Reversibly catalyze the oxidation of a hydroxyl group of carbohydrates to form a keto sugar, aldehyde or lactone. Any acceptor except molecular oxygen is permitted. Includes EC 1.1.1.; EC 1.1.2.; and 1.1.99.
The largest class of organic compounds, including STARCH; GLYCOGEN; CELLULOSE; POLYSACCHARIDES; and simple MONOSACCHARIDES. Carbohydrates are composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a ratio of Cn(H2O)n.
Cellular processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of CARBOHYDRATES.
Carbohydrates present in food comprising digestible sugars and starches and indigestible cellulose and other dietary fibers. The former are the major source of energy. The sugars are in beet and cane sugar, fruits, honey, sweet corn, corn syrup, milk and milk products, etc.; the starches are in cereal grains, legumes (FABACEAE), tubers, etc. (From Claudio & Lagua, Nutrition and Diet Therapy Dictionary, 3d ed, p32, p277)
A tetrameric enzyme that, along with the coenzyme NAD+, catalyzes the interconversion of LACTATE and PYRUVATE. In vertebrates, genes for three different subunits (LDH-A, LDH-B and LDH-C) exist.
A zinc-containing enzyme which oxidizes primary and secondary alcohols or hemiacetals in the presence of NAD. In alcoholic fermentation, it catalyzes the final step of reducing an aldehyde to an alcohol in the presence of NADH and hydrogen.
Enzymes that catalyze the dehydrogenation of GLYCERALDEHYDE 3-PHOSPHATE. Several types of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate-dehydrogenase exist including phosphorylating and non-phosphorylating varieties and ones that transfer hydrogen to NADP and ones that transfer hydrogen to NAD.
An enzyme that oxidizes an aldehyde in the presence of NAD+ and water to an acid and NADH. This enzyme was formerly classified as EC
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of (S)-malate and NAD+ to oxaloacetate and NADH. EC
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-glutamate and water to 2-oxoglutarate and NH3 in the presence of NAD+. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC
An enzyme of the oxidoreductase class that catalyzes the conversion of isocitrate and NAD+ to yield 2-ketoglutarate, carbon dioxide, and NADH. It occurs in cell mitochondria. The enzyme requires Mg2+, Mn2+; it is activated by ADP, citrate, and Ca2+, and inhibited by NADH, NADPH, and ATP. The reaction is the key rate-limiting step of the citric acid (tricarboxylic) cycle. (From Dorland, 27th ed) (The NADP+ enzyme is EC EC
A subclass of enzymes which includes all dehydrogenases acting on primary and secondary alcohols as well as hemiacetals. They are further classified according to the acceptor which can be NAD+ or NADP+ (subclass 1.1.1), cytochrome (1.1.2), oxygen (1.1.3), quinone (1.1.5), or another acceptor (1.1.99).
A flavoprotein containing oxidoreductase that catalyzes the reduction of lipoamide by NADH to yield dihydrolipoamide and NAD+. The enzyme is a component of several MULTIENZYME COMPLEXES.
A flavoprotein containing oxidoreductase that catalyzes the dehydrogenation of SUCCINATE to fumarate. In most eukaryotic organisms this enzyme is a component of mitochondrial electron transport complex II.
An alcohol oxidoreductase which catalyzes the oxidation of L-iditol to L-sorbose in the presence of NAD. It also acts on D-glucitol to form D-fructose. It also acts on other closely related sugar alcohols to form the corresponding sugar. EC
The sequence of carbohydrates within POLYSACCHARIDES; GLYCOPROTEINS; and GLYCOLIPIDS.
A coenzyme composed of ribosylnicotinamide 5'-diphosphate coupled to adenosine 5'-phosphate by pyrophosphate linkage. It is found widely in nature and is involved in numerous enzymatic reactions in which it serves as an electron carrier by being alternately oxidized (NAD+) and reduced (NADH). (Dorland, 27th ed)
A glucose dehydrogenase that catalyzes the oxidation of beta-D-glucose to form D-glucono-1,5-lactone, using NAD as well as NADP as a coenzyme.
Enzymes of the oxidoreductase class that catalyze the dehydrogenation of hydroxysteroids. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 1.1.-.
Oxidoreductases that are specific for ALDEHYDES.
An enzyme of the oxidoreductase class that catalyzes the reaction 6-phospho-D-gluconate and NADP+ to yield D-ribulose 5-phosphate, carbon dioxide, and NADPH. The reaction is a step in the pentose phosphate pathway of glucose metabolism. (From Dorland, 27th ed) EC
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a carbohydrate.
Reversibly catalyzes the oxidation of a hydroxyl group of sugar alcohols to form a keto sugar, aldehyde or lactone. Any acceptor except molecular oxygen is permitted. Includes EC 1.1.1.; EC 1.1.2. and EC 1.1.99.
D-Glucose:1-oxidoreductases. Catalyzes the oxidation of D-glucose to D-glucono-gamma-lactone and reduced acceptor. Any acceptor except molecular oxygen is permitted. Includes EC; EC; EC and EC
Catalyze the oxidation of 3-hydroxysteroids to 3-ketosteroids.
Enzymes that catalyze the first step in the beta-oxidation of FATTY ACIDS.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A flavoprotein and iron sulfur-containing oxidoreductase that catalyzes the oxidation of NADH to NAD. In eukaryotes the enzyme can be found as a component of mitochondrial electron transport complex I. Under experimental conditions the enzyme can use CYTOCHROME C GROUP as the reducing cofactor. The enzyme was formerly listed as EC
An enzyme that catalyzes the dehydrogenation of inosine 5'-phosphate to xanthosine 5'-phosphate in the presence of NAD. EC
Alcohol oxidoreductases with substrate specificity for LACTIC ACID.
Flavoproteins that catalyze reversibly the reduction of carbon dioxide to formate. Many compounds can act as acceptors, but the only physiologically active acceptor is NAD. The enzymes are active in the fermentation of sugars and other compounds to carbon dioxide and are the key enzymes in obtaining energy when bacteria are grown on formate as the main carbon source. They have been purified from bovine blood. EC
A flavoprotein oxidoreductase that has specificity for medium-chain fatty acids. It forms a complex with ELECTRON TRANSFERRING FLAVOPROTEINS and conveys reducing equivalents to UBIQUINONE.
A class of enzymes that catalyzes the oxidation of 17-hydroxysteroids to 17-ketosteroids. EC 1.1.-.
An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of XANTHINE in the presence of NAD+ to form URIC ACID and NADH. It acts also on a variety of other purines and aldehydes.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
A ketone oxidoreductase that catalyzes the overall conversion of alpha-keto acids to ACYL-CoA and CO2. The enzyme requires THIAMINE DIPHOSPHATE as a cofactor. Defects in genes that code for subunits of the enzyme are a cause of MAPLE SYRUP URINE DISEASE. The enzyme was formerly classified as EC
Enzymes that reversibly catalyze the oxidation of a 3-hydroxyacyl CoA to 3-ketoacyl CoA in the presence of NAD. They are key enzymes in the oxidation of fatty acids and in mitochondrial fatty acid synthesis.
The E1 component of the multienzyme PYRUVATE DEHYDROGENASE COMPLEX. It is composed of 2 alpha subunits (pyruvate dehydrogenase E1 alpha subunit) and 2 beta subunits (pyruvate dehydrogenase E1 beta subunit).
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The class of all enzymes catalyzing oxidoreduction reactions. The substrate that is oxidized is regarded as a hydrogen donor. The systematic name is based on donor:acceptor oxidoreductase. The recommended name will be dehydrogenase, wherever this is possible; as an alternative, reductase can be used. Oxidase is only used in cases where O2 is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p9)
Oxidoreductases that are specific for KETONES.
Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases that catalyzes the reversible conversion of CORTISOL to the inactive metabolite CORTISONE. Enzymes in this class can utilize either NAD or NADP as cofactors.
Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate. A coenzyme composed of ribosylnicotinamide 5'-phosphate (NMN) coupled by pyrophosphate linkage to the 5'-phosphate adenosine 2',5'-bisphosphate. It serves as an electron carrier in a number of reactions, being alternately oxidized (NADP+) and reduced (NADPH). (Dorland, 27th ed)
An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of UDPglucose to UDPglucuronate in the presence of NAD+. EC
An oxidoreductase involved in pyrimidine base degradation. It catalyzes the catabolism of THYMINE; URACIL and the chemotherapeutic drug, 5-FLUOROURACIL.
A disease-producing enzyme deficiency subject to many variants, some of which cause a deficiency of GLUCOSE-6-PHOSPHATE DEHYDROGENASE activity in erythrocytes, leading to hemolytic anemia.
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
Sugar alcohol dehydrogenases that have specificity for MANNITOL. Enzymes in this category are generally classified according to their preference for a specific reducing cofactor.
A low-affinity 11 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase found in a variety of tissues, most notably in LIVER; LUNG; ADIPOSE TISSUE; vascular tissue; OVARY; and the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. The enzyme acts reversibly and can use either NAD or NADP as cofactors.
An NAD-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the reversible DEAMINATION of L-ALANINE to PYRUVATE and AMMONIA. The enzyme is needed for growth when ALANINE is the sole CARBON or NITROGEN source. It may also play a role in CELL WALL synthesis because L-ALANINE is an important constituent of the PEPTIDOGLYCAN layer.
A 3-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase which catalyzes the reversible reduction of the active androgen, DIHYDROTESTOSTERONE to 5 ALPHA-ANDROSTANE-3 ALPHA,17 BETA-DIOL. It also has activity towards other 3-alpha-hydroxysteroids and on 9-, 11- and 15- hydroxyprostaglandins. The enzyme is B-specific in reference to the orientation of reduced NAD or NADPH.
A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.
Catalyzes reversibly the oxidation of hydroxyl groups of prostaglandins.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
A flavoprotein oxidoreductase that has specificity for short-chain fatty acids. It forms a complex with ELECTRON-TRANSFERRING FLAVOPROTEINS and conveys reducing equivalents to UBIQUINONE.
A metalloflavoprotein enzyme involved the metabolism of VITAMIN A, this enzyme catalyzes the oxidation of RETINAL to RETINOIC ACID, using both NAD+ and FAD coenzymes. It also acts on both the 11-trans- and 13-cis-forms of RETINAL.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
A group of enzymes that catalyze the reversible reduction-oxidation reaction of 20-hydroxysteroids, such as from a 20-ketosteroid to a 20-alpha-hydroxysteroid (EC or to a 20-beta-hydroxysteroid (EC
Carbohydrates consisting of between two (DISACCHARIDES) and ten MONOSACCHARIDES connected by either an alpha- or beta-glycosidic link. They are found throughout nature in both the free and bound form.
An high-affinity, NAD-dependent 11-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase that acts unidirectionally to catalyze the dehydrogenation of CORTISOL to CORTISONE. It is found predominantly in mineralocorticoid target tissues such as the KIDNEY; COLON; SWEAT GLANDS; and the PLACENTA. Absence of the enzyme leads to a fatal form of childhood hypertension termed, APPARENT MINERALOCORTICOID EXCESS SYNDROME.
Carbohydrate antigens expressed by malignant tissue. They are useful as tumor markers and are measured in the serum by means of a radioimmunoassay employing monoclonal antibodies.
A flavoprotein oxidoreductase that has specificity for long-chain fatty acids. It forms a complex with ELECTRON-TRANSFERRING FLAVOPROTEINS and conveys reducing equivalents to UBIQUINONE.
Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.
An enzyme that catalyzes the reduction of aspartic beta-semialdehyde to homoserine, which is the branch point in biosynthesis of methionine, lysine, threonine and leucine from aspartic acid. EC
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
Any of a group of polysaccharides of the general formula (C6-H10-O5)n, composed of a long-chain polymer of glucose in the form of amylose and amylopectin. It is the chief storage form of energy reserve (carbohydrates) in plants.
A mitochondrial flavoprotein, this enzyme catalyzes the oxidation of 3-methylbutanoyl-CoA to 3-methylbut-2-enoyl-CoA using FAD as a cofactor. Defects in the enzyme, is associated with isovaleric acidemia (IVA).
An NAD+ dependent enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of 3-carboxy-2-hydroxy-4-methylpentanoate to 3-carboxy-4-methyl-2-oxopentanoate. It is involved in the biosynthesis of VALINE; LEUCINE; and ISOLEUCINE.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Proteins that share the common characteristic of binding to carbohydrates. Some ANTIBODIES and carbohydrate-metabolizing proteins (ENZYMES) also bind to carbohydrates, however they are not considered lectins. PLANT LECTINS are carbohydrate-binding proteins that have been primarily identified by their hemagglutinating activity (HEMAGGLUTININS). However, a variety of lectins occur in animal species where they serve diverse array of functions through specific carbohydrate recognition.
(Pyruvate dehydrogenase (lipoamide))-phosphate phosphohydrolase. A mitochondrial enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolytic removal of a phosphate on a specific seryl hydroxyl group of pyruvate dehydrogenase, reactivating the enzyme complex. EC
An octameric enzyme belonging to the superfamily of amino acid dehydrogenases. Leucine dehydrogenase catalyzes the reversible oxidative deamination of L-LEUCINE, to 4-methyl-2-oxopentanoate (2-ketoisocaproate) and AMMONIA, with the corresponding reduction of the cofactor NAD+.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of 3-phosphoglycerate to 3-phosphohydroxypyruvate. It takes part in the L-SERINE biosynthesis pathway.
Enzymes that catalyze the oxidation of estradiol at the 17-hydroxyl group in the presence of NAD+ or NADP+ to yield estrone and NADH or NADPH. The 17-hydroxyl group can be in the alpha- or beta-configuration. EC
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
Systems of enzymes which function sequentially by catalyzing consecutive reactions linked by common metabolic intermediates. They may involve simply a transfer of water molecules or hydrogen atoms and may be associated with large supramolecular structures such as MITOCHONDRIA or RIBOSOMES.
An enzyme that plays a role in the GLUTAMATE and butanoate metabolism pathways by catalyzing the oxidation of succinate semialdehyde to SUCCINATE using NAD+ as a coenzyme. Deficiency of this enzyme, causes 4-hydroxybutyricaciduria, a rare inborn error in the metabolism of the neurotransmitter 4-aminobutyric acid (GABA).
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
An NAD-dependent glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase found in the cytosol of eucaryotes. It catalyses the dehydrogenation and phosphorylation of GLYCERALDEHYDE 3-PHOSPHATE to 3-phospho-D-glyceroyl phosphate, which is an important step in the GLYCOLYSIS pathway.
Simple sugars, carbohydrates which cannot be decomposed by hydrolysis. They are colorless crystalline substances with a sweet taste and have the same general formula CnH2nOn. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
A subclass of enzymes which includes all dehydrogenases acting on carbon-carbon bonds. This enzyme group includes all the enzymes that introduce double bonds into substrates by direct dehydrogenation of carbon-carbon single bonds.
Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of prephenate to p-hydroxyphenylpyruvate in the presence of NAD. In the enteric bacteria, this enzyme also possesses chorismate mutase activity, thereby catalyzing the first two steps in the biosynthesis of tyrosine. EC
The chemical or biochemical addition of carbohydrate or glycosyl groups to other chemicals, especially peptides or proteins. Glycosyl transferases are used in this biochemical reaction.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Fats present in food, especially in animal products such as meat, meat products, butter, ghee. They are present in lower amounts in nuts, seeds, and avocados.
A hexose or fermentable monosaccharide and isomer of glucose from manna, the ash Fraxinus ornus and related plants. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed & Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
A monosaccharide in sweet fruits and honey that is soluble in water, alcohol, or ether. It is used as a preservative and an intravenous infusion in parenteral feeding.
An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of 1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate to L-GLUTAMATE in the presence of NAD. Defects in the enzyme are the cause of hyperprolinemia II.
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
A flavoprotein enzyme that is responsible for the catabolism of LYSINE; HYDROXYLYSINE; and TRYPTOPHAN. It catalyzes the oxidation of GLUTARYL-CoA to crotonoyl-CoA using FAD as a cofactor. Glutaric aciduria type I is an inborn error of metabolism due to the deficiency of glutaryl-CoA dehydrogenase.
Small molecules that are required for the catalytic function of ENZYMES. Many VITAMINS are coenzymes.
Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.
Proteins obtained from foods. They are the main source of the ESSENTIAL AMINO ACIDS.
An aldohexose that occurs naturally in the D-form in lactose, cerebrosides, gangliosides, and mucoproteins. Deficiency of galactosyl-1-phosphate uridyltransferase (GALACTOSE-1-PHOSPHATE URIDYL-TRANSFERASE DEFICIENCY DISEASE) causes an error in galactose metabolism called GALACTOSEMIA, resulting in elevations of galactose in the blood.
An enzymes that catalyzes the reversible reduction-oxidation reaction of 20-alpha-hydroxysteroids, such as from PROGESTERONE to 20-ALPHA-DIHYDROPROGESTERONE.
A family of compounds containing an oxo group with the general structure of 1,5-pentanedioic acid. (From Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p442)
A metabolic process that converts GLUCOSE into two molecules of PYRUVIC ACID through a series of enzymatic reactions. Energy generated by this process is conserved in two molecules of ATP. Glycolysis is the universal catabolic pathway for glucose, free glucose, or glucose derived from complex CARBOHYDRATES, such as GLYCOGEN and STARCH.
Enzymes catalyzing the dehydrogenation of secondary amines, introducing a C=N double bond as the primary reaction. In some cases this is later hydrolyzed.
Glucose in blood.
A series of oxidative reactions in the breakdown of acetyl units derived from GLUCOSE; FATTY ACIDS; or AMINO ACIDS by means of tricarboxylic acid intermediates. The end products are CARBON DIOXIDE, water, and energy in the form of phosphate bonds.

