A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.
A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.
Carbon monoxide (CO). A poisonous colorless, odorless, tasteless gas. It combines with hemoglobin to form carboxyhemoglobin, which has no oxygen carrying capacity. The resultant oxygen deprivation causes headache, dizziness, decreased pulse and respiratory rates, unconsciousness, and death. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
Nanometer-sized tubes composed mainly of CARBON. Such nanotubes are used as probes for high-resolution structural and chemical imaging of biomolecules with ATOMIC FORCE MICROSCOPY.
Toxic asphyxiation due to the displacement of oxygen from oxyhemoglobin by carbon monoxide.
Stable carbon atoms that have the same atomic number as the element carbon, but differ in atomic weight. C-13 is a stable carbon isotope.
A solvent for oils, fats, lacquers, varnishes, rubber waxes, and resins, and a starting material in the manufacturing of organic compounds. Poisoning by inhalation, ingestion or skin absorption is possible and may be fatal. (Merck Index, 11th ed)
Any of several processes for the permanent or long-term artificial or natural capture or removal and storage of carbon dioxide and other forms of carbon, through biological, chemical or physical processes, in a manner that prevents it from being released into the atmosphere.
A colorless, flammable, poisonous liquid, CS2. It is used as a solvent, and is a counterirritant and has local anesthetic properties but is not used as such. It is highly toxic with pronounced CNS, hematologic, and dermatologic effects.
A measure of the total greenhouse gas emissions produced by an individual, organization, event, or product. It is measured in units of equivalent kilograms of CARBON DIOXIDE generated in a given time frame.
Unstable isotopes of carbon that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. C atoms with atomic weights 10, 11, and 14-16 are radioactive carbon isotopes.
An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.
Total mass of all the organisms of a given type and/or in a given area. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990) It includes the yield of vegetative mass produced from any given crop.
A dark powdery deposit of unburned fuel residues, composed mainly of amorphous CARBON and some HYDROCARBONS, that accumulates in chimneys, automobile mufflers and other surfaces exposed to smoke. It is the product of incomplete combustion of carbon-rich organic fuels in low oxygen conditions. It is sometimes called lampblack or carbon black and is used in INK, in rubber tires, and to prepare CARBON NANOTUBES.
The gaseous envelope surrounding a planet or similar body. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
Elimination of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS; PESTICIDES and other waste using living organisms, usually involving intervention of environmental or sanitation engineers.
The unconsolidated mineral or organic matter on the surface of the earth that serves as a natural medium for the growth of land plants.
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
Derivatives of ACETIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxymethane structure.
An allotropic form of carbon that is used in pencils, as a lubricant, and in matches and explosives. It is obtained by mining and its dust can cause lung irritation.
Inorganic compounds that contain carbon as an integral part of the molecule but are not derived from hydrocarbons.
The synthesis by organisms of organic chemical compounds, especially carbohydrates, from carbon dioxide using energy obtained from light rather than from the oxidation of chemical compounds. Photosynthesis comprises two separate processes: the light reactions and the dark reactions. In higher plants; GREEN ALGAE; and CYANOBACTERIA; NADPH and ATP formed by the light reactions drive the dark reactions which result in the fixation of carbon dioxide. (from Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2001)
Cellular processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of CARBOHYDRATES.
A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.
An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.
Woody, usually tall, perennial higher plants (Angiosperms, Gymnosperms, and some Pterophyta) having usually a main stem and numerous branches.
Electric conductors through which electric currents enter or leave a medium, whether it be an electrolytic solution, solid, molten mass, gas, or vacuum.
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
The simplest saturated hydrocarbon. It is a colorless, flammable gas, slightly soluble in water. It is one of the chief constituents of natural gas and is formed in the decomposition of organic matter. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The processes by which organisms use simple inorganic substances such as gaseous or dissolved carbon dioxide and inorganic nitrogen as nutrient sources. Contrasts with heterotrophic processes which make use of organic materials as the nutrient supply source. Autotrophs can be either chemoautotrophs (or chemolithotrophs), largely ARCHAEA and BACTERIA, which also use simple inorganic substances for their metabolic energy reguirements; or photoautotrophs (or photolithotrophs), such as PLANTS and CYANOBACTERIA, which derive their energy from light. Depending on environmental conditions some organisms can switch between different nutritional modes (autotrophy; HETEROTROPHY; chemotrophy; or PHOTOTROPHY) to utilize different sources to meet their nutrient and energy requirements.
A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A mixed function oxidase enzyme which during hemoglobin catabolism catalyzes the degradation of heme to ferrous iron, carbon monoxide and biliverdin in the presence of molecular oxygen and reduced NADPH. The enzyme is induced by metals, particularly cobalt. EC
The generic name for the group of aliphatic hydrocarbons Cn-H2n+2. They are denoted by the suffix -ane. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The salinated water of OCEANS AND SEAS that provides habitat for marine organisms.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the soil. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
A series of oxidative reactions in the breakdown of acetyl units derived from GLUCOSE; FATTY ACIDS; or AMINO ACIDS by means of tricarboxylic acid intermediates. The end products are CARBON DIOXIDE, water, and energy in the form of phosphate bonds.
The pressure that would be exerted by one component of a mixture of gases if it were present alone in a container. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in nature. Some species are pathogenic for humans, animals, and plants.
The complete absence, or (loosely) the paucity, of gaseous or dissolved elemental oxygen in a given place or environment. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
A mass of organic or inorganic solid fragmented material, or the solid fragment itself, that comes from the weathering of rock and is carried by, suspended in, or dropped by air, water, or ice. It refers also to a mass that is accumulated by any other natural agent and that forms in layers on the earth's surface, such as sand, gravel, silt, mud, fill, or loess. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1689)
The effect of GLOBAL WARMING and the resulting increase in world temperatures. The predicted health effects of such long-term climatic change include increased incidence of respiratory, water-borne, and vector-borne diseases.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.
Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.
The study of chemical changes resulting from electrical action and electrical activity resulting from chemical changes.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)
Salts or ions of the theoretical carbonic acid, containing the radical CO2(3-). Carbonates are readily decomposed by acids. The carbonates of the alkali metals are water-soluble; all others are insoluble. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Life or metabolic reactions occurring in an environment containing oxygen.
Oxidoreductases that are specific for ALDEHYDES.
Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A trihydroxy sugar alcohol that is an intermediate in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. It is used as a solvent, emollient, pharmaceutical agent, and sweetening agent.
A broad class of substances containing carbon and its derivatives. Many of these chemicals will frequently contain hydrogen with or without oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, phosphorus, and other elements. They exist in either carbon chain or carbon ring form.
A great expanse of continuous bodies of salt water which together cover more than 70 percent of the earth's surface. Seas may be partially or entirely enclosed by land, and are smaller than the five oceans (Atlantic, Pacific, Indian, Arctic, and Antarctic).
The processes by which organisms utilize organic substances as their nutrient sources. Contrasts with AUTOTROPHIC PROCESSES which make use of simple inorganic substances as the nutrient supply source. Heterotrophs can be either chemoheterotrophs (or chemoorganotrophs) which also require organic substances such as glucose for their primary metabolic energy requirements, or photoheterotrophs (or photoorganotrophs) which derive their primary energy requirements from light. Depending on environmental conditions some organisms can switch between different nutritional modes (AUTOTROPHY; heterotrophy; chemotrophy; or PHOTOTROPHY) to utilize different sources to meet their nutrients and energy requirements.
The first chemical element in the periodic table. It has the atomic symbol H, atomic number 1, and atomic weight [1.00784; 1.00811]. It exists, under normal conditions, as a colorless, odorless, tasteless, diatomic gas. Hydrogen ions are PROTONS. Besides the common H1 isotope, hydrogen exists as the stable isotope DEUTERIUM and the unstable, radioactive isotope TRITIUM.
The use of a heavy ion particle beam for radiotherapy, such as the HEAVY IONS of CARBON.
A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Complex sets of enzymatic reactions connected to each other via their product and substrate metabolites.
The utilization of an electrical current to measure, analyze, or alter chemicals or chemical reactions in solution, cells, or tissues.
An amorphous form of carbon prepared from the incomplete combustion of animal or vegetable matter, e.g., wood. The activated form of charcoal is used in the treatment of poisoning. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
A colorless, flammable liquid used in the manufacture of FORMALDEHYDE and ACETIC ACID, in chemical synthesis, antifreeze, and as a solvent. Ingestion of methanol is toxic and may cause blindness.
The vapor state of matter; nonelastic fluids in which the molecules are in free movement and their mean positions far apart. Gases tend to expand indefinitely, to diffuse and mix readily with other gases, to have definite relations of volume, temperature, and pressure, and to condense or liquefy at low temperatures or under sufficient pressure. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The act of blowing a powder, vapor, or gas into any body cavity for experimental, diagnostic, or therapeutic purposes.
A water-soluble, colorless crystal with an acid taste that is used as a chemical intermediate, in medicine, the manufacture of lacquers, and to make perfume esters. It is also used in foods as a sequestrant, buffer, and a neutralizing agent. (Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed, p1099; McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1851)
Acetyl CoA participates in the biosynthesis of fatty acids and sterols, in the oxidation of fatty acids and in the metabolism of many amino acids. It also acts as a biological acetylating agent.
The amount of a gas taken up, by the pulmonary capillary blood from the alveolar gas, per minute per unit of average pressure of the gradient of the gas across the BLOOD-AIR BARRIER.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
A polyhedral CARBON structure composed of around 60-80 carbon atoms in pentagon and hexagon configuration. They are named after Buckminster Fuller because of structural resemblance to geodesic domes. Fullerenes can be made in high temperature such as arc discharge in an inert atmosphere.
Derivatives of SUCCINIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain a 1,4-carboxy terminated aliphatic structure.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in water. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.
A ubiquitous stress-responsive enzyme that catalyzes the oxidative cleavage of HEME to yield IRON; CARBON MONOXIDE; and BILIVERDIN.
The act of breathing with the LUNGS, consisting of INHALATION, or the taking into the lungs of the ambient air, and of EXHALATION, or the expelling of the modified air which contains more CARBON DIOXIDE than the air taken in (Blakiston's Gould Medical Dictionary, 4th ed.). This does not include tissue respiration (= OXYGEN CONSUMPTION) or cell respiration (= CELL RESPIRATION).
The exchange of OXYGEN and CARBON DIOXIDE between alveolar air and pulmonary capillary blood that occurs across the BLOOD-AIR BARRIER.
Any substance in the air which could, if present in high enough concentration, harm humans, animals, vegetation or material. Substances include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; and volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.
The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Stable nitrogen atoms that have the same atomic number as the element nitrogen, but differ in atomic weight. N-15 is a stable nitrogen isotope.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
The science of developing, caring for, or cultivating forests.
The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
A product of hard secondary xylem composed of CELLULOSE, hemicellulose, and LIGNANS, that is under the bark of trees and shrubs. It is used in construction and as a source of CHARCOAL and many other products.
Product of the oxidation of ethanol and of the destructive distillation of wood. It is used locally, occasionally internally, as a counterirritant and also as a reagent. (Stedman, 26th ed)
A climate which is typical of equatorial and tropical regions, i.e., one with continually high temperatures with considerable precipitation, at least during part of the year. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The adhesion of gases, liquids, or dissolved solids onto a surface. It includes adsorptive phenomena of bacteria and viruses onto surfaces as well. ABSORPTION into the substance may follow but not necessarily.
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
Organic compounds containing the carboxy group (-COOH). This group of compounds includes amino acids and fatty acids. Carboxylic acids can be saturated, unsaturated, or aromatic.
Derivatives of formic acids. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that are formed with a single carbon carboxy group.
An intermediate compound in the metabolism of carbohydrates, proteins, and fats. In thiamine deficiency, its oxidation is retarded and it accumulates in the tissues, especially in nervous structures. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
Free-floating minute organisms that are photosynthetic. The term is non-taxonomic and refers to a lifestyle (energy utilization and motility), rather than a particular type of organism. Most, but not all, are unicellular algae. Important groups include DIATOMS; DINOFLAGELLATES; CYANOBACTERIA; CHLOROPHYTA; HAPTOPHYTA; CRYPTOMONADS; and silicoflagellates.
Alkyl compounds containing a hydroxyl group. They are classified according to relation of the carbon atom: primary alcohols, R-CH2OH; secondary alcohols, R2-CHOH; tertiary alcohols, R3-COH. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
Relating to the size of solids.
A microanalytical technique combining mass spectrometry and gas chromatography for the qualitative as well as quantitative determinations of compounds.
Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
The development and use of techniques to study physical phenomena and construct structures in the nanoscale size range or smaller.
An element that is a member of the chalcogen family. It has an atomic symbol S, atomic number 16, and atomic weight [32.059; 32.076]. It is found in the amino acids cysteine and methionine.
Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in fungi.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
Water containing no significant amounts of salts, such as water from RIVERS and LAKES.
A spectrum of clinical liver diseases ranging from mild biochemical abnormalities to ACUTE LIVER FAILURE, caused by drugs, drug metabolites, and chemicals from the environment.
A clinical manifestation of abnormal increase in the amount of carbon dioxide in arterial blood.
Salts and esters of hydroxybutyric acid.
Experimentally induced chronic injuries to the parenchymal cells in the liver to achieve a model for LIVER CIRRHOSIS.
Measurement of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the blood.
The class of all enzymes catalyzing oxidoreduction reactions. The substrate that is oxidized is regarded as a hydrogen donor. The systematic name is based on donor:acceptor oxidoreductase. The recommended name will be dehydrogenase, wherever this is possible; as an alternative, reductase can be used. Oxidase is only used in cases where O2 is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p9)
Deliberate introduction of air into the peritoneal cavity.
Process by which micro-organisms adapt quickly to a preferred rapidly-metabolizable intermediate through the inhibition or repression of genes related to CATABOLISM of less preferred source(s).
Fractionation of a vaporized sample as a consequence of partition between a mobile gaseous phase and a stationary phase held in a column. Two types are gas-solid chromatography, where the fixed phase is a solid, and gas-liquid, in which the stationary phase is a nonvolatile liquid supported on an inert solid matrix.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.
Particles of any solid substance, generally under 30 microns in size, often noted as PM30. There is special concern with PM1 which can get down to PULMONARY ALVEOLI and induce MACROPHAGE ACTIVATION and PHAGOCYTOSIS leading to FOREIGN BODY REACTION and LUNG DISEASES.
The usually underground portions of a plant that serve as support, store food, and through which water and mineral nutrients enter the plant. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982; Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
Any combustible hydrocarbon deposit formed from the remains of prehistoric organisms. Examples are petroleum, coal, and natural gas.
Inorganic or organic salts and esters of nitric acid. These compounds contain the NO3- radical.
Any of a variety of procedures which use biomolecular probes to measure the presence or concentration of biological molecules, biological structures, microorganisms, etc., by translating a biochemical interaction at the probe surface into a quantifiable physical signal.
That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared range.
A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria isolated from soil and water as well as clinical specimens. Occasionally it is an opportunistic pathogen.
Tools or devices for generating products using the synthetic or chemical conversion capacity of a biological system. They can be classical fermentors, cell culture perfusion systems, or enzyme bioreactors. For production of proteins or enzymes, recombinant microorganisms such as bacteria, mammalian cells, or insect or plant cells are usually chosen.
Processes by which phototrophic organisms use sunlight as their primary energy source. Contrasts with chemotrophic processes which do not depend on light and function in deriving energy from exogenous chemical sources. Photoautotrophy (or photolithotrophy) is the ability to use sunlight as energy to fix inorganic nutrients to be used for other organic requirements. Photoautotrophs include all GREEN PLANTS; GREEN ALGAE; CYANOBACTERIA; and green and PURPLE SULFUR BACTERIA. Photoheterotrophs or photoorganotrophs require a supply of organic nutrients for their organic requirements but use sunlight as their primary energy source; examples include certain PURPLE NONSULFUR BACTERIA. Depending on environmental conditions some organisms can switch between different nutritional modes (AUTOTROPHY; HETEROTROPHY; chemotrophy; or phototrophy) to utilize different sources to meet their nutrients and energy requirements.
Salts or esters of LACTIC ACID containing the general formula CH3CHOHCOOR.
The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.
Any tests done on exhaled air.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The noninvasive measurement or determination of the partial pressure (tension) of oxygen and/or carbon dioxide locally in the capillaries of a tissue by the application to the skin of a special set of electrodes. These electrodes contain photoelectric sensors capable of picking up the specific wavelengths of radiation emitted by oxygenated versus reduced hemoglobin.
An oxidative decarboxylation process that converts GLUCOSE-6-PHOSPHATE to D-ribose-5-phosphate via 6-phosphogluconate. The pentose product is used in the biosynthesis of NUCLEIC ACIDS. The generated energy is stored in the form of NADPH. This pathway is prominent in tissues which are active in the synthesis of FATTY ACIDS and STEROIDS.
Inorganic salts that contain the -HCO3 radical. They are an important factor in determining the pH of the blood and the concentration of bicarbonate ions is regulated by the kidney. Levels in the blood are an index of the alkali reserve or buffering capacity.
Any of a group of polysaccharides of the general formula (C6-H10-O5)n, composed of a long-chain polymer of glucose in the form of amylose and amylopectin. It is the chief storage form of energy reserve (carbohydrates) in plants.
Stable oxygen atoms that have the same atomic number as the element oxygen, but differ in atomic weight. O-17 and 18 are stable oxygen isotopes.
A CHROMATOGRAPHY method using supercritical fluid, usually carbon dioxide under very high pressure (around 73 atmospheres or 1070 psi at room temperature) as the mobile phase. Other solvents are sometimes added as modifiers. This is used both for analytical (SFC) and extraction (SFE) purposes.
The longterm manifestations of WEATHER. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.
Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
The protection, preservation, restoration, and rational use of all resources in the total environment.
The art or process of comparing photometrically the relative intensities of the light in different parts of the spectrum.
A phylum of ARCHAEA comprising at least seven classes: Methanobacteria, Methanococci, Halobacteria (extreme halophiles), Archaeoglobi (sulfate-reducing species), Methanopyri, and the thermophiles: Thermoplasmata, and Thermococci.
Techniques for labeling a substance with a stable or radioactive isotope. It is not used for articles involving labeled substances unless the methods of labeling are substantively discussed. Tracers that may be labeled include chemical substances, cells, or microorganisms.
Gases, fumes, vapors, and odors escaping from the cylinders of a gasoline or diesel internal-combustion engine. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed & Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)

Sodalis gen. nov. and Sodalis glossinidius sp. nov., a microaerophilic secondary endosymbiont of the tsetse fly Glossina morsitans morsitans. (1/5091)

A secondary intracellular symbiotic bacterium was isolated from the haemolymph of the tsetse fly Glossina morsitans morsitans and cultured in Aedes albopictus cell line C6/36. Pure-culture isolation of this bacterium was achieved through the use of solid-phase culture under a microaerobic atmosphere. After isolation of strain M1T, a range of tests was performed to determine the phenotypic properties of this bacterium. Considering the results of these tests, along with the phylogenetic position of this micro-organism, it is proposed that this intracellular symbiont from G. m. morsitans should be classified in a new genus Sodalis gen. nov., as Sodalis glossinidius gen. nov., sp. nov. Strain M1T is the type strain for this new species.  (+info)

Role of a novel photosystem II-associated carbonic anhydrase in photosynthetic carbon assimilation in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. (2/5091)

Intracellular carbonic anhydrases (CA) in aquatic photosynthetic organisms are involved in the CO2-concentrating mechanism (CCM), which helps to overcome CO2 limitation in the environment. In the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, this CCM is initiated and maintained by the pH gradient created across the chloroplast thylakoid membranes by photosystem (PS) II-mediated electron transport. We show here that photosynthesis is stimulated by a novel, intracellular alpha-CA bound to the chloroplast thylakoids. It is associated with PSII on the lumenal side of the thylakoid membranes. We demonstrate that PSII in association with this lumenal CA operates to provide an ample flux of CO2 for carboxylation.  (+info)

Condensation of carbon in radioactive supernova gas. (3/5091)

