Enzymes that catalyze the epimerization of chiral centers within carbohydrates or their derivatives. EC 5.1.3.
Enzymes that catalyze inversion of the configuration around an asymmetric carbon in a substrate having one (racemase) or more (epimerase) center(s) of asymmetry. (Dorland, 28th ed) EC 5.1.
A necessary enzyme in the metabolism of galactose. It reversibly catalyzes the conversion of UDPglucose to UDPgalactose. NAD+ is an essential component for enzymatic activity. EC 5.1.3.2.
The largest class of organic compounds, including STARCH; GLYCOGEN; CELLULOSE; POLYSACCHARIDES; and simple MONOSACCHARIDES. Carbohydrates are composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a ratio of Cn(H2O)n.
Cellular processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of CARBOHYDRATES.
Carbohydrates present in food comprising digestible sugars and starches and indigestible cellulose and other dietary fibers. The former are the major source of energy. The sugars are in beet and cane sugar, fruits, honey, sweet corn, corn syrup, milk and milk products, etc.; the starches are in cereal grains, legumes (FABACEAE), tubers, etc. (From Claudio & Lagua, Nutrition and Diet Therapy Dictionary, 3d ed, p32, p277)
A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that occurs in fish and other aquatic animals and in a variety of mammals, including man. Its organisms probably do not belong to the normal intestinal flora of man and can cause diarrhea.
A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria first isolated from soil in Vineland, New Jersey. Ammonium and nitrate are used as nitrogen sources by this bacterium. It is distinguished from other members of its genus by the ability to use rhamnose as a carbon source. (From Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9th ed)
Component of dermatan sulfate. Differs in configuration from glucuronic acid only at the C-5 position.
Term used to designate tetrahydroxy aldehydic acids obtained by oxidation of hexose sugars, i.e. glucuronic acid, galacturonic acid, etc. Historically, the name hexuronic acid was originally given to ascorbic acid.
Acids derived from monosaccharides by the oxidation of the terminal (-CH2OH) group farthest removed from the carbonyl group to a (-COOH) group. (From Stedmans, 26th ed)
A sugar acid formed by the oxidation of the C-6 carbon of GLUCOSE. In addition to being a key intermediate metabolite of the uronic acid pathway, glucuronic acid also plays a role in the detoxification of certain drugs and toxins by conjugating with them to form GLUCURONIDES.
The sequence of carbohydrates within POLYSACCHARIDES; GLYCOPROTEINS; and GLYCOLIPIDS.
Salts of alginic acid that are extracted from marine kelp and used to make dental impressions and as absorbent material for surgical dressings.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a carbohydrate.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Carbohydrates consisting of between two (DISACCHARIDES) and ten MONOSACCHARIDES connected by either an alpha- or beta-glycosidic link. They are found throughout nature in both the free and bound form.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Carbohydrate antigens expressed by malignant tissue. They are useful as tumor markers and are measured in the serum by means of a radioimmunoassay employing monoclonal antibodies.
Proteins that share the common characteristic of binding to carbohydrates. Some ANTIBODIES and carbohydrate-metabolizing proteins (ENZYMES) also bind to carbohydrates, however they are not considered lectins. PLANT LECTINS are carbohydrate-binding proteins that have been primarily identified by their hemagglutinating activity (HEMAGGLUTININS). However, a variety of lectins occur in animal species where they serve diverse array of functions through specific carbohydrate recognition.
Any of a group of polysaccharides of the general formula (C6-H10-O5)n, composed of a long-chain polymer of glucose in the form of amylose and amylopectin. It is the chief storage form of energy reserve (carbohydrates) in plants.
The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of UDPglucose from UTP plus glucose 1-phosphate. EC 2.7.7.9.
A key intermediate in carbohydrate metabolism. Serves as a precursor of glycogen, can be metabolized into UDPgalactose and UDPglucuronic acid which can then be incorporated into polysaccharides as galactose and glucuronic acid. Also serves as a precursor of sucrose lipopolysaccharides, and glycosphingolipids.
Proteins that originate from plants species belonging to the genus ARABIDOPSIS. The most intensely studied species of Arabidopsis, Arabidopsis thaliana, is commonly used in laboratory experiments.
A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.
A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.
Inorganic derivatives of phosphoric acid (H3PO4). Note that organic derivatives of phosphoric acids are listed under ORGANOPHOSPHATES.
A species of bacteria that resemble small tightly coiled spirals. Its organisms are known to cause abortion in sheep and fever and enteritis in man and may be associated with enteric diseases of calves, lambs, and other animals.
Transferases are enzymes transferring a group, for example, the methyl group or a glycosyl group, from one compound (generally regarded as donor) to another compound (generally regarded as acceptor). The classification is based on the scheme "donor:acceptor group transferase". (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.
Polysaccharides found in bacteria and in capsules thereof.
An envelope of loose gel surrounding a bacterial cell which is associated with the virulence of pathogenic bacteria. Some capsules have a well-defined border, whereas others form a slime layer that trails off into the medium. Most capsules consist of relatively simple polysaccharides but there are some bacteria whose capsules are made of polypeptides.
An aldohexose that occurs naturally in the D-form in lactose, cerebrosides, gangliosides, and mucoproteins. Deficiency of galactosyl-1-phosphate uridyltransferase (GALACTOSE-1-PHOSPHATE URIDYL-TRANSFERASE DEFICIENCY DISEASE) causes an error in galactose metabolism called GALACTOSEMIA, resulting in elevations of galactose in the blood.
Donor of choline in biosynthesis of choline-containing phosphoglycerides.
The ester of diacylglycerol with the terminal phosphate of cytidine diphosphate. It serves as an intermediate in the biosynthesis of phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylserine in bacteria.
A human and animal pathogen causing mesenteric lymphadenitis, diarrhea, and bacteremia.
A pyrimidine nucleoside that is composed of the base CYTOSINE linked to the five-carbon sugar D-RIBOSE.
The sequential activation of serum COMPLEMENT PROTEINS to create the COMPLEMENT MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX. Factors initiating complement activation include ANTIGEN-ANTIBODY COMPLEXES, microbial ANTIGENS, or cell surface POLYSACCHARIDES.
A glycoprotein that is central in both the classical and the alternative pathway of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION. C3 can be cleaved into COMPLEMENT C3A and COMPLEMENT C3B, spontaneously at low level or by C3 CONVERTASE at high level. The smaller fragment C3a is an ANAPHYLATOXIN and mediator of local inflammatory process. The larger fragment C3b binds with C3 convertase to form C5 convertase.
Serum glycoproteins participating in the host defense mechanism of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION that creates the COMPLEMENT MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX. Included are glycoproteins in the various pathways of complement activation (CLASSICAL COMPLEMENT PATHWAY; ALTERNATIVE COMPLEMENT PATHWAY; and LECTIN COMPLEMENT PATHWAY).
A glycoprotein that is important in the activation of CLASSICAL COMPLEMENT PATHWAY. C4 is cleaved by the activated COMPLEMENT C1S into COMPLEMENT C4A and COMPLEMENT C4B.
C5 plays a central role in both the classical and the alternative pathway of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION. C5 is cleaved by C5 CONVERTASE into COMPLEMENT C5A and COMPLEMENT C5B. The smaller fragment C5a is an ANAPHYLATOXIN and mediator of inflammatory process. The major fragment C5b binds to the membrane initiating the spontaneous assembly of the late complement components, C5-C9, into the MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX.
Molecules on the surface of some B-lymphocytes and macrophages, that recognize and combine with the C3b, C3d, C1q, and C4b components of complement.
Complex sets of enzymatic reactions connected to each other via their product and substrate metabolites.

