Carbon: A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.Carbon Dioxide: A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.Carbon Monoxide: Carbon monoxide (CO). A poisonous colorless, odorless, tasteless gas. It combines with hemoglobin to form carboxyhemoglobin, which has no oxygen carrying capacity. The resultant oxygen deprivation causes headache, dizziness, decreased pulse and respiratory rates, unconsciousness, and death. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Nanotubes, Carbon: Nanometer-sized tubes composed mainly of CARBON. Such nanotubes are used as probes for high-resolution structural and chemical imaging of biomolecules with ATOMIC FORCE MICROSCOPY.Carbon Monoxide Poisoning: Toxic asphyxiation due to the displacement of oxygen from oxyhemoglobin by carbon monoxide.Carbon Isotopes: Stable carbon atoms that have the same atomic number as the element carbon, but differ in atomic weight. C-13 is a stable carbon isotope.Carbon Tetrachloride: A solvent for oils, fats, lacquers, varnishes, rubber waxes, and resins, and a starting material in the manufacturing of organic compounds. Poisoning by inhalation, ingestion or skin absorption is possible and may be fatal. (Merck Index, 11th ed)Carbon Sequestration: Any of several processes for the permanent or long-term artificial or natural capture or removal and storage of carbon dioxide and other forms of carbon, through biological, chemical or physical processes, in a manner that prevents it from being released into the atmosphere.Carbon Disulfide: A colorless, flammable, poisonous liquid, CS2. It is used as a solvent, and is a counterirritant and has local anesthetic properties but is not used as such. It is highly toxic with pronounced CNS, hematologic, and dermatologic effects.Carbon Tetrachloride PoisoningCarbon Footprint: A measure of the total greenhouse gas emissions produced by an individual, organization, event, or product. It is measured in units of equivalent kilograms of CARBON DIOXIDE generated in a given time frame.Carbon Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of carbon that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. C atoms with atomic weights 10, 11, and 14-16 are radioactive carbon isotopes.Nitrogen: An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.Biomass: Total mass of all the organisms of a given type and/or in a given area. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990) It includes the yield of vegetative mass produced from any given crop.Soot: A dark powdery deposit of unburned fuel residues, composed mainly of amorphous CARBON and some HYDROCARBONS, that accumulates in chimneys, automobile mufflers and other surfaces exposed to smoke. It is the product of incomplete combustion of carbon-rich organic fuels in low oxygen conditions. It is sometimes called lampblack or carbon black and is used in INK, in rubber tires, and to prepare CARBON NANOTUBES.CarboxyhemoglobinAtmosphere: The gaseous envelope surrounding a planet or similar body. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Biodegradation, Environmental: Elimination of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS; PESTICIDES and other waste using living organisms, usually involving intervention of environmental or sanitation engineers.Soil: The unconsolidated mineral or organic matter on the surface of the earth that serves as a natural medium for the growth of land plants.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Acetates: Derivatives of ACETIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxymethane structure.Graphite: An allotropic form of carbon that is used in pencils, as a lubricant, and in matches and explosives. It is obtained by mining and its dust can cause lung irritation.Carbon Compounds, Inorganic: Inorganic compounds that contain carbon as an integral part of the molecule but are not derived from hydrocarbons.Photosynthesis: The synthesis by organisms of organic chemical compounds, especially carbohydrates, from carbon dioxide using energy obtained from light rather than from the oxidation of chemical compounds. Photosynthesis comprises two separate processes: the light reactions and the dark reactions. In higher plants; GREEN ALGAE; and CYANOBACTERIA; NADPH and ATP formed by the light reactions drive the dark reactions which result in the fixation of carbon dioxide. (from Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2001)Carbohydrate Metabolism: Cellular processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of CARBOHYDRATES.Glucose: A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.Oxygen: An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.Trees: Woody, usually tall, perennial higher plants (Angiosperms, Gymnosperms, and some Pterophyta) having usually a main stem and numerous branches.Electrodes: Electric conductors through which electric currents enter or leave a medium, whether it be an electrolytic solution, solid, molten mass, gas, or vacuum.Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Methane: The simplest saturated hydrocarbon. It is a colorless, flammable gas, slightly soluble in water. It is one of the chief constituents of natural gas and is formed in the decomposition of organic matter. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Autotrophic Processes: The processes by which organisms use simple inorganic substances such as gaseous or dissolved carbon dioxide and inorganic nitrogen as nutrient sources. Contrasts with heterotrophic processes which make use of organic materials as the nutrient supply source. Autotrophs can be either chemoautotrophs (or chemolithotrophs), largely ARCHAEA and BACTERIA, which also use simple inorganic substances for their metabolic energy reguirements; or photoautotrophs (or photolithotrophs), such as PLANTS and CYANOBACTERIA, which derive their energy from light. Depending on environmental conditions some organisms can switch between different nutritional modes (autotrophy; HETEROTROPHY; chemotrophy; or PHOTOTROPHY) to utilize different sources to meet their nutrient and energy requirements.Ecosystem: A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Heme Oxygenase (Decyclizing): A mixed function oxidase enzyme which during hemoglobin catabolism catalyzes the degradation of heme to ferrous iron, carbon monoxide and biliverdin in the presence of molecular oxygen and reduced NADPH. The enzyme is induced by metals, particularly cobalt. EC 1.14.99.3.Alkanes: The generic name for the group of aliphatic hydrocarbons Cn-H2n+2. They are denoted by the suffix -ane. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Seawater: The salinated water of OCEANS AND SEAS that provides habitat for marine organisms.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Soil Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the soil. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Citric Acid Cycle: A series of oxidative reactions in the breakdown of acetyl units derived from GLUCOSE; FATTY ACIDS; or AMINO ACIDS by means of tricarboxylic acid intermediates. The end products are CARBON DIOXIDE, water, and energy in the form of phosphate bonds.Partial Pressure: The pressure that would be exerted by one component of a mixture of gases if it were present alone in a container. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Pseudomonas: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in nature. Some species are pathogenic for humans, animals, and plants.Anaerobiosis: The complete absence, or (loosely) the paucity, of gaseous or dissolved elemental oxygen in a given place or environment. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Geologic Sediments: A mass of organic or inorganic solid fragmented material, or the solid fragment itself, that comes from the weathering of rock and is carried by, suspended in, or dropped by air, water, or ice. It refers also to a mass that is accumulated by any other natural agent and that forms in layers on the earth's surface, such as sand, gravel, silt, mud, fill, or loess. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1689)Greenhouse Effect: The effect of GLOBAL WARMING and the resulting increase in world temperatures. The predicted health effects of such long-term climatic change include increased incidence of respiratory, water-borne, and vector-borne diseases.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.Fermentation: Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.Electrochemistry: The study of chemical changes resulting from electrical action and electrical activity resulting from chemical changes.Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Plant Leaves: Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)Carbonates: Salts or ions of the theoretical carbonic acid, containing the radical CO2(3-). Carbonates are readily decomposed by acids. The carbonates of the alkali metals are water-soluble; all others are insoluble. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Aerobiosis: Life or metabolic reactions occurring in an environment containing oxygen.Aldehyde Oxidoreductases: Oxidoreductases that are specific for ALDEHYDES.Fatty Acids: Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Glycerol: A trihydroxy sugar alcohol that is an intermediate in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. It is used as a solvent, emollient, pharmaceutical agent, and sweetening agent.Organic Chemicals: A broad class of substances containing carbon and its derivatives. Many of these chemicals will frequently contain hydrogen with or without oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, phosphorus, and other elements. They exist in either carbon chain or carbon ring form.Oceans and Seas: A great expanse of continuous bodies of salt water which together cover more than 70 percent of the earth's surface. Seas may be partially or entirely enclosed by land, and are smaller than the five oceans (Atlantic, Pacific, Indian, Arctic, and Antarctic).Heterotrophic Processes: The processes by which organisms utilize organic substances as their nutrient sources. Contrasts with AUTOTROPHIC PROCESSES which make use of simple inorganic substances as the nutrient supply source. Heterotrophs can be either chemoheterotrophs (or chemoorganotrophs) which also require organic substances such as glucose for their primary metabolic energy requirements, or photoheterotrophs (or photoorganotrophs) which derive their primary energy requirements from light. Depending on environmental conditions some organisms can switch between different nutritional modes (AUTOTROPHY; heterotrophy; chemotrophy; or PHOTOTROPHY) to utilize different sources to meet their nutrients and energy requirements.Hydrogen: The first chemical element in the periodic table. It has the atomic symbol H, atomic number 1, and atomic weight [1.00784; 1.00811]. It exists, under normal conditions, as a colorless, odorless, tasteless, diatomic gas. Hydrogen ions are PROTONS. Besides the common H1 isotope, hydrogen exists as the stable isotope DEUTERIUM and the unstable, radioactive isotope TRITIUM.Heavy Ion Radiotherapy: The use of a heavy ion particle beam for radiotherapy, such as the HEAVY IONS of CARBON.Water: A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Metabolic Networks and Pathways: Complex sets of enzymatic reactions connected to each other via their product and substrate metabolites.Electrochemical Techniques: The utilization of an electrical current to measure, analyze, or alter chemicals or chemical reactions in solution, cells, or tissues.Charcoal: An amorphous form of carbon prepared from the incomplete combustion of animal or vegetable matter, e.g., wood. The activated form of charcoal is used in the treatment of poisoning. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Methanol: A colorless, flammable liquid used in the manufacture of FORMALDEHYDE and ACETIC ACID, in chemical synthesis, antifreeze, and as a solvent. Ingestion of methanol is toxic and may cause blindness.Gases: The vapor state of matter; nonelastic fluids in which the molecules are in free movement and their mean positions far apart. Gases tend to expand indefinitely, to diffuse and mix readily with other gases, to have definite relations of volume, temperature, and pressure, and to condense or liquefy at low temperatures or under sufficient pressure. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Insufflation: The act of blowing a powder, vapor, or gas into any body cavity for experimental, diagnostic, or therapeutic purposes.Succinic Acid: A water-soluble, colorless crystal with an acid taste that is used as a chemical intermediate, in medicine, the manufacture of lacquers, and to make perfume esters. It is also used in foods as a sequestrant, buffer, and a neutralizing agent. (Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed, p1099; McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1851)Acetyl Coenzyme A: Acetyl CoA participates in the biosynthesis of fatty acids and sterols, in the oxidation of fatty acids and in the metabolism of many amino acids. It also acts as a biological acetylating agent.Pulmonary Diffusing Capacity: The amount of a gas taken up, by the pulmonary capillary blood from the alveolar gas, per minute per unit of average pressure of the gradient of the gas across the BLOOD-AIR BARRIER.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Fullerenes: A polyhedral CARBON structure composed of around 60-80 carbon atoms in pentagon and hexagon configuration. They are named after Buckminster Fuller because of structural resemblance to geodesic domes. Fullerenes can be made in high temperature such as arc discharge in an inert atmosphere.Succinates: Derivatives of SUCCINIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain a 1,4-carboxy terminated aliphatic structure.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.RNA, Ribosomal, 16S: Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.Water Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in water. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Environmental Monitoring: The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.Heme Oxygenase-1: A ubiquitous stress-responsive enzyme that catalyzes the oxidative cleavage of HEME to yield IRON; CARBON MONOXIDE; and BILIVERDIN.Respiration: The act of breathing with the LUNGS, consisting of INHALATION, or the taking into the lungs of the ambient air, and of EXHALATION, or the expelling of the modified air which contains more CARBON DIOXIDE than the air taken in (Blakiston's Gould Medical Dictionary, 4th ed.). This does not include tissue respiration (= OXYGEN CONSUMPTION) or cell respiration (= CELL RESPIRATION).Pulmonary Gas Exchange: The exchange of OXYGEN and CARBON DIOXIDE between alveolar air and pulmonary capillary blood that occurs across the BLOOD-AIR BARRIER.Air Pollutants: Any substance in the air which could, if present in high enough concentration, harm humans, animals, vegetation or material. Substances include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; and volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.Oxygen Consumption: The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Nitrogen Isotopes: Stable nitrogen atoms that have the same atomic number as the element nitrogen, but differ in atomic weight. N-15 is a stable nitrogen isotope.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Forestry: The science of developing, caring for, or cultivating forests.GlyoxylatesStereoisomerism: The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)XyloseWood: A product of hard secondary xylem composed of CELLULOSE, hemicellulose, and LIGNANS, that is under the bark of trees and shrubs. It is used in construction and as a source of CHARCOAL and many other products.Acetic Acid: Product of the oxidation of ethanol and of the destructive distillation of wood. It is used locally, occasionally internally, as a counterirritant and also as a reagent. (Stedman, 26th ed)Tropical Climate: A climate which is typical of equatorial and tropical regions, i.e., one with continually high temperatures with considerable precipitation, at least during part of the year. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Adsorption: The adhesion of gases, liquids, or dissolved solids onto a surface. It includes adsorptive phenomena of bacteria and viruses onto surfaces as well. ABSORPTION into the substance may follow but not necessarily.Molecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.Carboxylic Acids: Organic compounds containing the carboxy group (-COOH). This group of compounds includes amino acids and fatty acids. Carboxylic acids can be saturated, unsaturated, or aromatic.Formates: Derivatives of formic acids. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that are formed with a single carbon carboxy group.PyruvatesMalatesPyruvic Acid: An intermediate compound in the metabolism of carbohydrates, proteins, and fats. In thiamine deficiency, its oxidation is retarded and it accumulates in the tissues, especially in nervous structures. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Phytoplankton: Free-floating minute organisms that are photosynthetic. The term is non-taxonomic and refers to a lifestyle (energy utilization and motility), rather than a particular type of organism. Most, but not all, are unicellular algae. Important groups include DIATOMS; DINOFLAGELLATES; CYANOBACTERIA; CHLOROPHYTA; HAPTOPHYTA; CRYPTOMONADS; and silicoflagellates.Alcohols: Alkyl compounds containing a hydroxyl group. They are classified according to relation of the carbon atom: primary alcohols, R-CH2OH; secondary alcohols, R2-CHOH; tertiary alcohols, R3-COH. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Particle Size: Relating to the size of solids.Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry: A microanalytical technique combining mass spectrometry and gas chromatography for the qualitative as well as quantitative determinations of compounds.Amino Acids: Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.HydrocarbonsNanotechnology: The development and use of techniques to study physical phenomena and construct structures in the nanoscale size range or smaller.Sulfur: An element that is a member of the chalcogen family. It has an atomic symbol S, atomic number 16, and atomic weight [32.059; 32.076]. It is found in the amino acids cysteine and methionine.Plants: Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.Gene Expression Regulation, Fungal: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in fungi.Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.Fresh Water: Water containing no significant amounts of salts, such as water from RIVERS and LAKES.Fluorocarbon PolymersDrug-Induced Liver Injury: A spectrum of clinical liver diseases ranging from mild biochemical abnormalities to ACUTE LIVER FAILURE, caused by drugs, drug metabolites, and chemicals from the environment.Hypercapnia: A clinical manifestation of abnormal increase in the amount of carbon dioxide in arterial blood.Hydroxybutyrates: Salts and esters of hydroxybutyric acid.Liver Cirrhosis, Experimental: Experimentally induced chronic injuries to the parenchymal cells in the liver to achieve a model for LIVER CIRRHOSIS.Blood Gas Analysis: Measurement of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the blood.Oxidoreductases: The class of all enzymes catalyzing oxidoreduction reactions. The substrate that is oxidized is regarded as a hydrogen donor. The systematic name is based on donor:acceptor oxidoreductase. The recommended name will be dehydrogenase, wherever this is possible; as an alternative, reductase can be used. Oxidase is only used in cases where O2 is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p9)Pneumoperitoneum, Artificial: Deliberate introduction of air into the peritoneal cavity.Catabolite Repression: Process by which micro-organisms adapt quickly to a preferred rapidly-metabolizable intermediate through the inhibition or repression of genes related to CATABOLISM of less preferred source(s).Chromatography, Gas: Fractionation of a vaporized sample as a consequence of partition between a mobile gaseous phase and a stationary phase held in a column. Two types are gas-solid chromatography, where the fixed phase is a solid, and gas-liquid, in which the stationary phase is a nonvolatile liquid supported on an inert solid matrix.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.DNA, Ribosomal: DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.Particulate Matter: Particles of any solid substance, generally under 30 microns in size, often noted as PM30. There is special concern with PM1 which can get down to PULMONARY ALVEOLI and induce MACROPHAGE ACTIVATION and PHAGOCYTOSIS leading to FOREIGN BODY REACTION and LUNG DISEASES.Plant Roots: The usually underground portions of a plant that serve as support, store food, and through which water and mineral nutrients enter the plant. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982; Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Fossil Fuels: Any combustible hydrocarbon deposit formed from the remains of prehistoric organisms. Examples are petroleum, coal, and natural gas.Nitrates: Inorganic or organic salts and esters of nitric acid. These compounds contain the NO3- radical.Biosensing Techniques: Any of a variety of procedures which use biomolecular probes to measure the presence or concentration of biological molecules, biological structures, microorganisms, etc., by translating a biochemical interaction at the probe surface into a quantifiable physical signal.FiresLight: That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared range.Pseudomonas putida: A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria isolated from soil and water as well as clinical specimens. Occasionally it is an opportunistic pathogen.Bioreactors: Tools or devices for generating products using the synthetic or chemical conversion capacity of a biological system. They can be classical fermentors, cell culture perfusion systems, or enzyme bioreactors. For production of proteins or enzymes, recombinant microorganisms such as bacteria, mammalian cells, or insect or plant cells are usually chosen.Phototrophic Processes: Processes by which phototrophic organisms use sunlight as their primary energy source. Contrasts with chemotrophic processes which do not depend on light and function in deriving energy from exogenous chemical sources. Photoautotrophy (or photolithotrophy) is the ability to use sunlight as energy to fix inorganic nutrients to be used for other organic requirements. Photoautotrophs include all GREEN PLANTS; GREEN ALGAE; CYANOBACTERIA; and green and PURPLE SULFUR BACTERIA. Photoheterotrophs or photoorganotrophs require a supply of organic nutrients for their organic requirements but use sunlight as their primary energy source; examples include certain PURPLE NONSULFUR BACTERIA. Depending on environmental conditions some organisms can switch between different nutritional modes (AUTOTROPHY; HETEROTROPHY; chemotrophy; or phototrophy) to utilize different sources to meet their nutrients and energy requirements.Lactates: Salts or esters of LACTIC ACID containing the general formula CH3CHOHCOOR.Catalysis: The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.Breath Tests: Any tests done on exhaled air.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Blood Gas Monitoring, Transcutaneous: The noninvasive measurement or determination of the partial pressure (tension) of oxygen and/or carbon dioxide locally in the capillaries of a tissue by the application to the skin of a special set of electrodes. These electrodes contain photoelectric sensors capable of picking up the specific wavelengths of radiation emitted by oxygenated versus reduced hemoglobin.Pentose Phosphate Pathway: An oxidative decarboxylation process that converts GLUCOSE-6-PHOSPHATE to D-ribose-5-phosphate via 6-phosphogluconate. The pentose product is used in the biosynthesis of NUCLEIC ACIDS. The generated energy is stored in the form of NADPH. This pathway is prominent in tissues which are active in the synthesis of FATTY ACIDS and STEROIDS.Bicarbonates: Inorganic salts that contain the -HCO3 radical. They are an important factor in determining the pH of the blood and the concentration of bicarbonate ions is regulated by the kidney. Levels in the blood are an index of the alkali reserve or buffering capacity.Starch: Any of a group of polysaccharides of the general formula (C6-H10-O5)n, composed of a long-chain polymer of glucose in the form of amylose and amylopectin. It is the chief storage form of energy reserve (carbohydrates) in plants.Oxygen Isotopes: Stable oxygen atoms that have the same atomic number as the element oxygen, but differ in atomic weight. O-17 and 18 are stable oxygen isotopes.GluconatesChromatography, Supercritical Fluid: A CHROMATOGRAPHY method using supercritical fluid, usually carbon dioxide under very high pressure (around 73 atmospheres or 1070 psi at room temperature) as the mobile phase. Other solvents are sometimes added as modifiers. This is used both for analytical (SFC) and extraction (SFE) purposes.Climate: The longterm manifestations of WEATHER. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Models, Chemical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Mass Spectrometry: An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.Microscopy, Electron, Scanning: Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Conservation of Natural Resources: The protection, preservation, restoration, and rational use of all resources in the total environment.Spectrophotometry: The art or process of comparing photometrically the relative intensities of the light in different parts of the spectrum.Euryarchaeota: A phylum of ARCHAEA comprising at least seven classes: Methanobacteria, Methanococci, Halobacteria (extreme halophiles), Archaeoglobi (sulfate-reducing species), Methanopyri, and the thermophiles: Thermoplasmata, and Thermococci.Isotope Labeling: Techniques for labeling a substance with a stable or radioactive isotope. It is not used for articles involving labeled substances unless the methods of labeling are substantively discussed. Tracers that may be labeled include chemical substances, cells, or microorganisms.Vehicle Emissions: Gases, fumes, vapors, and odors escaping from the cylinders of a gasoline or diesel internal-combustion engine. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed & Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)

