The sequence of carbohydrates within POLYSACCHARIDES; GLYCOPROTEINS; and GLYCOLIPIDS.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a carbohydrate.
Carbohydrates consisting of between two (DISACCHARIDES) and ten MONOSACCHARIDES connected by either an alpha- or beta-glycosidic link. They are found throughout nature in both the free and bound form.
The largest class of organic compounds, including STARCH; GLYCOGEN; CELLULOSE; POLYSACCHARIDES; and simple MONOSACCHARIDES. Carbohydrates are composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a ratio of Cn(H2O)n.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Cellular processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of CARBOHYDRATES.
Carbohydrates present in food comprising digestible sugars and starches and indigestible cellulose and other dietary fibers. The former are the major source of energy. The sugars are in beet and cane sugar, fruits, honey, sweet corn, corn syrup, milk and milk products, etc.; the starches are in cereal grains, legumes (FABACEAE), tubers, etc. (From Claudio & Lagua, Nutrition and Diet Therapy Dictionary, 3d ed, p32, p277)
Carbohydrate antigens expressed by malignant tissue. They are useful as tumor markers and are measured in the serum by means of a radioimmunoassay employing monoclonal antibodies.
Proteins that share the common characteristic of binding to carbohydrates. Some ANTIBODIES and carbohydrate-metabolizing proteins (ENZYMES) also bind to carbohydrates, however they are not considered lectins. PLANT LECTINS are carbohydrate-binding proteins that have been primarily identified by their hemagglutinating activity (HEMAGGLUTININS). However, a variety of lectins occur in animal species where they serve diverse array of functions through specific carbohydrate recognition.
Any of a group of polysaccharides of the general formula (C6-H10-O5)n, composed of a long-chain polymer of glucose in the form of amylose and amylopectin. It is the chief storage form of energy reserve (carbohydrates) in plants.
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
The study of the structure, preparation, properties, and reactions of carbon compounds. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).
Enzymes that catalyze the cleavage of a carbon-sulfur bond by means other than hydrolysis or oxidation. EC 4.4.

Variable domain-linked oligosaccharides of a human monoclonal IgG: structure and influence on antigen binding. (1/5581)

The variable-domain-attached oligosaccharide side chains of a human IgG produced by a human-human-mouse heterohybridoma were analysed. In addition to the conserved N-glycosylation site at Asn-297, an N-glycosylation consensus sequence (Asn-Asn-Ser) is located at position 75 in the variable region of its heavy chain. The antibody was cleaved into its antigen-binding (Fab) and crystallizing fragments. The oligosaccharides of the Fab fragment were released by digestion with various endo- and exoglycosidases and analysed by anion-exchange chromatography and fluorophore-assisted carbohydrate electrophoresis. The predominant components were disialyl- bi-antennary and tetra-sialyl tetra-antennary complex carbohydrates. Of note is the presence in this human IgG of oligosaccharides containing N-glycolylneuraminic acid and N-acetylneuraminic acid in the ratio of 94:6. Furthermore, we determined N-acetylgalactosamine in the Fab fragment of this antibody, suggesting the presence of O-linked carbohydrates. A three-dimensional structure of the glycosylated variable (Fv) fragment was suggested using computer-assisted modelling. In addition, the influence of the Fv-associated oligosaccharides of the CBGA1 antibody on antigen binding was tested in several ELISA systems. Deglycosylation resulted in a decreased antigen-binding activity.  (+info)

Structural characterization of the N-linked oligosaccharides in bile salt-stimulated lipase originated from human breast milk. (2/5581)

The detailed structures of N- glycans derived from bile salt-stimulated lipase (BSSL) found in human milk were determined by combining exoglycosidase digestion with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The N- glycan structures were conclusively determined in terms of complexity and degree of fucosylation. Ion-exchange chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection, together with mass-spectral analysis of the esterified N- glycans, indicated the presence of monosialylated structures. The molecular mass profile of esterified N- glycans present in BSSL further permitted the more detailed studies through collision-induced dissociation (CID) and sequential exoglycosidase cleavages. The N- glycan structures were elucidated to be complex/dibranched, fucosylated/complex/dibranched, monosialylated/complex/dibranched, and monosialylated/fucosylated/dibranched entities.  (+info)

Gas-liquid chromatography of the heptafluorobutyrate derivatives of the O-methyl-glycosides on capillary columns: a method for the quantitative determination of the monosaccharide composition of glycoproteins and glycolipids. (3/5581)

We have developed a method involving the formation of hepta-fluorobutyrate derivatives of O-methyl-glycosides liberated from glycoproteins and glycolipids following methanolysis. The stable derivatives of the most common monosaccharides of these glycoconjugates (Ara, Rha, Xyl, Fuc, Gal, Man, Glc, GlcNAc, GalNAc, Neu5Ac, KDN) can be separated and quantitatively and reproducibly determined with a high degree of sensitivity level (down to 25 pmol) in the presence of lysine as an internal standard. The GlcNAc residue bound to Asn in N-glycans is quantitatively recovered as two peaks. The latter were easily distinguished from the other GlcNAc residues of N-glycans, thus allowing a considerable improvement of the data on structure of N-glycans obtained from a single carbohydrate analysis. The most common contaminants present in buffers commonly used for the isolation of soluble or membrane-bound glycoproteins (SDS, Triton X-100, DOC, TRIS, glycine, and polyacrylamide or salts, as well as monosaccharide constituents of proteoglycans or degradation products of nucleic acids) do not interfere with these determinations. A carbohydrate analysis of glycoproteins isolated from a SDS/PAGE gel or from PDVF membranes can be performed on microgram amounts without significant interferences. Since fatty acid methyl esters and sphingosine derivatives are separated from the monosaccharide peaks, the complete composition of gangliosides can be achieved in a single step starting from less than 1 microg of the initial compound purified by preparative Silicagel TLC. Using electron impact ionization mass spectrometry, reporter ions for the different classes of O-methyl-glycosides (pentoses, deoxy-hexoses, hexoses, hexosamines, uronic acids, sialic acid, and KDN) allow the identification of these compounds in very complex mixtures. The mass of each compound can be determined in the chemical ionization mode and detection of positive or negative ions. This method presents a considerable improvement compared to those using TMS derivatives. Indeed the heptafluorobutyrate derivatives are stable, and acylation of amino groups is complete. Moreover, there is no interference with contaminants and the separation between fatty acid methyl-esters and O-methyl glycosides is achieved.  (+info)

An improved method for the structural profiling of keratan sulfates: analysis of keratan sulfates from brain and ovarian tumors. (4/5581)

A previously developed method for the structural fingerprinting of keratan sulfates (Brown et al., Glycobiology, 5, 311-317, 1995) has been adapted for use with oligosaccharides fluorescently labeled with 2-aminobenzoic acid following keratanase II digestion. The oligosaccharides are separated by high-pH anion-exchange chromatography on a Dionex AS4A-SC column. This methodology permits quantitative analysis of labeled oligosaccharides which can be detected at the sub-nanogram ( approximately 100 fmol) level. Satisfactory calibration of this method can be achieved using commercial keratan sulfate standards. Keratan sulfates from porcine brain phosphocan and human ovarian tumors have been examined using this methodology, and their structural features are discussed.  (+info)

The sialylation of bronchial mucins secreted by patients suffering from cystic fibrosis or from chronic bronchitis is related to the severity of airway infection. (5/5581)

Bronchial mucins were purified from the sputum of 14 patients suffering from cystic fibrosis and 24 patients suffering from chronic bronchitis, using two CsBr density-gradient centrifugations. The presence of DNA in each secretion was used as an index to estimate the severity of infection and allowed to subdivide the mucins into four groups corresponding to infected or noninfected patients with cystic fibrosis, and to infected or noninfected patients with chronic bronchitis. All infected patients suffering from cystic fibrosis were colonized by Pseudomonas aeruginosa. As already observed, the mucins from the patients with cystic fibrosis had a higher sulfate content than the mucins from the patients with chronic bronchitis. However, there was a striking increase in the sialic acid content of the mucins secreted by severely infected patients as compared to noninfected patients. Thirty-six bronchial mucins out of 38 contained the sialyl-Lewis x epitope which was even expressed by subjects phenotyped as Lewis negative, indicating that at least one alpha1,3 fucosyltransferase different from the Lewis enzyme was involved in the biosynthesis of this epitope. Finally, the sialyl-Lewis x determinant was also overexpressed in the mucins from severely infected patients. Altogether these differences in the glycosylation process of mucins from infected and noninfected patients suggest that bacterial infection influences the expression of sialyltransferases and alpha1,3 fucosyltransferases in the human bronchial mucosa.  (+info)

Inhibition of L-selectin-mediated leukocyte rolling by synthetic glycoprotein mimics. (6/5581)

Synthetic carbohydrate and glycoprotein mimics displaying sulfated saccharide residues have been assayed for their L-selectin inhibitory properties under static and flow conditions. Polymers displaying the L-selectin recognition epitopes 3',6-disulfo Lewis x(Glc) (3-O-SO3-Galbeta1alpha4(Fucalpha1alpha3)-6-O-SO3-Glcbeta+ ++-OR) and 3',6'-disulfo Lewis x(Glc) (3, 6-di-O-SO3-Galbeta1alpha4(Fucalpha1alpha3)Glcbeta-OR) both inhibit L-selectin binding to heparin under static, cell-free binding conditions with similar efficacies. Under conditions of shear flow, however, only the polymer displaying 3',6-disulfo Lewis x(Glc) inhibits the rolling of L-selectin-transfected cells on the glycoprotein ligand GlyCAM-1. Although it has been shown to more effective than sialyl Lewis x at blocking the L-selectin-GlyCAM-1 interaction in static binding studies, the corresponding monomer had no effect in the dynamic assay. These data indicate that multivalent ligands are far more effective inhibitors of L-selectin-mediated rolling than their monovalent counterparts and that the inhibitory activities are dependent on the specific sulfation pattern of the recognition epitope. Importantly, our results indicate the L-selectin specificity for one ligand over another found in static, cell-free binding assays is not necessarily retained under the conditions of shear flow. The results suggest that monovalent or polyvalent carbohydrate or glycoprotein mimetics that inhibit selectin binding in static assays may not block the more physiologically relevant process of selectin-mediated rolling.  (+info)

Novel proteoglycan linkage tetrasaccharides of human urinary soluble thrombomodulin, SO4-3GlcAbeta1-3Galbeta1-3(+/-Siaalpha2-6)Galbeta1-4Xyl. (7/5581)

O-linked sugar chains with xylose as a reducing end linked to human urinary soluble thrombomodulin were studied. Sugar chains were liberated by hydrazinolysis followed by N-acetylation and tagged with 2-aminopyridine. Two fractions containing pyridylaminated Xyl as a reducing end were collected. Their structures were determined by partial acid hydrolysis, two-dimensional sugar mapping combined with exoglycosidase digestions, methylation analysis, mass spectrometry, and NMR as SO4-3GlcAbeta1-3Galbeta1-3(+/-Siaalpha2-6)Galbeta1+ ++-4Xyl. These sugar chains could bind to an HNK-1 monoclonal antibody. This is believed to be the first example of a proteoglycan linkage tetrasaccharide with glucuronic acid 3-sulfate and sialic acid.  (+info)

The role of homophilic binding in anti-tumor antibody R24 recognition of molecular surfaces. Demonstration of an intermolecular beta-sheet interaction between vh domains. (8/5581)

The murine antibody R24 and mouse-human Fv-IgG1(kappa) chimeric antibody chR24 are specific for the cell-surface tumor antigen disialoganglioside GD3. X-ray diffraction and surface plasmon resonance experiments have been employed to study the mechanism of "homophilic binding," in which molecules of R24 recognize and bind to other molecules of R24 though their heavy chain variable domains. R24 exhibits strong binding to liposomes containing disialoganglioside GD3; however, the kinetics are unusual in that saturation of binding is not observed. The binding of chR24 to GD3-bearing liposomes is significantly weaker, suggesting that cooperative interactions involving antibody constant regions contribute to R24 binding of membrane-bound GD3. The crystal structures of the Fabs from R24 and chR24 reveal the mechanism for homophilic binding and confirm that the homophilic and antigen-binding idiotopes are distinct. The homophilic binding idiotope is formed largely by an anti-parallel beta-sheet dimerization between the H2 complementarity determining region (CDR) loops of two Fabs, while the antigen-binding idiotope is a pocket formed by the three CDR loops on the heavy chain. The formation of homophilic dimers requires the presence of a canonical conformation for the H2 CDR in conjunction with participation of side chains. The relative positions of the homophilic and antigen-binding sites allows for a lattice of GD3-specific antibodies to be constructed, which is stabilized by the presence of the cell membrane. This model provides for the selective recognition by R24 of cells that overexpress GD3 on the cell surface.  (+info)