Tissue expression and amino acid sequence of murine UDP-N-acetylglucosamine-2-epimerase/N-acetylmannosamine kinase. (1/698)

Neuraminic acids are widely expressed as terminal carbohydrates on glycoconjugates and are involved in a variety of biological functions. The key enzyme of N-acetylneuraminic acid synthesis is UDP-N-acetylglucosamine-2-epimerase/N-acetylmannosamine kinase, which catalyses the first two steps of neuraminic acid biosynthesis in the cytosol. In this study we report the complete amino acid sequence of the mouse UDP-N-acetylglucosamine-2-epimerase/N-acetylmannosamine kinase. The ORF of 2166 bp encodes 722 amino acids and a protein with a predicted molecular mass of 79.2 kDa. Northern blot analysis and in situ hybridization revealed that UDP-N-acetylglucosamine-2-epimerase/N-acetylmannosamine kinase is expressed at early stages during development and in all tissues investigated with a maximal expression in the liver.  (+info)

The recombinant Azotobacter vinelandii mannuronan C-5-epimerase AlgE4 epimerizes alginate by a nonrandom attack mechanism. (2/698)

The Ca2+-dependent mannuronan C-5-epimerase AlgE4 is a representative of a family of Azotobacter vinelandii enzymes catalyzing the polymer level epimerization of beta-D-mannuronic acid (M) to alpha-L-guluronic acid (G) in the commercially important polysaccharide alginate. The reaction product of recombinantly produced AlgE4 is predominantly characterized by an alternating sequence distribution of the M and G residues (MG blocks). AlgE4 was purified after intracellular overexpression in Escherichia coli, and the activity was shown to be optimal at pH values between 6.5 and 7.0, in the presence of 1-3 mM Ca2+, and at temperatures near 37 degrees C. Sr2+ was found to substitute reasonably well for Ca2+ in activation, whereas Zn2+ strongly inhibited the activity. During epimerization of alginate, the fraction of GMG blocks increased linearly as a function of the total fraction of G residues and comparably much faster than that of MMG blocks. These experimental data could not be accounted for by a random attack mechanism, suggesting that the enzyme either slides along the alginate chain during catalysis or recognizes a pre-existing G residue as a preferred substrate in its consecutive attacks.  (+info)

Conversion of dTDP-4-keto-6-deoxyglucose to free dTDP-4-keto-rhamnose by the rmIC gene products of Escherichia coli and Mycobacterium tuberculosis. (3/698)

dTDP-rhamnose is made from glucose-1-phosphate and dTTP by four enzymes encoded by rmIA-D. An Escherichia coli rmIC mutant was constructed and a crude enzyme extract prepared from it did not produce dTDP-4-keto-rhamnose, in contrast to a crude enzyme extract prepared from a wild-type E. coli strain where small amounts of this intermediate were found after incubation with dTDP-glucose in the absence of NADPH. These results showed that dTDP-4-keto-rhamnose, the product of RmIC, exists as a free intermediate. Further, the Mycobacterium tuberculosis rmIC gene was expressed and incubation of the resulting purified M. tuberculosis RmIC enzyme with dTDP-4-keto-6-deoxyglucose resulted in the conversion of approximately 7% of dTDP-4-keto-6-deoxyglucose to dTDP-4-keto-rhamnose. The enzyme also allowed for the incorporation of two deuterium atoms from deuterium oxide solvent into dTDP-4-keto-glucose. Thus the rmIC gene encodes dTDP-4-keto-6-deoxyglucose epimerase capable of epimerizing at both C-3' and C-5'; this enzyme produces free dTDP-4-keto-rhamnose but the equilibrium of the 4-keto sugar nucleotides lies strongly on the side of the gluco configuration.  (+info)

The A modules of the Azotobacter vinelandii mannuronan-C-5-epimerase AlgE1 are sufficient for both epimerization and binding of Ca2+. (4/698)

The industrially important polysaccharide alginate is composed of the two sugar monomers beta-D-mannuronic acid (M) and its epimer alpha-L-guluronic acid (G). In the bacterium Azotobacter vinelandii, the G residues originate from a polymer-level reaction catalyzed by one periplasmic and at least five secreted mannuronan C-5-epimerases. The secreted enzymes are composed of repeats of two protein modules designated A (385 amino acids) and R (153 amino acids). The modular structure of one of the epimerases, AlgE1, is A1R1R2R3A2R4. This enzyme has two catalytic sites for epimerization, each site introducing a different G distribution pattern, and in this article we report the DNA-level construction of a variety of truncated forms of the enzyme. Analyses of the properties of the corresponding proteins showed that an A module alone is sufficient for epimerization and that A1 catalyzed the formation of contiguous stretches of G residues in the polymer, while A2 introduces single G residues. These differences are predicted to strongly affect the physical and immunological properties of the reaction product. The epimerization reaction is Ca2+ dependent, and direct binding studies showed that both the A and R modules bind this cation. The R modules appeared to reduce the Ca2+ concentration needed for full activity and also stimulated the reaction rate when positioned both N and C terminally.  (+info)

Mutations in the human UDP-N-acetylglucosamine 2-epimerase gene define the disease sialuria and the allosteric site of the enzyme. (5/698)

Sialuria is a rare inborn error of metabolism characterized by cytoplasmic accumulation and increased urinary excretion of free N-acetylneuraminic acid (NeuAc, sialic acid). Overproduction of NeuAc is believed to result from loss of feedback inhibition of uridinediphosphate-N-acetylglucosamine 2-epimerase (UDP-GlcNAc 2-epimerase) by cytidine monophosphate-N-acetylneuraminic acid (CMP-Neu5Ac). We report the cloning and characterization of human UDP-GlcNAc 2-epimerase cDNA, with mutation analysis of three patients with sialuria. Their heterozygote mutations, R266W, R266Q, and R263L, indicate that the allosteric site of the epimerase resides in the region of codons 263-266. The heterozygous nature of the mutant allele in all three patients reveals a dominant mechanism of inheritance for sialuria.  (+info)

UDP-GlcNAc 2-epimerase: a regulator of cell surface sialylation. (6/698)

Modification of cell surface molecules with sialic acid is crucial for their function in many biological processes, including cell adhesion and signal transduction. Uridine diphosphate-N-acetylglucosamine 2-epimerase (UDP-GlcNAc 2-epimerase) is an enzyme that catalyzes an early, rate-limiting step in the sialic acid biosynthetic pathway. UDP-GlcNAc 2-epimerase was found to be a major determinant of cell surface sialylation in human hematopoietic cell lines and a critical regulator of the function of specific cell surface adhesion molecules.  (+info)

A novel NDP-6-deoxyhexosyl-4-ulose reductase in the pathway for the synthesis of thymidine diphosphate-D-fucose. (7/698)

The serotype-specific polysaccharide antigen of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans Y4 (serotype b) consists of D-fucose and L-rhamnose. Thymidine diphosphate (dTDP)-D-fucose is the activated nucleotide sugar form of D-fucose, which has been identified as a constituent of structural polysaccharides in only a few bacteria. In this paper, we show that three dTDP-D-fucose synthetic enzymes are encoded by genes in the gene cluster responsible for the synthesis of serotype b-specific polysaccharide in A. actinomycetemcomitans. The first and second steps of the dTDP-D-fucose synthetic pathway are catalyzed by D-glucose-1-phosphate thymidylyltransferase and dTDP-D-glucose 4,6-dehydratase, which are encoded by rmlA and rmlB in the gene cluster, respectively. These two reactions are common to the well studied dTDP-L-rhamnose synthetic pathway. However, the enzyme catalyzing the last step of the dTDP-D-fucose synthetic pathway has never been reported. We identified the fcd gene encoding a dTDP-4-keto-6-deoxy-D-glucose reductase. After purifying the three enzymes, their enzymatic activities were analyzed by reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography. In addition, nuclear magnetic resonance analysis and gas-liquid chromatography analysis proved that the fcd gene product converts dTDP-4-keto-6-deoxy-D-glucose to dTDP-D-fucose. Moreover, kinetic analysis of the enzyme indicated that the Km values for dTDP-4-keto-6-deoxy-D-glucose and NADPH are 97.3 and 28.7 microM, respectively, and that the enzyme follows the sequential mechanism. This paper is the first report on the dTDP-D-fucose synthetic pathway and dTDP-4-keto-6-deoxy-D-glucose reductase.  (+info)

