The largest class of organic compounds, including STARCH; GLYCOGEN; CELLULOSE; POLYSACCHARIDES; and simple MONOSACCHARIDES. Carbohydrates are composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a ratio of Cn(H2O)n.
Cellular processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of CARBOHYDRATES.
Carbohydrates present in food comprising digestible sugars and starches and indigestible cellulose and other dietary fibers. The former are the major source of energy. The sugars are in beet and cane sugar, fruits, honey, sweet corn, corn syrup, milk and milk products, etc.; the starches are in cereal grains, legumes (FABACEAE), tubers, etc. (From Claudio & Lagua, Nutrition and Diet Therapy Dictionary, 3d ed, p32, p277)
The sequence of carbohydrates within POLYSACCHARIDES; GLYCOPROTEINS; and GLYCOLIPIDS.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a carbohydrate.
Carbohydrates consisting of between two (DISACCHARIDES) and ten MONOSACCHARIDES connected by either an alpha- or beta-glycosidic link. They are found throughout nature in both the free and bound form.
Carbohydrate antigens expressed by malignant tissue. They are useful as tumor markers and are measured in the serum by means of a radioimmunoassay employing monoclonal antibodies.
Proteins that share the common characteristic of binding to carbohydrates. Some ANTIBODIES and carbohydrate-metabolizing proteins (ENZYMES) also bind to carbohydrates, however they are not considered lectins. PLANT LECTINS are carbohydrate-binding proteins that have been primarily identified by their hemagglutinating activity (HEMAGGLUTININS). However, a variety of lectins occur in animal species where they serve diverse array of functions through specific carbohydrate recognition.
Any of a group of polysaccharides of the general formula (C6-H10-O5)n, composed of a long-chain polymer of glucose in the form of amylose and amylopectin. It is the chief storage form of energy reserve (carbohydrates) in plants.
The chemical or biochemical addition of carbohydrate or glycosyl groups to other chemicals, especially peptides or proteins. Glycosyl transferases are used in this biochemical reaction.
Simple sugars, carbohydrates which cannot be decomposed by hydrolysis. They are colorless crystalline substances with a sweet taste and have the same general formula CnH2nOn. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
A hexose or fermentable monosaccharide and isomer of glucose from manna, the ash Fraxinus ornus and related plants. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed & Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
Fats present in food, especially in animal products such as meat, meat products, butter, ghee. They are present in lower amounts in nuts, seeds, and avocados.
A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Proteins obtained from foods. They are the main source of the ESSENTIAL AMINO ACIDS.
A diet that contains limited amounts of CARBOHYDRATES. This is in distinction to a regular DIET.
Total number of calories taken in daily whether ingested or by parenteral routes.
An aldohexose that occurs naturally in the D-form in lactose, cerebrosides, gangliosides, and mucoproteins. Deficiency of galactosyl-1-phosphate uridyltransferase (GALACTOSE-1-PHOSPHATE URIDYL-TRANSFERASE DEFICIENCY DISEASE) causes an error in galactose metabolism called GALACTOSEMIA, resulting in elevations of galactose in the blood.
Glucose in blood.
Protein or glycoprotein substances of plant origin that bind to sugar moieties in cell walls or membranes. Some carbohydrate-metabolizing proteins (ENZYMES) from PLANTS also bind to carbohydrates, however they are not considered lectins. Many plant lectins change the physiology of the membrane of BLOOD CELLS to cause agglutination, mitosis, or other biochemical changes. They may play a role in plant defense mechanisms.
A nonreducing disaccharide composed of GLUCOSE and FRUCTOSE linked via their anomeric carbons. It is obtained commercially from SUGARCANE, sugar beet (BETA VULGARIS), and other plants and used extensively as a food and a sweetener.
Proteins which contain carbohydrate groups attached covalently to the polypeptide chain. The protein moiety is the predominant group with the carbohydrate making up only a small percentage of the total weight.
A monosaccharide in sweet fruits and honey that is soluble in water, alcohol, or ether. It is used as a preservative and an intravenous infusion in parenteral feeding.
Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.
Carbohydrates covalently linked to a nonsugar moiety (lipids or proteins). The major glycoconjugates are glycoproteins, glycopeptides, peptidoglycans, glycolipids, and lipopolysaccharides. (From Biochemical Nomenclature and Related Documents, 2d ed; From Principles of Biochemistry, 2d ed)
Oligosaccharides containing two monosaccharide units linked by a glycosidic bond.
A group of naturally occurring N-and O-acyl derivatives of the deoxyamino sugar neuraminic acid. They are ubiquitously distributed in many tissues.
Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.
Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.
SUGARS containing an amino group. GLYCOSYLATION of other compounds with these amino sugars results in AMINOGLYCOSIDES.
A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).
The remnants of plant cell walls that are resistant to digestion by the alimentary enzymes of man. It comprises various polysaccharides and lignins.
The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.
The N-acetyl derivative of glucosamine.
A strong oxidizing agent.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The N-acetyl derivative of galactosamine.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
The time frame after a meal or FOOD INTAKE.
Oligosaccharides containing three monosaccharide units linked by glycosidic bonds.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
A trisaccharide antigen expressed on glycolipids and many cell-surface glycoproteins. In the blood the antigen is found on the surface of NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and MONOCYTES. In addition, CD15 antigen is a stage-specific embryonic antigen.
An N-acyl derivative of neuraminic acid. N-acetylneuraminic acid occurs in many polysaccharides, glycoproteins, and glycolipids in animals and bacteria. (From Dorland, 28th ed, p1518)
A disaccharide of GLUCOSE and GALACTOSE in human and cow milk. It is used in pharmacy for tablets, in medicine as a nutrient, and in industry.
High molecular weight mucoproteins that protect the surface of EPITHELIAL CELLS by providing a barrier to particulate matter and microorganisms. Membrane-anchored mucins may have additional roles concerned with protein interactions at the cell surface.
A group of dominantly and independently inherited antigens associated with the ABO blood factors. They are glycolipids present in plasma and secretions that may adhere to the erythrocytes. The phenotype Le(b) is the result of the interaction of the Le gene Le(a) with the genes for the ABO blood groups.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
Any compound containing one or more monosaccharide residues bound by a glycosidic linkage to a hydrophobic moiety such as an acylglycerol (see GLYCERIDES), a sphingoid, a ceramide (CERAMIDES) (N-acylsphingoid) or a prenyl phosphate. (From IUPAC's webpage)
A class of animal lectins that bind specifically to beta-galactoside in a calcium-independent manner. Members of this class are distiguished from other lectins by the presence of a conserved carbohydrate recognition domain. The majority of proteins in this class bind to sugar molecules in a sulfhydryl-dependent manner and are often referred to as S-type lectins, however this property is not required for membership in this class.
Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).
Physiological processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of LIPIDS.
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
The consumption of edible substances.
Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.
An amidohydrolase that removes intact asparagine-linked oligosaccharide chains from glycoproteins. It requires the presence of more than two amino-acid residues in the substrate for activity. This enzyme was previously listed as EC
The selection of one food over another.
The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.
A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A dextrodisaccharide from malt and starch. It is used as a sweetening agent and fermentable intermediate in brewing. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of alpha-2,3, alpha-2,6-, and alpha-2,8-glycosidic linkages (at a decreasing rate, respectively) of terminal sialic residues in oligosaccharides, glycoproteins, glycolipids, colominic acid, and synthetic substrate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992)
A non-essential amino acid that is involved in the metabolic control of cell functions in nerve and brain tissue. It is biosynthesized from ASPARTIC ACID and AMMONIA by asparagine synthetase. (From Concise Encyclopedia Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 3rd ed)
The systematic study of the structure and function of the complete set of glycans (the glycome) produced in a single organism and identification of all the genes that encode glycoproteins.
Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Polyhydric alcohols having no more than one hydroxy group attached to each carbon atom. They are formed by the reduction of the carbonyl group of a sugar to a hydroxyl group.(From Dorland, 28th ed)
A chromatographic technique that utilizes the ability of biological molecules to bind to certain ligands specifically and reversibly. It is used in protein biochemistry. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.
A proteolytic enzyme obtained from Streptomyces griseus.
An N-acetylglycosamine containing antiviral antibiotic obtained from Streptomyces lysosuperificus. It is also active against some bacteria and fungi, because it inhibits the glucosylation of proteins. Tunicamycin is used as tool in the study of microbial biosynthetic mechanisms.
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Any substances taken in by the body that provide nourishment.
A MANNOSE/GLUCOSE binding lectin isolated from the jack bean (Canavalia ensiformis). It is a potent mitogen used to stimulate cell proliferation in lymphocytes, primarily T-lymphocyte, cultures.
Sucrose present in the diet. It is added to food and drinks as a sweetener.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Glycosides formed by the reaction of the hydroxyl group on the anomeric carbon atom of mannose with an alcohol to form an acetal. They include both alpha- and beta-mannosides.
A subclass of lectins that are specific for CARBOHYDRATES that contain MANNOSE.
Abstaining from all food.
The outermost layer of a cell in most PLANTS; BACTERIA; FUNGI; and ALGAE. The cell wall is usually a rigid structure that lies external to the CELL MEMBRANE, and provides a protective barrier against physical or chemical agents.
A methylpentose whose L- isomer is found naturally in many plant glycosides and some gram-negative bacterial lipopolysaccharides.
The process of breakdown of food for metabolism and use by the body.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
A diet prescribed in the treatment of diabetes mellitus, usually limited in the amount of sugar or readily available carbohydrate. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Polysaccharides found in bacteria and in capsules thereof.
Polysaccharides consisting of mannose units.
Enzymes catalyzing the transfer of fucose from a nucleoside diphosphate fucose to an acceptor molecule which is frequently another carbohydrate, a glycoprotein, or a glycolipid molecule. Elevated activity of some fucosyltransferases in human serum may serve as an indicator of malignancy. The class includes EC; EC; EC; EC
A group of related enzymes responsible for the endohydrolysis of the di-N-acetylchitobiosyl unit in high-mannose-content glycopeptides and GLYCOPROTEINS.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Polysaccharides composed of repeating glucose units. They can consist of branched or unbranched chains in any linkages.
A normal intermediate in the fermentation (oxidation, metabolism) of sugar. The concentrated form is used internally to prevent gastrointestinal fermentation. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
Uptake of substances through the lining of the INTESTINES.
Salts or esters of LACTIC ACID containing the general formula CH3CHOHCOOR.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
Sets of cell surface antigens located on BLOOD CELLS. They are usually membrane GLYCOPROTEINS or GLYCOLIPIDS that are antigenically distinguished by their carbohydrate moieties.
FATTY ACIDS found in the plasma that are complexed with SERUM ALBUMIN for transport. These fatty acids are not in glycerol ester form.
Studies comparing two or more treatments or interventions in which the subjects or patients, upon completion of the course of one treatment, are switched to another. In the case of two treatments, A and B, half the subjects are randomly allocated to receive these in the order A, B and half to receive them in the order B, A. A criticism of this design is that effects of the first treatment may carry over into the period when the second is given. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
Any compound that contains a constituent sugar, in which the hydroxyl group attached to the first carbon is substituted by an alcoholic, phenolic, or other group. They are named specifically for the sugar contained, such as glucoside (glucose), pentoside (pentose), fructoside (fructose), etc. Upon hydrolysis, a sugar and nonsugar component (aglycone) are formed. (From Dorland, 28th ed; From Miall's Dictionary of Chemistry, 5th ed)
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Calculation of the energy expenditure in the form of heat production of the whole body or individual organs based on respiratory gas exchange.
A polysaccharide with glucose units linked as in CELLOBIOSE. It is the chief constituent of plant fibers, cotton being the purest natural form of the substance. As a raw material, it forms the basis for many derivatives used in chromatography, ion exchange materials, explosives manufacturing, and pharmaceutical preparations.
The aggregation of ERYTHROCYTES by AGGLUTININS, including antibodies, lectins, and viral proteins (HEMAGGLUTINATION, VIRAL).
Liquids that are suitable for drinking. (From Merriam Webster Collegiate Dictionary, 10th ed)
Sialylated Lewis blood group carbohydrate antigen found in many adenocarcinomas of the digestive tract, especially pancreatic tumors.
A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).
Physical activity which is usually regular and done with the intention of improving or maintaining PHYSICAL FITNESS or HEALTH. Contrast with PHYSICAL EXERTION which is concerned largely with the physiologic and metabolic response to energy expenditure.
A metabolic process that converts GLUCOSE into two molecules of PYRUVIC ACID through a series of enzymatic reactions. Energy generated by this process is conserved in two molecules of ATP. Glycolysis is the universal catabolic pathway for glucose, free glucose, or glucose derived from complex CARBOHYDRATES, such as GLYCOGEN and STARCH.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.
A diet that contains limited amounts of fat with less than 30% of calories from all fats and less than 10% from saturated fat. Such a diet is used in control of HYPERLIPIDEMIAS. (From Bondy et al, Metabolic Control and Disease, 8th ed, pp468-70; Dorland, 27th ed)
Separation technique in which the stationary phase consists of ion exchange resins. The resins contain loosely held small ions that easily exchange places with other small ions of like charge present in solutions washed over the resins.
A glycoside hydrolase found primarily in PLANTS and YEASTS. It has specificity for beta-D-fructofuranosides such as SUCROSE.
A synthetic disaccharide used in the treatment of constipation and hepatic encephalopathy. It has also been used in the diagnosis of gastrointestinal disorders. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p887)
A basic science concerned with the composition, structure, and properties of matter; and the reactions that occur between substances and the associated energy exchange.
Full gratification of a need or desire followed by a state of relative insensitivity to that particular need or desire.
The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)
Oligosaccharide antigenic determinants found principally on NK cells and T-cells. Their role in the immune response is poorly understood.
Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of galactose from a nucleoside diphosphate galactose to an acceptor molecule which is frequently another carbohydrate. EC 2.4.1.-.
Biosynthesis of GLUCOSE from nonhexose or non-carbohydrate precursors, such as LACTATE; PYRUVATE; ALANINE; and GLYCEROL.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
The composition, conformation, and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.
A heterogeneous mixture of glycoproteins responsible for the gel structure of egg white. It has trypsin-inhibiting activity.
Glycogen stored in the liver. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)
Foodstuff used especially for domestic and laboratory animals, or livestock.
Lipids containing at least one monosaccharide residue and either a sphingoid or a ceramide (CERAMIDES). They are subdivided into NEUTRAL GLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS comprising monoglycosyl- and oligoglycosylsphingoids and monoglycosyl- and oligoglycosylceramides; and ACIDIC GLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS which comprises sialosylglycosylsphingolipids (GANGLIOSIDES); SULFOGLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS (formerly known as sulfatides), glycuronoglycosphingolipids, and phospho- and phosphonoglycosphingolipids. (From IUPAC's webpage)
Stable carbon atoms that have the same atomic number as the element carbon, but differ in atomic weight. C-13 is a stable carbon isotope.
An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
The time span between the beginning of physical activity by an individual and the termination because of exhaustion.
A class of animal lectins that bind to carbohydrate in a calcium-dependent manner. They share a common carbohydrate-binding domain that is structurally distinct from other classes of lectins.
Natural recurring desire for food. Alterations may be induced by APPETITE DEPRESSANTS or APPETITE STIMULANTS.
An indication of the contribution of a food to the nutrient content of the diet. This value depends on the quantity of a food which is digested and absorbed and the amounts of the essential nutrients (protein, fat, carbohydrate, minerals, vitamins) which it contains. This value can be affected by soil and growing conditions, handling and storage, and processing.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
Chromatography on thin layers of adsorbents rather than in columns. The adsorbent can be alumina, silica gel, silicates, charcoals, or cellulose. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
A genus of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria whose organisms occur in pairs or chains. No endospores are produced. Many species exist as commensals or parasites on man or animals with some being highly pathogenic. A few species are saprophytes and occur in the natural environment.
The measurement of the quantity of heat involved in various processes, such as chemical reactions, changes of state, and formations of solutions, or in the determination of the heat capacities of substances. The fundamental unit of measurement is the joule or the calorie (4.184 joules). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A subclass of ACIDIC GLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS. They contain one or more sialic acid (N-ACETYLNEURAMINIC ACID) residues. Using the Svennerholm system of abbrevations, gangliosides are designated G for ganglioside, plus subscript M, D, or T for mono-, di-, or trisialo, respectively, the subscript letter being followed by a subscript arabic numeral to indicated sequence of migration in thin-layer chromatograms. (From Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1997)
Baked food product made of flour or meal that is moistened, kneaded, and sometimes fermented. A major food since prehistoric times, it has been made in various forms using a variety of ingredients and methods.
Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Measurement and evaluation of the components of substances to be taken as FOOD.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of glycosyl groups to an acceptor. Most often another carbohydrate molecule acts as an acceptor, but inorganic phosphate can also act as an acceptor, such as in the case of PHOSPHORYLASES. Some of the enzymes in this group also catalyze hydrolysis, which can be regarded as transfer of a glycosyl group from the donor to water. Subclasses include the HEXOSYLTRANSFERASES; PENTOSYLTRANSFERASES; SIALYLTRANSFERASES; and those transferring other glycosyl groups. EC 2.4.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Short-chain fatty acids of up to six carbon atoms in length. They are the major end products of microbial fermentation in the ruminant digestive tract and have also been implicated in the causation of neurological diseases in humans.
The processes and properties of living organisms by which they take in and balance the use of nutritive materials for energy, heat production, or building material for the growth, maintenance, or repair of tissues and the nutritive properties of FOOD.
The glyceryl esters of a fatty acid, or of a mixture of fatty acids. They are generally odorless, colorless, and tasteless if pure, but they may be flavored according to origin. Fats are insoluble in water, soluble in most organic solvents. They occur in animal and vegetable tissue and are generally obtained by boiling or by extraction under pressure. They are important in the diet (DIETARY FATS) as a source of energy. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
A trihydroxy sugar alcohol that is an intermediate in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. It is used as a solvent, emollient, pharmaceutical agent, and sweetening agent.
A course of food intake that is high in FATS and low in CARBOHYDRATES. This diet provides sufficient PROTEINS for growth but insufficient amount of carbohydrates for the energy needs of the body. A ketogenic diet generates 80-90% of caloric requirements from fats and the remainder from proteins.
An abundant pulmonary surfactant-associated protein that binds to a variety of lung pathogens and enhances their opsinization and killing by phagocytic cells. Surfactant protein D contains a N-terminal collagen-like domain and a C-terminal lectin domain that are characteristic of members of the collectin family of proteins.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
The large family of plants characterized by pods. Some are edible and some cause LATHYRISM or FAVISM and other forms of poisoning. Other species yield useful materials like gums from ACACIA and various LECTINS like PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS from PHASEOLUS. Many of them harbor NITROGEN FIXATION bacteria on their roots. Many but not all species of "beans" belong to this family.
Technique involving the diffusion of antigen or antibody through a semisolid medium, usually agar or agarose gel, with the result being a precipitin reaction.
The use of a bicycle for transportation or recreation. It does not include the use of a bicycle in studying the body's response to physical exertion (BICYCLE ERGOMETRY TEST see EXERCISE TEST).
Parts of plants that usually grow vertically upwards towards the light and support the leaves, buds, and reproductive structures. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
A diet designed to cause an individual to lose weight.
Glycoside hydrolases that catalyze the hydrolysis of alpha or beta linked MANNOSE.
Enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of N-acylhexosamine residues in N-acylhexosamides. Hexosaminidases also act on GLUCOSIDES; GALACTOSIDES; and several OLIGOSACCHARIDES.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
Fractionation of a vaporized sample as a consequence of partition between a mobile gaseous phase and a stationary phase held in a column. Two types are gas-solid chromatography, where the fixed phase is a solid, and gas-liquid, in which the stationary phase is a nonvolatile liquid supported on an inert solid matrix.
Seeds from grasses (POACEAE) which are important in the diet.
Polysaccharides consisting of xylose units.
General term for a group of MALNUTRITION syndromes caused by failure of normal INTESTINAL ABSORPTION of nutrients.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Lectins purified from the germinating seeds of common wheat (Triticum vulgare); these bind to certain carbohydrate moieties on cell surface glycoproteins and are used to identify certain cell populations and inhibit or promote some immunological or physiological activities. There are at least two isoforms of this lectin.
A class of C-type lectins that target the carbohydrate structures found on invading pathogens. Binding of collectins to microorganisms results in their agglutination and enhanced clearance. Collectins form trimers that may assemble into larger oligomers. Each collectin polypeptide chain consists of four regions: a relatively short N-terminal region, a collagen-like region, an alpha-helical coiled-coil region, and carbohydrate-binding region.
The bacterial sugar phosphotransferase system (PTS) that catalyzes the transfer of the phosphoryl group from phosphoenolpyruvate to its sugar substrates (the PTS sugars) concomitant with the translocation of these sugars across the bacterial membrane. The phosphorylation of a given sugar requires four proteins, two general proteins, Enzyme I and HPr and a pair of sugar-specific proteins designated as the Enzyme II complex. The PTS has also been implicated in the induction of synthesis of some catabolic enzyme systems required for the utilization of sugars that are not substrates of the PTS as well as the regulation of the activity of ADENYLYL CYCLASES. EC 2.7.1.-.
Lectin purified from peanuts (ARACHIS HYPOGAEA). It binds to poorly differentiated cells and terminally differentiated cells and is used in cell separation techniques.
Endogenous glycoproteins from which SIALIC ACID has been removed by the action of sialidases. They bind tightly to the ASIALOGLYCOPROTEIN RECEPTOR which is located on hepatocyte plasma membranes. After internalization by adsorptive ENDOCYTOSIS they are delivered to LYSOSOMES for degradation. Therefore receptor-mediated clearance of asialoglycoproteins is an important aspect of the turnover of plasma glycoproteins. They are elevated in serum of patients with HEPATIC CIRRHOSIS or HEPATITIS.
Inorganic salts of sulfuric acid.
A multifunctional galactin initially discovered as a macrophage antigen that binds to IMMUNOGLOBULIN E, and as 29-35-kDa lectin that binds LAMININ. It is involved in a variety of biological events including interactions with galactose-containing glycoconjugates, cell proliferation, CELL DIFFERENTIATION, and APOPTOSIS.
A serine endopeptidase that is formed from TRYPSINOGEN in the pancreas. It is converted into its active form by ENTEROPEPTIDASE in the small intestine. It catalyzes hydrolysis of the carboxyl group of either arginine or lysine. EC
A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
The major human blood type system which depends on the presence or absence of two antigens A and B. Type O occurs when neither A nor B is present and AB when both are present. A and B are genetic factors that determine the presence of enzymes for the synthesis of certain glycoproteins mainly in the red cell membrane.
Food and dietary formulations including elemental (chemically defined formula) diets, synthetic and semisynthetic diets, space diets, weight-reduction formulas, tube-feeding diets, complete liquid diets, and supplemental liquid and solid diets.
A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.
An indolizidine alkaloid from the plant Swainsona canescens that is a potent alpha-mannosidase inhibitor. Swainsonine also exhibits antimetastatic, antiproliferative, and immunomodulatory activity.
Enzymes that catalyze the exohydrolysis of 1,4-alpha-glucosidic linkages with release of alpha-glucose. Deficiency of alpha-1,4-glucosidase may cause GLYCOGEN STORAGE DISEASE TYPE II.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
Plants whose roots, leaves, seeds, bark, or other constituent parts possess therapeutic, tonic, purgative, curative or other pharmacologic attributes, when administered to man or animals.
Polysaccharides composed of repeating galactose units. They can consist of branched or unbranched chains in any linkages.
Lengthy and continuous deprivation of food. (Stedman, 25th ed)
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.