The contribution of adjacent subunits to the active sites of D-3-phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase. (1/380)

D-3-Phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase (PGDH) from Escherichia coli is allosterically inhibited by L-serine, the end product of its metabolic pathway. Previous results have shown that inhibition by serine has a large effect on Vmax and only a small or negligible effect on Km. PGDH is thus classified as a V-type allosteric enzyme. In this study, the active site of PGDH has been studied by site-directed mutagenesis to assess the role of certain residues in substrate binding and catalysis. These consist of a group of cationic residues (Arg-240, Arg-60, Arg-62, Lys-39, and Lys-141') that potentially form an electrostatic environment for the binding of the negatively charged substrate, as well as the only tryptophan residue found in PGDH and which fits into a hydrophobic pocket immediately adjacent to the active site histidine residue. Interestingly, Trp-139' and Lys-141' are part of the polypeptide chain of the subunit that is adjacent to the active site. The results of mutating these residues show that Arg-240, Arg-60, Arg-62, and Lys-141' play distinct roles in the binding of the substrate to the active site. Mutants of Trp-139' show that this residue may play a role in stabilizing the catalytic center of the enzyme. Furthermore, these mutants appear to have a significant effect on the cooperativity of serine inhibition and suggest a possible role for Trp-139' in the cooperative interactions between subunits.  (+info)

Molecular characterization of a flagellar export locus of Helicobacter pylori. (2/380)

Motility of Helicobacter species has been shown to be essential for successful colonization of the host. We have investigated the organization of a flagellar export locus in Helicobacter pylori. A 7-kb fragment of the H. pylori CCUG 17874 genome was cloned and sequenced, revealing an operon comprising an open reading frame of unknown function (ORF03), essential housekeeping genes (ileS and murB), flagellar export genes (fliI and fliQ), and a homolog to a gene implicated in virulence factor transport in other pathogens (virB11). A promoter for this operon, showing similarity to the Escherichia coli sigma70 consensus, was identified by primer extension. Cotranscription of the genes in the operon was demonstrated by reverse transcription-PCR, and transcription of virB11, fliI, fliQ, and murB was detected in human or mouse biopsies obtained from infected hosts. The genetic organization of this locus was conserved in a panel of H. pylori clinical isolates. Engineered fliI and fliQ mutant strains were completely aflagellate and nonmotile, whereas a virB11 mutant still produced flagella. The fliI and fliQ mutant strains produced reduced levels of flagellin and the hook protein FlgE. Production of OMP4, a member of the outer membrane protein family identified in H. pylori 26695, was reduced in both the virB11 mutant and the fliI mutant, suggesting related functions of the virulence factor export protein (VirB11) and the flagellar export component (FliI).  (+info)

Regulation of alginate biosynthesis in Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae. (3/380)

