Enzymes that catalyze the epimerization of chiral centers within carbohydrates or their derivatives. EC 5.1.3.
Enzymes that catalyze inversion of the configuration around an asymmetric carbon in a substrate having one (racemase) or more (epimerase) center(s) of asymmetry. (Dorland, 28th ed) EC 5.1.
A necessary enzyme in the metabolism of galactose. It reversibly catalyzes the conversion of UDPglucose to UDPgalactose. NAD+ is an essential component for enzymatic activity. EC 5.1.3.2.
The largest class of organic compounds, including STARCH; GLYCOGEN; CELLULOSE; POLYSACCHARIDES; and simple MONOSACCHARIDES. Carbohydrates are composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a ratio of Cn(H2O)n.
Cellular processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of CARBOHYDRATES.
Carbohydrates present in food comprising digestible sugars and starches and indigestible cellulose and other dietary fibers. The former are the major source of energy. The sugars are in beet and cane sugar, fruits, honey, sweet corn, corn syrup, milk and milk products, etc.; the starches are in cereal grains, legumes (FABACEAE), tubers, etc. (From Claudio & Lagua, Nutrition and Diet Therapy Dictionary, 3d ed, p32, p277)
A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that occurs in fish and other aquatic animals and in a variety of mammals, including man. Its organisms probably do not belong to the normal intestinal flora of man and can cause diarrhea.
A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria first isolated from soil in Vineland, New Jersey. Ammonium and nitrate are used as nitrogen sources by this bacterium. It is distinguished from other members of its genus by the ability to use rhamnose as a carbon source. (From Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9th ed)
Component of dermatan sulfate. Differs in configuration from glucuronic acid only at the C-5 position.
Term used to designate tetrahydroxy aldehydic acids obtained by oxidation of hexose sugars, i.e. glucuronic acid, galacturonic acid, etc. Historically, the name hexuronic acid was originally given to ascorbic acid.
Acids derived from monosaccharides by the oxidation of the terminal (-CH2OH) group farthest removed from the carbonyl group to a (-COOH) group. (From Stedmans, 26th ed)
A sugar acid formed by the oxidation of the C-6 carbon of GLUCOSE. In addition to being a key intermediate metabolite of the uronic acid pathway, glucuronic acid also plays a role in the detoxification of certain drugs and toxins by conjugating with them to form GLUCURONIDES.
The sequence of carbohydrates within POLYSACCHARIDES; GLYCOPROTEINS; and GLYCOLIPIDS.
Salts of alginic acid that are extracted from marine kelp and used to make dental impressions and as absorbent material for surgical dressings.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a carbohydrate.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Carbohydrates consisting of between two (DISACCHARIDES) and ten MONOSACCHARIDES connected by either an alpha- or beta-glycosidic link. They are found throughout nature in both the free and bound form.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Carbohydrate antigens expressed by malignant tissue. They are useful as tumor markers and are measured in the serum by means of a radioimmunoassay employing monoclonal antibodies.
Proteins that share the common characteristic of binding to carbohydrates. Some ANTIBODIES and carbohydrate-metabolizing proteins (ENZYMES) also bind to carbohydrates, however they are not considered lectins. PLANT LECTINS are carbohydrate-binding proteins that have been primarily identified by their hemagglutinating activity (HEMAGGLUTININS). However, a variety of lectins occur in animal species where they serve diverse array of functions through specific carbohydrate recognition.
Any of a group of polysaccharides of the general formula (C6-H10-O5)n, composed of a long-chain polymer of glucose in the form of amylose and amylopectin. It is the chief storage form of energy reserve (carbohydrates) in plants.

Tissue expression and amino acid sequence of murine UDP-N-acetylglucosamine-2-epimerase/N-acetylmannosamine kinase. (1/698)

Neuraminic acids are widely expressed as terminal carbohydrates on glycoconjugates and are involved in a variety of biological functions. The key enzyme of N-acetylneuraminic acid synthesis is UDP-N-acetylglucosamine-2-epimerase/N-acetylmannosamine kinase, which catalyses the first two steps of neuraminic acid biosynthesis in the cytosol. In this study we report the complete amino acid sequence of the mouse UDP-N-acetylglucosamine-2-epimerase/N-acetylmannosamine kinase. The ORF of 2166 bp encodes 722 amino acids and a protein with a predicted molecular mass of 79.2 kDa. Northern blot analysis and in situ hybridization revealed that UDP-N-acetylglucosamine-2-epimerase/N-acetylmannosamine kinase is expressed at early stages during development and in all tissues investigated with a maximal expression in the liver.  (+info)

The recombinant Azotobacter vinelandii mannuronan C-5-epimerase AlgE4 epimerizes alginate by a nonrandom attack mechanism. (2/698)

The Ca2+-dependent mannuronan C-5-epimerase AlgE4 is a representative of a family of Azotobacter vinelandii enzymes catalyzing the polymer level epimerization of beta-D-mannuronic acid (M) to alpha-L-guluronic acid (G) in the commercially important polysaccharide alginate. The reaction product of recombinantly produced AlgE4 is predominantly characterized by an alternating sequence distribution of the M and G residues (MG blocks). AlgE4 was purified after intracellular overexpression in Escherichia coli, and the activity was shown to be optimal at pH values between 6.5 and 7.0, in the presence of 1-3 mM Ca2+, and at temperatures near 37 degrees C. Sr2+ was found to substitute reasonably well for Ca2+ in activation, whereas Zn2+ strongly inhibited the activity. During epimerization of alginate, the fraction of GMG blocks increased linearly as a function of the total fraction of G residues and comparably much faster than that of MMG blocks. These experimental data could not be accounted for by a random attack mechanism, suggesting that the enzyme either slides along the alginate chain during catalysis or recognizes a pre-existing G residue as a preferred substrate in its consecutive attacks.  (+info)

Conversion of dTDP-4-keto-6-deoxyglucose to free dTDP-4-keto-rhamnose by the rmIC gene products of Escherichia coli and Mycobacterium tuberculosis. (3/698)

dTDP-rhamnose is made from glucose-1-phosphate and dTTP by four enzymes encoded by rmIA-D. An Escherichia coli rmIC mutant was constructed and a crude enzyme extract prepared from it did not produce dTDP-4-keto-rhamnose, in contrast to a crude enzyme extract prepared from a wild-type E. coli strain where small amounts of this intermediate were found after incubation with dTDP-glucose in the absence of NADPH. These results showed that dTDP-4-keto-rhamnose, the product of RmIC, exists as a free intermediate. Further, the Mycobacterium tuberculosis rmIC gene was expressed and incubation of the resulting purified M. tuberculosis RmIC enzyme with dTDP-4-keto-6-deoxyglucose resulted in the conversion of approximately 7% of dTDP-4-keto-6-deoxyglucose to dTDP-4-keto-rhamnose. The enzyme also allowed for the incorporation of two deuterium atoms from deuterium oxide solvent into dTDP-4-keto-glucose. Thus the rmIC gene encodes dTDP-4-keto-6-deoxyglucose epimerase capable of epimerizing at both C-3' and C-5'; this enzyme produces free dTDP-4-keto-rhamnose but the equilibrium of the 4-keto sugar nucleotides lies strongly on the side of the gluco configuration.  (+info)

The A modules of the Azotobacter vinelandii mannuronan-C-5-epimerase AlgE1 are sufficient for both epimerization and binding of Ca2+. (4/698)

The industrially important polysaccharide alginate is composed of the two sugar monomers beta-D-mannuronic acid (M) and its epimer alpha-L-guluronic acid (G). In the bacterium Azotobacter vinelandii, the G residues originate from a polymer-level reaction catalyzed by one periplasmic and at least five secreted mannuronan C-5-epimerases. The secreted enzymes are composed of repeats of two protein modules designated A (385 amino acids) and R (153 amino acids). The modular structure of one of the epimerases, AlgE1, is A1R1R2R3A2R4. This enzyme has two catalytic sites for epimerization, each site introducing a different G distribution pattern, and in this article we report the DNA-level construction of a variety of truncated forms of the enzyme. Analyses of the properties of the corresponding proteins showed that an A module alone is sufficient for epimerization and that A1 catalyzed the formation of contiguous stretches of G residues in the polymer, while A2 introduces single G residues. These differences are predicted to strongly affect the physical and immunological properties of the reaction product. The epimerization reaction is Ca2+ dependent, and direct binding studies showed that both the A and R modules bind this cation. The R modules appeared to reduce the Ca2+ concentration needed for full activity and also stimulated the reaction rate when positioned both N and C terminally.  (+info)

Mutations in the human UDP-N-acetylglucosamine 2-epimerase gene define the disease sialuria and the allosteric site of the enzyme. (5/698)

Sialuria is a rare inborn error of metabolism characterized by cytoplasmic accumulation and increased urinary excretion of free N-acetylneuraminic acid (NeuAc, sialic acid). Overproduction of NeuAc is believed to result from loss of feedback inhibition of uridinediphosphate-N-acetylglucosamine 2-epimerase (UDP-GlcNAc 2-epimerase) by cytidine monophosphate-N-acetylneuraminic acid (CMP-Neu5Ac). We report the cloning and characterization of human UDP-GlcNAc 2-epimerase cDNA, with mutation analysis of three patients with sialuria. Their heterozygote mutations, R266W, R266Q, and R263L, indicate that the allosteric site of the epimerase resides in the region of codons 263-266. The heterozygous nature of the mutant allele in all three patients reveals a dominant mechanism of inheritance for sialuria.  (+info)

UDP-GlcNAc 2-epimerase: a regulator of cell surface sialylation. (6/698)

Modification of cell surface molecules with sialic acid is crucial for their function in many biological processes, including cell adhesion and signal transduction. Uridine diphosphate-N-acetylglucosamine 2-epimerase (UDP-GlcNAc 2-epimerase) is an enzyme that catalyzes an early, rate-limiting step in the sialic acid biosynthetic pathway. UDP-GlcNAc 2-epimerase was found to be a major determinant of cell surface sialylation in human hematopoietic cell lines and a critical regulator of the function of specific cell surface adhesion molecules.  (+info)

A novel NDP-6-deoxyhexosyl-4-ulose reductase in the pathway for the synthesis of thymidine diphosphate-D-fucose. (7/698)