Studies of the binding of different iron donors to human serum transferrin and isolation of iron-binding fragments from the N- and C-terminal regions of the protein. (1/4726)

1. Trypsin digestion of human serum transferrin partially saturated with iron(III)-nitrilotriacetate at pH 5.5 or pH 8.5 produces a carbohydrate-containing iron-binding fragment of mol.wt. 43000. 2. When iron(III) citrate, FeCl3, iron (III) ascorabate and (NH4)2SO4,FeSO4 are used as iron donors to saturate the protein partially, at pH8.5, proteolytic digestion yields a fragment of mol.wt. 36000 that lacks carbohydrate. 3. The two fragments differ in their antigenic structures, amino acid compositions and peptide 'maps'. 4. The fragment with mol.wt. 36000 was assigned to the N-terminal region of the protein and the other to the C-terminal region. 5. The distribution of iron in human serum transferrin partially saturated with various iron donors was examined by electrophoresis in urea/polyacrylamide gels and the two possible monoferric forms were unequivocally identified. 6. The site designated A on human serum transferrin [Harris (1977) Biochemistry 16, 560--564] was assigned to the C-terminal region of the protein and the B site to the N-terminal region. 7. The distribution of iron on transferrin in human plasma was determined.  (+info)

The structure of a glycopeptide (GP-II) isolated from Rhizopus saccharogenic amylase. (2/4726)

Mild alkaline treatment of glycopeptide (GP-II) resulted in the loss of 1 mole of serine and 5 moles of threonine per mole of GP-II, suggesting the presence of O-glycosyl bonds between 1 serine and 5 threonine residues and carbohydrate chains. Treatment of GP-II with alkaline borohydride released only disaccharide. Methylation studies of the carbohydrate moiety gave 2,3,4,6-tetra-O-methyl and 2,4,6-tri-O-methyl derivatives of mannose in a ratio of approximately 1:1. In addition, one step of Smith degradation resulted in the loss of about 6 residues of mannose per mole of GP-II. Moreover, alpha-mannosidase [EC] liberated about 6 residles of mannose per mole of GP-II. On the basis of these data, the structure of the carbohydrate moiety of GP-II was confirmed to be 3-O-alpha-mannosylmannose. The amino- and carboxyl-terminal amino acids of GP-II were determined to be threonine and serine, respectively. On reductive cleavage of N-proline bonds with metallic sodium in liquid ammonia, 2 moles of alanine per mole of GP-II were lost. From the compositions of three fragments isolated from the reductive cleavage products, the amino acid sequence of the peptide portion of GP-II was determined. Based on these data, a probable structure was proposed for GP-II.  (+info)

Isolation and characterization of two mouse L cell lines resistant to the toxic lectin ricin. (3/4726)

Two variant mouse L cell lines (termed CL 3 and CL 6) have been selected for resistant to ricin, a galactose-binding lectin with potent cytotoxic activity. The resistant lines exhibit a 50 to 70% decrease in ricin binding and a 300- to 500-fold increase in resistance to the toxic effects of ricin. Crude membrane preparations of CL 3 cells have increased sialic acid content (200% of control), while the galactose, mannose, and hexosamine content is within normal limits. Both the glycoproteins and glycolipids of CL 3 cells have increased sialic acid, with the GM3:lactosylceramide ratios for parent L and CL 3 cells being 0.29 and 1.5, respectively. In contrast, the membranes of CL 6 cells have a decrease in sialic acid, galactose, and hexosamine content with mannose being normal. Both cell lines have specific alterations in glycosyltransferase activities which can account for the observed membrane sugar changes. CL 3 cells have increased CMP-sialic acid:glycoprotein sialyltransferase and GM3 synthetase activities, while CL 6 cells have decrease UDP-GlcNAc:glycoproteinN-acetylglucosaminyltransferase and DPU-galactose:glycoprotein galactosyltransferase activities. The increased sialic acid content of CL 3 cells serves to mask ricin binding sites, since neuraminidase treatment of this cell line restores ricin binding to essentially normal levels. However, the fact that neuraminidase-treated CL 3 cells are still 45-fold resistant to ricin indicates that either a special class of productive ricin binding sites is not being exposed or that the cell line has a second mechanism for ricin resistance.  (+info)

A new sugar chain of the proteinase inhibitor from latex of Carica papaya. (4/4726)

The structure of a sugar chain of the proteinase inhibitor from the latex of Carica papaya was studied. Sugar chains liberated on hydrazinolysis were N-acetylated, and their reducing-end residues were tagged with 2-aminopyridine. One major sugar chain was detected on size-fractionation and reversed-phase HPLC analyses. The structure of the PA-sugar chain was determined by two-dimensional sugar mapping combined with sequential exoglycosidase digestion and partial acid hydrolysis, and by 750 MHz 1H-NMR spectroscopy. The structure found was Manalpha1-6(Manalpha1-3)Manalpha1-6(Manalpha1-3) (Xylbeta1-2)Manbeta1- 4GlcNAcbeta1-4(Fucalpha1-3)GlcNAc. This sugar chain represents a new plant-type sugar chain with five mannose residues.  (+info)

Prophenoloxidase-activating enzyme of the silkworm, Bombyx mori. Purification, characterization, and cDNA cloning. (5/4726)

Prophenoloxidase-activating enzyme (PPAE) was purified to homogeneity as judged by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis from larval cuticles of the silkworm, Bombyx mori. The purified PPAE preparation was shown to be a mixture of the isozymes of PPAE (PPAE-I and PPAE-II), which were eluted at different retention times in reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography. PPAE-I and PPAE-II seemed to be post translationally modified isozymes and/or allelic variants. Both PPAE isozymes were proteins composed of two polypeptides (heavy and light chains) that are linked by disulfide linkage(s) and glycosylated serine proteases. The results of cDNA cloning, peptide mapping, and amino acid sequencing of PPAE revealed that PPAE is synthesized as prepro-PPAE with 441 amino acid residues and is activated from pro-PPAE by cleavage of a peptide bond between Lys152 and Ile153. The homology search showed 36.9% identity of PPAE to easter, which is a serine protease involved in dorso-ventral pattern formation in the Drosophila embryo, and indicated the presence of two consecutive clip-like domains in the light chain. A single copy of the PPAE gene was suggested to be present in the silkworm genome. In the fifth instar larvae, PPAE transcripts were detected in the integument, hemocytes, and salivary glands but not in the fat body or mid gut. A polypeptide cross-reactive to mono-specific anti-PPAE/IgG was transiently detected in the extract of eggs between 1 and 3 h after they were laid.  (+info)

Paracellular glucose transport plays a minor role in the unanesthetized dog. (6/4726)

Traditionally, intestinal glucose absorption was thought to occur through active, carrier-mediated transport. However, proponents of paracellular transport have argued that previous experiments neglected effects of solvent drag coming from high local concentrations of glucose at the brush-border membrane. The purpose of this study was to evaluate glucose absorption in the awake dog under conditions that would maximize any contribution of paracellular transport. Jejunal Thiry-Vella loops were constructed in six female mongrel dogs. After surgical recovery, isotonic buffers containing L-glucose as the probe for paracellular permeability were given over 2-h periods by constant infusion pump. At physiological concentrations of D-glucose (1-50 mM), the fractional absorption of L-glucose was only 4-7% of total glucose absorption. Infusion of supraphysiological concentrations (150 mM) of D-glucose, D-maltose, or D-mannitol yielded low-fractional absorptions of L-glucose (2-5%), so too did complex or nonabsorbable carbohydrates. In all experiments, there was significant fractional water absorption (5-19%), a prerequisite for solvent drag. Therefore, with even up to high concentrations of luminal carbohydrates in the presence of significant water absorption, the relative contribution of paracellular glucose absorption remained low.  (+info)

Sugar- and nitrogen-dependent regulation of an Amanita muscaria phenylalanine ammonium lyase gene. (7/4726)

The cDNA of a key enzyme of secondary metabolism, phenylalanine ammonium lyase, was identified for an ectomycorrhizal fungus by differential screening of a mycorrhizal library. The gene was highly expressed in hyphae grown at low external monosaccharide concentrations, but its expression was 30-fold reduced at elevated concentrations. Gene repression was regulated by hexokinase.  (+info)

Lack of effect of carbohydrate depletion on some properties of human mast cell chymase. (8/4726)

Human chymase from vascular tissues was purified to homogeneity by heparin affinity and gel filtration chromatography. Treatment of human chymase with endoglycosidase F resulted in cleavage of the carbohydrate moiety yielding a deglycosylation product that did not lose its catalytic activity. This enzymatic deglycosylation product was enough to explore possibilities that N-glycan might modify some properties of human chymase. Substrate specificity, optimum pH and the elution profile from the heparin affinity gel were not affected by the deglycosylation. Only a slight but significant difference was observed in the Km value for conversion of angiotensin I to angiotensin II. Other kinetic constants such as kcat were not influenced. The kinetics of conversion of big endothelin-1 to endothelin-1(1-31) were not significantly affected. The deglycosylated human chymase was more susceptible to deactivation under alkaline pH and thermal stress. Even at physiological temperature and pH, the activity of glycosylated human chymase was more stable. From these results, it appears that the N-glycan of human chymase contributes to the stability of this enzyme but not to its functional properties.  (+info)

