Enzymes that catalyze the transposition of a sulfur-sulfur bond. EC 5.3.4.
Enzymes that catalyze the shifting of a carbon-carbon double bond from one position to another within the same molecule. EC 5.3.3.
A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.
Enzymes that catalyze the interconversion of aldose and ketose compounds.
A class of enzymes that catalyze geometric or structural changes within a molecule to form a single product. The reactions do not involve a net change in the concentrations of compounds other than the substrate and the product.(from Dorland, 28th ed) EC 5.
An enzyme that catalyzes the isomerization of proline residues within proteins. EC
A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.
Enzymes that catalyze either the racemization or epimerization of chiral centers within amino acids or derivatives. EC 5.1.1.
Carbon monoxide (CO). A poisonous colorless, odorless, tasteless gas. It combines with hemoglobin to form carboxyhemoglobin, which has no oxygen carrying capacity. The resultant oxygen deprivation causes headache, dizziness, decreased pulse and respiratory rates, unconsciousness, and death. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
Nanometer-sized tubes composed mainly of CARBON. Such nanotubes are used as probes for high-resolution structural and chemical imaging of biomolecules with ATOMIC FORCE MICROSCOPY.
Enzymes that catalyze the epimerization of chiral centers within carbohydrates or their derivatives. EC 5.1.3.
Sulfur-sulfur bond isomerases that catalyze the rearrangement of disulfide bonds within proteins during folding. Specific protein disulfide-isomerase isoenzymes also occur as subunits of PROCOLLAGEN-PROLINE DIOXYGENASE.
Enzymes that catalyze the transposition of double bond(s) in a steroid molecule. EC 5.3.3.
A family of peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerases that bind to CYCLOSPORINS and regulate the IMMUNE SYSTEM. EC 5.2.1.-
A carbon-carbon double bond isomerase that catalyzes the movement double bond from C3 to C2 of an unsaturated acyl-CoA. The enzyme plays a key role in allowing acyl-CoA substrates to re-enter the beta-oxidation pathway.
Toxic asphyxiation due to the displacement of oxygen from oxyhemoglobin by carbon monoxide.
Stable carbon atoms that have the same atomic number as the element carbon, but differ in atomic weight. C-13 is a stable carbon isotope.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Members of a family of highly conserved proteins which are all cis-trans peptidyl-prolyl isomerases (PEPTIDYLPROLYL ISOMERASE). They bind the immunosuppressant drugs CYCLOSPORINE; TACROLIMUS and SIROLIMUS. They possess rotamase activity, which is inhibited by the immunosuppressant drugs that bind to them.
FATTY ACIDS in which the carbon chain contains one or more double or triple carbon-carbon bonds.
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
A family of immunophilin proteins that bind to the immunosuppressive drugs TACROLIMUS (also known as FK506) and SIROLIMUS. EC 5.2.1.-
The phenomenon whereby certain chemical compounds have structures that are different although the compounds possess the same elemental composition. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
A solvent for oils, fats, lacquers, varnishes, rubber waxes, and resins, and a starting material in the manufacturing of organic compounds. Poisoning by inhalation, ingestion or skin absorption is possible and may be fatal. (Merck Index, 11th ed)
The hydroxy salt of ammonium ion. It is formed when AMMONIA reacts with water molecules in solution.
A 17-KDa cytoplasmic PEPTIDYLPROLYL ISOMERASE involved in immunoregulation. It is a member of the cyclophilin family of proteins that binds to CYCLOSPORINE.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Any of several processes for the permanent or long-term artificial or natural capture or removal and storage of carbon dioxide and other forms of carbon, through biological, chemical or physical processes, in a manner that prevents it from being released into the atmosphere.
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
Unsaturated hydrocarbons of the type Cn-H2n, indicated by the suffix -ene. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed, p408)
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
A colorless, flammable, poisonous liquid, CS2. It is used as a solvent, and is a counterirritant and has local anesthetic properties but is not used as such. It is highly toxic with pronounced CNS, hematologic, and dermatologic effects.
The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.
A class of carbohydrates that contains five carbon atoms.
Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).
A family of enzymes that catalyze the stereoselective, regioselective, or chemoselective syn-dehydrogenation reactions. They function by a mechanism that is linked directly to reduction of molecular OXYGEN.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
An aldose-ketose isomerase that catalyzes the reversible interconversion of glucose 6-phosphate and fructose 6-phosphate. In prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms it plays an essential role in glycolytic and gluconeogenic pathways. In mammalian systems the enzyme is found in the cytoplasm and as a secreted protein. This secreted form of glucose-6-phosphate isomerase has been referred to as autocrine motility factor or neuroleukin, and acts as a cytokine which binds to the AUTOCRINE MOTILITY FACTOR RECEPTOR. Deficiency of the enzyme in humans is an autosomal recessive trait, which results in CONGENITAL NONSPHEROCYTIC HEMOLYTIC ANEMIA.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
The characteristic three-dimensional shape of a molecule.
Chemical groups containing the covalent disulfide bonds -S-S-. The sulfur atoms can be bound to inorganic or organic moieties.
An enzyme that catalyzes the reversible isomerization of D-mannose-6-phosphate to form D-fructose-6-phosphate, an important step in glycolysis. EC
Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The class of all enzymes catalyzing oxidoreduction reactions. The substrate that is oxidized is regarded as a hydrogen donor. The systematic name is based on donor:acceptor oxidoreductase. The recommended name will be dehydrogenase, wherever this is possible; as an alternative, reductase can be used. Oxidase is only used in cases where O2 is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p9)
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
An enzyme that catalyzes reversibly the conversion of D-glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate to dihydroxyacetone phosphate. A deficiency in humans causes nonspherocytic hemolytic disease (ANEMIA, HEMOLYTIC, CONGENITAL NONSPHEROCYTIC). EC
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Addition of hydrogen to a compound, especially to an unsaturated fat or fatty acid. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A plant genus of the family ASTERACEAE. Members contain CAROTENOIDS, essential oils (OILS, VOLATILE), flavonoids, mucilage, SAPONINS, and STEROLS. The plants are used both topically and internally. The common name of Marigold is also used for TAGETES.
Fractionation of a vaporized sample as a consequence of partition between a mobile gaseous phase and a stationary phase held in a column. Two types are gas-solid chromatography, where the fixed phase is a solid, and gas-liquid, in which the stationary phase is a nonvolatile liquid supported on an inert solid matrix.
An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.
A microanalytical technique combining mass spectrometry and gas chromatography for the qualitative as well as quantitative determinations of compounds.
Processes involved in the formation of TERTIARY PROTEIN STRUCTURE.

