An iron-binding beta1-globulin that is synthesized in the LIVER and secreted into the blood. It plays a central role in the transport of IRON throughout the circulation. A variety of transferrin isoforms exist in humans, including some that are considered markers for specific disease states.
Membrane glycoproteins found in high concentrations on iron-utilizing cells. They specifically bind iron-bearing transferrin, are endocytosed with its ligand and then returned to the cell surface where transferrin without its iron is released.
The largest class of organic compounds, including STARCH; GLYCOGEN; CELLULOSE; POLYSACCHARIDES; and simple MONOSACCHARIDES. Carbohydrates are composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a ratio of Cn(H2O)n.
Cellular processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of CARBOHYDRATES.
Carbohydrates present in food comprising digestible sugars and starches and indigestible cellulose and other dietary fibers. The former are the major source of energy. The sugars are in beet and cane sugar, fruits, honey, sweet corn, corn syrup, milk and milk products, etc.; the starches are in cereal grains, legumes (FABACEAE), tubers, etc. (From Claudio & Lagua, Nutrition and Diet Therapy Dictionary, 3d ed, p32, p277)
A metallic element with atomic symbol Fe, atomic number 26, and atomic weight 55.85. It is an essential constituent of HEMOGLOBINS; CYTOCHROMES; and IRON-BINDING PROTEINS. It plays a role in cellular redox reactions and in the transport of OXYGEN.
A group of iron-binding proteins that tightly bind two ferrate ions along with two carbonate ions. They are found in the bodily fluids of vertebrates where they act as transport and storage molecules for iron.
The sequence of carbohydrates within POLYSACCHARIDES; GLYCOPROTEINS; and GLYCOLIPIDS.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
Molecules on the surface of T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with antigens. The receptors are non-covalently associated with a complex of several polypeptides collectively called CD3 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD3). Recognition of foreign antigen and the major histocompatibility complex is accomplished by a single heterodimeric antigen-receptor structure, composed of either alpha-beta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, ALPHA-BETA) or gamma-delta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA) chains.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a carbohydrate.
Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.
Iron-containing proteins that are widely distributed in animals, plants, and microorganisms. Their major function is to store IRON in a nontoxic bioavailable form. Each ferritin molecule consists of ferric iron in a hollow protein shell (APOFERRITINS) made of 24 subunits of various sequences depending on the species and tissue types.
A CELL LINE derived from human T-CELL LEUKEMIA and used to determine the mechanism of differential susceptibility to anti-cancer drugs and radiation.
A glycoprotein albumin from hen's egg white with strong iron-binding affinity.
Unstable isotopes of iron that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Fe atoms with atomic weights 52, 53, 55, and 59-61 are radioactive iron isotopes.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
Cellular uptake of extracellular materials within membrane-limited vacuoles or microvesicles. ENDOSOMES play a central role in endocytosis.
A class of carrier proteins that bind to TRANSFERRIN. Many strains of pathogenic bacteria utilize transferrin-binding proteins to acquire their supply of iron from serum.
Costimulatory T-LYMPHOCYTE receptors that have specificity for CD80 ANTIGEN and CD86 ANTIGEN. Activation of this receptor results in increased T-cell proliferation, cytokine production and promotion of T-cell survival.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Carbohydrates consisting of between two (DISACCHARIDES) and ten MONOSACCHARIDES connected by either an alpha- or beta-glycosidic link. They are found throughout nature in both the free and bound form.
A soluble substance elaborated by antigen- or mitogen-stimulated T-LYMPHOCYTES which induces DNA synthesis in naive lymphocytes.
An iron-binding protein that was originally characterized as a milk protein. It is widely distributed in secretory fluids and is found in the neutrophilic granules of LEUKOCYTES. The N-terminal part of lactoferrin possesses a serine protease which functions to inactivate the TYPE III SECRETION SYSTEM used by bacteria to export virulence proteins for host cell invasion.
A classification of T-lymphocytes, especially into helper/inducer, suppressor/effector, and cytotoxic subsets, based on structurally or functionally different populations of cells.
A protein tyrosine kinase that is required for T-CELL development and T-CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTOR function.
The processes whereby the internal environment of an organism tends to remain balanced and stable.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.
A signal transducer and activator of transcription that mediates cellular responses to INTERLEUKIN-4. Stat6 has been shown to partner with NF-KAPPA B and CCAAT-ENHANCER-BINDING PROTEINS to regulate GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of interleukin-4 responsive GENES.
Reduction in the number of lymphocytes.
A disorder of iron metabolism characterized by a triad of HEMOSIDEROSIS; LIVER CIRRHOSIS; and DIABETES MELLITUS. It is caused by massive iron deposits in parenchymal cells that may develop after a prolonged increase of iron absorption. (Jablonski's Dictionary of Syndromes & Eponymic Diseases, 2d ed)
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Carbohydrate antigens expressed by malignant tissue. They are useful as tumor markers and are measured in the serum by means of a radioimmunoassay employing monoclonal antibodies.
Proteins that specifically bind to IRON.
Proteins that share the common characteristic of binding to carbohydrates. Some ANTIBODIES and carbohydrate-metabolizing proteins (ENZYMES) also bind to carbohydrates, however they are not considered lectins. PLANT LECTINS are carbohydrate-binding proteins that have been primarily identified by their hemagglutinating activity (HEMAGGLUTININS). However, a variety of lectins occur in animal species where they serve diverse array of functions through specific carbohydrate recognition.
The chemical or biochemical addition of carbohydrate or glycosyl groups to other chemicals, especially peptides or proteins. Glycosyl transferases are used in this biochemical reaction.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
A family of transcription factors characterized by the presence of highly conserved calcineurin- and DNA-binding domains. NFAT proteins are activated in the CYTOPLASM by the calcium-dependent phosphatase CALCINEURIN. They transduce calcium signals to the nucleus where they can interact with TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR AP-1 or NF-KAPPA B and initiate GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of GENES involved in CELL DIFFERENTIATION and development. NFAT proteins stimulate T-CELL activation through the induction of IMMEDIATE-EARLY GENES such as INTERLEUKIN-2.
An integrin heterodimer widely expressed on cells of hematopoietic origin. CD11A ANTIGEN comprises the alpha chain and the CD18 antigen (ANTIGENS, CD18) the beta chain. Lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 is a major receptor of T-CELLS; B-CELLS; and GRANULOCYTES. It mediates the leukocyte adhesion reactions underlying cytolytic conjugate formation, helper T-cell interactions, and antibody-dependent killing by NATURAL KILLER CELLS and granulocytes. Intracellular adhesion molecule-1 has been defined as a ligand for lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1.
Any of a group of polysaccharides of the general formula (C6-H10-O5)n, composed of a long-chain polymer of glucose in the form of amylose and amylopectin. It is the chief storage form of energy reserve (carbohydrates) in plants.
Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete the interleukins IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, and IL-10. These cytokines influence B-cell development and antibody production as well as augmenting humoral responses.
