. (7/145)

Fatty acids with double bonds at odd-numbered positions such as oleic acid can enter beta-oxidation via a pathway relying solely on the auxiliary enzyme Delta(3)-Delta(2)-enoyl-CoA isomerase, termed the isomerase-dependent pathway. Two novel alternative pathways have recently been postulated to exist in mammals, and these additionally depend on Delta(3,5)-Delta(2,4)-dienoyl-CoA isomerase (di-isomerase-dependent) or on Delta(3,5)-Delta(2,4)-dienoyl-CoA isomerase and 2,4-dienoyl-CoA reductase (reductase-dependent). We report the identification of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae oleic acid-inducible DCI1 (YOR180c) gene encoding peroxisomal di-isomerase. Enzyme assays conducted on soluble extracts derived from yeast cells overproducing Dci1p using 3,5,8,11,14-eicosapentenoyl-CoA as substrate demonstrated a specific di-isomerase activity of 6 nmol x min(-1) per mg of protein. Similarly enriched extracts from eci1Delta cells lacking peroxisomal 3,2-isomerase additionally contained an intrinsic 3,2-isomerase activity that could generate 3, 5,8,11,14-eicosapentenoyl-CoA from 2,5,8,11,14-eicosapentenoyl-CoA but not metabolize trans-3-hexenoyl-CoA. Amplification of this intrinsic activity replaced Eci1p since it restored growth of the eci1Delta strain on petroselinic acid for which di-isomerase is not required whereas Eci1p is. Heterologous expression in yeast of rat di-isomerase resulted in a peroxisomal protein that was enzymatically active but did not re-establish growth of the eci1Delta mutant on oleic acid. A strain devoid of Dci1p grew on oleic acid to wild-type levels, whereas one lacking both Eci1p and Dci1p grew as poorly as the eci1Delta mutant. Hence, we reasoned that yeast di-isomerase does not additionally represent a physiological 3,2-isomerase and that Dci1p and the postulated alternative pathways in which it is entrained are dispensable for degrading oleic acid.  (+info)

Function of human mitochondrial 2,4-dienoyl-CoA reductase and rat monofunctional Delta3-Delta2-enoyl-CoA isomerase in beta-oxidation of unsaturated fatty acids. (8/145)

Human 2,4-dienoyl-CoA reductase (2,4-reductase; DECR) and rat monofunctional Delta(3)-Delta(2)-enoyl-CoA isomerase (rat 3, 2-isomerase; ECI) are thought to be mitochondrial auxiliary enzymes involved in the beta-oxidation of unsaturated fatty acids. However, their function during this process has not been demonstrated. Although they lack obvious peroxisomal targeting signals (PTSs), both proteins have been suggested previously to also occur in the mammalian peroxisomal compartment. The putative function and peroxisomal location of the two mammalian proteins can be examined in yeast, since beta-oxidation of unsaturated fatty acids is a compartmentalized process in Saccharomyces cerevisiae requiring peroxisomal 2,4-dienoyl-CoA reductase (Sps19p) and peroxisomal 3, 2-isomerase (Eci1p). A yeast sps19Delta mutant expressing human 2, 4-reductase ending with the native C-terminus could not grow on petroselinic acid [cis-C(18:1(6))] medium but could grow when the protein was extended with a PTS tripeptide, SKL (Ser-Lys-Leu). We therefore reason that the human protein is a physiological 2, 4-reductase but that it is probably not peroxisomal. Rat 3, 2-isomerase expressed in a yeast eci1Delta strain was able to re-establish growth on oleic acid [cis-C(18:1(9))] medium irrespective of an SKL extension. Since we had shown that Delta(2,4) double bonds could not be metabolized extra-peroxisomally to restore growth of the sps19Delta strain, we postulate that rat 3,2-isomerase acted on the Delta(3) unsaturated metabolite of oleic acid by replacing the mutant's missing activity from within the peroxisomes. Immunoblotting of fractionated yeast cells expressing rat 3, 2-isomerase in combination with electron microscopy supported our proposal that the protein functioned in peroxisomes. The results presented here shed new light on the function and location of human mitochondrial 2,4-reductase and rat monofunctional 3,2-isomerase.  (+info)

Laupitz, R., Hecht, S., Amslinger, S., Zepeck, F., Kaiser, J., Richter, G., Schramek, N., Steinbacher, S., Huber, R., Arigoni, D., Bacher, A., Eisenreich, W. und Rohdich, F. (2004) Biochemical characterization of Bacillus subtilis type II isopentenyl diphosphate isomerase, and phylogenetic distribution of isoprenoid biosynthesis pathways. Eur. J. Biochem. 271 (13), S. 2658-2669 ...
Enzymes containing flavin cofactors are predominantly involved in redox reactions in numerous cellular processes where the protein environment modulates the chemical reactivity of the flavin to either transfer one or two electrons. Some flavoenzymes catalyze reactions with no net redox change. In these reactions, the protein environment modulates the reactivity of the flavin to perform novel chemistries. Recent mechanistic and structural data supporting novel flavin functionalities in reactions catalyzed by chorismate synthase, type II isopentenyl diphosphate isomerase, UDP-galactopyranose mutase, and alkyl-dihydroxyacetonephosphate synthase are presented in this review. In these enzymes, the flavin plays either a direct role in acid/base reactions or as a nucleophile or electrophile. In addition, the flavin cofactor is proposed to function as a
Terpenoids are of high interest as chemical building blocks and pharmaceuticals. In microbes, terpenoids can be synthesized via the methylerythritol phosphate (MEP) or mevalonate (MVA) pathways. Although the MEP pathway has a higher theoretical yield, metabolic engineering has met with little success because the regulation of the pathway is poorly understood. We applied metabolic control analysis to the MEP pathway in Escherichia coli expressing a heterologous isoprene synthase gene (ispS). The expression of ispS led to the accumulation of isopentenyl pyrophosphate (IPP)/dimethylallyl pyrophosphate (DMAPP) and severely impaired bacterial growth, but the coexpression of ispS and isopentenyl diphosphate isomerase (idi) restored normal growth and wild-type IPP/DMAPP levels. Targeted proteomics and metabolomics analysis provided a quantitative description of the pathway, which was perturbed by randomizing the ribosome binding site in the gene encoding 1-deoxyxylulose 5-phosphate synthase (Dxs). Dxs has a
1NFS: Catalytic Mechanism of Escherichia coli Isopentenyl Diphosphate Isomerase Involves Cys-67, Glu-116, and Tyr-104 as Suggested by Crystal Structures of Complexes with Transition State Analogues and Irreversible Inhibitors
The invention relates, in part, to nucleic acid constructs, genetically modified host cells and methods employing such constructs and host cells to increase the production of 3-methyl-2-butenol from IPP. Thus, in some aspects, the invention provides a genetically modified host cell transformed with a nucleic acid construct encoding a fusion protein comprising a phosphatase capable of catalyzing the dephosphorylation of dimethylallyl diphosphate (DMAPP) linked to an IPP isomerase capable of converting IPP to DMAPP, wherein the nucleic acid construct is operably linked to a promoter. In some embodiments, the genetically modified host cell 5 further comprises a nucleic acid encoding a reductase that is capable of converting 3-methyl-2-butenol to 3-methyl-butanol. In some embodiments, the reductase is encoded by a nucleic acid construct introduced into the cell. In some embodiments, the IPP isomerase is a Type I isomerase. In some embodiments, the IPP isomerase is a Type II isomerase. In some embodiments,
K00498 CYP11A; cholesterol monooxygenase (side-chain-cleaving) [EC:1.14.15.6] K00512 CYP17A; steroid 17alpha-monooxygenase / 17alpha-hydroxyprogesterone deacetylase [EC:1.14.14.19 1.14.14.32] K01131 STS; steryl-sulfatase [EC:3.1.6.2] K01015 SULT2B1; alcohol sulfotransferase [EC:2.8.2.2] K00513 CYP21A; steroid 21-monooxygenase [EC:1.14.14.16] K00070 HSD3B; 3beta-hydroxy-Delta5-steroid dehydrogenase / steroid Delta-isomerase [EC:1.1.1.145 5.3.3.1] K00070 HSD3B; 3beta-hydroxy-Delta5-steroid dehydrogenase / steroid Delta-isomerase [EC:1.1.1.145 5.3.3.1] K00070 HSD3B; 3beta-hydroxy-Delta5-steroid dehydrogenase / steroid Delta-isomerase [EC:1.1.1.145 5.3.3.1] K00070 HSD3B; 3beta-hydroxy-Delta5-steroid dehydrogenase / steroid Delta-isomerase [EC:1.1.1.145 5.3.3.1] K00070 HSD3B; 3beta-hydroxy-Delta5-steroid dehydrogenase / steroid Delta-isomerase [EC:1.1.1.145 5.3.3.1] K00070 HSD3B; 3beta-hydroxy-Delta5-steroid dehydrogenase / steroid Delta-isomerase [EC:1.1.1.145 5.3.3.1] K12343 SRD5A1; ...
The mitochondrial beta-oxidation system is one of the central metabolic pathways of energy metabolism in mammals. Enzyme defects in this pathway cause fatty acid oxidation disorders. To elucidate the role of 2,4-dienoyl-CoA reductase (DECR) as an auxiliary enzyme in the mitochondrial beta-oxidation of unsaturated fatty acids, we created a DECR-deficient mouse line. In Decr(-/-) mice, the mitochondrial beta-oxidation of unsaturated fatty acids with double bonds is expected to halt at the level of trans-2, cis/trans-4-dienoyl-CoA intermediates. In line with this expectation, fasted Decr(-/-) mice displayed increased serum acylcarnitines, especially decadienoylcarnitine, a product of the incomplete oxidation of linoleic acid (C-18:2), urinary excretion of unsaturated dicarboxylic acids, and hepatic steatosis, wherein unsaturated fatty acids accumulate in liver triacylglycerols. Metabolically challenged Decr(-/-) mice turned on ketogenesis, but unexpectedly developed hypoglycemia. Induced expression ...
Monoterpenes are derived biosynthetically from units of isopentenyl pyrophosphate, which is formed from acetyl-CoA via the intermediacy of mevalonic acid in the HMG-CoA reductase pathway. An alternative, unrelated biosynthesis pathway of IPP is known in some bacterial groups and the plastids of plants, the so-called MEP-(2-methyl-D-erythritol-4-phosphate) pathway, which is initiated from C5 sugars. In both pathways, IPP is isomerized to DMAPP by the enzyme isopentenyl pyrophosphate isomerase. ...
Auxiliary enzyme of beta-oxidation. Participates in the degradation of unsaturated fatty enoyl-CoA esters having double bonds in both even- and odd-numbered positions in peroxisome. Catalyzes the NADP-dependent reduction of 2,4-dienoyl-CoA to yield trans-3-enoyl-CoA. Has activity towards short and medium chain 2,4-dienoyl-CoAs, but also towards 2,4,7,10,13,16,19-docosaheptaenoyl-CoA, suggesting that it does not constitute a rate limiting step in the peroxisomal degradation of docosahexaenoic acid ...
Staphylococcus aureus; strain: Newman; locus tag: NWMN_2247 (NWMN_RS12940); symbol: fni; product: isopentenyl pyrophosphate isomerase
no dlho, predlho som cakal na nejaku novinku v tejto megakauze.....Peci Uhercik, vitaj v diskusii.....konecne o Tebe zase po neviemkolkych rokoch pocut.....resp.vidiet....vecne stazovanie na jednu jedinu piesen, ktoru sa mu podarilo stvorit a za pomoci ovela zvucnejsich mien pretlacit do eteru, ako to preboha niekoho moze po tolkych rokoch este bavit?? Aj ked treba uznat, ze skladba je to fantasticka...! Fakt to musi cloveka neuveritelne skriet, ked tu jeho skladbu niekto zahra - ci na koncerte, ci na mitingu...a zadarmo..SOZA musi byt z toho pekne na nervy, haha...som zvedavy, ako by sa Peci tvaril, keby jemu zakazoval tuto skladbu hrat napriklad Feri Griglak len preto, ze mu tam nahraval gitarove party....lebo presne takto to Peci dokazal urobit uz x-muzikantom na Slovensku...ze mam pravdu pan Grigorov?? tak nechapem, co sa tento Che Guevara slovenskeho showbiznisu, vecny oportunista a bojovnik za autorske prava vobec zapaja do tejto diskusie...a ked , tak stacilo napisat dakujem Mato, ze ...
