A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.
A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.
Carbon monoxide (CO). A poisonous colorless, odorless, tasteless gas. It combines with hemoglobin to form carboxyhemoglobin, which has no oxygen carrying capacity. The resultant oxygen deprivation causes headache, dizziness, decreased pulse and respiratory rates, unconsciousness, and death. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
Nanometer-sized tubes composed mainly of CARBON. Such nanotubes are used as probes for high-resolution structural and chemical imaging of biomolecules with ATOMIC FORCE MICROSCOPY.
Toxic asphyxiation due to the displacement of oxygen from oxyhemoglobin by carbon monoxide.
Stable carbon atoms that have the same atomic number as the element carbon, but differ in atomic weight. C-13 is a stable carbon isotope.
A solvent for oils, fats, lacquers, varnishes, rubber waxes, and resins, and a starting material in the manufacturing of organic compounds. Poisoning by inhalation, ingestion or skin absorption is possible and may be fatal. (Merck Index, 11th ed)
Any of several processes for the permanent or long-term artificial or natural capture or removal and storage of carbon dioxide and other forms of carbon, through biological, chemical or physical processes, in a manner that prevents it from being released into the atmosphere.
A colorless, flammable, poisonous liquid, CS2. It is used as a solvent, and is a counterirritant and has local anesthetic properties but is not used as such. It is highly toxic with pronounced CNS, hematologic, and dermatologic effects.
A measure of the total greenhouse gas emissions produced by an individual, organization, event, or product. It is measured in units of equivalent kilograms of CARBON DIOXIDE generated in a given time frame.
Unstable isotopes of carbon that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. C atoms with atomic weights 10, 11, and 14-16 are radioactive carbon isotopes.
An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.
Total mass of all the organisms of a given type and/or in a given area. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990) It includes the yield of vegetative mass produced from any given crop.
A dark powdery deposit of unburned fuel residues, composed mainly of amorphous CARBON and some HYDROCARBONS, that accumulates in chimneys, automobile mufflers and other surfaces exposed to smoke. It is the product of incomplete combustion of carbon-rich organic fuels in low oxygen conditions. It is sometimes called lampblack or carbon black and is used in INK, in rubber tires, and to prepare CARBON NANOTUBES.
The gaseous envelope surrounding a planet or similar body. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
Elimination of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS; PESTICIDES and other waste using living organisms, usually involving intervention of environmental or sanitation engineers.
The unconsolidated mineral or organic matter on the surface of the earth that serves as a natural medium for the growth of land plants.
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
Derivatives of ACETIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxymethane structure.
An allotropic form of carbon that is used in pencils, as a lubricant, and in matches and explosives. It is obtained by mining and its dust can cause lung irritation.
Inorganic compounds that contain carbon as an integral part of the molecule but are not derived from hydrocarbons.
The synthesis by organisms of organic chemical compounds, especially carbohydrates, from carbon dioxide using energy obtained from light rather than from the oxidation of chemical compounds. Photosynthesis comprises two separate processes: the light reactions and the dark reactions. In higher plants; GREEN ALGAE; and CYANOBACTERIA; NADPH and ATP formed by the light reactions drive the dark reactions which result in the fixation of carbon dioxide. (from Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2001)
Cellular processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of CARBOHYDRATES.
A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.
An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.
Woody, usually tall, perennial higher plants (Angiosperms, Gymnosperms, and some Pterophyta) having usually a main stem and numerous branches.
Electric conductors through which electric currents enter or leave a medium, whether it be an electrolytic solution, solid, molten mass, gas, or vacuum.
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
The simplest saturated hydrocarbon. It is a colorless, flammable gas, slightly soluble in water. It is one of the chief constituents of natural gas and is formed in the decomposition of organic matter. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The processes by which organisms use simple inorganic substances such as gaseous or dissolved carbon dioxide and inorganic nitrogen as nutrient sources. Contrasts with heterotrophic processes which make use of organic materials as the nutrient supply source. Autotrophs can be either chemoautotrophs (or chemolithotrophs), largely ARCHAEA and BACTERIA, which also use simple inorganic substances for their metabolic energy reguirements; or photoautotrophs (or photolithotrophs), such as PLANTS and CYANOBACTERIA, which derive their energy from light. Depending on environmental conditions some organisms can switch between different nutritional modes (autotrophy; HETEROTROPHY; chemotrophy; or PHOTOTROPHY) to utilize different sources to meet their nutrient and energy requirements.
A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A mixed function oxidase enzyme which during hemoglobin catabolism catalyzes the degradation of heme to ferrous iron, carbon monoxide and biliverdin in the presence of molecular oxygen and reduced NADPH. The enzyme is induced by metals, particularly cobalt. EC 1.14.99.3.
The generic name for the group of aliphatic hydrocarbons Cn-H2n+2. They are denoted by the suffix -ane. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The salinated water of OCEANS AND SEAS that provides habitat for marine organisms.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the soil. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
A series of oxidative reactions in the breakdown of acetyl units derived from GLUCOSE; FATTY ACIDS; or AMINO ACIDS by means of tricarboxylic acid intermediates. The end products are CARBON DIOXIDE, water, and energy in the form of phosphate bonds.
The pressure that would be exerted by one component of a mixture of gases if it were present alone in a container. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in nature. Some species are pathogenic for humans, animals, and plants.
The complete absence, or (loosely) the paucity, of gaseous or dissolved elemental oxygen in a given place or environment. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
A mass of organic or inorganic solid fragmented material, or the solid fragment itself, that comes from the weathering of rock and is carried by, suspended in, or dropped by air, water, or ice. It refers also to a mass that is accumulated by any other natural agent and that forms in layers on the earth's surface, such as sand, gravel, silt, mud, fill, or loess. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1689)
The effect of GLOBAL WARMING and the resulting increase in world temperatures. The predicted health effects of such long-term climatic change include increased incidence of respiratory, water-borne, and vector-borne diseases.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.
Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.
The study of chemical changes resulting from electrical action and electrical activity resulting from chemical changes.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)
Salts or ions of the theoretical carbonic acid, containing the radical CO2(3-). Carbonates are readily decomposed by acids. The carbonates of the alkali metals are water-soluble; all others are insoluble. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Life or metabolic reactions occurring in an environment containing oxygen.
Oxidoreductases that are specific for ALDEHYDES.
Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A trihydroxy sugar alcohol that is an intermediate in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. It is used as a solvent, emollient, pharmaceutical agent, and sweetening agent.
A broad class of substances containing carbon and its derivatives. Many of these chemicals will frequently contain hydrogen with or without oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, phosphorus, and other elements. They exist in either carbon chain or carbon ring form.
A great expanse of continuous bodies of salt water which together cover more than 70 percent of the earth's surface. Seas may be partially or entirely enclosed by land, and are smaller than the five oceans (Atlantic, Pacific, Indian, Arctic, and Antarctic).
The processes by which organisms utilize organic substances as their nutrient sources. Contrasts with AUTOTROPHIC PROCESSES which make use of simple inorganic substances as the nutrient supply source. Heterotrophs can be either chemoheterotrophs (or chemoorganotrophs) which also require organic substances such as glucose for their primary metabolic energy requirements, or photoheterotrophs (or photoorganotrophs) which derive their primary energy requirements from light. Depending on environmental conditions some organisms can switch between different nutritional modes (AUTOTROPHY; heterotrophy; chemotrophy; or PHOTOTROPHY) to utilize different sources to meet their nutrients and energy requirements.
The first chemical element in the periodic table. It has the atomic symbol H, atomic number 1, and atomic weight [1.00784; 1.00811]. It exists, under normal conditions, as a colorless, odorless, tasteless, diatomic gas. Hydrogen ions are PROTONS. Besides the common H1 isotope, hydrogen exists as the stable isotope DEUTERIUM and the unstable, radioactive isotope TRITIUM.
The use of a heavy ion particle beam for radiotherapy, such as the HEAVY IONS of CARBON.
A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Complex sets of enzymatic reactions connected to each other via their product and substrate metabolites.
The utilization of an electrical current to measure, analyze, or alter chemicals or chemical reactions in solution, cells, or tissues.
An amorphous form of carbon prepared from the incomplete combustion of animal or vegetable matter, e.g., wood. The activated form of charcoal is used in the treatment of poisoning. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
A colorless, flammable liquid used in the manufacture of FORMALDEHYDE and ACETIC ACID, in chemical synthesis, antifreeze, and as a solvent. Ingestion of methanol is toxic and may cause blindness.
The vapor state of matter; nonelastic fluids in which the molecules are in free movement and their mean positions far apart. Gases tend to expand indefinitely, to diffuse and mix readily with other gases, to have definite relations of volume, temperature, and pressure, and to condense or liquefy at low temperatures or under sufficient pressure. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The act of blowing a powder, vapor, or gas into any body cavity for experimental, diagnostic, or therapeutic purposes.
A water-soluble, colorless crystal with an acid taste that is used as a chemical intermediate, in medicine, the manufacture of lacquers, and to make perfume esters. It is also used in foods as a sequestrant, buffer, and a neutralizing agent. (Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed, p1099; McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1851)
Acetyl CoA participates in the biosynthesis of fatty acids and sterols, in the oxidation of fatty acids and in the metabolism of many amino acids. It also acts as a biological acetylating agent.
The amount of a gas taken up, by the pulmonary capillary blood from the alveolar gas, per minute per unit of average pressure of the gradient of the gas across the BLOOD-AIR BARRIER.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
A polyhedral CARBON structure composed of around 60-80 carbon atoms in pentagon and hexagon configuration. They are named after Buckminster Fuller because of structural resemblance to geodesic domes. Fullerenes can be made in high temperature such as arc discharge in an inert atmosphere.
Derivatives of SUCCINIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain a 1,4-carboxy terminated aliphatic structure.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in water. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.
A ubiquitous stress-responsive enzyme that catalyzes the oxidative cleavage of HEME to yield IRON; CARBON MONOXIDE; and BILIVERDIN.
The act of breathing with the LUNGS, consisting of INHALATION, or the taking into the lungs of the ambient air, and of EXHALATION, or the expelling of the modified air which contains more CARBON DIOXIDE than the air taken in (Blakiston's Gould Medical Dictionary, 4th ed.). This does not include tissue respiration (= OXYGEN CONSUMPTION) or cell respiration (= CELL RESPIRATION).
The exchange of OXYGEN and CARBON DIOXIDE between alveolar air and pulmonary capillary blood that occurs across the BLOOD-AIR BARRIER.
Any substance in the air which could, if present in high enough concentration, harm humans, animals, vegetation or material. Substances include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; and volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.
The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Stable nitrogen atoms that have the same atomic number as the element nitrogen, but differ in atomic weight. N-15 is a stable nitrogen isotope.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
The science of developing, caring for, or cultivating forests.
The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
A product of hard secondary xylem composed of CELLULOSE, hemicellulose, and LIGNANS, that is under the bark of trees and shrubs. It is used in construction and as a source of CHARCOAL and many other products.
Product of the oxidation of ethanol and of the destructive distillation of wood. It is used locally, occasionally internally, as a counterirritant and also as a reagent. (Stedman, 26th ed)
A climate which is typical of equatorial and tropical regions, i.e., one with continually high temperatures with considerable precipitation, at least during part of the year. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The adhesion of gases, liquids, or dissolved solids onto a surface. It includes adsorptive phenomena of bacteria and viruses onto surfaces as well. ABSORPTION into the substance may follow but not necessarily.
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
Organic compounds containing the carboxy group (-COOH). This group of compounds includes amino acids and fatty acids. Carboxylic acids can be saturated, unsaturated, or aromatic.
Derivatives of formic acids. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that are formed with a single carbon carboxy group.
An intermediate compound in the metabolism of carbohydrates, proteins, and fats. In thiamine deficiency, its oxidation is retarded and it accumulates in the tissues, especially in nervous structures. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
Free-floating minute organisms that are photosynthetic. The term is non-taxonomic and refers to a lifestyle (energy utilization and motility), rather than a particular type of organism. Most, but not all, are unicellular algae. Important groups include DIATOMS; DINOFLAGELLATES; CYANOBACTERIA; CHLOROPHYTA; HAPTOPHYTA; CRYPTOMONADS; and silicoflagellates.
Alkyl compounds containing a hydroxyl group. They are classified according to relation of the carbon atom: primary alcohols, R-CH2OH; secondary alcohols, R2-CHOH; tertiary alcohols, R3-COH. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
Relating to the size of solids.
A microanalytical technique combining mass spectrometry and gas chromatography for the qualitative as well as quantitative determinations of compounds.
Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
The development and use of techniques to study physical phenomena and construct structures in the nanoscale size range or smaller.
An element that is a member of the chalcogen family. It has an atomic symbol S, atomic number 16, and atomic weight [32.059; 32.076]. It is found in the amino acids cysteine and methionine.
Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in fungi.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
Water containing no significant amounts of salts, such as water from RIVERS and LAKES.
A spectrum of clinical liver diseases ranging from mild biochemical abnormalities to ACUTE LIVER FAILURE, caused by drugs, drug metabolites, and chemicals from the environment.
A clinical manifestation of abnormal increase in the amount of carbon dioxide in arterial blood.
Salts and esters of hydroxybutyric acid.
Experimentally induced chronic injuries to the parenchymal cells in the liver to achieve a model for LIVER CIRRHOSIS.
Measurement of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the blood.
The class of all enzymes catalyzing oxidoreduction reactions. The substrate that is oxidized is regarded as a hydrogen donor. The systematic name is based on donor:acceptor oxidoreductase. The recommended name will be dehydrogenase, wherever this is possible; as an alternative, reductase can be used. Oxidase is only used in cases where O2 is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p9)
Deliberate introduction of air into the peritoneal cavity.
Process by which micro-organisms adapt quickly to a preferred rapidly-metabolizable intermediate through the inhibition or repression of genes related to CATABOLISM of less preferred source(s).
Fractionation of a vaporized sample as a consequence of partition between a mobile gaseous phase and a stationary phase held in a column. Two types are gas-solid chromatography, where the fixed phase is a solid, and gas-liquid, in which the stationary phase is a nonvolatile liquid supported on an inert solid matrix.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.
Particles of any solid substance, generally under 30 microns in size, often noted as PM30. There is special concern with PM1 which can get down to PULMONARY ALVEOLI and induce MACROPHAGE ACTIVATION and PHAGOCYTOSIS leading to FOREIGN BODY REACTION and LUNG DISEASES.
The usually underground portions of a plant that serve as support, store food, and through which water and mineral nutrients enter the plant. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982; Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
Any combustible hydrocarbon deposit formed from the remains of prehistoric organisms. Examples are petroleum, coal, and natural gas.
Inorganic or organic salts and esters of nitric acid. These compounds contain the NO3- radical.
Any of a variety of procedures which use biomolecular probes to measure the presence or concentration of biological molecules, biological structures, microorganisms, etc., by translating a biochemical interaction at the probe surface into a quantifiable physical signal.
That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared range.
A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria isolated from soil and water as well as clinical specimens. Occasionally it is an opportunistic pathogen.
Tools or devices for generating products using the synthetic or chemical conversion capacity of a biological system. They can be classical fermentors, cell culture perfusion systems, or enzyme bioreactors. For production of proteins or enzymes, recombinant microorganisms such as bacteria, mammalian cells, or insect or plant cells are usually chosen.
Processes by which phototrophic organisms use sunlight as their primary energy source. Contrasts with chemotrophic processes which do not depend on light and function in deriving energy from exogenous chemical sources. Photoautotrophy (or photolithotrophy) is the ability to use sunlight as energy to fix inorganic nutrients to be used for other organic requirements. Photoautotrophs include all GREEN PLANTS; GREEN ALGAE; CYANOBACTERIA; and green and PURPLE SULFUR BACTERIA. Photoheterotrophs or photoorganotrophs require a supply of organic nutrients for their organic requirements but use sunlight as their primary energy source; examples include certain PURPLE NONSULFUR BACTERIA. Depending on environmental conditions some organisms can switch between different nutritional modes (AUTOTROPHY; HETEROTROPHY; chemotrophy; or phototrophy) to utilize different sources to meet their nutrients and energy requirements.
Salts or esters of LACTIC ACID containing the general formula CH3CHOHCOOR.
The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.
Any tests done on exhaled air.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The noninvasive measurement or determination of the partial pressure (tension) of oxygen and/or carbon dioxide locally in the capillaries of a tissue by the application to the skin of a special set of electrodes. These electrodes contain photoelectric sensors capable of picking up the specific wavelengths of radiation emitted by oxygenated versus reduced hemoglobin.
An oxidative decarboxylation process that converts GLUCOSE-6-PHOSPHATE to D-ribose-5-phosphate via 6-phosphogluconate. The pentose product is used in the biosynthesis of NUCLEIC ACIDS. The generated energy is stored in the form of NADPH. This pathway is prominent in tissues which are active in the synthesis of FATTY ACIDS and STEROIDS.
Inorganic salts that contain the -HCO3 radical. They are an important factor in determining the pH of the blood and the concentration of bicarbonate ions is regulated by the kidney. Levels in the blood are an index of the alkali reserve or buffering capacity.
Any of a group of polysaccharides of the general formula (C6-H10-O5)n, composed of a long-chain polymer of glucose in the form of amylose and amylopectin. It is the chief storage form of energy reserve (carbohydrates) in plants.
Stable oxygen atoms that have the same atomic number as the element oxygen, but differ in atomic weight. O-17 and 18 are stable oxygen isotopes.
A CHROMATOGRAPHY method using supercritical fluid, usually carbon dioxide under very high pressure (around 73 atmospheres or 1070 psi at room temperature) as the mobile phase. Other solvents are sometimes added as modifiers. This is used both for analytical (SFC) and extraction (SFE) purposes.
The longterm manifestations of WEATHER. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.
Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
The protection, preservation, restoration, and rational use of all resources in the total environment.
The art or process of comparing photometrically the relative intensities of the light in different parts of the spectrum.
A phylum of ARCHAEA comprising at least seven classes: Methanobacteria, Methanococci, Halobacteria (extreme halophiles), Archaeoglobi (sulfate-reducing species), Methanopyri, and the thermophiles: Thermoplasmata, and Thermococci.
Techniques for labeling a substance with a stable or radioactive isotope. It is not used for articles involving labeled substances unless the methods of labeling are substantively discussed. Tracers that may be labeled include chemical substances, cells, or microorganisms.
Gases, fumes, vapors, and odors escaping from the cylinders of a gasoline or diesel internal-combustion engine. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed & Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)