Effect of the hypocholesterolemic agent YM-16638 on cholesterol biosynthesis activity and apolipoprotein B secretion in HepG2 and monkey liver. (1/145)

YM-16638 ([[5-[[3-(4-acetyl-3-hydroxy-2-propylphenoxy)propyl]thio]-1,3,4-++ +thiadiazol-2-yl] thio] acetic acid) showed a strong hypocholesterolemic effect in humans and monkeys. To clarify the mechanism of this hypocholesterolemic effect, the action of YM-16638 on cholesterol biosynthesis in the cultured human hepatoma cell line HepG2 and cynomolgus monkey liver was examined. Cholesterol biosynthesis activity derived from [14C]acetic acid, [3H/14C]mevalonic acid or [14C]isopentenyl pyrophosphate substrates was significantly decreased, but not that from [3H]farnesyl pyrophosphate or [3H]squalene substrates in HepG2 cells treated with YM-16638. Simultaneously, treatment of these cells with YM-16638 changed neither the rate of apolipoprotein B synthesis from [35S]methionine nor its secretion. In addition, the activities of hepatic cholesterol biosynthesis enzymes HMG-CoA reductase, mevalonate kinase (MK), isopentenyl pyrophosphate isomerase (IPPI), farnesyl pyrophosphate synthase (FPPS), squalene synthase and squalene epoxidase were measured in monkeys fed a diet supplemented with YM-16638. Among these enzymes, MK, IPPI and FPPS activities in the YM-16638-treated group significantly decreased by 38%, 56% and 30%, respectively, when compared to those from control animals receiving no drug treatment. These results indicate that YM-16638 has the characteristics of a cholesterol biosynthesis inhibitor.  (+info)

Delta3,5,7,Delta2,4,6-trienoyl-CoA isomerase, a novel enzyme that functions in the beta-oxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids with conjugated double bonds. (2/145)

The mitochondrial metabolism of unsaturated fatty acids with conjugated double bonds at odd-numbered positions, e.g. 9-cis, 11-trans-octadecadienoic acid, was investigated. These fatty acids are substrates of beta-oxidation in isolated rat liver mitochondria and hence are expected to yield 5,7-dienoyl-CoA intermediates. 5, 7-Decadienoyl-CoA was used to study the degradation of these intermediates. After introduction of a 2-trans-double bond by acyl-CoA dehydrogenase or acyl-CoA oxidase, the resultant 2,5, 7-decatrienoyl-CoA can either continue its pass through the beta-oxidation cycle or be converted by Delta3,Delta2-enoyl-CoA isomerase to 3,5,7-decatrienoyl-CoA. The latter compound was isomerized by a novel enzyme, named Delta3,5,7,Delta2,4, 6-trienoyl-CoA isomerase, to 2,4,6-decatrienoyl-CoA, which is a substrate of 2,4-dienoyl-CoA reductase (Wang, H.-Y. and Schulz, H. (1989) Biochem. J. 264, 47-52) and hence can be completely degraded via beta-oxidation. Delta3,5,7,Delta2,4,6-Trienoyl-CoA isomerase was purified from pig heart to apparent homogeneity and found to be a component enzyme of Delta3,5,Delta2,4-dienoyl-CoA isomerase. Although the direct beta-oxidation of 2,5,7-decatrienoyl-CoA seems to be the major pathway, the degradation via 2,4,6-trienoyl-CoA makes a significant contribution to the total beta-oxidation of this intermediate.  (+info)

Molecular cloning and expression of a novel human cDNA related to the diazepam binding inhibitor. (3/145)

In order to isolate the unidentified autoantigens in autoimmune diabetes, a human pancreatic islet cDNA library was constructed and screened with the sera from the diabetic patients. From the library screening, one clone (DRS-1) that strongly reacted with the sera was isolated. Subsequent sequence analysis revealed that the clone was a novel cDNA related to the diazepam binding inhibitor. DRS-1 was expressed in most tissues including liver, lung, tonsil, and thymus, in addition to pancreatic islets. DRS-1 was in vitro translated and the recombinant DRS-1 protein was expressed in Escherichia coli and purified. The size of the in vitro translated or bacterially expressed DRS-1 protein was in agreement with the conceptually translated polypeptide of DRS-1 cDNA. Further studies are required to test whether or not DRS-1 is a new autoantigen in autoimmune diabetes.  (+info)

Characterization of PECI, a novel monofunctional Delta(3), Delta(2)-enoyl-CoA isomerase of mammalian peroxisomes. (4/145)

We report here the identification and characterization of human and mouse PECI, a novel gene that encodes a monofunctional peroxisomal Delta(3),Delta(2)-enoyl-CoA isomerase. Human and mouse PECI were identified on the basis of their sequence similarity to Eci1p, a recently characterized peroxisomal Delta(3),Delta(2)-enoyl-CoA isomerase from the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Cloning and sequencing of the human PECI cDNA revealed the presence of a 1077-base pair open reading frame predicted to encode a 359-amino acid protein with a mass of 39.6 kDa. The corresponding mouse cDNA contains a 1074-base pair open reading frame that encodes a 358-amino acid-long protein with a deduced mass of 39.4 kDa. Northern blot analysis demonstrated human PECI mRNA is expressed in all tissues. A bacterially expressed form of human PECI catalyzed the isomerization of 3-cis-octenoyl-CoA to 2-trans-octenoyl-CoA with a specific activity of 27 units/mg of protein. The human and mouse PECI proteins contain type-1 peroxisomal targeting signals, and human PECI was localized to peroxisomes by both subcellular fractionation and immunofluorescence microscopy techniques. The potential roles for this monofunctional Delta(3),Delta(2)-enoyl-CoA isomerase in peroxisomal metabolism are discussed.  (+info)

Escherichia coli open reading frame 696 is idi, a nonessential gene encoding isopentenyl diphosphate isomerase. (5/145)

