Carbohydrates: The largest class of organic compounds, including STARCH; GLYCOGEN; CELLULOSE; POLYSACCHARIDES; and simple MONOSACCHARIDES. Carbohydrates are composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a ratio of Cn(H2O)n.Carbohydrate Metabolism: Cellular processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of CARBOHYDRATES.Dietary Carbohydrates: Carbohydrates present in food comprising digestible sugars and starches and indigestible cellulose and other dietary fibers. The former are the major source of energy. The sugars are in beet and cane sugar, fruits, honey, sweet corn, corn syrup, milk and milk products, etc.; the starches are in cereal grains, legumes (FABACEAE), tubers, etc. (From Claudio & Lagua, Nutrition and Diet Therapy Dictionary, 3d ed, p32, p277)Carbohydrate Sequence: The sequence of carbohydrates within POLYSACCHARIDES; GLYCOPROTEINS; and GLYCOLIPIDS.Carbohydrate Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a carbohydrate.Oligosaccharides: Carbohydrates consisting of between two (DISACCHARIDES) and ten MONOSACCHARIDES connected by either an alpha- or beta-glycosidic link. They are found throughout nature in both the free and bound form.Antigens, Tumor-Associated, Carbohydrate: Carbohydrate antigens expressed by malignant tissue. They are useful as tumor markers and are measured in the serum by means of a radioimmunoassay employing monoclonal antibodies.Lectins: Proteins that share the common characteristic of binding to carbohydrates. Some ANTIBODIES and carbohydrate-metabolizing proteins (ENZYMES) also bind to carbohydrates, however they are not considered lectins. PLANT LECTINS are carbohydrate-binding proteins that have been primarily identified by their hemagglutinating activity (HEMAGGLUTININS). However, a variety of lectins occur in animal species where they serve diverse array of functions through specific carbohydrate recognition.Starch: Any of a group of polysaccharides of the general formula (C6-H10-O5)n, composed of a long-chain polymer of glucose in the form of amylose and amylopectin. It is the chief storage form of energy reserve (carbohydrates) in plants.PolysaccharidesGlycosylation: The chemical or biochemical addition of carbohydrate or glycosyl groups to other chemicals, especially peptides or proteins. Glycosyl transferases are used in this biochemical reaction.Monosaccharides: Simple sugars, carbohydrates which cannot be decomposed by hydrolysis. They are colorless crystalline substances with a sweet taste and have the same general formula CnH2nOn. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Mannose: A hexose or fermentable monosaccharide and isomer of glucose from manna, the ash Fraxinus ornus and related plants. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed & Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Glycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.Dietary Fats: Fats present in food, especially in animal products such as meat, meat products, butter, ghee. They are present in lower amounts in nuts, seeds, and avocados.Glucose: A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Dietary Proteins: Proteins obtained from foods. They are the main source of the ESSENTIAL AMINO ACIDS.Diet, Carbohydrate-Restricted: A diet that contains limited amounts of CARBOHYDRATES. This is in distinction to a regular DIET.Energy Intake: Total number of calories taken in daily whether ingested or by parenteral routes.Galactose: An aldohexose that occurs naturally in the D-form in lactose, cerebrosides, gangliosides, and mucoproteins. Deficiency of galactosyl-1-phosphate uridyltransferase (GALACTOSE-1-PHOSPHATE URIDYL-TRANSFERASE DEFICIENCY DISEASE) causes an error in galactose metabolism called GALACTOSEMIA, resulting in elevations of galactose in the blood.Glycoside HydrolasesBlood Glucose: Glucose in blood.Plant Lectins: Protein or glycoprotein substances of plant origin that bind to sugar moieties in cell walls or membranes. Some carbohydrate-metabolizing proteins (ENZYMES) from PLANTS also bind to carbohydrates, however they are not considered lectins. Many plant lectins change the physiology of the membrane of BLOOD CELLS to cause agglutination, mitosis, or other biochemical changes. They may play a role in plant defense mechanisms.Sucrose: A nonreducing disaccharide composed of GLUCOSE and FRUCTOSE linked via their anomeric carbons. It is obtained commercially from SUGARCANE, sugar beet (BETA VULGARIS), and other plants and used extensively as a food and a sweetener.Glycopeptides: Proteins which contain carbohydrate groups attached covalently to the polypeptide chain. The protein moiety is the predominant group with the carbohydrate making up only a small percentage of the total weight.Fructose: A monosaccharide in sweet fruits and honey that is soluble in water, alcohol, or ether. It is used as a preservative and an intravenous infusion in parenteral feeding.Amino Acids: Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.Glycoconjugates: Carbohydrates covalently linked to a nonsugar moiety (lipids or proteins). The major glycoconjugates are glycoproteins, glycopeptides, peptidoglycans, glycolipids, and lipopolysaccharides. (From Biochemical Nomenclature and Related Documents, 2d ed; From Principles of Biochemistry, 2d ed)Disaccharides: Oligosaccharides containing two monosaccharide units linked by a glycosidic bond.FucoseHexosesSialic Acids: A group of naturally occurring N-and O-acyl derivatives of the deoxyamino sugar neuraminic acid. They are ubiquitously distributed in many tissues.GlycogenDiet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.Fermentation: Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.DextrinsAmino Sugars: SUGARS containing an amino group. GLYCOSYLATION of other compounds with these amino sugars results in AMINOGLYCOSIDES.Insulin: A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).Dietary Fiber: The remnants of plant cell walls that are resistant to digestion by the alimentary enzymes of man. It comprises various polysaccharides and lignins.Energy Metabolism: The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.Acetylglucosamine: The N-acetyl derivative of glucosamine.Periodic Acid: A strong oxidizing agent.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Acetylgalactosamine: The N-acetyl derivative of galactosamine.GlucosamineMolecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Postprandial Period: The time frame after a meal or FOOD INTAKE.Trisaccharides: Oligosaccharides containing three monosaccharide units linked by glycosidic bonds.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Antigens, CD15: A trisaccharide antigen expressed on glycolipids and many cell-surface glycoproteins. In the blood the antigen is found on the surface of NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and MONOCYTES. In addition, CD15 antigen is a stage-specific embryonic antigen.N-Acetylneuraminic Acid: An N-acyl derivative of neuraminic acid. N-acetylneuraminic acid occurs in many polysaccharides, glycoproteins, and glycolipids in animals and bacteria. (From Dorland, 28th ed, p1518)HexosaminesLactose: A disaccharide of GLUCOSE and GALACTOSE in human and cow milk. It is used in pharmacy for tablets, in medicine as a nutrient, and in industry.Mucins: High molecular weight mucoproteins that protect the surface of EPITHELIAL CELLS by providing a barrier to particulate matter and microorganisms. Membrane-anchored mucins may have additional roles concerned with protein interactions at the cell surface.Lewis Blood-Group System: A group of dominantly and independently inherited antigens associated with the ABO blood factors. They are glycolipids present in plasma and secretions that may adhere to the erythrocytes. The phenotype Le(b) is the result of the interaction of the Le gene Le(a) with the genes for the ABO blood groups.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Glycolipids: Any compound containing one or more monosaccharide residues bound by a glycosidic linkage to a hydrophobic moiety such as an acylglycerol (see GLYCERIDES), a sphingoid, a ceramide (CERAMIDES) (N-acylsphingoid) or a prenyl phosphate. (From IUPAC's webpage)Galectins: A class of animal lectins that bind specifically to beta-galactoside in a calcium-independent manner. Members of this class are distiguished from other lectins by the presence of a conserved carbohydrate recognition domain. The majority of proteins in this class bind to sugar molecules in a sulfhydryl-dependent manner and are often referred to as S-type lectins, however this property is not required for membership in this class.Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Lipid Metabolism: Physiological processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of LIPIDS.Epitopes: Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.Neuraminic AcidsEating: The consumption of edible substances.Chromatography, Gel: Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.Peptide-N4-(N-acetyl-beta-glucosaminyl) Asparagine Amidase: An amidohydrolase that removes intact asparagine-linked oligosaccharide chains from glycoproteins. It requires the presence of more than two amino-acid residues in the substrate for activity. This enzyme was previously listed as EC 3.2.2.18.Food Preferences: The selection of one food over another.Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Lipids: A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Maltose: A dextrodisaccharide from malt and starch. It is used as a sweetening agent and fermentable intermediate in brewing. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Neuraminidase: An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of alpha-2,3, alpha-2,6-, and alpha-2,8-glycosidic linkages (at a decreasing rate, respectively) of terminal sialic residues in oligosaccharides, glycoproteins, glycolipids, colominic acid, and synthetic substrate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992)Asparagine: A non-essential amino acid that is involved in the metabolic control of cell functions in nerve and brain tissue. It is biosynthesized from ASPARTIC ACID and AMMONIA by asparagine synthetase. (From Concise Encyclopedia Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 3rd ed)Glycomics: The systematic study of the structure and function of the complete set of glycans (the glycome) produced in a single organism and identification of all the genes that encode glycoproteins.Fatty Acids: Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Sugar Alcohols: Polyhydric alcohols having no more than one hydroxy group attached to each carbon atom. They are formed by the reduction of the carbonyl group of a sugar to a hydroxyl group.(From Dorland, 28th ed)Chromatography, Affinity: A chromatographic technique that utilizes the ability of biological molecules to bind to certain ligands specifically and reversibly. It is used in protein biochemistry. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Nitrogen: An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.Pronase: A proteolytic enzyme obtained from Streptomyces griseus.TriglyceridesTunicamycin: An N-acetylglycosamine containing antiviral antibiotic obtained from Streptomyces lysosuperificus. It is also active against some bacteria and fungi, because it inhibits the glucosylation of proteins. Tunicamycin is used as tool in the study of microbial biosynthetic mechanisms.Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Food: Any substances taken in by the body that provide nourishment.Concanavalin A: A MANNOSE/GLUCOSE binding lectin isolated from the jack bean (Canavalia ensiformis). It is a potent mitogen used to stimulate cell proliferation in lymphocytes, primarily T-lymphocyte, cultures.Dietary Sucrose: Sucrose present in the diet. It is added to food and drinks as a sweetener.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Mannosides: Glycosides formed by the reaction of the hydroxyl group on the anomeric carbon atom of mannose with an alcohol to form an acetal. They include both alpha- and beta-mannosides.Mannose-Binding Lectins: A subclass of lectins that are specific for CARBOHYDRATES that contain MANNOSE.Fasting: Abstaining from all food.Cell Wall: The outermost layer of a cell in most PLANTS; BACTERIA; FUNGI; and ALGAE. The cell wall is usually a rigid structure that lies external to the CELL MEMBRANE, and provides a protective barrier against physical or chemical agents.Rhamnose: A methylpentose whose L- isomer is found naturally in many plant glycosides and some gram-negative bacterial lipopolysaccharides.XyloseDigestion: The process of breakdown of food for metabolism and use by the body.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Diabetic Diet: A diet prescribed in the treatment of diabetes mellitus, usually limited in the amount of sugar or readily available carbohydrate. (Dorland, 27th ed)Polysaccharides, Bacterial: Polysaccharides found in bacteria and in capsules thereof.Mannans: Polysaccharides consisting of mannose units.Fucosyltransferases: Enzymes catalyzing the transfer of fucose from a nucleoside diphosphate fucose to an acceptor molecule which is frequently another carbohydrate, a glycoprotein, or a glycolipid molecule. Elevated activity of some fucosyltransferases in human serum may serve as an indicator of malignancy. The class includes EC 2.4.1.65; EC 2.4.1.68; EC 2.4.1.69; EC 2.4.1.89.Mannosyl-Glycoprotein Endo-beta-N-Acetylglucosaminidase: A group of related enzymes responsible for the endohydrolysis of the di-N-acetylchitobiosyl unit in high-mannose-content glycopeptides and GLYCOPROTEINS.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Glucans: Polysaccharides composed of repeating glucose units. They can consist of branched or unbranched chains in any linkages.Lactic Acid: A normal intermediate in the fermentation (oxidation, metabolism) of sugar. The concentrated form is used internally to prevent gastrointestinal fermentation. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Intestinal Absorption: Uptake of substances through the lining of the INTESTINES.Lactates: Salts or esters of LACTIC ACID containing the general formula CH3CHOHCOOR.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)TrehaloseChromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Blood Group Antigens: Sets of cell surface antigens located on BLOOD CELLS. They are usually membrane GLYCOPROTEINS or GLYCOLIPIDS that are antigenically distinguished by their carbohydrate moieties.Fatty Acids, Nonesterified: FATTY ACIDS found in the plasma that are complexed with SERUM ALBUMIN for transport. These fatty acids are not in glycerol ester form.Cross-Over Studies: Studies comparing two or more treatments or interventions in which the subjects or patients, upon completion of the course of one treatment, are switched to another. In the case of two treatments, A and B, half the subjects are randomly allocated to receive these in the order A, B and half to receive them in the order B, A. A criticism of this design is that effects of the first treatment may carry over into the period when the second is given. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Glycosides: Any compound that contains a constituent sugar, in which the hydroxyl group attached to the first carbon is substituted by an alcoholic, phenolic, or other group. They are named specifically for the sugar contained, such as glucoside (glucose), pentoside (pentose), fructoside (fructose), etc. Upon hydrolysis, a sugar and nonsugar component (aglycone) are formed. (From Dorland, 28th ed; From Miall's Dictionary of Chemistry, 5th ed)Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Calorimetry, Indirect: Calculation of the energy expenditure in the form of heat production of the whole body or individual organs based on respiratory gas exchange.Cellulose: A polysaccharide with glucose units linked as in CELLOBIOSE. It is the chief constituent of plant fibers, cotton being the purest natural form of the substance. As a raw material, it forms the basis for many derivatives used in chromatography, ion exchange materials, explosives manufacturing, and pharmaceutical preparations.Hemagglutination: The aggregation of ERYTHROCYTES by AGGLUTININS, including antibodies, lectins, and viral proteins (HEMAGGLUTINATION, VIRAL).Beverages: Liquids that are suitable for drinking. (From Merriam Webster Collegiate Dictionary, 10th ed)CA-19-9 Antigen: Sialylated Lewis blood group carbohydrate antigen found in many adenocarcinomas of the digestive tract, especially pancreatic tumors.Obesity: A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).Exercise: Physical activity which is usually regular and done with the intention of improving or maintaining PHYSICAL FITNESS or HEALTH. Contrast with PHYSICAL EXERTION which is concerned largely with the physiologic and metabolic response to energy expenditure.Glycolysis: A metabolic process that converts GLUCOSE into two molecules of PYRUVIC ACID through a series of enzymatic reactions. Energy generated by this process is conserved in two molecules of ATP. Glycolysis is the universal catabolic pathway for glucose, free glucose, or glucose derived from complex CARBOHYDRATES, such as GLYCOGEN and STARCH.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Carbon: A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.Diet, Fat-Restricted: A diet that contains limited amounts of fat with less than 30% of calories from all fats and less than 10% from saturated fat. Such a diet is used in control of HYPERLIPIDEMIAS. (From Bondy et al, Metabolic Control and Disease, 8th ed, pp468-70; Dorland, 27th ed)Chromatography, Ion Exchange: Separation technique in which the stationary phase consists of ion exchange resins. The resins contain loosely held small ions that easily exchange places with other small ions of like charge present in solutions washed over the resins.beta-Fructofuranosidase: A glycoside hydrolase found primarily in PLANTS and YEASTS. It has specificity for beta-D-fructofuranosides such as SUCROSE.Lactulose: A synthetic disaccharide used in the treatment of constipation and hepatic encephalopathy. It has also been used in the diagnosis of gastrointestinal disorders. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p887)Chemistry: A basic science concerned with the composition, structure, and properties of matter; and the reactions that occur between substances and the associated energy exchange.Satiation: Full gratification of a need or desire followed by a state of relative insensitivity to that particular need or desire.Oxygen Consumption: The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)Antigens, CD57: Oligosaccharide antigenic determinants found principally on NK cells and T-cells. Their role in the immune response is poorly understood.Galactosyltransferases: Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of galactose from a nucleoside diphosphate galactose to an acceptor molecule which is frequently another carbohydrate. EC 2.4.1.-.Gluconeogenesis: Biosynthesis of GLUCOSE from nonhexose or non-carbohydrate precursors, such as LACTATE; PYRUVATE; ALANINE; and GLYCEROL.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Chemical Phenomena: The composition, conformation, and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.Ovomucin: A heterogeneous mixture of glycoproteins responsible for the gel structure of egg white. It has trypsin-inhibiting activity.Liver Glycogen: Glycogen stored in the liver. (Dorland, 28th ed)Plant Leaves: Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)Animal Feed: Foodstuff used especially for domestic and laboratory animals, or livestock.Glycosphingolipids: Lipids containing at least one monosaccharide residue and either a sphingoid or a ceramide (CERAMIDES). They are subdivided into NEUTRAL GLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS comprising monoglycosyl- and oligoglycosylsphingoids and monoglycosyl- and oligoglycosylceramides; and ACIDIC GLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS which comprises sialosylglycosylsphingolipids (GANGLIOSIDES); SULFOGLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS (formerly known as sulfatides), glycuronoglycosphingolipids, and phospho- and phosphonoglycosphingolipids. (From IUPAC's webpage)Carbon Isotopes: Stable carbon atoms that have the same atomic number as the element carbon, but differ in atomic weight. C-13 is a stable carbon isotope.Mass Spectrometry: An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Physical Endurance: The time span between the beginning of physical activity by an individual and the termination because of exhaustion.Lectins, C-Type: A class of animal lectins that bind to carbohydrate in a calcium-dependent manner. They share a common carbohydrate-binding domain that is structurally distinct from other classes of lectins.Appetite: Natural recurring desire for food. Alterations may be induced by APPETITE DEPRESSANTS or APPETITE STIMULANTS.Nutritive Value: An indication of the contribution of a food to the nutrient content of the diet. This value depends on the quantity of a food which is digested and absorbed and the amounts of the essential nutrients (protein, fat, carbohydrate, minerals, vitamins) which it contains. This value can be affected by soil and growing conditions, handling and storage, and processing.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Chromatography, Thin Layer: Chromatography on thin layers of adsorbents rather than in columns. The adsorbent can be alumina, silica gel, silicates, charcoals, or cellulose. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Streptococcus: A genus of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria whose organisms occur in pairs or chains. No endospores are produced. Many species exist as commensals or parasites on man or animals with some being highly pathogenic. A few species are saprophytes and occur in the natural environment.Calorimetry: The measurement of the quantity of heat involved in various processes, such as chemical reactions, changes of state, and formations of solutions, or in the determination of the heat capacities of substances. The fundamental unit of measurement is the joule or the calorie (4.184 joules). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Gangliosides: A subclass of ACIDIC GLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS. They contain one or more sialic acid (N-ACETYLNEURAMINIC ACID) residues. Using the Svennerholm system of abbrevations, gangliosides are designated G for ganglioside, plus subscript M, D, or T for mono-, di-, or trisialo, respectively, the subscript letter being followed by a subscript arabic numeral to indicated sequence of migration in thin-layer chromatograms. (From Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1997)Bread: Baked food product made of flour or meal that is moistened, kneaded, and sometimes fermented. A major food since prehistoric times, it has been made in various forms using a variety of ingredients and methods.Feeding Behavior: Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Food Analysis: Measurement and evaluation of the components of substances to be taken as FOOD.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Glycosyltransferases: Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of glycosyl groups to an acceptor. Most often another carbohydrate molecule acts as an acceptor, but inorganic phosphate can also act as an acceptor, such as in the case of PHOSPHORYLASES. Some of the enzymes in this group also catalyze hydrolysis, which can be regarded as transfer of a glycosyl group from the donor to water. Subclasses include the HEXOSYLTRANSFERASES; PENTOSYLTRANSFERASES; SIALYLTRANSFERASES; and those transferring other glycosyl groups. EC 2.4.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Fatty Acids, Volatile: Short-chain fatty acids of up to six carbon atoms in length. They are the major end products of microbial fermentation in the ruminant digestive tract and have also been implicated in the causation of neurological diseases in humans.Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: The processes and properties of living organisms by which they take in and balance the use of nutritive materials for energy, heat production, or building material for the growth, maintenance, or repair of tissues and the nutritive properties of FOOD.Fats: The glyceryl esters of a fatty acid, or of a mixture of fatty acids. They are generally odorless, colorless, and tasteless if pure, but they may be flavored according to origin. Fats are insoluble in water, soluble in most organic solvents. They occur in animal and vegetable tissue and are generally obtained by boiling or by extraction under pressure. They are important in the diet (DIETARY FATS) as a source of energy. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Glycerol: A trihydroxy sugar alcohol that is an intermediate in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. It is used as a solvent, emollient, pharmaceutical agent, and sweetening agent.Ketogenic Diet: A course of food intake that is high in FATS and low in CARBOHYDRATES. This diet provides sufficient PROTEINS for growth but insufficient amount of carbohydrates for the energy needs of the body. A ketogenic diet generates 80-90% of caloric requirements from fats and the remainder from proteins.Pulmonary Surfactant-Associated Protein D: An abundant pulmonary surfactant-associated protein that binds to a variety of lung pathogens and enhances their opsinization and killing by phagocytic cells. Surfactant protein D contains a N-terminal collagen-like domain and a C-terminal lectin domain that are characteristic of members of the collectin family of proteins.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Fabaceae: The large family of plants characterized by pods. Some are edible and some cause LATHYRISM or FAVISM and other forms of poisoning. Other species yield useful materials like gums from ACACIA and various LECTINS like PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS from PHASEOLUS. Many of them harbor NITROGEN FIXATION bacteria on their roots. Many but not all species of "beans" belong to this family.Immunodiffusion: Technique involving the diffusion of antigen or antibody through a semisolid medium, usually agar or agarose gel, with the result being a precipitin reaction.Bicycling: The use of a bicycle for transportation or recreation. It does not include the use of a bicycle in studying the body's response to physical exertion (BICYCLE ERGOMETRY TEST see EXERCISE TEST).Plant Stems: Parts of plants that usually grow vertically upwards towards the light and support the leaves, buds, and reproductive structures. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Diet, Reducing: A diet designed to cause an individual to lose weight.Mannosidases: Glycoside hydrolases that catalyze the hydrolysis of alpha or beta linked MANNOSE.Hexosaminidases: Enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of N-acylhexosamine residues in N-acylhexosamides. Hexosaminidases also act on GLUCOSIDES; GALACTOSIDES; and several OLIGOSACCHARIDES.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Chromatography, Gas: Fractionation of a vaporized sample as a consequence of partition between a mobile gaseous phase and a stationary phase held in a column. Two types are gas-solid chromatography, where the fixed phase is a solid, and gas-liquid, in which the stationary phase is a nonvolatile liquid supported on an inert solid matrix.Cereals: Seeds from grasses (POACEAE) which are important in the diet.Xylans: Polysaccharides consisting of xylose units.Malabsorption Syndromes: General term for a group of MALNUTRITION syndromes caused by failure of normal INTESTINAL ABSORPTION of nutrients.GalactosamineMutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Wheat Germ Agglutinins: Lectins purified from the germinating seeds of common wheat (Triticum vulgare); these bind to certain carbohydrate moieties on cell surface glycoproteins and are used to identify certain cell populations and inhibit or promote some immunological or physiological activities. There are at least two isoforms of this lectin.Collectins: A class of C-type lectins that target the carbohydrate structures found on invading pathogens. Binding of collectins to microorganisms results in their agglutination and enhanced clearance. Collectins form trimers that may assemble into larger oligomers. Each collectin polypeptide chain consists of four regions: a relatively short N-terminal region, a collagen-like region, an alpha-helical coiled-coil region, and carbohydrate-binding region.Phosphoenolpyruvate Sugar Phosphotransferase System: The bacterial sugar phosphotransferase system (PTS) that catalyzes the transfer of the phosphoryl group from phosphoenolpyruvate to its sugar substrates (the PTS sugars) concomitant with the translocation of these sugars across the bacterial membrane. The phosphorylation of a given sugar requires four proteins, two general proteins, Enzyme I and HPr and a pair of sugar-specific proteins designated as the Enzyme II complex. The PTS has also been implicated in the induction of synthesis of some catabolic enzyme systems required for the utilization of sugars that are not substrates of the PTS as well as the regulation of the activity of ADENYLYL CYCLASES. EC 2.7.1.-.Peanut Agglutinin: Lectin purified from peanuts (ARACHIS HYPOGAEA). It binds to poorly differentiated cells and terminally differentiated cells and is used in cell separation techniques.Asialoglycoproteins: Endogenous glycoproteins from which SIALIC ACID has been removed by the action of sialidases. They bind tightly to the ASIALOGLYCOPROTEIN RECEPTOR which is located on hepatocyte plasma membranes. After internalization by adsorptive ENDOCYTOSIS they are delivered to LYSOSOMES for degradation. Therefore receptor-mediated clearance of asialoglycoproteins is an important aspect of the turnover of plasma glycoproteins. They are elevated in serum of patients with HEPATIC CIRRHOSIS or HEPATITIS.Sulfates: Inorganic salts of sulfuric acid.Galectin 3: A multifunctional galactin initially discovered as a macrophage antigen that binds to IMMUNOGLOBULIN E, and as 29-35-kDa lectin that binds LAMININ. It is involved in a variety of biological events including interactions with galactose-containing glycoconjugates, cell proliferation, CELL DIFFERENTIATION, and APOPTOSIS.Trypsin: A serine endopeptidase that is formed from TRYPSINOGEN in the pancreas. It is converted into its active form by ENTEROPEPTIDASE in the small intestine. It catalyzes hydrolysis of the carboxyl group of either arginine or lysine. EC 3.4.21.4.Ligands: A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)ABO Blood-Group System: The major human blood type system which depends on the presence or absence of two antigens A and B. Type O occurs when neither A nor B is present and AB when both are present. A and B are genetic factors that determine the presence of enzymes for the synthesis of certain glycoproteins mainly in the red cell membrane.Food, Formulated: Food and dietary formulations including elemental (chemically defined formula) diets, synthetic and semisynthetic diets, space diets, weight-reduction formulas, tube-feeding diets, complete liquid diets, and supplemental liquid and solid diets.Muscle, Skeletal: A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.Swainsonine: An indolizidine alkaloid from the plant Swainsona canescens that is a potent alpha-mannosidase inhibitor. Swainsonine also exhibits antimetastatic, antiproliferative, and immunomodulatory activity.alpha-Glucosidases: Enzymes that catalyze the exohydrolysis of 1,4-alpha-glucosidic linkages with release of alpha-glucose. Deficiency of alpha-1,4-glucosidase may cause GLYCOGEN STORAGE DISEASE TYPE II.Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Plants, Medicinal: Plants whose roots, leaves, seeds, bark, or other constituent parts possess therapeutic, tonic, purgative, curative or other pharmacologic attributes, when administered to man or animals.Galactans: Polysaccharides composed of repeating galactose units. They can consist of branched or unbranched chains in any linkages.Starvation: Lengthy and continuous deprivation of food. (Stedman, 25th ed)

