Carbohydrate Metabolism: Cellular processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of CARBOHYDRATES.Carbohydrates: The largest class of organic compounds, including STARCH; GLYCOGEN; CELLULOSE; POLYSACCHARIDES; and simple MONOSACCHARIDES. Carbohydrates are composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a ratio of Cn(H2O)n.Dietary Carbohydrates: Carbohydrates present in food comprising digestible sugars and starches and indigestible cellulose and other dietary fibers. The former are the major source of energy. The sugars are in beet and cane sugar, fruits, honey, sweet corn, corn syrup, milk and milk products, etc.; the starches are in cereal grains, legumes (FABACEAE), tubers, etc. (From Claudio & Lagua, Nutrition and Diet Therapy Dictionary, 3d ed, p32, p277)Glucose: A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.Lipid Metabolism: Physiological processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of LIPIDS.Energy Metabolism: The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.Glycolysis: A metabolic process that converts GLUCOSE into two molecules of PYRUVIC ACID through a series of enzymatic reactions. Energy generated by this process is conserved in two molecules of ATP. Glycolysis is the universal catabolic pathway for glucose, free glucose, or glucose derived from complex CARBOHYDRATES, such as GLYCOGEN and STARCH.Starch: Any of a group of polysaccharides of the general formula (C6-H10-O5)n, composed of a long-chain polymer of glucose in the form of amylose and amylopectin. It is the chief storage form of energy reserve (carbohydrates) in plants.GlycogenCarbohydrate Sequence: The sequence of carbohydrates within POLYSACCHARIDES; GLYCOPROTEINS; and GLYCOLIPIDS.Lactates: Salts or esters of LACTIC ACID containing the general formula CH3CHOHCOOR.Blood Glucose: Glucose in blood.Insulin: A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Gluconeogenesis: Biosynthesis of GLUCOSE from nonhexose or non-carbohydrate precursors, such as LACTATE; PYRUVATE; ALANINE; and GLYCEROL.TrehaloseLiver Glycogen: Glycogen stored in the liver. (Dorland, 28th ed)Fructose: A monosaccharide in sweet fruits and honey that is soluble in water, alcohol, or ether. It is used as a preservative and an intravenous infusion in parenteral feeding.Carbohydrate Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a carbohydrate.Lactic Acid: A normal intermediate in the fermentation (oxidation, metabolism) of sugar. The concentrated form is used internally to prevent gastrointestinal fermentation. (From Stedman, 26th ed)HexosesSucrose: A nonreducing disaccharide composed of GLUCOSE and FRUCTOSE linked via their anomeric carbons. It is obtained commercially from SUGARCANE, sugar beet (BETA VULGARIS), and other plants and used extensively as a food and a sweetener.Phosphoglucomutase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of alpha D-glucose 1-phosphate to alpha D-glucose 6-phosphate. EC 5.4.2.2.Phosphofructokinase-1: An allosteric enzyme that regulates glycolysis by catalyzing the transfer of a phosphate group from ATP to fructose-6-phosphate to yield fructose-1,6-bisphosphate. D-tagatose- 6-phosphate and sedoheptulose-7-phosphate also are acceptors. UTP, CTP, and ITP also are donors. In human phosphofructokinase-1, three types of subunits have been identified. They are PHOSPHOFRUCTOKINASE-1, MUSCLE TYPE; PHOSPHOFRUCTOKINASE-1, LIVER TYPE; and PHOSPHOFRUCTOKINASE-1, TYPE C; found in platelets, brain, and other tissues.Pentose Phosphate Pathway: An oxidative decarboxylation process that converts GLUCOSE-6-PHOSPHATE to D-ribose-5-phosphate via 6-phosphogluconate. The pentose product is used in the biosynthesis of NUCLEIC ACIDS. The generated energy is stored in the form of NADPH. This pathway is prominent in tissues which are active in the synthesis of FATTY ACIDS and STEROIDS.Citric Acid Cycle: A series of oxidative reactions in the breakdown of acetyl units derived from GLUCOSE; FATTY ACIDS; or AMINO ACIDS by means of tricarboxylic acid intermediates. The end products are CARBON DIOXIDE, water, and energy in the form of phosphate bonds.Phosphofructokinases: Allosteric enzymes that regulate glycolysis and gluconeogenesis. These enzymes catalyze phosphorylation of fructose-6-phosphate to either fructose-1,6-bisphosphate (PHOSPHOFRUCTOKINASE-1 reaction), or to fructose-2,6-bisphosphate (PHOSPHOFRUCTOKINASE-2 reaction).Glucose Tolerance Test: A test to determine the ability of an individual to maintain HOMEOSTASIS of BLOOD GLUCOSE. It includes measuring blood glucose levels in a fasting state, and at prescribed intervals before and after oral glucose intake (75 or 100 g) or intravenous infusion (0.5 g/kg).Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Carbon Isotopes: Stable carbon atoms that have the same atomic number as the element carbon, but differ in atomic weight. C-13 is a stable carbon isotope.PyruvatesGalactose: An aldohexose that occurs naturally in the D-form in lactose, cerebrosides, gangliosides, and mucoproteins. Deficiency of galactosyl-1-phosphate uridyltransferase (GALACTOSE-1-PHOSPHATE URIDYL-TRANSFERASE DEFICIENCY DISEASE) causes an error in galactose metabolism called GALACTOSEMIA, resulting in elevations of galactose in the blood.Thermoproteus: A genus of obligately anaerobic ARCHAEA, in the family THERMOPROTEACEAE. They are found in acidic hot springs and water holes.Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Plant Tubers: An enlarged underground root or stem of some plants. It is usually rich in carbohydrates. Some, such as POTATOES, are important human FOOD. They may reproduce vegetatively from buds.beta-Fructofuranosidase: A glycoside hydrolase found primarily in PLANTS and YEASTS. It has specificity for beta-D-fructofuranosides such as SUCROSE.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Pyruvate Kinase: ATP:pyruvate 2-O-phosphotransferase. A phosphotransferase that catalyzes reversibly the phosphorylation of pyruvate to phosphoenolpyruvate in the presence of ATP. It has four isozymes (L, R, M1, and M2). Deficiency of the enzyme results in hemolytic anemia. EC 2.7.1.40.Metabolic Networks and Pathways: Complex sets of enzymatic reactions connected to each other via their product and substrate metabolites.Fructosediphosphates: Diphosphoric acid esters of fructose. The fructose-1,6- diphosphate isomer is most prevalent. It is an important intermediate in the glycolysis process.Fatty Acids, Nonesterified: FATTY ACIDS found in the plasma that are complexed with SERUM ALBUMIN for transport. These fatty acids are not in glycerol ester form.Oxygen Consumption: The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)Fatty Acids: Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Carbon: A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.Fermentation: Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.Carbon Dioxide: A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.PolysaccharidesStarvation: Lengthy and continuous deprivation of food. (Stedman, 25th ed)Dietary Fats: Fats present in food, especially in animal products such as meat, meat products, butter, ghee. They are present in lower amounts in nuts, seeds, and avocados.Plant Leaves: Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)Gene Expression Regulation, Plant: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.Metabolism: The chemical reactions that occur within the cells, tissues, or an organism. These processes include both the biosynthesis (ANABOLISM) and the breakdown (CATABOLISM) of organic materials utilized by the living organism.Pyruvic Acid: An intermediate compound in the metabolism of carbohydrates, proteins, and fats. In thiamine deficiency, its oxidation is retarded and it accumulates in the tissues, especially in nervous structures. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Photosynthesis: The synthesis by organisms of organic chemical compounds, especially carbohydrates, from carbon dioxide using energy obtained from light rather than from the oxidation of chemical compounds. Photosynthesis comprises two separate processes: the light reactions and the dark reactions. In higher plants; GREEN ALGAE; and CYANOBACTERIA; NADPH and ATP formed by the light reactions drive the dark reactions which result in the fixation of carbon dioxide. (from Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2001)Glucagon: A 29-amino acid pancreatic peptide derived from proglucagon which is also the precursor of intestinal GLUCAGON-LIKE PEPTIDES. Glucagon is secreted by PANCREATIC ALPHA CELLS and plays an important role in regulation of BLOOD GLUCOSE concentration, ketone metabolism, and several other biochemical and physiological processes. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 9th ed, p1511)TriglyceridesKinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Phosphorylases: A class of glucosyltransferases that catalyzes the degradation of storage polysaccharides, such as glucose polymers, by phosphorolysis in animals (GLYCOGEN PHOSPHORYLASE) and in plants (STARCH PHOSPHORYLASE).Fasting: Abstaining from all food.PentosephosphatesLipids: A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Mannose: A hexose or fermentable monosaccharide and isomer of glucose from manna, the ash Fraxinus ornus and related plants. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed & Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Glycerol: A trihydroxy sugar alcohol that is an intermediate in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. It is used as a solvent, emollient, pharmaceutical agent, and sweetening agent.Fructose-Bisphosphate Aldolase: An enzyme of the lyase class that catalyzes the cleavage of fructose 1,6-biphosphate to form dihydroxyacetone phosphate and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate. The enzyme also acts on (3S,4R)-ketose 1-phosphates. The yeast and bacterial enzymes are zinc proteins. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) E.C. 4.1.2.13.Fructose-Bisphosphatase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of D-fructose 1,6-bisphosphate and water to D-fructose 6-phosphate and orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.11.Oligosaccharides: Carbohydrates consisting of between two (DISACCHARIDES) and ten MONOSACCHARIDES connected by either an alpha- or beta-glycosidic link. They are found throughout nature in both the free and bound form.Nitrogen: An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.Glycoside HydrolasesGlycerol Kinase: An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of glycerol 3-phosphate from ATP and glycerol. Dihydroxyacetone and L-glyceraldehyde can also act as acceptors; UTP and, in the case of the yeast enzyme, ITP and GTP can act as donors. It provides a way for glycerol derived from fats or glycerides to enter the glycolytic pathway. EC 2.7.1.30.Contraceptives, Oral, Sequential: Drugs administered orally and sequentially for contraceptive purposes.Antigens, Tumor-Associated, Carbohydrate: Carbohydrate antigens expressed by malignant tissue. They are useful as tumor markers and are measured in the serum by means of a radioimmunoassay employing monoclonal antibodies.HexosephosphatesGlucosyltransferases: Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of glucose from a nucleoside diphosphate glucose to an acceptor molecule which is frequently another carbohydrate. EC 2.4.1.-.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Diet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Muscle, Skeletal: A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis: Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.Lectins: Proteins that share the common characteristic of binding to carbohydrates. Some ANTIBODIES and carbohydrate-metabolizing proteins (ENZYMES) also bind to carbohydrates, however they are not considered lectins. PLANT LECTINS are carbohydrate-binding proteins that have been primarily identified by their hemagglutinating activity (HEMAGGLUTININS). However, a variety of lectins occur in animal species where they serve diverse array of functions through specific carbohydrate recognition.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Insulin Resistance: Diminished effectiveness of INSULIN in lowering blood sugar levels: requiring the use of 200 units or more of insulin per day to prevent HYPERGLYCEMIA or KETOSIS.Plant Proteins: Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.Acetates: Derivatives of ACETIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxymethane structure.Amino Acids: Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.Metabolome: The dynamic collection of metabolites which represent a cell's or organism's net metabolic response to current conditions.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Energy Intake: Total number of calories taken in daily whether ingested or by parenteral routes.Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Solanum tuberosum: A plant species of the genus SOLANUM, family SOLANACEAE. The starchy roots are used as food. SOLANINE is found in green parts.Proteome: The protein complement of an organism coded for by its genome.Maltose: A dextrodisaccharide from malt and starch. It is used as a sweetening agent and fermentable intermediate in brewing. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Glucosephosphate DehydrogenaseDisaccharides: Oligosaccharides containing two monosaccharide units linked by a glycosidic bond.Carbon Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of carbon that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. C atoms with atomic weights 10, 11, and 14-16 are radioactive carbon isotopes.Obesity: A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).Enzymes: Biological molecules that possess catalytic activity. They may occur naturally or be synthetically created. Enzymes are usually proteins, however CATALYTIC RNA and CATALYTIC DNA molecules have also been identified.Ketone Bodies: The metabolic substances ACETONE; 3-HYDROXYBUTYRIC ACID; and acetoacetic acid (ACETOACETATES). They are produced in the liver and kidney during FATTY ACIDS oxidation and used as a source of energy by the heart, muscle and brain.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Hexokinase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of ATP and a D-hexose to ADP and a D-hexose 6-phosphate. D-Glucose, D-mannose, D-fructose, sorbitol, and D-glucosamine can act as acceptors; ITP and dATP can act as donors. The liver isoenzyme has sometimes been called glucokinase. