The sequence of carbohydrates within POLYSACCHARIDES; GLYCOPROTEINS; and GLYCOLIPIDS.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a carbohydrate.
Carbohydrates consisting of between two (DISACCHARIDES) and ten MONOSACCHARIDES connected by either an alpha- or beta-glycosidic link. They are found throughout nature in both the free and bound form.
The largest class of organic compounds, including STARCH; GLYCOGEN; CELLULOSE; POLYSACCHARIDES; and simple MONOSACCHARIDES. Carbohydrates are composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a ratio of Cn(H2O)n.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Cellular processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of CARBOHYDRATES.
Carbohydrates present in food comprising digestible sugars and starches and indigestible cellulose and other dietary fibers. The former are the major source of energy. The sugars are in beet and cane sugar, fruits, honey, sweet corn, corn syrup, milk and milk products, etc.; the starches are in cereal grains, legumes (FABACEAE), tubers, etc. (From Claudio & Lagua, Nutrition and Diet Therapy Dictionary, 3d ed, p32, p277)
Carbohydrate antigens expressed by malignant tissue. They are useful as tumor markers and are measured in the serum by means of a radioimmunoassay employing monoclonal antibodies.
Proteins that share the common characteristic of binding to carbohydrates. Some ANTIBODIES and carbohydrate-metabolizing proteins (ENZYMES) also bind to carbohydrates, however they are not considered lectins. PLANT LECTINS are carbohydrate-binding proteins that have been primarily identified by their hemagglutinating activity (HEMAGGLUTININS). However, a variety of lectins occur in animal species where they serve diverse array of functions through specific carbohydrate recognition.
Any of a group of polysaccharides of the general formula (C6-H10-O5)n, composed of a long-chain polymer of glucose in the form of amylose and amylopectin. It is the chief storage form of energy reserve (carbohydrates) in plants.
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
The study of the structure, preparation, properties, and reactions of carbon compounds. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).
Enzymes that catalyze the cleavage of a carbon-sulfur bond by means other than hydrolysis or oxidation. EC 4.4.
The study of those aspects of energy and matter in terms of elementary principles and laws. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.

Variable domain-linked oligosaccharides of a human monoclonal IgG: structure and influence on antigen binding. (1/5581)

The variable-domain-attached oligosaccharide side chains of a human IgG produced by a human-human-mouse heterohybridoma were analysed. In addition to the conserved N-glycosylation site at Asn-297, an N-glycosylation consensus sequence (Asn-Asn-Ser) is located at position 75 in the variable region of its heavy chain. The antibody was cleaved into its antigen-binding (Fab) and crystallizing fragments. The oligosaccharides of the Fab fragment were released by digestion with various endo- and exoglycosidases and analysed by anion-exchange chromatography and fluorophore-assisted carbohydrate electrophoresis. The predominant components were disialyl- bi-antennary and tetra-sialyl tetra-antennary complex carbohydrates. Of note is the presence in this human IgG of oligosaccharides containing N-glycolylneuraminic acid and N-acetylneuraminic acid in the ratio of 94:6. Furthermore, we determined N-acetylgalactosamine in the Fab fragment of this antibody, suggesting the presence of O-linked carbohydrates. A three-dimensional structure of the glycosylated variable (Fv) fragment was suggested using computer-assisted modelling. In addition, the influence of the Fv-associated oligosaccharides of the CBGA1 antibody on antigen binding was tested in several ELISA systems. Deglycosylation resulted in a decreased antigen-binding activity.  (+info)

Structural characterization of the N-linked oligosaccharides in bile salt-stimulated lipase originated from human breast milk. (2/5581)

The detailed structures of N- glycans derived from bile salt-stimulated lipase (BSSL) found in human milk were determined by combining exoglycosidase digestion with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The N- glycan structures were conclusively determined in terms of complexity and degree of fucosylation. Ion-exchange chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection, together with mass-spectral analysis of the esterified N- glycans, indicated the presence of monosialylated structures. The molecular mass profile of esterified N- glycans present in BSSL further permitted the more detailed studies through collision-induced dissociation (CID) and sequential exoglycosidase cleavages. The N- glycan structures were elucidated to be complex/dibranched, fucosylated/complex/dibranched, monosialylated/complex/dibranched, and monosialylated/fucosylated/dibranched entities.  (+info)

Gas-liquid chromatography of the heptafluorobutyrate derivatives of the O-methyl-glycosides on capillary columns: a method for the quantitative determination of the monosaccharide composition of glycoproteins and glycolipids. (3/5581)

We have developed a method involving the formation of hepta-fluorobutyrate derivatives of O-methyl-glycosides liberated from glycoproteins and glycolipids following methanolysis. The stable derivatives of the most common monosaccharides of these glycoconjugates (Ara, Rha, Xyl, Fuc, Gal, Man, Glc, GlcNAc, GalNAc, Neu5Ac, KDN) can be separated and quantitatively and reproducibly determined with a high degree of sensitivity level (down to 25 pmol) in the presence of lysine as an internal standard. The GlcNAc residue bound to Asn in N-glycans is quantitatively recovered as two peaks. The latter were easily distinguished from the other GlcNAc residues of N-glycans, thus allowing a considerable improvement of the data on structure of N-glycans obtained from a single carbohydrate analysis. The most common contaminants present in buffers commonly used for the isolation of soluble or membrane-bound glycoproteins (SDS, Triton X-100, DOC, TRIS, glycine, and polyacrylamide or salts, as well as monosaccharide constituents of proteoglycans or degradation products of nucleic acids) do not interfere with these determinations. A carbohydrate analysis of glycoproteins isolated from a SDS/PAGE gel or from PDVF membranes can be performed on microgram amounts without significant interferences. Since fatty acid methyl esters and sphingosine derivatives are separated from the monosaccharide peaks, the complete composition of gangliosides can be achieved in a single step starting from less than 1 microg of the initial compound purified by preparative Silicagel TLC. Using electron impact ionization mass spectrometry, reporter ions for the different classes of O-methyl-glycosides (pentoses, deoxy-hexoses, hexoses, hexosamines, uronic acids, sialic acid, and KDN) allow the identification of these compounds in very complex mixtures. The mass of each compound can be determined in the chemical ionization mode and detection of positive or negative ions. This method presents a considerable improvement compared to those using TMS derivatives. Indeed the heptafluorobutyrate derivatives are stable, and acylation of amino groups is complete. Moreover, there is no interference with contaminants and the separation between fatty acid methyl-esters and O-methyl glycosides is achieved.  (+info)

An improved method for the structural profiling of keratan sulfates: analysis of keratan sulfates from brain and ovarian tumors. (4/5581)

A previously developed method for the structural fingerprinting of keratan sulfates (Brown et al., Glycobiology, 5, 311-317, 1995) has been adapted for use with oligosaccharides fluorescently labeled with 2-aminobenzoic acid following keratanase II digestion. The oligosaccharides are separated by high-pH anion-exchange chromatography on a Dionex AS4A-SC column. This methodology permits quantitative analysis of labeled oligosaccharides which can be detected at the sub-nanogram ( approximately 100 fmol) level. Satisfactory calibration of this method can be achieved using commercial keratan sulfate standards. Keratan sulfates from porcine brain phosphocan and human ovarian tumors have been examined using this methodology, and their structural features are discussed.  (+info)

The sialylation of bronchial mucins secreted by patients suffering from cystic fibrosis or from chronic bronchitis is related to the severity of airway infection. (5/5581)

Bronchial mucins were purified from the sputum of 14 patients suffering from cystic fibrosis and 24 patients suffering from chronic bronchitis, using two CsBr density-gradient centrifugations. The presence of DNA in each secretion was used as an index to estimate the severity of infection and allowed to subdivide the mucins into four groups corresponding to infected or noninfected patients with cystic fibrosis, and to infected or noninfected patients with chronic bronchitis. All infected patients suffering from cystic fibrosis were colonized by Pseudomonas aeruginosa. As already observed, the mucins from the patients with cystic fibrosis had a higher sulfate content than the mucins from the patients with chronic bronchitis. However, there was a striking increase in the sialic acid content of the mucins secreted by severely infected patients as compared to noninfected patients. Thirty-six bronchial mucins out of 38 contained the sialyl-Lewis x epitope which was even expressed by subjects phenotyped as Lewis negative, indicating that at least one alpha1,3 fucosyltransferase different from the Lewis enzyme was involved in the biosynthesis of this epitope. Finally, the sialyl-Lewis x determinant was also overexpressed in the mucins from severely infected patients. Altogether these differences in the glycosylation process of mucins from infected and noninfected patients suggest that bacterial infection influences the expression of sialyltransferases and alpha1,3 fucosyltransferases in the human bronchial mucosa.  (+info)