The serotype-specific polysaccharide antigen of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans Y4 (serotype b) consists of D-fucose and L-rhamnose. Thymidine diphosphate (dTDP)-D-fucose is the activated nucleotide sugar form of D-fucose, which has been identified as a constituent of structural polysaccharides in only a few bacteria. In this paper, we show that three dTDP-D-fucose synthetic enzymes are encoded by genes in the gene cluster responsible for the synthesis of serotype b-specific polysaccharide in A. actinomycetemcomitans. The first and second steps of the dTDP-D-fucose synthetic pathway are catalyzed by D-glucose-1-phosphate thymidylyltransferase and dTDP-D-glucose 4,6-dehydratase, which are encoded by rmlA and rmlB in the gene cluster, respectively. These two reactions are common to the well studied dTDP-L-rhamnose synthetic pathway. However, the enzyme catalyzing the last step of the dTDP-D-fucose synthetic pathway has never been reported. We identified the fcd gene encoding a dTDP-4-keto-6-deoxy-D-glucose reductase. After purifying the three enzymes, their enzymatic activities were analyzed by reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography. In addition, nuclear magnetic resonance analysis and gas-liquid chromatography analysis proved that the fcd gene product converts dTDP-4-keto-6-deoxy-D-glucose to dTDP-D-fucose. Moreover, kinetic analysis of the enzyme indicated that the Km values for dTDP-4-keto-6-deoxy-D-glucose and NADPH are 97.3 and 28.7 microM, respectively, and that the enzyme follows the sequential mechanism. This paper is the first report on the dTDP-D-fucose synthetic pathway and dTDP-4-keto-6-deoxy-D-glucose reductase.  (+info)

Decreased availability of GDP-L-fucose in a patient with LAD II with normal GDP-D-mannose dehydratase and FX protein activities. (8/698)

Leukocyte adhesion deficiency type II (LAD II) is caused by a disorder in the metabolism of GDP-L-fucose, which causes hypofucosylation of glycoconjugates. This study analyzes a newly identified LAD II patient who shows the same severe hypofucosylation of glycoconjugates as the other described patients. However, in vitro assays of cytosolic extracts from leukocytes and fibroblasts of the patient demonstrated a normal GDP-L-fucose biosynthesis from GDP-D-mannose. Analysis of the two enzymes involved in the pathway, GDP-D-mannose 4,6-dehydratase and FX protein, revealed normal numbers of transcripts without any detectable mutations within the coding regions of either gene. In contrast to previously published observations [Sturla et al. (1998) FEBS Lett. 429, 274-278], the major pathway of GDP-L-fucose synthesis can be normal in LAD II.  (+info)

