The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a carbohydrate.
The largest class of organic compounds, including STARCH; GLYCOGEN; CELLULOSE; POLYSACCHARIDES; and simple MONOSACCHARIDES. Carbohydrates are composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a ratio of Cn(H2O)n.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
Cellular processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of CARBOHYDRATES.
Carbohydrates present in food comprising digestible sugars and starches and indigestible cellulose and other dietary fibers. The former are the major source of energy. The sugars are in beet and cane sugar, fruits, honey, sweet corn, corn syrup, milk and milk products, etc.; the starches are in cereal grains, legumes (FABACEAE), tubers, etc. (From Claudio & Lagua, Nutrition and Diet Therapy Dictionary, 3d ed, p32, p277)
The characteristic three-dimensional shape of a molecule.
The sequence of carbohydrates within POLYSACCHARIDES; GLYCOPROTEINS; and GLYCOLIPIDS.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
A change from planar to elliptic polarization when an initially plane-polarized light wave traverses an optically active medium. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
Carbohydrates consisting of between two (DISACCHARIDES) and ten MONOSACCHARIDES connected by either an alpha- or beta-glycosidic link. They are found throughout nature in both the free and bound form.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Carbohydrate antigens expressed by malignant tissue. They are useful as tumor markers and are measured in the serum by means of a radioimmunoassay employing monoclonal antibodies.
Proteins that share the common characteristic of binding to carbohydrates. Some ANTIBODIES and carbohydrate-metabolizing proteins (ENZYMES) also bind to carbohydrates, however they are not considered lectins. PLANT LECTINS are carbohydrate-binding proteins that have been primarily identified by their hemagglutinating activity (HEMAGGLUTININS). However, a variety of lectins occur in animal species where they serve diverse array of functions through specific carbohydrate recognition.
A rigorously mathematical analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, temperature, and equilibrium). It describes systems whose states are determined by thermal parameters, such as temperature, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic parameters. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)
Processes involved in the formation of TERTIARY PROTEIN STRUCTURE.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
A low-energy attractive force between hydrogen and another element. It plays a major role in determining the properties of water, proteins, and other compounds.
Any of a group of polysaccharides of the general formula (C6-H10-O5)n, composed of a long-chain polymer of glucose in the form of amylose and amylopectin. It is the chief storage form of energy reserve (carbohydrates) in plants.
The chemical or biochemical addition of carbohydrate or glycosyl groups to other chemicals, especially peptides or proteins. Glycosyl transferases are used in this biochemical reaction.
NMR spectroscopy on small- to medium-size biological macromolecules. This is often used for structural investigation of proteins and nucleic acids, and often involves more than one isotope.
The homogeneous mixtures formed by the mixing of a solid, liquid, or gaseous substance (solute) with a liquid (the solvent), from which the dissolved substances can be recovered by physical processes. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.
Simple sugars, carbohydrates which cannot be decomposed by hydrolysis. They are colorless crystalline substances with a sweet taste and have the same general formula CnH2nOn. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
A hexose or fermentable monosaccharide and isomer of glucose from manna, the ash Fraxinus ornus and related plants. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed & Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
Variation in a population's DNA sequence that is detected by determining alterations in the conformation of denatured DNA fragments. Denatured DNA fragments are allowed to renature under conditions that prevent the formation of double-stranded DNA and allow secondary structure to form in single stranded fragments. These fragments are then run through polyacrylamide gels to detect variations in the secondary structure that is manifested as an alteration in migration through the gels.
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
Fats present in food, especially in animal products such as meat, meat products, butter, ghee. They are present in lower amounts in nuts, seeds, and avocados.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
A computer simulation developed to study the motion of molecules over a period of time.
Measurement of the intensity and quality of fluorescence.
An aldohexose that occurs naturally in the D-form in lactose, cerebrosides, gangliosides, and mucoproteins. Deficiency of galactosyl-1-phosphate uridyltransferase (GALACTOSE-1-PHOSPHATE URIDYL-TRANSFERASE DEFICIENCY DISEASE) causes an error in galactose metabolism called GALACTOSEMIA, resulting in elevations of galactose in the blood.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape and arrangement of multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
Proteins obtained from foods. They are the main source of the ESSENTIAL AMINO ACIDS.
Protein or glycoprotein substances of plant origin that bind to sugar moieties in cell walls or membranes. Some carbohydrate-metabolizing proteins (ENZYMES) from PLANTS also bind to carbohydrates, however they are not considered lectins. Many plant lectins change the physiology of the membrane of BLOOD CELLS to cause agglutination, mitosis, or other biochemical changes. They may play a role in plant defense mechanisms.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
Disruption of the non-covalent bonds and/or disulfide bonds responsible for maintaining the three-dimensional shape and activity of the native protein.
A diet that contains limited amounts of CARBOHYDRATES. This is in distinction to a regular DIET.
Proteins which contain carbohydrate groups attached covalently to the polypeptide chain. The protein moiety is the predominant group with the carbohydrate making up only a small percentage of the total weight.
A nonreducing disaccharide composed of GLUCOSE and FRUCTOSE linked via their anomeric carbons. It is obtained commercially from SUGARCANE, sugar beet (BETA VULGARIS), and other plants and used extensively as a food and a sweetener.
Total number of calories taken in daily whether ingested or by parenteral routes.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
The scattering of x-rays by matter, especially crystals, with accompanying variation in intensity due to interference effects. Analysis of the crystal structure of materials is performed by passing x-rays through them and registering the diffraction image of the rays (CRYSTALLOGRAPHY, X-RAY). (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
Glucose in blood.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Oligosaccharides containing two monosaccharide units linked by a glycosidic bond.
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
The process by which two molecules of the same chemical composition form a condensation product or polymer.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.
The region of an enzyme that interacts with its substrate to cause the enzymatic reaction.
Carbohydrates covalently linked to a nonsugar moiety (lipids or proteins). The major glycoconjugates are glycoproteins, glycopeptides, peptidoglycans, glycolipids, and lipopolysaccharides. (From Biochemical Nomenclature and Related Documents, 2d ed; From Principles of Biochemistry, 2d ed)
A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A monosaccharide in sweet fruits and honey that is soluble in water, alcohol, or ether. It is used as a preservative and an intravenous infusion in parenteral feeding.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
The naturally occurring or experimentally induced replacement of one or more AMINO ACIDS in a protein with another. If a functionally equivalent amino acid is substituted, the protein may retain wild-type activity. Substitution may also diminish, enhance, or eliminate protein function. Experimentally induced substitution is often used to study enzyme activities and binding site properties.
The branch of science that deals with the geometric description of crystals and their internal arrangement. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A group of naturally occurring N-and O-acyl derivatives of the deoxyamino sugar neuraminic acid. They are ubiquitously distributed in many tissues.
The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).
SUGARS containing an amino group. GLYCOSYLATION of other compounds with these amino sugars results in AMINOGLYCOSIDES.
The measurement of the quantity of heat involved in various processes, such as chemical reactions, changes of state, and formations of solutions, or in the determination of the heat capacities of substances. The fundamental unit of measurement is the joule or the calorie (4.184 joules). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
The N-acetyl derivative of glucosamine.
A strong oxidizing agent.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.
Determination of the spectra of ultraviolet absorption by specific molecules in gases or liquids, for example Cl2, SO2, NO2, CS2, ozone, mercury vapor, and various unsaturated compounds. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.
Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.
Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.
Chemical groups containing the covalent disulfide bonds -S-S-. The sulfur atoms can be bound to inorganic or organic moieties.
The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.
A basic science concerned with the composition, structure, and properties of matter; and the reactions that occur between substances and the associated energy exchange.
The remnants of plant cell walls that are resistant to digestion by the alimentary enzymes of man. It comprises various polysaccharides and lignins.
A serine endopeptidase that is formed from TRYPSINOGEN in the pancreas. It is converted into its active form by ENTEROPEPTIDASE in the small intestine. It catalyzes hydrolysis of the carboxyl group of either arginine or lysine. EC
Liquids that dissolve other substances (solutes), generally solids, without any change in chemical composition, as, water containing sugar. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
An essential amino acid that is necessary for normal growth in infants and for NITROGEN balance in adults. It is a precursor of INDOLE ALKALOIDS in plants. It is a precursor of SEROTONIN (hence its use as an antidepressant and sleep aid). It can be a precursor to NIACIN, albeit inefficiently, in mammals.
Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.
The composition, conformation, and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.
Oligosaccharides containing three monosaccharide units linked by glycosidic bonds.
The accumulation of an electric charge on a object
The assembly of the QUATERNARY PROTEIN STRUCTURE of multimeric proteins (MULTIPROTEIN COMPLEXES) from their composite PROTEIN SUBUNITS.
The formation of crystalline substances from solutions or melts. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A non-essential amino acid that is involved in the metabolic control of cell functions in nerve and brain tissue. It is biosynthesized from ASPARTIC ACID and AMMONIA by asparagine synthetase. (From Concise Encyclopedia Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 3rd ed)
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
The N-acetyl derivative of galactosamine.
The thermodynamic interaction between a substance and WATER.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
A group of 13 or more deoxyribonucleotides in which the phosphate residues of each deoxyribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the deoxyribose moieties.
Analysis of the intensity of Raman scattering of monochromatic light as a function of frequency of the scattered light.
An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A spectroscopic technique in which a range of wavelengths is presented simultaneously with an interferometer and the spectrum is mathematically derived from the pattern thus obtained.
The first chemical element in the periodic table. It has the atomic symbol H, atomic number 1, and atomic weight [1.00784; 1.00811]. It exists, under normal conditions, as a colorless, odorless, tasteless, diatomic gas. Hydrogen ions are PROTONS. Besides the common H1 isotope, hydrogen exists as the stable isotope DEUTERIUM and the unstable, radioactive isotope TRITIUM.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
The time frame after a meal or FOOD INTAKE.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
An N-acyl derivative of neuraminic acid. N-acetylneuraminic acid occurs in many polysaccharides, glycoproteins, and glycolipids in animals and bacteria. (From Dorland, 28th ed, p1518)
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.
A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Mg, atomic number 12, and atomic weight 24.31. It is important for the activity of many enzymes, especially those involved in OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION.
The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A thiol-containing non-essential amino acid that is oxidized to form CYSTINE.
A disaccharide of GLUCOSE and GALACTOSE in human and cow milk. It is used in pharmacy for tablets, in medicine as a nutrient, and in industry.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
The modification of the reactivity of ENZYMES by the binding of effectors to sites (ALLOSTERIC SITES) on the enzymes other than the substrate BINDING SITES.
High molecular weight mucoproteins that protect the surface of EPITHELIAL CELLS by providing a barrier to particulate matter and microorganisms. Membrane-anchored mucins may have additional roles concerned with protein interactions at the cell surface.
A chromatographic technique that utilizes the ability of biological molecules to bind to certain ligands specifically and reversibly. It is used in protein biochemistry. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Physiological processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of LIPIDS.
A trisaccharide antigen expressed on glycolipids and many cell-surface glycoproteins. In the blood the antigen is found on the surface of NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and MONOCYTES. In addition, CD15 antigen is a stage-specific embryonic antigen.
Any compound containing one or more monosaccharide residues bound by a glycosidic linkage to a hydrophobic moiety such as an acylglycerol (see GLYCERIDES), a sphingoid, a ceramide (CERAMIDES) (N-acylsphingoid) or a prenyl phosphate. (From IUPAC's webpage)
A mutation caused by the substitution of one nucleotide for another. This results in the DNA molecule having a change in a single base pair.
A dextrodisaccharide from malt and starch. It is used as a sweetening agent and fermentable intermediate in brewing. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Commonly observed structural components of proteins formed by simple combinations of adjacent secondary structures. A commonly observed structure may be composed of a CONSERVED SEQUENCE which can be represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE.
The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.
Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.
Any compound that contains a constituent sugar, in which the hydroxyl group attached to the first carbon is substituted by an alcoholic, phenolic, or other group. They are named specifically for the sugar contained, such as glucoside (glucose), pentoside (pentose), fructoside (fructose), etc. Upon hydrolysis, a sugar and nonsugar component (aglycone) are formed. (From Dorland, 28th ed; From Miall's Dictionary of Chemistry, 5th ed)
The ability of a protein to retain its structural conformation or its activity when subjected to physical or chemical manipulations.
A non-aqueous co-solvent that serves as tool to study protein folding. It is also used in various pharmaceutical, chemical and engineering applications.
Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.
The study of CHEMICAL PHENOMENA and processes in terms of the underlying PHYSICAL PHENOMENA and processes.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
A group of dominantly and independently inherited antigens associated with the ABO blood factors. They are glycolipids present in plasma and secretions that may adhere to the erythrocytes. The phenotype Le(b) is the result of the interaction of the Le gene Le(a) with the genes for the ABO blood groups.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
A representation, generally small in scale, to show the structure, construction, or appearance of something. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
Spectrophotometry in the infrared region, usually for the purpose of chemical analysis through measurement of absorption spectra associated with rotational and vibrational energy levels of molecules. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The degree of 3-dimensional shape similarity between proteins. It can be an indication of distant AMINO ACID SEQUENCE HOMOLOGY and used for rational DRUG DESIGN.
A biosensing technique in which biomolecules capable of binding to specific analytes or ligands are first immobilized on one side of a metallic film. Light is then focused on the opposite side of the film to excite the surface plasmons, that is, the oscillations of free electrons propagating along the film's surface. The refractive index of light reflecting off this surface is measured. When the immobilized biomolecules are bound by their ligands, an alteration in surface plasmons on the opposite side of the film is created which is directly proportional to the change in bound, or adsorbed, mass. Binding is measured by changes in the refractive index. The technique is used to study biomolecular interactions, such as antigen-antibody binding.
Scattering of a beam of electromagnetic or acoustic RADIATION, or particles, at small angles by particles or cavities whose dimensions are many times as large as the wavelength of the radiation or the de Broglie wavelength of the scattered particles. Also know as low angle scattering. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed) Small angle scattering (SAS) techniques, small angle neutron (SANS), X-ray (SAXS), and light (SALS, or just LS) scattering, are used to characterize objects on a nanoscale.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
An amidohydrolase that removes intact asparagine-linked oligosaccharide chains from glycoproteins. It requires the presence of more than two amino-acid residues in the substrate for activity. This enzyme was previously listed as EC
The study of PHYSICAL PHENOMENA and PHYSICAL PROCESSES as applied to living things.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
The physical phenomena describing the structure and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.
A non-essential amino acid that is synthesized from GLUTAMIC ACID. It is an essential component of COLLAGEN and is important for proper functioning of joints and tendons.
Stable elementary particles having the smallest known positive charge, found in the nuclei of all elements. The proton mass is less than that of a neutron. A proton is the nucleus of the light hydrogen atom, i.e., the hydrogen ion.
The extent to which an enzyme retains its structural conformation or its activity when subjected to storage, isolation, and purification or various other physical or chemical manipulations, including proteolytic enzymes and heat.
The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The phenomenon whereby certain chemical compounds have structures that are different although the compounds possess the same elemental composition. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
A group of deoxyribonucleotides (up to 12) in which the phosphate residues of each deoxyribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the deoxyribose moieties.
A class of animal lectins that bind specifically to beta-galactoside in a calcium-independent manner. Members of this class are distiguished from other lectins by the presence of a conserved carbohydrate recognition domain. The majority of proteins in this class bind to sugar molecules in a sulfhydryl-dependent manner and are often referred to as S-type lectins, however this property is not required for membership in this class.
CELL LINE derived from the ovary of the Chinese hamster, Cricetulus griseus (CRICETULUS). The species is a favorite for cytogenetic studies because of its small chromosome number. The cell line has provided model systems for the study of genetic alterations in cultured mammalian cells.
An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of alpha-2,3, alpha-2,6-, and alpha-2,8-glycosidic linkages (at a decreasing rate, respectively) of terminal sialic residues in oligosaccharides, glycoproteins, glycolipids, colominic acid, and synthetic substrate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992)
The physical characteristics and processes of biological systems.
Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The protein components of a number of complexes, such as enzymes (APOENZYMES), ferritin (APOFERRITINS), or lipoproteins (APOLIPOPROTEINS).
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
Polyhydric alcohols having no more than one hydroxy group attached to each carbon atom. They are formed by the reduction of the carbonyl group of a sugar to a hydroxyl group.(From Dorland, 28th ed)
Proteins produced from GENES that have acquired MUTATIONS.
The consumption of edible substances.
A non-essential amino acid that occurs in high levels in its free state in plasma. It is produced from pyruvate by transamination. It is involved in sugar and acid metabolism, increases IMMUNITY, and provides energy for muscle tissue, BRAIN, and the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.
A type of FLUORESCENCE SPECTROSCOPY using two FLUORESCENT DYES with overlapping emission and absorption spectra, which is used to indicate proximity of labeled molecules. This technique is useful for studying interactions of molecules and PROTEIN FOLDING.
An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.
The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.
Layers of lipid molecules which are two molecules thick. Bilayer systems are frequently studied as models of biological membranes.
The molecular designing of drugs for specific purposes (such as DNA-binding, enzyme inhibition, anti-cancer efficacy, etc.) based on knowledge of molecular properties such as activity of functional groups, molecular geometry, and electronic structure, and also on information cataloged on analogous molecules. Drug design is generally computer-assisted molecular modeling and does not include pharmacokinetics, dosage analysis, or drug administration analysis.
A proteolytic enzyme obtained from Streptomyces griseus.
An N-acetylglycosamine containing antiviral antibiotic obtained from Streptomyces lysosuperificus. It is also active against some bacteria and fungi, because it inhibits the glucosylation of proteins. Tunicamycin is used as tool in the study of microbial biosynthetic mechanisms.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
A MANNOSE/GLUCOSE binding lectin isolated from the jack bean (Canavalia ensiformis). It is a potent mitogen used to stimulate cell proliferation in lymphocytes, primarily T-lymphocyte, cultures.
Reagents with two reactive groups, usually at opposite ends of the molecule, that are capable of reacting with and thereby forming bridges between side chains of amino acids in proteins; the locations of naturally reactive areas within proteins can thereby be identified; may also be used for other macromolecules, like glycoproteins, nucleic acids, or other.
Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.
Stable carbon atoms that have the same atomic number as the element carbon, but differ in atomic weight. C-13 is a stable carbon isotope.
Peptides composed of between two and twelve amino acids.
Glycosides formed by the reaction of the hydroxyl group on the anomeric carbon atom of mannose with an alcohol to form an acetal. They include both alpha- and beta-mannosides.
The selection of one food over another.
A heterogeneous mixture of glycoproteins responsible for the gel structure of egg white. It has trypsin-inhibiting activity.