5.2.1 Recall the cell as the smallest unit of life and identify its major structures (including cell membrane, cytoplasm, nucleus, and vacuole). Taxonomy level: 1.1 and 1.2-A Remember Factual Knowledge
OTHER GLYCAN DEGRADATION GlcNAc GlcNAc Fuc Neu5Ac Gal Asn α2 β1 β1 Man α1 GlcNAc Neu5Ac Gal α2 β1 β1 Man α1 β1 GlcNAc Man β1 β1 GlcNAc β1 α1 Fuc α1 Neu5Ac α2 Neu5Ac α2 Gal β1 Neu5Ac α2 Neu5Ac α2 GalNAc Neu5Ac α2 Neu5Ac α2 Neu5Ac α2 β1 Gal β1 Glc β1 ceramide Ganglioside N-glycan N-Glycan ...
According to National Geographic, the inner core of the Earth ranges between 9,000 and 13,000 degrees Fahrenheit. This is approximately as high as the temperature of the suns...
H. Casajus, S. Tranchimand, D. Wolbert, C. Nugier-Chauvin, S. Cammas-Marion, J. Appl. Polym. Sci., 2016, DOI: 10.1002/app.44604.. • A. Pennec, R. Daniellou, P. Loyer, C. Nugier-Chauvin, V. Ferrieres Carbohydr. Res. 2015, 402, 50-55.. • A. Pennec, L. Legentil, L. Herrera-Estrella, V. Ferrières, A.-L. Chauvin, C. Nugier-Chauvin, Green Chem., 2014, 16, 3803-3809.. • I. Chlubnová, B. Sylla, C. Nugier-Chauvin, R. Daniellou, L. Legentil, B. Králová, V. Ferrières Nat. Prod. Rep., 2011, 28, 937-952.. • I. Chlubnová, D. Filipp, V. Spiwok, H. Dvořáková, R. Daniellou, C. Nugier-Chauvin, B. Králová, V. Ferrières Org. Biomol. Chem., 2010, 8, 2092-2102.. Invited talks at Conferences: ...
The N-linked carbohydrate chains of recombinant human erythropoietin expressed in CHO cells were quantitatively released with peptide-N4-(N-acetyl-beta-glucosaminyl)asparagine amidase F, separated from the remaining O-glycoprotein by gel-permeation chromatography, and subsequently fractionated via FPLC on Mono Q, HPLC on Lichrosorb-NH2 and high-pH anion-exchange chromatography on CarboPac PA1. The purified sialylated oligosaccharides were ... read more analyzed by one-dimensional and two-dimensional 500-MHz 1H-NMR spectroscopy. When necessary, oligosaccharides were treated with endo-beta-galactosidase (and N-acetyl-beta-glucosaminidase) followed by 1H-NMR analysis of the incubation products, to obtain additional structural information. Di-, tri-, tri- and tetraantennary, N-acetyllactosamine-type oligosaccharides occur which can be completely (major) or partially (minor) sialylated. Three different types of alpha2-3-linked sialic acids are present, namely, N-acetylneuraminic acid (95%), ...
Targeting tumor-associated carbohydrate antigens: a phase I study of a carbohydrate mimetic-peptide vaccine in stage IV breast cancer subjects
This application note describes a rapid and robust high-performance anion-exchange chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection method for the accurate determination of common sugars in acid-hydrolyzed biomass samples with high carbohydrate concentrations.
The extracted lipopolysaccharides (LPSs) fraction of the plant-pathogenic bacterium Pseudomonas cichorii contained two different molecules, the first of them an LPS possessing an O-specific polysaccharide made up of four 2-acetamido-2,6-dideoxy sugars linked linearly in a tetrasaccharide repeating unit. The structure of the second LPS component is reported here: it was of the rough form and contained a novel type of core region. The rough form LPS of Ps. cichorii was de-O-acylated by mild hydrazinolysis and then de-N-acylated with hot 4 M KOH. The oligosaccharide representing the complete carbohydrate backbone of the LPS was isolated by high-performance anion-exchange chromatography. Its structural characterization employed compositional and methylation analyses, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation mass spectrometry and 1H, 13C and 31P NMR spectroscopy, with application of various 1D and 2D experiments. The carbohydrate backbone of this core region consisted of a hexasaccharide that ...
The oligosaccharide chains of microheterogeneous bovine pancreatic DNAases were characterized by the lectin-nitrocellulose sheet method. The active fractions of the DNAases from column chromatography showed four major and several minor spots on a two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel. They were transferred on to nitrocellulose sheets and treated with glycosidases (neuraminidase, endo-beta-N-acetyl glucosaminidase H or F, or peptide N-glycosidase F) and treated with peroxidase-coupled lectins (concanavalin A, Ricinus communis agglutinin or wheat-germ agglutinin). From the results, the most probable oligosaccharide types were proposed to be as follows: the four major spots contained components which had high-mannose type or hybrid-type oligosaccharides, such as those susceptible to endo-beta-N-acetylglucosaminidase H. In addition, spot 1 contained a complex-type biantennary oligosaccharide without sialic acid and spot 3 contained a tri- or tetra-antennary complex-type oligosaccharide with sialic ...
Carbohydrate antigens recognized by natural or preformed and elicited antibodies are central to transplantation/transfusion rejection across ABO blood group and species (xenotransplantation) barriers and are also promising candidates for cancer immunotherapy (Ramsland 2005). The key carbohydrate determinants (epitopes) recognized by antibodies are synthesized by a series of intracellular glycosyltransferases and are expressed on the surface of cells as glycolipids and glycoproteins. Often the minimal carbohydrate epitopes are located at the terminal end of more complex oligosaccharide chains, which result in these epitopes being displayed at a wide range of surface densities and contexts (e.g., glycolipids or glycoproteins). For example, many tumor-associated carbohydrate antigens are broadly expressed at very high densities on the cell surface of primary and metastatic tumors, but the same carbohydrates occur at much lower levels and are typically restricted to a few cell types in healthy ...
There are a large number of enzymes that are capable of modifying carbohydrates or carbohydrate derivatives, and that may be used in various analytical methods. The hydrolytic enzymes, which break glycosidic linkages, are useful in the study of disaccharide or polysaccharide structure and in methods for quantitation (Table 9.2). Such enzymes will hydrolyse the glycosidic linkages between the monosaccharide residues and release the individual components for further analysis. The enzyme is chosen bearing in mind the nature of the glycosidic linkage involved, which may not be unique to one particular disaccharide or polysaccharide. Thus a-glucosidase will hydrolyse both the a(l-»4) linkage of maltose and the a( 1-»2) linkage of sucrose, resulting in the release of glucose in both cases.. ...
Export GlyConnect composition list related to tissue with id 363 Hex:1 HexNAc:2 # id : 495 / avg mass :586.5477 Hex:3 HexNAc:2 # id : 507 / avg mass :910.8325 Hex:3 HexNAc:2 dHex:1 # id : 740 / avg mass :1056.9755 Hex:3 HexNAc:3 # id : 574 / avg mass :1114.0275 Hex:3 HexNAc:3 dHex:1 # id : 202 / avg mass :1260.1705 Hex:3 HexNAc:4 # id : 500 / avg mass :1317.2225 Hex:3 HexNAc:4 NeuAc:1 # id : 64 / avg mass :1608.4804 Hex:3 HexNAc:4 dHex:1 # id : 742 / avg mass :1463.3655 Hex:3 HexNAc:4 dHex:1 NeuAc:1 # id : 328 / avg mass :1754.6234 Hex:3 HexNAc:6 dHex:1 NeuAc:2 # id : 624 / avg mass :2452.2713 Hex:4 HexNAc:2 # id : 652 / avg mass :1072.9749 Hex:4 HexNAc:2 dHex:1 # id : 345 / avg mass :1219.1179 Hex:4 HexNAc:3 # id : 452 / avg mass :1276.1699 Hex:4 HexNAc:3 dHex:1 # id : 713 / avg mass :1422.3129 Hex:4 HexNAc:3 dHex:1 NeuAc:1 # id : 286 / avg mass :1713.5708 Hex:4 HexNAc:4 # id : 648 / avg mass :1479.3649 Hex:4 HexNAc:4 NeuGc:1 # id : 133 / avg mass :1786.6222 Hex:4 HexNAc:4 NeuAc:1 # id : 547 / ...
Export GlyConnect composition list related to peptides with id 1571 Hex:3 HexNAc:2 dHex:1 # id : 740 / avg mass :1056.9755 Hex:3 HexNAc:3 dHex:1 # id : 202 / avg mass :1260.1705 Hex:3 HexNAc:3 dHex:2 # id : 357 / avg mass :1406.3135 Hex:3 HexNAc:4 dHex:1 # id : 742 / avg mass :1463.3655 Hex:3 HexNAc:5 dHex:1 # id : 538 / avg mass :1666.5605 Hex:4 HexNAc:2 dHex:1 # id : 345 / avg mass :1219.1179 Hex:4 HexNAc:3 dHex:1 # id : 713 / avg mass :1422.3129 Hex:4 HexNAc:3 dHex:1 NeuAc:1 # id : 286 / avg mass :1713.5708 Hex:4 HexNAc:3 dHex:2 # id : 160 / avg mass :1568.4559 Hex:4 HexNAc:3 dHex:3 # id : 985 / avg mass :1714.5989 Hex:4 HexNAc:4 NeuAc:1 # id : 547 / avg mass :1770.6228 Hex:4 HexNAc:4 dHex:1 # id : 350 / avg mass :1625.5079 Hex:4 HexNAc:4 dHex:1 NeuAc:1 # id : 173 / avg mass :1916.7658 Hex:4 HexNAc:4 dHex:2 # id : 213 / avg mass :1771.6509 Hex:4 HexNAc:4 dHex:2 NeuAc:1 # id : 685 / avg mass :2062.9088 Hex:4 HexNAc:4 dHex:3 # id : 751 / avg mass :1917.7939 Hex:4 HexNAc:6 # id : 53 / avg mass ...
Read independent reviews on Thermo Scientific™ CarboPac® PA1 Carbohydrate Column from Thermo Fisher Scientific on SelectScience
UPLC, UHPLC, and HPLC-based C18 columns that assist scientists with the analysis and quantitation of important glycan derived components.
Heparin Hexasaccharide MS Standard 7. The Heparin Hexasaccharide MS Standard 7 is a MS standard of defined sequence and structure. This highly purified hexasaccharide with seven sulfates is prepared from a digest of porcine mucosal heparin using Bacteroides Heparinase I
Oxygen is the most abundant element in the planet, so it is not unreasonable to expect that it might be one of the dominant light elements in the core.. The composition of the Earths core remains a mystery. Scientists know that the liquid outer core consists mainly of iron, but it is believed that small amounts of some other elements are present as well.. Now, a new research from a team including Yingwei Fei from Carnegies Geophysical Laboratory has revealed that oxygen does not have a major presence in the outer core.. This has major implications for our understanding of the period when the Earth formed through the accretion of dust and clumps of matter.. According to current models, in addition to large amounts of iron, the Earths liquid outer core contains small amounts of so-called light elements, possibly sulfur, oxygen, silicon, carbon, or hydrogen.. The team provides new experimental data that narrow down the identity of the light elements present in Earths outer core.. High-speed ...
H. Kunz, B. Liebe, W. Dippold, C. Claus, J. Habermann, U. Sprengard, K. Peilstöcker, M. Rösch, in: Medicinal Chemistry into the Millennium (M. M. Campbell, I. S. Blagbrough, Hrsg.), The Royal Society of Chemistry, Cambridge, UK, 2001, 245-257. 263.Applications of Ugi Reactions in Synthesis of Divalent Neoglycoconjugates: Evidence that the Sugars are Presented in Testricted Conformation ...
Supplier pricing and chemical structure of high purity Man(a1-2)-Man(a1-2)-Man(a1-3)-[Man(a1-6)-Man(a1-6)]-Man(b1-4)-GlcNAc(b1-4)-GlcNAc from Omicron Biochemicals, Inc.
Supplier pricing and chemical structure of high purity Man(a1-2)-Man(a1-3)-[Man(a1-6)-Man(a1-6)]-Man(b1-4)-GlcNAc(b1-4)-GlcNAc from Omicron Biochemicals, Inc.
FUNCTION: [Summary is not available for the mouse gene. This summary is for the human ortholog.] This gene encodes a member of the glycosyltransferase 31 family. The encoded protein synthesizes GalNAc:beta-1,3GlcNAc, a novel carbohydrate structure, on N- and O-glycans. Alternatively spliced transcript variants that encode different isoforms have been described. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2013 ...
GlycanMass is a tool which allows to calculate the mass of an oligosaccharide structure [Mass values / Disclaimer]. Note: You can use GlycoMod to predict the possible oligosaccharide structures that occur on proteins from their experimentally determined masses ...
Visit the page of myhomeworkhelp.com and check out their Oligosaccharides Assignment Help team which is ready 24/7 to provide assistance to students.
The phase two expansion of Nottinghams tram system is not likely to open until early next year, rather than the end of this year as hoped, because of delays duering construction.. The contractors, a JV of Taylor Woodrow and Alstom, said most of the major construction works on Nottingham Express Transit phase two will be finished by the end of this summer, with the major structures virtually complete already, as is the utility diversion scheme.. It says that 25km of track has been laid along the two routes, with OLE installation well underway, and 15 of the 22 new trams have been delivered.. Paul Harris, programme director, said: There has been speculation recently that construction works might be unduly delayed until next year. Yes, the project has presented some challenges, but we are on target to substantially complete all key infrastructure works over the next two to three months and we are working towards handing the new lines over for passenger services in the first part of 2015. We ...
A. During early development, a snake embryo was exposed to a toxin that interferes with normal migration and differentiation of mesoderm. Name the major structures of the integument most affected by this exposure and how each.
Professional quality Outer Core images and pictures at very affordable prices. With over 20 million stunning photos to choose from we ve got what you need!
The layers Of The Earth | Learn facts about the Structure of The Layers of Earth, The Earth is composed of four different layers.
By the end of this section, you will be able to: Identify the anatomical and functional divisions of the nervous system Relate the functional and struc
Hello everyone, this is part 2 of this series. In the previous part, we discussed how to create a new project and set the home page. In this part, we'll discuss how to perform navigation in Xamarin forms.
Clarifying the concept of well-being: Psychological need-satisfaction as the common core connecting eudaimonic and subjective well-beingApril 13, 2014 by Lemos Kelly ...
Roundtables are designed to encourage scholarly discussion and exchange of views around a subject of relevance and should have a minimum of three presenters, including a chair.. Please provide a single abstract for the roundtable of no more than 200 words including the following structure:. ...
இயற்கையில் இம்மெத்தாக்சி சேர்மங்கள் அதிகமாக காணப்படாமல் இருப்பதாலேயே முக்கியத்துவம் பெறுகின்றன. அவை அமினோ அமிலங்களில் இருப்பதில்லை. இந்த வேற்றணு வளையச் சேர்மங்கள் மரபுக்குறியீட்டிலும் காணப்படவில்லை கொழுமியத்திலும் காணப்படவில்லை. இருந்தாலும் இவை O-மெத்திலேற்ற பிளவோனாய்டு எனப்படும் தாவர நிறமிகளின் பகுதிப்பொருளாக உள்ளது. இவை பீனால்கள் மீது செயல்படுகின்றன. உதாரணம்: ...
Phospholipid patterns of 15 representative strains of the genus Amycolatopsis were recorded by two-dimensional thin-layer chromatography. The structure analysis of the isolated phospholipids was verified by fast atom bombardment-mass spectroscopy. The positive- and negative-ion spectra of the partially purified phospholipid fractions qualitatively reflect their distinctive composition. All strains contained diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, and phosphatidylinositol. Two different types of phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylmethylethanolamine were detected, viz., compounds with or without hydroxy fatty acids. These phospholipid patterns underline the integrity of the genus. Fast atom bombardment-mass spectrometry analysis of phospholipid patterns may serve as an aid for differentiation of bacterial species.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Chemical reactions in fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry. AU - Vékey, K.. AU - Zerilli, Luigi F.. PY - 1991. Y1 - 1991. N2 - Examples of various chemical reactions occurring in the matrix or in the selvedge region in fast atom bombardment (FAB) mass spectrometry are discussed. These are categorized as oxidations and reductions; substitutions; clusterings and additions; and sample decomposition or transformation. Some reactions observed showed significant time behaviour and in one case it was possible to determine rate constants. These data suggest that chemical reactions can be accelerated significantly by fast atom bombardment.. AB - Examples of various chemical reactions occurring in the matrix or in the selvedge region in fast atom bombardment (FAB) mass spectrometry are discussed. These are categorized as oxidations and reductions; substitutions; clusterings and additions; and sample decomposition or transformation. Some reactions observed showed significant time ...
Equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG) and lutropin (eLH) are heterodimeric glycoprotein hormones which are synthesized in the placenta and pituitary, respectively. The beta subunits of eCG and eLH, like their alpha subunits, arise from a single gene and have identical amino acid sequences. In contrast, the beta subunits of CG and LH in primates arise from different genes and differ in sequence. We have examined the structures of the Asn-linked oligosaccharides on eCG and eLH. eCG bears di- and tri-branched Asn-linked oligosaccharides terminating with Sia alpha 2,3 or 6Gal beta 1,4GlcNAc. In contrast, , 72% of the Asn-linked oligosaccharides on eLH have 1 or 2 branches terminating with the sequence SO4-4-GalNAc beta 1,4GlcNAc. The nonsulfated oligosaccharides on eLH are neutral (6% of the total) or have branches terminating with sialic acid-Gal (22% of the total). Since the alpha and beta subunits of eCG and eLH both contain the tripeptide motif, Pro-Xaa-Arg/Lys, recognized by the glycoprotein ...