Sodalis gen. nov. and Sodalis glossinidius sp. nov., a microaerophilic secondary endosymbiont of the tsetse fly Glossina morsitans morsitans. (1/5091)

A secondary intracellular symbiotic bacterium was isolated from the haemolymph of the tsetse fly Glossina morsitans morsitans and cultured in Aedes albopictus cell line C6/36. Pure-culture isolation of this bacterium was achieved through the use of solid-phase culture under a microaerobic atmosphere. After isolation of strain M1T, a range of tests was performed to determine the phenotypic properties of this bacterium. Considering the results of these tests, along with the phylogenetic position of this micro-organism, it is proposed that this intracellular symbiont from G. m. morsitans should be classified in a new genus Sodalis gen. nov., as Sodalis glossinidius gen. nov., sp. nov. Strain M1T is the type strain for this new species.  (+info)

Role of a novel photosystem II-associated carbonic anhydrase in photosynthetic carbon assimilation in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. (2/5091)

Intracellular carbonic anhydrases (CA) in aquatic photosynthetic organisms are involved in the CO2-concentrating mechanism (CCM), which helps to overcome CO2 limitation in the environment. In the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, this CCM is initiated and maintained by the pH gradient created across the chloroplast thylakoid membranes by photosystem (PS) II-mediated electron transport. We show here that photosynthesis is stimulated by a novel, intracellular alpha-CA bound to the chloroplast thylakoids. It is associated with PSII on the lumenal side of the thylakoid membranes. We demonstrate that PSII in association with this lumenal CA operates to provide an ample flux of CO2 for carboxylation.  (+info)

Condensation of carbon in radioactive supernova gas. (3/5091)

Chemistry resulting in the formation of large carbon-bearing molecules and dust in the interior of an expanding supernova was explored, and the equations governing their abundances were solved numerically. Carbon dust condenses from initially gaseous carbon and oxygen atoms because energetic electrons produced by radioactivity in the supernova cause dissociation of the carbon monoxide molecules, which would otherwise form and limit the supply of carbon atoms. The resulting free carbon atoms enable carbon dust to grow faster by carbon association than the rate at which the dust can be destroyed by oxidation. The origin of presolar micrometer-sized carbon solids that are found in meteorites is thereby altered.  (+info)

Role of ArgR in activation of the ast operon, encoding enzymes of the arginine succinyltransferase pathway in Salmonella typhimurium. (4/5091)

The ast operon, encoding enzymes of the arginine succinyltransferase (AST) pathway, was cloned from Salmonella typhimurium, and the nucleotide sequence for the upstream flanking region was determined. The control region contains several regulatory consensus sequences, including binding sites for NtrC, cyclic AMP receptor protein (CRP), and ArgR. The results of DNase I footprintings and gel retardation experiments confirm binding of these regulatory proteins to the identified sites. Exogenous arginine induced AST under nitrogen-limiting conditions, and this induction was abolished in an argR derivative. AST was also induced under carbon starvation conditions; this induction required functional CRP as well as functional ArgR. The combined data are consistent with the hypothesis that binding of one or more ArgR molecules to a region between the upstream binding sites for NtrC and CRP and two putative promoters plays a pivotal role in modulating expression of the ast operon in response to nitrogen or carbon limitation.  (+info)

A small catalytic RNA motif with Diels-Alderase activity. (5/5091)

BACKGROUND: The 'RNA world' hypothesis requires that RNA be able to catalyze a wide variety of chemical reactions. In vitro selection from combinatorial RNA libraries has been used to identify several catalytic activities, most of which have resulted in a self-modification of RNA at one of its constituents. The formation of carbon-carbon bonds is considered an essential prerequisite for a complex metabolism based on RNA. RESULTS: We describe the selection and characterization of new ribozymes that catalyze carbon-carbon bond formation by Diels-Alder reaction of a biotinylated maleimide with an RNA-tethered anthracene. Secondary structure analysis identified a 49-nucleotide RNA motif that accelerates the reaction about 20,000-fold. The motif has only 11 conserved nucleotides that are present in most of the selected sequences. The ribozyme motif is remarkably adaptable with respect to cofactor and metal-ion requirements. The motif was also re-engineered to give a 38-mer RNA that can act as a 'true' catalyst on short external substrate oligonucleotide-anthracene conjugates. CONCLUSIONS: We have identified a small, highly abundant RNA motif that can solve the complex task of forming two carbon-carbon bonds between two reactants in trans, a catalytic capacity useful for creating prebiotically relevant molecules. This is the smallest and fastest RNA catalyst for carbon-carbon bond formation reported to date.  (+info)

Number and anatomical extent of lymph node metastases in gastric cancer: analysis using intra-lymph node injection of activated carbon particles (CH40). (6/5091)

BACKGROUND: The long-term survival of 200 patients with gastric cancer who underwent radical gastrectomy was analyzed with respect to the number and anatomical extent of lymph node metastasis. All of the patients received intra-lymph node injection of fine activated carbon particle solution (CH40) during surgery. METHODS: The average number of resected lymph nodes increased in line with the anatomical level of lymph node dissection; 32.5 per patient in D1, 42.3 in D2, 3 and 66.3 in D4. The percentage of blackened lymph nodes without metastasis (42.4%) was slightly higher than that of lymph nodes containing metastasis (37.2%), but the difference was not statistically significant. Of the 200 patients, 61 (30.5%) had microscopic evidence of metastatic lymph node involvement. Twenty-two patients had between one and three metastatic lymph nodes, 19 had between four and nine and 20 patients had more than nine. The 5-year survival rate was 93.1% in patients without lymph node metastasis, 71.9% in patients with 1-8 metastatic nodes, 36.1% in patients with 4-9 nodes and 19.2% in patients with > 9 nodes. RESULTS: The 5-year survival rate according to the anatomical extent of metastatic lymph nodes was 93.1% in n0, 63.1% in n1, 37.9% in n2, 27.8% in n3 and 0% in n4. The number of metastatic lymph nodes and also their anatomical extent were identified as independent prognostic factors for survival by multivariate analysis. CONCLUSION: The number and anatomical extent of metastatic lymph nodes have similar impacts on prognosis in gastric cancer.  (+info)

Acn9 is a novel protein of gluconeogenesis that is located in the mitochondrial intermembrane space. (7/5091)

Previous studies have indicated that the Acn9 protein is involved in gluconeogenesis. Yeast mutants defective in the ACN9 gene display phenotypes identical with mutants defective in metabolic enzymes required for carbon assimilation. These phenotypes include the inability to utilize acetate as a carbon and energy source, elevated levels of enzymes of the glyoxylate cycle, gluconeogenesis and acetyl-CoA mobilization, and a deficiency in de novo synthesis of glucose from ethanol. The ACN9 gene was isolated by functional complementation of the acetate growth defect of an acn9 mutant. The open reading frame corresponds to YDR511w, and encodes a protein of unknown function. Homologs have been identified in human, mouse, and nematode databases. Two mutant alleles were sequenced. The mutations altered amino acid residues that are conserved among members of the new gene family. ACN9 gene expression was slightly repressed by glucose, and the level of the transcript was approximately 100-fold lower than that of glyoxylate or tricarboxylic acid cycle enzymes. A functional epitope-tagged form of Acn9 was expressed to study expression and the subcellular localization of the protein. The tagged protein was localized to the mitochondrial intermembrane space.  (+info)

Carbon assimilation by Claviceps purpurea growing as a parasite. (8/5091)

Carbon assimilation by Claviceps purpurea, growing as a parasite on cereals, has been investigated by supplying the host plant with 14CO2 in a closed system. The presence of the pathogen induced the plant to exude photosynthate which contained high levels of sucrose. During the period of 14CO2 supply, 14C was incorporated into the sucrose and so the path of carbon into the parasite could be traced. Hexoses, derived by the action of the fungal sucrase on sucrose, were assimilated by the pathogen and largely converted into polyols - mainly mannitol and, to a lesser extent, trehalose. The rate of carbohydrate metabolism decreased with maturation of the ergot, and also showed qualitative differences between the basal and apical regions of the ergot which were probably a function of nutrient supply.  (+info)

