Reversibly catalyze the oxidation of a hydroxyl group of carbohydrates to form a keto sugar, aldehyde or lactone. Any acceptor except molecular oxygen is permitted. Includes EC 1.1.1.; EC 1.1.2.; and 1.1.99.
The largest class of organic compounds, including STARCH; GLYCOGEN; CELLULOSE; POLYSACCHARIDES; and simple MONOSACCHARIDES. Carbohydrates are composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a ratio of Cn(H2O)n.
Cellular processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of CARBOHYDRATES.
Carbohydrates present in food comprising digestible sugars and starches and indigestible cellulose and other dietary fibers. The former are the major source of energy. The sugars are in beet and cane sugar, fruits, honey, sweet corn, corn syrup, milk and milk products, etc.; the starches are in cereal grains, legumes (FABACEAE), tubers, etc. (From Claudio & Lagua, Nutrition and Diet Therapy Dictionary, 3d ed, p32, p277)
A tetrameric enzyme that, along with the coenzyme NAD+, catalyzes the interconversion of LACTATE and PYRUVATE. In vertebrates, genes for three different subunits (LDH-A, LDH-B and LDH-C) exist.
A zinc-containing enzyme which oxidizes primary and secondary alcohols or hemiacetals in the presence of NAD. In alcoholic fermentation, it catalyzes the final step of reducing an aldehyde to an alcohol in the presence of NADH and hydrogen.
Enzymes that catalyze the dehydrogenation of GLYCERALDEHYDE 3-PHOSPHATE. Several types of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate-dehydrogenase exist including phosphorylating and non-phosphorylating varieties and ones that transfer hydrogen to NADP and ones that transfer hydrogen to NAD.
An enzyme that oxidizes an aldehyde in the presence of NAD+ and water to an acid and NADH. This enzyme was formerly classified as EC
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of (S)-malate and NAD+ to oxaloacetate and NADH. EC
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-glutamate and water to 2-oxoglutarate and NH3 in the presence of NAD+. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC
An enzyme of the oxidoreductase class that catalyzes the conversion of isocitrate and NAD+ to yield 2-ketoglutarate, carbon dioxide, and NADH. It occurs in cell mitochondria. The enzyme requires Mg2+, Mn2+; it is activated by ADP, citrate, and Ca2+, and inhibited by NADH, NADPH, and ATP. The reaction is the key rate-limiting step of the citric acid (tricarboxylic) cycle. (From Dorland, 27th ed) (The NADP+ enzyme is EC EC
A subclass of enzymes which includes all dehydrogenases acting on primary and secondary alcohols as well as hemiacetals. They are further classified according to the acceptor which can be NAD+ or NADP+ (subclass 1.1.1), cytochrome (1.1.2), oxygen (1.1.3), quinone (1.1.5), or another acceptor (1.1.99).
A flavoprotein containing oxidoreductase that catalyzes the reduction of lipoamide by NADH to yield dihydrolipoamide and NAD+. The enzyme is a component of several MULTIENZYME COMPLEXES.
A flavoprotein containing oxidoreductase that catalyzes the dehydrogenation of SUCCINATE to fumarate. In most eukaryotic organisms this enzyme is a component of mitochondrial electron transport complex II.
An alcohol oxidoreductase which catalyzes the oxidation of L-iditol to L-sorbose in the presence of NAD. It also acts on D-glucitol to form D-fructose. It also acts on other closely related sugar alcohols to form the corresponding sugar. EC
The sequence of carbohydrates within POLYSACCHARIDES; GLYCOPROTEINS; and GLYCOLIPIDS.
A coenzyme composed of ribosylnicotinamide 5'-diphosphate coupled to adenosine 5'-phosphate by pyrophosphate linkage. It is found widely in nature and is involved in numerous enzymatic reactions in which it serves as an electron carrier by being alternately oxidized (NAD+) and reduced (NADH). (Dorland, 27th ed)
A glucose dehydrogenase that catalyzes the oxidation of beta-D-glucose to form D-glucono-1,5-lactone, using NAD as well as NADP as a coenzyme.
Enzymes of the oxidoreductase class that catalyze the dehydrogenation of hydroxysteroids. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 1.1.-.
Oxidoreductases that are specific for ALDEHYDES.
An enzyme of the oxidoreductase class that catalyzes the reaction 6-phospho-D-gluconate and NADP+ to yield D-ribulose 5-phosphate, carbon dioxide, and NADPH. The reaction is a step in the pentose phosphate pathway of glucose metabolism. (From Dorland, 27th ed) EC
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a carbohydrate.
Reversibly catalyzes the oxidation of a hydroxyl group of sugar alcohols to form a keto sugar, aldehyde or lactone. Any acceptor except molecular oxygen is permitted. Includes EC 1.1.1.; EC 1.1.2. and EC 1.1.99.
D-Glucose:1-oxidoreductases. Catalyzes the oxidation of D-glucose to D-glucono-gamma-lactone and reduced acceptor. Any acceptor except molecular oxygen is permitted. Includes EC; EC; EC and EC
Catalyze the oxidation of 3-hydroxysteroids to 3-ketosteroids.
Enzymes that catalyze the first step in the beta-oxidation of FATTY ACIDS.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A flavoprotein and iron sulfur-containing oxidoreductase that catalyzes the oxidation of NADH to NAD. In eukaryotes the enzyme can be found as a component of mitochondrial electron transport complex I. Under experimental conditions the enzyme can use CYTOCHROME C GROUP as the reducing cofactor. The enzyme was formerly listed as EC
An enzyme that catalyzes the dehydrogenation of inosine 5'-phosphate to xanthosine 5'-phosphate in the presence of NAD. EC
Alcohol oxidoreductases with substrate specificity for LACTIC ACID.
Flavoproteins that catalyze reversibly the reduction of carbon dioxide to formate. Many compounds can act as acceptors, but the only physiologically active acceptor is NAD. The enzymes are active in the fermentation of sugars and other compounds to carbon dioxide and are the key enzymes in obtaining energy when bacteria are grown on formate as the main carbon source. They have been purified from bovine blood. EC
A flavoprotein oxidoreductase that has specificity for medium-chain fatty acids. It forms a complex with ELECTRON TRANSFERRING FLAVOPROTEINS and conveys reducing equivalents to UBIQUINONE.
A class of enzymes that catalyzes the oxidation of 17-hydroxysteroids to 17-ketosteroids. EC 1.1.-.
An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of XANTHINE in the presence of NAD+ to form URIC ACID and NADH. It acts also on a variety of other purines and aldehydes.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
A ketone oxidoreductase that catalyzes the overall conversion of alpha-keto acids to ACYL-CoA and CO2. The enzyme requires THIAMINE DIPHOSPHATE as a cofactor. Defects in genes that code for subunits of the enzyme are a cause of MAPLE SYRUP URINE DISEASE. The enzyme was formerly classified as EC
Enzymes that reversibly catalyze the oxidation of a 3-hydroxyacyl CoA to 3-ketoacyl CoA in the presence of NAD. They are key enzymes in the oxidation of fatty acids and in mitochondrial fatty acid synthesis.
The E1 component of the multienzyme PYRUVATE DEHYDROGENASE COMPLEX. It is composed of 2 alpha subunits (pyruvate dehydrogenase E1 alpha subunit) and 2 beta subunits (pyruvate dehydrogenase E1 beta subunit).
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The class of all enzymes catalyzing oxidoreduction reactions. The substrate that is oxidized is regarded as a hydrogen donor. The systematic name is based on donor:acceptor oxidoreductase. The recommended name will be dehydrogenase, wherever this is possible; as an alternative, reductase can be used. Oxidase is only used in cases where O2 is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p9)
Oxidoreductases that are specific for KETONES.
Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases that catalyzes the reversible conversion of CORTISOL to the inactive metabolite CORTISONE. Enzymes in this class can utilize either NAD or NADP as cofactors.
Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate. A coenzyme composed of ribosylnicotinamide 5'-phosphate (NMN) coupled by pyrophosphate linkage to the 5'-phosphate adenosine 2',5'-bisphosphate. It serves as an electron carrier in a number of reactions, being alternately oxidized (NADP+) and reduced (NADPH). (Dorland, 27th ed)
An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of UDPglucose to UDPglucuronate in the presence of NAD+. EC
An oxidoreductase involved in pyrimidine base degradation. It catalyzes the catabolism of THYMINE; URACIL and the chemotherapeutic drug, 5-FLUOROURACIL.
A disease-producing enzyme deficiency subject to many variants, some of which cause a deficiency of GLUCOSE-6-PHOSPHATE DEHYDROGENASE activity in erythrocytes, leading to hemolytic anemia.
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
Sugar alcohol dehydrogenases that have specificity for MANNITOL. Enzymes in this category are generally classified according to their preference for a specific reducing cofactor.
A low-affinity 11 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase found in a variety of tissues, most notably in LIVER; LUNG; ADIPOSE TISSUE; vascular tissue; OVARY; and the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. The enzyme acts reversibly and can use either NAD or NADP as cofactors.
An NAD-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the reversible DEAMINATION of L-ALANINE to PYRUVATE and AMMONIA. The enzyme is needed for growth when ALANINE is the sole CARBON or NITROGEN source. It may also play a role in CELL WALL synthesis because L-ALANINE is an important constituent of the PEPTIDOGLYCAN layer.
A 3-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase which catalyzes the reversible reduction of the active androgen, DIHYDROTESTOSTERONE to 5 ALPHA-ANDROSTANE-3 ALPHA,17 BETA-DIOL. It also has activity towards other 3-alpha-hydroxysteroids and on 9-, 11- and 15- hydroxyprostaglandins. The enzyme is B-specific in reference to the orientation of reduced NAD or NADPH.
A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.
Catalyzes reversibly the oxidation of hydroxyl groups of prostaglandins.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
A flavoprotein oxidoreductase that has specificity for short-chain fatty acids. It forms a complex with ELECTRON-TRANSFERRING FLAVOPROTEINS and conveys reducing equivalents to UBIQUINONE.
A metalloflavoprotein enzyme involved the metabolism of VITAMIN A, this enzyme catalyzes the oxidation of RETINAL to RETINOIC ACID, using both NAD+ and FAD coenzymes. It also acts on both the 11-trans- and 13-cis-forms of RETINAL.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
A group of enzymes that catalyze the reversible reduction-oxidation reaction of 20-hydroxysteroids, such as from a 20-ketosteroid to a 20-alpha-hydroxysteroid (EC or to a 20-beta-hydroxysteroid (EC
Carbohydrates consisting of between two (DISACCHARIDES) and ten MONOSACCHARIDES connected by either an alpha- or beta-glycosidic link. They are found throughout nature in both the free and bound form.
An high-affinity, NAD-dependent 11-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase that acts unidirectionally to catalyze the dehydrogenation of CORTISOL to CORTISONE. It is found predominantly in mineralocorticoid target tissues such as the KIDNEY; COLON; SWEAT GLANDS; and the PLACENTA. Absence of the enzyme leads to a fatal form of childhood hypertension termed, APPARENT MINERALOCORTICOID EXCESS SYNDROME.
Carbohydrate antigens expressed by malignant tissue. They are useful as tumor markers and are measured in the serum by means of a radioimmunoassay employing monoclonal antibodies.
A flavoprotein oxidoreductase that has specificity for long-chain fatty acids. It forms a complex with ELECTRON-TRANSFERRING FLAVOPROTEINS and conveys reducing equivalents to UBIQUINONE.
Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.
An enzyme that catalyzes the reduction of aspartic beta-semialdehyde to homoserine, which is the branch point in biosynthesis of methionine, lysine, threonine and leucine from aspartic acid. EC
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
Any of a group of polysaccharides of the general formula (C6-H10-O5)n, composed of a long-chain polymer of glucose in the form of amylose and amylopectin. It is the chief storage form of energy reserve (carbohydrates) in plants.
A mitochondrial flavoprotein, this enzyme catalyzes the oxidation of 3-methylbutanoyl-CoA to 3-methylbut-2-enoyl-CoA using FAD as a cofactor. Defects in the enzyme, is associated with isovaleric acidemia (IVA).
An NAD+ dependent enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of 3-carboxy-2-hydroxy-4-methylpentanoate to 3-carboxy-4-methyl-2-oxopentanoate. It is involved in the biosynthesis of VALINE; LEUCINE; and ISOLEUCINE.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Proteins that share the common characteristic of binding to carbohydrates. Some ANTIBODIES and carbohydrate-metabolizing proteins (ENZYMES) also bind to carbohydrates, however they are not considered lectins. PLANT LECTINS are carbohydrate-binding proteins that have been primarily identified by their hemagglutinating activity (HEMAGGLUTININS). However, a variety of lectins occur in animal species where they serve diverse array of functions through specific carbohydrate recognition.
(Pyruvate dehydrogenase (lipoamide))-phosphate phosphohydrolase. A mitochondrial enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolytic removal of a phosphate on a specific seryl hydroxyl group of pyruvate dehydrogenase, reactivating the enzyme complex. EC
An octameric enzyme belonging to the superfamily of amino acid dehydrogenases. Leucine dehydrogenase catalyzes the reversible oxidative deamination of L-LEUCINE, to 4-methyl-2-oxopentanoate (2-ketoisocaproate) and AMMONIA, with the corresponding reduction of the cofactor NAD+.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of 3-phosphoglycerate to 3-phosphohydroxypyruvate. It takes part in the L-SERINE biosynthesis pathway.
Enzymes that catalyze the oxidation of estradiol at the 17-hydroxyl group in the presence of NAD+ or NADP+ to yield estrone and NADH or NADPH. The 17-hydroxyl group can be in the alpha- or beta-configuration. EC
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
Systems of enzymes which function sequentially by catalyzing consecutive reactions linked by common metabolic intermediates. They may involve simply a transfer of water molecules or hydrogen atoms and may be associated with large supramolecular structures such as MITOCHONDRIA or RIBOSOMES.
An enzyme that plays a role in the GLUTAMATE and butanoate metabolism pathways by catalyzing the oxidation of succinate semialdehyde to SUCCINATE using NAD+ as a coenzyme. Deficiency of this enzyme, causes 4-hydroxybutyricaciduria, a rare inborn error in the metabolism of the neurotransmitter 4-aminobutyric acid (GABA).
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
An NAD-dependent glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase found in the cytosol of eucaryotes. It catalyses the dehydrogenation and phosphorylation of GLYCERALDEHYDE 3-PHOSPHATE to 3-phospho-D-glyceroyl phosphate, which is an important step in the GLYCOLYSIS pathway.
Simple sugars, carbohydrates which cannot be decomposed by hydrolysis. They are colorless crystalline substances with a sweet taste and have the same general formula CnH2nOn. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
A subclass of enzymes which includes all dehydrogenases acting on carbon-carbon bonds. This enzyme group includes all the enzymes that introduce double bonds into substrates by direct dehydrogenation of carbon-carbon single bonds.
Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of prephenate to p-hydroxyphenylpyruvate in the presence of NAD. In the enteric bacteria, this enzyme also possesses chorismate mutase activity, thereby catalyzing the first two steps in the biosynthesis of tyrosine. EC
The chemical or biochemical addition of carbohydrate or glycosyl groups to other chemicals, especially peptides or proteins. Glycosyl transferases are used in this biochemical reaction.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Fats present in food, especially in animal products such as meat, meat products, butter, ghee. They are present in lower amounts in nuts, seeds, and avocados.
A hexose or fermentable monosaccharide and isomer of glucose from manna, the ash Fraxinus ornus and related plants. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed & Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
A monosaccharide in sweet fruits and honey that is soluble in water, alcohol, or ether. It is used as a preservative and an intravenous infusion in parenteral feeding.
An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of 1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate to L-GLUTAMATE in the presence of NAD. Defects in the enzyme are the cause of hyperprolinemia II.
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
A flavoprotein enzyme that is responsible for the catabolism of LYSINE; HYDROXYLYSINE; and TRYPTOPHAN. It catalyzes the oxidation of GLUTARYL-CoA to crotonoyl-CoA using FAD as a cofactor. Glutaric aciduria type I is an inborn error of metabolism due to the deficiency of glutaryl-CoA dehydrogenase.
Small molecules that are required for the catalytic function of ENZYMES. Many VITAMINS are coenzymes.
Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.
Proteins obtained from foods. They are the main source of the ESSENTIAL AMINO ACIDS.
An aldohexose that occurs naturally in the D-form in lactose, cerebrosides, gangliosides, and mucoproteins. Deficiency of galactosyl-1-phosphate uridyltransferase (GALACTOSE-1-PHOSPHATE URIDYL-TRANSFERASE DEFICIENCY DISEASE) causes an error in galactose metabolism called GALACTOSEMIA, resulting in elevations of galactose in the blood.
An enzymes that catalyzes the reversible reduction-oxidation reaction of 20-alpha-hydroxysteroids, such as from PROGESTERONE to 20-ALPHA-DIHYDROPROGESTERONE.
A family of compounds containing an oxo group with the general structure of 1,5-pentanedioic acid. (From Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p442)
A metabolic process that converts GLUCOSE into two molecules of PYRUVIC ACID through a series of enzymatic reactions. Energy generated by this process is conserved in two molecules of ATP. Glycolysis is the universal catabolic pathway for glucose, free glucose, or glucose derived from complex CARBOHYDRATES, such as GLYCOGEN and STARCH.
Enzymes catalyzing the dehydrogenation of secondary amines, introducing a C=N double bond as the primary reaction. In some cases this is later hydrolyzed.
Glucose in blood.
A series of oxidative reactions in the breakdown of acetyl units derived from GLUCOSE; FATTY ACIDS; or AMINO ACIDS by means of tricarboxylic acid intermediates. The end products are CARBON DIOXIDE, water, and energy in the form of phosphate bonds.