Studies of the binding of different iron donors to human serum transferrin and isolation of iron-binding fragments from the N- and C-terminal regions of the protein. (1/4726)

1. Trypsin digestion of human serum transferrin partially saturated with iron(III)-nitrilotriacetate at pH 5.5 or pH 8.5 produces a carbohydrate-containing iron-binding fragment of mol.wt. 43000. 2. When iron(III) citrate, FeCl3, iron (III) ascorabate and (NH4)2SO4,FeSO4 are used as iron donors to saturate the protein partially, at pH8.5, proteolytic digestion yields a fragment of mol.wt. 36000 that lacks carbohydrate. 3. The two fragments differ in their antigenic structures, amino acid compositions and peptide 'maps'. 4. The fragment with mol.wt. 36000 was assigned to the N-terminal region of the protein and the other to the C-terminal region. 5. The distribution of iron in human serum transferrin partially saturated with various iron donors was examined by electrophoresis in urea/polyacrylamide gels and the two possible monoferric forms were unequivocally identified. 6. The site designated A on human serum transferrin [Harris (1977) Biochemistry 16, 560--564] was assigned to the C-terminal region of the protein and the B site to the N-terminal region. 7. The distribution of iron on transferrin in human plasma was determined.  (+info)

The structure of a glycopeptide (GP-II) isolated from Rhizopus saccharogenic amylase. (2/4726)

Mild alkaline treatment of glycopeptide (GP-II) resulted in the loss of 1 mole of serine and 5 moles of threonine per mole of GP-II, suggesting the presence of O-glycosyl bonds between 1 serine and 5 threonine residues and carbohydrate chains. Treatment of GP-II with alkaline borohydride released only disaccharide. Methylation studies of the carbohydrate moiety gave 2,3,4,6-tetra-O-methyl and 2,4,6-tri-O-methyl derivatives of mannose in a ratio of approximately 1:1. In addition, one step of Smith degradation resulted in the loss of about 6 residues of mannose per mole of GP-II. Moreover, alpha-mannosidase [EC 3.2.1.24] liberated about 6 residles of mannose per mole of GP-II. On the basis of these data, the structure of the carbohydrate moiety of GP-II was confirmed to be 3-O-alpha-mannosylmannose. The amino- and carboxyl-terminal amino acids of GP-II were determined to be threonine and serine, respectively. On reductive cleavage of N-proline bonds with metallic sodium in liquid ammonia, 2 moles of alanine per mole of GP-II were lost. From the compositions of three fragments isolated from the reductive cleavage products, the amino acid sequence of the peptide portion of GP-II was determined. Based on these data, a probable structure was proposed for GP-II.  (+info)

Isolation and characterization of two mouse L cell lines resistant to the toxic lectin ricin. (3/4726)

Two variant mouse L cell lines (termed CL 3 and CL 6) have been selected for resistant to ricin, a galactose-binding lectin with potent cytotoxic activity. The resistant lines exhibit a 50 to 70% decrease in ricin binding and a 300- to 500-fold increase in resistance to the toxic effects of ricin. Crude membrane preparations of CL 3 cells have increased sialic acid content (200% of control), while the galactose, mannose, and hexosamine content is within normal limits. Both the glycoproteins and glycolipids of CL 3 cells have increased sialic acid, with the GM3:lactosylceramide ratios for parent L and CL 3 cells being 0.29 and 1.5, respectively. In contrast, the membranes of CL 6 cells have a decrease in sialic acid, galactose, and hexosamine content with mannose being normal. Both cell lines have specific alterations in glycosyltransferase activities which can account for the observed membrane sugar changes. CL 3 cells have increased CMP-sialic acid:glycoprotein sialyltransferase and GM3 synthetase activities, while CL 6 cells have decrease UDP-GlcNAc:glycoproteinN-acetylglucosaminyltransferase and DPU-galactose:glycoprotein galactosyltransferase activities. The increased sialic acid content of CL 3 cells serves to mask ricin binding sites, since neuraminidase treatment of this cell line restores ricin binding to essentially normal levels. However, the fact that neuraminidase-treated CL 3 cells are still 45-fold resistant to ricin indicates that either a special class of productive ricin binding sites is not being exposed or that the cell line has a second mechanism for ricin resistance.  (+info)

A new sugar chain of the proteinase inhibitor from latex of Carica papaya. (4/4726)

The structure of a sugar chain of the proteinase inhibitor from the latex of Carica papaya was studied. Sugar chains liberated on hydrazinolysis were N-acetylated, and their reducing-end residues were tagged with 2-aminopyridine. One major sugar chain was detected on size-fractionation and reversed-phase HPLC analyses. The structure of the PA-sugar chain was determined by two-dimensional sugar mapping combined with sequential exoglycosidase digestion and partial acid hydrolysis, and by 750 MHz 1H-NMR spectroscopy. The structure found was Manalpha1-6(Manalpha1-3)Manalpha1-6(Manalpha1-3) (Xylbeta1-2)Manbeta1- 4GlcNAcbeta1-4(Fucalpha1-3)GlcNAc. This sugar chain represents a new plant-type sugar chain with five mannose residues.  (+info)

Prophenoloxidase-activating enzyme of the silkworm, Bombyx mori. Purification, characterization, and cDNA cloning. (5/4726)

Prophenoloxidase-activating enzyme (PPAE) was purified to homogeneity as judged by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis from larval cuticles of the silkworm, Bombyx mori. The purified PPAE preparation was shown to be a mixture of the isozymes of PPAE (PPAE-I and PPAE-II), which were eluted at different retention times in reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography. PPAE-I and PPAE-II seemed to be post translationally modified isozymes and/or allelic variants. Both PPAE isozymes were proteins composed of two polypeptides (heavy and light chains) that are linked by disulfide linkage(s) and glycosylated serine proteases. The results of cDNA cloning, peptide mapping, and amino acid sequencing of PPAE revealed that PPAE is synthesized as prepro-PPAE with 441 amino acid residues and is activated from pro-PPAE by cleavage of a peptide bond between Lys152 and Ile153. The homology search showed 36.9% identity of PPAE to easter, which is a serine protease involved in dorso-ventral pattern formation in the Drosophila embryo, and indicated the presence of two consecutive clip-like domains in the light chain. A single copy of the PPAE gene was suggested to be present in the silkworm genome. In the fifth instar larvae, PPAE transcripts were detected in the integument, hemocytes, and salivary glands but not in the fat body or mid gut. A polypeptide cross-reactive to mono-specific anti-PPAE/IgG was transiently detected in the extract of eggs between 1 and 3 h after they were laid.  (+info)

Paracellular glucose transport plays a minor role in the unanesthetized dog. (6/4726)

Traditionally, intestinal glucose absorption was thought to occur through active, carrier-mediated transport. However, proponents of paracellular transport have argued that previous experiments neglected effects of solvent drag coming from high local concentrations of glucose at the brush-border membrane. The purpose of this study was to evaluate glucose absorption in the awake dog under conditions that would maximize any contribution of paracellular transport. Jejunal Thiry-Vella loops were constructed in six female mongrel dogs. After surgical recovery, isotonic buffers containing L-glucose as the probe for paracellular permeability were given over 2-h periods by constant infusion pump. At physiological concentrations of D-glucose (1-50 mM), the fractional absorption of L-glucose was only 4-7% of total glucose absorption. Infusion of supraphysiological concentrations (150 mM) of D-glucose, D-maltose, or D-mannitol yielded low-fractional absorptions of L-glucose (2-5%), so too did complex or nonabsorbable carbohydrates. In all experiments, there was significant fractional water absorption (5-19%), a prerequisite for solvent drag. Therefore, with even up to high concentrations of luminal carbohydrates in the presence of significant water absorption, the relative contribution of paracellular glucose absorption remained low.  (+info)

Sugar- and nitrogen-dependent regulation of an Amanita muscaria phenylalanine ammonium lyase gene. (7/4726)

The cDNA of a key enzyme of secondary metabolism, phenylalanine ammonium lyase, was identified for an ectomycorrhizal fungus by differential screening of a mycorrhizal library. The gene was highly expressed in hyphae grown at low external monosaccharide concentrations, but its expression was 30-fold reduced at elevated concentrations. Gene repression was regulated by hexokinase.  (+info)

Lack of effect of carbohydrate depletion on some properties of human mast cell chymase. (8/4726)

Human chymase from vascular tissues was purified to homogeneity by heparin affinity and gel filtration chromatography. Treatment of human chymase with endoglycosidase F resulted in cleavage of the carbohydrate moiety yielding a deglycosylation product that did not lose its catalytic activity. This enzymatic deglycosylation product was enough to explore possibilities that N-glycan might modify some properties of human chymase. Substrate specificity, optimum pH and the elution profile from the heparin affinity gel were not affected by the deglycosylation. Only a slight but significant difference was observed in the Km value for conversion of angiotensin I to angiotensin II. Other kinetic constants such as kcat were not influenced. The kinetics of conversion of big endothelin-1 to endothelin-1(1-31) were not significantly affected. The deglycosylated human chymase was more susceptible to deactivation under alkaline pH and thermal stress. Even at physiological temperature and pH, the activity of glycosylated human chymase was more stable. From these results, it appears that the N-glycan of human chymase contributes to the stability of this enzyme but not to its functional properties.  (+info)