Anti-HSD3B1 is intended for the semi-quantitative detection of Hydroxy-Delta-5-Steroid Dehydrogenase, 3 Beta-And Steroid Delta-Isomerase 1 (HSD3B1) in paraffin sections. HSD3B1 (AAH31999.1, 1 a.a. ~373 a.a.) full length recombinant protein with GST tag. (DH0007) - Products - Abnova
DIO.sk - Dobrý Internetový Obchod - e-shop na predaj kníh, darčekov, odevy, počítače, notebook, elektronika, mobil, príslušenstvo, špeciálne zariadenia, europeňaženky, špeciálne zariadenia. Zarábajte na každom nákupe, nakupujte s rozumom! Zarobte i na nákupe Vašich priateľov. Atramentové cartridge do tlačiarní
DICARI PEMBELI BARANG ANTIK . HUB : ALEX 081236888897 , LEO ASHARI 082145596691 , HAJI ALOR 082173641777 , PECI ENDE 082342234933 , GYLBY 082342556050 , NUEL MANOE 085341626824 , DANIEL LEMA 081246779189 , EGY 081337936297 , NUEL MANOE 085239181215 , TOMBERABU 085253426050 , 081339442898 , TUAN GURU PANCOR 081246135356 , AKIU 081529015921 , ABAH TERJANG PRAHARA 081371003800 , RONI PAREIRA 081339586551 , HAJI NUEL 082341626824 , ATANGGAE Pin BB 29731eb7 , MARKUS 081339520420 , SITUMORANG 081236580479 , AZEEZ +6282145726372 , TUAN GURU PANCOR 082147224107 ,MBAH BAGAS PATI 081936784637 , CHING MOSSAD 081236987111 , ANDI HARSITO 082146678003 , ATAHER 082145144926 , PECI MOSSAD 085238395100 , ZULE MOSSAD 081239106299 , ZAKA MOSSAD 081246464546 , ABAH MOSSAD ALOR 081246460114 , DATA MOSSAD 081239410399 , NYOMAN MOSSAD 085239740654 , IMRAN MOSSAD 081338763611 , YAMIN MOSSAD 082147510377 , NUEL MOSSAD 082147698433 , LEO ASHARI 081237960280 , JOZE TLS 0812462536697 , DATO MOSSAD 081242665622 , OMPET ...
TEN YEARS AFTER THE DEATH OF GENERAL IDI AMIN - ANNIVESSARY DAY - in year 2013 Thanks to General Idi Amin and May his Soul be in Peace !Hereby is to remember You ( General Idi Amin ) of your Positive Achievements under your Administrations by your Participations / involvements in Serving and Saving
High-quality IDI2 proteins from ACROBiosystems. Various species and tags of IDI2 proteins. Minimal Batch-to-Batch Variation. Bulks in stock.
Špeciálne navrhnuté pre použitie v proteomike alebo iných oblastiach výskumu proteínu, kde koncentrácia proteínu býva veľmi nízka a výťažnosť vzorky je dôležitá pre výsledky analýzy.
ACTIN LI : Špeciálny lak na vnútorné steny prémiovej kvality. Tento bezfarebný náter saténového vzhľadu vytvára plne umývateľný povrch odolný voči plesni. Zdravotne bezpečný. Ideálny pre sokle pri schodiskách, chodby, vstupné haly, do spŕch, šatní či kúpelní ...
Starostlivosť o kĺby, ktoré sú deň za dňom zaťažované je takisto dôležité. JOINT FLEX je špeciálna, rýchlo účinkujúca receptúra pre regeneráciu kĺbov ...
Natures Aid Men multinutrient pre mužov na podporu zdravia a vitality je kombináciou 23 vitamínov a minerálov a 6 druhov superpotravín špeciálne vybraných na podporu zdravia a vitality mužov
Carb Blocker + Starchlite - Amix je bezpečný, efektívny regulátor telesnej hmotnosti, špeciálne navrhnutý pre potláčanie chuti do jedla.
Every month I approve updates for our Win10 LTSB tills in two batches - odd-numbered tills on a Monday evening, so... | 6 replies | WSUS and General Networking
Minule jsme si ekli, co se m e st t, pokud idi jezd s rukou odlo enou na adic p ce. Nyn se pod v me na podobn ne var, j m trp tak cel ada idi . T m je vozen si nohy na spojkov m ped lu.
Chronic exposure of pancreatic β-cells to saturated non-esterified fatty acids can lead to inhibition of insulin secretion and apoptosis. Several previous studies have demonstrated that saturated fatty acids such as PA (palmitic acid) are detrimental to β-cell function compared with unsaturated fatty acids. In the present study, we describe the effect of the polyunsaturated AA (arachidonic acid) on the function of the clonal pancreatic β-cell line BRIN-BD11 and demonstrate AA-dependent attenuation of PA effects. When added to β-cell incubations at 100 μM, AA can stimulate cell proliferation and chronic (24 h) basal insulin secretion. Microarray analysis and/or real-time PCR indicated significant AA-dependent up-regulation of genes involved in proliferation and fatty acid metabolism [e.g. Angptl (angiopoietin-like protein 4), Ech1 (peroxisomal Δ 3,5 ,Δ 2,4 -dienoyl-CoA isomerase), Cox-1 (cyclo-oxygenase-1) and Cox-2 , P ,0.05]. Experiments using specific COX and LOX (lipoxygenase) ...
Delta-isomerase 2 (HSD3B2) which catalyzes the conversion of Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) to androstenedione, a critical step in producing DHT from adrenal androgens, is also overexpressed at high levels [201]. Taken together, these data suggest a mechanism for how MCRPCa cells can continue to upregulate genes that require AR transactivation. The most obvious argument against this model is that t
Catalyzes the 1,3-allylic rearrangement of the homoallylic substrate isopentenyl (IPP) to its highly electrophilic allylic isomer, dimethylallyl diphosphate (DMAPP).
Catalyzes the 1,3-allylic rearrangement of the homoallylic substrate isopentenyl (IPP) to its highly electrophilic allylic isomer, dimethylallyl diphosphate (DMAPP).
Branched five carbon (C 5) alcohols are attractive targets for microbial production due to their desirable fuel properties and importance as platform chemicals. In this study, we engineered a heterologous isoprenoid pathway in E. coli for the high-yield production of 3-methyl-3-buten-1-ol, 3-methyl-2-buten-1-ol, and 3-methyl-1-butanol, three C 5 alcohols that serve as potential biofuels. We first constructed a pathway for 3-methyl-3-buten-1-ol, where metabolite profiling identified NudB, a promiscuous phosphatase, as a likely pathway bottleneck. We achieved a 60% increase in the yield of 3-methyl-3-buten-1-ol by engineering the Shine-Dalgarno sequence of nudB, which increased protein levels by 9-fold and reduced isopentenyl diphosphate (IPP) accumulation by 4-fold. To further optimize the pathway, we adjusted mevalonate kinase (MK) expression and investigated MK enzymes from alternative microbes such as Methanosarcina mazei. Next, we expressed a fusion protein of IPP isomerase and the ...
1PPV: A Crystallographic Investigation of Phosphoantigen Binding to Isopentenyl Pyrophosphate/Dimethylallyl Pyrophosphate Isomerase
Reaction mechanism of a generic addition reaction. In this reaction, an electron from the carbon-carbon double bond of the alkene attacks an incoming molecule (XY) causing the breakage of the carbon-carbon double bond (lefthand diagram) and formation of a new bond between one of the alkene carbons and molecule X. ...
Dr. Wisemans research group is engaged in synthesis of compounds possessing significant pharmacological activity. They are also interested in the synthesis of strained organic compounds, especially bridgehead alkenes, and exploration of their chemistry. Bridgehead alkenes are bridged bicyclic compounds having carbon-carbon double bonds with one terminus at a bridgehead position. The bridgehead double bond is twisted and distorted and the strain imparts high reactivity toward even mild reagents. The group prepared several members of this class in order to assess the relationships of strain, structure and reactivity. In some cases, the bridgehead alkenes are so reactive that they have only a fleeting lifetime and evidence of their existence is based only on the products of their reactions.. Dr. Wisemans group has been employing an approach involving Diels-Alder reactions between quinones and ortho-xylylenes (ortho-quinodimethanes). This work has led to efficient syntheses of anti-cancer drugs, ...
Vegetable oils that are unsaturated can be hardened by reacting them with hydrogen in the presence of a nickel catalyst at about 60 °C. Hydrogen adds to the carbon-carbon double bonds. The hydrogenated oils have higher melting points so they are solids at room temperature, making them useful as spreads and in cakes and pastries.. ...
Na stránke je aj časť, kde nájdete veľa článkov ohľadne každodenných starostí celiatikov. To sú napríklad informácie o alkoholických nápojoch, na ktoré musí celiatik myslieť, alebo porovnanie pizérií v Bratislave, ale aj samotné spôsoby, ktorými môžete celiakiu odhaliť. Zaujímavý pre celiatikov môže byť aj článok, ktorý vám predstaví kozie kolostrum. Je to mlieko kozy, ktoré sa získava za špeciálnych podmienok a je oveľa vzácnejšie ako bežné mlieko. Jeho výhodou je hlavne pozitívny vplyv na organizmus. Využitie kozieho kolostra je naozaj široké - dokáže pomôcť nie len pri celiakii, ale aj iných zdravotných problémoch. Dokonca na stránke bezlepkac.sk získate aj zľavu na kúpenie tohto špeciálneho mlieka.. Hlavné teda je, aby ste nepodceňovali celiakiu a ani intoleranciu laktózy. Obe tieto ochorenia môžu byť veľmi nepríjemné, preto pri podozrení čo najskôr choďte k lekárovi. A keď sa náhodou potvrdí aj u vás, príďte ...
DIO.sk - Dobrý Internetový Obchod - e-shop na predaj kníh, darčekov, odevy, počítače, notebook, elektronika, mobil, príslušenstvo, špeciálne zariadenia, europeňaženky, špeciálne zariadenia. Zarábajte na každom nákupe, nakupujte s rozumom! Zarobte i na nákupe Vašich priateľov. Handsfree pre mobilné telefóny cez káblik
Samurai Hayashis Guinness World Record - Speed Cutting on World Records...DICARI PEMBELI BARANG ANTIK . HUB : MELKI 081337799350 , MUSA 081239248369 , YAMIN MOSSAD 082147510377 , ALEX 081236888897 , LEO ASHARI 082145596691 , HAJI ALOR 082173641777 , PECI ENDE 082342234933 , GYLBY 082342556050 , NUEL MANOE 085341626824 , DANIEL LEMA 085337513999 , EGY 081337936297 , NUEL MANOE 085239181215 , TOMBERABU 085253426050 , 081339442898 , TUAN GURU PANCOR 081246135356 , AKIU 081529015921 , ABAH TERJANG PRAHARA 081371003800 , RONI PAREIRA 081339586551 , HAJI NUEL 082341626824 , ATANGGAE Pin BB 29731eb7 , MARKUS 081339520420 , SITUMORANG 081236580479 , AZEEZ +6282145726372 , TUAN GURU PANCOR 082147224107 ,MBAH BAGAS PATI 081936784637 , CHING MOSSAD 081236987111 , ANDI HARSITO 082146678003 , ATAHER 082145144926 , PECI MOSSAD 085238395100 , ZULE MOSSAD 081239106299 , ZAKA MOSSAD 081246464546 , ABAH MOSSAD ALOR 081246460114 , DATA MOSSAD 081239410399 , NYOMAN MOSSAD 085239740654 , IMRAN MOSSAD 081338763611 , ...