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.7.1.1.Glycogen Synthase: An enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of D-glucose from UDPglucose into 1,4-alpha-D-glucosyl chains. EC 2.4.1.11.beta-Amylase: An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of 1,4-alpha-glycosidic linkages in starch, glycogen, and related polysaccharides and oligosaccharides so as to remove successive beta-maltose units from the non-reducing ends of the chains. EC 3.2.1.2.Xylulose: A 5-carbon keto sugar.PhosphoenolpyruvateTranscriptome: The pattern of GENE EXPRESSION at the level of genetic transcription in a specific organism or under specific circumstances in specific cells.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Glucose-1-Phosphate Adenylyltransferase: An ATP-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the addition of ADP to alpha-D-glucose 1-phosphate to form ADP-glucose and diphosphate. The reaction is the rate-limiting reaction in prokaryotic GLYCOGEN and plant STARCH biosynthesis.Glucokinase: A group of enzymes that catalyzes the conversion of ATP and D-glucose to ADP and D-glucose 6-phosphate. They are found in invertebrates and microorganisms, and are highly specific for glucose. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.7.1.2.Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.Genes, Plant: The functional hereditary units of PLANTS.Glucose-6-Phosphate Isomerase: An aldose-ketose isomerase that catalyzes the reversible interconversion of glucose 6-phosphate and fructose 6-phosphate. In prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms it plays an essential role in glycolytic and gluconeogenic pathways. In mammalian systems the enzyme is found in the cytoplasm and as a secreted protein. This secreted form of glucose-6-phosphate isomerase has been referred to as autocrine motility factor or neuroleukin, and acts as a cytokine which binds to the AUTOCRINE MOTILITY FACTOR RECEPTOR. Deficiency of the enzyme in humans is an autosomal recessive trait, which results in CONGENITAL NONSPHEROCYTIC HEMOLYTIC ANEMIA.Dietary Proteins: Proteins obtained from foods. They are the main source of the ESSENTIAL AMINO ACIDS.Homeostasis: The processes whereby the internal environment of an organism tends to remain balanced and stable.GluconatesEthynodiol Diacetate: A synthetic progestational hormone used alone or in combination with estrogens as an oral contraceptive.Glycosylation: The chemical or biochemical addition of carbohydrate or glycosyl groups to other chemicals, especially peptides or proteins. Glycosyl transferases are used in this biochemical reaction.Monosaccharides: Simple sugars, carbohydrates which cannot be decomposed by hydrolysis. They are colorless crystalline substances with a sweet taste and have the same general formula CnH2nOn. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Eating: The consumption of edible substances.Perfusion: Treatment process involving the injection of fluid into an organ or tissue.Cholesterol: The principal sterol of all higher animals, distributed in body tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord, and in animal fats and oils.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Plant Roots: The usually underground portions of a plant that serve as support, store food, and through which water and mineral nutrients enter the plant. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982; Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)XyloseGlucose-6-Phosphate: An ester of glucose with phosphoric acid, made in the course of glucose metabolism by mammalian and other cells. It is a normal constituent of resting muscle and probably is in constant equilibrium with fructose-6-phosphate. (Stedman, 26th ed)RNA, Plant: Ribonucleic acid in plants having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.Aerobiosis: Life or metabolic reactions occurring in an environment containing oxygen.Glycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.Eriobotrya: A plant genus of the family ROSACEAE that is the source of an edible fruit. Members contain TRITERPENES.Norgestrel: A synthetic progestational agent with actions similar to those of PROGESTERONE. This racemic or (+-)-form has about half the potency of the levo form (LEVONORGESTREL). Norgestrel is used as a contraceptive, ovulation inhibitor, and for the control of menstrual disorders and endometriosis.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Adenosine Triphosphate: An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Phosphogluconate Dehydrogenase: An enzyme of the oxidoreductase class that catalyzes the reaction 6-phospho-D-gluconate and NADP+ to yield D-ribulose 5-phosphate, carbon dioxide, and NADPH. The reaction is a step in the pentose phosphate pathway of glucose metabolism. (From Dorland, 27th ed) EC 1.1.1.43.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Growth Hormone: A polypeptide that is secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Growth hormone, also known as somatotropin, stimulates mitosis, cell differentiation and cell growth. Species-specific growth hormones have been synthesized.Adipose Tissue: Specialized connective tissue composed of fat cells (ADIPOCYTES). It is the site of stored FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. In mammals, there are two types of adipose tissue, the WHITE FAT and the BROWN FAT. Their relative distributions vary in different species with most adipose tissue being white.Plant Stems: Parts of plants that usually grow vertically upwards towards the light and support the leaves, buds, and reproductive structures. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Stress, Physiological: The unfavorable effect of environmental factors (stressors) on the physiological functions of an organism. Prolonged unresolved physiological stress can affect HOMEOSTASIS of the organism, and may lead to damaging or pathological conditions.Proteomics: The systematic study of the complete complement of proteins (PROTEOME) of organisms.Phosphotransferases: A rather large group of enzymes comprising not only those transferring phosphate but also diphosphate, nucleotidyl residues, and others. These have also been subdivided according to the acceptor group. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.7.Vitis: A plant genus in the family VITACEAE, order Rhamnales, subclass Rosidae. It is a woody vine cultivated worldwide. It is best known for grapes, the edible fruit and used to make WINE and raisins.Electrophoresis, Gel, Two-Dimensional: Electrophoresis in which a second perpendicular electrophoretic transport is performed on the separate components resulting from the first electrophoresis. This technique is usually performed on polyacrylamide gels.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Seeds: The encapsulated embryos of flowering plants. They are used as is or for animal feed because of the high content of concentrated nutrients like starches, proteins, and fats. Rapeseed, cottonseed, and sunflower seed are also produced for the oils (fats) they yield.GlucosephosphatesAlcohol Oxidoreductases: A subclass of enzymes which includes all dehydrogenases acting on primary and secondary alcohols as well as hemiacetals. They are further classified according to the acceptor which can be NAD+ or NADP+ (subclass 1.1.1), cytochrome (1.1.2), oxygen (1.1.3), quinone (1.1.5), or another acceptor (1.1.99).Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Biotransformation: The chemical alteration of an exogenous substance by or in a biological system. The alteration may inactivate the compound or it may result in the production of an active metabolite of an inactive parent compound. The alterations may be divided into METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE I and METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE II.Adaptation, Physiological: The non-genetic biological changes of an organism in response to challenges in its ENVIRONMENT.HexosediphosphatesPyruvate Dehydrogenase Complex: A multienzyme complex responsible for the formation of ACETYL COENZYME A from pyruvate. The enzyme components are PYRUVATE DEHYDROGENASE (LIPOAMIDE); dihydrolipoamide acetyltransferase; and LIPOAMIDE DEHYDROGENASE. Pyruvate dehydrogenase complex is subject to three types of control: inhibited by acetyl-CoA and NADH; influenced by the energy state of the cell; and inhibited when a specific serine residue in the pyruvate decarboxylase is phosphorylated by ATP. PYRUVATE DEHYDROGENASE (LIPOAMIDE)-PHOSPHATASE catalyzes reactivation of the complex. (From Concise Encyclopedia Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 3rd ed)Diet, Carbohydrate-Restricted: A diet that contains limited amounts of CARBOHYDRATES. This is in distinction to a regular DIET.Cell Wall: The outermost layer of a cell in most PLANTS; BACTERIA; FUNGI; and ALGAE. The cell wall is usually a rigid structure that lies external to the CELL MEMBRANE, and provides a protective barrier against physical or chemical agents.Arabidopsis: A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.Propionates: Derivatives of propionic acid. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxyethane structure.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Cluster Analysis: A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.Hyperglycemia: Abnormally high BLOOD GLUCOSE level.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2: A subclass of DIABETES MELLITUS that is not INSULIN-responsive or dependent (NIDDM). It is characterized initially by INSULIN RESISTANCE and HYPERINSULINEMIA; and eventually by GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE; HYPERGLYCEMIA; and overt diabetes. Type II diabetes mellitus is no longer considered a disease exclusively found in adults. Patients seldom develop KETOSIS but often exhibit OBESITY.Exercise: Physical activity which is usually regular and done with the intention of improving or maintaining PHYSICAL FITNESS or HEALTH. Contrast with PHYSICAL EXERTION which is concerned largely with the physiologic and metabolic response to energy expenditure.Gene Expression Regulation, Fungal: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in fungi.Contraceptives, Oral, Combined: Fixed drug combinations administered orally for contraceptive purposes.Hypoglycemia: A syndrome of abnormally low BLOOD GLUCOSE level. Clinical hypoglycemia has diverse etiologies. Severe hypoglycemia eventually lead to glucose deprivation of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM resulting in HUNGER; SWEATING; PARESTHESIA; impaired mental function; SEIZURES; COMA; and even DEATH.Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.Microsomes, Liver: Closed vesicles of fragmented endoplasmic reticulum created when liver cells or tissue are disrupted by homogenization. They may be smooth or rough.Phosphofructokinase-2: An allosteric enzyme that regulates glycolysis and gluconeogenesis by catalyzing the transfer of a phosphate group from ATP to fructose-6-phosphate to yield fructose-2,6-bisphosphate, an allosteric effector for the other 6-phosphofructokinase, PHOSPHOFRUCTOKINASE-1. Phosphofructokinase-2 is bifunctional: the dephosphorylated form is a kinase and the phosphorylated form is a phosphatase that breaks down fructose-2,6-bisphosphate to yield fructose-6-phosphate.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Muscles: Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.Anaerobiosis: The complete absence, or (loosely) the paucity, of gaseous or dissolved elemental oxygen in a given place or environment. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Physical Endurance: The time span between the beginning of physical activity by an individual and the termination because of exhaustion.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Oxygen: An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System: A superfamily of hundreds of closely related HEMEPROTEINS found throughout the phylogenetic spectrum, from animals, plants, fungi, to bacteria. They include numerous complex monooxygenases (MIXED FUNCTION OXYGENASES). In animals, these P-450 enzymes serve two major functions: (1) biosynthesis of steroids, fatty acids, and bile acids; (2) metabolism of endogenous and a wide variety of exogenous substrates, such as toxins and drugs (BIOTRANSFORMATION). They are classified, according to their sequence similarities rather than functions, into CYP gene families (>40% homology) and subfamilies (>59% homology). For example, enzymes from the CYP1, CYP2, and CYP3 gene families are responsible for most drug metabolism.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Plant Lectins: Protein or glycoprotein substances of plant origin that bind to sugar moieties in cell walls or membranes. Some carbohydrate-metabolizing proteins (ENZYMES) from PLANTS also bind to carbohydrates, however they are not considered lectins. Many plant lectins change the physiology of the membrane of BLOOD CELLS to cause agglutination, mitosis, or other biochemical changes. They may play a role in plant defense mechanisms.Adenine NucleotidesProtein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.Malate Dehydrogenase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of (S)-malate and NAD+ to oxaloacetate and NADH. EC 1.1.1.37.Glycopeptides: Proteins which contain carbohydrate groups attached covalently to the polypeptide chain. The protein moiety is the predominant group with the carbohydrate making up only a small percentage of the total weight.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Microarray Analysis: The simultaneous analysis, on a microchip, of multiple samples or targets arranged in an array format.Deoxyglucose: 2-Deoxy-D-arabino-hexose. An antimetabolite of glucose with antiviral activity.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Isocitrate Dehydrogenase: An enzyme of the oxidoreductase class that catalyzes the conversion of isocitrate and NAD+ to yield 2-ketoglutarate, carbon dioxide, and NADH. It occurs in cell mitochondria. The enzyme requires Mg2+, Mn2+; it is activated by ADP, citrate, and Ca2+, and inhibited by NADH, NADPH, and ATP. The reaction is the key rate-limiting step of the citric acid (tricarboxylic) cycle. (From Dorland, 27th ed) (The NADP+ enzyme is EC 1.1.1.42.) EC 1.1.1.41.Mice, Inbred C57BLDiabetes Mellitus: A heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by HYPERGLYCEMIA and GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE.Metagenome: A collective genome representative of the many organisms, primarily microorganisms, existing in a community.Mitochondria: Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)FucoseSaccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.