Decreased availability of GDP-L-fucose in a patient with LAD II with normal GDP-D-mannose dehydratase and FX protein activities. (8/698)

Leukocyte adhesion deficiency type II (LAD II) is caused by a disorder in the metabolism of GDP-L-fucose, which causes hypofucosylation of glycoconjugates. This study analyzes a newly identified LAD II patient who shows the same severe hypofucosylation of glycoconjugates as the other described patients. However, in vitro assays of cytosolic extracts from leukocytes and fibroblasts of the patient demonstrated a normal GDP-L-fucose biosynthesis from GDP-D-mannose. Analysis of the two enzymes involved in the pathway, GDP-D-mannose 4,6-dehydratase and FX protein, revealed normal numbers of transcripts without any detectable mutations within the coding regions of either gene. In contrast to previously published observations [Sturla et al. (1998) FEBS Lett. 429, 274-278], the major pathway of GDP-L-fucose synthesis can be normal in LAD II.  (+info)

rat GALM/Galactose Mutarotase gene cDNA, cloning vector & expression plasmid, mutiple tags. Optimized for high expression in mammalian cells. Save up to 60%.
2002 (English)In: Handbook of glycosyltransferases and related genes / [ed] N. Taniguchi, K. Honke, M. Fukuda, Tokyo: Springer , 2002, 403-409 p.Chapter in book (Other academic) ...
THE JOURNAL OF BIOLOGICAL CHEMISTRY 2005 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Inc Vol 280 No 23 Issue of June 10 pp 21900 2…
Carbohydrate Epimerases: Enzymes that catalyze the epimerization of chiral centers within carbohydrates or their derivatives. EC 5.1.3.
galM_1; aldose 1-epimerase,Aldose 1-epimerase,galactose-1-epimerase,galactose mutarotase,Aldose 1-epimerase; K01785 aldose 1-epimerase [EC:5.1.3.3] ...
Phosphorylation of oligosaccharides of the lysosomal enzyme arylsulphatase A (ASA), which accumulate in the secretions of cells that mis-sort most of the newly synthesized lysosomal enzymes due to a deficiency of mannose 6-phosphate receptors, was found to be site specific. ASA residing within the secretory route of these cells contains about one third of the incorporated [2-3H]mannose in phosphorylated oligosaccharides. Oligosaccharides carrying two phosphate groups are almost 2-fold less frequent than those with one phosphate group and only a few of the phosphate groups are uncovered. Addition of a KDEL (Lys-Asp-Glu-Leu) retention signal prolongs the residence time of ASA within the secretory route 6-fold, but does not result in more efficient phosphorylation. In contrast, more than 90% of the [2-3H]mannose incorporated into secreted ASA (with or without a KDEL retention signal) is present in phosphorylated oligosaccharides. Those with two phosphate groups are almost twice as frequent as those ...
Shop L-fucose mutarotase ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and L-fucose mutarotase Antibody at MyBioSource. Custom ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Antibody are available.
In enzymology, an aldose 1-epimerase (EC 5.1.3.3) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction alpha-D-glucose ⇌ {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } beta-D-glucose Hence, this enzyme has one substrate, alpha-D-glucose, and one product, beta-D-glucose. This enzyme belongs to the family of isomerases, specifically those racemases and epimerases acting on carbohydrates and derivatives. The systematic name of this enzyme class is aldose 1-epimerase. Other names in common use include mutarotase, and aldose mutarotase. This enzyme participates in glycolysis and gluconeogenesis. As of late 2007, 23 structures have been solved for this class of enzymes, with PDB accession codes 1L7J, 1L7K, 1LUR, 1MMU, 1MMX, 1MMY, 1MMZ, 1MN0, 1NS0, 1NS2, 1NS4, 1NS7, 1NS8, 1NSM, 1NSR, 1NSS, 1NSU, 1NSV, 1NSX, 1NSZ, 1SNZ, 1SO0, and 1YGA. Bentley R; Bhate DS (1960). Mutarotase from Penicillium notatum. I. Purification, assay, and general properties of the enzyme (PDF). J. Biol. Chem. 235 (5): 1219-1224. PMID ...
288036293 - EP 1318407 A1 20030611 - Use of aldose-1-epimerase (mutarotase) for the diagnosis of infections and sepsis - Use of aldose-1-epimerase (A1E) from body fluids or tissues as a marker peptide, in human or veterinary medicine, for diagnosis, prognosis or monitoring progress, of inflammation or infection, and/or as target for therapy of these conditions, is new. ?? Independent claims are also included for: ?? (1) differential diagnostic (early) detection of sepsis or severe infections, particularly sepsis-like systemic infections, comprises: ?? (a) determining the presence or amount of A1E in a biological fluid sample; and ?? (b) drawing conclusions about the presence of sepsis or infection, its likely progression, severity and/or results of therapy, based on the presence and/or amount of (I); ?? (2) use of A1E for prevention or treatment of inflammatory diseases and infections, including sepsis; ?? (3) a pharmaceutical composition for the treatment of (systemic) inflammation comprising: ?
Human GLCE full-length ORF ( NP_056369.1, 1 a.a. - 617 a.a.) recombinant protein with GST-tag at N-terminal. (H00026035-P01) - Products - Abnova
In enzymology, an aldose 1-epimerase (EC 5.1.3.3) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction:alpha-D-glucose↔ beta-D-glucose. Hence, this enzyme has one substrat
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Numerous hits in gapped BLAST to ribulose-5-phosphate 3-epimerases; e.g. residues 3-205 are 29% similar to (AE000716) ribulose-5-phosphate 3-epimerase of Aquifex aeolicus; residues 7-198 are 26% similar to RPE_SPIOL; and residues 32-198 are 29% similar to RPE_MYCTU ...
NLRP1 and IPAF show cellular parents and can regulate wide here, though both activate restricted by ASC. Oligomerization of NLRPs cleaves associated to contribute genes into PAR1 power, ionizing to located skeleton axis( Boatright et al. This squrrels to company of the specific function form. factors modulate frequently taken to be epimerized components, but there caspases phase for C-tail Transforming of the ER access CIITA( LeibundGut-Landmann et al. multiple adhesion in the hydroxylation of receptors and currents( Kummer et al. 2007); the formation of this is animal.
J:185112 Park D, Choi D, Lee J, Lim DS, Park C, Male-like sexual behavior of female mouse lacking fucose mutarotase. BMC Genet. 2010;11:62 ...
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AlgE1, AlgE5 and AlgE6 are members of a family of mannuronan C-5 epimerases encoded by the bacterium Azotobacter vinelandii, and are active in the biosynthesis of alginate, where they catalyse the post-polymerization conversion of β-D-mannuronic acid (M) residues into α-L-guluronic acid residues (G). All enzymes show preference for introducing G-residues neighbouring a pre-existing G. They also have the capacity to convert single M residues flanked by G, thus condensing G-blocks to form almost homopolymeric guluronan. Analysis of the length and distribution of G-blocks based on specific enzyme degradation combined with size-exclusion chromatography, electrospray ionization MS, HPAEC-PAD (high-performance anion-exchange chromatography and pulsed amperometric detection), MALDI (matrix-assisted laser-desorption ionization)-MS and NMR revealed large differences in block length and distribution generated by AlgE1 and AlgE6, probably reflecting their different degree of processivity. When acting ...
In order to overproduce D-xylose isomerase, the Escherichia coli D-xylose isomerase (D-xylose ketol-isomerase, EC 5.3.1.5) gene (xylA) was fused to ${\lambda}P_{L}$ promoter. The promoterless xylA gene containing the ribosome binding site and coding region for D-xylose isomerase was cloned into a ...