Brown, Gavin M. and Huckerby, Thomas N. and Morris, Haydn G. and Abram, Beverly L. and Nieduszynski, Ian A. (1994) Oligosaccharides Derived from Bovine Articular Cartilage Keratan Sulfates after Keratanase II Digestion: Implications for Keratan Sulfate Structural Fingerprinting. Biochemistry, 33 (16). pp. 4836-4846. ISSN 1520-4995 Full text not available from this repository ...
Heparin and heparan sulfate bind a host of basic proteins that take advantage of the sugars dense structural information. The significance of these interactions in various aspects of development, physiology, and disease stimulated keen interest in evaluating structure-activity relationships. The well-defined heparin and heparan sulfate oligosaccharides needed for these studies can be mainly accessed by chemical synthesis and, more recently by chemoenzymatic means. The various synthetic strategies available to chemical synthesis have recently enabled the acquisition of several regular and irregular sequences, including a number of dodecasaccharides, through improved coupling methods and judicial protecting group manipulations. Controlled chain elongation and critical application of modification enzymes allowed the generation of well-defined constructs via chemoenzymatie synthesis. Investigations of various protein interactions with the synthetic constructs delivered valuable informatio
Identification of the methyl phosphate substituent at the non-reducing terminal mannose residue of the O-specific polysaccharides of Klebsiella pneumoniae O3, Hafnia alvei PCM 1223 and Escherichia coli O9/O9a LPS
The fast atom bombardment (FAB) mass spectra of bouvardin (1) 6-O-methylbouvardin (2), deoxybouvardin (3) and a synthetic analog (4) have been examined. The spectra of the bicyclic compounds 1-3 display site-directed fragmentations resulting from the presence of a phenolic bridged tyrosine moiety un …
We have analyzed the O-antigen polysaccharide of the previously uncharacterized Escherichia coli strain TD2158 which is a host of bacteriophage HK620. This bacteriophage recognizes and cleaves the polysaccharide with its tailspike protein (TSP). The polysaccharide preparation as well as oligosaccharides obtained from HK620TSP endoglycosidase digests were analyzed with NMR spectroscopy. Additionally, sugar analysis was performed on the O-antigen polysaccharide and MALDI-TOF MS was used in oligosaccharide analysis. The present study revealed a heterogeneous polysaccharide with a hexasaccharide repeating unit of the following structure: alpha-D-Glcp-(1 -, 6) vertical bar vertical bar 2)-alpha-L-Rhap-(1 -, 6)-alpha-D-Glcp-(1 -, 4)-alpha-D-Galp-(1 -, 3)-alpha-D-GlcpNAc- (1 -,vertical bar beta-D-Glcp/beta-D-GlcpNAc-(1 -, 3) A repeating unit with a D-GlcNAc substitution of D-Gal has been described earlier as characteristic for serogroup O18A1. Accordingly, we termed repeating units with D-Glc ...
Eleven tested anions were able to form adducts with neutral oligosaccharides at low cone voltage in negative ion mode electrospray mass spectrometry. Among them, fluoride and acetate have the abilities to significantly enhance the absolute abundance of [M-H]- for neutral oliogosaccharides. The chloride adduct has the best stability among all the adduct species investigated. For the above three anions, CID of adduct species may be used for structural determination of neutral oligosaccharides. In the presence of F- and Ac-, simultaneous detection of acidic oligosaccharides and neutral oligosaccharides was achieved. The ratio of Cl- : non-Cl-containing product ions obtained in CID spectra of chloride adducts of disaccharides was used to differentiate anomeric configurations of disaccharides. Density functional theory (DFT) was employed to evaluate the optimized structures of chloride adducts of disaccharides. The formation and decomposition of chloride adducts with oligosaccharides of different
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Glycoconjugate antigens are prepared by preparing a hapten glycoside, especially an alpha glycoside prepared by the Fischer method, with an olefinic aglycon moiety, especially one having a non-terminal double bond, ozonolyzing the hapten glycoside with an olefinic aglycon moiety having a non-terminal double bond to form a hapten-glycoside derivative, preferably without producing Germaldehyde as a by-product, removing by-products of ozonolysis, and conjugating the hapten-glycoside derivative to a carrier.
Purchase Neoglycoconjugates, Part B: Biomedical Applications, Volume 247 - 1st Edition. Print Book & E-Book. ISBN 9780121821487, 9780080883601
article{fb86bc26-01e6-493b-b144-14ab87d1a4c7, abstract = {The synthesis of the Linear B type 2 trisaccharide (Galalpha3Galbeta4GlcNAc-betaOTMSEt) and the corresponding 2-carboxyethyl beta-thioglycoside is described, as well as coupling of the latter to Sepharose.}, author = {Dahmen, J and Magnusson, Göran and Hansen, HC}, issn = {0732-8303}, keyword = {xenotransplantation,glycoconjugate,glycoside synthesis,thioglycoside}, language = {eng}, number = {3}, pages = {189--199}, publisher = {Marcel Dekker}, series = {Journal of Carbohydrate Chemistry}, title = {Synthesis of the Linear B type 2 trisaccharide Gal alpha 3Gal beta 4GlcNAc beta OTMSEt, and coupling of the corresponding 2-carboxyethyl beta-thioglycoside to Sepharose}, url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1081/CAR-120004332}, volume = {21}, year = {2002 ...
The structures of hepta- to tetradeca-saccharides, generated by digestion of wheat-endosperm arabinoxylan with endo-(1-,4)-beta-D-xylanase, and isolated by gel-permeation chromatography on Bio-Gel P-6 and high-performance anion-exchange chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection (h.p.a.e.-p.a.d.), were elucidated using monosaccharide and methylation analysis, f.a.b.-m.s., and 1H-n.m.r. spectroscopy. The structures identified had two branching elements, -,4)[alpha-L-Araf-(1-,3)]-beta-D-Xylp-(1-, ... read more and/or -,4)[alpha-L-Araf-(1-,2)][alpha-L-Araf-(1-,3)]-beta-D-Xylp-(1-,, directly connected to each other in all four possible combinations. The h.p.a.e.-p.a.d. elution pattern showed that these combinations are not present in equal amounts. Also, compounds containing two 2,3-branched beta-D-Xylp residues separated by one or two unbranched beta-D-Xylp residues were found, and the presence of a tetradecasaccharide containing three 2,3-branched beta-D-Xylp residues was established. show ...
The primary structure of the major surface glycoconjugate of Leishmania donovani parasites, a lipophosphoglycan, has been further characterized. The repeating PO4-6Galp beta 1-4Man disaccharide units, which are a salient feature of the molecule, are shown to terminate with one of several neutral structures, the most abundant of which is the branched trisaccharide Galp beta 1-4(Manp alpha 1-2)Man. The phosphosaccharide core of lipophosphoglycan, which links the disaccharide repeats to a lipid anchor, contains 2 phosphate residues. One of the core phosphates has previously been localized on O-6 of the galactosyl residue distal to the lipid anchor; the second phosphate is now shown to be on O-6 of the mannosyl residue distal to the anchor and to bear an alpha-linked glucopyranosyl residue. Also, the anomeric configuration of the unusual 3-substituted Galf residue in the phosphosaccharide core is established as beta. The complete structure of the core is thus PO4-6Galp alpha 1-6Galp alpha 1-3Galf ...
The primary structure of the major surface glycoconjugate of Leishmania donovani parasites, a lipophosphoglycan, has been further characterized. The repeating PO4-6Galp beta 1-4Man disaccharide units, which are a salient feature of the molecule, are shown to terminate with one of several neutral structures, the most abundant of which is the branched trisaccharide Galp beta 1-4(Manp alpha 1-2)Man. The phosphosaccharide core of lipophosphoglycan, which links the disaccharide repeats to a lipid anchor, contains 2 phosphate residues. One of the core phosphates has previously been localized on O-6 of the galactosyl residue distal to the lipid anchor; the second phosphate is now shown to be on O-6 of the mannosyl residue distal to the anchor and to bear an alpha-linked glucopyranosyl residue. Also, the anomeric configuration of the unusual 3-substituted Galf residue in the phosphosaccharide core is established as beta. The complete structure of the core is thus PO4-6Galp alpha 1-6Galp alpha 1-3Galf ...
The oligosaccharides ID in the library are used to refer to specific oligosaccharides for their tandem MS/MS fingerprints and structures and were obtained using their sequential monomeric composition. For example, the oligosaccharide with ID 11100 is made of 1 hexose + 1 HexNAc + 1 fucose + 0 NeuAc + 0 NeuGC.. ...
The Global Soybean Oligosaccharides report provides an elite resource to evaluate the Soybean Oligosaccharides market and support the strategic and preemptive decision-making. The report divulges the matter-of-fact statistics and in-detail examination of the market. It offers a basic layout of the Soybean Oligosaccharides industry, consisting of classifications, applications, definitions, and industry chain structure. It also encompasses a thorough inference of the market and embodies significant insights, facts, and industry-corroborated statistics of the global Soybean Oligosaccharides market.. Furthermore, the report also elaborates several factors concerning the Soybean Oligosaccharides market, comprising key trends, standardization, deployment models, future roadmap, strategies, technologies, value chain, opportunities, ecosystem player profiles, drivers, operator case studies, regulatory landscape, and challenges. Moreover, it also presents an outline regarding the Soybean Oligosaccharides ...
This gene encodes a member of the beta-1,3-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase protein family. The encoded enzyme is involved in the biosynthesis of poly-N-acetyllactosamine chains and prefers lacto-N-neotetraose as a substrate. It is a type II transmembrane protein ...
Sialyl Lewis A (sLeA, also known as CA19-9), a tetrasaccharide selectively and highly expressed on advanced adenocarcinomas including colon, stomach, and pancreatic cancers, has long been considered as an attractive target for active and passive vaccination. While progress in antibodies targeting tumor-associated protein antigens resulted in an impressive array of therapeutics for cancer treatment, similar progress in exploiting tumor-associated carbohydrate antigens, such as sLeA, has been hampered by the lack of a detailed understanding of the singular characteristics of these antigens. We have addressed this issue by analyzing antibodies derived from patients immunized with an sLeA/KLH vaccine. These antibodies were engineered to mediate tumor clearance in vivo in preclinical models through Fc-FcγR interactions. However, in contrast to protein antigens in which hFcγRIIIA engagement was both necessary and sufficient to mediate tumor clearance in both preclinical and clinical settings, a ...
Sulfotransferase that utilizes 3-phospho-5-adenylyl sulfate (PAPS) as sulfonate donor to catalyze the transfer of sulfate to position 6 of non-reducing N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) residues and O-linked sugars of mucin-type acceptors. Acts on the non-reducing terminal GlcNAc of short carbohydrate substrates. However, it does not transfer sulfate to longer carbohydrate substrates that have poly-N-acetyllactosamine structures. Has no activity toward keratan. Not involved in generating HEV-expressed ligands for SELL. Its substrate specificity may be influenced by its subcellular location ...
keratanase II: an endo-beta-N-acetylglucosaminidase; cleaves the beta(1-3)-glycosidic bond of a fucosylated 6-O-sulfated N-acetylglucosamine
In the few years since the beginning of glycomics in 21th century, many achievements have been made in the study of glycomics, especially in the discovery of sugar genes and the elucidation of the new structure of sugar chain. Although glycomics research has made remarkable achievements in these fields, there are many unknown intermediate links between sugar genes and sugar chains, sugar chains and glycan binding proteins, and there is a general lack of detailed research on the relationship between structure and function.. These fields are not only related to the progress of glycomics itself, but also directly related to the progress of proteome planning, so it has become a major bottleneck in the development of life science.. The advancement of analytical techniques has always been a direct driving force in the development of glycomics. It is the rapid development and wide application of modern instrument analysis technology that lead to the overall prosperity of glycomics research, and inject ...
The MUC-1 antigen is a membrane-anchored mucin-type glycoprotein present in malignant and normal epithelial cells of certain organs, e.g. breast, lung, ovary, pancreas and colon (1). The apoprotein of the MUC-1 mucin contains a transmembrane domain, a cytoplasmic domain, and an extracellular carbohydrate rich domain. The extracellular domain is characterized by polymorphism with respect to the number of a 20 amino acid tandem repeat (VNTR polymorphism). The CanAg CA15-3 EIA is based on two mouse monoclonal antibodies, Ma695 as catcher antibody recognizing a sialylated carbohydrate epitope expressed on the MUC-1 antigen and Ma552 as tracer antibody targeting the PDTRPAPG region of the protein core (2-5).The MUC-1 breast cancer mucin (CA15-3 antigen) is secreted from tumor cells and is a well-established serological marker for monitoring the clinical course of breast cancer patients (6). ...
Thermo Fisher Scientific has developed a high-performance anion-exchange chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection method, based on AOAC Official Method 2011. Click to read more...
RNase B is a glycoprotein which possesses an amino acid composition indistinguishable from that of RNase A and which contains carbohydrate to the extent of 6 residues of mannose and 2 residues of N-acetylglucosamine per molecule. It is consequently considered to be a carbohydrate derivative of RNase A. ( Tarentino, A., Plummer, J., and Maley, F.: Studies on the Oligosaccharide Sequence of Ribonuclease B, J. Biol. Chem., 245, 4150 (1970 ...
The present study tested and confirmed the hypothesis that autoantibodies to aberrant O-glycopeptide epitopes represent a fruitful source of sensitive biomarkers for early detection of cancer. Cancer-associated IgG autoantibodies to several O-glycopeptide epitopes were identified in MUC1, whereas IgG antibodies to peptide epitopes were not detected. The study therefore clearly supports that autoantibody biomarker discovery strategies should include aberrant posttranslational modifications for greatest success. Chemoenzymatic synthesis of cancer-associated O-glycopeptides in combination with a microarray platform was shown to be a feasible strategy for broader analysis of the entire cancer O-glycopeptidome.. Initially, we found an absence of immature nonsialylated MUC1 and MUC16 glycoforms in serum of cancer patients with elevated mucin levels, suggesting that these glycoforms are removed by immune cells or scavenger receptors recognizing immature uncapped glycans. This is in agreement with Varki ...
An estimate of the relative abundance of the various O-glycans was determined from nanoLC-ESI-IT-MS analysis of trypsin-generated (glyco)peptides. It should be noted that because the signal of the monosialylated O-glycopeptide in triply charged state overlapped with the doubly charged peak of the hinge repeat peptide with a putative acetylation modification in all samples, only the doubly charged signal of the monosialylated O-glycopeptide was quantified, thereby leading to an underestimation of this O-glycoform. Furthermore, it is known that glycopeptides with different glycan structures can have different response factors (35), and thus the relative abundances we measured may not accurately reflect the real ratios. In order to obtain a more reliable estimate of the percentage of the hinge repeat motif bearing an O-glycan, tryptic IgG peptides were incubated with exoglycosidases, trimming all O-glycans down to a single N-acetylhexosamine. A previous study of quantitative measurements of a ...
View Notes - 351 C4 Smith key from CHEM 351 at BYU. Chemistry 351 Fall 2008 Chapter 4 1. Assign the IUPAC name to the following structures. 0k 1,: _Jhfigg~mefi%fimfilm c, 2&4