A transparent amorphous carbon layer is formed. The transparent amorphous carbon layer has a low absorption coefficient such that the amorphous carbon is transparent in visible light. The transparent amorphous carbon layer may be used in semiconductor devices for different purposes. The transparent amorphous carbon layer may be included in a final structure in semiconductor devices. The transparent amorphous carbon layer may also be used as a mask in an etching process during fabrication of semiconductor devices.
Mechanical properties of amorphous carbon films deposited from carbon stable isotope materialsMechanical properties of amorphous carbon films deposited from carbon stable isotope materials ...
Viruses are dependent on the metabolic machinery of the host cell to supply the energy and molecular building blocks needed for their replication. Substantial research has focused on understanding how viruses alter host cellular metabolism in the hopes of identifying metabolic pathways that are critical for successful infection. In this thesis, we explore how two viruses important for biodefense, vaccinia virus (VACV) and dengue virus (DENV), manipulate the global cellular metabolome during infection. In Chapter III, we examine the impact VACV has on the host metabolic network and discover that VACV implements a strikingly unique carbon utilization program during infection. Specifically, we define an important role for glutamine during VACV infection and show that glucose is dispensable for replication. We show that the glutaminolytic pathway of glutamine metabolism is markedly altered in VACV-infected cells and is necessary to replenish the TCA cycle during infection. We further demonstrate ...
Article Breakthrough curves of oil adsorption on novel amorphous carbon thin film. A novel amorphous carbon thin film (ACTF) was prepared by hydrolyzing wood sawdust and delignificating the residue to obtain cellulose mass that was subjected to react...
We studied the structural properties of amorphous carbon covering a wide range of densities from low-density to high-density regime using classical molecular dynamics with reactive empirical bond-order potential model. We calculated the pair-correlation functions, relative concentration of various coordinated atoms, and ring statistics in the amorphous carbon networks and compared them with other results. They agree with each other qualitatively but are different quantitatively. We investigate the difference now and will provide comprehensive understanding at the conference.
Nitrogen-free amorphous carbon thin films prepared via sputtering followed by graphitization, were used as precursor materials for the creation of N-doped carbon electrodes with varying degrees of amorphization. Incorporation of N-sites was achieved via nitrogen plasma treatments which resulted in both surface functionalization and amorphization of the carbon electrode materials. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Raman spectroscopy were used to monitor composition and carbon organization: results indicate incorporation of predominantly pyrrolic-N sites after relatively short treatment cycles (5 min or less), accompanied by an initial etching of amorphous regions followed by a slower process of amorphization of graphitized clusters. By leveraging the difference in the rate of these two processes it was possible to investigate the effects of chemical N-sites and C-defect sites on their electrochemical response. The materials were tested as metal-free electrocatalysts in the oxygen reduction
Ducklow, Hugh W (2003): Particulate organic carbon and particulate organic nitrogen data at station TT045_2-1. PANGAEA, https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.115917
Ducklow, Hugh W (2003): Particulate organic carbon and particulate organic nitrogen data at station TT045_7-13. PANGAEA, https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.115937
Recent studies have demonstrated that carbon, in the form of diamond, can be functionalized with molecular and/or biomolecular species to yield interfaces exhibiting extremely high stability and selectivity in binding to target biomolecules in solution. However, diamond and most other crystalline forms of carbon involve high-temperature deposition or processing steps that restrict their ability to be integrated with other materials. Here, we demonstrate that photochemical functionalization of amorphous carbon films followed by covalent immobilization of DNA yields highly stable surfaces with excellent biomolecular recognition properties that can be used for real-time biological detection. Carbon films deposited onto substrates at 300 K were functionalized with organic alkenes bearing protected amine groups and characterized using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The functionalized carbon surfaces were covalently linked to DNA oligonucleotides. Measurements
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Lightweight polymer-carbon composites with high specific electrical conductivity at a carbon content below 40 vol.% were developed. The electrical and mechanical properties and the hydrogen permeability of carbon fiber and particle reinforced liquid crystalline polymers were examined. Vectra® A 950, SIGRAFIL® carbon fibers and Vulcan® 5XC6 72 R carbon black were employed. The composites are found to have sufficient mechanical properties and a hydrogen permeability low enough to be utilised as bipolar plate material in fuel cell applications. The density of the new composite is 20% lower than the density of commercial bipolar plates made from carbon reinforced polymeric composite materials, due to the lower carbon content. The current density at 0.5 V in an operating fuel cell is only 20% lower compared to commercial materials with more than 80 vol.% carbon content and meets the requirements for bipolar plate application ...
PhD position in land-sea soil carbon transfer dynamics *Job description* The global carbon cycle represents the collection of complex biogeochemical processes that influence our climate and link all carbon pools on Earth. Soils play a very active and key role in the global carbon cycle, as upon sequestration in marine sediments they act as long-term sink of atmospheric CO2. A large part of organic carbon (OC) stored in soils is continuously mobilized and either returned to the atmosphere or transported by rivers to the oceans. However, little is known about the fate and residence times of soil OC within a river basin. This PhD project will combine organic biomarkers with radiogenic and stable isotopes to study the physical and biological processes that soil OC undergoes during river transport from land to sea, the duration of this transport, as well as the factors that control these processes. The data that are generated in this project should contribute to a better understanding of the role of ...
In order to quantify the role of coastal upwelling regions as source or sink areas for carbon, the relationships between particulate organic carbon (POC) production, export, remineralization, and accumulation were examined in Monterey Bay from 1989 through 1992. During a normal upwelling year (1989-90), a high positive correlation (r = 0.91) is observed between biweekly primary production and POC export at 450 m. Primary production values range from 500 mgC m−2 d−1 during the winter, to 2600 mgC m−2 d−1 in the spring and summer upwelling months. Corresponding deep-water (450 m) POC fluxes vary from a minimum of 10 mgC m−2 d−1 in December, to 120 mgC m−2 d−1 in May. In contrast, the mid-1991 through 1992 data sets obtained during the 91-92 El Nino period, show a relatively poor correlation (r = 0.23) between productivity and carbon export. Calculated ratios of POC export to POC production (defined as e-ratios) display a trend for the three-year data sets in which the e-ratio ...
The Renewable Fuel Standard has successfully driven the production and use of low carbon fuels in the U.S. transportation fleet. Corn ethanol has replaced 10 percent of climate change causing petroleum. The RFS was enacted, in part, to drive innovation and the production of low carbon biofuels that reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by at least 50 percent and more than petroleum - so called advanced biofuels.. This White Paper walks through the current state of science as it relates to the lifecycle GHG emissions of corn ethanol and makes recommendations for updating lifecycle modeling which is used to inform low carbon policy decisions. ...
Downloadable! A low carbon fuel standard (LCFS) seeks to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by limiting the carbon intensity of fuels. We show this decreases high carbon fuel production but increases low carbon fuel production, possibly increasing net carbon emissions. The LCFS cannot be efficient, and the best LCFS may be nonbinding. We simulate a national LCFS on gasoline and ethanol. For a broad parameter range, emissions decrease, energy prices increase, abatement costs are large ($80 - $760 billion annually), and average abatement costs are large ($307 - $2,272 per CO2 metric ton). A cost effective policy has much lower average abatement costs ($60 - $868). (JEL Q54, Q58)
Electrically conductive compositions of carbon nparticles having thin coatings of conductive polymer are disclosed. The thin coatings of conductive polymer electrically interact with each carbon particle and protect the carbon particles from conductive failure. Because the conductive compositions of coated carbon particles maintain their conductive characteristics even after long term exposure to chemicals, they are useful as filler materials in polymer compositions utilized to fabricate chemical delivery devices.
D5904-02(2017) Standard Test Method for Total Carbon, Inorganic Carbon, and Organic Carbon in Water by Ultraviolet, Persulfate Oxidation, and Membrane Conductivity Detection inorganic carbon~ total carbon~ organic carbon content~ membrane conductivity detectors~ UV radiation~
In the short-term heterotrophic soil respiration is strongly and positively related to temperature. In the long-term, its response to temperature is uncertain. One reason for this is because in field experiments increases in respiration due to warming are relatively short-lived. The explanations proposed for this ephemeral response include depletion of fast-cycling, soil carbon pools and thermal adaptation of microbial respiration. Using a , 15 year soil warming experiment in a mid-latitude forest, we show that the apparent acclimation of soil respiration at the ecosystem scale results from combined effects of reductions in soil carbon pools and microbial biomass, and thermal adaptation of microbial respiration. Mass-specific respiration rates were lower when seasonal temperatures were higher, suggesting that rate reductions under experimental warming likely occurred through temperature-induced changes in the microbial community. Our results imply that stimulatory effects of global temperature ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Nitrate and nitrite reductions with anaerobic sludge using various carbon sources. T2 - glucose, glycerol, acetic acid, lactic acid and methanol. AU - Akunna, Joseph C.. AU - Bizeau, C.. AU - Moletta, R.. PY - 1993/8. Y1 - 1993/8. N2 - Batch-tests were used to determine the potentials of digested sludge to reduce nitrate and nitrite in the presence of five different carbon sources: glucose, glycerol, acetic acid, lactic acid and methanol. Ammonium accumulation was found in glucose and glycerol media. Dissimilatory reduction to ammonium accounted for up to 50% of reduced nitrate and nitrite. The rest were denitrified. In the media containing these carbon substrates volatile fatty acids, particularly acetic acid, were produced and ammonification was higher than denitrification activities only when glucose and glycerol were still present in the media. Ammonium production was higher in nitrite cultures than in nitrate cultures. In the culture media with acetic and lactic acids and ...
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EFFECT OF DIFFERENT CARBON SOURCES ON THE GROWTH OF ANTIMICROBIAL PRODUCING Bacillus Species IN Citrillus vugaris., Largest Undergraduate Projects Repository, Research Works and Materials. Download Undergraduate Projects Topics and Materials Accounting, Economics, Education
The overall goal of this study was to investigate influences of ectomycorrhizae (EM) and interspecific carbon transfer on seedling performance in species mixtures. The objectives were to: (I) determine the potential for EM to link paper birch and Douglas-fir, (ii) quantify gross and net interspecific carbon transfer, and (iii) evaluate effect of transfer on seedling performance. A soil bioassay showed that paper birch and Douglas-fir shared seven EM morphotypes in common over 90% of their root tips, indicating potential for hyphal connections. The number and percent colonization of shared morphotypes were greater when species were grown in dual- than monoculture. Reciprocal labelling of paper birch and Douglas-fir with ¹³CO₂[subscript(gas)] and ¹⁴CO₂[subscript(gas)] in laboratory rootboxes and the field resulted in bi-directional transfer, with net gain by Douglas-fir. In rootboxes, gross and net transfer represented 29% and 4% of total isotope assimilated by both species. Net transfer ...
Article Nitrogen deposition effects on carbon storage and fungal:bacterial ratios in coastal sage scrub soils of Southern California. Received for publication August 25, 2008. The effects of nitrogen (N) across a deposition gradient on bacterial and ...
The degradation of organic matter in the deep-sea is a critical microbial process that facilitates global carbon cycling and affects all organisms. Typically, deep-sea microbial communities experience very low organic carbon availability, however, at deep-sea whalefalls these bacteria are provided with organic carbon levels ~2000x greater than usual. This creates an ideal environment in which to examine the metabolism of marine microbes and to further understand carbon cycling on and within the deep-sea floor. Only a handful of papers have investigated marine sediments, thus, we first had to develop a method for measuring enzymatic activity. We focused on proteases, enzymes responsible for the breakdown of proteins, one of a number of organic carbon sources in the environment. Protease activity was measured in marine sediments associated with a whalefall at 1800 meters depth in Monterey Bay, collected at zero, three and ten meters distance. As expected, the highest protease activity was found ...
The Low Carbon Eco-Innovatory helps local businesses by creating innovative low carbon goods, processes and services. Read the case studies to find out how we have helped these businesses.
The Gram-positive bacterium Bacillus licheniformis is an important industrial host for the production of enzymes. Genomic DNA arrays and proteomics are being used to investigate the physiology of this bacterium. A genome-wide transcriptional profiling analysis of the adaptation of B. licheniformis to phosphate starvation shows more than 100 induced genes. Most of strongly induced genes belong to the putative Pho regulon. The data of the transcriptome analysis have been verified by the analysis of the extracellular and cytoplasmic proteome. The main response of B. licheniformis to glucose starvation was a switch to the usage of alternative carbon sources. In addition, B. licheniformis seems to be using other organic substances like amino acids and lipids as carbon sources when subjected to glucose starvation. This was indicated by the induction of a high number of genes the proteins of which are involved in amino acid and lipid degradation. During nitrogen starvation genes necessary for the ...
The Gram-positive bacterium Bacillus licheniformis is an important industrial host for the production of enzymes. Genomic DNA arrays and proteomics are being used to investigate the physiology of this bacterium. A genome-wide transcriptional profiling analysis of the adaptation of B. licheniformis to phosphate starvation shows more than 100 induced genes. Most of strongly induced genes belong to the putative Pho regulon. The data of the transcriptome analysis have been verified by the analysis of the extracellular and cytoplasmic proteome. The main response of B. licheniformis to glucose starvation was a switch to the usage of alternative carbon sources. In addition, B. licheniformis seems to be using other organic substances like amino acids and lipids as carbon sources when subjected to glucose starvation. This was indicated by the induction of a high number of genes the proteins of which are involved in amino acid and lipid degradation. During nitrogen starvation genes necessary for the ...