A single, unpaired primary lymphoid organ situated in the MEDIASTINUM, extending superiorly into the neck to the lower edge of the THYROID GLAND and inferiorly to the fourth costal cartilage. It is necessary for normal development of immunologic function early in life. By puberty, it begins to involute and much of the tissue is replaced by fat.
Cytoplasmic vesicles formed when COATED VESICLES shed their CLATHRIN coat. Endosomes internalize macromolecules bound by receptors on the cell surface.
Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.
A subtype of bacterial transferrin-binding protein found in bacteria. It forms a cell surface receptor complex with TRANSFERRIN-BINDING PROTEIN A.
The protein components of a number of complexes, such as enzymes (APOENZYMES), ferritin (APOFERRITINS), or lipoproteins (APOLIPOPROTEINS).
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
Inorganic or organic compounds containing trivalent iron.
A hexose or fermentable monosaccharide and isomer of glucose from manna, the ash Fraxinus ornus and related plants. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed & Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
Complex of at least five membrane-bound polypeptides in mature T-lymphocytes that are non-covalently associated with one another and with the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL). The CD3 complex includes the gamma, delta, epsilon, zeta, and eta chains (subunits). When antigen binds to the T-cell receptor, the CD3 complex transduces the activating signals to the cytoplasm of the T-cell. The CD3 gamma and delta chains (subunits) are separate from and not related to the gamma/delta chains of the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA).
A subtype of bacterial transferrin-binding protein found in bacteria. It forms a cell surface receptor complex with TRANSFERRIN-BINDING PROTEIN B.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Form of passive immunization where previously sensitized immunologic agents (cells or serum) are transferred to non-immune recipients. When transfer of cells is used as a therapy for the treatment of neoplasms, it is called adoptive immunotherapy (IMMUNOTHERAPY, ADOPTIVE).
Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.
A rare, metallic element designated by the symbol, Ga, atomic number 31, and atomic weight 69.72.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
A soluble factor produced by activated T-LYMPHOCYTES that induces the expression of MHC CLASS II GENES and FC RECEPTORS on B-LYMPHOCYTES and causes their proliferation and differentiation. It also acts on T-lymphocytes, MAST CELLS, and several other hematopoietic lineage cells.
Simple sugars, carbohydrates which cannot be decomposed by hydrolysis. They are colorless crystalline substances with a sweet taste and have the same general formula CnH2nOn. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
Anemia characterized by decreased or absent iron stores, low serum iron concentration, low transferrin saturation, and low hemoglobin concentration or hematocrit value. The erythrocytes are hypochromic and microcytic and the iron binding capacity is increased.
A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.
Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete interleukin-2, gamma-interferon, and interleukin-12. Due to their ability to kill antigen-presenting cells and their lymphokine-mediated effector activity, Th1 cells are associated with vigorous delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Proteins obtained from foods. They are the main source of the ESSENTIAL AMINO ACIDS.
Fats present in food, especially in animal products such as meat, meat products, butter, ghee. They are present in lower amounts in nuts, seeds, and avocados.
A complex of proteins that forms a receptor for TRANSFERRIN in BACTERIA. Many pathogenic bacteria utilize the transferrin-binding complex to acquire their supply of iron from serum.
Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.
Proteins that regulate cellular and organismal iron homeostasis. They play an important biological role by maintaining iron levels that are adequate for metabolic need, but below the toxicity threshold.
An aldohexose that occurs naturally in the D-form in lactose, cerebrosides, gangliosides, and mucoproteins. Deficiency of galactosyl-1-phosphate uridyltransferase (GALACTOSE-1-PHOSPHATE URIDYL-TRANSFERASE DEFICIENCY DISEASE) causes an error in galactose metabolism called GALACTOSEMIA, resulting in elevations of galactose in the blood.
A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
Proteins which contain carbohydrate groups attached covalently to the polypeptide chain. The protein moiety is the predominant group with the carbohydrate making up only a small percentage of the total weight.
A broad category of carrier proteins that play a role in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. They generally contain several modular domains, each of which having its own binding activity, and act by forming complexes with other intracellular-signaling molecules. Signal-transducing adaptor proteins lack enzyme activity, however their activity can be modulated by other signal-transducing enzymes
Organic chemicals that form two or more coordination links with an iron ion. Once coordination has occurred, the complex formed is called a chelate. The iron-binding porphyrin group of hemoglobin is an example of a metal chelate found in biological systems.
Total number of calories taken in daily whether ingested or by parenteral routes.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
A nonreducing disaccharide composed of GLUCOSE and FRUCTOSE linked via their anomeric carbons. It is obtained commercially from SUGARCANE, sugar beet (BETA VULGARIS), and other plants and used extensively as a food and a sweetener.
An excessive accumulation of iron in the body due to a greater than normal absorption of iron from the gastrointestinal tract or from parenteral injection. This may arise from idiopathic hemochromatosis, excessive iron intake, chronic alcoholism, certain types of refractory anemia, or transfusional hemosiderosis. (From Churchill's Illustrated Medical Dictionary, 1989)
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
A diet that contains limited amounts of CARBOHYDRATES. This is in distinction to a regular DIET.
CD4-positive T cells that inhibit immunopathology or autoimmune disease in vivo. They inhibit the immune response by influencing the activity of other cell types. Regulatory T-cells include naturally occurring CD4+CD25+ cells, IL-10 secreting Tr1 cells, and Th3 cells.
Protein or glycoprotein substances of plant origin that bind to sugar moieties in cell walls or membranes. Some carbohydrate-metabolizing proteins (ENZYMES) from PLANTS also bind to carbohydrates, however they are not considered lectins. Many plant lectins change the physiology of the membrane of BLOOD CELLS to cause agglutination, mitosis, or other biochemical changes. They may play a role in plant defense mechanisms.
Glucose in blood.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
Immature ERYTHROCYTES. In humans, these are ERYTHROID CELLS that have just undergone extrusion of their CELL NUCLEUS. They still contain some organelles that gradually decrease in number as the cells mature. RIBOSOMES are last to disappear. Certain staining techniques cause components of the ribosomes to precipitate into characteristic "reticulum" (not the same as the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM), hence the name reticulocytes.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
Forms of hepcidin, a cationic amphipathic peptide synthesized in the liver as a prepropeptide which is first processed into prohepcidin and then into the biologically active hepcidin forms, including in human the 20-, 22-, and 25-amino acid residue peptide forms. Hepcidin acts as a homeostatic regulators of iron metabolism and also possesses antimicrobial activity.
A group of naturally occurring N-and O-acyl derivatives of the deoxyamino sugar neuraminic acid. They are ubiquitously distributed in many tissues.
The oxygen-carrying proteins of ERYTHROCYTES. They are found in all vertebrates and some invertebrates. The number of globin subunits in the hemoglobin quaternary structure differs between species. Structures range from monomeric to a variety of multimeric arrangements.
A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
Specialized regions of the cell membrane composed of pits coated with a bristle covering made of the protein CLATHRIN. These pits are the entry route for macromolecules bound by cell surface receptors. The pits are then internalized into the cytoplasm to form the COATED VESICLES.
Natural product isolated from Streptomyces pilosus. It forms iron complexes and is used as a chelating agent, particularly in the mesylate form.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.
