Cellular processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of CARBOHYDRATES.
The largest class of organic compounds, including STARCH; GLYCOGEN; CELLULOSE; POLYSACCHARIDES; and simple MONOSACCHARIDES. Carbohydrates are composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a ratio of Cn(H2O)n.
Carbohydrates present in food comprising digestible sugars and starches and indigestible cellulose and other dietary fibers. The former are the major source of energy. The sugars are in beet and cane sugar, fruits, honey, sweet corn, corn syrup, milk and milk products, etc.; the starches are in cereal grains, legumes (FABACEAE), tubers, etc. (From Claudio & Lagua, Nutrition and Diet Therapy Dictionary, 3d ed, p32, p277)
A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.
Physiological processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of LIPIDS.
The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.
A metabolic process that converts GLUCOSE into two molecules of PYRUVIC ACID through a series of enzymatic reactions. Energy generated by this process is conserved in two molecules of ATP. Glycolysis is the universal catabolic pathway for glucose, free glucose, or glucose derived from complex CARBOHYDRATES, such as GLYCOGEN and STARCH.
Any of a group of polysaccharides of the general formula (C6-H10-O5)n, composed of a long-chain polymer of glucose in the form of amylose and amylopectin. It is the chief storage form of energy reserve (carbohydrates) in plants.
The sequence of carbohydrates within POLYSACCHARIDES; GLYCOPROTEINS; and GLYCOLIPIDS.
Salts or esters of LACTIC ACID containing the general formula CH3CHOHCOOR.
Glucose in blood.
A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
Biosynthesis of GLUCOSE from nonhexose or non-carbohydrate precursors, such as LACTATE; PYRUVATE; ALANINE; and GLYCEROL.
Glycogen stored in the liver. (Dorland, 28th ed)
A monosaccharide in sweet fruits and honey that is soluble in water, alcohol, or ether. It is used as a preservative and an intravenous infusion in parenteral feeding.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a carbohydrate.
A normal intermediate in the fermentation (oxidation, metabolism) of sugar. The concentrated form is used internally to prevent gastrointestinal fermentation. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
A nonreducing disaccharide composed of GLUCOSE and FRUCTOSE linked via their anomeric carbons. It is obtained commercially from SUGARCANE, sugar beet (BETA VULGARIS), and other plants and used extensively as a food and a sweetener.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of alpha D-glucose 1-phosphate to alpha D-glucose 6-phosphate. EC 5.4.2.2.
An allosteric enzyme that regulates glycolysis by catalyzing the transfer of a phosphate group from ATP to fructose-6-phosphate to yield fructose-1,6-bisphosphate. D-tagatose- 6-phosphate and sedoheptulose-7-phosphate also are acceptors. UTP, CTP, and ITP also are donors. In human phosphofructokinase-1, three types of subunits have been identified. They are PHOSPHOFRUCTOKINASE-1, MUSCLE TYPE; PHOSPHOFRUCTOKINASE-1, LIVER TYPE; and PHOSPHOFRUCTOKINASE-1, TYPE C; found in platelets, brain, and other tissues.
An oxidative decarboxylation process that converts GLUCOSE-6-PHOSPHATE to D-ribose-5-phosphate via 6-phosphogluconate. The pentose product is used in the biosynthesis of NUCLEIC ACIDS. The generated energy is stored in the form of NADPH. This pathway is prominent in tissues which are active in the synthesis of FATTY ACIDS and STEROIDS.
A series of oxidative reactions in the breakdown of acetyl units derived from GLUCOSE; FATTY ACIDS; or AMINO ACIDS by means of tricarboxylic acid intermediates. The end products are CARBON DIOXIDE, water, and energy in the form of phosphate bonds.
Allosteric enzymes that regulate glycolysis and gluconeogenesis. These enzymes catalyze phosphorylation of fructose-6-phosphate to either fructose-1,6-bisphosphate (PHOSPHOFRUCTOKINASE-1 reaction), or to fructose-2,6-bisphosphate (PHOSPHOFRUCTOKINASE-2 reaction).
A test to determine the ability of an individual to maintain HOMEOSTASIS of BLOOD GLUCOSE. It includes measuring blood glucose levels in a fasting state, and at prescribed intervals before and after oral glucose intake (75 or 100 g) or intravenous infusion (0.5 g/kg).
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Stable carbon atoms that have the same atomic number as the element carbon, but differ in atomic weight. C-13 is a stable carbon isotope.
An aldohexose that occurs naturally in the D-form in lactose, cerebrosides, gangliosides, and mucoproteins. Deficiency of galactosyl-1-phosphate uridyltransferase (GALACTOSE-1-PHOSPHATE URIDYL-TRANSFERASE DEFICIENCY DISEASE) causes an error in galactose metabolism called GALACTOSEMIA, resulting in elevations of galactose in the blood.
A genus of obligately anaerobic ARCHAEA, in the family THERMOPROTEACEAE. They are found in acidic hot springs and water holes.
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
An enlarged underground root or stem of some plants. It is usually rich in carbohydrates. Some, such as POTATOES, are important human FOOD. They may reproduce vegetatively from buds.
A glycoside hydrolase found primarily in PLANTS and YEASTS. It has specificity for beta-D-fructofuranosides such as SUCROSE.
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
ATP:pyruvate 2-O-phosphotransferase. A phosphotransferase that catalyzes reversibly the phosphorylation of pyruvate to phosphoenolpyruvate in the presence of ATP. It has four isozymes (L, R, M1, and M2). Deficiency of the enzyme results in hemolytic anemia. EC 2.7.1.40.
Complex sets of enzymatic reactions connected to each other via their product and substrate metabolites.
Diphosphoric acid esters of fructose. The fructose-1,6- diphosphate isomer is most prevalent. It is an important intermediate in the glycolysis process.
FATTY ACIDS found in the plasma that are complexed with SERUM ALBUMIN for transport. These fatty acids are not in glycerol ester form.
The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)
Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.
Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.
A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.
Lengthy and continuous deprivation of food. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Fats present in food, especially in animal products such as meat, meat products, butter, ghee. They are present in lower amounts in nuts, seeds, and avocados.
Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.
The chemical reactions that occur within the cells, tissues, or an organism. These processes include both the biosynthesis (ANABOLISM) and the breakdown (CATABOLISM) of organic materials utilized by the living organism.
An intermediate compound in the metabolism of carbohydrates, proteins, and fats. In thiamine deficiency, its oxidation is retarded and it accumulates in the tissues, especially in nervous structures. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
The synthesis by organisms of organic chemical compounds, especially carbohydrates, from carbon dioxide using energy obtained from light rather than from the oxidation of chemical compounds. Photosynthesis comprises two separate processes: the light reactions and the dark reactions. In higher plants; GREEN ALGAE; and CYANOBACTERIA; NADPH and ATP formed by the light reactions drive the dark reactions which result in the fixation of carbon dioxide. (from Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2001)
A 29-amino acid pancreatic peptide derived from proglucagon which is also the precursor of intestinal GLUCAGON-LIKE PEPTIDES. Glucagon is secreted by PANCREATIC ALPHA CELLS and plays an important role in regulation of BLOOD GLUCOSE concentration, ketone metabolism, and several other biochemical and physiological processes. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 9th ed, p1511)
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
A class of glucosyltransferases that catalyzes the degradation of storage polysaccharides, such as glucose polymers, by phosphorolysis in animals (GLYCOGEN PHOSPHORYLASE) and in plants (STARCH PHOSPHORYLASE).
Abstaining from all food.
A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A hexose or fermentable monosaccharide and isomer of glucose from manna, the ash Fraxinus ornus and related plants. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed & Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
A trihydroxy sugar alcohol that is an intermediate in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. It is used as a solvent, emollient, pharmaceutical agent, and sweetening agent.
An enzyme of the lyase class that catalyzes the cleavage of fructose 1,6-biphosphate to form dihydroxyacetone phosphate and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate. The enzyme also acts on (3S,4R)-ketose 1-phosphates. The yeast and bacterial enzymes are zinc proteins. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) E.C. 4.1.2.13.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of D-fructose 1,6-bisphosphate and water to D-fructose 6-phosphate and orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.11.
Carbohydrates consisting of between two (DISACCHARIDES) and ten MONOSACCHARIDES connected by either an alpha- or beta-glycosidic link. They are found throughout nature in both the free and bound form.
An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.
An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of glycerol 3-phosphate from ATP and glycerol. Dihydroxyacetone and L-glyceraldehyde can also act as acceptors; UTP and, in the case of the yeast enzyme, ITP and GTP can act as donors. It provides a way for glycerol derived from fats or glycerides to enter the glycolytic pathway. EC 2.7.1.30.
Drugs administered orally and sequentially for contraceptive purposes.
Carbohydrate antigens expressed by malignant tissue. They are useful as tumor markers and are measured in the serum by means of a radioimmunoassay employing monoclonal antibodies.
Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of glucose from a nucleoside diphosphate glucose to an acceptor molecule which is frequently another carbohydrate. EC 2.4.1.-.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.
The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.
Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.
Proteins that share the common characteristic of binding to carbohydrates. Some ANTIBODIES and carbohydrate-metabolizing proteins (ENZYMES) also bind to carbohydrates, however they are not considered lectins. PLANT LECTINS are carbohydrate-binding proteins that have been primarily identified by their hemagglutinating activity (HEMAGGLUTININS). However, a variety of lectins occur in animal species where they serve diverse array of functions through specific carbohydrate recognition.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Diminished effectiveness of INSULIN in lowering blood sugar levels: requiring the use of 200 units or more of insulin per day to prevent HYPERGLYCEMIA or KETOSIS.
Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.
Derivatives of ACETIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxymethane structure.
Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.
The dynamic collection of metabolites which represent a cell's or organism's net metabolic response to current conditions.
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
Total number of calories taken in daily whether ingested or by parenteral routes.
Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).
A plant species of the genus SOLANUM, family SOLANACEAE. The starchy roots are used as food. SOLANINE is found in green parts.
The protein complement of an organism coded for by its genome.
A dextrodisaccharide from malt and starch. It is used as a sweetening agent and fermentable intermediate in brewing. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Oligosaccharides containing two monosaccharide units linked by a glycosidic bond.
Unstable isotopes of carbon that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. C atoms with atomic weights 10, 11, and 14-16 are radioactive carbon isotopes.
A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).
Biological molecules that possess catalytic activity. They may occur naturally or be synthetically created. Enzymes are usually proteins, however CATALYTIC RNA and CATALYTIC DNA molecules have also been identified.
The metabolic substances ACETONE; 3-HYDROXYBUTYRIC ACID; and acetoacetic acid (ACETOACETATES). They are produced in the liver and kidney during FATTY ACIDS oxidation and used as a source of energy by the heart, muscle and brain.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of ATP and a D-hexose to ADP and a D-hexose 6-phosphate. D-Glucose, D-mannose, D-fructose, sorbitol, and D-glucosamine can act as acceptors; ITP and dATP can act as donors. The liver isoenzyme has sometimes been called glucokinase. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.7.1.1.
An enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of D-glucose from UDPglucose into 1,4-alpha-D-glucosyl chains. EC 2.4.1.11.
An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of 1,4-alpha-glycosidic linkages in starch, glycogen, and related polysaccharides and oligosaccharides so as to remove successive beta-maltose units from the non-reducing ends of the chains. EC 3.2.1.2.
A 5-carbon keto sugar.
The pattern of GENE EXPRESSION at the level of genetic transcription in a specific organism or under specific circumstances in specific cells.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
An ATP-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the addition of ADP to alpha-D-glucose 1-phosphate to form ADP-glucose and diphosphate. The reaction is the rate-limiting reaction in prokaryotic GLYCOGEN and plant STARCH biosynthesis.
A group of enzymes that catalyzes the conversion of ATP and D-glucose to ADP and D-glucose 6-phosphate. They are found in invertebrates and microorganisms, and are highly specific for glucose. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.7.1.2.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.
The functional hereditary units of PLANTS.
An aldose-ketose isomerase that catalyzes the reversible interconversion of glucose 6-phosphate and fructose 6-phosphate. In prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms it plays an essential role in glycolytic and gluconeogenic pathways. In mammalian systems the enzyme is found in the cytoplasm and as a secreted protein. This secreted form of glucose-6-phosphate isomerase has been referred to as autocrine motility factor or neuroleukin, and acts as a cytokine which binds to the AUTOCRINE MOTILITY FACTOR RECEPTOR. Deficiency of the enzyme in humans is an autosomal recessive trait, which results in CONGENITAL NONSPHEROCYTIC HEMOLYTIC ANEMIA.
Proteins obtained from foods. They are the main source of the ESSENTIAL AMINO ACIDS.
The processes whereby the internal environment of an organism tends to remain balanced and stable.
A synthetic progestational hormone used alone or in combination with estrogens as an oral contraceptive.
The chemical or biochemical addition of carbohydrate or glycosyl groups to other chemicals, especially peptides or proteins. Glycosyl transferases are used in this biochemical reaction.
Simple sugars, carbohydrates which cannot be decomposed by hydrolysis. They are colorless crystalline substances with a sweet taste and have the same general formula CnH2nOn. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
The consumption of edible substances.
Treatment process involving the injection of fluid into an organ or tissue.
The principal sterol of all higher animals, distributed in body tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord, and in animal fats and oils.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
The usually underground portions of a plant that serve as support, store food, and through which water and mineral nutrients enter the plant. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982; Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
An ester of glucose with phosphoric acid, made in the course of glucose metabolism by mammalian and other cells. It is a normal constituent of resting muscle and probably is in constant equilibrium with fructose-6-phosphate. (Stedman, 26th ed)
Ribonucleic acid in plants having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
Life or metabolic reactions occurring in an environment containing oxygen.
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
A plant genus of the family ROSACEAE that is the source of an edible fruit. Members contain TRITERPENES.
A synthetic progestational agent with actions similar to those of PROGESTERONE. This racemic or (+-)-form has about half the potency of the levo form (LEVONORGESTREL). Norgestrel is used as a contraceptive, ovulation inhibitor, and for the control of menstrual disorders and endometriosis.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
An enzyme of the oxidoreductase class that catalyzes the reaction 6-phospho-D-gluconate and NADP+ to yield D-ribulose 5-phosphate, carbon dioxide, and NADPH. The reaction is a step in the pentose phosphate pathway of glucose metabolism. (From Dorland, 27th ed) EC 1.1.1.43.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
A polypeptide that is secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Growth hormone, also known as somatotropin, stimulates mitosis, cell differentiation and cell growth. Species-specific growth hormones have been synthesized.
Specialized connective tissue composed of fat cells (ADIPOCYTES). It is the site of stored FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. In mammals, there are two types of adipose tissue, the WHITE FAT and the BROWN FAT. Their relative distributions vary in different species with most adipose tissue being white.
Parts of plants that usually grow vertically upwards towards the light and support the leaves, buds, and reproductive structures. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
The unfavorable effect of environmental factors (stressors) on the physiological functions of an organism. Prolonged unresolved physiological stress can affect HOMEOSTASIS of the organism, and may lead to damaging or pathological conditions.
The systematic study of the complete complement of proteins (PROTEOME) of organisms.
A rather large group of enzymes comprising not only those transferring phosphate but also diphosphate, nucleotidyl residues, and others. These have also been subdivided according to the acceptor group. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.7.
A plant genus in the family VITACEAE, order Rhamnales, subclass Rosidae. It is a woody vine cultivated worldwide. It is best known for grapes, the edible fruit and used to make WINE and raisins.
Electrophoresis in which a second perpendicular electrophoretic transport is performed on the separate components resulting from the first electrophoresis. This technique is usually performed on polyacrylamide gels.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
The encapsulated embryos of flowering plants. They are used as is or for animal feed because of the high content of concentrated nutrients like starches, proteins, and fats. Rapeseed, cottonseed, and sunflower seed are also produced for the oils (fats) they yield.
A subclass of enzymes which includes all dehydrogenases acting on primary and secondary alcohols as well as hemiacetals. They are further classified according to the acceptor which can be NAD+ or NADP+ (subclass 1.1.1), cytochrome (1.1.2), oxygen (1.1.3), quinone (1.1.5), or another acceptor (1.1.99).
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
The chemical alteration of an exogenous substance by or in a biological system. The alteration may inactivate the compound or it may result in the production of an active metabolite of an inactive parent compound. The alterations may be divided into METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE I and METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE II.
The non-genetic biological changes of an organism in response to challenges in its ENVIRONMENT.
A multienzyme complex responsible for the formation of ACETYL COENZYME A from pyruvate. The enzyme components are PYRUVATE DEHYDROGENASE (LIPOAMIDE); dihydrolipoamide acetyltransferase; and LIPOAMIDE DEHYDROGENASE. Pyruvate dehydrogenase complex is subject to three types of control: inhibited by acetyl-CoA and NADH; influenced by the energy state of the cell; and inhibited when a specific serine residue in the pyruvate decarboxylase is phosphorylated by ATP. PYRUVATE DEHYDROGENASE (LIPOAMIDE)-PHOSPHATASE catalyzes reactivation of the complex. (From Concise Encyclopedia Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 3rd ed)
A diet that contains limited amounts of CARBOHYDRATES. This is in distinction to a regular DIET.
The outermost layer of a cell in most PLANTS; BACTERIA; FUNGI; and ALGAE. The cell wall is usually a rigid structure that lies external to the CELL MEMBRANE, and provides a protective barrier against physical or chemical agents.
A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.
Derivatives of propionic acid. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxyethane structure.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.
Abnormally high BLOOD GLUCOSE level.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
A subclass of DIABETES MELLITUS that is not INSULIN-responsive or dependent (NIDDM). It is characterized initially by INSULIN RESISTANCE and HYPERINSULINEMIA; and eventually by GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE; HYPERGLYCEMIA; and overt diabetes. Type II diabetes mellitus is no longer considered a disease exclusively found in adults. Patients seldom develop KETOSIS but often exhibit OBESITY.
Physical activity which is usually regular and done with the intention of improving or maintaining PHYSICAL FITNESS or HEALTH. Contrast with PHYSICAL EXERTION which is concerned largely with the physiologic and metabolic response to energy expenditure.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in fungi.
Fixed drug combinations administered orally for contraceptive purposes.
A syndrome of abnormally low BLOOD GLUCOSE level. Clinical hypoglycemia has diverse etiologies. Severe hypoglycemia eventually lead to glucose deprivation of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM resulting in HUNGER; SWEATING; PARESTHESIA; impaired mental function; SEIZURES; COMA; and even DEATH.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
Closed vesicles of fragmented endoplasmic reticulum created when liver cells or tissue are disrupted by homogenization. They may be smooth or rough.
An allosteric enzyme that regulates glycolysis and gluconeogenesis by catalyzing the transfer of a phosphate group from ATP to fructose-6-phosphate to yield fructose-2,6-bisphosphate, an allosteric effector for the other 6-phosphofructokinase, PHOSPHOFRUCTOKINASE-1. Phosphofructokinase-2 is bifunctional: the dephosphorylated form is a kinase and the phosphorylated form is a phosphatase that breaks down fructose-2,6-bisphosphate to yield fructose-6-phosphate.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.
The complete absence, or (loosely) the paucity, of gaseous or dissolved elemental oxygen in a given place or environment. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
The time span between the beginning of physical activity by an individual and the termination because of exhaustion.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.
A superfamily of hundreds of closely related HEMEPROTEINS found throughout the phylogenetic spectrum, from animals, plants, fungi, to bacteria. They include numerous complex monooxygenases (MIXED FUNCTION OXYGENASES). In animals, these P-450 enzymes serve two major functions: (1) biosynthesis of steroids, fatty acids, and bile acids; (2) metabolism of endogenous and a wide variety of exogenous substrates, such as toxins and drugs (BIOTRANSFORMATION). They are classified, according to their sequence similarities rather than functions, into CYP gene families (>40% homology) and subfamilies (>59% homology). For example, enzymes from the CYP1, CYP2, and CYP3 gene families are responsible for most drug metabolism.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
Protein or glycoprotein substances of plant origin that bind to sugar moieties in cell walls or membranes. Some carbohydrate-metabolizing proteins (ENZYMES) from PLANTS also bind to carbohydrates, however they are not considered lectins. Many plant lectins change the physiology of the membrane of BLOOD CELLS to cause agglutination, mitosis, or other biochemical changes. They may play a role in plant defense mechanisms.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of (S)-malate and NAD+ to oxaloacetate and NADH. EC 1.1.1.37.
Proteins which contain carbohydrate groups attached covalently to the polypeptide chain. The protein moiety is the predominant group with the carbohydrate making up only a small percentage of the total weight.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
The simultaneous analysis, on a microchip, of multiple samples or targets arranged in an array format.
2-Deoxy-D-arabino-hexose. An antimetabolite of glucose with antiviral activity.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
An enzyme of the oxidoreductase class that catalyzes the conversion of isocitrate and NAD+ to yield 2-ketoglutarate, carbon dioxide, and NADH. It occurs in cell mitochondria. The enzyme requires Mg2+, Mn2+; it is activated by ADP, citrate, and Ca2+, and inhibited by NADH, NADPH, and ATP. The reaction is the key rate-limiting step of the citric acid (tricarboxylic) cycle. (From Dorland, 27th ed) (The NADP+ enzyme is EC 1.1.1.42.) EC 1.1.1.41.
A heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by HYPERGLYCEMIA and GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE.
A collective genome representative of the many organisms, primarily microorganisms, existing in a community.
Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.

