The largest class of organic compounds, including STARCH; GLYCOGEN; CELLULOSE; POLYSACCHARIDES; and simple MONOSACCHARIDES. Carbohydrates are composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a ratio of Cn(H2O)n.
Cellular processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of CARBOHYDRATES.
Carbohydrates present in food comprising digestible sugars and starches and indigestible cellulose and other dietary fibers. The former are the major source of energy. The sugars are in beet and cane sugar, fruits, honey, sweet corn, corn syrup, milk and milk products, etc.; the starches are in cereal grains, legumes (FABACEAE), tubers, etc. (From Claudio & Lagua, Nutrition and Diet Therapy Dictionary, 3d ed, p32, p277)
The sequence of carbohydrates within POLYSACCHARIDES; GLYCOPROTEINS; and GLYCOLIPIDS.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a carbohydrate.
Carbohydrates consisting of between two (DISACCHARIDES) and ten MONOSACCHARIDES connected by either an alpha- or beta-glycosidic link. They are found throughout nature in both the free and bound form.
Carbohydrate antigens expressed by malignant tissue. They are useful as tumor markers and are measured in the serum by means of a radioimmunoassay employing monoclonal antibodies.
Proteins that share the common characteristic of binding to carbohydrates. Some ANTIBODIES and carbohydrate-metabolizing proteins (ENZYMES) also bind to carbohydrates, however they are not considered lectins. PLANT LECTINS are carbohydrate-binding proteins that have been primarily identified by their hemagglutinating activity (HEMAGGLUTININS). However, a variety of lectins occur in animal species where they serve diverse array of functions through specific carbohydrate recognition.
Any of a group of polysaccharides of the general formula (C6-H10-O5)n, composed of a long-chain polymer of glucose in the form of amylose and amylopectin. It is the chief storage form of energy reserve (carbohydrates) in plants.
The chemical or biochemical addition of carbohydrate or glycosyl groups to other chemicals, especially peptides or proteins. Glycosyl transferases are used in this biochemical reaction.
Simple sugars, carbohydrates which cannot be decomposed by hydrolysis. They are colorless crystalline substances with a sweet taste and have the same general formula CnH2nOn. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
A hexose or fermentable monosaccharide and isomer of glucose from manna, the ash Fraxinus ornus and related plants. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed & Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
Fats present in food, especially in animal products such as meat, meat products, butter, ghee. They are present in lower amounts in nuts, seeds, and avocados.
A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Proteins obtained from foods. They are the main source of the ESSENTIAL AMINO ACIDS.
A diet that contains limited amounts of CARBOHYDRATES. This is in distinction to a regular DIET.
Total number of calories taken in daily whether ingested or by parenteral routes.
An aldohexose that occurs naturally in the D-form in lactose, cerebrosides, gangliosides, and mucoproteins. Deficiency of galactosyl-1-phosphate uridyltransferase (GALACTOSE-1-PHOSPHATE URIDYL-TRANSFERASE DEFICIENCY DISEASE) causes an error in galactose metabolism called GALACTOSEMIA, resulting in elevations of galactose in the blood.
Glucose in blood.
Protein or glycoprotein substances of plant origin that bind to sugar moieties in cell walls or membranes. Some carbohydrate-metabolizing proteins (ENZYMES) from PLANTS also bind to carbohydrates, however they are not considered lectins. Many plant lectins change the physiology of the membrane of BLOOD CELLS to cause agglutination, mitosis, or other biochemical changes. They may play a role in plant defense mechanisms.
A nonreducing disaccharide composed of GLUCOSE and FRUCTOSE linked via their anomeric carbons. It is obtained commercially from SUGARCANE, sugar beet (BETA VULGARIS), and other plants and used extensively as a food and a sweetener.
Proteins which contain carbohydrate groups attached covalently to the polypeptide chain. The protein moiety is the predominant group with the carbohydrate making up only a small percentage of the total weight.
A monosaccharide in sweet fruits and honey that is soluble in water, alcohol, or ether. It is used as a preservative and an intravenous infusion in parenteral feeding.
Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.
Carbohydrates covalently linked to a nonsugar moiety (lipids or proteins). The major glycoconjugates are glycoproteins, glycopeptides, peptidoglycans, glycolipids, and lipopolysaccharides. (From Biochemical Nomenclature and Related Documents, 2d ed; From Principles of Biochemistry, 2d ed)
Oligosaccharides containing two monosaccharide units linked by a glycosidic bond.
A group of naturally occurring N-and O-acyl derivatives of the deoxyamino sugar neuraminic acid. They are ubiquitously distributed in many tissues.
Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.
Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.
SUGARS containing an amino group. GLYCOSYLATION of other compounds with these amino sugars results in AMINOGLYCOSIDES.
A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).
The remnants of plant cell walls that are resistant to digestion by the alimentary enzymes of man. It comprises various polysaccharides and lignins.
The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.
The N-acetyl derivative of glucosamine.
A strong oxidizing agent.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The N-acetyl derivative of galactosamine.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
The time frame after a meal or FOOD INTAKE.
Oligosaccharides containing three monosaccharide units linked by glycosidic bonds.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
A trisaccharide antigen expressed on glycolipids and many cell-surface glycoproteins. In the blood the antigen is found on the surface of NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and MONOCYTES. In addition, CD15 antigen is a stage-specific embryonic antigen.
An N-acyl derivative of neuraminic acid. N-acetylneuraminic acid occurs in many polysaccharides, glycoproteins, and glycolipids in animals and bacteria. (From Dorland, 28th ed, p1518)
A disaccharide of GLUCOSE and GALACTOSE in human and cow milk. It is used in pharmacy for tablets, in medicine as a nutrient, and in industry.
High molecular weight mucoproteins that protect the surface of EPITHELIAL CELLS by providing a barrier to particulate matter and microorganisms. Membrane-anchored mucins may have additional roles concerned with protein interactions at the cell surface.
A group of dominantly and independently inherited antigens associated with the ABO blood factors. They are glycolipids present in plasma and secretions that may adhere to the erythrocytes. The phenotype Le(b) is the result of the interaction of the Le gene Le(a) with the genes for the ABO blood groups.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
Any compound containing one or more monosaccharide residues bound by a glycosidic linkage to a hydrophobic moiety such as an acylglycerol (see GLYCERIDES), a sphingoid, a ceramide (CERAMIDES) (N-acylsphingoid) or a prenyl phosphate. (From IUPAC's webpage)
A class of animal lectins that bind specifically to beta-galactoside in a calcium-independent manner. Members of this class are distiguished from other lectins by the presence of a conserved carbohydrate recognition domain. The majority of proteins in this class bind to sugar molecules in a sulfhydryl-dependent manner and are often referred to as S-type lectins, however this property is not required for membership in this class.
Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).
Physiological processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of LIPIDS.
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
The consumption of edible substances.
Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.
An amidohydrolase that removes intact asparagine-linked oligosaccharide chains from glycoproteins. It requires the presence of more than two amino-acid residues in the substrate for activity. This enzyme was previously listed as EC 3.2.2.18.
The selection of one food over another.
The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.
A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A dextrodisaccharide from malt and starch. It is used as a sweetening agent and fermentable intermediate in brewing. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of alpha-2,3, alpha-2,6-, and alpha-2,8-glycosidic linkages (at a decreasing rate, respectively) of terminal sialic residues in oligosaccharides, glycoproteins, glycolipids, colominic acid, and synthetic substrate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992)
A non-essential amino acid that is involved in the metabolic control of cell functions in nerve and brain tissue. It is biosynthesized from ASPARTIC ACID and AMMONIA by asparagine synthetase. (From Concise Encyclopedia Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 3rd ed)
The systematic study of the structure and function of the complete set of glycans (the glycome) produced in a single organism and identification of all the genes that encode glycoproteins.
Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Polyhydric alcohols having no more than one hydroxy group attached to each carbon atom. They are formed by the reduction of the carbonyl group of a sugar to a hydroxyl group.(From Dorland, 28th ed)
A chromatographic technique that utilizes the ability of biological molecules to bind to certain ligands specifically and reversibly. It is used in protein biochemistry. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.
A proteolytic enzyme obtained from Streptomyces griseus.
An N-acetylglycosamine containing antiviral antibiotic obtained from Streptomyces lysosuperificus. It is also active against some bacteria and fungi, because it inhibits the glucosylation of proteins. Tunicamycin is used as tool in the study of microbial biosynthetic mechanisms.
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Any substances taken in by the body that provide nourishment.
A MANNOSE/GLUCOSE binding lectin isolated from the jack bean (Canavalia ensiformis). It is a potent mitogen used to stimulate cell proliferation in lymphocytes, primarily T-lymphocyte, cultures.
Sucrose present in the diet. It is added to food and drinks as a sweetener.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Glycosides formed by the reaction of the hydroxyl group on the anomeric carbon atom of mannose with an alcohol to form an acetal. They include both alpha- and beta-mannosides.
A subclass of lectins that are specific for CARBOHYDRATES that contain MANNOSE.
Abstaining from all food.
The outermost layer of a cell in most PLANTS; BACTERIA; FUNGI; and ALGAE. The cell wall is usually a rigid structure that lies external to the CELL MEMBRANE, and provides a protective barrier against physical or chemical agents.
A methylpentose whose L- isomer is found naturally in many plant glycosides and some gram-negative bacterial lipopolysaccharides.
The process of breakdown of food for metabolism and use by the body.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
A diet prescribed in the treatment of diabetes mellitus, usually limited in the amount of sugar or readily available carbohydrate. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Polysaccharides found in bacteria and in capsules thereof.
Polysaccharides consisting of mannose units.
Enzymes catalyzing the transfer of fucose from a nucleoside diphosphate fucose to an acceptor molecule which is frequently another carbohydrate, a glycoprotein, or a glycolipid molecule. Elevated activity of some fucosyltransferases in human serum may serve as an indicator of malignancy. The class includes EC 2.4.1.65; EC 2.4.1.68; EC 2.4.1.69; EC 2.4.1.89.
A group of related enzymes responsible for the endohydrolysis of the di-N-acetylchitobiosyl unit in high-mannose-content glycopeptides and GLYCOPROTEINS.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Polysaccharides composed of repeating glucose units. They can consist of branched or unbranched chains in any linkages.
A normal intermediate in the fermentation (oxidation, metabolism) of sugar. The concentrated form is used internally to prevent gastrointestinal fermentation. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
Uptake of substances through the lining of the INTESTINES.
Salts or esters of LACTIC ACID containing the general formula CH3CHOHCOOR.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
Sets of cell surface antigens located on BLOOD CELLS. They are usually membrane GLYCOPROTEINS or GLYCOLIPIDS that are antigenically distinguished by their carbohydrate moieties.
FATTY ACIDS found in the plasma that are complexed with SERUM ALBUMIN for transport. These fatty acids are not in glycerol ester form.
Studies comparing two or more treatments or interventions in which the subjects or patients, upon completion of the course of one treatment, are switched to another. In the case of two treatments, A and B, half the subjects are randomly allocated to receive these in the order A, B and half to receive them in the order B, A. A criticism of this design is that effects of the first treatment may carry over into the period when the second is given. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
Any compound that contains a constituent sugar, in which the hydroxyl group attached to the first carbon is substituted by an alcoholic, phenolic, or other group. They are named specifically for the sugar contained, such as glucoside (glucose), pentoside (pentose), fructoside (fructose), etc. Upon hydrolysis, a sugar and nonsugar component (aglycone) are formed. (From Dorland, 28th ed; From Miall's Dictionary of Chemistry, 5th ed)
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Calculation of the energy expenditure in the form of heat production of the whole body or individual organs based on respiratory gas exchange.
A polysaccharide with glucose units linked as in CELLOBIOSE. It is the chief constituent of plant fibers, cotton being the purest natural form of the substance. As a raw material, it forms the basis for many derivatives used in chromatography, ion exchange materials, explosives manufacturing, and pharmaceutical preparations.
The aggregation of ERYTHROCYTES by AGGLUTININS, including antibodies, lectins, and viral proteins (HEMAGGLUTINATION, VIRAL).
Liquids that are suitable for drinking. (From Merriam Webster Collegiate Dictionary, 10th ed)
Sialylated Lewis blood group carbohydrate antigen found in many adenocarcinomas of the digestive tract, especially pancreatic tumors.
A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).
Physical activity which is usually regular and done with the intention of improving or maintaining PHYSICAL FITNESS or HEALTH. Contrast with PHYSICAL EXERTION which is concerned largely with the physiologic and metabolic response to energy expenditure.
A metabolic process that converts GLUCOSE into two molecules of PYRUVIC ACID through a series of enzymatic reactions. Energy generated by this process is conserved in two molecules of ATP. Glycolysis is the universal catabolic pathway for glucose, free glucose, or glucose derived from complex CARBOHYDRATES, such as GLYCOGEN and STARCH.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.
A diet that contains limited amounts of fat with less than 30% of calories from all fats and less than 10% from saturated fat. Such a diet is used in control of HYPERLIPIDEMIAS. (From Bondy et al, Metabolic Control and Disease, 8th ed, pp468-70; Dorland, 27th ed)
Separation technique in which the stationary phase consists of ion exchange resins. The resins contain loosely held small ions that easily exchange places with other small ions of like charge present in solutions washed over the resins.
A glycoside hydrolase found primarily in PLANTS and YEASTS. It has specificity for beta-D-fructofuranosides such as SUCROSE.
A synthetic disaccharide used in the treatment of constipation and hepatic encephalopathy. It has also been used in the diagnosis of gastrointestinal disorders. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p887)
A basic science concerned with the composition, structure, and properties of matter; and the reactions that occur between substances and the associated energy exchange.
Full gratification of a need or desire followed by a state of relative insensitivity to that particular need or desire.
The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)
Oligosaccharide antigenic determinants found principally on NK cells and T-cells. Their role in the immune response is poorly understood.
Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of galactose from a nucleoside diphosphate galactose to an acceptor molecule which is frequently another carbohydrate. EC 2.4.1.-.
Biosynthesis of GLUCOSE from nonhexose or non-carbohydrate precursors, such as LACTATE; PYRUVATE; ALANINE; and GLYCEROL.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
The composition, conformation, and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.
A heterogeneous mixture of glycoproteins responsible for the gel structure of egg white. It has trypsin-inhibiting activity.
Glycogen stored in the liver. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)
Foodstuff used especially for domestic and laboratory animals, or livestock.
Lipids containing at least one monosaccharide residue and either a sphingoid or a ceramide (CERAMIDES). They are subdivided into NEUTRAL GLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS comprising monoglycosyl- and oligoglycosylsphingoids and monoglycosyl- and oligoglycosylceramides; and ACIDIC GLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS which comprises sialosylglycosylsphingolipids (GANGLIOSIDES); SULFOGLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS (formerly known as sulfatides), glycuronoglycosphingolipids, and phospho- and phosphonoglycosphingolipids. (From IUPAC's webpage)
Stable carbon atoms that have the same atomic number as the element carbon, but differ in atomic weight. C-13 is a stable carbon isotope.
An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
The time span between the beginning of physical activity by an individual and the termination because of exhaustion.
A class of animal lectins that bind to carbohydrate in a calcium-dependent manner. They share a common carbohydrate-binding domain that is structurally distinct from other classes of lectins.
Natural recurring desire for food. Alterations may be induced by APPETITE DEPRESSANTS or APPETITE STIMULANTS.
An indication of the contribution of a food to the nutrient content of the diet. This value depends on the quantity of a food which is digested and absorbed and the amounts of the essential nutrients (protein, fat, carbohydrate, minerals, vitamins) which it contains. This value can be affected by soil and growing conditions, handling and storage, and processing.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
Chromatography on thin layers of adsorbents rather than in columns. The adsorbent can be alumina, silica gel, silicates, charcoals, or cellulose. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
A genus of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria whose organisms occur in pairs or chains. No endospores are produced. Many species exist as commensals or parasites on man or animals with some being highly pathogenic. A few species are saprophytes and occur in the natural environment.
The measurement of the quantity of heat involved in various processes, such as chemical reactions, changes of state, and formations of solutions, or in the determination of the heat capacities of substances. The fundamental unit of measurement is the joule or the calorie (4.184 joules). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A subclass of ACIDIC GLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS. They contain one or more sialic acid (N-ACETYLNEURAMINIC ACID) residues. Using the Svennerholm system of abbrevations, gangliosides are designated G for ganglioside, plus subscript M, D, or T for mono-, di-, or trisialo, respectively, the subscript letter being followed by a subscript arabic numeral to indicated sequence of migration in thin-layer chromatograms. (From Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1997)
Baked food product made of flour or meal that is moistened, kneaded, and sometimes fermented. A major food since prehistoric times, it has been made in various forms using a variety of ingredients and methods.
Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Measurement and evaluation of the components of substances to be taken as FOOD.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of glycosyl groups to an acceptor. Most often another carbohydrate molecule acts as an acceptor, but inorganic phosphate can also act as an acceptor, such as in the case of PHOSPHORYLASES. Some of the enzymes in this group also catalyze hydrolysis, which can be regarded as transfer of a glycosyl group from the donor to water. Subclasses include the HEXOSYLTRANSFERASES; PENTOSYLTRANSFERASES; SIALYLTRANSFERASES; and those transferring other glycosyl groups. EC 2.4.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Short-chain fatty acids of up to six carbon atoms in length. They are the major end products of microbial fermentation in the ruminant digestive tract and have also been implicated in the causation of neurological diseases in humans.
The processes and properties of living organisms by which they take in and balance the use of nutritive materials for energy, heat production, or building material for the growth, maintenance, or repair of tissues and the nutritive properties of FOOD.
The glyceryl esters of a fatty acid, or of a mixture of fatty acids. They are generally odorless, colorless, and tasteless if pure, but they may be flavored according to origin. Fats are insoluble in water, soluble in most organic solvents. They occur in animal and vegetable tissue and are generally obtained by boiling or by extraction under pressure. They are important in the diet (DIETARY FATS) as a source of energy. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
A trihydroxy sugar alcohol that is an intermediate in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. It is used as a solvent, emollient, pharmaceutical agent, and sweetening agent.
A course of food intake that is high in FATS and low in CARBOHYDRATES. This diet provides sufficient PROTEINS for growth but insufficient amount of carbohydrates for the energy needs of the body. A ketogenic diet generates 80-90% of caloric requirements from fats and the remainder from proteins.
An abundant pulmonary surfactant-associated protein that binds to a variety of lung pathogens and enhances their opsinization and killing by phagocytic cells. Surfactant protein D contains a N-terminal collagen-like domain and a C-terminal lectin domain that are characteristic of members of the collectin family of proteins.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
The large family of plants characterized by pods. Some are edible and some cause LATHYRISM or FAVISM and other forms of poisoning. Other species yield useful materials like gums from ACACIA and various LECTINS like PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS from PHASEOLUS. Many of them harbor NITROGEN FIXATION bacteria on their roots. Many but not all species of "beans" belong to this family.
Technique involving the diffusion of antigen or antibody through a semisolid medium, usually agar or agarose gel, with the result being a precipitin reaction.
The use of a bicycle for transportation or recreation. It does not include the use of a bicycle in studying the body's response to physical exertion (BICYCLE ERGOMETRY TEST see EXERCISE TEST).
Parts of plants that usually grow vertically upwards towards the light and support the leaves, buds, and reproductive structures. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
A diet designed to cause an individual to lose weight.
Glycoside hydrolases that catalyze the hydrolysis of alpha or beta linked MANNOSE.
Enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of N-acylhexosamine residues in N-acylhexosamides. Hexosaminidases also act on GLUCOSIDES; GALACTOSIDES; and several OLIGOSACCHARIDES.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
Fractionation of a vaporized sample as a consequence of partition between a mobile gaseous phase and a stationary phase held in a column. Two types are gas-solid chromatography, where the fixed phase is a solid, and gas-liquid, in which the stationary phase is a nonvolatile liquid supported on an inert solid matrix.
Seeds from grasses (POACEAE) which are important in the diet.
Polysaccharides consisting of xylose units.
General term for a group of MALNUTRITION syndromes caused by failure of normal INTESTINAL ABSORPTION of nutrients.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Lectins purified from the germinating seeds of common wheat (Triticum vulgare); these bind to certain carbohydrate moieties on cell surface glycoproteins and are used to identify certain cell populations and inhibit or promote some immunological or physiological activities. There are at least two isoforms of this lectin.
A class of C-type lectins that target the carbohydrate structures found on invading pathogens. Binding of collectins to microorganisms results in their agglutination and enhanced clearance. Collectins form trimers that may assemble into larger oligomers. Each collectin polypeptide chain consists of four regions: a relatively short N-terminal region, a collagen-like region, an alpha-helical coiled-coil region, and carbohydrate-binding region.
The bacterial sugar phosphotransferase system (PTS) that catalyzes the transfer of the phosphoryl group from phosphoenolpyruvate to its sugar substrates (the PTS sugars) concomitant with the translocation of these sugars across the bacterial membrane. The phosphorylation of a given sugar requires four proteins, two general proteins, Enzyme I and HPr and a pair of sugar-specific proteins designated as the Enzyme II complex. The PTS has also been implicated in the induction of synthesis of some catabolic enzyme systems required for the utilization of sugars that are not substrates of the PTS as well as the regulation of the activity of ADENYLYL CYCLASES. EC 2.7.1.-.
Lectin purified from peanuts (ARACHIS HYPOGAEA). It binds to poorly differentiated cells and terminally differentiated cells and is used in cell separation techniques.
Endogenous glycoproteins from which SIALIC ACID has been removed by the action of sialidases. They bind tightly to the ASIALOGLYCOPROTEIN RECEPTOR which is located on hepatocyte plasma membranes. After internalization by adsorptive ENDOCYTOSIS they are delivered to LYSOSOMES for degradation. Therefore receptor-mediated clearance of asialoglycoproteins is an important aspect of the turnover of plasma glycoproteins. They are elevated in serum of patients with HEPATIC CIRRHOSIS or HEPATITIS.
Inorganic salts of sulfuric acid.
A multifunctional galactin initially discovered as a macrophage antigen that binds to IMMUNOGLOBULIN E, and as 29-35-kDa lectin that binds LAMININ. It is involved in a variety of biological events including interactions with galactose-containing glycoconjugates, cell proliferation, CELL DIFFERENTIATION, and APOPTOSIS.
A serine endopeptidase that is formed from TRYPSINOGEN in the pancreas. It is converted into its active form by ENTEROPEPTIDASE in the small intestine. It catalyzes hydrolysis of the carboxyl group of either arginine or lysine. EC 3.4.21.4.
A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
The major human blood type system which depends on the presence or absence of two antigens A and B. Type O occurs when neither A nor B is present and AB when both are present. A and B are genetic factors that determine the presence of enzymes for the synthesis of certain glycoproteins mainly in the red cell membrane.
Food and dietary formulations including elemental (chemically defined formula) diets, synthetic and semisynthetic diets, space diets, weight-reduction formulas, tube-feeding diets, complete liquid diets, and supplemental liquid and solid diets.
A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.
An indolizidine alkaloid from the plant Swainsona canescens that is a potent alpha-mannosidase inhibitor. Swainsonine also exhibits antimetastatic, antiproliferative, and immunomodulatory activity.
Enzymes that catalyze the exohydrolysis of 1,4-alpha-glucosidic linkages with release of alpha-glucose. Deficiency of alpha-1,4-glucosidase may cause GLYCOGEN STORAGE DISEASE TYPE II.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
Plants whose roots, leaves, seeds, bark, or other constituent parts possess therapeutic, tonic, purgative, curative or other pharmacologic attributes, when administered to man or animals.
Polysaccharides composed of repeating galactose units. They can consist of branched or unbranched chains in any linkages.
Lengthy and continuous deprivation of food. (Stedman, 25th ed)
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.