Isopentenyl diphosphate isomerase catalyzes the interconversion of isopentenyl diphosphate (IPP) and dimethylallyl diphosphate (DMAPP). In eukaryotes, archaebacteria, and some bacteria, IPP is synthesized from acetyl coenzyme A by the mevalonate pathway. The subsequent isomerization of IPP to DMAPP activates the five-carbon isoprene unit for subsequent prenyl transfer reactions. In Escherichia coli, the isoprene unit is synthesized from pyruvate and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate by the recently discovered nonmevalonate pathway. An open reading frame (ORF696) encoding a putative IPP isomerase was identified in the E. coli chromosome at 65.3 min. ORF696 was cloned into an expression vector; the 20.5 kDa recombinant protein was purified in three steps, and its identity as an IPP isomerase was established biochemically. The gene for IPP isomerase, idi, is not clustered with other known genes for enzymes in the isoprenoid pathway. E. coli FH12 was constructed by disruption of the chromosomal idi gene with the aminoglycoside 3'-phosphotransferase gene and complemented by the wild-type idi gene on plasmid pFMH33 with a temperature-sensitive origin of replication. FH12/pFMH33 was able to grow at the restrictive temperature of 44 degrees C and FH12 lacking the plasmid grew on minimal medium, thereby establishing that idi is a nonessential gene. Although the V(max) of the bacterial protein was 20-fold lower than that of its yeast counterpart, the catalytic efficiencies of the two enzymes were similar through a counterbalance in K(m)s. The E. coli protein requires Mg(2+) or Mn(2+) for activity. The enzyme contains conserved cysteine and glutamate active-site residues found in other IPP isomerases.  (+info)

Rat peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors and brown adipose tissue function during cold acclimatization. (6/145)

Brown adipose tissue (BAT) hyperplasia is a fundamental physiological response to cold; it involves an acute phase of mitotic cell growth followed by a prolonged differentiation phase. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are key regulators of fatty acid metabolism and adipocyte differentiation and may therefore mediate important metabolic changes during non-shivering thermogenesis. In the present study we have investigated PPAR mRNA expression in relation to peroxisome proliferation in rat BAT during cold acclimatization. By immunoelectron microscopy we show that the number of peroxisomes per cytoplasmic volume and acyl-CoA oxidase immunolabeling density remained constant (thus increasing in parallel with tissue mass and cell number) during the initial proliferative phase and the acute thermogenic response but increased after 14 days of cold exposure, correlating with terminal differentiation of BAT. A pronounced decrease in BAT PPARalpha and PPARgamma mRNA levels was found within hours of exposure to cold, which was reversed after 14 days, suggesting a role for either or both of these subtypes in the proliferation and induction of peroxisomes and peroxisomal beta-oxidation enzymes. In contrast, PPARdelta mRNA levels increased progressively during cold exposure. Transactivation assays in HIB 1B and HEK-293 cells demonstrated an adrenergic stimulation of peroxisome proliferator response element reporter activity via PPAR, establishing a role for these nuclear receptors in hormonal regulation of gene transcription in BAT.  (+info)

Alternatives to the isomerase-dependent pathway for the beta-oxidation of oleic acid are dispensable in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Identification of YOR180c/DCI1 encoding peroxisomal delta(3,5)-delta(2,4)-dienoyl-CoA isomerase. (7/145)

Fatty acids with double bonds at odd-numbered positions such as oleic acid can enter beta-oxidation via a pathway relying solely on the auxiliary enzyme Delta(3)-Delta(2)-enoyl-CoA isomerase, termed the isomerase-dependent pathway. Two novel alternative pathways have recently been postulated to exist in mammals, and these additionally depend on Delta(3,5)-Delta(2,4)-dienoyl-CoA isomerase (di-isomerase-dependent) or on Delta(3,5)-Delta(2,4)-dienoyl-CoA isomerase and 2,4-dienoyl-CoA reductase (reductase-dependent). We report the identification of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae oleic acid-inducible DCI1 (YOR180c) gene encoding peroxisomal di-isomerase. Enzyme assays conducted on soluble extracts derived from yeast cells overproducing Dci1p using 3,5,8,11,14-eicosapentenoyl-CoA as substrate demonstrated a specific di-isomerase activity of 6 nmol x min(-1) per mg of protein. Similarly enriched extracts from eci1Delta cells lacking peroxisomal 3,2-isomerase additionally contained an intrinsic 3,2-isomerase activity that could generate 3, 5,8,11,14-eicosapentenoyl-CoA from 2,5,8,11,14-eicosapentenoyl-CoA but not metabolize trans-3-hexenoyl-CoA. Amplification of this intrinsic activity replaced Eci1p since it restored growth of the eci1Delta strain on petroselinic acid for which di-isomerase is not required whereas Eci1p is. Heterologous expression in yeast of rat di-isomerase resulted in a peroxisomal protein that was enzymatically active but did not re-establish growth of the eci1Delta mutant on oleic acid. A strain devoid of Dci1p grew on oleic acid to wild-type levels, whereas one lacking both Eci1p and Dci1p grew as poorly as the eci1Delta mutant. Hence, we reasoned that yeast di-isomerase does not additionally represent a physiological 3,2-isomerase and that Dci1p and the postulated alternative pathways in which it is entrained are dispensable for degrading oleic acid.  (+info)

Function of human mitochondrial 2,4-dienoyl-CoA reductase and rat monofunctional Delta3-Delta2-enoyl-CoA isomerase in beta-oxidation of unsaturated fatty acids. (8/145)

Human 2,4-dienoyl-CoA reductase (2,4-reductase; DECR) and rat monofunctional Delta(3)-Delta(2)-enoyl-CoA isomerase (rat 3, 2-isomerase; ECI) are thought to be mitochondrial auxiliary enzymes involved in the beta-oxidation of unsaturated fatty acids. However, their function during this process has not been demonstrated. Although they lack obvious peroxisomal targeting signals (PTSs), both proteins have been suggested previously to also occur in the mammalian peroxisomal compartment. The putative function and peroxisomal location of the two mammalian proteins can be examined in yeast, since beta-oxidation of unsaturated fatty acids is a compartmentalized process in Saccharomyces cerevisiae requiring peroxisomal 2,4-dienoyl-CoA reductase (Sps19p) and peroxisomal 3, 2-isomerase (Eci1p). A yeast sps19Delta mutant expressing human 2, 4-reductase ending with the native C-terminus could not grow on petroselinic acid [cis-C(18:1(6))] medium but could grow when the protein was extended with a PTS tripeptide, SKL (Ser-Lys-Leu). We therefore reason that the human protein is a physiological 2, 4-reductase but that it is probably not peroxisomal. Rat 3, 2-isomerase expressed in a yeast eci1Delta strain was able to re-establish growth on oleic acid [cis-C(18:1(9))] medium irrespective of an SKL extension. Since we had shown that Delta(2,4) double bonds could not be metabolized extra-peroxisomally to restore growth of the sps19Delta strain, we postulate that rat 3,2-isomerase acted on the Delta(3) unsaturated metabolite of oleic acid by replacing the mutant's missing activity from within the peroxisomes. Immunoblotting of fractionated yeast cells expressing rat 3, 2-isomerase in combination with electron microscopy supported our proposal that the protein functioned in peroxisomes. The results presented here shed new light on the function and location of human mitochondrial 2,4-reductase and rat monofunctional 3,2-isomerase.  (+info)

Carbon Monoxide Poisoning Symptoms

The symptoms of carbon monoxide poisoning can vary depending on the level and duration of exposure, but they typically include:

* Headache
* Dizziness or nausea
* Confusion
* Slurred speech
* Loss of consciousness
* Seizures

In severe cases, carbon monoxide poisoning can cause brain damage, coma, and even death.