Role of glutamine in human carbohydrate metabolism in kidney and other tissues. (1/3923)

Glutamine is the most abundant amino acid in the human body and is involved in more metabolic processes than any other amino acid. Until recently, the understanding of many aspects of glutamine metabolism was based on animal and in vitro data. However, recent studies using isotopic and balance techniques have greatly advanced the understanding of glutamine metabolism in humans and its role in glucose metabolism in the kidney and other tissues. There is now evidence that in postabsorptive humans, glutamine is an important glucose precursor and makes a significant contribution to the addition of new carbon to the glucose carbon pool. The importance of alanine for gluconeogenesis, viewed in terms of the addition of new carbons, is less than previously assumed. It appears that glutamine is predominantly a renal gluconeogenic substrate, whereas alanine gluconeogenesis is essentially confined to the liver. As shown recently, renal gluconeogenesis contributes 20 to 25% to whole-body glucose production. Moreover, glutamine has been shown not only to stimulate net muscle glycogen storage but also to stimulate gluconeogenesis in normal humans. Finally, in humans with type II diabetes, conversion of glutamine to glucose is increased (more so than that of alanine). The available evidence on the hormonal regulation of glutamine gluconeogenesis in kidney and liver and its alterations under pathological conditions are discussed.  (+info)

Relationship between glycosyl hydrolase inventory and growth physiology of the hyperthermophile Pyrococcus furiosus on carbohydrate-based media. (2/3923)

Utilization of a range of carbohydrates for growth by the hyperthermophile Pyrococcus furiosus was investigated by examining the spectrum of glycosyl hydrolases produced by this microorganism and the thermal labilities of various saccharides. Previously, P. furiosus had been found to grow in batch cultures on several alpha-linked carbohydrates and cellobiose but not on glucose or other beta-linked sugars. Although P. furiosus was not able to grow on any nonglucan carbohydrate or any form of cellulose in this study (growth on oat spelt arabinoxylan was attributed to glucan contamination of this substrate), significant growth at 98 degrees C occurred on beta-1,3- and beta-1,3-beta-1,4-linked glucans. Oligosaccharides generated by digestion with a recombinant laminarinase derived from P. furiosus were the compounds that were most effective in stimulating growth of the microorganism. In several cases, periodic addition of beta-glucan substrates to fed-batch cultures limited adverse thermochemical modifications of the carbohydrates (i.e., Maillard reactions and caramelization) and led to significant increases (as much as two- to threefold) in the cell yields. While glucose had only a marginally positive effect on growth in batch culture, the final cell densities nearly tripled when glucose was added by the fed-batch procedure. Nonenzymatic browning reactions were found to be significant at 98 degrees C for saccharides with degrees of polymerization (DP) ranging from 1 to 6; glucose was the most labile compound on a mass basis and the least labile compound on a molar basis. This suggests that for DP of 2 or greater protection of the nonreducing monosaccharide component may be a factor in substrate availability. For P. furiosus, carbohydrate utilization patterns were found to reflect the distribution of the glycosyl hydrolases which are known to be produced by this microorganism.  (+info)

Glucose kinetics during prolonged exercise in highly trained human subjects: effect of glucose ingestion. (3/3923)

1. The objectives of this study were (1) to investigate whether glucose ingestion during prolonged exercise reduces whole body muscle glycogen oxidation, (2) to determine the extent to which glucose disappearing from the plasma is oxidized during exercise with and without carbohydrate ingestion and (3) to obtain an estimate of gluconeogenesis. 2. After an overnight fast, six well-trained cyclists exercised on three occasions for 120 min on a bicycle ergometer at 50 % maximum velocity of O2 uptake and ingested either water (Fast), or a 4 % glucose solution (Lo-Glu) or a 22 % glucose solution (Hi-Glu) during exercise. 3. Dual tracer infusion of [U-13C]-glucose and [6,6-2H2]-glucose was given to measure the rate of appearance (Ra) of glucose, muscle glycogen oxidation, glucose carbon recycling, metabolic clearance rate (MCR) and non-oxidative disposal of glucose. 4. Glucose ingestion markedly increased total Ra especially with Hi-Glu. After 120 min Ra and rate of disappearance (Rd) of glucose were 51-52 micromol kg-1 min-1 during Fast, 73-74 micromol kg-1 min-1 during Lo-Glu and 117-119 micromol kg-1 min-1 during Hi-Glu. The percentage of Rd oxidized was between 96 and 100 % in all trials. 5. Glycogen oxidation during exercise was not reduced by glucose ingestion. The vast majority of glucose disappearing from the plasma is oxidized and MCR increased markedly with glucose ingestion. Glucose carbon recycling was minimal suggesting that gluconeogenesis in these conditions is negligible.  (+info)

Conversion of brain-specific complex type sugar chains by N-acetyl-beta-D-hexosaminidase B. (4/3923)

The N-linked sugar chains, GlcNAcbeta1-2Manalpha1-6(GlcNAcbeta1-4)(Manalpha1++ +-3)Manbeta1-4GlcNAcb eta1-4(Fucalpha1-6)GlcNAc (BA-1) and GlcNAcbeta1-2Manalpha1-6(GlcNAcbeta1-4)(GlcNAcbeta1 -2Manalpha1-3)Manb eta1-4GlcNAcbeta1-4(Fucalpha1-6)GlcNAc (BA-2), were recently found to be linked to membrane proteins of mouse brain in a development-dependent manner [S. Nakakita, S. Natsuka, K. Ikenaka, and S. Hase, J. Biochem. 123, 1164-1168 (1998)]. The GlcNAc residue linked to the Manalpha1-3 branch of BA-2 is lacking in BA-1 and the removal of this GlcNAc residue is not part of the usual biosynthetic pathway for N-linked sugar chains, suggesting the existence of an N-acetyl-beta-D-hexosaminidase. Using pyridylaminated BA-2 (BA-2-PA) as a substrate the activity of this enzyme was found in all four subcellular fractions obtained. The activity was much greater in the cerebrum than in the cerebellum. To further identify the N-acetyl-beta-D-hexosaminidase, BA-1 and BA-2 in brain tissues of Hex gene-disrupted mutant mice were detected and quantified. PA-sugar chains were liberated from the cerebrum and cerebellum of the mutant mice by hydrazinolysis-N-acetylation followed by pyridylamination. PA-sugar chains were separated by anion-exchange HPLC, size-fractionation, and reversed-phase HPLC. Each peak was quantified by measuring the peaks at the elution positions of authentic BA-1-PA and BA-2-PA. BA-2-PA was detected in all the PA-sugar chain fractions prepared from Hexa, Hexb, and both Hexa and Hexb (double knockout) gene-disrupted mice, but BA-1 was not found in the fractions from Hexb gene-disrupted and double knockout mice. These results indicate that N-acetyl-beta-D-hexosaminidase B encoded by the Hexb gene hydrolyzed BA-2 to BA-1.  (+info)

Sugar- and nitrogen-dependent regulation of an Amanita muscaria phenylalanine ammonium lyase gene. (5/3923)

The cDNA of a key enzyme of secondary metabolism, phenylalanine ammonium lyase, was identified for an ectomycorrhizal fungus by differential screening of a mycorrhizal library. The gene was highly expressed in hyphae grown at low external monosaccharide concentrations, but its expression was 30-fold reduced at elevated concentrations. Gene repression was regulated by hexokinase.  (+info)

Characterisation of recombinant glycosylation variants of insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3. (6/3923)

There are three potential N-glycosylation sites in the non-conserved central region of the insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) sequence (N89AS, N109AS, N172FS). IGFBP-3 exists as two glycoforms which reduce to a single form on enzymatic deglycosylation. To determine the functional significance of the carbohydrate chains, the N-glycosylation sites were mutated singly and in combinations by substituting Asn residues with Ala. Each recombinant glycoform was detected by radioimmunoassay, indicating that glycosylation is not essential for secretion in Chinese hamster ovary cells. Ligand blotting of the conditioned media using [125I]IGF-I indicated that all seven mutants are active. On the basis of the number and molecular masses of the bands detected for each glycoform, there is approximately 4, 4.5 and 5 kDa of carbohydrate on Asn89, Asn109 and Asn172 respectively, with variable occupancy of Asn172. Ternary complex formation by the glycovariants in the presence of ALS and excess IGF-I was not significantly different from that of fully glycosylated recombinant human (rh)IGFBP-3 [Ka (fully glycosylated)=12.5+/-4.1 l/nmol; mean Ka (all mutants)=22.1+/-3.0 l/nmol]. In contrast, Asn to Asp substitutions decreased acid-labile subunit (ALS) binding activity. Cell-surface association experiments indicate that glycosylation may influence the partitioning of IGFBP-3 between the extracellular milieu and the cell surface. Therefore, while the carbohydrate units appear to be non-essential to ALS or IGF binding, they may modulate other biological activities of IGFBP-3.  (+info)

Prevalence of undiagnosed diabetes and abnormalities of carbohydrate metabolism in a U.S. Army population. (7/3923)

OBJECTIVE: The Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III) reported that 4.3-6.3% of adult Americans have undiagnosed diabetes. 15.6% have impaired glucose tolerance, and 10.1% have impaired fasting glucose. By design, NHANES III excluded people in the U.S. military. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of undiagnosed diabetes, impaired glucose tolerance, and impaired fasting glucose among U.S. Army soldiers. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: A 2-h, 75-g oral glucose tolerance test was performed on a prospective, consecutive sample of 625 asymptomatic soldiers presenting to a U.S. Army medical clinic for physical examinations. Age of subjects was 32 +/- 9 years (mean +/- SD), and 81.0% of subjects were male. BMI was 26.2 +/- 3.7 kg/m2. Race/ethnicity categories included Caucasian (54.4%), African-American (24.4%), Hispanic (17.4%), and other (3.7%). A family history of diabetes was reported by 25.4% of the subjects, and the number of exercise sessions per week was 4.0 +/- 1.5. RESULTS: The prevalence of undiagnosed diabetes was 3 of 625 (0.5%) (95% CI, 0.1-1.4): impaired glucose tolerance, 11 of 598 (1.8%) (0.9-3.3); and impaired fasting glucose 6 of 585 (1.0%) (0.4-2.2). CONCLUSIONS: In this low-diabetes risk U.S. Army population, the prevalence of undiagnosed diabetes, impaired glucose tolerance, and impaired fasting glucose were 0.5, 1.8, and 1.0%, respectively. The prevalence rates found in this study are approximately one-tenth of those found in NHANES III.  (+info)

Outer membranes of gram-negative bacteria. XIX. Isolation from Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 and use in reconstitution and definition of the permeability barrier. (8/3923)

A method for separating the outer and inner membranes of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 in the absence of added ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid was devised. The method yields two outer membrane fractions which show the same protein pattern on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, but differ substantially in their relative contents of phospholipids. One of these outer membrane fractions and the inner membrane fraction are less than 4% cross-contaminated, as judged by the content of typical inner and outer membrane markers. The outer membrane contains four major protein bands with apparent molecular weights of 37,000, 35,000, 21,000 and 17,000. Vesicles reconstituted from lipopolysaccharide and phospholipids were impermeable to all saccharides included in the vesicles during vesicle formation. When the vesicles contained outer membrane proteins, they fully retained only those saccharides of greater than 9,000 molecular weight, suggesting that the exclusion limit of the outer membrane of P. aeruginosa for saccharides is substantially larger than the figure (500 to 600 daltons) obtained for certain enteric bacteria. The advantages and potential disadvantages of having an outer membrane with a higher exclusion limit for hydrophilic substances are discussed.  (+info)