Mgat4c (untagged) - Mouse mannosyl (alpha-1,3-)-glycoprotein beta-1,4-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase, isozyme C (putative) (Mgat4c), transcript variant 1, (10ug), 10 µg.
IN STOCK 13C labeled di-sialylated, galactosylated biantennary N-Glycan labeled with 2 13C atoms per GlcNAc, for use as a quantitative standard in applications
Kilpatrick, D.C. Pusztai, A., Grant, G., Graham, C. and Ewen, S.W (1985) Tomato Lectin Resists Digestion in the Mammalian Alimentary Canal and Binds to Intestinal Villi without Deleterious Effects. FEBS Letters, 185, 299-305.
EMDEX® is a directly compressible, water-soluble tablet binder and filler. Its unique composition of 95% glucose monohydrate and different oligosaccharides derived from starch is monographed under
Shop Oligosaccharide 4-alpha-D-glucosyltransferase ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Oligosaccharide 4-alpha-D-glucosyltransferase Antibody at MyBioSource. Custom ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Antibody are available.
Human Anti-Meningococcal Group A Oligosaccharides IgG negative control serum Serum Controls 600-801-ANC Human Anti-Meningococcal Group A Oligosaccharides IgG negative control serum Serum Controls 600-801-ANC
Background Beta-1,3-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase that plays a key role in the synthesis of lacto- or neolacto-series carbohydrate chains on glycolipids, notably by participating in biosynthesis of HNK-1 and Lewis X...
Cells All organisms are made of cells. The cell is the smallest unit of living material having major structures within it allowing it to live. Some kinds of organisms are just one cell. This single cell is the organisms entire body. Many organisms are made of more than one cell.
19 janvier 2012. P,The Taleghan fault (TF) is a major active fault of the Central Alborz mountain range in Iran. Located 50 km northwestwards of Tehran, this 80-km-long fault represents one of the major structures threatening 15 million people living in the capital of Iran and the surrounding cities (e.g. (...). Lire la suite. ...
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undecaprenyl phosphate-α-L-Ara4N: 4-amino-4-deoxy-β-L-arabinosyltransferase (EC 2.4.2.43); dodecaprenyl phosphate-β-galacturonic acid: lipopolysaccharide core α-galacturonosyl transferase (EC 2.4.1.- ...
undecaprenyl phosphate-α-L-Ara4N: 4-amino-4-deoxy-β-L-arabinosyltransferase (EC 2.4.2.43); dodecaprenyl phosphate-β-galacturonic acid: lipopolysaccharide core α-galacturonosyl transferase (EC 2.4.1.- ...
For an organism to develop and function, the individual cells must exchange information, or communicate, with each other. Is it possible to learn their language and
Methods to allow the clean preparation of oligosaccharides were investigated using techniques that do not require conventional column chromatography or an aqueous work-up. The route was designed to provide rapid access to oligosaccharides and is suit
In this 3 volume collection focusing on glycomics, readers will appreciate how such discoveries were made and how such methods can be applied for readers...
CarbohydratesSequences and topology. 44: 39-47. doi:10.1016/j.sbi.2016.11.011. PMID 27940408. Crispin M, Stuart DI, Jones EY ... Around 20% of the deposited carbohydrate structures are in unjustified energy minima. A number of carbohydrate validation web ... carbohydrate validation) Privateer (carbohydrate validation) OOPS2, part of the Uppsala Software Factory ProSA web service ... see for recommendations on carbohydrate model building and refinement and for reviews on general errors in carbohydrate ...
"Discrimination of epimeric glycans and glycopeptides using IM-MS and its potential for carbohydrate sequencing". Nature ... "Advancing Solutions to the Carbohydrate Sequencing Challenge". Journal of the American Chemical Society. 141 (37): 14463-14479 ... carbohydrates and their conjugates using mass spectrometry-based methods[citation needed]. Eyers' work in biological mass ...
... sequencing' carbohydrates through chemical and conformational means. Detailed studies of enzyme reactions have also provided ... "Discrimination of epimeric glycans and glycopeptides using IM-MS and its potential for carbohydrate sequencing". Nature ... "Advancing Solutions to the Carbohydrate Sequencing Challenge". Journal of the American Chemical Society. 141 (37): 14463-14479 ... Flitsch's research is focussed on glycobiotechnology - the study of carbohydrates in applied science and biocatalysis - the ...
Protein-Carbohydrate Complexes and Glycosylation ● Sequences and Topology. 68: 175-183. doi:10.1016/j.sbi.2020.11.010. ISSN ... randomly explore the sequence space to find transition sequences (switches) to new networks. His work also showed that errors ... Nucleic acids / Sequences and topology. 20 (3): 390-396. doi:10.1016/j.sbi.2010.02.005. ISSN 0959-440X. PMID 20347587. Wissler ... Bornberg-Bauer has been involved in the initial genome sequencing and annotation of Eucalyptus grandis, Nasonia vitripennis, ...
Carbohydrates: A feast of structural glycobiology • Sequences and topology: Computational studies of protein-protein ... modification and breakdown of carbohydrates. His chemical and structural insight into protein-carbohydrate interactions and his ... He has made fundamental additions to our understanding of enzyme mechanism and carbohydrate biochemistry. As a direct result of ... Agirre, Jon; Davies, Gideon J; Wilson, Keith S; Cowtan, Kevin D (June 2017). "Carbohydrate structure: the rocky road to ...
January 1990). "Conformer populations of L-iduronic acid residues in glycosaminoglycan sequences". Carbohydrate Research. 195 ( ... Heparin binds to AT via a specific pentasaccharide sulfation sequence contained within the heparin polymer: GlcNAc/NS(6S)-GlcA- ... It is a synthetic pentasaccharide, whose chemical structure is almost identical to the AT binding pentasaccharide sequence that ... Heparin is a member of the glycosaminoglycan family of carbohydrates (which includes the closely related molecule heparan ...
Davies GJ, Sinnott ML (2008). "Sorting the diverse: The sequence‑based classifications of carbohydrate‑active enzymes" (PDF). ... CAZy was established in 1999 in order to provide online and constantly updated access to the protein sequence-based family ... The rapid evolution of high-throughput DNA sequencing has resulted in the continuing exponential growth of the CAZy database, ... "CAZy - Carbohydrate-Active enZYmes Database". Architecture et Fonction des Macromolécules Biologiques, CNRS,Université de ...
A carbohydrate sequence markup language (CabosML) is a description of carbohydrate structures using XML. Many glycobiologists ... "GlycoCT-a unifying sequence format for carbohydrates". Carbohydrate Research. 343 (12): 2162-2171. doi:10.1016/j.carres.2008.03 ... "The carbohydrate sequence markup language (CabosML): an XML description of carbohydrate structures". Bioinformatics. 21 (8): ... LInear Notation for Unique description of Carbohydrate Sequences". Carbohydrate Research. 336 (1): 1-11. doi:10.1016/S0008-6215 ...
Lectins recognise and bind particular sugar sequences in carbohydrates; peanut agglutinin binds the carbohydrate sequence Gal-β ... Available Structures of peanut agglutinin Because peanut agglutinin specifically binds a particular carbohydrate sequence it ... GalNAc carbohydrate sequence. The protein is 273 amino acids in length with the first 23 residues acting as a signal peptide ... the binding specificity of peanut agglutinin is used to isolate glycosylated molecules which have the sugar sequence Gal-β(1-3 ...
Because 3-D structures are better conserved than sequences, several of the families defined on the basis of sequence ... This classification is available on the CAZy (Carbohydrate-Active EnZymes) web site. The same three-dimensional fold is ... Henrissat B, Coutinho PM (1999). "Carbohydrate-Active Enzymes server". {{cite journal}}: Cite journal requires ,journal= (help ... "A classification of nucleotide-diphospho-sugar glycosyltransferases based on amino acid sequence similarities". Biochem. J. 326 ...
Because 3-D structures are better conserved than sequences, several of the families defined on the basis of sequence ... This classification is available on the CAZy (CArbohydrate-Active EnZymes) web site. The same three-dimensional fold is ... Sialyltransferase may be responsible for the synthesis of the sequence NEUAC-Alpha-2,3-GAL-Beta-1,3-GALNAC-, found on sugar ... Henrissat B, Coutinho PM (1998-2022). "Carbohydrate-Active Enzymes server". Marseille: Université d'Aix. Dall'Olio F, Chiricolo ...
Sulfation of tyrosines and carbohydrates occurs within the TGN. Other general post-translational modifications of proteins ... depending upon the signal sequence they carry. In this model, the Golgi is viewed as a set of stable compartments that work ... Protein modifications may form a signal sequence that determines the final destination of the protein. For example, the Golgi ... include the addition of carbohydrates (glycosylation) and phosphates (phosphorylation). ...
The system activates as a signal sequence HlyA binds HlyB on the cell membrane. This signal sequence is an ABC transporter. The ... T1SS transports various molecules including ions, carbohydrates, drugs, proteins. The secreted molecules vary in size from the ... In SecA pathway, a chaperone trigger factor (TF) first bind to the exposed N-terminal signal sequence of the peptide chain. As ... In this pathway, SRP competes with TF and binds to the N-terminal signal sequence. Proteins from inner membrane stops the ...
Its sequence contains two regions of tandem 19-residue repeats, where the repeat motif consists of short beta-strands separated ... This domain is suggested to be a carbohydrate-dependent haemagglutination activity site. In Bordetella pertussis, the ... Members generally have a signal sequence, then an intervening region, then the region described in this entry. Following this ...
The bacteria contain an adhesion protein for the carbohydrate sequence Gal-1,4Gal. After incubation with various amounts of the ... The genome of S. suis isolates from the outbreak were examined to see whether its DNA sequence could explain why these ...
Sequence-based classifications are one of the most powerful predictive methods for suggesting function for newly sequenced ... Henrissat, B. and Coutinho P.M. "Carbohydrate-Active Enzymes server". 1999. CAZypedia, an online encyclopedia of carbohydrate- ... the carbohydrate-active enzymes and binding proteins involved in the synthesis and degradation of complex carbohydrates ... Glycoside hydrolases are found in the intestinal tract and in saliva where they degrade complex carbohydrates such as lactose, ...
The sequence of the amino acids in the polypeptide backbone is known as the primary structure of the protein. Like almost all ... Generally, carbohydrates which our bodies break down are alpha-linked (example: glycogen) and those which have structural ... Carbohydrates arise by condensation of monosaccharides such as glucose. The polymers can be classified into oligosaccharides ( ... the carbohydrate is designated as beta and if the linkage is on the opposite side it is designated as alpha. In a traditional " ...
... or between a carbohydrate and a non-carbohydrate moiety. A classification system for glycosyl hydrolases, based on sequence ... Because the fold of proteins is better conserved than their sequences, some of the families can be grouped in 'clans'. As of ... Cantarel BL, Coutinho PM, Rancurel C, Bernard T, Lombard V, Henrissat B (January 2009). "The Carbohydrate-Active EnZymes ... Henrissat B, Bairoch A (June 1996). "Updating the sequence-based classification of glycosyl hydrolases". Biochem. J. 316 (2): ...
The enzymes contain ~250-300 residues, which encode putative signal sequences and carbohydrate attachment sites. In addition, ...
Owing to the lack of a genetic blue print, carbohydrates do not have a "fixed" sequence. Instead, the sequence is largely ... as well as carbohydrate interactions. Conventional usage of the term does not currently include the treatment of carbohydrates ... 2004). Carbohydrate Polymers 55:171-177. Helenius A, Aebi M (2001) Intracellular functions of N-linked glycans. Science 291: ... For instance, just four sugars can be strung together to form more than 5 million different types of carbohydrates or nine ...
The major carbohydrate sequence linked to glycodelin-A also profusely coats the surface of schistosomes. The profile of the ... For example, human gametes are coated with carbohydrate sequences that have been implicated in the suppression of NK cell ... There are some notable examples of this mimicry or acquisition of the same carbohydrate sequences implicated in this protective ... The eu-FEDS model further suggests that specific carbohydrate sequences (oligosaccharides) are covalently linked to these ...
The sequence is divided up into codons, each of which is a particular sequence of three nucleotides and corresponds to a ... The four groups of macromolecule are nucleic acids, proteins, carbohydrates and lipids. Nucleic acids (specifically ... sequence. Sequence comparisons suggest recent horizontal transfer of many genes among diverse species including across the ... Thus a sequence of DNA codes for a particular protein that, due to the chemical properties of the amino acids it is made from, ...
The carbohydrate-active enzyme database presents a sequence-based classification of glycosyltransferases into over 90 families ... Carbohydrates, Carbohydrate chemistry, Transferases, EC 2.4, EC 2.4.1, EC 2.4.2, Peripheral membrane proteins, Glycobiology). ... Sequence-based classification methods have proven to be a powerful way of generating hypotheses for protein function based on ... Carbohydrate chemistry Chemical glycosylation Glucuronosyltransferase Glycogen synthase Glycosyl acceptor Glycosyl donor ...
ABRF Next Generation Sequencing Group (ABRF-NGS) Antibody Technology Research Group (ARG) Biomedical 'Omics Research Group ( ... Other: bioinformatics, carbohydrate analysis, differential display, recombinant protein production. Every year the Association ... 2017 Sir Shankar Balasubramanian and David Klenerman for the invention of a method of next-generation DNA sequencing which is ... Protein/Peptide Chemistry: amino acid analysis, N- and C-terminal sequencing, peptide synthesis, peptide/protein arrays. ...
Kellermann J, Lottspeich F, Geiger R, Deutzmann R (1988). "Human urinary kallikrein--amino acid sequence and carbohydrate ... Complete amino acid sequence and sites of glycosylation". Int. J. Pept. Protein Res. 33 (4): 237-49. doi:10.1111/j.1399- ... 1996). "Evaluation of the extent of the binding site in human tissue kallikrein by synthetic substrates with sequences of human ... Lottspeich F, Geiger R, Henschen A, Kutzbach C (1980). "N-Terminal amino acid sequence of human urinary kallikrein homology ...
June 1998). "Prediction of the coding sequences of unidentified human genes. X. The complete sequences of 100 new cDNA clones ... Protein O-GlcNAcases belong to glycoside hydrolase family 84 of the carbohydrate active enzyme classification. Homologs exist ... Among mammals, the OGA sequence is even more highly conserved. The mouse and the human have 97.8% homology. However, OGA does ... Carbohydrate Research. 341 (8): 971-82. doi:10.1016/j.carres.2006.03.004. PMID 16584714. Dong DL, Hart GW (July 1994). " ...
It contains a conserved sequence that is the reverse complement of the Shine-Dalgarno sequence of many transport and metabolic ... Broadly, it is suggested that tsRNAs regulate carbohydrate and amino acid metabolism in Burkholderia. They are more highly ... Likely targets include many genes that regulate carbohydrate transport and the degradation of aromatic amino acids. Specific ... it has been suggested that tsRNAs regulate gene expression by binding the ribosome binding sequence of multiple mRNAs. The low ...
Carbohydrate sequence specificity of the mouse monoclonal antibodies that recognize crossreacting antigens on LOS and human ...
Amino acid sequence homology with the other aspartic proteinases, disulfide bond arrangement and site of carbohydrate ...
Within its sequence is a region containing tandem repeats of about 84 amino acids. This sequence is highly conserved between ... About 2-3% of its mass is carbohydrates. Aggregates of hyalin also form by associating the heads of the protein, and hyalin ... A recombinant part of this sequence was created and its adhesive properties were tested. It was found to be about as adhesive ...