Both Pseudomonas aeruginosa and the phytopathogen P. syringae produce the exopolysaccharide alginate. However, the environmental signals that trigger alginate gene expression in P. syringae are different from those in P. aeruginosa with copper being a major signal in P. syringae. In P. aeruginosa, the alternate sigma factor encoded by algT (sigma22) and the response regulator AlgR1 are required for transcription of algD, a gene which encodes a key enzyme in the alginate biosynthetic pathway. In the present study, we cloned and characterized the gene encoding AlgR1 from P. syringae. The deduced amino acid sequence of AlgR1 from P. syringae showed 86% identity to its P. aeruginosa counterpart. Sequence analysis of the region flanking algR1 in P. syringae revealed the presence of argH, algZ, and hemC in an arrangement virtually identical to that reported in P. aeruginosa. An algR1 mutant, P. syringae FF5.32, was defective in alginate production but could be complemented when algR1 was expressed in trans. The algD promoter region in P. syringae (PsalgD) was also characterized and shown to diverge significantly from the algD promoter in P. aeruginosa. Unlike P. aeruginosa, algR1 was not required for the transcription of algD in P. syringae, and PsalgD lacked the consensus sequence recognized by AlgR1. However, both the algD and algR1 upstream regions in P. syringae contained the consensus sequence recognized by sigma22, suggesting that algT is required for transcription of both genes.  (+info)

A novel NDP-6-deoxyhexosyl-4-ulose reductase in the pathway for the synthesis of thymidine diphosphate-D-fucose. (4/380)

The serotype-specific polysaccharide antigen of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans Y4 (serotype b) consists of D-fucose and L-rhamnose. Thymidine diphosphate (dTDP)-D-fucose is the activated nucleotide sugar form of D-fucose, which has been identified as a constituent of structural polysaccharides in only a few bacteria. In this paper, we show that three dTDP-D-fucose synthetic enzymes are encoded by genes in the gene cluster responsible for the synthesis of serotype b-specific polysaccharide in A. actinomycetemcomitans. The first and second steps of the dTDP-D-fucose synthetic pathway are catalyzed by D-glucose-1-phosphate thymidylyltransferase and dTDP-D-glucose 4,6-dehydratase, which are encoded by rmlA and rmlB in the gene cluster, respectively. These two reactions are common to the well studied dTDP-L-rhamnose synthetic pathway. However, the enzyme catalyzing the last step of the dTDP-D-fucose synthetic pathway has never been reported. We identified the fcd gene encoding a dTDP-4-keto-6-deoxy-D-glucose reductase. After purifying the three enzymes, their enzymatic activities were analyzed by reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography. In addition, nuclear magnetic resonance analysis and gas-liquid chromatography analysis proved that the fcd gene product converts dTDP-4-keto-6-deoxy-D-glucose to dTDP-D-fucose. Moreover, kinetic analysis of the enzyme indicated that the Km values for dTDP-4-keto-6-deoxy-D-glucose and NADPH are 97.3 and 28.7 microM, respectively, and that the enzyme follows the sequential mechanism. This paper is the first report on the dTDP-D-fucose synthetic pathway and dTDP-4-keto-6-deoxy-D-glucose reductase.  (+info)

Purification and characterization of D-glucosaminitol dehydrogenase from Agrobacterium radiobacter. (5/380)

D-Glucosaminitol dehydrogenase, which catalyzes the conversion of D-glucosaminitol to 3-keto-D-glucosaminitol, was purified to apparent homogeneity from extracts of Agrobacterium radiobacter. This organism has constitutively depressed levels of the enzyme but expression of the enzyme is induced by addition of D-glucosamine to the medium. Purification included ammonium sulfate fractionation and chromatography on columns of DEAE-Sephacel, Octyl-Sepharose CL-4B, and Cellulofine. The purified enzyme migrated as a single band, coinciding with dehydrogenase activities specific for D-glucosaminitol and ethanol, when electrophoresed on a 7.5% polyacrylamide gel at pH 8.0. Electrophoresis on a 12.5% PAGE in the presence of 1% SDS also yielded a single band. The enzyme had an apparent molecular mass of 79 kDa, as measured by the pattern of elution from a column of Cellulofine. The results indicated that the enzyme was a dimer of identical (or nearly identical) subunits of 39.5 kDa. D-Glucosaminitol dehydrogenase required NAD+ as a cofactor and used ethanol as the preferred substrate, as well as aliphatic alcohols with 2 to 4 carbon atoms, D-glucosaminitol, D-glucosaminate, DL-allothreonine, glycerol, and erythritol as additional substrates. In 50 mM Tris-HCl buffer (pH 9.0) at 25 degrees C, the K(m) for D-glucosaminitol, ethanol, and NAD+ were 2.2, 2.0, and 0.08 mM, respectively. The enzyme had a pH optimum of 10 for D-glucosaminitol and 8.5 for ethanol. The enzyme lost substantial activity when treated with pyrazole, with certain reagents that react with sulfhydryl groups and with Zn2+ ion. The various results together suggest that the enzyme exploits different amino acid residues for the dehydrogenation of ethanol and of D-glucosaminitol.  (+info)

Characterization of dTDP-4-dehydrorhamnose 3,5-epimerase and dTDP-4-dehydrorhamnose reductase, required for dTDP-L-rhamnose biosynthesis in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium LT2. (6/380)

The thymidine diphosphate-L-rhamnose biosynthesis pathway is required for assembly of surface glycoconjugates in a growing list of bacterial pathogens, making this pathway a potential therapeutic target. However, the terminal reactions have not been characterized. To complete assignment of the reactions, the four enzymes (RmlABCD) that constitute the pathway in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium LT2 were overexpressed. The purified RmlC and D enzymes together catalyze the terminal two steps involving NAD(P)H-dependent formation of dTDP-L-rhamnose from dTDP-6-deoxy-D-xylo-4-hexulose. RmlC was assigned as the thymidine diphosphate-4-dehydrorhamnose 3,5-epimerase by showing its activity to be NAD(P)H-independent. Spectrofluorometric and radiolabeling experiments were used to demonstrate the ability of RmlC to catalyze the formation of dTDP-6-deoxy-L-lyxo-4-hexulose from dTDP-6-deoxy-D-xylo-4-hexulose. Under reaction conditions, RmlC converted approximately 3% of its substrate to product. RmlD was unequivocally identified as the thymidine diphosphate-4-dehydrorhamnose reductase. The reductase property of RmlD was shown by equilibrium analysis and its ability to enable efficient biosynthesis of dTDP-L-rhamnose, even in the presence of low amounts of dTDP-6-deoxy-L-lyxo-4-hexulose. Comparison of 23 known and predicted RmlD sequences identified several conserved amino acid residues, especially the serine-tyrosine-lysine catalytic triad, characteristic for members of the reductase/epimerase/dehydrogenase protein superfamily. In conclusion, RmlD is a novel member of this protein superfamily.  (+info)

Interstrain variation of the polysaccharide B biosynthesis locus of Bacteroides fragilis: characterization of the region from strain 638R. (7/380)

The sequence and analysis of the capsular polysaccharide biosynthesis locus, PS B2, of Bacteroides fragilis 638R are described, and the sequence is compared with that of the PS B1 biosynthesis locus of B. fragilis NCTC 9343. Two genes of the region, wcgD and wcgC, are shown by complementation to encode a UDP-N-acetylglucosamine 2-epimerase and a UDP-N-acetylmannosamine dehydrogenase, respectively.  (+info)

PCR identification of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and direct detection in clinical samples from cystic fibrosis patients. (8/380)

This report describes a PCR primer pair that targets the algD GDP mannose gene of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and produces a specific 520-bp PCR product useful for P. aeruginosa identification. This PCR assay was tested with 182 isolates of P. aeruginosa and 20 isolates of other bacterial species, and demonstrated 100% specificity and sensitivity. The test was also able to detect P. aeruginosa directly in clinical samples such as sputum or throat swabs obtained from cystic fibrosis patients. The combination of this primer with a universal bacterial primer, acting as a control to assess DNA quality in the sample, resulted in a robust PCR method that can be used for rapid P. aeruginosa detection.  (+info)