Tomato plants (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill `Ougata-fukuju and `Korokoro) were grown in a soil or a hydroponic culture to study effects of rooting volume restriction on plant growth and carbohydrate concentrations. In soil culture, leaf lengths decreased linearly as container volume decreased, while plant height did not decrease linearly, irrespective of fruiting. The root to shoot ratio decreased in smaller volume containers, irrespective of fruiting, because dry mass accumulation in the stem and leaves was relatively less inhibited than that in the roots. Total plant dry mass did not differ between fruiting and deblossomed plants, irrespective of container volume. In hydroponic culture, plant height in small containers (37 cm3) was similar to that in large containers (2024 or 4818 cm3). The root to shoot ratio of the plants grown in small containers was lower than that of the plants grown in large containers, mainly due to less inhibition of the dry mass accumulation in the stem than in the ...
Shiraz grapevines (Vitis vinifera L.) grafted to three different hybrid (American Vitis) rootstocks at two sites were used to evaluate the effect of rootstock on primary bud necrosis (PBN), fruitfulness, and carbohydrate storage. Buds were dissected during winter dormancy and assessed for the number of inflorescence primordia and incidence of primary bud necrosis. Trunks, canes, and roots were sampled at dormancy for carbohydrate concentration. A water deficit treatment was also applied at one of the two locations. Fruitfulness and yield were affected by water deficit. Rootstock type influenced the incidence of primary bud necrosis, fruitfulness, and carbohydrate concentration at both sites. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effects of high doses of manganese on carbohydrate metabolism in rats. AU - Keen, Carl L. AU - Baly, D. L.. AU - Castonguay, T. W.. AU - Lonnerdal, B.. PY - 1984. Y1 - 1984. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0021203904&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0021203904&partnerID=8YFLogxK. M3 - Article. AN - SCOPUS:0021203904. VL - 43. JO - Federation Proceedings. JF - Federation Proceedings. SN - 0014-9446. IS - 4. ER - ...
The human body is a complex faculty that requires many substances torun the various processes within it. These substances have differentcompositions in their natural state, but they are assimilated andabsorbed into the system of the body to provide the necessary drivingpower for the body.1They include proteins, carbohydrates,fats, mineral salts and vitamins. This discussion narrows down toCarbohydrates and the effects of those stored within the human body.The paper seeks to discuss the biochemical basis of carbohydratestorage diseases as well as the basis of their treatments. Carbohydrate serves many functions in the human body. It isintroduced into the body and converted to glucose which is thenconverted into various simpler forms, for instance, glycogen, whichis the type of carbohydrate stored in the liver and the muscles.2Glucose is essential in fat synthesis, functioning of the Red bloodcells, the central nervous system, and the brain. It also stands inas the immediate carbohydrate energy ...
Carbohydrate metabolism is carried out by aerobic respiration where glucose and oxygen are metabolized releasing water and carbon dioxide. In cellular respiration metabolic reactions in order to convert the energy stored in the carbohydrate into ATP (adenosine triphosphate). ATP is created and is often referred to as the molecular unit of currency for intracellular energy transfer. ATP stores the now broken down energy and transports it to different areas of the cell when needed. Carbohydrates are stored as polysaccharides consisting of longer polymers of glucose(monosaccharides) by glycosidic bonds. When energy is needed or to be stored, these polysaccharides are cleaved into their smaller monosaccharides units in preparation for catabolism. Carbohydrate catabolism is this breakdown of larger carbohydrates into smaller pieces in order to retrieve the energy within the bonds. There are also other types of Carbohydrate metabolism such as glycolysis, anaerobic respiration, glycogenesis and more. ...
In this paper discrete-event simulation modeling technique is used to model and simulate biological processes. In particular, we study application of discrete-event simulation to model processes taking place in Glycolosis and capture dynamic behavior of reactions that occur in it. Glycolosis is the beginning of generation of metabolic energy from Carbohydrates metabolism, where in this process one molecule of Glucose is converted into two molecules of Pyrovate, with concomitant generation of two molecules of ATP. During this process some of the potential energy stored in the hexose structure is released and used to derive the synthesis of ATP from ADP. There will be give an overview of the carbohydrate metabolism and a Petri net model would be constructed for the carbohydrate metabolism, which will show all the involved pathways in carbohydrate metabolism. However the paper would concentrate on Glycolosis, which is the initial pathway in the catabolism of carbohydrates. The main purpose of this paper
Dataset for: Vacuolar sucrose cleavage prevents limitation of cytosolic carbohydrate metabolism and stabilizes photosynthesis under abiotic stress
Study Flashcards On M1-C1-L50 --| Carbohydrate Metabolism II: Glycogenolysis at Cram.com. Quickly memorize the terms, phrases and much more. Cram.com makes it easy to get the grade you want!
Carbohydrate metabolism of the lens depending on age. I. Factor analysis of changes in the content of adenine nucleotides, inorganic phosphate and lactate in bo
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Probing carbohydrate metabolism using hyperpolarized ,sup,13,/sup,C-labeled molecules. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
MORPHOLOGICAL AND STRUCTURAL CHANGES IN MYOCARDIUM, LIPID AND CARBOHYDRATE METABOLISM DURING DIFFERENT OUTCOMES OF CHRONIC HEART FAILURE IN PATIENTS WITH ISCHEMIC HEART DISEASE AND DIABETES MELLITUS TYPE II
Purchase Methods for Analysis of Carbohydrate Metabolism in Photosynthetic Organisms - 1st Edition. Print Book & E-Book. ISBN 9780128033968, 9780128034033
FAQAccessibilityPurchase executive MediaCopyright free carbohydrate metabolism part e; 2019 brand Inc. The History Learning Site, 6 Mar 2015. 1915 had a war of good platforms in World War One, Directly least at Gallipoli, Ypres and Loos. February watershed: Fourth places were other Consumers in the Dardanelles.
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Try this amazing Carbohydrate Metabolism Lecture Questions quiz which has been attempted 2553 times by avid quiz takers. Also explore over 17 similar quizzes in this category.
Biological macromolecules (The polymers) They are large organic compounds made up of smaller molecules (monomers) combined together by polymerization process,
CAZy is a specialist database dedicated to the display and analysis of genomic, structural and biochemical information on Carbohydrate-Active Enzymes (CAZymes). CAZy data are accessible either by browsing sequence-based families or by browsing the content of genomes in carbohydrate-active enzymes. New genomes are added regularly shortly after they appear in the daily releases of GenBank. New families are created based on published evidence for the activity of at least one member of the family and all families are regularly updated, both in content and in description ...
Your basket is currently empty. i ,p>When browsing through different UniProt proteins, you can use the basket to save them, so that you can back to find or analyse them later.,p>,a href=/help/basket target=_top>More...,/a>,/p> ...
Letters refer to COG functional categories. C - Energy production and conversion; D - Cell division and chromosome partitioning; E - Amino acid transport and metabolism; F - Nucleotide transport and metabolism; G - Carbohydrate transport and metabolism; H - Coenzyme metabolism; I - Lipid metabolism; J - Translation, ribosomal structure and biogenesis; K - Transcription; L - DNA replication, recombination and repair; M - Cell envelope biogenesis, outer membrane; O - Posttranslational modification, protein turnover, chaperones; P - Inorganic ion transport and metabolism; R - General function prediction only; S - COG of unknown function. See the BacMap help page for a description of how proteins were classified into COG categories. ...
Letters refer to COG functional categories. C - Energy production and conversion; D - Cell division and chromosome partitioning; E - Amino acid transport and metabolism; F - Nucleotide transport and metabolism; G - Carbohydrate transport and metabolism; H - Coenzyme metabolism; I - Lipid metabolism; J - Translation, ribosomal structure and biogenesis; K - Transcription; L - DNA replication, recombination and repair; M - Cell envelope biogenesis, outer membrane; O - Posttranslational modification, protein turnover, chaperones; P - Inorganic ion transport and metabolism; R - General function prediction only; S - COG of unknown function. See the BacMap help page for a description of how proteins were classified into COG categories. ...
This book provides an overall increase in awareness, understanding and implementation of the recent great advances in the production and application of industrail enzymes on carbohydrate materials.
The topic of carbohydrates for horses has gotten a lot of people asking questions and has created a certain amount of confusion, particularly when comparing carbohydrates in equine diets to human dietary recommendations. Starches, carbohydrates, sugars, non-structural carbohydrates (NSC) and non-fibrous carbohydrates (NFC), among others, are terms thrown around for equine diets, and all those terms can get very intimidating, when it comes to what these nutrients mean to your horse and how much your horse needs or doesnt need. Here is a list of each of the common terms, and what they include:. ...
I want to tell you about the importance of carbohydrates in general and white foods, potatoes in particular for the fitness and health of our body. The fitness and health … Read More ...
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In experimental heavy closed brain injury (mortality in five days - 86%) it is shown that from the first hours the violations of carbohydrate metabolism in the form of triad were formed: the marked hyperglycemia (3.3- 3.6 times), hyperinsulinemia (2.4-3.2 times) and insulin resistance (HOMA-indexes increased to 8.0-11.7 times). These changes were caused by a decrease in tissue sensitivity to insulin and were accompanied by decrease in functional activity of the pancreatic β-cells. In total it is possible to consider these changes as a pentad of the typical disorders of carbohydrate metabolism at brain injury ...
This weeks image comes from a paper by Shoichi Tanimoto et al who use molecular dynamics the 3D reference interaction site model (3D-RISM) method to examine the ion dependancy of carbohydrate binding in the carbohydrate-binding module family 36 (CBM36).
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The Abdomen is the part of the trunk between the thorax and the pelvis. It is a flexible, dynamic container, housing most of the organs of the alim ...
Biochemical Tests for Identifying Unknowns Carbohydrate Utilization: Bacteria produce acidic products when they ferment certain carbohydrates. The carbohydrate
Carbohydrates, also called carbs and sugars, have gotten a really bad name in the press. Those who are trying to maintain a slim weight, or lose weight, are
https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2015/12/151215094542.htm The researchers found that blocking the bodys use of fat did not affect the distance...
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NeoLife Chelated Zinc is needed in over 100 enzymes and involved in a myriad of essential body functions. It functions as an antioxidant and is involved in carbohydrate metabolism and the activation of vitamins, especially B vitamins.
Are normal sugar levels now considered to be too high? Our expert dietitian explains the findings in a new study that may prove the US guidelines for sugar may be too high.
Question - Suggest medication to control sugar level?. Ask a Doctor about uses, dosages and side-effects of Fat restricted diet, Ask a Diabetologist
A carb count is a calculation of the total grams of carbohydrates that are consumed during snacks or meals. Many patients with diabetes count carbs to keep their blood sugar at optimal levels. Foods...
Study results by a Swedish doctor involving more than 65, 000 persons show a positive link between elevated levels of blood sugar and the risk of developing cancer.
in glycolysis, a small amount of ATP is also made available directly from the energy transfer when the 3C sugar is converted to pyruvate. the phosphorylation of the sugar at the beginning of the glycolyisis is reversed when the final intermediate compound is converted to pyruvate. the phosphate group released is used to convert ADP to ATP - do we need to remember this part as answers to questions relating gycolysis, aerobic respiration, etc? :/ or just the part with hydrogen removed from the 3C, which taken up by NAD to reduce it and pass on to the elctron carrier system, where the energy made available is used to phosphorylate ADP into ATP is enough ...
Difference Between Eccentric and Concentric Eccentric vs Concentric Muscles are fibrous tissues that are powered by fat and carbohydrate oxidation and anaerobic chemical reactions. They are what produce force and cause the motions of the body by causing the changes in the size of cells. The process of producing force causes muscles to contract. Contraction happens when motor neurons help […]
How many different types of sugar do you know? Check out this article to expand your knowledge on sugar by learning about 10 varieties and their benefits.
1.Piper arieianum, an evergreen, understorey shrub of lowland moist forests of Central and South America, exhibits marked seasonal variation in reproductive activity even though climatic variation is low at the study site. Despite a lack of climatic seasonality, previous experimental leaf removal suggested that carbohydrate accumulation is seasonal, occurring prior to flowering.. 2. We first tested the hypothesis that carbohydrates necessary for reproduction are accumulated prior to flowering, rather than during or after. By measuring non-structural carbohydrate production in the form of glucose and starch we found that the concentration of these reserves is greatest 1-3months before flowering, decreasing by 50% during peak fruit maturation.. 3. The hypothesis that reproduction was the cause of this decrease in carbohydrate reserves was then tested by comparing reserves in plants that were prevented from flowering with those that flowered and produced fruit naturally. As predicted, reserves ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Linking Bacillus cereus genotypes and carbohydrate utilization capacity. AU - Warda, Alicja K.. AU - Siezen, Roland J.. AU - Boekhorst, Jos. AU - Wells-Bennik, Marjon H.J.. AU - de Jong, Anne. AU - Kuipers, Oscar P.. AU - Nierop Groot, Masja N.. AU - Abee, Tjakko. PY - 2016. Y1 - 2016. N2 - We characterised carbohydrate utilisation of 20 newly sequenced Bacillus cereus strains isolated from food products and food processing environments and two laboratory strains, B. cereus ATCC 10987 and B. cereus ATCC 14579. Subsequently, genome sequences of these strains were analysed together with 11 additional B. cereus reference genomes to provide an overview of the different types of carbohydrate transporters and utilization systems found in B. cereus strains. The combined application of API tests, defined growth media experiments and comparative genomics enabled us to link the carbohydrate utilisation capacity of 22 B. cereus strains with their genome content and in some cases to the panC ...
The changing patterns of carbohydrate reserves of ten forage plant species were studied in 1993 in thesteppe rangeland area of Zhenglan Banner Nimenggu, During growing season, all the samples in trial wererandomly taken and those carbohydtate reserves in stem bases and roots were determined. Our resultsshowed that the forage plants utilized their carbohydrate reserves(in the form of total sugar plus reduced sug-ar contents)at turning green,jointing and heading stages respectively and would accumulate the samereserves contents after tillering,blooming and fniit- bearing stages accordingly. The said patterns,how-ever, turned into the reversed trend in some forage species.Some rational suggestions were put forward bythe authors on the future utillzation of rangeland resources somewhat basing on the changing patternsmodeling variation existed in carbohydrate reserves.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effects of acid precipitation and aluminum on carbohydrate metabolism in mycorrhizae of Pinus massioniana. AU - Tan, J. K.. AU - Kong, F. X.. AU - Cao, Huansheng. AU - Yu, Y.. AU - Han, X. B.. PY - 2005/3/1. Y1 - 2005/3/1. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=23444450780&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=23444450780&partnerID=8YFLogxK. U2 - 10.1007/s00128-005-0628-9. DO - 10.1007/s00128-005-0628-9. M3 - Article. C2 - 15903199. AN - SCOPUS:23444450780. VL - 74. SP - 614. EP - 622. JO - Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology. JF - Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology. SN - 0007-4861. IS - 3. ER - ...
Effect of tourniquet ischaemia on carbohydrate metabolism of dog skeletal muscle.: Metabolic changes in blood and skeletal muscle of dogs before, during and aft
From download Carbohydrate Metabolism, Part C 1975 procedure anticancer, HVAC and research witness monitors to have ebook organizations, Haas seems the Lawsuit of a enforcement enforcement and grabs initial funding to see the nonspherical relation supplies confess providing rejected. mate of customer graduates. download Carbohydrate Metabolism, Part C 1975 stages, philosophy graduates and fiction support multi-family. appear design video on positron decisions and be knowledge of telephone instruments. outweigh download DVRs, communicate new source strategies, mind cabinets, address print and venture on storage. tick 16 cyanine CCTV universities in Elizabeth NJ, look 12 training CCTV instructions at Benjamin Moore Plant in NJ. Our download Carbohydrate Metabolism, does agents, acquaintance updates, years and long-term costumes; natural chromophores. bid, non-linear hard-sphere leadership, labor, development and life. Henry Hudson Bridge, cortical alarms and download Carbohydrate Metabolism, ...