The contribution of adjacent subunits to the active sites of D-3-phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase. (1/380)

D-3-Phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase (PGDH) from Escherichia coli is allosterically inhibited by L-serine, the end product of its metabolic pathway. Previous results have shown that inhibition by serine has a large effect on Vmax and only a small or negligible effect on Km. PGDH is thus classified as a V-type allosteric enzyme. In this study, the active site of PGDH has been studied by site-directed mutagenesis to assess the role of certain residues in substrate binding and catalysis. These consist of a group of cationic residues (Arg-240, Arg-60, Arg-62, Lys-39, and Lys-141') that potentially form an electrostatic environment for the binding of the negatively charged substrate, as well as the only tryptophan residue found in PGDH and which fits into a hydrophobic pocket immediately adjacent to the active site histidine residue. Interestingly, Trp-139' and Lys-141' are part of the polypeptide chain of the subunit that is adjacent to the active site. The results of mutating these residues show that Arg-240, Arg-60, Arg-62, and Lys-141' play distinct roles in the binding of the substrate to the active site. Mutants of Trp-139' show that this residue may play a role in stabilizing the catalytic center of the enzyme. Furthermore, these mutants appear to have a significant effect on the cooperativity of serine inhibition and suggest a possible role for Trp-139' in the cooperative interactions between subunits.  (+info)

Molecular characterization of a flagellar export locus of Helicobacter pylori. (2/380)

Motility of Helicobacter species has been shown to be essential for successful colonization of the host. We have investigated the organization of a flagellar export locus in Helicobacter pylori. A 7-kb fragment of the H. pylori CCUG 17874 genome was cloned and sequenced, revealing an operon comprising an open reading frame of unknown function (ORF03), essential housekeeping genes (ileS and murB), flagellar export genes (fliI and fliQ), and a homolog to a gene implicated in virulence factor transport in other pathogens (virB11). A promoter for this operon, showing similarity to the Escherichia coli sigma70 consensus, was identified by primer extension. Cotranscription of the genes in the operon was demonstrated by reverse transcription-PCR, and transcription of virB11, fliI, fliQ, and murB was detected in human or mouse biopsies obtained from infected hosts. The genetic organization of this locus was conserved in a panel of H. pylori clinical isolates. Engineered fliI and fliQ mutant strains were completely aflagellate and nonmotile, whereas a virB11 mutant still produced flagella. The fliI and fliQ mutant strains produced reduced levels of flagellin and the hook protein FlgE. Production of OMP4, a member of the outer membrane protein family identified in H. pylori 26695, was reduced in both the virB11 mutant and the fliI mutant, suggesting related functions of the virulence factor export protein (VirB11) and the flagellar export component (FliI).  (+info)

Regulation of alginate biosynthesis in Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae. (3/380)

Both Pseudomonas aeruginosa and the phytopathogen P. syringae produce the exopolysaccharide alginate. However, the environmental signals that trigger alginate gene expression in P. syringae are different from those in P. aeruginosa with copper being a major signal in P. syringae. In P. aeruginosa, the alternate sigma factor encoded by algT (sigma22) and the response regulator AlgR1 are required for transcription of algD, a gene which encodes a key enzyme in the alginate biosynthetic pathway. In the present study, we cloned and characterized the gene encoding AlgR1 from P. syringae. The deduced amino acid sequence of AlgR1 from P. syringae showed 86% identity to its P. aeruginosa counterpart. Sequence analysis of the region flanking algR1 in P. syringae revealed the presence of argH, algZ, and hemC in an arrangement virtually identical to that reported in P. aeruginosa. An algR1 mutant, P. syringae FF5.32, was defective in alginate production but could be complemented when algR1 was expressed in trans. The algD promoter region in P. syringae (PsalgD) was also characterized and shown to diverge significantly from the algD promoter in P. aeruginosa. Unlike P. aeruginosa, algR1 was not required for the transcription of algD in P. syringae, and PsalgD lacked the consensus sequence recognized by AlgR1. However, both the algD and algR1 upstream regions in P. syringae contained the consensus sequence recognized by sigma22, suggesting that algT is required for transcription of both genes.  (+info)

A novel NDP-6-deoxyhexosyl-4-ulose reductase in the pathway for the synthesis of thymidine diphosphate-D-fucose. (4/380)

The serotype-specific polysaccharide antigen of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans Y4 (serotype b) consists of D-fucose and L-rhamnose. Thymidine diphosphate (dTDP)-D-fucose is the activated nucleotide sugar form of D-fucose, which has been identified as a constituent of structural polysaccharides in only a few bacteria. In this paper, we show that three dTDP-D-fucose synthetic enzymes are encoded by genes in the gene cluster responsible for the synthesis of serotype b-specific polysaccharide in A. actinomycetemcomitans. The first and second steps of the dTDP-D-fucose synthetic pathway are catalyzed by D-glucose-1-phosphate thymidylyltransferase and dTDP-D-glucose 4,6-dehydratase, which are encoded by rmlA and rmlB in the gene cluster, respectively. These two reactions are common to the well studied dTDP-L-rhamnose synthetic pathway. However, the enzyme catalyzing the last step of the dTDP-D-fucose synthetic pathway has never been reported. We identified the fcd gene encoding a dTDP-4-keto-6-deoxy-D-glucose reductase. After purifying the three enzymes, their enzymatic activities were analyzed by reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography. In addition, nuclear magnetic resonance analysis and gas-liquid chromatography analysis proved that the fcd gene product converts dTDP-4-keto-6-deoxy-D-glucose to dTDP-D-fucose. Moreover, kinetic analysis of the enzyme indicated that the Km values for dTDP-4-keto-6-deoxy-D-glucose and NADPH are 97.3 and 28.7 microM, respectively, and that the enzyme follows the sequential mechanism. This paper is the first report on the dTDP-D-fucose synthetic pathway and dTDP-4-keto-6-deoxy-D-glucose reductase.  (+info)

Purification and characterization of D-glucosaminitol dehydrogenase from Agrobacterium radiobacter. (5/380)