Summary:BOC Sciences featured its carbohydrate synthesis services.. In constant optimization on products and services, BOC Sciences added a great number of products and re-grouped them for better searching and information checking experiences. The newly introduced carbohydrate synthesis service has been featured listed by the company as one of its prominent chemistry services.. Carbohydrate synthesis service as required more frequently by the companys clients was launched September. With well-trained and experienced scientist team, the services were conducted extremely successful. For its solid background in synthesis chemistry, BOC Sciences decided to make the services in this kind as a new branch of featured services and will investment more to keep pace with the latest progress in the field.. With the new synthesis advance that can directly change the carbohydrate bond in the process to achieve pharmaceutical variety, carbohydrate synthesis has been considered as a significant method to ...
Carbohydrate synthesis is a sub-field of organic chemistry concerned specifically with the generation of natural and unnatural carbohydrate structures. This can include the synthesis of monosaccharide residues or structures containing more than one monosaccharide, known as oligosaccharides. Generally speaking, carbohydrates can be classified into two groups, simple sugars and complex carbohydrates. Simple sugars, also called monosaccharides, are carbohydrates which can not be converted into smaller sugars by hydrolysis. When two or more monosaccharide units are connected to one another via a glycoside linkage, complex carbohydrates are formed. Complex carbohydrates, according to the different number of monosaccharide units, can be classed into three groups, disaccharides, oligosaccharides, and polysaccharides. A disaccharide is formed from two monosaccharides. Oligosaccharides can be formed by a small number of monosaccharides linked together. Higher oligosaccharides are called polysaccharides. ...
We specialize in Carbohydrates Synthesis manufacturing Phenyl 4,6-O-benzylidene-2-deoxy-1-thio-β-D-glucopyranosid-1,3-oxazolidin-2-one with the highest technology and stable quality control , our factory has sophisticated technology production route to produce ...
TY - CHAP. T1 - Role of Cell Surface Carbohydrates in Development and Disease. AU - Fukuda, Michiko N.. AU - Akama, Tomoya O.. AU - Sugihara, Kazuhiro. PY - 2008. Y1 - 2008. N2 - This chapter discusses the roles of cell surface carbohydrates in development, while focusing on embryo implantation, spermatogenesis, and tissue maturation. The outer surface of mammalian cells is covered by glycoproteins and glycolipids. Substantial biochemical and immunochemical evidence suggests that cell surface carbohydrates play significant roles in development and health. Functional studies of cell surface carbohydrates still leave many questions unanswered. In the last decade, genetic approaches and sophisticated chemical analyses have enabled us to reveal the function of specific carbohydrate structures in vivo, and as a result the role of carbohydrates in development and disease is understood. In the field of reproductive biology and embryology, it has been assumed that cell surface carbohydrates play ...
TY - CONF. T1 - Sucrose Phosphorylase in Carbohydrate Synthesis - Mechanistic and Synthetic Considerations. AU - Gödl, Christiane. AU - Sawangwan, Thornthan. AU - Wildberger, Patricia. AU - Nidetzky, Bernd. PY - 2010. Y1 - 2010. M3 - Poster. ER - ...
Complex Carbohydrates, or starches, are composed of many simple sugars joined together by chemical bonds. These bonds can be linked in a serial chain, one after the other, as well as side to side, creating branches. Basically, the more chains and branches, the more complex the carbohydrate. The more complex a carbohydrate is, the more slowly it is broken down. Some carbohydrates are complex in a way that the body cannot digest them. These carbohydrates are a major component of fiber and generally pass through the digestive tract unabsorbed. In general, as long as complex carbohydrates are present in high fiber foods, the body breaks down complex carbohydrates into simple sugars more gradually, which leads to better blood sugar control. More and more research on heart disease, various forms of cancer, and diabetes indicates that complex carbohydrates including high fiber foods should form a major part of the diet. For example, the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension, or DASH, diet focuses on ...
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection of T-cells begins when the viral envelope glycoprotein, gp120, binds to CD4 receptors on the target cell surface. Over the past several years, proteins isolated from various prokaryotes have been shown to inhibit HIV cell entry by binding to gp120 and thus blocking the association with CD4. Lectins that bind to high-mannose oligosaccharides on gp120 are an attractive class of antiviral agents. While several of these have been quite well characterized both structurally and biochemically, there remain many open questions regarding their mechanism of inhibition. Among the best studied is cyanovirin-N (CVN), which is currently under clinical study for use as a topical prophylactic. Large-scale molecular dynamics simulations have identified important structural features of this system that are difficult to resolve experimentally, and binding free energies of a diverse set of oligosaccharide targets computed from these structural ensembles give remarkable ...
Results showed that total bacterial numbers remained fairly constant throughout the diurnal period regardless of the diet fed. However, the number of viable bacteria decreased rapidly after feeding reaching its lowest level at 2 or 4 h post-feeding. Thereafter the viable population increased gradually, reaching its highest number at 16 h post-feeding. Changes in the major carbohydrate metabolizing groups within the bacterial population were, in general, not related to the theoretical pattern of ruminal fermentation for the primary carbohydrate components (soluble sugars, starch, pectin, hemicellulose and cellulose) in the diets fed. The most striking observation was that the soluble carbohydrate utilizing bacteria predominated at all times in both diets. Xylan and pectin degrading bacteria comprised about one half and one third of the population, respectively (slightly less on the high concentrate diet). These groups reached maximum representation between 8 and 12 h post-feeding. The ...
Translator: MiMou Madritista Verified: Muhammad Samir Which of these has the least amount of carbohydrates This piece of bread? Or a bowl of rice? Or a can of soda? Its a trick question Although it may differ in terms of fats, vitamins, and nutrients But in terms of carbohydrates, they are very similar So what does this mean for your diet? First, carbohydrates are the food category of sugars And the molecules that your body breaks down to make sugars Carbohydrates are simple or complex, depending on their structure This simple sugar or monosaccharide Glucose, fructose, and galactose are all simple sugars Connect the two together, and you get a disaccharide Lactose, maltose, or sucrose Complex carbohydrates, on the other hand Make three or more simple sugars bond together Complex carbohydrates consist of three to ten sugar bonds Polysaccharides Those that contain more than ten form a polysaccharide During the digestive process Your body breaks down complex carbohydrates Into monosaccharides ...
Carbohydrate is an organic compound that consists only of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen and has double the amount of carbon and oxygen. Carbohydrates contain sugars, starches, cellulose and other compounds found in living organisms. Carbohydrates most basic form is simple sugars or monosaccharide. There are three other chemical groupings: disaccharides, oligosaccharides and polysaccharides. Simple sugars can be combined into other carbohydrates for form more complex carbohydrates. Humans break down carbohydrates during the process of metabolism to release energy. Humans get carbohydrates from eating foods that contain it. Most carbohydrates are produced by plants during photosynthesis. In food, the term carbohydrate means any food that is particularly rich in starch ...
The carbohydrate and lipid composition of varagu millet has been determined. Starch was the major carbohydrate constituent ( - 72%) of the polished millet. Aqueous alcohol extraction of the millet furnished fructose, galactose, glucose, sucrose, raffinose and an unidentified component. Alkali extraction of the starch-free residue gave hemicelluloses A and B. Hemicellulose A contained glucose with small amounts of rhamnose, arabinose, xylose and mannose; whereas hemicellulose B was composed ofglucoseand galactose. The alkali-insoluble residue represented cellulose or fibre component as it was exclusively composed of glucose. Linoleic acid was the major fatty acid constituent of the free lipids, and palmitic acid was the major fatty acid of the bound lipids.. ...
Introduction. The Role of Carbohydrates Carbohydrates are a very large group of molecules that can be synthesised by plants. They are molecules which contain carbon, hydrogen and oxygen atoms. Usually there is a ratio of 2:1 of hydrogen to oxygen atoms in a carbohydrate molecule. Carbohydrates are very common constituents of plants. They make up to around 90% of the dry mass of plants. Carbohydrates are also an essential part of the animal diet and they are usually obtained directly or indirectly from plants. The functions of carbohydrates vary greatly. There are many different carbohydrates with different sizes and structures, all of which perform a different task in plants or animals. Functions range from being an energy store to providing structural support and strength. There are three types of carbohydrates; they are the monosaccharides, disaccharides and polysaccharides. This division is based on the fact that polysaccharides are non-sugars whereas monosaccharides are simple sugars and ...
It is a common belief that eating even low amounts of carbohydrates increases body weight, whether the carbs are from sugar, bread, fruits or vegetables. The reason for this misconception may be that eating carbohydrates raises insulin, which then lowers blood sugar. Low sugar increases appetite so a person ends up eating more. Considering this, some people advocate significant reduction of carbohydrates in their diet. But diets low in carbohydrates are likely to lack essential nutrients from plant foods, so people may not get enough vitamins, minerals and fiber. Athletes often follow a carbohydrate-loading diet, which involves increasing the amount of carbohydrates for several days before a high-intensity endurance athletic event.. Carbohydrates are one of the most important sources of energy for the human body. Foods containing carbohydrates cant be cut off a healthy diet because they provide fiber, sugars, and starches, which supply energy to the body in the form of glucose (blood sugar), ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Hydrophilic-interaction chromatography of complex carbohydrates. AU - Alpert, Andrew J.. AU - Shukla, Mukta. AU - Shukla, Ashok K.. AU - Zieske, Lynn R.. AU - Yuen, Sylvia W.. AU - Ferguson, Michael A. J.. AU - Mehlert, Angela. AU - Pauly, Markus. AU - Orlando, Ron. PY - 1994. Y1 - 1994. N2 - Complex carbohydrates can frequently be separated using hydrophilic-interaction chromatography (HILIC). The mechanism was investigated using small oligosaccharides and a new column, PolyGLYCOPLEX. Some carbohydrates exhibited anomer separation, which made it possible to determine the orientation of the reducing end relative to the stationary phase. Amide sugars were consistently good contact regions. Relative to amide sugars, sialic acids and neutral hexoses were better contact regions at lower levels of organic solvents than at higher levels. HILIC readily resolved carbohydrates differing in residue composition and position of linkage. Complex carbohydrate mixtures could be resolved using ...
Get this from a library! Cell surface carbohydrate chemistry. [Robert E Harmon; American Chemical Society. Division of Carbohydrate Chemistry.;]
Plant foods such as vegetables, tubers, fruits, and functional plant parts store their carbohydrates in living cells that stay largely intact during cooking and are first breached during the digestive process. These fiber-walled living cells only allow for a maximum density of around 23% non-fibrous carbohydrate by mass, which explains why ancestral sources of carbohydrates such as fruits and vegetables have a relatively low-carbohydrate density compared to the most common sources of carbohydrate in the western diet (14).. Flour, sugar and processed plant foods dont have this cellular storage and contain a considerably higher percentage of carbohydrate than anything else we have been eating throughout our evolutionary history. These acellular carbohydrates are essentially already broken down through the production process and provide an evolutionary unprecedented high concentration of carbohydrates in the semifluid mass of partly digested food that pass from the stomach into the small ...
The amount of carbohydrate present in food that is actually utilized for energy. Dietary fiber is subtracted in the very beginning, if the food item contains ingredients such as sugar alcohol hydrogenated starch hydrolysate these are subtracted from the total carbohydrate count as well. Terms with similar meaning include usable carbs, utilizable carbohydrates, net carbs, net impact carbs, and net Atkins count.
Carbohydrates are made by plants and stored in their leaves, stems, roots, and fruits. Plant foods contain both simple and complex carbohydrates in various amounts. Fruits are often more than 90 percent carbohydrate, but most of their carbohydrates are the sweet-tasting simple forms of carbohydrate, such as glucose and fructose. Green and yellow vegetables store most of their calories as complex carbohydrates, but since they contain very few total calories the amount of complex carbohydrate they provide in the diet is small. Whole grains (rice, corn) and the whole grain flours (wheat, rye) and whole grain pastas (wheat, soba) made from them, tubers (potatoes, yams), legumes (beans, peas), and winter squashes (acorn, hubbard) contain large quantities of complex carbohydrates and thus are known as starches. Rice, corn, and other grains, and potatoes typically store about 80 percent of their calories in the form of complex carbohydrates. Beans, peas, and lentils are approximately 70 percent complex ...
Carbohydrates are made by plants and stored in their leaves, stems, roots, and fruits. Plant foods contain both simple and complex carbohydrates in various amounts. Fruits are often more than 90 percent carbohydrate, but most of their carbohydrates are the sweet-tasting simple forms of carbohydrate, such as glucose and fructose. Green and yellow vegetables store most of their calories as complex carbohydrates, but since they contain very few total calories the amount of complex carbohydrate they provide in the diet is small. Whole grains (rice, corn) and the whole grain flours (wheat, rye) and whole grain pastas (wheat, soba) made from them, tubers (potatoes, yams), legumes (beans, peas), and winter squashes (acorn, hubbard) contain large quantities of complex carbohydrates and thus are known as starches. Rice, corn, and other grains, and potatoes typically store about 80 percent of their calories in the form of complex carbohydrates. Beans, peas, and lentils are approximately 70 percent complex ...
There are plenty of myths circulating about carbohydrates, most saying that they should be avoided for anyone trying to lose or maintain a healthy weight. However, this is not the case. Carbohydrates should account for anywhere between 45 and 65% of macronutrients consumed in the diet. This means that carbohydrates are not to be avoided! Authors Ellie Whitney and Sharon Rolfes state that epidemiological studies find an inverse relationship between carbohydrate intake and body weight. Those with the highest carbohydrate intake have the lowest body weight and vice versa. Now, keep in mind that they are referring to the wholesome kind of carbs, whole-grain and unrefined. On the flip side, too much sugar (i.e. monosaccharides) added into the food is associated with the presence of more body fat. Sugar in this case is referring to refined carbs. Also, foods high in refined sugars are lacking in protein, vitamins, minerals, and fiber which whole-grain carbohydrates have. Thankfully, we can easily ...
Carbohydrates are organic compounds that encompass the food group known as that which most of us love to eat the most. Carbohydrates are sugars. There are two main classes of carbohydrates: simple sugars, and polysaccharides. Simple sugars examples include glucose, galactose (the sugar found in dairy), and fructose (the sugar found in fruits. Polysaccharides are […]. ...
Carbohydrate Addiction.. There is no science behind the recommendation for the population to consume 55% of their diet as carbohydrates. This unscientific number was the result of the recommended intake of fat as a percentage of the food being reduced. So carbohydrates were utilised to fill the gap. That is all there is to it.. It is probably no accident that we like carbohydrates. It might be an evolutionary adaption. People have talked before about the addictive properties of carbohydrates. There are glucose sensors in the hepatic portal veins that are linked to the addiction centres in the brain with functional MRI.. In the early years of human evolution, carbohydrates were probably necessary for survival. In the summer and autumn months, fruits and other sources of sugar become available. These things are scarce at different times of the year in northern climates, such as in the UK.. So, eating to excess and then converting the carbohydrates into fat would be crucial to help the human-animal ...
There seem to be as many opinions about whats good and whats bad as there are items in the supermarket. And all those opinions come from experts, which makes it even harder for the average person to figure out which end is up. And for all the health articles and diet explanations available, every dieter seems to get tripped up on the same subject:. Carbohydrates. Provides essential energy to the body. Aids in weight loss. Can contribute to diabetes. Cause weight gain. Its impossible to classify all carbs as bad carbohydrates or good carbohydrates. When learning how to diet and live a healthy lifestyle, its important to understand exactly what carbohydrates are, what they do, and how to ensure youre getting the best they have to offer.. Carbohydrates provide the bodys main source of energy. Carbs are broken down during digestion into sugar molecules which are absorbed into the bloodstream and provide your body with a steady supply of blood sugar. Many natural sources of carbohydrates ...
Our group is interested in chemical glycobiology.. Total synthesis is combined with an enzymatic approach to prepare complex carbohydrates, glycopeptides and semi-synthetic glycoproteins. By using synthetic molecules structural details in protein-carbohydrate interactions are explored, which are relevant in infections, inflammation, cancer and aging. In addition to understand disease mechanisms, an ultimate aim in our projects is to develop glycomimetic inhibitors to block specific protein-carbohydrate interactions for instance to address the current problems with antimicrobial resistance in airway disease infections. We further apply synthetic glycopeptides and semi-synthetic glycoproteins to develop glycoproteomic tools for improved enrichment and characterization of glycan structural isomers of glycoproteins and for studies of new PTMs. Small differences in carbohydrate structure has an enormous impact on biological function, for instance in turning on or off an inflammatory pathway and makes ...
The sugar is listed under total carbohydrates. Total carbohydrates is composed of two parts fibers and sugar and some unspecified carbohydrates so that means 24 g = 4g fiber + 12 g sugar + 8 g some unspecified source. So the question says calories from a carbohydrate which is sugar alone hence 12/24 = 50% since only total carbohydrates generate the 160 calories and so we get 50% * 160 = 80 calories from sugar ...
Good and bad carbohydrates differ in the sense that good carbohydrates are whole foods that can be picked from a tree or dug up from the ground, but bad carbohydrates have been processed, such as breads, cereals and pastas. Eat more healthy carbohydrates, eliminating processed carbohydrates from the diet, with health information from a registered dietitian and licensed nutritionist in this free video on healthy eating.
