Mucoproteins: Conjugated proteins in which mucopolysaccharides are combined with proteins. The mucopolysaccharide moiety is the predominant group with the protein making up only a small percentage of the total weight.Carbohydrates: The largest class of organic compounds, including STARCH; GLYCOGEN; CELLULOSE; POLYSACCHARIDES; and simple MONOSACCHARIDES. Carbohydrates are composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a ratio of Cn(H2O)n.Carbohydrate Metabolism: Cellular processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of CARBOHYDRATES.Dietary Carbohydrates: Carbohydrates present in food comprising digestible sugars and starches and indigestible cellulose and other dietary fibers. The former are the major source of energy. The sugars are in beet and cane sugar, fruits, honey, sweet corn, corn syrup, milk and milk products, etc.; the starches are in cereal grains, legumes (FABACEAE), tubers, etc. (From Claudio & Lagua, Nutrition and Diet Therapy Dictionary, 3d ed, p32, p277)Neuraminic AcidsFucoseGalactosamineSulfates: Inorganic salts of sulfuric acid.Galactose: An aldohexose that occurs naturally in the D-form in lactose, cerebrosides, gangliosides, and mucoproteins. Deficiency of galactosyl-1-phosphate uridyltransferase (GALACTOSE-1-PHOSPHATE URIDYL-TRANSFERASE DEFICIENCY DISEASE) causes an error in galactose metabolism called GALACTOSEMIA, resulting in elevations of galactose in the blood.HexosaminesMercaptoethanolCystine: A covalently linked dimeric nonessential amino acid formed by the oxidation of CYSTEINE. Two molecules of cysteine are joined together by a disulfide bridge to form cystine.Pronase: A proteolytic enzyme obtained from Streptomyces griseus.GlucosamineCarbohydrate Sequence: The sequence of carbohydrates within POLYSACCHARIDES; GLYCOPROTEINS; and GLYCOLIPIDS.EstersGastric Mucosa: Lining of the STOMACH, consisting of an inner EPITHELIUM, a middle LAMINA PROPRIA, and an outer MUSCULARIS MUCOSAE. The surface cells produce MUCUS that protects the stomach from attack by digestive acid and enzymes. When the epithelium invaginates into the LAMINA PROPRIA at various region of the stomach (CARDIA; GASTRIC FUNDUS; and PYLORUS), different tubular gastric glands are formed. These glands consist of cells that secrete mucus, enzymes, HYDROCHLORIC ACID, or hormones.Orthomyxoviridae: A family of RNA viruses causing INFLUENZA and other diseases. There are five recognized genera: INFLUENZAVIRUS A; INFLUENZAVIRUS B; INFLUENZAVIRUS C; ISAVIRUS; and THOGOTOVIRUS.Carbohydrate Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a carbohydrate.Carbon Isotopes: Stable carbon atoms that have the same atomic number as the element carbon, but differ in atomic weight. C-13 is a stable carbon isotope.Threonine: An essential amino acid occurring naturally in the L-form, which is the active form. It is found in eggs, milk, gelatin, and other proteins.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Centrifugation, Density Gradient: Separation of particles according to density by employing a gradient of varying densities. At equilibrium each particle settles in the gradient at a point equal to its density. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Aspartic Acid: One of the non-essential amino acids commonly occurring in the L-form. It is found in animals and plants, especially in sugar cane and sugar beets. It may be a neurotransmitter.Water: A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Disulfides: Chemical groups containing the covalent disulfide bonds -S-S-. The sulfur atoms can be bound to inorganic or organic moieties.Oligosaccharides: Carbohydrates consisting of between two (DISACCHARIDES) and ten MONOSACCHARIDES connected by either an alpha- or beta-glycosidic link. They are found throughout nature in both the free and bound form.Antigens, Tumor-Associated, Carbohydrate: Carbohydrate antigens expressed by malignant tissue. They are useful as tumor markers and are measured in the serum by means of a radioimmunoassay employing monoclonal antibodies.Lectins: Proteins that share the common characteristic of binding to carbohydrates. Some ANTIBODIES and carbohydrate-metabolizing proteins (ENZYMES) also bind to carbohydrates, however they are not considered lectins. PLANT LECTINS are carbohydrate-binding proteins that have been primarily identified by their hemagglutinating activity (HEMAGGLUTININS). However, a variety of lectins occur in animal species where they serve diverse array of functions through specific carbohydrate recognition.Starch: Any of a group of polysaccharides of the general formula (C6-H10-O5)n, composed of a long-chain polymer of glucose in the form of amylose and amylopectin. It is the chief storage form of energy reserve (carbohydrates) in plants.PolysaccharidesGlycosylation: The chemical or biochemical addition of carbohydrate or glycosyl groups to other chemicals, especially peptides or proteins. Glycosyl transferases are used in this biochemical reaction.Monosaccharides: Simple sugars, carbohydrates which cannot be decomposed by hydrolysis. They are colorless crystalline substances with a sweet taste and have the same general formula CnH2nOn. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Mannose: A hexose or fermentable monosaccharide and isomer of glucose from manna, the ash Fraxinus ornus and related plants. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed & Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Glycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.Dietary Fats: Fats present in food, especially in animal products such as meat, meat products, butter, ghee. They are present in lower amounts in nuts, seeds, and avocados.Glucose: A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Dietary Proteins: Proteins obtained from foods. They are the main source of the ESSENTIAL AMINO ACIDS.Protein Kinase C: An serine-threonine protein kinase that requires the presence of physiological concentrations of CALCIUM and membrane PHOSPHOLIPIDS. The additional presence of DIACYLGLYCEROLS markedly increases its sensitivity to both calcium and phospholipids. The sensitivity of the enzyme can also be increased by PHORBOL ESTERS and it is believed that protein kinase C is the receptor protein of tumor-promoting phorbol esters.Tetradecanoylphorbol Acetate: A phorbol ester found in CROTON OIL with very effective tumor promoting activity. It stimulates the synthesis of both DNA and RNA.Lymphocytes: White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Phorbol Esters: Tumor-promoting compounds obtained from CROTON OIL (Croton tiglium). Some of these are used in cell biological experiments as activators of protein kinase C.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Lymphocyte Activation: Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Zeolites: Zeolites. A group of crystalline, hydrated alkali-aluminum silicates. They occur naturally in sedimentary and volcanic rocks, altered basalts, ores, and clay deposits. Some 40 known zeolite minerals and a great number of synthetic zeolites are available commercially. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Patents as Topic: Exclusive legal rights or privileges applied to inventions, plants, etc.Chewing Gum: A preparation of chicle, sometimes mixed with other plastic substances, sweetened and flavored. It is masticated usually for pleasure as a candy substitute but it sometimes acts as a vehicle for the administration of medication.Halitosis: An offensive, foul breath odor resulting from a variety of causes such as poor oral hygiene, dental or oral infections, or the ingestion of certain foods.Plant Gums: Polysaccharide gums from PLANTS.Gingivitis: Inflammation of gum tissue (GINGIVA) without loss of connective tissue.Dental Plaque: A film that attaches to teeth, often causing DENTAL CARIES and GINGIVITIS. It is composed of MUCINS, secreted from salivary glands, and microorganisms.