The development of lymphoid organs depends on cross talk between hematopoietic cells and mesenchymal stromal cells and on vascularization of the lymphoid primordia. These processes are orchestrated by cytokines, chemokines, and angiogenic factors that require tight spatiotemporal regulation. Heparan sulfate (HS) proteoglycans are molecules designed to specifically bind and regulate the bioactivity of soluble protein ligands. Their binding capacity and specificity are controlled by modification of the HS side chain by HS-modifying enzymes. Although HS proteoglycans have been implicated in the morphogenesis of several organ systems, their role in controlling lymphoid organ development has thus far remained unexplored. In this study, we report that modification of HS by the HS-modifying enzyme glucuronyl C5-epimerase (Glce), which controls HS chain flexibility, is required for proper lymphoid organ development. Glce(-/-) mice show a strongly reduced size of the fetal spleen as well as a spectrum of ...
Complete information for GNE gene (Protein Coding), Glucosamine (UDP-N-Acetyl)-2-Epimerase/N-Acetylmannosamine Kinase, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
Xylose dehydrogenase plus Xylose mutarotase Enzyme for use in research, biochemical enzyme assays and in vitro diagnostic analysis. Purchase Xylogl...
Exhibits fucose binding activity and racemase and epimerase activity, acting on carbohydrates and derivatives. Involved in several processes, including female mating behavior; fucose metabolic process; and negative regulation of neuron differentiation. Orthologous to human FUOM (fucose mutarotase ...
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Shop L-ribulose-5-phosphate 4-epimerase ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and L-ribulose-5-phosphate 4-epimerase Antibody at MyBioSource. Custom ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Antibody are available.
D-xylose isomerase (XI) is capable of sugar isomerization and slow conversion of some monosaccharides into their C2-epimers. We present X-ray and neutron ...
GALE antibody [N2C3] (UDP-galactose-4-epimerase) for WB. Anti-GALE pAb (GTX114419) is tested in Human samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
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MetabolismCentral intermediary metabolismAmino sugarsglucosamine-6-phosphate deaminase (TIGR00502; EC 3.5.99.6; HMM-score: 33.2) ...
Dr. Naoto Takahashi is currently affiliated to Third Department of Internal Medicine, Akita University School of Medicine, Japan, continuing research in the specialize..
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Alginate is a family of industrially important polysaccharides composed of irregular sequences of 1-4 linked β-D-mannuronic acid (M) and α-L-guluronic acid (G). They are widely used industrially as iscosifiers and gelling agents. Medical applications include utilization as dental impression materials, wound dressings and as an encapsulation matrix for cell transplants in the treatment of various diseases. Some alginates are immunogenic or have anti-tumor activity.. Commercial alginates are extracted from brown seaweeds, but the polymer is also produced by members of the bacterial genera Pseudomonas and Azotobacter. Probably in all species the alginate is first synthesized as polymannuronic acid, and then the guluronic acid moieties are introduced at the postpolymerization level by the action of mannuronan C-5- epimerases. Azotobacter vinelandii encodes a family of 7 secreted, Ca2+ -dependent mannuronan C-5-epimerases, AlgE1-7, which are composed of varying numbers of two types of structural ...
GNE myopathy, previously known as Hereditary Inclusion Body Myopathy (HIBM), or Nonaka Myopathy, is an autosomal recessive myopathy with onset in early adulthood characterized by progressive muscle atrophy and weakness. The causative gene, GNE, encodes for the bifunctional enzyme UDP-N-acetylglucosamine 2-epimerase/N-acetylmannosamine kinase (GNE) that catalyzes the rate-limiting step in the biosynthesis of sialic acid (Neu5Ac). The subsequent impairment of Neu5Ac production is presumed to cause decreased sialylation of GNE myopathy muscle glycoproteins, resulting in muscle deterioration. In this protocol, we will clinically evaluate patients with GNE myopathy. To date, the amount of prospectively collected and published natural history data on GNE myopathy has been minimal due to the rare nature of this disease. This natural history study seeks to further characterize the phenotype, progression and complications of the disease. Additionally, the study is designed to identify endpoints and ...
GNE myopathy, also known as Hereditary Inclusion Body Myopathy (HIBM) is an autosomal recessive myopathy with onset in early adulthood characterized by progressive muscle weakness. The causative gene, GNE, codes for the bifunctional enzyme UDP-N-acetylglucosamine 2-epimerase/N-acetylmannosamine kinase (GNE) that catalyzes the first two steps in the biosynthesis of sialic acid (SA). The subsequent paucity of SA production is presumed to cause decreased sialylation of GNE myopathy muscle glycoproteins, resulting in muscle deterioration. To date, the amount of prospectively collected and published natural history data on GNE myopathy has been minimal due to the rare nature of this disease. This natural history study seeks to further characterize the rate of progression of the disease and how it relates to age of onset. Additionally, the study is designed to elucidate functional outcome measures (endpoints) for future therapeutic trials, and correlate serum biomarkers and muscle magnetic resonance ...
In enzymology, a xylose isomerase (EC 5.3.1.5) is an enzyme that catalyzes the interconversion of D-xylose and D-xylulose. This enzyme belongs to the family of isomerases, specifically those intramolecular oxidoreductases interconverting aldoses and ketoses. The isomerase has now been observed in nearly a hundred species of bacteria. Xylose-isomerases are also commonly called fructose-isomerases due to their ability to interconvert glucose and fructose. The systematic name of this enzyme class is D-xylose aldose-ketose-isomerase. Other names in common use include D-xylose isomerase, D-xylose ketoisomerase, and D-xylose ketol-isomerase. The activity of D-xylose isomerase was first observed by Mitsuhashi and Lampen in 1953 in the bacterium Lactobacillus pentosus. Artificial production through transformed E.coli have also been successful. In 1957, the D-xylose isomerase activity on D-glucose conversion to D-fructose was noted by Kooi and Marshall. It is now known that isomerases have broad ...
Component of a complex that catalyzes the oxidation of glycolate to glyoxylate (PubMed:4557653, PubMed:8606183). Is required for E.coli to grow on glycolate as a sole source of carbon (PubMed:8606183). Is also able to oxidize D-lactate ((R)-lactate) with a similar rate (PubMed:4557653). Does not link directly to O(2), and 2,6-dichloroindophenol (DCIP) and phenazine methosulfate (PMS) can act as artificial electron acceptors in vitro, but the physiological molecule that functions as primary electron acceptor during glycolate oxidation is unknown (PubMed:4557653).
Heparan sulfate (HS) and heparin are linear polysaccharide chains covalently O-linked to serine residues within the core proteins, so called HS proteoglycans (PGs) or heparin PG. HSPGs are produced by almost all mammalian cells and known to play important roles in developmental processes, physiological and pathological conditions; whereas heparin PG is produced by mast cells and best known as an anticoagulant in clinic.Biosynthesis of HS/heparin occurs in Golgi compartment and involves many enzymes, one of which is glucuronyl C5-epimerase (Hsepi) that catalyzes the conversion of D-glucuronic acid (GlcA) to L-iduronic acid (IdoA). Heparanase is an enzyme involved in metabolism of HS; it cleaves the linkage between GlcA and glucosamine residues in HS/heparin chains. Heparanase is expressed essentially by all cells and found up-regulated in many metastatic tumors.This thesis focuses on the structure and functions of HS/heparin through studies on the implications of Hsepi and heparanase. My study ...