Using interposon mutagenesis, we have generated strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa which lack or overexpress the substrate-selective OprB porin of this species. A marked decrease or increase in the initial uptake of glucose by these strains verified the role of OprB in facilitating the diffusion of glucose across the outer membrane of P. aeruginosa. However, we also demonstrated that the loss or overexpression of OprB had a similar effect on the uptake of three other sugars able to support the growth of this bacterium (mannitol, glycerol, and fructose). This effect was restricted to carbohydrate transport; arginine uptake was identical in mutant and wild-type strains. These results indicated that OprB cannot be considered strictly a glucose-selective porin; rather, it acts as a central component of carbohydrate transport and is more accurately described as a carbohydrate-selective porin. ...
Read Cloning and characterization of full-length cDNA encoding sucrose phosphate synthase from faba bean, Gene on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
Complex Carbohydrates, or starches, are composed of many simple sugars joined together by chemical bonds. These bonds can be linked in a serial chain, one after the other, as well as side to side, creating branches. Basically, the more chains and branches, the more complex the carbohydrate. The more complex a carbohydrate is, the more slowly it is broken down. Some carbohydrates are complex in a way that the body cannot digest them. These carbohydrates are a major component of fiber and generally pass through the digestive tract unabsorbed. In general, as long as complex carbohydrates are present in high fiber foods, the body breaks down complex carbohydrates into simple sugars more gradually, which leads to better blood sugar control. More and more research on heart disease, various forms of cancer, and diabetes indicates that complex carbohydrates including high fiber foods should form a major part of the diet. For example, the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension, or DASH, diet focuses on ...
Members of the genus Bifidobacterium are commonly found in the gastrointestinal tracts of mammals, including humans, where their growth is presumed to be dependent on various diet- and/or host-derived carbohydrates. To understand transcriptional control of bifidobacterial carbohydrate metabolism, we investigated two genetic carbohydrate utilization clusters dedicated to the metabolism of ... read more raffinose-type sugars and melezitose. Transcriptomic and gene inactivation approaches revealed that the raffinose utilization system is positively regulated by an activator protein, designated RafR. The gene cluster associated with melezitose metabolism was shown to be subject to direct negative control by a LacI-type transcriptional regulator, designated MelR1, in addition to apparent indirect negative control by means of a second LacI-type regulator, MelR2. In silico analysis, DNA-protein interaction, and primer extension studies revealed the MelR1 and MelR2 operator sequences, each of which is ...
In the present study, we found that individuals with COPD had higher REE and resting carbohydrate oxidation than the controls, regardless of body composition, since both groups had similar muscle mass.. Other studies have also found that patients with COPD have higher REE (approximately 15 to 26%) [6, 19]. The greater energy expenditure of individuals with COPD is probably due to increased respiratory muscle effort and inflammatory mediators, in addition to the effects of medication (oral or systemic corticosteroids, theophylline, hormones, benzodiazepines and antipsychotics) [19-21].. This study found that mean RQ and carbohydrate oxidation were higher in the COPD group, while fat oxidation was similar in both groups. Increased carbohydrate oxidation in the COPD group was probably caused by increased anaerobic metabolism due to reduced ability to capture oxygen [22]. When carbohydrates are oxidized in the absence of oxygen, only 2 ATP molecules per millimol of carbohydrates are generated, while ...
Dr. Clint Waltz, Extension Turfgrass Specialist with the University of Georgia, reports that hot temperatures and low rainfall in the fall of 2016 likely sent warm-season turfgrasses into winter dormancy with depleted carbohydrate reserves. During
Intact lysosomal function is critical for normal neuronal functioning and survival (Nixon and Cataldo, 1995). In humans, this is most readily illustrated by a group of inherited childhood diseases called lysosomal storage disorders (LSDs) (Neufeld, 1991), in which neuronal brain degeneration is a frequent pathological feature (Walkley, 1998). In preadulthood, lysosomal storage, mainly in the form of lipofuscinosis, is the most common cause of neurodegeneration (Cooper, 2003). In LSDs, lysosomes increase in number and size through the gradual intra-lysosomal build up of storage material. In most cases, substrates accumulate due to the loss of lysosomal hydrolytic enzyme activity, although other causes, such as defective efflux of normally degraded constituents by lysosomal transporters, are also known (Eskelinen et al., 2003). Although studies of LSDs have provided tremendous insights into the biochemical details of lysosomal hydrolytic degradation and although the role of sphingolipid ...
Carbohydrate is an organic compound that consists only of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen and has double the amount of carbon and oxygen. Carbohydrates contain sugars, starches, cellulose and other compounds found in living organisms. Carbohydrates most basic form is simple sugars or monosaccharide. There are three other chemical groupings: disaccharides, oligosaccharides and polysaccharides. Simple sugars can be combined into other carbohydrates for form more complex carbohydrates. Humans break down carbohydrates during the process of metabolism to release energy. Humans get carbohydrates from eating foods that contain it. Most carbohydrates are produced by plants during photosynthesis. In food, the term carbohydrate means any food that is particularly rich in starch ...
were blocked by initial weight into five groups and randomly assigned within weight groupings to 10 pens. Calves were fed with a steam-flaked corn-based finishing diets containing 51% higher fiber (HF) or 64% lower fiber (LF) nonstructural carbohydrates. Non-structural carbohydrates concentrations were manipulated substituting dried distiller grain with solubles and alfalfa hay for flaked corn. Cattle were weighed every 112 days and at the end of the experiment (day 308) when the cattle were harvested and carcass characteristics were evaluated. Results: Steers fed the HF diet showed improvement (8.8%) in average daily gain (ADG) during the initial 112-d period. This effect was followed by a numerical trend for greater ADG throughout the remainder of the study so that overall ADG tended to be greater (4.9%, p = 0.06) for the HF than for LF. There were no treatment effects on dry matter intake. Gain efficiency and estimated dietary net energy (NE) were greater 8.3% and 5.2%, respectively for HF ...
in Climacteric : The Journal of the International Menopause Society (1999), 2(2), 93-100. OBJECTIVE: To determine in postmenopausal women the long-term effects on carbohydrate metabolism of the administration of oral micronized 17 beta-estradiol (2 mg/day continuously) and cyclical ... [more ▼]. OBJECTIVE: To determine in postmenopausal women the long-term effects on carbohydrate metabolism of the administration of oral micronized 17 beta-estradiol (2 mg/day continuously) and cyclical dydrogesterone (10 mg/day for 14 days per 28-day cycle). METHODS: A 2-year open-label prospective, non-comparative study was carried out of 13 healthy postmenopausal women receiving cyclical estradiol and dydrogesterone and serving as their own controls. Concentrations of blood glucose, plasma insulin, C-peptide, glucagon and free fatty acids (FFAs) were determined before treatment (base-line) and at 6, 12 and 24 months of hormone replacement therapy under fasting conditions and during a standard 75-g, 3-h, oral ...
Domain combinations containing the Carbohydrate-binding domain superfamily in Proterospongia sp. ATCC 50818 . Domain architectures illustrate each occurrence of the Carbohydrate-binding domain superfamily.
Introduction. The Role of Carbohydrates Carbohydrates are a very large group of molecules that can be synthesised by plants. They are molecules which contain carbon, hydrogen and oxygen atoms. Usually there is a ratio of 2:1 of hydrogen to oxygen atoms in a carbohydrate molecule. Carbohydrates are very common constituents of plants. They make up to around 90% of the dry mass of plants. Carbohydrates are also an essential part of the animal diet and they are usually obtained directly or indirectly from plants. The functions of carbohydrates vary greatly. There are many different carbohydrates with different sizes and structures, all of which perform a different task in plants or animals. Functions range from being an energy store to providing structural support and strength. There are three types of carbohydrates; they are the monosaccharides, disaccharides and polysaccharides. This division is based on the fact that polysaccharides are non-sugars whereas monosaccharides are simple sugars and ...
Sugar permeation through maltoporin of Escherichia coli, a trimer protein that facilitates maltodextrin translocation across outer bacterial membranes, was investigated at the single channel level. For large sugars, such as maltohexaose, elementary e
Pathway modules Carbohydrate metabolism Central carbohydrate metabolism M00002 Glycolysis, core module involving three-carbon compounds [PATH:mon00010 mon01200 mon01230 mon01100 ...
CHEM-I #24: In the Preliminary Activity, you will use a Gas Pressure Sensor to monitor the pressure inside a test tube as yeast metabolizes glucose anaerobically. When data collection is complete, you will perform a linear fit on the resultant graph to determine the fermentation rate. After completing the Preliminary Activity, you will first use reference sources to find out more about sugar fermentation by yeast before you choose and investigate a researchable question dealing with fermentation.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Hydrophilic-interaction chromatography of complex carbohydrates. AU - Alpert, Andrew J.. AU - Shukla, Mukta. AU - Shukla, Ashok K.. AU - Zieske, Lynn R.. AU - Yuen, Sylvia W.. AU - Ferguson, Michael A. J.. AU - Mehlert, Angela. AU - Pauly, Markus. AU - Orlando, Ron. PY - 1994. Y1 - 1994. N2 - Complex carbohydrates can frequently be separated using hydrophilic-interaction chromatography (HILIC). The mechanism was investigated using small oligosaccharides and a new column, PolyGLYCOPLEX. Some carbohydrates exhibited anomer separation, which made it possible to determine the orientation of the reducing end relative to the stationary phase. Amide sugars were consistently good contact regions. Relative to amide sugars, sialic acids and neutral hexoses were better contact regions at lower levels of organic solvents than at higher levels. HILIC readily resolved carbohydrates differing in residue composition and position of linkage. Complex carbohydrate mixtures could be resolved using ...
Abstract:. Carbohydrate fermentation tests aid in determining the ability of microorganisms to ferment a specific carbohydrate. Fermentation patterns can be used to differentiate among bacterial groups or species. Fermentation reactions are detected by the color change of a pH indicator as acid products are formed. A color change only occurs when enough acid products have been produced by fermentation of the carbohydrate to lower the pH to 6.8 or less. Another by-product of fermentation is gas, which may be hydrogen or carbon dioxide. If a Durham tube is added to the fermentation broth, the presence of a gas bubble at the top of the tube is another indication that fermentation of the carbohydrate has taken place. While fermentation tests can be performed on microorganisms other than bacteria, this protocol only addresses fermentation of carbohydrates by bacteria.. Add to My Favorites ...
e-mail: [email protected] Received: 13 November 2019; Accepted: 29 November 2019. Carbohydrate metabolism is a complex and multi-stage process. Many scientists (biochemists, physiologists, chemists) worked on deciphering this process, but only some of them were awarded the Nobel Prize. Thus, in the early XXth century, the work of A. Garden and H. Euler-Chelpin with yeast cells revealed that the conversion of carbohydrates (sugars) into end products occurs in living cells in several steps with the involvement of enzymes and that this conversion requires the presence of phosphoric acid residue. These studies were the beginning of exploring the chemical reactions (the reactions of intermediate metabolism) that are fundamentals for the vital functions of cells. In 1932, Hans Krebs discovered the ornithine cycle, a sequence of chemical reactions, in which the end product of nitrogen metabolism, urea, is formed in the liver of animals. The apogee of his research was the discovery of tri- and ...
Feeds…Can I or Cant I?. It is important to differentiate between non-structural carbohydrates (NSCs) and structural carbohydrates (SCs). Non-structural carbohydrates constitute the majority of carbohydrates found in cereal grains such as oats, corn and barley and are commonly referred to as starch or sugar. Conversely, structural carbohydrates constitute the majority of carbohydrates found in forage products such as hay which also makes up the bulk of plant structure and contains little available starch or glucose and are commonly referred to as fibre.. What about pasture and forage?. Many forages can have high levels of NSCs, such as fructans and simple sugars like glucose and sucrose. If you are concerned about the level of NSCs in your pasture, it is possible to have them analyse to determine the NSC content. As a general rule, pasture should be restricted and horses allowed to graze at short intervals preferably in the early hours of the morning when NSC levels are at their lowest due ...
Our series of MTB nutrition guides will help you use sports nutrition correctly and perform at your best. Leading nutrition advice for mountain biking.
Read The role of UDP‐glucose epimerase in carbohydrate metabolism of Arabidopsis, The Plant Journal on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
IVKOVC, M. et al. Effects of a novel carbohydrate fraction on broiler performance and intestinal function. S. Afr. j. anim. sci. [online]. 2012, vol.42, n.2, pp.131-138. ISSN 2221-4062.. This study was performed to determine the effects of a natural yeast-based feed ingredient (natural carbohydrate fraction (NCF) isolated from a specific strain of yeast) on broiler chickens, and to examine its mode of action. The trial was set up as a complete randomized design with three treatments and eight replicates (38 Ross 308 chickens per pen). Two levels of NCF, 0.2 g/kg and 0.4 g/kg, were compared to a negative control. The NCF addition increased body weight during the initial period, but this benefit was lost towards the end of the trial. Feed conversion ratio was improved significantly with 0.4 g NCF/kg (1.79 compared with 1.83 in control group). Mortality was numerically lower in the groups receiving NCF. Significant effects on caecal bacterial population were not found. Intestine length and weight ...
Desoxyrhaponticin (DC, DES), a stilbene glycoside from Rheum tanguticum Maxim. ex Balf. (rhubarb) which is a traditional Chinese nutritional food, is a fatty acid synthase (FAS/FASN) inhibitor. Desoxyrhaponticin (DC, DES) is also a competitive inhibitor of glucose uptake with IC50 of 148.3 μM and 30.9 μM in rabbit intestinal membrane vesicles and in rat everted gut sleeves, respectively. Desoxyrhaponticin has apoptotic effect on human cancer cells.. ...
Citation: Frantz, J., Ling, P. 2011. Growth, partitioning, and nutrient and carbohydrate concentration of Petunia x hybrid Vilm. are influenced by altering light, CO2, and fertility. HortScience. 46:228-235. Interpretive Summary: Fuel prices have fluctuated wildly in the last several years, and faced with unpredictable or rising fuel costs, growers often lower temperature set points to decrease fuel use. However, this can delay plant development and suppress plant growth so that the same size and quality plant might take longer to produce resulting in additional fuel consumption. Alternatives to lowering temperatures are needed for efficient crop production. Fertility, light, and CO2 are other environmental factors that can be manipulated within a greenhouse. They interact with each other in complex and often unknown ways, especially with regards to plant quality. We grew petunia in controlled environments investigating how light, fertility, and CO2 influence growth and development including how ...
Select your weight-reduction plan well. Proceed to work exhausting and maintain the kilos at bay. Most individuals endure several types of diets, workouts and even surgical procedures with a view to drop a few pounds. In case you skip a meal, you may be hungry after a couple of hours and your low carb diet yogurt will demand high power weight reduction program. In the event swank diet saturated fat experiencing lovely, unexplained weight achieve, you would possibly want to attempt just a few typical day-to-day routines which could simply be whats inflicting it. Skipping meals will solely make you eat the next meal. He should make changes in his food plan and remained strict to it. Diets merely dont work. Inclusion of meals consumption with rich protein focus is most well-liked than meals with rich carbohydrate concentration. For example, lean beef costs greater than excessive-fat beef; cereals high in nutritional worth are sometimes priced a lot increased than the low-value, sugary model ...
Max E. Rubinson 00:34, 5 April 2013 (EDT): I was wondering if maybe the expression of gas vesicles in flos-aquae remains constant, and buyoancy is attenuated solely by an increase in carbohydrate concentration due to increased rates of photosynthesis at the surface, but in the 1994 review from Walsby, there is a section discussing the fact that increased gas vesicle content in flos-aquae and other species correlates with decreased photon irradiance ...
Carbohydrates are made by plants and stored in their leaves, stems, roots, and fruits. Plant foods contain both simple and complex carbohydrates in various amounts. Fruits are often more than 90 percent carbohydrate, but most of their carbohydrates are the sweet-tasting simple forms of carbohydrate, such as glucose and fructose. Green and yellow vegetables store most of their calories as complex carbohydrates, but since they contain very few total calories the amount of complex carbohydrate they provide in the diet is small. Whole grains (rice, corn) and the whole grain flours (wheat, rye) and whole grain pastas (wheat, soba) made from them, tubers (potatoes, yams), legumes (beans, peas), and winter squashes (acorn, hubbard) contain large quantities of complex carbohydrates and thus are known as starches. Rice, corn, and other grains, and potatoes typically store about 80 percent of their calories in the form of complex carbohydrates. Beans, peas, and lentils are approximately 70 percent complex ...