As a member of the wwPDB, the RCSB PDB curates and annotates PDB data according to agreed upon standards. The RCSB PDB also provides a variety of tools and resources. Users can perform simple and advanced searches based on annotations relating to sequence, structure and function. These molecules are visualized, downloaded, and analyzed by users who range from students to specialized scientists.
AA3 enzymes belong to the glucose-methanol-choline (GMC) oxidoreductases family. AA3 enzymes are flavoproteins containing a flavin-adenine dinucleotide (FAD)-binding domain. Family AA3 can be divided into 4 subfamilies: AA3_1 (mostly cellobiose dehydrogenases), AA3_2 (including both aryl alcohol oxidase and glucose 1-oxidase), AA3_3 (alcohol oxidase) and AA3_4 (pyranose 2-oxidase ...
SWISS-MODEL Template Library (SMTL) entry for 1mfz. Partially refined 2.8 A Crystal structure of GDP-mannose dehydrogenase from P. aeruginosa
Boc Sciences offers cas 18422-53-2 1,2:4,5-Di-O-isopropylidene-b-D-erythro-2,3-hexodiulo-2,6-pyranose in bulk,please inquire us to get a quote for 18422-53-2 1,2:4,5-Di-O-isopropylidene-b-D-erythro-2,3-hexodiulo-2,6-pyranose.
Proliferating cells, including cancer cells, obtain serine both exogenously and via the metabolism of glucose. By catalyzing the first, rate-limiting step in the synthesis of serine from glucose, phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase (PHGDH) controls flux through the biosynthetic pathway for this important amino acid and represents a putative target in oncology. To discover inhibitors of PHGDH, a coupled biochemical assay was developed and optimized to enable high-throughput screening for inhibitors of human PHGDH. Feedback inhibition was minimized by coupling PHGDH activity to two downstream enzymes (PSAT1 and PSPH), providing a marked improvement in enzymatic turnover. Further coupling of NADH to a diaphorase/resazurin system enabled a red-shifted detection readout, minimizing interference due to compound autofluorescence. With this protocol, over 400,000 small molecules were screened for PHGDH inhibition, and following hit validation and triage work, a piperazine-1-thiourea was identified. Following ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase diverts glycolytic flux and contributes to oncogenesis. AU - Locasale, Jason W.. AU - Grassian, Alexandra R.. AU - Melman, Tamar. AU - Lyssiotis, Costas A.. AU - Mattaini, Katherine R.. AU - Bass, Adam J.. AU - Heffron, Gregory. AU - Metallo, Christian M.. AU - Muranen, Taru. AU - Sharfi, Hadar. AU - Sasaki, Atsuo T.. AU - Anastasiou, Dimitrios. AU - Mullarky, Edouard. AU - Vokes, Natalie I.. AU - Sasaki, Mika. AU - Beroukhim, Rameen. AU - Stephanopoulos, Gregory. AU - Ligon, Azra H.. AU - Meyerson, Matthew. AU - Richardson, Andrea L.. AU - Chin, Lynda. AU - Wagner, Gerhard. AU - Asara, John M.. AU - Brugge, Joan S.. AU - Cantley, Lewis C.. AU - Vander Heiden, Matthew G.. PY - 2011/9/1. Y1 - 2011/9/1. N2 - Most tumors exhibit increased glucose metabolism to lactate, however, the extent to which glucose-derived metabolic fluxes are used for alternative processes is poorly understood. Using a metabolomics approach with isotope labeling, we found that ...
BioAssay record AID 400045 submitted by ChEMBL: Antimicrobial activity against Sporotrichum pulverulentum after 60 mins by agar diffusion method.
It is reasonable that efficient conversion of L-serine to pyruvate requires sufficient availability of L-serine. To enhance the biosynthesis of L-serine, we overexpressed the genes of de novo L-serine biosynthetic pathway. L-serine is synthesized from D-3-phosphoglycerate by three reactions catalyzed by D-3-phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase, D-3-phosphoserine aminotransferase and phosphoserine phosphatase, which are encoded by serA, serC and serB, respectively (Figure 1). D-3-phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase is regulated by allosteric end-product inhibition. Moreover, a published report has showed that a truncated D-3-phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase (PGDH) serA Δ197 was no longer inhibited by L-serine in C. glutamicum [18]. As such, we combined serA Δ197 together with serB and serC into an artificial operon driven by the constitutive promoter trc, creating plasmid pTSer. Strain SD01 was transformed with plasmid pTSer for activating the Serine-Deamination (SD) pathway. After 48h cultivation, 3.96 g/L ...
Carbohydrate dehydrogenases are a group of dehydrogenase enzymes that occur in many organisms and facilitate the conversion from a carbohydrate to an aldehyde, lactone, or ketose.. Carbohydrate dehydrogenases are the most common quinoprotein oxidoreductases,[1] which are enzymes that oxidize a wide range of molecules.. An example includes L-gulonolactone oxidase.. They are categorized under EC number 1.1. More specifically, they are in three subcodes: 1, 2, and 99, categorized as follows:. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - An essential role for de novo biosynthesis of L-serine in CNS development. AU - Furuya, Shigeki. PY - 2008/1/1. Y1 - 2008/1/1. N2 - L-Serine plays a versatile role in intermediary metabolism in eukaryotic cells. The physiological significance of its de novo biosynthesis, however, remains largely unexplored. We demonstrated previously that neurons lose the ability to synthesize L-serine after their final differentiation and thus depend on astrocytes to supply this amino acid. This is due to a lack of neuronal expression of 3-phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase (Phgdh), which initiates de novo L-serine synthesis via the phosphorylated pathway from the glycolytic intermediate 3-phosphoglycerate. In rodent brain, Phgdh is expressed exclusively by the neuroepithelium/radial glia/astrocyte lineage. In humans, serine deficiency disorders can result from a deficiency of Phgdh or other enzymes involved in serine biosynthesis in the phosphorylated pathway. Patients with such disorders have ...
Thank you for your interest in spreading the word about Biochemical Society Transactions.. NOTE: We only request your email address so that the person you are recommending the page to knows that you wanted them to see it, and that it is not junk mail. We do not capture any email address.. ...
As a member of the wwPDB, the RCSB PDB curates and annotates PDB data according to agreed upon standards. The RCSB PDB also provides a variety of tools and resources. Users can perform simple and advanced searches based on annotations relating to sequence, structure and function. These molecules are visualized, downloaded, and analyzed by users who range from students to specialized scientists.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Kinetic modeling of a bi-enzymatic system for efficient conversion of lactose to lactobionic acid. AU - Van, Wouter. AU - Bhagwat, Aditya. AU - Ludwig, Roland. AU - Dewulf, Jo. AU - Haltrich, Dietmar. AU - Van Langenhove, Herman. PY - 2009/4/1. Y1 - 2009/4/1. N2 - A model has been developed to describe the interaction between two enzymes and an intermediary redox mediator. In this bi-enzymatic process, the enzyme cellobiose dehydrogenase oxidizes lactose at the C-1 position of the reducing sugar moiety to lactobionolactone, which spontaneously hydrolyzes to lactobionic acid. 2,20 Azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt is used as electron acceptor and is continuously regenerated by laccase. Oxygen is the terminal electron acceptor and is fully reduced to water by laccase, a coppercontaining oxidase. Oxygen is added to the system by means of bubble-free oxygenation. Using the model, the productivity of the process is investigated by simultaneous solution ...
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1. Davis, J. L. and Fallon, H. J. (1970) Studies on the role of 3-phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase in the regulation of serine biosynthesis in rat liver., The Journal of biological chemistry, 245(21), pp. 5838-46. Available at: (Accessed: 3 October 2019 ...
PHGDH antibody [N3C2], Internal (phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase) for IHC-Fr, IHC-P, WB. Anti-PHGDH pAb (GTX101949) is tested in Human, Rat samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
D-serine is an endogenous ligand for NMDARs generated from L-serine by the enzyme serine racemase (Srr). Both neuronal and glial localizations have been reported for D-serine and Srr. 3-phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase ...
Höhner, R.; Day, P. M.; Zimmermann, S. E.; Lopez, L. S.; Krämer, M.; Giavalisco, P.; Correa Galvis, V.; Armbruster, U.; Schöttler, M. A.; Jahns, P. et al.; Krüger, S.; Kunz, H.-H.: Stromal NADH supplied by PHOSPHOGLYCERATE DEHYDROGENASE3 is crucial for photosynthetic performance. Plant Physiology 186 (1), S. 142 - 167 (2021 ...
Recognized as one of the 100 most technologically significant products introduced to the marketplace in the past year. The Remote Methane Leak Detector can quickly and efficiently detect leaks up to one hundred feet away. Using laser technology, remote detection allows the user to safely survey areas that may be difficult to reach, such as busy roadways, yards with large dogs, locked gates, pipe suspended under a bridge and other hard to access places. In the independent validation tests, the RMLD has proven to be a highly effective leak survey instrument, compared to flame ionization and similar equipment, but with the added advantage of remote detection. By design the RMLD is capable of achieving significant productivity gains and drastically reduce operations and maintenance costs ...
Recombinant Human PGDH / PHGDH Protein. Synthesized in e. coli. Protein Tag: GST. Purity: Greater than 90% as determined by SDS-PAGE. From $88
Hi Vivek, There are a number of hidden parameters changed in 9i that affected CBO (as compared to 8i CBO). I suggest contacting Oracle Support before changing any hidden parameters. I think this is know problem. If possible, test your application with That seems to a stable version of 9i, so far. Regards, - Kirti --- VIVEK_SHARMA ,[email protected], wrote: , , ISSUE - Getting HIGH Latch Free Wait on the following Latches after moving , from RBO to , CBO. ( ALL Objects been analyzed at 100 %). CPU Usage on DB Server has gone , up by about , 30 %. NOTE - Application has also been migrated to a Higher release along , with the CBO , movement. , , Qs Any init.ora parameters to Tune ? , , Would increasing _shared_pool_reserved_min_alloc to 6140 from the Default of , 4400 Help? , , Setting cursorsharing = FORCE/SIMILAR caused %sys component of CPU Usage to , shoot to , 99 % within minutes of Database startup. Seemed to be hitting some Bug in , (64 , Bit) on Solaris 9. Has ...
When determining the effects on the deficit of a certain legislative action, both revenues and spending have to be accounted for. Indeed, you cant determine
Neu-Laxova syndrome (NLS) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by severe congenital malformations leading to prenatal or early postnatal lethality. Main findings include intrauterine growth retardation, microcephaly, ichthyosis, flexion deformities, edema of the hands and feet, and abnormal facial features including abnormal or absent eyelids, flat or abnormal nose, and a round gaping mouth. NLS1 (MIM 256520) and NLS2 (MIM 616038) are caused by mutations in the PHGDH and PSAT1 genes. They code for D-3-phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase and phosphoserine aminotransferase enzymes, respectively. These enzymes are involved in L-serine biosynthesis. Phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase deficiency (PHGDHD; MIM 601815) and phosphoserine aminotransferase deficiency (PSATD; MIM 610992) are autosomal recessive disorders allelic to more severe disorders, NLS1 and NLS2. PHGDHD and PSATD are characterized by congenital microcephaly, hypertonia, psychomotor retardation and seizures.. Read less ...