A monosaccharide in sweet fruits and honey that is soluble in water, alcohol, or ether. It is used as a preservative and an intravenous infusion in parenteral feeding.
Anemia characterized by a decrease in the ratio of the weight of hemoglobin to the volume of the erythrocyte, i.e., the mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration is less than normal. The individual cells contain less hemoglobin than they could have under optimal conditions. Hypochromic anemia may be caused by iron deficiency from a low iron intake, diminished iron absorption, or excessive iron loss. It can also be caused by infections or other diseases, therapeutic drugs, lead poisoning, and other conditions. (Stedman, 25th ed; from Miale, Laboratory Medicine: Hematology, 6th ed, p393)
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.
Carbohydrates covalently linked to a nonsugar moiety (lipids or proteins). The major glycoconjugates are glycoproteins, glycopeptides, peptidoglycans, glycolipids, and lipopolysaccharides. (From Biochemical Nomenclature and Related Documents, 2d ed; From Principles of Biochemistry, 2d ed)
Oligosaccharides containing two monosaccharide units linked by a glycosidic bond.
Endogenous glycoproteins from which SIALIC ACID has been removed by the action of sialidases. They bind tightly to the ASIALOGLYCOPROTEIN RECEPTOR which is located on hepatocyte plasma membranes. After internalization by adsorptive ENDOCYTOSIS they are delivered to LYSOSOMES for degradation. Therefore receptor-mediated clearance of asialoglycoproteins is an important aspect of the turnover of plasma glycoproteins. They are elevated in serum of patients with HEPATIC CIRRHOSIS or HEPATITIS.
An enzyme that catalyzes the reversible hydration of fumaric acid to yield L-malic acid. It is one of the citric acid cycle enzymes. EC 4.2.1.2.
The N-acetyl derivative of galactosamine.
Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.
Globulins of milk obtained from the WHEY.
An N-acyl derivative of neuraminic acid. N-acetylneuraminic acid occurs in many polysaccharides, glycoproteins, and glycolipids in animals and bacteria. (From Dorland, 28th ed, p1518)
A strong oxidizing agent.
The N-acetyl derivative of glucosamine.
A chromatographic technique that utilizes the ability of biological molecules to bind to certain ligands specifically and reversibly. It is used in protein biochemistry. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
Electrophoresis in which a pH gradient is established in a gel medium and proteins migrate until they reach the site (or focus) at which the pH is equal to their isoelectric point.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.
SUGARS containing an amino group. GLYCOSYLATION of other compounds with these amino sugars results in AMINOGLYCOSIDES.
A multifunctional iron-sulfur protein that is both an iron regulatory protein and cytoplasmic form of aconitate hydratase. It binds to iron regulatory elements found on mRNAs involved in iron metabolism and regulates their translation. Its RNA binding ability and its aconitate hydrolase activity are dependent upon availability of IRON.
A partitioning within cells due to the selectively permeable membranes which enclose each of the separate parts, e.g., mitochondria, lysosomes, etc.
The remnants of plant cell walls that are resistant to digestion by the alimentary enzymes of man. It comprises various polysaccharides and lignins.
The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.
A major protein in the BLOOD. It is important in maintaining the colloidal osmotic pressure and transporting large organic molecules.
Low-molecular-weight compounds produced by microorganisms that aid in the transport and sequestration of ferric iron. (The Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994)
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
Proteins that are present in blood serum, including SERUM ALBUMIN; BLOOD COAGULATION FACTORS; and many other types of proteins.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
A genetically heterogeneous group of heritable disorders resulting from defects in protein N-glycosylation.
Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.
Unstable isotopes of gallium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Ga atoms with atomic weights 63-68, 70 and 72-76 are radioactive gallium isotopes.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
The time frame after a meal or FOOD INTAKE.
An N-acetylglycosamine containing antiviral antibiotic obtained from Streptomyces lysosuperificus. It is also active against some bacteria and fungi, because it inhibits the glucosylation of proteins. Tunicamycin is used as tool in the study of microbial biosynthetic mechanisms.
Salts and esters of the 7-carbon saturated monocarboxylic acid heptanoic acid.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
Oligosaccharides containing three monosaccharide units linked by glycosidic bonds.
A genetically related subfamily of RAB GTP-BINDING PROTEINS involved in recycling of proteins such as cell surface receptors from early endosomes to the cell surface. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.
Uptake of substances through the lining of the INTESTINES.
An amidohydrolase that removes intact asparagine-linked oligosaccharide chains from glycoproteins. It requires the presence of more than two amino-acid residues in the substrate for activity. This enzyme was previously listed as EC 3.2.2.18.
Separation technique in which the stationary phase consists of ion exchange resins. The resins contain loosely held small ions that easily exchange places with other small ions of like charge present in solutions washed over the resins.
A proteolytic enzyme obtained from Streptomyces griseus.
Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).
Iron or iron compounds used in foods or as food. Dietary iron is important in oxygen transport and the synthesis of the iron-porphyrin proteins hemoglobin, myoglobin, cytochromes, and cytochrome oxidase. Insufficient amounts of dietary iron can lead to iron-deficiency anemia.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
A large family of MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS that play a key role in cellular secretory and endocytic pathways. EC 3.6.1.-.
An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of alpha-2,3, alpha-2,6-, and alpha-2,8-glycosidic linkages (at a decreasing rate, respectively) of terminal sialic residues in oligosaccharides, glycoproteins, glycolipids, colominic acid, and synthetic substrate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992)
Chemical analysis based on the phenomenon whereby light, passing through a medium with dispersed particles of a different refractive index from that of the medium, is attenuated in intensity by scattering. In turbidimetry, the intensity of light transmitted through the medium, the unscattered light, is measured. In nephelometry, the intensity of the scattered light is measured, usually, but not necessarily, at right angles to the incident light beam.
A trisaccharide antigen expressed on glycolipids and many cell-surface glycoproteins. In the blood the antigen is found on the surface of NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and MONOCYTES. In addition, CD15 antigen is a stage-specific embryonic antigen.
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
ERYTHROCYTE size and HEMOGLOBIN content or concentration, usually derived from ERYTHROCYTE COUNT; BLOOD hemoglobin concentration; and HEMATOCRIT. The indices include the mean corpuscular volume (MCV), the mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH), and the mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC).
General name for the translation products of a fusion mRNA consisting of a gag gene and a viral oncogene (v-onc). These products are thought to have the ability to transform cells.
Small cationic peptides that are an important component, in most species, of early innate and induced defenses against invading microbes. In animals they are found on mucosal surfaces, within phagocytic granules, and on the surface of the body. They are also found in insects and plants. Among others, this group includes the DEFENSINS, protegrins, tachyplesins, and thionins. They displace DIVALENT CATIONS from phosphate groups of MEMBRANE LIPIDS leading to disruption of the membrane.
A non-essential amino acid that is involved in the metabolic control of cell functions in nerve and brain tissue. It is biosynthesized from ASPARTIC ACID and AMMONIA by asparagine synthetase. (From Concise Encyclopedia Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 3rd ed)
The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.