Inhibition of L-selectin-mediated leukocyte rolling by synthetic glycoprotein mimics. (6/5581)

Synthetic carbohydrate and glycoprotein mimics displaying sulfated saccharide residues have been assayed for their L-selectin inhibitory properties under static and flow conditions. Polymers displaying the L-selectin recognition epitopes 3',6-disulfo Lewis x(Glc) (3-O-SO3-Galbeta1alpha4(Fucalpha1alpha3)-6-O-SO3-Glcbeta+ ++-OR) and 3',6'-disulfo Lewis x(Glc) (3, 6-di-O-SO3-Galbeta1alpha4(Fucalpha1alpha3)Glcbeta-OR) both inhibit L-selectin binding to heparin under static, cell-free binding conditions with similar efficacies. Under conditions of shear flow, however, only the polymer displaying 3',6-disulfo Lewis x(Glc) inhibits the rolling of L-selectin-transfected cells on the glycoprotein ligand GlyCAM-1. Although it has been shown to more effective than sialyl Lewis x at blocking the L-selectin-GlyCAM-1 interaction in static binding studies, the corresponding monomer had no effect in the dynamic assay. These data indicate that multivalent ligands are far more effective inhibitors of L-selectin-mediated rolling than their monovalent counterparts and that the inhibitory activities are dependent on the specific sulfation pattern of the recognition epitope. Importantly, our results indicate the L-selectin specificity for one ligand over another found in static, cell-free binding assays is not necessarily retained under the conditions of shear flow. The results suggest that monovalent or polyvalent carbohydrate or glycoprotein mimetics that inhibit selectin binding in static assays may not block the more physiologically relevant process of selectin-mediated rolling.  (+info)

Novel proteoglycan linkage tetrasaccharides of human urinary soluble thrombomodulin, SO4-3GlcAbeta1-3Galbeta1-3(+/-Siaalpha2-6)Galbeta1-4Xyl. (7/5581)

O-linked sugar chains with xylose as a reducing end linked to human urinary soluble thrombomodulin were studied. Sugar chains were liberated by hydrazinolysis followed by N-acetylation and tagged with 2-aminopyridine. Two fractions containing pyridylaminated Xyl as a reducing end were collected. Their structures were determined by partial acid hydrolysis, two-dimensional sugar mapping combined with exoglycosidase digestions, methylation analysis, mass spectrometry, and NMR as SO4-3GlcAbeta1-3Galbeta1-3(+/-Siaalpha2-6)Galbeta1+ ++-4Xyl. These sugar chains could bind to an HNK-1 monoclonal antibody. This is believed to be the first example of a proteoglycan linkage tetrasaccharide with glucuronic acid 3-sulfate and sialic acid.  (+info)

The role of homophilic binding in anti-tumor antibody R24 recognition of molecular surfaces. Demonstration of an intermolecular beta-sheet interaction between vh domains. (8/5581)

The murine antibody R24 and mouse-human Fv-IgG1(kappa) chimeric antibody chR24 are specific for the cell-surface tumor antigen disialoganglioside GD3. X-ray diffraction and surface plasmon resonance experiments have been employed to study the mechanism of "homophilic binding," in which molecules of R24 recognize and bind to other molecules of R24 though their heavy chain variable domains. R24 exhibits strong binding to liposomes containing disialoganglioside GD3; however, the kinetics are unusual in that saturation of binding is not observed. The binding of chR24 to GD3-bearing liposomes is significantly weaker, suggesting that cooperative interactions involving antibody constant regions contribute to R24 binding of membrane-bound GD3. The crystal structures of the Fabs from R24 and chR24 reveal the mechanism for homophilic binding and confirm that the homophilic and antigen-binding idiotopes are distinct. The homophilic binding idiotope is formed largely by an anti-parallel beta-sheet dimerization between the H2 complementarity determining region (CDR) loops of two Fabs, while the antigen-binding idiotope is a pocket formed by the three CDR loops on the heavy chain. The formation of homophilic dimers requires the presence of a canonical conformation for the H2 CDR in conjunction with participation of side chains. The relative positions of the homophilic and antigen-binding sites allows for a lattice of GD3-specific antibodies to be constructed, which is stabilized by the presence of the cell membrane. This model provides for the selective recognition by R24 of cells that overexpress GD3 on the cell surface.  (+info)

A "carbohydrate sequence" refers to the specific arrangement or order of monosaccharides (simple sugars) that make up a carbohydrate molecule, such as a polysaccharide or an oligosaccharide. Carbohydrates are often composed of repeating units of monosaccharides, and the sequence in which these units are arranged can have important implications for the function and properties of the carbohydrate.

For example, in glycoproteins (proteins that contain carbohydrate chains), the specific carbohydrate sequence can affect how the protein is processed and targeted within the cell, as well as its stability and activity. Similarly, in complex carbohydrates like starch or cellulose, the sequence of glucose units can determine whether the molecule is branched or unbranched, which can have implications for its digestibility and other properties.

Therefore, understanding the carbohydrate sequence is an important aspect of studying carbohydrate structure and function in biology and medicine.

Carbohydrate conformation refers to the three-dimensional shape and structure of a carbohydrate molecule. Carbohydrates, also known as sugars, can exist in various conformational states, which are determined by the rotation of their component bonds and the spatial arrangement of their functional groups.

The conformation of a carbohydrate molecule can have significant implications for its biological activity and recognition by other molecules, such as enzymes or antibodies. Factors that can influence carbohydrate conformation include the presence of intramolecular hydrogen bonds, steric effects, and intermolecular interactions with solvent molecules or other solutes.

In some cases, the conformation of a carbohydrate may be stabilized by the formation of cyclic structures, in which the hydroxyl group at one end of the molecule forms a covalent bond with the carbonyl carbon at the other end, creating a ring structure. The most common cyclic carbohydrates are monosaccharides, such as glucose and fructose, which can exist in various conformational isomers known as anomers.

Understanding the conformation of carbohydrate molecules is important for elucidating their biological functions and developing strategies for targeting them with drugs or other therapeutic agents.

Oligosaccharides are complex carbohydrates composed of relatively small numbers (3-10) of monosaccharide units joined together by glycosidic linkages. They occur naturally in foods such as milk, fruits, vegetables, and legumes. In the body, oligosaccharides play important roles in various biological processes, including cell recognition, signaling, and protection against pathogens.

There are several types of oligosaccharides, classified based on their structures and functions. Some common examples include:

1. Disaccharides: These consist of two monosaccharide units, such as sucrose (glucose + fructose), lactose (glucose + galactose), and maltose (glucose + glucose).
2. Trisaccharides: These contain three monosaccharide units, like maltotriose (glucose + glucose + glucose) and raffinose (galactose + glucose + fructose).
3. Oligosaccharides found in human milk: Human milk contains unique oligosaccharides that serve as prebiotics, promoting the growth of beneficial bacteria in the gut. These oligosaccharides also help protect infants from pathogens by acting as decoy receptors and inhibiting bacterial adhesion to intestinal cells.
4. N-linked and O-linked glycans: These are oligosaccharides attached to proteins in the body, playing crucial roles in protein folding, stability, and function.
5. Plant-derived oligosaccharides: Fructooligosaccharides (FOS) and galactooligosaccharides (GOS) are examples of plant-derived oligosaccharides that serve as prebiotics, promoting the growth of beneficial gut bacteria.

Overall, oligosaccharides have significant impacts on human health and disease, particularly in relation to gastrointestinal function, immunity, and inflammation.

Carbohydrates are a major nutrient class consisting of organic compounds that primarily contain carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms. They are classified as saccharides, which include monosaccharides (simple sugars), disaccharides (double sugars), oligosaccharides (short-chain sugars), and polysaccharides (complex carbohydrates).

Monosaccharides, such as glucose, fructose, and galactose, are the simplest form of carbohydrates. They consist of a single sugar molecule that cannot be broken down further by hydrolysis. Disaccharides, like sucrose (table sugar), lactose (milk sugar), and maltose (malt sugar), are formed from two monosaccharide units joined together.

Oligosaccharides contain a small number of monosaccharide units, typically less than 20, while polysaccharides consist of long chains of hundreds to thousands of monosaccharide units. Polysaccharides can be further classified into starch (found in plants), glycogen (found in animals), and non-starchy polysaccharides like cellulose, chitin, and pectin.

Carbohydrates play a crucial role in providing energy to the body, with glucose being the primary source of energy for most cells. They also serve as structural components in plants (cellulose) and animals (chitin), participate in various metabolic processes, and contribute to the taste, texture, and preservation of foods.