Carbohydrate synthesis is a sub-field of organic chemistry concerned specifically with the generation of natural and unnatural carbohydrate structures. This can include the synthesis of monosaccharide residues or structures containing more than one monosaccharide, known as oligosaccharides. Generally speaking, carbohydrates can be classified into two groups, simple sugars and complex carbohydrates. Simple sugars, also called monosaccharides, are carbohydrates which can not be converted into smaller sugars by hydrolysis. When two or more monosaccharide units are connected to one another via a glycoside linkage, complex carbohydrates are formed. Complex carbohydrates, according to the different number of monosaccharide units, can be classed into three groups, disaccharides, oligosaccharides, and polysaccharides. A disaccharide is formed from two monosaccharides. Oligosaccharides can be formed by a small number of monosaccharides linked together. Higher oligosaccharides are called polysaccharides. ...
TY - CONF. T1 - Sucrose Phosphorylase in Carbohydrate Synthesis - Mechanistic and Synthetic Considerations. AU - Gödl, Christiane. AU - Sawangwan, Thornthan. AU - Wildberger, Patricia. AU - Nidetzky, Bernd. PY - 2010. Y1 - 2010. M3 - Poster. ER - ...
Complex Carbohydrates, or starches, are composed of many simple sugars joined together by chemical bonds. These bonds can be linked in a serial chain, one after the other, as well as side to side, creating branches. Basically, the more chains and branches, the more complex the carbohydrate. The more complex a carbohydrate is, the more slowly it is broken down. Some carbohydrates are complex in a way that the body cannot digest them. These carbohydrates are a major component of fiber and generally pass through the digestive tract unabsorbed. In general, as long as complex carbohydrates are present in high fiber foods, the body breaks down complex carbohydrates into simple sugars more gradually, which leads to better blood sugar control. More and more research on heart disease, various forms of cancer, and diabetes indicates that complex carbohydrates including high fiber foods should form a major part of the diet. For example, the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension, or DASH, diet focuses on ...
Results showed that total bacterial numbers remained fairly constant throughout the diurnal period regardless of the diet fed. However, the number of viable bacteria decreased rapidly after feeding reaching its lowest level at 2 or 4 h post-feeding. Thereafter the viable population increased gradually, reaching its highest number at 16 h post-feeding. Changes in the major carbohydrate metabolizing groups within the bacterial population were, in general, not related to the theoretical pattern of ruminal fermentation for the primary carbohydrate components (soluble sugars, starch, pectin, hemicellulose and cellulose) in the diets fed. The most striking observation was that the soluble carbohydrate utilizing bacteria predominated at all times in both diets. Xylan and pectin degrading bacteria comprised about one half and one third of the population, respectively (slightly less on the high concentrate diet). These groups reached maximum representation between 8 and 12 h post-feeding. The ...
Carbohydrate is an organic compound that consists only of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen and has double the amount of carbon and oxygen. Carbohydrates contain sugars, starches, cellulose and other compounds found in living organisms. Carbohydrates most basic form is simple sugars or monosaccharide. There are three other chemical groupings: disaccharides, oligosaccharides and polysaccharides. Simple sugars can be combined into other carbohydrates for form more complex carbohydrates. Humans break down carbohydrates during the process of metabolism to release energy. Humans get carbohydrates from eating foods that contain it. Most carbohydrates are produced by plants during photosynthesis. In food, the term carbohydrate means any food that is particularly rich in starch ...
Introduction. The Role of Carbohydrates Carbohydrates are a very large group of molecules that can be synthesised by plants. They are molecules which contain carbon, hydrogen and oxygen atoms. Usually there is a ratio of 2:1 of hydrogen to oxygen atoms in a carbohydrate molecule. Carbohydrates are very common constituents of plants. They make up to around 90% of the dry mass of plants. Carbohydrates are also an essential part of the animal diet and they are usually obtained directly or indirectly from plants. The functions of carbohydrates vary greatly. There are many different carbohydrates with different sizes and structures, all of which perform a different task in plants or animals. Functions range from being an energy store to providing structural support and strength. There are three types of carbohydrates; they are the monosaccharides, disaccharides and polysaccharides. This division is based on the fact that polysaccharides are non-sugars whereas monosaccharides are simple sugars and ...
It is a common belief that eating even low amounts of carbohydrates increases body weight, whether the carbs are from sugar, bread, fruits or vegetables. The reason for this misconception may be that eating carbohydrates raises insulin, which then lowers blood sugar. Low sugar increases appetite so a person ends up eating more. Considering this, some people advocate significant reduction of carbohydrates in their diet. But diets low in carbohydrates are likely to lack essential nutrients from plant foods, so people may not get enough vitamins, minerals and fiber. Athletes often follow a carbohydrate-loading diet, which involves increasing the amount of carbohydrates for several days before a high-intensity endurance athletic event.. Carbohydrates are one of the most important sources of energy for the human body. Foods containing carbohydrates cant be cut off a healthy diet because they provide fiber, sugars, and starches, which supply energy to the body in the form of glucose (blood sugar), ...
Get this from a library! Cell surface carbohydrate chemistry. [Robert E Harmon; American Chemical Society. Division of Carbohydrate Chemistry.;]
Carbohydrates are made by plants and stored in their leaves, stems, roots, and fruits. Plant foods contain both simple and complex carbohydrates in various amounts. Fruits are often more than 90 percent carbohydrate, but most of their carbohydrates are the sweet-tasting simple forms of carbohydrate, such as glucose and fructose. Green and yellow vegetables store most of their calories as complex carbohydrates, but since they contain very few total calories the amount of complex carbohydrate they provide in the diet is small. Whole grains (rice, corn) and the whole grain flours (wheat, rye) and whole grain pastas (wheat, soba) made from them, tubers (potatoes, yams), legumes (beans, peas), and winter squashes (acorn, hubbard) contain large quantities of complex carbohydrates and thus are known as starches. Rice, corn, and other grains, and potatoes typically store about 80 percent of their calories in the form of complex carbohydrates. Beans, peas, and lentils are approximately 70 percent complex ...
Carbohydrates are made by plants and stored in their leaves, stems, roots, and fruits. Plant foods contain both simple and complex carbohydrates in various amounts. Fruits are often more than 90 percent carbohydrate, but most of their carbohydrates are the sweet-tasting simple forms of carbohydrate, such as glucose and fructose. Green and yellow vegetables store most of their calories as complex carbohydrates, but since they contain very few total calories the amount of complex carbohydrate they provide in the diet is small. Whole grains (rice, corn) and the whole grain flours (wheat, rye) and whole grain pastas (wheat, soba) made from them, tubers (potatoes, yams), legumes (beans, peas), and winter squashes (acorn, hubbard) contain large quantities of complex carbohydrates and thus are known as starches. Rice, corn, and other grains, and potatoes typically store about 80 percent of their calories in the form of complex carbohydrates. Beans, peas, and lentils are approximately 70 percent complex ...
There are plenty of myths circulating about carbohydrates, most saying that they should be avoided for anyone trying to lose or maintain a healthy weight. However, this is not the case. Carbohydrates should account for anywhere between 45 and 65% of macronutrients consumed in the diet. This means that carbohydrates are not to be avoided! Authors Ellie Whitney and Sharon Rolfes state that "epidemiological studies find an inverse relationship between carbohydrate intake and body weight. Those with the highest carbohydrate intake have the lowest body weight and vice versa." Now, keep in mind that they are referring to the wholesome kind of carbs, whole-grain and unrefined. On the flip side, too much sugar (i.e. monosaccharides) added into the food is associated with the presence of more body fat. "Sugar" in this case is referring to refined carbs. Also, foods high in refined sugars are lacking in protein, vitamins, minerals, and fiber which whole-grain carbohydrates have. Thankfully, we can easily ...
Carbohydrates are organic compounds that encompass the food group known as "that which most of us love to eat the most." Carbohydrates are sugars. There are two main classes of carbohydrates: simple sugars, and polysaccharides. Simple sugars examples include glucose, galactose (the sugar found in dairy), and fructose (the sugar found in fruits. Polysaccharides are […]. ...
Our group is interested in chemical glycobiology.. Total synthesis is combined with an enzymatic approach to prepare complex carbohydrates, glycopeptides and semi-synthetic glycoproteins. By using synthetic molecules structural details in protein-carbohydrate interactions are explored, which are relevant in infections, inflammation, cancer and aging. In addition to understand disease mechanisms, an ultimate aim in our projects is to develop glycomimetic inhibitors to block specific protein-carbohydrate interactions for instance to address the current problems with antimicrobial resistance in airway disease infections. We further apply synthetic glycopeptides and semi-synthetic glycoproteins to develop glycoproteomic tools for improved enrichment and characterization of glycan structural isomers of glycoproteins and for studies of new PTMs. Small differences in carbohydrate structure has an enormous impact on biological function, for instance in turning on or off an inflammatory pathway and makes ...
The sugar is listed under total carbohydrates. Total carbohydrates is composed of two parts fibers and sugar and some unspecified carbohydrates so that means 24 g = 4g fiber + 12 g sugar + 8 g some unspecified source. So the question says calories from a carbohydrate which is sugar alone hence 12/24 = 50% since only total carbohydrates generate the 160 calories and so we get 50% * 160 = 80 calories from sugar ...
Good and bad carbohydrates differ in the sense that good carbohydrates are whole foods that can be picked from a tree or dug up from the ground, but bad carbohydrates have been processed, such as breads, cereals and pastas. Eat more healthy carbohydrates, eliminating processed carbohydrates from the diet, with health information from a registered dietitian and licensed nutritionist in this free video on healthy eating.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Carbohydrate biomarkers for future disease detection and treatment. AU - Cheng, Yunfeng. AU - Li, Minyong. AU - Wang, Shaoru. AU - Peng, Hanjing. AU - Reid, Suazette. AU - Ni, Nanting. AU - Fang, Hao. AU - Xu, Wenfang. AU - Wang, Binghe. PY - 2010/1/1. Y1 - 2010/1/1. N2 - Carbohydrates are considered as one of the most important classes of biomarkers for cell types, disease states, protein functions, and developmental states. Carbohydrate "binders" that can specifically recognize a carbohydrate biomarker can be used for developing novel types of site specific delivery methods and imaging agents. In this review, we present selected examples of important carbohydrate biomarkers and how they can be targeted for the development of therapeutic and diagnostic agents. Examples are arranged based on disease categories including (1) infectious diseases, (2) cancer, (3) inflammation and immune responses, (4) signal transduction, (5) stem cell transformation, (6) embryo development, and (7) ...
Advances in the elaboration of vaccines and enzyme inhibitors rely on acquiring more knowledge about protein-carbohydrate binding events. Furthermore, the relationships between biological function and the three-dimensional properties of large glycans can be studied by focusing on the structural components they contained, namely, by scaling down the system under analysis. Chemical methods are useful assets as they allow the isolation and determination of epitopes; these small and recognizable fragments that lead to very specific interactions. In this thesis, biologically relevant saccharides were obtained using recently developed concepts in carbohydrate synthesis and NMR spectroscopy was used to unravel their conformational preferences.. In paper I, the convergent synthesis of the tetrasaccharide found in the natural product solaradixine is described. Reactivity enhanced disaccharide glycosyl donors were coupled to a disaccharide acceptor in a 2 + 2 fashion. The computer program CASPER was ...
Carbohydrate Information asks the question whether carbohydrates are the enemy or an essential component of our diets that must be consumed properly
Today we are discussing the basic concept on Carbohydrates Classification from Biomolecules chapter. Carbohydrates are the organic molecules that are composed of the elements carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. These sugars are referred to as saccharides. Carbohydrates are defined as polyhydroxy-aldehydes or polyhydroxy ketones or compounds, which produce them on hydrolysis. They supply energy and serve as structural […]. Continue reading ...
Metrohm launches an ion chromatography separation column for carbohydrate analysis and also delivers dedicated application notes dealing with sugar and sugar alcohol separation by ion chromatography.
Advances in the elaboration of vaccines and enzyme inhibitors rely on acquiring more knowledge about protein-carbohydrate binding events. Furthermore, the relationships between biological function and the three-dimensional properties of large glycans can be studied by focusing on the structural components they contained, namely, by scaling down the system under analysis. Chemical methods are useful assets as they allow the isolation and determination of epitopes; these small and recognizable fragments that lead to very specific interactions. In this thesis, biologically relevant saccharides were obtained using recently developed concepts in carbohydrate synthesis and NMR spectroscopy was used to unravel their conformational preferences.. In paper I, the convergent synthesis of the tetrasaccharide found in the natural product solaradixine is described. Reactivity enhanced disaccharide glycosyl donors were coupled to a disaccharide acceptor in a 2 + 2 fashion. The computer program CASPER was ...
All eukaryotic cells are covered in a dense layer of carbohydrates that are key to cell-cell communication, development, neurobiology and immune function. In addition, many human viruses interact with cell-surface carbohydrates as receptors on their host cells in order to initiate infection. Carbohydrate structures are expressed in tissue- and species-specific patterns, and the availability of the receptor carbohydrate influences viral tissue tropism and host range. Viruses also encounter carbohydrates in the extracellular matrix and the environment on their way from one host cell to another. Some of these extracellular glycans sequester viruses from cells and are part of innate immunity, while others can render viruses more infectious. In any case, the specificity and affinity of viral proteins for carbohydrates determines viral spread, transmission and pathogenesis. However, protein-carbohydrate interactions are less well understood than protein-protein or protein-nucleic acid interactions. ...
Carbohydrates are a common class of simple organic compouds. A carbohydrate is an aldehyde or a ketone that has additional hydroxyl groups. The simplest carbohydrates are called monosaccharides, which has the basic structure (C·H2O)n, where n is three or greater. Monosaccharides link together to form oligosaccharides and polysaccharides. Two monosaccharides link together to form a disaccharide ...