Studies of the binding of different iron donors to human serum transferrin and isolation of iron-binding fragments from the N- and C-terminal regions of the protein. (1/4726)

1. Trypsin digestion of human serum transferrin partially saturated with iron(III)-nitrilotriacetate at pH 5.5 or pH 8.5 produces a carbohydrate-containing iron-binding fragment of mol.wt. 43000. 2. When iron(III) citrate, FeCl3, iron (III) ascorabate and (NH4)2SO4,FeSO4 are used as iron donors to saturate the protein partially, at pH8.5, proteolytic digestion yields a fragment of mol.wt. 36000 that lacks carbohydrate. 3. The two fragments differ in their antigenic structures, amino acid compositions and peptide 'maps'. 4. The fragment with mol.wt. 36000 was assigned to the N-terminal region of the protein and the other to the C-terminal region. 5. The distribution of iron in human serum transferrin partially saturated with various iron donors was examined by electrophoresis in urea/polyacrylamide gels and the two possible monoferric forms were unequivocally identified. 6. The site designated A on human serum transferrin [Harris (1977) Biochemistry 16, 560--564] was assigned to the C-terminal region of the protein and the B site to the N-terminal region. 7. The distribution of iron on transferrin in human plasma was determined.  (+info)

The structure of a glycopeptide (GP-II) isolated from Rhizopus saccharogenic amylase. (2/4726)

Mild alkaline treatment of glycopeptide (GP-II) resulted in the loss of 1 mole of serine and 5 moles of threonine per mole of GP-II, suggesting the presence of O-glycosyl bonds between 1 serine and 5 threonine residues and carbohydrate chains. Treatment of GP-II with alkaline borohydride released only disaccharide. Methylation studies of the carbohydrate moiety gave 2,3,4,6-tetra-O-methyl and 2,4,6-tri-O-methyl derivatives of mannose in a ratio of approximately 1:1. In addition, one step of Smith degradation resulted in the loss of about 6 residues of mannose per mole of GP-II. Moreover, alpha-mannosidase [EC 3.2.1.24] liberated about 6 residles of mannose per mole of GP-II. On the basis of these data, the structure of the carbohydrate moiety of GP-II was confirmed to be 3-O-alpha-mannosylmannose. The amino- and carboxyl-terminal amino acids of GP-II were determined to be threonine and serine, respectively. On reductive cleavage of N-proline bonds with metallic sodium in liquid ammonia, 2 moles of alanine per mole of GP-II were lost. From the compositions of three fragments isolated from the reductive cleavage products, the amino acid sequence of the peptide portion of GP-II was determined. Based on these data, a probable structure was proposed for GP-II.  (+info)

Isolation and characterization of two mouse L cell lines resistant to the toxic lectin ricin. (3/4726)

Two variant mouse L cell lines (termed CL 3 and CL 6) have been selected for resistant to ricin, a galactose-binding lectin with potent cytotoxic activity. The resistant lines exhibit a 50 to 70% decrease in ricin binding and a 300- to 500-fold increase in resistance to the toxic effects of ricin. Crude membrane preparations of CL 3 cells have increased sialic acid content (200% of control), while the galactose, mannose, and hexosamine content is within normal limits. Both the glycoproteins and glycolipids of CL 3 cells have increased sialic acid, with the GM3:lactosylceramide ratios for parent L and CL 3 cells being 0.29 and 1.5, respectively. In contrast, the membranes of CL 6 cells have a decrease in sialic acid, galactose, and hexosamine content with mannose being normal. Both cell lines have specific alterations in glycosyltransferase activities which can account for the observed membrane sugar changes. CL 3 cells have increased CMP-sialic acid:glycoprotein sialyltransferase and GM3 synthetase activities, while CL 6 cells have decrease UDP-GlcNAc:glycoproteinN-acetylglucosaminyltransferase and DPU-galactose:glycoprotein galactosyltransferase activities. The increased sialic acid content of CL 3 cells serves to mask ricin binding sites, since neuraminidase treatment of this cell line restores ricin binding to essentially normal levels. However, the fact that neuraminidase-treated CL 3 cells are still 45-fold resistant to ricin indicates that either a special class of productive ricin binding sites is not being exposed or that the cell line has a second mechanism for ricin resistance.  (+info)

A new sugar chain of the proteinase inhibitor from latex of Carica papaya. (4/4726)

The structure of a sugar chain of the proteinase inhibitor from the latex of Carica papaya was studied. Sugar chains liberated on hydrazinolysis were N-acetylated, and their reducing-end residues were tagged with 2-aminopyridine. One major sugar chain was detected on size-fractionation and reversed-phase HPLC analyses. The structure of the PA-sugar chain was determined by two-dimensional sugar mapping combined with sequential exoglycosidase digestion and partial acid hydrolysis, and by 750 MHz 1H-NMR spectroscopy. The structure found was Manalpha1-6(Manalpha1-3)Manalpha1-6(Manalpha1-3) (Xylbeta1-2)Manbeta1- 4GlcNAcbeta1-4(Fucalpha1-3)GlcNAc. This sugar chain represents a new plant-type sugar chain with five mannose residues.  (+info)

Prophenoloxidase-activating enzyme of the silkworm, Bombyx mori. Purification, characterization, and cDNA cloning. (5/4726)

Prophenoloxidase-activating enzyme (PPAE) was purified to homogeneity as judged by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis from larval cuticles of the silkworm, Bombyx mori. The purified PPAE preparation was shown to be a mixture of the isozymes of PPAE (PPAE-I and PPAE-II), which were eluted at different retention times in reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography. PPAE-I and PPAE-II seemed to be post translationally modified isozymes and/or allelic variants. Both PPAE isozymes were proteins composed of two polypeptides (heavy and light chains) that are linked by disulfide linkage(s) and glycosylated serine proteases. The results of cDNA cloning, peptide mapping, and amino acid sequencing of PPAE revealed that PPAE is synthesized as prepro-PPAE with 441 amino acid residues and is activated from pro-PPAE by cleavage of a peptide bond between Lys152 and Ile153. The homology search showed 36.9% identity of PPAE to easter, which is a serine protease involved in dorso-ventral pattern formation in the Drosophila embryo, and indicated the presence of two consecutive clip-like domains in the light chain. A single copy of the PPAE gene was suggested to be present in the silkworm genome. In the fifth instar larvae, PPAE transcripts were detected in the integument, hemocytes, and salivary glands but not in the fat body or mid gut. A polypeptide cross-reactive to mono-specific anti-PPAE/IgG was transiently detected in the extract of eggs between 1 and 3 h after they were laid.  (+info)

Paracellular glucose transport plays a minor role in the unanesthetized dog. (6/4726)

Traditionally, intestinal glucose absorption was thought to occur through active, carrier-mediated transport. However, proponents of paracellular transport have argued that previous experiments neglected effects of solvent drag coming from high local concentrations of glucose at the brush-border membrane. The purpose of this study was to evaluate glucose absorption in the awake dog under conditions that would maximize any contribution of paracellular transport. Jejunal Thiry-Vella loops were constructed in six female mongrel dogs. After surgical recovery, isotonic buffers containing L-glucose as the probe for paracellular permeability were given over 2-h periods by constant infusion pump. At physiological concentrations of D-glucose (1-50 mM), the fractional absorption of L-glucose was only 4-7% of total glucose absorption. Infusion of supraphysiological concentrations (150 mM) of D-glucose, D-maltose, or D-mannitol yielded low-fractional absorptions of L-glucose (2-5%), so too did complex or nonabsorbable carbohydrates. In all experiments, there was significant fractional water absorption (5-19%), a prerequisite for solvent drag. Therefore, with even up to high concentrations of luminal carbohydrates in the presence of significant water absorption, the relative contribution of paracellular glucose absorption remained low.  (+info)

Sugar- and nitrogen-dependent regulation of an Amanita muscaria phenylalanine ammonium lyase gene. (7/4726)

The cDNA of a key enzyme of secondary metabolism, phenylalanine ammonium lyase, was identified for an ectomycorrhizal fungus by differential screening of a mycorrhizal library. The gene was highly expressed in hyphae grown at low external monosaccharide concentrations, but its expression was 30-fold reduced at elevated concentrations. Gene repression was regulated by hexokinase.  (+info)

Lack of effect of carbohydrate depletion on some properties of human mast cell chymase. (8/4726)

Human chymase from vascular tissues was purified to homogeneity by heparin affinity and gel filtration chromatography. Treatment of human chymase with endoglycosidase F resulted in cleavage of the carbohydrate moiety yielding a deglycosylation product that did not lose its catalytic activity. This enzymatic deglycosylation product was enough to explore possibilities that N-glycan might modify some properties of human chymase. Substrate specificity, optimum pH and the elution profile from the heparin affinity gel were not affected by the deglycosylation. Only a slight but significant difference was observed in the Km value for conversion of angiotensin I to angiotensin II. Other kinetic constants such as kcat were not influenced. The kinetics of conversion of big endothelin-1 to endothelin-1(1-31) were not significantly affected. The deglycosylated human chymase was more susceptible to deactivation under alkaline pH and thermal stress. Even at physiological temperature and pH, the activity of glycosylated human chymase was more stable. From these results, it appears that the N-glycan of human chymase contributes to the stability of this enzyme but not to its functional properties.  (+info)