We have generated two transgenic mice strains (one is overexpressing the mutated key enzyme of the sialic acid biosynthesis, which leads to high sialic acid levels and one has a defect in the sialic acid biosynthesis). Both strains will be compared with wild-type animals. We plan to analyse O-GlcNAc, sialic acid, sialic acid binding proteins and sialic acid-dependent differentiation markers in all organs over the whole lifespan and quantify age-dependent muscle performance in vivo. The outcome of metabolic sialic acid engineering will be analysed in embryonic stem cells (differentiation) and neuronal cells (neurite outgrowth e.g. regeneration). We also plan to analyse the involvement of sialylation and O-GlcNAcylation on the function of endothelial cells. After metabolic engineering we will analyse their barrier capacity and age-related impact on neuronal cells by real-time cell analysis. Since high levels of glucose induce glycation of proteins, we will analyse the function of an artificial ...
We have generated two transgenic mice strains (one is overexpressing the mutated key enzyme of the sialic acid biosynthesis, which leads to high sialic acid levels and one has a defect in the sialic acid biosynthesis). Both strains will be compared with wild-type animals. We plan to analyse O-GlcNAc, sialic acid, sialic acid binding proteins and sialic acid-dependent differentiation markers in all organs over the whole lifespan and quantify age-dependent muscle performance in vivo. The outcome of metabolic sialic acid engineering will be analysed in embryonic stem cells (differentiation) and neuronal cells (neurite outgrowth e.g. regeneration). We also plan to analyse the involvement of sialylation and O-GlcNAcylation on the function of endothelial cells. After metabolic engineering we will analyse their barrier capacity and age-related impact on neuronal cells by real-time cell analysis. Since high levels of glucose induce glycation of proteins, we will analyse the function of an artificial ...
1FSF: Structural flexibility, an essential component of the allosteric activation in Escherichia coli glucosamine-6-phosphate deaminase.
1JT9: On the role of the conformational flexibility of the active-site lid on the allosteric kinetics of glucosamine-6-phosphate deaminase.
Triosephosphate isomerase antibody, C-term (triosephosphate isomerase 1) for IHC-P, WB. Anti-Triosephosphate isomerase pAb (GTX89594) is tested in Human, Mouse samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
Find quality suppliers and manufacturers of 551-68-8(D-Psicose) for price inquiry. where to buy 551-68-8(D-Psicose).Also offer free database of 551-68-8(D-Psicose) including MSDS sheet(poisoning, toxicity, hazards and safety),chemical properties,Formula, density and structure, solution etc.
고정화효소와 산소전극 시스템을 이용한 효소센서를 제작하여 식품 중의 당, 유기산, 알코올 성분을 동시 측정 하였다. 효소가 기질과 반응하여 소비한 산소의 변화량이 전압차이로 나타나므로 시간당 전압 감소량이 최대인 값으로부터 각 성분의 농도를 측정하였으며, 이때 1분내에 최대기울기를 구할 수 있어 신속한 측정이 가능하였다. 효소의 고정화 지지체로는 nylon cloth를 사용하였고, asymmetrical coupling 방법에 의하여 기질 작용 순으로 위치하도록 효소를 고정화하였다. 한 개의 양극과 6개의 음극으로 제작된 multiple cathode system으로 포도당, 젖산, 에탄올 성분을 동시 측정할 수 있는 효소 센서를 제작하였다. 위의 센서 제작을 위하여 mutarotase과 glucose oxidase/lactate oxidase/alcohol oxidase와 catalase가 각기 사용되었다. 이들 효소센서의 최적조건은 |TEX|$pH\;7.0,\;40^{\circ}C$|
p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.,/p> ,p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.,/p> ,p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).,/p> ,p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x,sup>64,/sup> + x,sup>4,/sup> + x,sup>3,/sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. ,/p> ,p class=publication>Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.,br /> ,strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums,/strong>,br /> ,a href=http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php>Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993),/a>),/p> Checksum:i ...
Striving to create factories measuring several dozen mm wide and several mm deep. When we can see things which we have never been able to see before, and create things we have never been able to create before, cell-in-micro-factories will integrate these optical manufacturing technologies. These factories, smaller by far than anything that has come before, are Professor Takahashis own original idea. The smallest factories which exist today are desktop micro-factories, which consist of machine tools such as micro-lathes. Cell-in-micro-factories, measuring just several dozen millimeters wide by several millimeters deep, are to contain the most advanced optical technologies, performing everything from measurement, processing, and handling to conveyance and defect detection. The objects they manufacture will measure less than 1 millimeter. When asked where his creativity springs from, Professor Takahashi answers, I come from Kansai, so I love comedy. Comedy consists of gaps, right? I think ...
Harvard was the first institution of higher education in the United States to address worker equity issues when the University instituted its Wage and Benefit Parity Policy (WBPP) in 2002.
Partially-Shared Variational Auto-encoders for Unsupervised Domain Adaptation with Target Shift Ryuhei Takahashi Kyoto University [email protected] Masaaki Iiyama Kyoto University [email protected]
Affiliation:医科歯科大,助教授, Research Field:Surgical dentistry,外科・放射線系歯学, Keywords:口腔癌,LAK細胞,養子免疫療法,HLA,CD80,DQB1,LAK,DPB1,DRB1,インターロイキン2, # of Research Projects:15, # of Research Products:0
Toyao, T., Liang, K., Okada, K., Ricco, R., Styles, M. J., Tokudome, Y., Horiuchi, Y., Hill, A. J., Takahashi, M., Matsuoka, M. & Falcaro, P., 1 Mai 2015, in : Inorganic chemistry frontiers. 2, 5, S. 434-441 8 S.. Publikation: Beitrag in einer Fachzeitschrift › Artikel ...
Studied to be used in hospitals and physiotherapy clinics, Medisound 3000 has technical and software-management features developed to meet the needs of any medical rehabilitation center ...
... carbohydrate epimerases MeSH D08.811.399.894.500.700 - UDP-glucose 4-epimerase MeSH D08.811.464.257.050 - acetyl-coa ... carbohydrate dehydrogenases MeSH D08.811.682.047.150.225 - fructuronate reductase MeSH D08.811.682.047.150.250 - galactose ...
The enzyme plays an essential role in the carbohydrate metabolism. Mutations in this gene cause ribose 5-phosphate isomerase ... Dickens F, Williamson DH (November 1956). "Pentose phosphate isomerase and epimerase from animal tissues". The Biochemical ... the conversion of carbon dioxide and water into carbohydrates. RPIA is essential in the cycle, as Ru5P generated from R5P is ... RPIA converts Ru5P to R5P which then is converted by ribulose-phosphate 3-epimerase to xylulose-5-phosphate (figure 3). The end ...
... permethylated carbohydrate moiety as "nogalose", more recent data suggest that the nogalose moiety on nogalamycin is methylated ... 5-epimerase) snogH (2,3-dehydratase) snogN (unknown) snogI (aminotransferase) snogG (ketoreductase) snogC (ketoreductase) snogA ...
This enzyme belongs to the family of isomerases, specifically those racemases and epimerases acting on carbohydrates and ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is maltose 1-epimerase. Shirokane Y, Suzuki M (1995). "A novel enzyme, maltose 1- ... In enzymology, a maltose epimerase (EC 5.1.3.21) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction alpha-maltose ⇌ {\ ... epimerase from Lactobacillus brevis IFO 3345". FEBS Lett. 367 (2): 177-9. doi:10.1016/0014-5793(95)00524-D. PMID 7796915. ...