Sodalis gen. nov. and Sodalis glossinidius sp. nov., a microaerophilic secondary endosymbiont of the tsetse fly Glossina morsitans morsitans. (1/5091)

A secondary intracellular symbiotic bacterium was isolated from the haemolymph of the tsetse fly Glossina morsitans morsitans and cultured in Aedes albopictus cell line C6/36. Pure-culture isolation of this bacterium was achieved through the use of solid-phase culture under a microaerobic atmosphere. After isolation of strain M1T, a range of tests was performed to determine the phenotypic properties of this bacterium. Considering the results of these tests, along with the phylogenetic position of this micro-organism, it is proposed that this intracellular symbiont from G. m. morsitans should be classified in a new genus Sodalis gen. nov., as Sodalis glossinidius gen. nov., sp. nov. Strain M1T is the type strain for this new species.  (+info)

Role of a novel photosystem II-associated carbonic anhydrase in photosynthetic carbon assimilation in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. (2/5091)

Intracellular carbonic anhydrases (CA) in aquatic photosynthetic organisms are involved in the CO2-concentrating mechanism (CCM), which helps to overcome CO2 limitation in the environment. In the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, this CCM is initiated and maintained by the pH gradient created across the chloroplast thylakoid membranes by photosystem (PS) II-mediated electron transport. We show here that photosynthesis is stimulated by a novel, intracellular alpha-CA bound to the chloroplast thylakoids. It is associated with PSII on the lumenal side of the thylakoid membranes. We demonstrate that PSII in association with this lumenal CA operates to provide an ample flux of CO2 for carboxylation.  (+info)

Condensation of carbon in radioactive supernova gas. (3/5091)

Chemistry resulting in the formation of large carbon-bearing molecules and dust in the interior of an expanding supernova was explored, and the equations governing their abundances were solved numerically. Carbon dust condenses from initially gaseous carbon and oxygen atoms because energetic electrons produced by radioactivity in the supernova cause dissociation of the carbon monoxide molecules, which would otherwise form and limit the supply of carbon atoms. The resulting free carbon atoms enable carbon dust to grow faster by carbon association than the rate at which the dust can be destroyed by oxidation. The origin of presolar micrometer-sized carbon solids that are found in meteorites is thereby altered.  (+info)

Role of ArgR in activation of the ast operon, encoding enzymes of the arginine succinyltransferase pathway in Salmonella typhimurium. (4/5091)

The ast operon, encoding enzymes of the arginine succinyltransferase (AST) pathway, was cloned from Salmonella typhimurium, and the nucleotide sequence for the upstream flanking region was determined. The control region contains several regulatory consensus sequences, including binding sites for NtrC, cyclic AMP receptor protein (CRP), and ArgR. The results of DNase I footprintings and gel retardation experiments confirm binding of these regulatory proteins to the identified sites. Exogenous arginine induced AST under nitrogen-limiting conditions, and this induction was abolished in an argR derivative. AST was also induced under carbon starvation conditions; this induction required functional CRP as well as functional ArgR. The combined data are consistent with the hypothesis that binding of one or more ArgR molecules to a region between the upstream binding sites for NtrC and CRP and two putative promoters plays a pivotal role in modulating expression of the ast operon in response to nitrogen or carbon limitation.  (+info)

A small catalytic RNA motif with Diels-Alderase activity. (5/5091)

BACKGROUND: The 'RNA world' hypothesis requires that RNA be able to catalyze a wide variety of chemical reactions. In vitro selection from combinatorial RNA libraries has been used to identify several catalytic activities, most of which have resulted in a self-modification of RNA at one of its constituents. The formation of carbon-carbon bonds is considered an essential prerequisite for a complex metabolism based on RNA. RESULTS: We describe the selection and characterization of new ribozymes that catalyze carbon-carbon bond formation by Diels-Alder reaction of a biotinylated maleimide with an RNA-tethered anthracene. Secondary structure analysis identified a 49-nucleotide RNA motif that accelerates the reaction about 20,000-fold. The motif has only 11 conserved nucleotides that are present in most of the selected sequences. The ribozyme motif is remarkably adaptable with respect to cofactor and metal-ion requirements. The motif was also re-engineered to give a 38-mer RNA that can act as a 'true' catalyst on short external substrate oligonucleotide-anthracene conjugates. CONCLUSIONS: We have identified a small, highly abundant RNA motif that can solve the complex task of forming two carbon-carbon bonds between two reactants in trans, a catalytic capacity useful for creating prebiotically relevant molecules. This is the smallest and fastest RNA catalyst for carbon-carbon bond formation reported to date.  (+info)

Number and anatomical extent of lymph node metastases in gastric cancer: analysis using intra-lymph node injection of activated carbon particles (CH40). (6/5091)

BACKGROUND: The long-term survival of 200 patients with gastric cancer who underwent radical gastrectomy was analyzed with respect to the number and anatomical extent of lymph node metastasis. All of the patients received intra-lymph node injection of fine activated carbon particle solution (CH40) during surgery. METHODS: The average number of resected lymph nodes increased in line with the anatomical level of lymph node dissection; 32.5 per patient in D1, 42.3 in D2, 3 and 66.3 in D4. The percentage of blackened lymph nodes without metastasis (42.4%) was slightly higher than that of lymph nodes containing metastasis (37.2%), but the difference was not statistically significant. Of the 200 patients, 61 (30.5%) had microscopic evidence of metastatic lymph node involvement. Twenty-two patients had between one and three metastatic lymph nodes, 19 had between four and nine and 20 patients had more than nine. The 5-year survival rate was 93.1% in patients without lymph node metastasis, 71.9% in patients with 1-8 metastatic nodes, 36.1% in patients with 4-9 nodes and 19.2% in patients with > 9 nodes. RESULTS: The 5-year survival rate according to the anatomical extent of metastatic lymph nodes was 93.1% in n0, 63.1% in n1, 37.9% in n2, 27.8% in n3 and 0% in n4. The number of metastatic lymph nodes and also their anatomical extent were identified as independent prognostic factors for survival by multivariate analysis. CONCLUSION: The number and anatomical extent of metastatic lymph nodes have similar impacts on prognosis in gastric cancer.  (+info)

Acn9 is a novel protein of gluconeogenesis that is located in the mitochondrial intermembrane space. (7/5091)

Previous studies have indicated that the Acn9 protein is involved in gluconeogenesis. Yeast mutants defective in the ACN9 gene display phenotypes identical with mutants defective in metabolic enzymes required for carbon assimilation. These phenotypes include the inability to utilize acetate as a carbon and energy source, elevated levels of enzymes of the glyoxylate cycle, gluconeogenesis and acetyl-CoA mobilization, and a deficiency in de novo synthesis of glucose from ethanol. The ACN9 gene was isolated by functional complementation of the acetate growth defect of an acn9 mutant. The open reading frame corresponds to YDR511w, and encodes a protein of unknown function. Homologs have been identified in human, mouse, and nematode databases. Two mutant alleles were sequenced. The mutations altered amino acid residues that are conserved among members of the new gene family. ACN9 gene expression was slightly repressed by glucose, and the level of the transcript was approximately 100-fold lower than that of glyoxylate or tricarboxylic acid cycle enzymes. A functional epitope-tagged form of Acn9 was expressed to study expression and the subcellular localization of the protein. The tagged protein was localized to the mitochondrial intermembrane space.  (+info)

Carbon assimilation by Claviceps purpurea growing as a parasite. (8/5091)

Carbon assimilation by Claviceps purpurea, growing as a parasite on cereals, has been investigated by supplying the host plant with 14CO2 in a closed system. The presence of the pathogen induced the plant to exude photosynthate which contained high levels of sucrose. During the period of 14CO2 supply, 14C was incorporated into the sucrose and so the path of carbon into the parasite could be traced. Hexoses, derived by the action of the fungal sucrase on sucrose, were assimilated by the pathogen and largely converted into polyols - mainly mannitol and, to a lesser extent, trehalose. The rate of carbohydrate metabolism decreased with maturation of the ergot, and also showed qualitative differences between the basal and apical regions of the ergot which were probably a function of nutrient supply.  (+info)

*Carbon

... chauvinism Carbon detonation Carbon footprint Carbon star Low-carbon economy Timeline of carbon nanotubes Chemistry ... Carbon can form very long chains of interconnecting carbon-carbon bonds, a property that is called catenation. Carbon-carbon ... Carbon on Britannica Extensive Carbon page at asu.edu Electrochemical uses of carbon Carbon-Super Stuff. Animation with sound ... The system of carbon allotropes spans a range of extremes: Atomic carbon is a very short-lived species and, therefore, carbon ...