Summary:BOC Sciences featured its carbohydrate synthesis services.. In constant optimization on products and services, BOC Sciences added a great number of products and re-grouped them for better searching and information checking experiences. The newly introduced carbohydrate synthesis service has been featured listed by the company as one of its prominent chemistry services.. Carbohydrate synthesis service as required more frequently by the companys clients was launched September. With well-trained and experienced scientist team, the services were conducted extremely successful. For its solid background in synthesis chemistry, BOC Sciences decided to make the services in this kind as a new branch of featured services and will investment more to keep pace with the latest progress in the field.. With the new synthesis advance that can directly change the carbohydrate bond in the process to achieve pharmaceutical variety, carbohydrate synthesis has been considered as a significant method to ...
Carbohydrate synthesis is a sub-field of organic chemistry concerned specifically with the generation of natural and unnatural carbohydrate structures. This can include the synthesis of monosaccharide residues or structures containing more than one monosaccharide, known as oligosaccharides. Generally speaking, carbohydrates can be classified into two groups, simple sugars and complex carbohydrates. Simple sugars, also called monosaccharides, are carbohydrates which can not be converted into smaller sugars by hydrolysis. When two or more monosaccharide units are connected to one another via a glycoside linkage, complex carbohydrates are formed. Complex carbohydrates, according to the different number of monosaccharide units, can be classed into three groups, disaccharides, oligosaccharides, and polysaccharides. A disaccharide is formed from two monosaccharides. Oligosaccharides can be formed by a small number of monosaccharides linked together. Higher oligosaccharides are called polysaccharides. ...
We specialize in Carbohydrates Synthesis manufacturing Phenyl 4,6-O-benzylidene-2-deoxy-1-thio-β-D-glucopyranosid-1,3-oxazolidin-2-one with the highest technology and stable quality control , our factory has sophisticated technology production route to produce ...
TY - CONF. T1 - Sucrose Phosphorylase in Carbohydrate Synthesis - Mechanistic and Synthetic Considerations. AU - Gödl, Christiane. AU - Sawangwan, Thornthan. AU - Wildberger, Patricia. AU - Nidetzky, Bernd. PY - 2010. Y1 - 2010. M3 - Poster. ER - ...
Complex Carbohydrates, or starches, are composed of many simple sugars joined together by chemical bonds. These bonds can be linked in a serial chain, one after the other, as well as side to side, creating branches. Basically, the more chains and branches, the more complex the carbohydrate. The more complex a carbohydrate is, the more slowly it is broken down. Some carbohydrates are complex in a way that the body cannot digest them. These carbohydrates are a major component of fiber and generally pass through the digestive tract unabsorbed. In general, as long as complex carbohydrates are present in high fiber foods, the body breaks down complex carbohydrates into simple sugars more gradually, which leads to better blood sugar control. More and more research on heart disease, various forms of cancer, and diabetes indicates that complex carbohydrates including high fiber foods should form a major part of the diet. For example, the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension, or DASH, diet focuses on ...
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection of T-cells begins when the viral envelope glycoprotein, gp120, binds to CD4 receptors on the target cell surface. Over the past several years, proteins isolated from various prokaryotes have been shown to inhibit HIV cell entry by binding to gp120 and thus blocking the association with CD4. Lectins that bind to high-mannose oligosaccharides on gp120 are an attractive class of antiviral agents. While several of these have been quite well characterized both structurally and biochemically, there remain many open questions regarding their mechanism of inhibition. Among the best studied is cyanovirin-N (CVN), which is currently under clinical study for use as a topical prophylactic. Large-scale molecular dynamics simulations have identified important structural features of this system that are difficult to resolve experimentally, and binding free energies of a diverse set of oligosaccharide targets computed from these structural ensembles give remarkable ...
Results showed that total bacterial numbers remained fairly constant throughout the diurnal period regardless of the diet fed. However, the number of viable bacteria decreased rapidly after feeding reaching its lowest level at 2 or 4 h post-feeding. Thereafter the viable population increased gradually, reaching its highest number at 16 h post-feeding. Changes in the major carbohydrate metabolizing groups within the bacterial population were, in general, not related to the theoretical pattern of ruminal fermentation for the primary carbohydrate components (soluble sugars, starch, pectin, hemicellulose and cellulose) in the diets fed. The most striking observation was that the soluble carbohydrate utilizing bacteria predominated at all times in both diets. Xylan and pectin degrading bacteria comprised about one half and one third of the population, respectively (slightly less on the high concentrate diet). These groups reached maximum representation between 8 and 12 h post-feeding. The ...
Translator: MiMou Madritista Verified: Muhammad Samir Which of these has the least amount of carbohydrates This piece of bread? Or a bowl of rice? Or a can of soda? Its a trick question Although it may differ in terms of fats, vitamins, and nutrients But in terms of carbohydrates, they are very similar So what does this mean for your diet? First, carbohydrates are the food category of sugars And the molecules that your body breaks down to make sugars Carbohydrates are simple or complex, depending on their structure This simple sugar or monosaccharide Glucose, fructose, and galactose are all simple sugars Connect the two together, and you get a disaccharide Lactose, maltose, or sucrose Complex carbohydrates, on the other hand Make three or more simple sugars bond together Complex carbohydrates consist of three to ten sugar bonds Polysaccharides Those that contain more than ten form a polysaccharide During the digestive process Your body breaks down complex carbohydrates Into monosaccharides ...
Carbohydrate is an organic compound that consists only of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen and has double the amount of carbon and oxygen. Carbohydrates contain sugars, starches, cellulose and other compounds found in living organisms. Carbohydrates most basic form is simple sugars or monosaccharide. There are three other chemical groupings: disaccharides, oligosaccharides and polysaccharides. Simple sugars can be combined into other carbohydrates for form more complex carbohydrates. Humans break down carbohydrates during the process of metabolism to release energy. Humans get carbohydrates from eating foods that contain it. Most carbohydrates are produced by plants during photosynthesis. In food, the term carbohydrate means any food that is particularly rich in starch ...
The carbohydrate and lipid composition of varagu millet has been determined. Starch was the major carbohydrate constituent ( - 72%) of the polished millet. Aqueous alcohol extraction of the millet furnished fructose, galactose, glucose, sucrose, raffinose and an unidentified component. Alkali extraction of the starch-free residue gave hemicelluloses A and B. Hemicellulose A contained glucose with small amounts of rhamnose, arabinose, xylose and mannose; whereas hemicellulose B was composed ofglucoseand galactose. The alkali-insoluble residue represented cellulose or fibre component as it was exclusively composed of glucose. Linoleic acid was the major fatty acid constituent of the free lipids, and palmitic acid was the major fatty acid of the bound lipids.. ...
Introduction. The Role of Carbohydrates Carbohydrates are a very large group of molecules that can be synthesised by plants. They are molecules which contain carbon, hydrogen and oxygen atoms. Usually there is a ratio of 2:1 of hydrogen to oxygen atoms in a carbohydrate molecule. Carbohydrates are very common constituents of plants. They make up to around 90% of the dry mass of plants. Carbohydrates are also an essential part of the animal diet and they are usually obtained directly or indirectly from plants. The functions of carbohydrates vary greatly. There are many different carbohydrates with different sizes and structures, all of which perform a different task in plants or animals. Functions range from being an energy store to providing structural support and strength. There are three types of carbohydrates; they are the monosaccharides, disaccharides and polysaccharides. This division is based on the fact that polysaccharides are non-sugars whereas monosaccharides are simple sugars and ...
It is a common belief that eating even low amounts of carbohydrates increases body weight, whether the carbs are from sugar, bread, fruits or vegetables. The reason for this misconception may be that eating carbohydrates raises insulin, which then lowers blood sugar. Low sugar increases appetite so a person ends up eating more. Considering this, some people advocate significant reduction of carbohydrates in their diet. But diets low in carbohydrates are likely to lack essential nutrients from plant foods, so people may not get enough vitamins, minerals and fiber. Athletes often follow a carbohydrate-loading diet, which involves increasing the amount of carbohydrates for several days before a high-intensity endurance athletic event.. Carbohydrates are one of the most important sources of energy for the human body. Foods containing carbohydrates cant be cut off a healthy diet because they provide fiber, sugars, and starches, which supply energy to the body in the form of glucose (blood sugar), ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Hydrophilic-interaction chromatography of complex carbohydrates. AU - Alpert, Andrew J.. AU - Shukla, Mukta. AU - Shukla, Ashok K.. AU - Zieske, Lynn R.. AU - Yuen, Sylvia W.. AU - Ferguson, Michael A. J.. AU - Mehlert, Angela. AU - Pauly, Markus. AU - Orlando, Ron. PY - 1994. Y1 - 1994. N2 - Complex carbohydrates can frequently be separated using hydrophilic-interaction chromatography (HILIC). The mechanism was investigated using small oligosaccharides and a new column, PolyGLYCOPLEX. Some carbohydrates exhibited anomer separation, which made it possible to determine the orientation of the reducing end relative to the stationary phase. Amide sugars were consistently good contact regions. Relative to amide sugars, sialic acids and neutral hexoses were better contact regions at lower levels of organic solvents than at higher levels. HILIC readily resolved carbohydrates differing in residue composition and position of linkage. Complex carbohydrate mixtures could be resolved using ...
Get this from a library! Cell surface carbohydrate chemistry. [Robert E Harmon; American Chemical Society. Division of Carbohydrate Chemistry.;]
Plant foods such as vegetables, tubers, fruits, and functional plant parts store their carbohydrates in living cells that stay largely intact during cooking and are first breached during the digestive process. These fiber-walled living cells only allow for a maximum density of around 23% non-fibrous carbohydrate by mass, which explains why ancestral sources of carbohydrates such as fruits and vegetables have a relatively low-carbohydrate density compared to the most common sources of carbohydrate in the western diet (14).. Flour, sugar and processed plant foods dont have this cellular storage and contain a considerably higher percentage of carbohydrate than anything else we have been eating throughout our evolutionary history. These acellular carbohydrates are essentially already broken down through the production process and provide an evolutionary unprecedented high concentration of carbohydrates in the semifluid mass of partly digested food that pass from the stomach into the small ...
The amount of carbohydrate present in food that is actually utilized for energy. Dietary fiber is subtracted in the very beginning, if the food item contains ingredients such as sugar alcohol hydrogenated starch hydrolysate these are subtracted from the total carbohydrate count as well. Terms with similar meaning include usable carbs, utilizable carbohydrates, net carbs, net impact carbs, and net Atkins count.
Carbohydrates are made by plants and stored in their leaves, stems, roots, and fruits. Plant foods contain both simple and complex carbohydrates in various amounts. Fruits are often more than 90 percent carbohydrate, but most of their carbohydrates are the sweet-tasting simple forms of carbohydrate, such as glucose and fructose. Green and yellow vegetables store most of their calories as complex carbohydrates, but since they contain very few total calories the amount of complex carbohydrate they provide in the diet is small. Whole grains (rice, corn) and the whole grain flours (wheat, rye) and whole grain pastas (wheat, soba) made from them, tubers (potatoes, yams), legumes (beans, peas), and winter squashes (acorn, hubbard) contain large quantities of complex carbohydrates and thus are known as starches. Rice, corn, and other grains, and potatoes typically store about 80 percent of their calories in the form of complex carbohydrates. Beans, peas, and lentils are approximately 70 percent complex ...
Carbohydrates are made by plants and stored in their leaves, stems, roots, and fruits. Plant foods contain both simple and complex carbohydrates in various amounts. Fruits are often more than 90 percent carbohydrate, but most of their carbohydrates are the sweet-tasting simple forms of carbohydrate, such as glucose and fructose. Green and yellow vegetables store most of their calories as complex carbohydrates, but since they contain very few total calories the amount of complex carbohydrate they provide in the diet is small. Whole grains (rice, corn) and the whole grain flours (wheat, rye) and whole grain pastas (wheat, soba) made from them, tubers (potatoes, yams), legumes (beans, peas), and winter squashes (acorn, hubbard) contain large quantities of complex carbohydrates and thus are known as starches. Rice, corn, and other grains, and potatoes typically store about 80 percent of their calories in the form of complex carbohydrates. Beans, peas, and lentils are approximately 70 percent complex ...
There are plenty of myths circulating about carbohydrates, most saying that they should be avoided for anyone trying to lose or maintain a healthy weight. However, this is not the case. Carbohydrates should account for anywhere between 45 and 65% of macronutrients consumed in the diet. This means that carbohydrates are not to be avoided! Authors Ellie Whitney and Sharon Rolfes state that epidemiological studies find an inverse relationship between carbohydrate intake and body weight. Those with the highest carbohydrate intake have the lowest body weight and vice versa. Now, keep in mind that they are referring to the wholesome kind of carbs, whole-grain and unrefined. On the flip side, too much sugar (i.e. monosaccharides) added into the food is associated with the presence of more body fat. Sugar in this case is referring to refined carbs. Also, foods high in refined sugars are lacking in protein, vitamins, minerals, and fiber which whole-grain carbohydrates have. Thankfully, we can easily ...
Carbohydrates are organic compounds that encompass the food group known as that which most of us love to eat the most. Carbohydrates are sugars. There are two main classes of carbohydrates: simple sugars, and polysaccharides. Simple sugars examples include glucose, galactose (the sugar found in dairy), and fructose (the sugar found in fruits. Polysaccharides are […]. ...
Carbohydrate Addiction.. There is no science behind the recommendation for the population to consume 55% of their diet as carbohydrates. This unscientific number was the result of the recommended intake of fat as a percentage of the food being reduced. So carbohydrates were utilised to fill the gap. That is all there is to it.. It is probably no accident that we like carbohydrates. It might be an evolutionary adaption. People have talked before about the addictive properties of carbohydrates. There are glucose sensors in the hepatic portal veins that are linked to the addiction centres in the brain with functional MRI.. In the early years of human evolution, carbohydrates were probably necessary for survival. In the summer and autumn months, fruits and other sources of sugar become available. These things are scarce at different times of the year in northern climates, such as in the UK.. So, eating to excess and then converting the carbohydrates into fat would be crucial to help the human-animal ...
Our group is interested in chemical glycobiology.. Total synthesis is combined with an enzymatic approach to prepare complex carbohydrates, glycopeptides and semi-synthetic glycoproteins. By using synthetic molecules structural details in protein-carbohydrate interactions are explored, which are relevant in infections, inflammation, cancer and aging. In addition to understand disease mechanisms, an ultimate aim in our projects is to develop glycomimetic inhibitors to block specific protein-carbohydrate interactions for instance to address the current problems with antimicrobial resistance in airway disease infections. We further apply synthetic glycopeptides and semi-synthetic glycoproteins to develop glycoproteomic tools for improved enrichment and characterization of glycan structural isomers of glycoproteins and for studies of new PTMs. Small differences in carbohydrate structure has an enormous impact on biological function, for instance in turning on or off an inflammatory pathway and makes ...
The sugar is listed under total carbohydrates. Total carbohydrates is composed of two parts fibers and sugar and some unspecified carbohydrates so that means 24 g = 4g fiber + 12 g sugar + 8 g some unspecified source. So the question says calories from a carbohydrate which is sugar alone hence 12/24 = 50% since only total carbohydrates generate the 160 calories and so we get 50% * 160 = 80 calories from sugar ...
Good and bad carbohydrates differ in the sense that good carbohydrates are whole foods that can be picked from a tree or dug up from the ground, but bad carbohydrates have been processed, such as breads, cereals and pastas. Eat more healthy carbohydrates, eliminating processed carbohydrates from the diet, with health information from a registered dietitian and licensed nutritionist in this free video on healthy eating.
The most important function of carbohydrates is to provide adequate energy to the animal. Dogs are able to convert certain carbohydrate sources into simple sugars that are easily absorbed. More complex carbohydrates must be broken down further by the body before they are able to be absorbed.. Carbohydrates are broken down in the small intestine into glucose molecules. Glucose is the common energy source that can be used by the majority of body cells. Glucose is required by the body to provide quick energy, and is also needed by the brain and nervous system for normal function. Glucose can be stored in the body for release later in the form of glycogen. If the animal eats too much and exercises too little, this stored glycogen will convert into fatty deposits in the body and cause obesity.. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Carbohydrate biomarkers for future disease detection and treatment. AU - Cheng, Yunfeng. AU - Li, Minyong. AU - Wang, Shaoru. AU - Peng, Hanjing. AU - Reid, Suazette. AU - Ni, Nanting. AU - Fang, Hao. AU - Xu, Wenfang. AU - Wang, Binghe. PY - 2010/1/1. Y1 - 2010/1/1. N2 - Carbohydrates are considered as one of the most important classes of biomarkers for cell types, disease states, protein functions, and developmental states. Carbohydrate binders that can specifically recognize a carbohydrate biomarker can be used for developing novel types of site specific delivery methods and imaging agents. In this review, we present selected examples of important carbohydrate biomarkers and how they can be targeted for the development of therapeutic and diagnostic agents. Examples are arranged based on disease categories including (1) infectious diseases, (2) cancer, (3) inflammation and immune responses, (4) signal transduction, (5) stem cell transformation, (6) embryo development, and (7) ...
Section 1: The effect of carbohydrate and fat on the N retention of the fasting rat. 1. Experiments are described on adult rats, which had been stabilised on a protein-containing or a protein-free diet and after a 24 hour fast received either water, glucose or olive oil. 2. Carbohydrate administration significantly reduced the urinary M output in both dietary groups. Fat administration decreased the urinary E output to a less significant degree. 3. The protein M content of the liver was significantly reduced after carbohydrate administration. Fat administration did not significantly reduce the protein 1 content of the liver. 4. It was concluded that the feeding of carbohydrate resulted in N retention in the body in tissues other than the liver. Section 2: The uptake of 35S-methionine by liver and muscle protein after carbohydrate and fat administration. 1. A study was made of the effect of feeding glucose or olive oil on the incorporation of injected 35S-methionine the protein of the skeletal ...
Is fiber a complex carbohydrate? Is fiber a complex carbohydrate? Fiber is basically a general term used for a particular type of carbohydrates that our body is unable to digest. It is due to the r...
Advances in the elaboration of vaccines and enzyme inhibitors rely on acquiring more knowledge about protein-carbohydrate binding events. Furthermore, the relationships between biological function and the three-dimensional properties of large glycans can be studied by focusing on the structural components they contained, namely, by scaling down the system under analysis. Chemical methods are useful assets as they allow the isolation and determination of epitopes; these small and recognizable fragments that lead to very specific interactions. In this thesis, biologically relevant saccharides were obtained using recently developed concepts in carbohydrate synthesis and NMR spectroscopy was used to unravel their conformational preferences.. In paper I, the convergent synthesis of the tetrasaccharide found in the natural product solaradixine is described. Reactivity enhanced disaccharide glycosyl donors were coupled to a disaccharide acceptor in a 2 + 2 fashion. The computer program CASPER was ...
Carbohydrate Information asks the question whether carbohydrates are the enemy or an essential component of our diets that must be consumed properly
Today we are discussing the basic concept on Carbohydrates Classification from Biomolecules chapter. Carbohydrates are the organic molecules that are composed of the elements carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. These sugars are referred to as saccharides. Carbohydrates are defined as polyhydroxy-aldehydes or polyhydroxy ketones or compounds, which produce them on hydrolysis. They supply energy and serve as structural […]. Continue reading ...
Metrohm launches an ion chromatography separation column for carbohydrate analysis and also delivers dedicated application notes dealing with sugar and sugar alcohol separation by ion chromatography.
Advances in the elaboration of vaccines and enzyme inhibitors rely on acquiring more knowledge about protein-carbohydrate binding events. Furthermore, the relationships between biological function and the three-dimensional properties of large glycans can be studied by focusing on the structural components they contained, namely, by scaling down the system under analysis. Chemical methods are useful assets as they allow the isolation and determination of epitopes; these small and recognizable fragments that lead to very specific interactions. In this thesis, biologically relevant saccharides were obtained using recently developed concepts in carbohydrate synthesis and NMR spectroscopy was used to unravel their conformational preferences.. In paper I, the convergent synthesis of the tetrasaccharide found in the natural product solaradixine is described. Reactivity enhanced disaccharide glycosyl donors were coupled to a disaccharide acceptor in a 2 + 2 fashion. The computer program CASPER was ...