A disaccharide of GLUCOSE and GALACTOSE in human and cow milk. It is used in pharmacy for tablets, in medicine as a nutrient, and in industry.
CELL LINE derived from the ovary of the Chinese hamster, Cricetulus griseus (CRICETULUS). The species is a favorite for cytogenetic studies because of its small chromosome number. The cell line has provided model systems for the study of genetic alterations in cultured mammalian cells.
Membrane glycoproteins consisting of an alpha subunit and a BETA 2-MICROGLOBULIN beta subunit. In humans, highly polymorphic genes on CHROMOSOME 6 encode the alpha subunits of class I antigens and play an important role in determining the serological specificity of the surface antigen. Class I antigens are found on most nucleated cells and are generally detected by their reactivity with alloantisera. These antigens are recognized during GRAFT REJECTION and restrict cell-mediated lysis of virus-infected cells.
High molecular weight mucoproteins that protect the surface of EPITHELIAL CELLS by providing a barrier to particulate matter and microorganisms. Membrane-anchored mucins may have additional roles concerned with protein interactions at the cell surface.
Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
Physiological processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of LIPIDS.
Stable iron atoms that have the same atomic number as the element iron, but differ in atomic weight. Fe-54, 57, and 58 are stable iron isotopes.
Supporting cells projecting inward from the basement membrane of SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES. They surround and nourish the developing male germ cells and secrete ANDROGEN-BINDING PROTEIN and hormones such as ANTI-MULLERIAN HORMONE. The tight junctions of Sertoli cells with the SPERMATOGONIA and SPERMATOCYTES provide a BLOOD-TESTIS BARRIER.
The production of red blood cells (ERYTHROCYTES). In humans, erythrocytes are produced by the YOLK SAC in the first trimester; by the liver in the second trimester; by the BONE MARROW in the third trimester and after birth. In normal individuals, the erythrocyte count in the peripheral blood remains relatively constant implying a balance between the rate of erythrocyte production and rate of destruction.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
A reduction in the number of circulating ERYTHROCYTES or in the quantity of HEMOGLOBIN.
A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A group of dominantly and independently inherited antigens associated with the ABO blood factors. They are glycolipids present in plasma and secretions that may adhere to the erythrocytes. The phenotype Le(b) is the result of the interaction of the Le gene Le(a) with the genes for the ABO blood groups.
Glycoprotein hormone, secreted chiefly by the KIDNEY in the adult and the LIVER in the FETUS, that acts on erythroid stem cells of the BONE MARROW to stimulate proliferation and differentiation.
A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.
Any compound containing one or more monosaccharide residues bound by a glycosidic linkage to a hydrophobic moiety such as an acylglycerol (see GLYCERIDES), a sphingoid, a ceramide (CERAMIDES) (N-acylsphingoid) or a prenyl phosphate. (From IUPAC's webpage)
Traditional screening tests utilized for congenital disorders of glycosylation, including carbohydrate deficient transferrin ...
As a blood marker PEth is more sensitive than carbohydrate deficient transferrin (CDT), urinary ethyl glucuronide (EtG) and ...
1 High carbohydrate deficient transferrin (CDT) With regard to alcoholism, BAC is useful to judge alcohol tolerance, which in ...
... or CdT may refer to: Carbohydrate deficient transferrin, a transporter protein isoform typically increased in alcoholism ...
... testing for elevated values of carbohydrate-deficient transferrin or gammaglutamyl transferase can help make the diagnosis of ... Individuals who have an alcohol use disorder are often deficient in various nutrients, which can cause severe complications ... and pyridoxine intravenously is recommended before starting any carbohydrate-containing fluids or food. These vitamins are ...
Optimization of conditions in view of its application to the HPLC analysis of carbohydrate-deficient transferrin (CDT)". ... Two main transferrin receptors found in humans denoted as transferrin receptor 1 (TfR1) and transferrin receptor 2 (TfR2). ... Transferrin bound to its receptor. Transferrin receptor complex. Transferrin is also associated with the innate immune system. ... Carbohydrate deficient transferrin increases in the blood with heavy ethanol consumption and can be monitored through ...
These are referred to as carbohydrate-deficient transferrins. These carbohydrate-deficient transferrins can be measured in the ... Carbohydrate-deficient transferrin is elevated in the blood of people with heavy alcohol consumption but elevated levels can ... Carbohydrate-deficient transferrin (CDT, also known as desialotransferrin or asialotransferrin) is a laboratory test used to ... carbohydrate-deficient transferrin can be a useful tool in identifying problem drinking, such as alcohol use disorder. However ...
Carbohydrate deficient transferrin. *Cardiac marker. *Ceruloplasmin. *Chromatography. *Creatine kinase. *N-terminal telopeptide ...
Høyt karbohydratfattig transferrin (carbohydrate-deficient transferrin -CDT). Ingen av disse blodprøvene for biologiske ...
Körner C, Knauer R, Holzbach U, Hanefeld F, Lehle L, von Figura K (1998). "Carbohydrate-deficient glycoprotein syndrome type V ... The most commonly used screening method for CDG, analysis of transferrin glycosylation status by isoelectric focusing, ESI-MS, ... Jaeken J, Schachter H, Carchon H, De Cock P, Coddeville B, Spik G (1994). "Carbohydrate deficient glycoprotein syndrome type II ... GeneReviews/NIH/NCBI/UW entry on PMM2-CDG (CDG-Ia)Carbohydrate-Deficient Glycoprotein Syndrome, Type 1a; Congenital Disorder of ...
possibly involving the transferrin receptor. IGFBP-3 enters the cell nucleus by a mechanism that is incompletely understood, ... serum IGFBP-3 is increased in acromegaly and low in GH-deficient children. However, IGFBP-3 gene expression in human liver is ... owing to the occupancy of either two or three of its N-glycosylation sites by carbohydrate. Hypoglycosylated IGFBP-3 may be ... Storch S, Kübler B, Höning S, Ackmann M, Zapf J, Blum W, Braulke T (2001). "Transferrin binds insulin-like growth factors and ...
In accordance, genome analysis of Prevotella copri showed it was deficient in the ability to degrade host glycans and is more ... while for those who consume more carbohydrates, especially fibre, the Prevotella species dominate.[6] However, Prevotella has ... Inorganic iron and iron-binding proteins such as transferrin and lactoferrin do not support the growth of P. intermedia, ...
October 1991). "Human surfactant protein D: SP-D contains a C-type lectin carbohydrate recognition domain". Archives of ... "A different combination of transcription factors modulates the expression of the human transferrin promoter in liver and ... inhibition of inducible NO synthase activity in vivo reverses inflammatory abnormalities in surfactant protein D-deficient mice ... October 1991). "Human surfactant protein D: SP-D contains a C-type lectin carbohydrate recognition domain". Archives of ...
In blood plasma, zinc is bound to and transported by albumin (60%, low-affinity) and transferrin (10%).[171] Because ... Nearly two billion people in the developing world are deficient in zinc.[10] In children, it causes an increase in infection ... defects in carbohydrate utilization, and reproductive teratogenesis.[188] Mild zinc deficiency depresses immunity,[209] ... Zinc-deficient soil is cultivated in the cropland of about half of Turkey and India, a third of China, and most of Western ...