Molecular sequence data refers to the specific arrangement of molecules, most commonly nucleotides in DNA or RNA, or amino acids in proteins, that make up a biological macromolecule. This data is generated through laboratory techniques such as sequencing, and provides information about the exact order of the constituent molecules. This data is crucial in various fields of biology, including genetics, evolution, and molecular biology, allowing for comparisons between different organisms, identification of genetic variations, and studies of gene function and regulation.

Carbohydrate metabolism is the process by which the body breaks down carbohydrates into glucose, which is then used for energy or stored in the liver and muscles as glycogen. This process involves several enzymes and chemical reactions that convert carbohydrates from food into glucose, fructose, or galactose, which are then absorbed into the bloodstream and transported to cells throughout the body.

The hormones insulin and glucagon regulate carbohydrate metabolism by controlling the uptake and storage of glucose in cells. Insulin is released from the pancreas when blood sugar levels are high, such as after a meal, and promotes the uptake and storage of glucose in cells. Glucagon, on the other hand, is released when blood sugar levels are low and signals the liver to convert stored glycogen back into glucose and release it into the bloodstream.

Disorders of carbohydrate metabolism can result from genetic defects or acquired conditions that affect the enzymes or hormones involved in this process. Examples include diabetes, hypoglycemia, and galactosemia. Proper management of these disorders typically involves dietary modifications, medication, and regular monitoring of blood sugar levels.

Dietary carbohydrates refer to the organic compounds in food that are primarily composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms, with a general formula of Cm(H2O)n. They are one of the three main macronutrients, along with proteins and fats, that provide energy to the body.

Carbohydrates can be classified into two main categories: simple carbohydrates (also known as simple sugars) and complex carbohydrates (also known as polysaccharides).

Simple carbohydrates are made up of one or two sugar molecules, such as glucose, fructose, and lactose. They are quickly absorbed by the body and provide a rapid source of energy. Simple carbohydrates are found in foods such as fruits, vegetables, dairy products, and sweeteners like table sugar, honey, and maple syrup.

Complex carbohydrates, on the other hand, are made up of long chains of sugar molecules that take longer to break down and absorb. They provide a more sustained source of energy and are found in foods such as whole grains, legumes, starchy vegetables, and nuts.

It is recommended that adults consume between 45-65% of their daily caloric intake from carbohydrates, with a focus on complex carbohydrates and limiting added sugars.

Tumor-associated carbohydrate antigens (TACAs) are a type of tumor antigen that are expressed on the surface of cancer cells. These antigens are abnormal forms of carbohydrates, also known as glycans, which are attached to proteins and lipids on the cell surface.

TACAs are often overexpressed or expressed in a different form on cancer cells compared to normal cells. This makes them attractive targets for cancer immunotherapy because they can be recognized by the immune system as foreign and elicit an immune response. Some examples of TACAs include gangliosides, fucosylated glycans, and sialylated glycans.

Tumor-associated carbohydrate antigens have been studied as potential targets for cancer vaccines, antibody therapies, and other immunotherapeutic approaches. However, their use as targets for cancer therapy is still in the early stages of research and development.

Lectins are a type of proteins that bind specifically to carbohydrates and have been found in various plant and animal sources. They play important roles in biological recognition events, such as cell-cell adhesion, and can also be involved in the immune response. Some lectins can agglutinate certain types of cells or precipitate glycoproteins, while others may have a more direct effect on cellular processes. In some cases, lectins from plants can cause adverse effects in humans if ingested, such as digestive discomfort or allergic reactions.

I'm happy to help! However, it seems there might be a bit of confusion here. Starch is not typically considered a medical term, but rather a nutritional and biochemical concept. Here's a brief explanation:

Starch is a complex carbohydrate that serves as the primary form of energy storage in plants. It is made up of long chains of glucose molecules and can be found in various foods such as grains, legumes, fruits, and vegetables. Amylase, an enzyme present in our saliva and digestive system, helps break down starch into simpler sugars during the digestion process so that our bodies can absorb them for energy.

I hope this clarifies any confusion! If you have any other questions or need further information on a medical topic, please don't hesitate to ask.

An encyclopedia is a comprehensive reference work containing articles on various topics, usually arranged in alphabetical order. In the context of medicine, a medical encyclopedia is a collection of articles that provide information about a wide range of medical topics, including diseases and conditions, treatments, tests, procedures, and anatomy and physiology. Medical encyclopedias may be published in print or electronic formats and are often used as a starting point for researching medical topics. They can provide reliable and accurate information on medical subjects, making them useful resources for healthcare professionals, students, and patients alike. Some well-known examples of medical encyclopedias include the Merck Manual and the Stedman's Medical Dictionary.

Organic chemistry is a branch of chemistry that deals with the study of carbon-containing compounds, their synthesis, reactions, properties, and structures. These compounds can include both naturally occurring substances (such as sugars, proteins, and nucleic acids) and synthetic materials (such as plastics, dyes, and pharmaceuticals). A key characteristic of organic molecules is the presence of covalent bonds between carbon atoms or between carbon and other elements like hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, and halogens. The field of organic chemistry has played a crucial role in advancing our understanding of chemical processes and has led to numerous technological and medical innovations.

Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (MRS) is a non-invasive diagnostic technique that provides information about the biochemical composition of tissues, including their metabolic state. It is often used in conjunction with Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) to analyze various metabolites within body tissues, such as the brain, heart, liver, and muscles.

During MRS, a strong magnetic field, radio waves, and a computer are used to produce detailed images and data about the concentration of specific metabolites in the targeted tissue or organ. This technique can help detect abnormalities related to energy metabolism, neurotransmitter levels, pH balance, and other biochemical processes, which can be useful for diagnosing and monitoring various medical conditions, including cancer, neurological disorders, and metabolic diseases.

There are different types of MRS, such as Proton (^1^H) MRS, Phosphorus-31 (^31^P) MRS, and Carbon-13 (^13^C) MRS, each focusing on specific elements or metabolites within the body. The choice of MRS technique depends on the clinical question being addressed and the type of information needed for diagnosis or monitoring purposes.

Carbon-sulfur lyases are a class of enzymes that catalyze the cleavage of carbon-sulfur bonds in organic compounds, resulting in the formation of a new double bond. These enzymes play important roles in various biological processes, including the metabolism of sulfur-containing amino acids and the biosynthesis of certain cofactors and secondary metabolites.

Carbon-sulfur lyases are classified under EC number 4.4.1, which includes enzymes that catalyze the formation of carbon-carbon bonds by means other than those involving oxidoreductases. Within this class, carbon-sulfur lyases are further divided into several subcategories based on their specific reaction mechanisms and substrate specificities.

One example of a carbon-sulfur lyase is cysteine desulfurase (EC 2.8.1.7), which catalyzes the formation of alanine and a persulfide group from L-cysteine, releasing elemental sulfur as a byproduct. This enzyme plays a critical role in the biosynthesis of iron-sulfur clusters, which are essential cofactors for many proteins involved in electron transfer reactions.

Another example is 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase (EC 2.8.1.2), which catalyzes the formation of a persulfide group on a cysteine residue in the enzyme itself, using 3-mercaptopyruvate as a sulfur donor. This enzyme is involved in the biosynthesis of various secondary metabolites containing sulfur atoms, such as allicin in garlic and penicillamine in certain fungi.

Overall, carbon-sulfur lyases are important enzymes that play critical roles in various biological processes involving the cleavage or formation of carbon-sulfur bonds.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "physics" is not a term that has a medical definition. Physics is a branch of science that deals with the study of matter, energy, and their interactions. It may be studied in the context of medical physics, which involves the application of physical principles to medicine, such as in the use of radiation therapy for cancer treatment or imaging techniques like MRI and CT scans. However, "physics" itself is not a medical term with a specific definition within the field of medicine.

Lipids are a broad group of organic compounds that are insoluble in water but soluble in nonpolar organic solvents. They include fats, waxes, sterols, fat-soluble vitamins (such as vitamins A, D, E, and K), monoglycerides, diglycerides, triglycerides, and phospholipids. Lipids serve many important functions in the body, including energy storage, acting as structural components of cell membranes, and serving as signaling molecules. High levels of certain lipids, particularly cholesterol and triglycerides, in the blood are associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease.

Amino acids are organic compounds that serve as the building blocks of proteins. They consist of a central carbon atom, also known as the alpha carbon, which is bonded to an amino group (-NH2), a carboxyl group (-COOH), a hydrogen atom (H), and a variable side chain (R group). The R group can be composed of various combinations of atoms such as hydrogen, oxygen, sulfur, nitrogen, and carbon, which determine the unique properties of each amino acid.