Expression of the Irp gene is regulated in part by the nutrients available to the cell, and is decreased in rich medium, in glucose minimal media enriched with amino acids, and in minimal medium with alternative carbon sources, such as acetate and succinate. When Lrp production is increased in a given medium, expression of its target genes is also increased. However, when the medium is changed from glucose to acetate, the response of the target genes is governed by many factors.
The ocean accounts for over 90% of the active pools of carbon on the Earths surface, with over 95% of marine carbon in the form of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) (Hedges and Keil 1995). Organic carbon dissolved in the ocean, suspended as particles or cells, and accumulating in sediments together constitute the other significant fractions of marine carbon, with organic carbon in the water column similar in quantity to the current atmospheric inventory of carbon dioxide. Isotopic partitioning among various inorganic and organic carbon phases reflects biological, physical and chemical processes, and the resulting fractionations are important tools.... ...
Anti-thrombogenicity and endothelialization are two essential issues in devising blood-contacting medical implants, such as artificial blood vessels and vascular stents [1, 2]. Minimizing the plasma protein adsorption and platelet adhesion has proved beneficial in reducing thrombus formation especially in the initial implantation. Subsequently, rapid endothelialization of implant surfaces may significantly reduce the risk of long-term thrombogenesis and provide a fully hemocompatible interface. Furthermore, native endothelium has unique physiological role of maintaining vascular homeostasis, including the active anti-thrombosis, and the release of soluble factors that contribute to the inhibition of smooth muscle cell proliferation and hence reduce intimal hyperplasia [3, 4]. Rapid regeneration of endothelium is thereby crucial to the success of implantation. Numerous approaches such as natural polymer coating (collagen) [5], surface biomolecule immobilization (heparin) [6], and drug-eluting ...
During past decades, tremendous attention has been paid to the development of new electrode materials with high capacitance to meet the requirements of electrode materials in supercapacitors. Among various vanadium oxides, recently VO2(A) has received increasing attention as its unique layered structure, pha
On average, the water column of Lake Superior is undersaturated with respect to dissolved oxygen and supersaturated with respect to carbon dioxide during the summer-stratified period. On the basis of temporal changes in water column dissolved oxygen, we calculate rates of oxygen consumption that range from 0.19 to 0.75 mmol m-3 d-1. These rates are a factor of 5-10 times larger than can be supported by the particulate carbon settling rates and benthic oxygen consumption rates. In addition, on the basis of the limited information available, dissolved allochthonous carbon inputs are insufficient to account for the calculated rates of carbon oxidation. Rates of nitrate and total CO2 (ΣCO2) production are 0.019 ± 0.012 and 0.13 ± 0.06 mmol m-3 d-1, respectively, and are consistent with the oxidation of a dissolved organic component that is similar in composition (C : N ratio) to the settling particulate material. Previously published estimates of total primary production were smaller but similar ...
Liquid carbon is applied to the skin as it penetrates deeply into the pores. As laser light is highly attracted to carbon particles, it takes the dead skin cells, contaminants and oil while eradicating the carbon.. As carbon has the capacity to absorb oil and other contaminants that are deep within the pores, youll get its cleansing benefits as the laser passes through the treatment area, taking the carbon particles along with any absorbed impurities from the face. Your skin is exfoliated as the dead skin cells and blackheads are blasted by the laser along with the carbon. This is how you can get finer pores and a more even skin tone.. Not only on the surface, but Carbon Laser also stimulates collagen production as it targets the deep layers of the skin which results into firmer, plumper skin, reduction of fine lines and wrinkles, making you look younger and naturally glowing skin.. Carbon Laser has additional benefits such as the reduction of the bacteria responsible for acne to help you ...
Carbon offsets are reductions in emissions of carbon or greenhouse gases made in order to compensate for or to offset an emission made elsewhere. Carbon offsets are measured in metric tons of carbon dioxide (CO2e) and may represent six primary categories of greenhouse gases.[1] One carbon offset represents the reduction of one metric ton of carbon dioxide or its equivalent in other greenhouse gases. There are two markets for carbon offsets. In the larger, compliance market, companies, governments, or other entities buy carbon offsets in order to comply with caps on the total amount of carbon dioxide they are allowed to emit. In 2006, about $5.5 billion of carbon offsets were purchased in the compliance market, representing about 1.6 billion metric tons of CO2e reductions.[2] In the smaller, voluntary market, individuals, companies, or governments purchase carbon offsets to mitigate their own greenhouse gas emissions from transportation, electricity use, and other sources. For example, an ...
Research shows the low carbon fuel standard can play a major role in meeting B.C.s 2030 and 2050 greenhouse gas targets, especially for freight.. Since its working so well, were calling on the B.C. government to put the standard in place for a longer period of time and strengthen it further. How? Were asking for legislative and regulatory amendments to set annual requirements to meet the 2030 target of 20 per cent below 2010 emissions.. The B.C. government has dragged its feet on ramping up the target and may miss the carbon emission reductions projected in its climate plan. By committing to an ambitious target, B.C. can create a stable market signal that will attract capital-intensive investments in new production capacity. B.C. cant afford to miss out on one of the big-and most effective-tools to clean up its act.. ...
Section 1 The target for 2050 (1) It is the duty of the Secretary of State to ensure that the net UK carbon account for the year 2050 is at least 80% lower than the 1990 baseline. (2) The 1990 baseline means the aggregate amount of- (a) net UK emissions of carbon dioxide for that year, and (b )net UK emissions of each of the other targeted greenhouse gases for the year that is the base year for that gas. … Section 4 Carbon budgets (1) It is the duty of the Secretary of State- (a)to set for each succeeding period of five years beginning with the period 2008-2012 (budgetary periods) an amount for the net UK carbon account (the carbon budget), and (b to ensure that the net UK carbon account for a budgetary period does not exceed the carbon budget. (2)The carbon budget for a budgetary period may be set at any time after this Part comes into force, and must be set- (a) for the periods 2008-2012, 2013-2017 and 2018-2022, before 1st June 2009; (b) for any later period, not later than 30th June ...
Section 1 The target for 2050 (1) It is the duty of the Secretary of State to ensure that the net UK carbon account for the year 2050 is at least 80% lower than the 1990 baseline. (2) The 1990 baseline means the aggregate amount of- (a) net UK emissions of carbon dioxide for that year, and (b )net UK emissions of each of the other targeted greenhouse gases for the year that is the base year for that gas. … Section 4 Carbon budgets (1) It is the duty of the Secretary of State- (a)to set for each succeeding period of five years beginning with the period 2008-2012 (budgetary periods) an amount for the net UK carbon account (the carbon budget), and (b to ensure that the net UK carbon account for a budgetary period does not exceed the carbon budget. (2)The carbon budget for a budgetary period may be set at any time after this Part comes into force, and must be set- (a) for the periods 2008-2012, 2013-2017 and 2018-2022, before 1st June 2009; (b) for any later period, not later than 30th June ...
Downloadable (with restrictions)! A recently proposed model of human population and carbon utilization is reviewed. Depending on parameter values, one of three possible long-term outcomes is obtained. (1) Atmospheric carbon, (CO2)atm, and human populations equilibrate at positive values. (2) The human population stabilizes, while (CO2)atm increases without bound. (3) The human population goes extinct and atmospheric carbon declines to 0. The final possibility is qualitatively compatible with both consensus views of climate change and the opinions of those who are more impressed with the manifestly adverse consequences of carbon-mitigation to human reproduction and survival.
Dr Peter Millard of Landcare Research, New Zealand, leads this project. It also involves researchers from Lincoln University, Waikato University and Plant and Food Research, as well as researchers from France (French National Institute for Agricultural Research (INRA)) and the Scotland (James Hutton Institute). The aim is to measure and model the key factors regulating soil carbon turnover in grazed pastures. The project will identify and test management options for increasing carbon storage and stability in pasture soils and use the findings to develop and validate a process-based model of carbon inputs and losses for use in verifying their longer-term implications for soil carbon storage. It will combine net ecosystem carbon exchange measurements with cutting edge stable carbon isotope techniques and modelling, to develop a comprehensive understanding of the soil carbon dynamic in intensive pasture systems. ...
After all the hype and hoopla about its i cars, BMW lost the plot. Stories appeared over the last several years about what the next car to wear the i badge would be like. Top company officials suggested it would be an all new sedan; others said it would be a modified version of the companys 5 Series sedan. Rumors surfaced suggesting the next car would appear in 2018, 2019, 2020, or 2021. Clearly, economic realities have cooled BMWs passion for electric cars and it has little idea how to proceed to the next level.. The i3 and i8 made extensive use of carbon fiber structural panels to save weight. BMW pioneered innovative new bonding techniques that made it possible to meld carbon fiber components with steel or aluminum. But carbon fiber is expensive. Just last week, the company admitted that it was cutting back on the amount of carbon fiber uses in its lower priced models to save costs.. Against this backdrop, the company has finally pulled a rabbit out of its hat. Last week, it announced ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Pigments, photosynthesis and photoinhibition in two amphibious plants. T2 - consequences of varying carbon availability. AU - Nielsen, Søren Laurentius. AU - Nielsen, Hanne Dalsgaard. PY - 2006. Y1 - 2006. U2 - 10.1111/j.1469-8137.2006.01670.x. DO - 10.1111/j.1469-8137.2006.01670.x. M3 - Journal article. VL - 170. SP - 311. EP - 319. JO - New Phytologist. JF - New Phytologist. SN - 0028-646X. ER - ...
Background: Accurate tumor localization is critical to performing laparoscopic colectomy which is lack of tactile sensation. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility and safety of using carbon nanoparticles to localize non-palpable tumor for laparoscopic colectomy, compared with intra-operative colonoscopy.. Methods: A prospective study was performed between July 2012 and September 2015. Inclusion criteria included T1-3 colon cancer, big adenoma or polyp unsuitable for endoscopic resection, multiple colorectal tumors, and cancer complete or partial response after neoadjuvant therapy. Exclusion criteria included T4 colon cancer, planned local excision, previous abdominal surgery, and emergency case with bleeding or obstruction or perforation. Sixty patients were enrolled in this study and divided into carbon nanoparticles group (30 cases) and intra-operative colonoscopy group (30 cases). One milliliter carbon nanoparticles suspension, which is approved by Chinese Food and Drug ...
Effects of the antimicrobial agent triclosan to natural periphyton communities (biofilms, comprising primarily microalgae and bacteria) were assessed in two independent experiments during spring and summer. For that purpose a semi-static test system was used in which periphyton was exposed to a concentration range of 5 - 9 054 nmol/L triclosan. Effects on algae were analyzed as content and composition of photosynthetic pigments. The corresponding EC50 values were 39.25 and 302.45 nmol/L for the spring and summer experiment respectively. Effects on periphytic bacteria were assessed as effects on carbon utilization patterns, using Biolog Ecoplates. No inhibition of either total carbon utilization or functional diversity was observed, indicating a pronounced triclosan tolerance of the marine bacteria. In contrast, a small stimulation of the total carbon utilization was observed at triclosan concentrations exceeding 100 nmol/L.
Kipka, U. and Di Toro, D. M. (2011), A linear solvation energy relationship model of organic chemical partitioning to particulate organic carbon in soils and sediments. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 30: 2013-2022. doi: 10.1002/etc.611 ...
Oakes, JM and Ross, DJ and Eyre, BD (2013) Processing of Particulate Organic Carbon Associated with Secondary-Treated Pulp and Paper Mill Effluent in Intertidal Sediments: A 13C Pulse-chase Experiment. Environmental Science and Technology, 47 (23). pp. 13258-13265. ISSN 1520-5851 ...
Lakes are a source of methane, an important greenhouse gas in the atmosphere. In order to understand increasing methane emissions in the present, it is important to study the variations of methane release during past periods of climate change. However, records of methane release from lakes over time scales longer ... read more than a few years are extremely rare. In this thesis a method is explored to reconstruct past methane availability in lakes based on the stable carbon isotope composition (delta 13C) of aquatic invertebrate remains. Methane-derived 13C-depleted carbon can be an alternative carbon source to plant-derived material for invertebrates in the sediment and water column of lakes, that can lead to markedly depleted delta 13C values in invertebrate tissues. Using culturing experiments, it was demonstrated that methane-derived carbon is incorporated into chironomid head capsules. Also, it was shown that chemical pre-treatments that are commonly used for sediment processing do not have ...
The giant 2011 Tohoku-oki earthquake has been inferred to remobilise fine-grained, young surface sediment enriched in organic matter from the slope into the |7 km deep Japan Trench. Yet, this hypothesis and assessment of its significance for the carbon cycle has been hindered by limited data density and resolution in the hadal zone. Here we combine new high-resolution bathymetry data with sub-bottom profiler images and sediment cores taken during 2012-2016 in order to map for the first time the spatial extent of the earthquake-triggered event deposit along the hadal Japan Trench. We quantify a sediment volume of ~0.2 km3 deposited from spatially-widespread remobilisation of young surficial seafloor slope sediments triggered by the 2011 earthquake and its aftershock sequence. The mapped volume and organic carbon content in sediment cores encompassing the 2011 event reveals that this single tectonic event delivered |1 Tg of organic carbon to the hadal trench. This carbon supply is comparable to high