... is a sequence of ten reactions catalyzed by enzymes. Capture of bond energy of carbohydrates. Storage of ATP ... Orange nodes: carbohydrate metabolism. Violet nodes: photosynthesis. Red nodes: cellular respiration. Pink nodes: cell ... Conversion of carbohydrates into fatty acids and cholesterol[edit]. The pyruvate produced by glycolysis is an important ... 5.3 Conversion of carbohydrates into fatty acids and cholesterol. *5.4 Conversion of pyruvate into oxaloacetate for the citric ...
Di Gregorio GB, Hensley L, Lu T, Ranganathan G, Kern PA (July 2004). "Lipid and carbohydrate metabolism in mice with a targeted ... can hypermethylate DNA sequences and subsequently decrease gene expression through its effects on DNMT1 expression.[76] ... via phosphorylation of the nuclear localization sequence by the AKT kinase". Cancer Genomics & Proteomics. 4 (6): 387-398. PMID ... repressing the chromatin structure surrounding the DNA sequence and inhibiting transcriptional machinery from accessing the ...
"Carbohydrate binding specificity of a fucose-specific lectin from Aspergillus oryzae: a novel probe for core Fuchse" Matsumura ... 6Gal/GalNAc sequence from a Gal/GalNAc binding lectin through the substitution of amino-acid residues critical for the binding ... a b „Carbohydrate-binding specificity of the daffodil (Narcissus pseudonarcissus) and amaryllis (Hippeastrum hybr.) bulb ... "Isolectins from Solanum tuberosum with different detailed carbohydrate binding specificities: unexpected recognition of ...
Bukud keng primerang agenti keng carbohydrate homeostasis, atin yang uyab keng metabolismu ning pangataba at iti alilan ne ing ... Frederick Sanger, Nobel Prize for sequencing Insulin Freeview video with John Sanger and John Walker by the Vega Science Trust. ... Ing insuling ibat kareng animal manaliwa yang bagya ing pamagmintini na karas keng sikan (itang, keng carbohydrate metabolism) ... metung yang anabolic polypeptide hormone nung nu mamantinyan ne ing metabolismu ning carbohydrate. ...
Carbohydrates are converted into pyruvate by glycolysis as the first important step in the conversion of carbohydrates into ... Another convention uses letters of the Greek alphabet in sequence, starting with the first carbon after the carboxyl group. ... In animals, fatty acids are formed from carbohydrates predominantly in the liver, adipose tissue, and the mammary glands during ... These cells have to manufacture their own fatty acids from carbohydrates, as described above, in order to produce and maintain ...
The first plant genome sequenced was that of Arabidopsis thaliana which encodes about 25,500 genes.[88] In terms of sheer DNA ... The fungi help the plants gain water and mineral nutrients from the soil, while the plant gives the fungi carbohydrates ... Pollen, spores and algae (dinoflagellates and acritarchs) are used for dating sedimentary rock sequences. The remains of fossil ... and by phylogenies involving the hornwort genomes that have also since been sequenced.[61][62] ...
SOS boxes are 20-nucleotide long sequences near promoters with palindromic structure and a high degree of sequence conservation ... Moreover, DNA damaging agents can damage other biomolecules such as proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, and RNA. The accumulation ... There is a sequence preference for the guanine at a methylated CpG site (a cytosine followed by guanine along its 5' → 3' ... The LexA homodimer is a transcriptional repressor that binds to operator sequences commonly referred to as SOS boxes. In ...
... carbohydrates, fats, and proteins) produced by autotrophs into simpler compounds (e.g., carbohydrates into glucose, fats into ... "The amino-acid sequence in the glycyl chain of insulin. 1. The identification of lower peptides from partial hydrolysates" ... Organotrophs exploit reduced carbon compounds as electron sources, like carbohydrates, fats, and proteins from plants and ... carbohydrates, lipids, proteins) as their electron sources.[35] Heterotrophs function as consumers in food chain: they obtain ...
The role of fructose 2,6-bisphosphate in the regulation of carbohydrate metabolism»։ Current Topics in Cellular Regulation 23: ... The amino acid sequence of glucagon V. Location of amide groups, acid degradation studies and summary of sequential evidence»։ ...
Sequence of 123-iodine human scintiscans after an intravenous injection: (from left) after 30 minutes, 20 hours, and 48 hours ... Blood tests for tumor markers, such as carcinoembryonic antigen and carbohydrate antigen may be ordered, as their levels ...
Habitability of K-type main-sequence star systems. *Habitability of natural satellites ...
A 2007 study concluded, based on analysis of microsatellite markers (small gene sequences found in common among individuals ... Carbohydrate metabolism: Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency. *Pyruvate dehydrogenase deficiency. *Danon disease/ ...
"Genome Sequencing Reveals Key to Viable Ethanol Production". University of Rochester Press Release. 2 March 2007.. ... closed mass balances for carbohydrates and sulfur". ChemSusChem. 5 (8): 1625-1637. doi:10.1002/cssc.201100600. PMID 22740146.. ... Due to the complex nature of the carbohydrates present in lignocellulosic biomass, a significant amount of xylose and arabinose ...
The cloning and sequencing of the Norwalk virus genome showed that these viruses have a genomic organization consistent with ... which contains antigen-presenting sites and carbohydrate-receptor binding regions. Groups 1, 2, 3, and 4 last shared a common ...
Blood sample DNA sequencing of the 26S ribosomal subunit can definitively identify C. blankii. In nature, Candida blankii forms ... Consequently, it oxidizes many forms of alcohol, amino acid, carbohydrates, and other organic compounds. As a BOD biosensor, ...
Carbohydrate catabolism is the breakdown of carbohydrates into smaller units. Carbohydrates are usually taken into cells after ... Each different protein has a unique sequence of amino acid residues: this is its primary structure. Just as the letters of the ... Carbohydrates are the most abundant biological molecules, and fill numerous roles, such as the storage and transport of energy ... In carbohydrate anabolism, simple organic acids can be converted into monosaccharides such as glucose and then used to assemble ...
They found that E. gracilis has a whole host of new, unclassified genes which can make complex carbohydrates and natural ... The transcriptome of E. gracilis was recently sequenced, providing information about all of the genes that the organism is ... "The transcriptome of Euglena gracilis reveals unexpected metabolic capabilities for carbohydrate and natural product ...
The infant's head and shoulders must go through a specific sequence of maneuvers in order to pass through the ring of the ... Tranmer JE, Hodnett ED, Hannah ME, Stevens BJ (2005). "The effect of unrestricted oral carbohydrate intake on labor progress". ...
... amino acid sequence predicted tertiary structure, carbohydrate recognition and analysis of the b-prims fold". Protein Science. ...
September 1996). "Generation and analysis of 280,000 human expressed sequence tags". Genome Research. 6 (9): 807-828. doi: ... "Complexity and differential expression of carbohydrate epitopes associated with L-selectin recognition of high endothelial ... "Structural and partial amino acid sequence analysis of the human hemopoietic progenitor cell antigen CD34". Leukemia. 2 (12): ...
found 87% amino acid identity among insect sequences, which shows a high level of molecular convergence among four orders of ... Lynch RM, Paul RJ (March 1987). "Compartmentation of carbohydrate metabolism in vascular smooth muscle". The American Journal ...
One hypothesis is that carbohydrate tubers (plant underground storage organs) may have been eaten in high amounts by pre- ... Ewen, Callaway (22 September 2011). "First Aboriginal genome sequenced". Nature News. doi:10.1038/news.2011.551. Bocquet-Appel ... Thorburn AW, Brand JC, Truswell AS (1 January 1987). "Slowly digested and absorbed carbohydrate in traditional bushfoods: a ...
... onto a specific sequence that is "Asn-X-Ser/Thr") of newly forming polypeptide chains. Dolichol is also involved in transfer of ... a process in which branched carbohydrate trees are formed on a dolichol moiety and then transferred to an assembly of proteins ...
Raw rhubarb is 94% water, 5% carbohydrates, 1% protein, and contains negligible fat (table). In a 100-gram (3+1⁄2-ounce) ... assessed by simple sequence repeat markers". Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution. 66 (1): 17-25. doi:10.1007/s10722-018-0692-8 ...
The genome sequence of the black truffle was published in March 2010. The black summer truffle (Tuber aestivum) is found across ... Truffle fungi receive carbohydrates from their host plants, and provide them with valuable micro- and macronutrients. Plant ... Bonito GM, Gryganskyi AP, Trappe JM, Vilgalys R (2010). "A global meta-analysis of Tuber ITS rDNA sequences: species diversity ... Mutualistic ectomycorrhizal fungi such as truffles provide valuable nutrients to plants in exchange for carbohydrates. ...
Carbohydrate content can range from 3.6 - 83.2% of dry matter depending on the species. The main pigments of Caulerpa are ... Through the use of tufA gene sequencing, it was revealed that Pseudochlorodesmis F. Børgesen was a sister clade of Caulerpa. ... based on tuf A and rbc L sequence data". Phycologia. 58 (3): 234-253. doi:10.1080/00318884.2018.1542851. ISSN 0031-8884. S2CID ...
Comfort foods typically have a high-carbohydrate and sugar content. The extrasensory effect of food can cause it to feel like a ... he eventually discovered that individuals require multiple points to be tapped in a specific sequence, and that varied between ... refined a muscle testing procedure that enabled the tapping sequence to be found, which worked rapidly at relieving distress ...
In 2014 a new multiple gene sequence analysis showed that two additional classes, forming two independent deep lineages should ... "Analysis of cell wall carbohydrates (neutral sugars) from ascomycetous and basidiomycetous yeasts with and without ... the septal pore apparatus and molecular sequence analysis a new classification was proposed. Here Ustilaginomycotina consisted ...
Its circular genome sequence is 2,222,430 Bp in length and contains 2605 protein-encoding sequences (CDS). Under anaerobic ... revealing numerous metabolic pathways for the degradation of carbohydrates, amino acids, and lipids. Multiple dimethyl ... The first of the Pyrobaculum species to be genetically sequenced, P. aerophilum (rod-shaped, 3-8 * 0.6 µm), has a rare ... The component protein, AbpA, shows homology, both at the sequence and structural level, to the bacterial protein TasA, a major ...
2015, p. 6. Bause E, Legler G (June 1981). "The role of the hydroxy amino acid in the triplet sequence Asn-Xaa-Thr(Ser) for the ... is linked to trimeric autotransporter adhesins and the second has enzymes genomically linked to ribosome and carbohydrate ... In addition, it can also target other sequences such homoserine, however it is inactive against asparagines followed by a ... Both enzyme families however target a shared amino acid sequence asparagine--any amino acid except proline-serine or threonine ...
Comparative genomics revealed that B. cookei possessed substantially fewer carbohydrate-active enzymes and secreted proteins ... The draft genome sequence of B. cookei provided novel insights into target leaf spot of sorghum and is an important resource ... Here, a draft genome sequence of B. cookei was obtained and analyzed. A hybrid assembly strategy utilizing Illumina and Pacific ... Additionally, a finished mitochondrial genome sequence of 135,790 bp was obtained, which contained 75 predicted genes. ...
... pts genes involved in carbohydrate transport and metabolism; and the tkl locus encoding DNA polymerase and several metabolic ... Genome Sequencing and Assembly. We performed single molecule real-time sequencing (PacBio; Pacific Biosciences, Menlo Park, CA ... We downloaded assembled contiguous genome sequences (contigs) for 24 additional genome sequences from previous studies of ... Zhu B, Xu Z, Du P, Xu L, Sun X, Gao Y, et al. Sequence type 4821 clonal complex serogroup B Neisseria meningitidis in China, ...
Carbohydrate Sequence * Drug Resistance, Bacterial * Guanosine / chemistry * Guanosine / metabolism * Methylation * ...
... a unifying sequence format for carbohydrates". Carbohydrate Research. 343 (12): 2162-2171. doi:10.1016/j.carres.2008.03.011. ... CSDB provides access to several carbohydrate-related research tools: Simulation of 1D and 2D NMR spectra of carbohydrates ( ... Egorova K.S.; Toukach Ph.V. (2013). "Expansion of coverage of Carbohydrate Structure Database (CSDB)". Carbohydrate Research. ... Bacterial Carbohydrate Structure Database (BCSDB) and Plant&Fungal Carbohydrate Structure Database (PFCSDB) databases existed ...
The crystal structure of family 8 carbohydrate-binding module from Dictyostelium discoideum complexed with iodine atoms ... Sequence Length. Organism. Details. Image. Endoglucanase. A. 154. Dictyostelium discoideum. Mutation(s): 0 Gene Names: celA, ... Carbohydrate-binding modules (CBMs) are noncatalytic globular protein domains attached to carbohydrate-active enzymes that ... Carbohydrate-binding modules (CBMs) are noncatalytic globular protein domains attached to carbohydrate-active enzymes that ...
Carbohydrate degradation; glycolysis; pyruvate from D-glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate: step 1/5. ... Sequence similarities. Belongs to the glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase family.. * Post-translational. modifications. S- ...
... younger Mucorales points at several subtle differences particularly in their carbon source preferences and encoded carbohydrate ... cell wall carbohydrate composition, and extensive total lipid profiles. These traits inferred from genome composition, e.g. in ... cell wall carbohydrate composition, and extensive total lipid profiles. These traits inferred from genome composition, e.g., in ... Sequencing. DNA was sequenced at the High Throughput Sequencing Facility of UNC, Chapel Hill, NC, United States. ...
Interestingly, the ,i,S. latifolia,/i, genome encodes most enzymes involved in carbohydrate and glycoconjugate metabolism and ... To provide a better understanding of this fungus, we sequenced its whole genome, which has a total size of 48.13 megabases (Mb ... latifolia genome was sequenced using Illumina HiSeq 2500 sequencing technologies. A total of 24,119 Mb clean genome-sequencing ... Based on whole genomes sequencing, enzymes engaged in carbohydrate metabolism and key enzymes for secondary metabolite ...
Glycolysis is a sequence of ten reactions catalyzed by enzymes. Capture of bond energy of carbohydrates. Storage of ATP ... Orange nodes: carbohydrate metabolism. Violet nodes: photosynthesis. Red nodes: cellular respiration. Pink nodes: cell ... Conversion of carbohydrates into fatty acids and cholesterol[edit]. The pyruvate produced by glycolysis is an important ... 5.3 Conversion of carbohydrates into fatty acids and cholesterol. *5.4 Conversion of pyruvate into oxaloacetate for the citric ...
Cell wall carbohydrate detection assays, applied directly to the cultured bacteria, may also differentiate GABHS from other ... A newer generation of rapid tests uses nucleic acid identification to identify GABHS-specific sequences. Such assays yield a ... Newer RADTs use optical immunoassay (OIA) technology to identify cell wall carbohydrates. These yield a sensitivity that may be ... Initial RADTs relied on latex agglutination to identify cell wall carbohydrates obtained after acid extraction, a method ...
The developmental sequence of mucin secretion in the fetal intestine is not fully understood, although the CFTR ion channel ... Meconium in patients with meconium ileus also has higher protein and lower carbohydrate concentration than that in control ... Brooks M. FDA OKs next-gen gene sequencing devices for clinical use. Medscape Medical News. November 20, 2013. [Full Text]. ... FDA allows marketing of four "next generation" gene sequencing devices [news release]. November 19, 2013. Available at http:// ...
The dominant bacterial members were isolated, sequenced, and mapped to its metagenome confirming their identity and indicating ... the presence of enzymes involved in vitamin and short chain fatty acid metabolism and degradation of diverse carbohydrate ... Huang, L. et al. dbCAN-seq: A database of carbohydrate-active enzyme (CAZyme) sequence and annotation. Nucl. Acids Res 46, D516 ... with less population sequence diversity (e.g., few reads mapping , 95% and 99% nucleotide identity to MAG sequence). The ...
Glycoside Hydrolases GlycosylTransferases Polysaccharide Lyases Carbohydrate Esterases Auxiliary Activities Carbohydrate- ... Number of sequences. 10. 2. Carbohydrate-Binding Module Family. Number of sequences ...