Novel proteoglycan linkage tetrasaccharides of human urinary soluble thrombomodulin, SO4-3GlcAbeta1-3Galbeta1-3(+/-Siaalpha2-6)Galbeta1-4Xyl. (1/2617)

O-linked sugar chains with xylose as a reducing end linked to human urinary soluble thrombomodulin were studied. Sugar chains were liberated by hydrazinolysis followed by N-acetylation and tagged with 2-aminopyridine. Two fractions containing pyridylaminated Xyl as a reducing end were collected. Their structures were determined by partial acid hydrolysis, two-dimensional sugar mapping combined with exoglycosidase digestions, methylation analysis, mass spectrometry, and NMR as SO4-3GlcAbeta1-3Galbeta1-3(+/-Siaalpha2-6)Galbeta1+ ++-4Xyl. These sugar chains could bind to an HNK-1 monoclonal antibody. This is believed to be the first example of a proteoglycan linkage tetrasaccharide with glucuronic acid 3-sulfate and sialic acid.  (+info)

Anticoagulant heparan sulfate precursor structures in F9 embryonal carcinoma cells. (2/2617)

To understand the mechanisms that control anticoagulant heparan sulfate (HSact) biosynthesis, we previously showed that HSact production in the F9 system is determined by the abundance of 3-O-sulfotransferase-1 as well as the size of the HSact precursor pool. In this study, HSact precursor structures have been studied by characterizing [6-3H]GlcN metabolically labeled F9 HS tagged with 3-O-sulfates in vitro by 3'-phosphoadenosine 5'-phospho-35S and purified 3-O-sulfotransferase-1. This later in vitro labeling allows the regions of HS destined to become the antithrombin (AT)-binding sites to be tagged for subsequent structural studies. It was shown that six 3-O-sulfation sites exist per HSact precursor chain. At least five out of six 3-O-sulfate-tagged oligosaccharides in HSact precursors bind AT, whereas none of 3-O-sulfate-tagged oligosaccharides from HSinact precursors bind AT. When treated with low pH nitrous or heparitinase, 3-O-sulfate-tagged HSact and HSinact precursors exhibit clearly different structural features. 3-O-Sulfate-tagged HSact hexasaccharides were AT affinity purified and sequenced by chemical and enzymatic degradations. The 3-O-sulfate-tagged HSact hexasaccharides exhibited the following structures, DeltaUA-[6-3H]GlcNAc6S-GlcUA-[6-3H]GlcNS3(35)S+/-6S-++ +IdceA2S-[6-3H]Glc NS6S. The underlined 6- and 3-O-sulfates constitute the most critical groups for AT binding in view of the fact that the precursor hexasaccharides possess all the elements for AT binding except for the 3-O-sulfate moiety. The presence of five potential AT-binding precursor hexasaccharides in all HSact precursor chains demonstrates for the first time the processive assembly of specific sequence in HS. The difference in structures around potential 3-O-sulfate acceptor sites in HSact and HSinact precursors suggests that these precursors might be generated by different concerted assembly mechanisms in the same cell. This study permits us to understand better the nature of the HS biosynthetic pathway that leads to the generation of specific saccharide sequences.  (+info)