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Arctic warming is projected to continue throughout the coming century. Yet, our currently limited understanding of the Arctic Ocean carbon cycle hinders our ability to predict how changing conditions will affect local Arctic ecosystems, regional carbon budgets, and global climate. We present here the first set of concurrent, full-depth, dual-isotope profiles for dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), dissolved organic carbon (DOC), and suspended particulate organic carbon (POCsusp) at two sites in the Canada Basin of the Arctic Ocean. The carbon isotope composition of sinking and suspended POC in the Arctic contrasts strongly with open ocean Atlantic and Pacific sites, pointing to a combination of inputs to Arctic POCsusp at depth, including surface-derived organic carbon (OC), sorbed/advected OC, and OC derived from in situ DIC fixation. The latter process appears to be particularly important at intermediate depths, where mass balance calculations suggest that OC derived from in situ DIC fixation ...
Amorphous carbon nanosphere used as the anode material for Li-intercalation in Lithium-ion energy storage. This structure was obtained through a thermal annealing process at a temperature of 3000 degree Kelvin, simulated using the LAMMPS molecular dynamics code on the LCRC Fusion resource ...
Most soil surveys are based on soil geomorphic, physical and chemical properties, while many classifications are based on morphological properties in soil profile. Typically, microbial properties of the soil(e.g. biomass and functional diversity) or soil biological quality indicators (SBQIs) are not directly considered in soil taxonomic keys, yet soil classification schemes are often used to infer soil biological function relating to policy (e.g. soil pollution attenuation, climate change mitigation). To critically address this, our aimwas to assess whether rates of carbon turnover in a diverse range of UK soils (n , 500) could effectively be described and sub-divided according to broadly defined soil groups by conventional soil classification schemes. Carbon turnover in each soil over a 90 d period was assessed by monitoring the mineralisation of either a labile (14C-labelled artificial root exudates) or more recalcitrant C source (14C-labelled plant leaves) in soil held at field capacity at 10 ...
In understanding the global carbon cycle, black carbon - decay-resistant carbon molecules altered by exposure to fire or combustion - has long been presumed to originate on land and work its way to the ocean via rivers and streams. An unexpected finding published today in Nature Communications challenges that long-held assumption and introduces a tantalizing new mystery: If oceanic black carbon is significantly different from the black carbon found in rivers, where did it come from? The signature of oceanic dissolved black carbon is very different from that of riverine dissolved black carbon, raising a host of fundamental questions, said Sasha Wagner, a Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute assistant professor of earth and environmental sciences and lead author of the research. Are there other sources of dissolved black carbon? Is it being degraded away in rivers, sequestered in sediments, or altered beyond recognition before it reaches the open ocean? Is what weve measured actually ...
This dataset represents a literature compilation of carbon isotope data of four terrestrial organic carbon pools, (1) litter and organic layers in northern Russia, Scandinavia, Canada and Alaska (¹³C and ¹⁴C); (2) mineral active layers and non-permafrost soils in Siberia (¹³C and ¹⁴C); (3) exposures of Holocene peat and thermokarst deposits in Siberia (¹⁴C); (4) exposures of Ice Complex deposits in Siberia (¹⁴C). The dataset has been used to quantify the contribution of carbon from different sources to dissolved and particulate organic carbon in large Siberian rivers using statistical source apportionment.
We analyzed microbial respiration and ecoenzyme activities related to organic matter processing in 1879 streams and rivers across the continental US as part of the USEPAs 2008-2009 National Rivers and Streams Assessment. Ecoenzymatic stoichiometry was used to construct models for carbon use efficiency (CUE) and decomposition (-k). The streams and rivers were classified by size (headwaters: 1st-order; streams: 2nd-3rd order; small rivers: 4th-5th order; big rivers 6th-7th order; and great rivers , 8th order), and were grouped into nine national ecoregions. The streams and their catchments represented gradients in catchment land cover, channel sediments, and sediment chemistry against which microbial respiration, carbon use efficiency and organic matter decomposition were compared. There were significant ecoregion and stream size effects in the unbalanced, nested analysis of variance of the microbial variables, with organic matter decomposition and modeled microbial respiration increasing from ...
Free-living cells of the fast-growing cowpea Rhizobium NGR234 were able to grow on a variety of carbon substrates at growth rates varying from 2.5 h on glucose or fumarate to 15.6 h on p-hydroxybenzoate. Free-living cells constitutively oxidized glucose, glutamate and aspartate but were inducible for all the other systems investigated. Bacteroids from root nodules of snake bean, however, were only capable of oxidizing C4-dicarboxylic acids and failed to oxidize any other carbon sources. Free-living cells of NGR234 possess inducible fructose and succinate uptake systems. These substrates are accumulated by active processes since accumulation is in hi bi ted by azide, 2,4-dini trop hen01 and carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenyl hydrazone. Bacteroids failed to take up fructose although they actively accumulated succinate, suggesting that the latter substrate is significant in the development of an effective symbiosis.. ...
The solid-state method enables the large-scale production of MWNTs in moldable solid forms, films, and fibers using low-cost precursors and equipment, thereby reducing economic barriers that are inherent with carbon nanotube materials produced by more conventional methods, such as CVD. Following carbonization, the shaped carbon solids are composed of varying amounts of nanotubes and amorphous carbon, depending on such synthetic parameters as the metal catalyst concentration, carbonization temperature, and the specific organic precursors used. The amorphous carbon phase is readily removed via selective combustion at temperatures from 300-500 C, producing highly porous, purified CNT solids with specific surface areas up to 500 m2 g-1. This highly flexible synthetic method also offers the ability to incorporate heteroatoms, for example nitrogen, oxygen, and/or boron, into the carbon nanotube solid via the initial carbon precursors ...
The majority of the Earths terrestrial carbon is stored in the soil. If anthropogenic warming stimulates the loss of this carbon to the atmosphere, it could drive further planetary warming. Despite evidence that warming enhances carbon fluxes to and from the soil, the net global balance between these responses remains ... read more uncertain. Here we present a comprehensive analysis of warming-induced changes in soil carbon stocks by assembling data from 49 field experiments located across North America, Europe and Asia. We find that the effects of warming are contingent on the size of the initial soil carbon stock, with considerable losses occurring in high-latitude areas. By extrapolating this empirical relationship to the global scale, we provide estimates of soil carbon sensitivity to warming that may help to constrain Earth system model projections. Our empirical relationship suggests that global soil carbon stocks in the upper soil horizons will fall by 30 ± 30 petagrams of carbon to 203 ...
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Candida glabrata is considered a major opportunistic fungal pathogen of humans. The capacity of this yeast species to cause infections is dependent on the ability to grow within the human host environment and to assimilate the carbon sources available. Previous studies have suggested that C. albicans can encounter glucose-poor microenvironments during infection and that the ability to use alternative non-fermentable carbon sources, such as carboxylic acids, contributes to the virulence of this fungus. Transcriptional studies on C. glabrata cells identified a similar response, upon nutrient deprivation. In this work, we aimed at analyzing biofilm formation, antifungal drug resistance, and phagocytosis of C. glabrata cells grown in the presence of acetic acid as an alternative carbon source. C. glabrata planktonic cells grown in media containing acetic acid were more susceptible to fluconazole and were better phagocytosed and killed by macrophages than when compared to media lacking acetic acid. Growth in
Chuiko Institute of Surface Chemistry of NAS of Ukraine in cooperation with Kalush Experimental Plant developed the technology for production of modified dispersed silicas with high carbon content in the chemisorbed layer.. Advantages:. - High dispersity. - Uniform structure. - Chemical homogeneity. Product can be used for gelation, stabilization of suspensions and emulsions, capsulation of biologically active objects or substances: as filler for polymers, oils, and other organic or organosilicon media: as anti-caking agent for dry mixtures, corn, seeds.. Patent for utility model. No 92772 U Ukraine, МПК CO8G 12/00 CO9D5/00 (2014.01) A method to form grafted modifying layer with high carbon content on the surface of highly dispersed silicas / Iu.M. Bolbukh, R.B. Kozakevych, V.A. Tertykh, I.S. Protsak; Chuiko Institute of Surface Chemistry-applicant and patent owner - No u 201313560, appl. 21.11.2013; publ. 10.09.2014, Bul. No17, 2014. Product characteristics:. - Specific surface-100-200 ...
0058] As used herein, the term alliform carbon particles refers to substantially spherical or quasi-spherical carbon nanoparticles comprising at least one concentric external graphitic shell, but generally more than one such external shell, resembling the concentric shells of an onion (the term alliform derived from allium meaning onion). In fact, particles described as carbon onions or onion-like carbon particles, in many respects, are related to these alliform carbon particles, but these terms are normally associated with particles having multiple concentric shells. The external graphitic shell or shells of alliform carbon have surfaces wherein at least 25%, or at least 50%, or at least 75% of their area comprise sp2 carbon. The term substantially spherical relates to the shape being without near-sized appendages (i.e., having appendages such as carbon nanotubes) which substantially interfere with their ability to organize into packed matrices. To the extent that a given particle ...
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UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon (front row 2nd L), listens to an explanation about a model of a low carbon airport as he visits the China National Low Carbon Day Exhibition at the Capital Museum in Beijing on June 20.
Sediment samples collected from polluted (Augusta Bay) and pristine regions of the Eastern Mediterranean Sea (South Ionian Sea, Thracian Sea) were analyzed for black carbon, aliphatic hydrocarbons and phospholipid ester-linked fatty acids (PLFA). The aim of the study was to investigate the anthropogenic and biogenic inputs into the Eastern Mediterranean Sea and to evaluate the effects of refractory organic matter (e.g. black carbon) and the level of hydrocarbon contamination on benthic microbial community composition. Black carbon, generally considered to be chemically and biologically inert, comprised a significant but highly variable fraction of the sedimentary carbon pool in the analyzed sediments with a ratio to total organic carbon ranging from 0.02 to 0.66. Principal component analysis of the chemical characteristics of the sediments (organic carbon content, black carbon, bioavailable organic carbon, chlorophyll a, phaeopigments, aliphatic hydrocarbons) revealed clustering of samples along a
Underappreciated player in carbon storage should be included in global change models, researcher says. Elevated levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide accelerate carbon cycling and soil carbon loss in forests, new research led by an Indiana University biologist has found.. The new evidence supports an emerging view that although forests remove a substantial amount of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere, much of the carbon is being stored in living woody biomass rather than as dead organic matter in soils.. Richard P. Phillips, lead author on the paper and an assistant professor of biology in the IU College of Arts and Sciences, said that after nearly two decades of research on forest ecosystem responses to global change, some of the uncertainty has been lifted about how forests are storing carbon in the wake of rising carbon dioxide levels.. Its been suggested that as trees take up more carbon dioxide from the atmosphere, a greater amount of carbon will go to roots and fungi to acquire nutrients, ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Highly Active Oxygen Evolution on Carbon Fiber Paper Coated with Atomic-Layer-Deposited Cobalt Oxide. AU - Choi, Hyung Jong. AU - Han, Gwon Deok. AU - Bae, Kiho. AU - Shim, Joon Hyung. PY - 2019/3/20. Y1 - 2019/3/20. N2 - In this work, we evaluated the oxygen evolution performance of cobalt oxide (CoO x )-coated carbon fiber paper in electrochemical water splitting. For a uniform coating of CoO x layers along the carbon fiber paper, the atomic layer deposition (ALD) technique was applied. We achieved a uniform and conformal coating of atomic-layer-deposited CoO x (ALD-CoO x ) on the carbon fiber paper. The overpotential for oxygen evolution measured for the optimized ALD-coated carbon fiber paper was as low as 343 mV at 10 mA cm -2 , which is competitive with the activity of state-of-the-art CoO x prepared on electrodes with large surface areas. Oxygen evolution is not enhanced after a critical thickness, about 28 nm in our study, is reached. The optimal thickness of the ALD-CoO ...
Brillouin scattering is a type of Raman scattering in which the difference frequency Ao) = Wphonon = (®inc ~ «»seal) corresponds to the acoustic branch of the phonon dispersion curves, with frequencies in the gigahertz (xlOHz) range, as was explained in Section 3.4.1. The negative and positive signs in the expression above for ®phonon correspond to Stokes and anti-Stokes lines, respectively.. Brillouin scattering has been used to study carbon films, and Fig. 8.21 compares the spectra of thick and thin films. The Ihick-film result (a) provides a bulk material response, namely, a strong central peak at zero frequency about 10 GHz wide, and a broad peak near 17 GHz attributed to longitudinal acoustic (LA) phonons. This latter frequency is consistent with the elastic moduli of carbon, which are measures of the stretching capability of solid carbon and its chemical bonds. The dotted line experimental spectrum of the 100 nm thick film at the top of Fig. 8.21b exhibits three peaks which come at ...
Few studies have quantified the role of in-stream processes on net dissolved and particulate organic carbon (DOC and POC, respectively) export from peatland catchments, and those that have offer conflicting evidence. In this study, we evaluated evidence for active organic matter processing under field conditions, via a coordinated campaign across four UK catchments with peatland headwaters, targeted on potential hotspots and hot moments of physico-chemical carbon cycling. We hypothesised that specific hotspots and hot moments would occur where waters enriched with DOC and POC sourced from headwaters are exposed to: i) mixing with freshwaters of different pH, conductivity and metal concentrations; and ii) mixing with seawater during autumn when DOC concentrations were at their highest. We observed instances of POC removal in headwaters, and potential for rapid conversion between dissolved and particulate carbon forms and for net removal of peat-derived carbon at confluences further downstream ...
To keep things as clear as possible this analysis has only looked at cumulative emissions. The limitation of this approach is that it doesnt tell us much about the annual rates of carbon emission and sink absorption.. The high level story is pretty simple. Human kind is emitting more and more carbon dioxide, as falling land-use emissions are dwarfed by emissions from our growing use of fossil fuels. In reaction to increased emission rates and growing atmospheric concentrations both land and ocean sinks are absorbing more carbon dioxide. The Global Carbon Budget has an excellent summary of this.. Despite the fact that sinks are absorbing more CO2 the atmospheric concentration is growing at a faster rate than ever. In the decade from 2000-2009 the atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide grew at an average rate of 2.0 ppm/yr, higher than any previous decade measured. To reduce this growth rate global carbon emissions need to decline. To stop concentrations growing at all would require an ...