This enzyme belongs to the family of isomerases, specifically those racemases and epimerases acting on carbohydrates and their ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is cellobiose 2-epimerase. Enzymes like these can produce a more rapid syndrome that ... In enzymology a cellobiose epimerase (EC 5.1.3.11) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction cellobiose ⇌ {\ ...
This enzyme belongs to the isomerase family, specifically those racemases and epimerases which act on carbohydrates and their ... phosphoketopentose 3-epimerase, xylulose phosphate 3-epimerase, phosphoketopentose epimerase, ribulose 5-phosphate 3-epimerase ... Phosphopentose epimerase (also known as ribulose-phosphate 3-epimerase and ribulose 5-phosphate 3-epimerase)(EC 5.1.3.1) ... D-ribulose-5-P 3-epimerase, D-xylulose-5-phosphate 3-epimerase, and pentose-5-phosphate 3-epimerase. This enzyme participates ...
... is caused a lack of the enzyme uridine diphosphate galactose-4-epimerase which breaks down a byproduct of galactose. This type ... Carbohydrates account for a major portion of the human diet. These carbohydrates are composed of three principal ... Inborn errors of carbohydrate metabolism are inborn error of metabolism that affect the catabolism and anabolism of ... The metabolic pathway glycolysis is used by cells to break down carbohydrates like glucose (and various other simple sugars) in ...
This enzyme belongs to the family of isomerases, specifically those racemases and epimerases acting on carbohydrates and ... In enzymology, an aldose 1-epimerase (EC 5.1.3.3) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction alpha-D-glucose ⇌ {\ ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is aldose 1-epimerase. Other names in common use include mutarotase, and aldose ...
This enzyme belongs to the family of isomerases, specifically those racemases and epimerases acting on carbohydrates and ... Other names in common use include polyglucuronate 5-epimerase, dermatan-sulfate 5-epimerase, urunosyl C-5 epimerase, and ... Assay and properties of the uronosyl C-5 epimerase". Biochem. J. 201 (3): 489-93. doi:10.1042/bj2010489. PMC 1163673. PMID ... In enzymology, a chondroitin-glucuronate 5-epimerase (EC 5.1.3.19) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction ...
This enzyme belongs to the family of isomerases, specifically those racemases and epimerases acting on carbohydrates and ... Other names in common use include acylglucosamine 2-epimerase, and N-acetylglucosamine 2-epimerase. This enzyme participates in ... They show that the N-acylglucosamine 2-epimerase monomer folds as a barrel composed of α-helices, in a manner known as (α/α)6- ... In enzymology, a N-acylglucosamine 2-epimerase (EC 5.1.3.8) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction N-acyl-D- ...
... the 1970 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for his discovery of sugar nucleotides and their role in the biosynthesis of carbohydrates. ... The enzyme UDP-glucose 4-epimerase (EC 5.1.3.2), also known as UDP-galactose 4-epimerase or GALE, is a homodimeric epimerase ... GeneReviews/NCBI/NIH/UW entry on Epimerase Deficiency Galactosemia OMIM entries on Epimerase Deficiency Galactosemia ... Liu Y, Vanhooke JL, Frey PA (June 1996). "UDP-galactose 4-epimerase: NAD+ content and a charge-transfer band associated with ...
This enzyme belongs to the family of isomerases, specifically those racemases and epimerases acting on carbohydrates and ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is UDP-glucosamine 4-epimerase. MALEY F, MALEY GF (1959). "The enzymic conversion of ... In enzymology, an UDP-glucosamine 4-epimerase (EC 5.1.3.16) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction UDP-glucosamine ...
This enzyme belongs to the family of isomerases, specifically those racemases and epimerases acting on carbohydrates and ... cytidine diphosphodideoxyglucose epimerase, cytidine diphosphoparatose epimerase, and cytidine diphosphate paratose-2-epimerase ... It is also incorrectly known as CDP-abequose epimerase, and CDP-D-abequose 2-epimerase. This enzyme participates in starch and ... Other names in common use include CDP-paratose epimerase, cytidine diphosphoabequose epimerase, ...
This enzyme belongs to the family of isomerases, specifically those racemases and epimerases acting on carbohydrates and ... UDP-galacturonate 4-epimerase, uridine diphosphoglucuronate epimerase, and UDP-D-galacturonic acid 4-epimerase. This enzyme ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is UDP-glucuronate 4-epimerase. Other names in common use include uridine diphospho-D- ... galacturonic acid, UDP glucuronic epimerase, uridine diphosphoglucuronic epimerase, ...
This enzyme belongs to the family of isomerases, specifically those racemases and epimerases acting on carbohydrates and ... UDP arabinose epimerase, uridine 5'-diphosphate-D-xylose 4-epimerase, and UDP-D-xylose 4-epimerase. This enzyme participates in ... In enzymology, an UDP-arabinose 4-epimerase (EC 5.1.3.5) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction UDP-L-arabinose ⇌ {\ ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is UDP-L-arabinose 4-epimerase. Other names in common use include uridine ...
This enzyme belongs to the family of isomerases, specifically those racemases and epimerases acting on carbohydrates and ... Other names in common use include uridine diphosphoglucuronate 5'-epimerase, UDP-glucuronic acid 5'-epimerase, and C-5-uronosyl ... In enzymology, an UDP-glucuronate 5'-epimerase (EC 5.1.3.12) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction UDP-glucuronate ... I. Uridine diphosphate-D-glucuronic acid-5-epimerase". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 237 (3): 638-42. doi:10.1016/S0021- ...
This enzyme belongs to the family of isomerases, specifically those racemases and epimerases acting on carbohydrates and ... Other names in common use include UDP acetylglucosamine epimerase, uridine diphosphoacetylglucosamine epimerase, uridine ... In enzymology, an UDP-N-acetylglucosamine 4-epimerase (EC 5.1.3.7) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction UDP-N- ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is UDP-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine 4-epimerase. ...
This enzyme belongs to the family of isomerases, specifically those racemases and epimerases acting on carbohydrates and ... In enzymology, a glucose-6-phosphate 1-epimerase (EC 5.1.3.15) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction alpha-D- ... Wurster B, Hess B (1972). "Glucose-6-phosphate-1-epimerase from baker's yeast. A new enzyme". FEBS Lett. 23 (3): 341-344. doi: ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is D-glucose-6-phosphate 1-epimerase. This enzyme participates in glycolysis / ...
This enzyme belongs to the family of isomerases, specifically those racemases and epimerases acting on carbohydrates and ... epimerase, uridine diphospho-N-acetylglucosamine 2'-epimerase, and uridine diphosphate-N-acetylglucosamine-2'-epimerase. This ... The UDP-N-acetylglucosamine 2-epimerase from rat liver displays both epimerase and kinase activity. As of late 2007, 4 ... In microorganisms this epimerase is involved in the synthesis of the capsule precursor UDP-ManNAcA. An inhibitor of the ...
This enzyme belongs to the family of isomerases, specifically those racemases and epimerases acting on carbohydrates and ... In enzymology, an ADP-L-glycero-D-manno-heptose 6-epimerase (EC 5.1.3.20) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction ADP ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is ADP-L-glycero-D-manno-heptose 6-epimerase. This enzyme participates in ... "The Mechanism of the Reaction Catalyzed by ADP-β-L-glycero-D-manno-heptose 6-Epimerase". J. Am. Chem. Soc. 126 (29): 8878-9. ...