*Carbon Peak

"CARBON". NGS data sheet. U.S. National Geodetic Survey. Retrieved 2013-06-20. "Carbon Peak, Colorado". Peakbagger.com. ... Carbon Peak, elevation 12,088 ft (3,684 m), is a summit in the West Elk Mountains of Colorado. The peak is southwest of Crested ... Carbon peak is a laccolith formed during the mid-Tertiary period, and is part of the "laccolith triangle" as described by the ... "Carbon Peak". Geographic Names Information System. United States Geological Survey. Retrieved 2013-06-20. Branda, Alex; Swanbom ...

*Carbon, Wyoming

Carbon is an unincorporated community in Carbon County, Wyoming, United States. Carbon is 9.5 miles (15.3 km) west-southwest of ... The Carbon Cemetery, which is listed on the National Register of Historic Places, is located in Carbon. "Carbon". Geographic ...

*Gas carbon

... is a carbon that is got when the Destructive distillation of coal is done. The Chambers Dictionary (13th ed.). "gas ... carbon". Merriam-Webster mobile search. Retrieved 5 December 2015. "retort carbon". atomistry.com. ...

*Carbon tetraiodide

It is only 2% by weight carbon, although other methane derivatives are known with still less carbon. The tetrahedral molecule ... Manufacturers recommend that carbon tetraiodide be stored near 0 °C (32 °F). As a ready source of iodine, it is an irritant. ... Carbon tetraiodide is a tetrahalomethane with the molecular formula CI4. Being bright red, it is a relatively rare example of a ... Carbon tetraiodide crystallizes in tetragonal crystal structure (a 6.409, c 9.558 (.10−1 nm)). It has zero dipole moment due to ...

*Althea Carbon

"Althea Carbon , Gilbert + Tobin , ICLG ICLG - International Comparative Legal Guides". Althea Carbon , Gilbert + Tobin , ICLG. ... Carbon was born in the Philippines and her family moved to Christchurch when she was 10 years old. She attended the University ... Althea Carbon is a Filipino-New Zealand lawyer and co-founder of Charity-IT, a not-for-profit organisation which helps ...

*Carbon bubble

Unburnable Carbon - Are the world's financial markets carrying a carbon bubble? Archived 18 August 2013 at the Wayback Machine ... Unburnable carbon 2013: Wasted capital and stranded assets Archived 30 July 2013 at the Wayback Machine. "Carbon Bubble Could ... Revkin, Andrew C. (2 May 2013). "On 'Unburnable Carbon' and the Specter of a 'Carbon Bubble'". The New York Times. Megan, Scott ... If a carbon tax of $25 per ton of CO2 is included the subsidies total $1.9 trillion only for 2011. Removing fossil fuels ...

*Pyrolytic carbon

CFC Carbon Co., LTD Ascension Orthopedics Pyrolytic Carbon Manufacturing Pyrolytic Carbon for Biomedical Applications. ... Pyrolytic carbon is man-made and is not thought to be found in nature. Generally it is produced by heating a hydrocarbon nearly ... Pyrolytic carbon is a material similar to graphite, but with some covalent bonding between its graphene sheets as a result of ... Pyrolytic carbon is also in medical use to coat anatomically correct orthopaedic implants, a.k.a. replacement joints. In this ...

*SGL Carbon

... AG originated in 1992 from a merger between SIGRI GmbH (Germany) and Great Lakes Carbon (USA) to share a company ... SGL Carbon was among the companies accused and fined for operating as a cartel and price fixing in the carbon electrode ... The Carbon Fibers & Composites product portfolio covers carbon fibers, braking and clutch components as well as composite ... Since March 2007, SGL Carbon AG has operated on the market as SGL Group - The Carbon Company. SIGRI traced back to Gebr. ...

*Carbon diselenide

... who prepared it by treating hydrogen selenide with carbon tetrachloride in a hot tube. Like carbon disulfide, carbon diselenide ... Carbon diselenide reacts with secondary amines to give dialkydiselenocarbamates: 2 Et2NH + CSe2 → (Et2NH2+)(Et2NCSe2−) Carbon ... 2005). "Poly(Carbon Disulfide), Poly(Carbon Diselenide), and Polythiocyanogen". Inorganic Polymers. 21. doi:10.1002/14356007. ... Carbon diselenide is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula CSe2. It is a yellow-orange oily liquid with pungent odor ...

*Carbon chauvinism

Stenger denounces as "carbon chauvinism" the assumption that life requires carbon; other chemical elements, such as silicon, ... Abiogenesis Anthropocentrism Carbon-based life Hypothetical types of biochemistry Darling, David. "Carbon-based life". ... On the other hand, it is worth considering that alkanes are as a rule quite flammable, but carbon-based life on Earth does not ... Carbon chauvinism is a neologism meant to disparage the assumption that the chemical processes of hypothetical extraterrestrial ...

*Carbon filtering

... is a method of filtering that uses a bed of activated carbon to remove contaminants and impurities, using ... One pound (454 g) of activated carbon contains a surface area of approximately 100 acres (~40 Hectares). Activated carbon works ... "Granular Activated Carbon." Drinking Water Treatability Database. "A Citizen's Guide to Activated Carbon Treatment. Document no ... whereby pollutant molecules in the fluid to be treated are trapped inside the pore structure of the carbon substrate. Carbon ...

*Carbon Glacier

... is located on the north slope of Mount Rainier in the U.S. state of Washington and is the source of the Carbon ... Carbon Glacier is accessible from the northwest Carbon River entrance of Mount Rainier National Park, just outside the town of ... The road and trail is currently washed out in several areas due to flooding of the Carbon River in 2006. List of glaciers in ... The glacier is accessible on foot via an 8-mile (13 km) hike from the Carbon River entrance of Mt. Rainier National Park. ...

*Carbon Shift

... : How Peak Oil and the Climate Crisis Will Change Canada (and Our Lives) is a 2009 non-fiction book edited by ... "Carbon Shift: How the Twin Crises of Oil Depletion and Climate Change Will Define the Future". Quill and Quire. Retrieved 5 ... "Carbon Shift: How the Twin Crises of Oil Depletion and Climate Change Will Define the Future." Alternative Journal, The New ... "Canada's reckless carbon habit". Globe and Mail. Retrieved 5 August 2012. Thomas Homer-Dixon's web site[permanent dead link] ...

*John Carbon

Carbon and his wife published the Carbon-Clarke equation in 1976, used for calculating the number of clones required when ... John A. Carbon, Ph.D. is a Professor Emeritus of molecular and cellular biology at the University of California, Santa Barbara ... Carbon was among the founding scientific advisors of the Amgen Corporation. An endowed chair in Biochemistry and Molecular ... Clarke, Louise; Carbon, John (September 1976). "A colony bank containing synthetic CoI EI hybrid plasmids representative of the ...

*Carbon leakage

... occurs when there is an increase in carbon dioxide emissions in one country as a result of an emissions ... Energy portal Carbon shifting Carbon tax Embedded emissions Emissions trading Leakage (economics) Andrés Cala (18 November 2014 ... Carbon leakage may occur for a number of reasons: if the emissions policy of a country raises local costs, then another country ... Carbon leakage is one type of spill-over effect. Spill-over effects can be positive or negative; for example, emission ...

*Carbon dioxide

As the source of available carbon in the carbon cycle, atmospheric carbon dioxide is the primary carbon source for life on ... Carbon dioxide is the lasing medium in a carbon dioxide laser, which is one of the earliest type of lasers. Carbon dioxide can ... and Function of Carbon Dioxide Carbon Dioxide - Part One and Carbon Dioxide - Part Two at The Periodic Table of Videos ( ... Carbon Dioxide CO2 Carbon Dioxide Properties, Uses, Applications Dry Ice information Trends in Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide (NOAA ...

*Blue carbon

... is the carbon captured by the world's oceans and coastal ecosystems. The carbon captured by living organisms in ... "Blue Carbon". "Blue Carbon" designates carbon that is fixed via ocean and coastal ecosystems, rather than traditional land ... 2009): Blue Carbon. The Role of Healthy Oceans in Binding Carbon. A Rapid Response Assessment. Arendal, Norway: UNEP/GRID- ... Arendal Nelleman, C. "Blue carbon: the role of healthy oceans in binding carbon" (PDF). McLeod, E. "A blueprint for blue carbon ...

*Activated carbon

"Effect of steam and carbon dioxide activation in the micropore size distribution of activated carbon". Carbon. 34 (4): 505-509 ... "Thermal regeneration of activated carbon saturated with p-nitrophenol". Carbon. 42 (11): 2285-2293. doi:10.1016/j.carbon. ... Carbon monoxide is not well adsorbed by activated carbon. This should be of particular concern to those using the material in ... The carbon is either mixed with the solution then filtered off or immobilized in a filter. Activated carbon, often infused with ...

*WSO2 Carbon

"WSO2 Carbon - 100% Open Source Middleware Platform - WSO2 Inc". wso2.com. Retrieved 8 November 2016. "WSO2 Carbon wins ... WSO2 Carbon is the core platform on which WSO2 middleware products are built. It is based on Java OSGi technology, which allows ... WSO2 Carbon was introduced in 2009 and received InfoWorld's 2009 'Best of Open Source Software', or "Bossie", award. " ... In Carbon, this capability translates into a solid core of common middleware enterprise components, including clustering, ...

*Diatomic carbon

C2 is a component of carbon vapor. One paper estimates that carbon vapor is around 28% diatomic, but theoretically this depends ... It occurs in carbon vapor, for example in electric arcs; in comets, stellar atmospheres and the interstellar medium; and in ... Diatomic carbon will react with acetone and acetaldehyde to produce acetylene by two different pathways. Triplet C2 molecules ... In certain forms of crystalline carbon, such as diamond and graphite, a saddle point or "hump" occurs at the bond site in the ...

*De Carbon

The de Carbon hydraulic shock absorber was invented in 1953, by Christian Bourcier de Carbon. The De Carbon Company was also ... "Delphi de Carbon - Original Quality". AVTOCHASTI.BG official website. "Delphi". AVTOCHASTI.BG official website. www.bwigroup. ... Improves comfort by reducing friction "de Carbon: Only the best for your Fulvia". Viva-Lancia official website. "Beijing West ... When BeijingWest Industries acquired the brakes and suspensions business of Delphi in 2009, BWI Group acquired the de Carbon ...

*Carbon subsulfide

Lengyel first synthesized this compound by passing carbon disulfide (CS2) vapor through an electric arc with carbon electrodes ... Carbon subsulfide is an inorganic chemical compound with the formula C3S2. This deep red liquid is immiscible with water but ... Smith, W. H.; Leroi, G. E. (1966). "Infrared and Raman Spectra of Carbon Subsulfide". The Journal of Chemical Physics. 45 (5): ... Pedersen, C. T. (1996). "The formation of 1,2-propadiene-1,3-dithione (carbon subsulfide) from flash vacuum pyrolysis of 1,2- ...

*Altered Carbon

"Altered Carbon Netflix Show". Altered Carbon, Chapters 1-2. "Netflix Orders 'Altered Carbon' Sci-Fi Series From Laeta ... Altered Carbon is a 2002 hardboiled cyberpunk science fiction novel by Richard K. Morgan. Set in a future in which interstellar ... The book was adapted as a Netflix television series, also titled Altered Carbon, in 2018. In the novel's somewhat dystopian ... Hibberd, James (December 4, 2017). "Altered Carbon: First teaser trailer for stunning Netflix sci-fi series". Entertainment ...