The PHGDH gene provides instructions for making the parts (subunits) that make up the phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase enzyme. Four PHGDH subunits combine to form the enzyme. This enzyme is involved in the production (synthesis) of the protein building block (amino acid) serine. Specifically, the enzyme converts a substance called 3-phosphoglycerate to 3-phosphohydroxypyruvate in the first step in serine production. Serine is necessary for the development and function of the brain and spinal cord (central nervous system). Serine is a part of chemical messengers called neurotransmitters that transmit signals in the nervous system. Proteins that form cell membranes and the fatty layer of insulation (myelin) that surrounds many nerves also contain serine.. Serine can be obtained from the diet, but brain cells must produce their own serine because dietary serine cannot cross the protective barrier that allows only certain substances to pass between blood vessels and the brain (the blood-brain barrier). ...
The sugar oxidising enzymes glucose oxidase, glucose dehydrogenases (GDH) and cellobiose dehydrogenases (CDH) were co-immobilised, in the presence of multiwalled carbon nanotubes, with osmium redox polymers. Under pseudo-physiological conditions of 5 mM glucose, 150 mM NaCl, 37?degrees C, glucose oxidation current densities above 800 mu A?cm-2 are obtained from films containing an [Os(4,4xxx-dimethyl-2,2xxx-bipyridine)2(poly-vinylimidazole)10Cl]+ redox polymer, redox potential 0.1 V vs. Ag/AgCl, and either glucose oxidase or FAD-dependant GDH. Current produced by, and stability of, glucose-oxidising half-cells is compared in 100 mM glucose, with films containing CDHs proving most stable. Such results show promise for development of glucose-oxidising enzymatic fuel cells ...
How particular bone marrow niche factors contribute to the leukemogenic activities of leukemia-initiating cells (LICs) remains largely unknown. Here, we showed that ATP levels were markedly increased in the bone marrow niches of mice with acute myeloid leukemia (AML), and LICs preferentially localized to the endosteal niche with relatively high ATP levels, as indicated by a sensitive ATP indicator. ATP could efficiently induce the influx of ions into LICs in an MLL-AF9-induced murine AML model via the ligand-gated ion channel P2X7. P2x7 deletion led to notably impaired homing and self-renewal capacities of LICs and contributed to an approximately 5-fold decrease in the number of functional LICs but had no effect on normal hematopoiesis. ATP/P2X7 signaling enhanced the calcium flux-mediated phosphorylation of CREB, which further transactivated phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase (Phgdh) expression to maintain serine metabolism and LIC fates. P2X7 knockdown resulted in a markedly extended survival of ...
Pyranose Oxidase antibody LS-C744693 is an unconjugated goat polyclonal antibody to Pyranose Oxidase from e. coli. It is reactive with bacteria and e. coli. Validated for ELISA, IP and WB.
This Research Topic addresses the metabolism and function of the amino acid Serine in plants. We emphasize the interaction and coordination between the Serine biosynthetic pathways and other metabolic pathways.Serine is a polar amino acid that plays a fundamental role in plant metabolism, plant development, and cell signalling. In addition to being a building block for proteins, Serine participates in the biosynthesis of biomolecules such as amino acids, nucleotides, phospholipids, and sphingolipids. Plants possess at least two serine biosynthetic pathways: i) the glycolate pathway associated with photorespiration and ii) the so-called Phosphorylated Pathway of Serine Biosynthesis. The biological significance of the coexistence of several pathways for the biosynthesis of Serine is not known. In particular, we poorly understand the contribution that each pathway makes to plant serine homeostasis, how pathways are integrated and coordinated, and how they interact at the transcriptional/translational
Blog on Phgdh elisa kit product: The Mouse Phgdh phgdh (Catalog #MBS2602994) is an ELISA Kit and is intended for research purposes only. T...
ID E7A1S5_SPORE Unreviewed; 226 AA. AC E7A1S5; DT 08-MAR-2011, integrated into UniProtKB/TrEMBL. DT 08-MAR-2011, sequence version 1. DT 25-OCT-2017, entry version 22. DE SubName: Full=Uncharacterized protein {ECO:0000313,EMBL:CBQ73432.1}; GN ORFNames=sr14090 {ECO:0000313,EMBL:CBQ73432.1}; OS Sporisorium reilianum (strain SRZ2) (Maize head smut fungus). OC Eukaryota; Fungi; Dikarya; Basidiomycota; Ustilaginomycotina; OC Ustilaginomycetes; Ustilaginales; Ustilaginaceae; Sporisorium. OX NCBI_TaxID=999809 {ECO:0000313,EMBL:CBQ73432.1, ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000008867}; RN [1] {ECO:0000313,EMBL:CBQ73432.1, ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000008867} RP NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE GENOMIC DNA]. RC STRAIN=SRZ2 {ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000008867}; RX PubMed=21148393; DOI=10.1126/science.1195330; RA Schirawski J., Mannhaupt G., Muench K., Brefort T., Schipper K., RA Doehlemann G., Di Stasio M., Roessel N., Mendoza-Mendoza A., RA Pester D., Mueller O., Winterberg B., Meyer E., Ghareeb H., RA Wollenberg T., ...
The following are the more stable anomers of the pyranose forms of d-glucose, d-mannose, and d-galactose: O HO HO OH OH O HO HO HO OH OH OH O HO HO OH OH -D-Glucopyranose (64% at equilibrium) -D-Mannopyranose (68% at equilibrium) -D-Galactopyranose (64% at equilibrium) OH On the basis of these empirical observations
An improved method is presented for the purification of 8 α-(N1-histidyl)riboflavin, 8 α-(N3-histidyl)riboflavin and their 2′,5′-anhydro forms, which permits the isolation of sizeable quantities of each of these compounds from a synthetic mixture in pure form. Flavin peptides were isolated from the D-gluconate dehydrogenases of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Pseudomonas fluorescens and from the 2-keto-D-gluconate dehydrogenase of Gluconobacter melanogenus. After conversion into the aminoacyl-riboflavin, the flavin in all three enzymes was identified as 8 α-(N3-histidyl)riboflavin. By sequential treatment with nucleotide pyrophosphatase and alkaline phosphatase, the flavin in each enzyme was shown to be in the dinucleotide form. ...
Biomass is constructed of dense recalcitrant polymeric materials: proteins, lignin, and holocellulose, a fraction constituting fibrous cellulose wrapped in hemicellulose-pectin. Bacteria and fungi are abundant in soil and forest floors, actively recycling biomass mainly by extracting sugars from holocellulose degradation. Here we review the genome-wide contents of seven Aspergillus species and unravel hundreds of gene models encoding holocellulose-degrading enzymes. Numerous apparent gene duplications followed functional evolution, grouping similar genes into smaller coherent functional families according to specialized structural features, domain organization, biochemical activity, and genus genome distribution. Aspergilli contain about 37 cellulase gene models, clustered in two mechanistic categories: 27 hydrolyze and 10 oxidize glycosidic bonds. Within the oxidative enzymes, we found two cellobiose dehydrogenases that produce oxygen radicals utilized by eight lytic polysaccharide ...
Pyranose is a collective term for saccharides that have a chemical structure that includes a six-membered ring consisting of five carbon atoms and one oxygen atom. There may be other carbons external to the ring. The name derives from its similarity to the oxygen heterocycle pyran, but the pyranose ring does not have double bonds. A pyranose in which the anomeric OH at C(l) has been converted into an OR group is called a pyranoside. The pyranose ring is formed by the reaction of the hydroxyl group on carbon 5 (C-5) of a sugar with the aldehyde at carbon 1. This forms an intramolecular hemiacetal. If reaction is between the C-4 hydroxyl and the aldehyde, a furanose is formed instead. The pyranose form is thermodynamically more stable than the furanose form, which can be seen by the distribution of these two cyclic forms in solution. Hermann Emil Fischer won the Nobel Prize in Chemistry (1902) for his work in determining the structure of the D-aldohexoses. However, the linear, free-aldehyde ...
Eiglmeier, K., W. Boos, S.T. Cole 1987. Nucleotide sequence and transcriptional startpoint of the glpT gene of Escherichia coli: extensive sequence homology of the glycerol-3-phos transport protein with components of the hexose-6-phos transport system ...
Holzer, H. & Holldorf, A. (1957). „Isolation of a D-glycerate dehydrogenase, its properties, and its use for the optical determination of hydroxypyruvate in the presence of pyruvate. Biochem. Z. 329: 292-312. PMID 13522707 ...
Treatment for Cortisone Reductase Deficiency in Sewri West, Mumbai. Find Doctors Near You, Book Appointment, Consult Online, View Doctor Fees, Address, Phone Numbers and Reviews. Doctors for Cortisone Reductase Deficiency in Sewri West, Mumbai | Lybrate
Treatment for Cortisone Reductase Deficiency. Find Doctors Near You, Book Appointment, Consult Online, View Doctor Fees, Address, Phone Numbers and Reviews. Doctors for Cortisone Reductase Deficiency | Lybrate
Influence of Carbon Source on the Production of Extracellular Ligninolytic Enzymes by Phanerochaete chrysosporium. Fangfang Wang,a Mingqiang Ai,a Guihua Yang,b Jiachuan Chen,b Xiulan Chen,a and Feng Huang a,*. The effect of altering the carbon source in the growing environment was investigated relative to the production of ligninolytic enzymes by Phanerochaete chrysosporium. Glucose, cellobiose, and cellulose (or mixtures thereof) were used as the carbon sources. Glucose oxidase and glyoxal oxidase activities in all carbon sources were produced during cultivation. High peak levels (0.17 to 0.24 IU/mL) of manganese peroxidase activity were observed only in mediums containing oligosaccharides. Lignin peroxidase activity was high in glucose medium (0.21 IU/mL of peak value); however, minimal amounts were formed in the cellulose medium (0.01 IU/mL of peak value). High amounts of cellobiose:quinone oxidoreductase (3.33-3.99 IU/mL of peak value) and cellobiose dehydrogenase (0.04-0.2 IU/mL of peak ...
Effects of kraft pulp and lignin on Trametes versicolor carbon metabolism. Purification and characterization of cellobiose dehydrogenases from the white rot fungus Trametes versicolor
Recent studies demonstrate that enzymes from the glycosyl hydrolase family 61 (GH61) show lytic polysaccharide monooxygenase (PMO) activity. Together with cellobiose dehydrogenase (CDH) an enzymatic system capable of oxidative cellulose cleavage is formed, which increases the efficiency of cellulases and put PMOs at focus of biofuel research. Large amounts of purified PMOs, which are difficult to obtain from the native fungal producers, are needed to study their reaction kinetics, structure and industrial application. In addition, a fast and robust enzymatic assay is necessary to monitor enzyme production and purification. Four pmo genes from Neurospora crassa were expressed in P. pastoris under control of the AOX1 promoter. High yields were obtained for the glycosylated gene products PMO-01867, PMO-02916 and PMO-08760 (|300 mg L-1), whereas the yield of non-glycosylated PMO-03328 was moderate (~45 mg L-1). The production and purification of all four enzymes was specifically followed by a newly