Carbon Monoxide Poisoning Causes

Carbon monoxide is a byproduct of incomplete combustion of fuels such as gasoline, natural gas, or wood. Sources of carbon monoxide poisoning include:

* Faulty heating systems or water heaters
* Poorly vented appliances like stoves and fireplaces
* Clogged chimneys or vents
* Running cars in enclosed spaces like garages
* Overcrowding with too many people in a small, poorly ventilated space

Diagnosis of Carbon Monoxide Poisoning

Doctors may suspect carbon monoxide poisoning based on symptoms and medical history. Blood tests can measure the level of carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) in red blood cells, which indicates CO exposure. Chest X-rays or CT scans may also be used to check for signs of lung damage.

Treatment of Carbon Monoxide Poisoning

The treatment of carbon monoxide poisoning involves moving the patient to a location with fresh air and administering oxygen therapy to help remove CO from the bloodstream. In severe cases, medication may be given to help stimulate breathing and improve oxygenation of tissues. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy may also be used in some cases.

Prevention of Carbon Monoxide Poisoning

Prevention is key when it comes to carbon monoxide poisoning. Some steps you can take to prevent CO poisoning include:

* Installing a carbon monoxide detector in your home
* Regularly inspecting and maintaining appliances like furnaces, water heaters, and chimneys
* Properly venting appliances and ensuring they are installed in well-ventilated areas
* Not running cars or generators in enclosed spaces
* Avoiding overcrowding and ensuring there is adequate ventilation in living spaces


Carbon monoxide poisoning is a serious condition that can be fatal if not treated promptly. It's important to be aware of the sources of CO exposure and take steps to prevent it, such as installing carbon monoxide detectors and regularly maintaining appliances. If you suspect CO poisoning, seek medical attention immediately.

The symptoms of carbon tetrachloride poisoning can vary depending on the level and duration of exposure, but may include:

* Respiratory problems, such as coughing, wheezing, and shortness of breath
* Nausea and vomiting
* Abdominal pain and diarrhea
* Headaches and dizziness
* Confusion and disorientation
* Slurred speech and loss of coordination
* Seizures and coma

If you suspect that you or someone else has been exposed to carbon tetrachloride, it is essential to seek medical attention immediately. Treatment for carbon tetrachloride poisoning typically involves supportive care, such as oxygen therapy and hydration, as well as medications to manage symptoms and remove the toxin from the body. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary.

Prevention is key when it comes to carbon tetrachloride poisoning. If you work with or are exposed to CTC, it is important to take safety precautions such as wearing protective clothing and equipment, using proper ventilation, and following all safety protocols. It is also essential to handle the chemical with care and store it in a safe location.

In conclusion, carbon tetrachloride poisoning can be a serious and potentially deadly condition that requires immediate medical attention. If you suspect exposure to CTC, it is crucial to seek medical help right away. By taking safety precautions and being aware of the risks associated with this chemical, you can prevent carbon tetrachloride poisoning and protect your health.