*Carbon Poker

... formed in 2005, but after Poker.com decided to branch out and create its own poker room they bought Carbon Poker ... Carbon Poker is a major poker room that is part of the Australian-based Merge Gaming Network. Carbon Poker was established in ... One thing that has added in the steady, and above average, growth of Carbon Poker is that it has kept its doors open to U.S.- ... Being part of a poker network means that Carbon Poker shares players with a number of other poker rooms that are all based on ...
A transparent amorphous carbon layer is formed. The transparent amorphous carbon layer has a low absorption coefficient such that the amorphous carbon is transparent in visible light. The transparent amorphous carbon layer may be used in semiconductor devices for different purposes. The transparent amorphous carbon layer may be included in a final structure in semiconductor devices. The transparent amorphous carbon layer may also be used as a mask in an etching process during fabrication of semiconductor devices.
Mechanical properties of amorphous carbon films deposited from carbon stable isotope materialsMechanical properties of amorphous carbon films deposited from carbon stable isotope materials ...
Viruses are dependent on the metabolic machinery of the host cell to supply the energy and molecular building blocks needed for their replication. Substantial research has focused on understanding how viruses alter host cellular metabolism in the hopes of identifying metabolic pathways that are critical for successful infection. In this thesis, we explore how two viruses important for biodefense, vaccinia virus (VACV) and dengue virus (DENV), manipulate the global cellular metabolome during infection. In Chapter III, we examine the impact VACV has on the host metabolic network and discover that VACV implements a strikingly unique carbon utilization program during infection. Specifically, we define an important role for glutamine during VACV infection and show that glucose is dispensable for replication. We show that the glutaminolytic pathway of glutamine metabolism is markedly altered in VACV-infected cells and is necessary to replenish the TCA cycle during infection. We further demonstrate ...
Article Breakthrough curves of oil adsorption on novel amorphous carbon thin film. A novel amorphous carbon thin film (ACTF) was prepared by hydrolyzing wood sawdust and delignificating the residue to obtain cellulose mass that was subjected to react...
We studied the structural properties of amorphous carbon covering a wide range of densities from low-density to high-density regime using classical molecular dynamics with reactive empirical bond-order potential model. We calculated the pair-correlation functions, relative concentration of various coordinated atoms, and ring statistics in the amorphous carbon networks and compared them with other results. They agree with each other qualitatively but are different quantitatively. We investigate the difference now and will provide comprehensive understanding at the conference.
Recent studies have demonstrated that carbon, in the form of diamond, can be functionalized with molecular and/or biomolecular species to yield interfaces exhibiting extremely high stability and selectivity in binding to target biomolecules in solution. However, diamond and most other crystalline forms of carbon involve high-temperature deposition or processing steps that restrict their ability to be integrated with other materials. Here, we demonstrate that photochemical functionalization of amorphous carbon films followed by covalent immobilization of DNA yields highly stable surfaces with excellent biomolecular recognition properties that can be used for real-time biological detection. Carbon films deposited onto substrates at 300 K were functionalized with organic alkenes bearing protected amine groups and characterized using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The functionalized carbon surfaces were covalently linked to DNA oligonucleotides. Measurements
China RoHS 0.5 to 50 mm Low Carbon Steel Balls 1-1/16 Pinball Balls, Find details about China Carbon Steel Ball, Low Carbon Steel Ball from RoHS 0.5 to 50 mm Low Carbon Steel Balls 1-1/16 Pinball Balls - Guangzhou Decok Steel Ball Co., Ltd.
Lightweight polymer-carbon composites with high specific electrical conductivity at a carbon content below 40 vol.% were developed. The electrical and mechanical properties and the hydrogen permeability of carbon fiber and particle reinforced liquid crystalline polymers were examined. Vectra® A 950, SIGRAFIL® carbon fibers and Vulcan® 5XC6 72 R carbon black were employed. The composites are found to have sufficient mechanical properties and a hydrogen permeability low enough to be utilised as bipolar plate material in fuel cell applications. The density of the new composite is 20% lower than the density of commercial bipolar plates made from carbon reinforced polymeric composite materials, due to the lower carbon content. The current density at 0.5 V in an operating fuel cell is only 20% lower compared to commercial materials with more than 80 vol.% carbon content and meets the requirements for bipolar plate application ...
PhD position in land-sea soil carbon transfer dynamics *Job description* The global carbon cycle represents the collection of complex biogeochemical processes that influence our climate and link all carbon pools on Earth. Soils play a very active and key role in the global carbon cycle, as upon sequestration in marine sediments they act as long-term sink of atmospheric CO2. A large part of organic carbon (OC) stored in soils is continuously mobilized and either returned to the atmosphere or transported by rivers to the oceans. However, little is known about the fate and residence times of soil OC within a river basin. This PhD project will combine organic biomarkers with radiogenic and stable isotopes to study the physical and biological processes that soil OC undergoes during river transport from land to sea, the duration of this transport, as well as the factors that control these processes. The data that are generated in this project should contribute to a better understanding of the role of ...
In order to quantify the role of coastal upwelling regions as source or sink areas for carbon, the relationships between particulate organic carbon (POC) production, export, remineralization, and accumulation were examined in Monterey Bay from 1989 through 1992. During a normal upwelling year (1989-90), a high positive correlation (r = 0.91) is observed between biweekly primary production and POC export at 450 m. Primary production values range from 500 mgC m−2 d−1 during the winter, to 2600 mgC m−2 d−1 in the spring and summer upwelling months. Corresponding deep-water (450 m) POC fluxes vary from a minimum of 10 mgC m−2 d−1 in December, to 120 mgC m−2 d−1 in May. In contrast, the mid-1991 through 1992 data sets obtained during the 91-92 El Nino period, show a relatively poor correlation (r = 0.23) between productivity and carbon export. Calculated ratios of POC export to POC production (defined as e-ratios) display a trend for the three-year data sets in which the e-ratio ...
Downloadable! A low carbon fuel standard (LCFS) seeks to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by limiting the carbon intensity of fuels. We show this decreases high carbon fuel production but increases low carbon fuel production, possibly increasing net carbon emissions. The LCFS cannot be efficient, and the best LCFS may be nonbinding. We simulate a national LCFS on gasoline and ethanol. For a broad parameter range, emissions decrease, energy prices increase, abatement costs are large ($80 - $760 billion annually), and average abatement costs are large ($307 - $2,272 per CO2 metric ton). A cost effective policy has much lower average abatement costs ($60 - $868). (JEL Q54, Q58)
Electrically conductive compositions of carbon nparticles having thin coatings of conductive polymer are disclosed. The thin coatings of conductive polymer electrically interact with each carbon particle and protect the carbon particles from conductive failure. Because the conductive compositions of coated carbon particles maintain their conductive characteristics even after long term exposure to chemicals, they are useful as filler materials in polymer compositions utilized to fabricate chemical delivery devices.
In the short-term heterotrophic soil respiration is strongly and positively related to temperature. In the long-term, its response to temperature is uncertain. One reason for this is because in field experiments increases in respiration due to warming are relatively short-lived. The explanations proposed for this ephemeral response include depletion of fast-cycling, soil carbon pools and thermal adaptation of microbial respiration. Using a , 15 year soil warming experiment in a mid-latitude forest, we show that the apparent acclimation of soil respiration at the ecosystem scale results from combined effects of reductions in soil carbon pools and microbial biomass, and thermal adaptation of microbial respiration. Mass-specific respiration rates were lower when seasonal temperatures were higher, suggesting that rate reductions under experimental warming likely occurred through temperature-induced changes in the microbial community. Our results imply that stimulatory effects of global temperature ...
EFFECT OF DIFFERENT CARBON SOURCES ON THE GROWTH OF ANTIMICROBIAL PRODUCING Bacillus Species IN Citrillus vugaris., Largest Undergraduate Projects Repository, Research Works and Materials. Download Undergraduate Projects Topics and Materials Accounting, Economics, Education
The overall goal of this study was to investigate influences of ectomycorrhizae (EM) and interspecific carbon transfer on seedling performance in species mixtures. The objectives were to: (I) determine the potential for EM to link paper birch and Douglas-fir, (ii) quantify gross and net interspecific carbon transfer, and (iii) evaluate effect of transfer on seedling performance. A soil bioassay showed that paper birch and Douglas-fir shared seven EM morphotypes in common over 90% of their root tips, indicating potential for hyphal connections. The number and percent colonization of shared morphotypes were greater when species were grown in dual- than monoculture. Reciprocal labelling of paper birch and Douglas-fir with ¹³CO₂[subscript(gas)] and ¹⁴CO₂[subscript(gas)] in laboratory rootboxes and the field resulted in bi-directional transfer, with net gain by Douglas-fir. In rootboxes, gross and net transfer represented 29% and 4% of total isotope assimilated by both species. Net transfer ...
Article Nitrogen deposition effects on carbon storage and fungal:bacterial ratios in coastal sage scrub soils of Southern California. Received for publication August 25, 2008. The effects of nitrogen (N) across a deposition gradient on bacterial and ...
The Gram-positive bacterium Bacillus licheniformis is an important industrial host for the production of enzymes. Genomic DNA arrays and proteomics are being used to investigate the physiology of this bacterium. A genome-wide transcriptional profiling analysis of the adaptation of B. licheniformis to phosphate starvation shows more than 100 induced genes. Most of strongly induced genes belong to the putative Pho regulon. The data of the transcriptome analysis have been verified by the analysis of the extracellular and cytoplasmic proteome. The main response of B. licheniformis to glucose starvation was a switch to the usage of alternative carbon sources. In addition, B. licheniformis seems to be using other organic substances like amino acids and lipids as carbon sources when subjected to glucose starvation. This was indicated by the induction of a high number of genes the proteins of which are involved in amino acid and lipid degradation. During nitrogen starvation genes necessary for the ...
Expression of the Irp gene is regulated in part by the nutrients available to the cell, and is decreased in rich medium, in glucose minimal media enriched with amino acids, and in minimal medium with alternative carbon sources, such as acetate and succinate. When Lrp production is increased in a given medium, expression of its target genes is also increased. However, when the medium is changed from glucose to acetate, the response of the target genes is governed by many factors.
The ocean accounts for over 90% of the active pools of carbon on the Earths surface, with over 95% of marine carbon in the form of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) (Hedges and Keil 1995). Organic carbon dissolved in the ocean, suspended as particles or cells, and accumulating in sediments together constitute the other significant fractions of marine carbon, with organic carbon in the water column similar in quantity to the current atmospheric inventory of carbon dioxide. Isotopic partitioning among various inorganic and organic carbon phases reflects biological, physical and chemical processes, and the resulting fractionations are important tools.... ...
Anti-thrombogenicity and endothelialization are two essential issues in devising blood-contacting medical implants, such as artificial blood vessels and vascular stents [1, 2]. Minimizing the plasma protein adsorption and platelet adhesion has proved beneficial in reducing thrombus formation especially in the initial implantation. Subsequently, rapid endothelialization of implant surfaces may significantly reduce the risk of long-term thrombogenesis and provide a fully hemocompatible interface. Furthermore, native endothelium has unique physiological role of maintaining vascular homeostasis, including the active anti-thrombosis, and the release of soluble factors that contribute to the inhibition of smooth muscle cell proliferation and hence reduce intimal hyperplasia [3, 4]. Rapid regeneration of endothelium is thereby crucial to the success of implantation. Numerous approaches such as natural polymer coating (collagen) [5], surface biomolecule immobilization (heparin) [6], and drug-eluting ...
During past decades, tremendous attention has been paid to the development of new electrode materials with high capacitance to meet the requirements of electrode materials in supercapacitors. Among various vanadium oxides, recently VO2(A) has received increasing attention as its unique layered structure, pha
On average, the water column of Lake Superior is undersaturated with respect to dissolved oxygen and supersaturated with respect to carbon dioxide during the summer-stratified period. On the basis of temporal changes in water column dissolved oxygen, we calculate rates of oxygen consumption that range from 0.19 to 0.75 mmol m-3 d-1. These rates are a factor of 5-10 times larger than can be supported by the particulate carbon settling rates and benthic oxygen consumption rates. In addition, on the basis of the limited information available, dissolved allochthonous carbon inputs are insufficient to account for the calculated rates of carbon oxidation. Rates of nitrate and total CO2 (ΣCO2) production are 0.019 ± 0.012 and 0.13 ± 0.06 mmol m-3 d-1, respectively, and are consistent with the oxidation of a dissolved organic component that is similar in composition (C : N ratio) to the settling particulate material. Previously published estimates of total primary production were smaller but similar ...
Carbon offsets are reductions in emissions of carbon or greenhouse gases made in order to compensate for or to offset an emission made elsewhere. Carbon offsets are measured in metric tons of carbon dioxide (CO2e) and may represent six primary categories of greenhouse gases.[1] One carbon offset represents the reduction of one metric ton of carbon dioxide or its equivalent in other greenhouse gases. There are two markets for carbon offsets. In the larger, compliance market, companies, governments, or other entities buy carbon offsets in order to comply with caps on the total amount of carbon dioxide they are allowed to emit. In 2006, about $5.5 billion of carbon offsets were purchased in the compliance market, representing about 1.6 billion metric tons of CO2e reductions.[2] In the smaller, voluntary market, individuals, companies, or governments purchase carbon offsets to mitigate their own greenhouse gas emissions from transportation, electricity use, and other sources. For example, an ...
Downloadable (with restrictions)! A recently proposed model of human population and carbon utilization is reviewed. Depending on parameter values, one of three possible long-term outcomes is obtained. (1) Atmospheric carbon, (CO2)atm, and human populations equilibrate at positive values. (2) The human population stabilizes, while (CO2)atm increases without bound. (3) The human population goes extinct and atmospheric carbon declines to 0. The final possibility is qualitatively compatible with both consensus views of climate change and the opinions of those who are more impressed with the manifestly adverse consequences of carbon-mitigation to human reproduction and survival.
After all the hype and hoopla about its "i" cars, BMW lost the plot. Stories appeared over the last several years about what the next car to wear the "i" badge would be like. Top company officials suggested it would be an all new sedan; others said it would be a modified version of the companys 5 Series sedan. Rumors surfaced suggesting the next car would appear in 2018, 2019, 2020, or 2021. Clearly, economic realities have cooled BMWs passion for electric cars and it has little idea how to proceed to the next level.. The i3 and i8 made extensive use of carbon fiber structural panels to save weight. BMW pioneered innovative new bonding techniques that made it possible to meld carbon fiber components with steel or aluminum. But carbon fiber is expensive. Just last week, the company admitted that it was cutting back on the amount of carbon fiber uses in its lower priced models to save costs.. Against this backdrop, the company has finally pulled a rabbit out of its hat. Last week, it announced ...
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Low Carbon Trust was established to increase awareness about the links between buildings that people live and work in, the carbon dioxide emissions that are produced by this and the resulting climate change.
Low Carbon Development: Key Issues is the first comprehensive textbook to address the interface between international development and climate change in a carbon constrained world. It discusses the key conceptual, empirical and policy-related issues of…
... REACTION 2 IS A CARBON COMPOUND CONTAINING A CARBOXYLIC GROUP. IM TRYING TO UNDERSTAND THE PRODUCT FORMULAE. CAN YOU TELL ME HOW THESE TWO FUNCTION GROUPS REACT, AND THE RELEVANCY OF CH IN THIS EQUATION PLEASE. I DONT NEED AN ANSWER TO A QUESTION, BUT I WOULD LIKE TO BE ABLE TO UNDERSTAND THE QUESTION, MANY THANKS ...
Buy 400 Pcs Axial Leads Fixed Carbon Film Resistor 1/4W 0.25W 75K Ohm from sourcingmap,you can get reasonable price and fast response worldwide. Please be assured all the products here are quality garanteed.
The UK government has announced a fourth carbon budget, aimed at halving the country's carbon dioxide emissions by 2027 compared with 1990 levels. Ultimately, the country has set its sights on slashing emissions by 80% by 2050.
Despite the importance of Arctic and boreal regions in the present carbon cycle, estimates of annual high-latitude carbon fluxes vary in sign and magnitude. Without accurate estimates of current carbon fluxes from Arctic and boreal ecosystems, predicting the response of these systems to global change is daunting. A number of factors control carbon turnover in high-latitude soils, but because they are unique to northern systems, they are mostly ignored by biogeochemical models used to predict the response of these systems to global change. Here, we review those factors. First, many northern systems are dominated by mosses, whose extremely slow decomposition is not predicted by commonly used indices of litter quality. Second, cold temperature, permafrost, waterlogging, and substrate quality interact to stabilize soil organic matter, but the relative importance of these factors, and how they respond to climate change, is unknown. Third, recent evidence suggests that biological activity occurring ...
In addition, if you want to get your children or grandchildren involved, there is a childrens version of the program called Journey for the Planet, and a Cool Community Corps that allows teens and college students to get involved in promoting climate action in their community. Please take a look through the attached documents, which include a detailed plan for using this program for community action around climate change. You can also find a host of other tools and supporting information on the Low Carbon Diet website: www.empowermentinstitute.net/lcd. If youre interested in organizing a Cool Community Campaign, you might also consider attending one of Empowerment Institutes free teletrainings. With our new partnership, AGNT will receive a donation of $3 for each copy of the workbook purchased. To order a copy of the book, click here, or print out the form in this kit to order copies of either book by mail now ...
An exemplar low carbon building dedicated to the research and development of sustainable energy technologies has been named as BREEAMs Education Building of the Year 2014.
Cleantech start-ups are gathering at the University of Baths Low Carbon Start Up Fest on Friday 14th May to present to potential investors, partners, and fellow entrepreneurs.
An international roster of leaders from city and state governments and business shared their best strategies for financing large-scale deployment of low carbon technologies in the built environment to create smarter grids, buildings, transportations systems and urban infrastructure.
Performance charts for Amundi Accumulazione Attiva Low Carbon DUE (AALCDUE) including intraday, historical and comparison charts, technical analysis and trend lines.
Relevant books by authors and organisations endorsed by Low Carbon Trust: Earthships in Europe - By Mischa Hewitt & Kevin Telfer Groundhouse Build & Cook - By Daren Howarth
The worlds largest continental shelf, the East Siberian Shelf Sea, receives substantial input of terrestrial organic carbon (terr-OC) from both large rivers and erosion of its coastline. Degradation of organic matter from thawing permafrost in the Arctic is likely to increase, potentially creating a positive feedback mechanism to climate warming. This study focuses on the Buor-Khaya Bay (SE Laptev Sea), an area with strong terr-OC input from both coastal erosion and the Lena river. To better understand the fate of this terr-OC, molecular (acyl lipid biomarkers) and isotopic tools (stable carbon and radiocarbon isotopes) have been applied to both particulate organic carbon (POC) in surface water and sedimentary organic carbon (SOC) collected from the underlying surface sediments. Clear gradients in both extent of degradation and differences in source contributions were observed both between surface water POC and surface sediment SOC as well as over the 100 s km investigation scale (about 20 ...