... and transferrin (10%). Because transferrin also transports iron, excessive iron reduces zinc absorption, and vice versa. A ... Zinc-deficient soil is cultivated in the cropland of about half of Turkey and India, a third of China, and most of Western ... defects in carbohydrate utilization, and reproductive teratogenesis. Zinc deficiency depresses immunity, but excessive zinc ... Plants that grow in soils that are zinc-deficient are more susceptible to disease. Zinc is added to the soil primarily through ...
... and a carbohydrate recognition domain. The C-terminal carbohydrate recognition domain (CRD) allows binding to various types of ... a lung disease characterized by deficient gas exchange, diffuse atelectasis, high-permeability lung edema and fibrin-rich ... "A different combination of transcription factors modulates the expression of the human transferrin promoter in liver and ... SP-A1 binds to the carbohydrates found in the surface of several microorganisms and helps in the defense against respiratory ...
Blood plasma as a result carries iron tightly bound to transferrin, which is taken up by cells by endocytosing transferrin, ... carbohydrate, low-fat diets, may be at an increased risk for iron deficiency.[8][9] ... or iron-deficient erythropoiesis (IDE). ... iron is carried tightly bound to the protein transferrin. There ...
These are referred to as carbohydrate-deficient transferrins. These carbohydrate-deficient transferrins can be measured in the ... Carbohydrate-deficient transferrin is elevated in the blood of people with heavy alcohol consumption but elevated levels can ... Carbohydrate-deficient transferrin (CDT, also known as desialotransferrin or asialotransferrin) is a laboratory test used to ... carbohydrate-deficient transferrin can be a useful tool in identifying problem drinking, such as alcohol use disorder. However ...
Definition of gamma-carbohydrate-deficient transferrin. Provided by Stedmans medical dictionary and Drugs.com. Includes ... gamma-carbohydrate-deficient transferrin. Definition: a calculated laboratory value, the sum of carbohydrate-deficient ... transferrin and gamma-glutamyltransferase that is useful in assessing long-term ethanol exposure. ...
carbohydrate-deficient transferrin answers are found in the Tabers Medical Dictionary powered by Unbound Medicine. Available ... transferrin. Carbohydrate-deficient transferrin. In: Venes D, ed. Tabers Medical Dictionary. 23rd ed. F.A. Davis Company; 2017 ... transferrin. Carbohydrate-deficient Transferrin [Internet]. In: Venes D, editors. Tabers Medical Dictionary. F.A. Davis ... transferrin. Accessed December 6, 2019.. Carbohydrate-deficient transferrin. (2017). In Venes, D. (Ed.), Tabers Medical ...
We measured serum levels of carbohydrate deficient transferrin (CDT) in 420 subjects: 100 healthy blood donors, 82 healthy ... Serum carbohydrate-deficient transferrin as a marker of alcohol consumption in patients with chronic liver diseases Alcohol ... We measured serum levels of carbohydrate deficient transferrin (CDT) in 420 subjects: 100 healthy blood donors, 82 healthy ... No advantage was gained by using the CDT/transferrin ratio. Our study confirms that CDT is a specific marker for chronic ...
1997) Is carbohydrate-deficient transferrin a specific marker for alcohol abuse? A study in patients with chronic viral ... Carbohydrate Deficient Transferrin (CDT) is now widely used for detection of chronic alcohol abuse and monitoring sobriety in ... 2001) Carbohydrate deficient transferrin in abstaining patients with end-stage liver disease. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 25: 1729- ... Determination of Serum Carbohydrate-Deficient Transferrin (CDT) by the Nephelometric N Latex CDT Assay in Japanese Habitual ...
Carbohydrate-deficient transferrin and gamma-glutamyltransferase for the detection and monitoring of alcohol use: results from ... carbohydrate-deficient transferrin (CDT), in contrast to the older and more widely used gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT) for the ...
According to many researchers, carbohydrate-deficient transferrin (CDT) - an abnormal transferrin characterized by lowered ... Carbohydrate-Deficient Transferrin (CDT) during 2 to 3 weeks of Alcohol Misuse in Men and Women and its Significance in View of ... Stibler H: Carbohydrate-deficient transferrin in serum: a new marker of potentially harmful alcohol consumption reviewed. Clin ... Bell H, Tallaksen C, Sjahem T, Weberg R et al: Serum carbohydrate-deficient transferrin as a marker of alcohol consumption in ...
Anion-exchange chromatography versus isoelectric focusing of transferrin in diagnosing the carbohydrate-deficient glycoprotein ...
... deficient transferrin (CDT) and alcoholic liver disease, we measured the ratio of carbohydratedeficient transferrin to total ... deficient transferrin (CDT) and alcoholic liver disease, we measured the ratio of carbohydratedeficient transferrin to total ... deficient transferrin (CDT) and alcoholic liver disease, we measured the ratio of carbohydratedeficient transferrin to total ... deficient transferrin (CDT) and alcoholic liver disease, we measured the ratio of carbohydratedeficient transferrin to total ...
Background: Carbohydrate-deficient transferrin (CDT) is used for diagnosis of chronic alcohol abuse. Some 200-300 reports on ... Carbohydrate-deficient Transferrin as a Marker of Chronic Alcohol Abuse: A Critical Review of Preanalysis, Analysis, and ... Carbohydrate-deficient Transferrin as a Marker of Chronic Alcohol Abuse: A Critical Review of Preanalysis, Analysis, and ... Carbohydrate-deficient Transferrin as a Marker of Chronic Alcohol Abuse: A Critical Review of Preanalysis, Analysis, and ...
Therefore, a blood test of carbohydrate deficient transferrin is frequently used to diagnose one type of disorder of ... Carbohydrate deficient transferrin is a substance in the blood that become altered in congenital disorders of glycosylation. ... What is carbohydrate deficient transferrin? Carbohydrate deficient transferrin is a substance in the blood that become altered ... A routine blood draw is required in order to perform the carbohydrate deficient transferrin test. The blood sample is then ...
CDT (CARBOHYDRATE DEFICIENT TRANSFERRIN), SERUM Delivery Time Modification. Test code: 2478. Effective update from 29/03/2019. ...
The protein transferrin carries iron to parts of the body, heavy consumption of alcohol can increase transferrin. High CDT ... Included in each test request for Carbohydrate Deficient Transferrin are a Doctors Referral, all Phlebotomy fees (your blood ... This private blood analysis for Carbohydrate Deficient Transferrin is accessible at all thirty one private outpatient ... CDT blood testing can be used to screen for alcohol abuse (heavy alcohol consumption). The protein transferrin carries iron to ...
Carbohydrate Deficient Transferrin (CDT) Test. Home , Carbohydrate Deficient Transferrin (CDT) Test The Carbohydrate Deficient ... The effect is a change in the number of carbohydrate molecules within the protein. The level of deficiency is reported as a ... Transferrin (CDT) blood test provided by Orbit Labs looks at transferrin, a protein that transports iron around the body, which ...