There are 20 standard amino acids that are encoded by the genetic code and incorporated into proteins during translation. These include:

1. Alanine (Ala)
2. Arginine (Arg)
3. Asparagine (Asn)
4. Aspartic acid (Asp)
5. Cysteine (Cys)
6. Glutamine (Gln)
7. Glutamic acid (Glu)
8. Glycine (Gly)
9. Histidine (His)
10. Isoleucine (Ile)
11. Leucine (Leu)
12. Lysine (Lys)
13. Methionine (Met)
14. Phenylalanine (Phe)
15. Proline (Pro)
16. Serine (Ser)
17. Threonine (Thr)
18. Tryptophan (Trp)
19. Tyrosine (Tyr)
20. Valine (Val)

Additionally, there are several non-standard or modified amino acids that can be incorporated into proteins through post-translational modifications, such as hydroxylation, methylation, and phosphorylation. These modifications expand the functional diversity of proteins and play crucial roles in various cellular processes.

Amino acids are essential for numerous biological functions, including protein synthesis, enzyme catalysis, neurotransmitter production, energy metabolism, and immune response regulation. Some amino acids can be synthesized by the human body (non-essential), while others must be obtained through dietary sources (essential).

Sequence homology, amino acid, refers to the similarity in the order of amino acids in a protein or a portion of a protein between two or more species. This similarity can be used to infer evolutionary relationships and functional similarities between proteins. The higher the degree of sequence homology, the more likely it is that the proteins are related and have similar functions. Sequence homology can be determined through various methods such as pairwise alignment or multiple sequence alignment, which compare the sequences and calculate a score based on the number and type of matching amino acids.