... specifically those racemases and epimerases acting on carbohydrates and derivatives. The systematic name of this enzyme class ... This also means that the GDP-mannose 3,5-epimerase has three reaction products, namely the main product GDP-L-galactose (C3,5- ... In enzymology, a GDP-mannose 3,5-epimerase (EC 5.1.3.18) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction GDP-mannose ⇌ {\ ... Other names in common use include GDP-D-mannose:GDP-L-galactose epimerase, guanosine 5'-diphosphate D-mannose:guanosine 5'- ...
It belongs to the family of isomerases, specifically those racemases and epimerases acting on carbohydrates and derivatives. ... Other names in common use include phosphoribulose isomerase, ribulose phosphate 4-epimerase, L-ribulose-phosphate 4-epimerase, ... In enzymology, a L-ribulose-5-phosphate 4-epimerase (EC 5.1.3.4) is an enzyme that catalyzes the interconversion of ribulose 5- ... Ribulose 5-phosphate 4-epimerase is found on the well studied L-arabinose operon. This operon consists of eight genes araA-araH ...
This enzyme belongs to the family of isomerases, specifically those racemases and epimerases acting on carbohydrates and ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is L-ribulose-5-phosphate 3-epimerase. Other names in common use include L-xylulose 5- ... In enzymology, a L-ribulose-5-phosphate 3-epimerase (EC 5.1.3.22) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction L-ribulose ... phosphate 3-epimerase, UlaE, and SgaU. This enzyme participates in ascorbate and aldarate metabolism. Yew WS, Gerlt JA (2002 ...
This enzyme belongs to the family of isomerases, specifically those racemases and epimerases acting on carbohydrates and ... Other names in common use include acylglucosamine-6-phosphate 2-epimerase, and acylglucosamine phosphate 2-epimerase. This ... In enzymology, a N-acylglucosamine-6-phosphate 2-epimerase (EC 5.1.3.9) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction N- ... N-Acyl--D-Glucosamine 6-Phosphate 2-Epimerase". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 240: 1525-30. doi:10.1016/S0021-9258(18) ...
This enzyme belongs to the family of isomerases, specifically those racemases and epimerases acting on carbohydrates and ... 5-epimerase, TDP-4-ketorhamnose 3,5-epimerase, dTDP-4-dehydro-6-deoxy-D-glucose 3,5-epimerase, and TDP-4-keto-L-rhamnose-3,5- ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is dTDP-4-dehydro-6-deoxy-D-glucose 3,5-epimerase. Other names in common use include ... In enzymology, a dTDP-4-dehydrorhamnose 3,5-epimerase (EC 5.1.3.13) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction dTDP-4- ...
In the rate-limiting step of the pathway, UDP-GlcNAc is converted into ManNAc by UDP-GlcNAc 2-epimerase, encoded by the ... terminal monosaccharides of carbohydrate chains that are attached to glycoproteins and glycolipids (glycans). ManNAc is the ... The UDP-GlcNAc 2-epimerase kinase is the rate limiting step in sialic acid biosynthesis. If the enzyme does not work ... Keppler, O; Hinderlich, S; Langner, J; Schwartz-Albiez, R; Reutter, W; Pawlita, M (1999). "UDP-GlcNAc 2-epimerase: a regulator ...
"The Development of Carbohydrate Chemistry and Biology". Carbohydrate Chemistry, Biology and Medical Applications: 1-28. doi: ... is a congenital disease resulted from altered function of UDP-GlcNAc epimerase . Macular corneal dystrophy: is a congenital ... Carbohydrate chemistry EamA Glycorandomization Glycosyltransferase Nucleotide sugars metabolism Derek Horton (2008). " ...
Other Inborn errors of carbohydrate metabolism. References[edit]. *^ Goppert F. (1917). "Galaktosurie nach Milchzuckergabe bei ... UDP galactose epimerase. galactose epimerase deficiency, UDP-Galactose-4-epimerase deficiency Normal metabolic pathway for ... Inborn error of carbohydrate metabolism: monosaccharide metabolism disorders (E73-E74, 271) Including glycogen storage diseases ... the accumulation of galactose becomes the substrate for enzymes that catalyze the polyol pathway of carbohydrate metabolism. ...
Many ruminant animals form a large amount of 3-carbon propionate during the fermentation of carbohydrates in the rumen. Long- ... However, the D conformation is enzymatically converted into the L conformation by methylmalonyl-CoA epimerase, then it ... but instead use carbohydrates (red blood cells and neurons) or ketone bodies (neurons only). Because many fatty acids are not ...
The caloric value of allulose in humans is about 0.2 to 0.4 kcal/g, relative to about 4 kcal/g for typical carbohydrates. In ... Fructose can be converted to allulose by the enzyme D-tagatose 3-epimerase, which has allowed for mass production of allulose. ... Overall, compared to the carbohydrate-containing meal alone, the same meal with a small dose of added allulose resulted in a 10 ... Like sugar alcohols and dietary fiber, allulose will still count towards total carbohydrates on nutrition labels. This, ...
Metabolism: carbohydrate metabolism · fructose and galactose enzymes. Fructose. Hepatic fructokinase · Aldolase B · Triokinase ... Galactokinase · Galactose-1-phosphate uridylyltransferase/UDP galactose epimerase. Aldose reductase. Lactose. Lactose synthase ...
... epimerase (GALE) interconverts UDP-galactose and UDP-glucose, thereby completing the pathway.[13] ... a class of natural polymeric carbohydrates.[4] ... epimerase (GALE). In human lactation, glucose is changed into ...
Many eukaryotic proteins also have carbohydrate molecules attached to them in a process called glycosylation, which can promote ... of serine by protein-serine epimerase. *of alanine in dermorphin, a frog opioid peptide ...
UDPgalactose-4-epimerase deficiency. UDPgalactose-4-epimerase. Is extremely rare (only 2 reported cases). It causes nerve ... Carbohydrate metabolism. (carbohydrate catabolism. and anabolism). Human. *Glycolysis ⇄ Gluconeogenesis. *Glycogenolysis ⇄ ...
Next, C-5 uronyl epimerase coverts d-GlcA to l-IdoA followed by 2-O sulfation of the uronic acid sugar by 2-O sulfotransferase ... Similar to the production of HSGAGs, C-5 uronyl epimerase converts d-GlcA to l-IdoA to synthesize dermatan sulfate. Three ...
Carbohydrate metabolism. (carbohydrate catabolism. and anabolism). Human. *Glycolysis ⇄ Gluconeogenesis. *Glycogenolysis ⇄ ...
As opposed to fungal tyrosinase, human tyrosinase is a membrane-bound glycoprotein and has 13% carbohydrate content.[14] ...
CPS1 Carbohydrate-deficient glycoprotein syndrome, type Ib; 602579; MPI Carboxypeptidase N deficiency; 212070; CPN1 Carcinoid ... MMAB Methylmalonyl-CoA epimerase deficiency; 251120; MCEE Mevalonic aciduria; 610377; MVK MHC class II deficiency, ... GALK1 Galactose epimerase deficiency; 230350; GALE Galactosemia; 230400; GALT Galactosialidosis; 256540; CTSA Gallbladder ...
The carbohydrate products of the Calvin cycle are three-carbon sugar phosphate molecules, or "triose phosphates", namely, ... Xu5P is converted into RuP by phosphopentose epimerase. Finally, phosphoribulokinase (another plant-unique enzyme of the ... Surplus G3P can also be used to form other carbohydrates such as starch, sucrose, and cellulose, depending on what the plant ...
"Use of a cell-free system to determine UDP-N-acetylglucosamine 2-epimerase and N-acetylmannosamine kinase activities in human ... a major component of complex carbohydrates, from lysosomal degradation or nutritional sources into GlcNAc 6-phosphate. NAGK ...
... epimerase (GALE).[citation needed] In human lactation, glucose is changed into galactose via hexoneogenesis to enable the ... a class of natural polymeric carbohydrates. The word galactose was coined by Charles Weissman in the mid 19th century and is ... epimerase (GALE) interconverts UDP-galactose and UDP-glucose, thereby completing the pathway. Galactosemia is an inability to ...