Samurai Hayashis Guinness World Record - Speed Cutting on World Records...DICARI PEMBELI BARANG ANTIK . HUB : MELKI 081337799350 , MUSA 081239248369 , YAMIN MOSSAD 082147510377 , ALEX 081236888897 , LEO ASHARI 082145596691 , HAJI ALOR 082173641777 , PECI ENDE 082342234933 , GYLBY 082342556050 , NUEL MANOE 085341626824 , DANIEL LEMA 085337513999 , EGY 081337936297 , NUEL MANOE 085239181215 , TOMBERABU 085253426050 , 081339442898 , TUAN GURU PANCOR 081246135356 , AKIU 081529015921 , ABAH TERJANG PRAHARA 081371003800 , RONI PAREIRA 081339586551 , HAJI NUEL 082341626824 , ATANGGAE Pin BB 29731eb7 , MARKUS 081339520420 , SITUMORANG 081236580479 , AZEEZ +6282145726372 , TUAN GURU PANCOR 082147224107 ,MBAH BAGAS PATI 081936784637 , CHING MOSSAD 081236987111 , ANDI HARSITO 082146678003 , ATAHER 082145144926 , PECI MOSSAD 085238395100 , ZULE MOSSAD 081239106299 , ZAKA MOSSAD 081246464546 , ABAH MOSSAD ALOR 081246460114 , DATA MOSSAD 081239410399 , NYOMAN MOSSAD 085239740654 , IMRAN MOSSAD 081338763611 , ...
Hypoalergénne granuly Brit Care Dog Mini Grain Free Hair & Skin sú krmivom vytvoreným špeciálne pre dospelých psov malých a trpasličích plemien, u ktorých
Špeciálne vyvinutá pre citlivé zuby a ďasná. Jemné zloženie bez obsahu alkoholu, vyvinuté na ochranu zubnej skloviny pred eróziou.
Špeciálny 4 komponentný elastomér s veľkou variabilitou tvrdosti. Vhodný na výrobu technických dielcov a foriem. Nastavíte si tvrdosť podľa potreby od 40ShoreA až do ...
Lipodex je komplexný spaľovač, ktorý obsahuje špeciálne termogénne zložky a 8 vitamínov. Efektívne spaľuje tuk, zrýchľuje metabolizmus a potláča pocit hladu.
Karbid tetrabóru (chemický vzorec B4C)[1] je extrémne tvrdý bóro-uhlíkový keramický materiál čiernej farby, používaný na výrobu tankových obrnení, nepriestrelných viest a mnohých ďalších priemyselných potrieb. Na Mohsovej stupnici tvrdosti má hodnotu 9,497 a je jedným z najtvrdších materiálov vôbec, za kubickým nitridom bóru a diamantom.[2] Vyrába sa žíhaním bóru alebo oxidu boritého s uhlím v elektrickej peci pri teplote 2 500 °C. ...
|P>Pánska bunda s kapucňou je vyrobená z kačacieho peria, ktoré je špeciálne naimpregnované, čím je chránené pred vlhkosťou. Vonkajší materiál bundy je vetruvzdorný. Zloženie: materiál STORMLOCK-veľmi ľahký, vetruvzdorný, vodeodolný, priedyšný, výplň-kačacie perie (hustota plnenia 700). Hmotnosť: 485g (veľkosť L)|/P>
HEMOREX RACE DAY SYRINGE je špeciálne určený na poskytnutie nevyhnutných živín ráno v deň pretekov či dostihov, s obsahom vitamínu C ako antioxidantu a železa, ktoré je potrebné pre tvorbu hemoglobínu, prenášača kyslíka v krvi. Tieto živiny sú derivované z prírodných produktov a sú ľahko absorbovateľné.. Zloženie - obsah účinných látok : ...
Špeciálne vyvinutý krém pre vyhladenie a intenzívne omladenie pleti. Hydratuje pokožku, výrazne redukuje hĺbku vrások a spevňuje kontúry tváre. Vysoký obsah kolagénu a extraktu z morských rias pleť vypína a obnovuje jej pružnosť a sviežosť.
This week, it feels like Star Trek is everywhere. Ive read more about old characters and new characters and new actors playing old characters, whether the new movie counts as even-numbered or odd-numbered, and various other lists and updates and theorie
Two cDNA clones, idi1 and idi2, representing different isoforms of isopentenyl pyrophosphate isomerase (IPP isomerase) were isolated from Melaleuca alternifolia (Cheel) by functional complementation of carotenoid biosynthesis in E. coli.. Excluding the putative transit peptide region, share 89.5% predicted protein sequence identity. The high level of conservation between the isoforms indicates that these genes may share a common ancestral origin and supports the proposition that cytosolic and plastid targeted IPP isomerase may be differentially translated from a single gene. This study supports recent evidence suggesting that isopentenyl pyrophosphate and dimethylallylic pyrophosphate are both immediate products of the deoxyxylulose pathway and that IPP isomerase may have a more central role in the biosynthesis of carotenoids than in the biosynthesis of monoterpenes.
Stimulated by the strong interest in replacing fossil raw materials by renewable feedstocks in chemical industry, alkene metathesis of unsaturated bio-sourced olefins has been recently investigated with the objective of producing high-value molecules using green and atom economic strategies. It is due time to review what has been achieved in this field using terpenes and terpenoids as olefin metathesis partners. These substrates, derived from the isoprene structure, present different types of carbon-carbon double bonds that can be involved in self metathesis, ring closing metathesis, cross metathesis including ethenolysis, and ring opening metathesis. The successful achievements and remaining bottlenecks in this field will be discussed.
Compare 2,4-dienoyl-CoA reductase 2, peroxisomal ELISA Kits from leading suppliers on Biocompare. View specifications, prices, citations, reviews, and more.
What makes this a trans fatty acid is the carbon-carbon double bond where the red arrow is pointed. Each black line represents a bond between two atoms, so when you see two, it represents two double bonds between two atoms. The trans fatty acid is referring to a carbon-carbon double bond, which is the red arrow, and it specifically refers to the configuration of that double bond. It can bend two different ways, one is called trans where it bends across itself, or cis when it bends away from itself which is depicted in the top fatty acid. Cis generally occurs in nature and trans is generally more of a manufactured product. The significance of this double bond in the trans configuration is that it allows trans fats to stack very tightly, making it harder for your body to metabolize them.. One other thing I want to point out is that while trans fats are technically unsaturated, they are not the same as mono and polyunsaturated fat, and that has to do with the cis configuration of those fatty ...
GenBank) fused 3-hydroxybutyryl-CoA epimerase/delta(3)-cis-delta(2)-trans-enoyl-CoA isomerase/enoyl-CoA hydratase/3-hydroxyacyl-CoA ...
IS (I) superfamily members typically catalyze condensation of isoprenoid units through metal assisted dissociation of pyrophosphate to generate a carbocation intermediate (Figure IS3). Condensation of the carbocation with an allylic acceptor and subsequent loss of a proton results 1 of 4 different connectivity patterns, and an additional 4 can be formed via rearrangement of a common intermediate (Figure IS3). Standard nomenclature to describe the product (e.g.1-4 and c1-2-3) is based on the structures of the hemiterpenes dimethylallyl diphosphate (DMAPP) and isopentenyl diphosphate (IPP) and assigns the prime designation to the donor (carbocation) unit to distinguish it from the acceptor (allylic) unit. Linear chain elongation products synthesized by members of the IS (I) superfamily include C10-50 all-trans isoprenoid diphosphates such as the prototypical C15 product, farnesyl diphosphate. Examples of cyclopropyl formation occur in members involved in sterol and carotenoid biosynthesis where ...
Formerly known as tRNA isopentenyltransferase (EC 2.5.1.8), but it is now known that dimethylallyl diphosphate, rather than isopentenyl diphosphate, is the substrate. -!- Formerly EC 1.8.6.1 and EC 2.5.1.8 ...
SWISS-MODEL Repository entry for C6A3U0 (IDI2_THESM), Isopentenyl-diphosphate delta-isomerase. Thermococcus sibiricus (strain DSM 12597 / MM 739)
The sequence order of the substituent groups in lactic acid should be obvious, but the carvone example requires careful analysis. The hydrogen is clearly the lowest priority substituent, but the other three groups are all attached to the stereogenic carbon by bonds to carbon atoms (colored blue here). Two of the immediate substituent species are methylene groups (CH2), and the third is a doubly-bonded carbon. Rule # 3 of the sequence rules allows us to order these substituents. The carbon-carbon double bond is broken so as to give imaginary single-bonded carbon atoms (the phantom atoms are colored red in the equivalent structure). In this form the double bond assumes the priority of a 3º-alkyl group, which is greater than that of a methylene group. To establish the sequence priority of the two methylene substituents (both are part of the ring), we must move away from the chiral center until a point of difference is located. This occurs at the next carbon, which on one side is part of a carbonyl ...
Alkenes are unsaturated aliphatic hydrocarbons containing only one double bond and have the general formula CnH2n. Compounds that contain more than one carbon-carbon double bond are called dienes, trienes, etc. and polyenes. ...
A special type of E/Z isomerism in which there is a non-hydrogen group and a hydrogen group on each carbon in the carbon-carbon double bond. Cis has hydrogen atoms on the same side yet trans has hydrogen atoms on opposite sides ...
Atomic force microscopy images reveal aryne possesses three consecutive carbon-carbon double bonds, rather than a single triple bond
KAMI BELI BAMBU PRING PETUK .HUB : WELKIS SEME 085253497000 / 085739512904 , VARMON KATHEDRAL ENDE 081353782848 , PECI ENDE 082342234933 / 082144959735 , GYLBY 082342556050 , YUS MOSSAD 081239596328 , YUS CIA 081246436667 , AKIU 081529015921 , ABAH TERJANG PRAHARA 081371003800 , ATANGGAE Pin BB 29731eb7 , MARKUS 081339520420 , SITUMORANG 081236580479 , AZEEZ +6282145726372,MBAH BAGAS PATI 081936784637 , CHING MOSSAD 081236987111 , ANDI HARSITO 082146678003 , ATAHER 082145144926 , PECI MOSSAD 085238395100 , ZULE MOSSAD 081239106299 , ZAKA MOSSAD 081246464546 , ABAH MOSSAD ALOR 081246460114 , DATA MOSSAD 081239410399 , NYOMAN MOSSAD 085239740654 , IMRAN MOSSAD 081338763611 , NUEL MOSSAD 082147698433 , JOZE TLS 0812462536697 , DATO MOSSAD 081242665622 , OMPET +6281337787607 , ALEX 081236888897 , SHEIK AZEEZ BIN BRUNEI DARUSALAM +6282145726372 , ASIU 03808005807 , YANTOM +6281246350555 , TRIDA 085239396901 , BENRA +6281339258864 , BETEM 0811382912 , ANDRE +6285253046986 / +6281246645952 , CAK NARTO ...
Tejping je zafixovanie určitej časti tela pružnou páskou špeciálne určenou pre toto použitie. Nebráni v pohybe a neobmedzuje ani cirkuláciu krvi v oblepenom mieste. Technika tejpingu sa využíva pri samotnej liečbe zranení pohybového ústrojenstva, ale rovnako dobre pomáha pri rehabilitačnej fáze aj ako preventívne opatrenie.. KIRA - sport tape: Kira sports tape (športová páska ) obsahuje turmalín. Turmalín má efekt, ktorý spočíva v zmene teploty (telesnej teploty) pričom nabíjajú protichodné, opačne uložené kryštály. V spojení s elasticitou to znamená ešte viac prekrvenia, následne zlepšenie látkovej výmeny, lepšie uvoľnenie svalstva, zlepšenie toku lymfy, nižšie riziko iritácie a zvýšenie vitality. Vďaka špeciálnemu druhu tejpu je možné dosiahnuť stimulujúcich účinkov v oblasti svalov, kĺbov, lymfatického a nervového systému. Elastický materiál sa dá nosiť niekoľko dní bez negatívneho účinku na kožu.. Najčastejšie ...