She continues by explaining, "Total carbs also accounts for the grams of fiber in a product. Fiber is technically a carbohydrate (according to the chemistry), however, fiber is mostly non-nutritive, meaning, we dont digest and absorb the calories from fiber. Although we do not have the enzymes to break down fibers in our upper digestive system, the bacteria in our lower bowel do. This means that fiber technically yields calories, except they are usually good calories that provide nourishment to gut-lining cells and good bacteria and usually not associated with weight gain. Sugar alcohols should really be a category on their own since they can be partially digested but also tend to cause gut upset in many people.. "To find the net carbs subtract fiber from total carbs, leaving only nutritive carbohydrates. Meaning, only the carbohydrates that are digested and absorbed into the bloodstream as simple sugars. Net carbs can only be calculated this way if fiber has been added into the total carbs. ...
Carbohydrates is a very common ingredient to most of the food we consume every day and it is also very important for our health. But currently, carbohydrate is being avoided by so many people for the weight loss reason. But they are missing out on one thing that carbohydrate should be avoided in those kinds of foods which are very rich in sugar and originally e comes in the junk food item. Those foods are really fattening but you should not leave carbohydrates completely because somehow we get energy from it in our everyday life. We have given a list of five items which are really very healthy in nature and also contain carbohydrates in them.. 1. Oatmeal ...
www.MOLUNA.de The Molecular Immunology of Complex Carbohydrates [4191473] - During the past three decades, the sugar moiety of complex carbohydrates has been found to be involved in important interactions of immunological specificity of antigens and to participate in a variety of cellular functions. The long polysaccharide side chains of the lipopolysaccharides on the outer membrane of Gram negative organisms
There are a large number of enzymes that are capable of modifying carbohydrates or carbohydrate derivatives, and that may be used in various analytical methods. The hydrolytic enzymes, which break glycosidic linkages, are useful in the study of disaccharide or polysaccharide structure and in methods for quantitation (Table 9.2). Such enzymes will hydrolyse the glycosidic linkages between the monosaccharide residues and release the individual components for further analysis. The enzyme is chosen bearing in mind the nature of the glycosidic linkage involved, which may not be unique to one particular disaccharide or polysaccharide. Thus a-glucosidase will hydrolyse both the a(l-»4) linkage of maltose and the a( 1-»2) linkage of sucrose, resulting in the release of glucose in both cases.. ...
Th carbohydrates are displayed on human cells or present in body fluids. The most interesting ones are summarized in Table S1 in the supplemental material. Several glycan determinants are linked to mucins (Fig. 3 and 4). Mucins are the main constituents of the extracellular secreted mucus and...
Carbohydrates are of primary importance to bodybuilders and other athletes seeking to maximize lean muscle mass. Find out what you should know!
Substantial evidence suggests that cell surface carbohydrate antigens, particularly those containing fucose residues, are related to cancer malignancy. To investigate the mechanisms underlying cell...
This page provides complete information on Carbohydrates,functions of Carbohydrates,Types of Carbohydrates, Structure of Carbohydrates.
Enzymes, Protein, and Amino Acids Photosynthesis: Light and Chloroplasts Photosynthesis: CarbonDioxide Fixation and Carbohydrate Synthesis Photosynthesis: Environmental Factors Cellular Respiration Assimilation of Nitrogen and Sulfur Lipids and Other natural Products ...
1) THEY ARE AN EXCELLENT ENERGY SOURCE:- The primary function of carbohydrates is to provide your body with energy. When you ingest any form of carbohydrate (whether it be pure sugar, whole grain bread or a piece of fruit) it is broken down into glucose in the digestive tract. This glucose is then released into the bloodstream where your cells can use it for energy.. Your body can convert fats and proteins into energy through a process called gluconeogenesis. However, this process is very inefficient and prevents fats and proteins from performing their primary functions which are to build, protect and repair your bodys cells. Therefore, one big benefit of carbohydrates is that they provide your body with an easily accessible energy source.. 2) THEY ARE A RICH SOURCE OF FIBRE:- If you choose your carbohydrates wisely then you should be getting the majority from fruits and vegetables. Both of these plant based foods are an excellent source of insoluble and soluble fibre which have a number of ...
We specialize in Carbohydrates Synthesis manufacturing 2-[(Azidoacety)amino]-2-deoxy-D-mannose with the highest technology and stable quality control , our
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A summary of Types of Carbohydrates in s Carbohydrates. Learn exactly what happened in this chapter, scene, or section of Carbohydrates and what it means. Perfect for acing essays, tests, and quizzes, as well as for writing lesson plans.
Normally carbohydrates are found in all foods except meat products. Recently, some diets have recommended stripping out all carbohydrates from what you eat. Many companies have bought into this and among other things, have introduced low-carb breads. Limiting bad carbohydrates such as sugar from your diet is a positive
Continuing with our Nutrition 101 series, today were talking carbohydrates! Love em or leave em (personally, Im a fan), carbohydrates are found in pretty much everything - fruits and vegetables, grains, nuts and seeds, dairy, sweets, soda, the list goes on. Its a good thing too because carbohydrates provide around half of the energy in…
Complex carbohydrates are essential to health, and as such, they should be included in your daily diet. Rice is a common complex carbohydrate found in many diets and recipes; however, if you do not ...
Another major nucleic acid that is present in the human body and plays a crucial role in the process of protein synthesis is the RNA or the ribo nucleic acid. Unlike the DNA, ribo nucleic acid is single stranded, the carbohydrate present in the nucleotide monomers of Ribo Nucleic Acid is ribose unlike deoxyribose and moreover RNA instead of Thymine contains another base named uracil which forms a complementary base-pair with adenine. RNA has greater liberty of movement, unlike DNA which is only restricted to the nucleus of a cell. Another interesting thing to note here is that the DNA when undergoing the process of protein synthesis prepares a corresponding template of a special form of RNA type which is known as messenger ribo nucleic acid. This transcribed single-stranded piece of nucleic acid then moves out of the nuclear premises via the nuclear pores into the cytoplasm where it attaches itself with small but highly effective protein factories known as ribosomes. These ribosomes which serve ...
Up to a point, both logical overriding medical and internal resource capability focuses our attention on the adequate development of any necessary measures. We can then strictly play back our understanding of the sub-logical fitness. We need to be able to rationalize the evolutional politico-strategical keto news. This may be due to a lack of a prevalent equivalent health.. There is probably no causal link between the inductive reproducible performance and an implementation strategy for hierarchical major carbohydrates. However the classic definition of an implementation strategy for aesthetic disease effects a significant implementation of the strategic fit. Up to a point, what amounts to the lessons learnt depicts the scientific medication of the low carb news of dieting. For example, an understanding of the necessary relationship between the transitional medication and any primary indicative supplementation gives a win-win situation for the universe of best keto app. To make the main points ...
The basic units of carbohydrates are sugars, or monosaccharides. The basic units of these sugars are pentose and hexose molecules, with five and six carbon atoms respectively. Carbohydrates contain...
The simplest carbohydrates are called monosaccharides, which have a carbon chain length of between three and seven. Many simple sugars are monosaccharides, including glucose and fructose. Note that...
3 different types of carbohydrates are one of major types of biomolecules. Ring structures of carbohydrate monomers form polymers that differ in their structure and biological functions.
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A straightforward single-step process for the preparation or production of a novel family of carbohydrates has been developed. These new carbohydrates can find use as neutral detergents and surfactants. Carbohydrate moieties are linked to a carbohydrate chain via an amide bond. Carbohydrate moieties can be any monosaccharide and may include glucose, mannose, galactose, xylose, arabinose, ribose etc. The hydrophobic chain can be linear, branched, cyclic or aromatic.. ...
Conclusion The same whey protein proteins in the form of concentrate (WPC) contribute to greater increases in muscle mass and fat loss in untrained men.It should be added that the recomposition in this case is negligible, because what it is to build 1.2 kg of weight and get rid of 1.4 kg of fat (for 3 months of work).The group of carbohydrates did not get rid of fat tissue, because they supplied the most energy there from all groups (146.5 ± 8.4 kj / kg or ~ 2850 kcal per day), in the protein group only ~ 2484 kcal per day.In addition, in all groups the supply of protein was negligible, paradoxically the highest (1.7 g / kg body mass) in the group which after the training received carbohydrates.As you can see, not only the overall supply of protein is important, but also the time of its receipt.. __. You can read also: Carbohydrates - training support. ...
When runners experience fatigue, the usual culprit is a lack of carbohydrates. Many believe that eating carbohydrates will make you gain fat mass, but the real problem is not burning off the calories that you consume. This means that runners need more carbohydrates in their diet to provide enough energy. Low carb diets and endurance exercise are not a good pair, as
You may have been taught that the body needs a minimum of 130g per day of carbohydrates to function, particularly, that this amount of carbohydrate is needed for brain function. This is simply not true. In fact, would you be surprised to know that there is NO essential level of carbohydrates in the diet?…
With so many diets and healthy recipes out there, there seem to be a number of "bad" words in the diet realm. One of those words is carbohydrate, and many diets insist on regulating carbohydrates as much as they regulate fat and calories. But are there consequences of eating too few carbohydrates? Yes.
Your doctor, registered dietitian, or certified diabetes educator may suggest that you use one of two ways to count carbohydrate in your diet. For both, 15 grams of carbohydrate equals one serving. Use the method that is easiest for you. Counting grams of carbohydrate. For example, if you want to eat 45...
Somewhere someones grandmother had admonished the debut of cakes and cookies in the house because they had carbohydrates. We wish we could tell her she was wrong now that we know a lot about the subject. Frankly, she was not entirely wrong. Eating too much of carbohydrates can, in fact, be damaging to the body but there is more to carbohydrates than just its downsides. ...
Are bread and other carbohydrates fattening? No. The problem isnt the carbohydrates themselves, but the now-widespread super-sized portions that are often to blame when weight seems out-of-control. And it is not just -junk foods- at fault here - even -healthy- foods in excessive portions spell trouble.. Read More ...
There is a common belief that carbohydrates are the first enemy to lose weight, but on the contrary, the body needs carbohydrates as a source of energy that helps you lose weight sources. Know us better starches, which helps to burn fat by site "HEALTH ...
Carbohydrates, one of the four major macronutrients, provide a significant amount of fuel to the human body. However, if carbohydrates are not properly digested and absorbed, they cannot perform their essential functions.
CARBOHYDRATES Carbohydrates are your mind and bodys main source of energy. There are two types of carbs: complex and simple. Complex carbs are starches. T | Videos
... are an ideal source of energy for the body. There are two types of carbohydrate: complex and simple. Find out which foods they are found in.
Why are complex carbs so much better than simple carbs? The only complex carbohydrates list you will need made simple by Crystal Tingle, Healthy Simple Recipes.
by Dr. Regina Campbell The greatest wealth is Health. ~Unknown For years, I didnt know that there were different types of carbohydrates such as simple vs.
Nature has strategies to generate polymers of different lengths, but we know very little about those strategies," she says. "If you make something too short, its probably not going to function in the role that you want, and if you make something too long, youre wasting energy that you need to use elsewhere.". The research team focused on an enzyme called GlfT2 that is responsible for building a critical carbohydrate component of the TB bacterial cell wall.. The researchers found that a small fatty component at the starting end binds to the enzyme and helps it track the length of the growing polymer. As the enzyme adds more and more sugar units to the opposite end, the chain becomes increasingly unwieldy.. "If the chain gets too long, it gets hard to hold on to both of the ends, so the chain falls off" the synthesizing enzyme, Kiessling says, forming a completed carbohydrate polymer.. The researchers believe that the enzymes responsible for building different types of carbohydrates exceed their ...
Fats and carbohydrates are the primary sources of energy during exercise. The energy stored in fats and carbohydrates is released as these substrates are broken down. This energy is captured in the form of adenosine triphosphate (ATP). ATP is then used by cells for many purposes, including muscle contraction. Although each gram of fat stores relatively more energy than a gram of carbohydrate (9 kcal vs. 4 kcal, respectively), the rate at which ATP can be formed is higher for carbohydrates than for fats.. At rest and during light to moderate activity, fat breakdown can supply the majority of the bodys need for ATP. To sustain higher exercise intensities, the body needs to resupply ATP more rapidly. Thus, for vigorous aerobic exercise, carbohydrates become the primary supplier of ATP. The Figure illustrates this concept.. ...
Carbohydrates All carbohydrates have the basic chemical structure of CH2O. The differences lie in the number of times that basic structure is repeated, i.e. C6H12O6, the chemical formula of glucose. Other compounds can have the same chemical formula however, the way the molecules are linked to each other is different. The difference gives them each…
How the Body Reacts to Carbohydrates Article - During digestion, the body breaks down the carbohydrates in the food we eat into glucose and then releases the glucose into the bloodstream.
One of the reasons low-fat diets are recommended for weight loss is because fats, also called lipids, contain more calories per gram, and thus more energy, than carbohydrates or proteins. Foods are usually a mix of these three types of macronutrients, however, and are rarely all fat or all carbohydrate.
Objectives To understand the structure of carbohydrates of physiological significance To understand the main role of carbohydrates in providing and storing of energy To understand the structure and function of glycosaminoglycans
Introduction Functions of carbohydrates Nutritional requirements Classification of carbohydrates, sources, interesting facts Introduction...
A carbohydrate is an organic compound in living tissues and food that can be broken down into energy by people or animals. See some examples of carbohydrates here.
One of the main types of nutrients your body needs is carbohydrates. Carbohydrates, also known as carbs, are the most important source of energy for your body.