At the present time, carbon fiber tanks are very expensive, with the high pressure vessel industry standard Toray T700 carbon fiber costing between $20 and $50 per kilogram alone. At this high price, the carbon fiber currently comprises as much as 75% of the overall tank cost and is a major roadblock on the path to commercialization. To make hydrogen fuel cells in early market and light-duty vehicles commercially viable, the cost of carbon fiber or the amount of carbon fiber used must be significantly reduced. One effective way to lower the weight, thus decreasing the carbon fiber usage and lowering the cost, of a CFRP tank is to improve the mechanical properties of the CFRP composite resin matrix using nano-reinforcement. Using the resin matrix itself as a source of composite strength, along with the carbon fiber reinforcement, results in a tank that requires less carbon fiber material. This solution decreases the weight of the tank while preserving or even increasing its performance. The ...
Some mechanisms of diversification involve ecological interactions exhibited as frequency-dependence [11]. This includes niche creation [11, 12] and frequency-dependent coexistence due to cross-feeding, where the cross-feeder organism is maintained in balance with the producer [59], or through cannibalism of one or the other coexisting type [28]. Another frequency-dependent scenario is when two or more resources in a system result in specialization of different bacteria on different resources in the same environment [11, 60]. None of these ecological scenarios are readily extended to the current studies. Cross-feeding and cannibalism do not appear to have evolved in the chemostats, probably because the time-scale is relatively short. None of the sequenced mutations hint at cross-feeding, such as the acs mutation noted in [8]. There is no evidence for multiple resources, multiple niches or mutations enhancing uptake or regulation of alternative carbon sources besides glucose. Nevertheless, ...
Mintenbeck, K. , Brey, T. , Jacob, U. , Knust, R. and Struck, U. (2008): How to account for the lipid effect on carbon stable isotope ratio (d13C) - sample treatment effects and model bias , Journal of Fish Biology ...
Canadas forest carbon reporting system is called the National Forest Carbon Monitoring, Accounting and Reporting System (NFCMARS). Its purpose is to estimate forest carbon stocks, changes in carbon stocks, and emissions of non-CO2 greenhouse gases in Canadas managed forests. NFCMARS is designed to estimate past changes in forest carbon stocks-i.e., from 1990 to the present (monitoring)-and to predict, based on scenarios of future disturbance rates and management actions, changes in carbon stocks in the next two to three decades (projection).. The system integrates information-such as forest inventories, temporary and permanent sample plots, statistics on fires and insects, and systems quantifying forest growth and yield-into a modeling framework incorporating the best available information and scientific understanding of the ecological processes involved in forest carbon cycling.. The national forest carbon monitoring, accounting and reporting system. ...
Aca1 and Aca2, ATF/CREB activators in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, are important for carbon source utilization but not the response to stress. is an eagle-i resource of type Journal article at Harvard University.
A new catalyst for breaking the tough molecular bond between carbon and hydrogen holds the promise of a cleaner, easier, cheaper way to derive products from petroleum, say researchers at Southern Methodist University, Dallas, and the Johns Hopkins University. Simple, plentiful hydrocarbons are the starting block for complex chemical products such as plastics and pharmaceuticals. The first step, however, is very, very difficult -- breaking the carbon-hydrogen bond. A new au naturel catalyst mimics nature to break the tenacious C-H bond.
We measured the δ13C of assimilated carbon (foliage organic matter (δCOM), soluble carbohydrates (δCSC), and waxes (δCW)) and respiratory carbon (foliage (δCFR), soil (δCSR) and ecosystem 13CO2 (δCER)) for two years at adjacent ecosystems in the southeastern U.S.: a regenerated 32 m tall mature Pinus palustris forest, and a mid-rotation 13 m tall Pinus elliottii stand. Carbon pools and foliage respiration in P. palustris were isotopically enriched by 2‰ relative to P. elliottii. Despite this enrichment, mean δCER values of the two sites were nearly identical. No temporal trends were apparent in δCSC, δCFR, δCSR and δCER. In contrast, δCOM and δCW at both sites declined by approximately 2‰ over the study. This appears to reflect the adjustment in the δ13C of carbon storage reserves used for biosynthesis as the trees recovered from a severe drought prior to our study. Unexpectedly, the rate of δ13C decrease in the secondary C32-36 n-alkanoic acid wax molecular cluster was twice ...
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We discuss the major mass spectral features of different types of refractory carbonaceous particles, ionized after laser vaporization with an Aerodyne high-resolution soot-particle aerosol mass spectrometer (SP-AMS). The SP-AMS was operated with a switchable 1064 nm laser and a 600 C thermal vaporizer, yielding respective measurements of the refractory and non-refractory particle components. Six samples were investigated, all of which were composed primarily of refractory material: fuel-rich and fuel-lean propane/air diffusion-flame combustion particles; graphite-spark-generated particles; a commercial fullerene-enriched soot; Regal Black, a commercial carbon black; and nascent aircraft-turbine combustion particles. All samples exhibited a spectrum of carbon-cluster ions Cx n+ in their refractory mass spectrum. Smaller clusters (x Mass spectrometry of refractory black carbon particles from six sources: carbon-cluster and oxygenated ions=10.5194/acp-14-2591-2014=lt; 6) were found to dominate the ...
A Cameroonian smectite clay collected in a deposit on Sabga hill (West Cameroon, Central Africa - denominated as Sa) and a metal free meso-tetra(4-carboxyl phenyl)porphyrin (shortened as TCPP) were used to modify carbon paste electrodes. They were then exploited for the simultaneous electrochemical detection
Last month, I reviewed the Tyndall Center report on Chinas Energy Transition: Pathways for Low Carbon Development and expressed three specific concerns. Since then, Ive had an opportunity to exchange emails with Dr. Wang Tao (pictured right), one of the co-authors of the report. He has taken time to address my questions and has graciously agreed to have his explanations posted here.. Here are the concerns I raised on my last post, rephrased for clarity, and Dr. Wangs responses.. 1. In choosing a global carbon budget for the reports scenario analysis, a target of 450 ppm of carbon dioxide, which translates to roughly 550 ppm carbon dioxide equivalent, is used. Is 550ppm CO2e a safe target, especially considering what we know about negative feedback loops and runaway climate change?. No. As many already know, climate change is already happening and there have been many arguments about what is a relatively safe level of carbon concentration to avoid dangerous climate change impacts. The ...
We present the direct evidence of defective and disorder places on the surface of multiwall carbon nanotube (MWCNT), visualizing the presence of amorphous carbon at those sites. These defective surfaces being higher in energy are the key features of functionalization with different materials. The interaction of the pi orbital electrons of different carbon atoms of adjacent layers is more at the bent portion, than that of regular portion of the CNT. Hence the tubular structure of the bent portion of nanotubes is spaced more than that of regular portion of the nanotubes, minimizing the stress. (C) 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.. ...
Rhondite is a nano-scale helical carbon-based structure created by Robert Job that may be used in the production of steels and alloys to increase hardness, strength, ductility, and wear resistance. Each helix is actually made up of small spheres called buckyballs or fullerenes. Each fullerene sphere contains metallic atoms inside of the carbon cage; and as such have created a subset known as metallofullerenes. It is the chaining and winding of the metallofullerenes into their natural shapes that produces the unique Rhondidic structure. Rhonditic steels contain about 0.35 to 2.25 percent carbon by weight. They are formed by mixing a high carbon and low carbon steel, such that the mixture as a whole has the desired carbon content. The mixture is then heated to a temperature at which the high carbon steel will melt, but kept below the melting point of the low carbon steel (~2750 F). The mixture is slightly cooled then maintained for time sufficient for the carbon present to form fullerenes and ...
Carbon dioxide is a chemical compound consisting of two oxygen atoms covalently linked to a central carbon atom, and so can be represented with the chemical formula CO2. Carbon dioxide is essential for the process of photosynthesis which occurs in the chloroplasts of plants. This is a process in which the carbon dioxide from the air (around 0.0360% of the air is carbon dioxide) [1]: produced by respiration by living organisms, as well as by the combustion of fossil fuels, is utilised by the plants to produce the sugars they require to grow. Plants may also store this sugar in the form of starch. Carbon dioxide is a chemical compound consisting of two oxygen atoms that are covalently linked to a central carbon atom, and so can be represented with the chemical formula CO2. Carbon dioxide is essential for the process of photosynthesis which occurs in the chloroplasts of plants. This is a process in which the carbon dioxide from the air (around 0.0360% of the air is carbon dioxide): produced by ...
0046]In some embodiments, R6 comprises a heteroalkyl group. The heteroalkyl group (i.e., an alkyl group that comprises at least one heteroatom, e.g., oxygen, nitrogen, or sulfur) can comprise a linear, branched, or cyclic structure. The heteroalkyl group can comprise no greater than 20 carbon atoms, no greater than 18 carbon atoms, no greater than 16 carbon atoms, no greater than 14 carbon atoms, no greater than 12 carbon atoms, no greater than 10 carbon atoms, no greater than 9 carbon atoms, no greater than 8 carbon atoms, no greater than 7 carbon atoms, no greater than 6 carbon atoms, no greater than 5 carbon atoms, or no greater than 4 carbon atoms. The heteroalkyl group can comprise at least 14 carbon atoms, at least 12 carbon atoms, at least 10 carbon atoms, at least 9 carbon atoms, at least 8 carbon atoms, at least 7 carbon atoms, at least 6 carbon atoms, at least 5 carbon atoms, at least 4 carbon atoms, at least 3 carbon atoms, at least 2 carbon atoms, or at least 1 carbon atom. The ...
To assess the potential impact of conifer encroachment on soil organic carbon (SOC) dynamics and storage in montane aspen-conifer forests from the interior western US, we sampled mineral soils (0-15 cm) across the aspen-conifer ecotones in southern and northern Utah and quantified total SOC stocks, stable SOC (i.e., mineral-associated SOC (MoM)), labile SOC (i.e., light fraction (LF), decomposable (CO2 release during long-term aerobic incubations) and soluble SOC (hot water extractable organic carbon (HWEOC)). Total SOC storage (47.0 ± 16.5 Mg C ha−1) and labile SOC as LF (14.0 ± 7.10 Mg C ha−1), SOC decomposability (cumulative released CO2-C of 5.6 ± 3.8 g C g−1 soil) or HWEOC (0.6 ± 0.6 mg C g−1 soil) did not differ substantially with vegetation type, although a slight increase in HWEOC was observed with increasing conifer in the overstory. There were statistically significant differences (p = 0.035) in stable MoM storage, which was higher under aspen (31.2 ± 15.1 Mg C ha−1) than
Aspergillus fumigatus Z5 has a strong ability to decompose lignocellulose biomass, and its extracellular protein secretion has been reported in earlier studies employing traditional techniques. However, a comprehensive analysis of its secretion in the presence of different carbon sources is still lacking. The goal of this work was to identify, quantify and compare the secretome of A. fumigatus Z5 in the presence of different carbon sources to understand in more details the mechanisms of lignocellulose decomposition by Aspergillus fumigatus Z5. Cellulolytic A. fumigatus Z5 was grown in the presence of glucose (Gl), Avicel (Av) and rice straw (RS), and the activities of several lignocellulosic enzymes were determined with chromatometry method. The maximum activities of endoglucanase, exoglucanase, β-glucosidase, laminarinase, lichenase, xylanase and pectin lyase were 12.52, 0.59, 2.30, 2.37, 1.68, 15.02 and 11.40 U·ml-1, respectively. A total of 152, 125 and 61 different proteins were identified in the
Carbon. 48 (6): 1815-23. doi:10.1016/j.carbon.2010.01.027. Wang, Yu; Chen, Xiaohong; Zhong, Yulin; Zhu, Furong; Loh, Kian Ping ... Carbon. 54: 396-402. doi:10.1016/j.carbon.2012.11.054. Li, Xiaoqiang; Chen, Wenchao; Zhang, Shengjiao; Wu, Zhiqian; Wang, Peng ... doi:10.1016/j.carbon.2009.06.047. Liang, Qizhen; Yao, Xuxia; Wang, Wei; Liu, Yan; Wong, Ching Ping (2011). "A Three-Dimensional ... However, similar to carbon nanotubes, graphene has no dangling bonds on its surface. Gaseous molecules cannot be readily ...
Carbon. 45 (5): 1035-1042. doi:10.1016/j.carbon.2006.12.015. hdl:10091/263. ISSN 0008-6223. Mohan, Sneha; Oluwafemi, Oluwatobi ... Biopolymers can be sustainable, carbon neutral and are always renewable, because they are made from plant materials which can ... In addition, biopolymers have the potential to cut carbon emissions and reduce CO2 quantities in the atmosphere: this is ... Majibur Rahman; Gotoh, Yasuo; Morikawa, Hideaki; Miura, Mikihiko; Fujimori, Yoshie; Nagura, Masanobu (2007-04-01). "Carbon ...
Carbon. 36 (3): 177. doi:10.1016/S0008-6223(97)00175-9. Bond number Archived 2012-03-05 at the Wayback Machine "Home". OnePetro ...
"carbon". Online Etymology Dictionary. Harper, Douglas. "nitrogen". Online Etymology Dictionary. Nitrogen, The pure gas is inert ...
carbon. It is used to make springs that are corrosion resistant and exhibit high strength, ductility, and good fatigue life. ...
2016). "Spatial variability in the mechanical properties of Gilsocarbon". Carbon. 110: 497-517. doi:10.1016/j.carbon.2016.09. ... the National Carbon Division of the Union Carbide and Carbon Corporation in Cleveland, Ohio) for use in Enrico Fermi's first ... AGOT graphite from National Carbon, with 4.97 mb cross section. (See also Haag [2005].) By November 1942 National Carbon had ... Leo Szilard purchased several tons of graphite from the Speer Carbon Company and from the National Carbon Company ( ...
Carbon. 63: 423-433. doi:10.1016/j.carbon.2013.07.003. Czvikovszky, T. and Hargitai, H. 1997. "Electron beam surface ... Similar to the aforementioned approach is the combination of nanomaterials like carbon nanotubes with powdered orange peel as a ... "Upcycling waste plastics into carbon nanomaterials: A review". Journal of Applied Polymer Science. 131, 4 (2014) "About". Up ... Altalhi, Tariq; Kumeria, Tushar; Santos, Abel; Losic, Dusan (2013). "Synthesis of well-organised carbon nanotube membranes from ...
Carbon. 85: 221-224. arXiv:1412.8049. Bibcode:2014arXiv1412.8049L. doi:10.1016/j.carbon.2014.12.096. S2CID 96786498. Wu, Jiang- ... The carbon atoms accumulate in the mesopores, forming protuberances that act as spacers to prevent stacking. The protuberance ... Gao, Y (2018). "Ultrahard carbon film from epitaxial two-layer graphene". Nature Nanotechnology. 13 (2): 133-138. arXiv: ... "Electric Field Effect in Atomically Thin Carbon Film". Science. 306 (5696): 666-669. arXiv:cond-mat/0410550. Bibcode:2004Sci... ...
Carbon. 160: 335-341. arXiv:2001.03072. doi:10.1016/j.carbon.2019.12.090. S2CID 210116531. Félix, Isaac de Macêdo (4 August ...