The most important function of carbohydrates is to provide adequate energy to the animal. Dogs are able to convert certain carbohydrate sources into simple sugars that are easily absorbed. More complex carbohydrates must be broken down further by the body before they are able to be absorbed.. Carbohydrates are broken down in the small intestine into glucose molecules. Glucose is the common energy source that can be used by the majority of body cells. Glucose is required by the body to provide quick energy, and is also needed by the brain and nervous system for normal function. Glucose can be stored in the body for release later in the form of glycogen. If the animal eats too much and exercises too little, this stored glycogen will convert into fatty deposits in the body and cause obesity.. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Carbohydrate biomarkers for future disease detection and treatment. AU - Cheng, Yunfeng. AU - Li, Minyong. AU - Wang, Shaoru. AU - Peng, Hanjing. AU - Reid, Suazette. AU - Ni, Nanting. AU - Fang, Hao. AU - Xu, Wenfang. AU - Wang, Binghe. PY - 2010/1/1. Y1 - 2010/1/1. N2 - Carbohydrates are considered as one of the most important classes of biomarkers for cell types, disease states, protein functions, and developmental states. Carbohydrate binders that can specifically recognize a carbohydrate biomarker can be used for developing novel types of site specific delivery methods and imaging agents. In this review, we present selected examples of important carbohydrate biomarkers and how they can be targeted for the development of therapeutic and diagnostic agents. Examples are arranged based on disease categories including (1) infectious diseases, (2) cancer, (3) inflammation and immune responses, (4) signal transduction, (5) stem cell transformation, (6) embryo development, and (7) ...
The arguments surrounding carbohydrates make the arguments surrounding protein sound mild! For the majority of nutritionists and nutritional advisors out there, carbohydrates are the bodys primary source of energy during exercise, and so, therefore, should make up the majority of an individuals diet - sounds reasonable enough, right? Although rational, a carbohydrate focussed diet does not seem to be the optimal choice for men seeking to build muscle while at the same time losing fat.. Whilst it is true that carbohydrates are your bodys preferred energy source during short, intense exercise such as strength training, it must be remembered that this style of exercise does not burn off that many calories, maybe 300 - 500 per hour of exercise. For those that are now thinking, Ah but what about the calories burned off during the 24 to 48 hours after your workout? OK, youre right, you do burn off more calories than usual, but studies show this seems to happen regardless of the composition of ...
Section 1: The effect of carbohydrate and fat on the N retention of the fasting rat. 1. Experiments are described on adult rats, which had been stabilised on a protein-containing or a protein-free diet and after a 24 hour fast received either water, glucose or olive oil. 2. Carbohydrate administration significantly reduced the urinary M output in both dietary groups. Fat administration decreased the urinary E output to a less significant degree. 3. The protein M content of the liver was significantly reduced after carbohydrate administration. Fat administration did not significantly reduce the protein 1 content of the liver. 4. It was concluded that the feeding of carbohydrate resulted in N retention in the body in tissues other than the liver. Section 2: The uptake of 35S-methionine by liver and muscle protein after carbohydrate and fat administration. 1. A study was made of the effect of feeding glucose or olive oil on the incorporation of injected 35S-methionine the protein of the skeletal ...
Is fiber a complex carbohydrate? Is fiber a complex carbohydrate? Fiber is basically a general term used for a particular type of carbohydrates that our body is unable to digest. It is due to the r...
Advances in the elaboration of vaccines and enzyme inhibitors rely on acquiring more knowledge about protein-carbohydrate binding events. Furthermore, the relationships between biological function and the three-dimensional properties of large glycans can be studied by focusing on the structural components they contained, namely, by scaling down the system under analysis. Chemical methods are useful assets as they allow the isolation and determination of epitopes; these small and recognizable fragments that lead to very specific interactions. In this thesis, biologically relevant saccharides were obtained using recently developed concepts in carbohydrate synthesis and NMR spectroscopy was used to unravel their conformational preferences.. In paper I, the convergent synthesis of the tetrasaccharide found in the natural product solaradixine is described. Reactivity enhanced disaccharide glycosyl donors were coupled to a disaccharide acceptor in a 2 + 2 fashion. The computer program CASPER was ...
Carbohydrate Information asks the question whether carbohydrates are the enemy or an essential component of our diets that must be consumed properly
Today we are discussing the basic concept on Carbohydrates Classification from Biomolecules chapter. Carbohydrates are the organic molecules that are composed of the elements carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. These sugars are referred to as saccharides. Carbohydrates are defined as polyhydroxy-aldehydes or polyhydroxy ketones or compounds, which produce them on hydrolysis. They supply energy and serve as structural […]. Continue reading ...
Metrohm launches an ion chromatography separation column for carbohydrate analysis and also delivers dedicated application notes dealing with sugar and sugar alcohol separation by ion chromatography.
Advances in the elaboration of vaccines and enzyme inhibitors rely on acquiring more knowledge about protein-carbohydrate binding events. Furthermore, the relationships between biological function and the three-dimensional properties of large glycans can be studied by focusing on the structural components they contained, namely, by scaling down the system under analysis. Chemical methods are useful assets as they allow the isolation and determination of epitopes; these small and recognizable fragments that lead to very specific interactions. In this thesis, biologically relevant saccharides were obtained using recently developed concepts in carbohydrate synthesis and NMR spectroscopy was used to unravel their conformational preferences.. In paper I, the convergent synthesis of the tetrasaccharide found in the natural product solaradixine is described. Reactivity enhanced disaccharide glycosyl donors were coupled to a disaccharide acceptor in a 2 + 2 fashion. The computer program CASPER was ...
All eukaryotic cells are covered in a dense layer of carbohydrates that are key to cell-cell communication, development, neurobiology and immune function. In addition, many human viruses interact with cell-surface carbohydrates as receptors on their host cells in order to initiate infection. Carbohydrate structures are expressed in tissue- and species-specific patterns, and the availability of the receptor carbohydrate influences viral tissue tropism and host range. Viruses also encounter carbohydrates in the extracellular matrix and the environment on their way from one host cell to another. Some of these extracellular glycans sequester viruses from cells and are part of innate immunity, while others can render viruses more infectious. In any case, the specificity and affinity of viral proteins for carbohydrates determines viral spread, transmission and pathogenesis. However, protein-carbohydrate interactions are less well understood than protein-protein or protein-nucleic acid interactions. ...
Carbohydrates are a common class of simple organic compouds. A carbohydrate is an aldehyde or a ketone that has additional hydroxyl groups. The simplest carbohydrates are called monosaccharides, which has the basic structure (C·H2O)n, where n is three or greater. Monosaccharides link together to form oligosaccharides and polysaccharides. Two monosaccharides link together to form a disaccharide ...
She continues by explaining, Total carbs also accounts for the grams of fiber in a product. Fiber is technically a carbohydrate (according to the chemistry), however, fiber is mostly non-nutritive, meaning, we dont digest and absorb the calories from fiber. Although we do not have the enzymes to break down fibers in our upper digestive system, the bacteria in our lower bowel do. This means that fiber technically yields calories, except they are usually good calories that provide nourishment to gut-lining cells and good bacteria and usually not associated with weight gain. Sugar alcohols should really be a category on their own since they can be partially digested but also tend to cause gut upset in many people.. To find the net carbs subtract fiber from total carbs, leaving only nutritive carbohydrates. Meaning, only the carbohydrates that are digested and absorbed into the bloodstream as simple sugars. Net carbs can only be calculated this way if fiber has been added into the total carbs. ...
Carbohydrates is a very common ingredient to most of the food we consume every day and it is also very important for our health. But currently, carbohydrate is being avoided by so many people for the weight loss reason. But they are missing out on one thing that carbohydrate should be avoided in those kinds of foods which are very rich in sugar and originally e comes in the junk food item. Those foods are really fattening but you should not leave carbohydrates completely because somehow we get energy from it in our everyday life. We have given a list of five items which are really very healthy in nature and also contain carbohydrates in them.. 1. Oatmeal ... The Molecular Immunology of Complex Carbohydrates [4191473] - During the past three decades, the sugar moiety of complex carbohydrates has been found to be involved in important interactions of immunological specificity of antigens and to participate in a variety of cellular functions. The long polysaccharide side chains of the lipopolysaccharides on the outer membrane of Gram negative organisms
Eating the right amount of carbohydrates is very important because carbohydrates are the more efficient fuel source for the body.
core.scoring.ScoreFunctionFactory: SCOREFUNCTION: ref2015 core.scoring.ScoreFunctionFactory: The -include_sugars flag was used with no sugar_bb weight set in the weights file. Setting sugar_bb weight to 1.0 by default. protocols.carbohydrates.GlycanSampler: Randomizing glycan torsions protocols.carbohydrates.GlycanTreeModeler: Smallest glycan layer: 0 protocols.carbohydrates.GlycanTreeModeler: Largest glycan layer: 4 protocols.carbohydrates.GlycanTreeModeler: Ntrees to model 1 protocols.carbohydrates.GlycanTreeModeler: Starting Score: 7529.89 protocols.carbohydrates.GlycanTreeModeler: starting round 1 protocols.carbohydrates.GlycanTreeModeler: Going in the forward direction protocols.carbohydrates.GlycanTreeModeler: Modeling up to max end: 4 protocols.carbohydrates.GlycanTreeModeler: Virtualizing new foliage layer protocols.carbohydrates.GlycanTreeModeler: Running the GlycanSampler on layer [ start -, end (including) ]: 0 1 protocols.carbohydrates.GlycanTreeModeler: Applying normal protocol ...
There are a large number of enzymes that are capable of modifying carbohydrates or carbohydrate derivatives, and that may be used in various analytical methods. The hydrolytic enzymes, which break glycosidic linkages, are useful in the study of disaccharide or polysaccharide structure and in methods for quantitation (Table 9.2). Such enzymes will hydrolyse the glycosidic linkages between the monosaccharide residues and release the individual components for further analysis. The enzyme is chosen bearing in mind the nature of the glycosidic linkage involved, which may not be unique to one particular disaccharide or polysaccharide. Thus a-glucosidase will hydrolyse both the a(l-»4) linkage of maltose and the a( 1-»2) linkage of sucrose, resulting in the release of glucose in both cases.. ...
Th carbohydrates are displayed on human cells or present in body fluids. The most interesting ones are summarized in Table S1 in the supplemental material. Several glycan determinants are linked to mucins (Fig. 3 and 4). Mucins are the main constituents of the extracellular secreted mucus and...
Carbohydrates are of primary importance to bodybuilders and other athletes seeking to maximize lean muscle mass. Find out what you should know!
Substantial evidence suggests that cell surface carbohydrate antigens, particularly those containing fucose residues, are related to cancer malignancy. To investigate the mechanisms underlying cell...
When you look at your garden, consider that your herbs, trees, flowers and other plants all share common properties. They always try to maintain equilibrium-the point of perfect balance. Water and nutrients are absorbed into the root system and pulled up through the stems into the leaves. The plants then use Photosynthesis with the raw ingredients of water and energy from the sun to convert carbon dioxide into carbohydrates that plants use for growth and other plant functions.. Carbohydrates are stored in the branches and stems of herbs and other plants. These stored carbohydrates are used as reserve energy for the plant. When a crisis occurs, such as a broken stem or pathogenic attack, a plant can use these stored carbohydrates. Stored carbohydrates are also used in the spring to create new stems and foliage.. Soil organisms, from earthworms to fungi, provide needed nutrients to plant roots. A healthy root system allows herbs and other plants to create chemicals that repel pathogens and ...
This page provides complete information on Carbohydrates,functions of Carbohydrates,Types of Carbohydrates, Structure of Carbohydrates.
Title: Structural and Molecular Basis of Carbohydrate-Protein Interaction Systems as Potential Therapeutic Targets. VOLUME: 17 ISSUE: 17. Author(s):Yukiko Kamiya, Maho Yagi-Utsumi, Hirokazu Yagi and Koichi Kato. Affiliation:Okazaki Institute for Integrative Bioscience and Institute for Molecular Science, National Institutes of Natural Sciences, 5-1 Higashiyama, Myodaiji, Okazaki, Aichi 444-8787, Japan.. Keywords:carbohydrate, -, protein interaction, lectin, gangliosid, hemagglutinin, amyloid β, X-ray crystallography, NMR spectroscopy, frontal affinity chromatography, ganglioside, neurodegenerative, concanavalin, glycoconjugates, thermostability, glycosylation, leucocytes, molecular chaperones, Dysfunction, topology, jacalin, Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor, Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations, Human Breast Adenocarcinoma, 3-(4, 5-Dimethyl-2-Thiazyl)-2, 5-Diphenyl-2H-Tetrazolium Bromide, Dimethyl Sulfoxide, Mueller-Hinton, Phosphate Buffered Saline, Enzymelinked Immunosorbentassy, Tlomere Rpeat ...
1. The sugars and amino sugars of hydrolysates of gastric secretion were determined by gas-liquid chromatography. 2. All the gastric aspirations examined showed on hydrolysis the presence of fucose, galactose, mannose, glucose, galactosamine, glucosamine, N-acetylneuraminic acid and sulphate. 3. Galactose and glucosamine were always found in equimolar amounts, but the galactose/galactosamine ratio in different aspirations was 2:1, 3:1, 4:1 or 5:1. Repeated gastric aspirations of each subject examined showed constant ratios of these carbohydrate components. 4. Fucose and sialic acid appear to be related to glucosamine and galactosamine respectively. 5. The carbohydrate components of extracts from the mucous glands of the body mucosa and antrum did not differ from those of gastric secretion.. ...
Carbohydrate consumed in food yields 3.87 calories of energy per gram for simple sugars,[16] and 3.57 to 4.12 calories per gram for complex carbohydrate in most other foods.[17] High levels of carbohydrate are often associated with highly processed foods or refined foods made from plants, including sweets, cookies and candy, table sugar, honey, soft drinks, breads and crackers, jams and fruit products, pastas and breakfast cereals. Lower amounts of carbohydrate are usually associated with unrefined foods, including beans, tubers, rice, and unrefined fruit.[18] Foods from animal carcass have the lowest carbohydrate, but milk does contain lactose. Carbohydrates are a common source of energy in living organisms; however, no carbohydrate is an essential nutrient in humans.[19] Humans are able to obtain most of their energy requirement from protein and fats, though the potential for some negative health effects of extreme carbohydrate restriction remains, as the issue has not been studied extensively ...
Introduction. The Role of Carbohydrates in Living Organisms Carbohydrates are composed of the elements carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. The general formula is Cx(H2O)y. There are many different types of carbohydrates present in living organisms, each playing an important role in maintaining life of organisms. Monosaccharides are a group of carbohydrates, which include simple sugars such as glucose, fructose and galactose. Monosaccharides are classified according to the number of carbon atoms they possess. Trioses such as glyceraldehyde, and dihydroxyacetone contain three carbon atoms. The phosphorylated form of glyceraldehyde is the first formed sugar in photosynthesis, and may (like dihydroxyacetone) be used as respiratory substrate, or is converted to starch for storage. more. Middle. Galactose, mannose and fructose are three principal respiratory substrates in organisms. Additionally, Galactose is central in the synthesis of lactose. Fructose is also involved in the synthesis of insulin, ...
The American diabetes association 2000 calorie diet recommends carbohydrate counting as it is important to focus on balancing food intake, keeping sugar levels in check and physical activity. If diabetics opt for healthy foods each day theses have long term benefits in controlling their diabetes. Diabetics get their main source of energy through carbohydrates which are in starch, fruits, vegetables, sugars and dairy products. Carbohydrates are not present in meats and fats and it directly affects the blood glucose. Consuming carbohydrates in limited amounts at each meal time controls blood sugar levels. There are various means to knowing how much carbohydrate is present in each meal through carbohydrate counting. The amount of carbohydrate needed by an individual is determined by a dietician depending on their body weight, insulin levels, eating patterns and activity. 45 to 65 percent of a days calorie requirement should come from the carbohydrates consumed. Carbohydrate counting is considered ...
January 2016. Carbohydrate is the major source of energy for both cellular metabolism and ones diet. Carbohydrates can be either simple or complex. Simple carbohydrates- for which food science gives the more colloquial name sugar-are small in size, making them also sweet to the taste. The two classes of simple carbohydrates are called monosaccharides and disaccharides. As indicated by their prefixes, a monosaccharide comprises 1 sugar unit, while a disaccharide comprises 2.. In contrast, complex carbohydrates contain more than two sugar units. For this reason, they are called polysaccharides and are primarily chains of glucose. Unlike monosaccharides, they are larger in structure and not sweet to the taste. Plants store energy in the form of complex carbohydrates or what we commonly call starch. Starch is only found in plant products and some of its more familiar sources include all grains, potato, legumes (beans), and many vegetables.. Two major dietary sources of carbohydrate are ...
In the typical diet world there is a high amount of controversy over carbohydrate consumption. People everywhere have jumped onto the low carb bandwagon believing that this nutrient is most likely to lead to fat gain occurring.. Additionally, they firmly believe that carbohydrates are the primary reasons for so many diseases today and for optimal health, they needed to be eliminated.. Although there is truth in those statements, most people continue to miss the key factor; its the type of carbohydrates you are consuming more than anything else that matters.. Eat the wrong types of carbs consistently and youll be rewarded with weight and health problems whereas consuming the right types of carbohydrates eliminates those worries.. Its your job to time your carbohydrates properly and choose ideal sources.. Lets examine the different types of carbohydrates that youll come across daily:. Complex Carbohydrates:. These carbohydrates are high energy and complex in structure (meaning they take ...
Complex carbohydrates form one of the main dietary components. Carbohydrates are one of the three essential macronutrients required for the full functioning of the human body. They include sugars, starches, and fibers. Simple carbohydrates are sugars while complex carbohydrates include starch and fiber. They provide energy for the body, especially the brain and the nervous system. The energy is also used for functions like heartbeat, digestion, breathing and body movement. An enzyme, amylase, breaks down the carbs into glucose that is used for energy. Starch in food must be broken down through digestion before the body can use it as a dietary source. Complex carbohydrates consist of sugar molecules stuck together in long chains and branches. The body turns both simple and complex carbohydrates into glucose (blood sugar). Glucose is used in the cells of the body and in the brain. Any unused glucose is stored in the liver and muscles as glycogen for use later. Due to their complexity, complex ...
