A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.
A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.
Carbon monoxide (CO). A poisonous colorless, odorless, tasteless gas. It combines with hemoglobin to form carboxyhemoglobin, which has no oxygen carrying capacity. The resultant oxygen deprivation causes headache, dizziness, decreased pulse and respiratory rates, unconsciousness, and death. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
Nanometer-sized tubes composed mainly of CARBON. Such nanotubes are used as probes for high-resolution structural and chemical imaging of biomolecules with ATOMIC FORCE MICROSCOPY.
Toxic asphyxiation due to the displacement of oxygen from oxyhemoglobin by carbon monoxide.
Stable carbon atoms that have the same atomic number as the element carbon, but differ in atomic weight. C-13 is a stable carbon isotope.
A solvent for oils, fats, lacquers, varnishes, rubber waxes, and resins, and a starting material in the manufacturing of organic compounds. Poisoning by inhalation, ingestion or skin absorption is possible and may be fatal. (Merck Index, 11th ed)
Any of several processes for the permanent or long-term artificial or natural capture or removal and storage of carbon dioxide and other forms of carbon, through biological, chemical or physical processes, in a manner that prevents it from being released into the atmosphere.
A colorless, flammable, poisonous liquid, CS2. It is used as a solvent, and is a counterirritant and has local anesthetic properties but is not used as such. It is highly toxic with pronounced CNS, hematologic, and dermatologic effects.
A measure of the total greenhouse gas emissions produced by an individual, organization, event, or product. It is measured in units of equivalent kilograms of CARBON DIOXIDE generated in a given time frame.
Unstable isotopes of carbon that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. C atoms with atomic weights 10, 11, and 14-16 are radioactive carbon isotopes.
An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.
Total mass of all the organisms of a given type and/or in a given area. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990) It includes the yield of vegetative mass produced from any given crop.
A dark powdery deposit of unburned fuel residues, composed mainly of amorphous CARBON and some HYDROCARBONS, that accumulates in chimneys, automobile mufflers and other surfaces exposed to smoke. It is the product of incomplete combustion of carbon-rich organic fuels in low oxygen conditions. It is sometimes called lampblack or carbon black and is used in INK, in rubber tires, and to prepare CARBON NANOTUBES.
The gaseous envelope surrounding a planet or similar body. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
Elimination of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS; PESTICIDES and other waste using living organisms, usually involving intervention of environmental or sanitation engineers.
The unconsolidated mineral or organic matter on the surface of the earth that serves as a natural medium for the growth of land plants.
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
Derivatives of ACETIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxymethane structure.
An allotropic form of carbon that is used in pencils, as a lubricant, and in matches and explosives. It is obtained by mining and its dust can cause lung irritation.
Inorganic compounds that contain carbon as an integral part of the molecule but are not derived from hydrocarbons.
The synthesis by organisms of organic chemical compounds, especially carbohydrates, from carbon dioxide using energy obtained from light rather than from the oxidation of chemical compounds. Photosynthesis comprises two separate processes: the light reactions and the dark reactions. In higher plants; GREEN ALGAE; and CYANOBACTERIA; NADPH and ATP formed by the light reactions drive the dark reactions which result in the fixation of carbon dioxide. (from Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2001)
Cellular processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of CARBOHYDRATES.
A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.
An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.
Woody, usually tall, perennial higher plants (Angiosperms, Gymnosperms, and some Pterophyta) having usually a main stem and numerous branches.
Electric conductors through which electric currents enter or leave a medium, whether it be an electrolytic solution, solid, molten mass, gas, or vacuum.
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
The simplest saturated hydrocarbon. It is a colorless, flammable gas, slightly soluble in water. It is one of the chief constituents of natural gas and is formed in the decomposition of organic matter. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The processes by which organisms use simple inorganic substances such as gaseous or dissolved carbon dioxide and inorganic nitrogen as nutrient sources. Contrasts with heterotrophic processes which make use of organic materials as the nutrient supply source. Autotrophs can be either chemoautotrophs (or chemolithotrophs), largely ARCHAEA and BACTERIA, which also use simple inorganic substances for their metabolic energy reguirements; or photoautotrophs (or photolithotrophs), such as PLANTS and CYANOBACTERIA, which derive their energy from light. Depending on environmental conditions some organisms can switch between different nutritional modes (autotrophy; HETEROTROPHY; chemotrophy; or PHOTOTROPHY) to utilize different sources to meet their nutrient and energy requirements.
A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A mixed function oxidase enzyme which during hemoglobin catabolism catalyzes the degradation of heme to ferrous iron, carbon monoxide and biliverdin in the presence of molecular oxygen and reduced NADPH. The enzyme is induced by metals, particularly cobalt. EC
The generic name for the group of aliphatic hydrocarbons Cn-H2n+2. They are denoted by the suffix -ane. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The salinated water of OCEANS AND SEAS that provides habitat for marine organisms.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the soil. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
A series of oxidative reactions in the breakdown of acetyl units derived from GLUCOSE; FATTY ACIDS; or AMINO ACIDS by means of tricarboxylic acid intermediates. The end products are CARBON DIOXIDE, water, and energy in the form of phosphate bonds.
The pressure that would be exerted by one component of a mixture of gases if it were present alone in a container. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in nature. Some species are pathogenic for humans, animals, and plants.
The complete absence, or (loosely) the paucity, of gaseous or dissolved elemental oxygen in a given place or environment. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
A mass of organic or inorganic solid fragmented material, or the solid fragment itself, that comes from the weathering of rock and is carried by, suspended in, or dropped by air, water, or ice. It refers also to a mass that is accumulated by any other natural agent and that forms in layers on the earth's surface, such as sand, gravel, silt, mud, fill, or loess. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1689)
The effect of GLOBAL WARMING and the resulting increase in world temperatures. The predicted health effects of such long-term climatic change include increased incidence of respiratory, water-borne, and vector-borne diseases.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.
Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.
The study of chemical changes resulting from electrical action and electrical activity resulting from chemical changes.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)
Salts or ions of the theoretical carbonic acid, containing the radical CO2(3-). Carbonates are readily decomposed by acids. The carbonates of the alkali metals are water-soluble; all others are insoluble. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Life or metabolic reactions occurring in an environment containing oxygen.
Oxidoreductases that are specific for ALDEHYDES.
Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A trihydroxy sugar alcohol that is an intermediate in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. It is used as a solvent, emollient, pharmaceutical agent, and sweetening agent.
A broad class of substances containing carbon and its derivatives. Many of these chemicals will frequently contain hydrogen with or without oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, phosphorus, and other elements. They exist in either carbon chain or carbon ring form.
A great expanse of continuous bodies of salt water which together cover more than 70 percent of the earth's surface. Seas may be partially or entirely enclosed by land, and are smaller than the five oceans (Atlantic, Pacific, Indian, Arctic, and Antarctic).
The processes by which organisms utilize organic substances as their nutrient sources. Contrasts with AUTOTROPHIC PROCESSES which make use of simple inorganic substances as the nutrient supply source. Heterotrophs can be either chemoheterotrophs (or chemoorganotrophs) which also require organic substances such as glucose for their primary metabolic energy requirements, or photoheterotrophs (or photoorganotrophs) which derive their primary energy requirements from light. Depending on environmental conditions some organisms can switch between different nutritional modes (AUTOTROPHY; heterotrophy; chemotrophy; or PHOTOTROPHY) to utilize different sources to meet their nutrients and energy requirements.
The first chemical element in the periodic table. It has the atomic symbol H, atomic number 1, and atomic weight [1.00784; 1.00811]. It exists, under normal conditions, as a colorless, odorless, tasteless, diatomic gas. Hydrogen ions are PROTONS. Besides the common H1 isotope, hydrogen exists as the stable isotope DEUTERIUM and the unstable, radioactive isotope TRITIUM.
The use of a heavy ion particle beam for radiotherapy, such as the HEAVY IONS of CARBON.
A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Complex sets of enzymatic reactions connected to each other via their product and substrate metabolites.
The utilization of an electrical current to measure, analyze, or alter chemicals or chemical reactions in solution, cells, or tissues.
An amorphous form of carbon prepared from the incomplete combustion of animal or vegetable matter, e.g., wood. The activated form of charcoal is used in the treatment of poisoning. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
A colorless, flammable liquid used in the manufacture of FORMALDEHYDE and ACETIC ACID, in chemical synthesis, antifreeze, and as a solvent. Ingestion of methanol is toxic and may cause blindness.
The vapor state of matter; nonelastic fluids in which the molecules are in free movement and their mean positions far apart. Gases tend to expand indefinitely, to diffuse and mix readily with other gases, to have definite relations of volume, temperature, and pressure, and to condense or liquefy at low temperatures or under sufficient pressure. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The act of blowing a powder, vapor, or gas into any body cavity for experimental, diagnostic, or therapeutic purposes.
A water-soluble, colorless crystal with an acid taste that is used as a chemical intermediate, in medicine, the manufacture of lacquers, and to make perfume esters. It is also used in foods as a sequestrant, buffer, and a neutralizing agent. (Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed, p1099; McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1851)
Acetyl CoA participates in the biosynthesis of fatty acids and sterols, in the oxidation of fatty acids and in the metabolism of many amino acids. It also acts as a biological acetylating agent.
The amount of a gas taken up, by the pulmonary capillary blood from the alveolar gas, per minute per unit of average pressure of the gradient of the gas across the BLOOD-AIR BARRIER.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
A polyhedral CARBON structure composed of around 60-80 carbon atoms in pentagon and hexagon configuration. They are named after Buckminster Fuller because of structural resemblance to geodesic domes. Fullerenes can be made in high temperature such as arc discharge in an inert atmosphere.
Derivatives of SUCCINIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain a 1,4-carboxy terminated aliphatic structure.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in water. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.
A ubiquitous stress-responsive enzyme that catalyzes the oxidative cleavage of HEME to yield IRON; CARBON MONOXIDE; and BILIVERDIN.
The act of breathing with the LUNGS, consisting of INHALATION, or the taking into the lungs of the ambient air, and of EXHALATION, or the expelling of the modified air which contains more CARBON DIOXIDE than the air taken in (Blakiston's Gould Medical Dictionary, 4th ed.). This does not include tissue respiration (= OXYGEN CONSUMPTION) or cell respiration (= CELL RESPIRATION).
The exchange of OXYGEN and CARBON DIOXIDE between alveolar air and pulmonary capillary blood that occurs across the BLOOD-AIR BARRIER.
Any substance in the air which could, if present in high enough concentration, harm humans, animals, vegetation or material. Substances include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; and volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.
The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Stable nitrogen atoms that have the same atomic number as the element nitrogen, but differ in atomic weight. N-15 is a stable nitrogen isotope.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
The science of developing, caring for, or cultivating forests.
The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
A product of hard secondary xylem composed of CELLULOSE, hemicellulose, and LIGNANS, that is under the bark of trees and shrubs. It is used in construction and as a source of CHARCOAL and many other products.
Product of the oxidation of ethanol and of the destructive distillation of wood. It is used locally, occasionally internally, as a counterirritant and also as a reagent. (Stedman, 26th ed)
A climate which is typical of equatorial and tropical regions, i.e., one with continually high temperatures with considerable precipitation, at least during part of the year. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The adhesion of gases, liquids, or dissolved solids onto a surface. It includes adsorptive phenomena of bacteria and viruses onto surfaces as well. ABSORPTION into the substance may follow but not necessarily.
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
Organic compounds containing the carboxy group (-COOH). This group of compounds includes amino acids and fatty acids. Carboxylic acids can be saturated, unsaturated, or aromatic.
Derivatives of formic acids. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that are formed with a single carbon carboxy group.
An intermediate compound in the metabolism of carbohydrates, proteins, and fats. In thiamine deficiency, its oxidation is retarded and it accumulates in the tissues, especially in nervous structures. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
Free-floating minute organisms that are photosynthetic. The term is non-taxonomic and refers to a lifestyle (energy utilization and motility), rather than a particular type of organism. Most, but not all, are unicellular algae. Important groups include DIATOMS; DINOFLAGELLATES; CYANOBACTERIA; CHLOROPHYTA; HAPTOPHYTA; CRYPTOMONADS; and silicoflagellates.
Alkyl compounds containing a hydroxyl group. They are classified according to relation of the carbon atom: primary alcohols, R-CH2OH; secondary alcohols, R2-CHOH; tertiary alcohols, R3-COH. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
Relating to the size of solids.
A microanalytical technique combining mass spectrometry and gas chromatography for the qualitative as well as quantitative determinations of compounds.
Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
The development and use of techniques to study physical phenomena and construct structures in the nanoscale size range or smaller.
An element that is a member of the chalcogen family. It has an atomic symbol S, atomic number 16, and atomic weight [32.059; 32.076]. It is found in the amino acids cysteine and methionine.
Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in fungi.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
Water containing no significant amounts of salts, such as water from RIVERS and LAKES.
A spectrum of clinical liver diseases ranging from mild biochemical abnormalities to ACUTE LIVER FAILURE, caused by drugs, drug metabolites, and chemicals from the environment.
A clinical manifestation of abnormal increase in the amount of carbon dioxide in arterial blood.
Salts and esters of hydroxybutyric acid.
Experimentally induced chronic injuries to the parenchymal cells in the liver to achieve a model for LIVER CIRRHOSIS.
Measurement of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the blood.
The class of all enzymes catalyzing oxidoreduction reactions. The substrate that is oxidized is regarded as a hydrogen donor. The systematic name is based on donor:acceptor oxidoreductase. The recommended name will be dehydrogenase, wherever this is possible; as an alternative, reductase can be used. Oxidase is only used in cases where O2 is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p9)
Deliberate introduction of air into the peritoneal cavity.
Process by which micro-organisms adapt quickly to a preferred rapidly-metabolizable intermediate through the inhibition or repression of genes related to CATABOLISM of less preferred source(s).
Fractionation of a vaporized sample as a consequence of partition between a mobile gaseous phase and a stationary phase held in a column. Two types are gas-solid chromatography, where the fixed phase is a solid, and gas-liquid, in which the stationary phase is a nonvolatile liquid supported on an inert solid matrix.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.
Particles of any solid substance, generally under 30 microns in size, often noted as PM30. There is special concern with PM1 which can get down to PULMONARY ALVEOLI and induce MACROPHAGE ACTIVATION and PHAGOCYTOSIS leading to FOREIGN BODY REACTION and LUNG DISEASES.
The usually underground portions of a plant that serve as support, store food, and through which water and mineral nutrients enter the plant. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982; Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
Any combustible hydrocarbon deposit formed from the remains of prehistoric organisms. Examples are petroleum, coal, and natural gas.
Inorganic or organic salts and esters of nitric acid. These compounds contain the NO3- radical.
Any of a variety of procedures which use biomolecular probes to measure the presence or concentration of biological molecules, biological structures, microorganisms, etc., by translating a biochemical interaction at the probe surface into a quantifiable physical signal.
That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared range.
A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria isolated from soil and water as well as clinical specimens. Occasionally it is an opportunistic pathogen.
Tools or devices for generating products using the synthetic or chemical conversion capacity of a biological system. They can be classical fermentors, cell culture perfusion systems, or enzyme bioreactors. For production of proteins or enzymes, recombinant microorganisms such as bacteria, mammalian cells, or insect or plant cells are usually chosen.
Processes by which phototrophic organisms use sunlight as their primary energy source. Contrasts with chemotrophic processes which do not depend on light and function in deriving energy from exogenous chemical sources. Photoautotrophy (or photolithotrophy) is the ability to use sunlight as energy to fix inorganic nutrients to be used for other organic requirements. Photoautotrophs include all GREEN PLANTS; GREEN ALGAE; CYANOBACTERIA; and green and PURPLE SULFUR BACTERIA. Photoheterotrophs or photoorganotrophs require a supply of organic nutrients for their organic requirements but use sunlight as their primary energy source; examples include certain PURPLE NONSULFUR BACTERIA. Depending on environmental conditions some organisms can switch between different nutritional modes (AUTOTROPHY; HETEROTROPHY; chemotrophy; or phototrophy) to utilize different sources to meet their nutrients and energy requirements.
Salts or esters of LACTIC ACID containing the general formula CH3CHOHCOOR.
The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.
Any tests done on exhaled air.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The noninvasive measurement or determination of the partial pressure (tension) of oxygen and/or carbon dioxide locally in the capillaries of a tissue by the application to the skin of a special set of electrodes. These electrodes contain photoelectric sensors capable of picking up the specific wavelengths of radiation emitted by oxygenated versus reduced hemoglobin.
An oxidative decarboxylation process that converts GLUCOSE-6-PHOSPHATE to D-ribose-5-phosphate via 6-phosphogluconate. The pentose product is used in the biosynthesis of NUCLEIC ACIDS. The generated energy is stored in the form of NADPH. This pathway is prominent in tissues which are active in the synthesis of FATTY ACIDS and STEROIDS.
Inorganic salts that contain the -HCO3 radical. They are an important factor in determining the pH of the blood and the concentration of bicarbonate ions is regulated by the kidney. Levels in the blood are an index of the alkali reserve or buffering capacity.
Any of a group of polysaccharides of the general formula (C6-H10-O5)n, composed of a long-chain polymer of glucose in the form of amylose and amylopectin. It is the chief storage form of energy reserve (carbohydrates) in plants.
Stable oxygen atoms that have the same atomic number as the element oxygen, but differ in atomic weight. O-17 and 18 are stable oxygen isotopes.
A CHROMATOGRAPHY method using supercritical fluid, usually carbon dioxide under very high pressure (around 73 atmospheres or 1070 psi at room temperature) as the mobile phase. Other solvents are sometimes added as modifiers. This is used both for analytical (SFC) and extraction (SFE) purposes.
The longterm manifestations of WEATHER. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.
Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
The protection, preservation, restoration, and rational use of all resources in the total environment.
The art or process of comparing photometrically the relative intensities of the light in different parts of the spectrum.
A phylum of ARCHAEA comprising at least seven classes: Methanobacteria, Methanococci, Halobacteria (extreme halophiles), Archaeoglobi (sulfate-reducing species), Methanopyri, and the thermophiles: Thermoplasmata, and Thermococci.
Techniques for labeling a substance with a stable or radioactive isotope. It is not used for articles involving labeled substances unless the methods of labeling are substantively discussed. Tracers that may be labeled include chemical substances, cells, or microorganisms.
Gases, fumes, vapors, and odors escaping from the cylinders of a gasoline or diesel internal-combustion engine. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed & Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)