D-Glucosaminitol dehydrogenase, which catalyzes the conversion of D-glucosaminitol to 3-keto-D-glucosaminitol, was purified to apparent homogeneity from extracts of Agrobacterium radiobacter. This organism has constitutively depressed levels of the enzyme but expression of the enzyme is induced by addition of D-glucosamine to the medium. Purification included ammonium sulfate fractionation and chromatography on columns of DEAE-Sephacel, Octyl-Sepharose CL-4B, and Cellulofine. The purified enzyme migrated as a single band, coinciding with dehydrogenase activities specific for D-glucosaminitol and ethanol, when electrophoresed on a 7.5% polyacrylamide gel at pH 8.0. Electrophoresis on a 12.5% PAGE in the presence of 1% SDS also yielded a single band. The enzyme had an apparent molecular mass of 79 kDa, as measured by the pattern of elution from a column of Cellulofine. The results indicated that the enzyme was a dimer of identical (or nearly identical) subunits of 39.5 kDa. D-Glucosaminitol dehydrogenase required NAD+ as a cofactor and used ethanol as the preferred substrate, as well as aliphatic alcohols with 2 to 4 carbon atoms, D-glucosaminitol, D-glucosaminate, DL-allothreonine, glycerol, and erythritol as additional substrates. In 50 mM Tris-HCl buffer (pH 9.0) at 25 degrees C, the K(m) for D-glucosaminitol, ethanol, and NAD+ were 2.2, 2.0, and 0.08 mM, respectively. The enzyme had a pH optimum of 10 for D-glucosaminitol and 8.5 for ethanol. The enzyme lost substantial activity when treated with pyrazole, with certain reagents that react with sulfhydryl groups and with Zn2+ ion. The various results together suggest that the enzyme exploits different amino acid residues for the dehydrogenation of ethanol and of D-glucosaminitol.  (+info)

Characterization of dTDP-4-dehydrorhamnose 3,5-epimerase and dTDP-4-dehydrorhamnose reductase, required for dTDP-L-rhamnose biosynthesis in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium LT2. (6/380)

The thymidine diphosphate-L-rhamnose biosynthesis pathway is required for assembly of surface glycoconjugates in a growing list of bacterial pathogens, making this pathway a potential therapeutic target. However, the terminal reactions have not been characterized. To complete assignment of the reactions, the four enzymes (RmlABCD) that constitute the pathway in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium LT2 were overexpressed. The purified RmlC and D enzymes together catalyze the terminal two steps involving NAD(P)H-dependent formation of dTDP-L-rhamnose from dTDP-6-deoxy-D-xylo-4-hexulose. RmlC was assigned as the thymidine diphosphate-4-dehydrorhamnose 3,5-epimerase by showing its activity to be NAD(P)H-independent. Spectrofluorometric and radiolabeling experiments were used to demonstrate the ability of RmlC to catalyze the formation of dTDP-6-deoxy-L-lyxo-4-hexulose from dTDP-6-deoxy-D-xylo-4-hexulose. Under reaction conditions, RmlC converted approximately 3% of its substrate to product. RmlD was unequivocally identified as the thymidine diphosphate-4-dehydrorhamnose reductase. The reductase property of RmlD was shown by equilibrium analysis and its ability to enable efficient biosynthesis of dTDP-L-rhamnose, even in the presence of low amounts of dTDP-6-deoxy-L-lyxo-4-hexulose. Comparison of 23 known and predicted RmlD sequences identified several conserved amino acid residues, especially the serine-tyrosine-lysine catalytic triad, characteristic for members of the reductase/epimerase/dehydrogenase protein superfamily. In conclusion, RmlD is a novel member of this protein superfamily.  (+info)

Interstrain variation of the polysaccharide B biosynthesis locus of Bacteroides fragilis: characterization of the region from strain 638R. (7/380)

The sequence and analysis of the capsular polysaccharide biosynthesis locus, PS B2, of Bacteroides fragilis 638R are described, and the sequence is compared with that of the PS B1 biosynthesis locus of B. fragilis NCTC 9343. Two genes of the region, wcgD and wcgC, are shown by complementation to encode a UDP-N-acetylglucosamine 2-epimerase and a UDP-N-acetylmannosamine dehydrogenase, respectively.  (+info)

PCR identification of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and direct detection in clinical samples from cystic fibrosis patients. (8/380)

This report describes a PCR primer pair that targets the algD GDP mannose gene of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and produces a specific 520-bp PCR product useful for P. aeruginosa identification. This PCR assay was tested with 182 isolates of P. aeruginosa and 20 isolates of other bacterial species, and demonstrated 100% specificity and sensitivity. The test was also able to detect P. aeruginosa directly in clinical samples such as sputum or throat swabs obtained from cystic fibrosis patients. The combination of this primer with a universal bacterial primer, acting as a control to assess DNA quality in the sample, resulted in a robust PCR method that can be used for rapid P. aeruginosa detection.  (+info)