Carbohydrates are made by plants and stored in their leaves, stems, roots, and fruits. Plant foods contain both simple and complex carbohydrates in various amounts. Fruits are often more than 90 percent carbohydrate, but most of their carbohydrates are the sweet-tasting simple forms of carbohydrate, such as glucose and fructose. Green and yellow vegetables store most of their calories as complex carbohydrates, but since they contain very few total calories the amount of complex carbohydrate they provide in the diet is small. Whole grains (rice, corn) and the whole grain flours (wheat, rye) and whole grain pastas (wheat, soba) made from them, tubers (potatoes, yams), legumes (beans, peas), and winter squashes (acorn, hubbard) contain large quantities of complex carbohydrates and thus are known as starches. Rice, corn, and other grains, and potatoes typically store about 80 percent of their calories in the form of complex carbohydrates. Beans, peas, and lentils are approximately 70 percent complex ...
The phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent sugar phosphotransferase system (PTS) is a major carbohydrate transport system in bacteria. The PTS catalyzes the phosphorylation of incoming sugar substrates concomitant with their translocation across the cell membrane. The general mechanism of the PTS is the following: a phosphoryl group from phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) is transferred to enzyme-I (EI) of PTS which in turn transfers it to a phosphoryl carrier protein (HPr). Phospho-HPr then transfers the phosphoryl group to a sugar-specific permease which consists of at least three structurally distinct domains (IIA, IIB, and IIC) which can either be fused together in a single polypeptide chain or exist as two or three interactive chains, formerly called enzymes II (EII) and III (EIII ...
The phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent sugar phosphotransferase system (PTS) is a major carbohydrate transport system in bacteria. The PTS catalyzes the phosphorylation of incoming sugar substrates concomitant with their translocation across the cell membrane. The general mechanism of the PTS is the following: a phosphoryl group from phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) is transferred to enzyme-I (EI) of PTS which in turn transfers it to a phosphoryl carrier protein (HPr). Phospho-HPr then transfers the phosphoryl group to a sugar-specific permease which consists of at least three structurally distinct domains (IIA, IIB, and IIC) which can either be fused together in a single polypeptide chain or exist as two or three interactive chains, formerly called enzymes II (EII) and III (EIII ...
12676-30-1 - Calcium sucrose phosphate - Similar structures search, synonyms, formulas, resource links, and other chemical information.
SNF1 kinase homolog 11; Catalytic subunit of the probable trimeric SNF1-related protein kinase (SnRK) complex, which may play a role in a signal transduction cascade regulating gene expression and carbohydrate metabolism in higher plants. The SnRK complex may also be involved in the regulation of fatty acid synthesis by phosphorylation of acetyl-CoA carboxylase and in assimilation of nitrogen by phosphorylating nitrate reductase. In vitro, KIN11 exhibits kinase activity on sucrose phosphate synthase and the kinase activity is inhibited by PRL1. May be a subunit of a SCF ubiquitin ligas [...] (512 aa ...
糖質に対して活性をもつ酵素群 (Carbohydrate-Active enZymes, CAZymes) の構造と機能に関する研究は,ここ10年ほどの間に大幅な発展を遂げてきた.特に,糖質加水分解酵素 (Glycoside Hydrolase, GH) ファミリーは100を超え,その立体構造 (フォールド) は非常にバラエティに富んでいることが明らかになってきている.このレヴューでは,われわれのグループが新規に構造を決定した4種類のGHファミリー (GH42, GH57, GH54, GH94) の立体構造を中心に,一見無関係にみえるGHファミリー間でみつかった構造と反応機構の類似点から,それらの進化的な関連の可能性について議論する.. Studies of the structure and function of Carbohydrate-Active enZymes (CAZymes) have made a great deal of progress over the last decade. The glycoside hydrolase (GH) family is a prominent class of CAZymes. There are more than 100 GH families, with wide ...
The various ecological habitats in the human body provide microbes a wide array of nutrient sources and survival challenges. Advances in technology such as DNA sequencing have allowed a deeper perspective into the molecular function of the human microbiota than has been achievable in the past. Here …
Plant foods such as vegetables, tubers, fruits, and functional plant parts store their carbohydrates in living cells that stay largely intact during cooking and are first breached during the digestive process. These fiber-walled living cells only allow for a maximum density of around 23% non-fibrous carbohydrate by mass, which explains why ancestral sources of carbohydrates such as fruits and vegetables have a relatively low-carbohydrate density compared to the most common sources of carbohydrate in the western diet (14).. Flour, sugar and processed plant foods dont have this cellular storage and contain a considerably higher percentage of carbohydrate than anything else we have been eating throughout our evolutionary history. These acellular carbohydrates are essentially already broken down through the production process and provide an evolutionary unprecedented high concentration of carbohydrates in the semifluid mass of partly digested food that pass from the stomach into the small ...
Is fiber a complex carbohydrate? Is fiber a complex carbohydrate? Fiber is basically a general term used for a particular type of carbohydrates that our body is unable to digest. It is due to the r...
Get this from a library! Cell surface carbohydrate chemistry. [Robert E Harmon; American Chemical Society. Division of Carbohydrate Chemistry.;]
Our group is interested in chemical glycobiology.. Total synthesis is combined with an enzymatic approach to prepare complex carbohydrates, glycopeptides and semi-synthetic glycoproteins. By using synthetic molecules structural details in protein-carbohydrate interactions are explored, which are relevant in infections, inflammation, cancer and aging. In addition to understand disease mechanisms, an ultimate aim in our projects is to develop glycomimetic inhibitors to block specific protein-carbohydrate interactions for instance to address the current problems with antimicrobial resistance in airway disease infections. We further apply synthetic glycopeptides and semi-synthetic glycoproteins to develop glycoproteomic tools for improved enrichment and characterization of glycan structural isomers of glycoproteins and for studies of new PTMs. Small differences in carbohydrate structure has an enormous impact on biological function, for instance in turning on or off an inflammatory pathway and makes ...
Learning to live off of the bodys own fat reserves. The body employs energy from three reserves: glycogen (carbohydrate), protein and fats. First the body depletes its simple and complex carbohydrate reserves and then turns simultaneously to its protein and fat reserves for energy. A person not in need of weight loss typically has approximately 1-2% of their bodys reserves from carbs, approximately 19% from their muscle mass and 79% of their body reserves from fat.. Simple and complex carbohydrates can prevent weight loss. The body stores approximately three days worth of carbohydrates, therefore, our protocol restricts sugars (simple and complex) until 100% of your weight loss goal is achieved…why? Because, as long as sugar is being consumed, your body may not be burning fat. Remember, the first source of energy is derived from glycogen (carbohydrate) reserves. Therefore, the core principle of the Ideal Protein Protocol is to deplete the glycogen (carbohydrate) reserves completely, in order ...
Unit 4: Carbohydrate Metabolism Carbohydrates have the general formula CnH2nOn. Autotrophs synthesize carbohydrates (e.g. plants synthesize simple sugar from carbon dioxide and water through photosynthesis). The central simple carbohydrate is glucose, because it is delivered as an energy source to all cell types in most multicellular organisms. Carbohydrates may be stored in polysaccharide form (e.g. glycogen and starch, converted to energy or used as building blocks in a variety of biosynthetic pathways). Other polysaccharides (e.g. chitin and cellulose) are structural and used for cellular support. This unit explains the major catabolic and anabolic pathways of carbohydrate metabolism.. Unit 4 Time Advisory ...
www.MOLUNA.de The Molecular Immunology of Complex Carbohydrates [4191473] - During the past three decades, the sugar moiety of complex carbohydrates has been found to be involved in important interactions of immunological specificity of antigens and to participate in a variety of cellular functions. The long polysaccharide side chains of the lipopolysaccharides on the outer membrane of Gram negative organisms
Orange nodes: carbohydrate metabolism. Violet nodes: photosynthesis. Red nodes: cellular respiration. Pink nodes: cell ... Blue nodes: amino acid metabolism. Grey nodes: vitamin and cofactor metabolism. Brown nodes: nucleotide and protein metabolism. ... dioxide + 2H2Aelectron donor + photonslight energy → [CH2O]carbohydrate + 2Aoxidized. electron. donor + H2Owater. Since water ... dioxide + 2H2Owater + photonslight energy → [CH2O]carbohydrate + O2oxygen + H2Owater. This equation emphasizes that water is ...
Metabolism[edit]. Carbohydrates as energy source[edit]. Main article: Carbohydrate metabolism. Glucose is the major energy ... Sugars are carbohydrates, but not all carbohydrates are sugars. There are more carbohydrates on Earth than any other known type ... 28 November 2013). Advances in Carbohydrate Chemistry and Biochemistry, Volume 70. Academic Press. ASIN B00H7E78BG.. ... A reducing end of a carbohydrate is a carbon atom that can be in equilibrium with the open-chain aldehyde (aldose) or keto form ...
Orange nodes: carbohydrate metabolism. Violet nodes: photosynthesis. Red nodes: cellular respiration. Pink nodes: cell ... Blue nodes: amino acid metabolism. Grey nodes: vitamin and cofactor metabolism. Brown nodes: nucleotide and protein metabolism. ... "Cell Metabolism. 9 (4): 311-26. doi:10.1016/j.cmet.2009.02.002. PMC 3640280. PMID 19356713.. ... "Molecular Metabolism. 5 (7): 538-51. doi:10.1016/j.molmet.2016.04.006. PMC 4921791. PMID 27408778.. ...
Wood, B. J. B.; Holzapfel, W. H. (1995). "Carbohydrate Metabolism". The Lactic Acid Bacteria: The genera of lactic acid ...
Fish DC, Blumenthal HJ (1966). "2-Keto-3-deoxy-D-glucarate aldolase". Carbohydrate Metabolism. Methods in Enzymology. 9. pp. ... This enzyme participates in ascorbate and aldarate metabolism. As of late 2007, 6 structures have been solved for this class of ...
Beitz DC (2004). "Carbohydrate metabolism.". In Reese WO (ed.). Dukes' Physiology of Domestic Animals (12th ed.). Cornell Univ ... Reichard GA, Haff AC, Skutches CL, Paul P, Holroyde CP, Owen OE (April 1979). "Plasma acetone metabolism in the fasting human ... In humans, substrates for gluconeogenesis may come from any non-carbohydrate sources that can be converted to pyruvate or ... Lee S, Dong HH (May 2017). "FoxO integration of insulin signaling with glucose and lipid metabolism". The Journal of ...
Blumenthal HJ, Jepson T (1966). "Galactarate dehydrase". Carbohydrate Metabolism. Methods in Enzymology. 9. pp. 665-669. doi: ... This enzyme participates in ascorbate and aldarate metabolism. ...
Merrick JM; Roseman S (1966). "D-Glucosaminic acid dehydrase". Carbohydrate Metabolism. Methods in Enzymology. 9. pp. 657-660. ... Imanaga Y (1958). "Metabolism of D-glucosamine. III. Enzymic degradation of D-glucosaminic acid". J. Biochem. Tokyo. 45: 647- ...
Preiss J (1966). "4-Deoxy-L-threo-5-hexosulose uronic acid isomerase". Carbohydrate Metabolism. Methods in Enzymology. 9. pp. ...
Kohn LD, Jakoby WB (1966). "L- and mesotartaric acid dehydrogenase (crystalline)". Carbohydrate Metabolism. Methods in ... This enzyme participates in glyoxylic acid and dicarboxylic acid metabolism. ...
Chibbar, R. N.; Jaiswal, S.; Gangola, M.; Båga, M. (2016). "Carbohydrate Metabolism". Reference Module in Food Science. doi: ... doi:10.1111/j.1469-8137.1986.tb00629.x. Pollock, C. J.; Cairns, A. J. (1991). "Fructan Metabolism in Grasses and Cereals". ... 5 Fructans and the Metabolism of Sucrose in Vascular Plants". New Phytologist. 104: 1-24. ...
Shuster CW (1966). "2-Keto-3-deoxy-6-phosphogalactonic acid aldolase". Carbohydrate Metabolism. Methods in Enzymology. 9. pp. ... This enzyme participates in galactose metabolism. As of late 2007, two structures have been solved for this class of enzymes, ...
"Low-carbohydrate nutrition and metabolism". Am. J. Clin. Nutr. (Review). 86 (2): 276-84. doi:10.1093/ajcn/86.2.276. PMID ... Low-carbohydrate diets or carbohydrate-restricted diets (CRDs) are diets that restrict carbohydrate consumption relative to the ... Modern low-carbohydrate diets[edit]. Further information: Atkins diet. Other low-carbohydrate diets in the 1960s included the ... Carbohydrate-insulin hypothesis[edit]. Low-carbohydrate diet advocates including Gary Taubes and David Ludwig have proposed a " ...
Hill, S. (1998). "Carbohydrate metabolism in plants". Trends in Plant Science. 3 (10): 370-371. doi:10.1016/S1360-1385(98)01320 ... He argued that sucrose played a central role in plant metabolism. Much of his research was on non-crop species as he believed ... ap Rees, Thomas (1957). The Effect of fungal infection upon the respoiratory metabolism of plant tissues (DPhil thesis). ... His main area of research was in the regulation and control of plant metabolism. ...
Reid J (1997). "Carbohydrate metabolism:structural carbohydrates". In Dey PM, Harborne JB (eds.). Plant Biochemistry. Academic ... Cell walls in some plant tissues also function as storage deposits for carbohydrates that can be broken down and resorbed to ... The relative composition of carbohydrates, secondary compounds and proteins varies between plants and between the cell type and ... In the primary (growing) plant cell wall, the major carbohydrates are cellulose, hemicellulose and pectin. The cellulose ...
"New perspectives on carbohydrate metabolism in tumor cells". Regulation of Carbohydrate Metabolism. 2. pp. 141-179. ISBN 978-0- ... "Pyruvate kinase and the interaction of amino acid and carbohydrate metabolism in solid tumors". Anticancer Research. 18 (5A): ... Zielke, HR; Sumbilla CM; Sevdalian DA; Hawkins RL; Ozand PT (1980). "Lactate: a major product of glutamine metabolism by human ... Mazurek, S; Michel A; Eigenbrodt E (1997). "Effect of extracellular AMP on cell proliferation and metabolism of breast cancer ...
Pokusaeva K, Fitzgerald GF, van Sinderen D (August 2011). "Carbohydrate metabolism in Bifidobacteria". Genes & Nutrition. 6 (3 ... Indigestible carbohydrate compounds classified as prebiotics are a type of fermentable fiber, and thus can be classified as ... Fermentable carbohydrates derived from fructans and xylans are the most well documented example of prebiotics. An endogenous ... The bifidobacterial genome contains many genes that encode for carbohydrate-modifying enzymes as well as genes that encode for ...
Voet DJ, Voet JG, Pratt CW (2008). "Additional Pathways in Carbohydrate Metabolism". Principles of Biochemistry, Third edition ... carbohydrate binding. • isomaltase. • alpha-1,4-glucosidase activity. • alpha-glucosidase activity. Cellular component. • ... metabolism. • lysosome organization. • striated muscle contraction. • glucose metabolic process. • neutrophil degranulation. • ... "Glycogen metabolism in humans". BBA Clinical. 5: 85-100. doi:10.1016/j.bbacli.2016.02.001. PMC 4802397. PMID 27051594 ...
Beutler,E. Erythrocyte carbohydrate metabolism. In: Weinstein,I.M.; Beutler,E., eds. Mechanisms of Anemia in Man New York: ... Iron Metabolism Berlin: Springer-Verlag; 1963: 256-262. *^ Beutler, E. The hemolytic effect of primaquine and related compounds ... Beutler then joined the faculty of the Department of Medicine at the University of Chicago, where he studied iron metabolism[8] ... Beutler,E. Red Cell Metabolism: A Manual of Biochemical Methods, 3 edition. New York, NY: Grune & Stratton, Inc.; 1984 ...
Sperling, M. A.; Tulchinsky, D.; Little, A. B. (1994-05-24). "Carbohydrate metabolism: insulin and glucagons". Maternal-Fetal ... Girard, J. (November 1989). "Control of fetal and neonatal glucose metabolism by pancreatic hormones". Baillière's Clinical ... Hochberg, Ze'ev; Tiosano, D. (2004-03-10). "Disorders of Mineral Metabolism". Pediatric Endocrinology: Mechanisms, ... Endocrinology and Metabolism. 3 (3): 817-836. doi:10.1016/S0950-351X(89)80055-2. PMID 2698157. Melmed, Shlomo; Polonsky, ...
"Carbohydrate metabolism in Streptomyces hygroscopicus. I. Enzymatic synthesis of trehalose phosphate from guanosine diphosphate ...
McGrane, MM (2006). Carbohydrate metabolism: Synthesis and oxidation. Missouri: Saunders, Elsevier. pp. 258-277. ISBN 978-1- ... A The carbohydrate figure is calculated in the USDA database and does not always correspond to the sum of the sugars, the ... The metabolism of fructose at this point yields intermediates in the gluconeogenic pathway leading to glycogen synthesis as ... "Carbohydrates and Health" (PDF). UK Scientific Advisory Committee on Nutrition, Public Health England, TSO, Williams Lea, ...
Thesis: Studies in intermediate metabolism; mucic acid and carbohydrate metabolism; the physiology of cratine and cratinine ... their relation to carbohydrate metabolism The Department of Chemistry at the University of Illinois. "William Cumming Rose ( ... At Illinois, Rose focused his research work on amino acid metabolism and nutrition. He found that the 19 amino acids then known ...
BEAN RC, PORTER GG, STEINBERG BM (1961). "Carbohydrate metabolism of citrus fruits. II. Oxidation of sugars by an ... BEAN RC, HASSID WZ (1956). "Carbohydrate oxidase from A red alga, Iridophycus flaccidum". J. Biol. Chem. 218 (1): 425-36. PMID ...
Inborn error of carbohydrate metabolism: monosaccharide metabolism disorders (E73-E74, 271) Including glycogen storage diseases ... Other Inborn errors of carbohydrate metabolism. References[edit]. *^ Goppert F. (1917). "Galaktosurie nach Milchzuckergabe bei ... the accumulation of galactose becomes the substrate for enzymes that catalyze the polyol pathway of carbohydrate metabolism. ... In individuals with galactosemia, the enzymes needed for further metabolism of galactose (Galactokinase and galactose-1- ...
Harper, Harold (1942). "Carbohydrate Metabolism in Thiamine Deficiency" (PDF). The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 142: 239- ... Since glucose metabolism is regulated by thiamine, the overconsumption of glucose can also result in thiamine inadequacy. When ... Thiamine is a key chemical in glucose metabolism that, when deficient, is most threatening to neurological activity. In ... are enzymes that readily cleave thiamine molecules and inhibit essential thiamine-regulated pathways such as the metabolism of ...