WHD080O - Ate fewer carbohydrates. Variable Name: WHD080O. SAS Label: Ate fewer carbohydrates. English Text: How did {you/SP} ... SEQN - Respondent sequence number. Variable Name: SEQN. SAS Label: Respondent sequence number. English Text: Respondent ... WHD100O - Ate fewer carbohydrates. Variable Name: WHD100O. SAS Label: Ate fewer carbohydrates. English Text: What did {you/SP} ... New response categories "Ate fewer carbohydrates" and "Started to smoke or began to smoke again" were added to WHQ080 and ...
Microbial Community Stratification Linked to Utilization of Carbohydrates and Phosphorus Limitation in a Boreal Peatland at ... 59 BASIC BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES; bioinformatics; metagenomics; next-generation sequencing; nitrogen fixation; sequence analysis; ... Combined with high-throughput amplicon specific sequencing, the new primer set also indentified novel hgcAB sequences similar ... including paralog cluster IV/V sequences. To improve nifH sequence analysis, we developed a computational pipeline which infers ...
Truncated sequences were omitted from the analysis and sequences that are more than 98% identical are shown as one entry. Known ... Carbohydrate-active enzymes are responsible for both biosynthesis and breakdown of carbohydrates and glycoconjugates. They are ... Carbohydrate-active enzymes are responsible for both the biosynthesis and breakdown of carbohydrates and glycoconjugates [...] ... Carbohydrate-active enzymes are classified into glycoside hydrolases, glycosyltransferases, polysaccharide lyases, carbohydrate ...
Langer introduced Westphal to MIT bioengineer Ram Sasisekharan and his technology for sequencing complex carbohydrates. Within ... And with the sequencing of the human genome, Santini says, "Theres going to be an explosion in protein compounds in the next ... It uses a free program she developed called PhyloBlast to evaluate relationships between genes by comparing their sequences and ... automatically match pieces of genes they have sequenced with other genes-without tediously combing through endless raw-sequence ...
Our integrative results suggested that carbohydrate and lipid metabolism were influenced by CHA-MES treatment during rapeseed ... Transcripts involved in metabolism, especially in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, and cellular transport were differentially ... and physiological analysis on carbohydrate content were carried out in leaves and anthers at different developmental stages ... results of cytological observation and transcriptome analysis in the MES-treated rapeseed plants were mirrored by carbohydrate ...
Glycoside Hydrolases GlycosylTransferases Polysaccharide Lyases Carbohydrate Esterases Auxiliary Activities Carbohydrate- ... Carbohydrate Esterase Family. Number of sequences. 9. 1. Carbohydrate-Binding Module Family ...
Carbohydrate-lectin recognition of sequence-defined heteromultivalent glycooligomers. Journal of the American Chemical Society ...
Sequence domains: Transferrin Structure domains: Periplasmic binding protein-like II Ligands and Environments Carbohydrate ...
A versatile dehydrogenase oxidizing alcohols and carbohydrates.. Protein Sci.. 24. 2044-2054 ... Other sequences found for EC No. 1.1.5.5. Acetobacter aceti (P18278). Acetobacter ghanensis (A0A0U5F2Y5). Acetobacter ... Other sequences found for EC No. 1.1.2.8. Acetobacter ascendens (A0A1D8QYR1). Acetobacter lovaniensis (A0A841QE18). Acetobacter ...
Amino Acid Sequence 14% * Carbohydrates 13% * Membrane Proteins 12% * Complementary DNA 12% ...
Hyphenated IM-MS Methods as High-resolution Sequencing Tools for Carbohydrates. Sabine L. Flitsch, The University of Manchester ... Thisbe Lindhorst addressed the area of mimicking the interaction of the glycocalyx for carbohydrate interactions using ... In addition, there is still a lack of technologies for other type of complex carbohydrates. ... Photoswitchable Glycomimetics to Probe Carbohydrate Recognition in Bacterial Adhesion. Thisbe K. Lindhorst, Christian-Albrechts ...
GT2; Glycosyltransferase, GT2 family [Carbohydrate transport and metabolism]. RNA. * NR_033169.2 RNA Sequence ... These reference sequences exist independently of genome builds. Explain. These reference sequences are curated independently of ... Source sequence(s). AC074257, AW103179, BC022021 Consensus CDS. CCDS5929.1 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot. Q7Z4T8, Q9UDR9. Related. ... GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics). mRNA and Protein(s) * XM_006715862.5 → XP_006715925.1 inactive polypeptide N- ...
The cholinesterases have no significant sequence homology with the serine proteases and seem to belong to a separate serine ... It is a glycoprotein of 4 identical subunits, each subunit containing 9 carbohydrate chains and 3.5 disulfide bonds. Protein ... Human cholinesterase has recently been sequenced and cloned. ...
2 General Aspects of Enzymes in Cancer: The Glycolytic Sequence. I. Introduction. II. The Glycolytic Sequence. References. 3 ... Carbohydrate Metabolism. IV. Lipid Metabolism. V. Cachexia. References. ... and carbohydrates. It then discusses the important biochemical aspects of pulmonary and prostatic neoplasms, including the ...
The genome of strain 3D7T was sequenced using the Illumina HiSeq systems with paired-end sequencing technology. The sequencing ... carbohydrate esterases (CEs), which hydrolyze carbohydrate esters-35 gene counts; auxiliary activities (AAs), redox enzymes ... 2006). The products above were purified and sequenced by BGI (The Beijing Genomics Institute). After sequencing, the 16S rRNA ... The draft genome sequence of strain 3D7T was 4,518,469 bp in length with 221 contigs. The coverage, N50 and DNA G + C content ...
We assessed Δ%BF using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in 93 healthy adults who consumed a low carbohydrate diet ( ... These discoveries could provide clues to important physiologic mechanisms underlying the Δ%BF to low carbohydrate and low fat ... carbohydrate ~12% total energy) (LC diet) and in 70, a low fat diet (fat ~25% total energy) (LF diet). Fifty-three single ... Table 3 Assay DNA sequences for the SNPs analyzed.. From: Physiogenomic comparison of human fat loss in response to diets ...
  • Interestingly, the S. latifolia genome encodes most enzymes involved in carbohydrate and glycoconjugate metabolism and is also enriched in genes encoding enzymes critical to secondary metabolite biosynthesis and involved in indole, terpene, and type I polyketide pathways. (hindawi.com)
  • Based on whole genomes sequencing, enzymes engaged in carbohydrate metabolism and key enzymes for secondary metabolite biosynthesis were analyzed in Ganoderma lucidum and Lignosus rhinocerotis [ 9 - 11 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Functional characterization showed the presence of enzymes involved in vitamin and short chain fatty acid metabolism and degradation of diverse carbohydrate substrates including plant fibers. (nature.com)
  • Transcripts involved in metabolism, especially in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, and cellular transport were differentially expressed. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Our integrative results suggested that carbohydrate and lipid metabolism were influenced by CHA-MES treatment during rapeseed anther development, which might responsible for low concentration MES specifically inducing male sterility. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Organized into 18 chapters, this book begins with an overview of the general metabolic features of cancer, with emphasis on the metabolism of lipids, proteins, and carbohydrates. (elsevier.com)
  • In contrast, theNamibDesert metagenome showed a high abundance of sequences assigned to carbohydrate transport and metabolism. (up.ac.za)
  • Besides, different forms of carbohydrates affect your metabolism differently. (sugarfit.com)
  • All these types of carbohydrates are digested differently and impact your metabolism distinctly. (sugarfit.com)
  • However, low-carb diets may not work for all, mainly because your metabolism depends on the quality or types of carbohydrates and your unique physiology. (sugarfit.com)
  • For example, the blood carbohydrate heparin has many sulfate groups attached along the chain, small sugars in metabolism are often phosphorylated, and most protein glycosylation includes sugars with amino and acetyl groups. (rcsb.org)
  • The ORP2-KO and control HuH7 cells were subjected to RNA sequencing, analyses of Akt signaling, carbohydrate and TG metabolism, the extracellular acidification rate, and the lipidome, as well as to transmission electron microscopy. (uni-regensburg.de)
  • The researchers found differences between obese and lean people in over 300 bacterial genes, many of which are involved in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. (nih.gov)
  • Gene functions from carbohydrate, protein, and nucleic acid metabolism suggest the presence of primary and secondary productivity in such nutrient-deficient systems. (nus.edu.sg)
  • These sequences were found in genomic regions related to immune response, viral defence, and both lipid and vitamin metabolism. (natureasia.com)
  • Carbohydrate metabolism plays a vital role in cellular function by providing the energy required for most metabolic processes. (mhmedical.com)
  • The relevant biochemical pathways involved in the metabolism of these carbohydrates are shown in Fig. 412-1 . (mhmedical.com)
  • Among these genes, FUS and LMNA were related to carbohydrate metabolism, energy metabolism, and mitochondrial function. (biomedcentral.com)
  • For instance, we find a liver-specific microRNA that regulates carbohydrate metabolism and starvation responses in canids. (scilifelab.se)
  • Additionally, a finished mitochondrial genome sequence of 135,790 bp was obtained, which contained 75 predicted genes. (nature.com)
  • Carbohydrate-binding modules (CBMs) [ 2 , 3 , 4 , 5 , 6 , 7 ] are a class of sugar-binding proteins that comprise amino acid sequences within a larger encoded protein sequence that fold into a structurally discrete module, typically forming part of a larger multi-modular enzyme [ 8 ] (Figure 1). (cazypedia.org)
  • The phylogenetic position of the Mollicutes has been re-examined by using phosphoglycerate kinase (Pgk) amino acid sequences. (usarx.com)
  • In this study, we present the results of our analysis that used phosphoglycerate kinase (Pgk) amino acid sequences as a molecular marker, instead of 16S rRNA, to examine the phylogeny of Firmicutes taxa. (usarx.com)
  • Methods】 The cDNA and deduced amino acid sequences of ApAMP 1015 were analyzed by bioinformatics methods. (insect.org.cn)
  • The use of 16S rRNA gene sequences has enabled characterization of microbial communities in a wide range of habitats including the human body and in fluids including stool, prompting establishment of the microbiome field and industry. (nature.com)
  • The microbial diversity of fresh fruits and vegetables commonly eaten raw has mainly been studied using both 16S rRNA gene sequences and cultivation approaches. (nature.com)
  • Bioinformatic analysis of marker gene sequences also requires considerable expertise. (osti.gov)
  • Comparison of the HPIV3 F protein sequence with the F gene sequences of two other paramyxoviruses, Sendai virus and simian virus 5, indicated a very close evolutionary relationship between HPIV3 and Sendai virus. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Similarly, our own preliminary analyses of the pgk gene were also performed by using a computational neighbour-joining (NJ) method to analyse 100 complete pgk gene sequences from different life forms ( Bacteria , Archaea and Eukarya ). (usarx.com)
  • The cholinesterases have no significant sequence homology with the serine proteases and seem to belong to a separate serine esterase family. (umich.edu)
  • CuGE is an alpha/beta-hydrolase belonging to carbohydrate esterase family 15 (CE15). (proteopedia.org)
  • This directed flow of lymphocytes is dependent on carbohydrate ligands present on specialized endothelial cells, termed high endothelial venules (HEV) 1 . (rupress.org)
  • There are many homologous CBM48 structures present in several enzyme specificities from the α-amylase family GH13 [ 31 ], but of these only the CBM48 from rice starch branching enzyme has been solved in complex with carbohydrate ligands [ 1 ]. (cazypedia.org)
  • The techniques used to determine the classification included 16S rRNA sequencing, which directly compares two or more strains of rRNA sequences to determine sequence homology. (kenyon.edu)
  • Metagenomic analysis of SEM1b recovered metagenome-assembled genomes (MAGs) for each constituent population, whilst in parallel two novel strains of C. proteolyticus were successfully isolated and sequenced. (biorxiv.org)
  • Annotation of all C. proteolyticus genotypes (two strains and one MAG) revealed their genetic acquisition of various carbohydrate-active enzymes (CAZymes), presumably derived from horizontal gene transfer (HGT) events involving C. thermocellum- or Thermotogae-affiliated populations that are historically co-located. (biorxiv.org)
  • The Pamer lab continues to add to their biobank of whole-genome-sequenced strains. (uchicagomedicine.org)
  • Comparative analysis of the 16S rDNA sequences and fatty acid compositions of the novel isolates and established species of thermophilic bacilli indicated that the subsurface strains represent two new species within a new genus, for which the names Geobacillus subterraneus gen. nov., sp. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • A de novo transcriptome sequencing and assembly were used in combination with a proteomic approach to characterize the Carbohydrate Active Enzymes (CAZy) repertoire of one of these strains. (inrae.fr)
  • Community composition was evaluated using 16S rRNA sequencing and metaproteomic approaches. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In recent years, lots of fungal genomes were sequenced because of their importance in industry, agriculture, and medicine fields. (hindawi.com)
  • To characterize biomass-degrading genes and genomes, we sequenced and analyzed 268 gigabases of metagenomic DNA from microbes adherent to plant fiber incubated in cow rumen. (harvard.edu)
  • We also assembled 15 uncultured microbial genomes, which were validated by complementary methods including single-cell genome sequencing. (harvard.edu)
  • Researchers sequenced the genomes of eumusae leaf spot and black Sigatoka, comparing their findings with the previously sequenced yellow Sigatoka genome sequence. (indiatimes.com)
  • To find some clues to the mechanism of MES inducing male sterility, the ultrastructural cytology observations, comparative transcriptome analysis, and physiological analysis on carbohydrate content were carried out in leaves and anthers at different developmental stages between the MES-treated and mock-treated rapeseed plants. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The results of cytological observation and transcriptome analysis in the MES-treated rapeseed plants were mirrored by carbohydrate content analysis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Dr Ellis O'Neill and Professor Rob Field have therefore sequenced the transcriptome of Euglena gracilis, which provides information about all of the genes that the organism is actively using. (jic.ac.uk)
  • Professor Field's paper ' The transcriptome of Euglena gracilis reveals unexpected metabolic capabilities for carbohydrate and natural product biochemistry ' is published in Molecular Biosystems. (jic.ac.uk)
  • The transcriptome of Euglena gracilis reveals unexpected metabolic capabilities for carbohydrate and natural product biochemistry. (jic.ac.uk)
  • We employed massively parallel Illumina sequencing technology and performed comprehensive comparative transcriptome analysis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The principal objective of this study was to gain a better understanding of the mechanisms of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients with fatigue (D-T2DM) through exome and transcriptome sequencing. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Then, we combined whole-exome sequencing and transcriptome sequencing results to find the important genes that changed at both the DNA and RNA levels. (biomedcentral.com)
  • A hybrid assembly strategy utilizing Illumina and Pacific Biosciences sequencing technologies produced a draft nuclear genome of 36.1 Mb, organized into 321 scaffolds with L50 of 31 and N50 of 378 kb, from which 11,189 genes were predicted. (nature.com)
  • In this study, a flexible sequencing/analysis pipeline, named TaxADivA, was developed for nifH amplicons produced by Illumina paired-end sequencing, and it enables an inference of taxonomy, performs clustering, and produces output in formats that may be used by programs that facilitate data exploration and analysis. (osti.gov)