Peat is formed when organic matter accumulates faster than it decomposes due to the lack of oxygen in waterlogged conditions. Peatlands are the most carbon dense of any terrestrial ecosystem in the world (Joosten & Couwenberg, 2008; Urák et al., 2017). Ecosystems sequester and store carbon in different ways, such as in living biomass, litter or humus in upper layers of mineral soils. Most of these carbon pools are not permanent and carbon will be released back to atmosphere over relatively short cycles. Beside these pools, however, the peat layer of peatlands provides - if not disturbed - a unique, permanent store for carbon. Keeping this carbon in the ground is crucial if the world i...
The problem is that xBR, the molar fraction of CO2 in the surface of the carbon particle, is always 1. Then Im forced to assign xA∞ = 1, in order for [itex]N_{Ar} = - N_{Br}[/itex] to be satisfied. The problem is that the particle is burning in air, not oxygen, so what about the presence of nitrogen? Do we just consider species A and B and neglect any other species present in the system? Do we ignore nitrogen because it is not participating in the mass transfer process? The process is diffusion-controlled, so I ignored the kinetics of the combustion and setted [itex]x_A ,_{r=R} = 0[/itex] and [itex]x_{BR} = x_B ,_{r=R} = 1[/itex ...
Light absorbing organic carbon, often called brown carbon, has the potential to significantly contribute to the visible light-absorption budget, particularly at shorter wavelengths. Currently, the relative contributions of particulate brown carbon to light absorption, as well as the sources of brown carbon, are poorly understood. With this in mind size-resolved direct measurements of brown carbon were made at both urban (Atlanta), and rural (Yorkville) sites in Georgia. Measurements in Atlanta were made at both a representative urban site and a road-side site adjacent to a main highway. Fine particle absorption was measured with a multiangle absorption photometer (MAAP) and seven-wavelength Aethalometer, and brown carbon absorption was estimated based on Mie calculations using direct size-resolved measurements of chromophores in solvents. Size-resolved samples were collected using a cascade impactor and analyzed for water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC), organic and elemental carbon (OC and EC), ...
The question: "What information will the Clean Energy Regulator rely upon to decide whether the estimates of soil carbon are credible or not when there is controversy about the data indicating the potential of innovative methods to sequester carbon. Dr Jeff Baldock, who directed the $24m Soil Carbon Research Program- the latest research - described it as a single point in time study. As such it cannot be used to make judgements about changes in carbon stocks. As well, it did not address many of the latest innovations in land management. The CSIRO told the recent Senate Inquiry into the ERF that soil carbons contribution to meeting the Governments target will be small and modest. The maximum amount which could be captured under pasture is 0.5 tonnes of carbon per hectare per year, according to scientific reports. Data gathered on the farms of best practice carbon farmers has detected increases of more than 2 tonnes/ha/yr. Such data is suspect among scientists and often discarded. Such ...
An activated carbon fiber composite for separation and purification, or catalytic processing of fluids is described. The activated composite comprises carbon fibers rigidly bonded to form an open, permeable, rigid monolith capable of being formed to near-net-shape. Separation and purification of gases are effected by means of a controlled pore structure that is developed in the carbon fibers contained in the composite. The open, permeable structure allows the free flow of gases through the monolith accompanied by high rates of adsorption. By modification of the pore structure and bulk density the composite can be rendered suitable for applications such as gas storage, catalysis, and liquid phase processing.
Carbon fiber cloth is a lightweight, strong composite that is typically used in conjunction with polyester or epoxy. Used in building Americas Cup boats, this great composite material can strengthen any project while adding minimal weight. 12k plain weave carbon fiber cloth is also commonly used by automobile manufacturers for their stock carbon fiber appearance. Plain weave is a one over one under pattern, yielding a checkerboard-like appearance.
Alibaba.com offers 1,772 china carbon fiber table products. About 0% of these are Coffee Tables, 0% are Dining Tables. A wide variety of china carbon fiber table options are available to you, such as metal type, appearance, and folded.
... cloth, sheets, or tape in plain weave, twill weave, or unidirectional form. Carbon fiber is an extremely light, high strength, high modulous fabric. Use carbon fiber with epoxy or polyester, as it is an effective reinforcing material for composites.
The bracket is made from carbon fibre because I happened to have some spare pieces of it lying around, but any material would work. In the first photo you can see the two halves of the bracket at the front. Behind is one of the original pieces of carbon fibre from which they were constructed. Two of those were required for each half of the bracket, connected together by gluing an offcut across the middle. I used a cutting disc to cut out slots to attach the fan to, some curved sections where the fan blades are, and some slots to allow it to fit around the sticky-out-bits in the drive bays. Then I removed the sharp edges with a small round file (Carbon fibre makes nasty splinters, so its important to keep the edges clean ...
The sediments that are preserved in estuarine environments (saltmarsh, riverine estuaries, mangrove habitats, lagoons, isolation basins and fjords) contain organic matter that allows investigation of the provenance of that material. These data can then be used specifically to investigate past sea level/land level changes and changes in freshwater flux. Where microfossils are poorly preserved or absent, C/N and δ13C analyses offer an alternative method to deduce environmental histories, but they are especially useful when used in conjunction with a range of other proxies, and when local modern end-member organic variables can be measured to calibrate the sedimentary C/N and δ13C. There are a wide range of C/N-δ13C based carbon studies, here we describe examples of studies in a variety of estuarine environments.. ...
Going Carbon Neutral is about reducing and offsetting the value of your personal carbon emissions. The idea is to minimise the size of your eco-footprint (the level of carbon pollution your lifestyle produces) in order to try to combat climate change.. Reducing means you seek to shrink your personal carbon emissions through a mix of avoidance and energy efficiency.. Offsetting means you pay companies to maintain carbon reduction projects worldwide and/or tree-planting programme, which will nullify your carbon emissions.. This is our pain-free guide to going Carbon Neutral.. ...
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Carbon budgets are simulated for the northwest European continental shelf and adjacent regions of the northeast Atlantic. Both physical and biological processes are evaluated, including exchanges between the water column and the atmosphere and sea bed. We use a multi-year simulation of a coupled 3D hydrodynamics-ecosystem model (POLCOMS-ERSEM) driven by realistic atmospheric data, ocean boundary conditions and freshwater inputs for 1989 to 2004. The northeast Atlantic (20°W to 13°E, 40°N to 65°N), including the European shelf, is found to be a net sink for atmospheric CO2. Biological processes exert a stronger control over pCO2 than temperature, and hence have a stronger effect on the air-sea CO2 exchange. For the European shelf, carbon sources of rivers and the uptake of atmospheric CO2 are balanced by horizontal transport off shelf and there is little carbon burial. There is net transport of carbon onto the shelf in the top 180 m of the water column and off the shelf below that depth, with ...
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Heating and hot water represents nearly half of all the energy we consume in the UK and provides significant scope for energy savings through effective control and a switch to low carbon electric heating, either through resistance heaters or heat pumps. As UK buildings become tighter and better insulated with lower heat requirements, and our energy supply leads itself to more dynamic storage of low carbon electricity, householders and businesses will be seeking modern, dynamic and efficient forms of electric heat and hot water generation. Similarly, the shift to more air tight dwellings means we need to take a more serious approach to how we ventilate homes to promote the best indoor air quality for healthy living. The healthy living aspect of the story extends also into hot water safety and hygiene. Across all of these themes, BEAMA members are manufacturing the products we will need to live in a safe, low energy, low carbon built environment.. ...
This bikes carbon monocoque construction is a product of 30 years of experience with carbon-fibre-strengthened plastics. High-tensile-strength carbon-fibre mats and synthetic resins are converted into super-high-quality frames and forks.. First, in a complex thermal process, PAN fibres (Polyacrylnitril) are spun in to high-performance carbon fibres which are then processed in to carbon-fibre mats. Continuous monitoring assures quality assembly during the laying of laminate in to the frame mold, performed exclusively by hand. At the same time, the special fibre mat layup plan guarantees that the frame is rigid enough in specific areas, and flexible enough in other areas, to properly enhance riding comfort.. Once the fibre mats have been soaked in resin and placed in the mold, the raw frame, still in its mold, is placed in a special, near-vacuum oven and carefully baked. This is where the fibre mats bond with the resin to create one, inseparable material. Unlike other manufacturers, for the ...
This thesis presents the study of organic layers covalently assembled onto carbon surfaces. As a result of their attachment, the properties of carbon surfaces were controllably adjusted so that these surfaces could be used for desired applications. In order that a wide range of properties were imparted onto the carbon surface, many different modifiers were attached and thoroughly characterised. Three applications that the modified carbon surfaces were used for were the subsequent coupling of molecular species, adsorption of protein and assembly of aldehyde/sulfate-functionalised polystyrene (PS) and citrate-capped gold nanoparticles (NPs). Finally, patterning of different organic layers at pre-determined spatially defined locations on the one carbon surface was also investigated. The carbon surfaces used in this work were glassy carbon (GC) and pyrolysed photoresist film (PPF) surfaces. For PPF, methods for the reproducible fabrication of electrochemically suitable surfaces were investigated. ...
It might seem like a paradox, but coal might hold the answer to solving carbon emission problems. The key isnt burning it, but creating it using carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. While this has always been possible in theory, high temperatures make it difficult in practice. However, a recent paper in Nature Communications shows how a special liquid metal electrocatalyst can convert the gas into a solid form of carbon suitable for, among other things, making high-quality capacitor electrodes. The process - you can see more about it in the video below - works at room temperatures.. It isnt that hard to extract carbon dioxide from the air, the problem is what to do with it. Storing it as a gas or a liquid is inefficient and expensive, while converting it to a solid makes it much easier to store or even reuse for practical applications.. Continue reading "Reducing Carbon Emissions With Coal" →. ...
A composition and method for applying an electrically conductive coating to an initially electrically nonconductive surface, such as a printed wiring board having through holes is disclosed. The method is carried out by applying a composition of electrically conductive carbon particles, a second conductive material, a water dispersible binding agent, and an aqueous dispersing medium to a nonconductive substrate to form a substantially continuous, electrically conductive coating. Enough of the carbon particles are present to provide an electrically conductive coating when the composition is applied to the substrate. Enough of the second conductive material is present to provide an improved electrically conductive coating when the composition is applied to the substrate. The resulting coating carbon coating has an improved conductivity over prior through hole coating compositions and processes and is capable of being exposed to molten solder without resulting in the formation of blowholes.
RNRMR presents global forecast and analysis about carbon fiber market & carbon fiber reinforced plastic (cfrp) market to 2019 with the new research ...
carbon fiber bike - Cycling has become increasingly popular with its economic and environmental benefits; however, this carbon fiber bike brings an added element of st...
Australia exports 2.5 times more carbon in fossil fuels than it emits from burning them, the most recent analysis of the nations carbon stocks shows.
Activated carbon particles or fabrics are coated with a deformable or water-insoluble coating material comprising a binding agent and a masking agent that can be colored. The coating material can provide sufficient diffusivity to permit excellent efficiency in adsorption of materials in spite of the presence of a coating layer on the activated carbon. The use of a deformable binding agent yields coated particles that make relatively noise when the particles flow or are moved in use, and that have improved tactile properties in use. High performance colored activated carbon materials can be produced and placed in absorbent articles, overcoming common objections about the black color of activated carbon.
The scheme for Chinas carbon emission trading market has been approved by the State Council, and released by the National Development and Reform Commission (NDRC), according to Zhang Yong, Vice Chairman of the NDRC, at a press briefing held on December 19, 2017. "This marks the completion of designs for Chinas carbon emission trading system and its official launch. Once transactions start, the market will become the largest of its kind in the world," he said.. According to Zhang, the nationwide carbon market will adopt a three-step strategy which will first involve the power generation industry. "We devised the plan for the eight industries with the highest energy consumption, and found that the power generation industry has the most mature conditions because it has the most complete data and its carbon emissions are the largest; the 1,700-plus power generators emit 3 billion tons of carbon. We believe this industry is the logical starting point and will help us further improve the carbon ...
Earth and nature help us out by continuing to soak up carbon emissions. Carbon sinks, such as oceans and forests are still soaking up half of the greenhouse gases produced by human activity.
Component of the best activated charcoal:Activated carbon is also called activated carbon black. It is an amorphous carbon black powder or granular, massive, ho
Auto engineers use different types of composites, including sheet molding compound (SMC) or bulk molding compound (BMC) formed in fast compression molding, pre-impregnated fibers (prepregs) that are cut and stacked into preforms for compression molding, and woven or stitched fibers (fabrics) that are used in resin-infusion methods. A popular infusion method for composites is resin transfer molding (RTM). SMC uses randomly oriented chopped fibers. SMC tends to be a faster and cheaper method with which to produce auto parts than an RTM process, but its usually less strong than the long fibers in RTM that are oriented or woven.. While SMC is readily available with glass fiber, now it also comes in carbon fiber. Magna Exteriors and Interiors (MEI, Concord, ON) and Zoltek (St. Louis), the carbon fiber producer, introduced an example in 2012. In March 2013, MEI said this best-in-class low-cost carbon fiber SMC material uses Zolteks Panex 35 commercial carbon fiber combined with Magnas EpicBlendSMC ...
Data of high-volume PM2.5 and TSP aerosol samples, measured in Abisko, northern Sweden. The data cover 18 months of consecutive sampling. Sampling duration is 12-28 days. Further, radiocarbon and ¹²C/¹³C-isotope analysis of some samples are available, to distinguish sources (fossil vs. biomass) of elemental carbon (i.e. black carbon).
Carbon source patterns using BIOLOG™ Community Level Physiological Profiling (CLPP) Observing patterns of substrate utilization can provide evidence of functional diversity of a microbial community. Additionally, understanding how metabolic substrates can be used in soil communities can help us understand the stability or flexibility of an ecosystem. Carbon sources are crucial anabolic raw materials for heterotrophic microbial growth. Microbes vary enormously in their ability to make use of carbon in different forms. Using direct inoculation of soil community samples into a variety of carbon substrates will allow us to study and measure potential community carbon source utilization and provide us with evidence for our hypothesis that soil community diversity allows co-operative as well as competitive interactions. In community level physiological profiling (CLPP) the metabolic properties of individual bacteria in the community contribute to the total metabolic capacity of the community. Mixed ...
Carbon source patterns using BIOLOG™ Community Level Physiological Profiling (CLPP) Observing patterns of substrate utilization can provide evidence of functional diversity of a microbial community. Additionally, understanding how metabolic substrates can be used in soil communities can help us understand the stability or flexibility of an ecosystem. Carbon sources are crucial anabolic raw materials for heterotrophic microbial growth. Microbes vary enormously in their ability to make use of carbon in different forms. Using direct inoculation of soil community samples into a variety of carbon substrates will allow us to study and measure potential community carbon source utilization and provide us with evidence for our hypothesis that soil community diversity allows co-operative as well as competitive interactions. In community level physiological profiling (CLPP) the metabolic properties of individual bacteria in the community contribute to the total metabolic capacity of the community. Mixed ...
The carbon fibers of the present invention have a polymer having polar groups and groups capable of reacting with a matrix resin deposited on the fiber surfaces. The carbon fibers can be produced by depositing a monomer having both polar groups and groups capable of reacting with the matrix resin or a mixture of a monomer having polar groups and a monomer having groups capable of reacting with the matrix resin onto the fiber surface and heating to polymerize the monomer(s) forming a polymer having polar groups and groups capable of reacting with a matrix resin. The resultant fibers have excellent adhesion properties to the matrix resin and are unlikely to cause fluffing and fiber breakage.
Carbon fiber, in its raw form, is a conjoining of thin, strong fibers. These fibers come in a variety of grades based on overall strength and stiffness. The higher the modulus, the stiffer and lighter it is. However, this doesnt mean that the best bikes are completely constructed from high modulus carbon fiber. On the contrary, the key to building bikes is to mix and match modulus, finding the ideal characteristic balance stiffness, strength, weight and cost ...
A process for the production of a non- woven fabric formed by a plurality of layers or tapes of carbon fibres or of composite carbon fibres; said layers or tapes and the fibres of said layers are bonded together by deposition between said layers or tapes of a polymeric, or¬ ganic, inorganic or hybrid-organic/inorganic material, applied by electro-spinning or elec¬ tro-spraying.
Before talking about mens wedding bands carbon fiber, we would like to discuss some recommendations on outdoor wedding decoration. First, dont forget to be sure there are no arrangements concerning flat water-such as showers, water pretty vegetable pots, etc. mens wedding bands carbon fiber.
... 2006-2010 The kit will include (2) pieces of 3M Carbon Fiber trim molding. The trim is made of flexible and durable high quality ABS plastic with a 3M adhesive tape of the back. This product is also not designed to replace
... 2005-2010 The kit will include (2) pieces of 3M Carbon Fiber trim molding. The trim is made of flexible and durable high quality ABS plastic with a 3M adhesive tape of the back. This product is also not designed to replace
Show off your business materials acumen with Carbon Fiber Business Cards ($TBA). These cards are made from thin, lightweight real carbon fiber that provides a...
Browse carbon fiber articles on Geek.com for the latest reviews, news, pictures, information about downloads and pricing, and other details about carbon fiber.
Ive received the new carbon fiber cases for the iPad from Moncarbone, which only make carbon fiber cases. Yes this is the real deal. These are super...
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Elemental carbon is a non-metallic material thats found in crystalline and amorphous forms. The structure of elemental carbon...
The findings are now being used by the UK Government to construct policy supporting integration of EVs into the transport network. Successive governments have committed to cutting national carbon emissions by 80 per cent by 2050, with an aim to have a UK car fleet with zero emissions within that timeframe.. The findings have been sent across Government Departments including the Technology Strategy Board (TSB), the Department for Transport, Business, Innovation and Skills (BIS), the Department of Energy and Climate Change (DECC) and The Office for Low Emission Vehicles (OLEV), together with many car manufacturers and energy firms.. Mark commented: "Analysis of all our data consistently showed that electric cars are viable for everyday life. The majority of barriers relate to psychological factors rather than practical ones.". After BMW led the way in the electric car trials, a number of manufacturers then tested their own electric vehicles across the UK for two-and-a-half years.. In all, 19 car ...