Chemistry resulting in the formation of large carbon-bearing molecules and dust in the interior of an expanding supernova was explored, and the equations governing their abundances were solved numerically. Carbon dust condenses from initially gaseous carbon and oxygen atoms because energetic electrons produced by radioactivity in the supernova cause dissociation of the carbon monoxide molecules, which would otherwise form and limit the supply of carbon atoms. The resulting free carbon atoms enable carbon dust to grow faster by carbon association than the rate at which the dust can be destroyed by oxidation. The origin of presolar micrometer-sized carbon solids that are found in meteorites is thereby altered.  (+info)

Role of ArgR in activation of the ast operon, encoding enzymes of the arginine succinyltransferase pathway in Salmonella typhimurium. (4/5091)

The ast operon, encoding enzymes of the arginine succinyltransferase (AST) pathway, was cloned from Salmonella typhimurium, and the nucleotide sequence for the upstream flanking region was determined. The control region contains several regulatory consensus sequences, including binding sites for NtrC, cyclic AMP receptor protein (CRP), and ArgR. The results of DNase I footprintings and gel retardation experiments confirm binding of these regulatory proteins to the identified sites. Exogenous arginine induced AST under nitrogen-limiting conditions, and this induction was abolished in an argR derivative. AST was also induced under carbon starvation conditions; this induction required functional CRP as well as functional ArgR. The combined data are consistent with the hypothesis that binding of one or more ArgR molecules to a region between the upstream binding sites for NtrC and CRP and two putative promoters plays a pivotal role in modulating expression of the ast operon in response to nitrogen or carbon limitation.  (+info)

A small catalytic RNA motif with Diels-Alderase activity. (5/5091)

BACKGROUND: The 'RNA world' hypothesis requires that RNA be able to catalyze a wide variety of chemical reactions. In vitro selection from combinatorial RNA libraries has been used to identify several catalytic activities, most of which have resulted in a self-modification of RNA at one of its constituents. The formation of carbon-carbon bonds is considered an essential prerequisite for a complex metabolism based on RNA. RESULTS: We describe the selection and characterization of new ribozymes that catalyze carbon-carbon bond formation by Diels-Alder reaction of a biotinylated maleimide with an RNA-tethered anthracene. Secondary structure analysis identified a 49-nucleotide RNA motif that accelerates the reaction about 20,000-fold. The motif has only 11 conserved nucleotides that are present in most of the selected sequences. The ribozyme motif is remarkably adaptable with respect to cofactor and metal-ion requirements. The motif was also re-engineered to give a 38-mer RNA that can act as a 'true' catalyst on short external substrate oligonucleotide-anthracene conjugates. CONCLUSIONS: We have identified a small, highly abundant RNA motif that can solve the complex task of forming two carbon-carbon bonds between two reactants in trans, a catalytic capacity useful for creating prebiotically relevant molecules. This is the smallest and fastest RNA catalyst for carbon-carbon bond formation reported to date.  (+info)

Number and anatomical extent of lymph node metastases in gastric cancer: analysis using intra-lymph node injection of activated carbon particles (CH40). (6/5091)

BACKGROUND: The long-term survival of 200 patients with gastric cancer who underwent radical gastrectomy was analyzed with respect to the number and anatomical extent of lymph node metastasis. All of the patients received intra-lymph node injection of fine activated carbon particle solution (CH40) during surgery. METHODS: The average number of resected lymph nodes increased in line with the anatomical level of lymph node dissection; 32.5 per patient in D1, 42.3 in D2, 3 and 66.3 in D4. The percentage of blackened lymph nodes without metastasis (42.4%) was slightly higher than that of lymph nodes containing metastasis (37.2%), but the difference was not statistically significant. Of the 200 patients, 61 (30.5%) had microscopic evidence of metastatic lymph node involvement. Twenty-two patients had between one and three metastatic lymph nodes, 19 had between four and nine and 20 patients had more than nine. The 5-year survival rate was 93.1% in patients without lymph node metastasis, 71.9% in patients with 1-8 metastatic nodes, 36.1% in patients with 4-9 nodes and 19.2% in patients with > 9 nodes. RESULTS: The 5-year survival rate according to the anatomical extent of metastatic lymph nodes was 93.1% in n0, 63.1% in n1, 37.9% in n2, 27.8% in n3 and 0% in n4. The number of metastatic lymph nodes and also their anatomical extent were identified as independent prognostic factors for survival by multivariate analysis. CONCLUSION: The number and anatomical extent of metastatic lymph nodes have similar impacts on prognosis in gastric cancer.  (+info)

Acn9 is a novel protein of gluconeogenesis that is located in the mitochondrial intermembrane space. (7/5091)

Previous studies have indicated that the Acn9 protein is involved in gluconeogenesis. Yeast mutants defective in the ACN9 gene display phenotypes identical with mutants defective in metabolic enzymes required for carbon assimilation. These phenotypes include the inability to utilize acetate as a carbon and energy source, elevated levels of enzymes of the glyoxylate cycle, gluconeogenesis and acetyl-CoA mobilization, and a deficiency in de novo synthesis of glucose from ethanol. The ACN9 gene was isolated by functional complementation of the acetate growth defect of an acn9 mutant. The open reading frame corresponds to YDR511w, and encodes a protein of unknown function. Homologs have been identified in human, mouse, and nematode databases. Two mutant alleles were sequenced. The mutations altered amino acid residues that are conserved among members of the new gene family. ACN9 gene expression was slightly repressed by glucose, and the level of the transcript was approximately 100-fold lower than that of glyoxylate or tricarboxylic acid cycle enzymes. A functional epitope-tagged form of Acn9 was expressed to study expression and the subcellular localization of the protein. The tagged protein was localized to the mitochondrial intermembrane space.  (+info)

Carbon assimilation by Claviceps purpurea growing as a parasite. (8/5091)

Carbon assimilation by Claviceps purpurea, growing as a parasite on cereals, has been investigated by supplying the host plant with 14CO2 in a closed system. The presence of the pathogen induced the plant to exude photosynthate which contained high levels of sucrose. During the period of 14CO2 supply, 14C was incorporated into the sucrose and so the path of carbon into the parasite could be traced. Hexoses, derived by the action of the fungal sucrase on sucrose, were assimilated by the pathogen and largely converted into polyols - mainly mannitol and, to a lesser extent, trehalose. The rate of carbohydrate metabolism decreased with maturation of the ergot, and also showed qualitative differences between the basal and apical regions of the ergot which were probably a function of nutrient supply.  (+info)