As a member of the wwPDB, the RCSB PDB curates and annotates PDB data according to agreed upon standards. The RCSB PDB also provides a variety of tools and resources. Users can perform simple and advanced searches based on annotations relating to sequence, structure and function. These molecules are visualized, downloaded, and analyzed by users who range from students to specialized scientists.
AA3 enzymes belong to the glucose-methanol-choline (GMC) oxidoreductases family. AA3 enzymes are flavoproteins containing a flavin-adenine dinucleotide (FAD)-binding domain. Family AA3 can be divided into 4 subfamilies: AA3_1 (mostly cellobiose dehydrogenases), AA3_2 (including both aryl alcohol oxidase and glucose 1-oxidase), AA3_3 (alcohol oxidase) and AA3_4 (pyranose 2-oxidase ...
SWISS-MODEL Template Library (SMTL) entry for 1mfz. Partially refined 2.8 A Crystal structure of GDP-mannose dehydrogenase from P. aeruginosa
Boc Sciences offers cas 18422-53-2 1,2:4,5-Di-O-isopropylidene-b-D-erythro-2,3-hexodiulo-2,6-pyranose in bulk,please inquire us to get a quote for 18422-53-2 1,2:4,5-Di-O-isopropylidene-b-D-erythro-2,3-hexodiulo-2,6-pyranose.
Proliferating cells, including cancer cells, obtain serine both exogenously and via the metabolism of glucose. By catalyzing the first, rate-limiting step in the synthesis of serine from glucose, phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase (PHGDH) controls flux through the biosynthetic pathway for this important amino acid and represents a putative target in oncology. To discover inhibitors of PHGDH, a coupled biochemical assay was developed and optimized to enable high-throughput screening for inhibitors of human PHGDH. Feedback inhibition was minimized by coupling PHGDH activity to two downstream enzymes (PSAT1 and PSPH), providing a marked improvement in enzymatic turnover. Further coupling of NADH to a diaphorase/resazurin system enabled a red-shifted detection readout, minimizing interference due to compound autofluorescence. With this protocol, over 400,000 small molecules were screened for PHGDH inhibition, and following hit validation and triage work, a piperazine-1-thiourea was identified. Following ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase diverts glycolytic flux and contributes to oncogenesis. AU - Locasale, Jason W.. AU - Grassian, Alexandra R.. AU - Melman, Tamar. AU - Lyssiotis, Costas A.. AU - Mattaini, Katherine R.. AU - Bass, Adam J.. AU - Heffron, Gregory. AU - Metallo, Christian M.. AU - Muranen, Taru. AU - Sharfi, Hadar. AU - Sasaki, Atsuo T.. AU - Anastasiou, Dimitrios. AU - Mullarky, Edouard. AU - Vokes, Natalie I.. AU - Sasaki, Mika. AU - Beroukhim, Rameen. AU - Stephanopoulos, Gregory. AU - Ligon, Azra H.. AU - Meyerson, Matthew. AU - Richardson, Andrea L.. AU - Chin, Lynda. AU - Wagner, Gerhard. AU - Asara, John M.. AU - Brugge, Joan S.. AU - Cantley, Lewis C.. AU - Vander Heiden, Matthew G.. PY - 2011/9/1. Y1 - 2011/9/1. N2 - Most tumors exhibit increased glucose metabolism to lactate, however, the extent to which glucose-derived metabolic fluxes are used for alternative processes is poorly understood. Using a metabolomics approach with isotope labeling, we found that ...
BioAssay record AID 400045 submitted by ChEMBL: Antimicrobial activity against Sporotrichum pulverulentum after 60 mins by agar diffusion method.
It is reasonable that efficient conversion of L-serine to pyruvate requires sufficient availability of L-serine. To enhance the biosynthesis of L-serine, we overexpressed the genes of de novo L-serine biosynthetic pathway. L-serine is synthesized from D-3-phosphoglycerate by three reactions catalyzed by D-3-phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase, D-3-phosphoserine aminotransferase and phosphoserine phosphatase, which are encoded by serA, serC and serB, respectively (Figure 1). D-3-phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase is regulated by allosteric end-product inhibition. Moreover, a published report has showed that a truncated D-3-phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase (PGDH) serA Δ197 was no longer inhibited by L-serine in C. glutamicum [18]. As such, we combined serA Δ197 together with serB and serC into an artificial operon driven by the constitutive promoter trc, creating plasmid pTSer. Strain SD01 was transformed with plasmid pTSer for activating the Serine-Deamination (SD) pathway. After 48h cultivation, 3.96 g/L ...
Carbohydrate dehydrogenases are a group of dehydrogenase enzymes that occur in many organisms and facilitate the conversion from a carbohydrate to an aldehyde, lactone, or ketose.. Carbohydrate dehydrogenases are the most common quinoprotein oxidoreductases,[1] which are enzymes that oxidize a wide range of molecules.. An example includes L-gulonolactone oxidase.. They are categorized under EC number 1.1. More specifically, they are in three subcodes: 1, 2, and 99, categorized as follows:. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - An essential role for de novo biosynthesis of L-serine in CNS development. AU - Furuya, Shigeki. PY - 2008/1/1. Y1 - 2008/1/1. N2 - L-Serine plays a versatile role in intermediary metabolism in eukaryotic cells. The physiological significance of its de novo biosynthesis, however, remains largely unexplored. We demonstrated previously that neurons lose the ability to synthesize L-serine after their final differentiation and thus depend on astrocytes to supply this amino acid. This is due to a lack of neuronal expression of 3-phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase (Phgdh), which initiates de novo L-serine synthesis via the phosphorylated pathway from the glycolytic intermediate 3-phosphoglycerate. In rodent brain, Phgdh is expressed exclusively by the neuroepithelium/radial glia/astrocyte lineage. In humans, serine deficiency disorders can result from a deficiency of Phgdh or other enzymes involved in serine biosynthesis in the phosphorylated pathway. Patients with such disorders have ...
Thank you for your interest in spreading the word about Biochemical Society Transactions.. NOTE: We only request your email address so that the person you are recommending the page to knows that you wanted them to see it, and that it is not junk mail. We do not capture any email address.. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Kinetic modeling of a bi-enzymatic system for efficient conversion of lactose to lactobionic acid. AU - Van, Wouter. AU - Bhagwat, Aditya. AU - Ludwig, Roland. AU - Dewulf, Jo. AU - Haltrich, Dietmar. AU - Van Langenhove, Herman. PY - 2009/4/1. Y1 - 2009/4/1. N2 - A model has been developed to describe the interaction between two enzymes and an intermediary redox mediator. In this bi-enzymatic process, the enzyme cellobiose dehydrogenase oxidizes lactose at the C-1 position of the reducing sugar moiety to lactobionolactone, which spontaneously hydrolyzes to lactobionic acid. 2,20 Azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt is used as electron acceptor and is continuously regenerated by laccase. Oxygen is the terminal electron acceptor and is fully reduced to water by laccase, a coppercontaining oxidase. Oxygen is added to the system by means of bubble-free oxygenation. Using the model, the productivity of the process is investigated by simultaneous solution ...
Thank you for your interest in spreading the word about Biochemical Society Transactions.. NOTE: We only request your email address so that the person you are recommending the page to knows that you wanted them to see it, and that it is not junk mail. We do not capture any email address.. ...
PHGDH antibody [N3C2], Internal (phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase) for IHC-Fr, IHC-P, WB. Anti-PHGDH pAb (GTX101949) is tested in Human, Rat samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
D-serine is an endogenous ligand for NMDARs generated from L-serine by the enzyme serine racemase (Srr). Both neuronal and glial localizations have been reported for D-serine and Srr. 3-phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase ...
Recognized as one of the 100 most technologically significant products introduced to the marketplace in the past year. The Remote Methane Leak Detector can quickly and efficiently detect leaks up to one hundred feet away. Using laser technology, remote detection allows the user to safely survey areas that may be difficult to reach, such as busy roadways, yards with large dogs, locked gates, pipe suspended under a bridge and other hard to access places. In the independent validation tests, the RMLD has proven to be a highly effective leak survey instrument, compared to flame ionization and similar equipment, but with the added advantage of remote detection. By design the RMLD is capable of achieving significant productivity gains and drastically reduce operations and maintenance costs ...
Recombinant Human PGDH / PHGDH Protein. Synthesized in e. coli. Protein Tag: GST. Purity: Greater than 90% as determined by SDS-PAGE. From $88
Hi Vivek, There are a number of hidden parameters changed in 9i that affected CBO (as compared to 8i CBO). I suggest contacting Oracle Support before changing any hidden parameters. I think this is know problem. If possible, test your application with That seems to a stable version of 9i, so far. Regards, - Kirti --- VIVEK_SHARMA ,[email protected], wrote: , , ISSUE - Getting HIGH Latch Free Wait on the following Latches after moving , from RBO to , CBO. ( ALL Objects been analyzed at 100 %). CPU Usage on DB Server has gone , up by about , 30 %. NOTE - Application has also been migrated to a Higher release along , with the CBO , movement. , , Qs Any init.ora parameters to Tune ? , , Would increasing _shared_pool_reserved_min_alloc to 6140 from the Default of , 4400 Help? , , Setting cursorsharing = FORCE/SIMILAR caused %sys component of CPU Usage to , shoot to , 99 % within minutes of Database startup. Seemed to be hitting some Bug in , (64 , Bit) on Solaris 9. Has ...
When determining the effects on the deficit of a certain legislative action, both revenues and spending have to be accounted for. Indeed, you cant determine
Neu-Laxova syndrome (NLS) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by severe congenital malformations leading to prenatal or early postnatal lethality. Main findings include intrauterine growth retardation, microcephaly, ichthyosis, flexion deformities, edema of the hands and feet, and abnormal facial features including abnormal or absent eyelids, flat or abnormal nose, and a round gaping mouth. NLS1 (MIM 256520) and NLS2 (MIM 616038) are caused by mutations in the PHGDH and PSAT1 genes. They code for D-3-phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase and phosphoserine aminotransferase enzymes, respectively. These enzymes are involved in L-serine biosynthesis. Phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase deficiency (PHGDHD; MIM 601815) and phosphoserine aminotransferase deficiency (PSATD; MIM 610992) are autosomal recessive disorders allelic to more severe disorders, NLS1 and NLS2. PHGDHD and PSATD are characterized by congenital microcephaly, hypertonia, psychomotor retardation and seizures.. Read less ...
The PHGDH gene provides instructions for making the parts (subunits) that make up the phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase enzyme. Four PHGDH subunits combine to form the enzyme. This enzyme is involved in the production (synthesis) of the protein building block (amino acid) serine. Specifically, the enzyme converts a substance called 3-phosphoglycerate to 3-phosphohydroxypyruvate in the first step in serine production. Serine is necessary for the development and function of the brain and spinal cord (central nervous system). Serine is a part of chemical messengers called neurotransmitters that transmit signals in the nervous system. Proteins that form cell membranes and the fatty layer of insulation (myelin) that surrounds many nerves also contain serine.. Serine can be obtained from the diet, but brain cells must produce their own serine because dietary serine cannot cross the protective barrier that allows only certain substances to pass between blood vessels and the brain (the blood-brain barrier). ...
The sugar oxidising enzymes glucose oxidase, glucose dehydrogenases (GDH) and cellobiose dehydrogenases (CDH) were co-immobilised, in the presence of multiwalled carbon nanotubes, with osmium redox polymers. Under pseudo-physiological conditions of 5 mM glucose, 150 mM NaCl, 37?degrees C, glucose oxidation current densities above 800 mu A?cm-2 are obtained from films containing an [Os(4,4xxx-dimethyl-2,2xxx-bipyridine)2(poly-vinylimidazole)10Cl]+ redox polymer, redox potential 0.1 V vs. Ag/AgCl, and either glucose oxidase or FAD-dependant GDH. Current produced by, and stability of, glucose-oxidising half-cells is compared in 100 mM glucose, with films containing CDHs proving most stable. Such results show promise for development of glucose-oxidising enzymatic fuel cells ...
How particular bone marrow niche factors contribute to the leukemogenic activities of leukemia-initiating cells (LICs) remains largely unknown. Here, we showed that ATP levels were markedly increased in the bone marrow niches of mice with acute myeloid leukemia (AML), and LICs preferentially localized to the endosteal niche with relatively high ATP levels, as indicated by a sensitive ATP indicator. ATP could efficiently induce the influx of ions into LICs in an MLL-AF9-induced murine AML model via the ligand-gated ion channel P2X7. P2x7 deletion led to notably impaired homing and self-renewal capacities of LICs and contributed to an approximately 5-fold decrease in the number of functional LICs but had no effect on normal hematopoiesis. ATP/P2X7 signaling enhanced the calcium flux-mediated phosphorylation of CREB, which further transactivated phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase (Phgdh) expression to maintain serine metabolism and LIC fates. P2X7 knockdown resulted in a markedly extended survival of ...
Pyranose Oxidase antibody LS-C744693 is an unconjugated goat polyclonal antibody to Pyranose Oxidase from e. coli. It is reactive with bacteria and e. coli. Validated for ELISA, IP and WB.
This Research Topic addresses the metabolism and function of the amino acid Serine in plants. We emphasize the interaction and coordination between the Serine biosynthetic pathways and other metabolic pathways.Serine is a polar amino acid that plays a fundamental role in plant metabolism, plant development, and cell signalling. In addition to being a building block for proteins, Serine participates in the biosynthesis of biomolecules such as amino acids, nucleotides, phospholipids, and sphingolipids. Plants possess at least two serine biosynthetic pathways: i) the glycolate pathway associated with photorespiration and ii) the so-called Phosphorylated Pathway of Serine Biosynthesis. The biological significance of the coexistence of several pathways for the biosynthesis of Serine is not known. In particular, we poorly understand the contribution that each pathway makes to plant serine homeostasis, how pathways are integrated and coordinated, and how they interact at the transcriptional/translational