Sodalis gen. nov. and Sodalis glossinidius sp. nov., a microaerophilic secondary endosymbiont of the tsetse fly Glossina morsitans morsitans. (1/5091)

A secondary intracellular symbiotic bacterium was isolated from the haemolymph of the tsetse fly Glossina morsitans morsitans and cultured in Aedes albopictus cell line C6/36. Pure-culture isolation of this bacterium was achieved through the use of solid-phase culture under a microaerobic atmosphere. After isolation of strain M1T, a range of tests was performed to determine the phenotypic properties of this bacterium. Considering the results of these tests, along with the phylogenetic position of this micro-organism, it is proposed that this intracellular symbiont from G. m. morsitans should be classified in a new genus Sodalis gen. nov., as Sodalis glossinidius gen. nov., sp. nov. Strain M1T is the type strain for this new species.  (+info)

Role of a novel photosystem II-associated carbonic anhydrase in photosynthetic carbon assimilation in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. (2/5091)

Intracellular carbonic anhydrases (CA) in aquatic photosynthetic organisms are involved in the CO2-concentrating mechanism (CCM), which helps to overcome CO2 limitation in the environment. In the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, this CCM is initiated and maintained by the pH gradient created across the chloroplast thylakoid membranes by photosystem (PS) II-mediated electron transport. We show here that photosynthesis is stimulated by a novel, intracellular alpha-CA bound to the chloroplast thylakoids. It is associated with PSII on the lumenal side of the thylakoid membranes. We demonstrate that PSII in association with this lumenal CA operates to provide an ample flux of CO2 for carboxylation.  (+info)

Condensation of carbon in radioactive supernova gas. (3/5091)

Chemistry resulting in the formation of large carbon-bearing molecules and dust in the interior of an expanding supernova was explored, and the equations governing their abundances were solved numerically. Carbon dust condenses from initially gaseous carbon and oxygen atoms because energetic electrons produced by radioactivity in the supernova cause dissociation of the carbon monoxide molecules, which would otherwise form and limit the supply of carbon atoms. The resulting free carbon atoms enable carbon dust to grow faster by carbon association than the rate at which the dust can be destroyed by oxidation. The origin of presolar micrometer-sized carbon solids that are found in meteorites is thereby altered.  (+info)

Role of ArgR in activation of the ast operon, encoding enzymes of the arginine succinyltransferase pathway in Salmonella typhimurium. (4/5091)

The ast operon, encoding enzymes of the arginine succinyltransferase (AST) pathway, was cloned from Salmonella typhimurium, and the nucleotide sequence for the upstream flanking region was determined. The control region contains several regulatory consensus sequences, including binding sites for NtrC, cyclic AMP receptor protein (CRP), and ArgR. The results of DNase I footprintings and gel retardation experiments confirm binding of these regulatory proteins to the identified sites. Exogenous arginine induced AST under nitrogen-limiting conditions, and this induction was abolished in an argR derivative. AST was also induced under carbon starvation conditions; this induction required functional CRP as well as functional ArgR. The combined data are consistent with the hypothesis that binding of one or more ArgR molecules to a region between the upstream binding sites for NtrC and CRP and two putative promoters plays a pivotal role in modulating expression of the ast operon in response to nitrogen or carbon limitation.  (+info)

A small catalytic RNA motif with Diels-Alderase activity. (5/5091)

BACKGROUND: The 'RNA world' hypothesis requires that RNA be able to catalyze a wide variety of chemical reactions. In vitro selection from combinatorial RNA libraries has been used to identify several catalytic activities, most of which have resulted in a self-modification of RNA at one of its constituents. The formation of carbon-carbon bonds is considered an essential prerequisite for a complex metabolism based on RNA. RESULTS: We describe the selection and characterization of new ribozymes that catalyze carbon-carbon bond formation by Diels-Alder reaction of a biotinylated maleimide with an RNA-tethered anthracene. Secondary structure analysis identified a 49-nucleotide RNA motif that accelerates the reaction about 20,000-fold. The motif has only 11 conserved nucleotides that are present in most of the selected sequences. The ribozyme motif is remarkably adaptable with respect to cofactor and metal-ion requirements. The motif was also re-engineered to give a 38-mer RNA that can act as a 'true' catalyst on short external substrate oligonucleotide-anthracene conjugates. CONCLUSIONS: We have identified a small, highly abundant RNA motif that can solve the complex task of forming two carbon-carbon bonds between two reactants in trans, a catalytic capacity useful for creating prebiotically relevant molecules. This is the smallest and fastest RNA catalyst for carbon-carbon bond formation reported to date.  (+info)

Number and anatomical extent of lymph node metastases in gastric cancer: analysis using intra-lymph node injection of activated carbon particles (CH40). (6/5091)

BACKGROUND: The long-term survival of 200 patients with gastric cancer who underwent radical gastrectomy was analyzed with respect to the number and anatomical extent of lymph node metastasis. All of the patients received intra-lymph node injection of fine activated carbon particle solution (CH40) during surgery. METHODS: The average number of resected lymph nodes increased in line with the anatomical level of lymph node dissection; 32.5 per patient in D1, 42.3 in D2, 3 and 66.3 in D4. The percentage of blackened lymph nodes without metastasis (42.4%) was slightly higher than that of lymph nodes containing metastasis (37.2%), but the difference was not statistically significant. Of the 200 patients, 61 (30.5%) had microscopic evidence of metastatic lymph node involvement. Twenty-two patients had between one and three metastatic lymph nodes, 19 had between four and nine and 20 patients had more than nine. The 5-year survival rate was 93.1% in patients without lymph node metastasis, 71.9% in patients with 1-8 metastatic nodes, 36.1% in patients with 4-9 nodes and 19.2% in patients with > 9 nodes. RESULTS: The 5-year survival rate according to the anatomical extent of metastatic lymph nodes was 93.1% in n0, 63.1% in n1, 37.9% in n2, 27.8% in n3 and 0% in n4. The number of metastatic lymph nodes and also their anatomical extent were identified as independent prognostic factors for survival by multivariate analysis. CONCLUSION: The number and anatomical extent of metastatic lymph nodes have similar impacts on prognosis in gastric cancer.  (+info)

Acn9 is a novel protein of gluconeogenesis that is located in the mitochondrial intermembrane space. (7/5091)

Previous studies have indicated that the Acn9 protein is involved in gluconeogenesis. Yeast mutants defective in the ACN9 gene display phenotypes identical with mutants defective in metabolic enzymes required for carbon assimilation. These phenotypes include the inability to utilize acetate as a carbon and energy source, elevated levels of enzymes of the glyoxylate cycle, gluconeogenesis and acetyl-CoA mobilization, and a deficiency in de novo synthesis of glucose from ethanol. The ACN9 gene was isolated by functional complementation of the acetate growth defect of an acn9 mutant. The open reading frame corresponds to YDR511w, and encodes a protein of unknown function. Homologs have been identified in human, mouse, and nematode databases. Two mutant alleles were sequenced. The mutations altered amino acid residues that are conserved among members of the new gene family. ACN9 gene expression was slightly repressed by glucose, and the level of the transcript was approximately 100-fold lower than that of glyoxylate or tricarboxylic acid cycle enzymes. A functional epitope-tagged form of Acn9 was expressed to study expression and the subcellular localization of the protein. The tagged protein was localized to the mitochondrial intermembrane space.  (+info)

Carbon assimilation by Claviceps purpurea growing as a parasite. (8/5091)

Carbon assimilation by Claviceps purpurea, growing as a parasite on cereals, has been investigated by supplying the host plant with 14CO2 in a closed system. The presence of the pathogen induced the plant to exude photosynthate which contained high levels of sucrose. During the period of 14CO2 supply, 14C was incorporated into the sucrose and so the path of carbon into the parasite could be traced. Hexoses, derived by the action of the fungal sucrase on sucrose, were assimilated by the pathogen and largely converted into polyols - mainly mannitol and, to a lesser extent, trehalose. The rate of carbohydrate metabolism decreased with maturation of the ergot, and also showed qualitative differences between the basal and apical regions of the ergot which were probably a function of nutrient supply.  (+info)