By comparison, typical carbon-carbon bond lengths, or the spacing between these atoms in a molecule, are in the range 0.12-0.15 ... Next the oxidation catalyst oxidizes the hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide to form carbon dioxide and water. Platinum is used in ... Monthioux, Marc; Kuznetsov, V (2006). "Who should be given the credit for the discovery of carbon nanotubes?" (PDF). Carbon. 44 ... carbon fiber strengthening using silica nanoparticles, and carbon nanotubes for stain-resistant textiles. Governments moved to ...
The carbon's solubility into copper is extremely low and therefore mainly surface diffusion and nucleation of carbon atoms are ... Carbon. 57: 477-484. doi:10.1016/j.carbon.2013.02.022. Tedesco, J. L.; Jernigan, G. G.; Culbertson, J. C.; Hite, J. K.; Yang, Y ... Due to the fact that the vapor pressure of carbon is negligible compared to the one of silicon, the Si atoms desorb at high ... Carbide-derived carbon Hibino, Hiroki; Kageshima, Hiroyuki; Nagase, Masao (2010). "Graphene Growth on Silicon Carbide". NTT ...
... carbide-derived carbon, onion-like carbon) and works on the hydrothermal synthesis of carbon nanostructures and ceramics. He ... carbon nanotubes, graphene, 2D carbides, etc. He described new forms of carbon, such as conical and polygonal crystals. He also ... He was the first to conduct hydrothermal synthesis of carbon nanotubes and show the anomalous slow movement of water in ... Gogotosis video interview for MRS TV about his talk "Not Just Graphene -- the Wonderful World of Carbon" at Fred Kavli ...
electrochemically deposited amorphous V2O5·xH2O onto a carbon nanotube film. The three-dimensional structure of the carbon ... Other groups have used vanadium oxide thin films on carbon nanotubes for pseudocapacitors. Kim et al. ... Frackowiak, Elzbieta; Beguin, Francois (2001). "Carbon Materials For The Electrochemical Storage Of Energy In Capacitors" (PDF ... Carbon. 39 (6): 937-950. doi:10.1016/S0008-6223(00)00183-4.[permanent dead link] Frackowiak, Elzbieta; Jurewicz, K.; Delpeux, S ...
Methane combustion produces carbon dioxide (CO2) and water. The carbon dioxide can be recycled to boost the Sabatier process ... The CO2 has economic value as a component of an energy storage vector, not a cost as in carbon capture and storage. Power to ... The second method is to combine the hydrogen with carbon dioxide to produce methane using a methanation reaction such as the ... Hydrogen is then reacted with carbon dioxide in a Sabatier process, producing methane and water. Methane can be stored and ...
Measures to mitigate global warming, such as a carbon tax or carbon emissions trading, may favor the economics of nuclear power ... In some places which aim to phase out fossil fuels in favor of low carbon power, such as the United Kingdom, seasonal energy ... Nuclear power is the single largest low-carbon electricity source in the United States, and accounts for two-thirds of the ... Nuclear power is one of the leading low carbon power generation methods of producing electricity, and in terms of total life- ...
The process consists of heating a mixture of silicon dioxide (SiO2), in the form of silica or quartz sand, and carbon, in its ... To manufacture synthetic graphite items, carbon powder and silica are mixed with a binder, such as tar, and baked after being ... He also discovered that when starting with carbon instead of silicon carbide, graphite was produced only when there was an ... They are then surrounded with granulated carbon acting as a resistive element that heats them. In the more efficient Castner ...
"Carbon Monoxide." Occupational Health: The Soldier and the Industrial Base. 1993: Office of the Surgeon General, U.S. ... The environment inside was extremely unpleasant; as ventilation was inadequate the atmosphere was heavy with poisonous carbon ...
"UK now burning 33% of world's wood pellet imports , Carbon Brief". Carbon Brief. 21 December 2015. Retrieved 23 February 2018 ... Another benefit is that when biofuels are burned they release CO 2 {\displaystyle {\ce {CO2}}} (carbon dioxide) which had been ... It also campaigns against market based solutions to climate change, especially the inclusion of soil and forest carbon offsets ...
Reich focusses on one dimensional nanostructures, including graphene, semiconductor nanowires and carbon nanotubes. 2007 ... Carbon Nanotubes. Wiley. doi:10.1002/9783527618040. ISBN 978-3-527-40386-8. Thomsen, C.; Reich, S. (2000-12-11). "Double ...
Chazan, Guy (21 April 2009). "Shell's Plan to Lead in Storage of Carbon Dioxide Hits a Snag". The Wall Street Journal. Dow ... "Carbon storage? Dutch town says not here". NBCNews.com. NBCUniversal. 11 October 2009. Retrieved 29 May 2014. Principebesluit ... In 2007 it was suggested to inject 10 million metric tons (11,000,000 short tons; 9,800,000 long tons) of carbon dioxide 2 km ( ... "Dutch Drop Plan to Store Carbon Dioxide Underground". Fox News. The Hague: Associated Press. 4 November 2010. Retrieved 29 May ...
"Energy efficient heating". Carbon trust. Retrieved 19 February 2014. TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION OF THERMAL DESTRATIFIERS AND OTHER ... As a result, destratification technology has great potential for carbon emission reductions due to the reduced energy ... supported by The Carbon Trust which recommends destratification in buildings as one of its top three methods to reduce carbon ...
Les poisons de l'air, l'acide carbonique et l'oxyde de carbone, 1890 - Poisons of the air, carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide. ... Absorption de l'oxyde de carbone par l'organisme vivant, 1879 - Absorption of carbon monoxide by the living organism. ... Rapport sur l'ankylostomiase, le grisou, l'oxyde de carbone, 1909 - Report on hookworm, mine gases, carbon monoxide. Gréhant ... Oxyde de carbone, alcool éthylique et grisou, 1903 - Carbon monoxide, ethyl alcohol and firedamp. Hygiène expérimentale: ...
Over the past 800,000 years, ice core data shows that carbon dioxide has varied from values as low as 180 ppm to the pre- ... Temperature change and carbon dioxide change, U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Brian Shmaefsky (2004). ... Greenhouse gases-including most diatomic gases with two different atoms (such as carbon monoxide, CO) and all gases with three ... A runaway greenhouse effect involving carbon dioxide and water vapor has long ago been hypothesized to have occurred on Venus, ...
S. Braun; R. Carbon; M. Naab (2016). "Piloting a Mobile-App Ecosystem for Smart Farming". IEEE Software. 33 (4): 9-14. doi: ...
... carbon dioxide could be converted to charcoal (elemental carbon), then burnt to produce carbon dioxide. It is referred to in ... It was further claimed the car "emits only oxygen rather than the usual carbon". Pakistani man Agha Waqar Ahmad claimed in July ... The process of converting borates to elemental boron and back might be compared with the analogous process involving carbon: ... Carbon Dioxide , Cold Fusion Knight-Ridder/Tribune Business News: Clearwater man puts technology to work Tampa Tribune (Tampa, ...
Strain KC was isolated from an aquifer and it is able to transform carbon tetrachloride to carbon dioxide, formate, and other ... Carbon tetrachloride can be a pollutant in soils and groundwater, and according to the Center for Disease Control and ... As the sole carbon and energy source, strain P16 is able to grow using phenanthrene, fluorene, naphthalene, and ... D-maltose, starch, and ethylene glycol are carbon sources that are not commonly utilized by other pseudomonads as shown by ...
Source water > Sand filtration > Activated Carbon > Microfiltration > Softening > Purified Water > Distillation > Sterilization ...
Carbon Dinosaurs. They drew attention to the presence of the most polluting coal-fired power plants in 2003. Hunterston. In ...
Kim was awarded the 2008 Ho-Am Prize in Science "for his pioneering work on low-dimensional carbon nanostructures". He received ... In 1999, he and Lieber published a highly cited paper on electrostatically controlled carbon nanotube NEMS devices. In Feb. ... He is a condensed matter physicist known for study of quantum transport in carbon nanotubes and graphene, including ... "Carbon Wonderland". Scientific American. 298 (4): 90-97. Bibcode:2008SciAm.298d..90G. doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0408-90. ...
Carbon Culture, (November 2014)". Carbon Culture. Retrieved June 16, 2016. "Harvey Lloyd". Photoimaging Information Council. ...
"Brands and Carbon Offsets", Carbon Offsets Daily (2008-08-01). *↑ Ecosystem Marketplace, New Energy Finance State, of the ... Carbon offsets are reductions in emissions of carbon or greenhouse gases made in order to compensate for or to offset an ... Carbon offsets are measured in metric tons of carbon dioxide (CO2e) and may represent six primary categories of greenhouse ... Carbon Trade Watch, "The Carbon Neutral Myth - Offset Indulgences for your Climate", Transnational Institute (Web; Wiki), ...
Most of these carbon pools are not permanent and carbon will be released back to atmosphere over relatively short cycles. ... Peatlands are the most carbon dense of any terrestrial ecosystem in the world (Joosten & Couwenberg, 2008; Urák et al., 2017). ... Beside these pools, however, the peat layer of peatlands provides - if not disturbed - a unique, permanent store for carbon. ... Keeping this carbon in the ground is crucial if the world i... ... Ecosystems sequester and store carbon in different ways, such ...
... is an extremely light, high strength, high modulous fabric. Use carbon fiber with epoxy or polyester, as it is an ... Carbon Fiber cloth, sheets, or tape in plain weave, twill weave, or unidirectional form. ... Carbon Fiber Cloth, 0-90 Plain Weave 3K. Plain weave Carbon Fiber cloth is the staple carbon cloth that is used by boatbuilders ... Carbon Fiber Unidirectional Cloth. Unidirectional carbon fiber cloth is a thinner, one-directional weave of carbon that is ...
Carbon monoxide (CO), an odorless, colorless gas, which can cause sudden illness and death, is produced any time a fossil fuel ... Carbon Monoxide Poisoning * General Informationplus icon *Carbon Monoxide Poisoning and Boating ...
... and carbon nanofibers (CNF) may pose a respiratory hazard ... Results from recent animal studies indicate that carbon ... CNTs and CNFs are tiny, cylindrical, large aspect ratio, manufactured forms of carbon. There is no single type of carbon ... Results from recent animal studies indicate that carbon nanotubes (CNT) and carbon nanofibers (CNF) may pose a respiratory ... Current Intelligence Bulletin 65: Occupational Exposure to Carbon Nanotubes and Nanofiberspdf icon [PDF - 3.41 MB] ...
Carbon monoxide, also known as CO, is called the "Invisible Killer" because its a colorless, odorless, poisonous gas. More ... Know the symptoms of carbon monoxide poisoning: headache, dizziness, weakness, nausea, vomiting, sleepiness, and confusion. If ...
Carbon can form very long chains of interconnecting carbon-carbon bonds, a property that is called catenation. Carbon-carbon ... The paths of carbon in the environment form the carbon cycle. For example, photosynthetic plants draw carbon dioxide from the ... Main article: Allotropes of carbon. Atomic carbon is a very short-lived species and, therefore, carbon is stabilized in various ... Some of this biomass is eaten by animals, while some carbon is exhaled by animals as carbon dioxide. The carbon cycle is ...
Woven carbon[edit]. There is a technology of processing technical rayon fiber into activated carbon cloth for carbon filtering ... Carbon tetrachloride activity[edit]. Measurement of the porosity of an activated carbon by the adsorption of saturated carbon ... Extruded activated carbon (EAC)[edit]. Extruded activated carbon (EAC) combines powdered activated carbon with a binder, which ... Polymer coated carbon[edit]. This is a process by which a porous carbon can be coated with a biocompatible polymer to give a ...
... s life span is greater than the life span of any human, so for people living today it seems like an ... The carbon bubbles life span is greater than the life span of any human, so for people living today it seems like an ... The carbon bubble, quite simply, is the constantly increasing consumption of fossil fuels that began with coal in the 19th ... The carbon bubble, quite simply, is the constantly increasing consumption of fossil fuels that began with coal in the 19th ...
Use the links on this site to help you work through the Carbon Growth Cycle and create new documents to print or work in online ...
In 2017, Carbon Brief won The Drum Online Media Award for "Best Specialist Site for Journalism". Carbon Briefs editor Leo ... "About Us". Carbon Brief. "How Twitter and Carbon Brief are helping climate change scientists fight Donald Trump online". The ... Leo Hickman is the director and editor for Carbon Brief. Carbon Brief is funded by the European Climate Foundation, and has ... Carbon Brief is a UK-based website designed to "improve the understanding of climate change, both in terms of the science and ...
G-high carbon has been the origin for many trading companies and metallurgical factories when they look for qualified carbon ... Carbon additive is a product that is added to molten steel. Carbon additive includes calcined petroleum coke, graphite ... For the steel-making industry, the most suitable carbon additive is calcined petroleum coke with fixed carbon of 98.5%min. ...
Remarkably, the last 30 years have been witnessing an exponential advance in the science involving carbon and carbon structures ... Carbon is intimately connected to almost everything we deal with in a daily basis. Due to its outstanding properties, such as ... Within the "Carbon Nanostructures" book series, the reader will find valuable, up-to-date account of both the newer and ... The "Carbon Nanostructures" book series covers the state-of-art in the research of nanocarbons and their applications. Topics ...
... Group 2017 AGM Minutes Download the minutes. PDF (28k) Annual Report 2017 - British Carbon Group Download the ... British Carbon Group. The British Carbon Group (joint with the IOP and SCI) is one of the RSCs many Interest Groups. The ... British Carbon Group Latest Information Institute of Physics An international professional body and learned society, ... This includes diamond and fullerenes, composites, fibres, deposits and any other relevant carbon science topics in the UK. By ...
But a surprising part of the rest of you is carbon! This is you, without water - a lump of Carbon ... The Carbon Cycle Most of you is water. ... Carbon Cycle * 1. ,ul,,li,The Carbon Cycle ,/li,,/ul,Most of ... Photosynthesis Boxes are carbon sinks Arrows are carbon fluxes Consumption * 8. Atmospheric Carbon ,ul,,li,Carbon is found in ... Carbon Sinks Amount of stored carbon in Billions of Metric Tons (Gt) Note type of Carbon Molecule (State of Matter) CH 2 O ( ...
Made from ultra-lightweight carbon fiber, the Carbon Black wheelchair is not just a piece of medical equipment;... ... Sarolea SP7 Electric Carbon-Fiber Motorcycle Fires Up for the Isle of Man TT Zero Race. *by Marc Carter ... Carbon fiber is quickly becoming the material of choice for automakers as they seek to reduce the weight of their... ... How robots and carbon fiber could usher in the "fourth industrial revolution". *by Lacy Cooke ...
... so the breadth of agreement on the use of a carbon tax to address climate change is striking and rare. ... Calling for a carbon tax follows the very principles taught in Economics 101. Markets fail if prices arent right. Much of the ... Last month, more than 3,500 economists-a record number-signed an open letter calling for a carbon tax to fight climate change. ... Reducing carbon will massively limit economic, social, and political disruption. Social and natural scientists stand apart from ...
Carbon Mountain Bike Rims. ENVEs M50, M60, and M70 all come standard with a 15x100mm front hub and a 12x142mm rear hub. The ... Are Carbon Mountain Bike Wheels Worth It. ENVEs M50 rim is an everyday, race ready wheelset. We designed the M50 to be the ... Being the first carbon wheel to define the xc/trail category, the M60 is a XC race wheel, a light enduro race wheel, an ... Carbon Mountain Bike Wheels 29er. The next step in choosing a wheel is to determine the correct rotor type. There are two ...