Increase of hematopoietic responses by triple or single helical conformer of an antitumor (1-->3)-beta-D-glucan preparation, Sonifilan, in cyclophosphamide-induced leukopenic mice. (3/2617)

It has been suggested that the immunopharmacological activity of soluble (1-->3)-beta-D-glucan depends on its conformation in mice. In this study, we examined the relationship between the conformation of Sonifilan (SPG) and hematopietic responses in cyclophosphamide (Cy)-induced leukopenic mice. SPG, a high molecular weight (1-->3)-beta-D-glucan, has a triple helical conformation in water, and it was changed by treatment with aqueous sodium hydroxide to the single helical conformer (SPG-OH). The effects of SPG or SPG-OH on hematopoietic responses in cyclophosphamide induced leukopenic mice were investigated by monitoring i) gene expression of cytokines by RT-PCR, ii) protein synthesis of interleukin 6 (IL-6) by ELISA and iii) colony formation of bone marrow cells (BMC). The mice administered Cy and SPG or SPG-OH expressed and produced higher levels of IL-6 mRNA and protein than the mice administered only Cy. Gene expression of NK1.1 was also induced by Cy/SPG (or SPG-OH) treatment. Induced gene expression of stem cell factor (SCF) and macrophage-colony stimulating factor (M-CSF) by SPG/SPG-OH were also found in in vitro culture of BMC from Cy treated mice. These results strongly suggested that conformation of the glucans, single and triple helix, are independent of the hematopietic response.  (+info)

A statistical analysis of N- and O-glycan linkage conformations from crystallographic data. (4/2617)

We have generated a database of 639 glycosidic linkage structures by an exhaustive survey of the available crystallographic data for isolated oligosaccharides, glycoproteins, and glycan-binding proteins. For isolated oligosaccharides there is relatively little crystallographic data available. A much larger number of glycoprotein and glycan-binding protein structures have now been solved in which two or more linked monosaccharides can be resolved. In the majority of these cases, only a few residues can be seen. Using the 639 glycosidic linkage structures, we have identified one or more distinct conformers for all the linkages. The O5-C1-O-C(x)' torsion angles for all these distinct conformers appear to be determined chiefly by the exo-anomeric effect. The Manalpha1-6Man linkage appears to be less restrained than the others, showing a wide degree of dispersion outside the ranges of the defined conformers. The identification of distinct conformers for glyco-sidic linkages allows "average" glycan structures to be modeled and also allows the easy identification of distorted glycosidic linkages. Such an analysis shows that the interactions between IgG Fc and its own N-linked glycan result in severe distortion of the terminal Galbeta1-4GlcNAc linkage only, indicating the strong interactions that must be present between the Gal residue and the protein surface. The applicability of this crystallographic based analysis to glycan structures in solution is discussed. This database of linkagestructures should be a very useful reference tool in three-dimensional structure determinations.  (+info)

Tyrosine sulfation of the amino terminus of CCR5 facilitates HIV-1 entry. (5/2617)

Chemokine receptors and related seven-transmembrane-segment (7TMS) receptors serve as coreceptors for entry of human and simian immunodeficiency viruses (HIV-1, HIV-2, and SIV) into target cells. Each of these otherwise diverse coreceptors contains an N-terminal region that is acidic and tyrosine rich. Here, we show that the chemokine receptor CCR5, a principal HIV-1 coreceptor, is posttranslationally modified by O-linked glycosylation and by sulfation of its N-terminal tyrosines. Sulfated tyrosines contribute to the binding of CCR5 to MIP-1 alpha, MIP-1 beta, and HIV-1 gp120/CD4 complexes and to the ability of HIV-1 to enter cells expressing CCR5 and CD4. CXCR4, another important HIV-1 coreceptor, is also sulfated. Tyrosine sulfation may contribute to the natural function of many 7TMS receptors and may be a modification common to primate immunodeficiency virus coreceptors.  (+info)

Probing cell-surface architecture through synthesis: an NMR-determined structural motif for tumor-associated mucins. (6/2617)

Cell-surface mucin glycoproteins are altered with the onset of oncogenesis. Knowledge of mucin structure could be used in vaccine strategies that target tumor-associated mucin motifs. Thus far, however, mucins have resisted detailed molecular analysis. Reported herein is the solution conformation of a highly complex segment of the mucin CD43. The elongated secondary structure of the isolated mucin strand approaches the stability of motifs found in folded proteins. The features required for the mucin motif to emerge are also described. Immunocharacterization of related constructs strongly suggests that the observed epitopes represent distinguishing features of tumor cell-surface architecture.  (+info)

Structural analysis of the lipopolysaccharide oligosaccharide epitopes expressed by a capsule-deficient strain of Haemophilus influenzae Rd. (7/2617)

Structural elucidation of the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of Haemophilus influenzae, strain Rd, a capsule-deficient type d strain, has been achieved by using high-field NMR techniques and electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) on delipidated LPS and core oligosaccharide samples. It was found that this organism expresses heterogeneous populations of LPS of which the oligosaccharide (OS) epitopes are subject to phase variation. ESI-MS of O-deacylated LPS revealed a series of related structures differing in the number of hexose residues linked to a conserved inner-core element, L-alpha-D-Hepp-(1-->2)-L-alpha-D-Hepp-(1-->3)-[beta-D-Glcp- (1-->4)-]- L-alpha-D-Hepp-(1-->5)-alpha-Kdo, and the degree of phosphorylation. The structures of the major LPS glycoforms containing three (two Glc and one Gal), four (two Glc and two Gal) and five (two Glc, two Gal and one GalNAc) hexoses were substituted by both phosphocholine (PCho) and phosphoethanolamine (PEtn) and were determined in detail. In the major glycoform, Hex3, a lactose unit, beta-D-Galp-(1-->4)-beta-D-Glcp, is attached at the O-2 position of the terminal heptose of the inner-core element. The Hex4 glycoform contains the PK epitope, alpha-D-Galp-(1-->4)-beta-D-Galp-(1-->4)-beta-D-Glcp while in the Hex5 glycoform, this OS is elongated by the addition of a terminal beta-D-GalpNAc residue, giving the P antigen, beta-D-GalpNAc-(1-->3)-alpha-D-Galp-(1-->4)-beta-D-Galp-(1-->4)-D-Glc p. The fully extended LPS glycoform (Hex5) has the following structure. [see text] The structural data provide the first definitive evidence demonstrating the expression of a globotetraose OS epitope, the P antigen, in LPS of H. influenzae. It is noteworthy that the molecular environment in which PCho units are found differs from that observed in an Rd- derived mutant strain (RM.118-28) [Risberg, A., Schweda, E. K. H. & Jansson, P-E. (1997) Eur. J. Biochem. 243, 701-707].  (+info)

Structural basis for the resistance of Tay-Sachs ganglioside GM2 to enzymatic degradation. (8/2617)

To understand the reason why, in the absence of GM2 activator protein, the GalNAc and the NeuAc in GM2 (GalNAcbeta1-->4(NeuAcalpha2-->3)Galbeta1-->4Glcbet a1-1'Cer) are refractory to beta-hexosaminidase A and sialidase, respectively, we have recently synthesized a linkage analogue of GM2 named 6'GM2 (GalNAcbeta1-->6(NeuAcalpha2-->3)Galbeta1-->4Glcbet a1-1'Cer). While GM2 has GalNAcbeta1-->4Gal linkage, 6'-GM2 has GalNAcbeta1-->6Gal linkage (Ishida, H., Ito, Y., Tanahashi, E., Li, Y.-T., Kiso, M., and Hasegawa, A. (1997) Carbohydr. Res. 302, 223-227). We have studied the enzymatic susceptibilities of GM2 and 6'GM2, as well as that of the oligosaccharides derived from GM2, asialo-GM2 (GalNAcbeta1-->4Galbeta1--> 4Glcbeta1-1'Cer) and 6'GM2. In addition, the conformational properties of both GM2 and 6'GM2 were analyzed using NMR spectroscopy and molecular mechanics computation. In sharp contrast to GM2, the GalNAc and the Neu5Ac of 6'GM2 were readily hydrolyzed by beta-hexosaminidase A and sialidase, respectively, without GM2 activator. Among the oligosaccharides derived from GM2, asialo-GM2, and 6'GM2, only the oligosaccharide from GM2 was resistant to beta-hexosaminidase A. Conformational analyses revealed that while GM2 has a compact and rigid oligosaccharide head group, 6'GM2 has an open spatial arrangement of the sugar units, with the GalNAc and the Neu5Ac freely accessible to external interactions. These results strongly indicate that the resistance of GM2 to enzymatic hydrolysis is because of the specific rigid conformation of the GM2 oligosaccharide.  (+info)