Pyrotex PES-R B65 Supersport Reflex - Táto hadica je vyvinutá špeciálne pre požiarny šport tej najväčšej úrovne a povoľujú ju takmer všetky ligy na Slovensku a v Čechách avšak nespĺňa pravidlá pre previerky pripravenosti.. Polyesterová športová hadica, moderná konštrukcia s tenkostennou špeciálnou vložkou EPDM pre ideálny prietok vody s minimálnymi tlakovými stratami. Použiteľná pre teploty od -30°C do +50°C, krátkodobo do +80°C. Vynikajúce vlastnosti, skvelá formovateľnosť a nízka váha, zdokonalená priadza s avivážou, ktorá zvyšuje odolnosť voči oderu a spracovanie je v jedinečnom signálnom prevedení - Reflexná oranžová.. ...
Bolesti chrbta. Poznajú ich tisíce ľudí. Civilizačná daň. Sedavý spôsob života, nekonečné sedenie pri počítačoch sedenie za volantom áut a nedostatok pohybu a telesnej aktivity si začína vyberať svoju daň. Postarajte sa aj vy o svoj chrbát a príďte si zacvičiť špeciálnu zostavu cvikov, ktoré Vám pomôžu zbaviť sa bolesti v oblasti lopatiek, krížov, krčnej chrbtice, ale Vás aj naučia ako správne držať telo vzpriamene, krásne rovno. Chrbtica je strom tvojho života Golem Centrál v stredu o 13:00 s Katkou Ježovicovou www.jogazdravo.sk, www.golemclub.sk. ...
Tento článok je odpoveďou na otázky pre vás, ktorí ste mi písali ohľadom využívania surovín v praxi, ktoré nahrádzajú biely rafinovaný cukor a bielu múku. Veľa z nás si uvedomuje ich nepriaznivé účinky na ľudský organizmus ale možno nemáme dostatok skúsenosti a odvahu vymeniť tieto dve zložky za niečo iné, čo by sme vedeli prakticky a širokospektrálne v kuchyni využiť. Problémom je nedostatok času a zvyk mechanickej prípravy jedla, bez zbytočných nákupov ,,špeciálnych drobností, za ktorými treba oblietať pol mesta. Našťastie nákup týchto položiek môže byť trvalou a pevnou zložkou vašej špajze, nebude podliehať kazivosti ani rýchlej oxidácii. Chcela by som vám jednoduchým návodom pomôcť, naviesť vás urobiť zmenu ,,bezbolestne ale upozorňujem, že aj tak treba nad varením občas premýšľať.. Prečo nie biela múka ? Pretože z nutričného hľadiska nám veľa neprináša iba krátkodobé zasýtenie a rýchly nástup hladu ...
SIAP DIMAHARKAN MUMI , JENGLOT , WESI KUNING , B.MERAH DELIMA , dll . DICARI PEMBELI BARANG ANTIK DAN MISTIK KHUSUS UNTUK PILPRES / PILGUB / PILBUP , PT.GUDANG GARAM GROUP , PT.JARUM GROUP , PT.SAMPOERNA GROUP , TOMMY SOEHARTO GROUP, TOMMY WINATA GROUP , dll . HUB :TUAN GURU PANCOR 081246135356 , AKIU 081529015921 , ABAH TERJANG PRAHARA 081371003800 , RONI PAREIRA 081339586551 , HAJI NUEL 082341626824 , ATANGGAE Pin BB 29731eb7 , MARKUS 081339520420 , SITUMORANG 081236580479 , AZEEZ +6282145726372 , TUAN GURU PANCOR 082147224107 ,MBAH BAGAS PATI 081936784637 , CHING MOSSAD 081236987111 , ANDI HARSITO 082146678003 , ATAHER 082145144926 , PECI MOSSAD 085238395100 , ZULE MOSSAD 081239106299 , ZAKA MOSSAD 081246464546 , ABAH MOSSAD ALOR 081246460114 , DATA MOSSAD 081239410399 , NYOMAN MOSSAD 085239740654 , IMRAN MOSSAD 081338763611 , YAMIN MOSSAD 082147510377 , NUEL MOSSAD 082147698433 , LEO ASHARI 081237960280 , JOZE TLS 0812462536697 , DATO MOSSAD 081242665622 , OMPET +6281337787607 , OMICKY ...
Bábiky Kiwanis slúžia ako terapeutická pomôcka pre detských pacientov a výrazne prispievajú k ich psychickej pohode už viac ako päť rokov. Možnosť nakresliť si v stresujúcom prostredí nemocnice svojho vlastného kamaráta pomáha deťom bojovať so strachom z neznámeho a lekárom umožňuje vysvetliť priebeh liečby či vyšetrení. Zástupcovia Kiwanis klubu Bratislava a reklamná agentúra 2CREATE odovzdali vo štvrtok Detskému kardiocentru, pracovisku NÚSCH, a.s. na bratislavských Kramároch špeciálnu sériu bábik, ktoré kreatívne dotvorili známe osobnosti ako Juraj Kemka, Robo Jakab, Miňo Urbánik či Lacko Cmorej a klienti agentúry 2CREATE, ktorí sa zapojili do projektu Darujbabiku.sk.
Delicatezza Dezodorant s neutrálnou vôňou s extraktom z organického kvetu pomaranča. Špeciálne vytvorený pre citlivú pokožku, zjemňuje a ukľudnňuje citlivú a čerstvo oholenú pokožku bez zanechávania bielych škvŕn. Bez hliníkových solí.
With an aim to control alarming level of air pollution in Delhi, Arvind Kejriwals government came out with the formula of odd-even, which allowed only odd-numbered vehicles to run on odd dates and even-numbered vehicles on even dates. The first phase of the formula was implemented from January 1 to January 15. The second phase of 15 days recently concluded on April 30.
EPI511 is offered as a full-semester course in Spring 2019 (Tue/Thu 2:00-3:30pm) and subsequent odd-numbered years. 2019 course www site. 2019 syllabus + 2019 slides. 2011-2017, 2019 course evaluations.. ...
Linklaters has advised a consortium of sponsors on the structuring and financing of the first IPP project in Mali with a total project cost of €123m.
Il Master in Yacht Design di IDI prevede uno Stage di 300 ore e consente di apprendere le tecniche avanzate di progettazione navale, seguendo tutte le fasi di realizzazione.
... carbon-carbon double bond isomerases MeSH D08.811.399.475.400.700 - steroid isomerases MeSH D08.811.399.475.800 - sulfur-sulfur ... bond isomerases MeSH D08.811.399.475.800.550 - protein disulfide-isomerase MeSH D08.811.399.475.900 - thromboxane-a synthase ... glucose-6-phosphate isomerase MeSH D08.811.399.475.200.550 - mannose-6-phosphate isomerase MeSH D08.811.399.475.200.662 - ... carbon-nitrogen ligases with glutamine as amide-n-donor MeSH D08.811.464.259.400.300 - carbamoyl-phosphate synthase (glutamine- ...
KSI catalyzes the rearrangement of a carbon-carbon double bond in ketosteroids through an enolate intermediate at a diffusion- ... steroid isomerase, Δ5-ketosteroid isomerase, Δ5(or Δ4)-3-keto steroid isomerase, Δ5-steroid isomerase, 3-oxosteroid isomerase, ... 3-ketosteroid isomerase just transfers a double bond at Δ5 of 3-ketosteroid to Δ4. A Δ5-3-ketosteroid isomerase-disrupted ... which lacks a double bond at Δ5, indicating that C. testosteroni KSI is responsible for transfer of the double bond from Δ5 to ...
... or trans-double bonds of coenzyme A (CoA) bound fatty acids at gamma-carbon (position 3) to trans double bonds at beta-carbon ( ... The double bond serves as the target of oxidation and carbon-to-carbon bond cleavage, thereby shortening the fatty acid chain. ... Since the key step in the degradation of fatty acids with double bonds at even-numbered carbon positions also produces 3-trans- ... isomerase, 3,2-trans-enoyl-CoA isomerase, ∆3(cis),∆2(trans)-enoyl-CoA isomerase, or acetylene-allene isomerase, is an enzyme ...
... thus breaking the double bond and allowing rotation around the single bond. 4-maleylacetoacetate is converted to 4- ... helix dipole of alpha 1 of the enzyme stabilize the thiolate form of glutathione which activates it to attack the alpha carbon ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is 4-maleylacetoacetate cis-trans-isomerase. 4-Maleylacetoacetate isomerase is an ... 4-fumarylacetoacetate This enzyme belongs to the family of isomerases, specifically cis-trans isomerases. ...
The adjacent carbon, C2, is deprotonated from the opposite face to yield a double bond. In effect, the double bond is shifted ... In this isomerization reaction a stable carbon-carbon double bond is rearranged top create a highly electrophilic allylic ... IPP isomerase catalyzes this reaction by the stereoselective antarafacial transposition of a single proton. The double bond is ... The C3-C4 bond rotates and Glu357 (assisted by His388) depronates C2 to form a double bond between C1 and C2. A cis-endiol ...
... and fumaric acid do not spontaneously interconvert because rotation around a carbon carbon double bond is not ... Some bacteria produce the enzyme maleate isomerase, which is used by bacteria in nicotinate metabolism. This enzyme catalyses ... Reversible addition (of H+) leads to free rotation about the central C-C bond and formation of the more stable and less soluble ... and now single bond rotation is possible. The bromine radicals recombine and fumaric acid is formed. In another method (used as ...
... loss of proton from carbon 4 leads to the formation of a double bond C3-C4; consequently the 3-O-carbonyl atom will attach to ... IPP is isomerized to the allylic ester dimethylallyl pyrophosphate (DMAPP) by IPP isomerase. Through a multi-step process, ... Aucubin was found to protect against liver damage induced by carbon tetrachloride or alpha-amanitin in mice and rats when 80 mg ... Aucubin has 10 carbons with the C11 carbon missing. The stereochemical configurations at C5 and C9 lead to cis fused rings, ...
3-2trans-enoyl-CoA isomerase (or dodecenoyl-CoA isomerise; EC 5.3.3.8), which shifts the 3-double bond of the intermediates of ... while others have been implicated in carbon-carbon bond formation and cleavage as well as the hydrolysis of thioesters. However ... Dienoyl-CoA isomerase, which catalyses the isomerisation of 3-trans,5-cis-dienoyl-CoA to 2-trans,4-trans-dienoyl-CoA. ... This is accomplished by two structurally conserved peptidic NH groups that provide hydrogen bonds to the carbonyl moieties of ...
This conversion introduces two additional double bonds at positions 11 and 11' of the carbon chain and isomerizes two adjacent ... This reaction starts a biochemical pathway involving three further enzymes (zeta-carotene isomerase, zeta-carotene desaturase ... introduce two double bonds into their colorless substrate phytoene by dehydrogenation and isomerize two additional double bonds ... already existing double bonds at positions 9 and 9' from trans to cis. The electrons involved in the reaction are subsequently ...
To summarize: Odd-numbered double bonds are handled by the isomerase. Even-numbered double bonds by the reductase (which ... The bicarbonate ion's carbon is added to the middle carbon of propionyl-CoA, forming a D-methylmalonyl-CoA. However, the D ... If the acyl CoA contains a cis-Δ3 bond, then cis-Δ3-Enoyl CoA isomerase will convert the bond to a trans-Δ2 bond, which is a ... A long-chain fatty acid is dehydrogenated to create a trans double bond between C2 and C3. This is catalyzed by acyl CoA ...
... which contain an epoxy and alcohol residue separated from each other by a double (i.e. alkene) bond or, alternatively, B type ( ... hydroperoxy isomerase) activity; that is, it converts hydroperoxy-containing PUFAs to hepoxilin-like epoxyalcohol products; ... residue to arachidonic acid at its 12th carbon thereby forming 12(R)-hydroperoxy-5Z,8Z,10E,14Z-icosatetraenoic acid (also ...
... usually through an attack of an electronegative atom on the carbonyl carbon, breaking the carbonyl double bond and forming a ... Both of these mechanisms for lowering the activation energy have been observed in peptidyl prolyl isomerases (PPIases), which ... forms an isopeptide bond, which is not a peptide bond) and glutathione synthetase (forms a peptide bond). A peptide bond can be ... A peptide bond is an amide type of covalent chemical bond linking two consecutive alpha-amino acids from C1 (carbon number one ...