A transparent amorphous carbon layer is formed. The transparent amorphous carbon layer has a low absorption coefficient such that the amorphous carbon is transparent in visible light. The transparent amorphous carbon layer may be used in semiconductor devices for different purposes. The transparent amorphous carbon layer may be included in a final structure in semiconductor devices. The transparent amorphous carbon layer may also be used as a mask in an etching process during fabrication of semiconductor devices.
Mechanical properties of amorphous carbon films deposited from carbon stable isotope materialsMechanical properties of amorphous carbon films deposited from carbon stable isotope materials ...
Viruses are dependent on the metabolic machinery of the host cell to supply the energy and molecular building blocks needed for their replication. Substantial research has focused on understanding how viruses alter host cellular metabolism in the hopes of identifying metabolic pathways that are critical for successful infection. In this thesis, we explore how two viruses important for biodefense, vaccinia virus (VACV) and dengue virus (DENV), manipulate the global cellular metabolome during infection. In Chapter III, we examine the impact VACV has on the host metabolic network and discover that VACV implements a strikingly unique carbon utilization program during infection. Specifically, we define an important role for glutamine during VACV infection and show that glucose is dispensable for replication. We show that the glutaminolytic pathway of glutamine metabolism is markedly altered in VACV-infected cells and is necessary to replenish the TCA cycle during infection. We further demonstrate ...
Article Breakthrough curves of oil adsorption on novel amorphous carbon thin film. A novel amorphous carbon thin film (ACTF) was prepared by hydrolyzing wood sawdust and delignificating the residue to obtain cellulose mass that was subjected to react...
We studied the structural properties of amorphous carbon covering a wide range of densities from low-density to high-density regime using classical molecular dynamics with reactive empirical bond-order potential model. We calculated the pair-correlation functions, relative concentration of various coordinated atoms, and ring statistics in the amorphous carbon networks and compared them with other results. They agree with each other qualitatively but are different quantitatively. We investigate the difference now and will provide comprehensive understanding at the conference.
carbon fiber round barbuy carbon fiber tubecarbon fiber tubes sizes1 inch carbon fiber tubecarbon fiber tube shopsquare carbon fiber tubecarbon fiber tube fittingscarbon fiber price historySome results are removed in response to a notice of local law requirement. For more information, please see here.12mm Carbon Fiber Round Tube 12x10x400mm Plain Weave Matte (steel) Jul 21, 202012mm Carbon Fiber Round Tube 12x10x400mm Plain Weave Matte Finish These carbon fiber tubes are tightly wound when roll-wrapped for a low resin content 100% carbon fiber continuous tube. These ultra stiff and lightweight tubes make excellent spars or drone arms/gimbal parts. (pipe) matted round carbon fiber tube price (steel) carbon fiber round barbuy carbon fiber tubecarbon fiber tubes sizes1 inch carbon fiber tubecarbon fiber tube shopsquare carbon fiber tubecarbon fiber tube fittingscarbon fiber price historySome results are removed in response to a notice of local law requirement. For more information, please see ...
Nitrogen-free amorphous carbon thin films prepared via sputtering followed by graphitization, were used as precursor materials for the creation of N-doped carbon electrodes with varying degrees of amorphization. Incorporation of N-sites was achieved via nitrogen plasma treatments which resulted in both surface functionalization and amorphization of the carbon electrode materials. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Raman spectroscopy were used to monitor composition and carbon organization: results indicate incorporation of predominantly pyrrolic-N sites after relatively short treatment cycles (5 min or less), accompanied by an initial etching of amorphous regions followed by a slower process of amorphization of graphitized clusters. By leveraging the difference in the rate of these two processes it was possible to investigate the effects of chemical N-sites and C-defect sites on their electrochemical response. The materials were tested as metal-free electrocatalysts in the oxygen reduction
Ducklow, Hugh W (2003): Particulate organic carbon and particulate organic nitrogen data at station TT045_7-13. PANGAEA, https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.115937
Ducklow, Hugh W (2003): Particulate organic carbon and particulate organic nitrogen data at station TT045_2-1. PANGAEA, https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.115917
Recent studies have demonstrated that carbon, in the form of diamond, can be functionalized with molecular and/or biomolecular species to yield interfaces exhibiting extremely high stability and selectivity in binding to target biomolecules in solution. However, diamond and most other crystalline forms of carbon involve high-temperature deposition or processing steps that restrict their ability to be integrated with other materials. Here, we demonstrate that photochemical functionalization of amorphous carbon films followed by covalent immobilization of DNA yields highly stable surfaces with excellent biomolecular recognition properties that can be used for real-time biological detection. Carbon films deposited onto substrates at 300 K were functionalized with organic alkenes bearing protected amine groups and characterized using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The functionalized carbon surfaces were covalently linked to DNA oligonucleotides. Measurements
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Lightweight polymer-carbon composites with high specific electrical conductivity at a carbon content below 40 vol.% were developed. The electrical and mechanical properties and the hydrogen permeability of carbon fiber and particle reinforced liquid crystalline polymers were examined. Vectra® A 950, SIGRAFIL® carbon fibers and Vulcan® 5XC6 72 R carbon black were employed. The composites are found to have sufficient mechanical properties and a hydrogen permeability low enough to be utilised as bipolar plate material in fuel cell applications. The density of the new composite is 20% lower than the density of commercial bipolar plates made from carbon reinforced polymeric composite materials, due to the lower carbon content. The current density at 0.5 V in an operating fuel cell is only 20% lower compared to commercial materials with more than 80 vol.% carbon content and meets the requirements for bipolar plate application ...
One of the greatest benefits of carbon fiber fuselages is strength. Carbon fiber is exceptionally strong - even more so than steel and aluminum. When individual strands of carbon are woven together, they form an ultra-strong mesh-like material, which is carbon fiber. Therefore, fuselages constructed of carbon fiber are able to resist greater physical stress than those made of alternative materials.. Carbon fiber is also lightweight. In fact, it weighs about 40% less than aluminum. When combined with its exceptional strength, the lightweight properties of carbon fiber make it a popular choice for large commercial airplanes.. The downside to carbon fiber is its cost. Carbon fiber costs more than aluminum. This is due to the fact that producing carbon fiber is more laborious. It requires more resources to product than aluminum, resulting in a higher cost.. ...
PhD position in land-sea soil carbon transfer dynamics *Job description* The global carbon cycle represents the collection of complex biogeochemical processes that influence our climate and link all carbon pools on Earth. Soils play a very active and key role in the global carbon cycle, as upon sequestration in marine sediments they act as long-term sink of atmospheric CO2. A large part of organic carbon (OC) stored in soils is continuously mobilized and either returned to the atmosphere or transported by rivers to the oceans. However, little is known about the fate and residence times of soil OC within a river basin. This PhD project will combine organic biomarkers with radiogenic and stable isotopes to study the physical and biological processes that soil OC undergoes during river transport from land to sea, the duration of this transport, as well as the factors that control these processes. The data that are generated in this project should contribute to a better understanding of the role of ...
In order to quantify the role of coastal upwelling regions as source or sink areas for carbon, the relationships between particulate organic carbon (POC) production, export, remineralization, and accumulation were examined in Monterey Bay from 1989 through 1992. During a normal upwelling year (1989-90), a high positive correlation (r = 0.91) is observed between biweekly primary production and POC export at 450 m. Primary production values range from 500 mgC m−2 d−1 during the winter, to 2600 mgC m−2 d−1 in the spring and summer upwelling months. Corresponding deep-water (450 m) POC fluxes vary from a minimum of 10 mgC m−2 d−1 in December, to 120 mgC m−2 d−1 in May. In contrast, the mid-1991 through 1992 data sets obtained during the 91-92 El Nino period, show a relatively poor correlation (r = 0.23) between productivity and carbon export. Calculated ratios of POC export to POC production (defined as e-ratios) display a trend for the three-year data sets in which the e-ratio ...
Frontier Economics was commissioned by BEIS to develop business models to support low carbon hydrogen production.. Our research focusses on incentivising near term investments to deliver largescale low carbon hydrogen production for supply to industry. It covers both green hydrogen (from renewables) and blue hydrogen (from methane reformation).. Based on a literature review, stakeholder consultation and case studies from other sectors, we developed a longlist of business models that could potentially be used. Our assessment of these business models concluded that both contractual payments to producers (e.g. contracts for difference) or regulatory returns models could be designed to deliver low carbon hydrogen production in the 2020s.. We also found that including a split structure in the models (with separate compensation for fixed and variable costs) may be an effective way of managing demand risk for investors, while reducing the risk of excessive costs for taxpayers and consumers.. For more ...
The Renewable Fuel Standard has successfully driven the production and use of low carbon fuels in the U.S. transportation fleet. Corn ethanol has replaced 10 percent of climate change causing petroleum. The RFS was enacted, in part, to drive innovation and the production of low carbon biofuels that reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by at least 50 percent and more than petroleum - so called advanced biofuels.. This White Paper walks through the current state of science as it relates to the lifecycle GHG emissions of corn ethanol and makes recommendations for updating lifecycle modeling which is used to inform low carbon policy decisions. ...
Downloadable! A low carbon fuel standard (LCFS) seeks to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by limiting the carbon intensity of fuels. We show this decreases high carbon fuel production but increases low carbon fuel production, possibly increasing net carbon emissions. The LCFS cannot be efficient, and the best LCFS may be nonbinding. We simulate a national LCFS on gasoline and ethanol. For a broad parameter range, emissions decrease, energy prices increase, abatement costs are large ($80 - $760 billion annually), and average abatement costs are large ($307 - $2,272 per CO2 metric ton). A cost effective policy has much lower average abatement costs ($60 - $868). (JEL Q54, Q58)
Electrically conductive compositions of carbon nparticles having thin coatings of conductive polymer are disclosed. The thin coatings of conductive polymer electrically interact with each carbon particle and protect the carbon particles from conductive failure. Because the conductive compositions of coated carbon particles maintain their conductive characteristics even after long term exposure to chemicals, they are useful as filler materials in polymer compositions utilized to fabricate chemical delivery devices.
D5904-02(2017) Standard Test Method for Total Carbon, Inorganic Carbon, and Organic Carbon in Water by Ultraviolet, Persulfate Oxidation, and Membrane Conductivity Detection inorganic carbon~ total carbon~ organic carbon content~ membrane conductivity detectors~ UV radiation~
In the short-term heterotrophic soil respiration is strongly and positively related to temperature. In the long-term, its response to temperature is uncertain. One reason for this is because in field experiments increases in respiration due to warming are relatively short-lived. The explanations proposed for this ephemeral response include depletion of fast-cycling, soil carbon pools and thermal adaptation of microbial respiration. Using a , 15 year soil warming experiment in a mid-latitude forest, we show that the apparent acclimation of soil respiration at the ecosystem scale results from combined effects of reductions in soil carbon pools and microbial biomass, and thermal adaptation of microbial respiration. Mass-specific respiration rates were lower when seasonal temperatures were higher, suggesting that rate reductions under experimental warming likely occurred through temperature-induced changes in the microbial community. Our results imply that stimulatory effects of global temperature ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Nitrate and nitrite reductions with anaerobic sludge using various carbon sources. T2 - glucose, glycerol, acetic acid, lactic acid and methanol. AU - Akunna, Joseph C.. AU - Bizeau, C.. AU - Moletta, R.. PY - 1993/8. Y1 - 1993/8. N2 - Batch-tests were used to determine the potentials of digested sludge to reduce nitrate and nitrite in the presence of five different carbon sources: glucose, glycerol, acetic acid, lactic acid and methanol. Ammonium accumulation was found in glucose and glycerol media. Dissimilatory reduction to ammonium accounted for up to 50% of reduced nitrate and nitrite. The rest were denitrified. In the media containing these carbon substrates volatile fatty acids, particularly acetic acid, were produced and ammonification was higher than denitrification activities only when glucose and glycerol were still present in the media. Ammonium production was higher in nitrite cultures than in nitrate cultures. In the culture media with acetic and lactic acids and ...
Abstract: River system is a critical linkage between the terrestrial ecosystem and the ocean two major active carbon pools in global carbon cycle. The export and cycle processes of the riverine carbon are closely related to coastal zone environment, dynamics of the ocean carbon pool and the global climate system. Organic carbon plays the key role in the global carbon cycle, and to understand the fluxes and characteristics of the riverine organic carbon is an important subject in present studies of the riverine carbon cycle. The area of the drainage basin and differences in climate and environment markedly impact the export and cycle processes of the riverine carbon. At present, a large number of small rivers and the rivers in monsoonal Asia lack systemic information about biogenic components of riverine suspended matters. The fate and main sources of the riverine carbon are controlled by the processes of terrestrial erosion-deposition. Nowadays, human activities dominate the condition of ...
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EFFECT OF DIFFERENT CARBON SOURCES ON THE GROWTH OF ANTIMICROBIAL PRODUCING Bacillus Species IN Citrillus vugaris., Largest Undergraduate Projects Repository, Research Works and Materials. Download Undergraduate Projects Topics and Materials Accounting, Economics, Education
The overall goal of this study was to investigate influences of ectomycorrhizae (EM) and interspecific carbon transfer on seedling performance in species mixtures. The objectives were to: (I) determine the potential for EM to link paper birch and Douglas-fir, (ii) quantify gross and net interspecific carbon transfer, and (iii) evaluate effect of transfer on seedling performance. A soil bioassay showed that paper birch and Douglas-fir shared seven EM morphotypes in common over 90% of their root tips, indicating potential for hyphal connections. The number and percent colonization of shared morphotypes were greater when species were grown in dual- than monoculture. Reciprocal labelling of paper birch and Douglas-fir with ¹³CO₂[subscript(gas)] and ¹⁴CO₂[subscript(gas)] in laboratory rootboxes and the field resulted in bi-directional transfer, with net gain by Douglas-fir. In rootboxes, gross and net transfer represented 29% and 4% of total isotope assimilated by both species. Net transfer ...
Article Nitrogen deposition effects on carbon storage and fungal:bacterial ratios in coastal sage scrub soils of Southern California. Received for publication August 25, 2008. The effects of nitrogen (N) across a deposition gradient on bacterial and ...
The degradation of organic matter in the deep-sea is a critical microbial process that facilitates global carbon cycling and affects all organisms. Typically, deep-sea microbial communities experience very low organic carbon availability, however, at deep-sea whalefalls these bacteria are provided with organic carbon levels ~2000x greater than usual. This creates an ideal environment in which to examine the metabolism of marine microbes and to further understand carbon cycling on and within the deep-sea floor. Only a handful of papers have investigated marine sediments, thus, we first had to develop a method for measuring enzymatic activity. We focused on proteases, enzymes responsible for the breakdown of proteins, one of a number of organic carbon sources in the environment. Protease activity was measured in marine sediments associated with a whalefall at 1800 meters depth in Monterey Bay, collected at zero, three and ten meters distance. As expected, the highest protease activity was found ...
Terrestrial vegetation and soils hold three times more carbon than the atmosphere. Much debate concerns how anthropogenic activity will perturb these surface reservoirs, potentially exacerbating ongoing changes to the climate system. Uncertainties specifically persist in extrapolating point-source observations to ecosystem-scale budgets and fluxes, which require consideration of vertical and lateral processes on multiple temporal and spatial scales. To explore controls on organic carbon (OC) turnover at the river basin scale, we present radiocarbon (14C) ages on two groups of molecular tracers of plant-derived carbon-leaf-wax lipids and lignin phenols-from a globally distributed suite of rivers. We find significant negative relationships between the 14C age of these biomarkers and mean annual temperature and precipitation. Moreover, riverine biospheric-carbon ages scale proportionally with basin-wide soil carbon turnover times and soil 14C ages, implicating OC cycling within soils as a primary ...
The Low Carbon Eco-Innovatory helps local businesses by creating innovative low carbon goods, processes and services. Read the case studies to find out how we have helped these businesses.
The Gram-positive bacterium Bacillus licheniformis is an important industrial host for the production of enzymes. Genomic DNA arrays and proteomics are being used to investigate the physiology of this bacterium. A genome-wide transcriptional profiling analysis of the adaptation of B. licheniformis to phosphate starvation shows more than 100 induced genes. Most of strongly induced genes belong to the putative Pho regulon. The data of the transcriptome analysis have been verified by the analysis of the extracellular and cytoplasmic proteome. The main response of B. licheniformis to glucose starvation was a switch to the usage of alternative carbon sources. In addition, B. licheniformis seems to be using other organic substances like amino acids and lipids as carbon sources when subjected to glucose starvation. This was indicated by the induction of a high number of genes the proteins of which are involved in amino acid and lipid degradation. During nitrogen starvation genes necessary for the ...
The Gram-positive bacterium Bacillus licheniformis is an important industrial host for the production of enzymes. Genomic DNA arrays and proteomics are being used to investigate the physiology of this bacterium. A genome-wide transcriptional profiling analysis of the adaptation of B. licheniformis to phosphate starvation shows more than 100 induced genes. Most of strongly induced genes belong to the putative Pho regulon. The data of the transcriptome analysis have been verified by the analysis of the extracellular and cytoplasmic proteome. The main response of B. licheniformis to glucose starvation was a switch to the usage of alternative carbon sources. In addition, B. licheniformis seems to be using other organic substances like amino acids and lipids as carbon sources when subjected to glucose starvation. This was indicated by the induction of a high number of genes the proteins of which are involved in amino acid and lipid degradation. During nitrogen starvation genes necessary for the ...
Expression of the Irp gene is regulated in part by the nutrients available to the cell, and is decreased in rich medium, in glucose minimal media enriched with amino acids, and in minimal medium with alternative carbon sources, such as acetate and succinate. When Lrp production is increased in a given medium, expression of its target genes is also increased. However, when the medium is changed from glucose to acetate, the response of the target genes is governed by many factors.
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2-3 Carbon Compounds. Federoff. Carbon Compounds. Organic chemistry - the study of compounds that contain bonds between carbon atoms. The Chemistry of Carbon. Why is carbon special? It has 4 valence (outer) electrons to form strong covalent bonds Slideshow 5772870 by arista
The ocean accounts for over 90% of the active pools of carbon on the Earths surface, with over 95% of marine carbon in the form of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) (Hedges and Keil 1995). Organic carbon dissolved in the ocean, suspended as particles or cells, and accumulating in sediments together constitute the other significant fractions of marine carbon, with organic carbon in the water column similar in quantity to the current atmospheric inventory of carbon dioxide. Isotopic partitioning among various inorganic and organic carbon phases reflects biological, physical and chemical processes, and the resulting fractionations are important tools.... ...
Anti-thrombogenicity and endothelialization are two essential issues in devising blood-contacting medical implants, such as artificial blood vessels and vascular stents [1, 2]. Minimizing the plasma protein adsorption and platelet adhesion has proved beneficial in reducing thrombus formation especially in the initial implantation. Subsequently, rapid endothelialization of implant surfaces may significantly reduce the risk of long-term thrombogenesis and provide a fully hemocompatible interface. Furthermore, native endothelium has unique physiological role of maintaining vascular homeostasis, including the active anti-thrombosis, and the release of soluble factors that contribute to the inhibition of smooth muscle cell proliferation and hence reduce intimal hyperplasia [3, 4]. Rapid regeneration of endothelium is thereby crucial to the success of implantation. Numerous approaches such as natural polymer coating (collagen) [5], surface biomolecule immobilization (heparin) [6], and drug-eluting ...
Carbon Fiber:. Carbon Fiber is a fiber comprising carbon atoms. The diameter of the content is 5 to 10 micrometers. They are vital components of several appliances in the present world. The carbon fibers are a strong material that has a exact high electrical energy. The production takes place by bonding electrons in crystal shape. The alignment of this carbonfiber is the they are put parallel to each other. The crystals arrangement stipulates the carbon stuff a top durability to volume ratio. yamaha r1 carbon fiber can be a crucial application.. ...
During past decades, tremendous attention has been paid to the development of new electrode materials with high capacitance to meet the requirements of electrode materials in supercapacitors. Among various vanadium oxides, recently VO2(A) has received increasing attention as its unique layered structure, pha
On average, the water column of Lake Superior is undersaturated with respect to dissolved oxygen and supersaturated with respect to carbon dioxide during the summer-stratified period. On the basis of temporal changes in water column dissolved oxygen, we calculate rates of oxygen consumption that range from 0.19 to 0.75 mmol m-3 d-1. These rates are a factor of 5-10 times larger than can be supported by the particulate carbon settling rates and benthic oxygen consumption rates. In addition, on the basis of the limited information available, dissolved allochthonous carbon inputs are insufficient to account for the calculated rates of carbon oxidation. Rates of nitrate and total CO2 (ΣCO2) production are 0.019 ± 0.012 and 0.13 ± 0.06 mmol m-3 d-1, respectively, and are consistent with the oxidation of a dissolved organic component that is similar in composition (C : N ratio) to the settling particulate material. Previously published estimates of total primary production were smaller but similar ...