Roundtables are designed to encourage scholarly discussion and exchange of views around a subject of relevance and should have a minimum of three presenters, including a chair.. Please provide a single abstract for the roundtable of no more than 200 words including the following structure:. ...
The aim of the project was to synthesize α1,2-linked and α1,6-linked dimannosides linked through either an oxygen-atom or a sulphur-atom, and subsequently test the binding properties of the dimannosides to lectins with known specificity towards mannose-containing glycans. Thedimannosides were prepared by a glycosylation reaction using selectively protected monosaccharides containing a thiol or alcohol nucleophilic glycosyl acceptor and a series of different glycosyl donors. The synthetic routes to the different building blocks were designed to efficiently make use of common intermediate compounds to streamline the synthesis. The glycosyl acceptors used forthe synthesis of α1,2-linked as well as α1,6-linked dimannosides were synthesized in few steps and diversified only in the last steps of the synthesis. The glycosyl donors used in the study were synthesized from commercially available starting material in a straightforward and convenientsynthesis in 7 to 8 steps.. ...
View Notes - 351 C4 Smith key from CHEM 351 at BYU. Chemistry 351 Fall 2008 Chapter 4 1. Assign the IUPAC name to the following structures. 0k 1,: _Jhfigg~mefi%fimfilm c, 2&4
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Pyranose is a collective term for saccharides that have a chemical structure that includes a six-membered ring consisting of five carbon atoms and one oxygen atom. There may be other carbons external to the ring. The name derives from its similarity to the oxygen heterocycle pyran, but the pyranose ring does not have double bonds. A pyranose in which the anomeric OH at C(l) has been converted into an OR group is called a pyranoside. The pyranose ring is formed by the reaction of the hydroxyl group on carbon 5 (C-5) of a sugar with the aldehyde at carbon 1. This forms an intramolecular hemiacetal. If reaction is between the C-4 hydroxyl and the aldehyde, a furanose is formed instead. The pyranose form is thermodynamically more stable than the furanose form, which can be seen by the distribution of these two cyclic forms in solution. Hermann Emil Fischer won the Nobel Prize in Chemistry (1902) for his work in determining the structure of the D-aldohexoses. However, the linear, free-aldehyde ...
Recent atomic force microscopy stretching measurements of single polysaccharide molecules suggest that their elasticity is governed by force-induced conformational transitions of the pyranose ring. However, the mechanism of these transitions and the mechanics of the pyranose ring are not fully understood. Here we use steered molecular dynamics simulations of the stretching process to unravel the mechanism of forced conformational transitions in 1,6 linked polysaccharides. In contrast to most sugars, 1,6 linked polysaccharides have an extra bond in their inter-residue linkage, C5-C6, around which restricted rotations occur and this additional degree of freedom increases the mechanical complexity of these polymers. By comparing the computational results with the atomic force microscopy data we determine that forced rotations around the C5-C6 bond have a significant and different impact on the elasticity of alpha- and beta-linked polysaccharides. beta-linkages of a polysaccharide pustulan force the ...
The stereoselectivity of glycosylation … … reactions can depend critically on the reactivity of the acceptor glycoside (the nucleophile in the reaction). In their Communication on page 8240 ff., J. D. CodEe et al. report a facile system that maps the relationship between glycosyl acce...
GlycanMass is a tool which allows to calculate the mass of an oligosaccharide structure [Mass values / Disclaimer]. Note: You can use GlycoMod to predict the possible oligosaccharide structures that occur on proteins from their experimentally determined masses ...
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Carbohydrates can exist in two forms; either chain or ring. When in ring form, only two specific confirmations are stable enough to exist in the body fo...
The nucleotide|nucleotides of DNA join in the following structure|structural configuration: - - - hydrogen bond H \ H N N -- H - - - - O CH2 \ // \ / \\...
I could go speak to people for the next three years every day if I wanted to, but Im not going to make my child do that. - Ashley Smith
Phospholipid patterns of 15 representative strains of the genus Amycolatopsis were recorded by two-dimensional thin-layer chromatography. The structure analysis of the isolated phospholipids was verified by fast atom bombardment-mass spectroscopy. The positive- and negative-ion spectra of the partially purified phospholipid fractions qualitatively reflect their distinctive composition. All strains contained diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, and phosphatidylinositol. Two different types of phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylmethylethanolamine were detected, viz., compounds with or without hydroxy fatty acids. These phospholipid patterns underline the integrity of the genus. Fast atom bombardment-mass spectrometry analysis of phospholipid patterns may serve as an aid for differentiation of bacterial species.
The N-linked carbohydrate chains of recombinant human erythropoietin expressed in CHO cells were quantitatively released with peptide-N4-(N-acetyl-beta-glucosaminyl)asparagine amidase F, separated from the remaining O-glycoprotein by gel-permeation chromatography, and subsequently fractionated via FPLC on Mono Q, HPLC on Lichrosorb-NH2 and high-pH anion-exchange chromatography on CarboPac PA1. The purified sialylated oligosaccharides were ... read more analyzed by one-dimensional and two-dimensional 500-MHz 1H-NMR spectroscopy. When necessary, oligosaccharides were treated with endo-beta-galactosidase (and N-acetyl-beta-glucosaminidase) followed by 1H-NMR analysis of the incubation products, to obtain additional structural information. Di-, tri-, tri- and tetraantennary, N-acetyllactosamine-type oligosaccharides occur which can be completely (major) or partially (minor) sialylated. Three different types of alpha2-3-linked sialic acids are present, namely, N-acetylneuraminic acid (95%), ...
Eleven tested anions were able to form adducts with neutral oligosaccharides at low cone voltage in negative ion mode electrospray mass spectrometry. Among them, fluoride and acetate have the abilities to significantly enhance the absolute abundance of [M-H]- for neutral oliogosaccharides. The chloride adduct has the best stability among all the adduct species investigated. For the above three anions, CID of adduct species may be used for structural determination of neutral oligosaccharides. In the presence of F- and Ac-, simultaneous detection of acidic oligosaccharides and neutral oligosaccharides was achieved. The ratio of Cl- : non-Cl-containing product ions obtained in CID spectra of chloride adducts of disaccharides was used to differentiate anomeric configurations of disaccharides. Density functional theory (DFT) was employed to evaluate the optimized structures of chloride adducts of disaccharides. The formation and decomposition of chloride adducts with oligosaccharides of different
Carbohydrate conformation refers to the overall three-dimensional structure adopted by a carbohydrate (saccharide) molecule as a result of the through-bond and through-space physical forces it experiences arising from its molecular structure. The physical forces that dictate the three-dimensional shapes of all molecules-here, of all monosaccharide, oligosaccharide, and polysaccharide molecules-are sometimes summarily captured by such terms as steric interactions and stereoelectronic effects (see below). Saccharide and other chemical conformations can be reasonably shown using two-dimensional structure representations that follow set conventions; these capture for a trained viewer an understanding of the three-dimensional structure via structure drawings (see organic chemistry article, and 3D Representations section in molecular geometry article); they are also represented by stereograms on the two dimensional page, and increasingly using 3D display technologies on computer monitors. ...
article{fb86bc26-01e6-493b-b144-14ab87d1a4c7, abstract = {The synthesis of the Linear B type 2 trisaccharide (Galalpha3Galbeta4GlcNAc-betaOTMSEt) and the corresponding 2-carboxyethyl beta-thioglycoside is described, as well as coupling of the latter to Sepharose.}, author = {Dahmen, J and Magnusson, Göran and Hansen, HC}, issn = {0732-8303}, keyword = {xenotransplantation,glycoconjugate,glycoside synthesis,thioglycoside}, language = {eng}, number = {3}, pages = {189--199}, publisher = {Marcel Dekker}, series = {Journal of Carbohydrate Chemistry}, title = {Synthesis of the Linear B type 2 trisaccharide Gal alpha 3Gal beta 4GlcNAc beta OTMSEt, and coupling of the corresponding 2-carboxyethyl beta-thioglycoside to Sepharose}, url = {}, volume = {21}, year = {2002 ...
The Global Soybean Oligosaccharides report provides an elite resource to evaluate the Soybean Oligosaccharides market and support the strategic and preemptive decision-making. The report divulges the matter-of-fact statistics and in-detail examination of the market. It offers a basic layout of the Soybean Oligosaccharides industry, consisting of classifications, applications, definitions, and industry chain structure. It also encompasses a thorough inference of the market and embodies significant insights, facts, and industry-corroborated statistics of the global Soybean Oligosaccharides market.. Furthermore, the report also elaborates several factors concerning the Soybean Oligosaccharides market, comprising key trends, standardization, deployment models, future roadmap, strategies, technologies, value chain, opportunities, ecosystem player profiles, drivers, operator case studies, regulatory landscape, and challenges. Moreover, it also presents an outline regarding the Soybean Oligosaccharides ...
Which one of the following structures does air pass through first? A. Trachea B. Bronchi C. Pharynx D. Larynx
IN STOCK 13C labeled di-sialylated, galactosylated biantennary N-Glycan labeled with 2 13C atoms per GlcNAc, for use as a quantitative standard in applications
Human Anti-Meningococcal Group A Oligosaccharides IgG negative control serum Serum Controls 600-801-ANC Human Anti-Meningococcal Group A Oligosaccharides IgG negative control serum Serum Controls 600-801-ANC
Carbohydrate Information asks the question whether carbohydrates are the enemy or an essential component of our diets that must be consumed properly
Flower is the most important structure of a plant which is responsible for the sexual reproduction of the plant. Understanding the detailed structure of a flower is essential to study pollination and fertilization activities as well as the reproductive ...
Show all volumes and issues. The tables of contents are generated automatically and are based on the data records of the individual contributions available in the index of the TIB portal. The display of the Tables of Contents may therefore be incomplete.. ...
Methods to allow the clean preparation of oligosaccharides were investigated using techniques that do not require conventional column chromatography or an aqueous work-up. The route was designed to provide rapid access to oligosaccharides and is suit
GO:0005977. The chemical reactions and pathways involving glycogen, a polydisperse, highly branched glucan composed of chains of D-glucose residues in alpha-(1-,4) glycosidic linkage, joined together by alpha-(1-,6) glycosidic linkages. ...