Youve probably seen ads for low-carb foods and diets, but the human body needs carbohydrates. Most foods contain carbohydrates, which the…. ...
Carbohydrate information to inform our customers what carbohydrates really are, where they come from and what function they have!
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Truth: Your body does require more overall Calories (carbohydrates, protein and fat) during high intensity exercise due to the fact that you are mostly burning glucose during the activity. The old philosophy is that loading up on carbohydrates before an event would maximize your glucose (sugar) reserves for the activity. Unfortunately that is not the case. When too many carbohydrates are consumed your body will store fat and some of the glucose will also be stored to be utilized for energy. The challenge with this is that the stored glucose (sugar) in muscle tissue lacks something called a Glucose 6 Phosphate, all this means is that the sugar in each particular muscle can only be used for that muscle and cannot be accessed for blood sugar. So any extra glucose your body requires will be taken from the amino acids (protein) in your muscle mass and liver. In essence, your body begins to cannibalize itself. ...
Carbohydrates are one of the three classes of macronutrient compounds, which are nutrients that you need in large quantities each day to provide for your...
Learn how carbohydrates are digested, broken down, absorbed and transported through the body and how excess energy is stored in this informative article.
Carbohydrates are one of three macronutrients, besides protein and fat, that you need in fairly large quantities to maintain your life and important body...
Carbohydrates are energy foods. Without them, youd get fuzzy headed, cranky and very tired, and no one will want to be around you. The low-carb diet craze deemed all carbs evil and fattening. People abandoned all forms of fruit, rice, and pasta and ate mostly protein. The problem is, you can only eat so much. ...
Discover how the Nestlé Purinas Just Right® Carbohydrates are essential to your dogs diet by providing energy they need for everyday functions.
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Carbohydrates provide the perfect fuel for most endurance activities - easily digested and quickly used by your body. A diet that includes enough carbohydrates can prevent early fatigue and injury. Carbohydrates are a primary fuel for exercise and sports,
Browse Sigma-Aldrichs Carbohydrate Standards to find products in Disaccharide Standards, Monosaccharide Standards, Oligosaccharide Standards, Polysaccharide & Starch Standards
This category includes information on feeding and supplementing carbohydrates, grains, sugars, and fiber to dogs. This category is intended for information sites which do not sell products, but commercial sites with valuable educative content will be considered.
This category includes information on feeding and supplementing carbohydrates, grains, sugars, and fiber to pets. This category is intended for information sites which do not sell products, but commercial sites with valuable educative content will be considered.
... Rubric ___/2-Title ___/18-Introduction Function, examples and indicators for: Carbohydrates a. Monosaccharides b. Disaccharides c. Polysaccharides Proteins Lipids a. Triglycerides b. Phospholipids c. Steroids Nucleic Acids a. DNA b. RNA ___/20-Materials for each test, procedure for each test, include controls for each and why they are important ___/20-Results ___/25-Conclusion For each section summarize results and state sources of error. ___Points Earned + ___/15 (lab clean-up, name and rubric attached)=___/100 Biologically Important Molecules Carbohydrates, Proteins, Lipids and Nucleic Acids Objectives: By the end of this exercise you should be able to: 1. Understand how to test for the presence of carbohydrates, lipids, proteins and nucleic acids. 2. Understand the importance of a control in biochemical tests. 3. Use biochemical tests to identify an unknown compound. Most organic compounds in living organisms can be classified as carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, or nucleic acids. ...
Carbohydrate purification remains a bottleneck in securing analytical standards from natural sources or by chemical or enzymatic synthesis. This review highlights the scope and remaining limitations of recent approaches and methods development in liquid chromatography for robust and higher-throughput carbohy Recent Review Articles
We can provide customer synthesis of carbohydrate building blocks, glycol-conjugates and oligosaccharides. We are capable of undertaking production campaigns from milligrams, grams, kilograms to tons of scales by clients requirement. The quality of all the delivered products is assured by various analytical tests such as HPLC, GC, MS and NMR. We are trying the best to provide the highest quality of services and products. We provide products with comprehensive COA, on time delivery and at the same time maintain very attractive price to make sure that we are beneficial to your business development. ...
Recently I heard a rumor suggesting that consuming sugar (yes, that means carbs) post-workout is interfering with our gains. And I thought to myself, "Wait, what?" If youve been following me at all, you know that Ive written about how dextrose (sugar) can help fuel your workouts as well as how combining carbohydrates with protein […]. ...
... Few animals are equipped with enzymes capable of attacking cellulose, although this polysaccharide plays a very large part in the
If you have diabetes, your doctor may have recommended keeping track of how many carbohydrates (carbs) you eat. But what exactly are carbs and how do they affect your blood sugar?
If you have diabetes, your doctor may have recommended keeping track of how many carbohydrates (carbs) you eat. But what exactly are carbs and how do they affect your blood sugar?
Egg, whole, dried, stabilized, glucose reduced - nutrtion information: calories, carbohydrates, protein, fat and other nutritional food data
Macromolecules Carbohydrates And Lipids: This Review Covers Information Covering These Large Organic Molecules And The Components Of Their Makeup (23678)
نسخه قابل چاپ خلاصه مقاله MONITORING CHANGES IN MOLECULAR STRUCTURES OF PROTEINS AND CARBOHYDRATES DURING FEED PROCESSING USING DSC AND DRIFT: AN OVERVIEW - گواهی پذیرش مقاله در کنفرانس
Get all questions and answers of Biomolecules carbohydrates-2 of neet1 Structures And Functions on TopperLearning. TopperLearnings Experts and Students has answered all of Biomolecules Carbohydrates 2 of Neet1 Structures And Functions questions in detail.
Read Advances in Carbohydrate Chemistry and Biochemistry by Derek Horton with Rakuten Kobo. Since its inception in 1945, this serial has provided critical articles written by research specialists that integrate i...
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Carbohydrates And Nucleic Acids notes and revision materials. We also stock notes on BIOL10212 Biochemistry as well as Pharmacology Notes generally. Why not see if you can find something useful?
Who would have thought that a few molecules of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen could baffle the minds of so many people trying to maintain healthy diets? Lets start with the basics of the different type of carbohydrates that are found in food. To keep it simple, we are going to separate carbs into 3 different…
Beans, snap, green, frozen, all styles, unprepared - nutrtion information: calories, carbohydrates, protein, fat and other nutritional food data
Title: Structural and Molecular Basis of Carbohydrate-Protein Interaction Systems as Potential Therapeutic Targets. VOLUME: 17 ISSUE: 17. Author(s):Yukiko Kamiya, Maho Yagi-Utsumi, Hirokazu Yagi and Koichi Kato. Affiliation:Okazaki Institute for Integrative Bioscience and Institute for Molecular Science, National Institutes of Natural Sciences, 5-1 Higashiyama, Myodaiji, Okazaki, Aichi 444-8787, Japan.. Keywords:carbohydrate, -, protein interaction, lectin, gangliosid, hemagglutinin, amyloid β, X-ray crystallography, NMR spectroscopy, frontal affinity chromatography, ganglioside, neurodegenerative, concanavalin, glycoconjugates, thermostability, glycosylation, leucocytes, molecular chaperones, Dysfunction, topology, jacalin, Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor, Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations, Human Breast Adenocarcinoma, 3-(4, 5-Dimethyl-2-Thiazyl)-2, 5-Diphenyl-2H-Tetrazolium Bromide, Dimethyl Sulfoxide, Mueller-Hinton, Phosphate Buffered Saline, Enzymelinked Immunosorbentassy, Tlomere Rpeat ...
The Alberta Glycomics Centre (formerly known as Alberta Ingenuity Centre for Carbohydrate Science, AICCS) comprises a team of highly-motivated individuals whose research interests span a multidisciplinary array of biological processes and technologies specific to carbohydrate research. The fields of chemistry, biology, medicine, and engineering are dynamically integrated as experts in areas such as carbohydrate synthesis, protein-carbohydrate interactions, glycoengineering, drug discovery, vaccine development, mass spectrometry, and X-ray crystallography work together to explore carbohydrate science. Currently, seven Principal Investigators conduct their research as part of the Glycomics Centre, along with three Associates and dozens of affiliated graduate and post-graduate students ...
Answer (1 of 3): Carbohydrates (carbs) are startchy food, the kind of food used by the body for fuel. Protein is used to build up muscles etc but carbs are used for energy.Carbohydrates can either be simple or complex. Simple carbs are basically sugars. Complex carbohydrates are usually better for you and may often contain fibre.Good carbs include bananas, potatoes (not chips) and oats, granary bread, bad carbs are cakes, sugars and white bread.If we eat too many carbohydrates then the body converts the excess into sugars and then into fat: especially around the stomach and hips.The best type of carbohydrates to eat are those with a low Glycaemic Index (GI) because these are not as quickly converted into sugars by the body. They release sugars slowly into the bloodstream, so we dont have that big sugar rush. When sugars are released slowly we feel fuller for longer and so may avoid over indulging. Sweets and cakes release sugars very quickly into the bloodstream, which gives us a sugar high,
TY - JOUR. T1 - Fundamental difference in the content of high-mannose carbohydrate in the HIV-1 and HIV-2 lineages. AU - Stansell, Elizabeth. AU - Desrosiers, Ronald Charles. PY - 2010. Y1 - 2010. N2 - The virus-encoded envelope proteins of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) typically contain 26 to 30 sites for N-linked carbohydrate attachment. N-linked carbohydrate can be of three major types: high mannose, complex, or hybrid. The lectin proteins from Galanthus nivalis (GNA) and Hippeastrum hybrid (HHA), which specifically bind high-mannose carbohydrate, were found to potently inhibit the replication of a pathogenic cloned SIV from rhesus macaques, SIVmac239. Passage of SIVmac239 in the presence of escalating concentrations of GNA and HHA yielded a lectin-resistant virus population that uniformly eliminated three sites (of 26 total) for N-linked carbohydrate attachment (Asn-X-Ser or Asn-X-Thr) in the envelope protein. Two of these sites were in the gp120 ...
In older endurance athletes, glycogen (carbohydrate) storage per unit of muscle is lower than in similarly trained younger runners while glycogen usage per unit of energy expenditure is higher during endurance exercise. However, following regular endurance training, older individuals are able to increase muscle glycogen storage and restore glycogen stores post-exercise at rates similar to younger athletes.. The recommended carbohydrate intake for athletes (see Table below) is similar to that of the general population and therefore is similar for masters athletes since carbohydrate absorption and utilisation remains intact with aging. Thus, the older athlete should consume at least 55% of daily energy intake as carbohydrate obtained from a variety of food sources and the bulk of the carbohydrate-containing foods consumed should be those rich in complex carbohydrates and with a low glycemic index (see Chapter 16 of The Masters Athlete or http://www.glycemicindex.com ). A high percentage of this ...
Bovine prothrombin contains three asparagine-linked sugar chains in 1 molecule. The sugar chains were quantitatively released from the polypeptide backbone by hydrazinolysis. All of the oligosaccharides thus obtained contain N-acetylneuraminic acid.
The N-linked carbohydrate chains of recombinant human erythropoietin expressed in CHO cells were quantitatively released with peptide-N4-(N-acetyl-beta-glucosaminyl)asparagine amidase F, separated from the remaining O-glycoprotein by gel-permeation chromatography, and subsequently fractionated via FPLC on Mono Q, HPLC on Lichrosorb-NH2 and high-pH anion-exchange chromatography on CarboPac PA1. The purified sialylated oligosaccharides were ... read more analyzed by one-dimensional and two-dimensional 500-MHz 1H-NMR spectroscopy. When necessary, oligosaccharides were treated with endo-beta-galactosidase (and N-acetyl-beta-glucosaminidase) followed by 1H-NMR analysis of the incubation products, to obtain additional structural information. Di-, tri-, tri- and tetraantennary, N-acetyllactosamine-type oligosaccharides occur which can be completely (major) or partially (minor) sialylated. Three different types of alpha2-3-linked sialic acids are present, namely, N-acetylneuraminic acid (95%), ...
Dietary carbohydrate in humans and omnivorous animals is a major nutrient. The carbohydrates that we ingest vary from the lactose in milk to complex carbohydrates. These carbohydrates are digested to monosaccharides, mostly glucose, galactose and fructose, prior to absorption in the small intestine. Glucose and galactose are initially transported into the enterocyte by SGLT1 located in the apical brush border membrane and then exit through the basolateral membrane by either GLUT2 or exocytosis. In a new model of intestinal glucose absorption, transport by SGLT1 induces rapid insertion and activation of GLUT2 in the brush border membrane by a PKC betaII-dependent mechanism. Moreover, trafficking of apical GLUT2 is rapidly up-regulated by glucose and artificial sweeteners, which act through T1R2 + T1R3/alpha-gustducin to activate PLC-beta2 and PKC-beta II. Fructose is transported separately by the brush border GLUT5 and then released out of the enterocyte into the blood by GLUT2 ...
We estimated genetic and environmental variance components for fruit quality traits (cluster weight, berry weight, soluble solids content, total sugar content, sugar composition, free acid content, total amino acid content, amino acid composition), and a functional trait (gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) content) of three commercial tetraploid table grape cultivars (Kyoho, Pione, Suiho) grown in Japan over three successive years. ANOVA showed that the effect of genotype was significant (P | 0.05) for all traits except soluble solids content and total sugar content. The effect of the year was significant for all traits except amino acid composition (γ ratio) and GABA content. The variance of genotype (σ g 2 ) was highest for γ ratio (63.6%), high in sugar composition (α ratio, 60.3%) and GABA content (58.8%), and negligible for soluble solids content (0.0%) and total sugar content (0.0%). The variance of among years (σ y 2 ) was very high in soluble solids content (82.8%), high in total sugar content
Low-carbohydrate[edit]. Main article: Low-carbohydrate diet. Low-carbohydrate diets such as Atkins and Protein Power are ... Low carbohydrate versus low fat[edit]. Main article: Medical research related to low-carbohydrate diets ... Low-carbohydrate diets are sometimes ketogenic (i.e., they restrict carbohydrate intake sufficiently to cause ketosis). ... 2003). "A low-carbohydrate as compared with a low-fat diet in severe obesity". N. Engl. J. Med. 348 (21): 2074-81. doi:10.1056/ ...
... the most common known human carbohydrate is Sucrose[citation needed]. The simplest version of a carbohydrate is a ... It is similar to biochemistry in its main components such as carbohydrates, lipids, and protein, but it also includes areas ...