Carbon catabolite repression (CCR) is a mechanism by which micro-organisms preferentially utilize more easily metabolizable carbon sources in comparison to less easily metabolizable carbon sources. It prevents the organisms from unnecessary expenditure of energy and enables them to exploit the nutrients in appropriate manner. It represents a complex system of gene regulation. The main aim of this study was to study the intracellular localization of proteins involved in CCR including CreA, CreB, CreC and CreD in A. nidulans in repressing and derepressing conditions. The major regulatory protein involved in CCR in A. nidulans is CreA. It is a DNA-binding repressor, but very little is known about the molecular events that allow CreA function to result in appropriate regulation in response to carbon source. To determine the amount and localization of CreA in different carbon sources, strains were made over-expressing GFP and HA tagged CreA. Western analysis showed that high levels of full length ...
Abstract: Given the urgency and the magnitude of emission cuts required to arrest the global temperature rise at an acceptable level (like 2 degrees Celsius), it is imperative that action to mitigate climate change is taken at the lowest cost. This can be done if a cost effective set of policy tools with a focus on carbon pricing is applied as broadly as possible across all emission sources. In view of the emerging consensus on the temperature target like 2 degrees Celsius, it is imperative that climate scheme caps global emissions rather than allowing governments to arbitrarily pledge their intended cuts. Global emissions must be contained within the limit of carbon budget that achieves temperature objectives. Emission allowances must be issued in accordance with such limit and be sold to the global demand of emitters. Such sales of carbon budget give rise to both the most accurate carbon pricing as well as new revenue that can be used for much needed climate financing for developing countries. ...
A key step in producing CMSs is the deposition of carbon on pore entrances [103], which is carried out usually by the CVD of hydrocarbons. Needless to say, CMSs have a nanotexture that is as randomly oriented as that of the parent ACs or ACFs on which the CVD was carried out. A type of carbon with a characteristic bimodal PSD is carbon gel [104]. The porosity of carbon gels consists of mesopores located between the constituent particles (or "nodules" [105]) and micropores located within these particles [15]. For these materials, the [ID/(ID+ Ie)] ratio oscillates between 60 and 80 %, whereas d002 increases (vertical straight line). Here, the solids have their BSUs oriented at random and do not significantly differ from each other as examined by Raman spectroscopy. 40 nm). The importance ofthe degree oforientation ofthe basic constituents ofcarbon materials is highlighted in Fig. 10, proposed as early as 1985 by Inagaki [50], which depicts the main types of orientation found in carbons. This ...
London, UK (PRWEB UK) 23 March 2011 -- An innovative business model that provides commercial tenants with on-going support to reduce their carbon emissions
The world needs more energy but delivered with fewer carbon emissions. Embracing that dual challenge is the way BP thinks about every aspect of its business, says Kathrina Mannion
A four-pass carbon canister includes a cover sealingly coupled to an injection-molded housing having a first chamber, a second chamber fluidly coupled to the first chamber, a baffle fluidly coupled to the second chamber, and a third chamber fluidly coupled to the baffle. The three chambers are filled with carbon pellets to absorb carbon pellets provided to the carbon canister from the fuel tank. The carbon canister is periodically purged by drawing fresh air into the carbon canister, with the fresh air desorbing the hydrocarbons and then provided to and consumed in an internal combustion engine.
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Photosynthesis. Scientists believe that plants become more efficient at using water when there is more CO2 in the atmosphere.. For the plants themselves this is the effect of a better diet, and so the implication for them is they grow bigger. If this happens on a big enough scale per plant, but also across the globe then there is an implication for us which is just as significant.. Bigger plants mean more oxygen. The implication for us is as they get bigger they need more CO2 and the process continues to repeat itself, but with more oxygen being put back into the atmosphere from bigger plants.. Carbon. Without getting over complicated about carbon isotopes there is more than one type of carbon. One type called carbon-12 accounts for 99% of all naturally occurring carbon on earth. Another carbon-13 makes the number.. When we burn a fossil fuel as we so gleefully do, carbon-12 and 13 are released together and this changes the ratio of the two in the atmosphere.. ...
Options, experts recommendations and identification of questions to be resolved.. Extracts from the main conclusions and recommendations made by the group of experts, who decided to focus on Clean Development Mechanism projects, follow.. 1. Projects must generate enough environmental and societal value for stakeholders - in particular the people living in project areas - to derive clear benefits in terms of food security and sustainability of development.. 2. At the project level, all carbon pools and all fluxes should be included in the verification and accounting. Only a holistic landscape-ecosystem approach has the potential to facilitate the understanding of carbon dynamics in projects as well as the much debated issues of carbon permanence, reversibility of sequestered carbon, leakage, baselines and the links between biomass and soil carbon storage.. 3. The accounting system has to be simple. Process, spatial and temporal consistency in the method used is most important. At the same time, ...
World carbon emissions fell by 1.3 percent in 2009, most likely due to the global recession, says a report from the Global Carbon Project published today in Nature Geoscience. Emissions were originally expected to drop further (about 3 percent, as estimated from the expected drop of world GDP), but China and Indias surging economies and increasing carbon output countered the decreases elsewhere.. The largest decreases occurred in Europe, Japan and North America: 6.9% in the United States, 8.6% in the U.K., 7% in Germany, 11.8% in Japan and 8.4% in Russia. The study notes that some emerging economies recorded substantial increases in their total emissions, including 8% in China and 6.2% in India. [USA Today]. There is some good news from the report. It seems the atmospheric CO2 concentrations didnt jump as much as they were expected to, which means the worlds carbon sinks were performing better.. While emissions did not fall much, the amount of CO2 in the atmosphere increased by just 3.4 ...
... The world-beating performance of the Echelon just got better, thanks to the addition of a high-strength carbon fiber body that drops this already lightweight pedal down to an incredible 220 grams a set. Combination of bushings and bearings for extremely long life Low profile cleat-to-axle interface for maximum pedaling efficiency Adjustable spring tension Composite body and claw Stainless steel cleat plate for excellent wear and no noise Sealed cartridge outer bearing Adjustable tension with extra-strong springs for powerful riders Works with Ritchey or look Keo cleats Specs Body: Carbon thermoplastic Axle Material: CroMo Claw: Carbon reinforced thermoplastic Inner Bearing: Bushing Middle Bearing: Needle Outer Bearing: Sealed Cartridge Float: 7 degrees Finish: UD matte carbon Weight: 220g
Throughout the materials community, there exists extensive literature on carbon fibre chemical, physical and mechanical properties, and the effect of these on composite performance. To date, however, the atomistic chemical nature of the changing carbon fibre surface when surface treatments are applied has been a very difficult area to study using experimental measurements alone. This study shows the potential of molecular simulation methods to be applied to real engineering materials, and the chemical insight that can be gained in using them. Inverse gas chromatography experiments show how the dispersive and acid-base nature of the carbon fibre surface changes as a function of surface treatment. In combination with these experimental measurements, the SORPTIOISFTM molecular modelling algorithm is used to develop models that provide a representation of the surfaces of these materials in terms of specific chemical functional groups. These models are compared with separate experimental data, and ...
Most of the carbon on Earth is recycled through a slow track that can take millions of years. As marine organisms die, their shells and skeletons become buried under layers of silt on the ocean floor and their carbon becomes part of sedimentary rock. When sediments covered marine organisms before they decomposed, the resulting heat and pressure caused huge deposits of petroleum (oil) to form. Millions of years ago the remains of plants became buried in sediments under swamps where they were compacted into coal. Today, these fossil fuels are the major energy source used by humans. Burning these fuels releases carbon back into the atmosphere as carbon dioxide that is then available for the fast track. ...
The sequence of the human genome together with sequence similarity analyses has advanced the discovery of missing steps in the mitochondrial one‐carbon metabolism pathway. That together with the revived interest in cancer metabolism has brought the research on one‐carbon metabolism back under the spotlight. Here, we present a brief review of recent advances in the field of one‐carbon metabolism, with a bias towards its relevance to cell growth and proliferation in human cancers. We will address the requirements of one‐carbon metabolism for biosynthesis and the major sources to satisfy that demand. We will also discuss some recent discoveries indicating a role of one‐carbon metabolism beyond biosynthesis. We conclude with a concise enumeration of some fundamental questions that remain unanswered. ...
On Monday 8 December 2014, the International Carbon Action Partnership hosted a side event at COP20 in Lima on trends and outlook of carbon pricing across North America and Asia.. In a keynote, Minister of Sustainable Development, Environment and the Fight against Climate Change from ICAPs current Co-Chair Québec, David Heurtel, reported on the first joint auction held by California and Québec two weeks ago. The two jurisdictions had linked in January 2014, forming the first international link. Commenting on the auction, Minister Heurtel noted that the fact that the demand for allowances exceeded those up for auction was a promising sign for the viability and strength of the joint carbon market. Addressing companies stance on carbon pricing, he stated that there was evidence that the private sector already factored a carbon price into their business decisions and that this could actually encourage investments ...
Figure 3.1: The global carbon cycle: storages (PgC) and fluxes (PgC/yr) estimated for the 1980s. (a) Main components of the natural cycle. The thick arrows denote the most important fluxes from the point of view of the contemporary CO2 balance of the atmosphere: gross primary production and respiration by the land biosphere, and physical air-sea exchange. These fluxes are approximately balanced each year, but imbalances can affect atmospheric CO2 concentration significantly over years to centuries. The thin arrows denote additional natural fluxes (dashed lines for fluxes of carbon as CaCO3), which are important on longer time-scales. The flux of 0.4 PgC/yr from atmospheric CO2 via plants to inert soil carbon is approximately balanced on a time-scale of several millenia by export of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in rivers (Schlesinger, 1990). A further 0.4 PgC/yr flux of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) is derived from the weathering of CaCO3, which takes up CO2 from the atmosphere in a 1:1 ...
We can find almost everything at the online market. Tons of products and various kinds of businesses are now accessible online, which makes it easier for anyone to find what they exactly needed. And the best thing is they dont have to leave the house just to be able to find some specific products or businesses. By utilizing the search engines and references from fellow internet users, they will get what they want, including also some rare commodity they will hardly to find it locally, such as carbon fiber sheets.. In modern days, carbon fiber plays a huge role as the base material for various kinds of products and items. Therefore the presence of such a professional and reliable carbon fiber manufacturing is highly needed by the industries. And for anyone looking for such reputable carbon fiber manufacturer, they can try to visit DexCraft.com. We all know how most businesses are now accessible online, and so with Dex Craft. This company is specializing in manufacturing high quality carbon fiber ...
Carbon xerogels were prepared by the polycondensation of resorcinol and formaldehyde using three different solution pH values and the gels were carbonized at three different temperatures. Results show that it is possible to tailor the pore texture of carbon xerogels by adjusting the pH of the initial solution and the carbonization temperature. Materials with different textural properties were obtained and used as catalysts for NO oxidation at room temperature. The NO conversions obtained with carbon xerogels were quite high, showing that carbon xerogels are efficient catalysts for NO oxidation. A maximum of 98% conversion for NO was obtained at initial concentration of NO of 1000 ppm and 10% of O2. The highest NO conversions were obtained with the samples presenting the highest surface areas. The temperature of reaction has a strong influence on NO oxidation: the conversion of NO decreases with the increase of reaction temperature.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Pigments, photosynthesis and photoinhibition in two amphibious plants. T2 - consequences of varying carbon availability. AU - Nielsen, Søren Laurentius. AU - Nielsen, Hanne Dalsgaard. PY - 2006. Y1 - 2006. U2 - 10.1111/j.1469-8137.2006.01670.x. DO - 10.1111/j.1469-8137.2006.01670.x. M3 - Journal article. VL - 170. SP - 311. EP - 319. JO - New Phytologist. JF - New Phytologist. SN - 0028-646X. ER - ...
A short-term simulated weathering experiment was performed on two crude oils and two heavy fuel oils under natural conditions to evaluate the effects of natural weathering processes by using gas chromatography mass spectrometry combined with gas chromatography isotopic ratio mass spectrometry. The results of diagnostic ratios of n-alkanes show that only odd to even predominance (OEP1, OPE2) and carbon preference index (CPI) remain stabilized during the 28 d weathering process, but they cannot effectively distinguish the four types of oils. Statistical analyses based on paired sample t-test and principal component analysis (PCA) revealed that stable carbon isotope compositions of n-alkanes in the four studied oils have no significant changes over the weathering time, and that the carbon isotope discrimination (Delta delta C-13) of n-alkanes is , 3 parts per thousand. We have provided evidence that the stable carbon isotope compositions of n-alkanes compared to n-alkanes diagnostic ratios ...
Oral mucosal melanoma is a rare disease with a relatively poor prognosis. Carbon ion radiotherapy has been shown to be effective against radiotherapy-resistant tumors owing to its excellent dose concentration and high biological effect. Our patient was a 66-year-old Japanese man with oral mucosal melanoma of his right maxillary gingiva (T4aN0M0). He received carbon ion radiotherapy at 57.6 Gy (relative biological effectiveness) in 16 fractions for 4 weeks. Concomitant chemotherapy (dacarbazine + nimustine + vincristine) was administered at the same time as carbon ion radiotherapy initiation. Two courses of adjuvant chemotherapy were given after carbon ion radiotherapy. Although he experienced grade 2 acute oral mucositis, his symptoms improved within a few weeks of undergoing carbon ion radiotherapy. He was alive at the time of reporting, 35 months after treatment, without any recurrence. Late toxicity has not been observed. Carbon ion radiotherapy for oral mucosal melanoma resulted in a good local
Carbon metabolism is the most basic aspect of life. This map presents an overall view of central carbon metabolism, where the number of carbons is shown for each compound denoted by a circle, excluding a cofactor (CoA, CoM, THF, or THMPT) that is replaced by an asterisk. The map contains carbon utilization pathways of glycolysis (map00010), pentose phosphate pathway (map00030), and citrate cycle (map00020), and six known carbon fixation pathways (map00710 and map00720) as well as some pathways of methane metabolism (map00680). The six carbon fixation pathways are: (1) reductive pentose phosphate cycle (Calvin cycle) in plants and cyanobacteria that perform oxygenic photosynthesis, (2) reductive citrate cycle in photosynthetic green sulfur bacteria and some chemolithoautotrophs, (3) 3-hydroxypropionate bi-cycle in photosynthetic green nonsulfur bacteria, two variants of 4-hydroxybutyrate pathways in Crenarchaeota called (4) hydroxypropionate-hydroxybutyrate cycle and (5) ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - A case of radiation retinopathy after carbon ion radiotherapy for adenoid cystic carci - I noma in the sphenoid sinus. AU - Watanabe, Koichiro. AU - Toshima, Shinji. AU - Shibata, Kiyo. AU - Hosokawa, Mio. AU - Doi, Shinichiro. AU - Noda, Hiroshi. AU - Terada, Yoshiko. AU - Hara, Kazuyuki. PY - 2016/3/1. Y1 - 2016/3/1. N2 - Purpose: To report a case of radiation retinopathy after carbon ion radiotherapy for adenoid cystic carcinoma in the sphenoid sinus. Case: A 26-year-old female was referred to us for impaired visual acuity in the right eye. She had received carbon ion radiotherapy for adenoid cystic carcinoma in the right sphenoid sinus extending to the right cavernous sinus 19 months before. The dosis of radiation totaled 57.6 GyE. Findings: Corrected visual acuity was 0.8 right and 1.2 left. The right fundus showed a few retinal hemorrhages and cotton-wool spots. Fluorescein angiography showed dry leakage from retinal vessels. Retinal nonperfusion was also present, leading ...
We used stable carbon isotopes to analyse individual variation in arctic fox diet. We extracted collagen from bones (the lower jaw), and measured stable carbon isotopes. The foxes came from three different localities: Iceland, where both microtines and reindeer are rare; west Greenland, where microtines are absent; and Sweden, where seat analyses showed the primary food to be microtine rodents and reindeer. The Icelandic samples included foxes from both coastal and inland habitats, the Swedish sample came from an inland area, and the Greenland sample from coastal sites. The spatial variation in the isotopic pattern followed a basic division between marine and terrestrial sources of protein. Arctic foxes from inland sites had delta(13)C values of -21.4 (Ice land) and -20.4 parts per thousand (Sweden), showing typical terrestrial values. Coastal foxes from Greenland had typical marine Values of -14.9 parts per thousand, whereas coastal foxes from Iceland had intermediate values of -17.7 parts per ...
A novel electrochemical sensor for sensitive detection of doxepin was prepared, which was based on a glassy carbon electrode modified with poly(4-aminobenzoic acid)/multi-walled carbon nanotubes composite film [poly(4-ABA)/MWNTs/GCE]. The sensor was characterized by scanning electron microscopy and electrochemical methods. It was observed that poly(4-ABA)/MWNTs/GCE showed excellent preconcentration function and electrocatalytic activities towards doxepin. Under the selected conditions, the anodic peak current was linear to the logarithm of doxepin concentration in the range from 1.0 ´ 10−9 to 1.0 ´ 10−6 M, and the detection limit obtained was 1.0 × 10−10 M. The poly(4-ABA)/MWNTs/GCE was successfully applied in the measurement of doxepin in commercial pharmaceutical formulations, and the analytical accuracy was confirmed by comparison with a conventional ultraviolet spectrophotometry assay.
Solid acid catalysts were synthesized from macroalgae Sargassum horneri via hydrothermal carbonization followed by sulfuric acid sulfonation. A three-variable Box-Behnken design and optimization was used to maximize surface acidity. The optimal preparation conditions were found to be at the carbonization temperature of 217 °C, the carbonization time of 4.6 hours and the sulfonation temperature of 108.5 °C. Under these conditions, the highest surface acidity achieved was 1.62 mmol g-1. Physical and chemical properties of prepared solid acid catalyst were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, and elemental analysis. The results proved the grafting of -SO3H groups on an amorphous carbon structure. The catalyst activity was evaluated by the esterification of oleic acid with methanol. The sample prepared achieved 96.6% esterification yield, which was higher than the 86.7% yield achieved by commercial Ambersyst-15 under the same reaction ...
Influence of Carbon Source on the Production of Extracellular Ligninolytic Enzymes by Phanerochaete chrysosporium. Fangfang Wang,a Mingqiang Ai,a Guihua Yang,b Jiachuan Chen,b Xiulan Chen,a and Feng Huang a,*. The effect of altering the carbon source in the growing environment was investigated relative to the production of ligninolytic enzymes by Phanerochaete chrysosporium. Glucose, cellobiose, and cellulose (or mixtures thereof) were used as the carbon sources. Glucose oxidase and glyoxal oxidase activities in all carbon sources were produced during cultivation. High peak levels (0.17 to 0.24 IU/mL) of manganese peroxidase activity were observed only in mediums containing oligosaccharides. Lignin peroxidase activity was high in glucose medium (0.21 IU/mL of peak value); however, minimal amounts were formed in the cellulose medium (0.01 IU/mL of peak value). High amounts of cellobiose:quinone oxidoreductase (3.33-3.99 IU/mL of peak value) and cellobiose dehydrogenase (0.04-0.2 IU/mL of peak ...