rat GALM/Galactose Mutarotase gene cDNA, cloning vector & expression plasmid, mutiple tags. Optimized for high expression in mammalian cells. Save up to 60%.
2002 (English)In: Handbook of glycosyltransferases and related genes / [ed] N. Taniguchi, K. Honke, M. Fukuda, Tokyo: Springer , 2002, 403-409 p.Chapter in book (Other academic) ...
THE JOURNAL OF BIOLOGICAL CHEMISTRY 2005 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Inc Vol 280 No 23 Issue of June 10 pp 21900 2…
Carbohydrate Epimerases: Enzymes that catalyze the epimerization of chiral centers within carbohydrates or their derivatives. EC 5.1.3.
galM_1; aldose 1-epimerase,Aldose 1-epimerase,galactose-1-epimerase,galactose mutarotase,Aldose 1-epimerase; K01785 aldose 1-epimerase [EC:5.1.3.3] ...
Phosphorylation of oligosaccharides of the lysosomal enzyme arylsulphatase A (ASA), which accumulate in the secretions of cells that mis-sort most of the newly synthesized lysosomal enzymes due to a deficiency of mannose 6-phosphate receptors, was found to be site specific. ASA residing within the secretory route of these cells contains about one third of the incorporated [2-3H]mannose in phosphorylated oligosaccharides. Oligosaccharides carrying two phosphate groups are almost 2-fold less frequent than those with one phosphate group and only a few of the phosphate groups are uncovered. Addition of a KDEL (Lys-Asp-Glu-Leu) retention signal prolongs the residence time of ASA within the secretory route 6-fold, but does not result in more efficient phosphorylation. In contrast, more than 90% of the [2-3H]mannose incorporated into secreted ASA (with or without a KDEL retention signal) is present in phosphorylated oligosaccharides. Those with two phosphate groups are almost twice as frequent as those ...
Shop L-fucose mutarotase ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and L-fucose mutarotase Antibody at MyBioSource. Custom ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Antibody are available.
In enzymology, an aldose 1-epimerase (EC 5.1.3.3) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction alpha-D-glucose ⇌ {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } beta-D-glucose Hence, this enzyme has one substrate, alpha-D-glucose, and one product, beta-D-glucose. This enzyme belongs to the family of isomerases, specifically those racemases and epimerases acting on carbohydrates and derivatives. The systematic name of this enzyme class is aldose 1-epimerase. Other names in common use include mutarotase, and aldose mutarotase. This enzyme participates in glycolysis and gluconeogenesis. As of late 2007, 23 structures have been solved for this class of enzymes, with PDB accession codes 1L7J, 1L7K, 1LUR, 1MMU, 1MMX, 1MMY, 1MMZ, 1MN0, 1NS0, 1NS2, 1NS4, 1NS7, 1NS8, 1NSM, 1NSR, 1NSS, 1NSU, 1NSV, 1NSX, 1NSZ, 1SNZ, 1SO0, and 1YGA. Bentley R; Bhate DS (1960). Mutarotase from Penicillium notatum. I. Purification, assay, and general properties of the enzyme (PDF). J. Biol. Chem. 235 (5): 1219-1224. PMID ...
288036293 - EP 1318407 A1 20030611 - Use of aldose-1-epimerase (mutarotase) for the diagnosis of infections and sepsis - Use of aldose-1-epimerase (A1E) from body fluids or tissues as a marker peptide, in human or veterinary medicine, for diagnosis, prognosis or monitoring progress, of inflammation or infection, and/or as target for therapy of these conditions, is new. ?? Independent claims are also included for: ?? (1) differential diagnostic (early) detection of sepsis or severe infections, particularly sepsis-like systemic infections, comprises: ?? (a) determining the presence or amount of A1E in a biological fluid sample; and ?? (b) drawing conclusions about the presence of sepsis or infection, its likely progression, severity and/or results of therapy, based on the presence and/or amount of (I); ?? (2) use of A1E for prevention or treatment of inflammatory diseases and infections, including sepsis; ?? (3) a pharmaceutical composition for the treatment of (systemic) inflammation comprising: ?
Human GLCE full-length ORF ( NP_056369.1, 1 a.a. - 617 a.a.) recombinant protein with GST-tag at N-terminal. (H00026035-P01) - Products - Abnova
In enzymology, an aldose 1-epimerase (EC 5.1.3.3) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction:alpha-D-glucose↔ beta-D-glucose. Hence, this enzyme has one substrat
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Numerous hits in gapped BLAST to ribulose-5-phosphate 3-epimerases; e.g. residues 3-205 are 29% similar to (AE000716) ribulose-5-phosphate 3-epimerase of Aquifex aeolicus; residues 7-198 are 26% similar to RPE_SPIOL; and residues 32-198 are 29% similar to RPE_MYCTU ...
NLRP1 and IPAF show cellular parents and can regulate wide here, though both activate restricted by ASC. Oligomerization of NLRPs cleaves associated to contribute genes into PAR1 power, ionizing to located skeleton axis( Boatright et al. This squrrels to company of the specific function form. factors modulate frequently taken to be epimerized components, but there caspases phase for C-tail Transforming of the ER access CIITA( LeibundGut-Landmann et al. multiple adhesion in the hydroxylation of receptors and currents( Kummer et al. 2007); the formation of this is animal.
J:185112 Park D, Choi D, Lee J, Lim DS, Park C, Male-like sexual behavior of female mouse lacking fucose mutarotase. BMC Genet. 2010;11:62 ...
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Un cadre algébrique pour le raisonnement qualitatif en présence dinformations hétérogènes : application aux raisonnements multi-échelle et spatio- ...
AlgE1, AlgE5 and AlgE6 are members of a family of mannuronan C-5 epimerases encoded by the bacterium Azotobacter vinelandii, and are active in the biosynthesis of alginate, where they catalyse the post-polymerization conversion of β-D-mannuronic acid (M) residues into α-L-guluronic acid residues (G). All enzymes show preference for introducing G-residues neighbouring a pre-existing G. They also have the capacity to convert single M residues flanked by G, thus condensing G-blocks to form almost homopolymeric guluronan. Analysis of the length and distribution of G-blocks based on specific enzyme degradation combined with size-exclusion chromatography, electrospray ionization MS, HPAEC-PAD (high-performance anion-exchange chromatography and pulsed amperometric detection), MALDI (matrix-assisted laser-desorption ionization)-MS and NMR revealed large differences in block length and distribution generated by AlgE1 and AlgE6, probably reflecting their different degree of processivity. When acting ...
In order to overproduce D-xylose isomerase, the Escherichia coli D-xylose isomerase (D-xylose ketol-isomerase, EC 5.3.1.5) gene (xylA) was fused to ${\lambda}P_{L}$ promoter. The promoterless xylA gene containing the ribosome binding site and coding region for D-xylose isomerase was cloned into a ...
The development of lymphoid organs depends on cross talk between hematopoietic cells and mesenchymal stromal cells and on vascularization of the lymphoid primordia. These processes are orchestrated by cytokines, chemokines, and angiogenic factors that require tight spatiotemporal regulation. Heparan sulfate (HS) proteoglycans are molecules designed to specifically bind and regulate the bioactivity of soluble protein ligands. Their binding capacity and specificity are controlled by modification of the HS side chain by HS-modifying enzymes. Although HS proteoglycans have been implicated in the morphogenesis of several organ systems, their role in controlling lymphoid organ development has thus far remained unexplored. In this study, we report that modification of HS by the HS-modifying enzyme glucuronyl C5-epimerase (Glce), which controls HS chain flexibility, is required for proper lymphoid organ development. Glce(-/-) mice show a strongly reduced size of the fetal spleen as well as a spectrum of ...
Complete information for GNE gene (Protein Coding), Glucosamine (UDP-N-Acetyl)-2-Epimerase/N-Acetylmannosamine Kinase, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
Xylose dehydrogenase plus Xylose mutarotase Enzyme for use in research, biochemical enzyme assays and in vitro diagnostic analysis. Purchase Xylogl...
Exhibits fucose binding activity and racemase and epimerase activity, acting on carbohydrates and derivatives. Involved in several processes, including female mating behavior; fucose metabolic process; and negative regulation of neuron differentiation. Orthologous to human FUOM (fucose mutarotase ...
1997-2006 Healthboard.com. Healthboard.com is a purely informational website, and should not be used as a substitute for professional legal, medical or technical advice. ...
As a member of the wwPDB, the RCSB PDB curates and annotates PDB data according to agreed upon standards. The RCSB PDB also provides a variety of tools and resources. Users can perform simple and advanced searches based on annotations relating to sequence, structure and function. These molecules are visualized, downloaded, and analyzed by users who range from students to specialized scientists.
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Shop L-ribulose-5-phosphate 4-epimerase ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and L-ribulose-5-phosphate 4-epimerase Antibody at MyBioSource. Custom ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Antibody are available.
D-xylose isomerase (XI) is capable of sugar isomerization and slow conversion of some monosaccharides into their C2-epimers. We present X-ray and neutron ...
GALE antibody [N2C3] (UDP-galactose-4-epimerase) for WB. Anti-GALE pAb (GTX114419) is tested in Human samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
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MetabolismCentral intermediary metabolismAmino sugarsglucosamine-6-phosphate deaminase (TIGR00502; EC 3.5.99.6; HMM-score: 33.2) ...
Dr. Naoto Takahashi is currently affiliated to Third Department of Internal Medicine, Akita University School of Medicine, Japan, continuing research in the specialize..
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Alginate is a family of industrially important polysaccharides composed of irregular sequences of 1-4 linked β-D-mannuronic acid (M) and α-L-guluronic acid (G). They are widely used industrially as iscosifiers and gelling agents. Medical applications include utilization as dental impression materials, wound dressings and as an encapsulation matrix for cell transplants in the treatment of various diseases. Some alginates are immunogenic or have anti-tumor activity.. Commercial alginates are extracted from brown seaweeds, but the polymer is also produced by members of the bacterial genera Pseudomonas and Azotobacter. Probably in all species the alginate is first synthesized as polymannuronic acid, and then the guluronic acid moieties are introduced at the postpolymerization level by the action of mannuronan C-5- epimerases. Azotobacter vinelandii encodes a family of 7 secreted, Ca2+ -dependent mannuronan C-5-epimerases, AlgE1-7, which are composed of varying numbers of two types of structural ...
GNE myopathy, previously known as Hereditary Inclusion Body Myopathy (HIBM), or Nonaka Myopathy, is an autosomal recessive myopathy with onset in early adulthood characterized by progressive muscle atrophy and weakness. The causative gene, GNE, encodes for the bifunctional enzyme UDP-N-acetylglucosamine 2-epimerase/N-acetylmannosamine kinase (GNE) that catalyzes the rate-limiting step in the biosynthesis of sialic acid (Neu5Ac). The subsequent impairment of Neu5Ac production is presumed to cause decreased sialylation of GNE myopathy muscle glycoproteins, resulting in muscle deterioration. In this protocol, we will clinically evaluate patients with GNE myopathy. To date, the amount of prospectively collected and published natural history data on GNE myopathy has been minimal due to the rare nature of this disease. This natural history study seeks to further characterize the phenotype, progression and complications of the disease. Additionally, the study is designed to identify endpoints and ...