Hi all,I have a schema with roughly the following structure: xs:complexType name=Parent abstract=true xs:sequence ... /xs:sequence/xs:complexTypexs:complexType name=A xs:complexContent xs:extension base=Parent xs:sequence ... /xs:sequence /xs:extension /xs:complexContent/xs:complexTypexs:complexT...
Does anyone know any good links to a site with a detailed drawing/photograph/diagram of a eukaryotic cells as seen under and electron microscope with the following structures ...
Bovine prothrombin contains three asparagine-linked sugar chains in 1 molecule. The sugar chains were quantitatively released from the polypeptide backbone by hydrazinolysis. All of the oligosaccharides thus obtained contain N-acetylneuraminic acid.
We have analyzed the O-antigen polysaccharide of the previously uncharacterized Escherichia coli strain TD2158 which is a host of bacteriophage HK620. This bacteriophage recognizes and cleaves the polysaccharide with its tailspike protein (TSP). The polysaccharide preparation as well as oligosaccharides obtained from HK620TSP endoglycosidase digests were analyzed with NMR spectroscopy. Additionally, sugar analysis was performed on the O-antigen polysaccharide and MALDI-TOF MS was used in oligosaccharide analysis. The present study revealed a heterogeneous polysaccharide with a hexasaccharide repeating unit of the following structure: alpha-D-Glcp-(1 -, 6) vertical bar vertical bar 2)-alpha-L-Rhap-(1 -, 6)-alpha-D-Glcp-(1 -, 4)-alpha-D-Galp-(1 -, 3)-alpha-D-GlcpNAc- (1 -,vertical bar beta-D-Glcp/beta-D-GlcpNAc-(1 -, 3) A repeating unit with a D-GlcNAc substitution of D-Gal has been described earlier as characteristic for serogroup O18A1. Accordingly, we termed repeating units with D-Glc ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Structural characterization of multibranched oligosaccharides from seal milk by a combination of off-line high-performance liquid chromatography-matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry and sequential exoglycosidase digestion. AU - Kinoshita, Mitsuhiro. AU - Ohta, Hiroko. AU - Higaki, Kanata. AU - Kojima, Yoko. AU - Urashima, Tadasu. AU - Nakajima, Kazuki. AU - Suzuki, Minoru. AU - Kovacs, Kit M.. AU - Lydersen, Christian. AU - Hayakawa, Takao. AU - Kakehi, Kazuaki. PY - 2009/5/15. Y1 - 2009/5/15. N2 - A complex mixture of diverse oligosaccharides related to the carbohydrates in glycoconjugates involved in various biological events is found in animal milk/colostrum and has been challenging targets for separation and structural studies. In the current study, we isolated oligosaccharides having high molecular masses (MW ∼ 3800) from the milk samples of bearded and hooded seals and analyzed their structures by off-line ...
The heparin hexasaccharide MS standard 6 has been purified as one defined sequence and structure. It is not a mix of oligosaccharides. It is a heparin hexasaccharide with six sulfates attached to a repeating structure of α(1-4) linked Uronic Acid (UA) β(1-4) linked to N-Acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) or N-sulfylglucosamine (GlcNS). The exact structure of the heparin hexasaccharide MS standard 6 is ∆UA2S - GlcNS6S -UA- GlcNAc6S-IdoA - GlcNS6S. The uronic acid residue may be either glucuronic or iduronic acid. It has an exact mass of 1533.05 ...
Our research aims to study the conformations of complex carbohydrates and understand the degree of motion taking place within a timeframe of few milliseconds or less. This dissertation describes development and application of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance based methods using Residual Dipolar Coupling (RDC) measurement of weakly aligned molecules in liquid crystal media. We present a procedure that uses multivariate statistical techniques applied to multiple sets of RDC data to accurately quantify conformational space occupied by the macromolecule. The hexasaccharide Lacto-N-difuco-hexose-I (LNDFH-I) comprising of a tetrasaccharide epitope region (α-L-Fuc(1→2)β-D-Gal(1→3)(α-L-Fuc(1→4))β-D-GlcNAc) and a lactose tail region (β-D-GlcNAc1→3β-D-Gal1→4-D-Glc) was used as a model for the study. A liquid crystal concentration of 5% n-octyl penta ethylene glycol was found to be optimal to weakly align the oligosaccharide and measure the RDCs. To estimate the alignment tensors, at least five ...
Asparagine-linked sugar chains of glycoproteins in calf thymocyte plasma membrane. Isolation and fractionation of oligosaccharides liberated by hydrazinolysis.:Isolation and Fractionation of Oligosaccharides Liberated by Hydrazinolysis (1980 ...
The primary structure of the major surface glycoconjugate of Leishmania donovani parasites, a lipophosphoglycan, has been further characterized. The repeating PO4-6Galp beta 1-4Man disaccharide units, which are a salient feature of the molecule, are shown to terminate with one of several neutral structures, the most abundant of which is the branched trisaccharide Galp beta 1-4(Manp alpha 1-2)Man. The phosphosaccharide core of lipophosphoglycan, which links the disaccharide repeats to a lipid anchor, contains 2 phosphate residues. One of the core phosphates has previously been localized on O-6 of the galactosyl residue distal to the lipid anchor; the second phosphate is now shown to be on O-6 of the mannosyl residue distal to the anchor and to bear an alpha-linked glucopyranosyl residue. Also, the anomeric configuration of the unusual 3-substituted Galf residue in the phosphosaccharide core is established as beta. The complete structure of the core is thus PO4-6Galp alpha 1-6Galp alpha 1-3Galf ...
The primary structure of the major surface glycoconjugate of Leishmania donovani parasites, a lipophosphoglycan, has been further characterized. The repeating PO4-6Galp beta 1-4Man disaccharide units, which are a salient feature of the molecule, are shown to terminate with one of several neutral structures, the most abundant of which is the branched trisaccharide Galp beta 1-4(Manp alpha 1-2)Man. The phosphosaccharide core of lipophosphoglycan, which links the disaccharide repeats to a lipid anchor, contains 2 phosphate residues. One of the core phosphates has previously been localized on O-6 of the galactosyl residue distal to the lipid anchor; the second phosphate is now shown to be on O-6 of the mannosyl residue distal to the anchor and to bear an alpha-linked glucopyranosyl residue. Also, the anomeric configuration of the unusual 3-substituted Galf residue in the phosphosaccharide core is established as beta. The complete structure of the core is thus PO4-6Galp alpha 1-6Galp alpha 1-3Galf ...
Looking for Furanose? Find out information about Furanose. A sugar whose cyclic or ring structure resembles that of furan. a ring-shaped monosaccharide containing a five-member furan ring. Unlike the six-member... Explanation of Furanose
The Global Industry Report Europe Human Milk Oligosaccharides Market by Manufacturers, Countries, Type and Application, Forecast to 2022 Market - by Manufacturers, States, Countries, Regions (Province), Type and Application, 2017 Forecast to 2022,Analysis, Regional Outlook, Share, Growth By Global Info Reports.
Heparin Hexasaccharide MS Standard 7. The Heparin Hexasaccharide MS Standard 7 is a MS standard of defined sequence and structure. This highly purified hexasaccharide with seven sulfates is prepared from a digest of porcine mucosal heparin using Bacteroides Heparinase I
1ONA: A structure of the complex between concanavalin A and methyl-3,6-di-O-(alpha-D-mannopyranosyl)-alpha-D-mannopyranoside reveals two binding modes.
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A survey was made of the geometry of furanose rings in β-nucleotides and β-nucleosides (as monomers related to nucleic acids) for which structures have been determined by X-ray crystallography. Mean values, and estimated standard deviations from them, were calculated for bond-lengths, bond-angles and conformation-angles. For parameters with values dependent on ring-puckering, separate calculations were made for each ring type. (The rings are puckered in one of three conformations: C-2- or C-3-endo or C-3-exo; C-2-exo has not been observed.) The results were used to compute standard furanose rings with C-2-endo, C-3-endo and C-3-exo conformations for use in nucleic acid molecular model-building. The survey also showed that the only other conformation-angle in nucleotides dependent on the furanose ring conformation corresponds to the relative orientation of the purine (or pyrimidine) base and the ring.. ...
Oligosaccharides vs Polysaccharides In subjects such as chemistry, biochemistry, and nutrition, one can vividly remember that oligosaccharides and polysaccharides are forms of sugar. The prefix attached to these words such as oligo means few while poly means plentiful. Oligosaccharides are called such because they contain a small amount of sugar components. They are mostly found […]
Gene silencing with RNA interference (RNAi) technology may be capable of modifying internal structure at a molecular level. This structural modification could affect biofunctions in terms of biodegradation, biochemical metabolism, and bioactive compound availability. The objectives of this study were to (1) Detect gene silencing-induced changes in carbohydrate molecular structure in an alfalfa forage (Medicago sativa spp. sativa: alfalfa) with down-regulation of genes that encode transcription factors TT8 and HB12; (2) Determine gene silencing-induced changes in nutrient bioutilization and bioavailability in the alfalfa forage (Medicago sativa); and (3) Quantify the correlation between gene silencing-induced molecular structure changes and the nutrient bioutilization and bioavailability in animals of ruminants. The experimental treatments included: T1 = Non-transgenic and no-gene silenced alfalfa forage (code NT); T2 = HB12-RNAi forage with HB12 gene down regulation (code HB12); T3 = ...
Aoki-Kinoshita K, Agravat S, Aoki NP, Arpinar S, Cummings RD, Fujita A, Fujita N, Hart GM, Haslam SM, Kawasaki T, et al. GlyTouCan 1.0--The international glycan structure repository. Nucleic Acids Res. 2016;44 (D1) :D1237-42.
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A Taos Pueblo family is seeking financial assistance after losing part of their home, a vehicle and numerous personal possessions to a fire on May 16.
Good carbs are complex carbohydrates, while bad carbs are simple carbohydrates. Complex carbohydrates require time to break down or dissolve into glucose, and simple carbohydrates are added to foods...
This page provides complete information on Carbohydrates,functions of Carbohydrates,Types of Carbohydrates, Structure of Carbohydrates.
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Carbs can help us feel full and provide us with a lot of healthy nutrients and essential fibre - we just need to make sure we are eating the right sort. 
You may have been taught that the body needs a minimum of 130g per day of carbohydrates to function, particularly, that this amount of carbohydrate is needed for brain function. This is simply not true. In fact, would you be surprised to know that there is NO essential level of carbohydrates in the diet?…
In this talk, Antoine Buchard will present his groups efforts towards incorporating sugar units into synthetic polymer backbones. Natural sugars are an abundant and diverse resource that can be obtained from waste and non-edible crops. They are also non-toxic, biodegradable, biocompatible and highly functionalisable, so that the polymer properties can be adjusted to meet specific material needs ...
Biological molecules such as proteins can contain hundreds of thousands of atoms, which makes it very difficult to understand their function in detail. Identifying the exact atomic structure of these complex molecules is ...