Calculating Carbon Footprints | HowStuffWorksCalculating Carbon Footprints | HowStuffWorks

Calculating carbon footprints involves taking household size and location into account. Find out how carbon footprint ... Carbon calculators usually start by asking for your location. Regardless of your personal consumption, your carbon footprint is ... Carbon footprints also include the CO2 produced by transportation. Most people dont know their annual fuel usage, so ... A carbon footprint is only one component of the broader ecological footprint. An ecological footprint compares the populations ...
more infohttps://science.howstuffworks.com/environmental/green-science/carbon-footprint1.htm

Multi-walled carbon nanotubesMulti-walled carbon nanotubes

"Because it is carbon, this interface has an advantage because its properties are similar to those of the carbon nanotubes to ... e open ends of carbon nanotubes on any desired substrate." Multi-walled carbon nanotubes offer the promise of higher ... Unique to the EBID process, the deposited carbon makes a strong, chemically-bonded connection to the ends of the carbon ... "The big challenge in this field is to make a connection not just to a single shell of a carbon nanotube," said Fedorov. "If ...
more infohttps://www.ecnmag.com/news/2012/10/multi-walled-carbon-nanotubes

Composites with Multi-Walled Carbon NanotubesComposites with Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes

... multi-walled carbon nanotube products, with emphasis on the effect of proper dispersion, and the excellent utility of ... Multi-walled carbon nanotubes are of great interest - primarily based upon their electrical and mechanical properties. The main ... Multi-walled carbon nanotubes are of great interest - primarily based upon their electrical and mechanical properties. The main ... Composites with Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes. Authors: T.P. McAndrew, M. Havel, A. Korzhenko, P. Delprat ...
more infohttp://nsti.org/procs/Nanotech2013v1/6/M2.132

Chemical Database: Carbon disulfide (EnvironmentalChemistry.com)Chemical Database: Carbon disulfide (EnvironmentalChemistry.com)

This page contains information on the chemical Carbon disulfide including: 30 synonyms/identifiers; U.S. Code of Federal ... Carbon bisulfide*Carbon bisulfuret*Carbon bisulphide*Carbon disulfide*Carbon disulfide cation*Carbon disulfide [UN1131] [ ... Carbon bisulfide. No. No. 1131. 131. Carbon bisulphide. No. No. 1131. 131. Carbon disulfide. No. No. 1131. 131. Carbon ... Carbon bisulfide, see Carbon disulfide. Forbid. Forbid. Carbon disulfide. 3. UN1131. I. 3, 6.1. B16, T14, TP2, TP7, TP13. None ...
more infohttps://environmentalchemistry.com/yogi/chemicals/cn/Carbon%A0disulfide.html

Trapping Individual Carbon NanotubesTrapping Individual Carbon Nanotubes

... Arun, A.; Salet, P.; Ionescu, A. M.. *Published in: 2008 Electronic Materials Conference ... A technique to deterministically manipulate individual Carbon Nanotubes (CNT) has been the brick-wall for the boom of CNT based ... Here we demonstrate dielectrophoresis as an efficient technique to trap individual Single Walled Carbon Nanotubes (SWCNT) and ... By using an external series resistance during dielectrophoresis, higher than the contact resistance of the carbon nanotube ...
more infohttps://infoscience.epfl.ch/record/139465