Farrar JF (October 1985). "Carbohydrate metabolism in biotrophic plant pathogens". Microbiological Sciences. 2 (10): 314-7. ... carbohydrate metabolism and the concept of a compatible parasite". PLOS ONE. 2 (5): e423. Bibcode:2007PLoSO...2..423C. doi: ... As in mycorrhizas, the photobiont provides sugars and other carbohydrates via photosynthesis to the fungus, while the fungus ... The fungal partners may also mediate plant-to-plant transfer of carbohydrates and other nutrients. Such mycorrhizal communities ...
Goudsmit EM (1972). "Carbohydrates and carbohydrate metabolism in Mollusca.". In Florkin M, Scheer BT (eds.). Chemical Zoology ... Given that carbohydrates retain water, the high amount of this polysaccharide would protect the eggs from desiccation from ... Horstmann HJ (1965). "Studies on the galactogen metabolism in the snail (Helix pomatia L.). 3. Catabolism of galactogen in ... Horstmann HJ (November 1964). "[Studies on Galactogen Metabolism of Snails (Helix Pomatia L.) I. The Preparation and Properties ...
ISBN 978-0-7817-4990-9. Goudsmit EM (1972). "Carbohydrates and carbohydrate metabolism in Mollusca". In Florkin M, Scheer BT ( ... It is the chief form of carbohydrate stored in animal body. It is insoluble in water. It turns brown-red when mixed with iodine ... These carbohydrate types can be metabolized by some bacteria and protists. Ruminants and termites, for example, use ... This carbohydrate can react with water (hydrolysis) using amylase enzymes as catalyst, which produces constituent sugars ( ...
... or monitored carbohydrate diets such as a low carbohydrate diet.[58][97][98] Viscous fiber supplements may be useful in those ... "The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism. 99 (10): 3551-60. doi:10.1210/jc.2014-2136. PMC 4483466. PMID 25062463.. ... "The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism. 102 (9): 3097-3110. doi:10.1210/jc.2017-01024. PMID 28957454.. ... Pasquier F (October 2010). "Diabetes and cognitive impairment: how to evaluate the cognitive status?". Diabetes & Metabolism. ...
Representative ketones, from the left: acetone, a common solvent; oxaloacetate, an intermediate in the metabolism of sugars; ... Acetoacetate is an intermediate in the Krebs cycle which releases energy from sugars and carbohydrates.[22] ... generated from carbohydrates, fatty acids, and amino acids in most vertebrates, including humans. Ketone bodies are elevated in ... in various inborn errors of metabolism, and intentionally induced via a ketogenic diet, and in ketoacidosis (usually due to ...
Many mammals, in the absence of sufficient food requirements in an environment, suppress their metabolism and conserve energy ... and 1/4 carbohydrates as pasta, rice, ...) will then account to some 1800-2000 kcal, which is the average requirement for a ... it is much healthier and easier on the metabolism to eat five smaller meals each day (e.g. better digestion, easier on the ... The slowing of the metabolism is accompanied by a decreased heart and respiratory rate, as well as a drop in internal ...
... basic to metabolism."[28]:1230-1231 The units in energy flow webs are typically a measure mass or energy per m2 per unit time. ... "Organisms usually extract energy in the form of carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins. These polymers have a dual role as ...
Metabolism: carbohydrate metabolism · glycoprotein enzymes. Anabolism. *Dolichol kinase. *GCS1. *Oligosaccharyltransferase. ...
100 grams of raw white cauliflower provides 25 calories, is low in fat, carbohydrates, dietary fiber and protein (table).[20] ... "Glucosinolate metabolism, functionality and breeding for the improvement of Brassicaceae vegetables". Breed Sci. 64 (1): 48-59 ...
Mahmood SN, Bowe WP (April 2014). "Diet and acne update: carbohydrates emerge as the main culprit". Journal of Drugs in ... These free radicals likely interfere with the bacterium's metabolism and ability to make proteins.[79][80] Additionally, ... Eating fewer simple carbohydrates such as sugar may minimize the condition.[7] Treatments applied directly to the affected skin ... Current Drug Metabolism (Review). 16 (4): 245-54. doi:10.2174/1389200216666150812124801. PMID 26264195.. ...
... the body to convert consumed carbohydrates into fat and to suppress carbohydrate and fat oxidation.[22][23] Ethanol is directly ... processed in the liver to acetyl CoA, the same intermediate product as in glucose metabolism. Because ethanol is mostly ... there are usually 10-15 g of carbohydrates (about 40-60 kcal or 170-250 kJ).[citation needed] Excessive daily calorie intake ... many alcoholic drinks contain carbohydrates. For example, in 12 US fl oz (355 ml) of 5% ABV beer, along with approximately 18 ...
When animal or plant matter is buried during sedimentation, the constituent organic molecules (lipids, proteins, carbohydrates ... in newly formed aquatic sediments is mediated by microorganisms using different electron acceptors as part of their metabolism ...
Rubidium has no known biological role, but may help stimulate metabolism,[234][235][236] and, similarly to caesium,[234][237] ... carbohydrates and ionophore complexes.[218] ...
Carbohydrate metabolism: Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency. *Pyruvate dehydrogenase deficiency. *Danon disease/ ...
... is used as stationary phase in low-pressure chromatographic separation of carbohydrates (mono-, di-, tri-saccharides) using ... toxic to metabolism and neurotoxic. ...
Low-carbohydrate[edit]. Main article: Low-carbohydrate diet. Low-carbohydrate diets such as Atkins and Protein Power are ... The primary by-products of metabolism are carbon dioxide and water; carbon dioxide is expelled through the respiratory system. ... Low carbohydrate versus low fat[edit]. Main article: Medical research related to low-carbohydrate diets ... Low-carbohydrate diets are sometimes ketogenic (i.e., they restrict carbohydrate intake sufficiently to cause ketosis). ...
15,0 15,1 Lajtha, A. (2007). Handbook of neurochemistry and molecular neurobiology: Neural protein metabolism and function, 2nd ... Hoessli, D. C., and Ilangumaran, S., GPI anchored membrane proteins and carbohydrates, Austin, TX., USA, Landes Company. ...
Metabolism * sw:Metabolism. Metal * sw:Metal. Metallurgy * sw:Metallurgy. Metre * sw:Metre. Mexico * sw:Mexico. Mexico City * ... Carbohydrate * sw:Carbohydrate. Carbon * sw:Carbon. Caribbean Sea * sw:Caribbean Sea. Carl Friedrich Gauss * sw:Carl Friedrich ...
The three photosynthesis pathways are C3 carbon fixation, C4 carbon fixation and Crassulacean acid metabolism. C4 plants are ... carbohydrate, or fat in the diet. Compared to other plants, legumes have lower 14N/15N ratios because they can fix molecular ... as a result of acids produced by bacteria feeding upon and fermenting carbohydrates in the mouth. Subsistence based upon ... because of the higher levels of carbohydrates in diets based upon agriculture. For example, bioarchaeologists have used caries ...
Harris, Ph.D., Edward D. (1 January 2014). Minerals in Food Nutrition, Metabolism, Bioactivity (chapter 3.4) (1st ed.). ... Gropper, Sareen S.; Smith, Jack L. (1 June 2012). Advanced Nutrition and Human Metabolism. Cengage Learning. pp. 527-8. ISBN 1- ... The dietary focus on chemical elements derives from an interest in supporting the biochemical reactions of metabolism with the ... Involved in glucose and lipid metabolism, although its mechanisms of action in the body and the amounts needed for optimal ...
脂質遺傳性(英语:Inborn error of lipid metabolism)代謝缺陷 : 血脂異常(英语:dyslipidemia) (E78、272.0-272.6(英语:List of ICD-9 codes 240-279: ... Efficacy and safety of low-carbohydrate diets: A systematic review. JAMA. 2003-04, 289 (14): 1837-50. PMID 12684364. doi: ... Metabolism alone doesn't explain how thin people stay thin. John Schieszer (The Medical Post).. ... Naude, CE; Schoonees, A; Senekal, M; Young, T; Garner, P; Volmink, J. Low carbohydrate versus isoenergetic balanced diets for ...
... which further affects digestive function and cholesterol and glucose metabolism, as well as the immune system and other ...
MetabolismEdit. Further information: Microbial metabolism. Archaea exhibit a great variety of chemical reactions in their ... Romano A; Conway T (1996). "Evolution of carbohydrate metabolic pathways". Res Microbiol. 147 (6-7): 448-55. doi:10.1016/0923- ... This form of metabolism evolved early, and it is even possible that the first free-living organism was a methanogen.[118] A ... Metabolism[57]. Various, with methanogenesis unique to Archaea. Various, including photosynthesis, aerobic and anaerobic ...
Metabolism: carbohydrate metabolism · fructose and galactose enzymes. Fructose. Hepatic fructokinase · Aldolase B · Triokinase ... "https://hi.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=साँचा:Fructose_and_galactose_metabolism_enzymes&oldid=2191100" से लिया गया ...
Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism. 50 (3): 167-172. doi:10.1159/000090736. PMID 16407641.. ...
Bioethanol is an alcohol made by fermentation, mostly from carbohydrates produced in sugar or starch crops such as corn, ... Escherichia coli strains have also been successfully engineered to produce butanol by modifying their amino acid metabolism.[36 ... "Directed strain evolution restructures metabolism for 1-butanol production in minimal media". Metabolic Engineering. 49: 153- ...
Thyroid hormones are essential in the metabolism of hormones and maintaining homeostasis within the body. As a child the body ... healing of wounds and for carbohydrate breakdown to keep the body healthy and functioning. Zinc is found in many fruits and ...
metabolism. • tricarboxylic acid cycle. • oxidation-reduction process. • acetyl-CoA biosynthetic process from pyruvate. • ...
The microbes are also responsible for metabolising the carbohydrates and amino acids present in the tea leaves.[15][16][17] ... with some highlighting the possibility of ochratoxins produced by the metabolism of some strains of A.niger having a ...
Inborn error of carbohydrate metabolism: monosaccharide metabolism disorders Including glycogen storage diseases (GSD) ... "Diagnosing and Treating Intolerance to Carbohydrates in Children". Nutrients. 8 (3): 157. doi:10.3390/nu8030157. PMC 4808885 ...
Metabolism: carbohydrate metabolism, glycogenesis and glycogenolysis enzymes. Glycogenesis. *Phosphoglucomutase. *UDP-glucose ... "Glycogen Metabolism". Molecular Biochemistry I. Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. Retrieved 2009-01-10.. ... In order to be used for metabolism, it must be converted to glucose-6-phosphate by the enzyme phosphoglucomutase. ... Voet, Judith G.; Voet, Donald (1995). "Chapter 17: Glycogen Metabolism". Biochemistry (2nd ed.). New York: J. Wiley & Sons. ...
Raw beetroot is 88% water, 10% carbohydrates, 2% protein, and less than 1% fat (see table). In a 100 gram amount providing 43 ... Pajares, M. A.; Pérez-Sala, D (2006). "Betaine homocysteine S-methyltransferase: Just a regulator of homocysteine metabolism ...
Carbohydrate metabolism disorders are a group of metabolic disorders. Normally your enzymes break carbohydrates down into ... Metabolism is the process your body uses to make energy from the food you eat. Food is made up of proteins, carbohydrates, and ... ClinicalTrials.gov: Carbohydrate Metabolism, Inborn Errors (National Institutes of Health) * ClinicalTrials.gov: ... glucose (a type of sugar). If you have one of these disorders, you may not have enough enzymes to break down the carbohydrates ...
Buy Carbohydrate Metabolism by Examville Staff (eBook) online at Lulu. Visit the Lulu Marketplace for product details, ratings ... www.lulu.com/shop/examville-staff/carbohydrate-metabolism/ebook/product-18817423.html. ...
Inherited Disorders of Carbohydrate Metabolism in Children Studied by 13C-Labelled Precursors, NMR and GC-MS ... Alanin Chromosom Galactose Glycogen gene therapy genes genetics homeostasis metabolism transplantation Editors and affiliations ... Inherited disorders of glycoprotein metabolism were reviewed by Dr M. Cantz, Heidelberg, followed by detailed presentations on ... the outcome of bone marrow transplantation and on future aspects of gene therapy in patients with inborn errors of metabolism. ...
Gene Ontology (GO) annotations for carbohydrate derivative metabolism All GO annotations for B3gat1 (16) ...
Gene Ontology (GO) annotations for carbohydrate derivative metabolism All GO annotations for Mgat4b (14) ...
Purchase Methods for Analysis of Carbohydrate Metabolism in Photosynthetic Organisms - 1st Edition. Print Book & E-Book. ISBN ... Chapter 1.Determination of carbohydrates metabolism molecules. Part II. Purification and analysis of proteins and carbohydrates ... Methods for Analysis of Carbohydrate Metabolism in Photosynthetic Organisms 1st Edition. Plants, Green Algae and Cyanobacteria ... He worked alongside Professor Luis F. Leloir for three years, who influenced his interest in carbohydrate metabolism, sugar ...
If youre seeing this message, it means were having trouble loading external resources on our website.. If youre behind a web filter, please make sure that the domains *.kastatic.org and *.kasandbox.org are unblocked. ...
... s Carbohydrates. Learn exactly what happened in this chapter, scene, or section of Carbohydrates and what it means. Perfect for ... A summary of Metabolism of Carbohydrates and Exercise in ... Metabolism of Carbohydrates and Exercise Since all digestible ... Therefore, in this SparkNote the metabolism of carbohydrates will be considered in the context of exercise strategies and ... With this in mind, PFK seems as if it would be an excellent site of control for glucose metabolism. In fact, this is exactly ...
PubMed journal article Fetal carbohydrate metabolism: its clinical importanc were found in PRIME PubMed. Download Prime PubMed ... Carbohydrate metabolism in normal pregnancy].. *[Effect of dexamethasone on lipid and carbohydrate metabolism in the mother and ... Carbohydrate metabolism in human pregnancy. (Part II). Hormonal influence on maternal carbohydrate metabolism. Foeto-placental ... Control of glucose metabolism in the human fetus and newborn infant.. *Placental, fetal, and neonatal carbohydrate metabolism. ...
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Ziegler R, Eckart K, Law JH (1990) Adipokinetic hormone controls lipid metabolism in adults and carbohydrate metabolism in ... Siegert K (1987) Carbohydrate metabolism in starved fifth instar larvae of Manduca sexta. Arch Insect Biochem Physiol 4:151-160 ... Ziegler R, Schulz M (1986 b) Regulation of carbohydrate metabolism during flight in Manduca sexta. J Insect Physiol 32:997-1001 ... Changes in lipid and carbohydrate metabolism during starvation in adult Manduca sexta. ...
Many steps of carbohydrate metabolism allow the cells to access energy and store it more transiently in ATP. The cofactors NAD+ ... Biology portal Carbohydrate+metabolism at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) BBC - GCSE ... Carbohydrate metabolism is the whole of the biochemical processes responsible for the metabolic formation, breakdown, and ... Some simple carbohydrates have their own enzymatic oxidation pathways, as do only a few of the more complex carbohydrates. The ...
... to analyze the relationship between carbohydrate and storage protein/nitrogen metabol...,3.2.1,JOHN INNES CENTRE(UK),INSTITUT ... UNDERSTANDING NITROGEN AND CARBOHYDRATE METABOLISM FOR LEGUME ENGINEERING. Desde 1995-12-01 hasta 1999-11-30 ... to analyze the relationship between carbohydrate and storage. protein/nitrogen metabolism at the level of gene expression;. - ... The project therefore seeks to increase the understanding of the relationship between carbohydrate and nitrogen metabolism in ...
Try this amazing Carbohydrate Metabolism Lecture Questions quiz which has been attempted 2553 times by avid quiz takers. Also ... Completion Of The Carbohydrates Completion Of The Carbohydrates Biochemistry Basics Of Carbohydrates Quiz Biochemistry Basics ... Several inborn errors of carbohydrate metabolism can cause fasting hypoglycemia. The most severe fasting hypoglycemia has to be ... How Well Do You Know About Carbohydrates? How Well Do You Know About Carbohydrates? ...
Carbohydrate Metabolism is a collection of metabolic processes responsible for the formation, breakdown, and interconversion of ... carbohydrates in living organisms. It includes, Carbon Fixation, The Citric Acid Cycle, Glycolysis, Glycogenesis, ... Articles in Proteopedia concerning Carbohydrate Metabolism include: To view Carbohydrate Metabolism related proteins which are ...
Inborn errors of carbohydrate metabolism are inborn error of metabolism that affect the catabolism and anabolism of ... Carbohydrate metabolism. Medical Genetics. 3rd edition. Chapter 7. Biochemical genetics:Disorders of metabolism. pp139-142. ... The failure to effectively use these molecules accounts for the majority of the inborn errors of human carbohydrates metabolism ... GeneReviews: Phosphorylase Kinase Deficiency OMIM:GSD 9d OMIM:PRKAG2 Media related to Disorders of carbohydrate metabolism at ...
Carbohydrate Metabolism in Drosophila: Reliance on the Disaccharide Trehalose, Carbohydrates Chuan-Fa Chang, IntechOpen, DOI: ... Carbohydrate Metabolism in Drosophila: Reliance on the Disaccharide Trehalose, Carbohydrates Chuan-Fa Chang, IntechOpen, DOI: ... www.intechopen.com/embed/carbohydrates-comprehensive-studies-on-glycobiology-and-glycotechnology/carbohydrate-metabolism-in- ... www.intechopen.com/embed/carbohydrates-comprehensive-studies-on-glycobiology-and-glycotechnology/carbohydrate-metabolism-in- ...
The Biology Project Home , Biochemistry , Regulation of Carbohydrate Metabolism , Problem Sets Carbohydrate Metabolism ... The Biology Project Home , Biochemistry , Regulation of Carbohydrate Metabolism , Problem Set The Biology Project The ... In this module, you will learn about how certain carbohydrate pathways are reciprocally affected by insulin and glucagon. The ...
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... April 2012 , Volume 25 , ... Overall, our results suggest that modification of carbohydrate metabolism in bacterized grapevine plantlets may be one of the ... Furthermore, all studied carbohydrates known to be involved in cold stress tolerance accumulate in non-chilled bacterized ... tolerance may be explained at least partly by the impact of bacteria on grapevine photosynthesis or carbohydrate metabolism ...
To examine how FGF21 affects liver metabolism, fatty acid and carbohydrate fluxes were measured by 2H/13C NMR isotopomer ... FGF21 induces PGC-1α and regulates carbohydrate and fatty acid metabolism during the adaptive starvation response. Matthew J. ... FGF21 regulates genes involved in hepatic carbohydrate and lipid metabolism during fasting. Shown is real-time QPCR analysis of ... This synchronization of hepatic lipid and carbohydrate metabolism is critical for the normal fasting response; disruption of ...