A transparent amorphous carbon layer is formed. The transparent amorphous carbon layer has a low absorption coefficient such that the amorphous carbon is transparent in visible light. The transparent amorphous carbon layer may be used in semiconductor devices for different purposes. The transparent amorphous carbon layer may be included in a final structure in semiconductor devices. The transparent amorphous carbon layer may also be used as a mask in an etching process during fabrication of semiconductor devices.
Mechanical properties of amorphous carbon films deposited from carbon stable isotope materialsMechanical properties of amorphous carbon films deposited from carbon stable isotope materials ...
Viruses are dependent on the metabolic machinery of the host cell to supply the energy and molecular building blocks needed for their replication. Substantial research has focused on understanding how viruses alter host cellular metabolism in the hopes of identifying metabolic pathways that are critical for successful infection. In this thesis, we explore how two viruses important for biodefense, vaccinia virus (VACV) and dengue virus (DENV), manipulate the global cellular metabolome during infection. In Chapter III, we examine the impact VACV has on the host metabolic network and discover that VACV implements a strikingly unique carbon utilization program during infection. Specifically, we define an important role for glutamine during VACV infection and show that glucose is dispensable for replication. We show that the glutaminolytic pathway of glutamine metabolism is markedly altered in VACV-infected cells and is necessary to replenish the TCA cycle during infection. We further demonstrate ...
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Article Breakthrough curves of oil adsorption on novel amorphous carbon thin film. A novel amorphous carbon thin film (ACTF) was prepared by hydrolyzing wood sawdust and delignificating the residue to obtain cellulose mass that was subjected to react...
We studied the structural properties of amorphous carbon covering a wide range of densities from low-density to high-density regime using classical molecular dynamics with reactive empirical bond-order potential model. We calculated the pair-correlation functions, relative concentration of various coordinated atoms, and ring statistics in the amorphous carbon networks and compared them with other results. They agree with each other qualitatively but are different quantitatively. We investigate the difference now and will provide comprehensive understanding at the conference.
carbon fiber round barbuy carbon fiber tubecarbon fiber tubes sizes1 inch carbon fiber tubecarbon fiber tube shopsquare carbon fiber tubecarbon fiber tube fittingscarbon fiber price historySome results are removed in response to a notice of local law requirement. For more information, please see here.12mm Carbon Fiber Round Tube 12x10x400mm Plain Weave Matte (steel) Jul 21, 202012mm Carbon Fiber Round Tube 12x10x400mm Plain Weave Matte Finish These carbon fiber tubes are tightly wound when roll-wrapped for a low resin content 100% carbon fiber continuous tube. These ultra stiff and lightweight tubes make excellent spars or drone arms/gimbal parts. (pipe) matted round carbon fiber tube price (steel) carbon fiber round barbuy carbon fiber tubecarbon fiber tubes sizes1 inch carbon fiber tubecarbon fiber tube shopsquare carbon fiber tubecarbon fiber tube fittingscarbon fiber price historySome results are removed in response to a notice of local law requirement. For more information, please see ...
Nitrogen-free amorphous carbon thin films prepared via sputtering followed by graphitization, were used as precursor materials for the creation of N-doped carbon electrodes with varying degrees of amorphization. Incorporation of N-sites was achieved via nitrogen plasma treatments which resulted in both surface functionalization and amorphization of the carbon electrode materials. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Raman spectroscopy were used to monitor composition and carbon organization: results indicate incorporation of predominantly pyrrolic-N sites after relatively short treatment cycles (5 min or less), accompanied by an initial etching of amorphous regions followed by a slower process of amorphization of graphitized clusters. By leveraging the difference in the rate of these two processes it was possible to investigate the effects of chemical N-sites and C-defect sites on their electrochemical response. The materials were tested as metal-free electrocatalysts in the oxygen reduction
Ducklow, Hugh W (2003): Particulate organic carbon and particulate organic nitrogen data at station TT045_7-13. PANGAEA, https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.115937
Ducklow, Hugh W (2003): Particulate organic carbon and particulate organic nitrogen data at station TT045_2-1. PANGAEA, https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.115917
Recent studies have demonstrated that carbon, in the form of diamond, can be functionalized with molecular and/or biomolecular species to yield interfaces exhibiting extremely high stability and selectivity in binding to target biomolecules in solution. However, diamond and most other crystalline forms of carbon involve high-temperature deposition or processing steps that restrict their ability to be integrated with other materials. Here, we demonstrate that photochemical functionalization of amorphous carbon films followed by covalent immobilization of DNA yields highly stable surfaces with excellent biomolecular recognition properties that can be used for real-time biological detection. Carbon films deposited onto substrates at 300 K were functionalized with organic alkenes bearing protected amine groups and characterized using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The functionalized carbon surfaces were covalently linked to DNA oligonucleotides. Measurements
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Lightweight polymer-carbon composites with high specific electrical conductivity at a carbon content below 40 vol.% were developed. The electrical and mechanical properties and the hydrogen permeability of carbon fiber and particle reinforced liquid crystalline polymers were examined. Vectra® A 950, SIGRAFIL® carbon fibers and Vulcan® 5XC6 72 R carbon black were employed. The composites are found to have sufficient mechanical properties and a hydrogen permeability low enough to be utilised as bipolar plate material in fuel cell applications. The density of the new composite is 20% lower than the density of commercial bipolar plates made from carbon reinforced polymeric composite materials, due to the lower carbon content. The current density at 0.5 V in an operating fuel cell is only 20% lower compared to commercial materials with more than 80 vol.% carbon content and meets the requirements for bipolar plate application ...
One of the greatest benefits of carbon fiber fuselages is strength. Carbon fiber is exceptionally strong - even more so than steel and aluminum. When individual strands of carbon are woven together, they form an ultra-strong mesh-like material, which is carbon fiber. Therefore, fuselages constructed of carbon fiber are able to resist greater physical stress than those made of alternative materials.. Carbon fiber is also lightweight. In fact, it weighs about 40% less than aluminum. When combined with its exceptional strength, the lightweight properties of carbon fiber make it a popular choice for large commercial airplanes.. The downside to carbon fiber is its cost. Carbon fiber costs more than aluminum. This is due to the fact that producing carbon fiber is more laborious. It requires more resources to product than aluminum, resulting in a higher cost.. ...
PhD position in land-sea soil carbon transfer dynamics *Job description* The global carbon cycle represents the collection of complex biogeochemical processes that influence our climate and link all carbon pools on Earth. Soils play a very active and key role in the global carbon cycle, as upon sequestration in marine sediments they act as long-term sink of atmospheric CO2. A large part of organic carbon (OC) stored in soils is continuously mobilized and either returned to the atmosphere or transported by rivers to the oceans. However, little is known about the fate and residence times of soil OC within a river basin. This PhD project will combine organic biomarkers with radiogenic and stable isotopes to study the physical and biological processes that soil OC undergoes during river transport from land to sea, the duration of this transport, as well as the factors that control these processes. The data that are generated in this project should contribute to a better understanding of the role of ...
In order to quantify the role of coastal upwelling regions as source or sink areas for carbon, the relationships between particulate organic carbon (POC) production, export, remineralization, and accumulation were examined in Monterey Bay from 1989 through 1992. During a normal upwelling year (1989-90), a high positive correlation (r = 0.91) is observed between biweekly primary production and POC export at 450 m. Primary production values range from 500 mgC m−2 d−1 during the winter, to 2600 mgC m−2 d−1 in the spring and summer upwelling months. Corresponding deep-water (450 m) POC fluxes vary from a minimum of 10 mgC m−2 d−1 in December, to 120 mgC m−2 d−1 in May. In contrast, the mid-1991 through 1992 data sets obtained during the 91-92 El Nino period, show a relatively poor correlation (r = 0.23) between productivity and carbon export. Calculated ratios of POC export to POC production (defined as e-ratios) display a trend for the three-year data sets in which the e-ratio ...
Frontier Economics was commissioned by BEIS to develop business models to support low carbon hydrogen production.. Our research focusses on incentivising near term investments to deliver largescale low carbon hydrogen production for supply to industry. It covers both green hydrogen (from renewables) and blue hydrogen (from methane reformation).. Based on a literature review, stakeholder consultation and case studies from other sectors, we developed a longlist of business models that could potentially be used. Our assessment of these business models concluded that both contractual payments to producers (e.g. contracts for difference) or regulatory returns models could be designed to deliver low carbon hydrogen production in the 2020s.. We also found that including a split structure in the models (with separate compensation for fixed and variable costs) may be an effective way of managing demand risk for investors, while reducing the risk of excessive costs for taxpayers and consumers.. For more ...
The Renewable Fuel Standard has successfully driven the production and use of low carbon fuels in the U.S. transportation fleet. Corn ethanol has replaced 10 percent of climate change causing petroleum. The RFS was enacted, in part, to drive innovation and the production of low carbon biofuels that reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by at least 50 percent and more than petroleum - so called advanced biofuels.. This White Paper walks through the current state of science as it relates to the lifecycle GHG emissions of corn ethanol and makes recommendations for updating lifecycle modeling which is used to inform low carbon policy decisions. ...
Downloadable! A low carbon fuel standard (LCFS) seeks to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by limiting the carbon intensity of fuels. We show this decreases high carbon fuel production but increases low carbon fuel production, possibly increasing net carbon emissions. The LCFS cannot be efficient, and the best LCFS may be nonbinding. We simulate a national LCFS on gasoline and ethanol. For a broad parameter range, emissions decrease, energy prices increase, abatement costs are large ($80 - $760 billion annually), and average abatement costs are large ($307 - $2,272 per CO2 metric ton). A cost effective policy has much lower average abatement costs ($60 - $868). (JEL Q54, Q58)
Electrically conductive compositions of carbon nparticles having thin coatings of conductive polymer are disclosed. The thin coatings of conductive polymer electrically interact with each carbon particle and protect the carbon particles from conductive failure. Because the conductive compositions of coated carbon particles maintain their conductive characteristics even after long term exposure to chemicals, they are useful as filler materials in polymer compositions utilized to fabricate chemical delivery devices.
D5904-02(2017) Standard Test Method for Total Carbon, Inorganic Carbon, and Organic Carbon in Water by Ultraviolet, Persulfate Oxidation, and Membrane Conductivity Detection inorganic carbon~ total carbon~ organic carbon content~ membrane conductivity detectors~ UV radiation~
In the short-term heterotrophic soil respiration is strongly and positively related to temperature. In the long-term, its response to temperature is uncertain. One reason for this is because in field experiments increases in respiration due to warming are relatively short-lived. The explanations proposed for this ephemeral response include depletion of fast-cycling, soil carbon pools and thermal adaptation of microbial respiration. Using a , 15 year soil warming experiment in a mid-latitude forest, we show that the apparent acclimation of soil respiration at the ecosystem scale results from combined effects of reductions in soil carbon pools and microbial biomass, and thermal adaptation of microbial respiration. Mass-specific respiration rates were lower when seasonal temperatures were higher, suggesting that rate reductions under experimental warming likely occurred through temperature-induced changes in the microbial community. Our results imply that stimulatory effects of global temperature ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Nitrate and nitrite reductions with anaerobic sludge using various carbon sources. T2 - glucose, glycerol, acetic acid, lactic acid and methanol. AU - Akunna, Joseph C.. AU - Bizeau, C.. AU - Moletta, R.. PY - 1993/8. Y1 - 1993/8. N2 - Batch-tests were used to determine the potentials of digested sludge to reduce nitrate and nitrite in the presence of five different carbon sources: glucose, glycerol, acetic acid, lactic acid and methanol. Ammonium accumulation was found in glucose and glycerol media. Dissimilatory reduction to ammonium accounted for up to 50% of reduced nitrate and nitrite. The rest were denitrified. In the media containing these carbon substrates volatile fatty acids, particularly acetic acid, were produced and ammonification was higher than denitrification activities only when glucose and glycerol were still present in the media. Ammonium production was higher in nitrite cultures than in nitrate cultures. In the culture media with acetic and lactic acids and ...
Abstract: River system is a critical linkage between the terrestrial ecosystem and the ocean two major active carbon pools in global carbon cycle. The export and cycle processes of the riverine carbon are closely related to coastal zone environment, dynamics of the ocean carbon pool and the global climate system. Organic carbon plays the key role in the global carbon cycle, and to understand the fluxes and characteristics of the riverine organic carbon is an important subject in present studies of the riverine carbon cycle. The area of the drainage basin and differences in climate and environment markedly impact the export and cycle processes of the riverine carbon. At present, a large number of small rivers and the rivers in monsoonal Asia lack systemic information about biogenic components of riverine suspended matters. The fate and main sources of the riverine carbon are controlled by the processes of terrestrial erosion-deposition. Nowadays, human activities dominate the condition of ...
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EFFECT OF DIFFERENT CARBON SOURCES ON THE GROWTH OF ANTIMICROBIAL PRODUCING Bacillus Species IN Citrillus vugaris., Largest Undergraduate Projects Repository, Research Works and Materials. Download Undergraduate Projects Topics and Materials Accounting, Economics, Education
The overall goal of this study was to investigate influences of ectomycorrhizae (EM) and interspecific carbon transfer on seedling performance in species mixtures. The objectives were to: (I) determine the potential for EM to link paper birch and Douglas-fir, (ii) quantify gross and net interspecific carbon transfer, and (iii) evaluate effect of transfer on seedling performance. A soil bioassay showed that paper birch and Douglas-fir shared seven EM morphotypes in common over 90% of their root tips, indicating potential for hyphal connections. The number and percent colonization of shared morphotypes were greater when species were grown in dual- than monoculture. Reciprocal labelling of paper birch and Douglas-fir with ¹³CO₂[subscript(gas)] and ¹⁴CO₂[subscript(gas)] in laboratory rootboxes and the field resulted in bi-directional transfer, with net gain by Douglas-fir. In rootboxes, gross and net transfer represented 29% and 4% of total isotope assimilated by both species. Net transfer ...
Article Nitrogen deposition effects on carbon storage and fungal:bacterial ratios in coastal sage scrub soils of Southern California. Received for publication August 25, 2008. The effects of nitrogen (N) across a deposition gradient on bacterial and ...
The degradation of organic matter in the deep-sea is a critical microbial process that facilitates global carbon cycling and affects all organisms. Typically, deep-sea microbial communities experience very low organic carbon availability, however, at deep-sea whalefalls these bacteria are provided with organic carbon levels ~2000x greater than usual. This creates an ideal environment in which to examine the metabolism of marine microbes and to further understand carbon cycling on and within the deep-sea floor. Only a handful of papers have investigated marine sediments, thus, we first had to develop a method for measuring enzymatic activity. We focused on proteases, enzymes responsible for the breakdown of proteins, one of a number of organic carbon sources in the environment. Protease activity was measured in marine sediments associated with a whalefall at 1800 meters depth in Monterey Bay, collected at zero, three and ten meters distance. As expected, the highest protease activity was found ...
Terrestrial vegetation and soils hold three times more carbon than the atmosphere. Much debate concerns how anthropogenic activity will perturb these surface reservoirs, potentially exacerbating ongoing changes to the climate system. Uncertainties specifically persist in extrapolating point-source observations to ecosystem-scale budgets and fluxes, which require consideration of vertical and lateral processes on multiple temporal and spatial scales. To explore controls on organic carbon (OC) turnover at the river basin scale, we present radiocarbon (14C) ages on two groups of molecular tracers of plant-derived carbon-leaf-wax lipids and lignin phenols-from a globally distributed suite of rivers. We find significant negative relationships between the 14C age of these biomarkers and mean annual temperature and precipitation. Moreover, riverine biospheric-carbon ages scale proportionally with basin-wide soil carbon turnover times and soil 14C ages, implicating OC cycling within soils as a primary ...
Participants said that heat services reduced their concerns about installing unfamiliar, low carbon heating systems because they knew they would be able to get the same level of comfort as they could with a gas boiler for a predictable price. In this way, Heat Plans may increase take up of low carbon heating systems by increasing consumers confidence that they will be able to get what they want from an unfamiliar technology ...
The Low Carbon Eco-Innovatory helps local businesses by creating innovative low carbon goods, processes and services. Read the case studies to find out how we have helped these businesses.
The Gram-positive bacterium Bacillus licheniformis is an important industrial host for the production of enzymes. Genomic DNA arrays and proteomics are being used to investigate the physiology of this bacterium. A genome-wide transcriptional profiling analysis of the adaptation of B. licheniformis to phosphate starvation shows more than 100 induced genes. Most of strongly induced genes belong to the putative Pho regulon. The data of the transcriptome analysis have been verified by the analysis of the extracellular and cytoplasmic proteome. The main response of B. licheniformis to glucose starvation was a switch to the usage of alternative carbon sources. In addition, B. licheniformis seems to be using other organic substances like amino acids and lipids as carbon sources when subjected to glucose starvation. This was indicated by the induction of a high number of genes the proteins of which are involved in amino acid and lipid degradation. During nitrogen starvation genes necessary for the ...
The Gram-positive bacterium Bacillus licheniformis is an important industrial host for the production of enzymes. Genomic DNA arrays and proteomics are being used to investigate the physiology of this bacterium. A genome-wide transcriptional profiling analysis of the adaptation of B. licheniformis to phosphate starvation shows more than 100 induced genes. Most of strongly induced genes belong to the putative Pho regulon. The data of the transcriptome analysis have been verified by the analysis of the extracellular and cytoplasmic proteome. The main response of B. licheniformis to glucose starvation was a switch to the usage of alternative carbon sources. In addition, B. licheniformis seems to be using other organic substances like amino acids and lipids as carbon sources when subjected to glucose starvation. This was indicated by the induction of a high number of genes the proteins of which are involved in amino acid and lipid degradation. During nitrogen starvation genes necessary for the ...
Expression of the Irp gene is regulated in part by the nutrients available to the cell, and is decreased in rich medium, in glucose minimal media enriched with amino acids, and in minimal medium with alternative carbon sources, such as acetate and succinate. When Lrp production is increased in a given medium, expression of its target genes is also increased. However, when the medium is changed from glucose to acetate, the response of the target genes is governed by many factors.