Carbon Footprint | Notre Dame CollegeCarbon Footprint | Notre Dame College

Come take the carbon footprint test and find out! Enter your results for a chance to win free Chipotle! ... Carbon Footprint Event sponsored by OES(One Earth Society) How many Earths Does it take to sustain your life style? ... Carbon Footprint. Wednesday, January 30, 2013 11:30am. Foyer/First Floor Adminstration Building Notre Dame College 4545 College ...
more infohttp://notredamecollege.edu/about/news/events/carbon-footprint

AUO announces carbon footprint verification on 32-inch LCD TVAUO announces carbon footprint verification on 32-inch LCD TV

Succeeded in the third party verification by SGS, AUOs 32-inch LCD TV is the worldwide first LCD TV set gaining carbon ... AU Optronics today announced it has completed the carbon footprint verification on its 32-inch LCD TV set according to ... footprint verification, which establishes the benchmark on the carbon footprint management for consumer electronic products, ... the carbon database system with detailed carbon data of the supply chain will lead AUO to the leading position in low carbon ...
more infohttp://www.digitimes.com/news/a20090923PR201.html?mod=0&chid=8

Patent US8097141 - Flow dielectrophoretic separation of single wall carbon nanotubes - Google PatentsPatent US8097141 - Flow dielectrophoretic separation of single wall carbon nanotubes - Google Patents

... a method for separating a first fraction of a single wall carbon nanotubes and a second fraction of single wall carbon ... wherein the single wall carbon nanotubes comprise semiconducting single wall carbon nanotubes and metallic single wall carbon ... The single wall carbon nanotubes may be substantially metallic. The single wall carbon nanotubes may be a combination of ... The single wall carbon nanotubes may be substantially metallic. The single wall carbon nanotubes may be a combination of ...
more infohttp://www.google.com.au/patents/US8097141

CDC - Carbon Monoxide Poisoning - Frequently Asked QuestionsCDC - Carbon Monoxide Poisoning - Frequently Asked Questions

What is Carbon Monoxide?. Carbon monoxide, or "CO," is an odorless, colorless gas that can kill you. ...
more infohttps://www.cdc.gov/co/faqs.htm

Carbon Monoxide (CO) Poisoning Prevention | Features | CDCCarbon Monoxide (CO) Poisoning Prevention | Features | CDC

When winter temperatures plummet and home heating systems run for hours the risk of carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning increases. ...
more infohttps://www.cdc.gov/Features/COpoisoning/

Carbon Capture and Storage Faraday DiscussionCarbon Capture and Storage Faraday Discussion

... technology for reducing carbon emissions. Themes. • CCS - a technology for now. Carbon Capture and Storage is currently being ... Carbon Capture and Storage: Faraday Discussion will take place at The Edge, a purpose-built conference centre and accommodation ... Carbon Capture and Storage Faraday Discussion 18 - 20 July 2016, Sheffield, United Kingdom ... As fossil fuels will remain part of the global energy mix for some time, carbon capture and storage is a "must develop" ...
more infohttp://www.rsc.org/events/detail/18288/

Protect Your Family from Carbon Monoxide Poisoning | CPSC.govProtect Your Family from Carbon Monoxide Poisoning | CPSC.gov

Carbon monoxide, also known as CO, is called the "Invisible Killer" because its a colorless, odorless, poisonous gas. More ... Know the symptoms of carbon monoxide poisoning: headache, dizziness, weakness, nausea, vomiting, sleepiness, and confusion. If ...
more infohttps://www.cpsc.gov/safety-education/safety-education-centers/carbon-monoxide-information-center/protect-your-family-from-carbon-monoxide-poisoning--

Carbon Wheels & Wheelset | Carbon Bicycle Wheels ebay- Carbonspeedcycle.com	Carbon Wheels & Wheelset | Carbon Bicycle Wheels ebay- Carbonspeedcycle.com

Enjoy the remarkable advantage of 100% hand-built carbon clincher wheels for your bikes. ... Obtain an unlimited access to thousands of carbon fiber bicycle wheels. ... Dimple finish carbon road wheels 23mm width 60mm Clincher alloy brake surface Straight pull hub R36. $573.75. $459.00. ... 20.5/23/25mm width Thru Axle or QR 6 Bolt Disc Brake hubs 88mm clincher carbon Cyclocross bike wheels. $511.25. $409.00. ...
more infohttp://www.carbonspeedcycle.com

Carbon - WikipediaCarbon - Wikipedia

Carbon can form very long chains of interconnecting carbon-carbon bonds, a property that is called catenation. Carbon-carbon ... The paths of carbon in the environment form the carbon cycle. For example, photosynthetic plants draw carbon dioxide from the ... Main article: Allotropes of carbon. Atomic carbon is a very short-lived species and, therefore, carbon is stabilized in various ... Some of this biomass is eaten by animals, while some carbon is exhaled by animals as carbon dioxide. The carbon cycle is ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carbonaceous

Carbon AccountingCarbon Accounting

... is crucial to efforts to tackle climate change. This collection highlights key physical and social science ... Beyond carbon budgets The remaining carbon budget consistent with limiting warming to 1.5 °C allows 20 more years of current ... The tropical forest carbon cycle and climate change Tropical forests currently make a neutral contribution to the global carbon ... Differences between carbon budget estimates unravelled Estimates of carbon budgets compatible with limiting warming to below ...
more infohttp://www.nature.com/collections/xhrmtzsxct?error=cookies_not_supported&code=6f091db2-0673-449e-a597-38e337f525ab

Carbon fibers - WikipediaCarbon fibers - Wikipedia

Carbon filament yarns can also be knitted or braided. Microelectrodes[edit]. Carbon fibers are used for fabrication of carbon- ... The carbon can become further enhanced, as high modulus, or high strength carbon, by heat treatment processes. Carbon heated in ... Carbon fibers are also composited with other materials, such as graphite, to form reinforced carbon-carbon composites, which ... In turbostratic carbon fiber the sheets of carbon atoms are haphazardly folded, or crumpled, together. Carbon fibers derived ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carbon_

carbon fibercarbon fiber

Made from ultra-lightweight carbon fiber, the Carbon Black wheelchair is not just a piece of medical equipment;... ... Sarolea SP7 Electric Carbon-Fiber Motorcycle Fires Up for the Isle of Man TT Zero Race. *by Marc Carter ... Carbon fiber is quickly becoming the material of choice for automakers as they seek to reduce the weight of their... ... How robots and carbon fiber could usher in the "fourth industrial revolution". *by Lacy Cooke ...
more infohttps://inhabitat.com/tag/carbon-fiber/

carbon monoxidecarbon monoxide

I agree to Inhabitats Terms of Use and Privacy Policy, and to the use of cookies described therein, and I also consent to the collection, storage, and processing of my data in the United States, where data protection laws may be different from those in my country ...
more infohttps://inhabitat.com/tag/carbon-monoxide/

Carbon uptakeCarbon uptake

Carbon fixed each year Cumulative amount of carbon fixed (years) (t C ha-1 year-1) (t C ha-1) 5 0.2 0.2 10 7.0 21.0 15 14.0 77.0 ... Carbon fixation by Pine trees Cumulative amount of carbon fixed (t C / ha 200 When tree saplings are very young the rate of ... Carbon uptake * 1. cebitz. n coScie m Topic 6: The issue of global warming Just plant more trees???? cebitz. n co Scie m ... the carbon from one small factory n coScie m Based on an idea from: Problem Solving in Environmental Biology; A.R Ennos and S.E ...
more infohttps://www.slideshare.net/quercuscymru/carbon-uptake

Carbon chemistryCarbon chemistry

This course explores how to teach about the special nature of carbon, some of the important classes of compounds it forms, and ... The number of compounds that contain carbon vastly exceeds all other compounds combined. ... Carbon chemistry is so important that it has a whole branch of chemistry entirely devoted to it - organic chemistry. ... Why carbon is special This topic looks at the special nature of carbon - the key factors that allow carbon... ...
more infohttps://www.rsc.org/cpd/resource/RES00001592/carbon-chemistry

The Carbon BubbleThe Carbon Bubble

... s life span is greater than the life span of any human, so for people living today it seems like an ... The carbon bubbles life span is greater than the life span of any human, so for people living today it seems like an ... The carbon bubble, quite simply, is the constantly increasing consumption of fossil fuels that began with coal in the 19th ... The carbon bubble, quite simply, is the constantly increasing consumption of fossil fuels that began with coal in the 19th ...
more infohttps://www.forbes.com/sites/csr/2011/02/28/the-carbon-bubble/

phpBB • CarbonphpBB • Carbon

Style name: Carbon. Author: Joyce&Luna. Style description: Carbon is a style that is kept in the dark gray. Administrative Font ... Download file: Carbon.zip. File size: 215.69 KiB. Style overview page: View. The phpBB Team is not responsible nor required to ... Carbon. All 3.2.x styles released in our Styles Database can be found here. All discussion or support regarding an individual ...
more infohttps://www.phpbb.com/community/viewtopic.php?f=581&t=2423071&p=15111946

Carbon NanostructuresCarbon Nanostructures

Remarkably, the last 30 years have been witnessing an exponential advance in the science involving carbon and carbon structures ... Carbon is intimately connected to almost everything we deal with in a daily basis. Due to its outstanding properties, such as ... Within the "Carbon Nanostructures" book series, the reader will find valuable, up-to-date account of both the newer and ... The "Carbon Nanostructures" book series covers the state-of-art in the research of nanocarbons and their applications. Topics ...
more infohttps://www.springer.com/series/8633

Carbon LettersCarbon Letters

... aims to be a comprehensive journal with complete coverage of carbon materials and carbon-rich molecules. These ... Carbon Letters aims to be a comprehensive journal with complete coverage of carbon materials and carbon-rich molecules. These ... Carbon Letters aims to be a comprehensive journal with complete coverage of carbon materials and carbon-rich molecules. These ... Carbon Letters invites original reports of fundamental research in all branches of the theory and practice of carbon science ...
more infohttps://www.springer.com/materials/characterization+%26+evaluation/journal/42823

CarbonCarbon

Why teach about carbon and the earth system?. Carbon, like water, is essential to life as we know it on Earth. It is a ... How does the carbon cycle regulate the temperature of Earths atmosphere?. *Will carbon dioxide continue to rise, and if so, ... EarthLabs for Educators , Carbon. Climate and the Carbon Cycle: Unit Overview. The lab activities in this module were developed ... As significant a role as the carbon cycle plays in our lives, it is poorly understood; whether its the way in which carbon ...
more infohttps://serc.carleton.edu/earthlabs/carbon/index.html
  • Using a new method for precisely controlling the deposition of carbon, researchers have demonstrated a technique for connecting multi-walled carbon nanotubes to the metallic pads of integrated circuits without the high interface resistance produced by traditional fabrication techniques. (ecnmag.com)
  • Using this three-dimensional fabrication technique, researchers at the Georgia Institute of Technology developed graphitic nanojoints on both ends of the multi-walled carbon nanotubes, which yielded a 10-fold decrease in resistivity in its connection to metal junctions. (ecnmag.com)
  • The technique could facilitate the integration of carbon nanotubes as interconnects in next-generation integrated circuits that use both silicon and carbon components. (ecnmag.com)
  • For the first time, we have established connections to multiple shells of carbon nanotubes with a technique that is amenable to integration with conventional integrated circuit microfabrication processes," said Andrei Fedorov, a professor in the George W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering at Georgia Tech. "Connecting to multiple shells allows us to dramatically reduce the resistance and move to the next level of device performance. (ecnmag.com)
  • To make it scalable for manufacturing, they also worked toward technologies for isolating and aligning individual carbon nanotubes between the metal terminals on a silicon substrate, and for examining the properties of the resulting structures. (ecnmag.com)
  • The researchers believe the technique could also be used to connect multi-layered graphene to metal contacts, though their published research has so far focused on carbon nanotubes. (ecnmag.com)
  • Unique to the EBID process, the deposited carbon makes a strong, chemically-bonded connection to the ends of the carbon nanotubes, unlike the weakly-coupled physical interface made in traditional techniques based on metal evaporation. (ecnmag.com)
  • Prior to deposition, the ends of the nanotubes are opened using an etching process, so the deposited carbon grows into the open end of the nanotube to electronically connect multiple shells. (ecnmag.com)
  • Atom-by-atom, we can build the connection where the electron beam strikes right near the open end of the carbon nanotubes," Fedorov explained. (ecnmag.com)
  • e open ends of carbon nanotubes on any desired substrate. (ecnmag.com)
  • Multi-walled carbon nanotubes offer the promise of higher information delivery throughput for certain interconnects used in electronic devices. (ecnmag.com)
  • Researchers have envisioned a future generation of hybrid devices based on traditional integrated circuits but using interconnects based on carbon nanotubes. (ecnmag.com)
  • Based on electron beam-induced deposition (EBID), the work is believed to be the first to connect multiple shells of a multi-walled carbon nanotube to metal terminals on a semiconducting substrate, which is relevant to integrated circuit fabrication. (ecnmag.com)
  • The big challenge in this field is to make a connection not just to a single shell of a carbon nanotube," said Fedorov. (ecnmag.com)
  • If only the outer wall of a carbon nanotube is connected, you really don't gain much because most of the transmission channel is under-utilized or not utilized at all. (ecnmag.com)
  • The technique developed by Fedorov and his collaborators produces record low resistivity at the connection between the carbon nanotube and the metal pad. (ecnmag.com)
  • When the secondary electrons interact with hydrocarbon precursor molecules introduced into the SEM chamber, carbon is deposited in desired locations. (ecnmag.com)
  • Thermal annealing of the carbon after deposition converts it to a crystalline graphitic form that significantly improves electrical conductivity. (ecnmag.com)
  • Carbon calculators convert your annual electric bill into a quantifiable amount of CO 2 . (howstuffworks.com)
  • To remain as accessible as possible, most carbon calculators ask very simple questions about consumption. (howstuffworks.com)
  • Until now, however, resistance at the connections between the carbon structures and conventional silicon electronics has been too high to make the devices practical. (ecnmag.com)
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