  • Result from a lack of "intrinsic factor," a mucoprotein enzyme in the gastrointestinal tract, from fish tapeworm infestation, or excessive bacteria in the stomach and intestines. (orthomolecular.org)
  • This enzyme cleaves the carbohydrate structure from the peptide, leaving behind a diagnostic sign: the Asn residue is hydrolyzed to Asp, inducing a mass shift of +1 Da. (mcponline.org)
  • B12 must then combine with a mucoprotein enzyme, called intrinsic factor (IF), in order to be absorbed into the bloodstream. (divinehealthfromtheinsideout.com)
  • It was later found that a mucoprotein enzyme produced by the stomach (by the parietal cells that also make hydrochloric acid) was also needed for vitamin B12 to be absorbed into the body from the intestines. (healthy.net)
  • In addition, although, as indicated above, early attempts at enzyme classification were based on the nature of broad groups of substrates (e.g., enzymes called carbohydrases act on carbohydrates), close functional similarities among enzymes in different groups were often obscured. (britannica.com)
  • Structural elucidation by mass spectrometry is usually inconclusive as the CID spectra of most glycopeptides are dominated by carbohydrate-related fragments, preventing peptide identification. (mcponline.org)
  • The vitamin deficiency is often due to failure to absorb B12 from the stomach and can be alleviated by giving mg doses with extracts of hog's stomach which contains the intrinsic anti-pernicious anaemia factor (a mucoprotein) which promotes absorption. (3dchem.com)
  • During the formation of bile stones, and related to the biliary core factor mucoprotein , [sup] both mucoprotein secretion and expression of bile and bile duct tissues, showed a pathological and increasing trend in cholelith disease patients. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • In contrast, perturbation of glycan processing (enzymatic removal/addition of carbohydrate residues to the glycan), which occurs in both the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus , is dispensable for isolated cells (as evidence by survival with glycosides inhibitors) but can lead to human disease (congenital disorders of glycosylation) and can be lethal in animal models. (wikipedia.org)
  • A metabolomic analysis of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the luminal contents showed a relative absence in infected pigs of cofactors for carbohydrate and lysine biosynthesis, as well as an accumulation of oleic acid, suggesting altered fatty acid absorption contributing to local inflammation. (asm.org)
  • Regarding epithelial tissue, vitamin A is necessary for the production and differentiation of the cells and for the production of mucoproteins, found in some of the mucous secreted by the body. (blogspot.com)
  • Contains glutamine (an amino acid) and N-Acetyl-glucosamine (a carbohydrate) that are primary nutrients used by the lining of the digestive tract for healthy structure. (wellnessresources.com)
  • Bradbury S, Billington WD, Kirby DRS, Williams EA (1970) Histochemical characterization of the surface mucoprotein of normal and abnormal human trophoblast. (springer.com)
  • The chains are long, linear carbohydrate polymers that are negatively charged under physiological conditions due to the occurrence of sulfate and uronic acid groups. (wikipedia.org)
  • The structural relationships between intramembranous particles (IMPs) and surface carbohydrates has been studied in uterine epithelial cells with a colloidal iron hydroxide (CIH) technique. (springer.com)
  • Murphy CR, Swift JG (1983) Relationships between intramembranous particles and surface coat carbohydrates in cells of a compact tissue. (springer.com)
  • Instead, attention was directed towards the reaction between viruses and mucoproteins, complement fixation, and the creation of recombinant strains in chick embryos. (eoas.info)
  • Research in the Department also examined the chemistry of receptor substances, influenza virus in the mammary gland and mucoproteins. (eoas.info)
  • Taking the time to "rest and digest" before a meal so that the brain recognizes food is coming, eating slowly and chewing thoroughly, avoiding highly refined carbohydrates and sugar, eliminating potential stressors (such as dairy, grains or legumes) which may irritate the gut lining and cause inflammation, are all critical components of proper digestion. (divinehealthfromtheinsideout.com)
  • This is because the nutrients needed to form the mucoproteins that line the digestive tract are also in short supply, causing dryness issues in other areas of your body. (wellnessresources.com)