Carbohydrates are one of the three macro-nutrients with a primary function is to provide energy. These can be broken down into simple and complex carbs.
Carbohydrates are one of three macronutrients, besides protein and fat, that you need in fairly large quantities to maintain your life and important body...
Glycopeptides and Lipoglycopeptides - Learn about the causes, symptoms, diagnosis & treatment from the MSD Manuals - Medical Consumer Version.
One of the main types of nutrients your body needs is carbohydrates. Carbohydrates, also known as carbs, are the most important source of energy for your body.
Carbohydrate information to inform our customers what carbohydrates really are, where they come from and what function they have!
Over the last ten years or so, carbohydrates have gotten a pretty bad rap. Truth be told, however, carbohydrates are a real necessity to a healthy diet. Carbs
名詞解釋:生理學名詞。又稱醣類。由碳(C)、氫(H)、氧(O)等三種化學元素組成。是碳和水的化合物之總稱。人體重要能量之一,根據結構的複雜性,可分為單醣、雙醣和多醣等三類,例如日常生活中所使用的砂糖和澱粉等皆屬之 ...
Furanose Mutarotation Monosaccharide Carbohydrate conformation Robyt, J.F. (1998). Essentials of Carbohydrate Chemistry. ... Rao, V.S.R.; Qasba, P.K.; Chandrasekaran, R.; Balaji, P.V. (1998). Conformation of Carbohydrates. CRC Press. ISBN 90-5702-315-6 ... Grindley, T. Bruce (2008). "Structure and Conformation of Carbohydrates". In Fraser-Reid, B.O.; Tatsuta, K.; Thiem, J.; Coté, G ... In the chair and skew conformations, the reference plane should be selected. In the chair conformation, the reference plane is ...
Chapter 2 in Conformation of Carbohydrates. 409 pages. ISBN 9789057023156 Petrucci, Harwood & Herring 2002, pp. 996-997. ... not just two different conformations. (However, one should be aware that the terms "conformation" and "configuration" are ... Conformations of the cyclohexane molecule with all six carbon atoms on the same plane have a higher energy, because some or all ... In order to change one conformation to the other, at some point those four atoms would have to lie on the same plane - which ...
See Kirschner, Karl N.; Woods, Robert J. (2001), "Solvent interactions determine carbohydrate conformation", Proc. Natl. Acad. ... A The carbohydrate value is calculated in the USDA database and does not always correspond to the sum of the sugars, the starch ... Breakdown of carbohydrates (e.g., starch) yields mono- and disaccharides, most of which is glucose. Through glycolysis and ... Most dietary carbohydrates contain glucose, either as their only building block (as in the polysaccharides starch and glycogen ...
Carbohydrate NMR spectroscopy addresses questions on the structure and conformation of carbohydrates. The analysis of ... For smaller carbohydrates, the dispersion of the anomeric proton resonances facilitates the use of 1D TOCSY experiments to ... It is now a common tool for the determination of Conformation Activity Relationships where the structure before and after ... and sugar pucker conformations. For large-scale structure, these local parameters must be supplemented with other structural ...
Two models were constructed, one in which all IdoA(2S) were in the 2S0 conformation (A and B below), and one in which they are ... Heparin is a member of the glycosaminoglycan family of carbohydrates (which includes the closely related molecule heparan ... 3.0.CO;2-D. Gatti, G.; Casu, B.; Hamer, G. K.; Perlin, A. S. (1979). "Studies on the Conformation of Heparin by1H and13C NMR ... In the image above: A = 1HPN (all IdoA(2S) residues in 2S0 conformation) Jmol viewer B = van der Waals radius space filling ...
X-ray crystallography of simple oxalate salts show that the oxalate anion may adopt either a planar conformation with D2h ... Oxalate occurs in many plants, where it is synthesized by the incomplete oxidation of carbohydrates. Oxalate-rich plants ... Specifically, the oxalate moiety adopts the planar, D2h conformation in the solid-state structures of M2C2O4 (M = Li, Na, K). ... As the preceding examples indicate that the conformation adopted by the oxalate dianion is dependent upon the size of the ...
As well as changing the stability of the glycosidic bond, the ring-conformation may be affected. Also the conformation of the ... Carbohydrate Research Volume 342, Issues 12-13, Pages 1537-1982 Sollogoub et al. Carbohydrate Research 342 (2007) 1689-1703. ... Glycomimetic is a term used to refer to molecules that have structures similar to carbohydrates, but with some variation. This ... Tamiflu is a carbocyclic mimic of the cell-surface carbohydrate sialic acid. Tamiflu is an enzyme inhibitor that blocks the ...
Banerjee R, Das K, Ravishankar R, Suguna K, Surolia A; Vijayan M (1996). "Conformation, protein-carbohydrate interactions and a ... Carbohydrate specificity generated by water bridges". Current Science. 72: 855-861. Reddy GB, Bharadwaj S; Surolia A (1999). " ... He delineated the molecular basis of carbohydrate recognition by legume lectins and demonstrated the novel C-H...O/N hydrogen ... Sankaranarayanan R, Sekar K, Banerjee R, Sharma V, Surolia A; Vijayan M (1998). "A novel mode of carbohydrate recognition in ...
Banerjee, R.; Das, K.; Ravishankar, R.; Suguna, K.; Surolia, A.; Vijayan, M. (7 June 1996). "Conformation, protein-carbohydrate ... Devarajan, S.; Nair, C.M.K.; Easwaran, K.R.K.; Vijayan, M. (7 August 1980). "A novel conformation of valinomycin in its barium ... Prabu, M.M.; Sankaranarayanan, R.; Puri, K.D.; Sharma, V.; Surolia, A.; Vijayan, M.; Suguna, K. (6 March 1998). "Carbohydrate ... His contributions have been towards the structure and carbohydrate specificity of lectins and protein hydration. He has also ...
Cycloalkane conformations, including medium rings and macrocycles Carbohydrate conformation, which includes cyclohexane ... Ring conformation Cyclohexane conformations, including with chair and boat conformations among others. ... The thermodynamically unfavored conformation has the t-Bu group in the axial position, which is higher in energy by (see A ... Conformations that correspond to local maxima on the energy surface are the transition states between the local-minimum ...
The degree of branching of the family of botryosphaerans varies from 21-31%. depending upon the carbohydrate source in the ... Giese, Ellen C.; Dekker, Robert F.H.; Barbosa, Aneli M.; da Silva, Roberto (November 2008). "Triple helix conformation of ... Botryosphaeria rhodina MAMB-05 when grown on nutrient media containing different carbohydrate substrates produces a family of ... Carbohydrate Polymers. 28 (1): 3-14. doi:10.1016/0144-8617(95)00076-3. ISSN 0144-8617. Leung, M.Y.K.; Liu, C.; Koon, J.C.M.; ...
Carbohydrate conformation Symbol Nomenclature For Glycans Polysaccharide Oligosaccharide Oligosaccharide nomenclature ... If the conformation (R or S) is identical at both the anomeric carbon and the most distant stereocenter, the configuration is ' ... The carbohydrate part of the molecule is called glycone, the -O- bridge is the glycosisdic oxygen, and the attached group is ... Monosaccharide nomenclature is the naming conventions of the basic unit of carbohydrate structure, monosaccharides, which may ...
Rees was a lecturer in chemistry at the University of Edinburgh from 1960 until 1970, researching carbohydrate conformation and ... In 1970, Rees was awarded both the Carbohydrate Chemistry Award by the Chemical Society and the Colworth Medal by the ...
Molecular Modeling In many cases, the conformation information is required, however, sometimes it is not able to get directly ... Carbohydrates are important biopolymers and have a variety of functions. Often carbohydrates serve a function as a recognition ... Lectin is a kind of protein that can bind to carbohydrate with their carbohydrate recognition domains (CRDs). We could use ... Carbohydrate biosensor As Lectin can strongly bind to specific carbohydrate, scientists develop several lectin-based ...
Carbohydrates with more than 4 carbons exist in an equilibrium between the closed ring, or cyclic form, and the open-chain form ... However, aldoses are not locked into any one conformation: they can and do fluctuate between different forms. Aldoses can ... Like most carbohydrates, simple aldoses have the general chemical formula Cn(H2O)n. Because formaldehyde (n=1) and ... The minimum number of carbons in a backbone needed to form a molecule that is still considered a carbohydrate is 3, and ...
... exhibits two conformations: an open active state and a closed inactive state. The catalytic relevance was examined ... The lectin-like ability of lysozyme to recognize bacterial carbohydrate antigen without lytic activity was reported for ... In order to bind a new substrate and move from the closed inactive state to the open active state requires two conformation ... The lysozyme distorts the fourth sugar (in the D or -1 subsite) in the hexasaccharide into a half-chair conformation. In this ...
Her research program is focused on protein glycosylation, a process by which a carbohydrate is added to a protein to change its ... how glycosylation at the time of protein production-a process known as translation-affects protein folding and conformation. ...
... are often identified by lectins which is a protein that binds specific carbohydrates. NLRs shifts its conformation from ADP ... Successful pathogens evolve changes in their chemical conformation in order to avoid detection by PRRs and WAKs. Some viruses ... carbohydrates) and virulent (nucleic acids) recognition, this means that LRRs recognizes many different molecules but each LRRs ...
The accepted mechanism of flocculation involves a protein-carbohydrate model. Fully flocculent yeast cells exhibit carbohydrate ... the protein and mannan moities results in the flocculation phenotype with Ca2+ ions required for the correct conformation of ...
... modification and breakdown of carbohydrates. His chemical and structural insight into protein-carbohydrate interactions and his ... As a direct result of his work into the conformation of sugars during turnover, he described the rational design of highly ... Carbohydrates: A feast of structural glycobiology • Sequences and topology: Computational studies of protein-protein ... Agirre, Jon; Davies, Gideon J; Wilson, Keith S; Cowtan, Kevin D (June 2017). "Carbohydrate structure: the rocky road to ...
The major and minor components also contain a third carbohydrate moiety - β-D-glucosamine - and differ only by the length and ... conformation of a side-chain attached to it. The structures of the teicoplanin core and the side-chains that characterize the ... a fused ring structure to which two carbohydrates (mannose and N-acetylglucosamine) are attached. ...
... conformation - native state - protein folding - enzyme - receptor - transmembrane receptor - ion channel - membrane transporter ... collagen - silk DNA - RNA polysaccharide: cellulose - carbohydrate - chitin - glycogen - starch Biochemical mechanisms: ...
... instead of the anti conformation. Since there are two C-O bonds, the most stable conformation is gauche-gauche, which is around ... Since it is one of the smallest molecules exhibiting this effect, which has great interest in carbohydrate chemistry, ... Due to the anomeric effect, dimethoxymethane has a preference toward the gauche conformation with respect to each of the C-O ... 7 kcal/mol more stable than the anti-anti conformation, while the gauche-anti and anti-gauche are intermediate in energy. ...
... carbohydrate conformation MeSH G06.184.603.790.486 - nucleic acid conformation MeSH G06.184.603.790.486.100 - base pairing MeSH ... carbohydrate sequence MeSH G06.184.603.580 - conserved sequence MeSH G06.184.603.580.175 - consensus sequence MeSH G06.184. ... G06.184.603.790.709 - protein conformation MeSH G06.184.603.790.709.550 - protein structure, quaternary MeSH G06.184.603.790. ...