... carbon-carbon double bond isomerases MeSH D08.811.399.475.400.700 - steroid isomerases MeSH D08.811.399.475.800 - sulfur-sulfur ... bond isomerases MeSH D08.811.399.475.800.550 - protein disulfide-isomerase MeSH D08.811.399.475.900 - thromboxane-a synthase ... glucose-6-phosphate isomerase MeSH D08.811.399.475.200.550 - mannose-6-phosphate isomerase MeSH D08.811.399.475.200.662 - ... carbon-nitrogen ligases with glutamine as amide-n-donor MeSH D08.811.464.259.400.300 - carbamoyl-phosphate synthase (glutamine- ...
KSI catalyzes the rearrangement of a carbon-carbon double bond in ketosteroids through an enolate intermediate at a diffusion- ... steroid isomerase, Δ5-ketosteroid isomerase, Δ5(or Δ4)-3-keto steroid isomerase, Δ5-steroid isomerase, 3-oxosteroid isomerase, ... 3-ketosteroid isomerase just transfers a double bond at Δ5 of 3-ketosteroid to Δ4. A Δ5-3-ketosteroid isomerase-disrupted ... which lacks a double bond at Δ5, indicating that C. testosteroni KSI is responsible for transfer of the double bond from Δ5 to ...
... or trans-double bonds of coenzyme A (CoA) bound fatty acids at gamma-carbon (position 3) to trans double bonds at beta-carbon ( ... The double bond serves as the target of oxidation and carbon-to-carbon bond cleavage, thereby shortening the fatty acid chain. ... Since the key step in the degradation of fatty acids with double bonds at even-numbered carbon positions also produces 3-trans- ... isomerase, 3,2-trans-enoyl-CoA isomerase, ∆3(cis),∆2(trans)-enoyl-CoA isomerase, or acetylene-allene isomerase, is an enzyme ...
... thus breaking the double bond and allowing rotation around the single bond. 4-maleylacetoacetate is converted to 4- ... helix dipole of alpha 1 of the enzyme stabilize the thiolate form of glutathione which activates it to attack the alpha carbon ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is 4-maleylacetoacetate cis-trans-isomerase. 4-Maleylacetoacetate isomerase is an ... 4-fumarylacetoacetate This enzyme belongs to the family of isomerases, specifically cis-trans isomerases. ...
The adjacent carbon, C2, is deprotonated from the opposite face to yield a double bond. In effect, the double bond is shifted ... In this isomerization reaction a stable carbon-carbon double bond is rearranged top create a highly electrophilic allylic ... IPP isomerase catalyzes this reaction by the stereoselective antarafacial transposition of a single proton. The double bond is ... The C3-C4 bond rotates and Glu357 (assisted by His388) depronates C2 to form a double bond between C1 and C2. A cis-endiol ...
... loss of proton from carbon 4 leads to the formation of a double bond C3-C4; consequently the 3-O-carbonyl atom will attach to ... IPP is isomerized to the allylic ester dimethylallyl pyrophosphate (DMAPP) by IPP isomerase. Through a multi-step process, ... Aucubin was found to protect against liver damage induced by carbon tetrachloride or alpha-amanitin in mice and rats when 80 mg ... Aucubin has 10 carbons with the C11 carbon missing. The stereochemical configurations at C5 and C9 lead to cis fused rings, ...
3-2trans-enoyl-CoA isomerase (or dodecenoyl-CoA isomerise; EC, which shifts the 3-double bond of the intermediates of ... while others have been implicated in carbon-carbon bond formation and cleavage as well as the hydrolysis of thioesters. However ... Dienoyl-CoA isomerase, which catalyses the isomerisation of 3-trans,5-cis-dienoyl-CoA to 2-trans,4-trans-dienoyl-CoA. ... This is accomplished by two structurally conserved peptidic NH groups that provide hydrogen bonds to the carbonyl moieties of ...
... and fumaric acid do not spontaneously interconvert because rotation around a carbon carbon double bond is not ... Some bacteria produce the enzyme maleate isomerase, which is used by bacteria in nicotinate metabolism. This enzyme catalyses ... Reversible addition (of H+) leads to free rotation about the central C-C bond and formation of the more stable and less soluble ... and now single bond rotation is possible. The bromine radicals recombine and fumaric acid is formed. In another method (used as ...
This conversion introduces two additional double bonds at positions 11 and 11' of the carbon chain and isomerizes two adjacent ... This reaction starts a biochemical pathway involving three further enzymes (zeta-carotene isomerase, zeta-carotene desaturase ... introduce two double bonds into their colorless substrate phytoene by dehydrogenation and isomerize two additional double bonds ... already existing double bonds at positions 9 and 9' from trans to cis. The electrons involved in the reaction are subsequently ...
To summarize: Odd-numbered double bonds are handled by the isomerase. Even-numbered double bonds by the reductase (which ... The bicarbonate ion's carbon is added to the middle carbon of propionyl-CoA, forming a D-methylmalonyl-CoA. However, the D ... If the acyl CoA contains a cis-Δ3 bond, then cis-Δ3-Enoyl CoA isomerase will convert the bond to a trans-Δ2 bond, which is a ... A long-chain fatty acid is dehydrogenated to create a trans double bond between C2 and C3. This is catalyzed by acyl CoA ...
... usually through an attack of an electronegative atom on the carbonyl carbon, breaking the carbonyl double bond and forming a ... Both of these mechanisms for lowering the activation energy have been observed in peptidyl prolyl isomerases (PPIases), which ... forms an isopeptide bond, which is not a peptide bond) and glutathione synthetase (forms a peptide bond). A peptide bond can be ... It can also be called a eupeptide bond to distinguish it from an isopeptide bond, which is another type of amide bond between ...
... with loss of the double bond in the dioxygen unit and bonds to iron and the alpha carbon of 2-oxoglutarate. Subsequent ... This subunit and protein disulphide isomerase are products of the same gene". The EMBO Journal. 6 (3): 643-9. doi:10.1002/j. ... This subunit is identical to the enzyme known as protein disulfide isomerase. Prolyl hydroxylase catalyzes the formation of ... "Site-directed mutagenesis of human protein disulphide isomerase: effect on the assembly, activity and endoplasmic reticulum ...
It is responsible for catalyzing cis-trans isomerization of the C2-C3 double bond in maleate to produce fumarate, which is a ... Pro14 and Val84 make van der Waals interactions with the C2 and C3 carbon atoms of the maleate. The mechanism of maleate ... For example, maleate isomerase from Pseudomonas putida S16 uses Asn17 and Asn169 form hydrogen bonds with the carboxylate group ... The newly formed C2-C3 single bond is then rotated, with Cys76S-C2 bond dissociated, and C3 atom of the maleate deprotonated by ...
Because phosphoenolpyruvate mutase has the unusual ability to form a new carbon-phosphorus bond, it is essential to the ... A double phosphoryl transfer mechanism was proposed on the basis of this study: this would involve breakage of PEP's phosphorus ... This enzyme belongs to the family of isomerases, specifically the phosphotransferases (phosphomutases), which transfer ... isolation of the enzyme responsible for the formation of a carbon-phosphorus bond". Nature. 335 (6189): 457-458. Bibcode: ...