Liquid carbon is applied to the skin as it penetrates deeply into the pores. As laser light is highly attracted to carbon particles, it takes the dead skin cells, contaminants and oil while eradicating the carbon.. As carbon has the capacity to absorb oil and other contaminants that are deep within the pores, youll get its cleansing benefits as the laser passes through the treatment area, taking the carbon particles along with any absorbed impurities from the face. Your skin is exfoliated as the dead skin cells and blackheads are blasted by the laser along with the carbon. This is how you can get finer pores and a more even skin tone.. Not only on the surface, but Carbon Laser also stimulates collagen production as it targets the deep layers of the skin which results into firmer, plumper skin, reduction of fine lines and wrinkles, making you look younger and naturally glowing skin.. Carbon Laser has additional benefits such as the reduction of the bacteria responsible for acne to help you ...
Carbon offsets are reductions in emissions of carbon or greenhouse gases made in order to compensate for or to offset an emission made elsewhere. Carbon offsets are measured in metric tons of carbon dioxide (CO2e) and may represent six primary categories of greenhouse gases.[1] One carbon offset represents the reduction of one metric ton of carbon dioxide or its equivalent in other greenhouse gases. There are two markets for carbon offsets. In the larger, compliance market, companies, governments, or other entities buy carbon offsets in order to comply with caps on the total amount of carbon dioxide they are allowed to emit. In 2006, about $5.5 billion of carbon offsets were purchased in the compliance market, representing about 1.6 billion metric tons of CO2e reductions.[2] In the smaller, voluntary market, individuals, companies, or governments purchase carbon offsets to mitigate their own greenhouse gas emissions from transportation, electricity use, and other sources. For example, an ...
Research shows the low carbon fuel standard can play a major role in meeting B.C.s 2030 and 2050 greenhouse gas targets, especially for freight.. Since its working so well, were calling on the B.C. government to put the standard in place for a longer period of time and strengthen it further. How? Were asking for legislative and regulatory amendments to set annual requirements to meet the 2030 target of 20 per cent below 2010 emissions.. The B.C. government has dragged its feet on ramping up the target and may miss the carbon emission reductions projected in its climate plan. By committing to an ambitious target, B.C. can create a stable market signal that will attract capital-intensive investments in new production capacity. B.C. cant afford to miss out on one of the big-and most effective-tools to clean up its act.. ...
Section 1 The target for 2050 (1) It is the duty of the Secretary of State to ensure that the net UK carbon account for the year 2050 is at least 80% lower than the 1990 baseline. (2) The 1990 baseline means the aggregate amount of- (a) net UK emissions of carbon dioxide for that year, and (b )net UK emissions of each of the other targeted greenhouse gases for the year that is the base year for that gas. … Section 4 Carbon budgets (1) It is the duty of the Secretary of State- (a)to set for each succeeding period of five years beginning with the period 2008-2012 (budgetary periods) an amount for the net UK carbon account (the carbon budget), and (b to ensure that the net UK carbon account for a budgetary period does not exceed the carbon budget. (2)The carbon budget for a budgetary period may be set at any time after this Part comes into force, and must be set- (a) for the periods 2008-2012, 2013-2017 and 2018-2022, before 1st June 2009; (b) for any later period, not later than 30th June ...
Section 1 The target for 2050 (1) It is the duty of the Secretary of State to ensure that the net UK carbon account for the year 2050 is at least 80% lower than the 1990 baseline. (2) The 1990 baseline means the aggregate amount of- (a) net UK emissions of carbon dioxide for that year, and (b )net UK emissions of each of the other targeted greenhouse gases for the year that is the base year for that gas. … Section 4 Carbon budgets (1) It is the duty of the Secretary of State- (a)to set for each succeeding period of five years beginning with the period 2008-2012 (budgetary periods) an amount for the net UK carbon account (the carbon budget), and (b to ensure that the net UK carbon account for a budgetary period does not exceed the carbon budget. (2)The carbon budget for a budgetary period may be set at any time after this Part comes into force, and must be set- (a) for the periods 2008-2012, 2013-2017 and 2018-2022, before 1st June 2009; (b) for any later period, not later than 30th June ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Pigments, photosynthesis and photoinhibition in two amphibious plants. T2 - consequences of varying carbon availability. AU - Nielsen, Søren Laurentius. AU - Nielsen, Hanne Dalsgaard. PY - 2006. Y1 - 2006. U2 - 10.1111/j.1469-8137.2006.01670.x. DO - 10.1111/j.1469-8137.2006.01670.x. M3 - Journal article. VL - 170. SP - 311. EP - 319. JO - New Phytologist. JF - New Phytologist. SN - 0028-646X. ER - ...
Background: Accurate tumor localization is critical to performing laparoscopic colectomy which is lack of tactile sensation. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility and safety of using carbon nanoparticles to localize non-palpable tumor for laparoscopic colectomy, compared with intra-operative colonoscopy.. Methods: A prospective study was performed between July 2012 and September 2015. Inclusion criteria included T1-3 colon cancer, big adenoma or polyp unsuitable for endoscopic resection, multiple colorectal tumors, and cancer complete or partial response after neoadjuvant therapy. Exclusion criteria included T4 colon cancer, planned local excision, previous abdominal surgery, and emergency case with bleeding or obstruction or perforation. Sixty patients were enrolled in this study and divided into carbon nanoparticles group (30 cases) and intra-operative colonoscopy group (30 cases). One milliliter carbon nanoparticles suspension, which is approved by Chinese Food and Drug ...
Effects of the antimicrobial agent triclosan to natural periphyton communities (biofilms, comprising primarily microalgae and bacteria) were assessed in two independent experiments during spring and summer. For that purpose a semi-static test system was used in which periphyton was exposed to a concentration range of 5 - 9 054 nmol/L triclosan. Effects on algae were analyzed as content and composition of photosynthetic pigments. The corresponding EC50 values were 39.25 and 302.45 nmol/L for the spring and summer experiment respectively. Effects on periphytic bacteria were assessed as effects on carbon utilization patterns, using Biolog Ecoplates. No inhibition of either total carbon utilization or functional diversity was observed, indicating a pronounced triclosan tolerance of the marine bacteria. In contrast, a small stimulation of the total carbon utilization was observed at triclosan concentrations exceeding 100 nmol/L.
Kipka, U. and Di Toro, D. M. (2011), A linear solvation energy relationship model of organic chemical partitioning to particulate organic carbon in soils and sediments. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 30: 2013-2022. doi: 10.1002/etc.611 ...
Oakes, JM and Ross, DJ and Eyre, BD (2013) Processing of Particulate Organic Carbon Associated with Secondary-Treated Pulp and Paper Mill Effluent in Intertidal Sediments: A 13C Pulse-chase Experiment. Environmental Science and Technology, 47 (23). pp. 13258-13265. ISSN 1520-5851 ...
Lakes are a source of methane, an important greenhouse gas in the atmosphere. In order to understand increasing methane emissions in the present, it is important to study the variations of methane release during past periods of climate change. However, records of methane release from lakes over time scales longer ... read more than a few years are extremely rare. In this thesis a method is explored to reconstruct past methane availability in lakes based on the stable carbon isotope composition (delta 13C) of aquatic invertebrate remains. Methane-derived 13C-depleted carbon can be an alternative carbon source to plant-derived material for invertebrates in the sediment and water column of lakes, that can lead to markedly depleted delta 13C values in invertebrate tissues. Using culturing experiments, it was demonstrated that methane-derived carbon is incorporated into chironomid head capsules. Also, it was shown that chemical pre-treatments that are commonly used for sediment processing do not have ...
The giant 2011 Tohoku-oki earthquake has been inferred to remobilise fine-grained, young surface sediment enriched in organic matter from the slope into the |7 km deep Japan Trench. Yet, this hypothesis and assessment of its significance for the carbon cycle has been hindered by limited data density and resolution in the hadal zone. Here we combine new high-resolution bathymetry data with sub-bottom profiler images and sediment cores taken during 2012-2016 in order to map for the first time the spatial extent of the earthquake-triggered event deposit along the hadal Japan Trench. We quantify a sediment volume of ~0.2 km3 deposited from spatially-widespread remobilisation of young surficial seafloor slope sediments triggered by the 2011 earthquake and its aftershock sequence. The mapped volume and organic carbon content in sediment cores encompassing the 2011 event reveals that this single tectonic event delivered |1 Tg of organic carbon to the hadal trench. This carbon supply is comparable to high
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Arctic warming is projected to continue throughout the coming century. Yet, our currently limited understanding of the Arctic Ocean carbon cycle hinders our ability to predict how changing conditions will affect local Arctic ecosystems, regional carbon budgets, and global climate. We present here the first set of concurrent, full-depth, dual-isotope profiles for dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), dissolved organic carbon (DOC), and suspended particulate organic carbon (POCsusp) at two sites in the Canada Basin of the Arctic Ocean. The carbon isotope composition of sinking and suspended POC in the Arctic contrasts strongly with open ocean Atlantic and Pacific sites, pointing to a combination of inputs to Arctic POCsusp at depth, including surface-derived organic carbon (OC), sorbed/advected OC, and OC derived from in situ DIC fixation. The latter process appears to be particularly important at intermediate depths, where mass balance calculations suggest that OC derived from in situ DIC fixation ...
Amorphous carbon nanosphere used as the anode material for Li-intercalation in Lithium-ion energy storage. This structure was obtained through a thermal annealing process at a temperature of 3000 degree Kelvin, simulated using the LAMMPS molecular dynamics code on the LCRC Fusion resource ...
Most soil surveys are based on soil geomorphic, physical and chemical properties, while many classifications are based on morphological properties in soil profile. Typically, microbial properties of the soil(e.g. biomass and functional diversity) or soil biological quality indicators (SBQIs) are not directly considered in soil taxonomic keys, yet soil classification schemes are often used to infer soil biological function relating to policy (e.g. soil pollution attenuation, climate change mitigation). To critically address this, our aimwas to assess whether rates of carbon turnover in a diverse range of UK soils (n , 500) could effectively be described and sub-divided according to broadly defined soil groups by conventional soil classification schemes. Carbon turnover in each soil over a 90 d period was assessed by monitoring the mineralisation of either a labile (14C-labelled artificial root exudates) or more recalcitrant C source (14C-labelled plant leaves) in soil held at field capacity at 10 ...
In understanding the global carbon cycle, black carbon - decay-resistant carbon molecules altered by exposure to fire or combustion - has long been presumed to originate on land and work its way to the ocean via rivers and streams. An unexpected finding published today in Nature Communications challenges that long-held assumption and introduces a tantalizing new mystery: If oceanic black carbon is significantly different from the black carbon found in rivers, where did it come from? The signature of oceanic dissolved black carbon is very different from that of riverine dissolved black carbon, raising a host of fundamental questions, said Sasha Wagner, a Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute assistant professor of earth and environmental sciences and lead author of the research. Are there other sources of dissolved black carbon? Is it being degraded away in rivers, sequestered in sediments, or altered beyond recognition before it reaches the open ocean? Is what weve measured actually ...
This dataset represents a literature compilation of carbon isotope data of four terrestrial organic carbon pools, (1) litter and organic layers in northern Russia, Scandinavia, Canada and Alaska (¹³C and ¹⁴C); (2) mineral active layers and non-permafrost soils in Siberia (¹³C and ¹⁴C); (3) exposures of Holocene peat and thermokarst deposits in Siberia (¹⁴C); (4) exposures of Ice Complex deposits in Siberia (¹⁴C). The dataset has been used to quantify the contribution of carbon from different sources to dissolved and particulate organic carbon in large Siberian rivers using statistical source apportionment.
Urban areas account for more than 70% of CO2 emissions from burning fossil fuels. Urban expansion in tropics is responsible for 5% of the annual emissions from land use change. Here, I show that the effect of urbanization on the global carbon cycle extends beyond these emissions. I quantify the contribution of urbanization to the major carbon fluxes and pools globally and identify gaps crucial for predicting the evolution of the carbon cycle in the future. Urban residents currently control ~22 (12-40)% of the land carbon uptake (112 PgC/yr) and ~24 (15-39)% of the carbon emissions (117 PgC/year) from land globally. Urbanization resulted in the creation of new carbon pools on land such as buildings (~6.7 PgC) and landfills (~30 PgC). Together these pools store 1.6 (±0.3)% of the total vegetation and soil carbon pools globally. The creation and maintenance of these new pools has been associated with high emissions of CO2, which are currently better understood than the processes associated with the
We analyzed microbial respiration and ecoenzyme activities related to organic matter processing in 1879 streams and rivers across the continental US as part of the USEPAs 2008-2009 National Rivers and Streams Assessment. Ecoenzymatic stoichiometry was used to construct models for carbon use efficiency (CUE) and decomposition (-k). The streams and rivers were classified by size (headwaters: 1st-order; streams: 2nd-3rd order; small rivers: 4th-5th order; big rivers 6th-7th order; and great rivers , 8th order), and were grouped into nine national ecoregions. The streams and their catchments represented gradients in catchment land cover, channel sediments, and sediment chemistry against which microbial respiration, carbon use efficiency and organic matter decomposition were compared. There were significant ecoregion and stream size effects in the unbalanced, nested analysis of variance of the microbial variables, with organic matter decomposition and modeled microbial respiration increasing from ...
Free-living cells of the fast-growing cowpea Rhizobium NGR234 were able to grow on a variety of carbon substrates at growth rates varying from 2.5 h on glucose or fumarate to 15.6 h on p-hydroxybenzoate. Free-living cells constitutively oxidized glucose, glutamate and aspartate but were inducible for all the other systems investigated. Bacteroids from root nodules of snake bean, however, were only capable of oxidizing C4-dicarboxylic acids and failed to oxidize any other carbon sources. Free-living cells of NGR234 possess inducible fructose and succinate uptake systems. These substrates are accumulated by active processes since accumulation is in hi bi ted by azide, 2,4-dini trop hen01 and carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenyl hydrazone. Bacteroids failed to take up fructose although they actively accumulated succinate, suggesting that the latter substrate is significant in the development of an effective symbiosis.. ...
The solid-state method enables the large-scale production of MWNTs in moldable solid forms, films, and fibers using low-cost precursors and equipment, thereby reducing economic barriers that are inherent with carbon nanotube materials produced by more conventional methods, such as CVD. Following carbonization, the shaped carbon solids are composed of varying amounts of nanotubes and amorphous carbon, depending on such synthetic parameters as the metal catalyst concentration, carbonization temperature, and the specific organic precursors used. The amorphous carbon phase is readily removed via selective combustion at temperatures from 300-500 C, producing highly porous, purified CNT solids with specific surface areas up to 500 m2 g-1. This highly flexible synthetic method also offers the ability to incorporate heteroatoms, for example nitrogen, oxygen, and/or boron, into the carbon nanotube solid via the initial carbon precursors ...
The majority of the Earths terrestrial carbon is stored in the soil. If anthropogenic warming stimulates the loss of this carbon to the atmosphere, it could drive further planetary warming. Despite evidence that warming enhances carbon fluxes to and from the soil, the net global balance between these responses remains ... read more uncertain. Here we present a comprehensive analysis of warming-induced changes in soil carbon stocks by assembling data from 49 field experiments located across North America, Europe and Asia. We find that the effects of warming are contingent on the size of the initial soil carbon stock, with considerable losses occurring in high-latitude areas. By extrapolating this empirical relationship to the global scale, we provide estimates of soil carbon sensitivity to warming that may help to constrain Earth system model projections. Our empirical relationship suggests that global soil carbon stocks in the upper soil horizons will fall by 30 ± 30 petagrams of carbon to 203 ...
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Chuiko Institute of Surface Chemistry of NAS of Ukraine in cooperation with Kalush Experimental Plant developed the technology for production of modified dispersed silicas with high carbon content in the chemisorbed layer.. Advantages:. - High dispersity. - Uniform structure. - Chemical homogeneity. Product can be used for gelation, stabilization of suspensions and emulsions, capsulation of biologically active objects or substances: as filler for polymers, oils, and other organic or organosilicon media: as anti-caking agent for dry mixtures, corn, seeds.. Patent for utility model. No 92772 U Ukraine, МПК CO8G 12/00 CO9D5/00 (2014.01) A method to form grafted modifying layer with high carbon content on the surface of highly dispersed silicas / Iu.M. Bolbukh, R.B. Kozakevych, V.A. Tertykh, I.S. Protsak; Chuiko Institute of Surface Chemistry-applicant and patent owner - No u 201313560, appl. 21.11.2013; publ. 10.09.2014, Bul. No17, 2014. Product characteristics:. - Specific surface-100-200 ...
0058] As used herein, the term alliform carbon particles refers to substantially spherical or quasi-spherical carbon nanoparticles comprising at least one concentric external graphitic shell, but generally more than one such external shell, resembling the concentric shells of an onion (the term alliform derived from allium meaning onion). In fact, particles described as carbon onions or onion-like carbon particles, in many respects, are related to these alliform carbon particles, but these terms are normally associated with particles having multiple concentric shells. The external graphitic shell or shells of alliform carbon have surfaces wherein at least 25%, or at least 50%, or at least 75% of their area comprise sp2 carbon. The term substantially spherical relates to the shape being without near-sized appendages (i.e., having appendages such as carbon nanotubes) which substantially interfere with their ability to organize into packed matrices. To the extent that a given particle ...
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UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon (front row 2nd L), listens to an explanation about a model of a low carbon airport as he visits the China National Low Carbon Day Exhibition at the Capital Museum in Beijing on June 20.
Sediment samples collected from polluted (Augusta Bay) and pristine regions of the Eastern Mediterranean Sea (South Ionian Sea, Thracian Sea) were analyzed for black carbon, aliphatic hydrocarbons and phospholipid ester-linked fatty acids (PLFA). The aim of the study was to investigate the anthropogenic and biogenic inputs into the Eastern Mediterranean Sea and to evaluate the effects of refractory organic matter (e.g. black carbon) and the level of hydrocarbon contamination on benthic microbial community composition. Black carbon, generally considered to be chemically and biologically inert, comprised a significant but highly variable fraction of the sedimentary carbon pool in the analyzed sediments with a ratio to total organic carbon ranging from 0.02 to 0.66. Principal component analysis of the chemical characteristics of the sediments (organic carbon content, black carbon, bioavailable organic carbon, chlorophyll a, phaeopigments, aliphatic hydrocarbons) revealed clustering of samples along a
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Underappreciated player in carbon storage should be included in global change models, researcher says. Elevated levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide accelerate carbon cycling and soil carbon loss in forests, new research led by an Indiana University biologist has found.. The new evidence supports an emerging view that although forests remove a substantial amount of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere, much of the carbon is being stored in living woody biomass rather than as dead organic matter in soils.. Richard P. Phillips, lead author on the paper and an assistant professor of biology in the IU College of Arts and Sciences, said that after nearly two decades of research on forest ecosystem responses to global change, some of the uncertainty has been lifted about how forests are storing carbon in the wake of rising carbon dioxide levels.. Its been suggested that as trees take up more carbon dioxide from the atmosphere, a greater amount of carbon will go to roots and fungi to acquire nutrients, ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Highly Active Oxygen Evolution on Carbon Fiber Paper Coated with Atomic-Layer-Deposited Cobalt Oxide. AU - Choi, Hyung Jong. AU - Han, Gwon Deok. AU - Bae, Kiho. AU - Shim, Joon Hyung. N1 - Funding Information: This research was supported by the Nano Material Technology Development Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Science and ICT (no. 2018M3A7B8061661) and by the Korea Ministry of Environment (MOE) through the Public Technology Program based on Environmental Policy (grant no. E416-00070-0604-0).. PY - 2019/3/20. Y1 - 2019/3/20. N2 - In this work, we evaluated the oxygen evolution performance of cobalt oxide (CoO x )-coated carbon fiber paper in electrochemical water splitting. For a uniform coating of CoO x layers along the carbon fiber paper, the atomic layer deposition (ALD) technique was applied. We achieved a uniform and conformal coating of atomic-layer-deposited CoO x (ALD-CoO x ) on the carbon fiber paper. The ...
Brillouin scattering is a type of Raman scattering in which the difference frequency Ao) = Wphonon = (®inc ~ «»seal) corresponds to the acoustic branch of the phonon dispersion curves, with frequencies in the gigahertz (xlOHz) range, as was explained in Section 3.4.1. The negative and positive signs in the expression above for ®phonon correspond to Stokes and anti-Stokes lines, respectively.. Brillouin scattering has been used to study carbon films, and Fig. 8.21 compares the spectra of thick and thin films. The Ihick-film result (a) provides a bulk material response, namely, a strong central peak at zero frequency about 10 GHz wide, and a broad peak near 17 GHz attributed to longitudinal acoustic (LA) phonons. This latter frequency is consistent with the elastic moduli of carbon, which are measures of the stretching capability of solid carbon and its chemical bonds. The dotted line experimental spectrum of the 100 nm thick film at the top of Fig. 8.21b exhibits three peaks which come at ...
Few studies have quantified the role of in-stream processes on net dissolved and particulate organic carbon (DOC and POC, respectively) export from peatland catchments, and those that have offer conflicting evidence. In this study, we evaluated evidence for active organic matter processing under field conditions, via a coordinated campaign across four UK catchments with peatland headwaters, targeted on potential hotspots and hot moments of physico-chemical carbon cycling. We hypothesised that specific hotspots and hot moments would occur where waters enriched with DOC and POC sourced from headwaters are exposed to: i) mixing with freshwaters of different pH, conductivity and metal concentrations; and ii) mixing with seawater during autumn when DOC concentrations were at their highest. We observed instances of POC removal in headwaters, and potential for rapid conversion between dissolved and particulate carbon forms and for net removal of peat-derived carbon at confluences further downstream ...
To keep things as clear as possible this analysis has only looked at cumulative emissions. The limitation of this approach is that it doesnt tell us much about the annual rates of carbon emission and sink absorption.. The high level story is pretty simple. Human kind is emitting more and more carbon dioxide, as falling land-use emissions are dwarfed by emissions from our growing use of fossil fuels. In reaction to increased emission rates and growing atmospheric concentrations both land and ocean sinks are absorbing more carbon dioxide. The Global Carbon Budget has an excellent summary of this.. Despite the fact that sinks are absorbing more CO2 the atmospheric concentration is growing at a faster rate than ever. In the decade from 2000-2009 the atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide grew at an average rate of 2.0 ppm/yr, higher than any previous decade measured. To reduce this growth rate global carbon emissions need to decline. To stop concentrations growing at all would require an ...