... β-D-Glucan Oligosaccharide Carbohydrate Conformation Monosaccharide Monosaccharide nomenclature (a) R. W. Bailey, ... D.C. Baker; J. Defaye; D. Horton; E. F. Hounsell; J. P. Kamerling; A.S. Serianni (1997). "Nomenclature of Carbohydrates". ... Oligosaccharides are carbohydrates that are composed of several monosaccharide residues joined through glycosidic linkage, ... While a strict definition of an oligosaccharide is not established, it is generally agreed that a carbohydrate consisting of ...
... methyl derivatives on conformation, Carbohydrate Research, 89, 21-32. Komorowski S.J., Z. R. Grabowski, and W. Zielenkiewicz, ...
The use of Fischer projections in non-carbohydrates is discouraged, as such drawings are ambiguous when confused with other ... with Newman projections being used to depict specific conformations of rotatable bonds of organic molecules (including but not ... Fischer projections were originally proposed for the depiction of carbohydrates and used by chemists, particularly in organic ... the hydrogen atoms of the end group of carbohydrates should be present. In this regard Fischer projection is different from ...
Around 20% of the deposited carbohydrate structures are in unjustified energy minima. A number of carbohydrate validation web ... Privateer is able to check stereo- and regio-chemistry, ring conformation and puckering, linkage torsions, and real-space ... carbohydrate validation) Privateer (carbohydrate validation) OOPS2, part of the Uppsala Software Factory ProSA web service ... see for recommendations on carbohydrate model building and refinement and for reviews on general errors in carbohydrate ...
... a form of stereoisomerism in chemistry Carbohydrate conformation Cyclohexane conformation Protein conformation Conformation ... and body proportions Conformation (dog) evaluates a dog according to physical standards for its breed Conformation show, a dog ... Conformation generally means structural arrangement and may refer to: Conformational isomerism, ... between the biological activity and the conformation or conformational changes of a biomolecule Equine conformation evaluates ...
Move these two large substrates into their proper locations and conformations.. *Activate the Asn amide nitrogen atom for the ...
The heavier alkali metals also favour the sterically congested conformation.[142] Several crystal structures of organopotassium ... carbohydrates and ionophore complexes.[218] ...
Types of carbohydrates. General. *Aldose. *Ketose. *Furanose. *Pyranose. Geometry. *Anomer. *Cyclohexane conformation ...
There is also an alternative proposed mechanism involving a positively charged oxygen in a half-chair conformation.[3] ... Metabolism: carbohydrate metabolism, glycogenesis and glycogenolysis enzymes. Glycogenesis. *Phosphoglucomutase. *UDP-glucose ... AMP activates glycogen phosphorylase b by changing its conformation from a tense to a relaxed form. This relaxed form has ...
"for his investigations on carbohydrates and vitamin C"[32] پاول کرر سویٹزرلینڈ "for his investigations on carotenoids, flavins ... "for their contributions to the development of the concept of conformation and its application in chemistry"[61] ... "for his discovery of sugar nucleotides and their role in the biosynthesis of carbohydrates"[62] ... especially concerning the connection between the amino acid sequence and the biologically active conformation"[64] ...
Sinha U, Wolf DL (February 1993). "Carbohydrate residues modulate the activation of coagulation factor X". The Journal of ... Factor Xa inhibitors generally bind in an L-shaped conformation, where one group of the ligand occupies the anionic S1 pocket ... The role of the carbohydrate moieties in the activation of factor X". European Journal of Biochemistry. 218 (1): 153-63. doi: ...
The shape into which a protein naturally folds is known as its native conformation.[20] Although many proteins can fold ... Ribbon diagram of a mouse antibody against cholera that binds a carbohydrate antigen ... Protein is generally used to refer to the complete biological molecule in a stable conformation, whereas peptide is generally ... Middle: Simplified representation illustrating the backbone conformation, colored by secondary structure. Right: Solvent- ...
"for his investigations on carbohydrates and vitamin C"[39] Paul Karrer Switzerland "for his investigations on carotenoids, ... "for their contributions to the development of the concept of conformation and its application in chemistry"[68] ... "for his discovery of sugar nucleotides and their role in the biosynthesis of carbohydrates"[69] ... especially concerning the connection between the amino acid sequence and the biologically active conformation"[71] ...
It is 59% carbohydrates (52% as sugar and 3% as dietary fiber), 30% fat and 8% protein (table). Approximately 65% of the fat in ... The temperature in which the crystals obtain enough energy to break apart from their rigid conformation would depend on the ... nutritive carbohydrate sweeteners, and other safe and suitable ingredients, but containing no nonfat cacao solids".[38] ...
Binding of the substrate in the active site induces a change in conformation which allows degradation of the molecule. ... Algal cellulases are modular, consisting of putative novel cysteine-rich carbohydrate-binding modules (CBMs), proline/serine-( ... Carbohydrate Research. 385: 9-17. doi:10.1016/j.carres.2013.12.001. PMID 24398300.. ... Carbohydrate Research. 395: 47-51. doi:10.1016/j.carres.2014.05.002. PMID 25038461.. ...
A set of conformations, determined by NMR or X-ray crystallography may be a better representation of the experimental data of a ... Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy of carbohydrates. *Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy of nucleic acids ... by comparing it against the unique conformation determined by X-ray diffraction, for the same protein. However, the X-ray ... protein than a unique conformation.[22] The utility of a model will be given, at least in part, by the degree of accuracy and ...
D2h conformation in the solid-state structures of M2C2O4 (M = Li, Na, K).[21][22] However, in structure of Cs2C2O4 the O-C-C-O ... Oxalate occurs in many plants, where it is synthesized by the incomplete oxidation of carbohydrates. ... X-ray crystallography of simple oxalate salts show that the oxalate anion may adopt either a planar conformation with D2h ... As the preceding examples indicate that the conformation adopted by the oxalate dianion is dependent upon the size of the ...
... to either alter the conformation of the enzyme or take part in the chemistry of the catalytic reaction. In either case, because ... reported secondary effects include carbohydrate immobility, loss of RNA transcription and loss of protein synthesis.[93] ...
In comparison to the open conformation, the dimer interface of the TMDs in the closed, inward-facing conformation has extensive ... ABC-type uptake permeases 3.A.1.1 Carbohydrate Uptake Transporter-1 (CUT1) 3.A.1.2 Carbohydrate Uptake Transporter-2 (CUT2) 3.A ... For both apo conformations of MsbA, the chamber opening is facing inward. The structure of MsbA-AMP-PNP (5'-adenylyl-β-γ- ... This open conformation possesses a chamber accessible to the interior of the transporter. The transport cycle is initiated by ...
2005). Chapter 7 Dietary, Functional, and Total Fiber in Dietary Reference Intakes for Energy, Carbohydrate, Fiber, Fat, Fatty ... RS2 - Resistant starch is inaccessible to enzymes due to starch conformation, as in green bananas and high amylose corn starch ... National Research Council (2005). Dietary Reference Intakes for Energy, Carbohydrate, Fiber, Fat, Fatty Acids, Cholesterol, ... Grabitske, HA; Slavin, JL (2009). "Gastrointestinal effects of low-digestible carbohydrates". Critical Reviews in Food Science ...
Epigenomics: Modern technologies include chromosome conformation by Hi-C, various ChIP-seq and other sequencing methods ... Glycomics is the comprehensive study of the glycome i.e. sugars and carbohydrates. ...
Types of carbohydrates. General. *Aldose. *Furanose. *Ketose. *Pyranose. Geometry. *Anomer. *Cyclohexane conformation ...
"for his investigations on carbohydrates and vitamin C; for his investigations on carotenoids, flavins and vitamins A and B2". ... "for their contributions to the development of the concept of conformation and its application in chemistry". ... "for his discovery of sugar nucleotides and their role in the biosynthesis of carbohydrates". ... especially concerning the connection between the amino acid sequence and the biologically active conformation; for their ...
Tetrahedral Conformation and Promote Unattended Single-Ion Magnet Properties". Journal of the American Chemical Society. 142 (7 ... a hormone critical to the metabolism and storage of carbohydrate, fat and protein.[7] The precise mechanism of its actions in ... helps the body to metabolize carbohydrates and helps the body to metabolize fats.[115] The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA ...
Protein-Carbohydrate bonding is often mediated by hydrogen bonding and van der Waals forces.[citation needed] ... Some, such as the raffinose series, occur as storage or transport carbohydrates in plants. Others, such as maltodextrins or ... In biology, glycosylation is the process by which a carbohydrate is covalently attached to an organic molecule, creating ... Glycoproteins and glycolipids are by definition covalently bonded to carbohydrates. They are very abundant on the surface of ...
... "six-membered transition states having a chair conformation."[17] This is now known as the Zimmerman-Traxler model. E-enolates ... Step One in a Two-Step Synthesis of Carbohydrates". Angewandte Chemie International Edition in English. 43 (16): 2152-2154. doi ... aldol reactions was disclosed by MacMillan and coworkers in 2004 in their synthesis of differentially protected carbohydrates. ...
This induces the enzyme to change its conformation, and creates a binding site for the acetyl-CoA. Only when this citroyl-CoA ...
Riboflavin (B2) is a cofactor to the metabolism of carbohydrates and when deficient in the diet leads to cracked, brittle skin. ...
Saccharides , Carbohydrates , Glycosides , , Amino acids , Peptides , Proteins , Glycoproteins , , Lipids , Terpenes , Steroids ... "Diversity of base-pair conformations and their occurrence in rRNA structure and RNA structural motifs" (December 2004). Journal ...
"for his investigations on carbohydrates and உயிர்ச்சத்து சி"[32]. Paul Karrer Switzerland "for his investigations on carotenoid ... "for their contributions to the development of the concept of conformation and its application in chemistry"[61]. ... "for his discovery of sugar nucleotides and their role in the biosynthesis of carbohydrates"[62]. ... especially concerning the connection between the amino acid sequence and the biologically active conformation"[64]. ...
Types of carbohydrates. General:. Aldose · Ketose · Furanose · Pyranose. Geometry. Cyclohexane conformation · Anomer · ...
"Nomenclature of Carbohydrates (Recommendations 1996)2-Carb-36 Disaccharides". Archived from the original on 2017-08-26. ... Disaccharides are one of the four chemical groupings of carbohydrates (monosaccharides, disaccharides, oligosaccharides, and ...
... it is not a well-defined conformation but a family of related DNA conformations[46] that occur at the high hydration levels ... DNA and ribonucleic acid (RNA) are nucleic acids; alongside proteins, lipids and complex carbohydrates (polysaccharides), ... DNA exists in many possible conformations that include A-DNA, B-DNA, and Z-DNA forms, although, only B-DNA and Z-DNA have been ... The looped conformation of the DNA backbone is very different from the typical DNA helix. The green spheres in the center ...