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2-3 Carbon Compounds. Federoff. Carbon Compounds. Organic chemistry - the study of compounds that contain bonds between carbon atoms. The Chemistry of Carbon. Why is carbon special? It has 4 valence (outer) electrons to form strong covalent bonds Slideshow 5772870 by arista
The ocean accounts for over 90% of the active pools of carbon on the Earths surface, with over 95% of marine carbon in the form of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) (Hedges and Keil 1995). Organic carbon dissolved in the ocean, suspended as particles or cells, and accumulating in sediments together constitute the other significant fractions of marine carbon, with organic carbon in the water column similar in quantity to the current atmospheric inventory of carbon dioxide. Isotopic partitioning among various inorganic and organic carbon phases reflects biological, physical and chemical processes, and the resulting fractionations are important tools.... ...
Anti-thrombogenicity and endothelialization are two essential issues in devising blood-contacting medical implants, such as artificial blood vessels and vascular stents [1, 2]. Minimizing the plasma protein adsorption and platelet adhesion has proved beneficial in reducing thrombus formation especially in the initial implantation. Subsequently, rapid endothelialization of implant surfaces may significantly reduce the risk of long-term thrombogenesis and provide a fully hemocompatible interface. Furthermore, native endothelium has unique physiological role of maintaining vascular homeostasis, including the active anti-thrombosis, and the release of soluble factors that contribute to the inhibition of smooth muscle cell proliferation and hence reduce intimal hyperplasia [3, 4]. Rapid regeneration of endothelium is thereby crucial to the success of implantation. Numerous approaches such as natural polymer coating (collagen) [5], surface biomolecule immobilization (heparin) [6], and drug-eluting ...
Carbon Fiber:. Carbon Fiber is a fiber comprising carbon atoms. The diameter of the content is 5 to 10 micrometers. They are vital components of several appliances in the present world. The carbon fibers are a strong material that has a exact high electrical energy. The production takes place by bonding electrons in crystal shape. The alignment of this carbonfiber is the they are put parallel to each other. The crystals arrangement stipulates the carbon stuff a top durability to volume ratio. yamaha r1 carbon fiber can be a crucial application.. ...
During past decades, tremendous attention has been paid to the development of new electrode materials with high capacitance to meet the requirements of electrode materials in supercapacitors. Among various vanadium oxides, recently VO2(A) has received increasing attention as its unique layered structure, pha
On average, the water column of Lake Superior is undersaturated with respect to dissolved oxygen and supersaturated with respect to carbon dioxide during the summer-stratified period. On the basis of temporal changes in water column dissolved oxygen, we calculate rates of oxygen consumption that range from 0.19 to 0.75 mmol m-3 d-1. These rates are a factor of 5-10 times larger than can be supported by the particulate carbon settling rates and benthic oxygen consumption rates. In addition, on the basis of the limited information available, dissolved allochthonous carbon inputs are insufficient to account for the calculated rates of carbon oxidation. Rates of nitrate and total CO2 (ΣCO2) production are 0.019 ± 0.012 and 0.13 ± 0.06 mmol m-3 d-1, respectively, and are consistent with the oxidation of a dissolved organic component that is similar in composition (C : N ratio) to the settling particulate material. Previously published estimates of total primary production were smaller but similar ...
Liquid carbon is applied to the skin as it penetrates deeply into the pores. As laser light is highly attracted to carbon particles, it takes the dead skin cells, contaminants and oil while eradicating the carbon.. As carbon has the capacity to absorb oil and other contaminants that are deep within the pores, youll get its cleansing benefits as the laser passes through the treatment area, taking the carbon particles along with any absorbed impurities from the face. Your skin is exfoliated as the dead skin cells and blackheads are blasted by the laser along with the carbon. This is how you can get finer pores and a more even skin tone.. Not only on the surface, but Carbon Laser also stimulates collagen production as it targets the deep layers of the skin which results into firmer, plumper skin, reduction of fine lines and wrinkles, making you look younger and naturally glowing skin.. Carbon Laser has additional benefits such as the reduction of the bacteria responsible for acne to help you ...
Carbon offsets are reductions in emissions of carbon or greenhouse gases made in order to compensate for or to offset an emission made elsewhere. Carbon offsets are measured in metric tons of carbon dioxide (CO2e) and may represent six primary categories of greenhouse gases.[1] One carbon offset represents the reduction of one metric ton of carbon dioxide or its equivalent in other greenhouse gases. There are two markets for carbon offsets. In the larger, compliance market, companies, governments, or other entities buy carbon offsets in order to comply with caps on the total amount of carbon dioxide they are allowed to emit. In 2006, about $5.5 billion of carbon offsets were purchased in the compliance market, representing about 1.6 billion metric tons of CO2e reductions.[2] In the smaller, voluntary market, individuals, companies, or governments purchase carbon offsets to mitigate their own greenhouse gas emissions from transportation, electricity use, and other sources. For example, an ...
Research shows the low carbon fuel standard can play a major role in meeting B.C.s 2030 and 2050 greenhouse gas targets, especially for freight.. Since its working so well, were calling on the B.C. government to put the standard in place for a longer period of time and strengthen it further. How? Were asking for legislative and regulatory amendments to set annual requirements to meet the 2030 target of 20 per cent below 2010 emissions.. The B.C. government has dragged its feet on ramping up the target and may miss the carbon emission reductions projected in its climate plan. By committing to an ambitious target, B.C. can create a stable market signal that will attract capital-intensive investments in new production capacity. B.C. cant afford to miss out on one of the big-and most effective-tools to clean up its act.. ...
Section 1 The target for 2050 (1) It is the duty of the Secretary of State to ensure that the net UK carbon account for the year 2050 is at least 80% lower than the 1990 baseline. (2) The 1990 baseline means the aggregate amount of- (a) net UK emissions of carbon dioxide for that year, and (b )net UK emissions of each of the other targeted greenhouse gases for the year that is the base year for that gas. … Section 4 Carbon budgets (1) It is the duty of the Secretary of State- (a)to set for each succeeding period of five years beginning with the period 2008-2012 (budgetary periods) an amount for the net UK carbon account (the carbon budget), and (b to ensure that the net UK carbon account for a budgetary period does not exceed the carbon budget. (2)The carbon budget for a budgetary period may be set at any time after this Part comes into force, and must be set- (a) for the periods 2008-2012, 2013-2017 and 2018-2022, before 1st June 2009; (b) for any later period, not later than 30th June ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Pigments, photosynthesis and photoinhibition in two amphibious plants. T2 - consequences of varying carbon availability. AU - Nielsen, Søren Laurentius. AU - Nielsen, Hanne Dalsgaard. PY - 2006. Y1 - 2006. U2 - 10.1111/j.1469-8137.2006.01670.x. DO - 10.1111/j.1469-8137.2006.01670.x. M3 - Journal article. VL - 170. SP - 311. EP - 319. JO - New Phytologist. JF - New Phytologist. SN - 0028-646X. ER - ...
Background: Accurate tumor localization is critical to performing laparoscopic colectomy which is lack of tactile sensation. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility and safety of using carbon nanoparticles to localize non-palpable tumor for laparoscopic colectomy, compared with intra-operative colonoscopy.. Methods: A prospective study was performed between July 2012 and September 2015. Inclusion criteria included T1-3 colon cancer, big adenoma or polyp unsuitable for endoscopic resection, multiple colorectal tumors, and cancer complete or partial response after neoadjuvant therapy. Exclusion criteria included T4 colon cancer, planned local excision, previous abdominal surgery, and emergency case with bleeding or obstruction or perforation. Sixty patients were enrolled in this study and divided into carbon nanoparticles group (30 cases) and intra-operative colonoscopy group (30 cases). One milliliter carbon nanoparticles suspension, which is approved by Chinese Food and Drug ...
Effects of the antimicrobial agent triclosan to natural periphyton communities (biofilms, comprising primarily microalgae and bacteria) were assessed in two independent experiments during spring and summer. For that purpose a semi-static test system was used in which periphyton was exposed to a concentration range of 5 - 9 054 nmol/L triclosan. Effects on algae were analyzed as content and composition of photosynthetic pigments. The corresponding EC50 values were 39.25 and 302.45 nmol/L for the spring and summer experiment respectively. Effects on periphytic bacteria were assessed as effects on carbon utilization patterns, using Biolog Ecoplates. No inhibition of either total carbon utilization or functional diversity was observed, indicating a pronounced triclosan tolerance of the marine bacteria. In contrast, a small stimulation of the total carbon utilization was observed at triclosan concentrations exceeding 100 nmol/L.
Kipka, U. and Di Toro, D. M. (2011), A linear solvation energy relationship model of organic chemical partitioning to particulate organic carbon in soils and sediments. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 30: 2013-2022. doi: 10.1002/etc.611 ...
Oakes, JM and Ross, DJ and Eyre, BD (2013) Processing of Particulate Organic Carbon Associated with Secondary-Treated Pulp and Paper Mill Effluent in Intertidal Sediments: A 13C Pulse-chase Experiment. Environmental Science and Technology, 47 (23). pp. 13258-13265. ISSN 1520-5851 ...
Lakes are a source of methane, an important greenhouse gas in the atmosphere. In order to understand increasing methane emissions in the present, it is important to study the variations of methane release during past periods of climate change. However, records of methane release from lakes over time scales longer ... read more than a few years are extremely rare. In this thesis a method is explored to reconstruct past methane availability in lakes based on the stable carbon isotope composition (delta 13C) of aquatic invertebrate remains. Methane-derived 13C-depleted carbon can be an alternative carbon source to plant-derived material for invertebrates in the sediment and water column of lakes, that can lead to markedly depleted delta 13C values in invertebrate tissues. Using culturing experiments, it was demonstrated that methane-derived carbon is incorporated into chironomid head capsules. Also, it was shown that chemical pre-treatments that are commonly used for sediment processing do not have ...
The giant 2011 Tohoku-oki earthquake has been inferred to remobilise fine-grained, young surface sediment enriched in organic matter from the slope into the |7 km deep Japan Trench. Yet, this hypothesis and assessment of its significance for the carbon cycle has been hindered by limited data density and resolution in the hadal zone. Here we combine new high-resolution bathymetry data with sub-bottom profiler images and sediment cores taken during 2012-2016 in order to map for the first time the spatial extent of the earthquake-triggered event deposit along the hadal Japan Trench. We quantify a sediment volume of ~0.2 km3 deposited from spatially-widespread remobilisation of young surficial seafloor slope sediments triggered by the 2011 earthquake and its aftershock sequence. The mapped volume and organic carbon content in sediment cores encompassing the 2011 event reveals that this single tectonic event delivered |1 Tg of organic carbon to the hadal trench. This carbon supply is comparable to high
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Arctic warming is projected to continue throughout the coming century. Yet, our currently limited understanding of the Arctic Ocean carbon cycle hinders our ability to predict how changing conditions will affect local Arctic ecosystems, regional carbon budgets, and global climate. We present here the first set of concurrent, full-depth, dual-isotope profiles for dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), dissolved organic carbon (DOC), and suspended particulate organic carbon (POCsusp) at two sites in the Canada Basin of the Arctic Ocean. The carbon isotope composition of sinking and suspended POC in the Arctic contrasts strongly with open ocean Atlantic and Pacific sites, pointing to a combination of inputs to Arctic POCsusp at depth, including surface-derived organic carbon (OC), sorbed/advected OC, and OC derived from in situ DIC fixation. The latter process appears to be particularly important at intermediate depths, where mass balance calculations suggest that OC derived from in situ DIC fixation ...
Amorphous carbon nanosphere used as the anode material for Li-intercalation in Lithium-ion energy storage. This structure was obtained through a thermal annealing process at a temperature of 3000 degree Kelvin, simulated using the LAMMPS molecular dynamics code on the LCRC Fusion resource ...
Most soil surveys are based on soil geomorphic, physical and chemical properties, while many classifications are based on morphological properties in soil profile. Typically, microbial properties of the soil(e.g. biomass and functional diversity) or soil biological quality indicators (SBQIs) are not directly considered in soil taxonomic keys, yet soil classification schemes are often used to infer soil biological function relating to policy (e.g. soil pollution attenuation, climate change mitigation). To critically address this, our aimwas to assess whether rates of carbon turnover in a diverse range of UK soils (n , 500) could effectively be described and sub-divided according to broadly defined soil groups by conventional soil classification schemes. Carbon turnover in each soil over a 90 d period was assessed by monitoring the mineralisation of either a labile (14C-labelled artificial root exudates) or more recalcitrant C source (14C-labelled plant leaves) in soil held at field capacity at 10 ...
In understanding the global carbon cycle, black carbon - decay-resistant carbon molecules altered by exposure to fire or combustion - has long been presumed to originate on land and work its way to the ocean via rivers and streams. An unexpected finding published today in Nature Communications challenges that long-held assumption and introduces a tantalizing new mystery: If oceanic black carbon is significantly different from the black carbon found in rivers, where did it come from? The signature of oceanic dissolved black carbon is very different from that of riverine dissolved black carbon, raising a host of fundamental questions, said Sasha Wagner, a Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute assistant professor of earth and environmental sciences and lead author of the research. Are there other sources of dissolved black carbon? Is it being degraded away in rivers, sequestered in sediments, or altered beyond recognition before it reaches the open ocean? Is what weve measured actually ...
This dataset represents a literature compilation of carbon isotope data of four terrestrial organic carbon pools, (1) litter and organic layers in northern Russia, Scandinavia, Canada and Alaska (¹³C and ¹⁴C); (2) mineral active layers and non-permafrost soils in Siberia (¹³C and ¹⁴C); (3) exposures of Holocene peat and thermokarst deposits in Siberia (¹⁴C); (4) exposures of Ice Complex deposits in Siberia (¹⁴C). The dataset has been used to quantify the contribution of carbon from different sources to dissolved and particulate organic carbon in large Siberian rivers using statistical source apportionment.
Urban areas account for more than 70% of CO2 emissions from burning fossil fuels. Urban expansion in tropics is responsible for 5% of the annual emissions from land use change. Here, I show that the effect of urbanization on the global carbon cycle extends beyond these emissions. I quantify the contribution of urbanization to the major carbon fluxes and pools globally and identify gaps crucial for predicting the evolution of the carbon cycle in the future. Urban residents currently control ~22 (12-40)% of the land carbon uptake (112 PgC/yr) and ~24 (15-39)% of the carbon emissions (117 PgC/year) from land globally. Urbanization resulted in the creation of new carbon pools on land such as buildings (~6.7 PgC) and landfills (~30 PgC). Together these pools store 1.6 (±0.3)% of the total vegetation and soil carbon pools globally. The creation and maintenance of these new pools has been associated with high emissions of CO2, which are currently better understood than the processes associated with the
We analyzed microbial respiration and ecoenzyme activities related to organic matter processing in 1879 streams and rivers across the continental US as part of the USEPAs 2008-2009 National Rivers and Streams Assessment. Ecoenzymatic stoichiometry was used to construct models for carbon use efficiency (CUE) and decomposition (-k). The streams and rivers were classified by size (headwaters: 1st-order; streams: 2nd-3rd order; small rivers: 4th-5th order; big rivers 6th-7th order; and great rivers , 8th order), and were grouped into nine national ecoregions. The streams and their catchments represented gradients in catchment land cover, channel sediments, and sediment chemistry against which microbial respiration, carbon use efficiency and organic matter decomposition were compared. There were significant ecoregion and stream size effects in the unbalanced, nested analysis of variance of the microbial variables, with organic matter decomposition and modeled microbial respiration increasing from ...
Free-living cells of the fast-growing cowpea Rhizobium NGR234 were able to grow on a variety of carbon substrates at growth rates varying from 2.5 h on glucose or fumarate to 15.6 h on p-hydroxybenzoate. Free-living cells constitutively oxidized glucose, glutamate and aspartate but were inducible for all the other systems investigated. Bacteroids from root nodules of snake bean, however, were only capable of oxidizing C4-dicarboxylic acids and failed to oxidize any other carbon sources. Free-living cells of NGR234 possess inducible fructose and succinate uptake systems. These substrates are accumulated by active processes since accumulation is in hi bi ted by azide, 2,4-dini trop hen01 and carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenyl hydrazone. Bacteroids failed to take up fructose although they actively accumulated succinate, suggesting that the latter substrate is significant in the development of an effective symbiosis.. ...
The solid-state method enables the large-scale production of MWNTs in moldable solid forms, films, and fibers using low-cost precursors and equipment, thereby reducing economic barriers that are inherent with carbon nanotube materials produced by more conventional methods, such as CVD. Following carbonization, the shaped carbon solids are composed of varying amounts of nanotubes and amorphous carbon, depending on such synthetic parameters as the metal catalyst concentration, carbonization temperature, and the specific organic precursors used. The amorphous carbon phase is readily removed via selective combustion at temperatures from 300-500 C, producing highly porous, purified CNT solids with specific surface areas up to 500 m2 g-1. This highly flexible synthetic method also offers the ability to incorporate heteroatoms, for example nitrogen, oxygen, and/or boron, into the carbon nanotube solid via the initial carbon precursors ...
The majority of the Earths terrestrial carbon is stored in the soil. If anthropogenic warming stimulates the loss of this carbon to the atmosphere, it could drive further planetary warming. Despite evidence that warming enhances carbon fluxes to and from the soil, the net global balance between these responses remains ... read more uncertain. Here we present a comprehensive analysis of warming-induced changes in soil carbon stocks by assembling data from 49 field experiments located across North America, Europe and Asia. We find that the effects of warming are contingent on the size of the initial soil carbon stock, with considerable losses occurring in high-latitude areas. By extrapolating this empirical relationship to the global scale, we provide estimates of soil carbon sensitivity to warming that may help to constrain Earth system model projections. Our empirical relationship suggests that global soil carbon stocks in the upper soil horizons will fall by 30 ± 30 petagrams of carbon to 203 ...
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Chuiko Institute of Surface Chemistry of NAS of Ukraine in cooperation with Kalush Experimental Plant developed the technology for production of modified dispersed silicas with high carbon content in the chemisorbed layer.. Advantages:. - High dispersity. - Uniform structure. - Chemical homogeneity. Product can be used for gelation, stabilization of suspensions and emulsions, capsulation of biologically active objects or substances: as filler for polymers, oils, and other organic or organosilicon media: as anti-caking agent for dry mixtures, corn, seeds.. Patent for utility model. No 92772 U Ukraine, МПК CO8G 12/00 CO9D5/00 (2014.01) A method to form grafted modifying layer with high carbon content on the surface of highly dispersed silicas / Iu.M. Bolbukh, R.B. Kozakevych, V.A. Tertykh, I.S. Protsak; Chuiko Institute of Surface Chemistry-applicant and patent owner - No u 201313560, appl. 21.11.2013; publ. 10.09.2014, Bul. No17, 2014. Product characteristics:. - Specific surface-100-200 ...