Blog on Phgdh elisa kit product: The Mouse Phgdh phgdh (Catalog #MBS2602994) is an ELISA Kit and is intended for research purposes only. T...
ID E7A1S5_SPORE Unreviewed; 226 AA. AC E7A1S5; DT 08-MAR-2011, integrated into UniProtKB/TrEMBL. DT 08-MAR-2011, sequence version 1. DT 25-OCT-2017, entry version 22. DE SubName: Full=Uncharacterized protein {ECO:0000313,EMBL:CBQ73432.1}; GN ORFNames=sr14090 {ECO:0000313,EMBL:CBQ73432.1}; OS Sporisorium reilianum (strain SRZ2) (Maize head smut fungus). OC Eukaryota; Fungi; Dikarya; Basidiomycota; Ustilaginomycotina; OC Ustilaginomycetes; Ustilaginales; Ustilaginaceae; Sporisorium. OX NCBI_TaxID=999809 {ECO:0000313,EMBL:CBQ73432.1, ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000008867}; RN [1] {ECO:0000313,EMBL:CBQ73432.1, ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000008867} RP NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE GENOMIC DNA]. RC STRAIN=SRZ2 {ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000008867}; RX PubMed=21148393; DOI=10.1126/science.1195330; RA Schirawski J., Mannhaupt G., Muench K., Brefort T., Schipper K., RA Doehlemann G., Di Stasio M., Roessel N., Mendoza-Mendoza A., RA Pester D., Mueller O., Winterberg B., Meyer E., Ghareeb H., RA Wollenberg T., ...
The following are the more stable anomers of the pyranose forms of d-glucose, d-mannose, and d-galactose: O HO HO OH OH O HO HO HO OH OH OH O HO HO OH OH -D-Glucopyranose (64% at equilibrium) -D-Mannopyranose (68% at equilibrium) -D-Galactopyranose (64% at equilibrium) OH On the basis of these empirical observations
An improved method is presented for the purification of 8 α-(N1-histidyl)riboflavin, 8 α-(N3-histidyl)riboflavin and their 2′,5′-anhydro forms, which permits the isolation of sizeable quantities of each of these compounds from a synthetic mixture in pure form. Flavin peptides were isolated from the D-gluconate dehydrogenases of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Pseudomonas fluorescens and from the 2-keto-D-gluconate dehydrogenase of Gluconobacter melanogenus. After conversion into the aminoacyl-riboflavin, the flavin in all three enzymes was identified as 8 α-(N3-histidyl)riboflavin. By sequential treatment with nucleotide pyrophosphatase and alkaline phosphatase, the flavin in each enzyme was shown to be in the dinucleotide form. ...
Biomass is constructed of dense recalcitrant polymeric materials: proteins, lignin, and holocellulose, a fraction constituting fibrous cellulose wrapped in hemicellulose-pectin. Bacteria and fungi are abundant in soil and forest floors, actively recycling biomass mainly by extracting sugars from holocellulose degradation. Here we review the genome-wide contents of seven Aspergillus species and unravel hundreds of gene models encoding holocellulose-degrading enzymes. Numerous apparent gene duplications followed functional evolution, grouping similar genes into smaller coherent functional families according to specialized structural features, domain organization, biochemical activity, and genus genome distribution. Aspergilli contain about 37 cellulase gene models, clustered in two mechanistic categories: 27 hydrolyze and 10 oxidize glycosidic bonds. Within the oxidative enzymes, we found two cellobiose dehydrogenases that produce oxygen radicals utilized by eight lytic polysaccharide ...
Pyranose is a collective term for saccharides that have a chemical structure that includes a six-membered ring consisting of five carbon atoms and one oxygen atom. There may be other carbons external to the ring. The name derives from its similarity to the oxygen heterocycle pyran, but the pyranose ring does not have double bonds. A pyranose in which the anomeric OH at C(l) has been converted into an OR group is called a pyranoside. The pyranose ring is formed by the reaction of the hydroxyl group on carbon 5 (C-5) of a sugar with the aldehyde at carbon 1. This forms an intramolecular hemiacetal. If reaction is between the C-4 hydroxyl and the aldehyde, a furanose is formed instead. The pyranose form is thermodynamically more stable than the furanose form, which can be seen by the distribution of these two cyclic forms in solution. Hermann Emil Fischer won the Nobel Prize in Chemistry (1902) for his work in determining the structure of the D-aldohexoses. However, the linear, free-aldehyde ...
1H6B: Crystal Structures of the Precursor Form of Glucose-Fructose Oxidoreductase from Zymomonas Mobilis and its Complexes with Bound Ligands
Eiglmeier, K., W. Boos, S.T. Cole 1987. Nucleotide sequence and transcriptional startpoint of the glpT gene of Escherichia coli: extensive sequence homology of the glycerol-3-phos transport protein with components of the hexose-6-phos transport system ...
Holzer, H. & Holldorf, A. (1957). „Isolation of a D-glycerate dehydrogenase, its properties, and its use for the optical determination of hydroxypyruvate in the presence of pyruvate. Biochem. Z. 329: 292-312. PMID 13522707 ...
Treatment for Cortisone Reductase Deficiency in Sewri West, Mumbai. Find Doctors Near You, Book Appointment, Consult Online, View Doctor Fees, Address, Phone Numbers and Reviews. Doctors for Cortisone Reductase Deficiency in Sewri West, Mumbai | Lybrate
Treatment for Cortisone Reductase Deficiency. Find Doctors Near You, Book Appointment, Consult Online, View Doctor Fees, Address, Phone Numbers and Reviews. Doctors for Cortisone Reductase Deficiency | Lybrate
Influence of Carbon Source on the Production of Extracellular Ligninolytic Enzymes by Phanerochaete chrysosporium. Fangfang Wang,a Mingqiang Ai,a Guihua Yang,b Jiachuan Chen,b Xiulan Chen,a and Feng Huang a,*. The effect of altering the carbon source in the growing environment was investigated relative to the production of ligninolytic enzymes by Phanerochaete chrysosporium. Glucose, cellobiose, and cellulose (or mixtures thereof) were used as the carbon sources. Glucose oxidase and glyoxal oxidase activities in all carbon sources were produced during cultivation. High peak levels (0.17 to 0.24 IU/mL) of manganese peroxidase activity were observed only in mediums containing oligosaccharides. Lignin peroxidase activity was high in glucose medium (0.21 IU/mL of peak value); however, minimal amounts were formed in the cellulose medium (0.01 IU/mL of peak value). High amounts of cellobiose:quinone oxidoreductase (3.33-3.99 IU/mL of peak value) and cellobiose dehydrogenase (0.04-0.2 IU/mL of peak ...
Effects of kraft pulp and lignin on Trametes versicolor carbon metabolism. Purification and characterization of cellobiose dehydrogenases from the white rot fungus Trametes versicolor
Enzyme with hydroxy-pyruvate reductase, glyoxylate reductase and D-glycerate dehydrogenase enzymatic activities. Reduces hydroxypyruvate to D-glycerate, glyoxylate to glycolate oxidizes D-glycerate to hydroxypyruvate.
Isolation and purification of Pyranose 2-oxidase from Phanerochaete chrysosporium and characterization of gene structure and regulation
Published in the January 2001 Issue of Anvil Magazine Note: Images with captions are included at the end of this article. Scratches is a term that refers to a skin problem on the lower legs of horses, caused by a fungus (and sometimes complicated by bacteria). The affected area becomes crusted, scabby and thickened, creating bumps and sometimes open sores. In severe cases the affected skin may ooze or the whole lower leg may swell, and the horse may become lame. This skin condition generally affects unpigmented skin (the areas of white leg markings) more readily than dark skin, since the unpigmented skin is not as tough-and more apt to chaff and scrape, opening the way for infection. Scratches is a dermatitis, or inflammation of the skin, and the most common cause seems to be the fungus Sporotrichum schenki. Some horses seem to be more susceptible than others, just as some seem more vulnerable to other fungal infections such as ringworm and girth itch. The fungus lives in organic matter and ...
A glucuronoyl esterase (GE) from the thermophilic fungus Sporotrichum thermophile, belonging to the carbohydrate esterase family 15 (CE-15), was functionally expressed in the methylotrophic yeast Pich
A glycoprotein containing one mole of FAD per mole of enzyme. 2,6-Dichloroindophenol can act as acceptor. cf. EC, quinoprotein glucose dehydrogenase ...
Wolbachia sp. subsp. Drosophila simulans UDP-N-acetylenolpyruvoylglucosamine reductase (murB) datasheet and description hight quality product and Backed by our Guarantee
NADP_Rossmann (CL0063) 2-Hacid_dh_C; D-isomer specific 2-hydroxyacid dehydrogenase, NAD binding domain (PF02826; HMM-score: 13.5) ...
NADP_Rossmann (CL0063) 2-Hacid_dh_C; D-isomer specific 2-hydroxyacid dehydrogenase, NAD binding domain (PF02826; HMM-score: 180.6) ...
Quinoprotein glucose dehydrogenase (EC from Acinetobacter calcoaceticus L.M.D. 79.41 was purified to homogeneity. It is a basic protein with an isoelectric point of 9.5 and an Mr of 94,000. Denaturation yields two molecules of PQQ/molecule and a protein with an Mr of 48000, indicating that the enzyme consists of two subunits, which are probably identical because even numbers of aromatic amino acids were found. The oxidized enzyme form has an absorption maximum at 350 nm, and the reduced form, obtained after the addition of glucose, at 338 nm. Since double-reciprocal plots of initial reaction rates with various concentrations of glucose or electron acceptor show parallel lines, and substrate inhibition is observed for glucose as well as for electron acceptor at high concentrations, a ping-pong kinetic behaviour with the two reactants exists. From the plots, Km values for glucose and Wursters Blue of 22 mM and 0.78 mM respectively, and a Vmax. of 7.730 mumol of glucose oxidized/min per ...
The practice of exposing liquid cultures of the white-rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium to a pure oxygen atmosphere under conditions of nutrient starvation has been widely adopted to induce lignin peroxidase (LiP) synthesis. Transmission electron microscopy was used to examine hyphal cells of carbon-limited cultures that had been exposed to an atmosphere of pure oxygen, and revealed evidence of a major loss in organization of cellular ultrastructure, which may be attributed to oxygen toxicity. Under some conditions (continuous agitation in air with cellulose as the carbon source) cultures will produce LiP without needing to be exposed to a pure oxygen atmosphere. A similar major loss of cellular ultrastructure was found in hyphal cells from such cultures upon examination. Investigation of the levels of H2O2, catalase and carbonyl content of intracellular proteins suggests that the latter cultures developed a hyperoxidant state because the rate of supply of carbon from cellulose hydrolysis was
This paper reports the isolation of phenoloxidase-negative mutants of the white-rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium and the results of a survey of idiophasic functions among these mutants. The mutant strains were isolated from a medium containing o-anisidine after gamma irradiation of wild-type spores and fell into four classes, divided by the manner in which they mineralized 14C-lignin wheat lignocellulose. Examples are strain LMT7, which degraded lignin at a rate similar to that of the wild type; strain LMT26, in which degradation was enhanced; strain LMT16, whose degradation rate was apparently unaffected, although the onset of lignin attack was delayed compared with that in the wild type; and strain LMT24, which was unable to evolve significant amounts of 14CO2 from the radiolabeled substrate. The mutants were not necessarily defective in other functions associated with idiophasic activities (intracellular cyclic AMP levels, sporulation, extracellular glucan production, veratryl alcohol ...
Myc transcriptionally regulates genes involved in processes such as cell proliferation, metabolism, differentiation, and angiogenesis. MYC expression is deregulated in many types of human cancer; therefore discovering the mechanisms behind MYCs role in tumorigenesis is essential. In this dissertation, I have focused on several Myc target genes, Spermidine synthase (Srm); Lactate dehydrogenase (Ldh); 3-phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase (Phgdh); Serine hydroxymethyltransferase (SHMT) 1 and 2; and Pim-3 (a member of the Pim family of serine/threonine kinases). These enzymes play a role in various functions: Spermidine synthase (polyamine synthesis); Lactate dehydrogenase (glycolysis); Phgdh and Shmt (serine metabolism); and Pim-3 (cell signaling). In order to elucidate the impact Myc over-expression has on metabolism in tumorigenesis, we use human cell lines, and transgenic mice as well as cell lines and tissues derived from these mice. The impact of inhibition of these target genes on Myc-driven ...
1. Two enzymes that catalyse the reduction of glyoxylate to glycollate have been separated and purified from a species of Pseudomonas. Their molecular weights were estimated as 180000. 2. Reduced nicotinamide nucleotides act as the hydrogen donators for the enzymes. The NADH-linked enzyme is entirely specific for its coenzyme but the NADPH-linked reductase shows some affinity towards NADH. 3. Both enzymes convert hydroxypyruvate into glycerate. 4. The glyoxylate reductases show maximal activity at pH6.0-6.8, are inhibited by keto acids and are strongly dependent on free thiol groups for activity. 5. The Michaelis constants for glyoxylate and hydroxypyruvate were found to be of a high order. 6. The reversibility of the reaction has been demonstrated for both glyoxylate reductases and the equilibrium constants were determined. 7. The reduction of glyoxylate and hydroxypyruvate is not stimulated by anions.. ...
article{31e17f38-485f-4324-be67-f72cc473b767, abstract = {Both the antibody affinity and the detectability of the label are essential in deciding the final characteristics of a heterogeneous immunoassay. This paper describes an approach to obtain a supplementary enhancement of the signal generated by using an enzyme label, e.g., by including the product of the enzymatic reaction in an additional amplification cycle during the detection step performed with an amperometric biosensor based on glucose dehydrogenase (GDH). An immunoassay format with a labelled analyte derivative that competes with the analyte present in the sample for a limited amount of antibody binding sites was employed. The beta-galactosidase label hydrolyses the substrate aminophenyl-beta-galactopyranoside, and the generated aminophenol enters then into a bioelectrocatalytic amplification cycle at the GDH biosensor. The principle was applied for determination of 4-nitrophenol, with the best minimal concentration of 1.5 microM ...