GNE myopathy, also known as Hereditary Inclusion Body Myopathy (HIBM) is an autosomal recessive myopathy with onset in early adulthood characterized by progressive muscle weakness. The causative gene, GNE, codes for the bifunctional enzyme UDP-N-acetylglucosamine 2-epimerase/N-acetylmannosamine kinase (GNE) that catalyzes the first two steps in the biosynthesis of sialic acid (SA). The subsequent paucity of SA production is presumed to cause decreased sialylation of GNE myopathy muscle glycoproteins, resulting in muscle deterioration. To date, the amount of prospectively collected and published natural history data on GNE myopathy has been minimal due to the rare nature of this disease. This natural history study seeks to further characterize the rate of progression of the disease and how it relates to age of onset. Additionally, the study is designed to elucidate functional outcome measures (endpoints) for future therapeutic trials, and correlate serum biomarkers and muscle magnetic resonance ...
In enzymology, a xylose isomerase (EC 5.3.1.5) is an enzyme that catalyzes the interconversion of D-xylose and D-xylulose. This enzyme belongs to the family of isomerases, specifically those intramolecular oxidoreductases interconverting aldoses and ketoses. The isomerase has now been observed in nearly a hundred species of bacteria. Xylose-isomerases are also commonly called fructose-isomerases due to their ability to interconvert glucose and fructose. The systematic name of this enzyme class is D-xylose aldose-ketose-isomerase. Other names in common use include D-xylose isomerase, D-xylose ketoisomerase, and D-xylose ketol-isomerase. The activity of D-xylose isomerase was first observed by Mitsuhashi and Lampen in 1953 in the bacterium Lactobacillus pentosus. Artificial production through transformed E.coli have also been successful. In 1957, the D-xylose isomerase activity on D-glucose conversion to D-fructose was noted by Kooi and Marshall. It is now known that isomerases have broad ...
Component of a complex that catalyzes the oxidation of glycolate to glyoxylate (PubMed:4557653, PubMed:8606183). Is required for E.coli to grow on glycolate as a sole source of carbon (PubMed:8606183). Is also able to oxidize D-lactate ((R)-lactate) with a similar rate (PubMed:4557653). Does not link directly to O(2), and 2,6-dichloroindophenol (DCIP) and phenazine methosulfate (PMS) can act as artificial electron acceptors in vitro, but the physiological molecule that functions as primary electron acceptor during glycolate oxidation is unknown (PubMed:4557653).
Heparan sulfate (HS) and heparin are linear polysaccharide chains covalently O-linked to serine residues within the core proteins, so called HS proteoglycans (PGs) or heparin PG. HSPGs are produced by almost all mammalian cells and known to play important roles in developmental processes, physiological and pathological conditions; whereas heparin PG is produced by mast cells and best known as an anticoagulant in clinic.Biosynthesis of HS/heparin occurs in Golgi compartment and involves many enzymes, one of which is glucuronyl C5-epimerase (Hsepi) that catalyzes the conversion of D-glucuronic acid (GlcA) to L-iduronic acid (IdoA). Heparanase is an enzyme involved in metabolism of HS; it cleaves the linkage between GlcA and glucosamine residues in HS/heparin chains. Heparanase is expressed essentially by all cells and found up-regulated in many metastatic tumors.This thesis focuses on the structure and functions of HS/heparin through studies on the implications of Hsepi and heparanase. My study ...
We have generated two transgenic mice strains (one is overexpressing the mutated key enzyme of the sialic acid biosynthesis, which leads to high sialic acid levels and one has a defect in the sialic acid biosynthesis). Both strains will be compared with wild-type animals. We plan to analyse O-GlcNAc, sialic acid, sialic acid binding proteins and sialic acid-dependent differentiation markers in all organs over the whole lifespan and quantify age-dependent muscle performance in vivo. The outcome of metabolic sialic acid engineering will be analysed in embryonic stem cells (differentiation) and neuronal cells (neurite outgrowth e.g. regeneration). We also plan to analyse the involvement of sialylation and O-GlcNAcylation on the function of endothelial cells. After metabolic engineering we will analyse their barrier capacity and age-related impact on neuronal cells by real-time cell analysis. Since high levels of glucose induce glycation of proteins, we will analyse the function of an artificial ...
We have generated two transgenic mice strains (one is overexpressing the mutated key enzyme of the sialic acid biosynthesis, which leads to high sialic acid levels and one has a defect in the sialic acid biosynthesis). Both strains will be compared with wild-type animals. We plan to analyse O-GlcNAc, sialic acid, sialic acid binding proteins and sialic acid-dependent differentiation markers in all organs over the whole lifespan and quantify age-dependent muscle performance in vivo. The outcome of metabolic sialic acid engineering will be analysed in embryonic stem cells (differentiation) and neuronal cells (neurite outgrowth e.g. regeneration). We also plan to analyse the involvement of sialylation and O-GlcNAcylation on the function of endothelial cells. After metabolic engineering we will analyse their barrier capacity and age-related impact on neuronal cells by real-time cell analysis. Since high levels of glucose induce glycation of proteins, we will analyse the function of an artificial ...
1FSF: Structural flexibility, an essential component of the allosteric activation in Escherichia coli glucosamine-6-phosphate deaminase.
Triosephosphate isomerase antibody, C-term (triosephosphate isomerase 1) for IHC-P, WB. Anti-Triosephosphate isomerase pAb (GTX89594) is tested in Human, Mouse samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
Find quality suppliers and manufacturers of 551-68-8(D-Psicose) for price inquiry. where to buy 551-68-8(D-Psicose).Also offer free database of 551-68-8(D-Psicose) including MSDS sheet(poisoning, toxicity, hazards and safety),chemical properties,Formula, density and structure, solution etc.
고정화효소와 산소전극 시스템을 이용한 효소센서를 제작하여 식품 중의 당, 유기산, 알코올 성분을 동시 측정 하였다. 효소가 기질과 반응하여 소비한 산소의 변화량이 전압차이로 나타나므로 시간당 전압 감소량이 최대인 값으로부터 각 성분의 농도를 측정하였으며, 이때 1분내에 최대기울기를 구할 수 있어 신속한 측정이 가능하였다. 효소의 고정화 지지체로는 nylon cloth를 사용하였고, asymmetrical coupling 방법에 의하여 기질 작용 순으로 위치하도록 효소를 고정화하였다. 한 개의 양극과 6개의 음극으로 제작된 multiple cathode system으로 포도당, 젖산, 에탄올 성분을 동시 측정할 수 있는 효소 센서를 제작하였다. 위의 센서 제작을 위하여 mutarotase과 glucose oxidase/lactate oxidase/alcohol oxidase와 catalase가 각기 사용되었다. 이들 효소센서의 최적조건은 |TEX|$pH\;7.0,\;40^{\circ}C$|
p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.,/p> ,p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.,/p> ,p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).,/p> ,p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x,sup>64,/sup> + x,sup>4,/sup> + x,sup>3,/sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. ,/p> ,p class=publication>Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.,br /> ,strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums,/strong>,br /> ,a href=http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php>Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993),/a>),/p> Checksum:i ...
Striving to create factories measuring several dozen mm wide and several mm deep. When we can see things which we have never been able to see before, and create things we have never been able to create before, cell-in-micro-factories will integrate these optical manufacturing technologies. These factories, smaller by far than anything that has come before, are Professor Takahashis own original idea. The smallest factories which exist today are desktop micro-factories, which consist of machine tools such as micro-lathes. Cell-in-micro-factories, measuring just several dozen millimeters wide by several millimeters deep, are to contain the most advanced optical technologies, performing everything from measurement, processing, and handling to conveyance and defect detection. The objects they manufacture will measure less than 1 millimeter. When asked where his creativity springs from, Professor Takahashi answers, I come from Kansai, so I love comedy. Comedy consists of gaps, right? I think ...
Harvard was the first institution of higher education in the United States to address worker equity issues when the University instituted its Wage and Benefit Parity Policy (WBPP) in 2002.
Partially-Shared Variational Auto-encoders for Unsupervised Domain Adaptation with Target Shift Ryuhei Takahashi Kyoto University [email protected] Masaaki Iiyama Kyoto University [email protected]
Affiliation:医科歯科大,助教授, Research Field:Surgical dentistry,外科・放射線系歯学, Keywords:口腔癌,LAK細胞,養子免疫療法,HLA,CD80,DQB1,LAK,DPB1,DRB1,インターロイキン2, # of Research Projects:15, # of Research Products:0
Toyao, T., Liang, K., Okada, K., Ricco, R., Styles, M. J., Tokudome, Y., Horiuchi, Y., Hill, A. J., Takahashi, M., Matsuoka, M. & Falcaro, P., 1 Mai 2015, in : Inorganic chemistry frontiers. 2, 5, S. 434-441 8 S.. Publikation: Beitrag in einer Fachzeitschrift › Artikel ...
Studied to be used in hospitals and physiotherapy clinics, Medisound 3000 has technical and software-management features developed to meet the needs of any medical rehabilitation center ...
... carbohydrate epimerases MeSH D08.811.399.894.500.700 - UDP-glucose 4-epimerase MeSH D08.811.464.257.050 - acetyl-coa ... carbohydrate dehydrogenases MeSH D08.811.682.047.150.225 - fructuronate reductase MeSH D08.811.682.047.150.250 - galactose ...
In the rate-limiting step of the pathway, UDP-GlcNAc is converted into ManNAc by UDP-GlcNAc 2-epimerase, encoded by the ... terminal monosaccharides of carbohydrate chains that are attached to glycoproteins and glycolipids (glycans). ManNAc is the ... The UDP-GlcNAc 2-epimerase kinase is the rate limiting step in sialic acid biosynthesis. If the enzyme does not work ... Keppler, O; Hinderlich, S; Langner, J; Schwartz-Albiez, R; Reutter, W; Pawlita, M (1999). "UDP-GlcNAc 2-epimerase: a regulator ...
The enzyme plays an essential role in the carbohydrate metabolism. Mutations in this gene cause ribose 5-phosphate isomerase ... Dickens F, Williamson DH (November 1956). "Pentose phosphate isomerase and epimerase from animal tissues". The Biochemical ... the conversion of carbon dioxide and water into carbohydrates. RPIA is essential in the cycle, as Ru5P generated from R5P is ... RPIA converts Ru5P to R5P which then is converted by ribulose-phosphate 3-epimerase to xylulose-5-phosphate (figure 3). The end ...
... permethylated carbohydrate moiety as "nogalose", more recent data suggest that the nogalose moiety on nogalamycin is methylated ... 5-epimerase) snogH (2,3-dehydratase) snogN (unknown) snogI (aminotransferase) snogG (ketoreductase) snogC (ketoreductase) snogA ...
"The Development of Carbohydrate Chemistry and Biology". Carbohydrate Chemistry, Biology and Medical Applications: 1-28. doi: ... is a congenital disease resulted from altered function of UDP-GlcNAc epimerase . Macular corneal dystrophy: is a congenital ... Carbohydrate chemistry EamA Glycorandomization Glycosyltransferase Nucleotide sugars metabolism Derek Horton (2008). " ...
Other Inborn errors of carbohydrate metabolism. References[edit]. *^ Goppert F. (1917). "Galaktosurie nach Milchzuckergabe bei ... UDP galactose epimerase. galactose epimerase deficiency, UDP-Galactose-4-epimerase deficiency Normal metabolic pathway for ... Inborn error of carbohydrate metabolism: monosaccharide metabolism disorders (E73-E74, 271) Including glycogen storage diseases ... the accumulation of galactose becomes the substrate for enzymes that catalyze the polyol pathway of carbohydrate metabolism. ...