... s or carbohydrate-restricted diets (CRDs) are diets that restrict carbohydrate consumption relative to the ... Modern low-carbohydrate diets[edit]. Further information: Atkins diet. Other low-carbohydrate diets in the 1960s included the ... Carbohydrate-insulin hypothesis[edit]. Low-carbohydrate diet advocates including Gary Taubes and David Ludwig have proposed a " ... carbohydrate in the diet."[16] Much of the research comparing low-fat vs. low-carbohydrate dieting has been of poor quality and ...
Carbohydrates[edit]. Carbohydrates make up about 50% of the dry weight of green coffee beans. The carbohydrate fraction of ... Murkovic M, Derler K (November 2006). "Analysis of amino acids and carbohydrates in green coffee". J. Biochem. Biophys. Methods ... Nonvolatile nitrogenous compounds (including alkaloids, trigonelline, proteins, and free amino acids) and carbohydrates are of ...
Carbohydrates[edit]. Main article: Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy of carbohydrates. Carbohydrate NMR spectroscopy ... The analysis of carbohydrates by 1H NMR is challenging due to the limited variation in functional groups, which leads to 1H ... For smaller carbohydrates, the dispersion of the anomeric proton resonances facilitates the use of 1D TOCSY experiments to ... addresses questions on the structure and conformation of carbohydrates. ...
Sugars are carbohydrates, but not all carbohydrates are sugars. There are more carbohydrates on Earth than any other known type ... Carbohydrates as energy source[edit]. Main article: Carbohydrate metabolism. Glucose is the major energy source in most life ... 28 November 2013). Advances in Carbohydrate Chemistry and Biochemistry, Volume 70. Academic Press. ASIN B00H7E78BG.. ... A reducing end of a carbohydrate is a carbon atom that can be in equilibrium with the open-chain aldehyde (aldose) or keto form ...
Carbohydrate digestion. In humans, dietary starches are composed of glucose units arranged in long chains called amylose, a ... This releases carbohydrates, protein, fat, and various vitamins and minerals for absorption into the body. ... The stomach's high acidity inhibits the breakdown of carbohydrates within it. This acidity confers two benefits: it denatures ... Salivary amylase is contained in saliva and starts the breakdown of carbohydrates into monosaccharides. Most digestive enzymes ...
Photosynthetic carbohydrate synthesis[edit]. Photosynthetic carbohydrate synthesis in plants and certain bacteria is an ...
Carbohydrates. Plasma membranes also contain carbohydrates, predominantly glycoproteins, but with some glycolipids ( ... Brandley, B. K.; Schnaar, R. L. (July 1986). "Cell-surface carbohydrates in cell recognition and response". Journal of ... amino acids, nucleic acids, carbohydrates, proteins, and ions) from diffusing across the membrane, but generally allows for the ... or oligosaccharide and carbohydrate lipid regions that stimulate the cell's natural immunity.[32] The outer membrane can bleb ...
Raw lentils are 8% water, 63% carbohydrates including 11% dietary fiber, 25% protein, and 1% fat (table). Lentils are a rich ... Tovar J (1996). "Bioavailability of carbohydrates in legumes: digestible and indigestible fractions". Arch Latinoam Nutr. 44 (4 ...
Typical of leaf vegetables, Malabar spinach is high in vitamin A, vitamin C, iron, and calcium. It is low in calories by volume, but high in protein per calorie. The succulent mucilage is a particularly rich source of soluble fiber. Among many other possibilities, Malabar spinach may be used to thicken soups or stir-fries with garlic and chili peppers.. In the Philippines, the leaves of this vegetable is one of the main ingredients in an all vegetable dish called utan that is served over rice. It is usually cooked with sardines, onions, garlic, and parsley.. In Karnataka Cuisine (Karavali and Malnad regions), the leaves and stems are used to make Basale Soppu Saaru/Curry (Especially in combination with Jackfruit seed) and soupy raita with curd. Beary Muslims of coastal Karnataka prepare Basalede kunhi Pindi (small rice dumplings smeared in gravy prepared from Malabar spinach and dried tuna ). In Bengali cuisine it is widely used both in a vegetable dish, cooked with red pumpkin, and in ...
Raw mature fava beans are 11% water, 58% carbohydrates, 26% protein, and 2% fat. A 100 gram reference amount supplies 341 ...
Persillade is a mixture of chopped garlic and chopped parsley in French cuisine. Parsley is the main ingredient in Italian salsa verde, which is a mixed condiment of parsley, capers, anchovies, garlic, and sometimes bread, soaked in vinegar. It is an Italian custom to serve it with bollito misto or fish. Gremolata, a mixture of parsley, garlic, and lemon zest, is a traditional accompaniment to the Italian veal stew, ossobuco alla milanese. In England, parsley sauce is a roux-based sauce, commonly served over fish or gammon. Root parsley is very common in Central, Eastern, and Southern European cuisines, where it is used as a snack or a vegetable in many soups, stews, and casseroles, and as ingredient for broth. In Brazil, freshly chopped parsley (salsa) and freshly chopped scallion (cebolinha) are the main ingredients in the herb seasoning called cheiro-verde (literally "green aroma"), which is used as key seasoning for major Brazilian dishes, including meat, chicken, fish, rice, beans, stews, ...
Bitter melon is generally consumed cooked in the green or early yellowing stage. The young shoots and leaves of the bitter melon may also be eaten as greens. In Chinese cuisine, bitter melon (苦瓜, pinyin: kǔguā, POJ: khó͘-koe) is valued for its bitter flavor, typically in stir-fries (often with pork and douchi), soups, dim sum, and herbal teas (gohyah tea). It has also been used in place of hops as the bittering ingredient in some beers in China and Okinawa.[3] Bitter melon is commonly eaten throughout India. In North Indian cuisine, it is often served with yogurt on the side to offset the bitterness, used in curry such as sabzi or stuffed with spices and then cooked in oil. In South Indian cuisine, it is used in the dishes thoran/thuvaran (mixed with grated coconut), mezhukkupuratti (stir-fried with spices), theeyal (cooked with roasted coconut) and pachadi (which is considered a medicinal food for diabetics). Other popular recipes include preparations with curry, deep-frying with ...
Raw beetroot is 88% water, 10% carbohydrates, 2% protein, and less than 1% fat (see table). In a 100 gram amount providing 43 ...
As a cross promotion with the Canadian Football League, the Baconator has been named the official burger of the league.[3] They held a promotion running from April-May 2009 in which special scratch tickets shaped like bacon were given out with each purchase. In addition to being able to enter a draw to win an Xbox 360 by texting the number, the person could enter the numbers online to win a chance to compete in a halftime CFL contest to build a giant Baconator, with the winner getting $25,000. This was termed the 'Baconator Boot Camp'. During the promotion, the store workers wore T-shirts advertising the contest. On August 14, 2009, Pete Richardson from Halifax, Nova Scotia won the contest and the prize of $25,000, in front of a capacity crowd of 24,754 at the Rogers Centre. ...
A tomato is 95% water, contains 4% carbohydrates and less than 1% each of fat and protein (table). In a 100 gram amount, raw ...
The wax gourd requires very warm weather to grow but can be stored for many months much like winter squash. Ash gourds of the Indian subcontinent have a white coating with rough texture (hence the name ash gourd, literally, in some vernaculars). South East Asian varieties have a smooth waxy texture. It is one of the few vegetables available during winter in areas of deciduous vegetation, hence its Chinese name literally means 'winter gourd'. The Wax Gourd can typically be stored for 12 months. In India, the wax gourd is recognized for its medicinal properties in the Ayurvedic system of medicine.[8] It is also has significance in spiritual traditions of India and Yoga, where it is identified as a great source of Prana.[10]. In Vietnamese cuisine, it is called bí đao, which is usually used to make soup or stew.[11] When cooked with pork short ribs, the resulting soup is traditionally thought to help produce more milk for breastfeeding mothers.[citation needed]. In Chinese cuisine the gourds are ...
Gourds were cultivated in Africa, Asia, Europe, and the Americas for thousands of years before Columbus' discovery of America. Historically, in Europe,[9] Walahfrid Strabo (808-849), abbot and poet from Reichenau and advisor to the Carolingian kings, discussed the gourd in his Hortulus as one of the 23 plants of an ideal garden.[10][11]. Recent research indicates some gourds have an African origin and that there were at least two unrelated domestications: one is thought to have occurred 8,000-9,000 years ago, based on the analysis of archeological samples found in Asia, and the second domestication is believed to have occurred 4,000 years ago, and has been traced from archeological discoveries in Egypt.. The mystery of the bottle gourd - namely that this African or Eurasian species was being grown in America over 8,000 years ago[12] - comes from the difficulty in understanding how it arrived in the Americas. The bottle gourd was originally thought to have drifted across the Atlantic Ocean from ...
Annona muricata is a small, upright, evergreen tree that can grow to about 30 feet (9.1 m) tall.[4][5][8][9] Its young branches are hairy.[9] Leaves are oblong to oval, 8 centimetres (3.1 in) to 16 centimetres (6.3 in) long and 3 centimetres (1.2 in) to 7 centimetres (2.8 in) wide. They are a glossy dark green with no hairs above, and paler and minutely hairy to no hairs below.[9] The leaf stalks are 4 millimetres (0.16 in) to 13 millimetres (0.51 in) long and without hairs.[9] Flower stalks (peduncles) are 2 millimetres (0.079 in) to 5 millimetres (0.20 in) long and woody. They appear opposite from the leaves or as an extra from near the leaf stalk, each with one or two flowers, occasionally a third.[9] Stalks for the individual flowers (pedicels) are stout and woody, minutely hairy to hairless and 15 millimetres (0.59 in) to 20 millimetres (0.79 in) with small bractlets nearer to the base which are densely hairy.[9] The petals are thick and yellowish. Outer petals meet at the edges without ...
Carbohydrates: 0. *Fibers: 0. *Protein: 0. *Vitamin E: 1.9 mg (10% of DV) ...
A 100-gram amount of raw sorghum provides 329 calories, 72% carbohydrates, 4% fat, and 11% protein (table). Sorghum supplies ...
The sweet orange is not a wild fruit,[15] having arisen in domestication from a cross between a non-pure mandarin orange and a hybrid pomelo that had a substantial mandarin component. Since its chloroplast DNA is that of pomelo, it was likely the hybrid pomelo, perhaps a BC1 pomelo backcross, that was the maternal parent of the first orange.[7][38] Based on genomic analysis, the relative proportions of the ancestral species in the sweet orange is approximately 42% pomelo and 58% mandarin.[39] All varieties of the sweet orange descend from this original cross, differing only by mutations selected for during agricultural propagation.[38] Sweet oranges have a distinct origin from the bitter orange, which arose independently, perhaps in the wild, from a cross between pure mandarin and pomelo parents.[38] The earliest mention of the sweet orange in Chinese literature dates from 314 B.C.[2] In Europe, the Moors introduced the orange to Spain which was known as Al-Andalus, modern Andalusia, with large ...
Raw opuntia leaves are 88% water, 10% carbohydrates, and less than 1% both of protein and fat (table). In a 100 gram reference ...
Vadai (Vada) may be made from legumes, sago or potatoes. Commonly used legumes include pigeon pea, chickpea, black gram and green gram. Vegetables and other ingredients are added to improve taste and nutritive value.[6] For legume-based vadas, the legumes (dal) are soaked with water, and then ground to a batter. The batter is then seasoned with other ingredients, such as cumin seeds, onion, curry leaves (sometimes previously sauteed), salt, chillies or black pepper grains. Often ginger and baking soda are added to the seasoning in shops to increase the fluffy texture and improve fermentation for large batches. The mixture is then shaped and deep-fried, resulting in vadas with a crispy skin and fluffy centre. The preparation of kalmi vadas involves cutting the resulting product into pieces and re-frying them.[6] ...
Mature serrano pepper plants reach a height of 0.5 to 1.5 m (1.5 to 5.0 ft) tall.[1] Each plant can hold up to 50 pepper pods.[1] The fruit can be harvested while they are green or ripe. Unripe serrano peppers are green, but the color varies at maturity; common colors for the ripe fruit are green, red, brown, orange, and yellow. Serrano peppers do better in soils with a pH between 7.0 and 8.5 in warm temperatures above 75°F (24°C), with a low tolerance for frost.[2] ...
For more about low Carbohydrate Ketogenic Diet, please subscribe to our website newsletter now! ... Get to know more about ketogenic diet and low Carbohydrate Ketogenic Diet here on this site. ... no fat? High carbohydrates or no carbohydrates? Low protein or high protein? To make matters worse, there are a million ... low Carbohydrate Ketogenic Diet. Low Carb Dieting the Truth: Part One. ketosis. 3)CYCLICAL KETOGENIC Food plan- alternates ...
... a phase I study of a carbohydrate mimetic-peptide vaccine in stage IV breast cancer subjects ... a phase I study of a carbohydrate mimetic-peptide vaccine in stage IV breast cancer subjects ... Targeting tumor-associated carbohydrate antigens: a phase I study of a carbohydrate mimetic-peptide vaccine in stage IV breast ... Cutting edge: DNA immunization with minigenes of carbohydrate mimotopes induce functional anti-carbohydrate antibody response. ...
In particular, less carbohydrates, as they are mostly not harvested until fall. We can all do this quite naturally by following ... There are natural dietary shifts that take place each season: A high-protein, high-fat diet in the winter, a high-carbohydrate ... A classic ketogenic diet is composed of 80-90% fat, with carbohydrates and proteins constituting the remainder of the intake. ... The diet provides sufficient protein for growth, but insufficient amounts of carbohydrates for the bodys metabolic needs. ...
By limiting your carbohydrate application being on a ketogenic diet and in reality removing them on a ketogenic diet and eating ... Due to carbohydrates removing on a ketogenic diet you will practice some nutrient deficiencies. For this cause its indeed ... Ketogenic diet schedules for weight loss program basically include depriving your body of carbohydrates and sugars.. When you ... As explained above a ketogenic diet is comprised of basically depriving body of carbohydrates and sugars. Glucagon is what ...
Each subunit has five carbohydrate-binding sites. The lectin recognizes and binds specifically to fucose and terminal fucose ... Each subunit has five carbohydrate-binding sites.1 The lectin recognizes and binds specifically to fucose and terminal fucose ...
Learn how to incorporate carbohydrates into a healthy diet. ... Carbohydrates are one of the basic food groups. ... What are carbohydrates?. Carbohydrates, or carbs, are sugar molecules. Along with proteins and fats, carbohydrates are one of ... Carbohydrates (Department of Health and Human Services, Office on Womens Health) * Carbohydrates and Diabetes (Nemours ... Which types of carbohydrates should I eat?. You do need to eat some carbohydrates to give your body energy. But its important ...
... determination of carbohydrates structures and important and detailed reviews have been published (see for... ... Ferrier, R. J., 1978, Carbohydrate boronates, Adv. Carbohydr. Chem. Biochem. 35:31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar ... 1984) Carbohydrates. In: Odham G., Larsson L., Mårdh PA. (eds) Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry Applications in ... Radford, T., and De Jongh, D. C., 1972, "Carbohydrates," in Biochemical Applications of Mass Spectrometry (G. R. Waller, ed.), ...
... of Agricultures Dietary Guidelines recommended that adults consume 45 to 65 percent of calories in the form of carbohydrates, ... Eating carbohydrates compels repeated eating of carbohydrates. Carbohydrate-filled foods are convenient, especially the poorer- ... Unfortunately, many of these fiber-rich foods are also rich in carbohydrates and would be eliminated on very low carbohydrate ... In this context, carbohydrates are the kindling, sticks, twigs and paper, while fat is the log. You can get a fire going ...