  • This study was designed to analyze the biodiversity and community of the bacteria associated with ten liverworts and ten mosses using Illumina-sequencing techniques based on bacterial 16S rRNA gene. (biomedcentral.com)
  • It is a glycoprotein of 4 identical subunits, each subunit containing 9 carbohydrate chains and 3.5 disulfide bonds. (umich.edu)
  • Human parainfluenza type 3 virus hemagglutinin-neuraminidase glycoprotein: nucleotide sequence of mRNA and limited amino acid sequence of the purified protein. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • For the first activity, the enzyme adds galactose to N-acetylglucosamine residues that are either monosaccharides or the nonreducing ends of glycoprotein carbohydrate chains. (antibodies-online.com)
  • Glycosyltransferases synthesize a huge variety of complex carbohydrates with different degrees of polymerization, moieties and branching. (mdpi.com)
  • On the other hand, complex carbohydrates breakdown is carried out by glycoside hydrolases, polysaccharide lyases and carbohydrate esterases. (mdpi.com)
  • In addition, there is still a lack of technologies for other type of complex carbohydrates. (beilstein-institut.de)
  • Glycans, or complex carbohydrates, are a fundamental biopolymer next to DNA, RNA, and proteins and adorn other biomolecules or occur by themselves. (gu.se)
  • Despite a vast amount of sequence-based insight into the metabolic potential of gut microbes, the specific mechanisms by which symbiotic gut microorganisms recognize and attack complex carbohydrates remain largely undefined. (ubc.ca)
  • To provide a better understanding of this fungus, we sequenced its whole genome, which has a total size of 48.13 megabases (Mb) and contains 12,471 predicted gene models. (hindawi.com)
  • In this study, we sequenced the whole genome of S. latifolia , strain "Minxiu NO.1. (hindawi.com)
  • The average nucleotide identity and digital DNA-DNA hybridization values based on whole genome sequences of strain 3D7 T and its closely related species were below the threshold range for species determination. (researchsquare.com)
  • Recent progression in genomics mainly next generation sequencing technologies made the whole genome sequencing of microbes possible in a great ease. (ijbs.com)
  • The whole genome sequence studies reveals high quality information about genes and canonical pathways involved in the lignin and other cell wall components degradation. (ijbs.com)
  • Whole-genome sequencing and gene annotation are techniques used to identify an organism's complete DNA repertoire, as well as what the genes coded in that DNA do, respectively. (uchicagomedicine.org)
  • In this paper we provide the whole genome sequence, discussion of the associated proteome and a description of the metabolic capabilities of isolate ZS02, an alkaliphilic nitrogen fixing bacteria. (jgenomics.com)
  • Tetrapeptide-21 is a peptide sequence based on the skin's own structure. (motivescosmetics.com)
  • It comprises a small glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchored peptide to which a large carbohydrate moiety is attached. (ox.ac.uk)
  • A detailed comparison between the carbohydrate-binding site of ricin, viscumin and volkensin and the sequences obtained here indicate that the peptide identified as number 5 in Table 2 contained amino acid D234 which is part of the carbohydrate-binding site. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Proteins or peptides are normally digested with various enzymes in order to produce suitable peptide fragments for LC-MS/MS. The mass of the peptides and the fragmentation data is used to determine the Amino Acid sequence. (intertek.com)
  • Automated synthesisers can easily prepare long peptide or DNA sequences - polymers with 200 individual units are nothing unusual. (rsc.org)
  • Carbohydrate-active enzymes are classified into glycoside hydrolases, glycosyltransferases, polysaccharide lyases, carbohydrate esterases, and enzymes with auxiliary activities (CAZy database, www.cazy.org). (mdpi.com)
  • This classification is available on the CAZy (CArbohydrate-Active EnZymes) web site. (embl.de)
  • the subfamily assignments are openly accessible via the Carbohydrate-Active Enzyme database at http://www.cazy.org/GH5.html . (biomedcentral.com)
  • However, based on 16S rRNA gene sequence data, only the Mollicutes are well-supported as being monophyletic ( Ludwig & Klenk, 2001 ). (usarx.com)
  • Termites have microbes in their hindguts that they put to work to convert plant cellulose into carbohydrates," says Eddy Rubin, director of the DOE's Joint Genome Institute. (popsci.com)
  • Plant cells are protected with three layers known as middle lamella, primary and secondary cell walls which are made up of carbohydrates (cellulose, hemicellulose and pectin) and lignin [ 1 ] [Figure 1 ] i) Cellulose is a plant polysaccharide and highly abundant organic polymer on the earth, composed of numerous glucose units linked in β (1→4) linkages, occurring in both crystalline and amorphous forms. (ijbs.com)
  • iii) Lignin is a complex organic biopolymer mainly present in plants in close association with carbohydrates like cellulose and hemicellulose, its main activity is to provide plants with structural stability, impermeability and resistance towards microbial attack [ 3 ]. (ijbs.com)
  • Glucose is used by the plant, with much of it being converted into other carbohydrates like starch and cellulose. (sciencelearn.org.nz)
  • The purpose of this animation is to show visually how glucose molecules can be assembled to form simple sugars and large macromolecular carbohydrates such as starch and cellulose. (sciencelearn.org.nz)
  • The available genome sequence allowed the identification of six putative chitin ( Chs ) and cellulose ( CesA ) synthase genes. (kth.se)
  • Carbohydrate-active enzymes are responsible for both biosynthesis and breakdown of carbohydrates and glycoconjugates. (mdpi.com)
  • Although the terms "sugar" and "carbohydrate" are often used interchangeably in many discussions, glycobiologists who study the structure, biosynthesis, and functions of carbohydrates prefer to use more specific terms such as saccharides (for sugars) and glycans for their polymers. (rcsb.org)
  • One of the promising approaches to tackle the pathogen is the inhibition of cell wall biosynthesis, specifically the enzymes involved in carbohydrate biosynthesis. (kth.se)
  • Genetic machinery related to carbohydrate-active enzymes and secondary metabolites were also observed. (researchsquare.com)
  • Moreover, we obtained and analyzed the genome sequence of strain M. antarctica 3D7 T , showing its genetic potential for biotechnological industrial application. (researchsquare.com)
  • After meeting with Leroy Hood, one of the fathers of the Human Genome Project who designed and built the first DNA sequencer, Grimmer got his genome sequenced and worked with dietitians to develop a customized nutrition plan based on his genetic data. (inc.com)
  • Under the agreement, the Interdisciplinary Center for Biotechnology Research's Next Generation DNA Sequencing Laboratory will use Geospiza's FinchLab platform to manage multiple genetic analysis technologies, including capillary electrophoresis and next-generation sequencing tools from Applied Biosystems and Roche. (genomeweb.com)
  • Functional analysis of glycans and glycoconjugates is complicated by the fact that they are not direct genetic products, but are instead synthesized, recognized, modified, and degraded by a plethora of carbohydrate-active enzymes (CAZymes) and binding proteins. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Target-enriched massively parallel sequencing for genetic diagnosis of hereditary hearing loss in patients with normal array CGH result. (cdc.gov)
  • Word or section of enzyme can restriction modification enzymes their recognition sequences in genetic complementation and should carefully review recent studies and suspected malware and grow. (hopefulsolutionsinc.org)
  • Nowadays, with the emergence of next-generation sequencing technology, we can overcome the limitations of traditional genetic disease research methods. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Genetic sequences of the bases are read in groups of three (called a triplet), with a possibility of 64 configurations or "words" in which to code information. (cdc.gov)
  • We complement computational genome annotation with experimental characteristics of their digestive capabilities, cell wall carbohydrate composition, and extensive total lipid profiles. (frontiersin.org)
  • Carbohydrates are involved in a variety of fundamental biological processes, e.g. cellular differentiation, embryonic development and fertilization. (europa.eu)
  • Biological sulphate reduction was evaluated in different bioreactor configurations: the inverse fluidized bed, sequencing batch and batch reactors. (routledge.com)
  • erly define the substance or product that is named, to indicate in the name the Application of the guidelines in naming of pharmacological or therapeutic class to individual groups of biological products which the substance or product belongs containing carbohydrate residues in their by use of the INN stem system and, structure is described on pages 275-277. (who.int)
  • Among biological sequences, glycan exhibit the highest diversity and the distinction of being the only non-linear biological sequence that is, furthermore, outside the central dogma of molecular biology. (gu.se)
  • An epitope tag is a biological structure or sequence, such as a protein or carbohydrate, which acts as an antigen that is recognized by an antibody. (miltenyibiotec.com)
  • Beyond their role in energy storage, carbohydrates are central to diverse biological processes such as host-pathogen interactions, signal transduction, inflammation, intracellular trafficking, diseases, and differentiation/development. (biomedcentral.com)
  • DNA sequencing is the current key technology for historic or ancient biological samples and has led to many exciting discoveries in the field of paleogenomics. (scilifelab.se)
  • In summary, we show that straightforward paleotranscriptomic microRNA analyses can give functional glimpses into tissue identity, cellular composition and gene regulatory activity of ancient samples and biological processes that took place in the Pleistocene, thus holding great promise for deeper insights into gene regulation in extinct animals based on ancient RNA sequencing. (scilifelab.se)
  • Comparative genomics revealed that B. cookei possessed substantially fewer carbohydrate-active enzymes and secreted proteins than closely related Bipolaris species. (nature.com)
  • This effort is comparable to the automation of nucleic acid sequencing that enabled the large scale genomics studies and will lead to a comparable impetus for glycomics. (europa.eu)
  • The University of Florida has purchased Geospiza's lab-management software for its genomics sequencing lab, the company said last week. (genomeweb.com)
  • A decade of investments in genomics and proteomics has greatly improved our interpretation of the molecular language of the cell, but deciphering the complex carbohydrate-based information in the biomolecular landscape is still in its infancy. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In this project, a novel strategy has been adopted which uses a whole system integrated genomics approach consisting of expression profiling, selection to create isobutanol-adapted lineages, next generation sequencing, and comparative behavioural genomics to interrogate the system thoroughly and identify critical determinants of resistance to isobutanol. (brunel.ac.uk)
  • Carbohydrates are formed with long chains of individual units of simple sugars attached together. (sugarfit.com)
  • Sugars are part of a family of chemicals called "carbohydrates. (rcsb.org)
  • This allows the fungi to feed on the plant's sugars and other carbohydrates. (indiatimes.com)
  • Immobilized sugars and sugar derivatives offer an effective means of purification for a variety of proteins, which recognize and bind carbohydrate moieties. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • In contrast to the genomic and proteomic area, no large data collections for carbohydrates have been compiled so far. (europa.eu)
  • 3ʹ-Terminal sequence of human parainfluenza virus 3 genomic RNA. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • We present here the full-length cDNA sequence and genomic structure of the mouse homologue of the tumor-associated mucin, MUC1. (elsevier.com)
  • Sequence analyses and evolutionary relationships among the energy-coupling proteins Enzyme I and HPr of the bacterial phosphoenolpyruvate:sugar phosphotransferase system. (tcdb.org)
  • Phylogenetic tree based on analyses of ribosomal small subunit sequences. (tolweb.org)
  • Thermotoga ( Thermotogae ) and Fusobacterium ( Fusobacteria ), which clustered within the Firmicutes , comparative analyses show that at a low taxonomic level, the resolved phylogenetic relationships that were inferred from both the Pgk protein and 16S rRNA gene sequence data are congruent. (usarx.com)
  • After whole-exome sequencing on peripheral blood of 6 D-T2DM patients, the consensus mutations were screen out and analyzed by a series of bioinformatics analyses. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Recent analyses have shown that, under favorable conditions, RNA can also be sequenced from ancient samples, enabling studies at the transcriptomic and regulatory level. (scilifelab.se)
  • By performing computational microRNA-target enrichment analyses on the ancient sequences, we predict microRNA functions consistent with their tissue pattern of expression. (scilifelab.se)
  • A high-amount isomaltomegalosaccharide containing carbohydrate (H-IMS), made from starch by dextrin dextranase, is a mixture of glucose polymers which has a continuous linear structure of α-1,6-glucosidic bonds and a small number of α-1,4-glucosidic bonds at the reducing ends. (go.jp)
  • Glucose will rise after a meal, as you break down those carbohydrates, and the body wants to get that blood back to the normal level of glucose, and so it releases insulin from the pancreas, a hormone which travels into the bloodstream and then help cells take the glucose out of the bloodstream into the cells so that they can actually be used converted for energy. (levelshealth.com)
  • Blood glucose levels were measured over 2 h, and expressed as a percentage of the area under the glucose response curve when the same amount of carbohydrate was taken as glucose. (semanticscholar.org)
  • As the acid in the stomach prevents its further digestion, this food travels to your small intestines, where several enzymes continue your digestion process by breaking down carbohydrates into monosaccharides of glucose or fructose. (sugarfit.com)
  • During the experimenal trial, the subjects in the carbohydrate feeding group ingested a 6% glucose and fructose solution at a rate of approximately 60 g · hr -1 , wheras subjects in the placebo group consumed an equal volume of artificially flavored placebo. (humankinetics.com)
  • Incarcerated molecules (protein, lipids and carbohydrates) from Recent samples were released from the calcium carbonate of the shell into solution. (bl.uk)
  • Two types of electron donor were tested: lactate and slow release electron donors such as carbohydrate based polymers and lignocellulosic biowastes. (routledge.com)
  • 82% either using carbohydrate based polymers or lignocellulosic bio-wastes, in batch bioreactors. (routledge.com)
  • They also discovered unexpected capacity for producing and modifying carbohydrate polymers and the generation of as-yet unknown natural products. (jic.ac.uk)
  • mouse B7-Ag, chromosome 4, between Dsil and D4Nds16) and sequence homology in the promoter regions which strongly suggests that B7-Ag is the mouse homologue of CD52. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Homology with the human protein is only 34% in the tandem repeat domain, mainly showing conservation of serines and threonines, presumed sites of O-linked carbohydrate attachment. (elsevier.com)
  • Interest in carbohydrate-active enzymes is due not only to their ability to build and degrade biopolymers-which is highly relevant in biotechnology-but also because they are involved in bacterial biofilm formation, and in glycosylation of proteins and lipids, with important health implications. (mdpi.com)
  • These other three classes often incorporate or rely on glycans for their activity-nucleic acids contain the carbohydrates ribose or deoxyribose, whereas proteins and lipids often require appended glycans for activity (glycoproteins and glycolipids, respectively). (nationalacademies.org)