... with loss of the double bond in the dioxygen unit and bonds to iron and the alpha carbon of 2-oxoglutarate. Subsequent ... This subunit and protein disulphide isomerase are products of the same gene". The EMBO Journal. 6 (3): 643-9. doi:10.1002/j. ... This subunit is identical to the enzyme known as protein disulfide isomerase. Prolyl hydroxylase catalyzes the formation of ... "Site-directed mutagenesis of human protein disulphide isomerase: effect on the assembly, activity and endoplasmic reticulum ...
The free electron pair adds to the double bond of IPP, also isomerizing IPP so that the product is an allylic diphosphate. Thus ... Isopentenyl diphosphate isomerase converts the latter to the less stable dimethylallyl diphosphate. Farnesyl diphosphate ... All parts of the carbon skeleton comes from IPP. Then an enzyme prenyl transferase/farnesyl diphosphate synthase binds IPP, ... The free electron pair adds to the double bond of IPP, also isomerizing IPP so that the product is an allylic diphosphate. Thus ...
It is responsible for catalyzing cis-trans isomerization of the C2-C3 double bond in maleate to produce fumarate, which is a ... Pro14 and Val84 make van der Waals interactions with the C2 and C3 carbon atoms of the maleate. The mechanism of maleate ... For example, maleate isomerase from Pseudomonas putida S16 uses Asn17 and Asn169 form hydrogen bonds with the carboxylate group ... The newly formed C2-C3 single bond is then rotated, with Cys76S-C2 bond dissociated, and C3 atom of the maleate deprotonated by ...
Because phosphoenolpyruvate mutase has the unusual ability to form a new carbon-phosphorus bond, it is essential to the ... A double phosphoryl transfer mechanism was proposed on the basis of this study: this would involve breakage of PEP's phosphorus ... This enzyme belongs to the family of isomerases, specifically the phosphotransferases (phosphomutases), which transfer ... isolation of the enzyme responsible for the formation of a carbon-phosphorus bond". Nature. 335 (6189): 457-458. Bibcode: ...
In particular, this enzyme contributes to breaking the double bonds at all even-numbered positions, and some double bonds at ... DECR is the second such enzyme (the others being enoyl CoA isomerase and dienoyl CoA isomerase) and is the rate limiting step ... Additionally, at one end of the active site there is a flexible loop that provides sufficient room for long carbon chains. This ... The electrons from the Cγ-Cδ double bond move over to the Cβ-Cγ position, and those from the Cα-Cβ form an enolate. In the ...
When acting on the single substrate, a molecule is eliminated and this generates either a new double bond or a new ring." (EC:4 ... Isomerase is the systematic name for any enzyme of EC class 5." "Catalysis of the ligation of two substances with concomitant ... including the breakdown of carbon compounds with the liberation of energy for use by the cell or organism." Note: use # ... or conversely adding a group to a double bond. They differ from other enzymes in that two substrates are involved in one ...
Steric course of decarboxylation of 5-pyrophosphomevalonate and of the carbon to carbon bond formation in the biosynthesis of ... The removal of the pro-R proton from C2 forms the C2-C3 double bond of DMAPP. Crystallographic studies have observed that the ... Isopentenyl pyrophosphate isomerase (IPP isomerase), also known as Isopentenyl-diphosphate delta isomerase, is an isomerase ... methylbutenylpyrophosphate isomerase, and isopentenylpyrophosphate isomerase. IPP isomerase catalyzes the isomerization of IPP ...
The double bond of cycloartenol (compound 7 in diagram) is methylated by SAM to give a carbocation that undergoes a hydride ... This step is catalyzed by sterol C-14 demethylase (E4), sterol Δ14-reductase (E5), and sterol Δ8-Δ7-isomerase (E6). The last ... Fermentation digests the entire aliphatic side-chain at carbon 17 to afford a mixture of 17-keto products including ... The last step of the synthesis is deprotection of the β-ring double bond of 5 with p-TsOH, aqueous dioxane, and heat (80 °C) to ...
These observed phenomena are due to the trans-cis isomerization of the vinyl trans double bond in the p-coumaric acid. ... "Structural Coupling Throughout the Active Site Hydrogen Bond Networks of Ketosteroid Isomerase and Photoactive Yellow Protein ... noted by observing the crystal structure of p-coumaric acid bound by PYP that the hydroxyl group connected to the C4 carbon of ... This was due to abnormally short hydrogen bonding lengths observed in the protein crystal structure. Hydrogen bonds in proteins ...
... the enzyme does not form or break a carbon-sulfur bond. Rather, the enzyme shifts two hydrogen atoms from one carbon atom of ... The ene means that a double bond has formed between C2 and C1, from the electrons left behind by the abstraction of the ... Methylglyoxal is formed spontaneously from dihydroxyacetone phosphate, enzymatically by triosephosphate isomerase and ... the extra electron on the oxygen of C1 could reform the double bond of the carbonyl, thus giving the final product. An ...
The double carbon-carbon bonds interact with each other in a process called conjugation, which allows electrons in the molecule ... The central double bond of this tri-cis-ζ-carotene is isomerized by the zeta-carotene isomerase Z-ISO and the resulting 9,9'-di ... introduces two additional double bonds into 15-cis-phytoene by dehydrogenation and isomerizes two of its existing double bonds ... This again introduces two double bonds, resulting in 7,9,7',9'-tetra-cis-lycopene. CRTISO, a carotenoid isomerase, is needed to ...
... to the rearranged carbon radical center thereby forming a peroxy radical(-OO·) bond to that carbon reduction of the peroxy ... as opposed to the 4 double bond-containing arachidonic acid metabolites. The enzyme, when acting in series with other ... Rather, its primary activity is as a hydroperoxide isomerase that metabolizes certain unsaturated hydroperoxy fatty acids to ... from a bisallylic methylene carbon to form a fatty acid radical at that carbon rearrangement of the radical to another carbon ...
Natural rubber consists of polyisoprene in which the double bonds are cis. Some plants produce a polyisoprene with trans double ... 10-carbon), diterpenoids (20-carbon), carotenoids (40-carbon), chlorophylls, and plastoquinone-9 (45-carbon). Synthesis of all ... IPP is isomerized to DMAPP by the enzyme isopentenyl pyrophosphate isomerase. IPP and DMAPP condense to give geranyl ... starts with pyruvate as the carbon source. Pyruvate and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate are converted by DOXP synthase (Dxs) to 1- ...
The carboxylate side chain of Asp-295 hydrogen bonds with the hydroxyl groups at C-2 and C-3 of the glucosyl residue. This ... It has been shown in multiple experiments that the enzyme catalyzes this conversion by a double displacement mechanism. The ... Finally, phosphorylation of the glucosyl residue at C-1 forms a transient positive charge on the glucosyl carbon, promoting ... fructose-6-phosphate and glucose-6-phosphate can be interconverted in the glycolytic pathway by phosphohexose isomerase. The ...
... with the presence of the catechol moiety on ring B and the presence of a hydroxyl group activating the double bond on ring C. ... Chalcone is then isomerized to naringenin by chalcone isomerase which is oxidized to eriodictyol by flavonoid 3'- hydroxylase ... with a hydroxyl group on carbon 3. The A ring is similar to a resorcinol moiety while the B ring is similar to a catechol ...
EC 6.2 includes ligases used to form carbon-sulfur bonds. *EC 6.3 includes ligases used to form carbon-nitrogen bonds ( ... often forming a new double bond or a new ring structure) and does not require any energy, whereas a synthetase is a ligase (a ... EC 6.5 includes ligases used to form phosphoric ester bonds. *EC 6.6 includes ligases used to form nitrogen-metal bonds, as in ... EC 6.4 includes ligases used to form carbon-carbon bonds. * ... EC5 Isomerases (list). *EC6 Ligases (list). *EC7 Translocases ( ...
... double bonds at the centre of the compound. This chain of conjugated double bonds is also responsible for the antioxidant ... It belongs to a larger class of chemical compounds known as terpenes (as a tetraterpenoid) built from five carbon precursors, ... that are combined by IPP isomerase and converted to geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate (GGPP) by GGPP synthase. Two molecules of GGPP ... Next, phytoene desaturase creates four double bonds in the phytoene molecule to form lycopene. After desaturation, lycopene ...
Carbon-Carbon Double Bond Isomerases / antagonists & inhibitors. Cholesterol / blood, metabolism. Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / ... Carbon-Carbon Double Bond Isomerases ...
... polymer contains weak hydrogen bond and van der Waals (vdWs) interactions besides strong covalent bond, which con... ... enzymes shifting a carbon-carbon double bond (CARBON-CARBON DOUBLE BOND ISOMERASES), and enzymes transposing S-S bonds (SULFUR- ... Carbon-carbon Double Bond Isomerases. Enzymes that catalyze the shifting of a carbon-carbon double bond from one position to ... Carbon-carbon Ligases. Enzymes that catalyze the joining of two molecules by the formation of a carbon-carbon bond. These are ...
Chemicals/CAS: Carbon Radioisotopes; Carbon-Carbon Double Bond Isomerases, EC 5.3.3.-; Dimethylallyltranstransferase, EC 2.5. ... Animals · Brain · Carbon Radioisotopes · Carbon-Carbon Double Bond Isomerases · Cattle · Dimethylallyltranstransferase · ... A double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled, 2-way crossover study investigated the possible influence of orlistat on the ... In the Netherlands, a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, two-way crossover study was conducted to determine whether ...
Chemicals/CAS: Carbon Radioisotopes; Carbon-Carbon Double Bond Isomerases, EC 5.3.3.-; Dimethylallyltranstransferase, EC 2.5. ... Animals · Brain · Carbon Radioisotopes · Carbon-Carbon Double Bond Isomerases · Cattle · Dimethylallyltranstransferase · ... Comparison of the primary structures around these sites indicates that cathepsin D shows a strong preference for peptide bonds ... Recent evidence indicated that farnesyl pyrophosphate (FPP) synthase and/or isopentenyl pyrophosphate (IPP) isomerase is the ...
... carbon-carbon double bond isomerases MeSH D08.811.399.475.400.700 - steroid isomerases MeSH D08.811.399.475.800 - sulfur-sulfur ... bond isomerases MeSH D08.811.399.475.800.550 - protein disulfide-isomerase MeSH D08.811.399.475.900 - thromboxane-a synthase ... glucose-6-phosphate isomerase MeSH D08.811.399.475.200.550 - mannose-6-phosphate isomerase MeSH D08.811.399.475.200.662 - ... carbon-nitrogen ligases with glutamine as amide-n-donor MeSH D08.811.464.259.400.300 - carbamoyl-phosphate synthase (glutamine- ...
KSI catalyzes the rearrangement of a carbon-carbon double bond in ketosteroids through an enolate intermediate at a diffusion- ... steroid isomerase, Δ5-ketosteroid isomerase, Δ5(or Δ4)-3-keto steroid isomerase, Δ5-steroid isomerase, 3-oxosteroid isomerase, ... 3-ketosteroid isomerase just transfers a double bond at Δ5 of 3-ketosteroid to Δ4. A Δ5-3-ketosteroid isomerase-disrupted ... which lacks a double bond at Δ5, indicating that C. testosteroni KSI is responsible for transfer of the double bond from Δ5 to ...
... the hydroxyl group of ring A is oxidized and the carbon-carbon double bond is isomerized by cholesterol dehydrogenase/isomerase ... a water molecule is introduced to the double bond between C-1 and C-2 of 1-AD by a bifunctional molybdopterin-containing ... AcmA, cholesterol dehydrogenase/isomerase; AcmB, cholest-4-en-3-one-Δ1-dehydrogenase; C25DH, cholesterol C25 dehydrogenase; ACS ... Ascorbate (a reducing agent) and resazurin (a redox indicator) were not added because these compounds could be used as carbon ...
Carbon-Carbon Double Bond Isomerases. Fibronectins. GABA Plasma Membrane Transport Proteins. Homeodomain Proteins. ...
Carbon-Carbon Double Bond Isomerases - metabolism , Sequence Alignment , Acids , Carbon-Carbon Double Bond Isomerases - ... Carbon-Carbon Double Bond Isomerases - genetics , Carbon-Carbon Double Bond Isomerases - chemistry , Catalysis , Hemiterpenes ... Carbon-Carbon Double Bond Isomerases - metabolism , Hemiterpenes - metabolism , Carbon-Carbon Double Bond Isomerases - genetics ... Carbon-Carbon Double Bond Isomerases - metabolism , Carbon-Carbon Double Bond Isomerases - classification , Plants - enzymology ...