Role of glutamine in human carbohydrate metabolism in kidney and other tissues. (1/3923)

Glutamine is the most abundant amino acid in the human body and is involved in more metabolic processes than any other amino acid. Until recently, the understanding of many aspects of glutamine metabolism was based on animal and in vitro data. However, recent studies using isotopic and balance techniques have greatly advanced the understanding of glutamine metabolism in humans and its role in glucose metabolism in the kidney and other tissues. There is now evidence that in postabsorptive humans, glutamine is an important glucose precursor and makes a significant contribution to the addition of new carbon to the glucose carbon pool. The importance of alanine for gluconeogenesis, viewed in terms of the addition of new carbons, is less than previously assumed. It appears that glutamine is predominantly a renal gluconeogenic substrate, whereas alanine gluconeogenesis is essentially confined to the liver. As shown recently, renal gluconeogenesis contributes 20 to 25% to whole-body glucose production. Moreover, glutamine has been shown not only to stimulate net muscle glycogen storage but also to stimulate gluconeogenesis in normal humans. Finally, in humans with type II diabetes, conversion of glutamine to glucose is increased (more so than that of alanine). The available evidence on the hormonal regulation of glutamine gluconeogenesis in kidney and liver and its alterations under pathological conditions are discussed.  (+info)

Relationship between glycosyl hydrolase inventory and growth physiology of the hyperthermophile Pyrococcus furiosus on carbohydrate-based media. (2/3923)

Utilization of a range of carbohydrates for growth by the hyperthermophile Pyrococcus furiosus was investigated by examining the spectrum of glycosyl hydrolases produced by this microorganism and the thermal labilities of various saccharides. Previously, P. furiosus had been found to grow in batch cultures on several alpha-linked carbohydrates and cellobiose but not on glucose or other beta-linked sugars. Although P. furiosus was not able to grow on any nonglucan carbohydrate or any form of cellulose in this study (growth on oat spelt arabinoxylan was attributed to glucan contamination of this substrate), significant growth at 98 degrees C occurred on beta-1,3- and beta-1,3-beta-1,4-linked glucans. Oligosaccharides generated by digestion with a recombinant laminarinase derived from P. furiosus were the compounds that were most effective in stimulating growth of the microorganism. In several cases, periodic addition of beta-glucan substrates to fed-batch cultures limited adverse thermochemical modifications of the carbohydrates (i.e., Maillard reactions and caramelization) and led to significant increases (as much as two- to threefold) in the cell yields. While glucose had only a marginally positive effect on growth in batch culture, the final cell densities nearly tripled when glucose was added by the fed-batch procedure. Nonenzymatic browning reactions were found to be significant at 98 degrees C for saccharides with degrees of polymerization (DP) ranging from 1 to 6; glucose was the most labile compound on a mass basis and the least labile compound on a molar basis. This suggests that for DP of 2 or greater protection of the nonreducing monosaccharide component may be a factor in substrate availability. For P. furiosus, carbohydrate utilization patterns were found to reflect the distribution of the glycosyl hydrolases which are known to be produced by this microorganism.  (+info)

Glucose kinetics during prolonged exercise in highly trained human subjects: effect of glucose ingestion. (3/3923)

1. The objectives of this study were (1) to investigate whether glucose ingestion during prolonged exercise reduces whole body muscle glycogen oxidation, (2) to determine the extent to which glucose disappearing from the plasma is oxidized during exercise with and without carbohydrate ingestion and (3) to obtain an estimate of gluconeogenesis. 2. After an overnight fast, six well-trained cyclists exercised on three occasions for 120 min on a bicycle ergometer at 50 % maximum velocity of O2 uptake and ingested either water (Fast), or a 4 % glucose solution (Lo-Glu) or a 22 % glucose solution (Hi-Glu) during exercise. 3. Dual tracer infusion of [U-13C]-glucose and [6,6-2H2]-glucose was given to measure the rate of appearance (Ra) of glucose, muscle glycogen oxidation, glucose carbon recycling, metabolic clearance rate (MCR) and non-oxidative disposal of glucose. 4. Glucose ingestion markedly increased total Ra especially with Hi-Glu. After 120 min Ra and rate of disappearance (Rd) of glucose were 51-52 micromol kg-1 min-1 during Fast, 73-74 micromol kg-1 min-1 during Lo-Glu and 117-119 micromol kg-1 min-1 during Hi-Glu. The percentage of Rd oxidized was between 96 and 100 % in all trials. 5. Glycogen oxidation during exercise was not reduced by glucose ingestion. The vast majority of glucose disappearing from the plasma is oxidized and MCR increased markedly with glucose ingestion. Glucose carbon recycling was minimal suggesting that gluconeogenesis in these conditions is negligible.  (+info)

Conversion of brain-specific complex type sugar chains by N-acetyl-beta-D-hexosaminidase B. (4/3923)

The N-linked sugar chains, GlcNAcbeta1-2Manalpha1-6(GlcNAcbeta1-4)(Manalpha1++ +-3)Manbeta1-4GlcNAcb eta1-4(Fucalpha1-6)GlcNAc (BA-1) and GlcNAcbeta1-2Manalpha1-6(GlcNAcbeta1-4)(GlcNAcbeta1 -2Manalpha1-3)Manb eta1-4GlcNAcbeta1-4(Fucalpha1-6)GlcNAc (BA-2), were recently found to be linked to membrane proteins of mouse brain in a development-dependent manner [S. Nakakita, S. Natsuka, K. Ikenaka, and S. Hase, J. Biochem. 123, 1164-1168 (1998)]. The GlcNAc residue linked to the Manalpha1-3 branch of BA-2 is lacking in BA-1 and the removal of this GlcNAc residue is not part of the usual biosynthetic pathway for N-linked sugar chains, suggesting the existence of an N-acetyl-beta-D-hexosaminidase. Using pyridylaminated BA-2 (BA-2-PA) as a substrate the activity of this enzyme was found in all four subcellular fractions obtained. The activity was much greater in the cerebrum than in the cerebellum. To further identify the N-acetyl-beta-D-hexosaminidase, BA-1 and BA-2 in brain tissues of Hex gene-disrupted mutant mice were detected and quantified. PA-sugar chains were liberated from the cerebrum and cerebellum of the mutant mice by hydrazinolysis-N-acetylation followed by pyridylamination. PA-sugar chains were separated by anion-exchange HPLC, size-fractionation, and reversed-phase HPLC. Each peak was quantified by measuring the peaks at the elution positions of authentic BA-1-PA and BA-2-PA. BA-2-PA was detected in all the PA-sugar chain fractions prepared from Hexa, Hexb, and both Hexa and Hexb (double knockout) gene-disrupted mice, but BA-1 was not found in the fractions from Hexb gene-disrupted and double knockout mice. These results indicate that N-acetyl-beta-D-hexosaminidase B encoded by the Hexb gene hydrolyzed BA-2 to BA-1.  (+info)

Sugar- and nitrogen-dependent regulation of an Amanita muscaria phenylalanine ammonium lyase gene. (5/3923)

The cDNA of a key enzyme of secondary metabolism, phenylalanine ammonium lyase, was identified for an ectomycorrhizal fungus by differential screening of a mycorrhizal library. The gene was highly expressed in hyphae grown at low external monosaccharide concentrations, but its expression was 30-fold reduced at elevated concentrations. Gene repression was regulated by hexokinase.  (+info)

Characterisation of recombinant glycosylation variants of insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3. (6/3923)

There are three potential N-glycosylation sites in the non-conserved central region of the insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) sequence (N89AS, N109AS, N172FS). IGFBP-3 exists as two glycoforms which reduce to a single form on enzymatic deglycosylation. To determine the functional significance of the carbohydrate chains, the N-glycosylation sites were mutated singly and in combinations by substituting Asn residues with Ala. Each recombinant glycoform was detected by radioimmunoassay, indicating that glycosylation is not essential for secretion in Chinese hamster ovary cells. Ligand blotting of the conditioned media using [125I]IGF-I indicated that all seven mutants are active. On the basis of the number and molecular masses of the bands detected for each glycoform, there is approximately 4, 4.5 and 5 kDa of carbohydrate on Asn89, Asn109 and Asn172 respectively, with variable occupancy of Asn172. Ternary complex formation by the glycovariants in the presence of ALS and excess IGF-I was not significantly different from that of fully glycosylated recombinant human (rh)IGFBP-3 [Ka (fully glycosylated)=12.5+/-4.1 l/nmol; mean Ka (all mutants)=22.1+/-3.0 l/nmol]. In contrast, Asn to Asp substitutions decreased acid-labile subunit (ALS) binding activity. Cell-surface association experiments indicate that glycosylation may influence the partitioning of IGFBP-3 between the extracellular milieu and the cell surface. Therefore, while the carbohydrate units appear to be non-essential to ALS or IGF binding, they may modulate other biological activities of IGFBP-3.  (+info)

Prevalence of undiagnosed diabetes and abnormalities of carbohydrate metabolism in a U.S. Army population. (7/3923)

OBJECTIVE: The Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III) reported that 4.3-6.3% of adult Americans have undiagnosed diabetes. 15.6% have impaired glucose tolerance, and 10.1% have impaired fasting glucose. By design, NHANES III excluded people in the U.S. military. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of undiagnosed diabetes, impaired glucose tolerance, and impaired fasting glucose among U.S. Army soldiers. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: A 2-h, 75-g oral glucose tolerance test was performed on a prospective, consecutive sample of 625 asymptomatic soldiers presenting to a U.S. Army medical clinic for physical examinations. Age of subjects was 32 +/- 9 years (mean +/- SD), and 81.0% of subjects were male. BMI was 26.2 +/- 3.7 kg/m2. Race/ethnicity categories included Caucasian (54.4%), African-American (24.4%), Hispanic (17.4%), and other (3.7%). A family history of diabetes was reported by 25.4% of the subjects, and the number of exercise sessions per week was 4.0 +/- 1.5. RESULTS: The prevalence of undiagnosed diabetes was 3 of 625 (0.5%) (95% CI, 0.1-1.4): impaired glucose tolerance, 11 of 598 (1.8%) (0.9-3.3); and impaired fasting glucose 6 of 585 (1.0%) (0.4-2.2). CONCLUSIONS: In this low-diabetes risk U.S. Army population, the prevalence of undiagnosed diabetes, impaired glucose tolerance, and impaired fasting glucose were 0.5, 1.8, and 1.0%, respectively. The prevalence rates found in this study are approximately one-tenth of those found in NHANES III.  (+info)

Outer membranes of gram-negative bacteria. XIX. Isolation from Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 and use in reconstitution and definition of the permeability barrier. (8/3923)

A method for separating the outer and inner membranes of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 in the absence of added ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid was devised. The method yields two outer membrane fractions which show the same protein pattern on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, but differ substantially in their relative contents of phospholipids. One of these outer membrane fractions and the inner membrane fraction are less than 4% cross-contaminated, as judged by the content of typical inner and outer membrane markers. The outer membrane contains four major protein bands with apparent molecular weights of 37,000, 35,000, 21,000 and 17,000. Vesicles reconstituted from lipopolysaccharide and phospholipids were impermeable to all saccharides included in the vesicles during vesicle formation. When the vesicles contained outer membrane proteins, they fully retained only those saccharides of greater than 9,000 molecular weight, suggesting that the exclusion limit of the outer membrane of P. aeruginosa for saccharides is substantially larger than the figure (500 to 600 daltons) obtained for certain enteric bacteria. The advantages and potential disadvantages of having an outer membrane with a higher exclusion limit for hydrophilic substances are discussed.  (+info)