Strain YM16-304T lacks the dapE gene for succinyl-diaminopimelate desuccinylase (EC: in the biosynthesis pathway of lysine and diaminopimelic acids (DAPs). Instead, two candidate genes (YM304_26990 and YM304_19190) for LL-DAP aminotransferase (EC:, dapL), that constitutes an alternative DAP-lysine biosynthesis pathway (DAP aminotransferase pathway [24,25]), were identified. The dapL gene is found in discrete lineages of Bacteria and Archaea, and is known to complement Escherichia coli dapD and dapE mutants, although purified proteins favor the reverse reaction rather than the synthesis of LL-DAP [25].. Among the genes of serine biosynthesis pathway, the serB gene for phosphoserine phosphatase (EC: was not identified by similarity searches. On the other hand, the thrH gene for phosphoserine / homoserine phosphotransferase [26] (EC:, was identified (YM304_28950). The possibility of using thrH gene product for serine biosynthesis instead of serB gene ...
Acer campestre is a slow-growing deciduous tree with dark, oval leaves that turn yellow in the autumn. The 5 lobed leaves are composed of 3 to 5 entire lobes. Blooms in corymbs of 5 green flowers followed by winged fruit. The cultivar, Pulverulentum is a small tree to 12 feet tall with a large crown, wider than
Creative Proteomics offer D-Gluconate (D-Gluconic Acid) Assay Kit (Colorimetric). We are specialized in manufacturing Assay Kits.
CTBP2 Corepressor targeting diverse transcription regulators. Functions in brown adipose tissue (BAT) differentiation. Belongs to the D-isomer specific 2-hydroxyacid dehydrogenase family. 2 isoforms of the human protein are produced by alternative splicing. Note: This description may include information from UniProtKB ...
Fructose-Glucose Syrup as sugar replacement and sweetener: Information, tolerance and effect of Fructose-Glucose Syrup within the human body - Frusano
This reaction has also been observed in Pseudomonas A2697 , Sporotrichum B124 , Trichosporon B368, D232 , Arthrobacter H270 , Aspergillus H236 , Bradyrhizobium
CBO: Extending the Bush tax cuts for two years is (1) good for short term growth, and (2) far superior to a permanent extension for long term growth
Growth in real (inflation-adjusted) GDP in calendar year 2013 will be just 0.5 percent, CBO expects-with the economy projected to contract at an annual rate of 1.3 percent in the first half of the year and expand at an annual rate of 2.3 percent in the second half. Given the pattern of past recessions as identified by the National Bureau of Economic Research, such a contraction in output in the first half of 2013 would probably be judged to be a recession. ...
Carbohydrate dehydrogenases are a group of dehydrogenase enzymes that occur in many organisms and facilitate the conversion ... Carbohydrate dehydrogenases are the most common quinoprotein oxidoreductases,[1] which are enzymes that oxidize a wide range of ... Carbohydrate Dehydrogenases at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) ... Kulys, J., Tetianec, L. and Bratkovskaja, I. (2010), Pyrroloquinoline quinone-dependent carbohydrate dehydrogenase: Activity ...
Phosphorylation of PDH by one of the pyruvate dehydrogenase kinases 1-4 (PDK1-4) decreases the flux of carbohydrates into the ... Inhibition of PDKs increases oxidative metabolism of carbohydrates, so targeting PDKs has emerged as an important therapeutic ... The pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDH) critically regulates carbohydrate metabolism. ... The pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDH) critically regulates carbohydrate metabolism. Phosphorylation of PDH by one of the ...
The primary structure of bovine liver UDP-glucose dehydrogenase (UDPGDH), a hexameric, NAD(+)-linked enzyme, has been ... Carbohydrate Dehydrogenases * UDP-N-acetylmannosamine dehydrogenase * GDPmannose dehydrogenase * Uridine Diphosphate Glucose ... UDP-glucose Dehydrogenase From Bovine Liver: Primary Structure and Relationship to Other Dehydrogenases Protein Sci. 1994 Jul;3 ... The primary structure of bovine liver UDP-glucose dehydrogenase (UDPGDH), a hexameric, NAD(+)-linked enzyme, has been ...
Carbohydrate Dehydrogenases / genetics* * Carbohydrate Dehydrogenases / metabolism * Cloning, Molecular * DNA-Binding Proteins ...
Carbohydrate. Edited by: Mahmut Caliskan, I. Halil Kavakli and Gul Cevahir Oz. ISBN 978-953-51-3069-7, eISBN 978-953-51-3070-3 ... Dehydrogenases. Edited by Rosa Angela Canuto. Dehydrogenases. Edited by Rosa Angela Canuto. ... This book covers broad topics in carbohydrate including quality carbohydrates on the prevention and therapy of noncommunicable ... Carbohydrates are the most abound macromolecules on earth, and they serve different functions within the cell. The purpose of ...
Uridine Diphosphate Glucose Dehydrogenase: An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of UDPglucose to UDPglucuronate in the ... Carbohydrate Dehydrogenases*Uridine Diphosphate Glucose Dehydrogenase: 10*Arabidopsis UGD1 protein. *C elegans SQV-4 protein ... Dehydrogenase, UDP Glucose; Dehydrogenase, UDPG; Glucose Dehydrogenase, UDP; UDP Glucose Dehydrogenase; UDPG Dehydrogenase; ... Uridine Diphosphate Glucose Dehydrogenase. Subscribe to New Research on Uridine Diphosphate Glucose Dehydrogenase ...
6-Phosphogluconate Dehydrogenase Links Cytosolic Carbohydrate Metabolism to Protein Secretion via Modulation of Glutathione ... 6-Phosphogluconate dehydrogenase regulates tumor cell migration in vitro by regulating receptor tyrosine kinase c-Met. Biochem ... "Phosphogluconate Dehydrogenase" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH ( ... This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Phosphogluconate Dehydrogenase" by people in Harvard Catalyst ...
Carbohydrate Dehydrogenases. *Fructuronate Reductase. *Galactose Dehydrogenases. *Glucose Dehydrogenases. *Glucosephosphate ... "Sugar Alcohol Dehydrogenases" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH ( ... This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Sugar Alcohol Dehydrogenases" by people in Harvard Catalyst ... Molecular and functional characterization of novel glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase 1 like gene (GPD1-L) mutations in sudden ...
Carbohydrate refeeding rapidly reverses the adaptive upregulation of human skeletal muscle pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase ... Following carbohydrate re-feeding, (88% carbohydrate; 5% fat; 7% protein), PDK activity had returned to baseline (0.111 ± 0.014 ... The time course for the reversal of the adaptive increase in pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase (PDK) activity following a 6d high ... This adaptive increase in PDK4 protein content was reversed with carbohydrate re-feeding. It was concluded that the adaptive up ...
0 (Fungal Proteins); 0 (Metals); EC 1.1.- (Carbohydrate Dehydrogenases); EC (cellobiose-quinone oxidoreductase); EC ... and carbohydrate esterases (CE) in addition to cellobiose dehydrogenase (CDH) indicating the presence of functional classical ...
Carbohydrate Dehydrogenases); EC 1.1.1.- (L-galactonate oxidoreductase); EC (gulonate dehydrogenase); EC ( ... EC 1.1.- (Carbohydrate Dehydrogenases); EC (Fructuronate Reductase); EC 3.2.1.- (Galactosidases); EC (beta- ... 0 (Hexuronic Acids); 0 (Uronic Acids); EC 1.1.- (Carbohydrate Dehydrogenases); EC (Fructuronate Reductase); EC 4.2.1 ... 0 (Bacterial Proteins); EC 1.1.- (Carbohydrate Dehydrogenases); EC (Fructuronate Reductase); EC (tagaturonate ...
The three-dimensional structure of a new crystal form of methanol dehydrogenase from Methylophilus W3A1 has been obtained in ... A versatile dehydrogenase oxidizing alcohols and carbohydrates.. *Henriëtte J. Rozeboom, Shukun Yu, Rene Mikkelsen, I. N. ... Formaldehyde dehydrogenase preparations from Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath) comprise methanol dehydrogenase and methylene ... PQQ-dependent methanol dehydrogenases: rare-earth elements make a difference. *J. T. M. Keltjens, A. N. van den Pol, Joachim ...
Glycerol dehydrogenase. L-sorbose-1-phosphate reductase. Pentosuria. (. More. ). Broader. (. 1. ). Carbohydrate Dehydrogenases ... Sugar Alcohol Dehydrogenases. Known as: Sugar Alcohol Dehydrogenases [Chemical/Ingredient], Oxidoreductases, Sugar Alcohol, ...
Transcriptional regulation of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 4 in skeletal muscle during and after exercise - Volume 63 Issue 2 ... Mourtzakis, M, Saltin, B, Graham, T & Pilegaard, H (2002) Pyruvate dehydrogenase active form (PDHa) and carbohydrate (CHO) ... Thus, increased PDK4 expression when carbohydrate availability is low seems to contribute to the sparing of carbohydrates by ... Effect of training in the fasted state on metabolic responses during exercise with carbohydrate intake. Journal of Applied ...
Mouse monoclonal Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Immunocapture antibody [15D3G9C11] validated for IP, Flow Cyt, ICC/IF and tested in ... The pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDH) is at the center of aerobic carbohydrate metabolism. It is localized in the matrix ... These are pyruvate dehydrogenase (E1), dihydrolipoamide transacetylase (E2) and dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase (E3). PDH ... 100 µg ab109866 can capture at least 5 µg Pyruvate Dehydrogenase complex from 1 mg solubilized Bovine heart mitochondria. ...
A novel inhibitor of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase stimulates myocardial carbohydrate oxidation in diet-induced obesity. ... Short-term weight loss and hepatic triglyceride reduction: evidence of a metabolic advantage with dietary carbohydrate ... FGF21 induces PGC-1alpha and regulates carbohydrate and fatty acid metabolism during the adaptive starvation response. ... Alterations in hepatic glucose and energy metabolism as a result of calorie and carbohydrate restriction. ...
6-Phosphogluconate Dehydrogenase Links Cytosolic Carbohydrate Metabolism to Protein Secretion via Modulation of Glutathione ... Inhibition of Dihydroorotate Dehydrogenase Overcomes Differentiation Blockade in Acute Myeloid Leukemia.. Sykes DB, Kfoury YS, ... Discovery of Antimalarial Azetidine-2-carbonitriles That Inhibit P. falciparum Dihydroorotate Dehydrogenase. ... Discovery of 8-Membered Ring Sulfonamides as Inhibitors of Oncogenic Mutant Isocitrate Dehydrogenase 1. ...
... glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase; LDH, lactate dehydrogenase; ChoRE, carbohydrate response element; HIF, hypoxia- ... Yamada K., Tanaka T., Noguchi T. Characterization and purification of carbohydrate response element-binding protein of the rat ... Identification of an additional hypoxia responsive element in the glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase gene promoter. ...
Glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase serves as a major link between carbohydrate metabolism and lipid metabolism. It is also a ... Older terms for glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase include alpha glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (alphaGPDH) and ... glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase is not the same as glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), whose substrate is an ... "Kinetic regulation of the mitochondrial glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase by the external NADH dehydrogenase in Saccharomyces ...
A novel inhibitor of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase stimulates myocardial carbohydrate oxidation in diet-induced obesity. J. ... The dysregulation of carbohydrate and lipid metabolism due to unbalanced diets (i.e., fast food) in western societies has led ... either actively through activation of pyruvate dehydrogenase [58,59,60] or passively by inhibiting fatty acid oxidation [61,62 ... Canagliflozin mediated dual inhibition of mitochondrial glutamate dehydrogenase and complex I: an off-target adverse effect. ...
Lactate dehydrogenase deficiency: MedlinePlus Genetics (National Library of Medicine) * Mucopolysaccharidosis type I: ... Carbohydrate metabolism disorders are a group of metabolic disorders. Normally your enzymes break carbohydrates down into ... Pyruvate dehydrogenase deficiency: MedlinePlus Genetics (National Library of Medicine) * Schindler disease: MedlinePlus ... Carbohydrate Metabolism, Inborn Errors (National Institutes of Health) * ...
Adrenaline increases skeletal muscle glycogenolysis, pyruvate dehydrogenase activation and carbohydrate oxidation during ... The effect of mild stress on carbohydrate metabolism. Diabetes 1977;26:1-6pmid:556608. ...
... and increased glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, downregulating carbohydrate response element- (ChRE-) mediated transcriptional ... L-lactic dehydrogenase (rabbit muscle), pepsin (porcine stomach mucosa), pronase E (Streptomyces griseus), leucine ... pyruvate dehydrogenase phosphatase 2 (PDP2), associated with increased HK2 and PDK4 driving mitochondrial dysfunction in ... Among gene expressions increased in senescence and corrected by SFN were pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 2 (PDK2), linked to ...
2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase, and transketolase which are all involved in carbohydrate metabolism. Vitamin B2 (riboflavin) is a ... Primary metabolites include carbohydrates, lipids, amino acids, and nucleic acids which are the basic building blocks of life. ... Hermann Emil Fischer in 1884, turned his attention to the study of carbohydrates and purines, work for which he was awarded the ... Vitamin B5 (pantothenic acid) is a constituent of coenzyme A, a basic component of carbohydrate and amino acid metabolism as ...
Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase, and other enzymes related to carbohydrate metabolism were ... Glucosephosphate DehydrogenaseIsocitrate DehydrogenaseMalate DehydrogenaseNADPOxidation-ReductionPhosphogluconate Dehydrogenase ... VL - 109 IS - 1 N2 - Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase, and other enzymes related to ... The role of nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide phosphate-dependent malate dehydrogenase and isocitrate dehydrogenase in the ...
Phosphorylates and deactivates pyruvate dehydrogenase, a mitochondrial enzyme involved in regulation of carbohydrate metabolism ... Aldehyde dehydrogenase family 1 member A2. Enzyme that catalyzes synthesis of retinoic acid from precursor retinaldehyde ...
No other carbohydrate is oxidized. The amount of NADPH formed during the reaction is equivalent to the amount of D-glucose in ... Lactate Dehydrogenase (LDH) The LD reaction proceeds as follows: NAD and lactate are converted in equimolar amounts at the same ... Lactate Dehydrogenase (LDH) LDH measurements are used in the diagnosis and treatment of liver diseases such as acute viral ... Lactate Dehydrogenase (LDH) LDH measurements are used in the diagnosis and treatment of liver diseases such as acute viral ...
No other carbohydrate is oxidized. The amount of NADPH formed during the reaction is equivalent to the amount of D-glucose in ... Lactate Dehydrogenase (LDH) The LD reaction proceeds as follows: NAD and lactate are converted in equimolar amounts at the same ... Lactate Dehydrogenase (LDH) LDH measurements are used in the diagnosis and treatment of liver diseases such as acute viral ... Lactate Dehydrogenase (LDH) The LX20 with LD reagent (using lactate as substrate) utilizes an enzymatic rate method to measure ...