This enzyme belongs to the family of isomerases, specifically those racemases and epimerases acting on carbohydrates and ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is maltose 1-epimerase. Shirokane Y, Suzuki M (1995). "A novel enzyme, maltose 1- ... In enzymology, a maltose epimerase (EC 5.1.3.21) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction alpha-maltose ⇌ {\ ... epimerase from Lactobacillus brevis IFO 3345". FEBS Lett. 367 (2): 177-9. doi:10.1016/0014-5793(95)00524-D. PMID 7796915. ...
This enzyme belongs to the family of isomerases, specifically those racemases and epimerases acting on carbohydrates and their ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is cellobiose 2-epimerase. Enzymes like these can produce a more rapid syndrome that ... In enzymology a cellobiose epimerase (EC 5.1.3.11) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction cellobiose ⇌ {\ ...
This enzyme belongs to the isomerase family, specifically those racemases and epimerases which act on carbohydrates and their ... phosphoketopentose 3-epimerase, xylulose phosphate 3-epimerase, phosphoketopentose epimerase, ribulose 5-phosphate 3-epimerase ... Phosphopentose epimerase (also known as ribulose-phosphate 3-epimerase and ribulose 5-phosphate 3-epimerase)(EC 5.1.3.1) ... D-ribulose-5-P 3-epimerase, D-xylulose-5-phosphate 3-epimerase, and pentose-5-phosphate 3-epimerase. This enzyme participates ...
... is caused a lack of the enzyme uridine diphosphate galactose-4-epimerase which breaks down a byproduct of galactose. This type ... Carbohydrates account for a major portion of the human diet. These carbohydrates are composed of three principal ... Inborn errors of carbohydrate metabolism are inborn error of metabolism that affect the catabolism and anabolism of ... The metabolic pathway glycolysis is used by cells to break down carbohydrates like glucose (and various other simple sugars) in ...
This enzyme belongs to the family of isomerases, specifically those racemases and epimerases acting on carbohydrates and ... In enzymology, an aldose 1-epimerase (EC 5.1.3.3) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction alpha-D-glucose ⇌ {\ ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is aldose 1-epimerase. Other names in common use include mutarotase, and aldose ...
This enzyme belongs to the family of isomerases, specifically those racemases and epimerases acting on carbohydrates and ... Other names in common use include polyglucuronate 5-epimerase, dermatan-sulfate 5-epimerase, urunosyl C-5 epimerase, and ... Assay and properties of the uronosyl C-5 epimerase". Biochem. J. 201 (3): 489-93. doi:10.1042/bj2010489. PMC 1163673. PMID ... In enzymology, a chondroitin-glucuronate 5-epimerase (EC 5.1.3.19) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction ...
This enzyme belongs to the family of isomerases, specifically those racemases and epimerases acting on carbohydrates and ... Other names in common use include acylglucosamine 2-epimerase, and N-acetylglucosamine 2-epimerase. This enzyme participates in ... They show that the N-acylglucosamine 2-epimerase monomer folds as a barrel composed of α-helices, in a manner known as (α/α)6- ... In enzymology, a N-acylglucosamine 2-epimerase (EC 5.1.3.8) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction N-acyl-D- ...
... the 1970 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for his discovery of sugar nucleotides and their role in the biosynthesis of carbohydrates. ... The enzyme UDP-glucose 4-epimerase (EC 5.1.3.2), also known as UDP-galactose 4-epimerase or GALE, is a homodimeric epimerase ... GeneReviews/NCBI/NIH/UW entry on Epimerase Deficiency Galactosemia OMIM entries on Epimerase Deficiency Galactosemia ... Liu Y, Vanhooke JL, Frey PA (June 1996). "UDP-galactose 4-epimerase: NAD+ content and a charge-transfer band associated with ...
This enzyme belongs to the family of isomerases, specifically those racemases and epimerases acting on carbohydrates and ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is UDP-glucosamine 4-epimerase. MALEY F, MALEY GF (1959). "The enzymic conversion of ... In enzymology, an UDP-glucosamine 4-epimerase (EC 5.1.3.16) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction UDP-glucosamine ...
This enzyme belongs to the family of isomerases, specifically those racemases and epimerases acting on carbohydrates and ... cytidine diphosphodideoxyglucose epimerase, cytidine diphosphoparatose epimerase, and cytidine diphosphate paratose-2-epimerase ... It is also incorrectly known as CDP-abequose epimerase, and CDP-D-abequose 2-epimerase. This enzyme participates in starch and ... Other names in common use include CDP-paratose epimerase, cytidine diphosphoabequose epimerase, ...
This enzyme belongs to the family of isomerases, specifically those racemases and epimerases acting on carbohydrates and ... UDP-galacturonate 4-epimerase, uridine diphosphoglucuronate epimerase, and UDP-D-galacturonic acid 4-epimerase. This enzyme ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is UDP-glucuronate 4-epimerase. Other names in common use include uridine diphospho-D- ... galacturonic acid, UDP glucuronic epimerase, uridine diphosphoglucuronic epimerase, ...
This enzyme belongs to the family of isomerases, specifically those racemases and epimerases acting on carbohydrates and ... UDP arabinose epimerase, uridine 5'-diphosphate-D-xylose 4-epimerase, and UDP-D-xylose 4-epimerase. This enzyme participates in ... In enzymology, an UDP-arabinose 4-epimerase (EC 5.1.3.5) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction UDP-L-arabinose ⇌ {\ ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is UDP-L-arabinose 4-epimerase. Other names in common use include uridine ...
This enzyme belongs to the family of isomerases, specifically those racemases and epimerases acting on carbohydrates and ... Other names in common use include uridine diphosphoglucuronate 5'-epimerase, UDP-glucuronic acid 5'-epimerase, and C-5-uronosyl ... In enzymology, an UDP-glucuronate 5'-epimerase (EC 5.1.3.12) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction UDP-glucuronate ... I. Uridine diphosphate-D-glucuronic acid-5-epimerase". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 237 (3): 638-42. doi:10.1016/S0021- ...
This enzyme belongs to the family of isomerases, specifically those racemases and epimerases acting on carbohydrates and ... Other names in common use include UDP acetylglucosamine epimerase, uridine diphosphoacetylglucosamine epimerase, uridine ... In enzymology, an UDP-N-acetylglucosamine 4-epimerase (EC 5.1.3.7) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction UDP-N- ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is UDP-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine 4-epimerase. ...
This enzyme belongs to the family of isomerases, specifically those racemases and epimerases acting on carbohydrates and ... In enzymology, a glucose-6-phosphate 1-epimerase (EC 5.1.3.15) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction alpha-D- ... Wurster B, Hess B (1972). "Glucose-6-phosphate-1-epimerase from baker's yeast. A new enzyme". FEBS Lett. 23 (3): 341-344. doi: ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is D-glucose-6-phosphate 1-epimerase. This enzyme participates in glycolysis / ...
This enzyme belongs to the family of isomerases, specifically those racemases and epimerases acting on carbohydrates and ... epimerase, uridine diphospho-N-acetylglucosamine 2'-epimerase, and uridine diphosphate-N-acetylglucosamine-2'-epimerase. This ... The UDP-N-acetylglucosamine 2-epimerase from rat liver displays both epimerase and kinase activity. As of late 2007, 4 ... In microorganisms this epimerase is involved in the synthesis of the capsule precursor UDP-ManNAcA. An inhibitor of the ...
This enzyme belongs to the family of isomerases, specifically those racemases and epimerases acting on carbohydrates and ... In enzymology, an ADP-L-glycero-D-manno-heptose 6-epimerase (EC 5.1.3.20) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction ADP ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is ADP-L-glycero-D-manno-heptose 6-epimerase. This enzyme participates in ... "The Mechanism of the Reaction Catalyzed by ADP-β-L-glycero-D-manno-heptose 6-Epimerase". J. Am. Chem. Soc. 126 (29): 8878-9. ...
... specifically those racemases and epimerases acting on carbohydrates and derivatives. The systematic name of this enzyme class ... This also means that the GDP-mannose 3,5-epimerase has three reaction products, namely the main product GDP-L-galactose (C3,5- ... In enzymology, a GDP-mannose 3,5-epimerase (EC 5.1.3.18) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction GDP-mannose ⇌ {\ ... Other names in common use include GDP-D-mannose:GDP-L-galactose epimerase, guanosine 5'-diphosphate D-mannose:guanosine 5'- ...
It belongs to the family of isomerases, specifically those racemases and epimerases acting on carbohydrates and derivatives. ... Other names in common use include phosphoribulose isomerase, ribulose phosphate 4-epimerase, L-ribulose-phosphate 4-epimerase, ... In enzymology, a L-ribulose-5-phosphate 4-epimerase (EC 5.1.3.4) is an enzyme that catalyzes the interconversion of ribulose 5- ... Ribulose 5-phosphate 4-epimerase is found on the well studied L-arabinose operon. This operon consists of eight genes araA-araH ...
This enzyme belongs to the family of isomerases, specifically those racemases and epimerases acting on carbohydrates and ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is L-ribulose-5-phosphate 3-epimerase. Other names in common use include L-xylulose 5- ... In enzymology, a L-ribulose-5-phosphate 3-epimerase (EC 5.1.3.22) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction L-ribulose ... phosphate 3-epimerase, UlaE, and SgaU. This enzyme participates in ascorbate and aldarate metabolism. Yew WS, Gerlt JA (2002 ...
This enzyme belongs to the family of isomerases, specifically those racemases and epimerases acting on carbohydrates and ... Other names in common use include acylglucosamine-6-phosphate 2-epimerase, and acylglucosamine phosphate 2-epimerase. This ... In enzymology, a N-acylglucosamine-6-phosphate 2-epimerase (EC 5.1.3.9) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction N- ... N-Acyl--D-Glucosamine 6-Phosphate 2-Epimerase". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 240: 1525-30. doi:10.1016/S0021-9258(18) ...
This enzyme belongs to the family of isomerases, specifically those racemases and epimerases acting on carbohydrates and ... 5-epimerase, TDP-4-ketorhamnose 3,5-epimerase, dTDP-4-dehydro-6-deoxy-D-glucose 3,5-epimerase, and TDP-4-keto-L-rhamnose-3,5- ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is dTDP-4-dehydro-6-deoxy-D-glucose 3,5-epimerase. Other names in common use include ... In enzymology, a dTDP-4-dehydrorhamnose 3,5-epimerase (EC 5.1.3.13) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction dTDP-4- ...
Many ruminant animals form a large amount of 3-carbon propionate during the fermentation of carbohydrates in the rumen. Long- ... However, the D conformation is enzymatically converted into the L conformation by methylmalonyl-CoA epimerase, then it ... but instead use carbohydrates (red blood cells and neurons) or ketone bodies (neurons only). Because many fatty acids are not ...
The caloric value of allulose in humans is about 0.2 to 0.4 kcal/g, relative to about 4 kcal/g for typical carbohydrates. In ... Fructose can be converted to allulose by the enzyme D-tagatose 3-epimerase, which has allowed for mass production of allulose. ... Overall, compared to the carbohydrate-containing meal alone, the same meal with a small dose of added allulose resulted in a 10 ... Like sugar alcohols and dietary fiber, allulose will still count towards total carbohydrates on nutrition labels. This, ...