0058] As used herein, the term alliform carbon particles refers to substantially spherical or quasi-spherical carbon nanoparticles comprising at least one concentric external graphitic shell, but generally more than one such external shell, resembling the concentric shells of an onion (the term alliform derived from allium meaning onion). In fact, particles described as carbon onions or onion-like carbon particles, in many respects, are related to these alliform carbon particles, but these terms are normally associated with particles having multiple concentric shells. The external graphitic shell or shells of alliform carbon have surfaces wherein at least 25%, or at least 50%, or at least 75% of their area comprise sp2 carbon. The term substantially spherical relates to the shape being without near-sized appendages (i.e., having appendages such as carbon nanotubes) which substantially interfere with their ability to organize into packed matrices. To the extent that a given particle ...
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UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon (front row 2nd L), listens to an explanation about a model of a low carbon airport as he visits the China National Low Carbon Day Exhibition at the Capital Museum in Beijing on June 20.
Sediment samples collected from polluted (Augusta Bay) and pristine regions of the Eastern Mediterranean Sea (South Ionian Sea, Thracian Sea) were analyzed for black carbon, aliphatic hydrocarbons and phospholipid ester-linked fatty acids (PLFA). The aim of the study was to investigate the anthropogenic and biogenic inputs into the Eastern Mediterranean Sea and to evaluate the effects of refractory organic matter (e.g. black carbon) and the level of hydrocarbon contamination on benthic microbial community composition. Black carbon, generally considered to be chemically and biologically inert, comprised a significant but highly variable fraction of the sedimentary carbon pool in the analyzed sediments with a ratio to total organic carbon ranging from 0.02 to 0.66. Principal component analysis of the chemical characteristics of the sediments (organic carbon content, black carbon, bioavailable organic carbon, chlorophyll a, phaeopigments, aliphatic hydrocarbons) revealed clustering of samples along a
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Underappreciated player in carbon storage should be included in global change models, researcher says. Elevated levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide accelerate carbon cycling and soil carbon loss in forests, new research led by an Indiana University biologist has found.. The new evidence supports an emerging view that although forests remove a substantial amount of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere, much of the carbon is being stored in living woody biomass rather than as dead organic matter in soils.. Richard P. Phillips, lead author on the paper and an assistant professor of biology in the IU College of Arts and Sciences, said that after nearly two decades of research on forest ecosystem responses to global change, some of the uncertainty has been lifted about how forests are storing carbon in the wake of rising carbon dioxide levels.. Its been suggested that as trees take up more carbon dioxide from the atmosphere, a greater amount of carbon will go to roots and fungi to acquire nutrients, ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Highly Active Oxygen Evolution on Carbon Fiber Paper Coated with Atomic-Layer-Deposited Cobalt Oxide. AU - Choi, Hyung Jong. AU - Han, Gwon Deok. AU - Bae, Kiho. AU - Shim, Joon Hyung. N1 - Funding Information: This research was supported by the Nano Material Technology Development Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Science and ICT (no. 2018M3A7B8061661) and by the Korea Ministry of Environment (MOE) through the Public Technology Program based on Environmental Policy (grant no. E416-00070-0604-0).. PY - 2019/3/20. Y1 - 2019/3/20. N2 - In this work, we evaluated the oxygen evolution performance of cobalt oxide (CoO x )-coated carbon fiber paper in electrochemical water splitting. For a uniform coating of CoO x layers along the carbon fiber paper, the atomic layer deposition (ALD) technique was applied. We achieved a uniform and conformal coating of atomic-layer-deposited CoO x (ALD-CoO x ) on the carbon fiber paper. The ...
Brillouin scattering is a type of Raman scattering in which the difference frequency Ao) = Wphonon = (®inc ~ «»seal) corresponds to the acoustic branch of the phonon dispersion curves, with frequencies in the gigahertz (xlOHz) range, as was explained in Section 3.4.1. The negative and positive signs in the expression above for ®phonon correspond to Stokes and anti-Stokes lines, respectively.. Brillouin scattering has been used to study carbon films, and Fig. 8.21 compares the spectra of thick and thin films. The Ihick-film result (a) provides a bulk material response, namely, a strong central peak at zero frequency about 10 GHz wide, and a broad peak near 17 GHz attributed to longitudinal acoustic (LA) phonons. This latter frequency is consistent with the elastic moduli of carbon, which are measures of the stretching capability of solid carbon and its chemical bonds. The dotted line experimental spectrum of the 100 nm thick film at the top of Fig. 8.21b exhibits three peaks which come at ...
Few studies have quantified the role of in-stream processes on net dissolved and particulate organic carbon (DOC and POC, respectively) export from peatland catchments, and those that have offer conflicting evidence. In this study, we evaluated evidence for active organic matter processing under field conditions, via a coordinated campaign across four UK catchments with peatland headwaters, targeted on potential hotspots and hot moments of physico-chemical carbon cycling. We hypothesised that specific hotspots and hot moments would occur where waters enriched with DOC and POC sourced from headwaters are exposed to: i) mixing with freshwaters of different pH, conductivity and metal concentrations; and ii) mixing with seawater during autumn when DOC concentrations were at their highest. We observed instances of POC removal in headwaters, and potential for rapid conversion between dissolved and particulate carbon forms and for net removal of peat-derived carbon at confluences further downstream ...
To keep things as clear as possible this analysis has only looked at cumulative emissions. The limitation of this approach is that it doesnt tell us much about the annual rates of carbon emission and sink absorption.. The high level story is pretty simple. Human kind is emitting more and more carbon dioxide, as falling land-use emissions are dwarfed by emissions from our growing use of fossil fuels. In reaction to increased emission rates and growing atmospheric concentrations both land and ocean sinks are absorbing more carbon dioxide. The Global Carbon Budget has an excellent summary of this.. Despite the fact that sinks are absorbing more CO2 the atmospheric concentration is growing at a faster rate than ever. In the decade from 2000-2009 the atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide grew at an average rate of 2.0 ppm/yr, higher than any previous decade measured. To reduce this growth rate global carbon emissions need to decline. To stop concentrations growing at all would require an ...
At the present time, carbon fiber tanks are very expensive, with the high pressure vessel industry standard Toray T700 carbon fiber costing between $20 and $50 per kilogram alone. At this high price, the carbon fiber currently comprises as much as 75% of the overall tank cost and is a major roadblock on the path to commercialization. To make hydrogen fuel cells in early market and light-duty vehicles commercially viable, the cost of carbon fiber or the amount of carbon fiber used must be significantly reduced. One effective way to lower the weight, thus decreasing the carbon fiber usage and lowering the cost, of a CFRP tank is to improve the mechanical properties of the CFRP composite resin matrix using nano-reinforcement. Using the resin matrix itself as a source of composite strength, along with the carbon fiber reinforcement, results in a tank that requires less carbon fiber material. This solution decreases the weight of the tank while preserving or even increasing its performance. The ...
Some mechanisms of diversification involve ecological interactions exhibited as frequency-dependence [11]. This includes niche creation [11, 12] and frequency-dependent coexistence due to cross-feeding, where the cross-feeder organism is maintained in balance with the producer [59], or through cannibalism of one or the other coexisting type [28]. Another frequency-dependent scenario is when two or more resources in a system result in specialization of different bacteria on different resources in the same environment [11, 60]. None of these ecological scenarios are readily extended to the current studies. Cross-feeding and cannibalism do not appear to have evolved in the chemostats, probably because the time-scale is relatively short. None of the sequenced mutations hint at cross-feeding, such as the acs mutation noted in [8]. There is no evidence for multiple resources, multiple niches or mutations enhancing uptake or regulation of alternative carbon sources besides glucose. Nevertheless, ...
Mintenbeck, K. , Brey, T. , Jacob, U. , Knust, R. and Struck, U. (2008): How to account for the lipid effect on carbon stable isotope ratio (d13C) - sample treatment effects and model bias , Journal of Fish Biology ...
Canadas forest carbon reporting system is called the National Forest Carbon Monitoring, Accounting and Reporting System (NFCMARS). Its purpose is to estimate forest carbon stocks, changes in carbon stocks, and emissions of non-CO2 greenhouse gases in Canadas managed forests. NFCMARS is designed to estimate past changes in forest carbon stocks-i.e., from 1990 to the present (monitoring)-and to predict, based on scenarios of future disturbance rates and management actions, changes in carbon stocks in the next two to three decades (projection).. The system integrates information-such as forest inventories, temporary and permanent sample plots, statistics on fires and insects, and systems quantifying forest growth and yield-into a modeling framework incorporating the best available information and scientific understanding of the ecological processes involved in forest carbon cycling.. The national forest carbon monitoring, accounting and reporting system. ...
Aca1 and Aca2, ATF/CREB activators in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, are important for carbon source utilization but not the response to stress. is an eagle-i resource of type Journal article at Harvard University.
A new catalyst for breaking the tough molecular bond between carbon and hydrogen holds the promise of a cleaner, easier, cheaper way to derive products from petroleum, say researchers at Southern Methodist University, Dallas, and the Johns Hopkins University. Simple, plentiful hydrocarbons are the starting block for complex chemical products such as plastics and pharmaceuticals. The first step, however, is very, very difficult -- breaking the carbon-hydrogen bond. A new au naturel catalyst mimics nature to break the tenacious C-H bond.
We measured the δ13C of assimilated carbon (foliage organic matter (δCOM), soluble carbohydrates (δCSC), and waxes (δCW)) and respiratory carbon (foliage (δCFR), soil (δCSR) and ecosystem 13CO2 (δCER)) for two years at adjacent ecosystems in the southeastern U.S.: a regenerated 32 m tall mature Pinus palustris forest, and a mid-rotation 13 m tall Pinus elliottii stand. Carbon pools and foliage respiration in P. palustris were isotopically enriched by 2‰ relative to P. elliottii. Despite this enrichment, mean δCER values of the two sites were nearly identical. No temporal trends were apparent in δCSC, δCFR, δCSR and δCER. In contrast, δCOM and δCW at both sites declined by approximately 2‰ over the study. This appears to reflect the adjustment in the δ13C of carbon storage reserves used for biosynthesis as the trees recovered from a severe drought prior to our study. Unexpectedly, the rate of δ13C decrease in the secondary C32-36 n-alkanoic acid wax molecular cluster was twice ...
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An amorphous metal-free N-doped carbon film prepared by sputtering and annealing exhibits comparable electrocatalytic activity and superior stability and methanol tolerance to the commercial Pt/C catalyst via a four-electron pathway for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). Pyridinic nitrogen in films plays a key
We discuss the major mass spectral features of different types of refractory carbonaceous particles, ionized after laser vaporization with an Aerodyne high-resolution soot-particle aerosol mass spectrometer (SP-AMS). The SP-AMS was operated with a switchable 1064 nm laser and a 600 C thermal vaporizer, yielding respective measurements of the refractory and non-refractory particle components. Six samples were investigated, all of which were composed primarily of refractory material: fuel-rich and fuel-lean propane/air diffusion-flame combustion particles; graphite-spark-generated particles; a commercial fullerene-enriched soot; Regal Black, a commercial carbon black; and nascent aircraft-turbine combustion particles. All samples exhibited a spectrum of carbon-cluster ions Cx n+ in their refractory mass spectrum. Smaller clusters (x Mass spectrometry of refractory black carbon particles from six sources: carbon-cluster and oxygenated ions=10.5194/acp-14-2591-2014=lt; 6) were found to dominate the ...
Last month, I reviewed the Tyndall Center report on Chinas Energy Transition: Pathways for Low Carbon Development and expressed three specific concerns. Since then, Ive had an opportunity to exchange emails with Dr. Wang Tao (pictured right), one of the co-authors of the report. He has taken time to address my questions and has graciously agreed to have his explanations posted here.. Here are the concerns I raised on my last post, rephrased for clarity, and Dr. Wangs responses.. 1. In choosing a global carbon budget for the reports scenario analysis, a target of 450 ppm of carbon dioxide, which translates to roughly 550 ppm carbon dioxide equivalent, is used. Is 550ppm CO2e a safe target, especially considering what we know about negative feedback loops and runaway climate change?. No. As many already know, climate change is already happening and there have been many arguments about what is a relatively safe level of carbon concentration to avoid dangerous climate change impacts. The ...
One of the most common questions asked by the consumer is how much carbon? with the perception that more is better. That is far from the truth, so to shed a little light.. Firstly the quality of carbon (manufacturing point) is important. Toray (Japanese) Carbon is often considered the best, but Carbon from Germany, Scotland and South Africa (to name a few) are all high-quality. Sticks are usually made in Pakistan and most major brands will import Carbon into Pakistan to make sticks. Locally sourced carbon is not usually as good. But it is difficult to know if a brand uses imported carbon. All Mercian carbon fibre is imported.. The number of filaments in the carbon fibre is relevant, 1K, 3K etc relate to the number of filaments of pure carbon within a fibre or tow. 1K is used in aeronautical industry and electronics. 3K and 6K are commonly used in sport as they have the right combination of weight and strength. Anything over 6K is very dense and too heavy for sports equipment.. Carbon fibres ...
Is considered to be a strong link between the three Rio conventions as it simultaneously addresses climate change, desertification and biodiversity. Read more about the global carbon cycle, climate change, soil organic carbon and our options and prospects to mange this carbon pool by biochar carbon sequestration., Banance Carbon and Restore Soil Fertility
... chauvinism Carbon detonation Carbon footprint Carbon star Carbon planet Gas carbon Low-carbon economy Timeline of carbon ... Carbon can form very long chains of interconnecting carbon-carbon bonds, a property that is called catenation. Carbon-carbon ... Carbon on Britannica Extensive Carbon page at asu.edu Electrochemical uses of carbon Carbon-Super Stuff. Animation with sound ... The system of carbon allotropes spans a range of extremes: Atomic carbon is a very short-lived species and, therefore, carbon ...
... may refer to: A carbon filament in an incandescent light bulb Filaments in the synthesis of carbon fibre ... Filamentous carbon This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title Carbon filament. If an internal link led ...
... , along with adjacent Carbon Creek, are named after the coal (a carbon-rich rock) found in the Mesaverde Formation ... Carbon Peak is one of several prominent laccoliths found in the West Elk Mountains. Carbon Peak is a laccolith, formed when ... "Carbon Peak, Colorado". Peakbagger.com. Retrieved 2013-06-20. "Carbon Peak". Geographic Names Information System. United States ... Carbon Peak, elevation 12,088 ft (3,684 m), is a summit in the West Elk Mountains of Colorado. The peak is southwest of Crested ...
... may refer to: Mount Carbon, Illinois Mount Carbon, Pennsylvania Mount Carbon, West Virginia This disambiguation ... page lists articles associated with the title Mount Carbon. If an internal link led you here, you may wish to change the link ...
... is a founding member of the International Carbon Reduction and Offset Alliance (ICROA). Carbon Clear was acquired ... Carbon neutrality Climate change Carbon offsets Carbon footprint James Murray (August 12, 2011). "BusinessGreen Leaders Awards ... Carbon Clear offers sustainability services including energy management, carbon footprint services, strategy and target setting ... "Carbon Clear , EcoAct". eco-act.com. Retrieved 2021-09-22. "Jamal Gore - E Co". www.ecoltdgroup.com. Retrieved 2020-04-22. ...
Chaoite, an allotrophe of carbon Precipitated silica, not carbon, also called 'white carbon black' This disambiguation page ... lists articles associated with the title White carbon. If an internal link led you here, you may wish to change the link to ...
Internationals for Australia in Hockey Sally Carbon at Olympedia Sally Carbon at the Australian Olympic Committee Sally Carbon ... Carbon was super fast and set up many goals for Australia during her 125-game career. She was a ballet dancer, swimmer and ... Carbon has two areas of studies, in physical education and also in strategic marketing. Sally has written for newspapers, is a ... Sally May Carbon OAM (born 14 April 1967, in Perth, Western Australia) represented Australia from 1987 until 1994 in field ...
... engineers collect and analyze large amounts of data. The firm takes an entire building approach. Carbon ... A portion of proceeds from projects are donated to its non-profit partner Carbon Lighthouse Association to purchase carbon ... "Carbon Lighthouse: Deep Retrofits, Quick Paybacks". greentechmedia.com. Retrieved 5 October 2018. "Carbon Lighthouse Retrofit ... Carbon Lighthouse was created with the goal of using market forces to stop climate change. Solutions it offers are designed to ...
A primary carbon is a carbon atom which is bound to only one other carbon atom. It is thus at the end of a carbon chain. In ... case of an alkane, three hydrogen atoms are bound to a primary carbon (see propane in the figure on the right). A hydrogen atom ...
In 2017, Carbon Brief won The Drum Online Media Award for "Best Specialist Site for Journalism". Carbon Brief's editor Leo ... "About Us". Carbon Brief. "How Twitter and Carbon Brief are helping climate change scientists fight Donald Trump online". The ... Leo Hickman is the director and editor for Carbon Brief. Carbon Brief is funded by the European Climate Foundation, and has ... Carbon Brief is a UK-based website specialising in the science and policy of climate change. It has won awards for ...
... (13C) is a natural, stable isotope of carbon with a nucleus containing six protons and seven neutrons. As one of the ... Carbon-13 has a non-zero spin quantum number of ½, and hence allows the structure of carbon-containing substances to be ... Bulk carbon-13 for commercial use, e.g. in chemical synthesis, is enriched from its natural 1% abundance. Although carbon-13 ... The ratio of 13C to 12C is slightly higher in plants employing C4 carbon fixation than in plants employing C3 carbon fixation. ...
1 GtC (carbon) = 3.66 GtCO2 In order to keep global emissions within a carbon budget, global CO2 emissions need to decline to ... Carbon budgets are applicable to the global level. To translate these global carbon budgets to the country level, a set of ... A carbon budget is "the maximum amount of cumulative net global anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions that would result ... Carbon budget estimates thus depend on how successful society is in reducing non-CO2 emissions together with carbon dioxide ...
In organic chemistry, carbon nitrides are compounds consisting only of carbon and nitrogen atoms. Beta carbon nitride - a solid ... Utilizing carbon nitride heterojunction film modified carbon fiber microelectrode". Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical. 256: 98- ... Graphitic carbon nitride - g-C3N4, with important catalytic and sensor properties. Azafullerenes are a class of ... 3 and carbon bis(cyanamide) NCN=C=NCN, two formal monomers of polymeric C3N4 cyanide and isocyanide - CN− and NC− dicyanamide ...
The carbon tissue is first exposed to a film positive. In those areas where the carbon tissue has received the most light (i.e ... Carbon print "The Carbon Transfer Process". Archived from the original on 2013-09-18.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: bot: original URL ... where it eats away the copper through the carbon tissue. In the highly exposed areas, where the carbon tissue photoresist is ... After developing the carbon tissue, it is adhered to the surface of the copper-plated cylinder. A solution of ferric chloride ...
... a carbon nanobud is a material that combines carbon nanotubes and spheroidal fullerenes, both allotropes of carbon, forming " ... The single wall carbon nanotubes can react with fullerenes in the presence of water vapor or carbon dioxide. It produces a ... Carbon nanobuds (CNBs) have some of the properties of carbon nanotubes, such as one-dimensional electrical conductivity, ... "Selective Chemical Functionalization of Carbon Nanobuds," Carbon 50, no. 11 (2012). Ahangari, M. Ghorbanzadeh; Ganji, M.D.; ...