In particular, this enzyme contributes to breaking the double bonds at all even-numbered positions, and some double bonds at ... DECR is the second such enzyme (the others being enoyl CoA isomerase and dienoyl CoA isomerase) and is the rate limiting step ... Additionally, at one end of the active site there is a flexible loop that provides sufficient room for long carbon chains. This ... The electrons from the Cγ-Cδ double bond move over to the Cβ-Cγ position, and those from the Cα-Cβ form an enolate. In the ...
When acting on the single substrate, a molecule is eliminated and this generates either a new double bond or a new ring." (EC:4 ... Isomerase is the systematic name for any enzyme of EC class 5." "Catalysis of the ligation of two substances with concomitant ... including the breakdown of carbon compounds with the liberation of energy for use by the cell or organism." Note: use # ... or conversely adding a group to a double bond. They differ from other enzymes in that two substrates are involved in one ...
The free electron pair adds to the double bond of IPP, also isomerizing IPP so that the product is an allylic diphosphate. Thus ... Isopentenyl diphosphate isomerase converts the latter to the less stable dimethylallyl diphosphate. Farnesyl diphosphate ... All parts of the carbon skeleton comes from IPP. Then an enzyme prenyl transferase/farnesyl diphosphate synthase binds IPP, ... Labelling Pattern from [1-14+C]-Propionate through Degradation to Single Carbon Atom Derivatives". Helvetica Chimica Acta. 58 ( ...
... the two carboxyl groups on the double bond are cis). The carbon atom from which the hydrogen is removed is the one that came ... The iron-responsive element-binding protein (IRE-BP) and 3-isopropylmalate dehydratase (α-isopropylmalate isomerase; EC 4.2. ... creating a double bond between C2 and C3, and forming the so-called cis-aconitate intermediate ( ... and the protonated serine is deprotonated by the cis-aconitate double bond to complete the hydration, producing isocitrate. ...
The double bond of cycloartenol (compound 7 in diagram) is methylated by SAM to give a carbocation that undergoes a hydride ... This step is catalyzed by sterol C-14 demethylase (E4), sterol Δ14-reductase (E5), and sterol Δ8-Δ7-isomerase (E6). The last ... Fermentation digests the entire aliphatic side-chain at carbon 17 to afford a mixture of 17-keto products including ... The last step of the synthesis is deprotection of the β-ring double bond of 5 with p-TsOH, aqueous dioxane, and heat (80 °C) to ...
Steric course of decarboxylation of 5-pyrophosphomevalonate and of the carbon to carbon bond formation in the biosynthesis of ... The removal of the pro-R proton from C2 forms the C2-C3 double bond of DMAPP. Crystallographic studies have observed that the ... Isopentenyl pyrophosphate isomerase (EC, IPP isomerase), also known as Isopentenyl-diphosphate delta isomerase, is an ... methylbutenylpyrophosphate isomerase, and isopentenylpyrophosphate isomerase. IPP isomerase catalyzes the isomerization of IPP ...
These observed phenomena are due to the trans-cis isomerization of the vinyl trans double bond in the p-coumaric acid. ... "Structural Coupling Throughout the Active Site Hydrogen Bond Networks of Ketosteroid Isomerase and Photoactive Yellow Protein ... noted by observing the crystal structure of p-coumaric acid bound by PYP that the hydroxyl group connected to the C4 carbon of ... This was due to abnormally short hydrogen bonding lengths observed in the protein crystal structure. Hydrogen bonds in proteins ...
EPA is a carboxylic acid with a 20-carbon chain and five cis double bonds; the first double bond is located at the third carbon ... dehydratase/2-trans 3-cos isomerase (DH/2,3I), dehydratase/2-trans, and 2-cis isomerase(DH/2,2I). The biosynthesis of EPA ... The final step is the NADPH-dependent reduction of a double bond in trans-2-enoly-ACP via ER enzyme activity. The process is ... The molecule basis of the enzymes will dictate where the double bond is formed on the resulting molecule. Here is an overview ...
... the enzyme does not form or break a carbon-sulfur bond. Rather, the enzyme shifts two hydrogen atoms from one carbon atom of ... The ene means that a double bond has formed between C2 and C1, from the electrons left behind by the abstraction of the ... Methylglyoxal is formed spontaneously from dihydroxyacetone phosphate, enzymatically by triosephosphate isomerase and ... the extra electron on the oxygen of C1 could reform the double bond of the carbonyl, thus giving the final product. An ...
Natural rubber consists of polyisoprene in which the double bonds are cis. Some plants produce a polyisoprene with trans double ... C5 IPP and C5 DMAPP are the end-products in either pathway, and are the precursors of terpenoids with various carbon numbers ( ... IPP is isomerized to DMAPP by the enzyme isopentenyl pyrophosphate isomerase. IPP and DMAPP condense to give geranyl ... bonds, known as gutta-percha. Norisoprenoids, characterized by the shortening of a chain or ring by the removal of a methylene ...
The double carbon-carbon bonds interact with each other in a process called conjugation, which allows electrons in the molecule ... The central double bond of this tri-cis-ζ-carotene is isomerized by the zeta-carotene isomerase Z-ISO and the resulting 9,9'-di ... introduces two additional double bonds into 15-cis-phytoene by dehydrogenation and isomerizes two of its existing double bonds ... This again introduces two double bonds, resulting in 7,9,7',9'-tetra-cis-lycopene. CRTISO, a carotenoid isomerase, is needed to ...
... to the rearranged carbon radical center thereby forming a peroxy radical(-OO·) bond to that carbon reduction of the peroxy ... as opposed to the 4 double bond-containing arachidonic acid metabolites. The enzyme, when acting in series with other ... Rather, its primary activity is as a hydroperoxide isomerase that metabolizes certain unsaturated hydroperoxy fatty acids to ... from a bisallylic methylene carbon to form a fatty acid radical at that carbon rearrangement of the radical to another carbon ...
The carboxylate side chain of Asp-295 hydrogen bonds with the hydroxyl groups at C-2 and C-3 of the glucosyl residue. This ... It has been shown in multiple experiments that the enzyme catalyzes this conversion by a double displacement mechanism. The ... Finally, phosphorylation of the glucosyl residue at C-1 forms a transient positive charge on the glucosyl carbon, promoting ... fructose-6-phosphate and glucose-6-phosphate can be interconverted in the glycolytic pathway by phosphohexose isomerase. The ...
... with the presence of the catechol moiety on ring B and the presence of a hydroxyl group activating the double bond on ring C. ... Chalcone is then isomerized to naringenin by chalcone isomerase which is oxidized to eriodictyol by flavonoid 3'- hydroxylase ... with a hydroxyl group on carbon 3. The A-ring is similar to a resorcinol moiety while the B-ring is similar to a catechol ...
The 2-trans double bond may then be reduced via ER utilizing NADPH + H+ (FAS pathway continuation) or isomerized via DH/I ... In terms of organic carbon sources, thraustochytrids are capable of harnessing organic carbon compounds like maltose, fructose ... This was accomplished via overexpressing heterologous xylulose kinase and endogenous xylose isomerase. A European patent has ... H+ and the subsequent product is dehydrated via a DH or DH/I dehydratase to produce an acyl chain with a 2-trans double bond ( ...