... close to that of the adjacent double bond in the fatty acid carbon chain to allow for an efficient coupling of the double bond ... The 9,10 double bond is trans (J9,10 = 15.6 Hz); the 5,6 and 14,15 double bonds do not participate in the transformation from ... Assuming that the double bonds not involved in the reaction retain their original cis configuration, we assign the structure as ... 10 double bond and the other introduced at C-8 by derivatization to the benzoate ester. The through-space coupling of the two ...
Classification and nomenclature of Intramolecular Oxidoreductases EC 5.3 isomerases that catalyze intramolecular coupled ... EC 5.3.3 - Isomerases that transport carbon=carbon (C=C) double bonds ... EC 5: Isomerases. EC 5.1. EC 5.2. EC 5.3. EC 5.3.1. EC 5.3.2. EC 5.3.3. EC 5.3.4. EC 5.3.99. EC 5.4. EC 5.5. EC 5.99. EC 6: ... EC 5.3.1 - Sugar isomerases, that reversible converts aldoses to ketoses in the sugar substances ...
Carbon-Carbon Double Bond Isomerases / Diterpenes / Escherichia coli / Escherichia coli Proteins / Farnesol / ... and 18-carbon fatty acids that had a preexisting cis-double bond at Δ12 position, and ω3-desaturation for 20-carbon fatty acids ... Different specificity of two types of Pseudomonas lipases for C20 fatty acids with a Delta5 unsaturated double bond and their ... The M. alpina 1S-4 omega3-desaturase is the first known fungal desaturase that uses both 18-carbon and 20-carbon n-6 PUFAs as ...
carbon carbon double bond isomerases*acetyl coa c acyltransferase*animal physical conditioning*insulin*enoyl coa hydratase* ...
... was also a weak inhibitor of isopentenyl diphosphate isomerase. NE21650 was a more potent inhibitor of protein prenylation in ... Alendronate, Alkyl and Aryl Transferases, Aniline Compounds, Animals, Carbon-Carbon Double Bond Isomerases, Cells, Cultured, ... Identification of a bisphosphonate that inhibits isopentenyl diphosphate isomerase and farnesyl diphosphate synthase. ... Identification of a bisphosphonate that inhibits isopentenyl diphosphate isomerase and farnesyl diphosphate synthase. ...
First off, this molecule is now a DHT derivative, meaning there is no double bond on carbon 4-5. The lack of a 4-5 double bond ... 4 isomerase which will interconvert (isomerize) the double bond on DHEA before it converts to androstenediol(AD) and ... DHEA has a double bond between carbons 5 and 6, whereas androstenediol and testosterone have a double bond between carbons 4 ... a 3rd step that often goes overlooked but this reaction changes the position of the double bond from carbon 5 to carbon 4 via ...
CoA isomerase. If the stereochemistry of the double bond is cis, it is isomerized to the trans double bond by the action of 3- ... retinoids and ionones occurs on the carbon adjacent to the double bond. (vii) Conjugation with glutathione The vast majority of ... v) Reduction of double bonds Reduction of endocyclic and exocyclic double bonds occurs in some of the flavouring agents ... Oxidation of double bonds Oxidation of double bonds via an epoxide intermediate to form diols is probably only a minor pathway ...
The second digit of a lyases number refers to the type of bond that undergoes cleavage, for example, carbon-carbon or carbon- ... thus forming double bonds. Lyases also add chemical groups to double bonds. There are five subclasses of lyases. ... Isomerases catalyze isomerization reactions and are divided into five subclasses according to the type of reaction catalyzed. ... The first digit of a ligases number refers to the type of bond formed, for example, carbon-nitrogen or carbon-oxygen, and the ...
... to process the second double bond in a PUFA, for example 18:2, another reductase and isomerase are required. Since the double ... The hydratase of beta-oxidation requires the double bond to be in the trans configuration and at second carbon location. ... Specifically, an isomerase is required for breaking the double bond in MUFAs, which are typically between carbons 9 and 10. ... isomerases and a reductase). This becomes important in that the double bonds formed in beta-oxidation are trans as opposed to ...
Cyclization of linear lycopene desaturated at the 7-8 and 7′-8′ carbon-carbon double bonds marks a central branch point in the ... carotene isomerase; LCYB, lycopene β cyclase; LCYE, lycopene ε cyclase; BKT, β-carotene ketolase; CHYB, β-carotene hydroxylase ... Both HpLCYB and HpLCYE require substrates desaturated at the 7-8 or 7-8 carbon-carbon double bond. Note that lycopene must be ... The 7-8, 7′-8′, 11-12, and 11′-12′ carbon-carbon double bonds are shown by red dotted line cycles. Enzymes synthesizing the ...
Lyase: addition of groups to a double bond or the formation of a carbon double bond by group removal. ... Isomerase: transfer of functional groups within the same molecule.. * Ligase: using ATP to catalyse the formation of new ... The peptide bond is fairly special. It has a partial double bond character which leads to very limited rotation around it. ... The bond is stabilised by a resonance with delocalised regions of electrons above and below the bond, making it planar in ...
The 16-carbon intermediates probably accumulate because they contain a Δ4-cis-double bond (see Fig. 2B for 10,11-EHD structure ... Two additional enzymes, 2,4-dienoyl-CoA reductase and Δ3,Δ2-enoyl-CoA isomerase, are necessary for β-oxidation to proceed ... The structure of arachidonic acid shows the conventional numbering of the carbon atoms that form its 4 double bonds. The main ... 1, there are four regioisomers, each stemming from one of the four double bonds of arachidonic acid. Although not shown in Fig ...
Carbon-Carbon Double Bond Isomerases. *Cell Line, Transformed. *Chemokines. *Cytokines. *Diabetes Mellitus ...
... or carbon dioxide (carbon, oxygen) on a double bond. For example, a decarboxylase removes carbon dioxide from an amino acid, ... Isomerases are enzymes that catalyze the formation of substrate isomers. In other words, they promote the transfer of specific ... Hydrolysis reactions use water to split a bond in a molecule to create two daughter products, usually by affixing the -OH ( ...
Amino Acid Sequence , Carbon-Carbon Double Bond Isomerases , Genetics , Cloning, Molecular , DNA, Complementary , Genetics , ... Isopentenyl diphosphate isomerase (IPI) catalyzes the reversible transformation between IPP and DMAPP, both of which are the ... Cloning and functional characterization of a cDNA encoding isopentenyl diphosphate isomerase involved in taxol biosynthesis in ... general 5-carbon precursors for taxol biosynthesis. In the present study, a new gene encoding IPI was cloned from Taxus media ( ...
Adds water, carbon dioxide or ammonia across double bonds or eliminate these to create double bonds.. ... Isomerases. The Isomerases enzymes catalyze the structural shifts present in a molecule, thus causing the change in the shape ... hydroxyl generates a covalent bond with a carbonyl carbon of a peptide bond and results in the hydrolysis of the peptide bond. ... Catalysis by Bond Strain. The induced structural rearrangements in this type of catalysis produce strained substrate bonds that ...
DHA is a carboxylic acid with a 22-carbon chain and six cis double bonds; the first double bond is located at the third carbon ... Protein disulfide isomerases are known to reduce DHA back to ascorbic acid, oxidizing their disulfide bonds in the process. ...
... resulting in the formation of a double bond that increases the potential energy in the remaining phosphate bond and produces ... Glycolysis consists of two parts: The first part prepares the six-carbon ring of glucose for cleavage into two three-carbon ... An isomerase is an enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of a molecule into one of its isomers. (This change from phosphoglucose ... the remaining phosphate group in 3-phosphoglycerate moves from the third carbon to the second carbon, producing 2- ...
1994) Synthesis of trans unsaturated fatty acids in Pseudomonas putida P8 by direct isomerization of the double bond of lipids. ... When an LB preculture was used to inoculate minimal medium with toluene in the vapor phase as the sole source of carbon and ... which occurs without shifts in the position of the double bond of the C16:1,9and C18:1,11 fatty acids, was shown to be a ... The isomerase Cti of P. putida DOT-T1E was found to have high sequence identity to Cti of P. putida P8 (15). In addition, in ...
C-C Double Bond Isomerases use Carbon-Carbon Double Bond Isomerases C-C Fistula use Carotid-Cavernous Sinus Fistula ...
C-C Double Bond Isomerases use Carbon-Carbon Double Bond Isomerases C-C Fistula use Carotid-Cavernous Sinus Fistula ...