At the present time, carbon fiber tanks are very expensive, with the high pressure vessel industry standard Toray T700 carbon fiber costing between $20 and $50 per kilogram alone. At this high price, the carbon fiber currently comprises as much as 75% of the overall tank cost and is a major roadblock on the path to commercialization. To make hydrogen fuel cells in early market and light-duty vehicles commercially viable, the cost of carbon fiber or the amount of carbon fiber used must be significantly reduced. One effective way to lower the weight, thus decreasing the carbon fiber usage and lowering the cost, of a CFRP tank is to improve the mechanical properties of the CFRP composite resin matrix using nano-reinforcement. Using the resin matrix itself as a source of composite strength, along with the carbon fiber reinforcement, results in a tank that requires less carbon fiber material. This solution decreases the weight of the tank while preserving or even increasing its performance. The ...
Some mechanisms of diversification involve ecological interactions exhibited as frequency-dependence [11]. This includes niche creation [11, 12] and frequency-dependent coexistence due to cross-feeding, where the cross-feeder organism is maintained in balance with the producer [59], or through cannibalism of one or the other coexisting type [28]. Another frequency-dependent scenario is when two or more resources in a system result in specialization of different bacteria on different resources in the same environment [11, 60]. None of these ecological scenarios are readily extended to the current studies. Cross-feeding and cannibalism do not appear to have evolved in the chemostats, probably because the time-scale is relatively short. None of the sequenced mutations hint at cross-feeding, such as the acs mutation noted in [8]. There is no evidence for multiple resources, multiple niches or mutations enhancing uptake or regulation of alternative carbon sources besides glucose. Nevertheless, ...
Mintenbeck, K. , Brey, T. , Jacob, U. , Knust, R. and Struck, U. (2008): How to account for the lipid effect on carbon stable isotope ratio (d13C) - sample treatment effects and model bias , Journal of Fish Biology ...
Canadas forest carbon reporting system is called the National Forest Carbon Monitoring, Accounting and Reporting System (NFCMARS). Its purpose is to estimate forest carbon stocks, changes in carbon stocks, and emissions of non-CO2 greenhouse gases in Canadas managed forests. NFCMARS is designed to estimate past changes in forest carbon stocks-i.e., from 1990 to the present (monitoring)-and to predict, based on scenarios of future disturbance rates and management actions, changes in carbon stocks in the next two to three decades (projection).. The system integrates information-such as forest inventories, temporary and permanent sample plots, statistics on fires and insects, and systems quantifying forest growth and yield-into a modeling framework incorporating the best available information and scientific understanding of the ecological processes involved in forest carbon cycling.. The national forest carbon monitoring, accounting and reporting system. ...
Aca1 and Aca2, ATF/CREB activators in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, are important for carbon source utilization but not the response to stress. is an eagle-i resource of type Journal article at Harvard University.
A new catalyst for breaking the tough molecular bond between carbon and hydrogen holds the promise of a cleaner, easier, cheaper way to derive products from petroleum, say researchers at Southern Methodist University, Dallas, and the Johns Hopkins University. Simple, plentiful hydrocarbons are the starting block for complex chemical products such as plastics and pharmaceuticals. The first step, however, is very, very difficult -- breaking the carbon-hydrogen bond. A new au naturel catalyst mimics nature to break the tenacious C-H bond.
We measured the δ13C of assimilated carbon (foliage organic matter (δCOM), soluble carbohydrates (δCSC), and waxes (δCW)) and respiratory carbon (foliage (δCFR), soil (δCSR) and ecosystem 13CO2 (δCER)) for two years at adjacent ecosystems in the southeastern U.S.: a regenerated 32 m tall mature Pinus palustris forest, and a mid-rotation 13 m tall Pinus elliottii stand. Carbon pools and foliage respiration in P. palustris were isotopically enriched by 2‰ relative to P. elliottii. Despite this enrichment, mean δCER values of the two sites were nearly identical. No temporal trends were apparent in δCSC, δCFR, δCSR and δCER. In contrast, δCOM and δCW at both sites declined by approximately 2‰ over the study. This appears to reflect the adjustment in the δ13C of carbon storage reserves used for biosynthesis as the trees recovered from a severe drought prior to our study. Unexpectedly, the rate of δ13C decrease in the secondary C32-36 n-alkanoic acid wax molecular cluster was twice ...
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An amorphous metal-free N-doped carbon film prepared by sputtering and annealing exhibits comparable electrocatalytic activity and superior stability and methanol tolerance to the commercial Pt/C catalyst via a four-electron pathway for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). Pyridinic nitrogen in films plays a key
We discuss the major mass spectral features of different types of refractory carbonaceous particles, ionized after laser vaporization with an Aerodyne high-resolution soot-particle aerosol mass spectrometer (SP-AMS). The SP-AMS was operated with a switchable 1064 nm laser and a 600 C thermal vaporizer, yielding respective measurements of the refractory and non-refractory particle components. Six samples were investigated, all of which were composed primarily of refractory material: fuel-rich and fuel-lean propane/air diffusion-flame combustion particles; graphite-spark-generated particles; a commercial fullerene-enriched soot; Regal Black, a commercial carbon black; and nascent aircraft-turbine combustion particles. All samples exhibited a spectrum of carbon-cluster ions Cx n+ in their refractory mass spectrum. Smaller clusters (x Mass spectrometry of refractory black carbon particles from six sources: carbon-cluster and oxygenated ions=10.5194/acp-14-2591-2014=lt; 6) were found to dominate the ...
Last month, I reviewed the Tyndall Center report on Chinas Energy Transition: Pathways for Low Carbon Development and expressed three specific concerns. Since then, Ive had an opportunity to exchange emails with Dr. Wang Tao (pictured right), one of the co-authors of the report. He has taken time to address my questions and has graciously agreed to have his explanations posted here.. Here are the concerns I raised on my last post, rephrased for clarity, and Dr. Wangs responses.. 1. In choosing a global carbon budget for the reports scenario analysis, a target of 450 ppm of carbon dioxide, which translates to roughly 550 ppm carbon dioxide equivalent, is used. Is 550ppm CO2e a safe target, especially considering what we know about negative feedback loops and runaway climate change?. No. As many already know, climate change is already happening and there have been many arguments about what is a relatively safe level of carbon concentration to avoid dangerous climate change impacts. The ...
One of the most common questions asked by the consumer is how much carbon? with the perception that more is better. That is far from the truth, so to shed a little light.. Firstly the quality of carbon (manufacturing point) is important. Toray (Japanese) Carbon is often considered the best, but Carbon from Germany, Scotland and South Africa (to name a few) are all high-quality. Sticks are usually made in Pakistan and most major brands will import Carbon into Pakistan to make sticks. Locally sourced carbon is not usually as good. But it is difficult to know if a brand uses imported carbon. All Mercian carbon fibre is imported.. The number of filaments in the carbon fibre is relevant, 1K, 3K etc relate to the number of filaments of pure carbon within a fibre or tow. 1K is used in aeronautical industry and electronics. 3K and 6K are commonly used in sport as they have the right combination of weight and strength. Anything over 6K is very dense and too heavy for sports equipment.. Carbon fibres ...
Is considered to be a strong link between the three Rio conventions as it simultaneously addresses climate change, desertification and biodiversity. Read more about the global carbon cycle, climate change, soil organic carbon and our options and prospects to mange this carbon pool by biochar carbon sequestration., Banance Carbon and Restore Soil Fertility
Benzene and heterocycle linked through a non-carbon[edit]. *Olanzapine. References[edit]. *^ Benzhydryl+Compounds at the US ... Benzenes linked by a non-carbon atom[edit]. *Nitrogen: promethazine, imipramine, acepromazine, chlorpromazine, fluphenazine, ...
Woven carbon[edit]. There is a technology of processing technical rayon fiber into activated carbon cloth for carbon filtering ... Carbon tetrachloride activity[edit]. Measurement of the porosity of an activated carbon by the adsorption of saturated carbon ... Extruded activated carbon (EAC)[edit]. Extruded activated carbon (EAC) combines powdered activated carbon with a binder, which ... Polymer coated carbon[edit]. This is a process by which a porous carbon can be coated with a biocompatible polymer to give a ...
Burning produces carbon dioxide, airborne carbon particulates, carbon monoxide and nitrous oxides.[73] The WHO estimates 3.7 ... Biofuels are in theory carbon-neutral because the carbon dioxide that is absorbed by the plants is equal to the carbon dioxide ... Forests and Carbon Sequestration[edit]. Scientific research (20th century) shows that carbon dioxide emissions from all forms ... Biomass is a wide-ranging term meaning any source of organic carbon that is renewed rapidly as part of the carbon cycle. ...
Carbon fibre also allows for a smaller diameter rod that is more sensitive than a glass fibre rod.[9] A carbon fibre rod is ... Carbon fibre is less flexible (stiffer) than glass fibre and more brittle and prone to breakage when misused,[11] while carbon ... Carbon fibre rods[edit]. This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to ... Like the carbon rods mentioned above this allows for "very precise positioning of the fly of which the which in turn enables ...
Carbon fiber. Carbon fibers are often based on oxidized and via pyrolysis carbonized polymers like PAN, but the end product is ... Carbon fibers and PF fibers are noted as two resin-based fibers that are not thermoplastic, most others can be melted. ... acrylic polyesters, pure polyester PAN fibers are used to make carbon fiber by roasting them in a low oxygen environment. ... Silicon carbide fibers, where the basic polymers are not hydrocarbons but polymers, where about 50% of the carbon atoms are ...
Carbon dioxide production[edit]. About 19.64 pounds (8.91 kg) of carbon dioxide (CO2) are produced from burning 1 U.S. gallon ( ... "How much carbon dioxide is produced by burning gasoline and diesel fuel?". U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA). ... Combustion of 1 U.S. gallon (3.8 L) of gasoline produces 8.74 kilograms (19.3 lb) of carbon dioxide (2.3 kg/l), a greenhouse ... The presence of these oxygenates reduces the amount of carbon monoxide and unburned fuel in the exhaust. In many areas ...
Carbon neutrality[edit]. In 2019 Finland's government is committed to carbon neutrality by 2035 and to become carbon negative ... According to WWF carbon sequestration is equally important to decrease the carbon emissions. In 2018, WWF recommended increased ... Uniper carbon dioxide emissions in 2018 were 59.5 million tons. [31] Coal and peat[edit]. See also: Peat energy in Finland, ... Carbon leakage[edit]. Uniper and Datteln is an example how national CO2 -emission data is distorted. Transparency would demand ...
Carbon monoxide poisoning[edit]. Main article: Carbon monoxide poisoning. Carbon monoxide competes with oxygen for binding ... can be used to calculate the amount of carbon monoxide-bound hemoglobin. For example, at carbon monoxide level of 5 ppm, =. 5. ... As carbon monoxide binds with hemoglobin hundreds of times tighter than oxygen, it can prevent the carriage of oxygen.[23] ... This is increased in urban areas (7-13 ppm) and in smokers (20-40 ppm).[24] A carbon monoxide level of 40 ppm is equivalent to ...
Carbon Pile[edit]. There is no reference to a carbon pile resistor in the article. From my limited understanding it is a type ... E.g. white=carbon-film, blue=some metal-oxide (can't remember, it's been 15 years :-). If someone had such a table (and if ... I don't care about any "Platonic ideals" -- I work with REAL carbon/metal film resistors in REAL circuits that I have designed ... The vacuum tube equipment that was typical up until the 1950s and 60s typically used mostly 1/2- and 1-watt carbon composition ...
The term anthropic in "anthropic principle" has been argued[3] to be a misnomer.[4] While singling out our kind of carbon-based ... for tacitly assuming that carbon compounds and water are the only possible chemistry of life (sometimes called "carbon ... The nucleosynthesis of carbon-12[edit]. Fred Hoyle may have invoked anthropic reasoning to predict an astrophysical phenomenon ... He is said to have reasoned from the prevalence on Earth of life forms whose chemistry was based on carbon-12 atoms, that there ...
The fixation or reduction of carbon dioxide is a process in which carbon dioxide combines with a five-carbon sugar, ribulose 1, ... When the concentration of carbon dioxide is high, RuBisCO will fix carbon dioxide. However, if the carbon dioxide concentration ... CO2carbon. dioxide + (AsO3−. 3). arsenite + photonslight energy → (AsO3−. 4). arsenate + COcarbon. monoxide(used to build other ... Over 90% of plants use C3 carbon fixation, compared to 3% that use C4 carbon fixation;[30] however, the evolution of C4 in over ...
Carbon to nitrogen ratio[edit]. Topsoil is the primary resource for plants to grow and crops to thrive and the main two ... The Carbon provides energy and Nitrogen is a tissue builder and plants require them in a range of ratios to enable suitable ... Understanding the Carbon Nitrogen Ratio by Crow Miller ACRES http://sccd.org/carbon-nitrogen_ratio.pdf ... Carbon:Nitrogen ratio, Electrical Conductivity, Loss on Ignition, pH, Chemical and Physical Contamination. The topsoil should ...
Carbon footprint[edit]. As mentioned above, the energy-efficient nature of urban agriculture can reduce each city's carbon ... Also, these areas can act as carbon sinks[37] offsetting some of the carbon accumulation that is innate to urban areas, where ... Plants absorb atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) and release breathable oxygen (O2) through photosynthesis. The process of Carbon ... A new measurement is active carbon (AC), which is the most usable portoin of the total organic carbon (TOC) in the soil. This ...
Low-carbon steel[edit]. 0.05 to 0.30% carbon content..[1] Medium-carbon steel[edit]. Approximately 0.3-0.8% carbon content.[1] ... Carbon steel is a steel with carbon content up to 2.1% by weight. The definition of carbon steel from the American Iron and ... Higher-carbon steels[edit]. Carbon steels which can successfully undergo heat-treatment have a carbon content in the range of ... Regardless of the heat treatment, a higher carbon content reduces weldability. In carbon steels, the higher carbon content ...
If the occupant's breathing is the only consumer of oxygen and producer of carbon dioxide in the room, then carbon dioxide ... Carbon dioxide concerns[edit]. Sheltering in place is generally only used for a short period of time, typically a few, around 3 ... In radiological/fallout scenarios, if the shelter is airtight and carbon dioxide and body heat build up is thus a concern, ... However if the outdoor hazard persists, the "~3 hour" period can be extended if the occupants have an accurate Carbon dioxide ...
Carbon fiber. Carbon fibers are often based on oxidized and via pyrolysis carbonized polymers like PAN, but the end product is ... Carbon 0.3-0.35 0.90 260-380 33,400-55,100 0.5-1.5 nil 3652-3697[19] N/A ... Carbon fibers and PF fibers are noted as two resin-based fibers that are not thermoplastic, most others can be melted. ... acrylic polyesters, pure polyester PAN fibers are used to make carbon fiber by roasting them in a low oxygen environment. ...
... while using carbon fiber in the spar saves 20% to 30% weight, about 15 metric tons.[56] However, because carbon fiber is ten ... A glass and glass/carbon epoxy, glass/carbon, and glass/polyester. When tested, the results showed that the materials with ... Glass and carbon fibers. The stiffness of composites is determined by the stiffness of fibers and their volume content. ... Carbon fiber has more tensile strength, higher stiffness and lower density than glass fiber. An ideal candidate for these ...
Carbon dioxide reduction catalysts[edit]. In nature, carbon fixation is done by green plants using the enzyme RuBisCO as a part ... Light-driven carbon dioxide reduction is another process studied, that replicates natural carbon fixation. ... water and carbon dioxide to "create the carbon building blocks from which resins, plastics and fibers can be synthesized."[37] ... Photoelectrochemical cells that reduce carbon dioxide into carbon monoxide (CO), formic acid (HCOOH) and methanol (CH3OH) are ...
Assessment of forest biomass and carbon stocks[edit]. In 2013, the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations ... These key measurements are used for estimation of carbon sequestered in the plants. ... and carbon stocks. Jointly developed by FAO, the French Research Centre CIRAD and Tuscia University of Italy, the ... biomass and carbon stocks; access to scientific research information on allometric equations; and access to tutorials, manuals ...
... by weight of carbon in it). As 2.1% carbon (by mass) is approached, the austenizing temperature climbs back up, to 1,130 °C ( ... "EN10219 S275JOH Carbon Steel Pipe". CHINA HYSP PIPE.. *^ Manual of Steel Construction, 8th Edition, 2nd revised printing, ... S275JOH carbon steel pipes can be made in ERW, SAW or seamless process. All S275JOH steel material and S275JOH pipes should ... The lowest temperature at which a plain carbon steel can begin to melt, its solidus, is 1,130 °C (2,070 °F). Steel never turns ...
a b c IEEE Global History Network: Carbon Transmitter. New Brunswick, NJ: IEEE History Center "Carbon Transmitter". Archived ... one that used loose-contact ground carbon, with his discovery that it worked far better if the carbon was roasted. This type ... by developing a carbon microphone, which consists of two metal plates separated by granules of carbon that would change ... Edison used the carbon microphone concept in 1877 to create an improved telephone for Western Union.[44] In 1886, Edison found ...
At greater depths, carbon dioxide can have more effect: at depths to about 200 km, the temperatures of initial melting of a ... Effects of water and carbon dioxide. The change of rock composition most responsible for the creation of magma is the addition ... The addition of carbon dioxide is relatively a much less important cause of magma formation than the addition of water, but ... In the presence of carbon dioxide, experiments document that the peridotite solidus temperature decreases by about 200 °C in a ...
Carbon dioxide[edit]. Bubbling CO. 2 through algal cultivation systems can greatly increase productivity and yield (up to a ... Carbon Dioxide Capture with Algae. Docstoc.com. Retrieved 15 April 2012. *^ "Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Project at the ... Carbon Trust (UK) (2008). "Algae biofuels challenge- frequently asked questions" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 23 ... "Algal Carbon Conversion Flagship - National Research Council Canada". Nrc-cnrc.gc.ca. Retrieved 29 November 2013.. ...
Large-scale synthesis of carbon nanotubes typically results in a randomly varied proportion of different types of carbon ... Carbon nanotubes are known to withstand very large current densities up to 109 A/cm2 partly due to the strong sigma bonds ... As a result, carbon atoms are ejected from the anode and are deposited onto the cathode hence shrinking the mass of the anode ... 2001). "Engineering Carbon Nanotubes and Nanotube Circuits Using Electrical Breakdown". Science. 292 (5517): 706-709. Bibcode: ...
Carbon Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (13C-NMR)[edit]. The unique methylation of theophylline corresponds to the ...
Zinc-carbon cell, the first dry cell[edit]. Many experimenters tried to immobilize the electrolyte of an electrochemical cell ... For the carbon-cells it is used strong or very slightly diluted, but for the other cells very diluted, (about one-twentieth, or ... Alfred Dun 1885, nitro-muriatic acid (aqua regis) - Iron & Carbon In the new element there can be used advantageously as ... The first mass-produced model was the Columbia dry cell, first marketed by the National Carbon Company in 1896.[13] The NCC ...
Graphitic Carbon Nitride[edit]. Hierarchically porous graphitic carbon nitride (hp-g-CN) had a 90% photodegradation of methyl ... The resulting products are water, carbon dioxide, and mineral byproducts that give the original dye its color. During the ... Gu, S.; Xieb, J.; Li, C.M. Hierarchically porous graphitic carbon nitride: large-scale facile synthesis and its application ...
"LASER TALK: BC Carbon Tax vs Carbon Fee and Dividend - Citizens' Climate Lobby Canada". canada.citizensclimatelobby.org. April ... A bipartisan carbon fee and dividend bill, the Energy Innovation and Carbon Dividend Act, was reintroduced in the first session ... For example, if the United States legislated a carbon fee-and-dividend system, China would face the choice of paying carbon ... Cut Carbon Act of 2009')[29][30] in the U.S. House of Representatives on May 13, 2009. Congressman Inglis considers carbon fee ...
... can form very long chains of interconnecting carbon-carbon bonds, a property that is called catenation. Carbon-carbon ... The paths of carbon in the environment form the carbon cycle. For example, photosynthetic plants draw carbon dioxide from the ... Main article: Allotropes of carbon. Atomic carbon is a very short-lived species and, therefore, carbon is stabilized in various ... Some of this biomass is eaten by animals, while some carbon is exhaled by animals as carbon dioxide. The carbon cycle is ...
Liquid carbon dioxide superfluids[edit]. Main article: Carbon dioxide flooding. Carbon dioxide (CO2) is particularly effective ... Casey, Allan (January-February 2008). "Carbon Cemetery". Canadian Geographic Magazine.. *^ "Carbon Capture and Sequestration ... Use of both water and carbon dioxide also lowers the mobility of carbon dioxide, making the gas more effective at displacing ... Tax Credit May Rev Up Carbon Capture And Sequestration Technology [1] *^ Trump signed a landmark bill that could create the ...
Carbon monoxide, also known as CO, is called the "Invisible Killer" because its a colorless, odorless, poisonous gas. More ... Know the symptoms of carbon monoxide poisoning: headache, dizziness, weakness, nausea, vomiting, sleepiness, and confusion. If ...
Carbon can form very long chains of interconnecting carbon-carbon bonds, a property that is called catenation. Carbon-carbon ... The paths of carbon in the environment form the carbon cycle. For example, photosynthetic plants draw carbon dioxide from the ... Main article: Allotropes of carbon. Atomic carbon is a very short-lived species and, therefore, carbon is stabilized in various ... Some of this biomass is eaten by animals, while some carbon is exhaled by animals as carbon dioxide. The carbon cycle is ...
Woven carbon[edit]. There is a technology of processing technical rayon fiber into activated carbon cloth for carbon filtering ... Carbon tetrachloride activity[edit]. Measurement of the porosity of an activated carbon by the adsorption of saturated carbon ... Extruded activated carbon (EAC)[edit]. Extruded activated carbon (EAC) combines powdered activated carbon with a binder, which ... Polymer coated carbon[edit]. This is a process by which a porous carbon can be coated with a biocompatible polymer to give a ...
... s life span is greater than the life span of any human, so for people living today it seems like an ... The carbon bubbles life span is greater than the life span of any human, so for people living today it seems like an ... The carbon bubble, quite simply, is the constantly increasing consumption of fossil fuels that began with coal in the 19th ... The carbon bubble, quite simply, is the constantly increasing consumption of fossil fuels that began with coal in the 19th ...
Use the links on this site to help you work through the Carbon Growth Cycle and create new documents to print or work in online ...
We dont make the (zero carbon) solutions you buy, we make the (zero carbon) solutions you buy better. ... Low Carbon Energy. We do not design solutions or deliver projects in these three areas. Many others are already hard at work on ... Community Carbon Reduction (CCR) mobilises people to work together on reducing the risks of climate change. Our focus is on ... Our process of community mobilization for low carbon projects has six steps:. *. Assessment - measuring where your emissions ...
Remarkably, the last 30 years have been witnessing an exponential advance in the science involving carbon and carbon structures ... Carbon is intimately connected to almost everything we deal with in a daily basis. Due to its outstanding properties, such as ... Within the "Carbon Nanostructures" book series, the reader will find valuable, up-to-date account of both the newer and ... The "Carbon Nanostructures" book series covers the state-of-art in the research of nanocarbons and their applications. Topics ...
... Group 2017 AGM Minutes Download the minutes. PDF (28k) Annual Report 2017 - British Carbon Group Download the ... British Carbon Group. The British Carbon Group (joint with the IOP and SCI) is one of the RSCs many Interest Groups. The ... British Carbon Group Latest Information Institute of Physics An international professional body and learned society, ... This includes diamond and fullerenes, composites, fibres, deposits and any other relevant carbon science topics in the UK. By ...