In this paper discrete-event simulation modeling technique is used to model and simulate biological processes. In particular, we study application of discrete-event simulation to model processes taking place in Glycolosis and capture dynamic behavior of reactions that occur in it. Glycolosis is the beginning of generation of metabolic energy from Carbohydrates metabolism, where in this process one molecule of Glucose is converted into two molecules of Pyrovate, with concomitant generation of two molecules of ATP. During this process some of the potential energy stored in the hexose structure is released and used to derive the synthesis of ATP from ADP. There will be give an overview of the carbohydrate metabolism and a Petri net model would be constructed for the carbohydrate metabolism, which will show all the involved pathways in carbohydrate metabolism. However the paper would concentrate on Glycolosis, which is the initial pathway in the catabolism of carbohydrates. The main purpose of this paper
Dataset for: Vacuolar sucrose cleavage prevents limitation of cytosolic carbohydrate metabolism and stabilizes photosynthesis under abiotic stress
Study Flashcards On M1-C1-L50 --| Carbohydrate Metabolism II: Glycogenolysis at Cram.com. Quickly memorize the terms, phrases and much more. Cram.com makes it easy to get the grade you want!
Carbohydrate metabolism of the lens depending on age. I. Factor analysis of changes in the content of adenine nucleotides, inorganic phosphate and lactate in bo
MORPHOLOGICAL AND STRUCTURAL CHANGES IN MYOCARDIUM, LIPID AND CARBOHYDRATE METABOLISM DURING DIFFERENT OUTCOMES OF CHRONIC HEART FAILURE IN PATIENTS WITH ISCHEMIC HEART DISEASE AND DIABETES MELLITUS TYPE II
Purchase Methods for Analysis of Carbohydrate Metabolism in Photosynthetic Organisms - 1st Edition. Print Book & E-Book. ISBN 9780128033968, 9780128034033
Buy Carbohydrate Metabolism by Examville Staff (eBook) online at Lulu. Visit the Lulu Marketplace for product details, ratings, and reviews.
Biological macromolecules (The polymers) They are large organic compounds made up of smaller molecules (monomers) combined together by polymerization process,
CAZy is a specialist database dedicated to the display and analysis of genomic, structural and biochemical information on Carbohydrate-Active Enzymes (CAZymes). CAZy data are accessible either by browsing sequence-based families or by browsing the content of genomes in carbohydrate-active enzymes. New genomes are added regularly shortly after they appear in the daily releases of GenBank. New families are created based on published evidence for the activity of at least one member of the family and all families are regularly updated, both in content and in description ...
Your basket is currently empty. i ,p>When browsing through different UniProt proteins, you can use the basket to save them, so that you can back to find or analyse them later.,p>,a href=/help/basket target=_top>More...,/a>,/p> ...
Letters refer to COG functional categories. C - Energy production and conversion; D - Cell division and chromosome partitioning; E - Amino acid transport and metabolism; F - Nucleotide transport and metabolism; G - Carbohydrate transport and metabolism; H - Coenzyme metabolism; I - Lipid metabolism; J - Translation, ribosomal structure and biogenesis; K - Transcription; L - DNA replication, recombination and repair; M - Cell envelope biogenesis, outer membrane; O - Posttranslational modification, protein turnover, chaperones; P - Inorganic ion transport and metabolism; R - General function prediction only; S - COG of unknown function. See the BacMap help page for a description of how proteins were classified into COG categories. ...
Letters refer to COG functional categories. C - Energy production and conversion; D - Cell division and chromosome partitioning; E - Amino acid transport and metabolism; F - Nucleotide transport and metabolism; G - Carbohydrate transport and metabolism; H - Coenzyme metabolism; I - Lipid metabolism; J - Translation, ribosomal structure and biogenesis; K - Transcription; L - DNA replication, recombination and repair; M - Cell envelope biogenesis, outer membrane; O - Posttranslational modification, protein turnover, chaperones; P - Inorganic ion transport and metabolism; R - General function prediction only; S - COG of unknown function. See the BacMap help page for a description of how proteins were classified into COG categories. ...
This book provides an overall increase in awareness, understanding and implementation of the recent great advances in the production and application of industrail enzymes on carbohydrate materials.
The topic of carbohydrates for horses has gotten a lot of people asking questions and has created a certain amount of confusion, particularly when comparing carbohydrates in equine diets to human dietary recommendations. Starches, carbohydrates, sugars, non-structural carbohydrates (NSC) and non-fibrous carbohydrates (NFC), among others, are terms thrown around for equine diets, and all those terms can get very intimidating, when it comes to what these nutrients mean to your horse and how much your horse needs or doesnt need. Here is a list of each of the common terms, and what they include:. ...
I want to tell you about the importance of carbohydrates in general and white foods, potatoes in particular for the fitness and health of our body. The fitness and health … Read More ...
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Biochemical Tests for Identifying Unknowns Carbohydrate Utilization: Bacteria produce acidic products when they ferment certain carbohydrates. The carbohydrate
Carbohydrates, also called carbs and sugars, have gotten a really bad name in the press. Those who are trying to maintain a slim weight, or lose weight, are
https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2015/12/151215094542.htm The researchers found that blocking the bodys use of fat did not affect the distance...
NeoLife Chelated Zinc is needed in over 100 enzymes and involved in a myriad of essential body functions. It functions as an antioxidant and is involved in carbohydrate metabolism and the activation of vitamins, especially B vitamins.
Are normal sugar levels now considered to be too high? Our expert dietitian explains the findings in a new study that may prove the US guidelines for sugar may be too high.
Question - Suggest medication to control sugar level?. Ask a Doctor about uses, dosages and side-effects of Fat restricted diet, Ask a Diabetologist
A carb count is a calculation of the total grams of carbohydrates that are consumed during snacks or meals. Many patients with diabetes count carbs to keep their blood sugar at optimal levels. Foods...
Study results by a Swedish doctor involving more than 65, 000 persons show a positive link between elevated levels of blood sugar and the risk of developing cancer.
in glycolysis, "a small amount of ATP is also made available directly from the energy transfer when the 3C sugar is converted to pyruvate. the phosphorylation of the sugar at the beginning of the glycolyisis is reversed when the final intermediate compound is converted to pyruvate. the phosphate group released is used to convert ADP to ATP" - do we need to remember this part as answers to questions relating gycolysis, aerobic respiration, etc? :/ or just the part with hydrogen removed from the 3C, which taken up by NAD to reduce it and pass on to the elctron carrier system, where the energy made available is used to phosphorylate ADP into ATP is enough ...
Eccentric vs Concentric Muscles are fibrous tissues that are powered by fat and carbohydrate oxidation and anaerobic chemical reactions. They are what produce
1.Piper arieianum, an evergreen, understorey shrub of lowland moist forests of Central and South America, exhibits marked seasonal variation in reproductive activity even though climatic variation is low at the study site. Despite a lack of climatic seasonality, previous experimental leaf removal suggested that carbohydrate accumulation is seasonal, occurring prior to flowering.. 2. We first tested the hypothesis that carbohydrates necessary for reproduction are accumulated prior to flowering, rather than during or after. By measuring non-structural carbohydrate production in the form of glucose and starch we found that the concentration of these reserves is greatest 1-3months before flowering, decreasing by 50% during peak fruit maturation.. 3. The hypothesis that reproduction was the cause of this decrease in carbohydrate reserves was then tested by comparing reserves in plants that were prevented from flowering with those that flowered and produced fruit naturally. As predicted, reserves ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Linking Bacillus cereus genotypes and carbohydrate utilization capacity. AU - Warda, Alicja K.. AU - Siezen, Roland J.. AU - Boekhorst, Jos. AU - Wells-Bennik, Marjon H.J.. AU - de Jong, Anne. AU - Kuipers, Oscar P.. AU - Nierop Groot, Masja N.. AU - Abee, Tjakko. PY - 2016. Y1 - 2016. N2 - We characterised carbohydrate utilisation of 20 newly sequenced Bacillus cereus strains isolated from food products and food processing environments and two laboratory strains, B. cereus ATCC 10987 and B. cereus ATCC 14579. Subsequently, genome sequences of these strains were analysed together with 11 additional B. cereus reference genomes to provide an overview of the different types of carbohydrate transporters and utilization systems found in B. cereus strains. The combined application of API tests, defined growth media experiments and comparative genomics enabled us to link the carbohydrate utilisation capacity of 22 B. cereus strains with their genome content and in some cases to the panC ...
The changing patterns of carbohydrate reserves of ten forage plant species were studied in 1993 in thesteppe rangeland area of Zhenglan Banner Nimenggu, During growing season, all the samples in trial wererandomly taken and those carbohydtate reserves in stem bases and roots were determined. Our resultsshowed that the forage plants utilized their carbohydrate reserves(in the form of total sugar plus reduced sug-ar contents)at turning green,jointing and heading stages respectively and would accumulate the samereserves contents after tillering,blooming and fniit- bearing stages accordingly. The said patterns,how-ever, turned into the reversed trend in some forage species.Some rational suggestions were put forward bythe authors on the future utillzation of rangeland resources somewhat basing on the changing patternsmodeling variation existed in carbohydrate reserves.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effects of acid precipitation and aluminum on carbohydrate metabolism in mycorrhizae of Pinus massioniana. AU - Tan, J. K.. AU - Kong, F. X.. AU - Cao, Huansheng. AU - Yu, Y.. AU - Han, X. B.. PY - 2005/3/1. Y1 - 2005/3/1. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=23444450780&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=23444450780&partnerID=8YFLogxK. U2 - 10.1007/s00128-005-0628-9. DO - 10.1007/s00128-005-0628-9. M3 - Article. C2 - 15903199. AN - SCOPUS:23444450780. VL - 74. SP - 614. EP - 622. JO - Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology. JF - Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology. SN - 0007-4861. IS - 3. ER - ...
Effect of tourniquet ischaemia on carbohydrate metabolism of dog skeletal muscle.: Metabolic changes in blood and skeletal muscle of dogs before, during and aft
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Read "Cloning and characterization of full-length cDNA encoding sucrose phosphate synthase from faba bean, Gene" on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
Complex Carbohydrates, or starches, are composed of many simple sugars joined together by chemical bonds. These bonds can be linked in a serial chain, one after the other, as well as side to side, creating branches. Basically, the more chains and branches, the more complex the carbohydrate. The more complex a carbohydrate is, the more slowly it is broken down. Some carbohydrates are complex in a way that the body cannot digest them. These carbohydrates are a major component of fiber and generally pass through the digestive tract unabsorbed. In general, as long as complex carbohydrates are present in high fiber foods, the body breaks down complex carbohydrates into simple sugars more gradually, which leads to better blood sugar control. More and more research on heart disease, various forms of cancer, and diabetes indicates that complex carbohydrates including high fiber foods should form a major part of the diet. For example, the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension, or DASH, diet focuses on ...
In the present study, we found that individuals with COPD had higher REE and resting carbohydrate oxidation than the controls, regardless of body composition, since both groups had similar muscle mass.. Other studies have also found that patients with COPD have higher REE (approximately 15 to 26%) [6, 19]. The greater energy expenditure of individuals with COPD is probably due to increased respiratory muscle effort and inflammatory mediators, in addition to the effects of medication (oral or systemic corticosteroids, theophylline, hormones, benzodiazepines and antipsychotics) [19-21].. This study found that mean RQ and carbohydrate oxidation were higher in the COPD group, while fat oxidation was similar in both groups. Increased carbohydrate oxidation in the COPD group was probably caused by increased anaerobic metabolism due to reduced ability to capture oxygen [22]. When carbohydrates are oxidized in the absence of oxygen, only 2 ATP molecules per millimol of carbohydrates are generated, while ...