  • That means that one molecule of the enzyme can cause a million molecules of carbon dioxide to react in one second. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The Isomerases enzymes catalyze the structural shifts present in a molecule, thus causing the change in the shape of the molecule. (byjus.com)
  • Glycolysis begins with the six carbon ring-shaped structure of a single glucose molecule and ends with two molecules of a three-carbon sugar called pyruvate . (oercommons.org)
  • The first part of the glycolysis pathway traps the glucose molecule in the cell and uses energy to modify it so that the six-carbon sugar molecule can be split evenly into the two three-carbon molecules. (oercommons.org)
  • An isomerase is an enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of a molecule into one of its isomers. (oercommons.org)
  • Another example of an enzyme in this group is the citrase lyase.Another group where enzymes can categorise into is the isomerases, where the process of intramolecular rearrangements is catalysed: phosphoglucomutaseGlucose 1-phosphate→ glucose 6-phosphateIn this process the position of the phosphate group in the glucose 1-phosphate molecule is changed to form the isomer glucose 6-phosphate. (ostatic.com)
  • This process takes place during respiration.Another group where some enzymes categorises into are the ligases, where the process in which there is a formation of a bond, coupled with ATP hydrolysis to ADP and phosphate is catalysed:Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase +ATPAmino acid + specific tRNA → amino acid tRNA complex+ADP + PiIn this process an amino acid is joined to a tRNA molecule. (ostatic.com)
  • Isomerases catalyze reactions that transfer functional groups within a molecule so that isomeric forms are produced. (wikibooks.org)
  • Isomerase , any one of a class of enzymes that catalyze reactions involving a structural rearrangement of a molecule . (britannica.com)
  • This invention relates to neurotrophic low molecular weight, small molecule N-linked ureas and carbamates of heterocyclic thioesters having an affinity for FKBP-type immunophilins, and their use as inhibitors of the enzyme activity associated with immunophilin proteins, particularly peptidyl-prolyl isomerase, or rotamase, enzyme activity. (google.com)
  • 10 The glycerol molecule generated can be converted to glycolytic intermediate glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate by the successive action of glycerol kinase, glycerol 3-phosphate dehydrogenase, and triose phosphate isomerase. (slideplayer.com)
  • all those enzymes that can eliminate a group from a molecule to form a double bond and vice versa. (analytica-bg.com)
  • A peptide bond is a chemical bond that is formed between two molecules when the carboxyl group of one molecule reacts with the amino group of the other molecule, releasing a molecule of water (H 2 O). This is a dehydration synthesis reaction (also known as a condensation reaction ), and usually occurs between amino acids . (wikidoc.org)
  • The resulting CO-NH bond is called a peptide bond , and the resulting molecule is an amide . (wikidoc.org)
  • Ligases are used in catalysis where two substrates are ligated and the formation of carbon-carbon, carbon-sulfide, carbon-nitrogen, and carbon-oxygen bonds due to condensation reactions. (wikibooks.org)
  • Identification of a bisphosphonate that inhibits isopentenyl diphosphate isomerase and farnesyl diphosphate synthase. (ox.ac.uk)
  • In an in vitro screen, we discovered a bisphosphonate, NE21650, that potently inhibited farnesyl diphosphate synthase but, unlike other N-BPs investigated, was also a weak inhibitor of isopentenyl diphosphate isomerase. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Recent mechanistic and structural data supporting novel flavin functionalities in reactions catalyzed by chorismate synthase, type II isopentenyl diphosphate isomerase, UDP-galactopyranose mutase, and alkyl-dihydroxyacetonephosphate synthase are presented in this review. (mdpi.com)
  • These catalyze the breakage of bonds without catalysis, e.g. aldolase (an enzyme in glycolysis) catalyzes the splitting of fructose-1, 6-bisphosphate to glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate and dihydroxyacetone phosphate. (byjus.com)
  • The fourth step in glycolysis employs an enzyme, aldolase, to cleave 1,6-bisphosphate into two three-carbon isomers: dihydroxyacetone-phosphate and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate. (oercommons.org)
  • In the fifth step, an isomerase transforms the dihydroxyacetone-phosphate into its isomer, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate. (oercommons.org)
  • Aldolase splits the fructose-1,6-bisphosphate into two 3 carbon molecules, dihydroxyacetone phosphate and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate. (biochem.co)
  • Lyases catalyze reactions where functional groups are added to break double bonds in molecules or the reverse where double bonds are formed by the removal of functional groups. (wikibooks.org)
  • We have cloned and sequenced the cti gene of this strain, which encodes the cis/trans isomerase, termed Cti, that catalyzes the cis-trans isomerization of esterified fatty acids in phospholipids, mainly cis -oleic acid (C 16:1,9 ) and cis -vaccenic acid (C 18:1,11 ), in response to solvents. (asm.org)
  • To determine the importance of this cis/trans isomerase for solvent resistance a Cti-null mutant was generated and characterized. (asm.org)
  • The cis-trans isomerization triggered by solvent exposure, which occurs without shifts in the position of the double bond of the C 16:1,9 and C 18:1,11 fatty acids, was shown to be a postsynthetic enzyme modification in Pseudomonas putida P8 ( 8 ). (asm.org)
  • The cis-trans isomerase (Cti) in P. putida P8 has recently been cloned and sequenced (accession no. (asm.org)
  • We studied the influence of cis-trans isomerization on toluene resistance in Pseudomonas putida DOT-T1E ( 31-33 ), a strain which can grow in the presence of 90% (vol/vol) toluene and use toluene as the sole source of carbon and energy. (asm.org)
  • Forms a trans CC bond. (powershow.com)
  • Adds water across the trans CC bond. (powershow.com)
  • Catalyzes the NADPH-dependent reduction of the C4-C5 double bond of the acyl chain of 2,4-dienoyl-CoA to yield 2-trans- enoyl-CoA. (string-db.org)
  • Unsaturated fatty acids, with cis double bonds located at odd-numbered carbon atoms, enter the main pathway of saturated fatty acid degradation by converting related metabolites of cis configuration and D stereoisomers, derived from breakdown of unsaturated fatty acids, to the trans- or L isomers of saturated fatty acid breakdown by an isomerase and an epimerase, respectively. (smpdb.ca)
  • When cis double bonds are located at even-numbered carbon atoms, such as linoleic acid (cis,cis(9,12)-octadecadienoic acid), after the fatty acid is degraded to the ten carbon stage an extra step is required to deal with the resulting compound, trans,δ(2)-cis,δ(4)decadienoyl-CoA. (smpdb.ca)
  • The enzyme 2,4-dienoyl-CoA reductase, converts this to trans,δ(2)decenoyl-CoA which enters the normal cycle at the point of the isomerase. (smpdb.ca)
  • β-oxidation of unsaturated fatty acids poses a problem since the location of a cis bond can prevent the formation of a trans-δ 2 bond. (bionity.com)
  • If the acyl CoA contains a cis-Δ 3 bond , then cis-δ 3 -Enoyl CoA isomerase will convert the bond to a trans-Δ 2 bond, which is a regular substrate. (bionity.com)
  • However, the protein encoded by this gene has acquired a divergent function that involves the concerted O-alkyl ester cleavage of its all-trans retinyl ester substrate and all-trans to 11-cis double bond isomerization of the retinyl moiety. (genecards.org)
  • Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include retinal isomerase activity and all-trans-retinyl-ester hydrolase, 11-cis retinol forming activity . (genecards.org)
  • The first enzyme catalyzes conversion of cis bonds between carbons 3 and 4 to trans bonds between carbons 2 and 3 so it can be oxidized in beta oxidation. (studyres.com)
  • other double bonds are converted from cis to trans configuration. (krda.info)
  • The rigidity of the peptide bond leads to cis and trans forms in 94% and 6% abundance, respectively, for peptides in solution.1 Here, we present evidence that cis and trans forms of peptides also exist in gas-phase ions produced by electrospray ionization.2 The. (krda.info)
  • The bonds in unsaturated fatty acids can be either cis or trans, depending on the direction of the continuing carbon chain on each side of the double bond. (krda.info)
  • A cis bond means that the fatty acid chain continues on the same side of the bond, forming a U shape, and a trans bond means that the fatty acid chain continues on. (krda.info)
  • A double bond may change from a cis to a trans configuration (geometric isomerization) or move to another position along the carbon chain (positional isomerization) as illustrated in Figure 2.2. (krda.info)
  • The partial double bond renders the amide group planar, occurring in either the cis or trans isomers. (wikidoc.org)
  • The trans form is preferred overwhelmingly in most peptide bonds (roughly 1000:1 ratio in trans:cis populations). (wikidoc.org)
  • Unsaturated fatty acids complicate the picture a bit (see below), primarily because they have cis bonds, for the most part, if they are of biological origin and these must be converted to the relevant trans intermediate made in step 1. (libretexts.org)
  • If the beta oxidation of the fatty acid produces an intermediate with a cis bond between carbons three and four, cis-\(\Delta\)3-Enoyl-CoA Isomerase will convert the bond to a trans bond between carbons two and three and beta oxidation can proceed as normal. (libretexts.org)
  • CRTISO, a carotenoid isomerase, is needed to convert the cis-lycopene into an all-trans lycopene in the presence of reduced FAD. (ecdl.pl)
  • Hydrolases are hydrolytic enzymes, which catalyze the hydrolysis reaction by adding water to cleave the bond and hydrolyze it. (byjus.com)
  • The first reaction involves the enzyme 3Beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3BHSD) which converts the hydroxyl group on carbon 3 to the necessary ketone group, producing androstendione. (tigerfitness.com)
  • Your body contains the enzyme ?5/?4 isomerase which will interconvert (isomerize) the double bond on DHEA before it converts to androstenediol(AD) and testosterone. (tigerfitness.com)
  • In the second step of glycolysis, an isomerase converts glucose-6-phosphate into one of its isomers, fructose-6-phosphate. (oercommons.org)
  • Triose phosphate isomerase converts DHAP into GLAP by changing the structural configuration. (biochem.co)
  • Many ribozymes are molecules of ribonucleic acid, which catalyze reactions in one of their own bonds or among other RNAs. (byjus.com)
  • This change from phosphoglucose to phosphofructose allows the eventual split of the sugar into two three-carbon molecules. (oercommons.org)
  • On the other hand a polypepetide chain is a chain of amino acids joined through peptide bonds, the amino acids are molecules that are formed through the combination of ions. (wikibooks.org)
  • Refer to the polarity of water molecules and hydrogen bonding when relevant. (wikibooks.org)
  • Water's high latent heat of vaporization is due to strong hydrogen bonds existing between water molecules. (wikibooks.org)
  • If an 18 carbon fatty acid chain went through bet-oxidation what would the resulting molecules be? (brainscape.com)
  • Both Chl and carotenoid molecules bind to proteins integral to the photosynthetic machinery, where they absorb light energy to generate chemical bond energy (in the form of sugars) and also function in efficiently managing the use of excitation energy. (plantphysiol.org)
  • From here on there are two molecules at a time (2 x 3 carbon rather than 1 x 6 carbon) and so all ATP & NADH figures have been doubled. (biochem.co)
  • Clearly, the two molecules above (both 2-butene) are different if they cannot rotate about the double bond (which they can't). (krda.info)
  • In biochemistry , a ligase is an enzyme that can catalyze the joining of two large molecules by forming a new chemical bond , usually with accompanying hydrolysis of a small pendant chemical group on one of the larger molecules or the enzyme catalyzing the linking together of two compounds, e.g., enzymes that catalyze joining of C-O, C-S, C-N, etc. (wikipedia.org)
  • Polyamides , such as nylons and aramids , are synthetic molecules ( polymers ) that possess peptide bonds. (wikidoc.org)
  • The first step in glycolysis ( Figure ) is catalyzed by hexokinase, an enzyme with broad specificity that catalyzes the phosphorylation of six-carbon sugars. (oercommons.org)
  • In this review, we provide an overview of the recent advances in carbon and energy fluxes of light-dependent reaction, Calvin-Benson-Bassham cycle, tricarboxylic acid cycle, glycolysis pathway and processes of product biosynthesis in microalgae, with focus on the increased photosynthetic and carbon efficiencies. (biomedcentral.com)
  • You have read that nearly all of the energy used by living cells comes to them in the bonds of the sugar, glucose. (oercommons.org)
  • For example: phosphoglucose isomerase for converting glucose 6-phosphate to fructose 6-phosphate. (wikibooks.org)
  • An isomerase called mutarotase catalyzes the conversion of α - d -glucose into β - d -glucose. (britannica.com)
  • The hydrogen on the alcohol on carbon 6 of glucose is replaced by a phosphate group from the ATP by Hexokinase. (biochem.co)
  • Phosphoglucose isomerase changes the glucose structure to fructose by swapping the C=O and alcohol groups on carbons 1&2. (biochem.co)
  • Using a method that could distinguish DMAPP from IPP on basis of their difference in stability in acid, we found that none of the NBps affected the conversion of [14C]IPP into DMAPP, catalyzed by IPP isomerase, excluding this enzyme as target of NBp action. (tudelft.nl)
  • IPP is isomerized to the allylic ester dimethylallyl pyrophosphate (DMAPP) by IPP isomerase. (foodb.ca)
  • In both pathways, IPP is isomerized to DMAPP by the enzyme isopentenyl pyrophosphate isomerase. (bionity.com)
  • KSI catalyzes the rearrangement of a carbon-carbon double bond in ketosteroids through an enolate intermediate at a diffusion-limited rate. (wikipedia.org)
  • The rearrangement of the double bond within the cyclopentane ring of Prostaglandin As gives rise to the prostaglandin Bs. (biology-online.org)
  • When terpenes are modified chemically, such as by oxidation or rearrangement of the carbon skeleton, the resulting compounds are generally referred to as terpenoids . (bionity.com)
  • This enzyme belongs to the family of isomerases, specifically those intramolecular oxidoreductases transposing C=C bonds. (wikipedia.org)