All eukaryotic cells are covered in a dense layer of carbohydrates that are key to cell-cell communication, development, neurobiology and immune function. In addition, many human viruses interact with cell-surface carbohydrates as receptors on their host cells in order to initiate infection. Carbohydrate structures are expressed in tissue- and species-specific patterns, and the availability of the receptor carbohydrate influences viral tissue tropism and host range. Viruses also encounter carbohydrates in the extracellular matrix and the environment on their way from one host cell to another. Some of these extracellular glycans sequester viruses from cells and are part of innate immunity, while others can render viruses more infectious. In any case, the specificity and affinity of viral proteins for carbohydrates determines viral spread, transmission and pathogenesis. However, protein-carbohydrate interactions are less well understood than protein-protein or protein-nucleic acid interactions. ...
Carbohydrates are a common class of simple organic compouds. A carbohydrate is an aldehyde or a ketone that has additional hydroxyl groups. The simplest carbohydrates are called monosaccharides, which has the basic structure (C·H2O)n, where n is three or greater. Monosaccharides link together to form oligosaccharides and polysaccharides. Two monosaccharides link together to form a disaccharide ...
She continues by explaining, Total carbs also accounts for the grams of fiber in a product. Fiber is technically a carbohydrate (according to the chemistry), however, fiber is mostly non-nutritive, meaning, we dont digest and absorb the calories from fiber. Although we do not have the enzymes to break down fibers in our upper digestive system, the bacteria in our lower bowel do. This means that fiber technically yields calories, except they are usually good calories that provide nourishment to gut-lining cells and good bacteria and usually not associated with weight gain. Sugar alcohols should really be a category on their own since they can be partially digested but also tend to cause gut upset in many people.. To find the net carbs subtract fiber from total carbs, leaving only nutritive carbohydrates. Meaning, only the carbohydrates that are digested and absorbed into the bloodstream as simple sugars. Net carbs can only be calculated this way if fiber has been added into the total carbs. ...
Carbohydrates is a very common ingredient to most of the food we consume every day and it is also very important for our health. But currently, carbohydrate is being avoided by so many people for the weight loss reason. But they are missing out on one thing that carbohydrate should be avoided in those kinds of foods which are very rich in sugar and originally e comes in the junk food item. Those foods are really fattening but you should not leave carbohydrates completely because somehow we get energy from it in our everyday life. We have given a list of five items which are really very healthy in nature and also contain carbohydrates in them.. 1. Oatmeal ...
www.MOLUNA.de The Molecular Immunology of Complex Carbohydrates [4191473] - During the past three decades, the sugar moiety of complex carbohydrates has been found to be involved in important interactions of immunological specificity of antigens and to participate in a variety of cellular functions. The long polysaccharide side chains of the lipopolysaccharides on the outer membrane of Gram negative organisms
Eating the right amount of carbohydrates is very important because carbohydrates are the more efficient fuel source for the body.
There are a large number of enzymes that are capable of modifying carbohydrates or carbohydrate derivatives, and that may be used in various analytical methods. The hydrolytic enzymes, which break glycosidic linkages, are useful in the study of disaccharide or polysaccharide structure and in methods for quantitation (Table 9.2). Such enzymes will hydrolyse the glycosidic linkages between the monosaccharide residues and release the individual components for further analysis. The enzyme is chosen bearing in mind the nature of the glycosidic linkage involved, which may not be unique to one particular disaccharide or polysaccharide. Thus a-glucosidase will hydrolyse both the a(l-»4) linkage of maltose and the a( 1-»2) linkage of sucrose, resulting in the release of glucose in both cases.. ...
Th carbohydrates are displayed on human cells or present in body fluids. The most interesting ones are summarized in Table S1 in the supplemental material. Several glycan determinants are linked to mucins (Fig. 3 and 4). Mucins are the main constituents of the extracellular secreted mucus and...
Carbohydrates are of primary importance to bodybuilders and other athletes seeking to maximize lean muscle mass. Find out what you should know!
Substantial evidence suggests that cell surface carbohydrate antigens, particularly those containing fucose residues, are related to cancer malignancy. To investigate the mechanisms underlying cell...
When you look at your garden, consider that your herbs, trees, flowers and other plants all share common properties. They always try to maintain equilibrium-the point of perfect balance. Water and nutrients are absorbed into the root system and pulled up through the stems into the leaves. The plants then use Photosynthesis with the raw ingredients of water and energy from the sun to convert carbon dioxide into carbohydrates that plants use for growth and other plant functions.. Carbohydrates are stored in the branches and stems of herbs and other plants. These stored carbohydrates are used as reserve energy for the plant. When a crisis occurs, such as a broken stem or pathogenic attack, a plant can use these stored carbohydrates. Stored carbohydrates are also used in the spring to create new stems and foliage.. Soil organisms, from earthworms to fungi, provide needed nutrients to plant roots. A healthy root system allows herbs and other plants to create chemicals that repel pathogens and ...
This page provides complete information on Carbohydrates,functions of Carbohydrates,Types of Carbohydrates, Structure of Carbohydrates.
Enzymes, Protein, and Amino Acids Photosynthesis: Light and Chloroplasts Photosynthesis: CarbonDioxide Fixation and Carbohydrate Synthesis Photosynthesis: Environmental Factors Cellular Respiration Assimilation of Nitrogen and Sulfur Lipids and Other natural Products ...
1) THEY ARE AN EXCELLENT ENERGY SOURCE:- The primary function of carbohydrates is to provide your body with energy. When you ingest any form of carbohydrate (whether it be pure sugar, whole grain bread or a piece of fruit) it is broken down into glucose in the digestive tract. This glucose is then released into the bloodstream where your cells can use it for energy.. Your body can convert fats and proteins into energy through a process called gluconeogenesis. However, this process is very inefficient and prevents fats and proteins from performing their primary functions which are to build, protect and repair your bodys cells. Therefore, one big benefit of carbohydrates is that they provide your body with an easily accessible energy source.. 2) THEY ARE A RICH SOURCE OF FIBRE:- If you choose your carbohydrates wisely then you should be getting the majority from fruits and vegetables. Both of these plant based foods are an excellent source of insoluble and soluble fibre which have a number of ...
We specialize in Carbohydrates Synthesis manufacturing 2-[(Azidoacety)amino]-2-deoxy-D-mannose with the highest technology and stable quality control , our
Carbohydrate: A Misunderstood Nutrient Having a clear understanding of what carbohydrate is and how it effects your body is extremely important to health. There are many misconceptions about carbohydrate. Considering there are at least 100 names for sugar, its no wonder it is complicated topic. The low carb community swears that carbohydrates will kill you,…
Title: Structural and Molecular Basis of Carbohydrate-Protein Interaction Systems as Potential Therapeutic Targets. VOLUME: 17 ISSUE: 17. Author(s):Yukiko Kamiya, Maho Yagi-Utsumi, Hirokazu Yagi and Koichi Kato. Affiliation:Okazaki Institute for Integrative Bioscience and Institute for Molecular Science, National Institutes of Natural Sciences, 5-1 Higashiyama, Myodaiji, Okazaki, Aichi 444-8787, Japan.. Keywords:carbohydrate, -, protein interaction, lectin, gangliosid, hemagglutinin, amyloid β, X-ray crystallography, NMR spectroscopy, frontal affinity chromatography, ganglioside, neurodegenerative, concanavalin, glycoconjugates, thermostability, glycosylation, leucocytes, molecular chaperones, Dysfunction, topology, jacalin, Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor, Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations, Human Breast Adenocarcinoma, 3-(4, 5-Dimethyl-2-Thiazyl)-2, 5-Diphenyl-2H-Tetrazolium Bromide, Dimethyl Sulfoxide, Mueller-Hinton, Phosphate Buffered Saline, Enzymelinked Immunosorbentassy, Tlomere Rpeat ...
1. The sugars and amino sugars of hydrolysates of gastric secretion were determined by gas-liquid chromatography. 2. All the gastric aspirations examined showed on hydrolysis the presence of fucose, galactose, mannose, glucose, galactosamine, glucosamine, N-acetylneuraminic acid and sulphate. 3. Galactose and glucosamine were always found in equimolar amounts, but the galactose/galactosamine ratio in different aspirations was 2:1, 3:1, 4:1 or 5:1. Repeated gastric aspirations of each subject examined showed constant ratios of these carbohydrate components. 4. Fucose and sialic acid appear to be related to glucosamine and galactosamine respectively. 5. The carbohydrate components of extracts from the mucous glands of the body mucosa and antrum did not differ from those of gastric secretion.. ...
Carbohydrate consumed in food yields 3.87 calories of energy per gram for simple sugars,[16] and 3.57 to 4.12 calories per gram for complex carbohydrate in most other foods.[17] High levels of carbohydrate are often associated with highly processed foods or refined foods made from plants, including sweets, cookies and candy, table sugar, honey, soft drinks, breads and crackers, jams and fruit products, pastas and breakfast cereals. Lower amounts of carbohydrate are usually associated with unrefined foods, including beans, tubers, rice, and unrefined fruit.[18] Foods from animal carcass have the lowest carbohydrate, but milk does contain lactose. Carbohydrates are a common source of energy in living organisms; however, no carbohydrate is an essential nutrient in humans.[19] Humans are able to obtain most of their energy requirement from protein and fats, though the potential for some negative health effects of extreme carbohydrate restriction remains, as the issue has not been studied extensively ...
Introduction. The Role of Carbohydrates in Living Organisms Carbohydrates are composed of the elements carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. The general formula is Cx(H2O)y. There are many different types of carbohydrates present in living organisms, each playing an important role in maintaining life of organisms. Monosaccharides are a group of carbohydrates, which include simple sugars such as glucose, fructose and galactose. Monosaccharides are classified according to the number of carbon atoms they possess. Trioses such as glyceraldehyde, and dihydroxyacetone contain three carbon atoms. The phosphorylated form of glyceraldehyde is the first formed sugar in photosynthesis, and may (like dihydroxyacetone) be used as respiratory substrate, or is converted to starch for storage. ...read more. Middle. Galactose, mannose and fructose are three principal respiratory substrates in organisms. Additionally, Galactose is central in the synthesis of lactose. Fructose is also involved in the synthesis of insulin, ...
The American diabetes association 2000 calorie diet recommends carbohydrate counting as it is important to focus on balancing food intake, keeping sugar levels in check and physical activity. If diabetics opt for healthy foods each day theses have long term benefits in controlling their diabetes. Diabetics get their main source of energy through carbohydrates which are in starch, fruits, vegetables, sugars and dairy products. Carbohydrates are not present in meats and fats and it directly affects the blood glucose. Consuming carbohydrates in limited amounts at each meal time controls blood sugar levels. There are various means to knowing how much carbohydrate is present in each meal through carbohydrate counting. The amount of carbohydrate needed by an individual is determined by a dietician depending on their body weight, insulin levels, eating patterns and activity. 45 to 65 percent of a days calorie requirement should come from the carbohydrates consumed. Carbohydrate counting is considered ...
January 2016. Carbohydrate is the major source of energy for both cellular metabolism and ones diet. Carbohydrates can be either simple or complex. Simple carbohydrates- for which food science gives the more colloquial name sugar-are small in size, making them also sweet to the taste. The two classes of simple carbohydrates are called monosaccharides and disaccharides. As indicated by their prefixes, a monosaccharide comprises 1 sugar unit, while a disaccharide comprises 2.. In contrast, complex carbohydrates contain more than two sugar units. For this reason, they are called polysaccharides and are primarily chains of glucose. Unlike monosaccharides, they are larger in structure and not sweet to the taste. Plants store energy in the form of complex carbohydrates or what we commonly call starch. Starch is only found in plant products and some of its more familiar sources include all grains, potato, legumes (beans), and many vegetables.. Two major dietary sources of carbohydrate are ...
In the typical diet world there is a high amount of controversy over carbohydrate consumption. People everywhere have jumped onto the low carb bandwagon believing that this nutrient is most likely to lead to fat gain occurring.. Additionally, they firmly believe that carbohydrates are the primary reasons for so many diseases today and for optimal health, they needed to be eliminated.. Although there is truth in those statements, most people continue to miss the key factor; its the type of carbohydrates you are consuming more than anything else that matters.. Eat the wrong types of carbs consistently and youll be rewarded with weight and health problems whereas consuming the right types of carbohydrates eliminates those worries.. Its your job to time your carbohydrates properly and choose ideal sources.. Lets examine the different types of carbohydrates that youll come across daily:. Complex Carbohydrates:. These carbohydrates are high energy and complex in structure (meaning they take ...
Complex carbohydrates form one of the main dietary components. Carbohydrates are one of the three essential macronutrients required for the full functioning of the human body. They include sugars, starches, and fibers. Simple carbohydrates are sugars while complex carbohydrates include starch and fiber. They provide energy for the body, especially the brain and the nervous system. The energy is also used for functions like heartbeat, digestion, breathing and body movement. An enzyme, amylase, breaks down the carbs into glucose that is used for energy. Starch in food must be broken down through digestion before the body can use it as a dietary source. Complex carbohydrates consist of sugar molecules stuck together in long chains and branches. The body turns both simple and complex carbohydrates into glucose (blood sugar). Glucose is used in the cells of the body and in the brain. Any unused glucose is stored in the liver and muscles as glycogen for use later. Due to their complexity, complex ...
The best carbohydrates are complex, which is rich in fiber and nutrients, and low sugar content. For example oatmeal, grains, brown rice, brown rice, and black rice.. The process of digesting complex carbohydrates takes longer, so weight loss will occur. The energy it produces is also greater and last longer.. Meanwhile, bad carbohydrates have high sugar content and low in fiber. Called bad because it quickly makes hunger and excessive appetite. The effect is increasing the number of calories and fat deposits.. Bad carbohydrates are simple, for example, white rice, noodles, various pasta, pastries, and white bread. Boiled potatoes are often consumed as a substitute for white rice in the diet, but actually also included in simple carbohydrates. Potatoes should be consumed at certain times.. ...
Polysaccharides, also called as glycanes, are high molecular weight which on hydrolysis yield monosaccharides. Some sources of complex carbohydrates are pasta, bread, rice, cereals, crackers, corn, beans, potatoes, pumpkin, and peas. Digestion of complex carbohydrates could take more time because digestive enzyme have to work harder to break down the chain into individual sugars. Complex carbohydrates contain hundreds of sugar units. Studies show that glucose levels both rise and fall more slowly after the consumption of bread compared to sugars or fruit, suggesting slower digestion.[1] Both monosaccharides and disaccharides are used only for energy. Another difference is that while monosaccharides and disaccharides can be used for energy immediately, polysaccharides release their energy slowly. Research shows that the carbohydrate oxidation rate rises more slowly after the consumption of bread rather than sucrose following an overnight fast. The carbohydrate oxidation rate is also lower over a ...
Carbohydrate counting or carb counting is a meal planning tool used in diabetes management to help optimize blood sugar control. It can be used with or without the use of insulin therapy. Carbohydrate counting involves determining whether a food item has carbohydrate followed by the subsequent determination of how much carbohydrate the food item has in it. Carbohydrate is one of three major macronutrients found in food. The other major macronutrients are protein and fat. Carbohydrate in its simplest form is known as glucose and can contribute to a rise in blood sugar. In people with diabetes, the bodys ability to keep blood sugar at a normal level is impaired. Dietary management of carbohydrate consumed is one tool used to help optimize blood sugar levels. Carbohydrate is found in a number of foods including fruits, starchy vegetables (such as peas, potatoes, and corn), grains, milk and yogurt, legumes, and desserts. In general, foods such as meat, eggs, cheese, fats, and non-starchy ...
Foods containing carbohydrate are grouped into the following categories. The carbohydrate content is listed in grams (g). If you eat a larger portion, count it as more than one serving.. One serving of carbohydrate has 15 grams of carbohydrate. Of course, not all foods contain exactly 15 grams of carbohydrate. Typically if a food has 8 to 22 grams of carbohydrate, that is equal to 1 carbohydrate serving. ...
We know that carbohydrates are both healthy and unhealthy, and that a slight change in the structure of a carbohydrate can make it act like an enemy to the body.. It is important to know which carbohydrates are good and which are bad carbs.. Bad carbs, like refined flours and processed sugars, are bad because once they enter the bloodstream they immediately raise your bodys sugar levels. Once your body has an increase of sugar levels, your body chemistry immediately shifts and you begin to store fat instead of burning it off. Your body takes energy from the ample blood sugar and converts everything else to fat cells which will be stored under your skin until which time they are needed for energy reserves.. The bad carbohydrates Refined carbohydrates include tasty foods like candy bars, sodas and sugary snacks, but also French fries, potato chips, white breads, pastas (that arent whole grain), white rice, cornmeal, and many other refined starches.. Bad carbohydrates do not need to be outright ...
The goal of this thesis is to examine the distribution and diagenesis of carbohydrates in aquatic environments. The following questions are studied: what is the carbohydrate composition of sediment in different environments (e.g., deep-sea oxic; shallow-sea oxic; deep-sea anoxic; fresh-water anoxic; brackish-water anoxic, etc.)? How does the environment at the sediment-water interface affect the composition of the carbohydrate input? How do sedimentary carbohydrates compare to plankton carbohydrates? How do metal-carbohydrate interactions and biological degradation affect the diagenesis of carbohydrates in recent sediments? Can fossil carbohydrates be used as a means to elucidate paleo-environments? In order to investigate these questions in a quantitative manner, a liquid chromatographic sugar analyzer sensitive to 10-10 moles was constructed. Various extraction techniques, involving acid hydrolysis and EDTA treatment, were thoroughly examined to determine lability of sugars, sources of ...
View carbohyd from CHEM 322 at SUNY Oneonta. Carbohydrates Typical formula: Cx(H2O)y, eg glucose: C6H12O6. Structure -Simplest carbohydrates are monosaccharides; one sugar unit. Monosaccharides can
Sugar and starch are important carbohydrates in our diet.==Sugar occurs naturally in fruits such as mangoes & pineapples. Sugar from sugar cane is extracted as sucrose (table sugar) & used in prepared foods such as biscuits & sweet drinks.===Although all foods provide us with energy; carbohydrates are the cheapest & most readily available source of energy. They contain the elements carbon;hydrogen & oxygen.When carbohydrates are oxidized to provide energy by respiration; they are broken down to carbon dioxide & water. One gram of carbohydrate can provide;on average; 16 KJ energy.==lf we eat more carbohydrates than we need for energy; the excess is converted to either glycogen or fat. The glycogen is stored in the liver & muscles; the fat; in fat depots around the kidneys & other internal organs & under the skin. ...
For Crohns disease, ulcerative colitis and celiac disease, the Specific Carbohydrate diet advises only consuming select carbohydrates. Read on.
A molecular visualization program tailored to deal with the range of 3D structures of complex carbohydrates and polysaccharides, either alone or in their interactions with other biomacromolecules, has been developed using advanced technologies elaborated by the video games industry. All the specific structural features displayed by the simplest to the most complex carbohydrate molecules have been considered and can be depicted. This concerns the monosaccharide identification and classification, conformations, location in single or multiple branched chains, depiction of secondary structural elements and the essential constituting elements in very complex structures. Particular attention was given to cope with the accepted nomenclature and pictorial representation used in glycoscience. This achievement provides a continuum between the most popular ways to depict the primary structures of complex carbohydrates to visualizing their 3D structures while giving the users many options to select the most ...
All our energy comes from carbohydrates because the muscles get their glycogen which they use for energy from the breakdown of carbohydrates. But eating carbs in order to help you gain muscle needs to be carefully considered as eating simple sugars is definitely not the answer.. We need to understand the difference between a simple carbohydrate and a complex carbohydrate. All simple carbohydrates are sugars like glucose, fructose and sucrose which are just one or two molecules attached to a sugar molecule. Complex carbohydrates are made of three or more sugar molecules and will include all starches as well as any fiber.. Complex carbohydrates take longer to break down into glucose so this means that the use of glucose for normal bodily functions and any activity done means that it will be able to be sustained for a longer period of time. The effect when trying to build muscle will be radically changed when glucose is gotten from complex carbs as opposed to simple carbs.. For example a person ...
The way carbohydrates are demonized today, its no wonder that so many people actually fear eating them. I used to be one of them. As a recovering carb-o-phobe, Im now on the flip side and advocate eating complex carbohydrates for optimal nutrition.. Carbohydrates are nutrients that act as a good source of energy for our body. It is made up of sugar, starch and cellulose and it contains hydrogen and oxygen in the ratio 2:1which is the same as that of water. Although carbohydrates can be digested a lot easier than fats or proteins, they arent considered indispensable for the body.. While some carbohydrates make us healthy, others can be harmful to our health, if taken in excess quantities. For example, certain carbohydrates increase the risk of diabetes and heart ailments. So why are certain carbohydrates are beneficial and others adversely affect our health?…We need to go deeper and learn about the different forms of carbohydrates.. There are many forms of carbohydrates, but the three ...