Metabolism: carbohydrate metabolism · fructose and galactose enzymes. Fructose. Hepatic fructokinase · Aldolase B · Triokinase ... Galactokinase · Galactose-1-phosphate uridylyltransferase/UDP galactose epimerase. Aldose reductase. Lactose. Lactose synthase ...
... epimerase (GALE) interconverts UDP-galactose and UDP-glucose, thereby completing the pathway.[13] ... a class of natural polymeric carbohydrates.[4] ... epimerase (GALE). In human lactation, glucose is changed into ...
Many eukaryotic proteins also have carbohydrate molecules attached to them in a process called glycosylation, which can promote ... of serine by protein-serine epimerase. *of alanine in dermorphin, a frog opioid peptide ...
UDPgalactose-4-epimerase deficiency. UDPgalactose-4-epimerase. Is extremely rare (only 2 reported cases). It causes nerve ... Carbohydrate metabolism. (carbohydrate catabolism. and anabolism). Human. *Glycolysis ⇄ Gluconeogenesis. *Glycogenolysis ⇄ ...
Next, C-5 uronyl epimerase coverts d-GlcA to l-IdoA followed by 2-O sulfation of the uronic acid sugar by 2-O sulfotransferase ... Similar to the production of HSGAGs, C-5 uronyl epimerase converts d-GlcA to l-IdoA to synthesize dermatan sulfate. Three ...
Carbohydrate metabolism. (carbohydrate catabolism. and anabolism). Human. *Glycolysis ⇄ Gluconeogenesis. *Glycogenolysis ⇄ ...
As opposed to fungal tyrosinase, human tyrosinase is a membrane-bound glycoprotein and has 13% carbohydrate content.[14] ...
CPS1 Carbohydrate-deficient glycoprotein syndrome, type Ib; 602579; MPI Carboxypeptidase N deficiency; 212070; CPN1 Carcinoid ... MMAB Methylmalonyl-CoA epimerase deficiency; 251120; MCEE Mevalonic aciduria; 610377; MVK MHC class II deficiency, ... GALK1 Galactose epimerase deficiency; 230350; GALE Galactosemia; 230400; GALT Galactosialidosis; 256540; CTSA Gallbladder ...
The carbohydrate products of the Calvin cycle are three-carbon sugar phosphate molecules, or "triose phosphates", namely, ... Xu5P is converted into RuP by phosphopentose epimerase. Finally, phosphoribulokinase (another plant-unique enzyme of the ... Surplus G3P can also be used to form other carbohydrates such as starch, sucrose, and cellulose, depending on what the plant ...
"Use of a cell-free system to determine UDP-N-acetylglucosamine 2-epimerase and N-acetylmannosamine kinase activities in human ... a major component of complex carbohydrates, from lysosomal degradation or nutritional sources into GlcNAc 6-phosphate. NAGK ...
... epimerase (GALE).[citation needed] In human lactation, glucose is changed into galactose via hexoneogenesis to enable the ... a class of natural polymeric carbohydrates. The word galactose was coined by Charles Weissman in the mid 19th century and is ... epimerase (GALE) interconverts UDP-galactose and UDP-glucose, thereby completing the pathway. Galactosemia is an inability to ...
EC 5.1.3 UDP-glucose 4-epimerase Category:EC 5.1.99 Methylmalonyl CoA epimerase Category:EC 5.2 FKBP: FKBP1A FKBP1B FKBP2 FKBP3 ... and complex carbohydrates to be turned into simple sugars that will be easier to absorb. Clinical Significance: Amylase also ...
Epimerisation is catalysed by one enzyme, the GlcA C5 epimerase or heparosan-N-sulfate-glucuronate 5-epimerase (EC 5.1.3.17). ... Heparan sulfate is a member of the glycosaminoglycan family of carbohydrates and is very closely related in structure to ... 2-O-sulfotransferase and C5-epimerases". Developmental Dynamics. 236 (2): 581-6. doi:10.1002/dvdy.21051. PMID 17195182. S2CID ... These enzymes consist of multiple glycosyltransferases, sulfotransferases and an epimerase. These same enzymes also synthesize ...
Enzymes that catalyze the epimerization of chiral centers within carbohydrates or their derivatives. EC 5.1.3. ... Carbohydrate Epimerases. Subscribe to New Research on Carbohydrate Epimerases Enzymes that catalyze the epimerization of chiral ... centers within carbohydrates or their derivatives. EC 5.1.3.. Also Known As: Epimerases, Carbohydrate; Isomerases, Carbohydrate ... Carbohydrate Epimerases*UDP acetylglucosamine-2-epimerase: 14. *UDPglucose 4-Epimerase: 8. *N-acyl-D-glucosamine 2-epimerase: 4 ...
... glucose epimerase in carbohydrate metabolism of Arabidopsis, The Plant Journal" on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service ... The role of UDP‐glucose epimerase in carbohydrate metabolism of Arabidopsis. The role of UDP‐glucose epimerase in carbohydrate ... The role of UDP‐glucose epimerase in carbohydrate metabolism of Arabidopsis. Dörmann, Peter; Benning, Christoph ... "The role of UDP‐glucose epimerase in carbohydrate metabolism of Arabidopsis." The Plant Journal 13.5 (1998): 641-652.. EndNote ...
Carbohydrate metabolism. Ligand. NAD. Enzyme and pathway databases. Reactome - a knowledgebase of biological pathways and ... Probable UDP-arabinose 4-epimerase 3 (UEL-3), Probable UDP-arabinose 4-epimerase 2 (UEL-2), Probable UDP-arabinose 4-epimerase ... Probable UDP-arabinose 4-epimerase 2Add BLAST. 391. Proteomic databases. PaxDb, a database of protein abundance averages across ... Belongs to the NAD(P)-dependent epimerase/dehydratase family.Curated. Keywords - Domaini. Signal-anchor, Transmembrane, ...
Carbohydrate metabolism. Ligand. Metal-binding, Zinc. Enzyme and pathway databases. UniPathway: a resource for the exploration ... L-ribulose-5-phosphate 4-epimerase UlaF (ulaF). This subpathway is part of the pathway L-ascorbate degradation, which is itself ... sp,B2TY70,ULAF_SHIB3 L-ribulose-5-phosphate 4-epimerase UlaF OS=Shigella boydii serotype 18 (strain CDC 3083-94 / BS512) OX= ... L-ribulose-5-phosphate 4-epimerase UlaFUniRule annotation. Manual assertion according to rulesi ...
acts_upstream_of_or_within carbohydrate metabolic process IEA Inferred from Electronic Annotation. more info ... L-ribulose-5-phosphate 4-epimerase AraD. Primary source. ASAP:ABE-0000209 Locus tag. b0061. See related. ECOCYC:EG10055 Gene ... Catalysis and binding in L-ribulose-5-phosphate 4-epimerase: a comparison with L-fuculose-1-phosphate aldolase. Samuel J, et al ... 13C and deuterium isotope effects suggest an aldol cleavage mechanism for L-ribulose-5-phosphate 4-epimerase. Lee LV, et al. ...
Carbohydrate Epimerases / metabolism * Carbohydrate Sequence * Fimbriae Proteins * Fimbriae, Bacterial / chemistry* * Membrane ... Pilins derived from galactose epimerase (galE) mutants lack the digalactosyl moiety, but retain the diacetamidotrideoxyhexose ... pili are glycosylated and provided the first structural evidence for the presence of covalently linked carbohydrate on pili. In ...
Carbohydrate Epimerases / isolation & purification Actions. * Search in PubMed * Search in MeSH * Add to Search ... Chemical and stereochemical actions of UDP-galactose 4-epimerase. Frey PA, Hegeman AD. Frey PA, et al. Acc Chem Res. 2013 Jul ... Insights into role of the hydrogen bond networks in substrate recognition by UDP-GalNAc 4-epimerases. Bhatt VS, Guan W, Xue M, ... UDP-galactose 4-epimerase activities toward UDP-Gal and UDP-GalNAc play different roles in the development of Drosophila ...
Furthermore, mutations in human genes encoding the glycosyltransferases, epimerases, and sulfotransferases responsible for the ... carbohydrate sulfotransferase 14; decorin; chondroitin sulfate; dermatan sulfate; dermatan sulfate epimerase; dermatan 4-O- ... Furthermore, mutations in human genes encoding the glycosyltransferases, epimerases, and sulfotransferases responsible for the ... Keywords: biglycan; carbohydrate sulfotransferase 14; decorin; chondroitin sulfate; dermatan sulfate; dermatan sulfate ...
0 (Bacterial Proteins); 0 (Polysaccharides, Bacterial); EC 5.1.3.- (Carbohydrate Epimerases). [Em] M s de entrada:. 1802. ... Carboidratos Epimerases/gen tica. Carboidratos Epimerases/metabolismo. Dom nio Catal tico. Cristalografia por Raios X. Seres ... Carboidratos Epimerases/qu mica. [Mh] Termos MeSH secund rio:. Acinetobacter baumannii/gen tica. Acinetobacter baumannii/ ... Crystal structure of a UDP-GlcNAc epimerase for surface polysaccharide biosynthesis in Acinetobacter baumannii.. ...
DR GO; GO:0004034; F:aldose 1-epimerase activity; IEA:UniProtKB-EC. DR GO; GO:0030246; F:carbohydrate binding; IEA:InterPro. DR ... DE SubName: Full=Aldose 1-epimerase {ECO:0000313,EMBL:PFG93790.1}; DE SubName: Full=Predicted aldose-1-epimerase {ECO:0000313, ... DR CDD; cd09022; Aldose_epim_Ec_YihR; 1. DR Gene3D; 2.70.98.10; -; 1. DR InterPro; IPR008183; Aldose_1/G6P_1-epimerase. DR ... GO; GO:0005975; P:carbohydrate metabolic process; IEA:InterPro. ...
Racemases and epimerases;. Acting on carbohydrates and derivatives. Sysname. CDP-3,6-dideoxy-D-glucose 2-epimerase. ... cytidine diphosphoparatose epimerase;. cytidine diphosphate paratose-2-epimerase;. CDP-abequose epimerase (incorrect);. CDP-D- ... CDP-paratose 2-epimerase;. CDP-paratose epimerase;. cytidine diphosphoabequose epimerase;. cytidine diphosphodideoxyglucose ...
Carbohydrate epimerases are enzymes that catalyze an inversion of stereochemistry at a stereogenic center in a sugar. This ... Carbohydrate epimerases are enzymes that catalyze an inversion of stereochemistry at a stereogenic center in a sugar. This ... Carbohydrates / chemistry*. Catalysis. Molecular Structure. Oxidation-Reduction. Racemases and Epimerases / chemistry*, ...
5.1 Racemases and epimerases. 5.1.3 Acting on carbohydrates and derivatives. 5.1.3.15 glucose-6-phosphate 1-epimerase. ... Carbohydrate metabolism. 00010 Glycolysis / Gluconeogenesis. Os08t0241600-01 (Os08g0241600). Enzymes [BR:dosa01000]. 5. ...
Carbohydrate metabolism; hexose metabolism.. * Sequence similarities. Belongs to the aldose epimerase family. ...
Epimerase; carbohydrate transport and metabolism. 401. 9e-113. YihR. GalM; gnl CDD 11725. Mutarotase; carbohydrate transport ... Hydrolase; carbohydrate transport and metabolism. 566. 2e-162. YihP. MelB, GPH family; gnl CDD 11918. Carbohydrate transport. ... Aldolase; carbohydrate transport and metabolism. 393. 1e-110. YihS. GlcNAc_2-epim, family; gnl CDD 12290. ...
This reaction is part of the pathway that allows the usage of sialic acid as a carbohydrate source [PMID: 10419949]. ... Putative N-acetylmannosamine-6-phosphate epimerase (IPR007260). Short name: NanE Overlapping homologous superfamilies *Ribulose ... This family represents a putative epimerase that converts N-acetylmannosamine-6-phosphate (ManNAc-6-P) to N-acetylglucosamine-6 ... Cloning, sequence, and transcriptional regulation of the operon encoding a putative N-acetylmannosamine-6-phosphate epimerase ( ...
... a carbohydrate esterase family 6 domain; (iii) a family 40 carbohydrate-binding module; (iv) two adjacent, fully duplicated, ... D-glucosamine 2-epimerase; and (iv) a N-acetylneuraminate epimerase/sodium:sialic acid symporter-fusion inner-membrane protein ... six carbohydrate binding modules containing proteins, and four carbohydrate esterases (Supplementary Table S2). ... T. maritimum has been reported to be unable to degrade most simple and more complex carbohydrates (Wakabayashi et al., 1986; ...
Kannagi R (1997) Carbohydrate-mediated cell adhesion involved in hematogenous metastasis of cancer. Glycoconj J 14:577-584 ... Chang S, Duerr B, Serif G (1988) An epimerase-reductase in L-fucose synthesis. J Biol Chem 263:1693-1697PubMedGoogle Scholar ... Nakayama K, Maeda Y, Jigami Y (2003) Interaction of GDP-4-keto-6-deoxymannose-3,5-epimerase-4-reductase with GDP-mannose-4,6- ... Thoden JB, Frey PA, Holden HM (1996) High-resolution X-ray structure of UDP-galactose 4-epimerase complexed with UDP-phenol. ...
Carbohydrate Epimerases · Cloning, Molecular · DNA, Bacterial · Genes, Bacterial · Lactobacillus · Magnetic Resonance ... Carbohydrate Epimerases, EC 5.1.3; DNA, Bacterial; Phosphotransferases, EC 2.7; Plasmids; Repressor Proteins; xylose isomerase ...