But a surprising part of the rest of you is carbon! This is you, without water - a lump of Carbon ... The Carbon Cycle Most of you is water. ... Carbon Cycle * 1. ,ul,,li,The Carbon Cycle ,/li,,/ul,Most of ... Photosynthesis Boxes are carbon sinks Arrows are carbon fluxes Consumption * 8. Atmospheric Carbon ,ul,,li,Carbon is found in ... Carbon Sinks Amount of stored carbon in Billions of Metric Tons (Gt) Note type of Carbon Molecule (State of Matter) CH 2 O ( ...
Made from ultra-lightweight carbon fiber, the Carbon Black wheelchair is not just a piece of medical equipment;... ... Sarolea SP7 Electric Carbon-Fiber Motorcycle Fires Up for the Isle of Man TT Zero Race. *by Marc Carter ... Carbon fiber is quickly becoming the material of choice for automakers as they seek to reduce the weight of their... ... How robots and carbon fiber could usher in the "fourth industrial revolution". *by Lacy Cooke ...
Workers may be harmed by carbon disulfide. The level of exposure depends upon the dose, duration, and work being done. ... Carbon disulfide (CS2) is a colorless liquid with an ether-like odor. Exposure can cause dizziness, poor sleep, headache, ... A useful search term for carbon disulfide includes "carbon bisulfide," "carbon sulfide," and "carbon disulphide." ... EPA Chemistry Dashboard: Carbon Disulfideexternal icon. *EPA Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS): Carbon Disulfide ...
... so the breadth of agreement on the use of a carbon tax to address climate change is striking and rare. ... Calling for a carbon tax follows the very principles taught in Economics 101. Markets fail if prices arent right. Much of the ... Last month, more than 3,500 economists-a record number-signed an open letter calling for a carbon tax to fight climate change. ... Reducing carbon will massively limit economic, social, and political disruption. Social and natural scientists stand apart from ...
... which is predominantly produced by incomplete combustion of carbon-containing materials. Incomplete combustion occurs when ... Carbon monoxide (CO) is a colorless, odorless, and toxic gas, ... Carbon Monoxide Dangers in Boating. *Carbon Monoxide Hazards ... Exposure to carbon monoxide impedes the bloods ability to carry oxygen to body tissues and vital organs. When carbon monoxide ... Consequently, more carbon monoxide, in preference to carbon dioxide, is emitted. Some examples of this are the following: ...
By burning fossil fuels, people are changing the carbon cycle with far-reaching consequences. ... Carbon flows between the atmosphere, land, and ocean in a cycle that encompasses nearly all life and sets the thermostat for ... The Slow Carbon Cycle. The Fast Carbon Cycle. Changes in the Carbon Cycle. Effects of Changing the Carbon Cycle. Studying the ... The Slow Carbon Cycle. The Fast Carbon Cycle. Changes in the Carbon Cycle. Effects of Changing the Carbon Cycle. Studying the ...
VMware Acquires Carbon Black. VMware formally acquired Carbon Black, a leading next-generation security cloud provider on ... VMware Acquires Carbon Black.. With Carbon Black now a part of the VMware family, were rethinking and simplifying security. ... Carbon Black created an innovative cloud-native security platform with a smart, lightweight agent, and an AI/ML-based Data Lake ... The acquisition of Carbon Black represents the evolution of VMwares intrinsic security strategy, where security features are ...
Scientific American is the essential guide to the most awe-inspiring advances in science and technology, explaining how they change our understanding of the world and shape our lives.
Your body just released carbon dioxide, a colorless gas thats essential to life on Earth. ... carbon moves through the carbon cycle.. Carbon moves through the air, water, soil, and even living things. Oceans absorb carbon ... We produce carbon dioxide when we burn fossil fuels like coal, oil, and natural gas. The more carbon dioxide there is in the ... Marine animals use carbon dissolved in water to make their shells. Shells build up to form rocks. Rocks release carbon dioxide ...
... carbon trading follows in the footsteps of this history and turns the earths carbon cycling capacity into property to be ... Through this process of creating a new commodity, carbon, the earths ability and capacity to support a climate conducive to ... But figuring out how to best "price carbon" is only a piece of what needs to happen. Outside the carbon trade summit, alongside ... Unfortunately, theory and practice in carbon markets simply do not jive. We have plenty of evidence that marketing carbon ...
... information about the dangers of carbon monoxide poisoning and how to avoid it ... Carbon monoxide is a gas that is produced when fossil fuels such as coal, natural gas and oil are burned. In only minutes, ... When you breathe carbon monoxide, it enters the bloodstream and cuts off delivery of oxygen to the bodys organs and tissues. ... The first symptoms of carbon monoxide poisoning may be headache, dizziness, confusion, fatigue, and nausea. As more of this gas ...
In the home, heating and cooking equipment that burn fuel are potential sources of carbon monoxide. Vehicles or generators ... carbon monoxide is an odorless, colorless gas created when fuels (such as gasoline, wood, coal, natural gas, propane, oil, and ... running in an attached garage can also produce dangerous levels of carbon monoxide. ... Carbon Monoxide: Invisible Killer Video. Show NFPA®s Carbon Monoxide: Invisible Killer Video in your community and help people ...
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Wheels Outside the Garden--Carbon River Road. * Introduction * Wheels Outside the Garden * Wheels in the Garden * Garden ... The Carbon River and many side creeks have washed out portions of the road, and detours have been constructed. ... The road from the Carbon River entrace to Mt Rainier National Park is closed from where you enter at the ranger station. ...
Tag Archive: carbon. * Joint-degree center celebrates 10th anniversary. October 24, 2016 3:40 am. Leave a Comment As the Yale ... Fitzgerald added that many of the centers current partnerships, such as the one with the Carbon Pricing Leadership Coalition ... a group that lobbies for taxing carbon emission - are working to achieve these goals. ...
If you own a business or are a business professional in Carbon County, the Carbon Chamber & Economic Development Corporation (C ... The first ever Carbon County Mini Golf Tournament to support the Future Leaders of Carbon County and the CCEDC Efforts to build ... The Sturm Cup Carbon County Chambers annual golf outing. - Duration: 73 seconds.. *2 weeks ago ... Future Leaders of Carbon County. - Duration: 3 minutes, 32 seconds.. *3 months ago ...
Effective carbon prices arise either explicitly via carbon taxes or emission trading systems, or implicitly, via the abatement ... It documents the current use of different types of carbon pricing and fossil fuel support, and finally considers carbon prices ... Carbon taxes and emissions trading are cheapest ways of reducing CO2, OECD says, OECD News Release, 4 November 2013.. ... OECD Home Environment DirectorateEnvironmental policy tools and evaluationEffective Carbon Prices - en Environmental policy ...
... sellers and brokers of carbon-dioxide discharge permits convenes in Germany. Getting rid of the waste gas blamed for global ... Summit: Carbon Dioxide Traders. Buyers, sellers, brokers and lawyers, even specialists in carbon asset creation management, ... As for carbon tradings future, we have to move one step at a time. And some encouraging steps are being taken even on the ... This carbon trading is a Europe-wide effort to use supply-and-demand to control emissions and protect the climate, in the ...
Effective Carbon Prices (Summary in German) Effective Carbon Prices (Summary in German). Read. * Download PDF ... Effective Carbon Prices (Summary in Japanese) Effective Carbon Prices (Summary in Japanese) Read. * Download PDF ... Effective Carbon Prices (Summary in Italian) Effective Carbon Prices (Summary in Italian). Read. * Download PDF ... Effective carbon prices arise either explicitly via carbon taxes or emission trading systems, or implicitly, via the abatement ...
... new artificial forms of carbon can be exploited in exciting ways. Graphene is just the latest example ... Carbon is a wonder element. Without the amazing stability of its chemical compounds, life on Earth would not be possible. Pure ... Benzene was known to consist of six carbon and six hydrogen atoms, but how they fitted together was a mystery. In the 1860s ... Recent decades, however, have seen an explosion of new, engineered forms of carbon. From spherical buckyballs to cylindrical ...
We need to better understand the interplay of chemical, physical and biological processes that govern soil carbon cycling and ... Soils store vast quantities of carbon and have the potential to help mitigate or exacerbate climate change. ... Carbon inputs come from the growth of plants and their roots, the transfer of carbon-rich compounds from roots to soil microbes ... Plant-microbe interactions can also influence soil carbon persistence5: microbial formation of soil organic carbon below ground ...
Carbon dating can provide an answer - maybe. Scientists have only been able to use the technology to go back about 21,000 years ... Carbon-Dating Clock Reset. Just how old is that pretty little fossil? Carbon dating can provide an answer - maybe. Scientists ... Carbon-dating specialists say it will be a boon for climatologists, geologists and anthropologists. A few thousands years here ... Scientists led by a team at the University of Chicago developed carbon dating in the 1950s. The technique dates a piece of dead ...
  • Emissions of carbon dioxide by humanity (primarily from the burning of fossil fuels, with a contribution from cement production) have been growing steadily since the onset of the industrial revolution. (nasa.gov)
  • About half of these emissions are removed by the fast carbon cycle each year, the rest remain in the atmosphere. (nasa.gov)
  • In 2014, 100 exhibitors and around 2,000 visitors from 110 countries attended the carbon market's leading global trade fair and conference for emissions trading, carbon abatement solutions and new technologies. (worldbank.org)
  • In the past 200 years, the ocean has absorbed about 30% of all carbon dioxide emissions from human activities. (amnh.org)
  • We have plenty of evidence that marketing carbon doesn't work to reduce emissions. (commondreams.org)
  • Carbon taxes and emissions trading are cheapest ways of reducing CO 2 , OECD says, OECD News Release, 4 November 2013. (oecd.org)
  • The above publication builds on the report Carbon Emission Policies in Key Economies , published by the Australian Productivity Commission in 2011, assessing the costs to society of the different policy measures, their (relatively short-term) impacts on carbon emissions, and calculates the costs per unit of CO 2 abated. (oecd.org)
  • Effective carbon prices arise either explicitly via carbon taxes or emission trading systems, or implicitly, via the abatement incentives embedded in other policies that influence greenhouse gas emissions. (oecd.org)
  • This carbon trading is a Europe-wide effort to use supply-and-demand to control emissions and protect the climate, in the spirit of the Kyoto Protocol. (wired.com)
  • There's growing speculation about what might be accomplished at the United Nation's climate change conference in Copenhagen Dec. 7-18 , especially now that the world's two biggest carbon emitters-the U.S. and China-have outlined both bilateral and individual goals in reducing emissions. (cnbc.com)
  • Though fortunes will be lost, more will be made, and CNBC wants to help break down what a reduction in carbon emissions means for business and investors. (cnbc.com)
  • Also known as carbon sequestration, carbon storage is a complex method of capturing carbon dioxide emissions and storing them in coal seams, aquifers, depleted oil and gas reservoirs and other spaces deep under the surface of the Earth. (treehugger.com)
  • Not only are there enough deep saline formations in the United States to potentially store more than 12,000 billion tons of carbon dioxide, but they're already accessible to most sources of carbon dioxide emissions, reducing the cost of transporting the gases. (treehugger.com)
  • Carbon storage would prevent widespread carbon dioxide emissions from continuing to cause and exacerbate climate change, and advocates say that it's less expensive than switching from fossil fuels to forms of renewable energy like solar power. (treehugger.com)
  • If you fast forward 12 months' time and the legislation is through, the carbon price, emissions trading scheme, is in place and the economy is managing to deal with the reform, the cost impacts are modest as we have been saying, we'll have applied tax cuts and increases in the pensions and family tax benefits, nine out of 10 households receiving some assistance to adjust with this reform. (theage.com.au)
  • The problem, as even the report concedes, is that global carbon offset markets are riddled with fraud, meaning that buying them may not actually lower emissions. (freerepublic.com)
  • To combat the climate crisis, we need to do all that we can to reduce emissions and draw carbon out of the atmosphere. (google.com)
  • It remains in the atmosphere for only a few days, so cutting black-carbon emissions may be a viable way to reduce global warming over the next few decades, alongside measures to mitigate changes in the emissions of carbon dioxide.Such actions need to be supported by a good understanding and prediction of the climate role of black carbon. (nature.com)
  • a , Black-carbon emissions from sources such as industrial processes, brick kilns and forest fires have numerous influences on the atmosphere. (nature.com)
  • suggest that roughly half of the total climate impact of black-carbon emissions is apparent only if these atmospheric responses feed back to the distribution of black carbon, lofting it to height and increasing its atmospheric lifetime and spatial extent. (nature.com)
  • The purpose: capturing carbon dioxide emissions and stashing them in underground rock formations -- a critical part of the global effort to slow climate change. (washingtonpost.com)
  • Coal companies and environmentalists alike are counting on a breakthrough in carbon capture and storage technology to siphon off harmful emissions from the world's coal plants. (washingtonpost.com)
  • In 2017, Microsoft pledged to reduce its operational carbon emissions 75 percent by 2030 and is on target to achieve this goal. (microsoft.com)
  • We have reduced carbon emissions on our corporate campus in Washington state to cut energy use by more than 20 percent. (microsoft.com)
  • We are using the cloud and AI to further reduce our own emissions, and help customers track, assess and reduce their carbon footprint. (microsoft.com)
  • Many hired carbon traders, picked up assets, and trained members of energy desks to deal in emissions markets. (ibtimes.com)
  • Some carbon trading jobs may remain if U.S. senators forming the compromise bill propose implementing cap-and-trade more narrowly, first on power plants, which emit about 40 percent of the countries emissions. (ibtimes.com)
  • Even if a carbon market fails in the climate bill, the Obama administration could still cut emissions through the Environmental Protection Agency. (ibtimes.com)
  • The job is mostly about managing regulatory risk, Andrew Ager, the head of broker Prudential Bache's emissions desk in London, said about U.S. carbon dealing. (ibtimes.com)
  • The burning of fossil fuels releases carbon dioxide (CO2), and these CO2 emissions are a major driver of climate change. (mit.edu)
  • Carbon capture, or carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS), refers to a suite of technologies that reduce CO2 emissions by "capturing" CO2 before it is released into the atmosphere and then transporting it to where it will be stored or used. (mit.edu)
  • In the January/February issue of World Watch, writer Susan Moran ('Rush to Coal') detailed the frenzied efforts of U.S. utilities to build more than 150 'new' pulverized-coal power plants before the imposition of increasingly likely federal statutory limits on carbon emissions. (worldwatch.org)
  • NASA's top scientist, James Hansen, has said we have perhaps 10 years to get a grip on our carbon emissions or else face a tipping point beyond which climate warming spirals irreversibly out of control. (worldwatch.org)
  • The carbon dioxide we put into the atmosphere stays there effectively forever, so the problem will just get bigger until we stop all emissions. (technologyreview.com)
  • Plentiful, cheap natural gas creates half the emissions of coal, but making that fuel part of a zero-emission world will require some means of carbon capture and storage (CCS). (technologyreview.com)
  • Google claims to be a carbon neutral company, but does not share either its emissions footprint or an overall emissions reduction target. (greenpeace.org)
  • As a result, the decrease in beef consumption documented in Less Beef, Less Carbon , has propelled a significant decrease in the per capita climate pollution emissions from our diet. (nrdc.org)
  • In order to compensate for these and other emissions arising from the event, IUCN is collecting voluntary contributions from delegates in support of the Barcelona Carbon Offset Fund (BCOF). (iucn.org)
  • The fee is based upon the market price for premium carbon offsets, and on an estimate of average GHG emissions both on-site and arising from return air travel to Barcelona from different parts of the world. (iucn.org)
  • Cumulative carbon dioxide emissions should be calculated on a per capita basis for each country, so that every nation can shoulder a common but differentiated responsibility for climate change, he said. (chinadaily.com.cn)
  • Pan Jiahua, a researcher with the sustainable development center of the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, said in a research paper published recently that developed countries have overdrawn their future "carbon budgets" due to their historical emissions. (chinadaily.com.cn)
  • Although China is now one of the world's top carbon dioxide emitters, historically, its emissions have been low, a white paper on climate change released in October said. (chinadaily.com.cn)
  • Between 1904 and 2004, China's carbon dioxide emissions from the burning of fossil fuels amounted to just 8 percent of the world's total, while its per capita cumulative emissions ranked it 92nd in the world, the white paper said. (chinadaily.com.cn)
  • Even today, China's per capita emissions are only a quarter of those of the United States, the world's largest carbon dioxide emitter, Xie Zhenhua, deputy director of the National Development and Reform Commission, said earlier. (chinadaily.com.cn)
  • The market for carbon is possible because the goal of the Kyoto Protocol was to reduce emissions as a collective. (investopedia.com)
  • On the one hand, carbon trading seems like a win-win situation: greenhouse gas emissions may be reduced while some countries reap economic benefit. (investopedia.com)
  • But humans are increasing carbon dioxide levels in the atmosphere above natural levels. (amnh.org)
  • Carbon is the 15th most abundant element in the Earth's crust , and the fourth most abundant element in the universe by mass after hydrogen , helium , and oxygen . (wikipedia.org)
  • About 750 billion tons (Gt) of carbon is stored in earth's atmosphere. (slideshare.net)
  • In Earth's past, the carbon cycle has changed in response to climate change. (nasa.gov)
  • Carbon dioxide is one of the greenhouse gases that absorbs and holds heat in Earth's atmosphere, keeping our planet warm enough for life to exist. (amnh.org)
  • This cycle has kept a healthy balance of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere--just enough to keep Earth's temperatures within a certain range and for life to exist. (amnh.org)
  • Without greenhouse gases like carbon dioxide, Earth's surface would be frozen! (amnh.org)
  • carbon trading follows in the footsteps of this history and turns the earth's carbon cycling capacity into property to be bought and sold in a global market. (commondreams.org)
  • Through this process of creating a new commodity, carbon, the earth's ability and capacity to support a climate conducive to life and human societies is now passing into the same corporate hands that are destroying the climate. (commondreams.org)
  • Carbon recycling takes place within Earth's biosphere and between living things and the nonliving environment. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Carbon is found in great quantities in Earth's crust, its surface waters, the atmosphere, and the mass of green plants. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The warming of Earth's atmosphere due to water vapor, carbon dioxide, and other gases in the atmosphere that trap heat radiated from Earth's surface. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Carbon is present as carbon dioxide in Earth's atmosphere at a concentration of about 0.04 percent by volume, an amount that is increasing. (britannica.com)
  • The Keeling Curve, named after American climate scientist Charles David Keeling, tracks changes in the concentration of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) in Earth's atmosphere at a research station on Mauna Loa in Hawaii. (britannica.com)
  • In nature, small amounts of carbon disulfide are found in gases released to the earth's surface as, for example, in volcanic eruptions or over marshes. (cdc.gov)
  • Sand and colleagues used a numerical simulator of Earth's atmosphere and ocean to compare the effects on climate of artificially large increases in the emission of carbon dioxide and black carbon. (nature.com)
  • They find that, although the increases were designed to exert similar perturbations in Earth's energy budget (the net flow of incoming and outgoing energy), changes in the planet's surface temperature and rainfall are considerably weaker in the simulation with elevated concentrations of black carbon. (nature.com)
  • The ocean plays a vital dominant role in the Earth's carbon cycle. (nasa.gov)
  • Carbon atoms are constantly being cycled through the earth's ocean by a number of physical and biological processes. (nasa.gov)
  • We've pledged $100 million to help establish the Yale Center for Natural Carbon Capture, where researchers will focus on ways to remove and store Earth's excess carbon. (fedex.com)
  • Carbon makes up only about 0.025 percent of Earth's crust. (wikipedia.org)
  • While trees, just as like every plant, do absorb carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and sequestrate (convert) it into plant tissue. (slideshare.net)
  • Carbon Molecules (CO 2 and CH 4 ) in the atmosphere are greenhouse gasses and are play a key role in climate change. (slideshare.net)
  • Carbon atoms continually move through living organisms, the oceans, the atmosphere, and the rocks that make up the earth system. (slideshare.net)
  • This may seem a lot but carbon is considered a trace gas in the atmosphere because it is much less abundant than oxygen or nitrogen. (slideshare.net)
  • Left unperturbed, the fast and slow carbon cycles maintain a relatively steady concentration of carbon in the atmosphere, land, plants, and ocean. (nasa.gov)
  • Meanwhile, a number of factors including cooler temperatures and increased phytoplankton growth may have increased the amount of carbon the ocean took out of the atmosphere. (nasa.gov)
  • Similarly, at the end of the last Ice Age, 10,000 years ago, carbon dioxide in the atmosphere rose dramatically as temperatures warmed. (nasa.gov)
  • Levels of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere have corresponded closely with temperature over the past 800,000 years. (nasa.gov)
  • By removing a forest, we eliminate plants that would otherwise take carbon out of the atmosphere as they grow. (nasa.gov)
  • We also expose soil that vents carbon from decayed plant matter into the atmosphere. (nasa.gov)
  • Humans are currently emitting just under a billion tons of carbon into the atmosphere per year through land use changes. (nasa.gov)
  • Without human interference, the carbon in fossil fuels would leak slowly into the atmosphere through volcanic activity over millions of years in the slow carbon cycle. (nasa.gov)
  • By burning coal, oil, and natural gas, we accelerate the process, releasing vast amounts of carbon (carbon that took millions of years to accumulate) into the atmosphere every year. (nasa.gov)
  • In 2009, humans released about 8.4 billion tons of carbon into the atmosphere by burning fossil fuel. (nasa.gov)
  • Since the beginning of the Industrial Revolution, when people first started burning fossil fuels, carbon dioxide concentrations in the atmosphere have risen from about 280 parts per million to 387 parts per million, a 39 percent increase. (nasa.gov)
  • This means that for every million molecules in the atmosphere, 387 of them are now carbon dioxide-the highest concentration in two million years. (nasa.gov)
  • This includes mapping the amount of vegetation on land and measuring concentrations of chlorophyll in the oceans and carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. (esa.int)
  • Oceans absorb carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. (amnh.org)
  • When we burn fossil fuels, we are rapidly releasing carbon that had been locked within Earth into the atmosphere. (amnh.org)
  • The more carbon dioxide there is in the atmosphere, the more heat is absorbed, and the warmer the planet gets. (amnh.org)
  • Today, the atmosphere contains more carbon dioxide than at any time in at least the past 800,000 years. (amnh.org)
  • The ocean holds over fifty times more carbon dioxide than the atmosphere. (amnh.org)
  • In fact, the Kyoto treaty itself is not yet in force, because it hasn't been ratified, as required, by industrial countries emitting a total of 55 percent of 'greenhouse gases,' such as carbon dioxide, that trap heat in the atmosphere that Earth otherwise would give off. (wired.com)