... a unifying sequence format for carbohydrates". Carbohydrate Research. 343 (12): 2162-2171. doi:10.1016/j.carres.2008.03.011. ... CSDB provides access to several carbohydrate-related research tools: Simulation of 1D and 2D NMR spectra of carbohydrates ( ... Egorova K.S.; Toukach Ph.V. (2013). "Expansion of coverage of Carbohydrate Structure Database (CSDB)". Carbohydrate Research. ... Bacterial Carbohydrate Structure Database (BCSDB) and Plant&Fungal Carbohydrate Structure Database (PFCSDB) databases existed ...
Sequence and structural conservation in families CBM17 and CBM28 suggests that they have evolved through gene duplication and ... Carbohydrate-binding module family 20 (CBM20) binds to starch. Carbohydrate-binding module family 21 (CBM21), found in many ... Carbohydrate-binding module family 5 (CBM5) binds chitin. CBM5 and CBM12 are distantly related. Carbohydrate-binding module ... In molecular biology, a carbohydrate-binding module (CBM) is a protein domain found in carbohydrate-active enzymes (for example ...
January 1990). "Conformer populations of L-iduronic acid residues in glycosaminoglycan sequences". Carbohydrate Research. 195 ( ... Heparin binds to AT via a specific pentasaccharide sulfation sequence contained within the heparin polymer: GlcNAc/NS(6S)-GlcA- ... It is a synthetic pentasaccharide, whose chemical structure is almost identical to the AT binding pentasaccharide sequence that ... Heparin is a member of the glycosaminoglycan family of carbohydrates (which includes the closely related molecule heparan ...
CarbohydratesSequences and topology. 44: 39-47. doi:10.1016/j.sbi.2016.11.011. PMID 27940408. Crispin M, Stuart DI, Jones EY ... Around 20% of the deposited carbohydrate structures are in unjustified energy minima. A number of carbohydrate validation web ... carbohydrate validation) Privateer (carbohydrate validation) OOPS2, part of the Uppsala Software Factory ProSA web service ... see for recommendations on carbohydrate model building and refinement and for reviews on general errors in carbohydrate ...
Protein sequence alignment studies indicate that this lysine is conserved in cytosolic sulfotransferases as well. In addition ... Carbohydrate sulfotransferases are sulfotransferase enzymes that transfer sulfate to carbohydrate groups in glycoproteins and ... Sulfation, performed by carbohydrate sulfotransferases, generates carbohydrate sulfate esters. These sulfate esters are only ... Carbohydrate sulfotransferases are transmembrane enzymes in the Golgi that modify carbohydrates on glycolipids or glycoproteins ...
"Discrimination of epimeric glycans and glycopeptides using IM-MS and its potential for carbohydrate sequencing". Nature ... "Advancing Solutions to the Carbohydrate Sequencing Challenge". Journal of the American Chemical Society. 141 (37): 14463-14479 ... carbohydrates and their conjugates using mass spectrometry-based methods[citation needed]. Eyers' work in biological mass ...
... sequencing' carbohydrates through chemical and conformational means. Detailed studies of enzyme reactions have also provided ... "Discrimination of epimeric glycans and glycopeptides using IM-MS and its potential for carbohydrate sequencing". Nature ... "Advancing Solutions to the Carbohydrate Sequencing Challenge". Journal of the American Chemical Society. 141 (37): 14463-14479 ... Flitsch's research is focussed on glycobiotechnology - the study of carbohydrates in applied science and biocatalysis - the ...
Protein-Carbohydrate Complexes and Glycosylation ● Sequences and Topology. 68: 175-183. doi:10.1016/j.sbi.2020.11.010. ISSN ... randomly explore the sequence space to find transition sequences (switches) to new networks. His work also showed that errors ... Nucleic acids / Sequences and topology. 20 (3): 390-396. doi:10.1016/j.sbi.2010.02.005. ISSN 0959-440X. PMID 20347587. Wissler ... Bornberg-Bauer has been involved in the initial genome sequencing and annotation of Eucalyptus grandis, Nasonia vitripennis, ...
Carbohydrates: A feast of structural glycobiology • Sequences and topology: Computational studies of protein-protein ... modification and breakdown of carbohydrates. His chemical and structural insight into protein-carbohydrate interactions and his ... He has made fundamental additions to our understanding of enzyme mechanism and carbohydrate biochemistry. As a direct result of ... Agirre, Jon; Davies, Gideon J; Wilson, Keith S; Cowtan, Kevin D (June 2017). "Carbohydrate structure: the rocky road to ...
Davies GJ, Sinnott ML (2008). "Sorting the diverse: The sequence‑based classifications of carbohydrate‑active enzymes" (PDF). ... CAZy was established in 1999 in order to provide online and constantly updated access to the protein sequence-based family ... The rapid evolution of high-throughput DNA sequencing has resulted in the continuing exponential growth of the CAZy database, ... "CAZy - Carbohydrate-Active enZYmes Database". Architecture et Fonction des Macromolécules Biologiques, CNRS, Université de ...
The protein name derives from the protein's interaction with carbohydrate response element sequences of DNA. This gene encodes ... Carbohydrate-responsive element-binding protein (ChREBP) also known as MLX-interacting protein-like (MLXIPL) is a protein that ... This protein forms a heterodimeric complex and binds and activates, in a glucose-dependent manner, carbohydrate response ... "Entrez Gene: MLXIPL MLX interacting protein-like". Ortega-Prieto P, Postic C (2019). "Carbohydrate Sensing Through the ...
Such structural studies, such as sequence determination or identification of new monosaccharides, benefit the most from the NMR ... Common chemical shift ranges for nuclei within carbohydrate residues are: Typical 1H NMR chemical shifts of carbohydrate ring ... Modern high field NMR instruments used for carbohydrate samples, typically 500 MHz or higher, are able to run a suite of 1D, 2D ... Carbohydrate NMR spectroscopy is the application of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy to structural and ...
A carbohydrate sequence markup language (CabosML) is a description of carbohydrate structures using XML. Many glycobiologists ... "GlycoCT-a unifying sequence format for carbohydrates". Carbohydrate Research. 343 (12): 2162-2171. doi:10.1016/j.carres.2008.03 ... "The carbohydrate sequence markup language (CabosML): an XML description of carbohydrate structures". Bioinformatics. 21 (8): ... LInear Notation for Unique description of Carbohydrate Sequences". Carbohydrate Research. 336 (1): 1-11. doi:10.1016/S0008-6215 ...
Lectins recognise and bind particular sugar sequences in carbohydrates; peanut agglutinin binds the carbohydrate sequence Gal-β ... Available Structures of peanut agglutinin Because peanut agglutinin specifically binds a particular carbohydrate sequence it ... GalNAc carbohydrate sequence. The protein is 273 amino acids in length with the first 23 residues acting as a signal peptide ... the binding specificity of peanut agglutinin is used to isolate glycosylated molecules which have the sugar sequence Gal-β(1-3 ...
"A practical guide to structural analysis of carbohydrates". https://www.nature.com/subjects/sequencing (Articles with short ... Exome sequencing Full genome sequencing Genetic code Pathogenomics RNA-Seq MicroRNA sequencing Sequence motif Wheeler, David A ... While sequencing DNA gives a genetic profile of an organism, sequencing RNA reflects only the sequences that are actively ... for low-throughput sequencing) and 454 Life Sciences (for high-throughput sequencing). The latter platform sequences roughly ...
Its sequence contains two regions of tandem 19-residue repeats, where the repeat motif consists of short beta-strands separated ... This domain is suggested to be a carbohydrate-dependent haemagglutination activity site. In Bordetella pertussis, the ... Members generally have a signal sequence, then an intervening region, then the region described in this entry. Following this ...
... or between a carbohydrate and a non-carbohydrate moiety. A classification system for glycosyl hydrolases, based on sequence ... Because the fold of proteins is better conserved than their sequences, some of the families can be grouped in 'clans'. As of ... Cantarel BL, Coutinho PM, Rancurel C, Bernard T, Lombard V, Henrissat B (January 2009). "The Carbohydrate-Active EnZymes ... Henrissat B, Bairoch A (June 1996). "Updating the sequence-based classification of glycosyl hydrolases". Biochem. J. 316 (2): ...
Because 3-D structures are better conserved than sequences, several of the families defined on the basis of sequence ... This classification is available on the CAZy (Carbohydrate-Active EnZymes) web site. The same three-dimensional fold is ... Henrissat B, Coutinho PM (1999). "Carbohydrate-Active Enzymes server". {{cite journal}}: Cite journal requires ,journal= (help ... "A classification of nucleotide-diphospho-sugar glycosyltransferases based on amino acid sequence similarities". Biochem. J. 326 ...
Because 3-D structures are better conserved than sequences, several of the families defined on the basis of sequence ... This classification is available on the CAZy (CArbohydrate-Active EnZymes) web site. The same three-dimensional fold is ... Sialyltransferase may be responsible for the synthesis of the sequence NEUAC-Alpha-2,3-GAL-Beta-1,3-GALNAC-, found on sugar ... Henrissat B, Coutinho PM (1998-2022). "Carbohydrate-Active Enzymes server". Marseille: Université d'Aix. Dall'Olio F, Chiricolo ...
Sequence-based classifications are one of the most powerful predictive methods for suggesting function for newly sequenced ... Henrissat, B. and Coutinho P.M. "Carbohydrate-Active Enzymes server". 1999. CAZypedia, an online encyclopedia of carbohydrate- ... the carbohydrate-active enzymes and binding proteins involved in the synthesis and degradation of complex carbohydrates ... Glycoside hydrolases are found in the intestinal tract and in saliva where they degrade complex carbohydrates such as lactose, ...
The system activates as a signal sequence HlyA binds HlyB on the cell membrane. This signal sequence is an ABC transporter. The ... T1SS transports various molecules including ions, carbohydrates, drugs, proteins. The secreted molecules vary in size from the ... In SecA pathway, a chaperone trigger factor (TF) first bind to the exposed N-terminal signal sequence of the peptide chain. As ... In this pathway, SRP competes with TF and binds to the N-terminal signal sequence. Proteins from inner membrane stops the ...
Sulfation of tyrosines and carbohydrates occurs within the TGN. Other general post-translational modifications of proteins ... depending upon the signal sequence they carry. In this model, the Golgi is viewed as a set of stable compartments that work ... Protein modifications may form a signal sequence that determines the final destination of the protein. For example, the Golgi ... include the addition of carbohydrates (glycosylation) and phosphates (phosphorylation). ...