... (CT) is a public transit agency providing bus service in Carbon County in the U.S. state of Pennsylvania. The ... "Jim Thorpe-Penn-Kidder Flex". Carbon Transit. Retrieved May 15, 2022. "CT Shared Ride - Paratransit". Carbon Transit. Retrieved ... CT operates the following CT Bus routes: For fixed-route service, the base fare is $1.50 for trips within or between Carbon and ... CT operates fixed-route bus service called CT Bus, which consists of two routes serving points in Carbon County and offering ...
... at the Comic Book DB (archived from the original) Official blog for Carbon Grey Carbon Grey Soundtrack (Webarchive ... The Official Blog for Carbon Grey. (Jun 4, 2013). "Carbon Grey from Panini Comics". Licensing Out. (May 5, 2015). "Carbon Grey ... "Image Comics , Carbon Grey #1 (MR)". Archived from the original on 2013-03-02. Retrieved 2013-03-15. "Image Comics , Carbon ... "Character Bios". Official Carbon Grey Blog "Carbon Grey by Hoang Nguyen - Kickstarter". Kickstarter.com. Retrieved 2013-12-05. ...
... (CO3) is an unstable oxide of carbon (an oxocarbon). The possible isomers of carbon trioxide include ones with ... Carbon trioxide can be made by blowing ozone at dry ice (solid CO2), and it has also been detected in reactions between carbon ... Carbon trioxide should not be confused with the stable carbonate ion (CO2− 3). Carbon trioxide can be produced, for example, in ... DeMore W. B.; Dede C. (1970). "Pressure dependence of carbon trioxide formation in the gas-phase reaction of O(1D) with carbon ...
G-high carbon has been the origin for many trading companies and metallurgical factories when they look for qualified carbon ... Carbon additive is a product that is added to molten steel. Carbon additive includes calcined petroleum coke, graphite ... For the steel-making industry, the most suitable carbon additive is calcined petroleum coke with fixed carbon of 98.5%min. ...
Most of this was from the Carbon area. Coal from the Carbon mines was sold locally, with some sold as far away as Corning and ... Tom Savage, Carbon, A Dictionary of Iowa Place-Names, University of Iowa Press, Iowa City, 2007; page 48. Carbon Post Office, ... Note that other places in Iowa have been named Carbon: there was a Carbon Post Office in Davis County, six miles south of ... Carbon has always been known as a lawless town for those that like to fight.[citation needed] Many a gun fight did take place ...
... Company. 1968. Contractor agreement between the Carbon Canal Company and Val E. Rigby. On file at the Carbon Canal ... "Carbon Canal Shift Planned." August 10. Salt Lake Telegram. 1937b. "Carbon Canal Work Conference Called." June 17. Carbon Canal ... Minutes of the Carbon Control Committee, April 7, 1948. Carbon Canal Company. 1953. Contractor agreement between the Carbon ... On file at the Carbon Canal Company, Price. Carbon Canal Company. 1956c. Agreement between the Carbon Canal Company and the ...
... Being Used in Fuel Cells The Exciting History of Carbon Paper! How Carbon Paper is Made A comment on carbon paper ... However, this carbon paper has nothing to do with the carbon paper used for copying texts. It consists of carbon microfibers ... The manufacture of carbon paper was formerly the largest consumer of montan wax. In 1954 the Columbia Ribbon & Carbon ... Ralph Wedgwood obtained the first patent for carbon paper in 1806. Carbon paper in its original form was paper coated on one ...
"Carbon Sciences About". Carbon Sciences. Archived from the original on 2009-03-18. Retrieved 2009-08-17. Green, Hank. "Carbon ... "Carbon Sciences Technology". Carbon Sciences. Archived from the original on 2009-03-18. Retrieved 2009-08-17. "Carbon Sciences ... Carbon capture and storage Carbon sequestration Carbon dioxide removal Global warming Energy policy of the United States "CABN ... "Carbon Sciences claims progress in fuel from CO2". CNET. Retrieved 2011-01-06. Sibley, Lisa. "Carbon Sciences eyes China for ...
... (data page) - Chemical data page Breath carbon monoxide Carbon monoxide detector - Device that measures carbon ... Only the two non-bonding electrons on carbon are assigned to carbon. In this count, carbon then has only two valence electrons ... For example, in certain bacteria, carbon monoxide is produced via the reduction of carbon dioxide by the enzyme carbon monoxide ... Carbon monoxide consists of one carbon atom and one oxygen atom connected by a triple bond. It is the simplest molecule of the ...
... who prepared it by treating hydrogen selenide with carbon tetrachloride in a hot tube. Like carbon disulfide, carbon diselenide ... Pure distilled carbon diselenide has an odor very similar to that of carbon disulfide, but mixed with air, it creates extremely ... It is the selenium analogue of carbon disulfide (CS2) and carbon dioxide (CO2). This light-sensitive compound is insoluble in ... Carbon diselenide reacts with secondary amines to give dialkydiselenocarbamates: 2 Et2NH + CSe2 → (Et2NH2+)(Et2NCSe2−) Carbon ...
... is the only form of pure carbon known to be ferromagnetic which is unusual for a carbon allotrope. ... doi:10.1016/j.carbon.2013.01.029. Blinc, R.; Arčon, D.; Umek, P.; Apih, T.; Milia, F.; Rode, A. V. (2007). "Carbon nanofoam as ... Carbon nanofoam is an allotrope of carbon discovered in 1997 by Andrei V. Rode and co-workers at the Australian National ... Unlike carbon aerogels, carbon nanofoam is a poor electrical conductor. The nanofoam contains numerous unpaired electrons, ...
Despite her father's wishes, Carbon decided to drop out of high school and pursue a career in music. By 1976, Carbon had become ... "Lolita Carbon and Asin, still rock us". Palawanderer.com. Retrieved 7 December 2020. Pangilinan, Robbie. "Lolita Carbon Still ... Carbon had her first child at the age of 17. She has had four children from three different fathers. She gave birth to twins ... Lolita Carbon is a Filipina singer and songwriter best known for her work with the band Asin and her influence in the Pinoy ...
Other precursors, such as polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and petroleum coke, produce soft carbon, or graphitizing carbon. Soft carbon ... Hard carbon is a solid form of carbon that cannot be converted to graphite by heat-treatment, even at temperatures as high as ... Hard carbon is a low density material, with extremely high microporosity, while soft carbon has little microporosity. Hard ... Manufacturers of hard carbon include Xiamen Tob New Energy (China), Kuraray (Japan) and Stora Enso (Finland). Carbon ...
Additionally, they strengthen as more carbon-fluorine bonds are added to the same carbon. In the one carbon organofluorine ... It has a very high bond strength due to the nature of the carbon-fluorine bond. Because of the multiple carbon-fluorine bonds, ... This effect is due to the increased coulombic attractions between the fluorine atoms and the carbon because the carbon has a ... Tetrafluoromethane is the product when any carbon compound, including carbon itself, is burned in an atmosphere of fluorine. ...
... may refer to: Carbon Canyon Regional Park, a county park in Brea, California. California State Route 142 (Carbon ... Carbon Canyon Dam, a dam at the northeastern edge of Orange County, California. This disambiguation page lists articles ... associated with the title Carbon Canyon. If an internal link led you here, you may wish to change the link to point directly to ...
The fossil carbon pool, in contrast, is inert. But once out of the ground, fossil carbon joins the active carbon pool and will ... THE CARBON-NEUTRAL MYTH. Donate Now Issue 240 Jan/Feb 2007 There is no wealth but life Undercurrents THE CARBON-NEUTRAL ... biological carbon stored in a tree. One UK-based carbon-neutral service says that it can calculate exactly how many trees ... Releasing fossil carbon increases the active carbon pool, and this is the crucial difference between fossil and biological ...
... new goal to remove gigatons of carbon dioxide (CO2) from the atmosphere and durably store it for less than $100/ton of net CO2- ... Secretary Granholm Launches Carbon Negative Earthshots to Remove Gigatons of Carbon Pollution from the Air by 2050 November 5, ... Secretary Granholm Launches Carbon Negative Earthshots to Remove Gigatons of Carbon Pollution from the Air by 2050 ... "With our Carbon Negative Shot, we can help remove the greenhouse gases already warming our planet and affecting our health- ...
Chemists have figured out a new, more efficient way to create carbon-based fuels from carbon dioxide (CO2). In chemical ... But we want to disfavor the hydrogen production and favor high-energy density liquid fuels with carbon-carbon bonds, which is ... Fuels with multiple carbon atoms are more desirable because they tend to be liquid-and liquid fuels store more energy per ... We saw an 80 percent conversion to these multi-carbon fuel products, with only 20 percent or so going into hydrogen and methane ...
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Honda Smart Home at UC Davis West Village Offers Vision For Zero Carbon Living *by Andy Fell ...
Carbon tetrachloride. Find out what is in your tap water ... EWGs Tap Water Database Carbon tetrachloride results for ... Carbon tetrachloride. Altheimer. Carbon tetrachloride, a volatile carcinogenic solvent, has been used in industrial chemical ... Carbon tetrachloride is no longer permitted in products intended for home use in the U.S. In the past, it was widely used as a ... Carbon tetrachloride does not break down easily and can remain in groundwater for years. In addition to increasing cancer risk ...
VMware Carbon Black® App Control™ is an application control solution that prevents unwanted changes & ensures continuous ... Carbon Black Cloud Carbon Black Endpoint NSX NSX Advanced Load Balancer NSX Distributed Firewall ... Carbon Black App Control - Lernpfad Nutzen Sie unseren angeleiteten und maßgeschneiderten Lernpfad, um praktische Erfahrungen ... Mit [VMware Carbon Black] kommen wir alle auf einen gemeinsamen Nenner und können betriebliche IT-Defizite im Hinblick auf ...
A carbon peapod[44][45] is a novel hybrid carbon material which traps fullerene inside a carbon nanotube. It can possess ... The as-prepared carbon nanotubes always have impurities such as other forms of carbon (amorphous carbon, fullerene, etc.) and ... Carbon nanobuds are a newly created material combining two previously discovered allotropes of carbon: carbon nanotubes and ... Abrahamson J, Wiles PG, Rhoades BL (January 1999). "Structure of carbon fibres found on carbon arc anodes". Carbon. 37 (11): ...
... *. Green, Greener, Greenest: Washington and Business Battle Over Policy Choices ... or carbon footprint, and many are jumping the gun to change their carbon liability into an asset. ... CNBC Carbon Council - What Business Thinks of COP 12:08 AM ET Thu, 18 March 2010. As global leaders prepare for Decembers ... Carbon may be the next great investment opportunity but private capital is still trying to get its arms around around it. The ...
Advocating for carbon pricing. Carbon Pricing Leadership Coalition (CPLC). The Carbon Pricing Leadership Coalition brings ... What Is Carbon Pricing?. The phrase put a price on carbon has now become well known with momentum growing among countries and ... Tokyo, an Urban Carbon Cap-and-Trade Pioneer Supports Putting a Price on Carbon. - Yoichi Masuzoe, Governor of Tokyo ... We Know Carbon Pricing Actually Works - Eldar Sætre, CEO, Statoil. *Why Europes Largest Energy Companies Support Carbon ...
This paper probes the mechanism of carbon dioxide adsorption of a previously reported diamine-appended metal-organic framework ... Enzymes bind carbon dioxide from the atmosphere in a highly precise way, whereas synthetic materials just passively adsorb it. ... adsorbents are being investigated as potential agents for efficient gas separation technologies that could help make carbon ... of the greenhouse gas carbon dioxide each year1, thus contributing to climate change. Eliminating these carbon emissions is ...
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Your body just released carbon dioxide, a colorless gas thats essential to life on Earth. ... carbon moves through the carbon cycle.. Carbon moves through the air, water, soil, and even living things. Oceans absorb carbon ... We produce carbon dioxide when we burn fossil fuels like coal, oil, and natural gas. The more carbon dioxide there is in the ... Marine animals use carbon dissolved in water to make their shells. Shells build up to form rocks. Rocks release carbon dioxide ...
UD study finds direct links between old carbon, graphite and seafloor hydrothermal vents ... This work shows that organic carbon and carbon dioxide can also be converted at vents to another form of carbon, graphite. ... "So heres an inorganic form of carbon, because its pure carbon, thats also being measured as organic carbon, whether its ... The ocean acts as a reservoir for substantial amounts of both organic carbon and carbon dioxide, which can lead to ocean ...
The carbon monoxide maps show the monthly averages of carbon monoxide at an altitude of about 12,000 feet, based on data from ... When fire counts are high, carbon monoxide is high; when fire counts are low, carbon monoxide is low. These increases and ... one of them is a carbon monoxide molecule. Yellow areas have little or no carbon monoxide, while progressively higher ... Carbon Monoxide. Chlorophyll. Cloud Fraction. Fire. Land Surface Temperature. Land Surface Temperature Anomaly. Net Primary ...
Several people were being treated for exposure to carbon monoxide at a DeKalb County apartment complex Sunday afternoon. ... Several people were being treated for exposure to carbon monoxide at a DeKalb County apartment complex Sunday afternoon. ...
"The certification framework for carbon removals ensures that whenever a ton of carbon is said to have been taken from the ... Timmermans added that carbon removals would also "offer new and additional sources of income for the many farmers who are eager ... Dozens of organizations issued a joint call Monday slamming the EUs plans to certify so-called offsets - carbon absorbed ... Frans Timmermans, vice-president of the EUs executive Commission, insisted the plans for carbon removal certificates were ...
Factory direct K&N replacement air filters, air intakes, oil filters & cabin filters. KNFilters.com - the official site for performance filtration products.
Hemoglobin, the oxygen-carrying substance in blood, has a much greater affinity for carbon monoxide than it has for oxygen, and ... Indications of carbon monoxide poisoning include headache, weakness, dizziness, nausea, fainting, and, ... often fatal condition resulting from inhalation of carbon monoxide, frequently occurring in association with inhalation of ... carbon monoxide poisoning, often fatal condition resulting from inhalation of carbon monoxide, frequently occurring in ...
Were implementing programmes to reduce our carbon footprint, and hope to reduce emissions by 43% by 2020. ... Newcastle University , Sustainable Campus , Themes , Carbon. Carbon. Carbon. Working towards net-zero carbon dioxide emissions ... Carbon management at the University. Since July 2015, the University has successfully maintained an ISO50001-certified Energy ... Delivery of the Climate Action Plan and ongoing carbon reduction measures is supported by £15 million of central funding from ...
Logitech pledges carbon impact transparency to help raise consumer awareness of environmental issues and empower informed ... When will products include carbon labeling?. We expect the first carbon impact labelling to appear on a select set of gaming ... With the introduction of our Carbon Transparency label, we will provide a carbon footprint (number) on the product package, as ... 2 - Denotes whether the product carbon footprint has been verifiably offset, thereby rendering it Carbon Neutral. ...
CHEBI:36931 - carbon-12 atom. Main. ChEBI Ontology. Automatic Xrefs. Reactions. Pathways. Models. ... Macronutrients are usually chemical elements (carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, phosphorus and sulfur) that humans consume in ...
The kind of carbon you use also makes a difference. Some manufacturers produce as many as 150 types of activated carbon, which ... How can activated carbon clean up a spill?. Through adsorption. Carbon has a natural affinity for organic pollutants like ... Either way, no carbon remains in the water once its been thoroughly treated. (The carbon that the Chinese government dumped ... Municipal water treatment plants generally use activated carbon in two ways. They either run water through carbon filters-a bit ...
content/basf/www/se/en/who-we-are/sustainability/we-produce-safely-and-efficiently/energy-and-climate-protection/carbon- ... content/basf/www/se/en/who-we-are/sustainability/we-produce-safely-and-efficiently/energy-and-climate-protection/carbon- ... content/basf/www/se/en/who-we-are/sustainability/we-produce-safely-and-efficiently/energy-and-climate-protection/carbon- ... research institutes and companies on sustainable solutions for a carbon neutral future. We are convinced that the challenges of ...
Stories about architecture and design projects that aim to be carbon negative by absorbing more carbon dioxide than they emit ... For our 2020 review, we take a look at 10 of the best examples of carbon-neutral design, including zero-carbon and carbon- ... Carbon-negative design *. Algae-grown limestone provides route to carbon-negative concrete. Researchers at the University of ... 3XN to add carbon-negative extension to Hotel GSH on Bornholm island. Architecture studio 3XN is developing a carbon-negative ...
Everything you need to know about Altered Carbon. ... Altered Carbon gets animated! Altered Carbon. David Griffin. 41 ... Altered Carbon Season 2s Insane Circle Fight Fight Explained. Mar 3, 2020. - Altered Carbon Season 2 showrunner Alison ... Netflix has Cancelled Altered Carbon After 2 Seasons. Aug 26, 2020. - Netflix has canceled Altered Carbon after 2 seasons. ... Altered Carbon Season 2 improves on Season 1 with a focused story that expands its universe in fascinating ways. ...
... but burying carbon dioxide under the sea is vital if we are to halt global warming, argue Frederic Hauge and Marius Holm ... Swap dust on the floor for carbon dioxide in the air, and the carpet for the seabed, and thats a dilemma world governments now ...
Its latest report is the "2022 Scoping Plan for Achieving Carbon Neutrality" by 2045. The overall website also contains links ... And what about Californias concern with "equity"-that is, helping the poorest people cope with a transition to a non-carbon ... This Scoping Plan lays out the sector-by-sector roadmap for California, the worlds fifth largest economy, to achieve carbon ... It means clamping down on chemicals and refrigerants that are thousands of times more powerful at trapping heat than carbon ...
Carbon tax revenue under his plan would be remitted to consumers in the form of a "carbon dividend check." Modeled on Alaskas ... Once carbon pollution is included in energy prices, Shultz would "wipe out" subsidies to all fuels - fossil, nuclear and ... Washington -- Republican eminence grise George Shultz addressed a packed room on Capitol Hill Friday to press for a carbon tax. ... by incorporating the cost of their carbon pollution. ... George Shultz pushes for carbon tax. CLIMATE CHANGE. Carolyn ...
  • With carbon cap-and-trade legislation before Congress and increasing pressure from shareholders, US companies know they'll have to deal with their greenhouse gas emissions, or carbon footprint, and many are jumping the gun to change their carbon liability into an asset. (cnbc.com)
  • With LCA, we can quantify the carbon footprint of the product, from sourcing of raw materials, through to manufacturing, distribution, consumer use and product end of life. (logitech.com)
  • With the introduction of our Carbon Transparency label, we will provide a carbon footprint (number) on the product package, as well as additional insight and information for consumers and partners on this webpage. (logitech.com)
  • 1 - Denotes the carbon footprint of the full lifecycle of the product, from materials sourcing and manufacture, distribution, consumer use, and end of life. (logitech.com)
  • 2 - Denotes whether the product carbon footprint has been verifiably offset, thereby rendering it Carbon Neutral. (logitech.com)
  • As we quantify the Carbon Footprint of each product, we are capturing learnings, which we can incorporate into the ecodesign of the next generation of products. (logitech.com)
  • Coldplay has announced its next world tour will have a net-zero carbon footprint and released a sustainability plan that includes direct-air carbon capture technology by Climeworks . (dezeen.com)
  • Monitor your gross cloud emissions over time by project, product, and region-giving IT teams and developers metrics that can help them improve their carbon footprint. (google.com)
  • You can export your Carbon Footprint data to BigQuery in order to perform data analysis, create custom dashboards and reports, or include the data in your organization's emissions accounting tools. (google.com)
  • Carbon Footprint data is integrated with unattended project recommender , which provides you with estimates of the gross emission reductions you could achieve by removing idle projects. (google.com)
  • Review the calculation methodology that Google Cloud uses to give our customers a report tailored to their specific gross carbon footprint. (google.com)
  • Learn how to export your Carbon Footprint data to BigQuery or Sheets in order to perform data analysis and create custom dashboards and reports. (google.com)
  • How Big Is Your Carbon Footprint? (scientificamerican.com)
  • Dear EarthTalk: How can I measure-and then improve-my overall "carbon footprint? (scientificamerican.com)
  • By assessing how much pollution each of your individual actions generates-be it setting your thermostat, shopping for groceries, commuting to work or flying somewhere for vacation-you can begin to see how changing a few habits here and there can significantly reduce your overall carbon footprint. (scientificamerican.com)
  • Luckily for those of us who want to see how we measure up, there are a number of free online carbon footprint calculators to help figure out just where to start changing. (scientificamerican.com)