Enzyme with hydroxy-pyruvate reductase, glyoxylate reductase and D-glycerate dehydrogenase enzymatic activities. Reduces hydroxypyruvate to D-glycerate, glyoxylate to glycolate oxidizes D-glycerate to hydroxypyruvate.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Deficits in prenatal serine biosynthesis underlie the mitochondrial dysfunction associated with the autism-linked fmr1 gene. AU - Nolin, Sarah L.. AU - Napoli, Eleonora. AU - Flores, Amanda. AU - Hagerman, Randi J.. AU - Giulivi, Cecilia R. N1 - Funding Information: Funding: This study was funded partly by the New York State Office for People with Developmental Disabilities and the Research Foundation for Mental Hygiene to S.L.N. and NICHD HD036071 to R.J.H. The APC were partly funded by the Open Access Funds from the Library at the University of California. Publisher Copyright: © 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.. PY - 2021/6/1. Y1 - 2021/6/1. N2 - Fifty-five to two hundred CGG repeats (called a premutation, or PM) in the 5′-UTR of the FMR1 gene are generally unstable, often expanding to a full mutation (,200) in one generation through maternal inheritance, leading to fragile X syndrome, a condition associated with autism and other intellectual ...
Isolation and purification of Pyranose 2-oxidase from Phanerochaete chrysosporium and characterization of gene structure and regulation
Published in the January 2001 Issue of Anvil Magazine Note: Images with captions are included at the end of this article. Scratches is a term that refers to a skin problem on the lower legs of horses, caused by a fungus (and sometimes complicated by bacteria). The affected area becomes crusted, scabby and thickened, creating bumps and sometimes open sores. In severe cases the affected skin may ooze or the whole lower leg may swell, and the horse may become lame. This skin condition generally affects unpigmented skin (the areas of white leg markings) more readily than dark skin, since the unpigmented skin is not as tough-and more apt to chaff and scrape, opening the way for infection. Scratches is a dermatitis, or inflammation of the skin, and the most common cause seems to be the fungus Sporotrichum schenki. Some horses seem to be more susceptible than others, just as some seem more vulnerable to other fungal infections such as ringworm and girth itch. The fungus lives in organic matter and ...
A glucuronoyl esterase (GE) from the thermophilic fungus Sporotrichum thermophile, belonging to the carbohydrate esterase family 15 (CE-15), was functionally expressed in the methylotrophic yeast Pich
A glycoprotein containing one mole of FAD per mole of enzyme. 2,6-Dichloroindophenol can act as acceptor. cf. EC, quinoprotein glucose dehydrogenase ...
Wolbachia sp. subsp. Drosophila simulans UDP-N-acetylenolpyruvoylglucosamine reductase (murB) datasheet and description hight quality product and Backed by our Guarantee
CBO SCORES THE STIMULUS BILL….So what does the Congressional Budget Office really think about the stimulus bill currently wending its way through Congress? Answer:CBO anticipates that implementation of H.R. 1 would have a noticeable impact on economic growth and employment…
NADP_Rossmann (CL0063) 2-Hacid_dh_C; D-isomer specific 2-hydroxyacid dehydrogenase, NAD binding domain (PF02826; HMM-score: 13.5) ...
NADP_Rossmann (CL0063) 2-Hacid_dh_C; D-isomer specific 2-hydroxyacid dehydrogenase, NAD binding domain (PF02826; HMM-score: 180.6) ...
WASHINGTON, D.C. -- In response to the Congressional Budget Offices (CBO) report, 2019 Long-Term Budget Outlook, Jason Pye, FreedomWorks Vice President of Legislative Affairs, commented:
Carbohydrate dehydrogenases are a group of dehydrogenase enzymes that occur in many organisms and facilitate the conversion ... Carbohydrate dehydrogenases are the most common quinoprotein oxidoreductases,[1] which are enzymes that oxidize a wide range of ... Carbohydrate Dehydrogenases at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) ... Kulys, J., Tetianec, L. and Bratkovskaja, I. (2010), Pyrroloquinoline quinone-dependent carbohydrate dehydrogenase: Activity ...
Phosphorylation of PDH by one of the pyruvate dehydrogenase kinases 1-4 (PDK1-4) decreases the flux of carbohydrates into the ... Inhibition of PDKs increases oxidative metabolism of carbohydrates, so targeting PDKs has emerged as an important therapeutic ... The pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDH) critically regulates carbohydrate metabolism. ... The pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDH) critically regulates carbohydrate metabolism. Phosphorylation of PDH by one of the ...
The primary structure of bovine liver UDP-glucose dehydrogenase (UDPGDH), a hexameric, NAD(+)-linked enzyme, has been ... Carbohydrate Dehydrogenases * UDP-N-acetylmannosamine dehydrogenase * GDPmannose dehydrogenase * Uridine Diphosphate Glucose ... UDP-glucose Dehydrogenase From Bovine Liver: Primary Structure and Relationship to Other Dehydrogenases Protein Sci. 1994 Jul;3 ... The primary structure of bovine liver UDP-glucose dehydrogenase (UDPGDH), a hexameric, NAD(+)-linked enzyme, has been ...
Carbohydrate. Edited by: Mahmut Caliskan, I. Halil Kavakli and Gul Cevahir Oz. ISBN 978-953-51-3069-7, eISBN 978-953-51-3070-3 ... Dehydrogenases. Edited by Rosa Angela Canuto. Dehydrogenases. Edited by Rosa Angela Canuto. ... This book covers broad topics in carbohydrate including quality carbohydrates on the prevention and therapy of noncommunicable ... Carbohydrates are the most abound macromolecules on earth, and they serve different functions within the cell. The purpose of ...
Carbohydrate Dehydrogenases / genetics* * Carbohydrate Dehydrogenases / metabolism * Cloning, Molecular * DNA-Binding Proteins ...
Uridine Diphosphate Glucose Dehydrogenase: An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of UDPglucose to UDPglucuronate in the ... Carbohydrate Dehydrogenases*Uridine Diphosphate Glucose Dehydrogenase: 10*Arabidopsis UGD1 protein. *C elegans SQV-4 protein ... Dehydrogenase, UDP Glucose; Dehydrogenase, UDPG; Glucose Dehydrogenase, UDP; UDP Glucose Dehydrogenase; UDPG Dehydrogenase; ... Uridine Diphosphate Glucose Dehydrogenase. Subscribe to New Research on Uridine Diphosphate Glucose Dehydrogenase ...
6-Phosphogluconate Dehydrogenase Links Cytosolic Carbohydrate Metabolism to Protein Secretion via Modulation of Glutathione ... 6-Phosphogluconate dehydrogenase regulates tumor cell migration in vitro by regulating receptor tyrosine kinase c-Met. Biochem ... "Phosphogluconate Dehydrogenase" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH ( ... This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Phosphogluconate Dehydrogenase" by people in Harvard Catalyst ...
Carbohydrate Dehydrogenases. *Fructuronate Reductase. *Galactose Dehydrogenases. *Glucose Dehydrogenases. *Glucosephosphate ... "Sugar Alcohol Dehydrogenases" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH ( ... This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Sugar Alcohol Dehydrogenases" by people in Harvard Catalyst ... Molecular and functional characterization of novel glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase 1 like gene (GPD1-L) mutations in sudden ...
Carbohydrate refeeding rapidly reverses the adaptive upregulation of human skeletal muscle pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase ... Following carbohydrate re-feeding, (88% carbohydrate; 5% fat; 7% protein), PDK activity had returned to baseline (0.111 ± 0.014 ... The time course for the reversal of the adaptive increase in pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase (PDK) activity following a 6d high ... This adaptive increase in PDK4 protein content was reversed with carbohydrate re-feeding. It was concluded that the adaptive up ...
0 (Fungal Proteins); 0 (Metals); EC 1.1.- (Carbohydrate Dehydrogenases); EC (cellobiose-quinone oxidoreductase); EC ... and carbohydrate esterases (CE) in addition to cellobiose dehydrogenase (CDH) indicating the presence of functional classical ...
Carbohydrate Dehydrogenases); EC (dTDP-4-dehydrorhamnose reductase); I38ZP9992A (Magnesium). [Em] M s de entrada:. ...
The three-dimensional structure of a new crystal form of methanol dehydrogenase from Methylophilus W3A1 has been obtained in ... A versatile dehydrogenase oxidizing alcohols and carbohydrates.. *Henriëtte J. Rozeboom, Shukun Yu, Rene Mikkelsen, I. N. ... Formaldehyde dehydrogenase preparations from Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath) comprise methanol dehydrogenase and methylene ... PQQ-dependent methanol dehydrogenases: rare-earth elements make a difference. *J. T. M. Keltjens, A. N. van den Pol, Joachim ...
Glycerol dehydrogenase. L-sorbose-1-phosphate reductase. Pentosuria. (. More. ). Broader. (. 1. ). Carbohydrate Dehydrogenases ... Sugar Alcohol Dehydrogenases. Known as: Sugar Alcohol Dehydrogenases [Chemical/Ingredient], Oxidoreductases, Sugar Alcohol, ...
Transcriptional regulation of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 4 in skeletal muscle during and after exercise - Volume 63 Issue 2 ... Mourtzakis, M, Saltin, B, Graham, T & Pilegaard, H (2002) Pyruvate dehydrogenase active form (PDHa) and carbohydrate (CHO) ... Thus, increased PDK4 expression when carbohydrate availability is low seems to contribute to the sparing of carbohydrates by ... Effect of training in the fasted state on metabolic responses during exercise with carbohydrate intake. Journal of Applied ...
Mouse monoclonal Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Immunocapture antibody [15D3G9C11] validated for IP, Flow Cyt, ICC/IF and tested in ... The pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDH) is at the center of aerobic carbohydrate metabolism. It is localized in the matrix ... These are pyruvate dehydrogenase (E1), dihydrolipoamide transacetylase (E2) and dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase (E3). PDH ... 100 µg ab109866 can capture at least 5 µg Pyruvate Dehydrogenase complex from 1 mg solubilized Bovine heart mitochondria. ...
... glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase; LDH, lactate dehydrogenase; ChoRE, carbohydrate response element; HIF, hypoxia- ... Yamada K., Tanaka T., Noguchi T. Characterization and purification of carbohydrate response element-binding protein of the rat ... Identification of an additional hypoxia responsive element in the glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase gene promoter. ...
A novel inhibitor of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase stimulates myocardial carbohydrate oxidation in diet-induced obesity. ... Short-term weight loss and hepatic triglyceride reduction: evidence of a metabolic advantage with dietary carbohydrate ... FGF21 induces PGC-1alpha and regulates carbohydrate and fatty acid metabolism during the adaptive starvation response. ... Alterations in hepatic glucose and energy metabolism as a result of calorie and carbohydrate restriction. ...
6-Phosphogluconate Dehydrogenase Links Cytosolic Carbohydrate Metabolism to Protein Secretion via Modulation of Glutathione ... Inhibition of Dihydroorotate Dehydrogenase Overcomes Differentiation Blockade in Acute Myeloid Leukemia.. Sykes DB, Kfoury YS, ... Discovery of Antimalarial Azetidine-2-carbonitriles That Inhibit P. falciparum Dihydroorotate Dehydrogenase. ... Discovery of 8-Membered Ring Sulfonamides as Inhibitors of Oncogenic Mutant Isocitrate Dehydrogenase 1. ...
Lactate dehydrogenase deficiency: MedlinePlus Genetics (National Library of Medicine) * Mucopolysaccharidosis type I: ... Carbohydrate metabolism disorders are a group of metabolic disorders. Normally your enzymes break carbohydrates down into ... Pyruvate dehydrogenase deficiency: MedlinePlus Genetics (National Library of Medicine) * Schindler disease: MedlinePlus ... Carbohydrate Metabolism, Inborn Errors (National Institutes of Health) * ...