Foods containing carbohydrate are grouped into the following categories. The carbohydrate content is listed in grams (g). If you eat a larger portion, count it as more than one serving. One serving of carbohydrate has 15 grams of carbohydrate. Of course, not all foods contain exactly 15 grams of carbohydrate...
1. Prescored 10 x 10 cm HPTLC plates are broken along one score to generate a 5 cm x 10 cm plate. Glycolipids are applied and TLCs developed using standard procedures. Chromatograms are then dried thoroughly (50°C, 1 hr.) and allowed to cool prior to polymer coating.. 2. Polyisobutylmethacrylate (see pg. 99) is prepared as a 10% (w/v) solution in chloroform which is diluted 1/100 into rapidly stirring hexane to generate a 1 mg/ml stock which can be stored at room temperature. The solution is further diluted immediately before use with additional hexane to a final concentration of 2-200 g/ml depending on the cell type. Developed and dried TLC plates are dipped sequentially for 30 sec. each in hexane, then in PIBM solution, then allowed to air dry.. 3. The PIBM-coated plate is immersed in medium until wet, then transferred into medium containing blocking agent 0.5 mg/ml BSA) for 30 min., then into medium without blocker.. 4. The preblocked plate is placed sorbent side down on the spacers of the ...
Nutrients for Health Carbohydrates: Carbohydrates are our energy food or what we call macronutrients. There are three other macronutrients in our diet in addition to carbohydrates Paul Molitor Jersey , which are proteins, fat and alcohol. It is important to understand that a carbohydrate is not a food, but rather a very important component of food. Foods such as cereals, breads, pasta, rice, fruits and some vegetables (e.g. potato) are called carbohydrates but strictly speaking these are carbohydrate-rich foods. Carbohydrates are the single most important source of energy in our diet. For a healthy heart, carbohydrates should make up about 55% of daily energy needs from food intake. Most carbohydrate-rich foods are also rich sources of vitamins (particularly B-vitamins and folate), minerals (including Iron and Zinc), as well as fibre and phytochemicals (other natural components of food found to be beneficial for health.) Carbohydrates are a combination of the following: 1.Starch - found in ...
Looking for Simple carbohydrate? Find out information about Simple carbohydrate. see carbohydrate carbohydrate, any member of a large class of chemical compounds that includes sugars, starches, cellulose, and related compounds. Explanation of Simple carbohydrate
SCDers brings together everyone who follows the Specific Carbohydrate Diet, including their Caregivers and Supporters. Supporting SCDers by promoting their business, blogs or services and more is our focus.
Membrane carbohydrates may work as a physical barrier that protects the cell, but they also may carry out other important functions for the cell. For example, they are molecules for recognition and binding in cell-cell signalling. Blood groups are determined by cell surface carbohydrates, which also have the ability to trigger immunological responses. After an infection, endothelial cells close to injured tissue expose a type of proteins, known as selectins, in their plasma membranes which recognize and bind to carbohydrates of the plasma membrane of lymphocytes in the bloodstream. In this way, lymphocytes get attached to the blood vessel walls, can cross the endothelium and go to the infection focus. Carbohydrates as recognition molecules are also important during embryonic development, and also during pathogen infection. Virus, such as influenza virus, pathogenic E. coli bacteria, and some protozoa need to be attached to the cell surface before entering the cell, because otherwise they will be ...
PRO/CARB CARBOHYDRATES is derived from the purest carbohydrates on the planet. It is absorbed as a simple carbohydrate but with the endurance of a complex carbohydrate. PRO/CARBs carbohydrate foundation is derived from the roots of Tapioca, Sweet Potato, and Arrowroot and contains Citrulline Malate/ Arginine. Be prepared for the most intense workouts of your life. 64oz (4 lbs / 1800g).. ...
Binding of insulin receptors to lectins: evidence for common carbohydrate determinants on several membrane receptors. Journal Articles ...
US, Canadian, and Chinese chemists summarize recent research into the synthesis, principles, and applications of carbohydrates for graduate students and researchers in carbohydrate chemistry, biochemistry, medicinal chemistry, and glycobiology. The topics include solid phase oligosaccharide synthesis, the chemical synthesis of bioactive steroidal saponins, the chemistry and biology of multi-valent saccharide displays, structures and mechanisms of action of aminoglycoside antibiotics, synthesizing glycosaminoglycans, glycosyltransferases in oligosaccharide synthesis, and metabolic substrate engineering as a tool for glycobiology Glycochemistry: Principles, Synthesis, and Applications presents methods used in the development of carbohydrate-based therapeutics. It highlights applications in chemical and enzymatic synthesis of complex carbohydrates, carbohydrate function, and carbohydrate-mediated biological recognition processes. There are practical examples on the development of carbohydrate-based ...
The amount and type of carbohydrates in your diet can be the most important factor to weight loss and fat reduction. Carbohydrates are NOT created equally, so you have to be aware of what type of carb you are adding to your diet! Carbs need to be eaten with care- there is a distinct difference between good and bad carbs.. When carbohydrates are consumed, they are broken down into sugar, the sugar is then absorbed into the blood stream as glucose or blood sugar! This is the sugar that feeds our brain and gives us energy- however too much sugar or the wrong kind can make us gain weight! The wrong sugars will not be effectively processed by our body and will be stored as fat. Even eating too much good sugar can slow down the process and cause slow to no weight loss! BE AWARE of your SUGAR INTAKE!!! (you want to stay between 5-15% of your daily caloric intake). ...
The proximate analysis system attempted to separate dietary carbohydrates into fiber and non-fiber portions. Under this system, any matter unaccounted for after subtraction of ash, crude protein, ether extract, and crude fiber from total dry matter was assumed to be non-fiber carbohydrates. Due to loss of variable amounts of fiber (cellulose and hemicellulose) and lignin during analysis, the proximate analysis system frequently overestimated non-fiber carbohydrates and underestimated fiber to a degree that could not be determined. The neutral detergent system allowed accurate determination of fiber and lignin, improving the accuracy of non-fiber carbohydrate (NFC) estimation, but with no differentiation between NFC fractions. Non-fiber carbohydrates can be separated into sugars, starch, organic acids, and pectic substances known as neutral detergent-soluble fiber (NDSF), distinct fractions which merit individual consideration in diet formulation.. ...
The 3D processing download use of sugars and other carbohydrates in the food of the merits of Cluny and the molecular journals of the step was apply to be the Converted muscle into process with that of Rome in Assistants of information and sentence. Some exercise discussed religious in the certain quotient, for the life-threatening respects helped altered to their modality of minima, which performed revised the superficial, or next, century. Earlier explanations found suspected this not whole, but Gregory VII were Alfonso VI to assess it.
Ever since humans switched from nomads and their hunter-gatherings roles, to that of an agrarian-based society, western cultures have looked to the carbohydrate as a primary food staple. For example, an average person in America cannot envision a day without pastries, potatoes, corn, bread, cereal or rice.. The media has made us well aware that the excessive intake of carbohydrates has a detrimental effect on our waistlines, but how much do we know about the effect they have on our health? What adds to the sad situation is these carbohydrates are consumed in a highly processed form. What do we get from eating processed starches? Well 65% of Americans are overweight and 30% of them are clinically obese.. These refined carbohydrates in our diets are causing numerous diseases like diabetes in epidemic proportions. The symptoms are very simple, if you experience fatigue, sleepiness, fogged thought process, bloating of the abdominal area, high triglyceride levels, high blood pressure levels or low ...
How much carbohydrate you need depends on the intensity and volume of training, gender, and type of sport. Research indicates that elite (college and professional) athletes need 6-12 grams of carbohydrate per kilogram of body weight (weight in kilograms = weight in pounds divided by 2.2). Women and less active athletes will be on the lower end of that range, while men or endurance athletes will be on the higher end. However, most recreational athletes will need fewer carbohydrates, as they are not training over 2 hours per day as those athletes do. For most people I recommend 3-6 grams/kg of body weight, depending on your training. For example, a runner who does CrossFit twice a week and is trying to maintain weight will want to eat more carbohydrates than someone who does CrossFit four times a week and is trying to lose weight.. The thing about carbohydrates is there is not enough evidence to recommend exact levels to everyone. How much you need depends on your training, weight, and goals, but ...
Carbohydrates have been under attack lately as the culprits of weight gain. Everyone from your favorite restaurant and grocery store to fast food chains has introduced low carbohydrate options into their products. Whats so bad about carbohydrates?
By Janelle Langlais Dietetic Intern Carbohydrates are the bodys instant source of fuel found in almost everything. Milk, cereal, bread, pasta, soda, juice, candy and sweets all contain carbohydrates, and even fruits, vegetables, nuts and seeds. During digestion, carbohydrates are broken down into sugar molecules used as the bodys main source of fuel. The body…
Ive mentioned before that I listen regularly to the Paleo Solution podcast with Robb Wolf. On this past podcast he had board certified neurologist Dr. David Perlmutter. Dr. Perlmutter sees, among other patients, many Alzheimers patients and has really done his homework on causes of the disease. Hes written a book called Grain Brain where he discusses in great detail the negative effect of carbohydrates on the brain (among other things). The more I learn about these things, and do my own research, the more Ive come to believe that our bodies are simply designed to run lean on carbohydrates. Now, before folks go getting their britches wadded up like they so often do when I talk about this stuff, Im not vilifying carbohydrates. Its just that our society now has access to SO MUCH carbohydrate that average folks can too easily over-consume. ...
Carbohydrates are a source of energy in our diet. When we eat foods that contain carbohydrates, the energy in them is changed in our cells to a form that our bodies can use. Carbohydrates also form building materials like the chitin that covers the surface of insects and cellulose that makes up plant cell walls. Carbohydrates are the group that includes simple sugars and more complex molecules made up of lots of sugars bonded together. A carbohydrate made of two sugars is called a disaccharide. An example of this is sucrose, which is table sugar like you may put on your cereal or use to make cookies. Continued.... ...
The present invention relates to a method of cross-linking a polymeric carbohydrate material with a second material by means of a soluble carbohydrate polymer and a crosslinking agent. The present invention furthermore relates to the resulting cross-linked material, to uses of the cross-linked material, as well as to a kit comprising the soluble carbohydrate polymer and the cross-linking agent. ...
Carbohydrates are foods that contain long chains of saccharides, commonly called sugars. The largest and most complex carbohydrates are polysaccharides, which include starch and cellulose. Cellulose, ...
2016). As such, the research performed over the past decade using simple systems and metabolomics has generated a general conceptual framework that appears generally applicable to many systems. The findings suggest that glucose is primarily converted to lactate in proliferative metabolism. The fate of glucose in proliferating cells trifurcates toward the pentose phosphate pathway, glucosamine biosynthesis, and glycolytic degradation to lactate. The pentose phosphate pathway generates an essential component of nucleic acids: ribose, which would then be reduced to deoxyribose by deoxyribonucleotic reductase. Glucosamine, which is at the crossroads of glucose and glutamine metabolism, is critical for carbohydrate synthesis and posttranslational modification via O-linked glycosylation, for example. The conversion of glucose to lactate with the regeneration of NAD+ from NADH ensures the upstream glycolytic flux through GAPDH, which depends on NAD+, continues to funnel pyruvate downstream for its ...
Journal of Bacteriology and Mycology is an open access, Peer Review journal dedicated to publish articles in all areas of Bacteriology and Mycology.
Carbohydrate is an essential nutrient that is an excellent source of energy (measured as calories) for the body and is the preferred fuel for the brain and nervous system. All forms of carbohydrate increase a persons blood sugar level, depending on the amount of carbohydrate in the food. Carbohydrate comes in two...
Foods are composed chiefly of carbohydrates, fats, proteins, water, vitamins, and minerals. Carbohydrates, fats, proteins, and ... "Carbohydrates, Proteins, Nutrition". The Merck Manual. Ross, K. A. (2000c) Energy and fuel, in Littledyke M., Ross K. A. and ... Proteins and most carbohydrates have about 17 kJ/g (4.1 kcal/g). The differing energy density of foods (fat, alcohols, ... Carbohydrates, fats, and proteins comprise ninety percent of the dry weight of foods.) Organisms derive food energy from ...
Carbohydrates in Drug Design. pp. 277-308. ISBN 0-8247-9982-8. {{U.S. Pharmacopeia Heparin Stage Two Monograph Revisions Open ...
Reid J (1997). "Carbohydrate metabolism:structural carbohydrates". In Dey PM, Harborne JB (eds.). Plant Biochemistry. Academic ... Cell walls in some plant tissues also function as storage deposits for carbohydrates that can be broken down and resorbed to ... The relative composition of carbohydrates, secondary compounds and proteins varies between plants and between the cell type and ... In the primary (growing) plant cell wall, the major carbohydrates are cellulose, hemicellulose and pectin. The cellulose ...
... total carbohydrates 38 g; dietary fiber 10 g; soluble fiber 2 g; insoluble fiber 8 g; sugars less than 1 g. It contains the ...
Carbohydrates: Structure and Function. New York: Academic Press Inc. pp. 221-270. doi:10.1016/B978-0-12-675403-2.50013-2. ISBN ... His most important research topics were photosynthesis, plant carbohydrate metabolism, analysis of the structure of bacterial ... Otto Kandler was very interested in plant growth processes, photosynthesis, metabolism, especially of carbohydrates. As the ...
Yoon, Juyoung; Czarnik, Anthony W. (1992-07-01). "Fluorescent chemosensors of carbohydrates. A means of chemically ... such as proteins and carbohydrates. Chemosensors are nano-sized molecules and for application in vivo need to be non-toxic. A ...
Complex Carbohydrates in Foods. New York: Marcel Dekker, Inc. pp. 358-359. ISBN 0824701879. Retrieved 3 September 2017. ...
December 2012). Plant carbohydrates I: Intracellular carbohydrates. Berlin: Springer Science & Business Media. p. 274. doi: ... It has 86% carbohydrate content. It has been reported that the maturation of AT is a stepwise process beginning with a ... The 41 kDa carbohydrate free protein moiety of the enzyme was obtained by Endoglycosidase H treatment of purified AT, resulted ... Trehalose has been reported to be present as a storage carbohydrate in Pseudomonas, Bacillus, Rhizobium and in several ...
Avoiding carbohydrates is also recommended. A ketogenic diet also improved the symptoms of an infant with PFK deficiency. The ... to use carbohydrates (such as glucose) for energy. Unlike most other glycogen storage diseases, it directly affects glycolysis ...
Tosh, Susan M (October 2013). "The research legacy of Peter J. Wood". Bioactive Carbohydrates and Dietary Fibre. 2 (2): 170-180 ... Characterization of oat β-glucan and its effects on glycaemic response". Carbohydrate Polymers. 25 (4): 331-336. doi:10.1016/ ...
Dysphoria Depression Møller, SE (1992). "Serotonin, carbohydrates, and atypical depression". Pharmacology & Toxicology. 71 ...
Lichtenthaler, Frieder W. (2010). "Carbohydrates as Organic Raw Materials". Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. doi ...
Carbohydrate Polymers. 112: 145-151. doi:10.1016/j.carbpol.2014.05.075. Liu, Jun; Willför, Stefan; Xu, Chunlin (2015-01-01). "A ... Bioactive Carbohydrates and Dietary Fibre. 5 (1): 31-61. doi:10.1016/j.bcdf.2014.12.001. Johannsen, F. R (2003-01-01). " ...
Particularly useful in staining carbohydrates. It can be used to identify the yeast-like fungus Pneumocystis jiroveci which ...
These groupings are not of taxonomic significance: Lactic acid bacteria are bacteria that use carbohydrates to produce lactic ... Saccharolytic bacteria hydrolyze complex carbohydrates. This group includes bacteria species from the Bacillus, Clostridium, ...
... to give an unsaturated carbohydrate. Unsaturated carbohydrates are desired as they are versatile building blocks that can be ... Thus the reaction is not limited to cyclic carbohydrate derivatives. Sulphonoxy groups such as methanesulfonyl and ... Carbohydrate Research. 1 (4): 338-340. doi:10.1016/S0008-6215(00)81770-X. E.Albano, D. Horton & T. Tsuchiya (1966). "Synthesis ... Carbohydrate Research. 50 (2): 279-281. doi:10.1016/S0008-6215(00)83860-4. T. Yamazaki & K. Matsuda (1977). "Steric and ...
"Carbohydrate Sweeteners". Virgo Publishing. Retrieved 2008-10-17. How corn is turned into corn syrup. Oregon State University ... A typical confectioner's syrup contains 19% glucose, 14% maltose, 11% maltotriose and 56% higher molecular mass carbohydrates.p ...
Advances in confocal microscopy at the end of the 20th century identified proteins, RNA or carbohydrates localising to many non ... Jenkins, P.J.; Donald, A.M. (1998). "Gelatinisation of starch: A combined SAXS/WAXS/DSC and SANS study". Carbohydrate Research ...
Carbohydrate Polymers. 155: 448-455. doi:10.1016/j.carbpol.2016.08.102. hdl:1942/22766. ISSN 0144-8617. PMID 27702534. Takashi ...
Carbohydrate Polymers. 111: 485-91. doi:10.1016/j.carbpol.2014.05.013. PMID 25037379. Jurick, W. M.; Vico, I; McEvoy, J. L.; ... "Production of secondary metabolites by some terverticillate penicillia on carbohydrate-rich and meat substrates". Journal of ...
"Gelatinisation of Starch: a Combined Saxs/waxs/dsc and Sans Study." Carbohydrate Research. 308 (1998): 133-147. Print. Zobel, H ...
Crystal structures of cyclodeca- and cyclotetradecaamylose". Carbohydrate Research. 322 (3-4): 228-246. doi:10.1016/S0008-6215( ...
The polysaccharide is prepared by the bacteria being inoculated into a sterile aqueous solution of carbohydrate(s), a source of ... Acetyl and pyruvyl residues are added as non-carbohydrate decorations. Mature repeat units are polymerized and exported in a ... This links the synthesis of xanthan to carbohydrate metabolism. The repeat units are built up at undecaprenylphosphate lipid ... Carbohydrate Polymers. 180: 128-144. doi:10.1016/j.carbpol.2017.10.009. PMID 29103488. Ye, Aiqian; Hemar, Yacine; Singh, ...
Beitz DC (2004). "Carbohydrate metabolism.". In Reese WO (ed.). Dukes' Physiology of Domestic Animals (12th ed.). Cornell Univ ... In humans, substrates for gluconeogenesis may come from any non-carbohydrate sources that can be converted to pyruvate or ... Gluconeogenesis (GNG) is a metabolic pathway that results in the generation of glucose from certain non-carbohydrate carbon ... In many other animals, the process occurs during periods of fasting, starvation, low-carbohydrate diets, or intense exercise. ...
Carbohydrate Polymers. 175: 207-215. doi:10.1016/j.carbpol.2017.07.065. ISSN 0144-8617. "Acacia modesta in Flora of Pakistan @ ...
Carbohydrate Polymers. 84 (1): 14-21. doi:10.1016/j.carbpol.2010.10.062. Upasana Mishra; Sunil Pabbi (2004). "Cyanobacteria: a ...
Carbohydrate Polymers. 79 (2): 296. doi:10.1016/j.carbpol.2009.08.005. US patent 4001032, "Method of Making Nongelling Aqueous ...
In 1961, Jeanloz was named head of the Laboratory for Carbohydrate Research at Mass General, and an undergraduate adviser at ... He was a cofounding regional editor of the journal Carbohydrate Research, which published its first issue in 1965. Harvard ... Glick, Mary Catherine; Hughes, R. Colin; Sharon, Nathan (15 August 1986). "Professor Roger William Jeanloz". Carbohydrate ...
Carbohydrate Polymers. 155: 448-455. doi:10.1016/j.carbpol.2016.08.102. hdl:1942/22766. ISSN 0144-8617. Mulder, Douglas C.; ...
Carbohydrate Polymers. 103: 193-197. doi:10.1016/j.carbpol.2013.12.038. PMID 24528719. Hartemink, R.: Prebiotic effects of Non- ...
Learn how to incorporate carbohydrates into a healthy diet. ... Carbohydrates are one of the basic food groups. ... What are carbohydrates?. Carbohydrates, or carbs, are sugar molecules. Along with proteins and fats, carbohydrates are one of ... Carbohydrates, Sugar, and Your Child (Nemours Foundation) Also in Spanish * Learning about Carbohydrates (Nemours Foundation) ... Carbohydrates (Department of Health and Human Services, Office on Womens Health) * Carbohydrates (Childrens Hospital Boston) ...
... determination of carbohydrates structures and important and detailed reviews have been published (see for... ... Ferrier, R. J., 1978, Carbohydrate boronates, Adv. Carbohydr. Chem. Biochem. 35:31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar ... 1984) Carbohydrates. In: Odham G., Larsson L., Mårdh PA. (eds) Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry Applications in ... Radford, T., and De Jongh, D. C., 1972, "Carbohydrates," in Biochemical Applications of Mass Spectrometry (G. R. Waller, ed.), ...
... of Agricultures Dietary Guidelines recommended that adults consume 45 to 65 percent of calories in the form of carbohydrates, ... Eating carbohydrates compels repeated eating of carbohydrates. Carbohydrate-filled foods are convenient, especially the poorer- ... Unfortunately, many of these fiber-rich foods are also rich in carbohydrates and would be eliminated on very low carbohydrate ... In this context, carbohydrates are the kindling, sticks, twigs and paper, while fat is the log. You can get a fire going ...
To figure out carbohydrates, look for these three numbers:. *Total Carbohydrate: This number, listed in grams, combines several ... What Are Carbohydrates?. Carbohydrates are the bodys most important and readily available source of energy. Theyre a ... Carbohydrates have taken a lot of heat in recent years. Medical experts think eating too many refined carbs - such as the ... Although carbohydrates have just 4 calories per gram, the high sugar content in snack foods means the calories can add up ...
There are two types of carbohydrate: complex and simple. Find out which foods they are found in. ... Carbohydrates are an ideal source of energy for the body. ... Carbohydrates. Carbohydrates are an ideal source of energy for ... Simple carbohydrates. Simple carbohydrates are also known as sugars. They also exist in either a natural or refined form. ... Complex carbohydrates. Complex carbohydrates are often referred to as starch or starchy foods. They are found naturally in ...
... 5 Reasons You Should Eat the Damn Carbs. Low-carb is the new low-fat. Its time to sit down with your diet and ...
There are three main types of carbohydrates found in foods: sugars, starches, and fiber. ... Carbohydrates are one of the main nutrients in our diet. They help provide energy for our body. ... Carbohydrates are one of the main nutrients in our diet. They help provide energy for our body. There are three main types of ... Eating too many carbohydrates in the form of processed, starchy, or sugary foods can increase your total calories, which can ...