  • Another great carbon footprint calculator is available at EarthLab.com, an online "climate crisis community" that has partnered with Al Gore's Alliance for Climate Protection and other high-profile groups, companies and celebrities to spread the word that individual actions can make a difference in the fight against global warming. (scientificamerican.com)
  • Users just take a three-minute survey and get back a carbon footprint score, which they can save and update as they work to reduce their impact. (scientificamerican.com)
  • our goal is to introduce you to easy, simple ways that you as an individual can reduce your carbon footprint. (scientificamerican.com)
  • And CarbonFund.org even allows you to assess your carbon footprint-and then offers you the ability to offset such emissions by investing in clean energy initiatives. (scientificamerican.com)
  • But the Irish band's guitarist The Edge has defended the tour, saying the rockers have every intention of offsetting their large carbon footprint. (irishcentral.com)
  • Backstage at U2's gig at Wembley Stadium, the guitarist said: "I think anybody that's touring is going to have a carbon footprint . (irishcentral.com)
  • There's many other things that are in the same category but as it happens we have a program to offset whatever carbon footprint we have. (irishcentral.com)
  • However, what many are not doing is including their supply chain, which is bad news for the environment, as supply chains contribute significantly to a firm's carbon footprint and can amount to as much as four times the organisation's own operational emissions. (wbs.ac.uk)
  • At the transactional level firms are calculating their carbon footprint and identifying opportunities for improvements. (wbs.ac.uk)
  • The training will help organisations better measure their carbon footprint and develop mechanisms and data gathering, to help manage performance and recognise areas of improvement, as they work towards net zero. (uws.ac.uk)
  • SCS verified Fruit of the Loom's 2012 carbon footprint against the IS 14064-3 and ISO 14065 standards as well as the World Resources Institute/World Business Council for Sustainable Development Greenhouse Gas Protocol. (scsglobalservices.com)
  • In 2012, SCS verified the carbon footprint of Delta Air Lines for the years 2005-2010, making it the world's first legacy airline to achieve a successful, independent third party verification of its greenhouse gas emissions inventory. (scsglobalservices.com)
  • The verification, conforming to the ISO 14064-3 and ISO 14065 standards and the World Resource Institute/World Business Council for Sustainable Development Greenhouse Gas Protocol, prepares Juniper to submit its footprint to the Carbon Disclosure Project. (scsglobalservices.com)
  • But humans are increasing carbon dioxide levels in the atmosphere above natural levels. (amnh.org)
  • While the United States and Europe are longstanding leaders in carbon output, scientists have in recent years cited the main reason for increasing carbon dioxide levels as the growing global economy, especially the explosion of economies in developing countries such as China and India. (livescience.com)
  • Questions and answers about the amateur use of carbon fiber epoxy composites for bicycle frame construction, taken largely from my e-mail correspondence. (sheldonbrown.com)
  • I was reading http://www.chainreactionbicycles.com/carblife.htm and someone has a post that says he/she fixed damaged carbon fiber with a 'mixture of fiberglass shards and epoxy. (sheldonbrown.com)
  • Compared to continuous carbon fiber, fiberglass shards and epoxy do little to add any significant strength. (sheldonbrown.com)
  • The world's first molecular nanotechnology company, Zyvex Technologies, and ENVE Composites announced an exclusive partnership to provide a bicycle rim specifically for downhill mountain biking that uses the latest advanced materials comprised of nano-enhanced carbon fiber. (foresight.org)
  • ENVE used Zyvex Technologies' nano-enhanced carbon fiber technology called Arovex, which is a carbon nanotube and graphene engineered composite material that uses the proprietary Kentera technology to create chemical bonds on the carbon nanotubes. (foresight.org)
  • ENVE developed the first nano-enhanced carbon fiber downhill bike with the intention of its riders winning a World Cup. (foresight.org)
  • Carbon fiber end pins for double bass that are 1/2 inch in diameter and standard 16 inch length. (uptonbass.com)
  • In comparison, our carbon fiber 20-inch end pin weighs a mere 42 grams. (uptonbass.com)
  • Our carbon fiber end pins are made with a sharpened heat-treated metal tip or an exchangeable carbide tip. (uptonbass.com)
  • End pins absorb energy generated by bowing, and it is logical that a heavy steel end pin will absorb more energy than a carbon fiber end pin. (uptonbass.com)
  • We believe that a carbon fiber end pin does have a positive effect on the sound produced by a cello and double bass. (uptonbass.com)
  • The latest and greatest iteration of Godzilla still packs a 600hp twin-turbo V6, but has trimmed out weight thanks to an ample serving of carbon fiber for its front and rear bumpers, front fenders, hood, roof, side sill covers, trunk and rear spoiler. (theawesomer.com)
  • Did you know each strand (aka tow) of carbon fiber is usually made up of between 3,000 - 6,000 individual strands (aka filaments)? (carbonfibergear.com)
  • We can help your carbon fiber and other advanced composites project come to life. (carbonfibergear.com)
  • Whether you are looking for unique corporate gifts, customer giveaways or any other reason to have personalized carbon fiber goods, we've got you covered. (carbonfibergear.com)
  • Join for free and learn about new products first, the latest in carbon fiber news, access to our sales before anybody else and more! (carbonfibergear.com)
  • Our carbon fiber rings provide a world class look, for an affordable price. (justmensrings.com)
  • The vehicle has been equipped with 10 layers of clear coat over the paint and carbon fiber to ensure that this thing can take a beating in any weather conditions. (hiconsumption.com)
  • The phrase put a price on carbon has now become well known with momentum growing among countries and business to put a price on carbon pollution as a means of bringing down emissions and drive investment into cleaner options. (worldbank.org)
  • Here, the carbon monoxide is part of the urban and industrial pollution generated in and around rapidly industrializing Beijing, China. (nasa.gov)
  • To correct the failure associated with pollution, different policies are proposed, including a carbon tax. (carleton.edu)
  • Russian authorities-who expect the pollution to reach the city of Khabarovsk within the next few weeks-are shipping 50 tons of activated carbon to local treatment plants. (slate.com)
  • How much pollution gets sucked up by the carbon depends on a number of factors, including the temperature and acidity of the water, the type and amount of pollution, and the amount of time the water spends in contact with the carbon. (slate.com)
  • Bucking his party on climate change, Shultz said all forms of energy should compete "on a level playing field" by incorporating the cost of their carbon pollution. (sfgate.com)
  • Once carbon pollution is included in energy prices, Shultz would "wipe out" subsidies to all fuels - fossil, nuclear and renewable - and let the market choose. (sfgate.com)
  • Gov. Gavin Newsom's website includes a page touting, "California Releases World's First Plan to Achieve Net Zero Carbon Pollution. (theepochtimes.com)
  • Federal and state governments should set goals for reducing carbon pollution from transportation consistent with the goals of the Paris Climate Agreement and get us to zero-carbon transportation system by mid-century. (environmentamerica.org)
  • A carbon tax directly sets a price on carbon by defining a tax rate on greenhouse gas emissions or - more commonly - on the carbon content of fossil fuels. (worldbank.org)
  • The only effective way to begin reducing greenhouse gas emissions and slow global climate change is to make it more expensive to emit carbon dioxide. (rand.org)
  • As part of our review of 2021 , here are 10 examples of low-carbon architecture including buildings made of 3D-printed clay , recycled materials and biomaterials . (dezeen.com)
  • Among their 2021 deliverables, Portland Cement Association members aim to finalize a plan to achieve carbon neutrality across the concrete value chain by 2050. (concreteproducts.com)
  • Well, I think claims of carbon neutrality really depend on what you measure, when you measure it, and how you measure it. (rte.ie)
  • These flights, and I believe there's about 60 commuter flights a day as reported into Qatar, these are not counted in any shape or form because they're in international airspace, and they themselves would render that claim of carbon neutrality fairly dubious. (rte.ie)
  • And the reality I think, is that if we were to be really strict on counting carbon for the World Cup, I think that claim of carbon neutrality wouldn't hold up essentially. (rte.ie)
  • Its latest report is the "2022 Scoping Plan for Achieving Carbon Neutrality" by 2045. (theepochtimes.com)
  • Yet Newsom intones, "No economy in the world, much less the soon-to-be 4th largest , has put forth such a comprehensive roadmap to reach carbon neutrality. (theepochtimes.com)
  • This Scoping Plan lays out the sector-by-sector roadmap for California, the world's fifth largest economy, to achieve carbon neutrality by 2045 or earlier, outlining a technologically feasible, cost-effective, and equity-focused path to achieve the state's climate target. (theepochtimes.com)
  • CP staff Portland Cement Association members are marking the first year of their Roadmap to Carbon Neutrality by 2050 by highlighting key deliverables for public and private construction market stakeholders. (concreteproducts.com)
  • In one of the latest moves to achieve carbon neutrality in cement, aggregate and concrete production and delivery by 2050, Cemex USA has added 30 mixer trucks and eight tractors, all running on compressed natural gas or renewable natural gas. (concreteproducts.com)
  • CP staff Consistent with corporate environmental management and Portland Cement Association Roadmap to Carbon Neutrality goals, Buzzi Unicem USA and Alamo Cement Co. CEO Massimo Toso has announced a transition from ASTM C150 Types I and II portland cement production to C595 Type IL, or portland-limestone cement. (concreteproducts.com)
  • CP staff Portland Cement Association members aim to finalize next year a template to achieve carbon neutrality across the concrete value chain by 2050. (concreteproducts.com)
  • Macron reiterated that France would increase the price of carbon emitted there to 84 euros per tonne in 2022 from 44 euros this year. (reuters.com)
  • In March 2020, we also completed a Scope 3 screening exercise with the Carbon Trust to better measure and enable reductions in our Scope 3 emissions. (ncl.ac.uk)
  • For our 2020 review , we take a look at 10 of the best examples of carbon-neutral design , including zero-carbon and carbon-negative buildings , such as a floating off-grid office and a house made of hempcrete. (dezeen.com)
  • The all-new GT Grade Carbon Expert boasts the iconic frame that won Gravel Bike of The Year 2020 packed with an enviable Shimano 105 parts package built for road and gravel - BikeRadar rates the GT Grade Carbon a 'Flickable, fun-filled, high performing bike for all conditions' and we couldn't agree more. (gtbicycles.com)
  • In COPD, Carbon Dioxide Is Often Overlooked - Medscape - Jan 06, 2020. (medscape.com)
  • The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has determined that carbon tetrachloride is possibly carcinogenic to humans, whereas the EPA determined that carbon tetrachloride is a probable human carcinogen. (cdc.gov)
  • Habitat fragmentation and biomass reduction on isolated forest islands at the Balbina dam - with trees replaced by lianas - resulted in increased carbon emissions. (mongabay.com)
  • Carbon tetrachloride does not break down easily and can remain in groundwater for years. (ewg.org)
  • Carbon tetrachloride does not occur naturally. (cdc.gov)
  • Your body just released carbon dioxide, a colorless gas that's essential to life on Earth. (amnh.org)
  • Carbon tetrachloride is most often found in the air as a colorless gas. (cdc.gov)
  • Most carbon disulfide in the air and surface water is from Pure carbon disulfide is a colorless liquid with a pleasant manufacturing and processing activities. (cdc.gov)
  • Carbon monoxide (CO) is an odorless, colorless, poisonous gas that can cause sudden illness and death if present in sufficient concentration in the ambient air. (cdc.gov)
  • But in most situations, burning is not complete, and fires or burning fossil fuels produce a mixture of gases, including carbon dioxide, methane, and carbon monoxide. (nasa.gov)
  • We saw an 80 percent conversion to these multi-carbon fuel products, with only 20 percent or so going into hydrogen and methane. (caltech.edu)
  • For instance, propanol, which is liquid and contains three carbon atoms, stores more energy than methane, which is a gas and only has one carbon atom. (caltech.edu)
  • Methane (chemical formula CH4) is one of the simplest hydrocarbons, which literally means "containing hydrogen and carbon. (dictionary.com)
  • Southeast Asia has more than 27 million hectares of forested peatland, and peat releases devastating amounts of methane and carbon when drained or burned. (ecosystemmarketplace.com)
  • In order to leverage additional funding for WAP [Weatherization Assistance Program] and receive those 'rewards,' NASCSP is currently developing a national framework to measure carbon emission reductions from weatherization activities and sell carbon offsets in the voluntary carbon markets in compliance with the Verified Carbon Standard (VCS). (forbes.com)
  • The NASCSP would verify, register, and sell carbon offsets for the participating states. (forbes.com)
  • Aschheim and Jorge Gonzalez , a former SCU mechanical engineering professor now at City College New York , co-lead a team that developed a carbon metering method that quantifies real-time energy savings in buildings and associated carbon offsets. (forbes.com)
  • and that is where carbon offsets-also known as carbon credits-can come into play. (ncga.com)
  • To help navigate these climate change concerns and questions surrounding credits and offsets, NCGA has started a repository of educational resources aimed at helping farmers get ahead of the carbon market learning curve. (ncga.com)
  • Dozens of organizations issued a joint call Monday slamming the EU's plans to certify so-called offsets - carbon absorbed through nature or with technological means - which could then be bought by polluters to reduce their emissions balance. (ap.org)
  • But these projects are in danger as insufficient demand for carbon offsets leaves them in financial limbo. (ecosystemmarketplace.com)
  • In an interview with Ecosystem Marketplace he said those activities would include the purchase of REDD offsets voluntarily earned and certified to private carbon standards. (ecosystemmarketplace.com)
  • The combustion of fossil fuels to produce heat and electricity creates more than 13 gigatonnes (13 billion tonnes) of the greenhouse gas carbon dioxide each year 1 , thus contributing to climate change. (nature.com)
  • BRUSSELS (Reuters) - Europe must set a minimum price for carbon, French President Emmanuel Macron said on Thursday, something that would require a new tax on imports from non-EU countries that are not doing enough to tackle climate change. (reuters.com)
  • Capturing carbon dioxide from point sources of emission could help mitigate climate change. (state.gov)
  • As a newfound advocate for the atmosphere, the Lorax would need to learn a bit about carbon capture , which involves trapping carbon dioxide to mitigate the effects of climate change-effects that disproportionately impact women and girls. (state.gov)
  • Natural processes are working hard to keep the carbon cycle in balance by absorbing about half of our carbon emissions, limiting the extent of climate change. (scienceblog.com)
  • Donald Trump may still not believe climate change is happening, but many firms and organisations do and are busily reducing their carbon emissions. (wbs.ac.uk)
  • With the subject of climate change an increasingly politicised arena thanks to Greta Thunberg's worldwide movement, pressure is building on firms to not just use their carbon reduction action as good PR, but to lead society in the move towards a sustainable future. (wbs.ac.uk)
  • carbon monoxide poisoning , often fatal condition resulting from inhalation of carbon monoxide , frequently occurring in association with inhalation of smoke or automobile exhaust. (britannica.com)
  • Some persons who have suffered from carbon monoxide poisoning are later affected by psychological conditions such as depression and anxiety . (britannica.com)
  • Protect your family from carbon monoxide poisoning. (mass.gov)
  • Indoor use of portable generators, charcoal grills, or camp stoves can lead to carbon monoxide poisoning. (cdc.gov)
  • The clinical diagnosis of acute carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning should be confirmed by demonstrating an elevated level of carboxyhemoglobin (HbCO). (medscape.com)
  • Although carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning can be prevented, every year, hundreds of people in the United States die as a result of accidental, non-fire related exposure to this toxic gas. (cdc.gov)
  • IMSEAR at SEARO: Carbon monoxide poisoning. (who.int)
  • OBJECTIVES: We studied the clinical profile and autopsy findings of carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning encountered at a hospital located at the altitude of 5,000 ft above mean sea level. (who.int)
  • When winter temperatures plummet and home heating systems run for hours the risk of carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning increases. (cdc.gov)
  • Going carbon neutral means that China would remove the same amount of carbon it's emitting into the atmosphere to achieve net-zero carbon emissions. (dictionary.com)
  • The amount of carbon-14 wasn't quite the same four thousand years ago. (uh.edu)
  • With global warming dominating so many headlines today, it's no surprise that many of us are looking to reduce the amount of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases our activities produce. (scientificamerican.com)
  • Over the course of the 20th century, technologies advanced and became more efficient in terms of the amount of carbon it took to produce a unit of wealth. (livescience.com)
  • So the amount of carbon dioxide that stays in the atmosphere is actually only a fraction of what is emitted. (livescience.com)
  • drought, for example, hampers plant growth, which reduces the amount of carbon dioxide that goes into that sink. (livescience.com)
  • Maternal exposure to carbon tetrachloride in drinking water has been associated with a risk of birth defects. (ewg.org)
  • High exposure to carbon tetrachloride can cause liver, kidney, and central nervous system damage. (cdc.gov)
  • It is also possible that exposure to Carbon Monoxide is a contributor. (activerain.com)
  • Several people were being treated for exposure to carbon monoxide at a DeKalb County apartment complex Sunday afternoon. (ajc.com)
  • HIGHLIGHTS: Exposure to carbon disulfide can occur by breathing it in the air and by drinking water or eating foods that contain it. (cdc.gov)
  • Estimates of occupational exposure to carbon black have been incorporated into the UK and German cohort mortality studies of carbon black production workers but not in the United States study of carbon black production workers. (who.int)
  • A Working Group from the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) met in 2006 to review the available literature on cancer risks from exposure to carbon black. (who.int)
  • Of course, trees can also die, at which point they release most of the carbon that they keep locked away from the atmosphere. (resurgence.org)
  • Enzymes bind carbon dioxide from the atmosphere in a highly precise way, whereas synthetic materials just passively adsorb it. (nature.com)
  • Carbon dioxide is one of the greenhouse gases that absorbs and holds heat in Earth's atmosphere, keeping our planet warm enough for life to exist. (amnh.org)
  • Oceans absorb carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. (amnh.org)
  • This cycle has kept a healthy balance of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere--just enough to keep Earth's temperatures within a certain range and for life to exist. (amnh.org)
  • When we burn fossil fuels, we are rapidly releasing carbon that had been locked within Earth into the atmosphere. (amnh.org)
  • The more carbon dioxide there is in the atmosphere, the more heat is absorbed, and the warmer the planet gets. (amnh.org)
  • Today, the atmosphere contains more carbon dioxide than at any time in at least the past 800,000 years. (amnh.org)
  • The ocean holds over fifty times more carbon dioxide than the atmosphere. (amnh.org)
  • The construction of this year's Serpentine Pavilion removed 31 tonnes of carbon from the atmosphere, according to a report by construction consultant AECOM . (dezeen.com)
  • The Environmental Protection Agency's decision to classify rising carbon-dioxide emissions as a hazard to human health is the latest twist in a debate that has raged for decades among politicians, scientists and industry: whether a natural component of the earth's atmosphere should be considered a pollutant. (wsj.com)
  • Fossil fuel combustion and the consequent release of carbon dioxide continues as the dominant cause of increasing amounts of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. (rand.org)
  • Each year the United States releases into the atmosphere over 6 billion tons of carbon dioxide, roughly a quarter of global emissions. (rand.org)
  • In theory, carbon dioxide can be captured at its source before it reaches the atmosphere (known as point source capture), or it can be collected from the atmosphere itself (through diffuse air capture). (state.gov)
  • The certification framework for carbon removals ensures that whenever a ton of carbon is said to have been taken from the atmosphere, we can verify that claim," he said. (ap.org)