The bacteria contain an adhesion protein for the carbohydrate sequence Gal-1,4Gal. After incubation with various amounts of the ... The genome of S. suis isolates from the outbreak were examined to see whether its DNA sequence could explain why these ...
The sequence of the amino acids in the polypeptide backbone is known as the primary structure of the protein. Like almost all ... Generally, carbohydrates which our bodies break down are alpha-linked (example: glycogen) and those which have structural ... Carbohydrates arise by condensation of monosaccharides such as glucose. The polymers can be classified into oligosaccharides ( ... the carbohydrate is designated as beta and if the linkage is on the opposite side it is designated as alpha. In a traditional " ...
The sequencing of marker genes of entire microbial communities, referred to as metagenomics, sheds light on the phylogenetic ... In return, the fungi obtain carbohydrates and lipids from host plants. Recent studies of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi using ... Kumaravel, Sowmya; Thankappan, Sugitha; Raghupathi, Sridar; Uthandi, Sivakumar (2018). "Draft Genome Sequence of Plant Growth- ... and carbohydrates to the microorganisms. The association of AM fungi with plants has been known since 1842, and over 80% of ...
It has two noncovalently associated polypeptide chains: an A chain sequence with 44 amino acid residues, and a B chain with 50 ... it was first reported as a carbohydrate. The protein was named in 1972 after the Monell Chemical Senses Center in Philadelphia ... GEWEIIDIGP FTQNLGKFAV DEENKIGQYG RLTFNKVIRP CMKKTIYEEN Amino acid sequence of the sweet protein monellin adapted from Swiss- ...
The enzymes contain ~250-300 residues, which encode putative signal sequences and carbohydrate attachment sites. In addition, ...
Owing to the lack of a genetic blue print, carbohydrates do not have a "fixed" sequence. Instead, the sequence is largely ... as well as carbohydrate interactions. Conventional usage of the term does not currently include the treatment of carbohydrates ... 2004). Carbohydrate Polymers 55:171-177. Helenius A, Aebi M (2001) Intracellular functions of N-linked glycans. Science 291: ... For instance, just four sugars can be strung together to form more than 5 million different types of carbohydrates or nine ...
The major carbohydrate sequence linked to glycodelin-A also profusely coats the surface of schistosomes. The profile of the ... For example, human gametes are coated with carbohydrate sequences that have been implicated in the suppression of NK cell ... There are some notable examples of this mimicry or acquisition of the same carbohydrate sequences implicated in this protective ... The eu-FEDS model further suggests that specific carbohydrate sequences (oligosaccharides) are covalently linked to these ...
Kellermann J, Lottspeich F, Geiger R, Deutzmann R (1988). "Human urinary kallikrein--amino acid sequence and carbohydrate ... Complete amino acid sequence and sites of glycosylation". Int. J. Pept. Protein Res. 33 (4): 237-49. doi:10.1111/j.1399- ... 1996). "Evaluation of the extent of the binding site in human tissue kallikrein by synthetic substrates with sequences of human ... Lottspeich F, Geiger R, Henschen A, Kutzbach C (1980). "N-Terminal amino acid sequence of human urinary kallikrein homology ...
... a unifying sequence format for carbohydrates". Carbohydrate Research. 343 (12): 2162-2171. doi:10.1016/j.carres.2008.03.011. ... CSDB provides access to several carbohydrate-related research tools: Simulation of 1D and 2D NMR spectra of carbohydrates ( ... Egorova K.S.; Toukach Ph.V. (2013). "Expansion of coverage of Carbohydrate Structure Database (CSDB)". Carbohydrate Research. ... Bacterial Carbohydrate Structure Database (BCSDB) and Plant&Fungal Carbohydrate Structure Database (PFCSDB) databases existed ...
Team defines first-ever sequence of biologically important carbohydrate. By R&D Editors , October 18, 2011. ... Previous studies performed over the past five years by the researchers that identified common sequences within the carbohydrate ... Past attempts to sequence proteoglycans have relied on the so-called "bottom up" approach in which scientists use enzymes to ... "We know that carbohydrates are how cells communicate with each other and their environment, but theyre also likely to play ...
The PdaA structure provides a template for interpreting the wealth of sequence data on family 4 carbohydrate esterases in a ... Family 4 carbohydrate esterases deacetylate polymeric carbohydrate substrates such as chitin, acetyl xylan and peptidoglycan. ... Family 4 carbohydrate esterases deacetylate polymeric carbohydrate substrates such as chitin, acetyl xylan and peptidoglycan. ... Sequence Clusters. 30% Identity50% Identity70% Identity90% Identity95% Identity100% Identity. ...
4 linkages in complex carbohydrates and those that contain GlcNAc.... , Find, read and cite all the research you need on ... were prepared for sequencing as described previously (18-25). Genome sequences. were de novo assembled using CLC Workbench ... sequencing consortium that offers the use of new next-generation sequencing meth- ... genome sequences of a clinical isolate and an environmental isolate of. Vibrio parahaemolyticus. Genome Announc 3(2):e00216- ...
The insulin signaling pathway (ISP) has a key role in major physiological events like carbohydrate metabolism and growth ... EST sequencing projects are increasing in scale and scope as the genome sequencing technologies migrate from core sequencing ... Simple sequence repeat variation in the Daphnia pulex genome Simple sequence repeats (SSRs) are highly variable features of all ... Expressed sequence tag (EST) databases provide a valuable source of genetic data in organisms whose genome sequence information ...
Carbohydrates, Proteins, Amino Acids and Lipids) for about a week and I just dont... ... What are carbohydrates?. Carbohydrates are one of the three main macronutrients, along with proteins and fats. They are ... What are some examples of carbohydrates?. Some examples of carbohydrates include sugars, starches, and fibers. Sugars can be ... Suggested for: Basics for: Carbohydrates, Proteins, Amino Acids and Lipids Medical Question about the synthesis of fatty acids ...
Elucidating Sequence and Structural Determinants of Carbohydrate Esterases for Complete Deacetylation of Substituted Xylans. ... Dive into the research topics of Elucidating Sequence and Structural Determinants of Carbohydrate Esterases for Complete ...
Amino Acid Sequence * Blotting, Western * Breast Neoplasms / chemistry* * Carbohydrate Sequence * Carboxypeptidases / ... cancer cell lines imply that the conserved tandem repeat domain of MUC1 is polymorphic with respect to the peptide sequence. ... to the structural analyses by quadrupole time-of-flight electrospray ionization mass spectrometry and to the sequencing by ...
carbohydrate derivative metabolism. cell differentiation. cell population proliferation. cellular component organization. ... Ensembl , MGI Sequence Detail. 4293. Not Applicable. polypeptide. ENSMUSP00000042582. Ensembl , MGI Sequence Detail. 804. Not ... Representative Sequences. Length. Strain/Species. Flank. genomic. ENSMUSG00000038112. Ensembl Gene Model , MGI Sequence Detail ...
... middle-carbohydrate/middle-fat diet (MC/MF group) or a high-carbohydrate/low-fat diet (HC/LF group). Daily caloric intake was ... Altogether, these data identify a specific role of body weight control by a high-carbohydrate/low-fat diet in the progression ... Unraveling the sequence of events leading to DN in this model is of importance as it might offer a clue to a better prevention ... middle-carbohydrate/middle-fat diet (MC/MF group) or a high-carbohydrate/low-fat diet (HC/LF group). Daily caloric intake was ...
report the sequence of the genetically tractable species Schizophyllum commune and identify genes involved in the formation of ... The Carbohydrate-Active EnZymes database (CAZy): an expert resource for Glycogenomics. Nucleic Acids Res. 37, D233-D238 (2009). ... The genome sequence of S. commune reveals four additional genes with high sequence similarity to these pheromone receptor genes ... Isolation of genomic DNA, genome sequencing and assembly.. Genomic DNA of S. commune was isolated as described30 and sequenced ...
Two of the greatest dietary shifts in human evolution involved the adoption of carbohydrate-rich Neolithic (farming) diets6,7 ( ... C.J.A. and L.S.W. analyzed sequence data. A.W.W. performed 454 sequencing. C.J.A.B. performed α diversity bootstrapping ... Hujoel, P. Dietary carbohydrates and dental-systemic diseases. J. Dent. Res. 88, 490-502 (2009). ... Adler, C., Dobney, K., Weyrich, L. et al. Sequencing ancient calcified dental plaque shows changes in oral microbiota with ...
... pts genes involved in carbohydrate transport and metabolism; and the tkl locus encoding DNA polymerase and several metabolic ... Genome Sequencing and Assembly. We performed single molecule real-time sequencing (PacBio; Pacific Biosciences, Menlo Park, CA ... We downloaded assembled contiguous genome sequences (contigs) for 24 additional genome sequences from previous studies of ... Zhu B, Xu Z, Du P, Xu L, Sun X, Gao Y, et al. Sequence type 4821 clonal complex serogroup B Neisseria meningitidis in China, ...
Very-low-carbohydrate ketogenic diet v. low-fat diet for long-term weight loss: a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials ... Of these nine studies, two did not report the sequence generation method used, while seven did not report using any measure to ... CHO, carbohydrate; VLCKD, very-low-carbohydrate ketogenic diet; CV, cardiovascular; T2D, type 2 diabetes mellitus; NZ, New ... unlike low-carbohydrate diets, which may have up to 130 g carbohydrates/d or 26 % of energy from a nominal diet. A major ...
Aldose-Ketose Isomerases, Base Sequence, Carbohydrate Epimerases, Ethanol, Fermentation, Genes, Bacterial, Molecular Sequence ... Base Sequence; Carbohydrate Epimerases; Ethanol; Fermentation; Genes, Bacterial; Molecular Sequence Data; Phosphoglycerate ...
Glycoside Hydrolases GlycosylTransferases Polysaccharide Lyases Carbohydrate Esterases Auxiliary Activities Carbohydrate- ...
... carbohydrate metabolism; H, coenzyme metabolism; I, lipid metabolism; J, translation; K, transcription; L, DNA replication or ... Nucleotide sequence accession numbers and locus tag prefixes.. The annotated sequences of the complete genomes of Y. pestis ... A comparison with the genome sequence of the previously sequenced Y. pestis strains as well as that of Y. pseudotuberculosis ... A comparison of all five Y. pestis sequences reveals extensive DNA sequence rearrangement, widespread gene reduction, and ...
Glycoside Hydrolases GlycosylTransferases Polysaccharide Lyases Carbohydrate Esterases Auxiliary Activities Carbohydrate- ...
With the three monosaccharide building blocks the trisaccharidic carbohydrate head was assembled. The sequence starts with the ... 2) Attachment of a fluorophore to the carbohydrate head group: To attach fluorophores to a hydrophilic carbohydrate head group ... A lithiation/carbonylation sequence using DMF as carbonyl source afforded aldehyde 28 which was subjected to a Wittig-Horner ... The BODIPY dye 66, which is commercially available was planned to be attached to the carbohydrate head group in the last step ...