  • The world's soils contain more carbon than terrestrial vegetation and the atmosphere combined. (nature.com)
  • The problem: The level of carbon in the atmosphere - and ultimately in living things - varies over time. (wired.com)
  • Carbon exists in the atmosphere as the compound carbon dioxide. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Thus, by their very nature as makers of their own food, plants remove carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Even when the carbon dioxide is pumped to great depths, it may not be long before it is released back into the atmosphere. (treehugger.com)
  • Climate simulations show that interactions between particles of black carbon and convective and cloud processes in the atmosphere must be considered when assessing the full climatic effects of these light-absorbing particulates. (nature.com)
  • In contrast to other particulates emitted into the atmosphere by human activities, black carbon absorbs sunlight efficiently. (nature.com)
  • This result confirms the importance of rapid responses in the atmosphere to changes in black carbon. (nature.com)
  • These changes enhance any surface dimming (extension of thin yellow arrow), and lead to greater warming at height (upper pink shading), black-carbon transport into the upper atmosphere (dotted black arrow) and further changes to clouds. (nature.com)
  • demonstrate the role of the two-way black carbon-atmosphere interactions in driving the full climate response. (nature.com)
  • The atmosphere already holds too much carbon, but these coal-fired plants will release billions of tons of additional, now-sequestered carbon into the air during their 50-year useful lives. (worldwatch.org)
  • Since the middle of the 19th century, the level of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere has been rising because of the extensive combustion of fossil fuels, cement production, and land-use changes associated with deforestation . (britannica.com)
  • If the level of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere increases, more carbon dioxide could enter through a smaller opening of the stomata, so more photosynthesis could occur with a given supply of water. (britannica.com)
  • The total amount of carbon in the ocean is about 50 times greater than the amount in the atmosphere, and is exchanged with the atmosphere on a time-scale of several hundred years. (nasa.gov)
  • Currently, 48% of the carbon emitted to the atmosphere by fossil fuel burning is sequestered into the ocean. (nasa.gov)
  • The flux of carbon dioxide between the atmosphere and the ocean is a function of surface mixing (related to wind speed) and the difference the concentration of carbon dioxide in the air and water The concentration in the ocean depends on the atmosphere and ocean carbon dioxide partial pressure which, in turn, is a function of temperature, alkalinity (which is closely related to salinity), photosynthesis, and respiration. (nasa.gov)
  • However, only about half of the carbon released through fossil fuel combustion in this time has remained in the atmosphere, the rest being sequestered the ocean. (nasa.gov)
  • NASA's strategy for reducing climate change uncertainty includes improving land, ocean, and atmosphere carbon cycling models, and, more importantly, providing the new observations required to locate global sources and sinks of carbon, quantify their strengths, and understand how they depend on environmental factors that are rapidly changing. (nasa.gov)
  • The primary human source of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the atmosphere is from the burning of fossil fuels for energy production and transport. (greenpeace.org)
  • Industrialized nations have large economies that have burned fossil fuels for a long time - for this reason, they are responsible for most of the human-caused carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. (greenpeace.org)
  • Could we remove carbon dioxide from the atmosphere, or shade the planet with sulfate particles? (technologyreview.com)
  • For example, you might drive a hybrid car to reduce your use of fossil fuels, which release carbon dioxide into the atmosphere during combustion. (eurekalert.org)
  • These approaches reduce the amount of carbon dioxide added to the atmosphere. (eurekalert.org)
  • Some scientists are also working on ways to subtract carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. (eurekalert.org)
  • The value of the carbon is based on the ability of the country to store it or to prevent it from being released into the atmosphere (the better you are at storing it, the more you can charge for it). (investopedia.com)
  • Under normal conditions, diamond, carbon nanotubes , and graphene have the highest thermal conductivities of all known materials . (wikipedia.org)
  • This public interest dramatically increased after the publications by the Iijima and Bethune groups on single-wall carbon nanotubes in 1993 and found a "new research era" with the isolation of a monolayer of carbon atoms, also called graphene, which conducted groundbreaking experiments demonstrating outstanding phenomena such as the Klein-Tunneling and the fractional quantum hall effect. (springer.com)
  • Carbon nanotubes have a measured strength about 50 times that of carbon steel. (asme.org)
  • Because of differences in the way the familiar chicken-wire patterns of carbon atoms line up across the surface, nanotubes can either act as metals or semiconductors. (asme.org)
  • Ever since carbon nanotubes were discovered in 1991, they have sparked intense speculation about their potential applications. (asme.org)
  • At the molecular level, the difference between graphite and carbon nanotubes is similar to that between sheet metal and steel tubing of the same gauge. (asme.org)
  • Thanks to their tubular structure, carbon nanotubes have a measured strength about 50 times that of carbon steel. (asme.org)
  • And because of differences in the way the familiar chicken-wire patterns of carbon atoms line up across the surface, nanotubes can either act as metals (potentially conducting greater current densities than copper) or semiconductors. (asme.org)
  • Using carbon nanotubes to make stronger ceramics, lighter car bodies, or other materials applications could have enormous impact on day-to-day life, similar to the way plastics changed the world in the mid-20th century. (asme.org)
  • In 2000, Phillippe Poulin of the Paul Pascal Research Center in Pessac, France, developed a technique for extruding a fiber from a soup of carbon nanotubes. (asme.org)
  • The outstanding electrical and mechanical properties of single carbon nanotubes (CNT) are the motivation for an intensive research in various fields of application. (springer.com)
  • Semiconducting single-walled carbon nanotubes are direct-gap materials thatprovide ideal systems for the study of photophysics in one-dimension. (springer.com)
  • The influence of external electricfields and of environmental interactions on excited nanotubes is considered.Finally, the possible technological uses of carbon nanotubes as nanometer scalelight sources and photocurrent and photovoltage detectors are discussed. (springer.com)
  • X. Blase, L. X. Benedict, E. L. Shirley, S. G. Louie: Hybridization effects and metallicity in small radius carbon nanotubes, Phys. (springer.com)
  • T. Ando: Excitons in carbon nanotubes, J. Phys. (springer.com)
  • C. D. Spataru, S. Ismail-Beigi, L. X. Benedict, S. G. Louie: Excitonic effects and optical spectra of single-walled carbon nanotubes, Phys. (springer.com)
  • C. D. Spataru, S. Ismail-Beigi, L. X. Benedict, S. G. Louie: Quasiparticle energies, excitonic effects and optical absorption spectra of small-diameter single-walled carbon nanotubes, Appl. (springer.com)
  • E. Chang, G. Bussi, A. Ruini, E. Molinari: Excitons in carbon nanotubes: An ab initio symmetry-based approach, Phys. (springer.com)
  • T. G. Pedersen: Variational approach to excitons in carbon nanotubes, Phys. (springer.com)
  • H. Zhao, S. Mazumdar: Electron-electron interaction effects on the optical excitations of semiconducting single-walled carbon nanotubes, Phys. (springer.com)
  • C. L. Kane, E. J. Mele: Electron interactions and scaling relations for optical excitations in carbon nanotubes, Phys. (springer.com)
  • X. Qiu, M. Freitag, V. Perebeinos, P. Avouris: Photoconductivity spectra of single-carbon nanotubes: Implications on the nature of their excited states, Nano Lett. (springer.com)
  • Single-wall carbon nanotubes are an important class of carbon nanomaterials with significant potential for commercial applications. (nist.gov)
  • An separate SWCNT reference material, RM 8281 (Single-Wall Carbon Nanotubes (Dispersed, Three Length-Resolved Populations)) based on purified nanotube populations was released in 2013. (nist.gov)
  • To enable and promote the potential applications for carbon nanotubes NIST has released two types of single wall carbon nanotube reference materials. (nist.gov)
  • The carbon bubble, quite simply, is the constantly increasing consumption of fossil fuels that began with coal in the 19th century and then continued with oil and gas in the 20th. (forbes.com)
  • We perturb the carbon cycle by burning fossil fuels and clearing land. (nasa.gov)
  • We produce carbon dioxide when we burn fossil fuels like coal, oil, and natural gas. (amnh.org)
  • Carbon monoxide is a gas that is produced when fossil fuels such as coal, natural gas and oil are burned. (michigan.gov)
  • It documents the current use of different types of carbon pricing and fossil fuel support, and finally considers carbon prices for different policy approaches that will be needed to reach internationally agreed goals to limit climate change. (oecd.org)
  • What's going on is that the world's daily output of manmade carbon dioxide, from burning coal, oil and other fossil fuels, is 11 percent greater today than a decade ago. (wired.com)
  • If a diagram were drawn showing the different processes that move carbon from one form to another, its main processes would be photosynthesis, respiration, decomposition, natural weathering of rocks, and the combustion of fossil fuels. (encyclopedia.com)
  • But proven fossil fuel reserves (held by listed corporations, private companies and nation states) equate to 2795 gigatonnes - five times the carbon budget. (theage.com.au)
  • These guys [fossil fuel companies and state owners] have five times as much carbon in their reserves as the most conservative government on Earth says would be safe to burn. (theage.com.au)
  • Carbon capture and storage would require a significant investment in fossil fuel-burning power plants and would allow the environmental destruction caused by coal mining to continue well into the future. (treehugger.com)
  • Carbon monoxide (CO) is a colorless, odorless and deadly gas produced by the incomplete burning of fossil fuels used in appliances such as furnaces and portable gas generators. (ct.gov)
  • Carbon dioxide is generated as a byproduct of the combustion of fossil fuels or vegetable matter, among other chemical processes. (mcgill.ca)
  • All fossil fuels are made up of hydrocarbons, and release carbon dioxide when burned. (greenpeace.org)
  • Jiao is also the principal investigator of a new $1 million grant from the DOE's Office of Fossil Energy to develop a new two-step electrochemical process to produce ethylene and acetic acid from carbon dioxide emitted from coal-fired power plants. (eurekalert.org)
  • Carbon is an element stored in fossil fuels such as coal and oil. (investopedia.com)
  • The most common oxidation state of carbon in inorganic compounds is +4, while +2 is found in carbon monoxide and transition metal carbonyl complexes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Carbon forms a vast number of compounds , more than any other element, with almost ten million compounds described to date, [19] and yet that number is but a fraction of the number of theoretically possible compounds under standard conditions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Due to its outstanding properties, such as high stability at environmental conditions, different hybridizations, strong covalent bond formation and easy of compounds formation, carbon has been a topic of scientific interest in several areas. (springer.com)
  • Indeed, starting in the 19th century, chemists have devoted a whole field to study carbon-based compounds, which is, nowadays, known as Organic Chemistry. (springer.com)
  • There are more carbon compounds than there are compounds of all other elements combined. (infoplease.com)
  • The study of carbon compounds, both natural and synthetic, is called organic chemistry. (infoplease.com)
  • Hydrocarbon fuels (e.g., natural gas), marsh gas, and the gases resulting from the combustion of fuels (e.g., carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide) are compounds of carbon. (infoplease.com)
  • Carbon inputs come from the growth of plants and their roots, the transfer of carbon-rich compounds from roots to soil microbes, and the decomposition of leaf litter. (nature.com)
  • It is also found in many different chemical combinations, including carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) and calcium carbonate (CaCO 3 ), as well as in a huge variety of organic compounds such as hydrocarbons (like coal, petroleum, and natural gas ). (encyclopedia.com)
  • The process in which oxygen is used to break down organic compounds into carbon dioxide and water. (encyclopedia.com)
  • More than one million carbon compounds have been described in chemical literature, and chemists synthesize many new ones each year. (britannica.com)
  • Indeed, carbon's compounds are so numerous, complex, and important that their study constitutes a specialized field of chemistry called organic chemistry , which derives its name from the fact that in the 19th century most of the then-known carbon compounds were considered to have originated in living organisms. (britannica.com)
  • All organic compounds, such as proteins , carbohydrates , and fats , contain carbon, and all plant and animal cells consist of carbon compounds and their polymers . (britannica.com)
  • With hydrogen , oxygen , nitrogen , and a few other elements , carbon forms compounds that make up about 18 percent of all the matter in living things. (britannica.com)
  • Because at high temperatures carbon combines readily with oxygen that is present in compounds with metals, large quantities of coke (an inexpensive form of carbon) are used in metallurgical processes to reduce (remove oxygen from) metal oxide ores, such as those of iron and zinc . (britannica.com)
  • A type of chemical reaction in which one substance (an oxidizing agent) accepts electrons from another substance (a reducing agent) and is thereby reduced (while the reducing agent is oxidized) is frequently observed with carbon and its compounds. (britannica.com)
  • Included among the rate-limiting steps of the dark stage of photosynthesis are the chemical reactions by which organic compounds are formed by using carbon dioxide as a carbon source. (britannica.com)
  • Carbon is known to form almost ten million compounds, a large majority of all chemical compounds. (wikipedia.org)
  • Carbon compounds form the basis of all known life on Earth, and the carbon-nitrogen cycle provides some of the energy produced by the Sun and other stars. (wikipedia.org)
  • The largest sources of inorganic carbon are limestones , dolomites and carbon dioxide , but significant quantities occur in organic deposits of coal , peat , oil , and methane clathrates . (wikipedia.org)
  • There is virtually no debate among scientists that climate change is caused by humans unleashing carbon and methane. (forbes.com)
  • The large energy of the carbon-carbon bond makes activation energy requirements for the reaction so high that direct reduction of carbon-e.g., to methane (formula CH 4 )-is impractical. (britannica.com)
  • Similar benefits are seen in coal seams, where pockets of methane can be displaced with carbon dioxide. (treehugger.com)
  • However, burning that methane would produce more carbon dioxide. (treehugger.com)
  • The Conclusion - NO Actually planting trees to offset the carbon footprint of the developed world would need many millions of hectares of available land. (slideshare.net)
  • Cut carbon footprint by over 20,000 metric tons or 10 percent since 2006. (cnbc.com)
  • Reduced carbon footprint over 30% in the last two years. (cnbc.com)
  • Cut cradle-to-gate carbon footprint by 20-25 percent per ton of product by 2020 compared to 2009. (cnbc.com)
  • Carbon Footprint Barcodes on the Horizon? (treehugger.com)
  • Without a significant increase in the use of renewable energy, the IT sector's carbon footprint will continue to grow at a concerning rate, increasing the demand for electricity produced from coal and other forms of dirty energy. (greenpeace.org)
  • With LCA, we can quantify the carbon footprint of the product, from sourcing of raw materials, through to manufacturing, distribution, consumer use and product end of life. (logitech.com)
  • With the introduction of our Carbon Transparency label, we will provide a carbon footprint (number) on the product package, as well as additional insight and information for consumers and partners on this webpage. (logitech.com)
  • 1 - Denotes the carbon footprint of the full lifecycle of the product, from materials sourcing and manufacture, distribution, consumer use, and end of life. (logitech.com)
  • 2 - The product carbon footprint has been verifiably offset, thereby rendering it Carbon Neutral. (logitech.com)
  • As we quantify the Carbon Footprint of each product, we are capturing learnings, which we can incorporate into the ecodesign of the next generation of products. (logitech.com)
  • Age of trees Carbon fixed each year Cumulative amount of carbon fixed (years) (t C ha-1 year-1) (t C ha-1) 5 0.2 0.2 10 7.0 21.0 15 14.0 77.0 20 21.0 167.8 cebitz. (slideshare.net)
  • Carbon fixation by Pine trees Cumulative amount of carbon fixed (t C / ha 200 When tree saplings are very young the rate of respiration is almost 150 equal to photosynthesis so the 100 amount of carbon fixed is negligible. (slideshare.net)
  • But when anything changes the amount of carbon in one reservoir, the effect ripples through the others. (nasa.gov)
  • The total amount of carbon on Earth, whether we are able to measure it accurately or not, always remains the same, although the carbon regularly changes its form. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The amount of carbon disulfide released into the air through natural processes is difficult to judge because it is so small. (cdc.gov)
  • Community Carbon Reduction (CCR) mobilises people to work together on reducing the risks of climate change. (google.com)
  • But our approach to carbon reduction can be applied in communities anywhere in the world with a commitment to reducing the risks of climate change. (google.com)
  • Last month, more than 3,500 economists-a record number-signed an open letter calling for a carbon tax to fight climate change. (forbes.com)
  • Many economists distrust government action and prefer markets to work out problems, so the breadth of agreement on the use of a carbon tax to address climate change is striking and rare. (forbes.com)
  • In part, the carbon tax letter reflects the virtually unanimous scientific consensus that humans are causing climate change. (forbes.com)
  • ESA's Climate Change Initiative is helping to ensure the long-term generation of data on climate variables for more accurate carbon modelling. (esa.int)
  • Climate change is already threatening to roll back years of development progress, and the global community recognizes the urgency for closing the gap between current climate trajectories and lower carbon emission levels to address this challenge. (worldbank.org)
  • Soils store vast quantities of carbon and have the potential to help mitigate or exacerbate climate change. (nature.com)
  • Although most climate change studies focus on carbon in the skies above us, researchers are also increasingly looking to the ground below. (nature.com)
  • Climate warming and human disturbance of ecosystems are destabilizing the balance between inputs and outputs and causing soil organic carbon loss, which in turn exacerbates climate change. (nature.com)
  • This implies that the accumulation and sequestration of carbon in these soils is much slower than predicted by models (see News & Views by Billings and de Souza), while also highlighting the vulnerability of these ecosystems and their carbon stocks to the abrupt changes brought on by climate change. (nature.com)
  • Researchers are increasingly thinking about how soil systems can be successfully managed to store more carbon and mitigate climate change. (nature.com)
  • Strong winds caused by climate change are mixing waters in the oceans, causing carbon dioxide to rise to the surface from the ocean's depths. (treehugger.com)
  • Prime Minister Julia Gillard's climate change committee has been labelled as Marxist for its refusal to include opponents of a carbon price. (theage.com.au)
  • Brown s climate change policy, he argued isolates the state from much of the U.S. Woolfe dismissed California s cap-and-trade carbon market a tax-and-spend policy. (freerepublic.com)
  • With a sweeping overhaul of the tax code on the horizon, two Senate Democrats believe this is the moment to broach the third rail of climate change policy: a carbon tax. (freerepublic.com)
  • A concise overview of carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS), a promising but overlooked climate change mitigation pathway. (mit.edu)
  • Carbon capture offers a path to climate change mitigation that has received relatively little attention. (mit.edu)
  • Herzog, a pioneer in carbon capture research, begins by discussing the fundamentals of climate change and how carbon capture can be one of the solutions. (mit.edu)
  • He ran an industrial consortium on CCS from 2000 to 2016, served as a US delegate to the Carbon Sequestration Leadership Forum's Technical Group from 2003 to 2007, and was a Coordinating Lead Author for the IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) Special Report on Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage (2005). (mit.edu)
  • Although international programs for carbon offsets play an important role in current and prospective climate-change policy, they continue to be very controversial. (nber.org)
  • But the future fate of this important carbon sink is quite uncertain because of potential climate change impacts on ocean circulation, biogeochemical cycling, and ecosystem dynamics. (nasa.gov)
  • In 5-10 years, an intensive Southern Ocean carbon program will be needed to resolve uncertainties in the size, dynamics, and global significance of the Southern Ocean as a carbon sink, the processes controlling this sink, and the response of the sink to climate change in the Southern Hemisphere. (nasa.gov)
  • Please contact CDC-INFO (800-232-4636) if you have any questions regarding carbon monoxide exposure during pregnancy. (cdc.gov)
  • VMware formally acquired Carbon Black, a leading next-generation security cloud provider on October 8, 2019. (vmware.com)
  • Immediately Dangerous to Life or Health Concentrations (IDLH) of Carbon Disulfide -NIOSH reviews relevant scientific data and researches methods for developing IDLH values. (cdc.gov)
  • Carbon monoxide (CO) is both more readily absorbed and more firmly bound to the hemoglobin of the blood than is oxygen and is thus, even in small concentrations, a dangerous asphyxiant. (britannica.com)
  • High concentrations of carbon disulfide have caused skin burns when the chemical accidentally touched people's skin. (cdc.gov)
  • Biological processes influence dissolved carbon dioxide concentrations (Carbon Cycle) through net primary production by phytoplankton, and respiration. (nasa.gov)
  • Marketing carbon involves cap and trade and/or offsets. (commondreams.org)
  • A new United Nations report says the Trudeau government is so far behind meeting the greenhouse gas reduction targets it agreed to in the Paris climate accord, it will likely have to buy billions of dollars worth of carbon offsets to meet its international commitments. (freerepublic.com)
  • Carbon offsets won't save the planet. (treehugger.com)
  • In an effort to make the Barcelona Congress a carbon neutral event, IUCN is making a call to all IUCN members and partners to propose one or more projects from which certified carbon offsets can be purchased after the event. (iucn.org)
  • Carbon occurs in the crust of Earth in the form of carbonates in such rocks as marble , limestone , and chalk and in hydrocarbons -the principal constituents of coal , petroleum , and natural gas . (britannica.com)
  • Carbon monoxide is produced when fuels such as gas, oil, coal and wood do not burn fully. (www.nhs.uk)
  • The most widely supported way to store captured carbon dioxide is in deep geological formations like oil fields, gas fields, coal seams and saline aquifers. (treehugger.com)
  • Yet carbon capture and storage remains the elusive holy grail of the coal industry, an idea that could contain the damage inflicted by coal-burning power plants but a technology that remains expensive, energy intensive and largely untested. (washingtonpost.com)
  • AEP executives estimate that the cost of carbon capture for a modest-size coal plant of about 235 megawatts would start at $700 million. (washingtonpost.com)
  • Carbon (from Latin: carbo "coal") is a chemical element with the symbol C and atomic number 6. (wikipedia.org)
  • This fact sheet answers the most frequently asked health questions about carbon tetrachloride. (cdc.gov)
  • Carbon tetrachloride does not occur naturally. (cdc.gov)
  • Exposure to very high amounts of carbon tetrachloride can damage the liver, kidneys, and nervous system. (cdc.gov)
  • Carbon tetrachloride can cause cancer in animals. (cdc.gov)
  • Carbon tetrachloride has been found in at least 425 of the 1,662 National Priority List sites identified by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). (cdc.gov)
  • What is carbon tetrachloride? (cdc.gov)
  • Carbon tetrachloride is a manufactured chemical that does not occur naturally. (cdc.gov)
  • Carbon tetrachloride is most often found in the air as a colorless gas. (cdc.gov)
  • What happens to carbon tetrachloride when it enters the environment? (cdc.gov)
  • How might I be exposed to carbon tetrachloride? (cdc.gov)