  • The EC 5.3 subclass contains Intramolecular Oxidoreductases - Isomerases that catalyze intramolecular coupled oxidation-reduction reaction. (me.uk)
  • Recent evidence indicated that farnesyl pyrophosphate (FPP) synthase and/or isopentenyl pyrophosphate (IPP) isomerase is the intracellular target(s) of bisphosphonate action. (tudelft.nl)
  • eLOX3 functions as a hydroperoxide isomerase (epoxyalcohol synthase) by using the product of 12 R -LOX as the preferred substrate. (pnas.org)
  • It is also said that a synthase is a lyase (a lyase is an enzyme that catalyzes the breaking of various chemical bonds by means other than hydrolysis and oxidation, often forming a new double bond or a new ring structure) and does not require any energy, whereas a synthetase is a ligase (a ligase is an enzyme that binds two chemicals or compounds) and thus requires energy. (wikipedia.org)
  • MECDP is then converted to (e)-4-hydroxy-3-methylbut-2-en-1-yl diphosphate (HMBDP) via HMBDP synthase in the presence of flavodoxin and NADPH. (ecdl.pl)
  • Nanorod carbon nitride as a carbo catalyst for selective oxidation of hydrogen sulfide to sulfur. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Oxidation of monounsaturated fatty acyl-CoA requires additional reaction performed with the help of the enzyme isomerase. (powershow.com)
  • Functions as an auxiliary enzyme in the beta-oxidation of unsaturated fatty acids with double bonds at even carbon positions. (string-db.org)
  • 7. Know only that unsaturated fatty acids require two auxiliary enzymes (isomerase andreductase in Figure 19-15) in addition to the enzymes of beta-oxidation. (medpdffinder.com)
  • Hypothesis: the b-carbon is oxidized,with two-carbon units released by each round of oxidation. (slideplayer.com)
  • 13 Franz Knoop's labeling Experiments (1904): fatty acids are degraded by oxidation at the b carbon, i.e., b oxidation. (slideplayer.com)
  • The reactions of fatty acid oxidation are notable in mirroring the oxidations in the latter half of the citric acid cycle - dehydrogenation of succinate to make a transdouble bond (fumarate), hydration across the double bond to make L-malate and oxidation of the hydroxyl to make a ketone (oxaloacetate). (libretexts.org)
  • All members of this superfamily are non-heme iron oxygenases with a seven-bladed propeller fold and oxidatively cleave carotenoid carbon:carbon double bonds. (genecards.org)
  • There are about 600 compounds in the carotenoid group that can be classified as carotenes or carotenoids (presenting in the structure only carbon and hydrogen atoms) and xanthophylls, which are oxygenated hydrocarbon compounds having at least one oxygen atom, hydroxy, keto, epoxy, methoxy or carboxyl groups. (omicsonline.org)
  • Here we illustrate the effects that chirality and peptide bond configuration flips may have on the secondary structure of proteins throughout a simulation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Another type of asymmetry is encountered in the conformation of the peptide bond connecting the carboxy end of one amino acid to the amino end of the next one in a peptide or protein. (biomedcentral.com)
  • A peptide bond can be broken by amide hydrolysis (the adding of water). (wikidoc.org)
  • The wavelength of absorbance for a peptide bond is 190-230nm. (wikidoc.org)
  • Isomerization of an X-Pro peptide bond. (wikidoc.org)
  • When the hydrolase acts on amide, glycosyl, peptide, ester, or other bonds, they not only catalyze the hydrolytic removal of a group from the substrate but also a transfer of the group to an acceptor compound. (wikibooks.org)
  • For this purpose, several proteins of known primary structure were subjected to mild proteolysis by the enzyme, and the preferentially cleaved peptide bonds were identified. (tudelft.nl)
  • For example, the enzyme pepsin hydrolyzes peptide bonds in proteins . (byjus.com)
  • 4.  They attack sites of increased electron density such as:  the nitrogen atom present in proteins and DNA predominantly  and carbon-carbon double bonds present in polyunsaturated fatty acids and phospholipids to produce additional free radical, often reactive, intermediates. (slideshare.net)
  • Polypeptides and proteins are chains of amino acids held together by peptide bonds, as is the backbone of PNA . (wikidoc.org)
  • The peptide bonds in proteins are metastable , meaning that in the presence of water they will break spontaneously, releasing about 10 kJ / mol of free energy , but this process is extremely slow. (wikidoc.org)
  • The chains may be saturated or contain double bonds. (healthdocbox.com)
  • Fatty Acids -- Long chains of carbon surrounded by hydrogens. (studyres.com)
  • However, the industrial performance of microalgae is still challenged with potential conflict between cost of microalgae cultivation and revenues from them, which is mainly ascribed to the lack of comprehensive understanding of carbon metabolism and energy conversion. (biomedcentral.com)
  • However, thus far, the biotechnological application in microalgae has been limited under industrial conditions for the lack of comprehensive understanding of carbon metabolism and energy conversion. (biomedcentral.com)
  • DHEA has a double bond between carbons 5 and 6, whereas androstenediol and testosterone have a double bond between carbons 4 and 5. (tigerfitness.com)
  • Aucubin has 10 carbons with the C11 carbon missing. (foodb.ca)
  • Steroids, representing a major class of triterpenoids, are organic compounds characterized by a planar and a relatively rigid carbon skeleton (sterane). (asm.org)
  • Compounds of carbon are classified as organic when carbon is bound to hydrogen. (britannica.com)
  • From chemical point of view carotenoids (fat-soluble plant pigments that provide much of the color in nature) are polyisoprenic compounds, consisting of isoprene units (eight units, forty carbon atoms). (omicsonline.org)
  • Cytochrome P450 enzymes introduce oxygen in carbon compounds by way of a hydroxyl group. (ergogenics.org)
  • Of particular relevance to biological compounds is the carbon atom as a chiral center: a carbon atom is chiral if it carries four nonequivalent substituents. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Under anaerobic conditions R. palustris generates energy from light and uses organic compounds, including aliphatic and aromatic compounds, as its source of carbon for growth. (mcponline.org)
  • Protein disulfide isomerases are known to reduce DHA back to ascorbic acid, oxidizing their disulfide bonds in the process. (bayho.com)
  • Pancreatic lipases hydrolyze ester bonds to form monoacylglycerols and fatty acids, which recombine in the intestinal lining. (powershow.com)
  • State that the most frequently occurring chemical elements in living things are carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen. (wikibooks.org)
  • Carbon atoms are shown in green, nitrogen in blue, oxygen in red, and hydrogen in white. (biomedcentral.com)
  • membered ring with the backbone nitrogen and R-carbon. (krda.info)
  • Figure 4: An electronegative substituent near the amide nitrogen favors the single-bonded resonance form (left) over the double-bonded form (right). (wikidoc.org)
  • Conversely, donating a hydrogen bond to the amide oxygen or accepting a hydrogen bond from the amide nitrogen should favor the double-bonded form, because the hydrogen bond should be stronger to the charged form than to the uncharged, single-bonded form. (wikidoc.org)
  • donating it to the double-bonded form would give the nitrogen five quasi-covalent bonds! (wikidoc.org)
  • Similarly, a strongly electronegative substituent (such as fluorine ) near the amide nitrogen favors the single-bonded form, by competing with the amide oxygen to "steal" an electron from the amide nitrogen (See Figure 4. (wikidoc.org)
  • Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is an important food component that consists of a mixture of positional and geometric isomers of linoleic acid ( cis − 9, cis − 12, C 18:2 ) with two conjugated double bonds at various carbon positions in the fatty acid chain [ 4 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In enzymology, a steroid Δ5-isomerase (EC 5.3.3.1) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction a 3-oxo-Δ5-steroid ⇌ {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } a 3-oxo-Δ4-steroid Hence, this enzyme has one substrate, a 3-oxo-Δ5-steroid, and one product, a 3-oxo-Δ4-steroid. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although the mechanistic steps of the reaction are not disputed, the contributions of various factors to catalysis such as electrostatics, hydrogen bonding of the oxyanion hole, and distal binding effects are discussed below and still debated. (wikipedia.org)
  • There is actually a 3rd step that often goes overlooked but this reaction changes the position of the double bond from carbon 5 to carbon 4 via the enzyme ?5-?4 isomerase. (tigerfitness.com)
  • To date, only a single enzyme catalyzing such a reaction is described: the linalool dehydratase/isomerase (Ldi) from Castellaniella defragrans 65Phen acting only on ( S )-linalool. (biomedcentral.com)
  • A similar reaction was described for the bifunctional enzyme linalool dehydratase/isomerase from Castellaniella defragrans 65Phen. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Also this reaction, like those catalyzed by 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase and ribose 5-phosphate isomerase, proceeds through the formation of an enediol intermediate, but with the double bond between C-2 and C-3 and not between C-1 and C During the reaction an amino acid residue present in the active site of the. (degisiktatlar.com)
  • Comparison of the primary structures around these sites indicates that cathepsin D shows a strong preference for peptide bonds within a distinct sequence pattern of amino acids extending over 7 residues. (tudelft.nl)
  • C07K5/0806 - Tripeptides with the first amino acid being neutral and aliphatic the side chain containing 0 or 1 carbon atoms, i.e. (google.com)
  • C07K5/0808 - Tripeptides with the first amino acid being neutral and aliphatic the side chain containing 2 to 4 carbon atoms, e.g. (google.com)
  • For example: Fructose bisphosphate aldolase used in converting fructose 1,6-bisphospate to G3P and DHAP by cutting C-C bond. (wikibooks.org)
  • Doping-induced Hydrogen-Bond Engineering in Polymeric Carbon Nitride to Significantly Boost the Photocatalytic H2 Evolution Performance. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Unlike graphene, graphitic carbon nitride (CN) polymer contains weak hydrogen bond and van der Waals (vdWs) interactions besides strong covalent bond, which control its final morphology and functionality. (bioportfolio.com)
  • This work demonstrates that hydrogen bond engineering is an effective strategy to modify the structure and properties of polymers for various applications. (bioportfolio.com)
  • The general base Asp-38 abstracts a proton from position 4 (alpha to the carbonyl, next to the double bond) of the steroid ring to form an enolate (the rate-limiting step) that is stabilized by the hydrogen bond donating Tyr-14 and Asp-99. (wikipedia.org)
  • This bond is called a hydrogen bond. (wikibooks.org)
  • Ligase can join two complementary fragments of nucleic acid and repair single stranded breaks that arise in double stranded DNA during replication. (wikipedia.org)
  • even numbered bonds by the reductase (which creates an odd numbered double bond) and the isomerase. (bionity.com)
  • two enzymes are enoyl-CoA isomerase and 2,4 dienoyl-CoA reductase (also known as Dina). (studyres.com)
  • Both shortening and margarine are partially hydrogenated vegetable fats: vegetable oils that have been chemically treated to essentially make saturated fats out of unsaturated ones by restructuring the formation of bonds in the fatty acid chain. (krda.info)
  • The active site is lined with hydrophobic residues to accommodate the substrate, but Asp-99 and Tyr-14 are within hydrogen bonding distance of O-3. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, the double-bonded form is disfavored in hydrophobic environments, because of its charge. (wikidoc.org)
  • In yeasts and many bacteria it is involved in the catabolism of the five carbon sugars ribose, xylose and arabinose. (tuscany-diet.net)
  • Aucubin was found to protect against liver damage induced by carbon tetrachloride or alpha-amanitin in mice and rats when 80 mg/kg was dosed intraperitoneally. (foodb.ca)
  • The melting point of maleic acid (139-140 °C) is also much lower than that of fumaric acid (287 °C). Fumaric acid would be more solutble in carbon tetrachloride 6. (sunstonewater.com)
  • CLA is formed as an intermediate during the biohydrogenation of linoleic acid by linoleic acid isomerase from the rumen bacteria Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens [ 5 ] or from the endogenous conversion of t -11, C 18:1 (vaccenic Acid), another intermediate of linoleic or linolenic acid biohydrogenation, by Δ 9 -desaturase in the tissues [ 6 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Linoleic Acid (also called cis,cis,-9,12-octadecadienoic acid) is an example of a poly-unsaturated fatty acid, due to the presence of two C=C double bonds. (krda.info)
  • Carbon monoxide (CO) is produced when there is not enough oxygen available for fuel or gas to react fully in order to create organic matter such as carbon dioxide and water as the end result. (wordpress.com)
  • Structural defects can greatly inhibit electron transfer in two-dimensional (2D) layered polymeric carbon nitride (CN) unit, seriously lowering its utilization ratio of photogenerated charges during p. (bioportfolio.com)
  • The second step produces testosterone via the reduction of the ketone group on carbon 17 to a hydroxyl group, which is 100% required for binding to the androgen receptor (AR). (tigerfitness.com)
  • Carbon atoms in the graphitic carbon skeleton can be replaced by heteroatoms with different electronegative from that of the carbon atom (i.e., heteroatom doping) to modulate the charge distribution o. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Pyruvate kinase removes the phosphate group from C2, double bond C=O alters structure below C2. (biochem.co)
  • In this study, the pathway for anaerobic catabolism of p -coumarate by a model bacterium, Rhodopseudomonas palustris , was characterized by comparing the gene expression profiles of cultures grown in the presence of p -coumarate, benzoate, or succinate as the sole carbon sources. (mcponline.org)
  • Prostaglandin is an eicosanoid that is derived from unsaturated 20-carbon fatty acids , such as arachidonic acid , through the cyclooxygenase pathway. (biology-online.org)
  • For every cycle, the Acyl CoA unit is shortened by two carbon atoms. (bionity.com)
  • If the acyl CoA contains a cis-Δ 4 double bond , then its dehydrogenation yields a 2,4-dienoyl intermediate, which is not a substrate for enoyl CoA hydratase. (bionity.com)