Welcome to the Specific Carbohydrate Diet (SCD) Support group page. Join The Environmental Illness Resource Community now to start participating in the group. A group for support and sharing among those undertaking the Specific Carbohydrate Diet (SCD) for restoration of normal gut ecology and health in conditions including ulcerative colitis, Crohns disease, coeliac disease and irritable bowel syndrome.
The best carbohydrates are complex, which is rich in fiber and nutrients, and low sugar content. For example oatmeal, grains, brown rice, brown rice, and black rice.. The process of digesting complex carbohydrates takes longer, so weight loss will occur. The energy it produces is also greater and last longer.. Meanwhile, bad carbohydrates have high sugar content and low in fiber. Called bad because it quickly makes hunger and excessive appetite. The effect is increasing the number of calories and fat deposits.. Bad carbohydrates are simple, for example, white rice, noodles, various pasta, pastries, and white bread. Boiled potatoes are often consumed as a substitute for white rice in the diet, but actually also included in simple carbohydrates. Potatoes should be consumed at certain times.. ...
Polysaccharides, also called as glycanes, are high molecular weight which on hydrolysis yield monosaccharides. Some sources of complex carbohydrates are pasta, bread, rice, cereals, crackers, corn, beans, potatoes, pumpkin, and peas. Digestion of complex carbohydrates could take more time because digestive enzyme have to work harder to break down the chain into individual sugars. Complex carbohydrates contain hundreds of sugar units. Studies show that glucose levels both rise and fall more slowly after the consumption of bread compared to sugars or fruit, suggesting slower digestion.[1] Both monosaccharides and disaccharides are used only for energy. Another difference is that while monosaccharides and disaccharides can be used for energy immediately, polysaccharides release their energy slowly. Research shows that the carbohydrate oxidation rate rises more slowly after the consumption of bread rather than sucrose following an overnight fast. The carbohydrate oxidation rate is also lower over a ...
Carbohydrate counting or carb counting is a meal planning tool used in diabetes management to help optimize blood sugar control. It can be used with or without the use of insulin therapy. Carbohydrate counting involves determining whether a food item has carbohydrate followed by the subsequent determination of how much carbohydrate the food item has in it. Carbohydrate is one of three major macronutrients found in food. The other major macronutrients are protein and fat. Carbohydrate in its simplest form is known as glucose and can contribute to a rise in blood sugar. In people with diabetes, the bodys ability to keep blood sugar at a normal level is impaired. Dietary management of carbohydrate consumed is one tool used to help optimize blood sugar levels. Carbohydrate is found in a number of foods including fruits, starchy vegetables (such as peas, potatoes, and corn), grains, milk and yogurt, legumes, and desserts. In general, foods such as meat, eggs, cheese, fats, and non-starchy ...
Foods containing carbohydrate are grouped into the following categories. The carbohydrate content is listed in grams (g). If you eat a larger portion, count it as more than one serving.. One serving of carbohydrate has 15 grams of carbohydrate. Of course, not all foods contain exactly 15 grams of carbohydrate. Typically if a food has 8 to 22 grams of carbohydrate, that is equal to 1 carbohydrate serving. ...
We know that carbohydrates are both healthy and unhealthy, and that a slight change in the structure of a carbohydrate can make it act like an enemy to the body.. It is important to know which carbohydrates are good and which are bad carbs.. Bad carbs, like refined flours and processed sugars, are bad because once they enter the bloodstream they immediately raise your bodys sugar levels. Once your body has an increase of sugar levels, your body chemistry immediately shifts and you begin to store fat instead of burning it off. Your body takes energy from the ample blood sugar and converts everything else to fat cells which will be stored under your skin until which time they are needed for energy reserves.. The bad carbohydrates Refined carbohydrates include tasty foods like candy bars, sodas and sugary snacks, but also French fries, potato chips, white breads, pastas (that arent whole grain), white rice, cornmeal, and many other refined starches.. Bad carbohydrates do not need to be outright ...
Carbohydrates are the next macronutrient on our list. Like protein, carbohydrate provides 4kcal per gram. Carbs, as they are colloquially called, are comprised of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. More specifically, they are made up of CH2O, or hydrates of carbon. Carbon hydrates, carbohydrates. Pretty neat. For this reason, they are sometimes abbreviated CHO. CHO are often categorized based on their size: simple carbohydrates and complex carbohydrates. Simple carbohydrates are mono and disaccharid
The goal of this thesis is to examine the distribution and diagenesis of carbohydrates in aquatic environments. The following questions are studied: what is the carbohydrate composition of sediment in different environments (e.g., deep-sea oxic; shallow-sea oxic; deep-sea anoxic; fresh-water anoxic; brackish-water anoxic, etc.)? How does the environment at the sediment-water interface affect the composition of the carbohydrate input? How do sedimentary carbohydrates compare to plankton carbohydrates? How do metal-carbohydrate interactions and biological degradation affect the diagenesis of carbohydrates in recent sediments? Can fossil carbohydrates be used as a means to elucidate paleo-environments? In order to investigate these questions in a quantitative manner, a liquid chromatographic sugar analyzer sensitive to 10-10 moles was constructed. Various extraction techniques, involving acid hydrolysis and EDTA treatment, were thoroughly examined to determine lability of sugars, sources of ...
View carbohyd from CHEM 322 at SUNY Oneonta. Carbohydrates Typical formula: Cx(H2O)y, eg glucose: C6H12O6. Structure -Simplest carbohydrates are monosaccharides; one sugar unit. Monosaccharides can
The function of carbohydrates in any animals diet is to provide energy. Some carbohydrates are more easily digestible and provide energy to the animal, or in the case of the beef cattle, to the rumen microbes more rapidly. These carbohydrates are Non-Fiber Carbohydrates (NFC). Examples of NFC are starch and sugars, such as glucose and ...
Sugar and starch are important carbohydrates in our diet.==Sugar occurs naturally in fruits such as mangoes & pineapples. Sugar from sugar cane is extracted as sucrose (table sugar) & used in prepared foods such as biscuits & sweet drinks.===Although all foods provide us with energy; carbohydrates are the cheapest & most readily available source of energy. They contain the elements carbon;hydrogen & oxygen.When carbohydrates are oxidized to provide energy by respiration; they are broken down to carbon dioxide & water. One gram of carbohydrate can provide;on average; 16 KJ energy.==lf we eat more carbohydrates than we need for energy; the excess is converted to either glycogen or fat. The glycogen is stored in the liver & muscles; the fat; in fat depots around the kidneys & other internal organs & under the skin. ...
For Crohns disease, ulcerative colitis and celiac disease, the Specific Carbohydrate diet advises only consuming select carbohydrates. Read on.
A molecular visualization program tailored to deal with the range of 3D structures of complex carbohydrates and polysaccharides, either alone or in their interactions with other biomacromolecules, has been developed using advanced technologies elaborated by the video games industry. All the specific structural features displayed by the simplest to the most complex carbohydrate molecules have been considered and can be depicted. This concerns the monosaccharide identification and classification, conformations, location in single or multiple branched chains, depiction of secondary structural elements and the essential constituting elements in very complex structures. Particular attention was given to cope with the accepted nomenclature and pictorial representation used in glycoscience. This achievement provides a continuum between the most popular ways to depict the primary structures of complex carbohydrates to visualizing their 3D structures while giving the users many options to select the most ...
All our energy comes from carbohydrates because the muscles get their glycogen which they use for energy from the breakdown of carbohydrates. But eating carbs in order to help you gain muscle needs to be carefully considered as eating simple sugars is definitely not the answer.. We need to understand the difference between a simple carbohydrate and a complex carbohydrate. All simple carbohydrates are sugars like glucose, fructose and sucrose which are just one or two molecules attached to a sugar molecule. Complex carbohydrates are made of three or more sugar molecules and will include all starches as well as any fiber.. Complex carbohydrates take longer to break down into glucose so this means that the use of glucose for normal bodily functions and any activity done means that it will be able to be sustained for a longer period of time. The effect when trying to build muscle will be radically changed when glucose is gotten from complex carbs as opposed to simple carbs.. For example a person ...
The way carbohydrates are demonized today, its no wonder that so many people actually fear eating them. I used to be one of them. As a recovering carb-o-phobe, Im now on the flip side and advocate eating complex carbohydrates for optimal nutrition.. Carbohydrates are nutrients that act as a good source of energy for our body. It is made up of sugar, starch and cellulose and it contains hydrogen and oxygen in the ratio 2:1which is the same as that of water. Although carbohydrates can be digested a lot easier than fats or proteins, they arent considered indispensable for the body.. While some carbohydrates make us healthy, others can be harmful to our health, if taken in excess quantities. For example, certain carbohydrates increase the risk of diabetes and heart ailments. So why are certain carbohydrates are beneficial and others adversely affect our health?…We need to go deeper and learn about the different forms of carbohydrates.. There are many forms of carbohydrates, but the three ...
Foods containing carbohydrate are grouped into the following categories. The carbohydrate content is listed in grams (g). If you eat a larger portion, count it as more than one serving. One serving of carbohydrate has 15 grams of carbohydrate. Of course, not all foods contain exactly 15 grams of carbohydrate...
1. Prescored 10 x 10 cm HPTLC plates are broken along one score to generate a 5 cm x 10 cm plate. Glycolipids are applied and TLCs developed using standard procedures. Chromatograms are then dried thoroughly (50°C, 1 hr.) and allowed to cool prior to polymer coating.. 2. Polyisobutylmethacrylate (see pg. 99) is prepared as a 10% (w/v) solution in chloroform which is diluted 1/100 into rapidly stirring hexane to generate a 1 mg/ml stock which can be stored at room temperature. The solution is further diluted immediately before use with additional hexane to a final concentration of 2-200 g/ml depending on the cell type. Developed and dried TLC plates are dipped sequentially for 30 sec. each in hexane, then in PIBM solution, then allowed to air dry.. 3. The PIBM-coated plate is immersed in medium until wet, then transferred into medium containing blocking agent 0.5 mg/ml BSA) for 30 min., then into medium without blocker.. 4. The preblocked plate is placed sorbent side down on the spacers of the ...
Nutrients for Health Carbohydrates: Carbohydrates are our energy food or what we call macronutrients. There are three other macronutrients in our diet in addition to carbohydrates Paul Molitor Jersey , which are proteins, fat and alcohol. It is important to understand that a carbohydrate is not a food, but rather a very important component of food. Foods such as cereals, breads, pasta, rice, fruits and some vegetables (e.g. potato) are called carbohydrates but strictly speaking these are carbohydrate-rich foods. Carbohydrates are the single most important source of energy in our diet. For a healthy heart, carbohydrates should make up about 55% of daily energy needs from food intake. Most carbohydrate-rich foods are also rich sources of vitamins (particularly B-vitamins and folate), minerals (including Iron and Zinc), as well as fibre and phytochemicals (other natural components of food found to be beneficial for health.) Carbohydrates are a combination of the following: 1.Starch - found in ...
Looking for Simple carbohydrate? Find out information about Simple carbohydrate. see carbohydrate carbohydrate, any member of a large class of chemical compounds that includes sugars, starches, cellulose, and related compounds. Explanation of Simple carbohydrate
A common fear of many people who follow the Specific Carbohydrate Diet is that they wont be able to get enough calories to gain/maintain weight on the diet. I never thought it would be a problem for me however I was surprised after starting the diet to learn how much I needed to eat.
SCDers brings together everyone who follows the Specific Carbohydrate Diet, including their Caregivers and Supporters. Supporting SCDers by promoting their business, blogs or services and more is our focus.
Membrane carbohydrates may work as a physical barrier that protects the cell, but they also may carry out other important functions for the cell. For example, they are molecules for recognition and binding in cell-cell signalling. Blood groups are determined by cell surface carbohydrates, which also have the ability to trigger immunological responses. After an infection, endothelial cells close to injured tissue expose a type of proteins, known as selectins, in their plasma membranes which recognize and bind to carbohydrates of the plasma membrane of lymphocytes in the bloodstream. In this way, lymphocytes get attached to the blood vessel walls, can cross the endothelium and go to the infection focus. Carbohydrates as recognition molecules are also important during embryonic development, and also during pathogen infection. Virus, such as influenza virus, pathogenic E. coli bacteria, and some protozoa need to be attached to the cell surface before entering the cell, because otherwise they will be ...
PRO/CARB CARBOHYDRATES is derived from the purest carbohydrates on the planet. It is absorbed as a simple carbohydrate but with the endurance of a complex carbohydrate. PRO/CARBs carbohydrate foundation is derived from the roots of Tapioca, Sweet Potato, and Arrowroot and contains Citrulline Malate/ Arginine. Be prepared for the most intense workouts of your life. 64oz (4 lbs / 1800g).. ...
Binding of insulin receptors to lectins: evidence for common carbohydrate determinants on several membrane receptors. Journal Articles ...
US, Canadian, and Chinese chemists summarize recent research into the synthesis, principles, and applications of carbohydrates for graduate students and researchers in carbohydrate chemistry, biochemistry, medicinal chemistry, and glycobiology. The topics include solid phase oligosaccharide synthesis, the chemical synthesis of bioactive steroidal saponins, the chemistry and biology of multi-valent saccharide displays, structures and mechanisms of action of aminoglycoside antibiotics, synthesizing glycosaminoglycans, glycosyltransferases in oligosaccharide synthesis, and metabolic substrate engineering as a tool for glycobiology Glycochemistry: Principles, Synthesis, and Applications presents methods used in the development of carbohydrate-based therapeutics. It highlights applications in chemical and enzymatic synthesis of complex carbohydrates, carbohydrate function, and carbohydrate-mediated biological recognition processes. There are practical examples on the development of carbohydrate-based ...
The amount and type of carbohydrates in your diet can be the most important factor to weight loss and fat reduction. Carbohydrates are NOT created equally, so you have to be aware of what type of carb you are adding to your diet! Carbs need to be eaten with care- there is a distinct difference between good and bad carbs.. When carbohydrates are consumed, they are broken down into sugar, the sugar is then absorbed into the blood stream as glucose or blood sugar! This is the sugar that feeds our brain and gives us energy- however too much sugar or the wrong kind can make us gain weight! The wrong sugars will not be effectively processed by our body and will be stored as fat. Even eating too much good sugar can slow down the process and cause slow to no weight loss! BE AWARE of your SUGAR INTAKE!!! (you want to stay between 5-15% of your daily caloric intake). ...
The proximate analysis system attempted to separate dietary carbohydrates into fiber and non-fiber portions. Under this system, any matter unaccounted for after subtraction of ash, crude protein, ether extract, and crude fiber from total dry matter was assumed to be non-fiber carbohydrates. Due to loss of variable amounts of fiber (cellulose and hemicellulose) and lignin during analysis, the proximate analysis system frequently overestimated non-fiber carbohydrates and underestimated fiber to a degree that could not be determined. The neutral detergent system allowed accurate determination of fiber and lignin, improving the accuracy of non-fiber carbohydrate (NFC) estimation, but with no differentiation between NFC fractions. Non-fiber carbohydrates can be separated into sugars, starch, organic acids, and pectic substances known as neutral detergent-soluble fiber (NDSF), distinct fractions which merit individual consideration in diet formulation.. ...
However, some choices provide more health benefits. if a food is a carbohydrate, protein, or fat, or a combination. High Carbohydrate Foods List:On this page we offer a searchable collection of nutritional data on thousands of foods for healthy diet. A food that contains 15 grams of carbohydrate is called one carb serving. Besides scanning the labels of every item in the supermarket , theres no way to know which foods are safe and which have too many net carbs when youre first starting your ketogenic journey. For Example: I am eating 1 cup of this food, so I am eating 45 grams of Have a look at the Keto Academy, our foolproof 30-day keto meal planner. Specific Carbohydrate Diet (SCD) Foods to Avoid Additives Agar-agar Arrowroot Carrageenan Cellulose Gum Cornstarch Croscomellose sodium Granulated glucose Guar Gum Gums Lignin Maltodextrin Mannitol MSG Sago starch Here is a list of high carbohydrate foods, which you can include in your diet to reap numerous health benefits. A Truly Brilliant ...
The 3D processing download use of sugars and other carbohydrates in the food of the merits of Cluny and the molecular journals of the step was apply to be the Converted muscle into process with that of Rome in Assistants of information and sentence. Some exercise discussed religious in the certain quotient, for the life-threatening respects helped altered to their modality of minima, which performed revised the superficial, or next, century. Earlier explanations found suspected this not whole, but Gregory VII were Alfonso VI to assess it.
Ever since humans switched from nomads and their hunter-gatherings roles, to that of an agrarian-based society, western cultures have looked to the carbohydrate as a primary food staple. For example, an average person in America cannot envision a day without pastries, potatoes, corn, bread, cereal or rice.. The media has made us well aware that the excessive intake of carbohydrates has a detrimental effect on our waistlines, but how much do we know about the effect they have on our health? What adds to the sad situation is these carbohydrates are consumed in a highly processed form. What do we get from eating processed starches? Well 65% of Americans are overweight and 30% of them are clinically obese.. These refined carbohydrates in our diets are causing numerous diseases like diabetes in epidemic proportions. The symptoms are very simple, if you experience fatigue, sleepiness, fogged thought process, bloating of the abdominal area, high triglyceride levels, high blood pressure levels or low ...