Intact lysosomal function is critical for normal neuronal functioning and survival (Nixon and Cataldo, 1995). In humans, this is most readily illustrated by a group of inherited childhood diseases called lysosomal storage disorders (LSDs) (Neufeld, 1991), in which neuronal brain degeneration is a frequent pathological feature (Walkley, 1998). In preadulthood, lysosomal storage, mainly in the form of lipofuscinosis, is the most common cause of neurodegeneration (Cooper, 2003). In LSDs, lysosomes increase in number and size through the gradual intra-lysosomal build up of storage material. In most cases, substrates accumulate due to the loss of lysosomal hydrolytic enzyme activity, although other causes, such as defective efflux of normally degraded constituents by lysosomal transporters, are also known (Eskelinen et al., 2003). Although studies of LSDs have provided tremendous insights into the biochemical details of lysosomal hydrolytic degradation and although the role of sphingolipid ...
Carbohydrate is an organic compound that consists only of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen and has double the amount of carbon and oxygen. Carbohydrates contain sugars, starches, cellulose and other compounds found in living organisms. Carbohydrates most basic form is simple sugars or monosaccharide. There are three other chemical groupings: disaccharides, oligosaccharides and polysaccharides. Simple sugars can be combined into other carbohydrates for form more complex carbohydrates. Humans break down carbohydrates during the process of metabolism to release energy. Humans get carbohydrates from eating foods that contain it. Most carbohydrates are produced by plants during photosynthesis. In food, the term carbohydrate means any food that is particularly rich in starch ...
were blocked by initial weight into five groups and randomly assigned within weight groupings to 10 pens. Calves were fed with a steam-flaked corn-based finishing diets containing 51% higher fiber (HF) or 64% lower fiber (LF) nonstructural carbohydrates. Non-structural carbohydrates concentrations were manipulated substituting dried distiller grain with solubles and alfalfa hay for flaked corn. Cattle were weighed every 112 days and at the end of the experiment (day 308) when the cattle were harvested and carcass characteristics were evaluated. Results: Steers fed the HF diet showed improvement (8.8%) in average daily gain (ADG) during the initial 112-d period. This effect was followed by a numerical trend for greater ADG throughout the remainder of the study so that overall ADG tended to be greater (4.9%, p = 0.06) for the HF than for LF. There were no treatment effects on dry matter intake. Gain efficiency and estimated dietary net energy (NE) were greater 8.3% and 5.2%, respectively for HF ...
in Climacteric : The Journal of the International Menopause Society (1999), 2(2), 93-100. OBJECTIVE: To determine in postmenopausal women the long-term effects on carbohydrate metabolism of the administration of oral micronized 17 beta-estradiol (2 mg/day continuously) and cyclical ... [more ▼]. OBJECTIVE: To determine in postmenopausal women the long-term effects on carbohydrate metabolism of the administration of oral micronized 17 beta-estradiol (2 mg/day continuously) and cyclical dydrogesterone (10 mg/day for 14 days per 28-day cycle). METHODS: A 2-year open-label prospective, non-comparative study was carried out of 13 healthy postmenopausal women receiving cyclical estradiol and dydrogesterone and serving as their own controls. Concentrations of blood glucose, plasma insulin, C-peptide, glucagon and free fatty acids (FFAs) were determined before treatment (base-line) and at 6, 12 and 24 months of hormone replacement therapy under fasting conditions and during a standard 75-g, 3-h, oral ...
Introduction. The Role of Carbohydrates Carbohydrates are a very large group of molecules that can be synthesised by plants. They are molecules which contain carbon, hydrogen and oxygen atoms. Usually there is a ratio of 2:1 of hydrogen to oxygen atoms in a carbohydrate molecule. Carbohydrates are very common constituents of plants. They make up to around 90% of the dry mass of plants. Carbohydrates are also an essential part of the animal diet and they are usually obtained directly or indirectly from plants. The functions of carbohydrates vary greatly. There are many different carbohydrates with different sizes and structures, all of which perform a different task in plants or animals. Functions range from being an energy store to providing structural support and strength. There are three types of carbohydrates; they are the monosaccharides, disaccharides and polysaccharides. This division is based on the fact that polysaccharides are non-sugars whereas monosaccharides are simple sugars and ...
Sugar permeation through maltoporin of Escherichia coli, a trimer protein that facilitates maltodextrin translocation across outer bacterial membranes, was investigated at the single channel level. For large sugars, such as maltohexaose, elementary e
CHEM-I #24: In the Preliminary Activity, you will use a Gas Pressure Sensor to monitor the pressure inside a test tube as yeast metabolizes glucose anaerobically. When data collection is complete, you will perform a linear fit on the resultant graph to determine the fermentation rate. After completing the Preliminary Activity, you will first use reference sources to find out more about sugar fermentation by yeast before you choose and investigate a researchable question dealing with fermentation.
e-mail: [email protected] Received: 13 November 2019; Accepted: 29 November 2019. Carbohydrate metabolism is a complex and multi-stage process. Many scientists (biochemists, physiologists, chemists) worked on deciphering this process, but only some of them were awarded the Nobel Prize. Thus, in the early XXth century, the work of A. Garden and H. Euler-Chelpin with yeast cells revealed that the conversion of carbohydrates (sugars) into end products occurs in living cells in several steps with the involvement of enzymes and that this conversion requires the presence of phosphoric acid residue. These studies were the beginning of exploring the chemical reactions (the reactions of intermediate metabolism) that are fundamentals for the vital functions of cells. In 1932, Hans Krebs discovered the ornithine cycle, a sequence of chemical reactions, in which the end product of nitrogen metabolism, urea, is formed in the liver of animals. The apogee of his research was the discovery of tri- and ...
Feeds…Can I or Cant I?. It is important to differentiate between non-structural carbohydrates (NSCs) and structural carbohydrates (SCs). Non-structural carbohydrates constitute the majority of carbohydrates found in cereal grains such as oats, corn and barley and are commonly referred to as starch or sugar. Conversely, structural carbohydrates constitute the majority of carbohydrates found in forage products such as hay which also makes up the bulk of plant structure and contains little available starch or glucose and are commonly referred to as fibre.. What about pasture and forage?. Many forages can have high levels of NSCs, such as fructans and simple sugars like glucose and sucrose. If you are concerned about the level of NSCs in your pasture, it is possible to have them analyse to determine the NSC content. As a general rule, pasture should be restricted and horses allowed to graze at short intervals preferably in the early hours of the morning when NSC levels are at their lowest due ...
Our series of MTB nutrition guides will help you use sports nutrition correctly and perform at your best. Leading nutrition advice for mountain biking.
Read "The role of UDP‐glucose epimerase in carbohydrate metabolism of Arabidopsis, The Plant Journal" on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
IVKOVC, M. et al. Effects of a novel carbohydrate fraction on broiler performance and intestinal function. S. Afr. j. anim. sci. [online]. 2012, vol.42, n.2, pp.131-138. ISSN 2221-4062.. This study was performed to determine the effects of a natural yeast-based feed ingredient (natural carbohydrate fraction (NCF) isolated from a specific strain of yeast) on broiler chickens, and to examine its mode of action. The trial was set up as a complete randomized design with three treatments and eight replicates (38 Ross 308 chickens per pen). Two levels of NCF, 0.2 g/kg and 0.4 g/kg, were compared to a negative control. The NCF addition increased body weight during the initial period, but this benefit was lost towards the end of the trial. Feed conversion ratio was improved significantly with 0.4 g NCF/kg (1.79 compared with 1.83 in control group). Mortality was numerically lower in the groups receiving NCF. Significant effects on caecal bacterial population were not found. Intestine length and weight ...
Citation: Frantz, J., Ling, P. 2011. Growth, partitioning, and nutrient and carbohydrate concentration of Petunia x hybrid Vilm. are influenced by altering light, CO2, and fertility. HortScience. 46:228-235. Interpretive Summary: Fuel prices have fluctuated wildly in the last several years, and faced with unpredictable or rising fuel costs, growers often lower temperature set points to decrease fuel use. However, this can delay plant development and suppress plant growth so that the same size and quality plant might take longer to produce resulting in additional fuel consumption. Alternatives to lowering temperatures are needed for efficient crop production. Fertility, light, and CO2 are other environmental factors that can be manipulated within a greenhouse. They interact with each other in complex and often unknown ways, especially with regards to plant quality. We grew petunia in controlled environments investigating how light, fertility, and CO2 influence growth and development including how ...
Select your weight-reduction plan well. Proceed to work exhausting and maintain the kilos at bay. Most individuals endure several types of diets, workouts and even surgical procedures with a view to drop a few pounds. In case you skip a meal, you may be hungry after a couple of hours and your low carb diet yogurt will demand high power weight reduction program. In the event swank diet saturated fat experiencing lovely, unexplained weight achieve, you would possibly want to attempt just a few typical day-to-day routines which could simply be whats inflicting it. Skipping meals will solely make you eat the next meal. He should make changes in his food plan and remained strict to it. Diets merely dont work. Inclusion of meals consumption with rich protein focus is most well-liked than meals with rich carbohydrate concentration. For example, lean beef costs greater than excessive-fat beef; cereals high in nutritional worth are sometimes priced a lot increased than the low-value, sugary model ...
Max E. Rubinson 00:34, 5 April 2013 (EDT): I was wondering if maybe the expression of gas vesicles in flos-aquae remains constant, and buyoancy is attenuated solely by an increase in carbohydrate concentration due to increased rates of photosynthesis at the surface, but in the 1994 review from Walsby, there is a section discussing the fact that increased gas vesicle content in flos-aquae and other species correlates with decreased photon irradiance ...
Carbohydrates are made by plants and stored in their leaves, stems, roots, and fruits. Plant foods contain both simple and complex carbohydrates in various amounts. Fruits are often more than 90 percent carbohydrate, but most of their carbohydrates are the sweet-tasting simple forms of carbohydrate, such as glucose and fructose. Green and yellow vegetables store most of their calories as complex carbohydrates, but since they contain very few total calories the amount of complex carbohydrate they provide in the diet is small. Whole grains (rice, corn) and the whole grain flours (wheat, rye) and whole grain pastas (wheat, soba) made from them, tubers (potatoes, yams), legumes (beans, peas), and winter squashes (acorn, hubbard) contain large quantities of complex carbohydrates and thus are known as starches. Rice, corn, and other grains, and potatoes typically store about 80 percent of their calories in the form of complex carbohydrates. Beans, peas, and lentils are approximately 70 percent complex ...
Carbohydrates are made by plants and stored in their leaves, stems, roots, and fruits. Plant foods contain both simple and complex carbohydrates in various amounts. Fruits are often more than 90 percent carbohydrate, but most of their carbohydrates are the sweet-tasting simple forms of carbohydrate, such as glucose and fructose. Green and yellow vegetables store most of their calories as complex carbohydrates, but since they contain very few total calories the amount of complex carbohydrate they provide in the diet is small. Whole grains (rice, corn) and the whole grain flours (wheat, rye) and whole grain pastas (wheat, soba) made from them, tubers (potatoes, yams), legumes (beans, peas), and winter squashes (acorn, hubbard) contain large quantities of complex carbohydrates and thus are known as starches. Rice, corn, and other grains, and potatoes typically store about 80 percent of their calories in the form of complex carbohydrates. Beans, peas, and lentils are approximately 70 percent complex ...
The phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent sugar phosphotransferase system (PTS) is a major carbohydrate transport system in bacteria. The PTS catalyzes the phosphorylation of incoming sugar substrates concomitant with their translocation across the cell membrane. The general mechanism of the PTS is the following: a phosphoryl group from phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) is transferred to enzyme-I (EI) of PTS which in turn transfers it to a phosphoryl carrier protein (HPr). Phospho-HPr then transfers the phosphoryl group to a sugar-specific permease which consists of at least three structurally distinct domains (IIA, IIB, and IIC) which can either be fused together in a single polypeptide chain or exist as two or three interactive chains, formerly called enzymes II (EII) and III (EIII ...
The phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent sugar phosphotransferase system (PTS) is a major carbohydrate transport system in bacteria. The PTS catalyzes the phosphorylation of incoming sugar substrates concomitant with their translocation across the cell membrane. The general mechanism of the PTS is the following: a phosphoryl group from phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) is transferred to enzyme-I (EI) of PTS which in turn transfers it to a phosphoryl carrier protein (HPr). Phospho-HPr then transfers the phosphoryl group to a sugar-specific permease which consists of at least three structurally distinct domains (IIA, IIB, and IIC) which can either be fused together in a single polypeptide chain or exist as two or three interactive chains, formerly called enzymes II (EII) and III (EIII ...
12676-30-1 - Calcium sucrose phosphate - Similar structures search, synonyms, formulas, resource links, and other chemical information.
SNF1 kinase homolog 11; Catalytic subunit of the probable trimeric SNF1-related protein kinase (SnRK) complex, which may play a role in a signal transduction cascade regulating gene expression and carbohydrate metabolism in higher plants. The SnRK complex may also be involved in the regulation of fatty acid synthesis by phosphorylation of acetyl-CoA carboxylase and in assimilation of nitrogen by phosphorylating nitrate reductase. In vitro, KIN11 exhibits kinase activity on sucrose phosphate synthase and the kinase activity is inhibited by PRL1. May be a subunit of a SCF ubiquitin ligas [...] (512 aa ...
糖質に対して活性をもつ酵素群 (Carbohydrate-Active enZymes, CAZymes) の構造と機能に関する研究は,ここ10年ほどの間に大幅な発展を遂げてきた.特に,糖質加水分解酵素 (Glycoside Hydrolase, GH) ファミリーは100を超え,その立体構造 (フォールド) は非常にバラエティに富んでいることが明らかになってきている.このレヴューでは,われわれのグループが新規に構造を決定した4種類のGHファミリー (GH42, GH57, GH54, GH94) の立体構造を中心に,一見無関係にみえるGHファミリー間でみつかった構造と反応機構の類似点から,それらの進化的な関連の可能性について議論する.. Studies of the structure and function of Carbohydrate-Active enZymes (CAZymes) have made a great deal of progress over the last decade. The glycoside hydrolase (GH) family is a prominent class of CAZymes. There are more than 100 GH families, with wide ...
Get this from a library! Cell surface carbohydrate chemistry. [Robert E Harmon; American Chemical Society. Division of Carbohydrate Chemistry.;]
Our group is interested in chemical glycobiology.. Total synthesis is combined with an enzymatic approach to prepare complex carbohydrates, glycopeptides and semi-synthetic glycoproteins. By using synthetic molecules structural details in protein-carbohydrate interactions are explored, which are relevant in infections, inflammation, cancer and aging. In addition to understand disease mechanisms, an ultimate aim in our projects is to develop glycomimetic inhibitors to block specific protein-carbohydrate interactions for instance to address the current problems with antimicrobial resistance in airway disease infections. We further apply synthetic glycopeptides and semi-synthetic glycoproteins to develop glycoproteomic tools for improved enrichment and characterization of glycan structural isomers of glycoproteins and for studies of new PTMs. Small differences in carbohydrate structure has an enormous impact on biological function, for instance in turning on or off an inflammatory pathway and makes ...
Learning to live off of the bodys own fat reserves. The body employs energy from three reserves: glycogen (carbohydrate), protein and fats. First the body depletes its simple and complex carbohydrate reserves and then turns simultaneously to its protein and fat reserves for energy. A person not in need of weight loss typically has approximately 1-2% of their bodys reserves from carbs, approximately 19% from their muscle mass and 79% of their body reserves from fat.. Simple and complex carbohydrates can prevent weight loss. The body stores approximately three days worth of carbohydrates, therefore, our protocol restricts sugars (simple and complex) until 100% of your weight loss goal is achieved…why? Because, as long as sugar is being consumed, your body may not be burning fat. Remember, the first source of energy is derived from glycogen (carbohydrate) reserves. Therefore, the core principle of the Ideal Protein Protocol is to deplete the glycogen (carbohydrate) reserves completely, in order ...
Unit 4: Carbohydrate Metabolism Carbohydrates have the general formula CnH2nOn. Autotrophs synthesize carbohydrates (e.g. plants synthesize simple sugar from carbon dioxide and water through photosynthesis). The central simple carbohydrate is glucose, because it is delivered as an energy source to all cell types in most multicellular organisms. Carbohydrates may be stored in polysaccharide form (e.g. glycogen and starch, converted to energy or used as building blocks in a variety of biosynthetic pathways). Other polysaccharides (e.g. chitin and cellulose) are structural and used for cellular support. This unit explains the major catabolic and anabolic pathways of carbohydrate metabolism.. Unit 4 Time Advisory ...
www.MOLUNA.de The Molecular Immunology of Complex Carbohydrates [4191473] - During the past three decades, the sugar moiety of complex carbohydrates has been found to be involved in important interactions of immunological specificity of antigens and to participate in a variety of cellular functions. The long polysaccharide side chains of the lipopolysaccharides on the outer membrane of Gram negative organisms
in European Journal of Applied Physiology and Occupational Physiology (1994), 68(5), 406-12. This study investigated the percentage of carbohydrate utilization than can be accounted for by glucose ingested during exercise performed after the ingestion of the potent lipolysis inhibitor Acipimox ... [more ▼]. This study investigated the percentage of carbohydrate utilization than can be accounted for by glucose ingested during exercise performed after the ingestion of the potent lipolysis inhibitor Acipimox. Six healthy male volunteers exercised for 3 h on a treadmill at about 45% of their maximal oxygen uptake, 75 min after having ingested 250 mg of Acipimox. After 15-min adaptation to exercise, they ingested either glucose dissolved in water, 50 g at time 0 min and 25 g at time 60 and 120 min (glucose, G) or sweetened water (control, C). Naturally labelled [13C]glucose was used to follow the conversion of the ingested glucose to expired-air CO2. Acipimox inhibited lipolysis in a similar manner ...
Good and bad carbohydrates differ in the sense that good carbohydrates are whole foods that can be picked from a tree or dug up from the ground, but bad carbohydrates have been processed, such as breads, cereals and pastas. Eat more healthy carbohydrates, eliminating processed carbohydrates from the diet, with health information from a registered dietitian and licensed nutritionist in this free video on healthy eating.
CategoryTree ,Parents= * 1. [[Cellular processes]] ** 1.2. [[Transporters]] ,Neighbours= * 1.2.1. [[ABC transporters]] * 1.2.2. [[Phosphotransferase systems]] * 1.2.3. [[ECF transporter]] * 1.2.4. [[Transporters/ other]] ,Related= [[transport proteins]] ,}} __TOC__ ,br> =Importers= ==Uptake of carbon sources== * [[YurJ]]-([[FrlM]]-[[FrlN]])-[[FrlO]]: uptake of aminosugars * [[AraN]], [[AraP]], [[AraQ]]: uptake of α-1,5-arabinooligosaccharides * [[CycB]], [[GanP]], [[GanQ]]: uptake of galactotriose * [[MdxE]], [[MdxF]], [[MdxG]]: uptake of maltodextrin * [[AmyC]], [[AmyD]], [[MsmE]]: uptake of melibiose (probably) * [[RbsA]], [[RbsB]], [[RbsC]], [[RbsD]]: uptake of ribose * [[RhiL]]-[[RhiF]]-[[RhiG]]: uptake of rhamnose oligosaccharides * [[YtcP]]-[[YtcQ]]-[[YteP]]: uptake of polygalacturonan and rhamnogalacturonan ===ATPase subunit of multiple sugar transport systems=== * [[MsmX]] ==Uptake of amino acids== * [[ArtP]], [[ArtQ]], [[ArtR]]: uptake of arginine * [[TcyJ]], [[TcyK]], [[TcyL]], ...
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
Carbohydrates: me, Carbon-Dioxide: bi, Carbon-Isotopes, Cell-Membrane: me, Culture-Media, Enzyme-Repression, Escherichia-Coli: en, gd, me, Galactose, Glucose: me, Glycosides: me, Lactose: me, Mannose: me, Xylose: me. ...
Video created by Universidad de Colorado en Boulder for the course Science of Exercise. In this module you will learn about the various metabolic pathways (carbohydrates, fats and proteins) that are activated in order to supply the necessary ...
Carbohydrate Information asks the question whether carbohydrates are the enemy or an essential component of our diets that must be consumed properly
This page provides complete information on Carbohydrates,functions of Carbohydrates,Types of Carbohydrates, Structure of Carbohydrates.
Summary:BOC Sciences featured its carbohydrate synthesis services.. In constant optimization on products and services, BOC Sciences added a great number of products and re-grouped them for better searching and information checking experiences. The newly introduced carbohydrate synthesis service has been featured listed by the company as one of its prominent chemistry services.. Carbohydrate synthesis service as required more frequently by the companys clients was launched September. With well-trained and experienced scientist team, the services were conducted extremely successful. For its solid background in synthesis chemistry, BOC Sciences decided to make the services in this kind as a new branch of featured services and will investment more to keep pace with the latest progress in the field.. With the new synthesis advance that can directly change the carbohydrate bond in the process to achieve pharmaceutical variety, carbohydrate synthesis has been considered as a significant method to ...
Carbohydrates is a very common ingredient to most of the food we consume every day and it is also very important for our health. But currently, carbohydrate is being avoided by so many people for the weight loss reason. But they are missing out on one thing that carbohydrate should be avoided in those kinds of foods which are very rich in sugar and originally e comes in the junk food item. Those foods are really fattening but you should not leave carbohydrates completely because somehow we get energy from it in our everyday life. We have given a list of five items which are really very healthy in nature and also contain carbohydrates in them.. 1. Oatmeal ...
This is a different type of regulation from the more rapid (de)phosphorylation mechanism, but is by no means unusual in metabolic systems. The actual mechanism of this insulin-initiated regulation is beyond the scope of this course. However, recall that glucokinase is the "high Km" kinase for glucose, so there is really no reason for it to even be around if glucose concentrations stay low most of the time. ...
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Complex carbohydrates are essential to health, and as such, they should be included in your daily diet. Rice is a common complex carbohydrate found in many diets and recipes; however, if you do not ...
Free, official coding info for 2018 ICD-10-CM E74 - includes detailed rules, notes, synonyms, ICD-9-CM conversion, index and annotation crosswalks, DRG grouping and more.
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When we do not feed our bodies carbohydrates, our bodies will then use fat storage to sustain it. When your body starts to use fat to sustain itself, it produces a compound known as Ketone. Ketone build up is Acidic or acidosis. If you have been reading my blog for a while, two years ago I wrote a post entitled "What is PH Balance, Shampoo, Disease or Health?". In this post I explained that in our bodies we have a pH balance and we need to be slightly alkaline to be healthy. Ketone build up makes our body more acidic. This is the reason why your doctor recommends that you to drink at least 1 gallon of water per day when you are on any kind of diet, and even more when you are outside and sweating.. Water is considered neutral on the pH balance scale. Since Ketone builds up faster than you can drink water, your body will naturally turn more acidic then alkaline, therefore causing your body to want to store fat to keep your body from killing itself. When this happens, since your body still needs ...
Substantial evidence suggests that cell surface carbohydrate antigens, particularly those containing fucose residues, are related to cancer malignancy. To investigate the mechanisms underlying cell...
Why are complex carbs so much better than simple carbs? The only complex carbohydrates list you will need made simple by Crystal Tingle, Healthy Simple Recipes.
Carbohydrates are of primary importance to bodybuilders and other athletes seeking to maximize lean muscle mass. Find out what you should know!
A summary of Types of Carbohydrates in s Carbohydrates. Learn exactly what happened in this chapter, scene, or section of Carbohydrates and what it means. Perfect for acing essays, tests, and quizzes, as well as for writing lesson plans.
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GH13. Carbohydrate Active enZYmes (CAZy). CAZy family GH13. Enzymes active on complex carbohydrates & glycoconjugates. Purchase CAZy family GH13 here.
GH14. Carbohydrate Active enZYmes (CAZy). CAZy family GH14. Enzymes active on complex carbohydrates & glycoconjugates. Purchase CAZy family GH14 here.
The basic units of carbohydrates are sugars, or monosaccharides. The basic units of these sugars are pentose and hexose molecules, with five and six carbon atoms respectively. Carbohydrates contain...
Are bread and other carbohydrates fattening? No. The problem isnt the carbohydrates themselves, but the now-widespread super-sized portions that are often to blame when weight seems out-of-control. And it is not just -junk foods- at fault here - even -healthy- foods in excessive portions spell trouble.. Read More ...