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity. more info. involved_in carbohydrate transport IEA Inferred from Electronic ... These reference sequences exist independently of genome builds. Explain. These reference sequences are curated independently of ... Source sequence(s). AL663070 UniProtKB/TrEMBL. B4DNN7 Conserved Domains (1) summary. pfam13347. Location:46 → 494. MFS_2; MFS/ ... Source sequence(s). AL663070 UniProtKB/TrEMBL. B4DNN7 Conserved Domains (1) summary. pfam13347. Location:48 → 468. MFS_2; MFS/ ...
The portfolio low-carbohydrate diet (PLCD) is a plant-based diet with 40% carbohydrates combined with five cholesterol-lowering ... On the other hand, the ketogenic diet (KD) is a nutritional protocol with 10% carbohydrates. The purpose of this study is to ... Sequence generation {16a}. Randomization. During the first visit, participants will be randomized to either the PLCD or the KD ... The portfolio low-carbohydrate diet is a plant-based diet with 40% carbohydrate, 20% protein, and 40% fat. The Portfolio diet ...
Presents carbohydrate ligands to selectins.. * Tissue specificity. Selectively expressed on hematopoietic progenitor cells and ... Sequence similarities. Belongs to the CD34 family.. * Developmental stage. On early hematopoietic progenitor cells. ...
Carbohydrate-lectin recognition of sequence-defined heteromultivalent glycooligomers. Journal of the American Chemical Society ... Fragment-screening of N-acetylmannosamine kinase reveals non-carbohydrate inhibitors. Canadian Journal of Chemistry 94 (11), S ...
Carbohydrate intolerance, youve likely heard of it, but what exactly does it mean? Its become a topic of interest as more ... 25 Powerful Yin Yoga Sequences We Love (And Why). 2023-05-05 23:42 ... What Is Carbohydrate Intolerance? Causes, Symptoms, And Effective Ways To Manage It. ...
... and importance of Carbohydrates from biology experts at NEB. ... Next Generation Sequencing Library Preparation * Nucleic Acid ... Glycobiology and Carbohydrate Related Terms. Glycobiology - the study of the structure, function and biology of carbohydrates. ... Monosaccharide - A carbohydrate that cannot be hydrolyzed into a simpler carbohydrate. It is the building block of ... The Structure, Function and Importance of Carbohydrates. Glycobiology is the study of the structure, function and biology of ...
... carbohydrates and proteins, peptides DNA. Completely biodegradable be grown in a chain same sequence and number of repeating ... Organisms include carbohydrates and proteins, carbohydrates, DNA and RNA are all of! Are composed out of living beings, they ... Biopolymers of a particular type contain the same sequence and number of monomers and thus all have the same mass. Biopolymers ... Carbohydrates and proteins, for example, are biopolymers. 7/04/2020: Developments of world biopolymers market 2019. Examples of ...
Whole genome low-pass sequencing data. The genomes of 11,670 women Han Chinese were sequenced by the CONVERGE project as a ... Carbohydrate Polymers 75, 104-109.. *Lan, T., Lin, H., Zhu, W., Laurent, T., Yang, M., Liu, X., Wang, J., Wang, J., Yang, H., ... Totally around 20,000 Han Chinese individuals with whole genomes sequenced using next-generation sequencing are archived in PGG ... were sequenced by BGI-Shenzhen at a high depth (~80×) (Lan et al., 2017); another 98 samples were also sequenced to high ...
Sequence Length. Organism. Details. Image. Ribokinase:Carbohydrate kinase, PfkB. A. 312. Brucella abortus 2308. Mutation(s): 0 ... Sequence Clusters. 30% Identity50% Identity70% Identity90% Identity95% Identity100% Identity. ... Explore in 3D: Structure , Sequence Annotations , Electron Density , Validation Report , Ligand Interaction (ANP) ... Explore in 3D: Structure , Sequence Annotations , Electron Density , Validation Report , Ligand Interaction (ANP) ...
... sequence identity with human and rat Resistin, respectively. It shares 34% - 42% aa sequence identity with mouse RELM alpha, ... and by insulin or a high carbohydrate diet (5, 6). This is in contrast to human Resistin which is produced by macrophages and ...
  • For structural analysis of asparagine-linked carbohydrates, sugars are released from the protein backbone by enzymes such as PNGase F ( NEB #P0704 ). (neb.com)
  • Biopolymers include the polysaccharides such as cellulose, starch, the carbohydrate polymers produced by bacteria and fungi and animal protein-based biopolymers such as wool, silk, gelatin and collagen: biopolymers, especially the carbohydrate origin, have been found very promising industrial application in … This group consists of naturally occurring polymers and chemical modifications of these polymers. (cichlidresearch.com)
  • Proteinet visade sig t o m ha en isopeptidbinding, vilket är den första som observerats i ett protein uttryckt av en Gram-negativ bakterie. (umu.se)
  • Knowledge of the three-dimensional structures of the carbo-hydrate molecules is indispensable for a full understanding of the molecular processes in which carbohydrates are involved, such as protein glycosylation or protein-carbohydrate interactions. (iucr.org)
  • The Protein Data Bank (PDB) is a valuable resource for three-dimensional structural information on glycoproteins and protein-carbohydrate complexes. (iucr.org)
  • Glycosylation is classified by the way the carbohydrate chain is linked to the protein. (iucr.org)
  • The new patent claims a method of detection of specified sequences from polynucleotide sequence which encodes a protein that has human glucokinase activity. (generalpatent.com)
  • They can vary in mineral profile, protein content and carbohydrate content--and the list goes on. (preparedfoods.com)
  • The MUC1 protein, also known as polymorphic epithelial mucin or epithelial membrane antigen, has a large extracellular region, a transmembrane sequence, and a cytosolic domain. (medscape.com)
  • Affected individuals often have specific food preferences, preferring protein-rich and fatty foods and avoiding carbohydrate-rich foods. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The insulin signaling pathway (ISP) has a key role in major physiological events like carbohydrate metabolism and growth regulation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Glucokinase plays an important role in the regulation of carbohydrate metabolism. (generalpatent.com)
  • Bacteroides, Ruminococcaceae, Faecalibacterium prausnitzii) and three Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes orthologues, of which two relate to carbohydrate metabolism. (medscape.com)
  • Sequence analysis of the Daphnia pulex genome holds some surprises that could not have been anticipated from what was learned so far from other arthropod genomes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Simple sequence repeats (SSRs) are highly variable features of all genomes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • To further investigate the genomic diversity among this group and to help characterize lineages of the plague organism that have no sequenced members, we present here the genomes of two isolates of the "classical" antiqua biovar, strains Antiqua and Nepal516. (asm.org)
  • We compare all five currently sequenced Y. pestis genomes and the corresponding features in Yersinia pseudotuberculosis . (asm.org)
  • 90 samples (overlapping with CHB and CHS in the 1000 Genomes Projects) were sequenced by BGI-Shenzhen at a high depth (~80×) (Lan et al. (biosino.org)
  • The genomes of 11,670 women Han Chinese were sequenced by the CONVERGE project as a control group for the investigation of major depressive disorders (Chiang et al. (biosino.org)
  • The complex regulation and evolution of environmentally-relevant microorganisms are analysed in detail through the sequencing of entire bacterial genomes and large fragments of environmental DNA. (mpg.de)
  • If genes provide the blueprint for life and proteins are the machines that do much of the work for cells, then carbohydrates that are linked to proteins are among the tools that enable cells to communicate with the outside world and each other. (rdworldonline.com)
  • In summary, the person is trying to get their head around the basic structure, formulas and meanings of carbohydrates, proteins, amino acids and lipids. (physicsforums.com)
  • I have been trying to get my head around the basics for these four (Carbohydrates, Proteins, Amino Acids and Lipids) for about a week and I just don't understand the basic structure, formulas and such. (physicsforums.com)
  • Carbohydrates differ from proteins in two important features. (iucr.org)
  • According to the European Medicines Agency guideline on environmental risk assessments for pharmaceuticals (EMA/CHMP/SWP/4447/00) vitamins, electrolytes, amino acids, peptides, proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, vaccines and herbal medicinal products are exempted because they are unlikely to result in significant risk to the environment. (janusinfo.se)
  • 1W1B: Structure of Bacillus subtilis PdaA with Cadmium, a family 4 Carbohydrate esterase. (rcsb.org)
  • As of 2017, the coverage on bacteria and archaea is ca. 80% of carbohydrate structures published in scientific literature The time lag between the publication of relative data and their deposition into CSDB is about 18 months. (wikipedia.org)
  • The expansion of hypervirulent sequence type 4821 clonal complex (CC4821) lineage Neisseria meningitidis bacteria has led to a shift in meningococcal disease epidemiology in China, from serogroup A (MenA) to MenC. (cdc.gov)
  • Faecal 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing showed that fasting caused a decrease in the abundance of bacteria known to degrade dietary polysaccharides such as Lachnospiraceae and Ruminococcaceae. (nih.gov)
  • Other bacteria specialise in the decomposition of carbohydrates in plants and oil. (mpg.de)
  • Importantly, we were only changing the mouse's environment with a drug or temperature, not the actual DNA sequence of the Ucp1 gene," Lazar said. (sciencedaily.com)
  • Aberrant methylation patterns were inversely correlated with gene expression changes using mRNA sequencing from same animals and tissue specimens. (uni-koeln.de)
  • Administration of a ketogenic, high-fat, low-carbohydrate diet attenuated seizure progression and ameliorated DNA methylation mediated changes in gene expression. (uni-koeln.de)
  • Biochemical assay for enzyme activity and gene sequencing is the method of definitive diagnosis. (medscape.com)
  • The PAP20 glycopeptides were isolated by reversed phase high pressure liquid chromatography and subjected to the structural analyses by quadrupole time-of-flight electrospray ionization mass spectrometry and to the sequencing by Edman degradation. (nih.gov)
  • Baseline gut microbial composition (16S rRNA sequencing) and metabolic capacity (PICRUSt) were determined. (medscape.com)