In situ generation of hydrogen peroxide by carbohydrate oxidase and cellobiose dehydrogenase for bleaching purposes. Biotechnol ... Technology development for the production of biobased products from biorefinery carbohydrates-the US Department of Energys " ... Substrate specificity of Myriococcum thermophilum cellobiose dehydrogenase on mono-, oligo-, and polysaccharides related to in ... Detoxification of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural by the Pleurotus ostreatus lignolytic enzymes aryl alcohol oxidase and dehydrogenase ...
  • This book covers broad topics in carbohydrate including quality carbohydrates on the prevention and therapy of noncommunicable diseases, lactate, and glycolysis, as biomass in biofuel production, targets for cancer treatment and as biomaterial. (
  • This entry represents a structural motif found at the C-terminal of lactate dehydrogenase ( EC: )and malate dehydrogenases ( EC: ), as well as at the C-terminal of family 4 glycoside hydrolases ( EC:3.2.1 ). (
  • L-lactate dehydrogenases are metabolic enzymes that catalyse the conversion of L-lactate to pyruvate, the last step in anaerobic glycolysis. (
  • L-lactate dehydrogenase is also found as a lens crystallin in bird and crocodile eyes. (
  • Structural basis for altered activity of M- and H-isozyme forms of human lactate dehydrogenase. (
  • 5. The method of claim 1, wherein the donor:cytochrome dehydrogenase is a lactate dehydrogenase (cytochrome) (E.C. or mannitol dehydrogenase (E.C. (
  • 8. The method of claim 1, wherein the donor:cytochrome dehydrogenase is a lactate dehydrogenase. (
  • A diagnostic test indicator for the determination of the concentration of lactate dehydrogenase in sera comprising a bibulous material which has contained therein the dried residue resulting from the impregnation thereof with 1. (
  • 1. A diagnostic test indicator for the determination of the concentration of lactate dehydrogenase in sera comprising a bibulous material which contains therein the dried residue resulting from the impregnation thereof with 2. (
  • Available tests for the detection of the concentration of lactate dehydrogenase in body fluids have, until now, consisted of extremely complex liquid systems whereby test tubes, measuring devices, ultraviolet light, standardization of instruments, correction factors depending upon temperature and false readings prevail. (
  • There has therefore existed, for a substantial period of time, the need for a simple testing mechanism for the determination of the concentration of serum lactate dehydrogenase in body fluids, especially the blood, which long-felt need is satisfied by the instant invention more fully discussed hereinbelow. (
  • As mentioned briefly above, I have now discovered a novel test means for the determination of the concentration of lactate dehydrogenase in body fluids. (
  • My test means is useful for the qualitative detection and quantitative determination of lactate dehydrogenase in sera wherein the test means comprises a reagent composition incorporated within a bibulous carrier. (
  • The quantitative determination of lactate dehydrogenase is extremely important in the detection of heart diseases, especially heart attacks, in that, following heart attacks, the concentration of lactate dehydrogenase in the blood rises noticeably over its normal concentration. (
  • Lactate dehydrogenase ( LDH ) is an enzyme ( EC present in a wide variety of organisms, including plants and animals. (
  • The enzyme is also found in cerebrospinal fluid where high levels of lactate dehydrogenase in cerebrospinal fluid are often associated with bacterial meningitis . (
  • At rest, we observed that the REC group had higher levels of total antioxidant status (TAS), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and lower levels of creatine kinase (CK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in comparison to the NO-REC group. (
  • Pyruvate kinase activity was measured by coupling lactate dehydrogenase with NADPH and pyruvate absorbance was measured at 340 nm. (
  • Relying on anaerobic fermentation, they use glycolysis to break down carbohydrates into pyruvate, which is then converted by lactate dehydrogenase to lactic acid [4]. (
  • Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH: is a tetrameric enzyme participates in carbohydrate metabolism by catalyzing the oxidation of lactate and reduction of pyruvate. (
  • Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH: enzyme in fishes have always been the subject of much attention [1-4]. (
  • Lactate dehydrogenase is one of the chief enzyme of carbohydrate metabolism which catalyses the oxidation of lactate and reduction of pyruvate during anaerobic glycolysis. (
  • Plasmodium lactate dehydrogenase (pLDH) is a major target in diagnosing the erythrocytic stage of malaria parasites because it is highly expressed during blood-stage parasites and is distinguished from human LDH. (
  • Several plasmodial antigens including histidine-rich protein 2 (pHRP-2), plasmodial aldolase, and plasmodial lactate dehydrogenase (pLDH) have been used in RDTs. (
  • This gene encodes a protein belonging to the glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase family of enzymes that play an important role in carbohydrate metabolism. (
  • Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) plays a key regulatory function in glucose oxidation by mediating fluxes through glycolysis or the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) in an oxidative stress-dependent fashion. (
  • Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) is an evolutionarily conserved enzyme that controls glucose flux through the canonical Embden-Meyerhof glycolytic pathway. (
  • Also known as glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase or GAPDH, GAPD is an important enzyme in carbohydrate metabolism that is well conserved across the animal kingdom. (
  • abstract = "Malate dehydrogenase (MDH) may be important in carbohydrate and energy metabolism in malarial parasites. (
  • Refined crystal structure of mitochondrial malate dehydrogenase from porcine heart and the consensus structure for dicarboxylic acid oxidoreductases. (
  • Pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC) deficiency is a genetic mitochondrial disease of carbohydrate metabolism that is due to a mutation in nDNA. (
  • Pyruvate dehydrogenase complex deficiencies (PDCDs) are a major class of mitochondrial diseases, limiting oxidation of carbohydrate for energy production, which is especially important in the brain. (
  • Flavoprotein dehydrogenase is an enzyme that transfers electrons into the mitochondrial matrix inside the membrane. (
  • Soluble class can be found in the mitochondrial matrix while the membrane bound flavoprotein dehydrogenases fall under this class which is directly linked to the respiratory chain. (
  • Leigh's disease can be caused by mutations in mitochondrial DNA or by deficiencies of an enzyme called pyruvate dehydrogenase. (
  • Individuals who lack mitochondrial complex IV activity and those with pyruvate dehydrogenase deficiency tend to have the worst prognosis and die within a few years. (
  • The aim of this work was to use hyperpolarized [1- 13 C]pyruvate as a metabolic tracer to assess noninvasively the flux through the mitochondrial enzyme complex pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) in the rat heart, by measuring the production of bicarbonate (H 13 CO 3 − ), a byproduct of the PDH-catalyzed conversion of [1- 13 C]pyruvate to acetyl-CoA. (
  • Four progeny rows, from experiments designed to test for recombination or allelism at the k2 (tan saddle) locus, y20 (yellow foliage) locus, or the Mdh1-n (mitochondrial malate dehydrogenase one null) locus, had both fertile and sterile plants (Chen and Palmer, 1996b, 1998b). (
  • Then, the pyruvate is oxidatively decarboxylated by the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex in order to form the acetyl CoA in the mitochondrial matrix. (
  • It was proposed that an increase in plasma FFA availability stimulates fat oxidation and decreases carbohydrate oxidation by suppressing pyruvate dehydrogenase complex activation (via a rise in the ratio of mitochondrial acetyl-CoA to CoA) and reducing glycolytic flux (via the inhibitory effect of high citrate concentrations on phosphofructokinase activity). (
  • Medium-chain acyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase deficiency is a fatty acid oxidation disorder associated with inborn errors of metabolism . (
  • The objective of this research study is to conduct a pivotal phase 3 trial of treatment with the investigational drug dichloroacetate (DCA) in young children with deficiency of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC). (
  • Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency is a genetic disorder that occurs almost exclusively in males. (
  • The most common medical problem associated with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency is hemolytic anemia, which occurs when red blood cells are destroyed faster than the body can replace them. (
  • In people with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency, hemolytic anemia is most often triggered by bacterial or viral infections or by certain drugs (such as some antibiotics and medications used to treat malaria). (
  • Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency is also a significant cause of mild to severe jaundice in newborns. (
  • An estimated 400 million people worldwide have glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency. (
  • Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency results from mutations in the G6PD gene. (
  • Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency occurs most frequently in areas of the world where malaria is common. (
  • Children and adults with pyruvate dehydrogenase complex deficiency (PDCD) are participating in a research study seeking to better understand the genetic causes, symptoms, usefulness of current treatments, and outcomes for these disorders. (
  • Cases of deficiency in flavoprotein dehydrogenase can cause a host of human genetic diseases such as glutaric aciduria type II. (
  • In patients who have a deficiency of pyruvate dehydrogenase enzyme complex, a high-fat, low-carbohydrate diet may be recommended. (
  • Diagnosis of pyruvate dehydrogenase deficiency is confirmed by enzyme analysis of skin fibroblasts, DNA testing, or both. (
  • There is no clearly effective treatment for pyruvate dehydrogenase deficiency, although a low-carbohydrate or ketogenic diet and dietary thiamin supplementation have been beneficial for some patients. (
  • Medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency , often known as MCAD deficiency or MCADD , is a disorder of fatty acid oxidation that impairs the body's ability to break down medium-chain fatty acids into acetyl-CoA . (
  • PDC deficiency is a clinically heterogeneous disorder, with most mutations located in the coding region of the X-linked α subunit of the first catalytic component, pyruvate dehydrogenase (E 1 ). (
  • Based on the improved outcomes of patients with identical mutations, it appears that a nearly carbohydrate-free diet initiated shortly after birth may be useful in the treatment of E 1 deficiency. (
  • The mystery condition was confirmed as Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Complex Deficiency - Lauren was deficient in the enzyme needed to process carbohydrates. (
  • Cellobiose dehydrogenase (CDH) is an extracellular flavocytochrome containing flavin and b-type heme, and plays a key role in cellulose degradation by filamentous fungi. (
  • 6. The method of claim 1, wherein the donor:quinone dehydrogenase is a cellobiose dehydrogenase. (
  • Cellobiose dehydrogenase (CDH) is an emerging enzyme in the field of bioelectrocatalysis. (
  • Phosphorylation of PDH by one of the pyruvate dehydrogenase kinases 1-4 (PDK1-4) decreases the flux of carbohydrates into the TCA cycle. (
  • The primary structure of bovine liver UDP-glucose dehydrogenase (UDPGDH), a hexameric, NAD(+)-linked enzyme, has been determined at the protein level. (
  • Sukhatme VP, Chan B. Glycolytic cancer cells lacking 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase metabolize glucose to induce senescence. (
  • Determination of enzyme mechanisms by molecular dynamics: studies on quinoproteins, methanol dehydrogenase, and soluble glucose dehydrogenase. (
  • Normally your enzymes break carbohydrates down into glucose (a type of sugar). (
  • Glucose measurements are used in the diagnosis and treatment of pancreatic islet cell carcinoma and of carbohydrate metabolism disorders, including diabetes mellitus, neonatal hypoglycemia, and idiopathic hypoglycemia. (
  • and increased glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, downregulating carbohydrate response element- (ChRE-) mediated transcriptional enhancement of glycolysis by Mondo/Mlx. (
  • Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase, and other enzymes related to carbohydrate metabolism were studied in rhizobia. (
  • Effects of several inhibitors on the glucose dehydrogenase (EC 1. (
  • Ameyama M., Nonobe M., Hayashi M., Shinagawa E., Matsushita K. and Adachi O. (1985) Mode of binding of pyrroloquinoline quinone to apo-glucose dehydrogenase. (
  • Shinagawa E., Matsushita K., Nonobe M., Adachi O., Ameyama M., Ohshiro Y., Itoh S. and Kitamura Y.(1986) The 9-carboxyl group of pyrroloquinoline quinone, a novel prosthetic group, is essential in the formation of holo-enzyme of D-glucose dehydrogenase. (
  • In affected individuals, a defect in an enzyme called glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase causes red blood cells to break down prematurely. (
  • This gene provides instructions for making an enzyme called glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase. (
  • Chemical reactions involving glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase produce compounds that prevent reactive oxygen species from building up to toxic levels within red blood cells. (
  • If mutations in the G6PD gene reduce the amount of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase or alter its structure, this enzyme can no longer play its protective role. (
  • A reduction in the amount of functional glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase appears to make it more difficult for this parasite to invade red blood cells. (
  • Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase is inherited in an X-linked pattern. (
  • Data on PCR primer design for glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase gene and the effects of dietary carbohydrate levels on its expression in the liver of Malaysian mahseer. (
  • The enzyme glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) catalyses the metabolite glucose-6-phosphate in producing NADPH throughout the first part of pentose-phosphate pathway thus gives decreasing energy to all cells for mobile development, antioxidant defence, and biosynthetic reactions in all dwelling organism. (
  • OBJECTIVE: Pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC) serves as the metabolic switch between glucose and fatty acid utilization. (