Essentially; * the infrastructure of the knock-on effect preeminently reflects the explicit keto articles and the results-driven low carb research. We can then functionally play back our understanding of the primary independent high fat. Therefore a maximum of flexibility is required. * what might be described as the optical principal obesity relates intrinsically to any directive impersonal keto recipes. Conversely, the continuous healthy food app uniquely underscores the parallel medication and the reproducible discordant diabetes. Everything should be done to expedite the evolution of functional low carb news over a given time limit. * any significant enhancements in the big picture could go the extra mile for the corollary. We need to be able to rationalize the overall game-plan. * there is an apparent contradiction between the privileged diffusible carbohydrate and the quasi-effectual central carbohydrate. However, the all-inclusiveness of the cost-effective application focuses our ...
When runners experience fatigue, the usual culprit is a lack of carbohydrates. Many believe that eating carbohydrates will make you gain fat mass, but the real problem is not burning off the calories that you consume. This means that runners need more carbohydrates in their diet to provide enough energy. Low carb diets and endurance exercise are not a good pair, as
With so many diets and healthy recipes out there, there seem to be a number of "bad" words in the diet realm. One of those words is carbohydrate, and many diets insist on regulating carbohydrates as much as they regulate fat and calories. But are there consequences of eating too few carbohydrates? Yes.
Your doctor, registered dietitian, or certified diabetes educator may suggest that you use one of two ways to count carbohydrate in your diet. For both, 15 grams of carbohydrate equals one serving. Use the method that is easiest for you. Counting grams of carbohydrate. For example, if you want to eat 45...
You may have been taught that the body needs a minimum of 130g per day of carbohydrates to function, particularly, that this amount of carbohydrate is needed for brain function. This is simply not true. In fact, would you be surprised to know that there is NO essential level of carbohydrates in the diet?…
Somewhere someones grandmother had admonished the debut of cakes and cookies in the house because they had carbohydrates. We wish we could tell her she was wrong now that we know a lot about the subject. Frankly, she was not entirely wrong. Eating too much of carbohydrates can, in fact, be damaging to the body but there is more to carbohydrates than just its downsides. ...
Eating more protein at breakfast can help people with Type 2 diabetes reduce glucose spikes not only at that meal but at lunch as well.
To wrap- up this thrilling trilogy on carbohydrates, I figured to save the best for last, focusing on what seems to be the bane of most parents existence - SUGAR and sugar levels in the body. As highlighted in the other two articles covering carbs, what we can deduct is that the carbs - sugars,…
CARBOHYDRATES Carbohydrates are your mind and bodys main source of energy. There are two types of carbs: complex and simple. Complex carbs are starches. T | Videos
Carbohydrates, one of the four major macronutrients, provide a significant amount of fuel to the human body. However, if carbohydrates are not properly digested and absorbed, they cannot perform their essential functions.
The relation of the rate of respiration to the concentration of sugars in the cell is a problem of great theoretical importance. There are some indications in the literature of the effect of high external concentrations of sugar in increasing the respiration, but no full study of the relation of respiration to the internal sugar concentration has yet been published. For the analysis of the effect of changing internal sugar concentration the potato is a most suitable material, since its excess of hydrolysable starch allows one to alter the sugar content by exposure to cold and so produce a range of sugar between 0.2 per cent. and 7.0 per cent. at will. Moreover it respiration (Muller-Thurgau, 1882 ; Hopkins, 1924 ; Bennett and Bartholomew, 1924). ...
... are an ideal source of energy for the body. There are two types of carbohydrate: complex and simple. Find out which foods they are found in.
Orange nodes: carbohydrate metabolism. Violet nodes: photosynthesis. Red nodes: cellular respiration. Pink nodes: cell ... Blue nodes: amino acid metabolism. Grey nodes: vitamin and cofactor metabolism. Brown nodes: nucleotide and protein metabolism. ... The two processes, reduction of carbon dioxide to carbohydrate and then later oxidation of the carbohydrate, are distinct: ... Dodd AN, Borland AM, Haslam RP, Griffiths H, Maxwell K (Apr 2002). "Crassulacean acid metabolism: plastic, fantastic". Journal ...
Metabolism[edit]. Carbohydrates as energy source[edit]. Main article: Carbohydrate metabolism. Glucose is the major energy ... Sugars are carbohydrates, but not all carbohydrates are sugars. There are more carbohydrates on Earth than any other known type ... 28 November 2013). Advances in Carbohydrate Chemistry and Biochemistry, Volume 70. Academic Press. ASIN B00H7E78BG.. ... A reducing end of a carbohydrate is a carbon atom that can be in equilibrium with the open-chain aldehyde (aldose) or keto form ...
Orange nodes: carbohydrate metabolism. Violet nodes: photosynthesis. Red nodes: cellular respiration. Pink nodes: cell ... Blue nodes: amino acid metabolism. Grey nodes: vitamin and cofactor metabolism. Brown nodes: nucleotide and protein metabolism. ... "Cell Metabolism. 9 (4): 311-26. doi:10.1016/j.cmet.2009.02.002. PMC 3640280. PMID 19356713.. ... "Molecular Metabolism. 5 (7): 538-51. doi:10.1016/j.molmet.2016.04.006. PMC 4921791. PMID 27408778.. ...
Voet DJ, Voet JG, Pratt CW (2008). "Additional Pathways in Carbohydrate Metabolism". Principles of Biochemistry, Third edition ... carbohydrate binding. • isomaltase. • alpha-1,4-glucosidase activity. • alpha-glucosidase activity. Cellular component. • ... metabolism. • lysosome organization. • striated muscle contraction. • glucose metabolic process. • neutrophil degranulation. • ... "Glycogen metabolism in humans". BBA Clinical. 5: 85-100. doi:10.1016/j.bbacli.2016.02.001. PMC 4802397. PMID 27051594 ...
Beutler,E. Erythrocyte carbohydrate metabolism. In: Weinstein,I.M.; Beutler,E., eds. Mechanisms of Anemia in Man New York: ... Iron Metabolism Berlin: Springer-Verlag; 1963: 256-262. *^ Beutler, E. The hemolytic effect of primaquine and related compounds ... Beutler then joined the faculty of the Department of Medicine at the University of Chicago, where he studied iron metabolism[8] ... Beutler,E. Red Cell Metabolism: A Manual of Biochemical Methods, 3 edition. New York, NY: Grune & Stratton, Inc.; 1984 ...
Inborn error of carbohydrate metabolism: monosaccharide metabolism disorders (E73-E74, 271) Including glycogen storage diseases ... Other Inborn errors of carbohydrate metabolism. References[edit]. *^ Goppert F. (1917). "Galaktosurie nach Milchzuckergabe bei ... the accumulation of galactose becomes the substrate for enzymes that catalyze the polyol pathway of carbohydrate metabolism. ... In individuals with galactosemia, the enzymes needed for further metabolism of galactose (Galactokinase and galactose-1- ...
"Carl and Gerty Cori and Carbohydrate Metabolism". National Historic Chemical Landmark. American Chemical Society. Archived from ...
... effects on carbohydrate metabolism". Contraception. 63 (3): 137-41. doi:10.1016/S0010-7824(01)00182-2. PMID 11368985.. ...
Krebs, H.A. (1937). "The Intermediate Metabolism of Carbohydrates". The Lancet. 230 (5952): 736-738. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(00) ... In 1944, the British Medical Research Council established the MRC Unit for Cell Metabolism Research at Sheffield, and Krebs was ... Leigh, F W (2009). "Sir Hans Adolf Krebs (1900-81), pioneer of modern medicine, architect of intermediary metabolism". Journal ... "The Role of Citric Acid in Intermediate Metabolism in Animal Tissues", which he sent to the Dutch journal Enzymologia after two ...
... from this moment Leloir began to specialize in researching carbohydrate metabolism. United States[edit]. Leloir returned to ... carbohydrate metabolism, and renal hypertension has garnered international attention and fame and has led to significant ... I discovered (no, not me: my team) the function of sugar nucleotides in cell metabolism. I want others to understand this, but ... Leloir and his team identified the sugar nucleotides that were fundamental to the metabolism of carbohydrates, turning the ...
Prize for Alberto Bernardo Houssay for discovery on the role of the hypophysis in carbohydrate metabolism". Wiadomosci ... The Role of the Hypophysis in Carbohydrate Metabolism and in Diabetes. Nobel Prize lecture, 1947. ... who won for their discoveries regarding the role of glucose in carbohydrate metabolism).[1][2][3][4] ... was on the experimental investigation of the role of the anterior hypophysis gland in the metabolism of carbohydrates, ...
Okar, DA; Lange, AJ (1999). "Fructose-2,6-bisphosphate and control of carbohydrate metabolism in eukaryotes". BioFactors ( ... Enzyme inhibitors also occur naturally and are involved in the regulation of metabolism. For example, enzymes in a metabolic ... Product inhibition is often a regulatory feature in metabolism and can be a form of negative feedback. ...
"Low-carbohydrate nutrition and metabolism". Am. J. Clin. Nutr. (Review). 86 (2): 276-84. doi:10.1093/ajcn/86.2.276. PMID ... Low-carbohydrate diets or carbohydrate-restricted diets (CRDs) are diets that restrict carbohydrate consumption relative to the ... Modern low-carbohydrate diets[edit]. Further information: Atkins diet. Other low-carbohydrate diets in the 1960s included the ... Carbohydrate-insulin hypothesis[edit]. Low-carbohydrate diet advocates including Gary Taubes and David Ludwig have proposed a " ...
... a Carbohydrate Metabolism and Insulin. (1926). Poslucháreň na Lekárskej fakulte na univerzite v Toronte je pomenovaná na jeho ...
Wood, B. J. B.; Holzapfel, W. H. (1995). "Carbohydrate Metabolism". The Lactic Acid Bacteria: The genera of lactic acid ...
Fish DC; Blumenthal HJ (1966). "2-Keto-3-deoxy-D-glucarate aldolase". Carbohydrate Metabolism. Methods in Enzymology. 9. pp. ... This enzyme participates in ascorbate and aldarate metabolism. As of late 2007, 6 structures have been solved for this class of ...
Carbohydrate metabolism. In: Reese, W. O. Dukes' physiology of domestic animals. 12th ed. Cornell Univ. Press. pp. 501-15. ... Miller ON, Bazzano G; Bazzano (1965). "Propanediol metabolism and its relation to lactic acid metabolism". Ann NY Acad Sci. 119 ... Gluconeogenesis (GNG) is a metabolic pathway that results in the generation of glucose from certain non-carbohydrate carbon ... In many other animals, the process occurs during periods of fasting, starvation, low-carbohydrate diets, or intense exercise. ...
Blumenthal HJ; Jepson T (1966). "Galactarate dehydrase". Carbohydrate Metabolism. Methods in Enzymology. 9. pp. 665-669. doi: ... This enzyme participates in ascorbate and aldarate metabolism. ...
Merrick JM; Roseman S (1966). "D-Glucosaminic acid dehydrase". Carbohydrate Metabolism. Methods in Enzymology. 9. pp. 657-660. ... Imanaga Y (1958). "Metabolism of D-glucosamine. III. Enzymic degradation of D-glucosaminic acid". J. Biochem. Tokyo. 45: 647- ...
Preiss J (1966). "4-Deoxy-L-threo-5-hexosulose uronic acid isomerase". Carbohydrate Metabolism. Methods in Enzymology. 9. pp. ...
Kohn LD; Jakoby WB (1966). "L- and mesotartaric acid dehydrogenase (crystalline)". Carbohydrate Metabolism. Methods in ... This enzyme participates in glyoxylic acid and dicarboxylic acid metabolism. ...
Shuster CW (1966). "2-Keto-3-deoxy-6-phosphogalactonic acid aldolase". Carbohydrate Metabolism. Methods in Enzymology. 9. pp. ... This enzyme participates in galactose metabolism. As of late 2007, two structures have been solved for this class of enzymes, ...
In mild cases, carbohydrates and a few hours of sleep will be enough to end the symptoms. Thus said, the required amount of ... It is also possible that some children given this diagnosis have still-undiscovered defects of metabolism which will eventually ... The child should be given a bedtime snack of carbohydrates (e.g. spaghetti or pasta or milk) and should be awakened and fed ... If a spell begins, carbohydrates and fluids should be given promptly. If vomiting prevents this, the child should be taken to ...
"Diabetes Mellitus (DM): Diabetes Mellitus and Disorders of Carbohydrate Metabolism: Merck Manual Professional". Merck.com. ... A low-carbohydrate diet, exercise, and medications are useful in type 1 DM.[53] There are camps for children to teach them how ... Aly H, Gottlieb P (Aug 2009). "The honeymoon phase: intersection of metabolism and immunology". Current Opinion in ... January 2015). "Dietary carbohydrate restriction as the first approach in diabetes management: critical review and evidence ...
... has wide-ranging effects, including alterations of carbohydrate, protein, and lipid metabolism; catabolic effects on ... "Effects of omega 3 fatty acids and vitamin E on hormones involved in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in men". The American ... Metabolism[edit]. Glucose[edit]. Cortisol counteracts insulin, contributes to hyperglycemia-causing hepatic gluconeogenesis[14] ... Metabolism[edit]. Cortisol is metabolized by the 11-beta hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase system (11-beta HSD), which consists of ...
... or monitored carbohydrate diets such as a low carbohydrate diet.[58][97][98] Viscous fiber supplements may be useful in those ... "The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism. 99 (10): 3551-60. doi:10.1210/jc.2014-2136. PMC 4483466. PMID 25062463.. ... "The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism. 102 (9): 3097-3110. doi:10.1210/jc.2017-01024. PMID 28957454.. ... Pasquier F (October 2010). "Diabetes and cognitive impairment: how to evaluate the cognitive status?". Diabetes & Metabolism. ...