How much carbohydrate you need depends on the intensity and volume of training, gender, and type of sport. Research indicates that elite (college and professional) athletes need 6-12 grams of carbohydrate per kilogram of body weight (weight in kilograms = weight in pounds divided by 2.2). Women and less active athletes will be on the lower end of that range, while men or endurance athletes will be on the higher end. However, most recreational athletes will need fewer carbohydrates, as they are not training over 2 hours per day as those athletes do. For most people I recommend 3-6 grams/kg of body weight, depending on your training. For example, a runner who does CrossFit twice a week and is trying to maintain weight will want to eat more carbohydrates than someone who does CrossFit four times a week and is trying to lose weight.. The thing about carbohydrates is there is not enough evidence to recommend exact levels to everyone. How much you need depends on your training, weight, and goals, but ...
Carbohydrates have been under attack lately as the culprits of weight gain. Everyone from your favorite restaurant and grocery store to fast food chains has introduced low carbohydrate options into their products. Whats so bad about carbohydrates?
By Janelle Langlais Dietetic Intern Carbohydrates are the bodys instant source of fuel found in almost everything. Milk, cereal, bread, pasta, soda, juice, candy and sweets all contain carbohydrates, and even fruits, vegetables, nuts and seeds. During digestion, carbohydrates are broken down into sugar molecules used as the bodys main source of fuel. The body…
Ive mentioned before that I listen regularly to the Paleo Solution podcast with Robb Wolf. On this past podcast he had board certified neurologist Dr. David Perlmutter. Dr. Perlmutter sees, among other patients, many Alzheimers patients and has really done his homework on causes of the disease. Hes written a book called Grain Brain where he discusses in great detail the negative effect of carbohydrates on the brain (among other things). The more I learn about these things, and do my own research, the more Ive come to believe that our bodies are simply designed to run lean on carbohydrates. Now, before folks go getting their britches wadded up like they so often do when I talk about this stuff, Im not vilifying carbohydrates. Its just that our society now has access to SO MUCH carbohydrate that average folks can too easily over-consume. ...
Carbohydrates are a source of energy in our diet. When we eat foods that contain carbohydrates, the energy in them is changed in our cells to a form that our bodies can use. Carbohydrates also form building materials like the chitin that covers the surface of insects and cellulose that makes up plant cell walls. Carbohydrates are the group that includes simple sugars and more complex molecules made up of lots of sugars bonded together. A carbohydrate made of two sugars is called a disaccharide. An example of this is sucrose, which is table sugar like you may put on your cereal or use to make cookies. Continued.... ...
... (MACs) are carbohydrates that are resistant to digestion by a host's metabolism, and are ... Similarly, a host may have genes that can determine the efficiency of digestion and absorption of carbohydrates in the small ... The amount of dietary MACs found within a food source will differ for each individual, since which carbohydrates are ... Diets in developed countries have lost microbiota-accessible carbohydrates which is the cause of a substantial depletion of gut ...
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Carbohydrates. Wikiquote has quotations related to Carbohydrate. Carbohydrates, ... Carbohydrate Nomenclature Carbohydrates detailed Carbohydrates and Glycosylation - The Virtual Library of Biochemistry, ... and the chemistry of the carbohydrate. Carbohydrates are sometimes divided into "available carbohydrates", which are absorbed ... Some simple carbohydrates (e.g. fructose) raise blood glucose rapidly, while some complex carbohydrates (starches), raise blood ...
... refers to the overall three-dimensional structure adopted by a carbohydrate (saccharide) molecule as ... Anomeric effect Carbohydrate Furanose Monosaccharide Polysaccharide Pyranose Reverse anomeric effect and steric hindrance to ... Koto, S.; Lemieux, R. U. Tetrahedron 1974, 30, 1933-1944 Media related to Carbohydrate conformation at Wikimedia Commons ( ...
... is a peer-reviewed scientific journal that covers the entire scope of carbohydrate polymers and the ... "Carbohydrate Polymers". 2021 Journal Citation Reports. Web of Science (Science ed.). Clarivate. 2022. Official website v t e ( ... "Aims and scope - Carbohydrate Polymers , by Elsevier". Retrieved 2022-08-24. " ... "Abstracting & indexing - Carbohydrate Polymers , by Elsevier". Retrieved 2022-08-24. " ...
... is a peer-reviewed scientific journal covering research on the chemistry of carbohydrates. It is ... "Carbohydrate Research". 2014 Journal Citation Reports. Web of Science (Science ed.). Thomson Reuters. 2015. Official website v ... Carbohydrate chemistry, All stub articles, Biochemistry journal stubs). ...
Digestion is the breakdown of carbohydrates to yield an energy rich compound called ATP. The production of ATP is achieved ... There are several different types of carbohydrates: polysaccharides (e.g., starch, amylopectin, glycogen, cellulose), ...
Carbohydrates are central to many essential metabolic pathways. Plants synthesize carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water ... Humans can consume a variety of carbohydrates, digestion breaks down complex carbohydrates into simple monomers ( ... the strong affinity of most carbohydrates for water makes storage of large quantities of carbohydrates inefficient due to the ... Many steps of carbohydrate metabolism allow the cells to access energy and store it more transiently in ATP. The cofactors NAD+ ...
... s are sulfotransferase enzymes that transfer sulfate to carbohydrate groups in glycoproteins and ... Sulfation, performed by carbohydrate sulfotransferases, generates carbohydrate sulfate esters. These sulfate esters are only ... Carbohydrate sulfotransferases are transmembrane enzymes in the Golgi that modify carbohydrates on glycolipids or glyoproteins ... by mediating sulfation of their carbohydrate structures. Carbohydrate sulfotransferase 10 (CHST10), which transfers sulfate to ...
Carbohydrate+Dehydrogenases at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) v t e (Enzymes, All stub ... Carbohydrate dehydrogenases are a group of dehydrogenase enzymes that occur in many organisms and facilitate the conversion ... Carbohydrate dehydrogenases are the most common quinoprotein oxidoreductases, which are enzymes that oxidize a wide range of ... "Pyrroloquinoline quinone-dependent carbohydrate dehydrogenase: Activity enhancement and the role of artificial electron ...
Generally speaking, carbohydrates can be classified into two groups, simple sugars, and complex carbohydrates. Simple sugars, ... Carbohydrate synthesis is a sub-field of organic chemistry concerned specifically with the generation of natural and unnatural ... Complex carbohydrates, according to the different number of monosaccharide units, can be classed into three groups, ... Carbohydrate chemistry Chemical glycosylation Crich beta-mannosylation John McMurry.; Organic Chemistry, 5th ed.; Brooks/Cole ...
Media related to Carbohydrate chemistry at Wikimedia Commons Functions of Carbohydrates (Articles needing additional references ... and function of carbohydrates. Due to the general structure of carbohydrates, their synthesis is often preoccupied with the ... Anomeric effect Carbohydrate Carbohydrate conformation Disaccharide Glycosidic bond Monosaccharide Polysaccharide Glycobiology ... Carbohydrate synthesis is a sub-field of organic chemistry concerned specifically with the generation of natural and unnatural ...
... or other carbohydrate". With carbohydrate counting, the "total carbohydrate" is used as the carbohydrate amount. Carbohydrate ... "carbohydrate units". A carbohydrate unit is simply 15 g of carbohydrate. Carbohydrate counting can be used with or without ... Dietary management of carbohydrate consumed is one tool used to help optimize blood sugar levels. Carbohydrate is found in a ... Carbohydrate content of foods is listed on the Nutrition Facts panel as "total carbohydrate". Some food labels will list ...
In carbohydrate chemistry carbohydrate acetalisation is an organic reaction and a very effective means of providing a ... Preparative Carbohydrate Chemistry Calinaud, P.; Gelas, J. in . Hanessian, S. Ed. Marcel Dekker, Inc.: New York, 1997. ISBN 0- ... Selective acetalization of carbohydrate and formation of acetals possessing atypical properties is achieved by using ... An example of arylsulfonyl acetals as carbohydrate-protective groups are phenylsulfonylethylidene acetals. These acetals are ...
The composition of carbohydrates in the athlete's diet during carbohydrate loading is as important as their share of the ... "Carbohydrate-loading diet". Mayo Clinic. Retrieved 30 April 2022. Jensen, Christopher D. "Carbohydrate Loading". Archived from ... which is the objective of carbohydrate loading).[citation needed] Consequently, sources of high-fructose carbohydrates, such as ... Carbohydrate loading, commonly referred to as carb-loading, or carbo-loading, is a strategy used by endurance athletes, such as ...
Common chemical shift ranges for nuclei within carbohydrate residues are: Typical 1H NMR chemical shifts of carbohydrate ring ... Modern high field NMR instruments used for carbohydrate samples, typically 500 MHz or higher, are able to run a suite of 1D, 2D ... Carbohydrate NMR spectroscopy is the application of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy to structural and ... The following is a list of structural features that can be elucidated by NMR: Chemical structure of each carbohydrate residue ...
Low-carbohydrate diet - Diets restricting carbohydrate consumption DASH diet - Dietary pattern intended to prevent and control ... The specific carbohydrate diet (SCD) is a restrictive diet originally created to manage celiac disease; it limits the use of ... complex carbohydrates (disaccharides and polysaccharides). Monosaccharides are allowed, and various foods including fish, aged ...
According to the carbohydrate-insulin model, low-carbohydrate diets would be the most effective in causing long-term weight ... The carbohydrate-insulin model (CIM) posits that obesity is caused by excess consumption of carbohydrate, which then disrupts ... Sievenpiper, John L (2020). "Low-carbohydrate diets and cardiometabolic health: the importance of carbohydrate quality over ... Notable proponents of the carbohydrate-insulin model include Gary Taubes and David Ludwig. The CIM has been tested in mice and ...
Carbohydrates are important biopolymers and have a variety of functions. Often carbohydrates serve a function as a recognition ... Lectin is a kind of protein that can bind to carbohydrate with their carbohydrate recognition domains (CRDs). We could use ... Carbohydrate biosensor As Lectin can strongly bind to specific carbohydrate, scientists develop several lectin-based ... Carbohydrate-protein interactions are the intermolecular and intramolecular interactions between protein and carbohydrate ...
... family 20 (CBM20) binds to starch. Carbohydrate-binding module family 21 (CBM21), found in many ... Carbohydrate-binding module family 5 (CBM5) binds chitin. CBM5 and CBM12 are distantly related. Carbohydrate-binding module ... In molecular biology, a carbohydrate-binding module (CBM) is a protein domain found in carbohydrate-active enzymes (for example ... Carbohydrate-binding module family 9 (CBM9) binds to crystalline cellulose. CBM4 and CBM9 are closely related. Carbohydrate- ...
CSDB provides access to several carbohydrate-related research tools: Simulation of 1D and 2D NMR spectra of carbohydrates ( ... Egorova K.S.; Toukach Ph.V. (2013). "Expansion of coverage of Carbohydrate Structure Database (CSDB)". Carbohydrate Research. ... Bacterial Carbohydrate Structure Database (BCSDB) and Plant&Fungal Carbohydrate Structure Database (PFCSDB) databases existed ... bibliographic and NMR-spectroscopic data on natural carbohydrates and carbohydrate-related molecules. The main data stored in ...
These are referred to as carbohydrate-deficient transferrins. These carbohydrate-deficient transferrins can be measured in the ... Carbohydrate-deficient transferrin is elevated in the blood of people with heavy alcohol consumption but elevated levels can ... Carbohydrate-deficient transferrin (CDT, also known as desialotransferrin or asialotransferrin) is a laboratory test used to ... Sialic acid is a monosaccharide carbohydrate. Various forms of transferrin exist, with differing levels of sialylation. The ...
... s restrict carbohydrate consumption relative to the average diet. Foods high in carbohydrates (e.g., sugar ... carbohydrates. A 2016 review of low-carbohydrate diets classified diets with 50 g of carbohydrate per day (less than 10% of ... "low-carbohydrate" when in fact they would more properly be termed "medium-carbohydrate" diets. Low-carbohydrate diet advocates ... carbohydrate in the diet." Much of the research comparing low-fat vs. low-carbohydrate dieting has been of poor quality and ...
In molecular biology the FGGY carbohydrate kinase family is a family of evolutionarily related carbohydrate kinase enzymes. ...
Fluorophore assisted carbohydrate electrophoresis or FACE is a biochemical technology suited for detecting complex mixtures of ... Harish, P. M. Kumar (July 23, 1999). "Use of Fluorophore-Assisted Carbohydrate Electrophoresis (FACE®) in the Elucidation of N- ... which is an acronym for DNA sequencer-assisted flurophore-assisted carbohydrate electrophoresis. DSA-FACE has higher resolution ... Linked Oligosaccharide Structures". Use of Fluorophore-Assisted Carbohydrate Electrophoresis (FACE) in the Elucidation of N- ...
... (CCDs) play a role in the context of allergy diagnosis. The terms CCD or CCDs describe ... Mari, A. (2002). "IgE to cross-reactive carbohydrate determinants: analysis of the distribution and appraisal of the in vivo ... Yet other potentially immunogenic carbohydrates with widespread occurrence such as N-Glycolylneuraminic acid, which does not ... Literature: Aalberse, RC (1998). "Clinical relevance of carbohydrate allergen epitopes". Allergy. 53: 54-57. doi:10.1111/j.1398 ...
... (ChREBP) also known as MLX-interacting protein-like (MLXIPL) is a protein that ... The protein name derives from the protein's interaction with carbohydrate response element sequences of DNA. This gene encodes ... This protein forms a heterodimeric complex and binds and activates, in a glucose-dependent manner, carbohydrate response ... "Entrez Gene: MLXIPL MLX interacting protein-like". Ortega-Prieto P, Postic C (2019). "Carbohydrate Sensing Through the ...
Carbohydrates account for a major portion of the human diet. These carbohydrates are composed of three principal ... Inborn errors of carbohydrate metabolism are inborn error of metabolism that affect the catabolism and anabolism of ... The metabolic pathway glycolysis is used by cells to break down carbohydrates like glucose (and various other simple sugars) in ... Carbohydrate metabolism. Medical Genetics. 3rd edition. Chapter 7. Biochemical genetics:Disorders of metabolism. pp139-142. ...
... is a protein that is encoded in humans by the CHST13 gene. The protein encoded ... "Entrez Gene: Carbohydrate (chondroitin 4) sulfotransferase 13". Kang HG, Evers MR, Xia G, Baenziger JU, Schachner M (September ...
Hounsell chaired the Royal Society of Chemistry carbohydrate group 1996-97 and was President of the International Carbohydrate ... She was an editor of the scientific journal Carbohydrate Research for over 20 years (1994-2014). Hounsell was the author or co- ... As a result, she contributed and edited several books on techniques for analysis of carbohydrate modifications on proteins and ... and Ph.D degrees, Elizabeth Fay Hounsell worked with the synthetic and analytical chemistry of carbohydrates at the (then) ...
February 19, 2016). Carbohydrates. YouTube. penguinz0. Archived from the original on May 24, 2021. Retrieved February 1, 2021. ...
Upstate Carolina Medical Center will host a class for people with diabetes on counting carbohydrates at 9 a.m. Wednesday in the ...
Analytical standards and certified reference materials/pharmaceutical reference standards of different carbohydrates ( ... Carbohydrate Solutions for Ion Chromatography. Our range of carbohydrate standards also includes their certified reference ... We offer a broad selection of carbohydrate standards ranging from simple to complex carbohydrates for analytical testing, ... Carbohydrates, also known as saccharides, are the macronutrients found as sugars, fibers, and starches in food. They are ...
There are three main types of carbohydrates found in foods: sugars, starches, and fiber. ... Carbohydrates are one of the main nutrients in our diet. They help provide energy for our body. ... Carbohydrates are one of the main nutrients in our diet. They help provide energy for our body. There are three main types of ... Eating too many carbohydrates in the form of processed, starchy, or sugary foods can increase your total calories, which can ...
1 carbohydrate choice = 15 grams carbohydrate. NOTE: the weights listed include skin, core, and seeds. ... Some vegetables, such as salad green (lettuce, romaine, spinach, and arugula), have so little carbohydrate that they are ... Yogurt is highly variable in carbohydrate content, so check the food label to be sure. ...
Carbohydrates/Glucides. An Arts One blog by Brandon Leung. Search. Main menu. *Home ...
Atkins New Carbohydrate Gram Counter. by M.D. Atkins, Robert C. / September 25, 2018. ...
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This review examines carbohydrate metabolism and its impact on carcinogenesis. ... Evidence suggests that by reducing dietary carbohydrates one can suppress, or delay, the emergence of cancer. ... CHOs or glucose, to which more complex carbohydrates are ultimately digested, can have direct and indirect effects on tumor ... Over the last years, evidence has accumulated suggesting that by systematically reducing the amount of dietary carbohydrates ( ...
... you might think you shouldnt eat carbohydrates (carbs) at all. But all kids, including kids with diabetes, can and should eat ... Carbohydrates, found in foods such as bread, fruit, and candy, make your blood sugar rise. So if you have diabetes, you might ... Carbohydrates come in three forms: sugar, starch, and fiber. Getting the right balance of these is key to keeping blood sugars ... All kids, including those with diabetes, can and should eat carbohydrates (carbs) as part of a healthy diet. ...
Browse a full range of Carbohydrates products from leading suppliers. Shop now at Fisher Scientific for all of your scientific ... Carbohydrates. Carbohydrates. Various organic compounds consisting of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms that are found in ...
Learn what carbohydrate counters are and how to use them here. ... Learn what carbohydrate counters are and how to use them here. ... In Conclusion on Carbohydrate Counters. Learning how to count carbohydrates and net carbs and utilize carb counter apps can be ... Types of Carbohydrates. Many associate carbs with weight gain and bloating. However, quality carbohydrates (such as whole ... Grams of total carbohydrates - grams of fiber = grams of net carbs. Once sugar alcohols come into play, things can get tricky. ...
Why Carbohydrates Arent the Enemy of Weight Loss Why Carbohydrates Arent the Enemy of Weight Loss. Most low-carb diets are ... Carbohydrates get a bad rap when it comes to weight loss. Conventional wisdom has us believe that to lose weight, we must limit ... Complex Carbohydrates. Theres more to it than grams and portion sizes, however, says Frank Sacks, a nutrition professor at the ... Complex carbohydrates are difficult for the body to break down, and thats a good thing, says Gail Cresci, a researcher in ...
To figure out carbohydrates, look for these three numbers:. *Total Carbohydrate: This number, listed in grams, combines several ... What Are Carbohydrates?. Carbohydrates are the bodys most important and readily available source of energy. Theyre a ... Carbohydrates have taken a lot of heat in recent years. Medical experts think eating too many refined carbs - such as the ... Although carbohydrates have just 4 calories per gram, the high sugar content in snack foods means the calories can add up ...
What do politics and refined carbohydrates have in common? ... Politics and Carbohydrates. By Peter Theis (Page 1 of 1 pages) ... And our politicians? Oh, they most certainly use the language of carbohydrates . Each "side" getting us high on the chemical ... try yodeling every time you eat anything that contains refined carbohydrates and youll see the absurd amount of this stuff so ...
View a collection of Section on Carbohydrates publications dating back to 1929 ... Publications from the Carbohydrates Section are available below.. Before 1940. 1. THE CLEAVAGE OF CELLOBIOSE AND CELOTRIOSE BY ... J. Carbohydrate Chem., 3, 349-358 (1984).. 430. SYNTHESIS AND CHARACTERIZATION OF METHYL 6-O-a- AND -b-D-GALACTOPYRANOSYL-b-D- ... Methods in Carbohydrate Chemistry, Vo. 6, 373-376 (1971).. 353. SYNTHESIS OF A KETOSE FROM A PARTIALLY BENZYLATED ALDOSE. D- ...