EC 5.1.3.2 (UDP-glucose 4-epimerase) inhibitor An EC 5.1.3.* (racemases acting on carbohydrates and derivatives) inhibitor that ... ebselen (CHEBI:77543) has role EC 5.1.3.2 (UDP-glucose 4-epimerase) inhibitor (CHEBI:78384) ebselen (CHEBI:77543) has role ... interferes with the action of UDP-glucose 4-epimerase (EC 5.1.3.2). ...
... carbohydrate metabolism; FT GO_process: GO:0006118 - electron transport" FT /db_xref="EnsemblGenomes-Gn:RHA1_ro11067" FT /db_ ... ribulose-phosphate 3-epimerase activity; GO_function: FT GO:0004789 - thiamin-phosphate diphosphorylase activity; FT GO_ ... carbohydrate metabolism; FT GO_process: GO:0006207 - de novo pyrimidine base FT biosynthesis; GO_process: GO:0009228 - ... carbohydrate metabolism; GO_process: FT GO:0006355 - regulation of transcription, DNA-dependent" FT /db_xref="EnsemblGenomes-Gn ...
A structural classification of carbohydrate epimerases: From mechanistic insights to practical applications.. *Stevie Van ...
It belongs to the family of isomerases, specifically those racemases and epimerases acting on carbohydrates and derivatives. ... Other names in common use include phosphoribulose isomerase, ribulose phosphate 4-epimerase, L-ribulose-phosphate 4-epimerase, ... In enzymology, a L-ribulose-5-phosphate 4-epimerase (EC 5.1.3.4) is an enzyme that catalyzes the interconversion of ribulose 5- ... Ribulose 5-phosphate 4-epimerase is found on the well studied L-arabinose operon. This operon consists of eight genes araA-araH ...
Carbohydrate metabolism; galactose metabolism.. * Involvement in disease. Defects in GALE are the cause of epimerase-deficiency ...
This enzyme belongs to the family of isomerases, specifically those racemases and epimerases acting on carbohydrates and ... Other names in common use include UDP acetylglucosamine epimerase, uridine diphosphoacetylglucosamine epimerase, uridine ... In enzymology, an UDP-N-acetylglucosamine 4-epimerase (EC 5.1.3.7) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction UDP-N- ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is UDP-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine 4-epimerase. ...
Carbohydrate disorders Galactosemia Etiology. caused by deficiency of galactose-1-phosphate uridyltransferase (GALT), which in ... Less common forms of galactosemia caused by galactokinase and epimerase deficiencies. Galactosemia Incidence. 1/30,000 - 1/ ...
Exhibits fucose binding activity and racemase and epimerase activity, acting on carbohydrates and derivatives. Involved in ...
... expression of most of the hundreds of carbohydrate catabolism genes is induced only when the corresponding carbohydrate is ... The carbohydrate transport systems operative in gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria are very similar and most likely ... The Bacillus subtilis genome encodes about 23 secondary and 11 ATP-binding cassette (ABC) carbohydrate transporters. The major ... facilitator superfamily (MFS) comprises eight B. subtilis proteins of unknown carbohydrate specificity exhibiting significant ...
It thus seems that the conserved xylose response is tailored to degrade complex carbohydrates such as hemicellulose, and xylose ... This also poses an explanation for the conserved induction of the multitude of sugar transporters, glucuronidase, epimerases, α ... indicating the presence of complex carbohydrates such as hemicellulose, and triggers an array of degrading enzymes. With this ...
  • Carbohydrate Uptake and Metabolism, p 129-150. (asmscience.org)
  • Little is known about the microbial diversity and its effect on carbohydrate metabolism in ripe fruits. (frontiersin.org)
  • In this study, we aimed to understand the diversity and function of microorganisms in relation to carbohydrate metabolism of ripe watermelon fruits. (frontiersin.org)
  • Results of this study underline the links between the host and fruit-associated microbiome in carbohydrate metabolism of the ripe fruits. (frontiersin.org)
  • Uridine diphosphategalactose (UDPgal) is a nucleoside diphosphate sugar which can be epimerized into UDPglucose for entry into the mainstream of carbohydrate metabolism. (hmdb.ca)
  • an autosomal-recessive inherited disorder of carbohydrate metabolism in which the enzyme galactokinase is deficient or absent. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Although glucose is the most common sugar, many other carbohydrate compounds are important in cell metabolism. (cliffsnotes.com)
  • SDR enzymes have critical roles in lipid, amino acid, carbohydrate, cofactor, hormone and xenobiotic metabolism as well as in redox sensor mechanisms. (diva-portal.org)
  • Bacterial carbohydrate metabolism is extremely diverse, since carbohydrates serve as a major energy source and are involved in a variety of cellular processes. (beds.ac.uk)
  • This study focuses on a large-scale analysis of bacterial genomic loci related to the carbohydrate metabolism. (beds.ac.uk)
  • We demonstrate that only 53% of 148,000 studied genes from over six hundred bacterial genomes are co-localized in bacterial genomes with other carbohydrate metabolism genes, which points to a significant role of singleton genes. (beds.ac.uk)
  • We have obtained a comprehensive picture of co-localization preferences of genes for nineteen major carbohydrate metabolism functional classes, over two hundred gene orthologous clusters, and thirty bacterial classes, and characterized the cassette variety in size and content among different species, highlighting a significant role of short cassettes. (beds.ac.uk)
  • The preference towards co-localization of carbohydrate metabolism genes varies between 40 and 76% for bacterial taxa. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Overall, we describe a complex web formed by evolutionary relationships of bacterial carbohydrate metabolism genes, manifested as co-localization patterns. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Bacterial carbohydrate metabolism is extremely diverse. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Galactosemia is an autosomal recessive inborn error of carbohydrate metabolism that results in the inability of the body to metabolize galactose into glucose. (lecturio.com)
  • Mutations in the MCEE gene causes methymalonyl-Coa epimerase deficiency (MCEED), [5] a rare autosomal recessive inborn error of metabolism in amino acid metabolisms involving branched-chain amino acids valine , leucine , and isoleucine . (wikidoc.org)
  • Taken together, the data show that the Ntr-PTS has an important role in maintaining K+ homeostasis and links K+ uptake to carbohydrate metabolism. (labome.org)
  • In hepatocytes, there are glucose-sensitive signaling pathways that are activated by … The purpose of this chapter is not to give a comprehensive overview of all aspects of fat and carbohydrate metabolism but to focus on glucose intolerance, its possible causes and the possible relationship with changes in fat metabolism. (okahidetoshi.com)
  • The outlines of major pathways/cycles of carbohydrate metabolism are described: Cycle # 1. (okahidetoshi.com)
  • A. Mortiaux and A. M. Dawson, Plasma free fatty acid in liver disease, K. G. M. M. Alberti and D. G. Johnston, Carbohydrate Metabolism in Liver Disease, H. Ring-Larsen, B. Hesse, J. H. Henriksen,and N. J. Christensen, Sympathetic nervous activity and renal and systemic hemodynamics in cirrhosis: Plasma norepinephrine concentration, hepatic extraction and renal release. (okahidetoshi.com)
  • Significant genes were regulatory including the NAC transcription factor, or they were involved in carbohydrate metabolism, falling into the binding, catalytic or transporter activity functional classes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Furthermore, mutations in human genes encoding the glycosyltransferases, epimerases, and sulfotransferases responsible for the biosynthesis of DS chains cause connective tissue disorders including Ehlers-Danlos syndrome and spondyloepimetaphyseal dysplasia with joint laxity characterized by skin hyperextensibility, joint hypermobility, and tissue fragility, and by severe skeletal disorders such as kyphoscoliosis, short trunk, dislocation, and joint laxity. (mdpi.com)
  • This operon consists of eight genes araA-araH with the gene for Ribulose 5-phosphate 4-epimerase called araD. (wikipedia.org)
  • To conserve cellular resources, expression of most of the hundreds of carbohydrate catabolism genes is induced only when the corresponding carbohydrate is present in the growth medium. (asmscience.org)
  • We studied the activities in vitro of both epimerases and also in vivo through the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) structure of A. hydrophila gne mutants, A. hydrophila galE mutants, A. hydrophila galE-gne double mutants, and independently complemented mutants with both genes. (asm.org)
  • 2] "Carbohydrate utilization in Streptococcus thermophilus: characterization of the genes for aldose 1-epimerase (mutarotase) and UDPglucose 4-epimerase. (tcdb.org)
  • Based on these observations, we examined mutations in seven NTHI strain 2019 genes involved in carbohydrate and lipooligosaccharide biosynthesis. (asm.org)
  • NTHI strain 2019 with mutations in genes encoding phosphoglucomutase ( pgm ), UDP-galactose-4-epimerase, and two other NTHI sialyltransferases ( lic3A and lsgB ) produced biofilms that were equivalent to or larger than the biofilms produced by the parent strain. (asm.org)
  • Carbohydrates mediate their conversion to triglycerides in the liver by promoting both rapid posttranslational activation of rate-limiting glycolytic and lipogenic enzymes and transcriptional induction of the genes encoding many of these same enzymes. (okahidetoshi.com)
  • racemases acting on carbohydrates and derivatives) inhibitor that interferes with the action of UDP-glucose 4-epimerase (EC 5.1.3.2). (ebi.ac.uk)
  • It belongs to the family of isomerases, specifically those racemases and epimerases acting on carbohydrates and derivatives. (wikipedia.org)
  • As a result, many racemases and epimerases have evolved that catalyze the inversion of configuration about carbon. (ubc.ca)
  • In contrast to bacteria and yeast, expression of the UDP‐Glc epimerase gene in Arabidopsis was found not to be induced by galactose. (deepdyve.com)
  • Bonin CP, Reiter WD (2000) A bifunctional epimerase-reductase acts downstream of the MUR1 gene product and completes the de novo synthesis of GDP-L-fucose in Arabidopsis. (springer.com)
  • The composition of the conserved gene-set suggests that xylose acts as a molecule, indicating the presence of complex carbohydrates such as hemicellulose, and triggers an array of degrading enzymes. (pnas.org)
  • Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include carbohydrate binding and aldose 1-epimerase activity . (genecards.org)
  • A single mutation in a gene that codes for UDP N -acetylgalactosamine 4-epimerase ( gne ) renders a strain with the O − phenotype (LPS without O-antigen molecules) in serotype O34 ( 9 ). (asm.org)
  • We also present genetic and biochemical evidence showing that the gene previously called galE encodes a UDP-N-acetylglucosamine-4-epimerase (EC 5.1.3.7) required for the biosynthesis of the first sugar of the O-unit. (abo.fi)
  • In this study, the heparin C5 epimerase gene Glce from zebrafish was expressed and molecularly modified in Escherichia coli. (bvsalud.org)
  • Methylmalonyl CoA epimerase ( EC 5.1.99.1 , methylmalonyl-CoA racemase , methylmalonyl coenzyme A racemase , DL-methylmalonyl-CoA racemase , 2-methyl-3-oxopropanoyl-CoA 2-epimerase [incorrect] ) is an enzyme involved in fatty acid catabolism that is encoded in human by the "MCEE" gene located on chromosome 2 . (wikidoc.org)
  • An important gene associated with Generalized Galactose Epimerase Deficiency is GALE (UDP-Galactose-4-Epimerase). (malacards.org)