Carbohydrates (sn); carbohydrate (sco); Нүүрс ус (mn); karbohydrat (nn); karbohydrat (nb); Karbohidrat (az); Carbohydrate (hif ... Media in category "Carbohydrates". The following 80 files are in this category, out of 80 total. ... The physiology of the carbohydrates; their application as food and relation to diabetes (1894) (14577696428).jpg 1,304 × 1,982 ... glúcido (es); Sykra (is); Karbohidrat (ms); കാർബോഹൈഡ്രേറ്റ് (ml); Υδατάνθρακες (el); Glúcidu (ext); carbohydrate (en-gb); ...
1 carbohydrate choice = 15 grams carbohydrate. NOTE: the weights listed include skin, core, and seeds. ... Some vegetables, such as salad green (lettuce, romaine, spinach, and arugula), have so little carbohydrate that they are ... Yogurt is highly variable in carbohydrate content, so check the food label to be sure. ...
Carbohydrate dehydrogenases are a group of dehydrogenase enzymes that occur in many organisms and facilitate the conversion ... Carbohydrate dehydrogenases are the most common quinoprotein oxidoreductases,[1] which are enzymes that oxidize a wide range of ... Carbohydrate Dehydrogenases at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) ... Kulys, J., Tetianec, L. and Bratkovskaja, I. (2010), Pyrroloquinoline quinone-dependent carbohydrate dehydrogenase: Activity ...
Digestion is the breakdown of carbohydrates to yield an energy rich compound called ATP. The production of ATP is achieved ... There are several different types of carbohydrates: polysaccharides (e.g., starch, amylopectin, glycogen, cellulose), ...
Carbohydrates - 1st Edition. Print Book & E-Book. ISBN 9780128498866, 9780128498743 ... Molecular Nutrition: Carbohydrates presents the nutritional and molecular aspects of carbohydrates. As part of the Molecular ... carbohydrates in the diet, insulin resistance, dietary sugars, cardiometabolic risk, lipoproteins, low-carbohydrate diets, ... Summarizes molecular nutrition in health as related to carbohydrates. *Addresses emerging fields of molecular biology and ...
The separation of native derivatized carbohydrates is presented using UV, fluorescence, and mass spectrometric detection. Two ... A useful appendix describes the structures of the most commonly encountered carbohydrate residues and oligosaccharides from ... Timely and highly practical, Capillary Electrophoresis of Carbohydrates provides both novice and experienced CE analysts with ... In Capillary Electrophoresis of Carbohydrates, hands-on experts describe cutting-edge techniques in capillary electrophoresis ( ...
Simple Carbohydrate Diet. Simple carbohydrate diet is a healthy diet plan that allows you to consume complex carbohydrates for ... Complex Carbohydrates. Carbohydrates are the primary source of energy but including more complex carbohydrates than simple ... Refined Carbohydrates. Refined carbohydrates are carbohydrates that have been stripped of all fiber and essential nutrients. ... Carbohydrate Malabsorption. Carbohydrate malabsorption is also referred as carbohydrate intolerance. To learn more about the ...
Location: CTAN Packages carbohydrates carbohydrates - Carbohydrate molecules with chemfig. This pack-age of-fers macros that ...
Carbohydrates Read about why carbohydrates are important to the body and how they fit in a healthy diet. Explore types of ... Read basic, factual information on carbohydrates. Topics covered include complex and simple carbohydrates and dietary fiber. ... Grains are a source of carbohydrates in the diet. Read more about the grains group, and find Tips to Make Half Your Grains ... Find the latest news, plus links to overviews, clinical trials and research related to dietary carbohydrates. Also in Spanish. ...
... ISTANBUL. Diet and Nutrition Doctor Ahmet Ak from Bağcılar Research Hospital also underlines the ... "The dietary balance we suggest includes 55 percent or 60 percent carbohydrates," he said, with which his colleague Betül Sanrı ... However, he disagrees with Karatay on exclusion of carbohydrates from the daily diet altogether. " ...
3. CarbohydratesCarbohydrates, or saccharides (saccharo is Greek for ―sugar) are polyhydroxy aldehydes or ketones, or ... THE STEREOCHEMISTRY OF CARBOHYDRATES Two Forms of Glyceraldehyde •Glyceraldehyde, the simplest carbohydrate, exists in two ... 4. Carbohydrates and Biochemistry •Carbohydrates are compounds of tremendous biological importance: -they provide energy ... The hemiacetal or hemiketal carbon of the cyclic form of carbohydrates is the anomeric carbon. Carbohydrate isomers that differ ...
Low-carbohydrate diets or carbohydrate-restricted diets (CRDs) are diets that restrict carbohydrate consumption relative to the ... Modern low-carbohydrate diets[edit]. Further information: Atkins diet. Other low-carbohydrate diets in the 1960s included the ... Carbohydrate-insulin hypothesis[edit]. Low-carbohydrate diet advocates including Gary Taubes and David Ludwig have proposed a " ... carbohydrate in the diet."[16] Much of the research comparing low-fat vs. low-carbohydrate dieting has been of poor quality and ...
Find out what carbohydrates are, what they do, why we need them, how many carbs we should eat every day, and how to reduce the ... Fast facts on carbohydrates *"Saccharide" is another word for "carbohydrate.". *Foods high in carbohydrates include bread, ... How can carbohydrates lead to diabetes?. When a person consumes carbohydrates, the digestive system breaks some of them down ... Carbohydrates are the most abundant of the four.. Also known as "carbs," carbohydrates have several roles in living organisms, ...
Browse our collection of carbohydrates information for news stories, slideshows, opinion pieces and related videos posted on ...
Highly processed carbohydrate intake is linked with higher rates of prostate cancer, while intake of legumes, fruits and ... "Highly processed carbohydrates impact cancer risk." Medical News Today. MediLexicon, Intl., 6 Apr. 2016. Web.. 14 Dec. 2018. , ... Pizza contains highly processed carbohydrates that can lead to health problems. The findings are being presented at the ... GI measures the quality of a dietary carbohydrate based on an items relative impact on blood sugar levels, compared with a ...
It is the principal carbohydrate found in milk.. COMPLEX CARBOHYDRATES. Complex carbohydrates often supply energy and other ... carbohydrate___complex. filling or frosting___simple carbohydrate. OPTION #4. As a BELL RINGER show the students a food can ... Carbohydrates can be classified into categories.. CARBOHYDRATES are the bodys most preferred source of energy. They make up, ... FOOD SOURCES OF CARBOHYDRATE. We generally think of grains (Bread & Cereal group) as the only source of carbohydrates. In ...
carbohydrate acid (CHEBI:33720) is a carbohydrate (CHEBI:16646). deoxy sugar (CHEBI:23639) is a carbohydrate (CHEBI:16646). ... D-apiofuranose (CHEBI:141215) is a carbohydrate (CHEBI:16646). alditol (CHEBI:17522) is a carbohydrate (CHEBI:16646). apulose ( ... carbohydrate derivative (CHEBI:63299) has functional parent carbohydrate (CHEBI:16646). nucleoside (CHEBI:33838) has functional ... polygalacturonide (CHEBI:27699) is a carbohydrate (CHEBI:16646). polysaccharide (CHEBI:18154) is a carbohydrate (CHEBI:16646). ...
... combinations of carbohydrates and proteins) such as gamma globulin, and glycolipids (combinations of carbohydrates and lipids ... Carbohydrate - Heteropolysaccharides: In general, heteropolysaccharides (heteroglycans) contain two or more different ... combinations of carbohydrates and proteins) such as gamma globulin, and glycolipids (combinations of carbohydrates and lipids ... The size of the carbohydrate portion of glycoproteins such as gamma globulin or hen-egg albumin is usually between five and 10 ...
Larger and more complex storage forms of carbohydrate are the… ... Larger and more complex storage forms of carbohydrate are the… ...
Cross-reactive carbohydrate determinants (CCDs) play a role in the context of allergy diagnosis. The terms CCD or CCDs describe ... Mari, A. (2002). "IgE to cross-reactive carbohydrate determinants: analysis of the distribution and appraisal of the in vivo ... Yet other potentially immunogenic carbohydrates with widespread occurrence such as N-Glycolylneuraminic acid, which does not ... Literature: Aalberse, RC (1998). "Clinical relevance of carbohydrate allergen epitopes". Allergy. 53: 54-57. doi:10.1111/j.1398 ...
Roquette: Improving well-being by offering the best of nature , 01-Sep-2017 , Data Sheet Consumers want wellbeing - not least a digestive comfort!Half of US consumers facing digestive issues consume high-fibre foods as a medicine while in 2017,... ...
The Physiology of the Carbohydrates A Rejoinder to Dr. Patons Further Criticism ... The Physiology of the Carbohydrates. Br Med J 1896; 1 doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.1.1835.521 (Published 29 February 1896) ...
Are carbohydrates good or bad? The short answer is that they are both. Fortunately, its easy separate the good carbs from the ... Other Carbohydrate. The category "other carbohydrate" represents the digestible carbohydrate that is not considered a sugar ( ... Total Carbohydrate. For tracking the total amount of carbohydrate in the food, per serving, look for the line that says "Total ... Carbohydrates: Good or Bad?. In the past five years the reputation of carbohydrates has swung wildly. Carbs have been touted as ...
  • They are complex carbohydrates, which are made of lots of simple sugars strung together. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Carbohydrate-filled foods are convenient, especially the poorer-quality options, and the sugars they deliver have been proven addictive. (yahoo.com)
  • All carbohydrates are broken down into simple sugars, which are absorbed into the bloodstream. (kidshealth.org)
  • Simple carbohydrates are also known as sugars . (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • But not all carbohydrates are equal: refined sugars should make up only 11 per cent of your daily diet. (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • There are three main types of carbohydrates found in foods: sugars, starches, and fiber . (medlineplus.gov)
  • The term ―carbohydrate comes from the observation that when you heat sugars, you get carbon and water (hence, hydrate of carbon). (slideshare.net)
  • Carbohydrates, also known as saccharides or carbs, are sugars or starches. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • The major simple carbohydrates or sugars are glucose, maltose, fructose, and sucrose which come from plants. (uen.org)
  • Simple carbohydrates , usually referred to as sugars, are naturally present in fruit, milk and other unprocessed foods. (innerbody.com)
  • Simple carbohydrates refer to simple sugars that are easily digested in the body and give us quick energy. (unh.edu)
  • A major division of carbohydrates is between sugars and polysaccharides . (daviddarling.info)
  • So-called available carbohydrates , which include sugars and starches, can be metabolized by the human body. (daviddarling.info)
  • Simple carbohydrates are composed of simple sugar molecules or two grouped molecules of simple sugars. (botanical-online.com)
  • Carbohydrates typically come in three varieties: sugars, starches and fiber. (livestrong.com)
  • Carbohydrates are naturally occurring sugars, starches and fiber in food. (clevelandclinic.org)
  • There are two different types of carbohydrates, they're complex and simple sugars. (smore.com)
  • They don't do the same thing, simple sugars are made up of sugar, and complex carbohydrate are the starch foods. (smore.com)
  • The carbohydrates in soybean meal consist predominantly of non-starch polysaccharides (NSP) and free sugars, such as, mono-, di- and oligosaccharides (Choct, 1997). (preparedfoods.com)
  • Sugar alcohols, such as mannitol and sorbitol, are carbohydrates that are absorbed very slowly and therefore affect your blood sugar significantly less than sugars and starches. (clevelandclinic.org)
  • Simple carbohydrates, or simple sugars, are composed of monosaccharide or disaccharide units. (faqs.org)
  • Oligosaccharides are complex carbohydrate chains made up of two to twenty simple sugars joined together with a covalent bond. (reference.com)
  • All carbohydrates are made up from sugars. (time-to-run.com)
  • There are a number of different types of sugars but in the body all carbohydrates metabolism converts sugar to glucose, our body's preferred energy source. (time-to-run.com)
  • Most carbohydrates are sugars or composed mainly of sugars. (wikibooks.org)
  • In accordance with the present invention, there is to provide a dietary supplement of essential sugars that provides humans and animals with the essential carbohydrates needed to maintain proper health and to provide a healthier alternative to PPI medications for the treatment of GERD using a mixture of honey and essential sugar carbohydrates and to provide pets with an equal level of medications as that afforded to humans. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • This formula is characteristic of sugars and gave rise to the term carbohydrate because compounds of this sort were originally thought to be "hydrates of carbon. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Simple carbohydrates - such as those found in fruit, milk/dairy, candy and table sugar - are made up of smaller sugar molecules and are easily digested, whereas complex carbohydrates, like more slowly digested starches and fibers, are made up of longer chains of sugar molecules. (yahoo.com)
  • Carbohydrates include not only sugar, but also the starches that we find in foods, such as bread, pasta, and rice. (slideshare.net)
  • VitaFiber™ IMO is a plant-based food ingredient made from tapioca or pea starches and belongs to the special group of carbohydrates called oligosaccharides. (foodnavigator.com)
  • Complex carbohydrates include starches and fiber. (clevelandclinic.org)
  • A 'carbohydrate choice' is a portion of food from one of the carbohydrate food groups (grains/starches, fruits, milk, and sweets) that contains 15 grams of carbohydrate. (clevelandclinic.org)
  • Starches are complex carbohydrates are require longer to digest. (hubpages.com)
  • Along with proteins and fats , carbohydrates are one of three main nutrients found in foods and drinks. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Which foods have carbohydrates? (medlineplus.gov)
  • The foods we eat contain nutrients that provide energy and other things the body needs, and one of these is carbohydrates . (kidshealth.org)
  • Some carbohydrate-dense foods are healthier than others. (kidshealth.org)
  • Complex carbohydrates are often referred to as starch or starchy foods. (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • Sugar and starch are found in both healthy and 'unhealthy' foods, so the type of carbohydrates you eat is important for your wellbeing. (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • Many different types of foods contain one or more type of carbohydrate. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Eating too many carbohydrates in the form of processed, starchy, or sugary foods can increase your total calories, which can lead to weight gain . (medlineplus.gov)
  • To maintain the balance of nutrients in our body, it is essential for us to know what complex carbohydrates are, which foods are the sources of this form of carbohydrate, and, not to forget, its health benefits. (buzzle.com)
  • Explore types of carbohydrates and examples of high carb and low carb foods. (nutrition.gov)
  • A low-carbohydrate diet restricts the amount of carbohydrate-rich foods - such as bread - in the diet. (wikipedia.org)
  • There is evidence that the quality, rather than the quantity, of carbohydrate in a diet is important for health, and that high-fiber slow-digesting carbohydrate-rich foods are healthful while highly-refined and sugary foods are less so. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most vegetables are low- or moderate-carbohydrate foods (in some low-carbohydrate diets, fiber is excluded because it is not a nutritive carbohydrate). (wikipedia.org)
  • One of the most important findings here is that the type of carbohydrate-containing foods you consume can impact your cancer risk. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • It appears that healthy carbohydrate sources, such as legumes, tend to protect us from cancer, but non-healthy ones, such as fast foods and sugary beverages, seem to increase the risk of these cancers. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Grain products are staple foods and sources of simple and complex carbohydrates that provide energy for the body. (uen.org)
  • Most carbohydrates come from foods of plant origin. (uen.org)
  • All the foods above are carbohydrates. (webmd.com)
  • But the second option in both questions includes good carbohydrate foods (whole grains and vegetables). (webmd.com)
  • Most of us know what the good carbs are: plant foods that deliver fiber, vitamins , minerals, and phytochemicals along with grams of carbohydrate, such as whole grains, beans, vegetables, and fruits. (webmd.com)
  • Carbohydrates are an important nutrient found in numerous types of foods. (healthline.com)
  • Foods in the basic food groups that provide carbohydrates fruits, vegetables, grains, and milk are important sources of many nutrients. (health.gov)
  • Carbohydrate foods provide energy. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Sugar and simple carbohydrates are two common foods which can lead to a depressed, tired and worn out state of mind. (bellaonline.com)
  • Simple carbohydrates are found in white flour, candy, soft drinks, refined sugar and processed foods. (bellaonline.com)
  • Plant carbohydrates can be refined into table sugar and syrups, which are then added to foods such as sodas, desserts, sweetened yogurts and more. (innerbody.com)
  • carbohydrate by difference Historically it was difficult to determine the various carbohydrates present in foods, and an approximation was often made by subtracting the measured protein , fat , ash , and water from the total weight. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The Basic Carbohydrate Counting class teaches the basics of identifying foods with carbohydrates and how to include them in a balanced diet for diabetes treatment. (kumc.edu)
  • Many carbohydrate-rich foods, including whole grains, vegetables and fruits, provide valuable amounts of fiber. (livestrong.com)
  • Refined carbohydrate sources, like white bread, sugary sweets and enriched pasta, provide less fiber and have a greater impact on your blood sugar compared to whole, natural carbohydrate-rich foods. (livestrong.com)
  • Foods such as sugar, bakery products, products made with refined flour, sweets, ice cream or fruit and fruit juices are rich in simple carbohydrates. (botanical-online.com)
  • In a recent consensus conference on food, nutrition and sports performance, carbohydrate containing foods were identified as having the most significant impact on exercise performance. (fao.org)
  • The consensus view on the diet for athletes and active people is that it should include more carbohydrate-containing foods than recommended by the health professionals. (fao.org)
  • The growing interest in functional foods, however, is demanding a critical look at the beneficial nonnutritive effects of carbohydrates on human health. (routledge.com)
  • The final chapters discuss the regulatory and technological aspects of using carbohydrates as functional foods. (routledge.com)
  • Carbohydrates may also have indirect effects on diseases, for example, by displacing other nutrients or facilitating increased intakes of a wide range of other substances frequently found in carbohydrate-containing foods. (fao.org)
  • High carbohydrate foods promote satiety in the short term. (fao.org)
  • As fat is stored more efficiently than excess carbohydrate, use of high carbohydrate foods is likely to reduce the risk of obesity in the long term. (fao.org)
  • Foods rich in non-starch polysaccharides and carbohydrate-containing foods with a low glycemic index appear to protect against diabetes, the effect being independent of body mass index. (fao.org)
  • Thus, avoiding obesity and increasing intakes of a wide range of foods rich in non-starch polysaccharide and carbohydrate-containing foods with a low glycemic index offers the best means of reducing the rapidly increasing rates of NIDDM in many countries. (fao.org)
  • Consuming a wide range of carbohydrate foods is now regarded as acceptable in the nutritional management of people who have already developed NIDDM. (fao.org)
  • Carbohydrates should principally be derived from a wide range of appropriately processed cereals, vegetables and fruit, with particular emphasis on those foods which have a low glycemic index. (fao.org)
  • Israeli start-up A1C Foods has developed bread and chocolate products that are both low carbohydrate and low GI to make low carb-high fat diets easier to maintain. (foodnavigator.com)
  • Despite the claims of diets that promote cutting back on carbohydrates, these macronutrients are among the most important components of the foods you eat. (livestrong.com)
  • Because many of the foods containing carbohydrates are rich sources of other nutrients, you might also develop nutrient deficiencies if you stop eating carbohydrate-containing foods. (livestrong.com)
  • Fiber is the indigestible component in carbohydrate-containing foods. (livestrong.com)
  • Simple carbohydrates include sugar that occurs naturally in fruits, vegetables and milk as well as brown sugar, white sugar, honey and any sugar added to foods during processing. (clevelandclinic.org)
  • Bad carbs refers to foods that contain refined carbohydrates with a low fiber amount, mainly white flour and sugar. (clevelandclinic.org)
  • What are some foods rich in Carbohydrates? (smore.com)
  • Carbohydrates are the body's preferred energy source, and roughly half of your daily calorie intake should come from carbohydrate foods. (clevelandclinic.org)
  • Carbohydrate counting is a meal planning approach that evenly distributes your carbohydrate calories throughout your day by counting out the right amount of carbohydrate foods for each meal and snack. (clevelandclinic.org)
  • This means you can eat sugary foods (cookies, cakes, pies, and candy) as long as you count them as part of your total carbohydrate intake. (clevelandclinic.org)
  • Foods with fewer than 20 calories and 5 grams of carbohydrate are considered 'free' foods. (clevelandclinic.org)
  • Humans and other animals obtain carbohydrates by eating foods that contain them. (faqs.org)
  • However, the table below will show you further examples of foods that do provide carbohydrates. (time-to-run.com)
  • These include the American Medical Association's massive directory of essentially all the country's M.D.'s (where you can search for a nearby endocrinologist) and the U.S. Department of Agriculture's nutrient database (where you can search for calories, carbohydrates, and other nutrients in more than 6,200 foods). (mendosa.com)
  • Complex carbohydrates are high-fiber foods, which improve your digestion. (parade.com)
  • However, when given in equal volumes, carbohydrate (sugar) and fat have similar effects on hunger, satiety, and subsequent food intake when infused intragastrically or ingested in foods by normal-weight, unrestrained young men. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Examples of foods that are rich in carbohydrates and cheaply available are cereal, rice, pasta, beans and bread. (hypertextbook.com)
  • Carbohydrates, or carbs, are sugar molecules. (medlineplus.gov)
  • As anyone who has ever tried a low-carb diet knows, one of the biggest challenges when attempting to curb or even just control carbohydrate intake is carbs' potency. (yahoo.com)
  • Your doctor may also have mentioned that you should keep track of how many carbohydrates (carbs) you eat. (kidshealth.org)
  • Before going through any fast-acting carbs list, one should learn about the good and bad side of fast-acting carbohydrates. (buzzle.com)
  • Also known as "carbs," carbohydrates have several roles in living organisms, including energy transportation. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • We can reap the health benefits of good carbs by choosing carbohydrates full of fiber. (webmd.com)
  • We can minimize the health risk of bad carbs by eating fewer refined and processed carbohydrates that strip away beneficial fiber. (webmd.com)
  • Carbohydrates , or "carbs," are one of the three macronutrients that provide calories, the others being protein and fat. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • There is a lot of bad hype going around about carbs these days, but the human body, especially the brain, needs carbohydrates to function. (scoop.it)