  • How can carbon tetrachloride affect my health? (cdc.gov)
  • High exposure to carbon tetrachloride can cause liver, kidney, and central nervous system damage. (cdc.gov)
  • These effects can occur after ingestion or breathing carbon tetrachloride, and possibly from exposure to the skin. (cdc.gov)
  • The liver is especially sensitive to carbon tetrachloride because it enlarges and cells are damaged or destroyed. (cdc.gov)
  • Effects of carbon tetrachloride are more severe in persons who drink large amounts of alcohol. (cdc.gov)
  • There have been no studies of the effects of carbon tetrachloride on reproduction in humans, but studies in rats showed that long-term inhalation may cause decreased fertility. (cdc.gov)
  • How likely is carbon tetrachloride to cause cancer? (cdc.gov)
  • Studies in humans have not been able to determine whether or not carbon tetrachloride can cause cancer because usually there has been exposure to other chemicals at the same time. (cdc.gov)
  • Swallowing or breathing carbon tetrachloride for years caused liver tumors in animals. (cdc.gov)
  • Mice that breathed carbon tetrachloride also developed tumors of the adrenal gland. (cdc.gov)
  • The Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) has determined that carbon tetrachloride may reasonably be anticipated to be a carcinogen. (cdc.gov)
  • The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has determined that carbon tetrachloride is possibly carcinogenic to humans, whereas the EPA determined that carbon tetrachloride is a probable human carcinogen. (cdc.gov)
  • Carbon tetrachloride (CCl 4 ) and other chlorinated hydrocarbons damage the nervous system . (britannica.com)
  • carbon tetrachloride (tĕ´trəklôr´īd) or tetrachloromethane (tĕ´trəklôr´əmĕth´ān) , CCl 4 , colorless, poisonous, liquid organic compound that boils at 76.8°C. It is toxic when absorbed through the skin or when inhaled. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Carbon tetrachloride is used in the production of Freon refrigerants, e.g. (encyclopedia.com)
  • carbon tetrachloride (tet-ră- klor -ryd) n. a pungent volatile fluid used as a dry-cleaner. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The people most often exposed to carbon disulfide are workers in plants that use carbon disulfide in their manufacturing processes. (cdc.gov)
  • Is there a medical test to show whether I've been exposed to carbon disulfide? (cdc.gov)
  • The carbon atom has four valence electrons and has the ability to form bonds with as many as four other atoms including other carbon atoms. (slideshare.net)
  • It bonds readily with other small atoms, including other carbon atoms, and is capable of forming multiple stable covalent bonds with suitable multivalent atoms. (wikipedia.org)
  • Growing concern (and regulation) of greenhouse gases, for example, will result in a trillion dollar carbon market within a decade, creating a new global currency that anyone can trade for a profit. (fastcompany.com)
  • Carbon dioxide gases are captured either at the source of production, such as a power plant, or directly from the air. (treehugger.com)
  • Carbon dioxide can be separated from other gases either before or after combusting fuel in a plant or industrial facility. (treehugger.com)
  • proposals include creating giant sponges that are mounted high in the air like wind turbines near carbon dioxide-producing plants to capture the gases. (treehugger.com)
  • Not all transport can be electrified, and it is unlikely that biofuels can be made at scale without affecting food availability or generating greenhouse gases, so we must also search for alternative scalable, non-biomass-based zero-carbon fuels. (technologyreview.com)
  • The carbon trading market facilitates the buying and selling of the rights to emit greenhouse gases. (investopedia.com)
  • In each method, the sample is acidified to drive off inorganic carbon as CO 2 and the remaining carbon is measured using an NDIR sensor. (carleton.edu)
  • The high temperature combustion method for measuring DOC involves conversion of inorganic carbon to dissolved CO 2 , and purging this from the sample. (carleton.edu)
  • This process converts inorganic carbon to dissolved CO 2 , which is then purged from the sample. (carleton.edu)
  • A useful search term for carbon disulfide includes "carbon bisulfide," "carbon sulfide," and "carbon disulphide. (cdc.gov)
  • NIOSHTIC-2 search results on carbon disulfide -NIOSHTIC-2 is a searchable database of worker safety and health publications, documents, grant reports, and journal articles supported in whole or in part by NIOSH. (cdc.gov)
  • Recognition of the crucial importance of this distinctly heterogeneous carbon reservoir has taken researchers from the tropics to the poles in search of answers. (nature.com)
  • Carbon monoxide, also known as CO, is called the "Invisible Killer" because it's a colorless, odorless, poisonous gas. (cpsc.gov)
  • Carbon disulfide (CS 2 ) is a colorless liquid with an ether-like odor. (cdc.gov)
  • Carbon monoxide (CO) is a colorless, odorless, and toxic gas, which is predominantly produced by incomplete combustion of carbon-containing materials. (cdc.gov)
  • Your body just released carbon dioxide, a colorless gas that's essential to life on Earth. (amnh.org)
  • Carbon monoxide (CO) is a colorless, odorless, poisonous gas. (cpsc.gov)
  • Pure carbon disulfide is a colorless liquid with a pleasant odor that is like the smell of chloroform. (cdc.gov)
  • Carbon dioxide is a colorless, odorless gas. (mcgill.ca)
  • Soil organic carbon is composed of soil microbes, decaying organic matter and degradation products like humus. (nature.com)
  • Outputs are governed by microbial respiration, which converts organic carbon back to carbon dioxide, soil erosion and leaching. (nature.com)
  • The global distribution and residence time of soil organic carbon is largely controlled by climatic factors, which influence photosynthesis, decomposition and respiration rates. (nature.com)
  • reveals that permafrost soils contain the oldest soil organic carbon pool on Earth. (nature.com)
  • Microbes - capable of both respiring organic carbon and producing stable recalcitrant pools - have a complex relationship with soil carbon. (nature.com)
  • Microbes form a large component of soil organic carbon through their biomass and the organic matter transformations they mediate. (nature.com)
  • microbial formation of soil organic carbon below ground produces mineral-stabilized soil carbon more efficiently than leaf litter inputs above ground 6 . (nature.com)
  • The technique dates a piece of dead organic material by measuring the rate of decay of a radioactive isotope known as carbon-14. (wired.com)
  • As the foundation atop which a huge family of chemical substances called organic substances are formed, carbon is the basis of carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids - all of which form the basis of life on Earth. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Much of the diversity and complexity of organic forms is due to the capacity of carbon atoms for bonding with one another in various chain and ring structures and three-dimensional conformations as well as for linking with other atoms. (britannica.com)
  • Carbon-isotope dating is a method of radiometric age-dating using the amount of the heavy, radioactive isotope carbon-14 remaining in organic matter . (encyclopedia.com)
  • Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) is defined as the organic matter that is able to pass through a filter (filters generally range in size between 0.7 and 0.22 um). (carleton.edu)
  • Conversely, particulate organic carbon (POC) is that carbon that is too large and is filtered out of a sample. (carleton.edu)
  • If you have ever seen a body of water that appears straw, tea, or brownish in color, it likely has a high organic carbon load. (carleton.edu)
  • Organic carbon can be allochthonous, or sourced from outside the system (e.g. by atmospheric deposition or transported long distances via stream flow) or it can be autochthonous, or sourced from the immediate surroundings of the system (e.g. plant and microbial matter and sediments/soils within the catchment). (carleton.edu)
  • Dissolved and particulate organic carbon are important components in the carbon cycle and serve as a primary food sources for aquatic food webs. (carleton.edu)
  • Finally, organic carbon, as well as other dissolved and particulate matter, can affect light penetration in aquatic ecosystems, which is important for the ecosystem's phototrophs that need light to subsist. (carleton.edu)
  • Dissolved organic carbon samples are analyzed on an ultraviolet persulfate total organic carbon analyzer. (carleton.edu)
  • Dissolved organic carbon can be measured via several different techniques. (carleton.edu)
  • Total organic carbon can be analyzed using high temperature combustion (a) or UV/Persulfate oxidation (b). (carleton.edu)
  • The remaining (organic) carbon is then oxidized at a high temperature to CO 2 which can be detected by the instrument's nondispersive infrared (NDIR) sensor and directly correlated to total organic carbon (TOC) content. (carleton.edu)
  • Particulate organic carbon is measured by determining mass lost upon combustion of a sample. (carleton.edu)
  • New measurements of carbon in the coastal ocean and of organic particle content or profiles throughout the ocean will be needed to reduce uncertainties in coastal carbon fluxes and to quantify carbon export to the deep ocean. (nasa.gov)
  • The plants then "fix" or capture the carbon dioxide and are able to convert it into simple sugars like glucose through the biochemical process known as photosynthesis. (encyclopedia.com)
  • This increase in carbon dioxide directly increases plant photosynthesis, but the size of the increase depends on the species and physiological condition of the plant. (britannica.com)
  • In hot and arid climates the stomata may close to conserve water, but this closure limits the entry of carbon dioxide and hence the rate of photosynthesis. (britannica.com)
  • Vehicles or generators running in an attached garage can also produce dangerous levels of carbon monoxide. (nfpa.org)
  • The symptoms of exposure to low levels of carbon monoxide can be similar to those of food poisoning and flu . (www.nhs.uk)
  • Breathing in high levels of carbon monoxide gas can cause more severe symptoms. (www.nhs.uk)
  • Seek medical advice from your GP if you think you have been exposed to low levels of carbon monoxide. (www.nhs.uk)
  • What's more, the bonds forged between carbon atoms are very, very strong. (slideshare.net)
  • A particular carbon atom located in someone's eyelash may have at one time been part of some now-extinct species, like a dinosaur. (encyclopedia.com)
  • covalently bonded to a single carbon atom. (mcgill.ca)
  • The carbon atom historically has been known for its very durable structure in dia. (bookrags.com)
  • They began to cross-reference the reports from carbon-dating analysis with the actual ages of living organisms. (wired.com)
  • Since a continual supply of carbon is essential for all living organisms, the carbon cycle is the name given to the different processes that move carbon from one to another. (encyclopedia.com)
  • He said that to meet the newly agreed upon target of limiting global warming to two degrees, nations must make carbon capture 'standard technology by 2020. (washingtonpost.com)
  • The costs of carbon capture and storage can then be offset by the sale or use of these fuels. (treehugger.com)
  • When these fuels are burned, carbon dioxide is released and acts as greenhouse gas. (investopedia.com)
  • As carbon dioxide levels rise, so do global temperatures. (amnh.org)
  • For example, soils in high-latitude regions tend to be carbon-rich as the cold temperatures keep respiration rates down, while higher respiration rates in the warmer tropics result in less stored soil carbon. (nature.com)
  • At ordinary temperatures, carbon is very unreactive-it is difficult to oxidize-and it does not react with acids or alkalies . (britannica.com)
  • At high temperatures it combines with sulfur vapour to form carbon disulfide , with silicon and certain metals to form carbides , and with oxygen to form oxides, of which the most important are carbon monoxide , CO, and carbon dioxide, CO 2 . (britannica.com)
  • Commercial carbon disulfide is made by combining carbon and sulfur at very high temperatures. (cdc.gov)
  • atm, but is a solid at temperatures below -78 °C. In its solid state, carbon dioxide is commonly called dry ice . (mcgill.ca)
  • Furthermore, most scientists maintain that increasing levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide affect climate, increasing global temperatures and changing rainfall patterns. (britannica.com)
  • The decreased carbon dioxide concentration inside the leaves and the increased leaf temperatures favour the wasteful process of photorespiration. (britannica.com)
  • Carbon sublimes in a carbon arc, which has a temperature of about 5800 K (5,530 °C or 9,980 °F). Thus, irrespective of its allotropic form, carbon remains solid at higher temperatures than the highest-melting-point metals such as tungsten or rhenium. (wikipedia.org)
  • When you eat carbon molecules (plants and animals), the digestive juices in your stomach break the carbon bonds inside and release the energy in the form of calories. (slideshare.net)
  • Materials scientists have long known that carbon-based molecules can possess extreme properties-after all, diamonds are pure carbon. (asme.org)
  • describe how the long-term stability of soil carbon is a matter of having the right microbes in the right place at the right time, as not all microbes are capable of decomposing all molecules. (nature.com)
  • Molecules composed solely of hydrogen and carbon atoms. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Scientists have long speculated that the extreme pressures in this region might split those molecules into atoms of hydrogen and carbon, the latter of which then crystallize to form diamonds. (freerepublic.com)
  • Within the "Carbon Nanostructures" book series, the reader will find valuable, up-to-date account of both the newer and traditional forms of carbon. (springer.com)
  • But common forms of carbon, such as graphite, are soft rather than strong. (asme.org)
  • The Policy Perspectives give an overview of recent OECD findings on each of these forms of carbon pricing. (oecd.org)
  • As a result, small amounts of carbon monoxide can dramatically reduce hemoglobin's ability to transport oxygen. (cdc.gov)
  • The symptoms of carbon monoxide poisoning are not always obvious, particularly during low-level exposure. (www.nhs.uk)
  • Workers may be harmed by carbon disulfide. (cdc.gov)
  • Carbon disulfide is used in many industries. (cdc.gov)
  • If you work in an industry that uses carbon disulfide, please read chemical labels and the accompanying Safety Data Sheets for hazard information. (cdc.gov)
  • The following resources provide information about occupational exposure to carbon disulfide. (cdc.gov)
  • Carbon Disulfide: Rubber and Plastics Chemical Manufacturing -The NIOSH Worker Notification Program notifies workers and other stakeholders about the findings of these research studies. (cdc.gov)
  • DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 77-156 (1977)-This report increases awareness and recommends work practices to reduce exposures to carbon disulfide in the workplace. (cdc.gov)
  • Carbon Disulfide (No. 1600) -Sampling and measurement data from NMAM, fourth edition. (cdc.gov)
  • Occupational Health Guideline for Carbon Disulfide -This guideline helps stakeholders conduct effective occupational safety and health programs. (cdc.gov)
  • Exposure to carbon disulfide can occur by breathing it in the air and by drinking water or eating foods that contain it. (cdc.gov)
  • What is carbon disulfide? (cdc.gov)
  • The impure carbon disulfide that is usually used in most industrial processes is a yellowish liquid with an unpleasant odor, like that of rotting radishes. (cdc.gov)
  • Carbon disulfide evaporates at room temperature, and the vapor is more than twice as heavy as air. (cdc.gov)
  • Carbon disulfide evaporates rapidly when released to the environment. (cdc.gov)
  • Most carbon disulfide in the air and surface water is from manufacturing and processing activities. (cdc.gov)
  • Carbon disulfide does not stay dissolved in water very long, and it also moves through soils fairly quickly. (cdc.gov)
  • Carbon disulfide does not appear to be taken up in significant amounts by the organisms living in water. (cdc.gov)
  • People may also be exposed through skin contact with soil, water, or other substances that contain carbon disulfide. (cdc.gov)
  • How can carbon disulfide affect my health? (cdc.gov)
  • At very high levels, carbon disulfide may be life-threatening because of its effects on the nervous system. (cdc.gov)
  • People who breathed carbon disulfide near an accident involving a railroad car showed changes in breathing and some chest pains. (cdc.gov)
  • However, these workers may have been exposed to other chemicals besides carbon disulfide. (cdc.gov)
  • Studies in animals indicate that carbon disulfide can affect the normal functions of the brain, liver, and heart. (cdc.gov)
  • After pregnant rats breathed carbon disulfide in the air, some of the newborn rats died or had birth defects. (cdc.gov)
  • The Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS), the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), and the EPA have not classified carbon disulfide for carcinogenicity. (cdc.gov)
  • There are no definitive data in humans or animals that indicate a carcinogenic potential for carbon disulfide. (cdc.gov)
  • One chemical test using urine can be done to tell whether the levels of breakdown substances from carbon disulfide are higher than normal. (cdc.gov)
  • However, the test is not specific for carbon disulfide exposure. (cdc.gov)
  • It also requires special equipment and cannot tell you exactly how much carbon disulfide you were exposed to or predict whether harmful effects will occur. (cdc.gov)
  • Here are specific steps you can take to help prevent carbon monoxide from harming you, your passengers, or fellow boaters. (uscgboating.org)
  • In the cycle there are various sinks, or stores, of carbon and fluxes, or processes, by which the various sinks exchange carbon on various time scales. (slideshare.net)
  • We need to better understand the interplay of chemical, physical and biological processes that govern soil carbon cycling and stability. (nature.com)
  • demonstrates how microbial processes and decomposition in permafrost soils lead to carbon loss, a feedback exacerbated by the increasing density of plants taking root as soils thaw. (nature.com)
  • The carbon cycle is just one of several recycling processes, but it may be the most important process since carbon is known to be a basic building block of life. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The processes by which organisms consume carbon and return it to their surroundings constitute the carbon cycle . (britannica.com)
  • Global observations of the spatial and temporal patterns of carbon exchange and understanding the underlying processes that regulate this exchange is critical for predicting the future behavior of these carbon sinks. (nasa.gov)
  • Physical oceanography influences the carbon cycle through its modulation of the biology and also through processes that control carbonate chemistry (temperature, alkalinity/salinity) and carbon dioxide flux rates between the air-sea interface (surface wind speeds). (nasa.gov)
  • Both physical and biological processes in the ocean affect the carbon cycle. (nasa.gov)
  • As early as about 4,000 years ago, deforestation by the Maya caused reduced carbon retention in soils 1 . (nature.com)
  • Global warming and wildfires increasingly threaten permafrost regions in thawing what were perennially frozen, carbon-rich soils. (nature.com)
  • Reduction of carbon monoxide to elemental carbon and oxidation of carbon monoxide to carbon dioxide are both feasible but impractical in solution. (britannica.com)
  • Although thermodynamically prone to oxidation, carbon resists oxidation more effectively than elements such as iron and copper, which are weaker reducing agents at room temperature. (wikipedia.org)
  • The drop in atmospheric carbon caused additional cooling. (nasa.gov)
  • Antarctic ice core evidence shows that the big jump in atmospheric carbon dioxide of the past century is extraordinary. (amnh.org)
  • By using a pair of experiments, both of which explore the climate impacts of black carbon and differ only in whether black-carbon changes can also adjust to atmospheric-circulation responses, Sand et al . (nature.com)
  • The atmospheric level of carbon dioxide climbed from about 0.028 percent in 1860 to 0.032 percent by 1958 (when improved measurements began) and to 0.040 percent by 2016. (britannica.com)
  • The ocean "solubility pump" removes atmospheric carbon dioxide as air mixes with and dissolves into the upper ocean. (nasa.gov)
  • The atoms of carbon can bond together in different ways, termed allotropes of carbon . (wikipedia.org)
  • All carbon allotropes are solids under normal conditions, with graphite being the most thermodynamically stable form at standard temperature and pressure. (wikipedia.org)
  • The atoms of carbon can bond together in diverse ways, resulting in various allotropes of carbon. (wikipedia.org)
  • The allotropes of carbon include graphite, one of the softest known substances, and diamond, the hardest naturally occurring substance. (wikipedia.org)
  • Animals and plants alike release carbon dioxide through respiration and when they decay. (amnh.org)
  • Rocks release carbon dioxide through weathering. (amnh.org)
  • Gasoline-powered generators release carbon monoxide, so make sure they are far from your home. (ct.gov)
  • Fitzgerald added that many of the center's current partnerships, such as the one with the Carbon Pricing Leadership Coalition - a group that lobbies for taxing carbon emission - are working to achieve these goals. (yaledailynews.com)
  • The most common carbon dioxide emitters like power plants are often already located above these naturally occurring underground 'storage tanks', making them an attractive solution. (treehugger.com)
  • Most important of all, did you know carbon monoxide poisonings are preventable . (uscgboating.org)
  • The new CDC report shows that most accidental carbon monoxide poisonings happen in January, and the second most in December. (webmd.com)
  • DENVER --(BUSINESS WIRE)--May 2, 2018-- On May 1, 2018 , Carbon Natural Gas Company (" Carbon " or the " Company ")(OTCQB:CRBO), through its subsidiary Carbon California Company, LLC , (" Carbon California ") completed the acquisition of oil and gas producing properties and related facilities located in the Ventura Basin of California for $43 million subject to normal and customary post-closing adjustments. (corporate-ir.net)
  • Exposure to carbon monoxide impedes the blood's ability to carry oxygen to body tissues and vital organs. (cdc.gov)
  • Carbon monoxide exposure can be dangerous during pregnancy for both the mother and the developing fetus. (cdc.gov)
  • Presents a standard to prevent the adverse effects of exposure to Carbon Monoxide over a working lifetime. (cdc.gov)
  • A guide to first responders on dealing with incidents of carbon monoxide exposure. (cpsc.gov)
  • The symptoms can gradually get worse with prolonged exposure to carbon monoxide, leading to a delay in diagnosis. (www.nhs.uk)
  • Incorrectly installed, poorly maintained or poorly ventilated household appliances, such as cookers, heaters and central heating boilers, are the most common causes of accidental exposure to carbon monoxide. (www.nhs.uk)
  • The risk of exposure to carbon monoxide from portable devices may also be higher in caravans, boats and mobile homes. (www.nhs.uk)
  • Sometime in 2007, China passed the US to become the world's largest emitter of carbon dioxide. (greenpeace.org)
  • Benzene was known to consist of six carbon and six hydrogen atoms, but how they fitted together was a mystery. (newscientist.com)
  • Carbon dioxide is a greenhouse gas , and it is dissolved in all natural waters . (britannica.com)
  • Carbon neutrality can still result in higher pollution overall as the industry grows its net greenhouse gas pollution. (greenpeace.org)
  • The facility, with its 390-foot-long processing line, is capable of custom unit operation con guration and has a capacity of up to 25 tons per year, allowing industry to validate conversion of their alternative carbon ber precursors at semi-production scale. (ornl.gov)
  • A similar plan was implemented to offset almost 4000 tons of carbon dioxide equivalent, based on voluntary contributions from about one-third of delegates during the 2004 Bangkok Congress. (iucn.org)
  • Chinese scientists have said emission allowances should be set at 2.33 tons of carbon dioxide per person per year for the period 1900 to 2050, Reuters reported on Tuesday. (chinadaily.com.cn)
  • It involved the outlawing of carbon crimes-'knowingly and willfully acting to sharply increase the atmosphere's carbon content without provision for redress, and thus, for the sake of shortterm financial benefit, to inflict on the entire planet and its billions of inhabitants a dangerously unstable climate. (worldwatch.org)
  • Activated carbon is used to treat poisonings and overdoses following oral ingestion . (wikipedia.org)
  • Since 2012, our global operations have been 100 percent carbon neutral-a commitment spanning operations in more than 100 countries. (microsoft.com)
  • We're working our way toward delivering a more sustainable future with a goal of carbon neutral operations by 2040, Priority Earth is our initiative to get there. (fedex.com)
  • To support the integrity of internal calculations, Logitech is collaborating with well-known third parties including IFU Hamburg, an iPoint Group company, to establish a valid ISO aligned measurement protocol, an independent DEKRA-authorised verifier to verify and validate each products carbon impact to DEKRA certification standards, and Natural Capital Partners to identify and apply certified carbon offset instruments to achieve product carbon neutral status. (logitech.com)