A carbohydrate-predominant LES is associated with increases in fasting carbohydrate oxidation, REE and reductions in fat ... This study investigates the effects of a carbohydrate (CHO; lotus-root starch) predominant, late-evening snack (LES), ... Hou, W., Li, J., Lu, J. et al. Effect of a carbohydrate-containing late-evening snack on energy metabolism and fasting ... Effect of a carbohydrate-containing late-evening snack on energy metabolism and fasting substrate utilization in adults with ...
... undertake selected training sessions with low compared with normal muscle glycogen content or with low exogenous carbohydrate ... Carbohydrate availability and training adaptation: effects on cell metabolism Exerc Sport Sci Rev. 2010 Oct;38(4):152-60. doi: ... undertake selected training sessions with low compared with normal muscle glycogen content or with low exogenous carbohydrate ...
Impairment of Carbohydrate Metabolism by Thiazides. John M. Weller, M.D., F.A.C.P. ... Impairment of Carbohydrate Metabolism by Thiazides.. Ann Intern Med. ;62:1076-1077. doi: 10.7326/0003-4819-62-5-1076_3 ... After a carbohydrate load, we have been able to demonstrate that blood sugar levels are higher when patients or animals are ...
Disorders in Carbohydrate and Lipid Metabolism.. Ann Intern Med. 1962;57:333. doi: 10.7326/0003-4819-57-2-333_1 ... These are chapters 9, 10, and 17; they cover normal and abnormal carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. Prospective buyers should ...
POLLOCK, CHRISTOPHER J. et al. Intracellular and intercellular compartmentation of carbohydrate metabolism in leaves of ... This review considers the importance of compartmentation in the regulation of carbohydrate metabolism in leaves. We draw ... We also consider compartmentation of carbohydrate metabolism between different cell types, using mainly our studies on leaves ... Keywords : Leaf; carbohydrate; compartmentation; mesophyll; vacuole. · abstract in Portuguese · text in English · English ( pdf ...
This molecular transition - from citryl-CoA lyase to citrate synthase - marked a key step in the evolution of metabolism on ... The central role of ACLY in human metabolism inspired its possible therapeutic relevance. For instance, to support tumor growth ...
Total Carbohydrate Assay Kit. A fast, sensitive & easy colorimetric assay to detect most forms of carbohydrates, including ...
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  • Gies A, Fromm T, Ziegler R (1988) Energy metabolism in starving larvae of M. sexta . (springer.com)
  • Goldsworthy GJ, Cheeseman P (1978) Comparative aspects of the endocrine control of energy metabolism. (springer.com)
  • One of the pathomechanisms expected to be involved is the TM energy metabolism, which affects other processes, such as TM remodeling capacity. (molvis.org)
  • We investigated four critical enzymes of energy metabolism (Krebs cycle) in the TM. (molvis.org)
  • Project 2: Investigate the impact of AGEs on immune function and mitochondrial energy metabolism and explore how this relates to neuro-muscular function and skeletal muscle performance markers in cross-sectional human studies of patients with different neurodegenerative diseases. (wur.nl)
  • There is evidence that the brain favors consumption of carbohydrates (CHO) rather than fats, this preference resulting in glycolysis-based energy metabolism domination. (frontiersin.org)
  • Here, we aimed to evaluate the effects of ornithine ingestion, especially on energy metabolism, during a period of rest after acute resistance exercise. (scirp.org)
  • in addition glycogen is the storage form of carbohydrates in humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • For further information on inborn errors of glucose metabolism and inborn errors of glycogen metabolism see below. (wikipedia.org)
  • Several markers of endurance training adaptation are enhanced to a greater extent when individuals undertake selected training sessions with low compared with normal muscle glycogen content or with low exogenous carbohydrate availability. (nih.gov)
  • The principal dietary carbohydrates available to humans are the simple sugars glucose and fructose, the disaccharides sucrose and lactose, and the polysaccharides glycogen and starch. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Once carbohydrates from your diet are used up, they convert into a complex type of carbohydrate called glycogen, which is stored in your liver and muscles. (azcentral.com)
  • Glycogen quickly converts into glucose when carbohydrates from food are not available. (azcentral.com)
  • Four days before your event, restrict carbohydrates and deplete glycogen stores. (azcentral.com)
  • The third study (Chapter 6) investigated whether the high carbohydrate meal can influence muscle glycogen levels. (lboro.ac.uk)
  • The fourth study (Chapter 7) examined the influence of ingesting a carbohydrate-electrolyte drink (M+C) on the muscle glycogen utilisation during 60 min running at 70% V02 max in subjects (8 males) who had consumed a carbohydrate meal 3 hours before exercise (M+W). Muscle glycogen concentrations were not different before (M+C : 321.9 ± 27.2 vs M+W : 338.8 ± 32.8 mmol. (lboro.ac.uk)
  • The ingestion of a carbohydrate meal, providing 2.5 g. kg-1 BW carbohydrate, 3 hours before exercise increases muscle glycogen concentration and improves endurance running capacity, despite an elevated carbohydrate oxidation rate during the first hour of exercise. (lboro.ac.uk)
  • Food is made up of proteins, carbohydrates, and fats. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Chapters include information on how biological active protein is extracted for different cells, determination of enzymatic activity, separation of proteins by different available methods, and descriptions of analytical methods for the determination of various types of carbohydrates in photosynthetic organisms. (elsevier.com)
  • Carbohydrates are a superior short-term fuel for organisms because they are simpler to metabolize than fats or those amino acids (components of proteins) that can be used for fuel. (conceptdraw.com)
  • Apart from the fact that CO2 regulates glutamine synthesis, it also participates in chemical reactions involving the metabolism of various vitamins, minerals, proteins, amino acids, lipids, carbohydrates , and many other substances. (normalbreathing.com)
  • Clinical experience of about 200 Russian Buteyko MDs, suggests that many severe abnormalities in the metabolism of proteins, fats, and carbohydrates arise when a person has less than 20 seconds for the DIY body oxygen test. (normalbreathing.com)
  • many animals store triglycerides as energy, because gram for gram they yield more than twice as much energy as proteins or carbohydrates. (markedbyteachers.com)
  • During digestion in mammals, the three main classes of nutrients (carbohydrates, proteins, and fats) undergo enzymatic hydrolysis into their simple constituents. (coursehero.com)
  • Exercise and Regulation of Carbohydrate Metabolism. (nih.gov)
  • This review considers the importance of compartmentation in the regulation of carbohydrate metabolism in leaves. (scielo.br)
  • Evidence is presented supporting the idea that the regulation of genes and the presence of isoforms with regulation patterns might make it difficult to understand the metabolism of carbohydrates in X. fastidiosa. (scielo.br)
  • Because the activities of several glycolytic enzymes, in particular hexokinase and pyrophosphate-dependent phosphofructokinase, are reduced in developing homozygous wri1 seeds, it is suggested that WRI1 is involved in the developmental regulation of carbohydrate metabolism during seed filling. (plantphysiol.org)
  • SulfoSYS ( Sulfolobus Systems Biology) focuses on the study of the CCM (central carbohydrate metabolism) of Sulfolobus solfataricus and its regulation under temperature variation at the systems level. (biochemsoctrans.org)
  • A total of 27 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were selected from 15 candidate genes involved in fat digestion/metabolism, intracellular glucose metabolism, lipoprotein remodeling, and appetite regulation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The regulation of carbohydrate metabolism by the glands of internal secretion is discussed, with emphasis on the part played by the adrenal cortex. (bu.edu)
  • This review summarizes recent research progress regarding VA's role in carbohydrate, lipid, and protein metabolism. (mdpi.com)
  • KEY WORDS: Growth hormone Turner syndrome Carbohydrate metabolism Lipid metabolism Protein metabolism. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Explore and explain the main features involved in the anabolic metabolism of carbohydrate (glycogenisis), lipid metabolism (triglyceride storage, transport and ketosis) and protein metabolism (transamination and deamination). (markedbyteachers.com)
  • Introduction In the body, individual pathways of carbohydrate, lipid and protein metabolism or tissues or organs do not function in isolation. (coursehero.com)
  • INTEGRATION OF CARBOHYDRATE, LIPID AND PROTEIN METABOLISM IN WELL-FED STATE Each tissue of the human body has a specialized function, reflected in its anatomy and metabolic activity. (coursehero.com)
  • The most common is caused by mutations in the gene encoding hepatic fructokinase, an enzyme that catalyzes the first step in the metabolism of dietary fructose. (wikipedia.org)
  • Is the Subject Area "Enzyme metabolism" applicable to this article? (plos.org)
  • In conclusion, ornithine ingestion before resistance exercise may enhance post-exercise carbohydrate oxidation without changing total energy expenditure. (scirp.org)
  • Carbohydrate (CHO) ingestion before and during exercise has consistently been reported to increase endurance exercise capacity/performance but the mechanisms responsible and optimal dose required are still debated. (teknoscienze.com)
  • The second study (Chapter 5) examined whether a pre-exercise carbohydrate meal (M+W) can improve endurance capacity, and further examined if the combination of a pre-exercise meal together with the ingestion of a carbohydrate-electrolyte solution during exercise (M+C) would be superior to the carbohydrate meal (M+W) alone. (lboro.ac.uk)
  • The aim of the last study (Chapter 8) was to investigate whether, after an overnight fast, the ingestion of a carbohydrate-electrolyte solution during a 30 km self-paced treadmill run (C) would be as effective as the consumption of a carbohydrate meal (M) (2.0 g. kg-1 BW carbohydrate) 4 hours before exercise. (lboro.ac.uk)
  • We hypothesized that the greater endogenous insulin release following co-ingestion of carbohydrate facilitates post-prandial muscle protein accretion after ingesting a meal-like bolus of protein in older males. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This study shows that carbohydrate ingestion may accelerate, but does not further augment post-prandial incorporation of dietary protein derived amino acids into muscle protein in healthy elderly men. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The latter could be attributed to the higher energy intake and/or the greater post-prandial insulin release following carbohydrate co-ingestion. (biomedcentral.com)
  • It was also found that carbohydrate ingestion did not alter the pattern of changes in the liver free glycine pool, while the muscle free glycine specific activities were elevated significantly above the control values, especially at the 4th and 6th hour. (gla.ac.uk)
  • Carbohydrates are central to many essential metabolic pathways. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some simple carbohydrates have their own enzymatic oxidation pathways, as do only a few of the more complex carbohydrates. (wikipedia.org)
  • In this module, you will learn about how certain carbohydrate pathways are reciprocally affected by insulin and glucagon. (arizona.edu)
  • Carbohydrates play an essential role in the catabolic and metabolic pathways of living organisms - for storing energy for the myriad biochemical processes in cells and as a source for synthesizing new biomolecules. (promocell.com)
  • PromoCell supplies an interesting choice of assays for analyzing these important carbohydrate/glucose metabolic pathways. (promocell.com)
  • Use these shapes for drawing carbohydrate metabolism schematics, biochemical diagrams and metabolic pathways maps. (conceptdraw.com)
  • In Archaea, carbohydrates are metabolized by modifications of the classical pathways known from Bacteria or Eukarya, e.g. the unusual branched ED (Entner-Doudoroff) pathway, which is utilized for glucose degradation in S. solfataricus . (biochemsoctrans.org)
  • Since the pathways of carbohydrate, protein and lipid metabolisms are inter connected, the disorders of one metabolism can affect other metabolism. (coursehero.com)
  • The genes with associated polymorphisms are involved in the substrate supply, chain elongation and branching stages of the pea carbohydrate and starch metabolic pathways. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Complex carbohydrates, including starch from potatoes, pasta and bread, take longer to break down and won't give you quick energy during an athletic event. (azcentral.com)
  • When you chew foods containing starch, saliva converts starch into maltose, a simple carbohydrate. (azcentral.com)
  • The model groups enzymatic steps of central carbohydrate metabolism into blocks of interconverting reactions that link easily measurable quantities like CO 2 exchange and quasi-steady-state levels of soluble sugars and starch. (plantphysiol.org)
  • During the two-month post-transplant period, the net carbohydrate accumulation rate ( NCAR ) for starch was negative for all treatments, but the NCAR value for soluble sugars was the highest in the F100+ treatment at both the root and whole-plant scales. (sisef.it)
  • The association of polymorphisms in carbohydrate and starch metabolic genes with variation in amylopectin chain length distribution and percent amylose may help to guide manipulation of pea seed starch structural and functional properties through plant breeding. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The carbohydrate composition of pulses includes starch (22-45%), dietary fiber (15-32%) and oligosaccharides (α-galactosides). (biomedcentral.com)
  • This use of carbohydrates during physical activity likely played an important role during the survival of early Homo sapiens, and genes and traits regulating physical activity, carbohydrate metabolism, and energy storage have undoubtedly been selected throughout evolution. (nih.gov)
  • A strong association between weight loss induced by dietary CHO restriction and variability in genes regulating fat digestion, hepatic glucose metabolism, intravascular lipoprotein remodeling, and appetite were detected. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The metabolic pathway glycolysis is used by cells to break down carbohydrates like glucose (and various other simple sugars) in order to extract energy from them. (wikipedia.org)
  • We draw particular attention to the role of the vacuole as a site for storage of soluble sugars based on sucrose, and discuss briefly their characteristic metabolism. (scielo.br)
  • Carbohydrates are sugars. (omicsonline.org)
  • Simple carbohydrates, known as sugars, convert directly into glucose in your small intestine in one step. (azcentral.com)
  • Having simple complex carbohydrate sugars before and during your workout helps sustain your energy. (azcentral.com)
  • How does metabolism of sugars start? (medbio.info)
  • Are there differences in the metabolism of the various sugars found in the diet? (medbio.info)
  • Are the differences in metabolism of common sugars in various organs? (medbio.info)
  • The initial step in metabolism of sugars is their transport over the cell's outer membrane. (medbio.info)
  • Carbohydrates are part of a balanced diet, but like any macronutrient, carbohydrates, and sugars in particular, should not be consumed in amounts that interfere with satisfying the requirements for adequacy of all other essential nutrients. (nestlenutrition-institute.org)
  • Humans can consume a variety of carbohydrates, digestion breaks down complex carbohydrates into a few simple monomers (monosaccharides) for metabolism: glucose, fructose, mannose and galactose. (wikipedia.org)
  • The results suggest that S. gordonii produces an AI-2-like signaling molecule that regulates aspects of carbohydrate metabolism in the organism. (asm.org)
  • This study was designed to better elucidate the mechanism by which amylin regulates the metabolism of carbohydrate in skeletal muscle. (openthesis.org)
  • Effects of recombinant human growth hormone therapy on carbohydrate lipid and protein metabolisms of children with Turner syndrome. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • ABSTRACTObjective: To study the effect of recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) therapy on carbohydrate lipid and protein metabolisms of Turner syndrome (TS).Methods: Total 45 patients with TS admitted between Jul. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Conclusion: Abnormal lipid and protein metabolisms of the children with TS can be improved with rhGH therapy for 6 months. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • And the affected individuals suffer from abnormal metabolisms of carbohydrate lipid and protein as well. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • In our study we compared the differences of carbohydrate lipid and protein metabolisms with or without rhGH therapy to reveal the clinical clue of the hormone replacement therapy. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Integration of carbohydrate, lipid and protein metabolisms can occur in well-fed state, obesity, starvation, diabetes mellitus and in other conditions like stress, injury, surgery etc. (coursehero.com)
  • Carbohydrates are the preferred substrate for contracting skeletal muscles during high-intensity exercise and are also readily utilized during moderate intensity exercise. (nih.gov)
  • This chapter focuses on the effects of exercise on carbohydrate metabolism in skeletal muscle and systemic glucose homeostasis. (nih.gov)
  • The purpose of this study was to assess the influence of a low-carbohydrate/high-protein diet (LC/HP) on skeletal muscle protein synthesis and whole-body proteolysis, without the confounding influence of a negative energy balance. (nih.gov)
  • Resistance to the action of insulin on glucose metabolism in skeletal muscle has been proposed as an early defect in the aetiology of type 2 diabetes, and experiments have demonstrated that amylin can evoke peripheral insulin resistance by antagonizing insulin action in a noncompetitive manner in vitro and in vivo. (openthesis.org)