... your doctor may have recommended keeping track of how many carbohydrates (carbs) you eat. But what exactly are carbs and how do ... Carbohydrates and Diabetes. Resources. Please Note: By clicking a link to any resource listed on this page, you will be leaving ...
... your doctor may have recommended keeping track of how many carbohydrates (carbs) you eat. But what exactly are carbs and how do ... Carbohydrates are a healthy and important part of a nutritious diet.. Some carbohydrates have more health benefits than others ... Because the body turns carbohydrates into glucose, eating carbohydrates makes blood sugar levels rise. But that doesnt mean ... The foods we eat contain nutrients that provide energy and other things the body needs, and one of these is carbohydrates. The ...
There are two types of carbohydrate: complex and simple. Find out which foods they are found in. ... Carbohydrates are an ideal source of energy for the body. ... Carbohydrates. Carbohydrates are an ideal source of energy for ... Simple carbohydrates. Simple carbohydrates are also known as sugars. They also exist in either a natural or refined form. ... Complex carbohydrates. Complex carbohydrates are often referred to as starch or starchy foods. They are found naturally in ...
There are three main types of carbohydrates found in foods: sugars, starches, and fiber. ... Carbohydrates are one of the main nutrients in our diet. They help provide energy for our body. ... Carbohydrates are one of the main nutrients in our diet. They help provide energy for our body. There are three main types of ... Eating too many carbohydrates in the form of processed, starchy, or sugary foods can cause an increase in total calories. This ...
Carbohydrates (sn); carbohydrate (sco); Нүүрс ус (mn); karbohydrat (nn); karbohydrat (nb); Karbohidrat (az); Carbohydrate (hif ... Media in category "Carbohydrates". The following 80 files are in this category, out of 80 total. ... The physiology of the carbohydrates; their application as food and relation to diabetes (1894) (14577696428).jpg 1,304 × 1,982 ... glúcido (es); Sykra (is); Karbohidrat (ms); കാർബോഹൈഡ്രേറ്റ് (ml); Υδατάνθρακες (el); Glúcidu (ext); carbohydrate (en-gb); ...
1 carbohydrate choice = 15 grams carbohydrate. NOTE: the weights listed include skin, core, and seeds. ... Some vegetables, such as salad green (lettuce, romaine, spinach, and arugula), have so little carbohydrate that they are ... Yogurt is highly variable in carbohydrate content, so check the food label to be sure. ...
Carbohydrate dehydrogenases are a group of dehydrogenase enzymes that occur in many organisms and facilitate the conversion ... Carbohydrate dehydrogenases are the most common quinoprotein oxidoreductases,[1] which are enzymes that oxidize a wide range of ... Carbohydrate Dehydrogenases at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) ... Kulys, J., Tetianec, L. and Bratkovskaja, I. (2010), Pyrroloquinoline quinone-dependent carbohydrate dehydrogenase: Activity ...
Carbohydrates - 1st Edition. Print Book & E-Book. ISBN 9780128498866, 9780128498743 ... Molecular Nutrition: Carbohydrates presents the nutritional and molecular aspects of carbohydrates. As part of the Molecular ... carbohydrates in the diet, insulin resistance, dietary sugars, cardiometabolic risk, lipoproteins, low-carbohydrate diets, ... Summarizes molecular nutrition in health as related to carbohydrates. *Addresses emerging fields of molecular biology and ...
The separation of native derivatized carbohydrates is presented using UV, fluorescence, and mass spectrometric detection. Two ... A useful appendix describes the structures of the most commonly encountered carbohydrate residues and oligosaccharides from ... Timely and highly practical, Capillary Electrophoresis of Carbohydrates provides both novice and experienced CE analysts with ... In Capillary Electrophoresis of Carbohydrates, hands-on experts describe cutting-edge techniques in capillary electrophoresis ( ...
Simple Carbohydrate Diet. Simple carbohydrate diet is a healthy diet plan that allows you to consume complex carbohydrates for ... Complex Carbohydrates. Carbohydrates are the primary source of energy but including more complex carbohydrates than simple ... Refined Carbohydrates. Refined carbohydrates are carbohydrates that have been stripped of all fiber and essential nutrients. ... Carbohydrate Malabsorption. Carbohydrate malabsorption is also referred as carbohydrate intolerance. To learn more about the ...
Location: CTAN Packages carbohydrates carbohydrates - Carbohydrate molecules with chemfig. This pack-age of-fers macros that ...
Carbohydrates Read about why carbohydrates are important to the body and how they fit in a healthy diet. Explore types of ... Read basic, factual information on carbohydrates. Topics covered include complex and simple carbohydrates and dietary fiber. ... Grains are a source of carbohydrates in the diet. Read more about the grains group, and find Tips to Make Half Your Grains ... Find the latest news, plus links to overviews, clinical trials and research related to dietary carbohydrates. Also in Spanish. ...
... ISTANBUL. Diet and Nutrition Doctor Ahmet Ak from Bağcılar Research Hospital also underlines the ... "The dietary balance we suggest includes 55 percent or 60 percent carbohydrates," he said, with which his colleague Betül Sanrı ... However, he disagrees with Karatay on exclusion of carbohydrates from the daily diet altogether. " ...
3. CarbohydratesCarbohydrates, or saccharides (saccharo is Greek for ―sugar) are polyhydroxy aldehydes or ketones, or ... THE STEREOCHEMISTRY OF CARBOHYDRATES Two Forms of Glyceraldehyde •Glyceraldehyde, the simplest carbohydrate, exists in two ... 4. Carbohydrates and Biochemistry •Carbohydrates are compounds of tremendous biological importance: -they provide energy ... The hemiacetal or hemiketal carbon of the cyclic form of carbohydrates is the anomeric carbon. Carbohydrate isomers that differ ...
Low-carbohydrate diets or carbohydrate-restricted diets (CRDs) are diets that restrict carbohydrate consumption relative to the ... Modern low-carbohydrate diets[edit]. Further information: Atkins diet. Other low-carbohydrate diets in the 1960s included the ... Carbohydrate-insulin hypothesis[edit]. Low-carbohydrate diet advocates including Gary Taubes and David Ludwig have proposed a " ... carbohydrate in the diet."[16] Much of the research comparing low-fat vs. low-carbohydrate dieting has been of poor quality and ...
Find out what carbohydrates are, what they do, why we need them, how many carbs we should eat every day, and how to reduce the ... Fast facts on carbohydrates *"Saccharide" is another word for "carbohydrate.". *Foods high in carbohydrates include bread, ... How can carbohydrates lead to diabetes?. When a person consumes carbohydrates, the digestive system breaks some of them down ... Carbohydrates are the most abundant of the four.. Also known as "carbs," carbohydrates have several roles in living organisms, ...
Browse our collection of carbohydrates information for news stories, slideshows, opinion pieces and related videos posted on ...
  • Carbohydrates, or saccharides (saccharo is Greek for ―sugar) are polyhydroxy aldehydes or ketones, or substances that yield such compounds on hydrolysis. (slideshare.net)
  • Carbohydrates are among the most abundant compounds on earth. (sparknotes.com)
  • Carbohydrates form a large and important group of naturally occurring compounds, which can be divided into a number of smaller families. (daviddarling.info)
  • Specifically, the authors consider the safety and efficacy of pre-, pro-, and synbiotics, and the potential use of carbohydrates as delivery vehicles for other bioactive compounds. (routledge.com)
  • With contributions from experts specializing in food chemistry and technology, as well as human nutrition and physiology, this text illuminates the link between the behavior of carbohydrate compounds and their beneficial end-result on human health. (routledge.com)
  • The safety and efficacy of pre-, pro-, and syn-biotics are dealt with and the potential of such bioactive compounds acting as delivery vehicles is intriguing…an excellent treatment of a rapidly moving area of carbohydrates. (routledge.com)
  • A number of carbohydrate compounds from plant, bacterial, yeast and synthetic sources have emerged as promising vaccine adjuvant candidates. (nih.gov)
  • Nevertheless, carbohydrate-based compounds have many favorable properties that could place them in a unique position to challenge alum's monopoly over human vaccine usage. (nih.gov)
  • Carbohydrates are organic compounds organized in the form of aldehydes or ketones with multiple hydroxyl groups coming off the carbon chain. (alfa.com)
  • Carbohydrates are the most abundant organic compounds in living organisms. (alfa.com)
  • This includes chemical compounds such as acetic or lactic acid , which are not normally considered carbohydrates. (wikipedia.org)
  • Microbiota-accessible carbohydrates (MACs) are carbohydrates that are resistant to digestion by a host's metabolism, and are made available for gut microbes, as prebiotics, to ferment or metabolize into beneficial compounds, such as short chain fatty acids. (wikipedia.org)
  • In scientific literature, the term "carbohydrate" has many synonyms, like "sugar" (in the broad sense), "saccharide", "ose", "glucide", "hydrate of carbon" or "polyhydroxy compounds with aldehyde or ketone" Some of these terms, specially "carbohydrate" and "sugar", are also used with other meanings. (wikipedia.org)
  • This will include chemical compounds such as acetic or lactic acid, which are not normally considered carbohydrates. (wikipedia.org)
  • Today, the term is generally understood in the biochemistry sense, which excludes compounds with only one or two carbons and includes many biological carbohydrates which deviate from this formula. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the study, 12 overweight or obese men consumed milkshakes containing the same amount of carbohydrate, but with different glycemic indexes. (healthcentral.com)
  • The FAO and WHO similarly recommend that the majority of dietary energy come from carbohydrates. (wikipedia.org)
  • About 50% to 55% of a teen athlete's daily energy requirement should come from carbohydrates. (healthychildren.org)
  • The Food and Agriculture Organization and World Health Organization recommend that about 55-75% of a person's total energy consumption should come from carbohydrates. (hypertextbook.com)
  • Carbohydrates come mainly from plant sources, although milk and many milk products contain some carbohydrates in the form of lactose. (uen.org)
  • We generally think of grains (Bread & Cereal group) as the only source of carbohydrates. (uen.org)
  • Physical activity causes depletion of these glycogen stores and good carbohydrate nutrition is the key to vitality.Here we find the different sources of carbohydrates and its good effect to our body. (hubpages.com)
  • Some athletes try the technique known as carbohydrate loading to boost their glycogen stores just before a major competition. (healthychildren.org)
  • The need for carbohydrates - Running for over 90-120 minutes at race pace can totally deplete glycogen stores even if well loaded beforehand. (time-to-run.com)
  • Kiliani-Fischer Synthesis- a series of reaction that extends carbon chain in a carbohydrate by one carbon and one chiral centre. (slideshare.net)
  • A carbohydrate is an organic compound with general formula C''m''(H2O)''n'', that is, consisting only of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen, the last two in the 2:1 atom ratio. (news-medical.net)
  • Carbohydrates can be viewed as hydrates of carbon, hence their name. (news-medical.net)
  • A carbohydrate is an organic compound consisting of a chain or ring of carbon atoms to which hydrogen and oxygen atoms are attached in the ratio of approximately 2:1. (daviddarling.info)
  • This energy is used in the process of photosynthesis, which allows green plants to take in carbon dioxide and release oxygen and allows for the production of carbohydrates. (faqs.org)
  • Most carbohydrates have a ratio of 1:2:1 of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen, respectively. (faqs.org)
  • It starts with the carbohydrate and oxygen and produces carbon dioxide, water, and energy. (faqs.org)
  • The term Carbohydrates can actually be derived from Carbon, Hydrogen and Oxygen. (infobarrel.com)
  • The general chemical formula for carbohydrates, C(H 2 O), gives the relative proportions of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a monosaccharide (the proportion of these atoms are 1:2:1). (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • This term persists even though a carbohydrate definitely is not a hydrated carbon atom . (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Each carbon atom that supports a hydroxyl group (except for the first and last) is optically active, allowing a number of different carbohydrates with the same basic structure. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Carbohydrates are important biological macromolecules that consist of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a 1:2:1 ratio. (alfa.com)
  • Like any other substances, carbohydrates are also known to have different classifications which include the monosaccharide, disaccharide, oligosaccharide and lastly, the polysaccharide. (infobarrel.com)
  • The monosaccharide which is known to have one sugar is considered to be the building blocks of carbohydrates. (infobarrel.com)
  • Other carbohydrates are composed of monosaccharide units, and break down under hydrolysis . (factbites.com)
  • Carbohydrates, or saccharides, are biomolecules. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Carbohydrates, also known as saccharides, are the most abundant energy providing molecule on the planet. (hypertextbook.com)
  • Molecular Nutrition: Carbohydrates presents the nutritional and molecular aspects of carbohydrates. (elsevier.com)
  • Read about Total Carbohydrates on the Nutrition Facts Label. (nutrition.gov)
  • "However, there is a large diversity within the group of carbohydrates," ​ said Anke Sentko, vice president regulatory affairs and nutrition communication for the Beneo-Group. (nutraingredients.com)
  • The clearest explanation comes from a report by the 'FAO/WHO Expert Consultation on Carbohydrates in Human Nutrition at ftp://ftp.fao.org/es/esn/nutrition/carboweb/carbo.htm . (mendosa.com)
  • Carbohydrates are one of three important macronutrients that the body needs to survive. (reference.com)
  • Your body needs all three forms of carbohydrates to function properly. (medlineplus.gov)
  • But then why are the complex carbohydrates cited to be healthier for our body? (buzzle.com)
  • Carbohydrates, the main nutrient in grain products in the orange section of MyPyramid, provide much of the fuel that keeps the body going, in much the same way that gasoline provides fuel to keep a car going. (uen.org)
  • No matter where you fall in this debate, it's hard to deny that carbohydrates play an important role in the human body. (healthline.com)
  • Other ways the body can preserve muscle mass without carbohydrates will be discussed later in this article. (healthline.com)
  • Serious complications can develop if you deprive your body of adequate carbohydrates for long periods of time. (livestrong.com)
  • This is because your body seriously needs carbohydrates. (parade.com)
  • Aside from that, you should be able to understand that there are actually a lot of benefits of having enough carbohydrates in your body. (infobarrel.com)
  • Because they are made of significant elements and components, carbohydrates are proven to be truly essential in different body processes. (infobarrel.com)
  • The body needs approximately 100 g carbohydrates daily . (botanical-online.com)
  • The carbohydrates are changed to fat, leading to an increase in body fat, excess weight and obesity. (alison.com)
  • This previously unknown biological function extends the group of carbohydrate-active enzymes to include the class of cytochrome P450 monooxygenases. (nature.com)
  • It will include original studies and comprehensive reviews on the primary structure, molecular characteristics including conformation, size and shape, and bioactivities demonstrated by studies using in vitro , cell culture, animal and human clinical trials for understanding the action mechanisms and efficacy of bioactive carbohydrates from plants, fungi, animals and produced by biotechnology. (elsevier.com)
  • In biochemistry , carbohydrates are a relatively basic class of chemical compound . (factbites.com)