  • Carbon dioxide levels in the atmosphere are rising faster than predicted, largely due to a burgeoning global economy and the hampering of overburdened natural carbon-storage mechanisms on land and in the ocean, a new study finds. (livescience.com)
  • This economic boom has indeed increased the number of carbon-emitting sources, especially coal-burning power plants, and has fueled a steady rise in the amount of the greenhouse gas emitted into the atmosphere, says study author Josep Canadell of the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization in Australia. (livescience.com)
  • As the burning of fossil fuels puts carbon dioxide into the atmosphere, natural carbon sinks (such as plants and the ocean) take some of it out. (livescience.com)
  • Our activities, such as fossil fuel burning and deforestation, are pushing the cycle out of its natural balance, adding more and more carbon dioxide to the atmosphere. (scienceblog.com)
  • Right now, the land and the ocean are taking up almost half of the carbon dioxide we add to the atmosphere by burning fossil fuels, but the future is fundamentally unknown," said Paul Wennberg, a professor of atmospheric chemistry at the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena. (scienceblog.com)
  • But droughts and wildfires can turn forests into carbon sources, releasing the stored carbon back into the atmosphere. (scienceblog.com)
  • Carbon dioxide concentrations in the atmosphere are measured in parts per million, the number of molecules of carbon dioxide there are in every million molecules of air. (scienceblog.com)
  • Carbon tetrachloride, a volatile carcinogenic solvent, has been used in industrial chemical production and as a dry cleaning ingredient. (ewg.org)
  • OVER THE PAST few years, the idea of carbon 'offset' or 'carbon-neutral' projects has found a large following. (resurgence.org)
  • One UK-based 'carbon-neutral' service says that it can calculate exactly how many trees someone will need to plant and tend for ninety-nine years in order to soak up the emissions generated by air travel to, say, Brussels. (resurgence.org)
  • To support the integrity of internal calculations, Logitech is collaborating with well-known third parties including IFU Hamburg, an iPoint Group company, to establish a valid ISO aligned measurement protocol, an independent DEKRA-authorised verifier to verify and validate each products carbon impact to DEKRA certification standards, and Natural Capital Partners to identify and apply certified carbon offset instruments to achieve product carbon neutral status. (logitech.com)
  • In addition, we work with numerous partners from universities, research institutes and companies on sustainable solutions for a carbon neutral future. (basf.com)
  • Researchers at the University of Colorado Boulder have developed a way of using algae to create carbon-neutral or even carbon-negative concrete . (dezeen.com)
  • a carbon-neutral brewery. (dictionary.com)
  • Danish shipping giant Maersk announced in August that it would be launching the first of eight cargo container vessels running on carbon neutral methanol fuel in 2024. (dictionary.com)
  • All of our products are plastic-free and made from recycled materials or fast-growing bamboo, and we just launched global carbon neutral shipping. (dictionary.com)
  • Scientists say burning woody biomass is not carbon neutral, yet the United Nations IPCC appears to be ignoring its own guidelines, so substantial emissions aren't getting counted. (mongabay.com)
  • Is the World Cup really carbon neutral? (rte.ie)
  • RTÉ Soccer Correspondent Tony O'Donoghue reports from Doha, where the organisers and climatologists disagree on claims the tournament will be environmentally friendly and carbon neutral. (rte.ie)
  • Organisers have claimed that the tournament, which begins with an opening ceremony in the Al Bayt stadium on Sunday, will be environmentally friendly and carbon neutral. (rte.ie)
  • In an effort to prove their environmental credentials, Qatar and FIFA have pledged that this World Cup will be carbon neutral, a claim that many people are questioning. (rte.ie)
  • World Football's governing body, FIFA, and Qatar's Supreme Committee for Delivery and Legacy said they have committed to reducing and offsetting all carbon emissions related to the games, which begin on Sunday when the hosts play Ecuador, and that they plan to have a carbon neutral World Cup. (rte.ie)
  • Professor Sweeney is a climatologist who is querying the carbon neutral claims. (rte.ie)
  • The Kroger Co., America's largest grocery retailer, and Kipster Farms , the award-winning egg production system founded in The Netherlands, recently announced a strategic partnership to bring the world's first carbon-neutral, cage-free eggs to retail shelves in the US. (thepoultrysite.com)
  • A carbon nanotube ( CNT ) is a tube made of carbon with diameters typically measured in nanometers . (wikipedia.org)
  • The length of a carbon nanotube produced by common production methods is often not reported, but is typically much larger than its diameter. (wikipedia.org)
  • A "sliced and unrolled" representation of a carbon nanotube as a strip of a graphene molecule, overlaid on diagram of the full molecule (faint background). (wikipedia.org)
  • The structure of an ideal (infinitely long) single-walled carbon nanotube is that of a regular hexagonal lattice drawn on an infinite cylindrical surface, whose vertices are the positions of the carbon atoms. (wikipedia.org)
  • A hat tip to KurzweilAI.net for reporting this success from Zyvex Technologies for their proprietary carbon nanotube and graphene engineered composite material. (foresight.org)
  • The distribution of dryland trees and their density, cover, size, mass and carbon content are not well known at sub-continental to continental scales1-14. (bvsalud.org)
  • Antarctic ice core evidence shows that the big jump in atmospheric carbon dioxide of the past century is extraordinary. (amnh.org)
  • The comparison shows that fires and atmospheric carbon monoxide levels are very closely related for some regions and some times of year, but are less closely related in other places and times. (nasa.gov)
  • Hemp can capture atmospheric carbon twice as effectively as forests while providing carbon-negative biomaterials for architects and designers, according to Cambridge University researcher Darshil Shah . (dezeen.com)
  • Once captured, carbon dioxide needs a non-atmospheric home, and a possible destination is deep underground in saline aquifers, basalt rock formations, or empty fossil fuel reservoirs. (state.gov)
  • To stop the increase in atmospheric carbon dioxide , it would take the development and widespread adoption of more carbon-efficient technologies. (livescience.com)
  • Working towards net-zero carbon dioxide emissions by 2030. (ncl.ac.uk)
  • Newcastle University has committed, following its Climate Emergency Statement , to net-zero carbon dioxide emissions by 2030 . (ncl.ac.uk)
  • CP staff The California Nevada Cement Association (CNCA) envisions three major pathways for the industry to attain net zero carbon operation by 2045: reducing production process emissions, reducing combustion emissions through fuel switching, and increasing distributed electricity generation. (concreteproducts.com)
  • Specifically, state and federal governments should consider a series of 50 policy reforms that can help to pave the way for a zero-carbon transportation system. (environmentamerica.org)
  • What 'offset' forestry does is confuse fossil carbon with biological carbon. (resurgence.org)
  • The fossil carbon pool, in contrast, is inert. (resurgence.org)
  • But once out of the ground, fossil carbon joins the active carbon pool and will not go back into the fossil carbon pool for millennia. (resurgence.org)
  • Releasing fossil carbon increases the active carbon pool, and this is the crucial difference between fossil and biological carbon. (resurgence.org)
  • There are also more indirect ways of more accurately pricing carbon, such as through fuel taxes, the removal of fossil fuel subsidies, and regulations that may incorporate a "social cost of carbon. (worldbank.org)
  • We produce carbon dioxide when we burn fossil fuels like coal, oil, and natural gas. (amnh.org)
  • That pattern suggests that the carbon monoxide is coming from the burning of fossil fuels (and also perhaps from wood-burning stoves or fireplaces). (nasa.gov)
  • Even so, emissions reductions can be achieved by collecting carbon dioxide from point sources, which range from fossil fuel-burning power plants to cement production facilities (maybe even fictional Thneed factories in The Lorax ). (state.gov)
  • The Global Landscape Forum met in Bonn this week and advocated for altering farming practices planet-wide to boost food security, profitability and soil carbon sequestration. (mongabay.com)
  • Net soil carbon sequestration on agricultural lands could offset 4% of annual global human-induced GHG emissions over the rest of the century and make an important contribution to meeting the targets of the Paris Agreement. (oecd.org)
  • It is different from an ETS in that the emission reduction outcome of a carbon tax is not pre-defined but the carbon price is. (worldbank.org)
  • Delivery of the Climate Action Plan and ongoing carbon reduction measures is supported by £15 million of central funding from the University, alongside SALIX funding and funding from other grants where bids have been successful. (ncl.ac.uk)
  • Progress to date and further information on carbon reduction measures are included in our Climate Action Plan . (ncl.ac.uk)
  • While his message regarding sustainable use of forest resources remains poignant to this day, I wonder if the Lorax should adopt a second mission calling for the reduction of carbon dioxide emissions. (state.gov)
  • This is the first step for a comprehensive carbon reduction plan, measuring and collating data. (wbs.ac.uk)
  • It simply denotes a more aggressive approach to carbon dioxide reduction. (medscape.com)
  • The logic holds that the magnitude of reduction, and perhaps the high baseline carbon dioxide levels among the patients enrolled, is what drove the marked mortality improvement with NPPV in the 2014 RCT . (medscape.com)
  • Although all their recommendations are conditional and based on low-quality evidence, they advocate NPPV for stable, hypercapnic patients with COPD, using fixed pressure settings and targeting carbon dioxide reduction. (medscape.com)
  • Lastly, a back-up rate may be needed to ensure carbon dioxide reduction, which in some health systems and countries can triple the cost of NPPV. (medscape.com)
  • Because there exists naturally an active carbon pool with carbon freely moving between forests, oceans and air. (resurgence.org)
  • Can we really guarantee how much carbon planted forests can mop up? (resurgence.org)
  • As big carbon storehouses, forests have the power to influence the climate. (mongabay.com)
  • To understand where that carbon dioxide is going, we need precise, comprehensive, ongoing data about carbon dioxide absorption and emission by forests, the ocean and many other regions. (scienceblog.com)
  • Forests remove carbon from the air during photosynthesis and store it in wood and roots, making these forests what scientists call carbon sinks. (scienceblog.com)
  • Private conservationists are managing over 26.5 million hectares of threatened forests worldwide in hopes of being paid to keep forest carbon emissions on lockdown. (ecosystemmarketplace.com)
  • But these sinks, especially the ocean, absorb carbon dioxide slowly in comparison to the rate at which it is emitted. (livescience.com)
  • The percentage of emitted carbon dioxide they absorb has declined in the past 50 years and will keep declining, Canadell says. (livescience.com)
  • Like all other molecules, carbon dioxide molecules absorb only certain colors of light, producing a unique pattern of dark features in the spectrum. (scienceblog.com)
  • A recent study in the Journal of Geophysical Researc h found that carbon dioxide uptake in the North Atlantic Ocean has slowed down dramatically since the mid-1990s. (livescience.com)
  • The winds are changing there, and carbon dioxide uptake may change too. (scienceblog.com)
  • In other parts of the world, however, carbon monoxide levels are elevated even during months when fire counts are low. (nasa.gov)
  • To compare exhaled carbon monoxide levels with self-reports among university students in the Islamic Republic of Iran. (who.int)
  • Smoking status was compared and then correlated with the resultant carbon monoxide levels at a cutoff of 6 ppm. (who.int)
  • Significant correlations were obtained between the exhaled carbon monoxide levels of the smoker and nonsmoker groups (P (who.int)
  • Although not made this way, single-wall carbon nanotubes can be idealized as cutouts from a two-dimensional hexagonal lattice of carbon atoms rolled up along one of the Bravais lattice vectors of the hexagonal lattice to form a hollow cylinder. (wikipedia.org)
  • In this construction, periodic boundary conditions are imposed over the length of this roll-up vector to yield a helical lattice of seamlessly bonded carbon atoms on the cylinder surface. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since the length of the carbon-carbon bonds is fairly fixed, there are constraints on the diameter of the cylinder and the arrangement of the atoms on it. (wikipedia.org)
  • In chemical reactions performed in the lab, a Caltech team has identified a new additive that helps selectively convert CO 2 into fuels containing multiple carbon atoms-a step toward ultimately making renewable liquid fuels that are not derived from coal or oil. (caltech.edu)
  • Fuels with multiple carbon atoms are more desirable because they tend to be liquid-and liquid fuels store more energy per volume than gaseous ones. (caltech.edu)
  • [13] These properties are expected to be valuable in many areas of technology, such as electronics , optics , composite materials (replacing or complementing carbon fibers ), nanotechnology , and other applications of materials science . (wikipedia.org)
  • Remove loose fibers and carbon shards (if any). (sheldonbrown.com)
  • September 30, 2019 - New report tackles concerns about industrial competitiveness, finds that these can be addressed through strong carbon pricing policies. (worldbank.org)
  • In 2019, underground carbon dioxide storage projects were ongoing at 51 facilities in locations ranging from Algeria, Australia, and Canada, to Europe, the Middle East, and the United States. (state.gov)
  • More and more regulators around the world now require publicly listed companies to include measurements of their greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in their annual reports, including the UK, which introduced 'streamlined energy and carbon reporting' in 2019, and this includes supply chains. (wbs.ac.uk)
  • There are two main types of carbon pricing: emissions trading systems (ETS) and carbon taxes. (worldbank.org)
  • Different types of carbon can be activated in different ways or they can come from different source materials. (slate.com)
  • Different types of carbon black have a wide range of particle sizes, surface areas per unit mass, and contents of toluene-extractable materials. (who.int)
  • So what does it mean to put a price on carbon, and why do many government and business leaders support it? (worldbank.org)
  • They begin to capture what are known as the external costs of carbon emissions - costs that the public pays for in other ways, such as damage to crops and health care costs from heat waves and droughts or to property from flooding and sea level rise - and tie them to their sources through a price on carbon. (worldbank.org)
  • A price on carbon helps shift the burden for the damage back to those who are responsible for it, and who can reduce it. (worldbank.org)
  • I don't think it's going to be a comprehensive bill with a price on carbon. (politico.com)
  • Putting a price on carbon dioxide creates winners and losers. (rand.org)
  • The narrow diame- association with cellular and mitotic tubulin as ter and great length of single-walled carbon nano- well as the chromatin. (cdc.gov)
  • Eliminating these carbon emissions is currently unfeasible because of the large amounts of energy required to use even the best carbon-capture technologies. (nature.com)
  • Exposure to very high amounts of carbon tetrachloride can damage the liver, kidneys, and nervous system. (cdc.gov)
  • Effects of carbon tetrachloride are more severe in persons who drink large amounts of alcohol. (cdc.gov)
  • Cooking the turkey for hours can introduce considerable amounts of carbon monoxide to the home during the cooking process. (activerain.com)
  • The groups, including Friends of the Earth, Corporate Accountability and the Center for International Environmental Law, argue that subtracting carbon captured in this way from the 27-nation bloc's emissions total amounts to " greenwashing . (ap.org)
  • Carbon disulfide does not appear to be taken up in sig nificant amounts by the organisms living in water. (cdc.gov)
  • In nature, small amounts of carbon disulfide are found in The people most often exposed to carbon disulfide are workers in plants that use carbon disulfide in their manu gases released to the earth's surface as, for example, in volca facturing processes. (cdc.gov)
  • The cap helps ensure that the required emission reductions will take place to keep the emitters (in aggregate) within their pre-allocated carbon budget. (worldbank.org)
  • Under the carbon trading, a country having more emissions of carbon is able to purchase the right to emit more and the country having less emission sells the right to release carbon to other countries, stated the report. (menafn.com)
  • The attraction of cap and trade for its supporters is that the cap sets a limit on emissions of carbon dioxide. (rand.org)
  • The Occupational Safety and Health Administration pregnant rats breathed carbon disulfide in the air, some of the (OSHA) has set a limit of 20 parts of carbon disulfide per mil newborn rats died or had birth defects. (cdc.gov)
  • Reports released by the World Rainforest Movement and the Forest Peoples Programme show that local and indigenous communities in Ecuador and India are paying a high price for carbon 'offset' projects they signed up to on the promise of jobs and development. (resurgence.org)
  • Theo Leijser, Service Lead - Economy and Regeneration at South Ayrshire Council said, "South Ayrshire Council is delighted to support UWS with its ground-breaking Carbon Champions programme. (uws.ac.uk)
  • To harness this potential of the agricultural sector to positively contribute to the sustainability agenda, a package of policies is needed to enhance global soil carbon stocks. (oecd.org)
  • Such a package would include regulations to prevent the loss of soil carbon, knowledge transfer policies to promote "win-win" solutions, and additional incentives delivered via market-based policies. (oecd.org)
  • OCO-2 will not be the first satellite to measure carbon dioxide, but it's the first with the observational strategy, precision, resolution and coverage needed to answer these questions about these little-monitored regions, according to Ralph Basilio, OCO-2 project manager at JPL. (scienceblog.com)
  • A concentration of 1 ppbv means that for every billion molecules of gas in the measured volume, one of them is a carbon monoxide molecule. (nasa.gov)
  • To understand why, let's take a quick detour from The Lorax to Harry Potter by thinking of every carbon dioxide molecule as a Golden Snitch in quidditch. (state.gov)
  • By the time plants and animals take up carbon dioxide, one carbon atom in a trillion is carbon-14. (uh.edu)
  • Elemental carbon levels at a potash mine. (who.int)
  • Carbon black is a powdered form of elemental carbon manufactured by the controlled vapor- phase hydrolysis of hydrocarbons. (who.int)
  • In fact the Carbon Disclosure Project (CDP) - a charity running the global disclosure system on carbon emissions for investors and other interested parties - found just 36 per cent of companies responding to its annual survey are engaging with their suppliers. (wbs.ac.uk)
  • The carbon combines with oxygen in the air to form carbon dioxide. (amnh.org)
  • Hemoglobin , the oxygen -carrying substance in blood , has a much greater affinity for carbon monoxide than it has for oxygen, and together they form a stable compound , carboxyhemoglobin, that decreases the amount of uncombined hemoglobin available for oxygen transport. (britannica.com)
  • Treatment must be prompt and includes respiratory assistance and the administration of oxygen, often with 5 percent carbon dioxide and sometimes under high pressure. (britannica.com)
  • Macronutrients are usually chemical elements (carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, phosphorus and sulfur) that humans consume in the largest quantities. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • It reacts very readily with oxygen by burning smokelessly, with carbon dioxide and water as its byproducts. (dictionary.com)
  • If the oxygen level is normalized, does carbon dioxide matter? (medscape.com)
  • Concentrations of carbon monoxide are expressed in parts per billion by volume (ppbv). (nasa.gov)
  • Yellow areas have little or no carbon monoxide, while progressively higher concentrations are shown in orange and red. (nasa.gov)
  • For example, carbon monoxide concentrations across Africa and South America go hand in hand with fire counts there. (nasa.gov)
  • A similar pattern exists over the United States, the North Atlantic, and western Europe, which have relatively high (yellow) carbon monoxide concentrations even in December, January, and February, when fire activity throughout the middle and high latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere is very low. (nasa.gov)
  • High concentrations of carbon disulfide have caused skin workweek. (cdc.gov)
  • In December 2010, the Verified Carbon Standard approved the first new methodology for crediting reductions of greenhouse gases achieved through home weatherization. (forbes.com)
  • Those national strategies won't deliver verified carbon emissions reductions for years, while private efforts are already doing so. (ecosystemmarketplace.com)
  • Without greenhouse gases like carbon dioxide, Earth's surface would be frozen! (amnh.org)
  • But we want to disfavor the hydrogen production and favor high-energy density liquid fuels with carbon-carbon bonds, which is exactly what we get in our experiments. (caltech.edu)