  • BgluC16MK includes a signal sequence, a catalytic domain and carbohydrate-binding module family 6-type β-glucan binding domain (B-GBD). (go.jp)
  • The enzyme is modular, comprised of a catalytic and a carbohydrate-binding domain. (proteopedia.org)
  • Flexible Ser-Thr-Pro sequences often link adjacent modules and can allow for shifts in the orientation and direction of the catalytic module with respect to the CBM on the target substrate. (cazypedia.org)
  • Given the prevalence of convergent evolution of enzymes that cleave glycosidic bonds, as well as the demonstrable catalytic promiscuity of individual enzymes, sequence-based classification has proven to be a robust way to unify information on enzyme structure, specificity, and mechanism, which provides enormous predictive power [ 9 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Structural and functional studies were conducted of the glucuronoyl esterase (GE) from Cerrena unicolor (CuGE), an enzyme catalyzing cleavage of lignin-carbohydrate ester bonds. (proteopedia.org)
  • a Based on the Carbohydrate Active enZyme database . (cazypedia.org)
  • The protein sequence-based classification of CAZymes was initiated in 1991 as a complement to the long-standing Enzyme Commission (EC) number system [ 7 ], which is based solely on enzyme activities [ 8 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • A site that can serve as the recognition sequence for restriction enzyme so that the. (hopefulsolutionsinc.org)
  • Restriction Enzyme Recognition Sequence Search Program. (hopefulsolutionsinc.org)
  • The dominant bacterial members were isolated, sequenced, and mapped to its metagenome confirming their identity and indicating the microbiota is culturable. (nature.com)
  • They identified a total of 273 bacterial isolates representing 27 gut species by 16S rRNA sequence analysis. (uchicagomedicine.org)
  • Despite the diversity of bacterial species living in their guts, the people shared a broad array of microbial genes-a "core microbiome" representing around 95% of the total DNA sequences. (nih.gov)
  • These bacteria within the bacterial cell to digest sequentially using rank statistics used for digestion conditions that their restriction enzymes recognition sequences. (hopefulsolutionsinc.org)
  • The expansion of hypervirulent sequence type 4821 clonal complex (CC4821) lineage Neisseria meningitidis bacteria has led to a shift in meningococcal disease epidemiology in China, from serogroup A (MenA) to MenC. (cdc.gov)
  • Phosphoenolpyruvate:carbohydrate phosphotransferase systems of bacteria. (tcdb.org)
  • Additionally, we are constructing a platform to transform glycobiology into a true high-throughput discipline by interweaving it with current systems biology methods, lifting the sequence bottleneck that is currently limiting the scope of glycobiology. (gu.se)
  • Whole-exome sequencing technology (WES) is a method that performs high-throughput analysis of all exon regions to sensitively identify rare and low-frequency disease-related mutations [ 9 , 10 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • WES involves three main steps to find the pathogenic genes: capture and enrichment of exome, high-throughput sequencing, and bioinformatic analysis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We're sequencing the DNA of those microbes so that we can eventually consider bioengineering new organisms to secrete these enzymes. (popsci.com)
  • Conventional molecular methods like sequencing 16s rRNA and Inter Transcribed Spacer (ITS) regions were used for identification and classification of microbes. (ijbs.com)
  • By out-sourcing this aspect of digestive physiology to our gut microbes, we maximize our ability to adapt to different carbohydrate nutrients on timescales as short as several hours due to the ability of the gut microbial community to rapidly alter its physiology from meal to meal. (ubc.ca)
  • Spaghetti is made up of carbohydrates (one of the four classes of biomolecules), and eating spaghetti can be a "complex" process! (reasons.org)
  • We show that the planar carbohydrate-binding site of DdCBM8, composed of aromatic residues, is similar to type A CBMs that are specific for crystalline (multichain) polysaccharides. (rcsb.org)
  • N-terminal amino acid sequence analysis and sequencing of cDNAs encoding the two inhibitors revealed that CgMIP-I is similar to γ-type inhibitors, which share a pattern of cysteine residues present in the Ly-6 superfamily of proteins, whereas CgMIP-II shares sequence identity with α-type inhibitors that contain carbohydrate-recognition-like domains, also found in C-type lectins and mammalian PLA 2 receptors. (portlandpress.com)
  • Or cytosyl residues within the recognition sequence the restriction site. (hopefulsolutionsinc.org)
  • Two residues that have been implicated in determining the substrate specificity of the thermophilic beta-glycosidase from the archaeon Sulfolobus solfataricus (SsbetaG), a member of the glycosyl hydrolase family 1, have been mutated by site-directed mutagenesis so as to create more versatile catalysts for carbohydrate chemistry. (ox.ac.uk)
  • The two main difficulties facing glycobiology today are the inability of extracting generalizable, mechanistic, or actionable insights from these highly diverse glycan sequences as well as the shortage of known glycan sequences due to the experimental difficulties of working with glycans. (gu.se)
  • For this, we have developed deep learning models for glycobiology that, together with other bioinformatics approaches, can extract functional insights from glycan sequences for a more holistic understanding of molecular biology. (gu.se)
  • For more information on the details of carbohydrate structure, see the textbook " Essentials of Glycobiology . (rcsb.org)
  • Proteins from intracrystalline sites within fossils are therefore in a poor state of preservation, and it is unlikely that it will be possible to separate and concentrate these molecules in order to complete primary sequence analysis. (bl.uk)
  • The cell surface antigen CD59 is an inhibitor of complement-mediated lysis and a member of the Ly6 superfamily (Ly6SF) of cysteine-rich cell-surface molecules whose sequences are related to those of snake venom neurotoxins. (embl.de)
  • A striking feature of carbohydrates is their remarkable structural complexity, due to a rich diversity of monosaccharide building blocks, and the possibility of numerous stereo- and regiospecific linkages [ 3 ], which give rise to both simple linear and complex, highly branched molecules [ 1 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Carbon dioxide and water molecules enter a sequence of chemical reactions within the chloroplasts. (sciencelearn.org.nz)
  • However, what is less known is that carbohydrates are perhaps the most information-rich molecules in the cell-making them evidence that life is the product of an intelligent Creator, and not of chance. (reasons.org)
  • Scientists at the John Innes Centre have discovered that Euglena gracilis, the single cell algae which inhabits most garden ponds, has a whole host of new, unclassified genes which can make new forms of carbohydrates and natural products. (jic.ac.uk)
  • This advancement in the structural and functional characterization of CBMs contributes to our understanding of carbohydrate-active enzymes and protein-carbohydrate interactions, pushing forward protein engineering strategies and enhancing the potential biotechnological applications of glycoside hydrolase accessory modules. (rcsb.org)
  • Saccharide: A generic term for any carbohydrate or assembly of carbohydrates, in free form or attached to another molecule. (nationalacademies.org)
  • Includes the formation of carbohydrate derivatives by the addition of a carbohydrate residue to another molecule. (ntu.edu.sg)
  • DNA sequence is the exact sequence of bases - A , T , G or C - in a DNA molecule. (expo-health.com)
  • This study involved the reconstruction of the human IVIG in a fully active the molecule with a slight modification to a carbohydrate group. (expo-health.com)
  • Carbohydrate-lectin recognition of sequence-defined heteromultivalent glycooligomers. (mpg.de)
  • A galectina-1 (Gal-1) é uma lectina homodimérica multifuncional capaz de reconhecer e se ligar a beta-galactosídeos por meio de um domínio denominado carbohydrate recognition domain (CRD). (usp.br)
  • Galectin-1 (Gal-1) is a homodimeric and multifunctional lectin that recognizes and binds to beta-galactoside by a carbohydrate recognition domain (CRD). (usp.br)
  • Sequence analysis of HPIV3 F gene flanking regions identified signals which appear to be responsible for polymerase recognition and polyadenylation. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • crystal structure of the trimeric neck and carbohydrate recognition domain of human surfactant protein d in complex with alpha 1,2 dimannose. (berkeley.edu)
  • Carbohydrates play many essential roles in cells ranging from energy transactions, to structural roles, recognition, and signaling. (rcsb.org)
  • Based on their molecular structure sequence recognition cleavage position and cofactor requirements restriction-modification R-M systems. (hopefulsolutionsinc.org)
  • Comparison of recognition sequence, but most restriction enzymes with your searches in general, which includes nine palindromic words of methods. (hopefulsolutionsinc.org)
  • Viral dna fragment sizes between direct confirmation of type ii reases are circular permutations of recognition sequences replicate, a complaint with. (hopefulsolutionsinc.org)
  • Type I enzymes are complex multisubunit combination restriction-and-modification enzymes that cut DNA at random far from their recognition sequences. (hopefulsolutionsinc.org)
  • Am med biol med image comput assist you have no dna while at their recognition sequences may detect, such as a unique base recognition is rna hybrids by restriction modification enzymes their recognition sequences? (hopefulsolutionsinc.org)
  • Its recognition sequence is predicted to be the same as MEaeI. (hopefulsolutionsinc.org)
  • Currently we are validating and screening insertion/deletion (INDEL) polymorphisms occurring in tandemly duplicated receptor kinases which have been implicated in pattern recognition of carbohydrate moieties in microbial cell walls leading to host immunity or highly specific host-microbe interactions. (ornl.gov)
  • Human CD14 has four potential N-linked glycosylation sites and also bears O-linked carbohydrates. (rndsystems.com)
  • When you consume carbohydrates-containing food, first, the enzymes in your mouth break down the chains of carbohydrates. (sugarfit.com)
  • The many shapes that are possible in carbohydrate chains allow the construction of materials with diverse properties. (rcsb.org)
  • Other than this, no difference has been found between the primary amino acid sequence of the [alpha] and [beta] chains of hemoglobin A(Ic) and A. The ketone or aldehyde R==O has a molecular weight of approximately 281, is not an aromatic aldehyde, is not a steroid, and does not contain phosphorus, carbohydrates or amino acids. (caltech.edu)
  • Based on our primer evaluation, we recommend the Ando primer set be used with a modified annealing temperature of 58°C, as this approach captured the largest diversity of nifH templates, including paralog cluster IV/V sequences. (osti.gov)
  • The long and complex evolution of this family of enzymes and its broad sequence diversity limits functional prediction. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The structural diversity of carbohydrates is reflected in an abundance of CAZyme-encoding genes, which comprise 1-3% of the genome of most organisms [ 6 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Among the most widely used applications for these matrices are the purification of lectins, glycosidases, and carbohydrate directed antibodies. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Amino acids in a polypeptide Nucleic acids in a nucleotide Answer- Nucleic acids in a nucleotide Q10) Which one of the following is a non-reducing carbohydrate? (jacquidankworth.com)
  • A program that focuses on the scientific study of the chemistry of living systems, their fundamental chemical substances and reactions, and their chemical pathways and information transfer systems, with particular reference to carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids. (myfuture.com)
  • We apply a number of approaches to determine the Amino Acid sequence normally involving high-resolution accurate-mass spectrometry (Orbitrap, QToF) coupled with U(H)PLC technology and Amino Acid Analysis methods. (intertek.com)
  • 2004). However, sequencing methods are not often used in diagnostic laboratory as the routine species identification and not all microbiology diagnostic laboratories have PCR set up. (pjmonline.org)
  • Host plant cell walls contain carbohydrates which enable attachment sites for the pathogen protein receptors. (kenyon.edu)
  • Deciphering how enzymes interact, modify, and recognize carbohydrates has long been a topic of interest in academic, pharmaceutical, and industrial research. (rcsb.org)
  • Having in mind the oligoreactivity of IgM and its preference for carbohydrate antigens, there is the possibility that it can selectively recognize known PSA glycoisoforms. (hindawi.com)
  • Having in mind the oligoreactivity and multivalency of IgM and its preference for carbohydrate antigens, there is the possibility that it can selectively recognize known PSA glycoisoforms [ 18 , 19 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Here, we review the recent literature on this topic and posit that numerous, subtle variations in polysaccharides diversify the spectrum of available nutrient niches, each of which may be best filled by a subset of microorganisms that possess the corresponding proteins to recognize and degrade different carbohydrates. (ubc.ca)
  • Type III restriction enzymes characteristically recognize DNA sequences. (hopefulsolutionsinc.org)
  • Other taxonomic data: Cellular carbohydrate composition [ 5119 ]. (riken.jp)
  • In this study, we advance the state of the art for nifH analysis by evaluating nifH primer set performance, developing an improved amplicon sequencing workflow, and implementing a user-friendly bioinformatics pipeline. (osti.gov)
  • To improve nifH sequence analysis, we developed a computational pipeline which infers taxonomy and optionally filters out paralog sequences. (osti.gov)
  • For this purpose, common protocols and quality criteria for the generation of e xperimental data and guidelines of good practise for the establishment of databases are indispensable, especially for NMR-, MS- and HPLC-data, which are the key technologies for the identification and analysis of carbohydrates. (europa.eu)
  • Other classification techniques including fatty acid analysis, which identifies fatty acids in the membrane, and carbohydrate utilization tests, which establish the metabolic characteristics of the organism. (kenyon.edu)
  • The protein fraction of the samples were purified to homogeneity using SDS PAGE, and the separated proteins analysed by partial N-terminal sequencing and amino acid analysis. (bl.uk)
  • Molecular cloning and sequence analysis of the human parainfluenza 3 virus RNA encoding the nucleocapsid protein. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Purification of the fusion protein of Sendai virus: analysis of the NH 2 -terminal sequence generated during precursor activation. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • About 80% of the current sequences were assigned into 51 subfamilies in a global analysis of all publicly available GH5 sequences and associated biochemical data. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Phylogenetic analysis of these MEP pathway-associated enzymes also showed a high sequence similarity between T. media and T. cuspidata . (biomedcentral.com)
  • MH according to 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Marie Zepeda Mendoza and colleagues investigate how this dietary specialisation has impacted both the host and the gut microbiome by jointly sequencing the bat's genome and faecal metagenome (the microbial DNA sample recovered from the bat's droppings). (natureasia.com)
  • However, this taxonomic scheme of classification is being replaced with the one that involves DNA sequencing and comparisons. (biologyonline.com)
  • In the synthetic direction, phosphosugar-dependent glycosyltransferases (GTs) catalyze the formation of glycosidic linkages, whereas their breakdown is mediated by glycoside hydrolases (GHs) and polysaccharide lyases (PLs), with the assistance of carbohydrate esterases (CEs). (biomedcentral.com)
  • In the past, classification of Streptococci was based mostly on phenotypic traits such as carbohydrate fermentation and later on 16S rDNA sequencing. (pjmonline.org)