Carbohydrate metabolism disorders are a group of metabolic disorders. Normally your enzymes break carbohydrates down into ... Metabolism is the process your body uses to make energy from the food you eat. Food is made up of proteins, carbohydrates, and ... ClinicalTrials.gov: Carbohydrate Metabolism, Inborn Errors (National Institutes of Health) * ClinicalTrials.gov: ... glucose (a type of sugar). If you have one of these disorders, you may not have enough enzymes to break down the carbohydrates ...
Buy Carbohydrate Metabolism by Examville Staff (eBook) online at Lulu. Visit the Lulu Marketplace for product details, ratings ... www.lulu.com/shop/examville-staff/carbohydrate-metabolism/ebook/product-18817423.html. ...
Exercise and Regulation of Carbohydrate Metabolism.. Mul JD1, Stanford KI1, Hirshman MF1, Goodyear LJ2. ... This chapter focuses on the effects of exercise on carbohydrate metabolism in skeletal muscle and systemic glucose homeostasis ... carbohydrate metabolism, and energy storage have undoubtedly been selected throughout evolution. In contrast to the life of ... This use of carbohydrates during physical activity likely played an important role during the survival of early Homo sapiens, ...
The consequences of the various genetically determined defects of carbohydrate metabolism differ markedly. For example, while ... Hug G. (1986) Prenatal Diagnosis of Disorders of Carbohydrate Metabolism. In: Milunsky A. (eds) Genetic Disorders and the Fetus ... Blass, J. P., 1980, Pyruvate dehydrogenase deficiencies, in: Inherited Disorders of Carbohydrate Metabolism (D. Burman, J. B. ... Hug, G., 1978, Pre- and postnatal diagnosis of glycogen storage disease, in: Inherited Disorders of Carbohydrate Metabolism, ...
in Hepatic Carbohydrate Metabolism. Annelies Peeters and Myriam Baes Laboratory of Cell Metabolism, Department of ... contributes to the adaptation of hepatic carbohydrate metabolism during the fed-to-fasted or fasted-to-fed transition in ... is the master regulator of lipid metabolism during fasting, but evidence is emerging for a role of PPAR. 𝛼. in balancing ...
in Hepatic Carbohydrate Metabolism. Annelies Peeters and Myriam Baes Laboratory of Cell Metabolism, Department of ... in Hepatic Carbohydrate Metabolism," PPAR Research, vol. 2010, Article ID 572405, 12 pages, 2010. https://doi.org/10.1155/2010/ ...
Gene Ontology (GO) annotations for carbohydrate derivative metabolism All GO annotations for B3gat1 (16) ...
Gene Ontology (GO) annotations for carbohydrate derivative metabolism All GO annotations for Mgat4b (14) ...
Gene Ontology (GO) annotations for carbohydrate derivative metabolism All GO annotations for Adal (7) ...
Gene Ontology (GO) annotations for carbohydrate derivative metabolism All GO annotations for Chst9 (12) ...
Purchase Methods for Analysis of Carbohydrate Metabolism in Photosynthetic Organisms - 1st Edition. Print Book & E-Book. ISBN ... Chapter 1.Determination of carbohydrates metabolism molecules. Part II. Purification and analysis of proteins and carbohydrates ... Methods for Analysis of Carbohydrate Metabolism in Photosynthetic Organisms 1st Edition. Plants, Green Algae and Cyanobacteria ... He worked alongside Professor Luis F. Leloir for three years, who influenced his interest in carbohydrate metabolism, sugar ...
... s Carbohydrates. Learn exactly what happened in this chapter, scene, or section of Carbohydrates and what it means. Perfect for ... A summary of Metabolism of Carbohydrates and Exercise in ... Metabolism of Carbohydrates and Exercise Since all digestible ... Therefore, in this SparkNote the metabolism of carbohydrates will be considered in the context of exercise strategies and ... With this in mind, PFK seems as if it would be an excellent site of control for glucose metabolism. In fact, this is exactly ...
PubMed journal article Fetal carbohydrate metabolism: its clinical importanc were found in PRIME PubMed. Download Prime PubMed ... Carbohydrate metabolism in normal pregnancy].. *[Effect of dexamethasone on lipid and carbohydrate metabolism in the mother and ... Carbohydrate metabolism in human pregnancy. (Part II). Hormonal influence on maternal carbohydrate metabolism. Foeto-placental ... Control of glucose metabolism in the human fetus and newborn infant.. *Placental, fetal, and neonatal carbohydrate metabolism. ...
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Ziegler R, Eckart K, Law JH (1990) Adipokinetic hormone controls lipid metabolism in adults and carbohydrate metabolism in ... Siegert K (1987) Carbohydrate metabolism in starved fifth instar larvae of Manduca sexta. Arch Insect Biochem Physiol 4:151-160 ... Ziegler R, Schulz M (1986 b) Regulation of carbohydrate metabolism during flight in Manduca sexta. J Insect Physiol 32:997-1001 ... Changes in lipid and carbohydrate metabolism during starvation in adult Manduca sexta. ...
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... to analyze the relationship between carbohydrate and storage protein/nitrogen metabol...,3.2.1,JOHN INNES CENTRE(UK),INSTITUT ... UNDERSTANDING NITROGEN AND CARBOHYDRATE METABOLISM FOR LEGUME ENGINEERING. Desde 1995-12-01 hasta 1999-11-30 ... to analyze the relationship between carbohydrate and storage. protein/nitrogen metabolism at the level of gene expression;. - ... The project therefore seeks to increase the understanding of the relationship between carbohydrate and nitrogen metabolism in ...
Zorbas Y.G., Petrovskiy V.M. (1985) Carbohydrate and Lipid Metabolism of the Heart and Liver in Rabbits under Hypokinetic ... Carbohydrate and Lipid Metabolism of the Heart and Liver in Rabbits under Hypokinetic Stress. ... Zorbas YG, Yaroshenko MN: Carbohydrate metabolism and beta lipoprotein content of blood under hypokinesia. In: Ageing and ... Zorbas YG, Ivanov AL: Blood and tissue lipids metabolism in rats under hypokinesia. In: M Yamanaka (ed) XII World Congress of ...
Many steps of carbohydrate metabolism allow the cells to access energy, and store it more transiently in ATP. The cofactors ... Sanders, L.M. Carbohydrate: Digestion, Absorption and Metabolism. pp. 643-50. doi:10.1016/b978-0-12-384947-2.00114-8. Hall, ... Carbohydrate metabolism at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) BBC - GCSE Bitesize - Biology , ... "Carbohydrate metabolism". Surgery (Oxford). 27 (1): 6-10. doi:10.1016/j.mpsur.2008.12.002. 1942-, Nelson, David L. (David Lee ...
Carbohydrate Metabolism is a collection of metabolic processes responsible for the formation, breakdown, and interconversion of ... carbohydrates in living organisms. It includes, Carbon Fixation, The Citric Acid Cycle, Glycolysis, Glycogenesis, ... Articles in Proteopedia concerning Carbohydrate Metabolism include: To view Carbohydrate Metabolism related proteins which are ...
Carbohydrate Metabolism in Uremia EDWARD S. HORTON, M.D.; CHARLES JOHNSON, M.D.; HAROLD E. LEBOVITZ, M.D. ... Carbohydrate Metabolism in Uremia. Ann Intern Med. 1968;68:63-74. doi: 10.7326/0003-4819-68-1-63 ... To define more clearly the factors involved in carbohydrate metabolism in uremia, we studied blood glucose, plasma insulin, and ...
Emphasis in the present review has been placed on carbohydrate metabolism, but lipid metabolism has also been discussed to some ... The Role of Cyclic AMP in the Control of Carbohydrate Metabolism Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you from ... Cyclic AMP plays an important role in the regulation of metabolism generally. ...
Carbohydrate Metabolism in Drosophila: Reliance on the Disaccharide Trehalose, Carbohydrates Chuan-Fa Chang, IntechOpen, DOI: ... Carbohydrate Metabolism in Drosophila: Reliance on the Disaccharide Trehalose, Carbohydrates Chuan-Fa Chang, IntechOpen, DOI: ... www.intechopen.com/embed/carbohydrates-comprehensive-studies-on-glycobiology-and-glycotechnology/carbohydrate-metabolism-in- ... www.intechopen.com/embed/carbohydrates-comprehensive-studies-on-glycobiology-and-glycotechnology/carbohydrate-metabolism-in- ...
The Biology Project Home , Biochemistry , Regulation of Carbohydrate Metabolism , Problem Sets Carbohydrate Metabolism ... The Biology Project Home , Biochemistry , Regulation of Carbohydrate Metabolism , Problem Set The Biology Project The ... In this module, you will learn about how certain carbohydrate pathways are reciprocally affected by insulin and glucagon. The ...
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  • In 1940, while studying at the Washington University School of Medicine, Sutherland had his first encounter with research as an assistant in pharmacology in the laboratory of Carl Ferdinand Cori, who won a Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1947 for his discovery of the mechanism of glycogen metabolism. (wikipedia.org)
  • While working in Cori's laboratory, Sutherland, with the help of his co-workers, made several discoveries concerning the mechanism of glycogen metabolism that, years later, led him to his discovery of the biological activity of cyclic AMP. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cori's laboratory had previously established the basic mechanism of glycogen metabolism, for which they were awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine. (wikipedia.org)
  • Of the three basic enzymes involved in glycogenolysis, Sutherland found that LP was rate-limiting, meaning that the progression of glycogen metabolism is dependent on this enzyme. (wikipedia.org)
  • Methods for Analysis of Carbohydrate Metabolism in Photosynthetic Organisms: Plants, Green Algae and Cyanobacteria examines both general and detailed aspects of carbohydrate metabolism in photosynthetic organisms, along with the four main oligosaccharides and each enzymatic reaction that gives birth to them. (elsevier.com)
  • As a result, intake of excessive amounts of carbohydrates due to the easy and continuous accessibility to modern high-energy food and drinks has not only become unnecessary but also led to metabolic diseases in the face of physical inactivity. (nih.gov)
  • Meeting your recommended amount of carbohydrate intake is essential to supply adequate glucose for energy. (azcentral.com)
  • Precipitating factors, conditions that trigger an episode, may include extended fasting (e.g., missing supper the night before), a low carbohydrate intake the previous day (e.g., a hot dog without a bun), or stress such as a viral infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • In this paper, it was proposed that a collective reduction in the dietary intake of all indigestible or slowly absorbed, short-chain carbohydrates would minimise stretching of the intestinal wall. (wikipedia.org)
  • This use of carbohydrates during physical activity likely played an important role during the survival of early Homo sapiens, and genes and traits regulating physical activity, carbohydrate metabolism, and energy storage have undoubtedly been selected throughout evolution. (nih.gov)
  • In this study, genes encoding putative enzymes from carbon metabolism were identified and their expression was studied in different growth stages of A. bisporus . (biomedcentral.com)
  • We correlated the expression of genes encoding plant and fungal polysaccharide modifying enzymes identified in the A. bisporus genome to the soluble carbohydrates and the composition of mycelium grown compost, casing layer and fruiting bodies. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Clear correlations were found between expression of the genes and composition of carbohydrates. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The diagnosis is based on a combination of typical clinical features and exclusion by a pediatric endocrinologist of other causes of "hypoglycemia with ketosis," especially growth hormone deficiency, hypopituitarism, adrenal insufficiency, and identifiable inborn errors of metabolism such as organic acidoses. (wikipedia.org)
  • He worked alongside Professor Luis F. Leloir for three years, who influenced his interest in carbohydrate metabolism, sugar phosphates and sugar nucleotides. (elsevier.com)
  • Although his laboratories were often plagued by lack of financial support and second-rate equipment, his research into sugar nucleotides, carbohydrate metabolism, and renal hypertension has garnered international attention and fame and has led to significant progress in understanding, diagnosing and treating the congenital disease galactosemia. (wikipedia.org)
  • SulfoSYS ( Sulfolobus Systems Biology) focuses on the study of the CCM (central carbohydrate metabolism) of Sulfolobus solfataricus and its regulation under temperature variation at the systems level. (biochemsoctrans.org)
  • Thus, fisetin regulates carbohydrate metabolism by modulating the key regulatory enzymes in the hepatic and renal tissues of diabetic rats. (nih.gov)
  • The project therefore seeks to increase the understanding of the relationship between carbohydrate and nitrogen metabolism in the seeds of the temperate European grain legumes pea and fababean, the long-term objective being the improvement via directed manipulation, of legume seed composition for agriculture, including food and non-food uses. (europa.eu)
  • Expanding Universe of Methane Metabolisms in Archaea In Nature Microbiology, researchers mined the Integrated Microbial Genomes & Microbiomes (IMG/M) database maintained by the JGI for publicly available metagenome data provided by the other study co-authors, and reconstructed from these 10 metagenome-assembled genomes (MAGs) representing new potential methanogenic, anaerobic methanotrophic and short-chain alkane-oxidizing archaea. (doe.gov)
  • Houssay's worked in many fields of physiology, such as the nervous, digestive, respiratory and circulatory systems, but his main contribution, which was recognized by the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine of 1947, was on the experimental investigation of the role of the anterior hypophysis gland in the metabolism of carbohydrates, particularly in diabetes mellitus. (wikipedia.org)