  • Very-low-carbohydrate ketogenic diet v. low-fat diet. (cambridge.org)
  • On the other hand, the ketogenic diet (KD) is a nutritional protocol with 10% carbohydrates. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The main data stored in CSDB are carbohydrate structures of bacterial, fungal, and plant origin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Taxon clustering based on similarities of glycomes (carbohydrate-based tree of life) Glycosyltransferase subdatabase (GT-explorer) Until 2015, Bacterial Carbohydrate Structure Database (BCSDB) and Plant&Fungal Carbohydrate Structure Database (PFCSDB) databases existed in parallel. (wikipedia.org)
  • This thematic series of companion papers constitutes the initial exploration of the genome biology of the waterflea (Daphnia) building on the first complete crustacean genome sequence. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Draft Genome Sequence of the Symbiotically Competent Cyanobacterium Nostoc sp. (uit.no)
  • Isolation and complete genome sequence of the thermophilic Geobacillus sp. (uit.no)
  • High quality draft genome sequence of Streptomyces sp. (uit.no)
  • Draft Genome Sequence of the Actinomycete Rhodococcus sp. (uit.no)
  • Serum biochemistry confirmed the metabolic switch from carbohydrates to fatty acids and ketones. (nih.gov)
  • The diagram below illustrates metabolic pathways of carbohydrates. (medscape.com)
  • With GSDs, carbohydrate metabolic pathways are blocked at various levels and excess glycogen accumulates in affected tissues. (medscape.com)
  • Family 4 carbohydrate esterases deacetylate polymeric carbohydrate substrates such as chitin, acetyl xylan and peptidoglycan. (rcsb.org)
  • The PdaA structure provides a template for interpreting the wealth of sequence data on family 4 carbohydrate esterases in a structural context and represents a first step towards understanding the reaction mechanism of this family of enzymes. (rcsb.org)
  • Fragment-screening of N-acetylmannosamine kinase reveals non-carbohydrate inhibitors. (mpg.de)
  • Mature mouse Resistin shares 56% and 72% amino acid (aa) sequence identity with human and rat Resistin, respectively. (rndsystems.com)
  • Teriparatide is a 4117.8 dalton peptide with a 34-amino acid sequence. (janusinfo.se)
  • Past attempts to sequence proteoglycans have relied on the so-called "bottom up" approach in which scientists use enzymes to chop a molecule into its component parts and then try to put it back together, like a puzzle. (rdworldonline.com)
  • The enzymes contain ~250-300 residues, which encode putative signal sequences and carbohydrate attachment sites. (embl.de)
  • These isoforms have extracytoplasmic sequences ranging from 391 to 552 amino acids long with numerous N-linked carbohydrate attachment sites. (beckman.com)
  • They are generated by alternative splicing combinations of three exons (A, B, and C) of the genomic sequence. (beckman.com)
  • CSDB stores published structural, taxonomical, bibliographic and NMR-spectroscopic data on natural carbohydrates and carbohydrate-related molecules. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is employed in structural studies of natural carbohydrates and in glyco-profiling. (wikipedia.org)
  • Glycobiology is the study of the structure, function and biology of carbohydrates, also called glycans, which are widely distributed in nature. (neb.com)
  • Economic Evaluation of Next-generation Sequencing Techniques in Diagnosis of Genetic Disorders: A Systematic Review. (cdc.gov)
  • Now that we have demonstrated that bikunin, a small chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan, has sequence, we are moving on to larger, more structurally complex dermatan sulfate and heparan sulfate proteoglycans," said study co-author Robert Linhardt, professor at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. (rdworldonline.com)
  • Chitinases are glycosyl hydrolases that catalyze the hydrolysis of the β-1,4 linkages in complex carbohydrates and those that contain GlcNAc. (researchgate.net)
  • 1,4 linkages in complex carbohydrates and those that contain GlcNAc. (researchgate.net)
  • Click molecule labels to explore molecular sequence information. (nih.gov)
  • The non-restricted CD45, Leucocyte Common Antigen (LCA) consists of an extracellular sequence, proximal to the membrane, which is common to all CD45 isoforms. (beckman.com)
  • Using methyl-CpG capture associated with massive parallel sequencing (Methyl-Seq) we report the genomic methylation signature of the chronic epileptic state. (uni-koeln.de)
  • Amster explained that the addition of sulfate to the sugar, for example, could in principle occur anywhere along the carbohydrate chain. (rdworldonline.com)
  • This article gives an overview of the information that can be obtained from individual PDB entries and from statistical analyses of sets of three-dimensional structures, of typical problems that arise during the analysis of carbohydrate three-dimensional structures and of the validation tools that are currently available to scientists to evaluate the quality of these structures. (iucr.org)
  • It is upregulated during adipogenesis, in obesity, and by insulin or a high carbohydrate diet (5, 6). (rndsystems.com)
  • If you do carbohydrates, similarly look at their biosynthesis at the same time as their structure. (physicsforums.com)
  • Altogether, these data identify a specific role of body weight control by a high-carbohydrate/low-fat diet in the progression of DN. (hindawi.com)
  • Obese, hypertensive, type 2 diabetic rats SHR/NDmcr-cp were given, for 12 weeks, either a normal, middle-carbohydrate/middle-fat diet (MC/MF group) or a high-carbohydrate/low-fat diet (HC/LF group). (hindawi.com)
  • The observation that a high-carbohydrate/low-fat diet reduces effectively body weight without calorie restriction [ 13 , 14 ] led us to use a similar isocaloric diet in our rat model to better identify factors mediating the weight-related factors involved in the genesis of DN. (hindawi.com)
  • SHR/NDmcr-cp rats given a normal middle-carbohydrate/middle-fat diet (MC/MF group) were thus compared with similar rats fed a high-carbohydrate/low-fat diet (HC/LF group). (hindawi.com)
  • SHR/NDmcr-cp rats, aged 5 weeks, were randomly divided into two groups and given for 12 weeks either a normal diet (CE-2, CLEA Japan Inc., Tokyo, Japan) with tap water (MC/MF group, 10 rats), or a high carbohydrate/low fat diet (CE-2 with tap water containing 30% sucrose) (HC/LF group, 10 rats). (hindawi.com)
  • The portfolio low-carbohydrate diet (PLCD) is a plant-based diet with 40% carbohydrates combined with five cholesterol-lowering foods and nutrients. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The role of very-low-carbohydrate ketogenic diets (VLCKD) in the long-term management of obesity is not well established. (cambridge.org)
  • Sequence conservation in this family has pointed to a conserved core, termed the NodB homology domain. (rcsb.org)
  • The CA 15-3 antigen (also known as MUC1, from which it is derived) represents sequences of mucins that are often overexpressed in malignant glandular cells, such as breast cancer. (medscape.com)
  • The high incidence of these replacements and their detection also in other cancer cell lines imply that the conserved tandem repeat domain of MUC1 is polymorphic with respect to the peptide sequence. (nih.gov)
  • Therefore, carbohydrate chains are usually displayed as a tree-like two-dimensional graph. (iucr.org)
  • CSDB provides access to several carbohydrate-related research tools: Simulation of 1D and 2D NMR spectra of carbohydrates (GODDESS: glycan-oriented database-driven empirical spectrum simulation). (wikipedia.org)
  • Carbohydrate Structure Database (CSDB) is a free curated database and service platform in glycoinformatics, launched in 2005 by a group of Russian scientists from N.D. Zelinsky Institute of Organic Chemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 2015, they were joined into the single Carbohydrate Structure Database (CSDB). (wikipedia.org)
  • CSDB web site CSDB usage examples CSDB technical documentation CSDB Linear (structure encoding notation) Carbohydrate databases registered in NAR collection Carbohydrate databases in the recent decade (lection) Toukach Ph.V. (wikipedia.org)
  • In a paper published in the early online edition of the journal Nature Chemical Biology , however, a team of scientists from the University of Georgia and Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute announced that it has, for the first time, determined the sequence and structure of a glycosaminoglycan, or GAG, proteoglycan. (rdworldonline.com)
  • One can define several major GSL series based on their internal core carbohydrate structure. (springer.com)
  • Polymers, including biopolymers, are made of repetitive units called monomers.Biopolymers inherently have a well defined structure: The exact chemical composition and the sequence in which these units are arranged is called the primary structure. (cichlidresearch.com)
  • With these more than 100K Han Chinese samples being whole-genome sequenced to high coverage (~30 - 80×), or low-coverage (~1.7 - 4×), or high-density genome-wide SNP genotyped or imputed, we constructed the first and the largest reference panel specific to the Han Chinese population, a.k.a. (biosino.org)
  • another 98 samples were also sequenced to high coverage (~30×) and obtained from a previous study (Sung et al. (biosino.org)
  • In the current release of the PGG.Han database, we collect data of 114,783 individuals in total, including whole-genome sequencing data of 12,197 samples and genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data of 102,586 samples. (biosino.org)
  • Using all the whole-genome sequencing data of Han Chinese samples as reference data, the 102,586 samples are carefully imputed so that the final data set 8,056,973 genome-wide SNPs. (biosino.org)
  • Using a new approach to reconstitute antigen-receptor interactions in a human reporter B cell line, we found that sequence-defined BCRs from the human germline repertoire could be triggered by both complementarity to influenza HA and a separate mode of signaling that relied on multivalent ligation of BCR sialyl-oligosaccharide. (harvard.edu)
  • B cell superantigen activity through affinity for BCR carbohydrate is discussed. (harvard.edu)
  • After activation C3b can bind covalently, via its reactive thiolester, to cell surface carbohydrates or immune aggregates. (lu.se)
  • The team is following up the mouse studies using human fat biopsies to figure out the exact DNA sequence differences responsible for variable Ucp1 expression, both in mice and in humans. (sciencedaily.com)
  • Concerted evolution refers to the pattern in which copies of multigene families show high intraspecific sequence homogeneity but high interspecific sequence diversity. (biomedcentral.com)
  • These show important biological activities in development and in cancer, and we are optimistic that our sequencing approach will work here as well. (rdworldonline.com)