Polymers containing double bonds in their main chains, such as natural rubber and polybutadiene, are especially susceptible to ... Attack occurs at this point because the free radical formed is more stable than one formed on a primary carbon atom. Oxidation ... which can be catalysed by protein disulfide isomerase and glutaredoxins. Ascorbic acid is a redox catalyst which can reduce, ... Oxidation and UV degradation are also frequently linked, mainly because UV radiation creates free radicals by bond breakage. ...
keywords = "Amino Acid Sequence, Animals, Carbon-Carbon Double Bond Isomerases, Kinetics, Microscopy, Immunoelectron, ... the spectral data suggested a switching of the double bonds from the Delta3-Delta5 to the Delta2-Delta4 positions. This was ... the spectral data suggested a switching of the double bonds from the Delta3-Delta5 to the Delta2-Delta4 positions. This was ... the spectral data suggested a switching of the double bonds from the Delta3-Delta5 to the Delta2-Delta4 positions. This was ...
Carbon-Carbon Double Bond Isomerases / genetics Actions. * Search in PubMed * Search in MeSH ...
Carbon-Carbon Double Bond Isomerases / metabolism Actions. * Search in PubMed * Search in MeSH ... A randomized, double-blind trial of triheptanoin for drug-resistant epilepsy in glucose transporter 1 deficiency syndrome. ...
Aldose-Ketose Isomerases [D08.811.399.475.200] * Carbon-Carbon Double Bond Isomerases [D08.811.399.475.400] * Dodecenoyl-CoA ... C C DOUBLE BOND ISOMERASES. Entry Term(s). C-C Double Bond Isomerases Registry Number. EC 5.3.3.-. Previous Indexing. ... Carbon-Carbon Double Bond Isomerases Preferred Term Term UI T058735. Date01/01/1999. LexicalTag NON. ThesaurusID NLM (1998). ... Carbon-Carbon Double Bond Isomerases Preferred Concept UI. M0029315. Registry Number. EC 5.3.3.-. Scope Note. Enzymes that ...
Carbon-Carbon Double Bond Isomerases Entry term(s). C-C Double Bond Isomerases Carbon Carbon Double Bond Isomerases ... Carbon-carbon double bond isomerases Entry term(s):. C-C Double Bond Isomerases. Carbon Carbon Double Bond Isomerases. ... Carbon-Carbon Double Bond Isomerases - Preferred Concept UI. M0029315. Scope note. Enzymes that catalyze the shifting of a ... Carbon-Carbon Double Bond Isomerases [D08.811.399.475.400] Carbon-Carbon Double Bond Isomerases ...
Aldose-Ketose Isomerases [D08.811.399.475.200] * Carbon-Carbon Double Bond Isomerases [D08.811.399.475.400] * Dodecenoyl-CoA ... C C DOUBLE BOND ISOMERASES. Entry Term(s). C-C Double Bond Isomerases Registry Number. EC 5.3.3.-. Previous Indexing. ... Carbon-Carbon Double Bond Isomerases Preferred Term Term UI T058735. Date01/01/1999. LexicalTag NON. ThesaurusID NLM (1998). ... Carbon-Carbon Double Bond Isomerases Preferred Concept UI. M0029315. Registry Number. EC 5.3.3.-. Scope Note. Enzymes that ...
C-C Double Bond Isomerases use Carbon-Carbon Double Bond Isomerases C-C Fistula use Carotid-Cavernous Sinus Fistula ...
A carbon-carbon double bond isomerase that catalyzes the movement double bond from C3 to C2 of an unsaturated acyl-CoA. The ... The enzyme is stereospecific with regards to arrangement of the substrate double bonds and position of the 3-hydroxy group of ... The enzyme is stereospecific with regards to how cis and trans double bonds are metabolized. It is complemented by PEROXISOMAL ... HN - 2014 MH - Dodecenoyl-CoA Isomerase UI - D064006 MN - D8.811.399.475.400.349 MS - ...
Carbon-Carbon Double Bond Isomerases N0000167753 Carbon-Carbon Ligases N0000168041 Carbon-Carbon Lyases N0000167762 Carbon- ... Carbon Dioxide N0000166211 Carbon Disulfide N0000166117 Carbon Isotopes N0000005737 Carbon Monoxide N0000166118 Carbon ... Lyases N0000167775 Carbon-Oxygen Ligases N0000008169 Carbon-Oxygen Lyases N0000167749 Carbon-Sulfur Ligases N0000168070 Carbon- ... Nitrogen Ligases N0000167763 Carbon-Nitrogen Ligases with Glutamine as Amide-N-Donor N0000168008 Carbon-Nitrogen ...
It catalyzes isomerization of the carbon-carbon double bonds in IPP and DMAPP, which are the basic building blocks for the ... Isomerases de Ligação Dupla Carbono-Carbono/genética , Isomerases de Ligação Dupla Carbono-Carbono/isolamento & purificação , ... Isomerases de Ligação Dupla Carbono-Carbono/química , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Sítios de Ligação , Vias Biossintéticas , ... We have determined two crystal structures of human IPP isomerase I (hIPPI) under different crystallization conditions. High ...
4. NADPH-dependent beta-oxidation of unsaturated fatty acids with double bonds extending from odd-numbered carbon atoms. ... Purification and properties of 3-cis-2-trans-enoyl-CoA isomerase (dodecenoyl-CoA delta-isomerase) from rat liver mitochondria. ... Double bond removal from odd-numbered carbons during peroxisomal beta-oxidation of arachidonic acid requires both 2,4-dienoyl- ... a novel enzyme that functions in the beta-oxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids with conjugated double bonds.. Liang X; Zhu ...
... and the cyclization is generally initiated by protonation of the terminal carbon double bond of the substrate [53]. Since the ... IPP isomerase; GPPS = geranyl diphosphate synthase; FPPS = farnesyl diphosphate synthase, GGPPS = geranylgeranyl diphosphate ... Double mutations of MvCPS1, W323L:F505Y, and W323F:F505Y completely changed the product specificity towards a novel, so far ... In order to obtain mono-(C10), sesqui-(C15), di-(C20)terpenes and those harboring larger carbon skeletons, IPP and DMAPP are ...
... acids into monoenoic and trienoic prostaglandins and thromboxanes as a consequence of the number of precursor double bonds. ... 1, 10] However, only a fraction of these 20-carbon polyenoic acid precursors are the substrates that actually yield eicosanoids ... PGD2, the predominate product of COX in mast cells, is converted from PGH2 by endoperoxide-D isomerase. Again, the structural ... 13, 14] This biologically active product is converted from PGH2 by endoperoxide-E isomerase. Although the products are ...
Steroid Isomerases. Enzymes that catalyze the transposition of double bond(s) in a steroid molecule. EC 5.3.3.. ... Compounds containing carbon-phosphorus bonds in which the phosphorus component is also bonded to one or more sulfur atoms. Many ... Pairing of purine and pyrimidine bases by HYDROGEN BONDING in double-stranded DNA or RNA.. ... An enzyme that catalyzes the chlorination of a range of organic molecules, forming stable carbon-chloride bonds. EC ...
... forming carbon-nitrogen bonds;4.97537532581072e-11!GO:0030964;NADH dehydrogenase complex (quinone);7.11182161130598e-11!GO: ... double-strand break repair;0.00878415568322692!GO:0005786;signal recognition particle, endoplasmic reticulum targeting; ... protein disulfide isomerase activity;0.0333646335605494!GO:0016864;intramolecular oxidoreductase activity, transposing S-S ... forming carbon-oxygen bonds;6.88236359218716e-08!GO:0007005;mitochondrion organization and biogenesis;8.39497472080945e-08!GO: ...