By burning fossil fuels, people are changing the carbon cycle with far-reaching consequences. ... Carbon flows between the atmosphere, land, and ocean in a cycle that encompasses nearly all life and sets the thermostat for ... The Slow Carbon Cycle. The Fast Carbon Cycle. Changes in the Carbon Cycle. Effects of Changing the Carbon Cycle. Studying the ... The Slow Carbon Cycle. The Fast Carbon Cycle. Changes in the Carbon Cycle. Effects of Changing the Carbon Cycle. Studying the ...
VMware Acquires Carbon Black. VMware formally acquired Carbon Black, a leading next-generation security cloud provider on ... VMware Acquires Carbon Black.. With Carbon Black now a part of the VMware family, were rethinking and simplifying security. ... Carbon Black created an innovative cloud-native security platform with a smart, lightweight agent, and an AI/ML-based Data Lake ... The acquisition of Carbon Black represents the evolution of VMwares intrinsic security strategy, where security features are ...
Because of differences in the way the familiar chicken-wire patterns of carbon atoms line up across the surface, nanotubes can ... Carbon nanotubes have a measured strength about 50 times that of carbon steel. ... Carbon Nanotube Super-Fabric. Carbon nanotubes have a measured strength about 50 times that of carbon steel. Because of ... Thanks to their tubular structure, carbon nanotubes have a measured strength about 50 times that of carbon steel. And because ...
Scientific American is the essential guide to the most awe-inspiring advances in science and technology, explaining how they change our understanding of the world and shape our lives.
... carbon trading follows in the footsteps of this history and turns the earths carbon cycling capacity into property to be ... Through this process of creating a new commodity, carbon, the earths ability and capacity to support a climate conducive to ... But figuring out how to best "price carbon" is only a piece of what needs to happen. Outside the carbon trade summit, alongside ... Unfortunately, theory and practice in carbon markets simply do not jive. We have plenty of evidence that marketing carbon ...
... information about the dangers of carbon monoxide poisoning and how to avoid it ... Carbon monoxide is a gas that is produced when fossil fuels such as coal, natural gas and oil are burned. In only minutes, ... When you breathe carbon monoxide, it enters the bloodstream and cuts off delivery of oxygen to the bodys organs and tissues. ... The first symptoms of carbon monoxide poisoning may be headache, dizziness, confusion, fatigue, and nausea. As more of this gas ...
In the home, heating and cooking equipment that burn fuel are potential sources of carbon monoxide. Vehicles or generators ... carbon monoxide is an odorless, colorless gas created when fuels (such as gasoline, wood, coal, natural gas, propane, oil, and ... running in an attached garage can also produce dangerous levels of carbon monoxide. ... Carbon Monoxide: Invisible Killer Video. Show NFPA®s Carbon Monoxide: Invisible Killer Video in your community and help people ...
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Wheels Outside the Garden--Carbon River Road. * Introduction * Wheels Outside the Garden * Wheels in the Garden * Garden ... The Carbon River and many side creeks have washed out portions of the road, and detours have been constructed. ... The road from the Carbon River entrace to Mt Rainier National Park is closed from where you enter at the ranger station. ...
Tag Archive: carbon. * Joint-degree center celebrates 10th anniversary. October 24, 2016 3:40 am. Leave a Comment As the Yale ... Fitzgerald added that many of the centers current partnerships, such as the one with the Carbon Pricing Leadership Coalition ... a group that lobbies for taxing carbon emission - are working to achieve these goals. ...
If you own a business or are a business professional in Carbon County, the Carbon Chamber & Economic Development Corporation (C ... The first ever Carbon County Mini Golf Tournament to support the Future Leaders of Carbon County and the CCEDC Efforts to build ... The Sturm Cup Carbon County Chambers annual golf outing. - Duration: 73 seconds.. *2 weeks ago ... Future Leaders of Carbon County. - Duration: 3 minutes, 32 seconds.. *3 months ago ...
Effective carbon prices arise either explicitly via carbon taxes or emission trading systems, or implicitly, via the abatement ... It documents the current use of different types of carbon pricing and fossil fuel support, and finally considers carbon prices ... Carbon taxes and emissions trading are cheapest ways of reducing CO2, OECD says, OECD News Release, 4 November 2013.. ... OECD Home Environment DirectorateEnvironmental policy tools and evaluationEffective Carbon Prices - en Environmental policy ...
... sellers and brokers of carbon-dioxide discharge permits convenes in Germany. Getting rid of the waste gas blamed for global ... Summit: Carbon Dioxide Traders. Buyers, sellers, brokers and lawyers, even specialists in carbon asset creation management, ... As for carbon tradings future, we have to move one step at a time. And some encouraging steps are being taken even on the ... This carbon trading is a Europe-wide effort to use supply-and-demand to control emissions and protect the climate, in the ...
Effective Carbon Prices (Summary in German) Effective Carbon Prices (Summary in German). Read. * Download PDF ... Effective Carbon Prices (Summary in Japanese) Effective Carbon Prices (Summary in Japanese) Read. * Download PDF ... Effective Carbon Prices (Summary in Italian) Effective Carbon Prices (Summary in Italian). Read. * Download PDF ... Effective carbon prices arise either explicitly via carbon taxes or emission trading systems, or implicitly, via the abatement ...
We need to better understand the interplay of chemical, physical and biological processes that govern soil carbon cycling and ... Soils store vast quantities of carbon and have the potential to help mitigate or exacerbate climate change. ... Carbon inputs come from the growth of plants and their roots, the transfer of carbon-rich compounds from roots to soil microbes ... Plant-microbe interactions can also influence soil carbon persistence5: microbial formation of soil organic carbon below ground ...
  • Carbon offsets are reductions in emissions of carbon or greenhouse gases made in order to compensate for or to offset an emission made elsewhere. (sourcewatch.org)
  • In the smaller, voluntary market, individuals, companies, or governments purchase carbon offsets to mitigate their own greenhouse gas emissions from transportation, electricity use, and other sources. (sourcewatch.org)
  • For example, an individual might purchase carbon offsets to compensate for the greenhouse gas emissions caused by personal air travel. (sourcewatch.org)
  • Many companies (see list [3] ) offer carbon offsets as an up-sell during the sales process so that customers can mitigate the emissions related with their product or service purchase (such as offsetting emissions related to a vacation flight, car rental, hotel stay, consumer good, etc. (sourcewatch.org)
  • We need to move transportation toward zero carbon emissions, whether fully electric or hydrogen powered. (davidsuzuki.org)
  • Clean fuel standards are a way to make fuels less polluting and reduce carbon emissions. (davidsuzuki.org)
  • Modelling suggests the most significant change to reduce carbon emissions in Canada by 80 per cent by 2050 is to progressively reduce reliance on fossil fuels. (davidsuzuki.org)
  • The low carbon fuel standard is the single greatest measure to reduce carbon emissions in B.C's CleanBC climate plan. (davidsuzuki.org)
  • But as of 2014, transportation fuels continue to make up a large proportion of B.C.'s growing carbon emissions. (davidsuzuki.org)
  • Three different structures of carbon materials (carbon balls, bamboo-shaped carbon nanotubes, and straight carbon nanotubes) synthesized under H2 catalysis at 1000° C. can be used to change their flow rate by atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition (APCVD). (mis-asia.com)
  • Carbon nanotubes are seamless hollow tubes made of graphene sheets formed from carbon atoms. (mis-asia.com)
  • They can generally be divided into single-wall carbon nanotubes, multi-wall carbon nanotubes and double-wall carbon nanotubes. (mis-asia.com)
  • Carbon nanotubes (complex mixtures of artificial amorphous and/or crystalline nano-minerals), even in certain geological materials, have been detected in trace concentrations of fullerenes, such as coal-derived fly ash carbon nanotubes are widely used Use, including electronic materials, fuel cells, reinforced composite materials and medical fields. (mis-asia.com)
  • The production methods of carbon nanotubes include arc discharge, laser evaporation, chemical vapor deposition and catalysis. (mis-asia.com)
  • Compared with single-walled carbon nanotubes, carbon nanofibers are much more economical and practical than single-walled carbon nanotubes. (mis-asia.com)
  • Carbon offsets are measured in metric tons of carbon dioxide (CO 2 e) and may represent six primary categories of greenhouse gases. (sourcewatch.org)
  • There are two markets for carbon offsets. (sourcewatch.org)
  • In the larger, compliance market, companies, governments, or other entities buy carbon offsets in order to comply with caps on the total amount of carbon dioxide they are allowed to emit. (sourcewatch.org)
  • In 2006, about $5.5 billion of carbon offsets were purchased in the compliance market, representing about 1.6 billion metric tons of CO 2 e reductions. (sourcewatch.org)
  • In 2008, about $705 million of carbon offsets were purchased in the voluntary market, representing about 123.4 million metric tons of CO 2 e reductions. (sourcewatch.org)
  • The Kyoto Protocol has sanctioned offsets as a way for governments and private companies to earn carbon credits which can be traded on a marketplace. (sourcewatch.org)
  • However, some critics object to carbon offsets, and question the benefits or authenticity of certain types of offsets. (sourcewatch.org)
  • In March 2010, the difficulty of measuring the veracity of carbon offsets within the UN 's Clean Development Mechanism was highlighted again when the UN suspended the firm TuvSud, a German company the UN has permitted to act as a 'validator' of the offset system. (sourcewatch.org)
  • TuvSud is one of 26 validators, and responsible for nearly one quarter of the carbon offsets on the market. (sourcewatch.org)
  • Edwina Hannaford, Cornwall's cabinet portfolio holder for climate change and neighbourhoods, said: "Opening up the Community Infrastructure Levy funds to community groups to develop projects to encourage us to adopt greener and less carbon-emitting practices is a great example of our commitment to tackling climate change and helping Cornwall work towards becoming carbon neutral by 2030. (cornwall.gov.uk)
  • [1] One carbon offset represents the reduction of one metric ton of carbon dioxide or its equivalent in other greenhouse gases. (sourcewatch.org)
  • [8] The actual amount of carbon reduction from an offset project can often be difficult to measure, largely unregulated, and vulnerable to misrepresentation. (sourcewatch.org)
  • Nanofibers are divided into acrylonitrile carbon fibers and pitch carbon fibers. (mis-asia.com)
  • This allows carbon nanofibers to be researched and made into high-functional polymer filler materials, and then mass-produced and used. (mis-asia.com)
  • Generally, the diameter of carbon nanofibers is usually 60-200 nm, and the length is usually 100 lm. (mis-asia.com)
  • In addition, the Young's modulus of carbon nanofibers is 600 GPa, and the tensile strength is usually between 2.5 and 3.5 GPa. (mis-asia.com)
  • Carbon nanofibers can be combined with other polymers to form nano-scale composite materials with excellent properties. (mis-asia.com)
  • Hi Tim, Using the keywords: marine, organic carbon, and atmospheric CO2 with a search on my ref database (over 30,000 refs just on stable isotopes) the selection, as given below, was generated (including abstracts). (uvm.edu)
  • Marine organic carbon lies in a range intermediate between these groups. (uvm.edu)
  • Some typical carbon nanomaterials, such as nanospheres, can be detected in the clean coal products of low-quality Nagaland (India) coal by molten alkali leaching (MCL), while removing a considerable amount of minerals and sulfur. (mis-asia.com)
  • These carbon nanomaterials are not common in this type of coal. (mis-asia.com)
  • Fuel suppliers get credits for fuels with a lower carbon intensity than the current limit. (davidsuzuki.org)
  • These credits can be traded among fuel suppliers, creating the incentive to produce fuels with lower levels of carbon. (davidsuzuki.org)
  • A wide range of clean fuels (advanced biofuels, biogas, hydrogen, electricity), zero emission vehicles (electric and hydrogen fuel cell vehicles), cleantech innovations and infrastructure are needed for low carbon transportation. (davidsuzuki.org)
  • Both modes would need to pursue highly ambitious efficiency improvements and use of low-carbon fuels. (davidsuzuki.org)
  • In Chapter III, we examine the impact VACV has on the host metabolic network and discover that VACV implements a strikingly unique carbon utilization program during infection. (washington.edu)
  • The geochemistry of the stable carbon isotopes. (uvm.edu)
  • the observed photon costs can be accommodated by assuming coupled, energy-independent inorganic carbon influx and efflux. (uvm.edu)
  • Reduced carbon pollution from fossil fuel powered vehicles until they can be retired. (davidsuzuki.org)
  • Boreal headwaters potentially represent important conduits for the exchange of gaseous carbon between the terrestrial ecosystem and the atmosphere. (slu.se)
  • 2004) estimate the flux of gaseous carbon between boreal streams and the atmosphere to 0.5 g C/m2 &year. (slu.se)
  • The aim of this study is to determine the flux of carbon dioxide between streams in a typical Swedish boreal headwater catchment and the atmosphere. (slu.se)
  • The results from this study show that the loss of carbon from a boreal headwater catchment is somewhere between 2 and 13 g C/m2 &year. (slu.se)
  • Applicants will need to show how there is local need and community support for their project as well as how it will enable lower carbon living as part of the Council's ambitions for Cornwall to become carbon neutral by 2030 . (cornwall.gov.uk)
  • Chemical vapor deposition: It is a widely used method for preparing carbon materials, which can be divided into catalytic chemical vapor deposition and non-catalytic chemical vapor deposition. (mis-asia.com)
  • Carbon nanofiber materials are generally regarded as the matrix material of composite materials and enhance the overall conductivity and mechanical properties of the composite materials. (mis-asia.com)
  • Research shows the low carbon fuel standard can play a major role in meeting B.C.'s 2030 and 2050 greenhouse gas targets, especially for freight. (davidsuzuki.org)
  • A 2030 decarbonisation target, a balanced and low-carbon energy strategy - although regrettably still committed to nuclear - and clarity on the Green Investment Bank are at the heart of Labour's plans in government for a green economy. (sera.org.uk)
  • [5] According to a ClimateBiz trends survey, some of the most popular carbon offset projects from a corporate perspective are energy efficiency and wind turbine projects. (sourcewatch.org)
  • Having been charging CIL for 18 months we now have a significant amount of funding which we hope community groups across Cornwall can capitalise on to kickstart low carbon infrastructure projects to benefit their residents. (cornwall.gov.uk)
  • This edited collection explores the challenges and opportunities presented by the transition to a low carbon economy, and outlines the different approaches taken to ensure the sustainability of such a transition. (palgrave.com)
  • This comprehensive study provides readers with constructive ideas for maximising the opportunities of transitioning to a low carbon economy, and will serve as a useful tool for practitioners and academics interested in sustainability. (palgrave.com)
  • A standard requires that the amount of carbon over a fuel's lifecycle must be reduced during production, transportation or combustion stages. (davidsuzuki.org)
  • The B.C. government has dragged its feet on ramping up the target and may miss the carbon emission reductions projected in its climate plan. (davidsuzuki.org)