A novel inhibitor of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase stimulates myocardial carbohydrate oxidation in diet-induced obesity. J. ... The dysregulation of carbohydrate and lipid metabolism due to unbalanced diets (i.e., fast food) in western societies has led ... either actively through activation of pyruvate dehydrogenase [58,59,60] or passively by inhibiting fatty acid oxidation [61,62 ... Canagliflozin mediated dual inhibition of mitochondrial glutamate dehydrogenase and complex I: an off-target adverse effect. ...
Some colonic carbohydrate-fermenting bacteria produce D-lactic acid by D-lactate dehydrogenase. The usual lactic acid ... lactate dehydrogenase, alanine dehydrogenase, aspartate transaminase, troponin I (TNI), pro-brain natriuretic peptide, D-dimer ... Human cells only contain L-lactate dehydrogenase that exclusively synthesizes L-lactic acid. ...
Glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase serves as a major link between carbohydrate metabolism and lipid metabolism. It is also a ... Older terms for glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase include alpha glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (alphaGPDH) and ... glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase is not the same as glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), whose substrate is an ... "Kinetic regulation of the mitochondrial glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase by the external NADH dehydrogenase in Saccharomyces ...
Glucose Dehydrogenase Activity Assay Kit. Sensitive colorimetric assay for measuring Glucose Dehydrogenase in various ... Carbohydrate/Glucose Metabolism. Carbohydrates play an essential role in the catabolic and metabolic pathways of living ... PromoCell supplies an interesting choice of assays for analyzing these important carbohydrate/glucose metabolic pathways. ...
Adrenaline increases skeletal muscle glycogenolysis, pyruvate dehydrogenase activation and carbohydrate oxidation during ... The effect of mild stress on carbohydrate metabolism. Diabetes 1977;26:1-6pmid:556608. ...
... and increased glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, downregulating carbohydrate response element- (ChRE-) mediated transcriptional ... L-lactic dehydrogenase (rabbit muscle), pepsin (porcine stomach mucosa), pronase E (Streptomyces griseus), leucine ... pyruvate dehydrogenase phosphatase 2 (PDP2), associated with increased HK2 and PDK4 driving mitochondrial dysfunction in ... Among gene expressions increased in senescence and corrected by SFN were pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 2 (PDK2), linked to ...
2019 Lactate dehydrogenase and glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase cooperatively regulate growth and carbohydrate metabolism ... 1995 Use and storage of carbohydrate and fat. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 61: 952S-959S. doi:10.1093/ajcn/61.4.952S. ... 1982 Glycogen synthesis versus lipogenesis after a 500 gram carbohydrate meal in man. Metabolism 31: 1234-1240. doi:10.1016/ ... Diet-induced obesity has been modeled in mammals by supplementing diet with refined carbohydrates and fats (Levin et al. 1989; ...
2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase, and transketolase which are all involved in carbohydrate metabolism. Vitamin B2 (riboflavin) is a ... Primary metabolites include carbohydrates, lipids, amino acids, and nucleic acids which are the basic building blocks of life. ... Hermann Emil Fischer in 1884, turned his attention to the study of carbohydrates and purines, work for which he was awarded the ... Vitamin B5 (pantothenic acid) is a constituent of coenzyme A, a basic component of carbohydrate and amino acid metabolism as ...
No other carbohydrate is oxidized. The amount of NADPH formed during the reaction is equivalent to the amount of D-glucose in ... Lactate Dehydrogenase (LDH) The LD reaction proceeds as follows: NAD and lactate are converted in equimolar amounts at the same ... Lactate Dehydrogenase (LDH) LDH measurements are used in the diagnosis and treatment of liver diseases such as acute viral ... Lactate Dehydrogenase (LDH) LDH measurements are used in the diagnosis and treatment of liver diseases such as acute viral ...
No other carbohydrate is oxidized. The amount of NADPH formed during the reaction is equivalent to the amount of D-glucose in ... Lactate Dehydrogenase (LDH) The LD reaction proceeds as follows: NAD and lactate are converted in equimolar amounts at the same ... Lactate Dehydrogenase (LDH) LDH measurements are used in the diagnosis and treatment of liver diseases such as acute viral ... Lactate Dehydrogenase (LDH) The LX20 with LD reagent (using lactate as substrate) utilizes an enzymatic rate method to measure ...
  • There is a loss of lactate dehydrogenase or beta-glucuronidase caused by the release of aggregated IgG or immune complexes. (
  • The loss of lactate dehydrogenase cause a loss of the ability to convert lactic acid to pyruvate resulting in acidosis. (
  • Lactate dehydrogenase is released during cellular injury, it prevents muscle failure and fatigue. (
  • Vitamin C taken in excess can also cause a loss of lactate dehydrogenase. (
  • Polyacrylamide disc gel electrophoresis was done to determine the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) isozyme patterns for fry (5-3 mg), fingerling (6-12 g), pond-size (150-250 g) and adult (6-9 kg) milkfish. (
  • Ldh Lactate Dehydrogenase 16. (
  • Active form: Thiamine Pyrophosphate (TPP) Main reactions in which thiamine is a cofactor: These dehydrogenase reactions generate NADH in the mitochondria which enter the electron transport chain to generate ATP, therefore the patient has a problem making ATP. (
  • α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase is inhibited by succinyl~coA and NADH. (
  • In the first step, β-hydroxybutyrate is converted to acetoacetate by β-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase while releasing one NADH. (
  • Prior to being transferred to oxygen, the last site of electrons in the electron transport chain is a) ubiquinone b) the cytochrome oxidase complex c) the bc1 complex d) the NADH dehydrogenase complex Fermentation and respiration Along with this, a different kind of protein (two molecules) named as cytochrome is also present in complex III. (
  • For the dietary management of drug resistant epilepsy and other conditions where the ketogenic diet is indicated, e.g., disorders of carbohydrate metabolism, such as pyruvate dehydrogenase deficiency and glucose transporter type-1 deficiency. (
  • 3. Inhibits the fat-converting enzyme called glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, which facilitates the conversion of glucose into triglycerides that increase the size of adipocytes. (
  • ALA is a nutritional coenzyme that is involved in energy metabolism of proteins, carbohydrates and fats, has physiological functions in blood glucose disposal, and is able to scavenge a number of free radicals. (
  • Research shows that (-) hydroxycitric acid helps maintain a healthy balance of hepatic lipogenesis and gluconeogenesis, thus preventing excessive conversion of glucose from carbohydrate into body fat. (
  • That can cause favism in people who have a variant glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase. (
  • This process is slow, as it requires a rate- limiting enzyme called glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD). (
  • Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase (G-6-PD) Deficiency anemia: History of the G6PD deficiency: G6PD deficiency. (
  • Functions: Required for normal activity of the enzyme pyruvate dehydrogenase, which is the final step for glucose or pyruvate derived from lactate to enter the Krebs cycle. (
  • In Glucose 1 transporter (Glut 1) deficiency and pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) deficiency ketones provide an alternate energy supply to glucose. (
  • This food regimen is also the therapy of alternative for Glucose 1 transporter (Glut 1) deficiency and pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) deficiency. (
  • 52J (wild type) or m4D (a cellobiose dehydrogenase-deficient mutant) with four treatments: Glucose was provided to encourage growth of the mutant strain. (
  • Strategies may include: Taking simple carbohydrates, such as sugar (glucose) tablets or sweetened, nondiet beverages. (
  • Medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (MCAD) deficiency is an inherited disorder that prevents your body from breaking down certain fats and converting them into energy. (
  • Very Long Chain Acyl-CoA Dehydrogenase Deficiency (VLCAD) is a treatable disorder of fatty acid metabolism caused by an inability to use very-long-chain fats for energy. (
  • Revised 26 Jun The deficiency affected by pyruvate dehydrogenase deficiency. (
  • I have been very nervous about exposing Klaw to too much heat, thanks to his VLCAD deficiency (very long-chain acyl-COA dehydrogenase defiency). (
  • Since the VLCAD deficiency prevents his body from metabolizing very long-chain fats into energy, it's extra important to make sure he remains hydrated and has enough carbohydrates and proteins in his system to burn for energy. (
  • Introduction Multiple-acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency or MADD is a rare autosomal recessive disorder caused by deficiency of electron transfer flavoprotein. (
  • Very long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (VLCAD) deficiency is a condition that prevents the body from converting certain fats to energy, particularly during periods without food (fasting). (
  • Tyr-Asp inhibition of glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase affects plant redox metabolism. (
  • The pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 4 (mediates the inactivation of pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC) via phosphorylation. (
  • It is broken by sorbitol dehydrogenase and succinate dehydrogenase that are enzymes in carbohydrate metabolism. (
  • This reaction is catalysed by Succinate dehydrogenase . (
  • Succinate dehydrogenase complex electron transfer from cytochrome c to O2. (
  • As part of several multi-enzyme complexes located in the mitochondria, ALA is essential for metabolizing carbohydrates, proteins, and fats, and for the conversion of their energy into ATP. (
  • Ketogenic diet (KD) replaces all but non-starchy vegetable carbohydrates with low to moderate amounts of proteins and high amounts of monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats. (
  • The nutritional value of a suggested serving of farm to market maraschinos cherries includes 0 mg of cholesterol, 0 mg of sodium, 2 grams of carbohydrates, 0 grams of dietary fiber, 2 grams of sugar and 0 grams of proteins. (
  • Function: A critical cofactor in enzymes (flavoenzymes) involved in oxidation/reduction actions involving the metabolism of fats, proteins and carbohydrates. (
  • Function: Essential for the NAD and NADP enzyme systems, involved in energy generation from fats, carbohydrates and proteins. (
  • Protein Hydrolysate ℹ The proteins extracted from whey, the aqueous part of milk, are subjected to a filtration process in order to remove the fat and carbohydrates. (
  • G6P is Diflumidone still metabolized in glycolysis by PGI (phosphoglucose isomerase) as well as the phosphorylated pentose Diflumidone pathway by 6-phosphate blood sugar dehydrogenase (G6PD), an intermediate that activates MondoA/Mlx, which binds towards the carbohydrate-sensing areas (Tasks) for the promoter, and a couple of MondoA/MLX dimers bind to 1 Task. (