  • Lactae dehydrogenase(LDH), malate dehydrogenase(MDH), and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase(G6PD) activities were detected in all 4 samples. (
  • Molecular and functional characterization of novel glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase 1 like gene (GPD1-L) mutations in sudden infant death syndrome. (
  • Structural characterization of the alpha-glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase-encoding gene of Drosophila melanogaster. (
  • A key element in this fuel switch is the differential expression of the gene encoding pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase isoenzyme 4. (
  • Targeted disruption of the mouse 3-phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase gene causes severe neuro-developmental defects and results in embryonic lethality. (
  • Functional analysis of mouse 3-phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase (Phgdh) gene promoter in developing brain. (
  • Mouse 3-phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase gene : Genomic organization, chromosomal localization, and promoter analysis. (
  • When it comes to this membrane bound mitochondria this can be further sub-divided into NADH and succinate dehydrogenase. (
  • NAD-dependent glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase ( EC: ) (GPD) catalyzes the reversible reduction of dihydroxyacetone phosphate to glycerol-3-phosphate. (
  • Prediction of secondary structural elements in glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase by comparison with other dehydrogenases. (
  • On enzyme screening assay for 16 enzymes related to carbohydrate metabolism. (
  • Carbohydrate dehydrogenases are the most common quinoprotein oxidoreductases, which are enzymes that oxidize a wide range of molecules. (
  • The sequence shares 29.6% positional identity with GDP-mannose dehydrogenase from Pseudomonas, confirming a similarity earlier noted between active site peptides. (
  • Isocitrate dehydrogenase activity was measured using reduction of NADP to NADPH at the characteristic absorbance at 340 nm. (
  • HNE modified isocitrate dehydrogenase activity is consistent with reduced inactivated form of the protein. (
  • Overexpression of IDH2, however, did not result in increasedNAD(+)-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase activity, suggesting that both IDH1 andIDH2 subunits are required for catalytic activity. (
  • Inhibition of PDKs increases oxidative metabolism of carbohydrates, so targeting PDKs has emerged as an important therapeutic approach to manage various metabolic diseases. (
  • Isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH), is an important enzyme of carbohydrate metabolism which catalyses the oxidative decarboxylation of isocitrate into alpha-ketoglutarate. (
  • Database searching also revealed similarities to a hypothetical sequence from Salmonella typhimurium and to "UDP-N-acetyl-mannosaminuronic acid dehydrogenase" from Escherichia coli. (
  • One-step purification of soluble recombinant human 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase from Escherichia coli. (
  • A spectrophotometric assay of D-glucuronate based on Escherichia coli uronate isomerase and mannonate dehydrogenase. (
  • Escherichia coli uronate isomerase and mannonate dehydrogenase were overexpressed in E. coli BL21(DE3)pLysS cells and purified to near-homogeneity. (
  • Amino acid sequence comparison between S. cerevisiaeIDH2 and S. cerevisiae NADP(+)-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase shows nosignificant sequence identity, whereas comparison of IDH2 and Escherichia coliNADP(+)-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase reveals a 33% sequence identity. (
  • Malate dehydrogenases catalyse the interconversion of malate to oxaloacetate. (
  • This study will collect comprehensive longitudinal natural history clinical data for proven Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Complex deficiencies (PDCDs), including data about diagnoses, symptoms, and outcomes. (
  • Primary metabolites include carbohydrates, lipids, amino acids, and nucleic acids which are the basic building blocks of life. (
  • These flavoprotein dehydrogenases has a critical role in the metabolism of carbohydrates , proteins and lipids. (
  • However, when plasma substrate composition is altered, the relative contributions of lipids, carbohydrates, and ketone bodies to cardiac energetics can vary substantially ( 1 , 3 ). (
  • Many invertebrates do not produce lactic acid as the primary end product of anaerobic carbohydrate catabolism as in vertebrate tissues. (
  • To investigate pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH)-E1α subunit phosphorylation and whether free fatty acids (FFAs) regulate PDH activity, seven subjects completed two trials: saline (control) and intralipid/heparin (intralipid). (
  • PDH is covalently inactivated by phosphorylation, by pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase (PDK). (
  • Therefore, the pyruvate dehydrogenase relates to the reactions of the citric acid cycle itself. (
  • Its complex is composed of members of a family of homologous complexes which include citric acid cycle enzyme a-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex. (
  • Food is made up of proteins, carbohydrates, and fats. (
  • The simplest explanation for flavoprotein dehydrogenase is a class of conjugated proteins containing flavins and is involved in oxidation reaction in cell. (
  • A GXGXXG pattern characteristic of the coenzyme-binding fold is found at positions 11-16, close to the N-terminus as with "short-chain" alcohol dehydrogenases. (
  • Sugar Alcohol Dehydrogenases" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (
  • This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Sugar Alcohol Dehydrogenases" by people in Harvard Catalyst Profiles by year, and whether "Sugar Alcohol Dehydrogenases" was a major or minor topic of these publication. (
  • Below are the most recent publications written about "Sugar Alcohol Dehydrogenases" by people in Profiles. (
  • Crystal structure of quinone-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase from Pseudogluconobacter saccharoketogenes. (
  • Oral low-carbohydrate alcohol liquid diet induces experimental steatohepatitis in the rat. (
  • Isozyme analysis: In this study, polymorphism among parental lines of two F1 hybrids Shaktiman-1 [(CML 142 x CML 150) x CML186] and Shaktiman-2 (CML 176 x CML186) with respect to the esterase (EST), alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), malate dehydrogenase (MDH) and acid phosphatase (ACP) was analyzed. (
  • Bands were revealed for the enzyme systems esterase (EST), according to Scandalios (1969), alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), phosphoglucose isomerase (PGI), malate dehydrogenase (MDH) and malic enzyme (ME), described by Alfenas (1991), and alpha amylase ([alpha] - AMY), according to Alfenas (1998). (
  • Our results indicate that incorporation of p-hydroxycinnamyl aldehydes into lignin, via downregulation of cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase, will severely restrict the bioconversion of structural carbohydrates into ethanol fuels and into metabolizable energy for livestock. (
  • Rats were fed a liquid diet with ethanol ad lib that was low in calories derived from carbohydrates for 2 months. (
  • It is due to defects in the enzyme complex known as medium-chain acyl dehydrogenase ( MCAD ) and reduced activity of this complex. (
  • As the first step involves removal of hydrogen atoms (i.e. an oxidation) from an acyl group, the enzyme complex is known as an acyl dehydrogenase. (
  • Carbohydrate-derived pyruvate is transported into the mitochondria and irreversibly converted to acetyl-CoA by the pyruvate dehydrogenase enzyme complex (PDH). (
  • Pyruvate dehydrogenase is a multi-enzyme complex responsible for the generation of acetyl CoA from pyruvate for the Krebs cycle. (
  • Since humans are categorize as mammals, mammalian mitochondria flavoprotein dehydrogenases are involved in oxidation of tricarboxylic acid cycle. (
  • Pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase isoenzyme 4 inhibits pyruvate dehydrogenase and thus minimizes carbohydrate oxidation by preventing the flow of glycolytic products into the tricarboxylic acid cycle. (
  • Carbohydrates are mostly processed by glycolysis into pyruvate. (
  • Vitamin B5 (pantothenic acid) is a constituent of coenzyme A, a basic component of carbohydrate and amino acid metabolism as well as the biosynthesis of fatty acids and polyketides. (
  • Hence, ACC links fatty acid and carbohydrate metabolism through the shared intermediate acetyl-CoA, the product of pyruvate dehydrogenase. (
  • This seasonal adaptation requires a metabolic shift away from the oxidation of carbohydrates and towards the combustion of stored fatty acids as the primary source of energy. (
  • It is the final common pathway for oxidation - in other words harvesting high energy electrons--fuel molecules such as carbohydrate fatty acids, and amino acids by entering the cycle as Acetyl Coenzyme A (CoA). (
  • Dehydrogenases of mitochondria cells can be subdivided into two and these are: soluble and membrane bound. (
  • It was observed during scientific studies that the soluble dehydrogenase of Paracoccus denitrificans which is a bacteria can support growth because of the multitude of flavoprotein dehydrogenases that can be found in mitochondria. (
  • As shown, CO 2 is produced by pyruvate dehydrogenase complex and it captures high-transfer-potential electrons in the form of NADH. (
  • 6-Phosphogluconate Dehydrogenase Links Cytosolic Carbohydrate Metabolism to Protein Secretion via Modulation of Glutathione Levels. (
  • Scientists at the Broad Institute CTD 2 Center identified 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase, a cytosolic enzyme as a link between carbohydrate metabolism and protein secretion. (
  • The purpose of the book is to provide a glimpse into various aspects of carbohydrates by presenting the research of some of the scientists who are engaged in the development of new tools and ideas used to reveal carbohydrate metabolism in health and diseases and as material to mimic the c. (
  • The purpose of the book is to provide a glimpse into various aspects of carbohydrates by presenting the research of some of the scientists who are engaged in the development of new tools and ideas used to reveal carbohydrate metabolism in health and diseases and as material to mimic the carbohydrate surfaces that take part in molecular recognition, often from very different perspectives. (
  • Increased PDK expression in obesity contributes to lower PDH activity and reduced oxidation of carbohydrates 10 . (
  • This adaptive increase in PDK4 protein content was reversed with carbohydrate re-feeding. (
  • It was concluded that the adaptive up-regulation in PDK activity and PDK4 protein content was fiilly reversed by 3h following carbohydrate re-feeding. (
  • We found that genes encoding PTL (pancreatic triacylglycerol lipase) and PDK4 (pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase isoenzyme 4) are up-regulated in the heart when hibernation begins and that steady-state levels of both mRNAs remain high, whereas metabolism and body temperature are greatly decreased [ 4 ]. (
  • The three-dimensional structure of a new crystal form of methanol dehydrogenase from Methylophilus W3A1 has been obtained in the presence of substrate using data recorded at a synchrotron. (
  • Pyruvate is an important substrate in carbohydrate metabolism. (
  • This opens the possibility to engineer the substrate specificity of C. thermophilus CDH for specific carbohydrates by rational engineering or directed evolution. (
  • The d -xylose/ l -arabinose substrate binding protein (SBP) (Saci_2122) of the ABC transporter is unique in Archaea and shares more similarity to bacterial SBPs of the carbohydrate uptake transporter-2 (CUT2) family than to any characterized archaeal one. (
  • To determine whether activity of carbohydrate metabolism enzymes (aldolase, pyruvate kinase, isocitrate dehydrogenase, and malate dehydrogenase) are altered in the glaucomatous trabecular meshwork (TM) compared to controls. (
  • Lipid peroxidation product modification of aldolase, pyruvate kinase, and isocitrate dehydrogenase serves as a likely reason for the reduction of enzyme activity. (
  • We provide evidence that lipid peroxidation product modification reduces the activity of isocitrate dehydrogenase, one of the key enzymes of the Krebs cycle in the glaucomatous TM. (
  • Three tetrazolium salts are used as histochemical indicators of dehydrogenase activity in the skin of sheep and other mammals. (
  • The distribution of cytochrome oxidase in the wool follicle resembles the distribution of dehydrogenase activity. (
  • 100 µg ab109866 can capture at least 5 µg Pyruvate Dehydrogenase complex from 1 mg solubilized Bovine heart mitochondria. (
  • Both sexes had high levels of several enzymes known to suppress pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH), an enzyme vital for moving carbohydrates and sugars into a cell's mitochondria - a key step for fully exploiting sugar for energy. (
  • Purification and characterization of human liver sorbitol dehydrogenase. (
  • Carbohydrate metabolism disorders are a group of metabolic disorders. (
  • If you have one of these disorders, you may not have enough enzymes to break down the carbohydrates. (
  • Inherited Disorders of Carbohydrate Metabolism (D. Burman, J. B. Holton, and C. A. Pennock, eds. (
  • Pyruvate metabolism disorders are included among the carbohydrate metabolism disorders . (
  • In the presence of appropriate substrates and DPN and ATP, the intracellular deposition of the granular formazan in frozen sections has revealed the distribution of succinic, α-glycerophosphoric, lactic, and malic dehydrogenases, and regions where some phosphorylated carbohydrate intermediates promote reduction. (
  • Vitamin B1 as thiamine diphosphate is a coenzyme for pyruvate dehydrogenase, 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase, and transketolase which are all involved in carbohydrate metabolism. (
  • Thiamin-dependent enzymes (e.g. puruvate dehydrogenase, transketolase, α-ketoacid decarboxylase) play a particularly important role in carbohydrate metabolism. (
  • A novel inhibitor of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase stimulates myocardial carbohydrate oxidation in diet-induced obesity. (
  • Lactic acid bacteria Lactic acid bacteria are bacteria that metabolize carbohydrates to produce lactic acid. (
  • It was discovered recently, however, that many species of invertebrates possess lactic dehydrogenases specific for the D(-) isomer of lactic acid. (
  • In the annelids the oligochaetes and the closely related hirudinea possess If-specific lactic dehydrogenases while the polychaetes which utilized lactic acid utilized the D(-) isomer. (
  • Fat and carbohydrate are the principal substrates that fuel aerobic ATP synthesis in skeletal muscle. (
  • Carbohydrates are mainly stored as glycogen in skeletal muscle and liver. (