Transferrin Mono-oligo/Di-oligo Ratio: ,or= 0.06; Transferrin A-oligo/Di-oligo Ratio: ,or= 0.011; Transferrin Tri-sialo/Di- ... and liver disease may result in increased levels of carbohydrate deficient transferrin. Relevant clinical information and the ... Mono-oligosaccharide/Di-oligosaccharide transferrin ratio. A-oligosaccharide/Di-oligosaccharide transferrin ratio ...
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CDG (Carbohydrate Deficient Transferrin for Congenital Disorders of Glycosylation). *CDGS (Carbohydrate Deficient Transferrin ... Carbohydrate Deficient Transferrin for Congenital Disorders o. *Glycoprotein Syndrome (Carbohydrate Deficient Transferrin for ... Carbohydrate Deficient Glycoprotein Syndrome (Carbohydrate Deficient Transferrin for Congenital Diso. * ... CDT (Carbohydrate Deficient Transferrin for Congenital Disorders of Glycosylation). *Congenital Disorders of Glycosylation ( ...
Carbohydrate-Deficient Transferrin. Transferrin, a negatively charged glycoprotein, is metabolized in the liver, circulates in ... With heavy alcohol intake, these moieties can lose carbohydrate content, hence the term "carbohydrate-deficient" transferrin ( ... Carbohydrate-deficient transferrin. 2-4 weeks of abstinence. 60+ g/d for at least 2 weeks. Rare false positives. Good indicator ... Stibler, H. Carbohydrate-deficient transferrin in serum: A new marker of potentially harmful alcohol consumption reviewed. Clin ...
Carbohydrate-deficient transferrin (CDT) has been suggested as one of alcohol abuse indicators having produced good results in ... carbohydrate-deficient transferrin - CDT) jedan je od markera zloupotrebe alkohola koji je pokazao najbolje rezultate u sudskoj ... Forensic aspects of postmortem serum carbohydrate-deficient transferrin analysis as a marker of alcohol abuse. Forenzički ... alcoholism / carbohydrate-deficient transferrin (CDT) / postmortem analysis / specificity / sensitivity / alkoholizam / ...
alcoholism / carbohydrate-deficient transferrin (CDT) / carbohydrate-deficient transferrin (CDT) / postmortem analysis / ... carbohydrate-deficient transferrin - CDT) jedan je od markera zloupotrebe alkohola koji je pokazao najbolje rezultate u sudskoj ... Introduction Carbohydrate-deficient transferrin (CDT) has been suggested as one of alcohol abuse indicators having produced ... Forensic Aspects of Postmortem Serum Carbohydrate-Deficient Transferrin Analysis as a Marker of Alcohol Abuse. Forenzički ...
WG-SCDT: Carbohydrate-Deficient Transferrin. 1. International standardization of CDT measurement and interpretation improves ...
Carbohydrate Deficient Transferrin for Alcohol Use 0070412. PEth. 1-2 wks or longer (blood). ≥20 ng/mL. Phosphatidylethanol ( ... Carbohydrate-Deficient Transferrin. CDT, an indirect metabolite of ethanol, is a serum marker of long-term, heavy alcohol use ... Combining serum carbohydrate-deficient transferrin and hair ethyl glucuronide to provide optimal information on alcohol use. ... Carbohydrate-deficient transferrin (CDT) and phosphatidylethanol (PEth) are useful markers for monitoring abstinence following ...
Carbohydrate deficient transferrin (CDT). *Negative charged glycoprotein proteins with incomplete glycan chain(s) *Markedly ... Carbohydrate Deficient Transferrin. *Cannot be used in individuals suspected of having congenital glycosylation disorders. ... Alcohol use biomarkers (eg, ethyl glucuronide, ethyl sulfate, carbohydrate deficient transferrin) can help determine acute or ...
Value of determining carbohydrate-deficient transferrin isoforms in the diagnosis of alcoholic liver disease. Mayo Clinic ... Value of determining carbohydrate-deficient transferrin isoforms in the diagnosis of alcoholic liver disease. / Stadheim, Linda ... Value of determining carbohydrate-deficient transferrin isoforms in the diagnosis of alcoholic liver disease. ... Objective: To determine whether isoform separation of carbohydrate-deficient transferrin (CDT) is of value in the diagnosis of ...
The alcohol biomarker, carbohydrate deficient transferrin (CDT), was measured at the Moscow Research and Practical Center on ...
A review of genetic, biological, pharmacological, and clinical factors that affect carbohydrate-deficient transferrin levels. ... and clinical factors that affect carbohydrate-deficient transferrin levels. Together they form a unique fingerprint. * Sort by ...
6.2 Transferrin Microheterogeneity.. 6.3 Carbohydrate-deficient Transferrin (CDT).. 6.4 Congenital Disorders of Glycosylation ( ... 6. Chromatographic Measurement of Transferrin Glycoforms for Detecting Alcohol Abuse and Congenital Disorders of Glycosylation ...
Carbohydrate deficient transferrin. Gammaglutamyltransferase. California Verbal Learning Test. Wisconsin Card Sort Test. Stroop ... Biomarkers of alcohol use: carbohydrate-deficient transferrin, gamma-glutamyltransferase [ Time Frame: 12 weeks ]. *Depression ...