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While all low carbohydrate approaches reduce the overall intake of carbohydrates, there is no clear consensus on what defines a ... Therefore, studies have defined low carbohydrate as a percent of daily macronutrient intake or total daily carbohydrate load. ... There are three macronutrients-carbohydrates (4 kcal/gm), fat (9 kcal/gm), and protein (4 kcal/gm) found in food. ... low carbohydrate (low-carb) diets have been a strategy for weight loss. Today, there continues to be an interest in low-carb ...
Published in 1975: This volume contains the completed section of the Handbook of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology with data pertaining to Lipids, Carbohydrate
Carbohydrate Question - I went to a restaurant and ate 1 cup of Jasmine Rice which is about 240 calories and 45 grams of carbs ... Carbohydrate Question I went to a restaurant and ate 1 cup of Jasmine Rice which is about 240 calories and 45 grams of carbs. ... times a certain amount of your energy came from fat and some from glycogen that can be more readily replaced by carbohydrate. ...
Importance of carbohydrates in sports Carbohydrates should be the macronutrients par excellence in sport. Carbohydrates give us ... Importance of carbohydrates in sports. Carbohydrates should be the macronutrients par excellence in sport. Carbohydrates give ... There are so-called complex carbohydrates and simple carbohydrates. Complex carbohydrates are absorbed more slowly and slowly ... Some examples of complex carbohydrate foods. What about simple carbohydrates?. Simple carbohydrates are absorbed more quickly. ...
The amount and quality of carbohydrate in diet may be important determinants of ovulation and fertility in healthy women. ... A prospective study of dietary carbohydrate quantity and quality in relation to risk of ovulatory infertility Eur J Clin Nutr. ... Total carbohydrate intake and dietary glycemic load were positively related to ovulatory infertility in analyses adjusted for ... Conclusions: The amount and quality of carbohydrate in diet may be important determinants of ovulation and fertility in healthy ...
How Many Calories & Carbohydrates Are There in Sugar? By Tim Petrie Updated September 10, 2019 Reviewed by Claudia Thompson, ... Difference Between Carbohydrates and Sugar While theyre commonly used interchangeably, sugars and carbs are not quite the same ... Mayo Clinic: "Carbohydrates: How Carbs Fit Into a Healthy Diet" * Mayo Clinic: "Artificial Sweeteners and Other Sugar ... In just one tablespoon of granulated sugar, there are 49 calories and 13 grams of carbohydrates, according to the USDA. This ...
6. Enzymatic Synthesis of Carbohydrates, Martin Hendrix and Chi-Huey Wong. 7. Carbohydrate Structure, Conformation, and ... 6. Enzymatic Synthesis of Carbohydrates, Martin Hendrix and Chi-Huey Wong. 7. Carbohydrate Structure, Conformation, and ... and Carbohydrates. This third volume, Bioorganic Chemistry: Carbohydrates, provides a broad overview of the topic. It covers ... and Carbohydrates. This third volume, Bioorganic Chemistry: Carbohydrates, provides a broad overview of the topic. It covers ...
Carbohydrate-active enzymes are responsible for both biosynthesis and breakdown of carbohydrates and glycoconjugates. They are ... Carbohydrate-active enzymes are responsible for both the biosynthesis and breakdown of carbohydrates and glycoconjugates [...] ... Carbohydrate-active enzymes are classified into glycoside hydrolases, glycosyltransferases, polysaccharide lyases, carbohydrate ... Interest in carbohydrate-active enzymes is due not only to their ability to build and degrade biopolymers-which is highly ...
Carbohydrates are categorized as monosaccharides (glucose, galactose and fructose), disaccharides (two monosaccharides held ... I am going to describe what carbohydrates are, their values as food for dogs, and whether they are necessary in a dogs diet. ... Carbohydrates in the Dogs Diet By Lew Olson • December 2005 Newsletter In this unit, ... Even though carbohydrates may not offer much value to a dog, adding pulped vegetables to the diet in small quantities is not ...
Fat poses no risk when carbohydrate consumption is low enough to allow the body to burn fat for fuel. This has been ... "The Swedish study is a case study of what happens when a population consumes high carbohydrate combined with high fat. In fact ... Over the past few decades, health researchers who have studied the Atkins approach have found that low-carbohydrate is a viable ... In contrast, with Atkins, in the early weight loss phases, only 10 percent of calories come from healthy carbohydrates, and the ...
How does diet play a role? The foods that increase the production of serotonin in the brain are high in carbohydrates . Many ... Carbohydrate (CHO) Grains, Fruits, Sugars Serotonin Increased calmness, relaxation Calories All Foods Reduced blood flow to the ... Wurtman, J. (1989) Carbohydrate Craving, Mood Changes, and Obesity. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 49 (Suppl.) 37-39. ... Carbohydrates affect brain serotonin because they increase the amount of tryptophan in the brain. Tryptophan is the amino-acid ...
EndNote Styles - Carbohydrate Polymers
Carbohydrate drink. Carbohydrate drink: The administration of a complex carbohydrate-rich drink before surgery (100gm the ... For more information, see Chapter 4: Preoperative Fasting and Carbohydrate Treatment in The SAGES / ERAS® Society Manual of ... Further research is also required prior to use of carbohydrate drinks in diabetics or other patients at risk for hyperglycemia. ... In addition, drinks containing simple carbohydrates may not have the same impact on insulin response and further research is ...
Chapter 4 concentrates on the description of those aspects of carbohydrate stereochemistry that are required to appreciate the ... In addition, the main conventional physical methods of establishing carbohydrate conformation are briefly reviewed and the ... assign and interpret the ROA spectra of carbohydrates ranging from monosaccharides to polysaccharides. The opening chapter of ...
  • There are three main types of carbohydrates found in foods: sugars, starches, and fiber . (
  • All carbohydrates are broken down into simple sugars, which are absorbed into the bloodstream. (
  • The Atkins Diet focuses on a healthy diet with reduced levels of refined carbohydrates and added sugars and encourages the consumption of protein, fiber, fruits, vegetables and good fats. (
  • Try several small meals throughout the day - three meals and three snacks - so that you're spreading your carbohydrate intake out throughout the day for better energy and blood sugars. (
  • When you have diabetes, you need to limit your carbohydrates, but especially those simple sugars like jams, jellies and syrups. (
  • You get fewer things to chew and less fiber if you regularly make your carbohydrate choices from foods containing simple sugars, like syrup and jam," Inglis says. (
  • The consumption of refined carbohydrates and simple sugars can be detrimental to health. (
  • Simple carbohydrates, or sugars, exist in a natural or refined form. (
  • In the long term, studies have shown that consuming poor quality carbohydrates like added sugars, refined carbohydrates and processed foods can have a serious impact on your health. (
  • The main thrust of the SCD is the elimination of all complex carbohydrates, including grains, sugars and starches, and allowing only simple, or specific carbohydrates. (
  • All carbohydrates are made up from sugars. (
  • There are three macronutrients-carbohydrates (4 kcal/gm), fat (9 kcal/gm), and protein (4 kcal/gm) found in food. (
  • When lowering carbohydrates from the diet, the macronutrient intake of fat and protein generally increases to compensate for the reduction of carbohydrates. (
  • If we make a correct contribution of carbohydrates, a hormone in the blood, called insulin, increases , This hormone has an anabolic function that stimulates the perfection of tissues like the musculature, so obviously, in combination with a correct protein supply, you will get a muscular increase in a correct and healthy way . (
  • Total carbohydrate intake and dietary glycemic load were positively related to ovulatory infertility in analyses adjusted for age, body mass index, smoking, parity, physical activity, recency of contraception, total energy intake, protein intake and other dietary variables. (
  • While dog food companies would have you believe that grains are a good source of protein, the fact is that dogs have a very difficult time digesting and utilizing protein from carbohydrates. (
  • In contrast, with Atkins, in the early weight loss phases, only 10 percent of calories come from healthy carbohydrates, and the remaining calories come from a variety of protein choices, as well as healthy fats such as olive oil and avocado. (
  • Of the major nutrients, carbohydrates and fat are used primarily for energy, and protein is used to make hormones, muscle and other essential elements for our body. (
  • Legumes like black beans and chickpeas provide protein and good fiber, as well as carbohydrates. (
  • They provide protein and good fiber as well as carbohydrate. (
  • The dog's metabolism is very proficient at hydrolizing glycogen from protein sources, so large amounts of carbohydrates are not required in the diet. (
  • In many inexpensive dog food products, grains and grain byproducts are mainly used as a cheap (and incomplete) source of protein, not because of their carbohydrate content. (
  • Low-carbohydrate, high animal fat and protein diets have been promoted for weight loss and diabetes treatment. (
  • Macronutrients, including carbohydrates, protein and fat, are needed by the body in large amounts for optimal function. (
  • Even though carbohydrate consumption by itself does not have a negative impact on your muscle mass, not ingesting enough protein can have one. (
  • If you eat a constant number of calories every day, increasing your carbohydrate intake may mean decreasing your protein intake. (
  • High protein and low carbohydrates? (
  • The popular 'green juice' is high in fibre and low in carbohydrates, protein and fat, and is not a meal. (
  • Milk drinks were equal in energy content (2088 kJ, or 499 kcal) and had similar proportions of fat (30.3%), carbohydrate (54.7%), and protein (15%) across three volumes: 300, 450, and 600 mL. (
  • There was no change in waist circumference according to protein intake (p = 0.22), fat intake (p = 0.99), or carbohydrate intake (p = 0.39). (
  • Among overweight patients, a reduced calorie diet was principally important for long-term weight loss and not the proportion of fat, protein, and carbohydrates in the diet. (
  • 17] In addition, some researchers have raised questions about whether a high-protein or low-carbohydrate diet may increase the all-cause mortality risk in women. (
  • Six-week-old male F344 rats were fed either a HFWD [40.6% fat (19.5% lard), 40.6% total carbohydrate (20% sucrose), 14.8 % protein] or standard rat chow (STD) [6.2 % fat, 44.2 % carbohydrate (grain sources), 18.6 % protein] for the duration of the study. (
  • My family has done the Christmas shopping and though I am a butcher, my family will be celebrating the festive period with moderate food i.e. less carbohydrate, protein and drinks. (
  • Average carbohydrates (56%) and protein (46%) were adequate for those consuming 2 equicaloric meals. (
  • All kids, including those with diabetes , can and should eat carbohydrates (carbs) as part of a healthy diet. (
  • Even diabetics , who need to be aware of how many carbohydrates they are consuming, use carbs to function. (
  • Keto diets restrict carbohydrates to induce nutritional ketosis and typically limit carbs to 20 to 50 grams daily. (
  • Carbohydrates (carbs) are an important macronutrient that provides energy for your body. (
  • Carbs are classified into two types: simple carbohydrates and complex carbohydrates. (
  • Starches are also know as complex carbohydrates. (
  • Starches are a type of carbohydrate found in plant-based foods and grains. (
  • Consequently, they are not as efficient at digesting starches, and have a difficult time with a diet high in most complex carbohydrates, which will stay in the dogs' digestive tract longer, causing more energy to be used to try and absorb these foods. (
  • The starches in grains and carbohydrates is useful in herbivores and humans for enhanced digestion, but the starches in the grains slow down the digestion process for dogs and can cause irritation and spasms in the large intestine. (
  • Carbohydrate foods include fruits and juices, milk and yogurt, starches and grains, starchy vegetables and sugar-sweetened foods. (
  • Complex carbohydrates are made up of starches and fiber. (
  • It covers the chemical and enzymatic synthesis of simple and complex carbohydrates and modern methods for the analysis of carbohydrate structure, and reviews the ways in which carbohydrates mediate binding to cells and subcellular targets such as DNA, proteins, and antibody binding sites. (
  • Interest in carbohydrate-active enzymes is due not only to their ability to build and degrade biopolymers-which is highly relevant in biotechnology-but also because they are involved in bacterial biofilm formation, and in glycosylation of proteins and lipids, with important health implications. (
  • One hundred and sixty-four male and female participants with type 2 diabetes were randomly assigned to advice on either a low-carbohydrate vegan diet, high in canola oil and plant proteins, or a vegetarian therapeutic diet, for 3 mo, with both diets recommended at 60% of calorie requirements. (
  • To balance the intake of carbohydrate, other vital foods like proteins, fiber, and fat should also be consumed. (
  • Carbohydrates should never be used to replace the calories received from proteins since that can again be damaging to the health. (
  • Most proteins, and some lipids, have carbohydrates attached to them that are important for their functions. (
  • If we compare the alpha-amino acid building blocks of proteins with the sugar building blocks of carbohydrates, several things become apparent regarding the greater structural complexity of carbohydrates compared to proteins. (
  • Refined carbohydrates do not give you the same feeling of satiety as high-fiber carbohydrates, healthy fats or proteins. (
  • In short, the calories from carbohydrates will replace the calories from proteins. (
  • Not all types of carbohydrates are the same or absorbed equally. (
  • There are several types of carbohydrates , but they are broadly classified into three categories. (
  • Carbohydrate Metabolism! (
  • However, the ability of dietary fiber to retard food digestion and nutrient absorption certainly has an important influence on lipid and carbohydrate metabolism. (
  • Response of hepatic carbohydrate and cyclic AMP metabolism to cadmium " by Zul Merali, S. Kacew et al. (
  • Discontinuation of cadmium administration for 14 days in rats previously injected with cadmium chloride (1 mg/kg per day) for 21 days, failed to reverse the observed changes in hepatic cAMP or carbohydrate metabolism. (
  • Data provide evidence that suggests that the gluconeogenic potential of liver is markedly enhanced following chronic exposure to cadmium and that the cadmium-induced changes in carbohydrate metabolism may be associated with an enhanced synthesis of cAMP. (
  • IMSEAR at SEARO: Carbohydrate metabolism in ICC. (
  • Carbohydrate metabolism in ICC. (
  • Differential disruption on glucose and insulin metabolism in two rat models of diet-induced obesity, based on carbohydrates or lipids. (
  • In conclusion, obesity and glucose metabolism dysregulation induced by carbohydrate consumption , led to worst outcomes than high-fat diet . (
  • CHOs or glucose, to which more complex carbohydrates are ultimately digested, can have direct and indirect effects on tumor cell proliferation: first, contrary to normal cells, most malignant cells depend on steady glucose availability in the blood for their energy and biomass generating demands and are not able to metabolize significant amounts of fatty acids or ketone bodies due to mitochondrial dysfunction. (
  • Carbohydrates from food are turned into glucose (blood sugar), which causes blood sugar to rise. (
  • Carbohydrates are categorized as monosaccharides (glucose, galactose and fructose), disaccharides (two monosaccharides held together by a glycosidic bond) and polysaccharides, which includes starch, cellulose and glycogen. (
  • Carbohydrates can be stored in limited quantities so our body tends to use them first by breaking them down into the simple form of sugar called glucose. (
  • Glucose , also known as blood sugar, is the sugar all other carbohydrates are converted to in the body. (
  • Since fructose and galactose are eventually converted to glucose, from here out I will simply refer to all digested carbohydrates as glucose. (
  • Whether simple or complex, a carbohydrate contains four calories per gram and is metabolized by the body to make glucose. (
  • A high intake of carbohydrates in the body raises blood glucose levels, which is unhealthy. (
  • However, these recommendations have been questioned on the basis of growing evidence that, in both insulin-dependent and non-insulin-dependent diabetic patients, a high-carbohydrate diet does not offer any advantage in terms of blood glucose and plasma lipid concentrations compared with a high-fat (mainly unsaturated) diet. (
  • It has been shown repeatedly that a high-carbohydrate diet increases plasma insulin and triglyceride levels and can deteriorate blood glucose control in the postprandial period. (
  • In particular, these studies demonstrated that a high-carbohydrate/high-fiber diet significantly improves blood glucose control and reduces plasma cholesterol levels in diabetic patients compared with a low-carbohydrate/low-fiber diet. (
  • Blood samples and breathing gas samples were collected before the exercise (PRE), POST0, and 120 (POST120) and 240 min after the end of exercise (POST240) to determine the concentrations of estradiol, progesterone, blood glucose, blood lactate, free fatty acid (FFA), and insulin and the respiratory exchange ratio, fat oxidation, and carbohydrate oxidation. (
  • Despite the glucose-lowering and weight loss benefits of a very-low-carbohydrate diet (VLCD), it is strongly recommended to avoid VLCDs due to the risk of hypoglycemia and elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels [ 3 ]. (
  • Triglycerides are storage fats composed of three fatty acid chains hooked onto a glycerol (a 3-carbon carbohydrate) molecule. (
  • Though there are some foods that have large quantities of carbohydrates, almost all foods contain some amounts of carbohydrates, with fats being the only exception. (
  • Since the calories which are not burnt are converted and stored as fats, consuming a regular high carbohydrate diet can cause excessive weight gain or obesity and subsequently the lifestyle diseases that stem from them. (
  • The author concludes that the diseases seen most frequently in collective farm workers are related to inadequate working conditions and a diet consisting mostly of fats and carbohydrates. (
  • Published in 1975: This volume contains the completed section of the Handbook of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology with data pertaining to Lipids, Carbohydrates, and Steroids. (
  • People with diabetes often need to count the amount of carbohydrates they eat to ensure a consistent supply throughout the day. (
  • Learn everything you need to know about carbohydrate counters and carb counting for diabetes right here. (
  • Complex carbohydrates, found in starchy veg and whole grains, are linked to healthier weight and lower risks of both type 2 diabetes and heart disease. (
  • Several dietary and lifestyle factors are implicated although dietary carbohydrates (CHOs) have a key role in influencing diabetes risk. (
  • Carbohydrate Counting: Consistency Matters" will be the first of four webinars in the 2019 diabetes webinar series. (
  • The month of April is National Defeat Diabetes Month, and we're springing into healthy eating habits and focusing on managing diet with better awareness about carbohydrates. (
  • We therefore tested the effect of a low-carbohydrate vegan diet in diabetes as a potentially healthier and more ecologically sustainable low-carbohydrate option. (
  • We sought to compare the effectiveness of a low-carbohydrate vegan diet with a moderate-carbohydrate vegetarian diet on weight loss and metabolic measures in diabetes. (
  • Those who have been consuming a high carbohydrate diet , or those who suffer from diseases like hypertension, high blood pressure and diabetes, are advised to consume low carbohydrate foods . (
  • Dietary recommendations for the treatment of diabetic patients issued by national and international diabetes associations consistently emphasize the need to increase carbohydrate consumption. (
  • These simple carbohydrates can lead to spikes in blood sugar levels and long term intake of these foods can cause insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. (