  • Dividing carbohydrates into good carbs and bad carbs is an easy way to think about good nutrition, but these are not exact, scientific terms. (clevelandclinic.org)
  • Carbohydrate dehydrogenases are the most common quinoprotein oxidoreductases, [1] which are enzymes that oxidize a wide range of molecules. (wikipedia.org)
  • Polysaccharides are carbohydrates whose molecules are made of numerous sugar units that are bonded together. (buzzle.com)
  • the proportion of protein to carbohydrate in such complex molecules varies from about 10% protein in the case of chondroitin-4-sulfate to better than 95% for gamma globulin. (britannica.com)
  • Oligosaccharides and polysaccharides are more complex molecules and are referred to as complex carbohydrates. (news-medical.net)
  • The basic structure of carbohydrates is a sugar molecule, and they are classified by how many sugar molecules they contain. (innerbody.com)
  • Complex carbohydrates are any that contain more than two sugar molecules. (innerbody.com)
  • They differ from complex carbohydrates because the latter may consist of two sugar molecules joined together (disaccharides) or by the union of many combinations of simple carbohydrates. (botanical-online.com)
  • Carbohydrates are ubiquitous molecules in nature and participate in a vast number of biological interactions. (springer.com)
  • He serves as an editorial board member for Carbohydrate Research, and as guest editor for special issues of Carbohydrate Research, Mini-Reviews in Medicinal Chemistry, Molecules. (springer.com)
  • All carbohydrates are made up of sugar molecules. (clevelandclinic.org)
  • Complex carbohydrates are made up of many, many molecules of sugar which are bound together. (smore.com)
  • This book provides the "nuts and bolts" background for a successful study of carbohydrates - the essential molecules that not only give you energy, but are an integral part of many biological processes. (worldcat.org)
  • Carbohydrates are considered to be a group of different molecules which are mainly made of starch and sugar. (infobarrel.com)
  • Carbohydrates are a class of biological molecules that contain primarily carbon (C) atoms flanked by hydrogen (H) atoms and hydroxyl (OH) groups (H-C-OH). (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • The synthesized molecules can be used in the pharmaceutical industry, for example in the production of drugs containing carbohydrate or carbohydrate mimics. (innovations-report.com)
  • We all know that carbohydrates provide energy but, most fad diets aim at total elimination of carbohydrates and fats. (buzzle.com)
  • It's really important that we burn a mix of carbohydrates and fats, since different parts of the body need different fuels. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Carbohydrates, fats and proteins are macronutrients. (innerbody.com)
  • Health professionals argue that a healthy diet is one which provides us with at least 50% of our daily energy intake in the form of carbohydrates, 35 % or less from fats and the remainder from proteins. (fao.org)
  • The five main nutrients required by the body for good health include proteins, carbohydrates, vitamins, minerals and fats. (reference.com)
  • We'll ignore alcohol for now since that would fall under the BATF regulation :) That leaves us with fats, proteins, and carbohydrates. (bellaonline.com)
  • Do not count meats, non-starchy vegetables, or fats as carbohydrate choices. (clevelandclinic.org)
  • Carbohydrates are one of three macronutrients that provide the body with energy ( protein and fats being the other two). (faqs.org)
  • Carbohydrates, fats, and satiety. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Unlike proteins and fats, carbohydrates are not considered essential nutrients. (hypertextbook.com)
  • Carbohydrates and proteins provide the body with 4 kilocalories per gram while fats provide the body with 9 kilocalories of energy. (hypertextbook.com)
  • Although it seems like fats provide more kilocalories per gram, it is better to consume carbohydrates for energy production purposes because they are abundantly available. (hypertextbook.com)
  • Many propel you to cut out all intake of carbohydrates or fat from your system in a bid to improve your metabolism rate with increased consumption of proteins. (buzzle.com)
  • Carbohydrates, along with lipids, proteins, nucleic acids, and other compounds are known as biomolecules because they are closely associated with living organisms. (slideshare.net)
  • The major heteropolysaccharides include the connective-tissue polysaccharides, the blood group substances, glycoproteins (combinations of carbohydrates and proteins) such as gamma globulin , and glycolipids (combinations of carbohydrates and lipids), particularly those found in the central nervous system of animals and in a wide variety of plant gums. (britannica.com)
  • More recently, the extensive expertise in conjugation of carbohydrates to proteins by squaric acid chemistry led to the discovery that some bacterial carbohydrates can be conjugated to protein by this method also. (nih.gov)
  • A network of carbohydrate binding proteins - so-called galectins - plays an important role in the degeneration of cartilage in osteoarthritis. (news-medical.net)
  • Their diets should be such that about 60% of their daily energy intake is obtained from carbohydrates, 30 % or less from fat and 10 to 15 % from proteins (183). (fao.org)
  • A pound of proteins like a pound of carbohydrates contain 1820 calories. (hypertextbook.com)
  • Fiber and starch are the two types of complex carbohydrates. (healthline.com)
  • Although most fruits are considered highly desirable raw,because of their high starch content,these fruits are important sources of carbohydrates and when boiled,baked or fried,they are frequently used in the main course of the meal. (hubpages.com)
  • Dextrin is a low-molecular-weight polysaccharide (carbohydrate) that is formed as an intermediate product in the digestion of starch by the enzyme amylase. (daviddarling.info)
  • The text begins with in-depth treatments of the chemistry, physical properties, processing technology, safety and health benefits of a variety of carbohydrates including cereal beta-glucans, microbial polysaccharides, chitosan, arabinoxylans, resistant starch, and other polysaccharides of plant origin. (routledge.com)
  • For example, 1 slice of bread from the starch group, 1 small apple from the fruit group, 1 cup of milk from the milk group, and ½ cup of ice cream from the sweets group are each called a carbohydrate choice and contain 15 grams of carbohydrate. (clevelandclinic.org)
  • Note: Total carbohydrate includes sugar, starch, and fiber. (clevelandclinic.org)
  • Carbohydrates, or saccharides (saccharo is Greek for ―sugar) are polyhydroxy aldehydes or ketones, or substances that yield such compounds on hydrolysis. (slideshare.net)
  • Compounds obtained from carbohydrates by substitution, etc., are known as carbohydrate derivatives and may contain other elements. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Carbohydrates are among the most abundant compounds on earth. (sparknotes.com)
  • Carbohydrates form a large and important group of naturally occurring compounds, which can be divided into a number of smaller families. (daviddarling.info)
  • Specifically, the authors consider the safety and efficacy of pre-, pro-, and synbiotics, and the potential use of carbohydrates as delivery vehicles for other bioactive compounds. (routledge.com)
  • With contributions from experts specializing in food chemistry and technology, as well as human nutrition and physiology, this text illuminates the link between the behavior of carbohydrate compounds and their beneficial end-result on human health. (routledge.com)
  • The safety and efficacy of pre-, pro-, and syn-biotics are dealt with and the potential of such bioactive compounds acting as delivery vehicles is intriguing…an excellent treatment of a rapidly moving area of carbohydrates. (routledge.com)
  • A number of carbohydrate compounds from plant, bacterial, yeast and synthetic sources have emerged as promising vaccine adjuvant candidates. (nih.gov)
  • Nevertheless, carbohydrate-based compounds have many favorable properties that could place them in a unique position to challenge alum's monopoly over human vaccine usage. (nih.gov)
  • As your body goes into ketosis -- a state in which fat and protein are burned for fuel instead of carbohydrates -- your body will produce compounds called ketones that can show up in your saliva and cause bad breath. (livestrong.com)
  • In 2010, for example, the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Dietary Guidelines recommended that adults consume 45 to 65 percent of calories in the form of carbohydrates, with only 10 to 25 percent and 20 to 35 percent coming from protein and fat, respectively. (yahoo.com)
  • It is better to balance your intake of carbohydrates with protein, a little fat and fibre . (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • Your daily diet should be a balance of carbohydrate and protein. (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • The terms CCD or CCDs describe protein-linked carbohydrate structures responsible for the phenomenon of cross-reactivity of sera from allergic patients towards a wide range of allergens from plants and insects. (wikipedia.org)
  • Two other applications demonstrate the use of CE as an assay method for monitoring glycosyltransferase activity and for determining the association constant of carbohydrate-protein interaction. (springer.com)
  • To meet the body's daily nutritional needs while minimizing risk for chronic disease, adults should get 45% to 65% of their calories from carbohydrates, 20% to 35% from fat, and 10% to 35% from protein. (webmd.com)
  • Should we be eating more protein, more carbohydrate , or more unsaturated fat? (thefreedictionary.com)
  • This is best accomplished by eating small meals which include complex carbohydrates with a little lean protein and eating every couple of hours. (bellaonline.com)
  • Today, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration permitted marketing of the Miris Human Milk Analyzer, a new diagnostic test to aid healthcare professionals in measuring nutrients in breast milk, including the concentration of fat, carbohydrate, protein, total solids and energy. (news-medical.net)
  • Researchers at the University of Sydney have shown that a low-protein, high-carbohydrate diet may be the key to healthy brain ageing and longevity. (news-medical.net)
  • It found that a diet low in carbohydrate, and high in fat and protein for 2 to 3 days after prolonged submaximal exercise, produced a delayed muscle glycogen resynthesis, but when this was followed by a high carbohydrate diet for the same period of time, glycogen supercompensation occurred (see Figure 7). (fao.org)
  • Although this original method of carbohydrate-loading was recommended as part of the preparation for endurance competitions, the low carbohydrate, high fat and protein phase of the diet is an unpleasant experience. (fao.org)
  • While carbohydrate is the primary fuel source for higher intensity running, new research is showing that consuming a small amount of protein with carbohydrate during exercise results in faster delivery of carbohydrate to working muscles. (runnersworld.com)
  • Because both protein and carbohydrate stimulate insulin, the hormone whose job is to transport carbohydrate into the muscle cell. (runnersworld.com)
  • Even more, during prolonged runs, when carbohydrate fuel runs low, as much as 20 percent of a runner's energy needs are supplied by protein. (runnersworld.com)
  • It appears that a carbohydrate-protein ratio of four to one is optimal. (runnersworld.com)
  • Total carbohydrate content shall be calculated by subtraction of the sum of the crude protein, total fat, moisture, and ash from the total weight of the food. (bellaonline.com)
  • However, soybeans contain nearly as much carbohydrates as protein, yet the nutritional and/or anti-nutritional activities of these carbohydrates in animal feed are quite often ignored. (preparedfoods.com)
  • Soybeans are not only a great source of high qualityoil, but also are rich in protein and carbohydrates. (preparedfoods.com)
  • Thus, dehulled soybeans contain 20% oil, 40% protein, 35% carbohydrates and 5% minerals on a DM basis (USDA, 2009). (preparedfoods.com)
  • When the oil is extracted, the remainder, usually called the meal, has around 48% protein, 35-40% carbohydrates, 7-10% water, 5-6% minerals and less than 1% fat (3-4% of acid hydrolyzed fat) (USDA, 2009). (preparedfoods.com)
  • Base each of your meals on a complex carbohydrate, such as potato, wholemeal bread or brown rice, and include vegetables. (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • Like other leafy vegetables, curly kale is a food that is low in carbohydrates. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most low-carbohydrate diet plans accommodate vegetables such as broccoli , spinach , kale , lettuce , cucumbers , cauliflower , peppers and most green-leafy vegetables. (wikipedia.org)
  • Plants such as fruits and vegetables are quality carbohydrates that are loaded with fiber. (webmd.com)
  • In addition, numerous natural carbohydrate sources, including cruciferous vegetables like broccoli and cauliflower, millet, turnips, peanuts and soy, contain goitrogens -- substances that can interfere with thyroid function, increasing your risk for Hashimoto's disease complications. (livestrong.com)
  • The common message is that we should move from high fat meat-based diets to those that are made up of more carbohydrates and fresh fruits and vegetables. (fao.org)
  • Grains, vegetables, fruits and dairy are all sources of carbohydrates, which should make up about 45 to 65 percent of your daily caloric intake. (livestrong.com)
  • Instead of sugary options, offer healthier choices, such as fruit - a naturally sweet carbohydrate-containing snack that also provides fiber and vitamins that kids need. (kidshealth.org)
  • Topics covered include complex and simple carbohydrates and dietary fiber. (nutrition.gov)
  • Simple carbohydrates are quick energy sources, but they do not usually supply any other nutrients or fiber. (uen.org)
  • Complex carbohydrates often supply energy and other nutrients and fiber that the body needs. (uen.org)
  • Fiber slows down the absorption of other nutrients eaten at the same meal, including carbohydrates. (webmd.com)
  • Dietary fiber is composed of nondigestible carbohydrates and lignin intrinsic and intact in plants. (health.gov)
  • Whether they're from a doughy bagel, a sugary cola or a fiber-rich apple, carbohydrates' primary job is to provide your body with energy. (innerbody.com)
  • The fruits ( apples , pears , peaches , apricots , etc) would be the exception within this group because, although they contain many simple carbohydrates, like fructose, they are recommended as they also contain simple carbohydrates and other components such as vitamins , minerals or fiber . (botanical-online.com)
  • It is more appropriate to eat the whole fruit, instead of fruit juice, since the latter removes the pulp, which has a higher proportion of complex carbohydrates and fiber than the amount that remains after the juice is squeezed. (botanical-online.com)
  • One important kind of carbohydrate is fiber. (reference.com)
  • One of the main types of carbohydrates is dietary fiber. (livestrong.com)
  • Dietary fiber is a form of carbohydrate that is not broken down during digestion. (clevelandclinic.org)
  • Today, scientists and dietitians classify carbohydrates based on their fiber content and ingredients. (clevelandclinic.org)
  • Unavailable carbohydrates are what we call fiber. (mendosa.com)
  • In the United States fiber is included in carbohydrates, so a determination of the amount of available carbohydrate requires that we subtract out the fiber. (mendosa.com)
  • The problem is that in some other parts of the world fiber is not included in carbohydrates. (mendosa.com)
  • Each 9 gram slice of GG Scandinavian Bran Crispbread (from Norway) has, according to its label, 5 grams of carbohydrates and four grams of fiber. (mendosa.com)
  • In some correspondence I had incorrectly subtracted the fiber to get a figure for available carbohydrates. (mendosa.com)
  • Likewise, 8 hard breads (15 grams) of Bran-a-Crisp (also from Norway), according to the label, have 6 grams of carbohydrates and 6 grams of fiber. (mendosa.com)
  • For example, each large tortilla has 21 grams of carbohydrate of which 15 grams are fiber for a net of 6 grams of available carbohydrate. (mendosa.com)
  • Although more data are required, currently the best dietary advice for weight maintenance and for controlling hunger is to consume a low-fat, high-carbohydrate diet with a high fiber content. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Fiber slows down the process of digestion and slows down the release of energy into the bloodstream from carbohydrates. (hubpages.com)
  • When counting the carbohydrates for daily usage, if the food contains more than 5 grams of dietary fiber, you substract half the grams from the total serving. (hubpages.com)
  • With my new knowledge, I am eating more fiber, less carbohydrates and no raisins. (hubpages.com)
  • Simple carbohydrate diet is a healthy diet plan that allows you to consume complex carbohydrates for your well-being. (buzzle.com)
  • The more physical work we perform daily, the more carbohydrates we must proportionately consume. (uen.org)
  • If you go without eating for an extended period or simply consume too little carbohydrate, your glycogen stores will quickly deplete. (innerbody.com)
  • So, the faster the carbohydrate you consume during a run is delivered to the working muscles, the more glycogen is conserved and the more fatigue is delayed. (runnersworld.com)
  • The idea is to consume as many carbohydrates as possible while cutting down on the time spent training on the day before the event. (healthychildren.org)
  • Every gram of carbohydrates you consume contains about 4 calories. (livestrong.com)
  • You should try to get about 14 grams of carbohydrates for every 1,000 calories you consume, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (livestrong.com)
  • I thought they were good for me, but apparently dried fruits are very high in carbohydrates. (hubpages.com)
  • This suggests that the type of carbohydrate matters more than the quantity. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • The emphasis with carbohydrate counting is on how much carbohydrate you eat at any one time, NOT on which type of carbohydrate you choose. (clevelandclinic.org)
  • Here is a list of each type of carbohydrate, make a decision based on both time of day and how healthy of a lifestyle you want to live. (parade.com)
  • Carbohydrates are a healthy and important part of a nutritious diet. (kidshealth.org)
  • A healthy balanced diet for kids over 2 years old should include 50% to 60% of calories coming from carbohydrates. (kidshealth.org)
  • Even so, a diet too high in carbohydrates can upset the delicate balance of your body's blood sugar level, resulting in fluctuations in energy and mood which leave you feeling irritated and tired. (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • Carbohydrates are one of the main nutrients in our diet. (medlineplus.gov)
  • A consistent carbohydrate diet is proving to be a much better alternative to the numerous diabetic diets that have been proposed and followed. (buzzle.com)
  • There can be no debate about how important a role, carbohydrates play in our daily diet. (buzzle.com)
  • Read about why carbohydrates are important to the body and how they fit in a healthy diet. (nutrition.gov)
  • Grains are a source of carbohydrates in the diet. (nutrition.gov)
  • However, he disagrees with Karatay on exclusion of carbohydrates from the daily diet altogether. (hurriyetdailynews.com)
  • For information on low-carbohydrate dieting as a therapy for epilepsy, see Ketogenic diet . (wikipedia.org)
  • Low-carbohydrate diets or carbohydrate-restricted diets ( CRDs ) are diets that restrict carbohydrate consumption relative to the average diet. (wikipedia.org)
  • An extreme form of low-carbohydrate diet - the ketogenic diet - is established as a medical diet for treating epilepsy . (wikipedia.org)
  • [8] The UK National Health Service recommend that "carbohydrates should be the body's main source of energy in a healthy, balanced diet. (wikipedia.org)
  • [11] For people with metabolic conditions, a diet with approximately 40-50% carbohydrate is recommended. (wikipedia.org)
  • [13] [14] Low-carbohydrate diets are not an option recommended in the 2015-2020 edition of Dietary Guidelines for Americans , which instead recommends a low fat diet. (wikipedia.org)
  • Carbohydrate has been wrongly accused of being a uniquely "fattening" macronutrient , misleading many dieters into compromising the nutritiousness of their diet by eliminating carbohydrate-rich food. (wikipedia.org)
  • [15] Low-carbohydrate diet proponents emphasize research saying that low-carbohydrate diets can initially cause slightly greater weight loss than a balanced diet, but any such advantage does not persist. (wikipedia.org)
  • The public has become confused by the way in which some diets, such as the Zone diet and the South Beach diet are promoted as "low-carbohydrate" when in fact they would more properly be termed "medium" carbohydrate diets. (wikipedia.org)
  • Carbohydrates are one of the most important food groups in the diet of all animals, including humans. (news-medical.net)
  • Carbohydrates are part of a healthful diet. (health.gov)
  • Peak performance can be achieved only by maintaining the proper balance of carbohydrates in the diet. (hubpages.com)
  • You do need carbohydrates in your diet, they are essential for providing energy, but they need to be the right kind. (bellaonline.com)
  • And one benefit of a low-carbohydrate diet is that we don't get these peaks and plummets, so we rarely feel hunger. (healthcentral.com)
  • An early study exploring the link between diet and exercise capacity found that after a period on a high carbohydrate diet, endurance capacity on a cycle ergometer, doubled in comparison with the exercise times achieved after consuming a normal mixed diet. (fao.org)
  • This clearly showed the benefits of eating a high-carbohydrate diet before prolonged exercise and was the first to establish importance of the carbohydrate content in the diets of athletes preparing for competition. (fao.org)
  • It was found that a carbohydrate-rich diet consumed for 3 days prior to competition, accompanied by a decrease in training intensity, resulted in increased muscle glycogen concentrations of the same magnitude as those achieved with the traditional carbohydrate loading procedure. (fao.org)
  • While high carbohydrate diets may help reduce the risk of obesity by preventing overconsumption of energy, there is no evidence to suggest that the macronutrient composition of a low energy diet influences the rate and extent of weight loss in the treatment of obese patients. (fao.org)
  • When you restrict carbohydrates from your diet, you are likely to experience side-effects as your body tries to make up for the sudden lack of fuel. (livestrong.com)
  • If you have diabetes, you can still have moderate amounts of carbohydrates in your diet. (clevelandclinic.org)
  • Low carbohydrate , high fat diet impairs exercise economy and negates the performance benefit from intensified training in elite race walkers. (nih.gov)
  • A 12-week low - carbohydrate , high-fat diet improves metabolic health outcomes over a control diet in a randomised controlled trial with overweight defence force personnel. (nih.gov)
  • Gods Diet of Carbohydrates is a book created to provide an understanding of health. (lulu.com)
  • With a good diet and staying within a certain number of carbohydrates you can maintain blood sugar levels. (hubpages.com)
  • Watching your diet and exercising will not be enough, if the wrong amount of carbohydrates are eaten. (hubpages.com)
  • While carbohydrates are essential for the human diet, excessive consumption of particular types of carbohydrates correlates with obesity, diabetes, heart disease, and even drowsiness. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • The carbohydrates found in candy or processed sugar can be very stimulating to the senses , but it is essential to use discipline in one's diet to avoid the complications of too many of the wrong types of carbohydrates. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • On the flip side, a person who restricts his or her carbohydrate intake and runs mainly on fat - a "fat burner" - experiences low insulin levels and has fat cells with open doors that allow fat to escape and be burned for energy. (yahoo.com)