  • Carbohydrate deficient transferrin is a substance in the blood that become altered in congenital disorders of glycosylation. (nicklauschildrens.org)
  • 6. Chromatographic Measurement of Transferrin Glycoforms for Detecting Alcohol Abuse and Congenital Disorders of Glycosylation (Anders Helander). (wiley.com)
  • Only a few serious nonalcohol-related liver diseases like primary biliary cirrhosis, chronic active hepatitis, severly decompensated liver cirrhosis and advanced cirrhosis with ascites may elevate CDT, as well as rare cases of atypical transferrin variants and an inherited disorder - carbohydrate deficient glycoprotein syndrome or CDG (Stiebler 1991, Heyne and Weidinger 1992, Allen et al 1994). (druglibrary.org)
  • Transferrin is a glycoprotein with a molecular weight of 75,000 to 80,000, the function of which is to transport iron. (medindia.net)
  • Four types of carbohydrate-deficient glycoprotein syndrome have been described, and the cause of two of them has been found. (bmj.com)
  • 1 Four types of carbohydrate-deficient glycoprotein syndrome have been recognised, depending on the isoelectric focusing pattern of serum sialotransferrins. (bmj.com)
  • Although a heterogenous group of disorders many of the clinical findings of the carbohydrate-deficient glycoprotein syndromes are characteristic, the presentation varies with age and type. (bmj.com)
  • The commonest variety of the carbohydrate-deficient glycoprotein syndromes is type Ia, and in most instances a deficiency of phosphomannomutase has been recognised. (bmj.com)
  • They also found 11 different missense mutations in the PMM2 gene in 16 patients suffering from the carbohydrate-deficient glycoprotein type Ia syndrome. (bmj.com)
  • Human transferrin is encoded by the TF gene and produced as a 76 kDa glycoprotein. (wikipedia.org)
  • The review is divided into sections based on microheterogeneity of human serum transferrin (Tf), definition of CDT, structure of human serum CDT, pathomechanisms of ethanol-induced CDT increase, preanalysis, analysis, and medical interpretation (postanalysis). (aaccjnls.org)
  • Then biochemical tests can be carried out, especially chromatographic carbohydrate-deficient transferrin assay and isoelectric focusing of serum transferrin. (bmj.com)
  • they present as a severe encephalopathy with intractable epilepsy and a different cathodal shift on serum transferrin isoelectric focusing from type Ia. (bmj.com)
  • Medical professionals may check serum transferrin level in iron deficiency and in iron overload disorders such as hemochromatosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Alcohol use biomarkers (eg, ethyl glucuronide, ethyl sulfate, carbohydrate deficient transferrin) can help determine acute or chronic alcohol use. (arupconsult.com)
  • a calculated laboratory value, the sum of carbohydrate-deficient transferrin and gamma-glutamyltransferase that is useful in assessing long-term ethanol exposure. (drugs.com)
  • The purpose of this article is to evaluate the biological marker of heavy alcohol use, carbohydrate-deficient transferrin (CDT), in contrast to the older and more widely used gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT) for the detection and monitoring of heavy alcohol use. (nih.gov)
  • Sialic acid is a monosaccharide carbohydrate. (wikipedia.org)
  • In persons who consume significant quantities of alcohol (usually more than 4 or 5 alcoholic beverages a day for two weeks or more), the proportion of transferrin with zero, one, or two sialic acid chains is increased. (wikipedia.org)
  • According to many researchers, carbohydrate-deficient transferrin (CDT) - an abnormal transferrin characterized by lowered concentrations of mainly sialic acid resp. (druglibrary.org)
  • These include certain alcohol byproducts, such as acetaldehyde, ethyl glucuronide (EtG), and fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEE), as well as two measures of sialic acid, a carbohydrate that appears to be altered in alcoholics. (nih.gov)
  • Recently, sialic acid and carbohydrate-deficient transferrin levels have been touted as possible tests, but the sensitivities of both appear to be too low to be useful. (medscape.com)
  • Transferrin isoforms were quantified by densitometry of Coomassie-stained transferrins after affinity purification and isoelectric focusing. (elsevier.com)
  • The paper describes a study of 58 consecutive male soldiers under 30 years old admitted to an alcohol treatment unit in London, and 51 age- and gender-matched controls to compare the efficacy of isoelectric focusing, a non-quantitative measure of carbohydrate deficient transferrin (CDT), with other markers of alcohol misuse. (cf.ac.uk)
  • Used with other tests, such as gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and alanine aminotransferase (ALT), carbohydrate-deficient transferrin can be a useful tool in identifying problem drinking, such as alcohol use disorder. (wikipedia.org)
  • Indirect markers (mean corpuscular volume,γ-glutamyl transferase, alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase, and carbohydrate-deficient transferrin) are biological parameters that are influenced by a steady and significant alcohol intake. (dovepress.com)
  • Carbohydrate-deficient transferrin (CDT) and phosphatidylethanol (PEth) are useful markers for monitoring abstinence following long-term use. (arupconsult.com)
  • Carbohydrate-deficient transferrin (CDT) 1 is considered the most accurate biomarker for identifying sustained heavy alcohol consumption and for monitoring abstinence ( 3 )( 4 ). (aaccjnls.org)
  • Detection and Quantification of Carbohydrate-Deficient Transferrin by MALDI-Compatible Protein Chips Prepared by Ambient Ion Soft Landing. (nih.gov)
  • Here we demonstrate the ability to quickly resolve isoforms of three model proteins (bovine serum albumin, transferrin, α 1 -antitrypsin) in capillaries coated with novel dynamic coatings. (wiley.com)
  • Isoforms of transferrin and α 1 -antitrypsin have been implicated in several human diseases. (wiley.com)
  • N Latex CDT uses a monoclonal antibody that recognizes the structure of transferrin glycoforms lacking 1 or 2 complete N-glycans [i.e., disialo-, monosialo-, and asialotransferrins (CDT glycoforms)] in combination with a simultaneous assay for total transferrin. (aaccjnls.org)
  • The Dade Behring BN II™ and BN ProSpec® systems automatically calculate the CDT value as a percentage of total transferrin (%CDT). (aaccjnls.org)
  • Fast determination of carbohydrate deficient transferrin using capillary zone electrophoresis. (ugent.be)
  • Amino acid sequence variation is observed in individuals with genetic variants B, C, and D ( 8 ), whereas transferrin glycoforms with variable carbohydrate content and/or branching of the maximum 2 N-linked oligosaccharide chains (N-glycans) are always present ( 4 )( 7 )( 9 ). (aaccjnls.org)
  • Carbohydrate-deficient transferrin (CDT, also known as desialotransferrin or asialotransferrin) is a laboratory test used to help detect heavy ethanol consumption. (wikipedia.org)
  • Carbohydrate-Deficient Transferring (CDT) is a laboratory test used to help detect heavy ethanol consumption in patients with unexplained elevations of MCV, liver enzymes, HDL or idiopathic neuropathies. (bloodtestslondon.com)
  • Transferrin genetic variants did not interfere with measurements. (aaccjnls.org)
  • The specificity of N Latex CDT for identifying alcohol abuse may be higher than for immunoassays that use column separation, because transferrin genetic variants do not interfere with measurements. (aaccjnls.org)
  • Drawbacks with this last approach are the labor involved and the fact that transferrin genetic variants may cause falsely high or falsely low results ( 28 ). (aaccjnls.org)
  • Anton RF (2001) Carbohydrate-deficient transferrin for detection and monitoring of sustained heavy drinking. (springer.com)
  • The gene coding for transferrin in humans is located in chromosome band 3q21. (wikipedia.org)
  • In humans, transferrin consists of a polypeptide chain containing 679 amino acids and two carbohydrate chains. (wikipedia.org)
  • Two main transferrin receptors found in humans denoted as transferrin receptor 1 (TfR1) and transferrin receptor 2 (TfR2). (wikipedia.org)
  • Objective: To determine whether isoform separation of carbohydrate-deficient transferrin (CDT) is of value in the diagnosis of alcoholic liver disease (ALD) and is specific to ALD when compared with other liver diseases. (elsevier.com)
  • 6.2 Transferrin Microheterogeneity. (wiley.com)
  • 6.5 Analytical Methods for Transferrin Microheterogeneity. (wiley.com)