  • This pilot study assessed the impact of an intensive carbohydrate counting educational intervention on diabetes control in type 2 diabetic patients. (
  • The Joint Committee of the Korean Diabetes Association, the Korean Society for the Study of Obesity, and the Korean Society of Hypertension announced a consensus statement on carbohydrate-restricted diets and intermittent fasting, representing an emerging and popular dietary pattern. (
  • In this statement, we recommend moderately-low-carbohydrate or low-carbohydrate diets, not a very-low-carbohydrate diet, for patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. (
  • This review provides the detailed results of a meta-analysis and systematic literature review on the potential harms and benefits of carbohydrate-restricted diets in patients with diabetes. (
  • We expect that this review will help experts and patients by fostering an in-depth understanding and appropriate application of carbohydrate-restricted diets in the comprehensive management of diabetes. (
  • Many patients with diabetes have a greater interest in feasible carbohydrate-restricted diets than in reducing total energy intake. (
  • Accordingly, the American Diabetes Association (ADA) states that carbohydrate- restricted diets can help improve glycemic control and weight loss [ 2 ]. (
  • However, the Korean Diabetes Association (KDA) recommends individualizing the composition of macronutrients without specific recommendations on carbohydrate restriction [ 1 ]. (
  • The Joint Committee of the KDA, the Korean Society for the Study of Obesity (KSSO), and the Korean Society of Hypertension (KSH) has published a consensus statement on carbohydrate-restricted diets and intermittent fasting in adults with obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), and hypertension [ 3 ]. (
  • Carbohydrates come in three forms: sugar, starch, and fiber. (
  • Instead of sugary options, offer healthier choices, such as fruit - a naturally sweet carbohydrate-containing snack that also provides fiber and vitamins that kids need. (
  • Dietary fiber - several forms of carbohydrates such as cellulose, hemicellulose, pectin, plant gums and mucilages. (
  • Dietary fiber is a form of carbohydrate known for its positive effects on the body. (
  • Dietary fiber is found in carbohydrates such as bananas, whole grains, and oats. (
  • However, much of the controversy between advocates and detractors of dietary carbohydrate can be settled by taking into account dietary fiber. (
  • Several studies have shown that the adverse metabolic effects of high-carbohydrate diets are neutralized when fiber and carbohydrate are increased simultaneously in the diet for diabetic patients. (
  • In addition, a high-carbohydrate/high-fiber diet does not increase plasma insulin and triglyceride concentrations, despite the higher consumption of carbohydrates. (
  • Eating too many carbohydrates in the form of processed, starchy, or sugary foods can increase your total calories, which can lead to weight gain . (
  • Starch - the main sources of carbohydrates present in cereal grains, potatoes and other "starchy" parts of plants. (
  • In extremely simplified terms there are two different types of carbohydrate, simple carbohydrates and complex or starchy carbohydrates. (
  • This is when the body uses fat for energy because there are not enough carbohydrates from food for the body to use for energy. (
  • What happens if we do not eat enough carbohydrates? (
  • When you don't get enough carbohydrates in your diet, your body might store extra carbohydrates in your muscles and liver for later use. (
  • MILK and CHO was not significantly different in substrate utilization during recovery and exercise capacity tests after recovery in the different menstrual cycle phases when women consume enough carbohydrates during recovery. (
  • Studies were also presented on novel molecules involved in the recognition of carbohydrate antigens such as specific intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-grabbing nonintegrins, which are C-type lectins that show substantial expression in many tissues, and toll-like receptors, which function as pattern recognition receptors for conserved pathogen structures and serve as key links between innate and adaptive immunity. (
  • Carbohydrates are one of the main nutrients in our diet. (
  • Thus, the switch from the "caveman's diet" consisting of fat, meat and only occasionally roots, berries and other sources of carbohydrate (CHO) to a nutrition dominated by easily digestible CHOs derived mainly from grains as staple food would have occurred too recently to induce major adoptions in our genes encoding the metabolic pathways. (
  • A healthy balanced diet for kids over 2 years old should include 50% to 60% of calories coming from carbohydrates. (
  • While all low carbohydrate approaches reduce the overall intake of carbohydrates, there is no clear consensus on what defines a low-carb diet. (
  • For years authorities such as the American Heart Association and the US Department of Agriculture have recommended a high carbohydrate, low fat diet for cardiovascular health and weight loss, while Americans have grown ever fatter. (
  • Meanwhile Dr Robert Atkins' low carbohydrate "steak and eggs" diet books have sold 10 million copies and led to anecdotal reports of successful weight loss. (
  • Complex carbohydrates are absorbed more slowly and slowly in our body, so they should be part of the athlete's diet, especially those who practice endurance sports and need a durable energy source. (
  • To evaluate whether the amount or quality of carbohydrate in diet is associated with ovulatory infertility. (
  • The amount and quality of carbohydrate in diet may be important determinants of ovulation and fertility in healthy women. (
  • Carbohydrates are the body's main source of energy and make up an important part of a well-balanced diet. (
  • In this unit, I am going to describe what carbohydrates are, their values as food for dogs, and whether they are necessary in a dog's diet. (
  • A diet based more on carbohydrates, such as grains, tends to produce larger stools and contain more water. (
  • Carbohydrates are often listed in canine nutrition books as an essential part of the diet, yet no percentages or ratios are designated for this nutrient. (
  • DENVER , June 12, 2012 /PRNewswire/ -- Atkins Nutritionals, Inc. today announced that a recently released epidemiology study published in Nutrition Journal has come to the mistaken conclusion that a low-carbohydrate diet, like the Atkins Diet™, is to blame for rising cholesterol levels between 1986 and 2010 in a Swedish population. (
  • However, based on the study abstract, this population actually consumed a high-fat, high-carbohydrate diet, which is very different from the Atkins Diet. (
  • Based on the Swedish study of food frequency questionnaires, during 2010 the population consumed a diet with carbohydrates making up 45.9 percent of calories and 39.9 percent of calories from fat. (
  • A well formulated low carbohydrate diet, like the Atkins Diet, has been shown in numerous studies to result in favorable effects on cholesterol, saturated fat levels in the body, and other cardio-metabolic markers, especially in individuals who have insulin resistance," said Dr. Jeff Volek , PhD., RD. (
  • 3. The diet includes complete information on calories and carbohydrates. (
  • Present in the milk of all mammals and the only carbohydrate of animal origin of significance in the diet. (
  • 95% CI: -8, -3 mmHg), and potential greenhouse gas emissions, but only for potential greenhouse gas emissions was there a significant treatment difference of -0.63 kgCO2/d (95% CI: -0.99, -0.27 kgCO2/d) favoring the low-carbohydrate vegan diet. (
  • Low-carbohydrate vegan and vegetarian diets reduced body weight, improved glycemic control and blood pressure, but the more plant-based diet had greater potential reduction in greenhouse gas emissions.Trial registration number: identifier NCT02245399 . (
  • To derive the maximum benefits of carbohydrates, they should constitute only 40% of your entire diet. (
  • Problems related to the excessive consumption of carbohydrates only arise when the diet consists of more than 50% of carbohydrates. (
  • Carbohydrates are the body's preferential source of energy, required to sustain high intensity activity making a high carbohydrate diet optimal for those looking to build muscle and maximise their sporting performance. (
  • Carbohydrates are one of the food groups that are vital to a well-balanced diet. (
  • If you are concerned that your diet is too high in carbohydrates, here are some signs that your fears are proven. (
  • Luckily, someone on one of the forums suggested I try the Specific Carbohydrate Diet (SCD). (
  • So here's a bit of a primer about the Specific Carbohydrate Diet, or SCD. (
  • Dr. Sidney Valentine Haas used the Specific Carbohydrate diet almost 100 years ago to treat Celiac disease. (
  • In this statement, we recommend a moderately-low-carbohydrate diet (MCD) or a low-carbohydrate diet (LCD) to improve glycemic control and reduce weight in patients with T2DM [ 3 ]. (
  • Low carbohydrate (low-carb) diets are a strategy for weight loss. (
  • Outline low carbohydrate diets in terms of percent of macronutrient content and total carbohydrate load. (
  • Review the evidence behind low carbohydrate diets. (
  • Describe the potential concerns surrounding low carbohydrate diets. (
  • Explain the importance of collaboration and communication among the interprofessional team to ensure the appropriate selection of candidates for low carbohydrate diets and educate patients to provide the best possible outcome. (
  • Since 1860, and more recently, in 1972, low carbohydrate (low-carb) diets have been a strategy for weight loss. (
  • This study completely ignores a large body of literature that points to health-promoting effects of low carbohydrate diets. (
  • Though carbohydrate foods are good for the body and supply it with energy, it is important to consume carbohydrates in moderation so that the delicate balance of sugar in the body is not disturbed. (
  • Those engaging in a high volume of training in particular will need to consume more carbohydrates such as waxy maize and Vitargo, shown to replenish muscle glycogen stores faster than solid food can achieve. (
  • It is commonplace for elite athletes to consume some carbohydrate beverages during training and especially after training. (
  • There is no one-size-fits-all carbohydrate amount that people should consume. (
  • Rather, they consume too much processed and fortified carbohydrates, including foods with added sugar. (
  • For every gram of carbohydrates you consume, you retain three grams of water. (
  • Like all things, there is much debate about the amount of carbohydrates one needs. (
  • If you're not sure if you're getting the right amount of carbohydrates a day, start with expert advice and make changes. (
  • Another type of carbohydrate is sugar. (
  • How Many Calories & Carbohydrates Are There in Sugar? (
  • Each tablespoon of granulated sugar contains 49 calories and 13 grams of carbohydrates. (
  • Monitoring your intake of this omnipresent ingredient is the key to controlling the number of carbohydrates - there's 13 grams in one tablespoon of sugar -and calories you eat on a daily basis. (
  • Limit most instant oatmeal due to its high sugar/carbohydrate content. (
  • First, while there are two possible structures for each of the 20 amino acids, there are eight different structures for each sugar (carbohydrates). (
  • A carbohydrate is classified as either a monosaccharide, a disaccharide, or a polysaccharide based on the number of sugar units it contains. (
  • On the other hand, complex carbohydrates are made up of several single sugar molecules linked together in chains. (
  • This study also concluded that Chia loading allowed athletes to reduce their dietary intake of sugar while matching the performance advantage seen with carbohydrate loading. (
  • Too much sugar and refined carbohydrates can create many unpleasant symptoms, including the side effects described in this article. (
  • One of the most noticeable short-term effects of overeating on carbohydrates is the effect it has on blood sugar," says Ewoldt. (
  • The increase in carbohydrate intake was generally in favour of sugar or sweetener laden, low fat foods and refined carbohydrates. (
  • The aim of this study was to evaluate the pH, buffering capacity (BC), total carbohydrates and sucrose in 15 sugar-free and light processed fruit juices. (
  • You may also need to drink beverages with sugar if you cannot get 50 grams of carbohydrates every 4 hours from other food choices. (
  • Your body needs all three forms of carbohydrates to function properly. (
  • There are three main forms of carbohydrates that the body comes in contact with. (
  • Carbohydrate drink: The administration of a complex carbohydrate-rich drink before surgery (100gm the evening before surgery and 50gm 2-3 hours preop) may increase insulin sensitivity but does not reduce complications or significantly improve other outcomes when compared to placebo fluids (1). (
  • In addition, drinks containing simple carbohydrates may not have the same impact on insulin response and further research is required in comparison to placebo fluids and complex carbohydrate containing drinks. (
  • A faculty colleague of mine often joked that I was the "spaghetti scientist" because I worked at the Complex Carbohydrate Research Center at the University of Georgia. (
  • Hammer Gel is a concentrated complex carbohydrate gel with the consistency of syrup. (
  • It is best to get most of your carbohydrates from whole grains, dairy, fruits, and vegetables rather than refined grains. (
  • However, quality carbohydrates (such as whole grains) are needed to support the body in accomplishing its normal functions. (
  • Carbohydrates from unprocessed whole grains, legumes, vegetables, and fruits are the best sources . (
  • The work presented in this thesis represents the first concerted effort to acquire, assign and interpret the ROA spectra of carbohydrates ranging from monosaccharides to polysaccharides. (
  • Monosaccharides are the 'basic units' of carbohydrates. (
  • Once in the blood, these carbohydrates , now in the form of monosaccharides, can be put to use. (
  • The primary distinction between simple and complex carbohydrates is that simple carbohydrates contain monosaccharides and disaccharides. (
  • Except for milk, which is the only animal-based product containing a considerable carbohydrate amount, carbohydrates are virtually entirely derived from plants, vegetables, and grains. (
  • Altered cell surface carbohydrates are characteristic of cancer. (
  • Many different types of foods contain one or more type of carbohydrate. (
  • Some carbohydrate-dense foods are healthier than others. (
  • Many kinds of foods carbohydrates, such as candy, cereal, and pasta, can produce a temporary increase in brain serotonin-and a subsequent calming or anxiety-reducing effect. (
  • Use these foods sparingly since they count as carbohydrate choices in the same way that an entire piece of fruit or slice of bread count. (
  • High carbohydrate foods can also harm health, especially high-carbohydrate foods like pastries and cakes that are loaded with refined carbohydrates. (
  • There are many carbohydrate foods , which when consumed in their natural state, have many benefits to the human body. (
  • You will find the calorie, fat and carbohydrate counts for your favorite foods in this convenient, pocket-sized, and colorful book. (
  • You can increase your carb intake by combining kasha with other carbohydrate-rich foods. (
  • Sugary processed foods and refined carbohydrates should be limited as they offer little in terms of nutrition. (
  • It will have more of fruits and vegetables and fewer carbohydrates and sweetened foods", she says. (
  • Wholegrains, oats, pulses and vegetables are all quality examples of complex carbohydrates. (
  • Should athletes take a lot of carbohydrates? (
  • Most athletes know the importance of carbohydrates. (
  • Carbohydrates are necessary to meet energy needs, more so in endurance athletes than in strength athletes. (
  • The total carbohydrates were determined using the phenol sulfuric method, while the sucrose was determined through the incubation of each sample with the invertase enzyme. (
  • Complex carbohydrates are difficult for the body to break down, and that's a good thing,' says Gail Cresci, a researcher in gastroenterology and nutrition at Cleveland Clinic . (
  • This food intake is not reflective of the Atkins dietary program," said Colette Heimowitz , vice president of nutrition and education for Atkins Nutritionals, Inc. "The Swedish study is a case study of what happens when a population consumes high carbohydrate combined with high fat. (
  • One carb choice would be between 15-20 grams of carbohydrate on the nutrition label. (
  • Carbohydrates in human nutrition : report of a joint FAO/WHO expert consultation, Rome, 14-18 April 1997. (
  • In fact, carbohydrates are generally your body's main (and preferred) source of fuel. (
  • Carbohydrate-active enzymes are responsible for both biosynthesis and breakdown of carbohydrates and glycoconjugates. (
  • Carbohydrate-active enzymes are classified into glycoside hydrolases, glycosyltransferases, polysaccharide lyases, carbohydrate esterases, and enzymes with auxiliary activities (CAZy database, (
  • For example, a serving of kasha for breakfast with 1 tablespoon of honey and a 1/2 cup of blueberries provides 36 grams of carbohydrate. (
  • Fat poses no risk when carbohydrate consumption is low enough to allow the body to burn fat for fuel. (
  • [2] This approach has been recently called the carbohydrate-insulin model. (
  • Prospective Study of Glycemic Load, Glycemic Index, and Carbohydrate Intake in Relation to Risk of Biliary Tract Cancer. (
  • This study aimed to assess the effects of co-ingestion of carbohydrate with milk (MILK) and isocaloric carbohydrate beverage (CHO) on post-exercise recovery and subsequent exercise capacity, considering the menstrual cycle. (
  • Yogurt is highly variable in carbohydrate content, so check the food label to be sure. (
  • We offer a broad selection of carbohydrate standards ranging from simple to complex carbohydrates for analytical testing, including pharma release testing, pharma method development, and quality control testing of food and beverages. (
  • There are so-called complex carbohydrates and simple carbohydrates . (
  • What about simple carbohydrates? (
  • Simple carbohydrates are absorbed more quickly. (
  • Carbohydrates are composed mostly of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms that can have a simple or complicated structural shape. (
  • Simple carbohydrates are digested and absorbed into the bloodstream quite quickly. (
  • They are complex carbohydrates with long chains of carbohydrate molecules. (
  • However, what is less known is that carbohydrates are perhaps the most information-rich molecules in the cell-making them evidence that life is the product of an intelligent Creator, and not of chance. (
  • Carbohydrates are carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen-containing chemical molecules. (
  • In addition, the main conventional physical methods of establishing carbohydrate conformation are briefly reviewed and the strength and weaknesses of each method noted. (
  • Complex carbohydrates are absorbed much slower because they contain fibre, they are also a rich source of vitamins and minerals. (
  • Further research is also required prior to use of carbohydrate drinks in diabetics or other patients at risk for hyperglycemia. (
  • Overall, carbohydrates provide fuel for the body along with other vitamins and minerals. (
  • Carbohydrates give us the energy that our body needs, although they are not the only ones from which we can obtain this energy, nor those that contribute us more. (
  • It is the primary form of carbohydrate which circulates in the blood and is utilized by the body cells for energy. (
  • Glycogen - the form in which carbohydrates are stored in the body. (
  • Carbohydrates provide the body with energy and support the nervous system. (
  • Carbohydrates are the primary source of energy in your body. (
  • Carbohydrates naturally absorb the water in your body. (
  • After eating a carbohydrate-rich meal, your body retains water and you feel bloated. (
  • The recommended carbohydrate intake for an average sportsperson is generally between 3 and 7 grams per pound of body weight," says Ewoldt. (
  • Carbohydrate needs are commonly based on the athlete's body size and activity level. (
  • Individuals engaged in moderate-duration, low-intensity exercise require 5-7 g of carbohydrates per kilogram of body weight. (
  • 14] By contrast, those participating in long-duration and high-intensity exercise require 7-12 g of carbohydrates per kilogram of body weight (see the Table). (
  • It also provides an overview of cyclodextrins and their properties and the biosynthesis of carbohydrates. (