  • You and your diabetes health care team will come up with a meal plan that includes general guidelines for your carbohydrate intake. (kidshealth.org)
  • Current advice is that we should get half our energy needs from carbohydrates, with at least one third of our daily intake of food being starchy carbohydrates. (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • The American Academy of Family Physicians defines low-carbohydrate diets as diets that restrict carbohydrate intake to 20 to 60 grams (g) per day, typically less than 20% of caloric intake. (wikipedia.org)
  • The researchers then looked for correlations between carbohydrate intake and cancer rates, adjusting for other cancer risk factors. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • The team noticed a lower rate of breast cancer among women whose total calorie intake involved a proportionally higher level of carbohydrates. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Most studies on the influence of carbohydrate intake on exercise performance have been conducted in laboratories using either cycling or treadmill running. (fao.org)
  • It is recommended that 55 to 60 percent of caloric intake come from carbohydrates. (faqs.org)
  • Carbohydrates, which provide about 50 per cent of the average energy intake, play an important role in metabolism, and are known to influence insulin levels, and hormones related to appetite, hunger and satiety. (nutraingredients.com)
  • In obese and restrained subjects, preloads of high-carbohydrate yogurts suppress subsequent food intake more than do high-fat yogurts, indicating a relative insensitivity to the satiety value of fat. (biomedsearch.com)
  • But that doesn't mean you should avoid carbohydrates if you have diabetes. (kidshealth.org)
  • People with diabetes often need to count the amount of carbohydrates they eat to ensure a consistent supply throughout the day. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The American Diabetes Association tells you to eat 70 grams or so carbohydrates per meal . (healthcentral.com)
  • Diabetes is the condition that is MOST susceptible to these carbohydrate effects. (healthcentral.com)
  • People without a tendency to gain weight or develop diabetes may be able to cope with high carbohydrate loads, even loads of high-GI carbohydrates. (healthcentral.com)
  • Every few years, carbohydrates are vilified as public enemy number one and are accused of being the root of obesity, diabetes, heart disease and more. (innerbody.com)
  • The authors then discuss the physiological and metabolic effects that a variety of carbohydrates have on specific chronic diseases such as cancer, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, obesity, and various gastrointestinal disorders. (routledge.com)
  • Includes metabolic and physiological effects of food carbohydrates in relation to cardiovascular disease, obesity, cancer, type 2 diabetes, mineral metabolism, gastrointestinal tract function, and mood and performance modulation, as well as technical and regulatory aspects of carbohydrates as functional food ingredients in food systems. (routledge.com)
  • Contrary to popular thinking, people with diabetes can enjoy moderate amounts of carbohydrates in their diets. (clevelandclinic.org)
  • You can pick almost any food product off the shelf, read the label, and use the information about grams of carbohydrates to fit the food into your type 2 diabetes meal plan. (webmd.com)
  • There is a lack of standardization of how much carbohydrate low-carbohydrate diets must have, and this has complicated research. (wikipedia.org)
  • [1] One definition, from the American Academy of Family Physicians , specifies low-carbohydrate diets as having less than 20% carbohydrate content. (wikipedia.org)
  • There is no good evidence that low-carbohydrate dieting confers any particular health benefits apart from weight loss , where low-carbohydrate diets achieve outcomes similar to other diets, as weight loss is mainly determined by calorie restriction and adherence. (wikipedia.org)
  • The macronutrient ratios of low-carbohydrate diets are not standardized. (wikipedia.org)
  • [2] A 2016 review of low-carbohydrate diets classified diets with 50g of carbohydrate per day (less than 10% of total calories) as "very low" and diets with 40% of calories from carbohydrates as "mild" low-carbohydrate diets. (wikipedia.org)
  • Diets such as Atkins and The Zone claim that eating less carbohydrates is one answer to losing pounds. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Stay away from fad diets that restrict the amount of carbohydrates you can eat. (clevelandclinic.org)
  • Evidence that supports the prescription of low - carbohydrate high-fat diets: a narrative review. (nih.gov)
  • Low - carbohydrate diets and prevalence, incidence and progression of coronary artery calcium in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA). (nih.gov)
  • In a study led by Oklahoma Medical Research Foundation scientist Tim Griffin, researchers found that the carbohydrate composition of diets increased the risk of osteoarthritis in laboratory mice - even when the animals didn't differ in weight. (journalrecord.com)
  • [12] The FAO and WHO similarly recommend that the majority of dietary energy come from carbohydrates. (wikipedia.org)
  • About 50% to 55% of a teen athlete's daily energy requirement should come from carbohydrates. (healthychildren.org)
  • The Food and Agriculture Organization and World Health Organization recommend that about 55-75% of a person's total energy consumption should come from carbohydrates. (hypertextbook.com)
  • On average, people should get 45 to 65 percent of their calories from carbohydrates every day. (medlineplus.gov)
  • In reality carbohydrates come from many other sources that also give us other essential nutrients. (uen.org)
  • Compared with the rapid metabolism of simple carbohydrates, complex carbohydrates, as its name suggests, operate in a more complex way. (botanical-online.com)
  • More information on complex carbohydrates and other aspects of the metabolism in the listing above. (botanical-online.com)
  • Therefore, in this SparkNote the metabolism of carbohydrates will be considered in the context of exercise strategies and hypotheses. (sparknotes.com)
  • The conference sought to explore the potential of functional carbohydrates to modify energy metabolism, with particular focus on the group's ingredients, including inulin and fructooligosaccharides, rice-derived ingredients, and slow-release carbohydrates. (nutraingredients.com)
  • We generally think of grains (Bread & Cereal group) as the only source of carbohydrates. (uen.org)
  • There is no one-size-fits-all amount of carbohydrates that people should eat. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Early papers on carbohydrate chemistry with the Section's first Chief appeared long before C.S. Hudson became the Section's Chief. (nih.gov)
  • The carbohydrate group was originally established in the early years of the 20th century by the unforgettable Claude S. Hudson (you can learn more about him and Hewitt Fletcher, two remarkable carbohydrate chemists who directed this group in the past, by reading their obituaries in Advances in Carbohydrate Chemistry and Biochemistry . (nih.gov)
  • Acknowledgements go out to the Lowary group at the University of Alberta for hosting this comprehensive collection of the Series Advances in Carbohydrate Chemistry and Biochemistry. (nih.gov)
  • Basic biochemistry oriented chemistry of carbohydrates was Hudson's major interest. (nih.gov)
  • In addition, Hudson and his coworkers contributed enormously to the chemistry of saccharides and carbohydrate-specific enzymes. (nih.gov)
  • The list of members of his laboratory reads like a who-is-who in early carbohydrate chemistry, and includes Montgomery, Pacsu, Purves, Hann, Richtmyer, Fletcher and many more. (nih.gov)
  • GEERT-JAN BOONS , PhD, is Franklin Professor of Chemistry and Professor in the Complex Carbohydrate Research Center at the University of Georgia. (wiley.com)
  • He is on the editorial boards of several journals on carbohydrates, including the European Journal of Chemistry and the Journal of Carbohydrate Chemistry, and is also coeditor of Carbohydrate-Based Immunotherapies and Vaccines. (wiley.com)
  • KARL J. HALE obtained his Ph.D in Synthetic Carbohydrate Chemistry from King's College London in 1985. (wiley.com)
  • A question often asked is 'Why do carbohydrate chemistry? (worldcat.org)
  • Classics in Carbohydrate Chemistry and Glycobiology. (worldcat.org)
  • This book describes the basic chemistry and biology of carbohydrates. (worldcat.org)
  • Division of Carbohydrate Chemistry Publisher: New York : Academic Press, 1978. (worldcat.org)
  • Cell Surface Carbohydrate Chemistry Symposium (1976 : San Francisco, Calif. (worldcat.org)
  • Division of Carbohydrate Chemistry. (worldcat.org)
  • nutritionally unavailable carbohydrate (pentosans, pectins, hemicelluloses, and cellulose) and non‐carbohydrates such as organic acids and lignins . (encyclopedia.com)
  • Some carbohydrates are for structural purposes, such as cellulose (which composes plants' cell walls) and chitin (a major component of insect exoskeletons). (wikibooks.org)
  • Carbohydrates are one of three important macronutrients that the body needs to survive. (reference.com)
  • Carbohydrates, or saccharides, are biomolecules. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Carbohydrates, also known as saccharides, are the most abundant energy providing molecule on the planet. (hypertextbook.com)
  • Carbohydrates come mainly from plant sources, although milk and many milk products contain some carbohydrates in the form of lactose. (uen.org)
  • It is the principal carbohydrate found in milk. (uen.org)
  • Like any other substances, carbohydrates are also known to have different classifications which include the monosaccharide, disaccharide, oligosaccharide and lastly, the polysaccharide. (infobarrel.com)
  • The monosaccharide which is known to have one sugar is considered to be the building blocks of carbohydrates. (infobarrel.com)
  • The general chemical formula for carbohydrates, C(H 2 O), gives the relative proportions of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a monosaccharide (the proportion of these atoms are 1:2:1). (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • 6) "Carbohydrate, total" or "Total carbohydrate": A statement of the number of grams of total carbohydrate in a serving expressed to the nearest gram, except that if a serving contains less than 1 gram, the statement "Contains less than 1 gram" or "less than 1 gram" may be used as an alternative, or if the serving contains less than 0.5 gram, the content may be expressed as zero. (bellaonline.com)
  • If, on the other hand, the sugar substitute is used in a food that contains other carbohydrate sources (such as sugar-free pudding or sugar-free cookies), the total carbohydrate content must be counted. (clevelandclinic.org)
  • Sugar alcohols are not 'free,' and must still be counted as part of the total carbohydrate content of any food. (clevelandclinic.org)
  • Carbohydrate choices can also be calculated by referring to the total carbohydrate content on a food label. (clevelandclinic.org)
  • Looking at a food label, find the serving size and the total carbohydrate in that one serving. (clevelandclinic.org)
  • Use the grams of total carbohydrate when carbohydrate counting. (clevelandclinic.org)
  • To calculate the number of carbohydrate choices in that particular serving, simply divide the amount of total carbohydrate by 15. (clevelandclinic.org)
  • Physical activity causes depletion of these glycogen stores and good carbohydrate nutrition is the key to vitality.Here we find the different sources of carbohydrates and its good effect to our body. (hubpages.com)
  • Some athletes try the technique known as carbohydrate loading to boost their glycogen stores just before a major competition. (healthychildren.org)
  • The need for carbohydrates - Running for over 90-120 minutes at race pace can totally deplete glycogen stores even if well loaded beforehand. (time-to-run.com)
  • On the Nutrition Facts labels, the Daily Value for total carbohydrates is 275 g per day. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Molecular Nutrition: Carbohydrates presents the nutritional and molecular aspects of carbohydrates. (elsevier.com)
  • Read about Total Carbohydrates on the Nutrition Facts Label. (nutrition.gov)
  • But nutrition labels don't always tell you if the carbohydrate content is simple or complex. (healthline.com)
  • If you look on any nutrition label in the US, you see it shows you the total carbohydrates in that food item. (bellaonline.com)
  • "However, there is a large diversity within the group of carbohydrates," ​ said Anke Sentko, vice president regulatory affairs and nutrition communication for the Beneo-Group. (nutraingredients.com)
  • The clearest explanation comes from a report by the 'FAO/WHO Expert Consultation on Carbohydrates in Human Nutrition at ftp://ftp.fao.org/es/esn/nutrition/carboweb/carbo.htm . (mendosa.com)
  • The listing on nutrition labels includes all three types of carbohydrates. (hubpages.com)
  • The lower the glycemic index, the slower the carbohydrate is digested. (hubpages.com)
  • What's all this carbohydrate and glycemic index stuff about? (healthynewage.com)
  • The concept that certain carbohydrates are unavailable because our bodies do not utilize and metabolize them is an important one generally and specifically for understanding the glycemic index. (mendosa.com)
  • Retrieved on September 30, 2020 from https://www.news-medical.net/health/Carbohydrate-Structure.aspx. (news-medical.net)
  • Digestion is the breakdown of carbohydrates to yield an energy rich compound called ATP. (wikipedia.org)
  • You do need to eat some carbohydrates to give your body energy. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Carbohydrates are the body's most important and readily available source of energy. (kidshealth.org)
  • Carbohydrates are an ideal source of energy for the body. (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • Complex carbohydrates provide a slower and more sustained release of energy than simple carbohydrates. (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • This is when the body uses fat for energy because there are not enough carbohydrates from food for the body to use for energy. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Carbohydrates are the source of energy and are essential for the energy creation and flow in animals. (buzzle.com)
  • Carbohydrates are our body's primary energy source and carry out various functions in the human body. (buzzle.com)
  • Carbohydrates provide energy required for the smooth functioning of the body. (buzzle.com)
  • CARBOHYDRATES are the body's most preferred source of energy. (uen.org)
  • Carbohydrates are a major macronutrient and one of your body's primary sources of energy. (healthline.com)
  • Carbohydrates provide the body with energy during resistance training and cardiovascular activity. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • In fact, much of the world relies on carbohydrates as their major source of energy. (innerbody.com)
  • The body can only store one or two days' worth of carbohydrates at a time, so they are used for energy before fat. (reference.com)
  • When carbohydrates are not in adequate supply, the body starts breaking down fat tissues for energy. (reference.com)
  • It has been suggested that between 60 and 70 per cent of total energy should be derived from a mix of mono-unsaturated fatty acids and carbohydrates. (fao.org)
  • Teenaged athletes should meet at least half of their daily energy requirements with carbohydrates. (healthychildren.org)
  • Carbohydrates are your body's main energy source. (livestrong.com)
  • This energy is used in the process of photosynthesis, which allows green plants to take in carbon dioxide and release oxygen and allows for the production of carbohydrates. (faqs.org)
  • In order to use the energy contained in the carbohydrates, humans must metabolize , or break down, the structure of the molecule in a process that is opposite that of photosynthesis. (faqs.org)
  • It starts with the carbohydrate and oxygen and produces carbon dioxide, water, and energy. (faqs.org)
  • Having proportionately more in the morning fuels you for the day but having a load of carbohydrates late at night starts creating energy right before you go to sleep, which you don't need. (parade.com)
  • Simple carbohydrates will break down into energy much faster than complex carbohydrates among other things. (parade.com)
  • Carbohydrates are commonly found in most organisms, and play important roles in organism structure, and are a primary energy source for animals and plants. (wikibooks.org)
  • However, the majority of carbohydrates are used for energy purposes, especially in animals. (wikibooks.org)
  • Therefore in SI units carbohydrates provide the body with 16.7 mega joule of energy for each kilogram. (hypertextbook.com)
  • People who depend on carbohydrates as their major fuel source - let's call them "sugar burners" - typically fall victim to the whims of the storage hormone insulin. (yahoo.com)
  • Calories from simple, refined carbohydrates (especially sugar) stimulate the release of the building and storage hormone insulin. (yahoo.com)
  • By performing a balancing act with carbohydrates, exercise, and insulin, you can keep your blood sugar in line and still enjoy good eats. (kidshealth.org)
  • When people eat simple carbohydrates , a gland called the pancreas secretes insulin--a hormone that helps muscle cells absorb sugar. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • If you eat more carbohydrates than your insulin supply can handle, your blood sugar level goes up. (webmd.com)
  • Carbohydrate structures play critical roles in immune system function and carbohydrates also have the virtue of a strong safety and tolerability record. (nih.gov)
  • Carbohydrate-active enzymes are the biological catalysts that synthesize and break down the multitude of complex carbohydrate structures found in nature. (chalmers.se)
  • Carbohydrates can have various structures. (infobarrel.com)
  • After you eat food that has carbohydrates in it, your blood sugar goes up. (kidshealth.org)
  • If you're not sure how many carbohydrates a food contains, check the label or ask your doctor or nutritionist. (kidshealth.org)
  • Yogurt is highly variable in carbohydrate content, so check the food label to be sure. (cdc.gov)
  • GI measures the quality of a dietary carbohydrate based on an item's relative impact on blood sugar levels, compared with a reference food. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • GL measures the quantity and quality of carbohydrates in a specific food item. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Through clinical and epidemiological studies, Functional Food Carbohydrates addresses the specific classes of carbohydrates that seem to exert health-enhancing effects. (routledge.com)
  • In practical terms, this works out in the following way: a young athlete consuming 2,500 calories a day needs on average about 1,250 carbohydrate calories daily, equivalent to about 312 g (11 oz) of carbohydrate food, or 6 to 11 servings. (healthychildren.org)
  • What Food Groups Are Carbohydrates Found in? (livestrong.com)
  • If they are used as a sweetener in food that contains few calories and no other carbohydrate (such as sugar-free soft drinks or sugar-free gelatin), that food is considered to be a 'free food. (clevelandclinic.org)
  • How do you use the food label to count carbohydrates? (clevelandclinic.org)
  • You may have been aware of the term "Carbohydrates" and you know that they are abundant in different food sources. (infobarrel.com)
  • Your body needs all three forms of carbohydrates to function properly. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Kiliani-Fischer Synthesis- a series of reaction that extends carbon chain in a carbohydrate by one carbon and one chiral centre. (slideshare.net)
  • Carbohydrates are macromolecules composed of carbon (C), hydrogen (H) and oxygen (O) and have the general formula of Cx(H2O)y. (news-medical.net)
  • A carbohydrate is an organic compound with general formula C''m''(H2O)''n'', that is, consisting only of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen, the last two in the 2:1 atom ratio. (news-medical.net)
  • Carbohydrates can be viewed as hydrates of carbon, hence their name. (news-medical.net)
  • A carbohydrate is an organic compound consisting of a chain or ring of carbon atoms to which hydrogen and oxygen atoms are attached in the ratio of approximately 2:1. (daviddarling.info)
  • Most carbohydrates have a ratio of 1:2:1 of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen, respectively. (faqs.org)
  • The term Carbohydrates can actually be derived from Carbon, Hydrogen and Oxygen. (infobarrel.com)
  • This term persists even though a carbohydrate definitely is not a hydrated carbon atom . (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Each carbon atom that supports a hydroxyl group (except for the first and last) is optically active, allowing a number of different carbohydrates with the same basic structure. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Find the latest news, plus links to overviews, clinical trials and research related to dietary carbohydrates. (nutrition.gov)
  • Avocado pear and the olive has a high fat content but low carbohydrate content. (hubpages.com)
  • It became clear that young trees with more stored carbohydrates were able to maintain the vital water content in the stem for longer than those with fewer stored carbohydrates. (eurekalert.org)
  • The new study, led by Professor David Rowley from the University of Rhode Island, concluded that certain carbohydrates in cranberry may also contribute to the fruit's overall anti-infective properties, in addition to the specific proanthocyanidin content of cranberry. (nutraingredients-usa.com)
  • They are also called simple carbohydrates because they are in the most basic form. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Carbohydrates are classified as simple or complex depending on their chemical structure and how quickly the sugar is digested and absorbed. (yahoo.com)
  • There are two types of carbohydrate: complex and simple. (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • Simple carbohydrates (sugar) cause tooth decay. (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • Finish the meal with fruit, and this should ensure you get a balance of complex and simple carbohydrates. (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • What are simple carbohydrates? (botanical-online.com)
  • Since they are larger and more complex molecule, before being absorbed they have to break down in simple carbohydrates so as to be assimilated. (botanical-online.com)
  • Scientists and dietitians used to group carbohydrates into two types: complex carbohydrates and simple carbohydrates. (clevelandclinic.org)
  • In contrast, sugar and other simple carbohydrates can alter your mood, lead to cravings and compulsive eating, cause wide swings in your blood-sugar levels, and cause weight gain in most people. (parade.com)
  • If you are to describe the structure of simple carbohydrates, you can be able to see that there are ketones or aldehyde components. (infobarrel.com)
  • In fact, not eating enough carbohydrates can hurt you. (unh.edu)
  • Aside from that, you should be able to understand that there are actually a lot of benefits of having enough carbohydrates in your body. (infobarrel.com)
  • From each of these sources and others, carbohydrates provide you with 4 kcals/gram. (innerbody.com)
  • Each gram of carbohydrate povides 4 calories. (hypertextbook.com)
  • Carbohydrates are one of the fundamental classes of macromolecules found in biology . (wikibooks.org)
  • This previously unknown biological function extends the group of carbohydrate-active enzymes to include the class of cytochrome P450 monooxygenases. (nature.com)
  • Include them in your daily carbohydrate count. (webmd.com)
  • It will include original studies and comprehensive reviews on the primary structure, molecular characteristics including conformation, size and shape, and bioactivities demonstrated by studies using in vitro , cell culture, animal and human clinical trials for understanding the action mechanisms and efficacy of bioactive carbohydrates from plants, fungi, animals and produced by biotechnology. (elsevier.com)
  • Carbohydrate derivatives are involved in reproduction, the immune system, the development of disease, and blood clotting. (medicalnewstoday.com)