Carbon-Carbon Double Bond Isomerases Carbon-Carbon Ligases Carbon-Carbon Lyases Carbon-Nitrogen Ligases Carbon-Nitrogen Ligases ... Carbon Cycle Carbon Dioxide Carbon Disulfide Carbon Footprint Carbon Isotopes Carbon Monoxide Carbon Monoxide Poisoning Carbon ... Double Bind Interaction Double Effect Principle Double Outlet Right Ventricle Double-Balloon Enteroscopy Double-Blind Method ... with Glutamine as Amide-N-Donor Carbon-Nitrogen Lyases Carbon-Oxygen Ligases Carbon-Oxygen Lyases Carbon-Sulfur Ligases Carbon- ...
EC 5 Isomerases: catalyze isomerization changes within a single molecule. *EC 6 Ligases: join two molecules with covalent bonds ... Starch industryTemplate:Double image Amylases, amyloglucosideases and glucoamylases Converts starch into glucose and various ... However, if hexokinase is added, these slow reactions continue to take place except that phosphorylation at carbon 6 occurs so ... EC 3 Hydrolases: catalyze the hydrolysis of various bonds. *EC 4 Lyases: cleave various bonds by means other than hydrolysis ...
Phosphonates are organophosphorus compounds containing direct carbon-phosphorus bonds, e.g. in phosphonolipids where they can ... strain pcc 7120 to select for double recombinants and to entrap insertion sequences. J Bacteriol. 1990; 172(6):3138-45. ... glucuronate isomerase; hrmU, D-mannonate oxidoreductase; hrmA and unk, unknown. A broken genome line indicates 2 separate loci ... At the same time, the fungal partners provide the cyanobacteria with moisture, carbon dioxide and inorganic ions, as well as a ...
... which catalyzes the formation of a double bond in the alkyl chain of the plasmalogen. ... while the carbon backbones of dietary carbohydrates can be converted into glycolytic/gluconeogenic intermediates. The pentose ... reaction 5 where ribose-5-phosphate isomerase converts ribulose 5-phosphate into ribose 5-phosphate; reaction 6 where ... Lactose synthase creates lactose through bonding galactose from UDP to glucose through a glycosidic bond. Although GT is found ...
the effects of elevated carbon dioxide levels on a vibrio sp. isolated from the deep-sea.. introduction: the effect of oceanic ... compounds 2 and 3 differ in aglycone and glycosidic bond type. 2 is an alpha-l-6-deoxyaltrose-phenylglycoside of a benz[a] ... inhibitor of rel/nf-kappab is regulated in sydney rock oysters in response to specific double-stranded rna and vibrio ... a partial clone encoding a member of the protein disulfide isomerase (pdi) was isolated from a litopenaeus vannamei hemocyte ...
carbon-oxygen lyase activity, acting on phosphates. IEP. Enrichment. MF. GO:0016853. isomerase activity. IEP. Enrichment. ... DNA topoisomerase type II (double strand cut, ATP-hydrolyzing) activity. IEP. Enrichment. ... ligase activity, forming carbon-oxygen bonds. IEP. Enrichment. BP. GO:0017038. protein import. IEP. Enrichment. ...
It participates in the metabolism of unsaturated fatty enoyl-CoA esters having double bonds in both even- and odd-numbered ... "enoyl-CoA delta isomerase 1, mitochondrial precursor" Eci1 Rattus norvegicus Able to isomerize both 3-cis and 3-trans double ... Heme oxygenase 2 could be implicated in the production of carbon monoxide in brain where it could act as a neurotransmitter. " ... 071784 1.23 7-dehydrocholesterol reductase Dhcr7 Rattus norvegicus Production of cholesterol by reduction of C7-C8 double bond ...
A) Carbon dioxide (B) Na+ (C) K+ (D) All of the above (E) None of the above ... 1) double-stranded DNA. (2) single-stranded DNA. (3) single-stranded RNA (A)(1) only (B) (1) and (2) (C)(1) and(3) (D) None of ... disulfide bonds are formed by two__________. (A) Ser. (B) Tyr (C)Cys (D) Asp (E) His ... C) Triosephosphate isomerase (D) Cyclin-dependent kinase (E) Pyruvate kinase *查單字:關 ...
Proton, nitrogen, and carbon chemical shift assignments have been made for the SH2 domain of Grb2. Assignments were made from a ... There is a distant relationship to the peptidyl-prolyl-cis-trans-isomerase FKBP in which this pocket is involved in the binding ... Click on the protein counts, or double click on taxonomic names to display all proteins containing PH domain in the selected ... and amide proton exchange data were used to characterize the secondary structural elements and hydrogen-bonding network in the ...
Considering that the double mutants of cTEM-2m and cTEM-17m show similar, strong synergy as the double mutant of WT TEM-1; that ... It has been proposed that this mutation increases catalytic activity through a new hydrogen-bond between G238S and the oxime ... distance from catalytic S70 to C3 carbon in cefotaxime; Figure 3) than their respective non-mutated hosts, reflecting the ... the additive combination of mutations distant from the active site increased protein motions of inactive proline isomerase CypA ...
... glucose-6-phosphate isomerase, 3-phosphoglycerate mutase, pyruvate kinase, triosephosphate isomerase, phosphoglucose isomerase ... The vector may be a plasmid, a single-stranded or double-stranded viral vector, a single-stranded or double-stranded RNA or DNA ... Thus, for example, many IgG4 antibodies form intrachain disulfide bonds near the hinge region. The intrachain bond can ... As used herein, the term, "inorganic salt," refers to any compound, containing no carbon that result from replacement of part ...
... features of a small carbon ring or branched carbon core with various appendages that tend to be strong hydrogen bond donors or ... So they use double Pep4 and Prb1 mutants and a PMSF inhibitor to get protein off of Talon column. It takes relatively large ... Chen showed an example of glucose isomerase for improved diffraction with HPC. With standard cryoprotection without addition of ... There will be automatic code generation from data object models, and data consistency will be ensured (i.e. if a bond is ...
  • 12. Site-directed mutagenesis of putative active-site amino acid residues of 3,2-trans-enoyl-CoA isomerase, conserved within the low-homology isomerase/hydratase enzyme family. (nih.gov)
  • Does the isomerase enzyme RPE65 operate via nucleophilic addition at C(11) of the all-trans substrate, or via a carbocation mechanism? (nih.gov)
  • Covalent attachment via an isopeptide bond to its substrates requires prior activation by the E1 complex SAE1-SAE2 and linkage to the E2 enzyme UBE2I, and can be promoted by an E3 ligase such as PIAS1-4, RANBP2 or CBX4. (nih.gov)
  • The enzyme functions by hydrolyzing glycosidic bonds in peptidoglycans . (cloudfront.net)
  • The enzyme can also break glycosidic bonds in chitin , although not as effectively as true chitinases . (cloudfront.net)
  • The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds. (lookformedical.com)
  • Chemical groups containing the covalent sulfur bonds -S-. The sulfur atom can be bound to inorganic or organic moieties. (lookformedical.com)
  • Twenty-carbon polyunsaturated fatty acid with cyclopentane ring. (medscape.com)
  • Enzymes that catalyze the shifting of a carbon-carbon double bond from one position to another within the same molecule. (nih.gov)
  • Subcellular distribution of delta 3,delta 2-enoyl-CoA isomerase activity in rat liver. (nih.gov)
  • Two decades later, the prostaglandins were deduced to be a family of related compounds that contain 20-carbon polyunsaturated fatty acids with a cyclopentane ring, as depicted below. (medscape.com)