  • Other names in common use include phosphoribulose isomerase, ribulose phosphate 4-epimerase, L-ribulose-phosphate 4-epimerase, L-ribulose 5-phosphate 4-epimerase, AraD, and L-Ru5P. (wikipedia.org)
  • Also known as L-ribulose-5-phosphate 4-epimerase (Phosphoribulose isomerase). (mybiosource.com)
  • Dual-enzyme coupled reaction system was constructed using D-psicose-3-epimerase (DPE) and L-rhamnose isomerase (L-RhI), and used to convert D-fructose to D-psicose and D-allose. (bvsalud.org)
  • To obtain D-allose, the microorganisms deriving D-psicose 3-epimerase (DPE) and L-rhamnose isomerase (L-RhI) have drawn intense attention. (bvsalud.org)
  • Enzymes that catalyze the epimerization of chiral centers within carbohydrates or their derivatives. (curehunter.com)
  • Carbohydrate epimerases are enzymes that catalyze an inversion of stereochemistry at a stereogenic center in a sugar. (biomedsearch.com)
  • This is consistent with the notion that both enzymes belong to a superfamily of epimerases/aldolases that catalyze carbon-carbon bond cleavage reactions via a metal-stabilized enolate intermediate. (wikipedia.org)
  • L-Ribulose-5-phosphate 4-epimerase and L-fuculose-1-phosphate (L-Fuc1P) aldolase are evolutionarily related enzymes that display 26% sequence identity and a very high degree of structural similarity. (wikipedia.org)
  • A correlation between activities of the enzymes -phosphoglucomutase, UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase, and UDP-galactose 4-epimerase and EPS yields was seen. (hud.ac.uk)
  • Galactokinase Deficiency, also known as galk deficiency , is related to galactosemia and galactose epimerase deficiency . (malacards.org)
  • Galactosemia caused by generalized uridine diphosphate galactose-4-epimerase deficiency. (malacards.org)
  • Journal Article] Specific enzyme complex of beta-1,4-galactosyltransferase-II and glucuronyltransferase-P facilitates biosynthesis of N-linked human natural killer-1 (HNK-1) carbohydrate. (nii.ac.jp)
  • One example is ADP-heptose 6-epimerase that generates a key building block in bacterial lipopolysaccharide biosynthesis. (ubc.ca)
  • Modification and expression optimization of heparin C5 epimerase has laid the foundation for heparin enzymatic catalytic biosynthesis. (bvsalud.org)
  • This family represents a putative epimerase that converts N-acetylmannosamine-6-phosphate (ManNAc-6-P) to N-acetylglucosamine-6-phosphate (GlcNAc-6P) in the N-acetylmannosamine utilization pathway, found mainly in pathogenic bacteria. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • This reaction is part of the pathway that allows the usage of sialic acid as a carbohydrate source [ PMID: 10419949 ]. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • In enzymology, a L-ribulose-5-phosphate 4-epimerase (EC 5.1.3.4) is an enzyme that catalyzes the interconversion of ribulose 5-phosphate and xylulose 5-phosphate in the oxidative phase of the Pentose phosphate pathway. (wikipedia.org)
  • Benning, Christoph 1998-03-01 00:00:00 Uridine 5′‐diphospho‐glucose‐4‐epimerase (UDP‐Glc epimerase) catalyses the reversible epimerization of UDP‐galactose and UDP‐glucose. (deepdyve.com)
  • Uridine 5′‐diphospho‐glucose‐4‐epimerase (UDP‐Glc epimerase) catalyses the reversible epimerization of UDP‐galactose and UDP‐glucose. (deepdyve.com)
  • One of these, designated wbgU (orf3), has been overexpressed and biochemically characterized to show that it encodes a uridine diphosphate-N-acetylglucosamine (UDP-GlcNAc) C4 epimerase, only the second microbial enzyme characterized to have this activity. (nih.gov)
  • Other names in common use include UDP acetylglucosamine epimerase, uridine diphosphoacetylglucosamine epimerase, uridine diphosphate N-acetylglucosamine-4-epimerase, and uridine 5'-diphospho-N-acetylglucosamine-4-epimerase. (wikipedia.org)
  • UDPgal is a product of the galactose-l-phosphate uridyl transferase (EC 2.7.7.10) reaction but may also be made from Glucose-l-P, involving uridine diphosphate galactose-4-epimerase (EC 5.1.3.2). (hmdb.ca)
  • Uridine(5′)diphospho(1)α-d-galactose (UDP-gal) provides all galactosyl units in biologically synthesized carbohydrates. (elsevier.com)
  • All healthy cells produce UDP-gal from uridine(5′)diphospho(1)α-d-glucose (UDP-glc) by the action of UDP-galactose 4-epimerase (GalE). (elsevier.com)
  • Exhibits fucose binding activity and racemase and epimerase activity, acting on carbohydrates and derivatives. (jax.org)
  • In recent years, carbohydrate epimerases have attracted increasing attention as promising biocatalysts for the production of specialty sugars and derivatives. (biotechmag.xyz)
  • Cloning, sequence, and transcriptional regulation of the operon encoding a putative N-acetylmannosamine-6-phosphate epimerase (nanE) and sialic acid lyase (nanA) in Clostridium perfringens. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • First, the retro-aldol cleavage mechanism is analogous to the reaction catalyzed by L-fuculose-phosphate aldolase which has high levels of sequence similarity with L-ribulose-5-phosphate 4-epimerase. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pilins derived from galactose epimerase (galE) mutants lack the digalactosyl moiety, but retain the diacetamidotrideoxyhexose substitution. (nih.gov)
  • The mesophilic Aeromonas hydrophila AH-3 (serotype O34) strain shows two different UDP-hexose epimerases in its genome: GalE (EC 3.1.5.2) and Gne (EC 3.1.5.7). (asm.org)
  • GalE shows only UDP-galactose 4-epimerase activity, while Gne is able to perform a dual activity (mainly UDP- N -acetyl galactosamine 4-epimerase and also UDP-galactose 4-epimerase). (asm.org)
  • Gne also has some UDP-glucose-4-epimerase (EC 5.1.3.2) activity, as it restores the core production of an Escherichia coli K-12 galE mutant. (abo.fi)
  • The Gne Leu136Tyr and Cys297Tyr variants completely lost the UDP-N-acetylglucosamine-4-epimerase activity while retaining the ability to complement the LPS phenotype of the E. coli galE mutant. (abo.fi)
  • In enzymology, an UDP-N-acetylglucosamine 4-epimerase (EC 5.1.3.7) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction UDP-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine ⇌ {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } UDP-N-acetyl-D-galactosamine Hence, this enzyme has one substrate, UDP-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine, and one product, UDP-N-acetyl-D-galactosamine. (wikipedia.org)
  • In enzymology, an aldose 1-epimerase (EC 5.1.3.3) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction:alpha-D-glucose↔ beta-D-glucose. (creative-enzymes.com)
  • The structure of L-ribulose-5-phosphate 4-epimerase: an aldolase-like platform for epimerization. (nih.gov)
  • Mechanistic aspects of enzymatic carbohydrate epimerization. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Mechanism of ribulose 5-phosphate 4-epimerase in active site Aldol and dehydration mechanisms L-Ribulose 5-phosphate 4-epimerase catalyzes the epimerization of L-ribulose 5-phosphate to D-xylulose 5-phosphate by retro-aldol cleavage and subsequent aldol reaction. (wikipedia.org)
  • The amount of galactose in the cell wall was increased in plants with low UDP‐Glc epimerase activity grown on galactose, whereas the cellulose content in the leaves was not altered. (deepdyve.com)
  • Furthermore, starch determined at different times of the day was highly abundant in plants with low UDP‐Glc epimerase activity in the presence of galactose. (deepdyve.com)
  • It is proposed that low endogenous UDP‐Glc epimerase activity is responsible for the galactose toxicity of the wild‐type. (deepdyve.com)
  • Further, it was demonstrated that the activity of the precursor-producing enzyme UDP-N-acetylglucosamine 4-epimerase, converting UDP-N-acetylglucosamine into UDP-N-acetylgalactosamine, is responsible for the presence of N-acetylgalactosamine in the EPS repeating units of both strains. (hud.ac.uk)
  • The activity of UDP-N-acetylglucosamine 4-epimerase was higher in both S. thermophilus strains than in a non-EPS-producing control strain. (hud.ac.uk)
  • However, the level of this activity was not correlated with EPS yields, a result independent of the carbohydrate source applied in the fermentation process. (hud.ac.uk)
  • This type of intercellular communication can restore the activity of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptors in mammalian cells that are deficient in the enzyme UDP-Gal/UDP-GalNAc 4-epimerase. (sciencemag.org)
  • Pure cultures of the 4-epimerase mutant are unable to synthesize normal carbohydrate chains on LDL receptors and many other glycoproteins and therefore do not express LDL receptor activity. (sciencemag.org)
  • When these cells are cocultivated with cells expressing normal 4-epimerase activity, the structure and function of LDL receptors are restored to normal by the transfer of this enzyme's products through intercellular junctions. (sciencemag.org)
  • L-Arabinose-sensitive, L-ribulose 5-phosphate 4-epimerase-deficient mutants of Escherichia coli. (nih.gov)
  • Alterations in glycogen synthesis were observed for the sakA and mpkC deletion mutants, which also displayed alterations in carbohydrate exposure on the cell wall. (asm.org)
  • araD L-ribulose-5-phosphate 4-epimerase AraD [Escherichia coli str. (nih.gov)
  • Studies on both the epimerase and the synthase are currently ongoing in the lab. (ubc.ca)
  • The plant NRS/ER (nucleotide-rhamnose synthase/epimerase-reductase), on the other hand, evolved much later from the ancient plant RHMs through losing the N-terminal domain. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The Azotobacter vinelandii AlgE mannuronan C-5-epimerase family is essential for the in vivo control of alginate monomer composition and for functi. (growkudos.com)
  • Pseudomonas aeruginosa AlgG is a polymer level alginate C5-mannuronan epimerase. (naver.com)
  • A structural classification of carbohydrate epimerases: From mechanistic insights to practical applications. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The major facilitator superfamily (MFS) comprises eight B. subtilis proteins of unknown carbohydrate specificity exhibiting significant similarity to the GalP/XylE subfamily. (asmscience.org)
  • Methylmalonyl CoA epimerase plays an important role in the catabolism of fatty acids with odd-length carbon chains. (wikidoc.org)
  • Catalysis and binding in L-ribulose-5-phosphate 4-epimerase: a comparison with L-fuculose-1-phosphate aldolase. (nih.gov)
  • The conservation of this element and an active site, often with an Asn-Ser-Tyr-Lys tetrad, provides a platform for enzymatic activities encompassing several EC classes, including oxidoreductases, epimerases and lyases. (diva-portal.org)
  • Upon cell wall stress, cell wall-related sugars need to be synthesized from carbohydrate storage compounds. (asm.org)
  • These studies have confirmed our previous observations that meningococcal pili are glycosylated and provided the first structural evidence for the presence of covalently linked carbohydrate on pili. (nih.gov)
  • Nogalamycin, an aromatic polyketide displaying high cytotoxicity, has a unique structure, with one of the carbohydrate units covalently attached to the aglycone via an additional carbon-carbon bond. (pnas.org)
  • To elucidate the metabolic role of this enzyme, transgenic Arabidopsis plants expressing the respective cDNA in sense or antisense orientation were constructed, leading to a range of plant lines with different UDP‐Glc epimerase activities. (deepdyve.com)
  • 13C and deuterium isotope effects suggest an aldol cleavage mechanism for L-ribulose-5-phosphate 4-epimerase. (nih.gov)
  • a) Galactokinase (b) Glucokinase (c) Galactose-1-Phosphate Uridyltransferase (d) UDP-Galactose 4- epimerase. (okahidetoshi.com)