EC 5.1.3 UDP-glucose 4-epimerase Category:EC 5.1.99 Methylmalonyl CoA epimerase Category:EC 5.2 FKBP: FKBP1A FKBP1B FKBP2 FKBP3 ... and complex carbohydrates to be turned into simple sugars that will be easier to absorb. Clinical Significance: Amylase also ...
Epimerisation is catalysed by one enzyme, the GlcA C5 epimerase or heparosan-N-sulfate-glucuronate 5-epimerase (EC 5.1.3.17). ... Heparan sulfate is a member of the glycosaminoglycan family of carbohydrates and is very closely related in structure to ... 2-O-sulfotransferase and C5-epimerases". Developmental Dynamics. 236 (2): 581-6. doi:10.1002/dvdy.21051. PMID 17195182. S2CID ... These enzymes consist of multiple glycosyltransferases, sulfotransferases and an epimerase. These same enzymes also synthesize ...
It belongs to the family of isomerases, specifically those racemases and epimerases acting on carbohydrates and derivatives. ... Other names in common use include phosphoribulose isomerase, ribulose phosphate 4-epimerase, L-ribulose-phosphate 4-epimerase, ... In enzymology, a L-ribulose-5-phosphate 4-epimerase (EC 5.1.3.4) is an enzyme that catalyzes the interconversion of ribulose 5- ... Ribulose 5-phosphate 4-epimerase is found on the well studied L-arabinose operon. This operon consists of eight genes araA-araH ...
This enzyme belongs to the family of isomerases, specifically those racemases and epimerases acting on carbohydrates and ... Other names in common use include UDP acetylglucosamine epimerase, uridine diphosphoacetylglucosamine epimerase, uridine ... In enzymology, an UDP-N-acetylglucosamine 4-epimerase (EC 5.1.3.7) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction UDP-N- ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is UDP-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine 4-epimerase. ...
N2 - Sialic acid is a major determinant of carbohydrate-receptor interactions in many systems pertinent to human health and ... UDP-GlcNAc 2-epimerase and GlcNAc 2-epimerase are two enzymes capable of generating ManNAc from UDP-GlcNAc and GlcNAc, ... UDP-GlcNAc 2-epimerase and GlcNAc 2-epimerase are two enzymes capable of generating ManNAc from UDP-GlcNAc and GlcNAc, ... UDP-GlcNAc 2-epimerase and GlcNAc 2-epimerase are two enzymes capable of generating ManNAc from UDP-GlcNAc and GlcNAc, ...
We need to break down the carbohydrates and sugars we eat so that they can be used for energy. Many foods, such as milk ... Babies with GALE will have low amounts of an enzyme called UDP-galactose-4-epimerase in their blood. Your babys doctor may ... If your baby has galactoepimerase deficiency (GALE), their UDP-galactose-4-epimerase enzyme is either missing or not working ... When UDP-galactose-4-epimerase does not work correctly, your babys body cannot break down galactose. This causes undigested ...
... a glucose-6-phosphate 1-epimerase is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction alpha-D-glucose 6-phosphate ⇌ {\ ... This enzyme belongs to the family of isomerases, specifically those racemases and epimerases acting on carbohydrates and ... ⓘ Glucose-6-phosphate 1-epimerase. In enzymology, a glucose-6-phosphate 1-epimerase is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical ... ⓘ Glucose-6-phosphate 1-epimerase. In enzymology, a glucose-6-phosphate 1-epimerase is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical ...
UDPglucose-4-epimerase deficiency. *alpha, alpha-Trehalase deficiency. Minimum submission review status:. ★☆☆☆ criteria ... List of variants studied for carbohydrate metabolism disease by Genomic Medicine Lab,. University of California San Francisco ...
UDPglucose-4-epimerase deficiency. *alpha, alpha-Trehalase deficiency. Minimum submission review status:. ★☆☆☆ criteria ... List of variants in gene combination CCDC189, PHKG2 reported as uncertain significance for carbohydrate metabolism disease ...
UDPglucose-4-epimerase deficiency. *alpha, alpha-Trehalase deficiency. Minimum submission review status:. ★☆☆☆ criteria ... List of variants in gene combination GALT, IL11RA, LOC121331325 reported as pathogenic for carbohydrate metabolism disease ...
UDPglucose-4-epimerase deficiency. *alpha, alpha-Trehalase deficiency. Minimum submission review status:. ★☆☆☆ criteria ... List of variants in gene PYGL reported as likely benign for carbohydrate metabolism disease Included ClinVar conditions (161):* ...
UDPglucose-4-epimerase deficiency. *alpha, alpha-Trehalase deficiency. Minimum submission review status:. ★☆☆☆ criteria ... List of variants reported as likely pathogenic for carbohydrate metabolism disease by Centre for Mendelian Genomics,. ...
UDPglucose-4-epimerase deficiency. *alpha, alpha-Trehalase deficiency. Minimum submission review status:. ★☆☆☆ criteria ... List of variants studied for carbohydrate metabolism disease by Laboratory of Genomics,. National Research Institute of Animal ...
UDPglucose-4-epimerase deficiency. *alpha, alpha-Trehalase deficiency. Minimum submission review status:. ★☆☆☆ criteria ... List of variants in gene ABCC8 reported as pathogenic for carbohydrate metabolism disease Included ClinVar conditions (161):* ...
UDPglucose-4-epimerase deficiency. *alpha, alpha-Trehalase deficiency. Minimum submission review status:. ★☆☆☆ criteria ... List of variants reported as pathogenic for carbohydrate metabolism disease by Center of Genomic medicine,. Geneva,. University ...
UDPglucose-4-epimerase deficiency. *alpha, alpha-Trehalase deficiency. Minimum submission review status:. ★☆☆☆ criteria ... List of variants studied for carbohydrate metabolism disease by Diagnostica di Laboratorio,. Fondazione Policlinico Gemelli ...
UDPglucose-4-epimerase deficiency. *alpha, alpha-Trehalase deficiency. Minimum submission review status:. ★☆☆☆ criteria ... List of variants studied for carbohydrate metabolism disease by Genomic Research Center,. Shahid Beheshti University of Medical ...
UDPglucose-4-epimerase deficiency. *alpha, alpha-Trehalase deficiency. Minimum submission review status:. ★☆☆☆ criteria ... List of variants reported as uncertain significance for carbohydrate metabolism disease by Department of Otolaryngology - Head ...
UDP Galactose 4 Epimerase Deficiency .. UDP Galactose 4 Epimerase Deficiency Disease .. UDP-Galactose-4-Epimerase Deficiencies ... C18.452.648.202 Carbohydrate Metabolism, Inborn Errors .. C18.452.648.202.355 Galactosemias .. D08 Enzymes and Coenzymes .. ... Deficiency Diseases, UDP-Galactose-4-Epimerase .. Deficiency Galactosemia, Epimerase .. Deficiency Galactosemias, Epimerase .. ... Deficiency Disease, UDP-Galactose-4-Epimerase .. Deficiency Disease, UDPglucose 4-Epimerase .. Epimerase Deficiency ...
Transketolase is one of a series of enzymes (along with ribulose-5-phosphate-3-epimerase, which we considered in section 13.2B ... and 1413739 in carbohydrate and amino acid metabolism and is an essential cofactor for all organisms... This proton is acidic ... as it acts as a cofactor for several enzymes involved in carbohydrate and energy metabolism, including pyruvate dehydrogenase, ... Benzaldehyde carbanion portal is responsible for absorption carbohydrate and amino acid metabolism and is an important ...
Sugars are very sensitive to drought and ensure the carbohydrate supply from source to sink tissues during the stress [59]. ... UDP-glucose 4-epimerase (UGE), inositol 3-α-galactosyltransferase (IGT), galactinol-sucrose galactosyltransferase (GSGT), α- ...
Carbohydrate Research. -. 1-Oct-2012. article (author version). Zahura, Umme Afsari; Rahman, Mohammad Matiur; Inoue, Akira; ... Functional heterologous expression and characterization of mannuronan C5-epimerase from the brown alga Saccharina japonica. -. ...
Variations in the mRNA expression level of UDP-GlcNAc epimerase/ManNAc kinase and neuraminidase 1 genes in organs of type 2 ...

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