  • Transferrin, which occurs at concentrations of 2.0-3.5 g/L in serum, exhibits a degree of microheterogeneity that depends on iron saturation (∼30%), amino acid sequence, and/or carbohydrate content ( 5 )( 6 )( 7 ). (aaccjnls.org)
  • Moreover, modified sequences are frequently also present unmodified (heterogeneity), and when occupied, the same site may be modified with different carbohydrate structures (microheterogeneity). (mcponline.org)
  • The HPLC method did not allow for baseline separation between disialo- and disialotransferrin in serum containing a rare genetic transferrin variant, tentatively identified as C2C3 (3, 32). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • An absence of transferrin results from a rare genetic disorder known as atransferrinemia, a condition characterized by anemia and hemosiderosis in the heart and liver that leads to heart failure and many other complications. (wikipedia.org)
  • Transferrins are glycoproteins that are often found in biological fluids of vertebrates. (wikipedia.org)
  • No advantage was gained by using the CDT/transferrin ratio. (nih.gov)
  • Usefulness of carbohydrate-deficient transferrin and trypsin activity in the diagnosis of acute alcoholic pancreatitis. (umh.es)
  • This study was performed to evaluate the usefulness of carbohydrate -deficient transferrin (CDT) as a marker of heavy drinking in Korean males . (bvsalud.org)
  • Carbohydrate Deficient Transferrin (CDT) is now widely used for detection of chronic alcohol abuse and monitoring sobriety in alcoholics. (omicsonline.org)
  • Specific markers for chronic alcohol use are carbohydrate-deficient transferrin (CDT) and phosphatidylethanol (PEth). (arupconsult.com)
  • Therefore, a blood test of carbohydrate deficient transferrin is frequently used to diagnose one type of disorder of glycosylation. (nicklauschildrens.org)
  • A routine blood draw is required in order to perform the carbohydrate deficient transferrin test. (nicklauschildrens.org)
  • Included in each test request for Carbohydrate Deficient Transferrin are a Doctors Referral, all Phlebotomy fees (your blood taken at a Private Hospital), all laboratory fees and includes our GP comments. (privatebloodtests.co.uk)
  • The Carbohydrate Deficient Transferrin (CDT) blood test provided by Orbit Labs looks at transferrin, a protein that transports iron around the body, which is affected by excessive alcohol consumption. (orbitlabs.net)
  • This private blood test for Carbohydrate Deficient Transferrin (CDT) in London has a guaranteed turnaround time of 4 working days and tests for Carbohydrate Deficient Transferrin (CDT) only. (bloodtestslondon.com)
  • This test measures the level of Carbohydrate-deficient Transferrin (CDT) in the blood. (healthtestingcenters.com)
  • E. The serum carbohydrate-deficient transferrin (CDT) level is a useful test for detecting alcohol misuse. (aafp.org)
  • It is unclear whether the mechanism is attributable to decreased activity of the glycosyltransferases, which add the carbohydrate groups initially to the transferrin molecule, or to an increased activity of the deglycosylating enzymes for example, sialidase which remove the carbohydrate groups. (medindia.net)
  • This study sought to investigate the relationship between age, sex and alterations in levels of % carbohydrate -deficient transferrin (%CDT) and gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) in patients admitted with alcohol dependence . (bvsalud.org)
  • An increased plasma transferrin level is often seen in patients suffering from iron deficiency anemia, during pregnancy, and with the use of oral contraceptives, reflecting an increase in transferrin protein expression. (wikipedia.org)
  • These carbohydrate-deficient transferrins can be measured in the bloodstream, and are important markers for alcohol use disorder. (wikipedia.org)
  • Structurally, transferrin is a polypeptide with two N-linked polysaccharide chains. (wikipedia.org)
  • Carbohydrate-deficient transferrin is elevated in the blood of people with heavy alcohol consumption but elevated levels can also be found in a number of medical conditions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Carbohydrate Deficient Transferrin (CDT) - Looks at specific protein which can become elevated because of heavy alcohol consumption. (randox.com)
  • Transferrin is a serum protein that carries iron through the bloodstream to the bone marrow, where red blood cells are manufactured, as well as to the liver and spleen. (wikipedia.org)
  • This private blood analysis for Carbohydrate Deficient Transferrin is accessible at all thirty one private outpatient departments around the UK. (privatebloodtests.co.uk)
  • It has been known since 1976 that pathological carbohydrate-deficient fraction of transferrin (CDT) occurs in blood plasma of people who are used to consuming more than 60 g of alcohol daily during 14 days, and disappears again after abstinence. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Carbohydrate-deficient transferrin evaluation in dry blood spots. (nih.gov)
  • Transferrins are glycoproteins found in vertebrates which bind to and consequently mediate the transport of Iron (Fe) through blood plasma. (wikipedia.org)
  • The main role of transferrin is to deliver iron from absorption centers in the duodenum and white blood cell macrophages to all tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some invertebrates have proteins that act like transferrin found in the hemolymph. (wikipedia.org)
  • Various forms of transferrin exist, with differing levels of sialylation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Other conditions such as hereditary fructose intolerance, galactosemia, and liver disease may result in increased levels of carbohydrate deficient transferrin. (umich.edu)
  • When plasma transferrin levels rise, there is a reciprocal decrease in percent transferrin iron saturation, and a corresponding increase in total iron binding capacity in iron deficient states A decreased plasma transferrin can occur in iron overload diseases and protein malnutrition. (wikipedia.org)
  • A group of metabolic disorders characterised by a defect in the modification of glycoproteins by carbohydrates was first recognised in the early 1980s. (bmj.com)
  • Transferrin glycoproteins bind iron tightly, but reversibly. (wikipedia.org)
  • Various biochemical markers are then assessed based on this "hematologic" definition of iron-deficient states. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Carbohydrate-deficient transferrin (CDT) is used for diagnosis of chronic alcohol abuse. (aaccjnls.org)
  • Transferrin and CDT were measured by isocratic anion exchange chromatography and a radio‐immunoassay. (elsevier.com)
  • Transferrin has a molecular weight of around 80 kDa and contains two specific high-affinity Fe(III) binding sites. (wikipedia.org)
  • The affinity of transferrin for Fe(III) is extremely high (association constant is 1020 M−1 at pH 7.4) but decreases progressively with decreasing pH below neutrality. (wikipedia.org)
  • The protein transferrin carries iron to parts of the body, heavy consumption of alcohol can increase transferrin. (privatebloodtests.co.uk)
  • Transferrin polymorphism influences iron status in blacks. (ugent.be)
  • Although iron bound to transferrin is less than 0.1% (4 mg) of total body iron, it forms the most vital iron pool with the highest rate of turnover (25 mg/24 h). (wikipedia.org)
  • Transferrins are not limited to only binding to iron but also to different metal ions. (wikipedia.org)
  • When not bound to iron, transferrin is known as "apotransferrin" (see also apoprotein). (wikipedia.org)
  • When a transferrin protein loaded with iron encounters a transferrin receptor on the surface of a cell, e.g., erythroid precursors in the bone marrow, it binds to it and is transported into the cell in a vesicle by receptor-mediated endocytosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • The pH of the vesicle is reduced by hydrogen ion pumps (H+ ATPases) to about 5.5, causing transferrin to release its iron ions. (wikipedia.org)
  • The receptor with its ligand bound transferrin is then transported through the endocytic cycle back to the cell surface, ready for another round of iron uptake. (wikipedia.org)
  • It enables ligand bonding to the transferrin, as each monomer can bind to one or two atoms of iron. (wikipedia.org)
  • A hematologic "gold standard" for iron-deficient states? (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The level of transferrin decreases in inflammation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Relationship between carbohydrate-deficient transferrin, gamma-glutamyl transferase, and mean corpus. (biomedsearch.com)