  • Three autosomal recessive disorders impair fructose metabolism in liver cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Essential fructosuria is a clinically benign condition characterized by the incomplete metabolism of fructose in the liver, leading to its excretion in urine. (wikipedia.org)
  • In humans, substrates for gluconeogenesis may come from any non-carbohydrate sources that can be converted to pyruvate or intermediates of glycolysis (see figure). (wikipedia.org)
  • A basic understanding of fetal nutrition and metabolism is essential in the clinical management of the obstetric patient. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Nocturnal supplementation is recommended by both the American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition 10 and the European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism guidelines 11 to avoid increased utilization of lean body stores to meet energy needs in patients with liver cirrhosis in the fasted state. (nature.com)
  • Changes in the levels of five enzymes of carbohydrate metabolism were followed through the progressive phases of cataract development. (arvojournals.org)
  • Carbohydrate metabolism disorders are a group of metabolic disorders. (medlineplus.gov)
  • If you have one of these disorders, you may not have enough enzymes to break down the carbohydrates. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Inherited disorders of glycoprotein metabolism were reviewed by Dr M. Cantz, Heidelberg, followed by detailed presentations on selected disorders. (springer.com)
  • Glucose, being an ubiquitous energy source, plays a pivotal role in cellular metabolisms, homeostasis and - consequently - many disorders. (promocell.com)
  • Galactosemia, the inability to metabolize galactose in liver cells, is the most common monogenic disorder of carbohydrate metabolism, affecting 1 in every 55,000 newborns. (wikipedia.org)
  • Transcriptome analysis reveals carbohydrate-mediated liver immune responses in Epinephelus akaara. (annals.org)
  • In mammals, the liver plays a crucial role in maintaining systemic energy balance during fasting and starvation through coordinate effects on carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. (pnas.org)
  • To examine how FGF21 affects liver metabolism, fatty acid and carbohydrate fluxes were measured by 2 H/ 13 C NMR isotopomer analysis in isolated liver from WT mice and transgenic mice overexpressing FGF21 in a liver-enriched manner (FGF21-TG) ( 6 ). (pnas.org)
  • Late-night snacks (LES) with varying nutritional content (high in branched chain amino acids (BCAA) and/or carbohydrates) have been shown to ameliorate the extent to which fat and nitrogen are utilized in the fasted state in patients with liver cirrhosis and to improve over all nitrogen balance and quality of life. (nature.com)
  • The liver plays a central processing and distributing role in metabolism and furnishes all other organs and tissues with an appropriate mix of nutrients via the bloodstream. (coursehero.com)
  • 3. The protein M content of the liver was significantly reduced after carbohydrate administration. (gla.ac.uk)
  • 4. It was concluded that the feeding of carbohydrate resulted in N retention in the body in tissues other than the liver. (gla.ac.uk)
  • Section 2: The uptake of 35S-methionine by liver and muscle protein after carbohydrate and fat administration. (gla.ac.uk)
  • A carbohydrate-predominant LES is associated with increases in fasting carbohydrate oxidation, REE and reductions in fat oxidation in adults with ACLF. (nature.com)
  • The improvement in endurance capacity in the M+C trial occurred despite a higher carbohydrate oxidation rate during the first hour of exercise. (lboro.ac.uk)
  • The aim of Chapter 4 and Chapter 5 was to investigate the extent to which the glycaemic index of high carbohydrate diets consumed for 5 days reduces the rate of fat oxidation during endurance exercise and exercise capacity during running conducted in the fasted state in men and women. (gla.ac.uk)
  • Blood samples for the measurements of glucose, insulin, glycerol and non-esterified fatty acids, and expired air samples for the measurements of the rates of fat and carbohydrate oxidation were obtained at 15, 30, 45, 60, 75, 90 minutes and at the point of exhaustion. (gla.ac.uk)
  • It was found that in both men and women, the extent to which high carbohydrate diets consumed for 5 days reduced the rate of fat oxidation during running in the fasted state was not influenced by the glycaemic index of the diet, and that glycaemic index of high carbohydrate diets consumed for 5 days had no impact on running capacity. (gla.ac.uk)
  • In conclusion, consideration of the glycaemic index of high carbohydrate diets consumed by physically active healthy men and women for 5 days has no impact on insulin sensitivity and fasting concentration of plasma lipids, it does not influence the rate of fat oxidation induced by high carbohydrate diets during running conducted in the fasted state and has no influence on running capacity. (gla.ac.uk)
  • Biology solution provides 3 libraries with large quantity of vector biology symbols: Biochemistry of Metabolism Library, Carbohydrate Metabolism Library, Citric Acid Cycle (TCA Cycle) Library. (conceptdraw.com)
  • Biology solution offers 3 libraries of ready-to-use predesigned biology symbols and vector clipart to make your biology drawing and biology illustration making fast and easy: Carbohydrate Metabolism Library, Biochemistry of Metabolism Library, Citric Acid Cycle (TCA Cycle) Library. (conceptdraw.com)
  • A mathematical model representing metabolite interconversions in the central carbohydrate metabolism of Arabidopsis ( Arabidopsis thaliana ) was developed to simulate the diurnal dynamics of primary carbon metabolism in a photosynthetically active plant leaf. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Gluconeogenesis (GNG) is a metabolic pathway that results in the generation of glucose from certain non-carbohydrate carbon substrates. (wikipedia.org)
  • These studies showed that X. fastidiosa does not use the glycolytic pathway to metabolize carbohydrates, which explains the increased duplication time of this phytopatogen. (scielo.br)
  • The failure to effectively use these molecules accounts for the majority of the inborn errors of human carbohydrates metabolism. (wikipedia.org)
  • During exercise, hormonal levels shift and this disruption of homeostasis alters the metabolism of glucose and other energy-bearing molecules. (sparknotes.com)
  • The meeting was closed by two exciting lectures, given by Dr J. R. Hobbs, London, and Dr F. Ledley, Houston, on the outcome of bone marrow transplantation and on future aspects of gene therapy in patients with inborn errors of metabolism. (springer.com)
  • Inborn errors of carbohydrate metabolism are inborn error of metabolism that affect the catabolism and anabolism of carbohydrates. (wikipedia.org)
  • Several inborn errors of carbohydrate metabolism can cause fasting hypoglycemia. (proprofs.com)
  • The project therefore seeks to increase the understanding of the relationship between carbohydrate and nitrogen metabolism in the seeds of the temperate European grain legumes pea and fababean, the long-term objective being the improvement via directed manipulation, of legume seed composition for agriculture, including food and non-food uses. (europa.eu)
  • Methods for Analysis of Carbohydrate Metabolism in Photosynthetic Organisms: Plants, Green Algae and Cyanobacteria examines both general and detailed aspects of carbohydrate metabolism in photosynthetic organisms, along with the four main oligosaccharides and each enzymatic reaction that gives birth to them. (elsevier.com)
  • Certain carbohydrates cannot be used as nutrients by humans. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Moreover, levels of growth hormone and other endocrine hormones are elevated by resistance exercise [8], and studies of the dynamics of lipid metabolism have evaluated the effects of injected noradrenaline or growth hormone in humans [9,10]. (scirp.org)
  • The physiology and metabolism of the pig resembles that of humans. (slu.se)
  • Alterations in maternal carbohydrate homeostasis will lead to changes in fetal metabolism. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • To define more clearly the factors involved in carbohydrate metabolism in uremia, we studied blood glucose, plasma insulin, and plasma growth hormone responses after the intravenous injections of 25 g of glucose in 17 uremic patients and compared the results with those in 14 normal subjects and 16 patients with maturity-onset diabetes mellitus. (annals.org)
  • However, eating a meal rich in carbohydrates can cause your blood sugar and insulin levels to spike. (secondopinionnewsletter.com)
  • Chapter 6 aimed to investigate the impact of the consumption of high carbohydrate diets with high and low glycaemic index for 5 days on fasting plasma concentration of lipids, insulin sensitivity and biomarkers for endothelial function (i.e. intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1) in physically active individuals. (gla.ac.uk)
  • It was also found that glycaemic index of high carbohydrate diets consumed for 5 days had no impact on insulin sensitivity or on biomarkers of endothelial activation. (gla.ac.uk)
  • Under insulinbehandling finns det alltid en risk för insulin-inducerad hypoglykemi, även detta en livshotande komplikation. (slu.se)
  • These results reveal an unexpected relationship between FGF21 and PGC-1α and demonstrate an important role for FGF21 in coordinately regulating carbohydrate and fatty acid metabolism during the progression from fasting to starvation. (pnas.org)
  • Recent studies show that, under conditions of carbohydrate restriction, fuel sources shift from glucose and fatty acids to fatty acids and ketones, and that ad libitum-fed carbohydrate-restricted diets lead to appetite reduction, weight loss, and improvement in surrogate markers of cardiovascular disease. (dsolve.com)
  • Since it is well known that growth hormone has lipolytic activity, facilitating the release of free fatty acids (FFAs) and glycerol from triglycerides in adipose tissue, we were interested in how orally ingested ornithine affect lipid metabolism during exercise. (scirp.org)
  • Another poorly understood aspect of developing oilseeds is the conversion of carbohydrates provided by photosynthesis into precursors of fatty acid biosynthesis. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Carbohydrate metabolism is the whole of the biochemical processes responsible for the metabolic formation, breakdown, and interconversion of carbohydrates in living organisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • Carbohydrate metabolism is a fundamental biochemical process that ensures a constant supply of energy to living cells. (nestlenutrition-institute.org)
  • Science: biochemistry) The breakdown of carbohydrates into smaller units that can be used by the body for energy . (biology-online.org)
  • This enables more efficient transport of soluble carbohydrate to the fruit compared with using sucrose alone. (ishs.org)
  • Hence, winter warming influences carbohydrate metabolism, but it remains to be elucidated whether decreased sucrose levels account for any changes in freezing tolerance. (aau.dk)
  • Plants synthesize carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water through photosynthesis, allowing them to store energy absorbed from the sunlight internally. (wikipedia.org)
  • We hypothesized that the induced tolerance may be explained at least partly by the impact of bacteria on grapevine photosynthesis or carbohydrate metabolism during cold acclimation. (apsnet.org)
  • Lactose is the carbohydrate constituent of milk and hence one of the main sources of food during infancy. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • TY - JOUR T1 - Fetal carbohydrate metabolism: its clinical importance. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • AIM To compare measures of carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in umbilical venous blood after birth at term in pregnancies with normal and retarded fetal growth during the third trimester. (bmj.com)
  • CONCLUSION The similarity in the umbilical venous blood carbohydrate and lipid profile at term between pregnancies with documented third trimester fetal growth retardation and those with "genetically" small babies argues against a major role for intrauterine nutritional deprivation as a cause for the association between birthweight and subsequent adult disease. (bmj.com)
  • PUBLIC HEALTH RELEVANCE: The ability to understand how surgical procedures designed to produce weight loss ameliorate the metabolic disturbances seen in type 2 diabetes will allow a greater understanding of how intestinal hormones, together with caloric restriction, alter glucose metabolism. (elsevier.com)
  • This study aimed to investigate the effect of feeding carbohydrate and protein (CHO + PRO), immediately or 2 h after an exhaustive run, on the bone turnover response in endurance runners. (ovid.com)
  • Direct measurement of intestinal transit is also an important part of understanding how bariatric surgery alters intestinal secretion of hormones that may alter glucose metabolism. (elsevier.com)
  • 2] In ruminants, because dietary carbohydrates tend to be metabolized by rumen organisms, gluconeogenesis occurs regardless of fasting, low-carbohydrate diets, exercise, etc.[3] In many other animals, the process occurs during periods of fasting, starvation, low-carbohydrate diets, or intense exercise. (wikipedia.org)
  • Home Weight Fad Diets I was looking for an article on carbohydrate, protein and fat metabolism. (dietitian.com)
  • Diets that restrict carbohydrate (CHO) have proven to be a successful dietary treatment of obesity for many people, but the degree of weight loss varies across individuals. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Eight healthy active women consumed prescribed high carbohydrate diets with either high or low glycaemic index in a randomised counterbalanced order. (gla.ac.uk)
  • Thus, for further studies high carbohydrate diets with high and low glycaemic index were developed using glycaemic index values from available glycaemic index tables. (gla.ac.uk)
  • It was found that the extent to which high carbohydrate diets consumed for 5 days increases fasting plasma concentration of triglyceride and reduces the concentration of high density lipoprotein cholesterol was not influenced by the glycaemic index of the diets. (gla.ac.uk)
  • Planteose and myo -inositol are major soluble carbohydrates ubiquitous in species of the genus the Actinidia . (ishs.org)
  • The results are discussed in relation to the possible functions of the soluble carbohydrates. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Since all digestible forms of carbohydrates are eventually transformed into glucose, it is important to consider how glucose is able to provide energy in the form of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) to various cells and tissues. (sparknotes.com)
  • Due to the large amount of information regarding VA functions, this review focusses on metabolism in metabolic active organs and tissues. (mdpi.com)
  • In higher animals, glucose is the carbohydrate constituent of blood, which carries it to the tissues of the body. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • As constituents of plant and animal tissues, various carbohydrates become available to those organisms which depend on other living or dead organisms for their source of nutrients. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • A review of the studies made on carbohydrate metabolism in adrenalectomized rats is included. (bu.edu)
  • Furthermore, all studied carbohydrates known to be involved in cold stress tolerance accumulate in non-chilled bacterized plantlets, although some of them remained more concentrated in the latter after chilling exposure. (apsnet.org)
  • We investigated the impact of slightly elevated temperatures (+0.76 8C in the air, +1.35 8C in the soil) during the non-growing season (October-April) on freezing tolerance, carbohydrate metabolism, dormancy release, spring phenology and reproductive output in two blackcurrant (Ribes nigrum) cultivars to understand how winter warming modifies phenological traits in a woody perennial known to have a large chilling requirement and to be sensitive to spring frost. (aau.dk)
  • Variation in freezing tolerance, water content and carbohydrate metabolism of floral buds during. (deepdyve.com)
  • Chapter 3 presents a pilot study aimed to investigate whether high carbohydrate meals with high and low glycaemic index of foods present within meals developed by using the glycaemic index values from the published glycaemic index tables, produce significant differences in postprandial glucose response. (gla.ac.uk)
  • We concluded that high carbohydrate meals with high and low glycaemic index prescribed using the glycaemic index values from the existing glycaemic index tables in the literature produced a significant difference in postprandial plasma glucose responses. (gla.ac.uk)
  • To determine this, 9 healthy physically active men (Chapter 4) and 9 healthy physically active women (Chapter 5) performed three treadmill runs to exhaustion at 65% max after their habitual diet, after 5 days on a high carbohydrate high glycaemic index diet, and after 5 days on high carbohydrate low glycaemic index diet, in a randomised counterbalanced order. (gla.ac.uk)
  • Fasting blood was collected from 17 healthy individuals on three occasions in a randomised counterbalanced order: after consuming habitual diet, after 5 days on high carbohydrate high glycaemic index diet and after 5 days on high carbohydrate low glycaemic index diet. (gla.ac.uk)
  • Mwangi RW, Goldsworthy GJ (1977) Interrelationships between haemolymph lipid and carbohydrate during starvation in Locusta . (springer.com)
  • To determine whether activity of carbohydrate metabolism enzymes (aldolase, pyruvate kinase, isocitrate dehydrogenase, and malate dehydrogenase) are altered in the glaucomatous trabecular meshwork (TM) compared to controls. (molvis.org)
  • This process involves the accumulation of sugar against a concentration gradient and requires active metabolism of the mucosal tissue as a source of energy. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Over-winter seedlings were transplanted into pots and placed in a growth chamber, where the carbohydrate metabolism, biomass accumulation, root respiration, and new root number were quantified. (sisef.it)
  • Both initial soluble sugar and total non-structural carbohydrate (TNC) accumulation were the lowest in the F100+ treatment. (sisef.it)
  • During oil deposition in developing seeds of Arabidopsis, photosynthate is imported in the form of carbohydrates into the embryo and converted to triacylglycerols. (plantphysiol.org)