  • PDH is a mitochondrial multienzyme complex that catalyzes the oxidative decarboxylation of pyruvate and is one of the major enzymes responsible for the regulation of homeostasis of carbohydrate fuels in mammals. (
  • 2. Krus, U. et al: Pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 1 controls mitochondrial metabolism and insulin secretion in INS-1 832/13 clonal beta-cells. (
  • Moreover, gene expression for the mitochondrial enzymes, β-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase and succinyl-CoA: 3-ketoacid CoA transferase, was lower in the tumors than in the contralateral normal brain suggesting that these brain tumors have reduced ability to metabolize ketone bodies for energy. (
  • R-lipoic acid by itself may be 10 times more effective than other forms of lipoic acid and has been called the "mitochondrial antioxidant" because it is a key component of mitochondrial dehydrogenase complexes, which may help to slow the natural aging process in animals. (
  • 10] Dr. Russell Morse Wilder, at the Mayo Clinic, built on this research and coined the term ketogenic diet to describe a diet that produced a high level of ketone bodies in the blood (ketonemia) through an excess of fat and lack of carbohydrate. (
  • According to the carbohydrate-insulin ketogenic of obesity diet, 6 the processed carbohydrates e. (
  • This study evaluated the efficacy of KetoCal ® , a new nutritionally balanced high fat/low carbohydrate ketogenic diet for children with epilepsy, on the growth and vascularity of a malignant mouse astrocytoma (CT-2A) and a human malignant glioma (U87-MG). (
  • The ketogenic diet is a type of diet containing high fat (75% to 90%), moderate protein (10%) and very low carbohydrates (5%) (Anekwe et al. (
  • The ketogenic diet is a very-low carbohydrate diet, and very different from the standard American diet, which is very high in carbohydrates (starches and sugars). (
  • In this sense, dichloroacetate (DCA), a pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase (PDK) inhibitor, augments usage of the glycolysis-produced pyruvate in the mitochondria increasing oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS). (
  • The rationale of KD is valid both because it lowers carbohydrate uptake possibly leading to cancer cell starvation and apoptosis and, at the same time, increases the levels of ketone bodies available for energy production in normal cells but not in cancer cells which have an allegedly downregulated oxidative phosphorylation. (
  • Unfractionated orange pomace may be employed as a functional food ingredient for reducing the risk of pathophysiological processes linked to oxidative stress, inflammation, and carbohydrate metabolism, such as diabetes, among others. (
  • Two of these enzyme complexes, PDH (pyruvate dehydrogenase) and alpha-KGDH (alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase) are part of the citric acid cycle (Krebs cycle), and as such assume a central role for general energy production. (
  • Our bodies are incredibly adaptive to what you put into it - when you overload it with fats and take away carbohydrates, it will begin to burn ketones as the primary energy source. (
  • The original diet was composed of predominantly long-chain fats and was based on the ratio of fat to carbohydrate and protein (3:1 or 4:1), the so-called classic KD. (
  • Important for fats and carbohydrates metabolism. (
  • In practice, the diet allows you to eat real foods in the form of natural fats (butter, olive oil) and protein (meat, fish, poultry) while carbohydrates (pasta, bread, cake, candy etc..) are restricted. (
  • This gene provides instructions for making an enzyme called medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase, which is required to break down (metabolize) a group of fats called medium-chain fatty acids. (
  • Type 2 Diabetes: Although the current mainstream diabetes treatment advice to eat 45-65% of calories from carbohydrate is starting to change, many practitioners are still giving out the old advice. (
  • calories should come from carbohydrates. (
  • Beer has calories and carbohydrates. (
  • Inactivation of PDC inhibits the conversion from pyruvic acid to acetyl-CoA, thereby shifting the energy substrate utilization from carbohydrate to lipid [13, 14]. (
  • Both shift substrate utilization from carbohydrates to diet, cause ketosis, reduce glycemic excursions, lower insulin concentrations, produce weight loss, promote natriuresis, and lower blood pressure-actions. (
  • 356 gram of beer aka 1 and a half cup of beer contains 13 grams of carbohydrates. (
  • In our body, it is produced by converting 6-phosphate dehydrogenase to fructose. (
  • Koo HY, Wallig MA, Chung BH, Nara TY, Cho BH, Nakamura MT. Dietary fructose induces a wide range of genes with distinct shift in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in fed and fasted rat liver. (
  • High fructose diets increase 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 in liver and visceral adipose in rats within 24-h exposure. (
  • Drugs that target carbohydrate metabolism can also modify lipid metabolism and hence cholesterol plasma levels. (
  • MCADD is caused by a fault in the gene that provides the instructions to make an enzyme called medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (MCAD). (
  • For example, people affected by the severe forms of the condition are typically placed on a low-fat, high-carbohydrate diet with frequent meals. (
  • He reported that three water-soluble compounds, β-hydroxybutyrate, acetoacetate and acetone (known collectively as ketone bodies), were produced by the liver in otherwise healthy people when they were starved or if they consumed a very low-carbohydrate, high-fat diet. (
  • 4. Diet: Reduces the absorption of carbohydrates. (
  • 6 However, of note this diet still remained low in carbohydrate. (
  • The effects KetoCal ® on tumor growth, vascularity, and mouse survival were compared with that of an unrestricted high carbohydrate standard diet. (
  • KetoCal ® administered in restricted amounts significantly decreased the intracerebral growth of the CT-2A and U87-MG tumors by about 65% and 35%, respectively, and significantly enhanced health and survival relative to that of the control groups receiving the standard low fat/high carbohydrate diet. (
  • Humans didn't evolve eating a high carbohydrate diet, and as we see from the state of chronic disease rates in the US, a high carbohydrate intake can cause a wide range of metabolic issues. (
  • In contrast, a "keto" diet restricts daily carbohydrate intake to a much smaller amount. (
  • Reducing the amount of sugar and carbohydrates in the diet will reduce the amount of acetaldehyde created by intestinal yeast. (
  • It does not increase insulin secretion but "speeds up carbohydrate use of the cells by affecting membrane lipids. (
  • 2006). MondoA is definitely a very important transcription element that regulates enzymes involved in the metabolism of most carbohydrates in the cell, and conversely, it can be regulated from the metabolic intermediates of carbohydrates. (
  • Although most moms of toddlers would like to avoid that much sugar with their toddlers, it's exactly the high carbohydrate solution that could help prevent a VLCADD related metabolic crisis. (
  • Among its many uses, thiamine acts as a coenzyme with pyruvate dehydrogenase to form acetyl-CoA. (
  • When you eat carbohydrates, your digestive system breaks them down into simple sugars, and releases them into your bloodstream. (
  • High carbohydrate diets increase requirements in other species. (
  • 1. Gudi, R. et al: Diversity of the pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase gene family in humans. (
  • 2019). Low carbohydrates promote release of glucagon which leads to increased fatty acid supply to the liver, and hence high beta-oxidation (Adam et al. (
  • However, under low carbohydrate conditions, the liver diverts oxaloacetate to gluconeogenesis. (
  • Thiamine is a helper molecule (i.e., a cofactor) required by three enzymes involved in two pathways of carbohydrate metabolism. (
  • In four groups of eight Wistar rats, we used pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) flux studies to demonstrate changes in carbohydrate metabolism induced by the nicotinic acid receptor agonist, Acipimox, using hyperpolarized Carbon-13 (13 C) magnetic resonance spectroscopy. (
  • In rats which had been starved overnight, Acipimox caused a fall in ejection fraction by 7.8% (67.5 ± 8.9 to 60 ± 3.1, P = .03) and a nearly threefold rise in flux through PDH (from 0.182 ± 0.114 to 0.486 ± 0.139, P = .002), though this rise did not match pyruvate dehydrogenase flux observed in rats fed carbohydrate rich chow (0.726 ± 0.201). (
  • In fed rats, Acipimox decreased pyruvate dehydrogenase flux (to 0.512 ± 0.13, P = .04). (
  • In step four, acetoacetate undergoes spontaneous degradation to produce carbondioxide and acetone, or it may be reduced to D-β-hydroxybutyrate via an enzyme-catalyzed reversible pathway using β-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase. (
  • Chronic oral ingestion of L-carnitine and carbohydrate increases muscle carnitine content and alters muscle fuel metablolism during exercise in humans. (
  • This enzyme belongs to the family of isomerases, specifically those racemases and epimerases acting on carbohydrates and derivatives. (
  • Acyl-CoA dehydrogenases (ACADs) are a class of enzymes that function to catalyze the initial step in each cycle of fatty acid β-oxidation in the mitochondria of cells. (
  • Beta-glucuronidase is needed for the break down of complex carbohydrates for energy. (
  • Another lipoic acid containing enzyme complex, Bckadh (branched-chain keto-acid dehydrogenase), is involved in deriving energy from the branched chain amino acids, leucine, isoleucine, and valine. (
  • The others ingested energy and time-matched carbohydrate drinks (CHO). (
  • Discovery of insulin in the s enabled people with diabetes to control hyperglycemia on high-carbohydrate diets. (
  • The downside is that most of the foods that have MSG in them are also high in high-glycemic carbohydrate. (
  • Ketosis is the state wherein ketone bodies are generated within the physique on account of a carbohydrate and sugar restricted weight loss plan. (
  • Evolutionary Gain of Oligosaccharide Hydrolysis and Sugar Transport Enhanced Carbohydrate Partitioning in Sweet Watermelon Fruits. (
  • In conclusion, we demonstrate that nicotinic acid receptor agonists impair cardiac contractility associated with a decline in cardiac energetics and show that the mechanism is likely a combination of reduced fatty acid availability and a failure to upregulate carbohydrate metabolism, essentially starving the heart of fuel. (
  • Suitable fruits are divided into two groups based on the amount of carbohydrate they contain, and vegetables are similarly divided into two groups. (
  • For endurance training, sports supplements like electrolytes, carbohydrate bars, gels and drinks are the best training buddies. (
  • Whey isolates contain the higher percentage of pure protein and can be pure enough to be virtually lactose free, carbohydrate free, fat free, and cholesterol free. (
  • A 3:1 ratio of fat to carbohydrate and protein, with added long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPs), Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and Arachidonic Acid (AA). (
  • PDHK1 or Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Kinase 1 is a member of the PDHK family that phosphorylate and inactivate the Pyruvate Dehydrogenase (PDH) (1). (
  • After Glow is a well balanced formula made up of a 2:1 carbohydrate to protein ratio. (