Carbohydrates are converted into pyruvate by glycolysis as the first important step in the conversion of carbohydrates into ... The rigidity of the double bond freezes its conformation and, in the case of the cis isomer, causes the chain to bend and ... When a chain has many cis bonds, it becomes quite curved in its most accessible conformations. For example, oleic acid, with ... In animals, fatty acids are formed from carbohydrates predominantly in the liver, adipose tissue, and the mammary glands during ...
Carbohydrate conformation refers to the overall three-dimensional structure adopted by a carbohydrate (saccharide) molecule as ... Conformations of five-membered rings are limited to two, envelope and twist. The envelope conformation has four atoms in a ... Koto, S.; Lemieux, R. U. Tetrahedron 1974, 30, 1933-1944 Media related to Carbohydrate conformation at Wikimedia Commons. ... processes which in turn can alter conformation). Chemical transformations and biological signalling mediated by conformation- ...
"Carbohydrate Conformation" by people in this website by year, and whether "Carbohydrate Conformation" was a major or minor ... "Carbohydrate Conformation" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical ... Below are the most recent publications written about "Carbohydrate Conformation" by people in Profiles. ... Below are MeSH descriptors whose meaning is more general than "Carbohydrate Conformation". ...
Gene-silencing-induced changes in carbohydrate conformation in relation to bioenergy value and carbohydrate subfractions in ... Gene-silencing-induced changes in carbohydrate conformation in relation to bioenergy value and carbohydrate subfractions in ... Gene-silencing-induced changes in carbohydrate conformation in relation to bioenergy value and carbohydrate subfractions in ... 22.3% DM (TT8); p = 0.009). The gene-silencing also affected carbohydrate CA4 (7.4 (NT) vs. 4.2 (HB12) and 4.4% carbohydrate ( ...
By employing a multistage modeling approach in combination with the experimental data, we can rationalize the conformation on ... By combining preparative mass spectrometry with scanning tunneling microscopy, we have been able to address the conformation ... Carbohydrate Self-Assembly at Surfaces: STM Imaging of Sucrose Conformation and Ordering on Cu(100) Abb, Sabine ; Tarrat, ... Home , Carbohydrate Self-Assembly at Surfaces: STM Imaging of Sucrose Conformation and Ordering on Cu(100) ...
Crystal structure of human GLUT3 bound to D-glucose in the outward-occluded conformation at 1.5 angstrom. *DOI: 10.2210/pdb4ZW9 ... GLUT3 glucose transporter (N45T mutant) with bound D-glucose, outward-occluded conformation. ... Å resolution in an outward-occluded conformation. The high-resolution structure allows discrimination of both α- and β-anomers ...
Reason: Carbohydrate remediation Changes: Advisory, Atomic model, Data collection, Derived calculations, Other, Structure ... Crystal Structure of the low pH conformation of Chandipura Virus glycoprotein G ectodomain. *DOI: 10.2210/pdb4D6W/pdb ... Furthermore, CHAV-Gth was crystallized in its low pH post-fusion conformation and its structure was determined at 3.6Å ... Structure of the Low Ph Conformation of Chandipura Virus G Reveals Important Features in the Evolution of the Vesiculovirus ...
It is likely that carbohydrate moieties keep extensin in an extended conformation and that extensin must be in this ... Carbohydrates make up about two-thirds of the mass of extensin. Arabinose oligomers linked to hydroxyproline residues represent ... 95% of the total carbohydrate with the remainder occurring as single residues of galactose linked to some serine residues. ... conformation to form a cross-linked matrix that can function properly in vivo. ...
... All or part of this article may be confusing or unclear.Please help clarify the article. Suggestions may be on the ... Conformation. The aldehyde or ketone group of a straight-chain monosaccharide will react reversibly with a hydroxyl group on a ... Monosaccharides are the simplest carbohydrates in that they cannot be hydrolyzed to smaller carbohydrates. The general chemical ... complex carbohydrates and nutrient-rich simple carbohydrates such as fruit and dairy products make up the bulk of carbohydrate ...
These studies indicate a diversity of iduronate ring conformations, but a limited range of glycosidic linkage geometries in the ... In this review particular attention is paid to the dynamic aspects of heparin/heparan sulfate conformation. The iduronate ... residue possesses an unusually flexible pyranose ring conformation. This extra source of internal mobility creates special ... Conformation of Carbohydrates. V.S.R. Rao, P. K. Qasba, P. V. Balaji, R. Chandrasekaran ...
Furanose Mutarotation Monosaccharide Carbohydrate conformation Robyt, J.F. (1998). Essentials of Carbohydrate Chemistry. ... Rao, V.S.R.; Qasba, P.K.; Chandrasekaran, R.; Balaji, P.V. (1998). Conformation of Carbohydrates. CRC Press. ISBN 90-5702-315-6 ... Grindley, T. Bruce (2008). "Structure and Conformation of Carbohydrates". In Fraser-Reid, B.O.; Tatsuta, K.; Thiem, J.; Coté, G ... In the chair and skew conformations, the reference plane should be selected. In the chair conformation, the reference plane is ...
Cyclohexane conformations, including with chair and boat conformers among others.. *Carbohydrate conformation, which includes ... The gauche conformation on the right is a conformer, while the eclipsed conformation on the left is a transition state between ... Conformation-dependent reactions[edit]. Reaction rates are highly dependent on the conformation of the reactants. This theme is ... The staggered conformation includes the gauche (±60°) and anti (180°) conformations, depending on the spatial orientations of ...
Carbohydrates are molecules with essential roles in biology and also serve as renewable resources for the generation of new ... exo-glycal chemistry and bioengineering of carbohydrate synthases. Then, synthesis and structure of multivalent and ... innovative synthetic methodology and design of carbohydrate architectures for medicinal and biological chemistry.Green ... Volume 40 of Carbohydrate Chemistry: Chemical and Biological Approaches demonstrates the importance of the glycosciences for ...
Carbohydrate moiety of HLA antigens. Antigenic properties and amino acid sequences around the site of glycosylation. J. Biol. ... 2C). The binding specificity of mAb 177407 was recently shown to be sensitive to the folding conformation of KIR3DL1 (28). ... Interactions of NK Cell Receptor KIR3DL1*004 with Chaperones and Conformation-Specific Antibody Reveal a Functional Folded ... Interactions of NK Cell Receptor KIR3DL1*004 with Chaperones and Conformation-Specific Antibody Reveal a Functional Folded ...
Conformation. Pyran and furan, after which the pyranose and furanose rings forms of monosaccharides are named. ... Monosaccharides are the simplest carbohydrates in that they cannot be hydrolyzed to smaller carbohydrates. The general chemical ... carbohydrates and nutrient-rich simple carbohydrates such as fruit and dairy products should make up the bulk of carbohydrate ... Carbohydrate simple:Carbohydrate sl:Ogljikovi hidrati sr:Угљени хидрати sh:Ugljeni hidrati su:Karbohidrat fi:Hiilihydraatti sv: ...
Influence of Sequential Modifications and Carbohydrate Variations in Synthetic AFGP Analogues on Conformation and Antifreeze ... Influence of Sequential Modifications and Carbohydrate Variations in Synthetic AFGP Analogues on Conformation and Antifreeze ... Influence of Sequential Modifications and Carbohydrate Variations in Synthetic AFGP Analogues on Conformation and Antifreeze ... "Influence of Sequential Modifications and Carbohydrate Variations in Synthetic AFGP Analogues on Conformation and Antifreeze ...
Conformation of carboxylated schizophyllan in aqueous solution  Yoshiba, Kazuto; Sato, Takahiro; Osumi, Takaaki; Ulset, Ann- ... Bla i Institutt for bioteknologi og matvitenskap på tidsskrifter "Carbohydrate Polymers". 0-9. A. B. C. D. E. F. G. H. I. J. K ...
2012) Synthesis and structural characterisation of selective non-carbohydrate-based inhibitors of bacterial sialidases. ... tamoxifen-like conformation of helices h3, h11, and h12, forming an antagonist-like conformation. A more closed conformation is ... 3 A and B). One conformation observed in each of the nine structures adopted a closed conformation, with rmsd values among the ... Whereas in the closed conformations these atoms cluster to occupy a single conformation (Fig. 3 E and F), a continuous and ...
Conformation of proteins in interfaces: Like many other substances with both hydrophilic and hydrophobic groups, soluble ... Conjugated proteins can be subdivided into mucoproteins, which, in addition to protein, contain carbohydrate; lipoproteins, ... Conformation of globular proteins*Results of X-ray diffraction studies. *Other approaches to the determination of protein ... Conformation of proteins in interfaces. Like many other substances with both hydrophilic and hydrophobic groups, soluble ...
Purchase Advances in Carbohydrate Chemistry and Biochemistry, Volume 50 - 1st Edition. Print Book & E-Book. ISBN 9780120072507 ... VI THE CONFORMATIONS AND MOLECULAR RECOGNITION OF CARBOHYDRATE DETERMINANTS DISTANT FROM THE PROTEIN OLIGOSACCHARIDE CORE OF ... VII THE CONFORMATIONS AND MOLECULAR RECOGNITION OF CARBOHYDRATE DETERMINANTS ADJACENT TO THE PROTEIN MOIETY OF GLYCOPROTEINS ... Advances in Carbohydrate Chemistry and Biochemistry, Volume 50 1st Edition. 0 star rating Write a review ...
Carbohydrate Conformation * Glycomics / methods* * Immobilized Proteins / chemistry * Immobilized Proteins / metabolism * ... On the other hand, a series of carbohydrate-binding proteins, or "lectins," have extensively been used in a more direct manner ...
... is shown to mediate cell adhesion by binding a sialylated carbohydrate structure, sialyl-Lewis x, found on neutrophils, ... Carbohydrate Conformation * Carbohydrate Sequence * Cell Adhesion Molecules / immunology* * Cell Adhesion* * Cell Line ... CD62 and endothelial cell-leukocyte adhesion molecule 1 (ELAM-1) recognize the same carbohydrate ligand, sialyl-Lewis x Proc ... is shown to mediate cell adhesion by binding a sialylated carbohydrate structure, sialyl-Lewis x, found on neutrophils, ...
align_virtual_atoms_in_carbohydrate_residue (uint const sequence_position). Set coordinates of virtual atoms (used as angle ... conformation::Residue::clone(), core::conformation::Conformation::end(), flip_chirality(), core::conformation::Conformation:: ... conformation::Residue::clone(), core::conformation::Conformation::end(), flip_chirality(), core::conformation::Conformation:: ... conformation::Conformation::residue(), core::conformation::Conformation::size(), core::conformation::symmetry::symmetrize_fold_ ...
Understanding Protein Conformation; Proteins Folding - In Vivo and In Vitro; Laboratory Determination of DGo for Protein ... Thermodynamics and IMFs in Protein Stability; etc..." Carbohydrates Monosaccharides and Disssacharides; Complex ...
Understanding Protein Conformation; Proteins Folding - In Vivo and In Vitro; Laboratory Determination of DGo for Protein ... Thermodynamics and IMFs in Protein Stability; etc..." Carbohydrates Monosaccharides and Disssacharides; Complex ...
1 Mono- and oligosaccharides: structure, configuration and conformation.. 2 Protecting groups.. 3 Functionalised saccharides. ... Organic Synthesis with Carbohydrates. Geert-Jan Boons, Karl J. Hale. ISBN: 978-0-470-76005-5 April 2008 Wiley-Blackwell 348 ... including the European Journal of Chemistry and the Journal of Carbohydrate Chemistry, and is also coeditor of Carbohydrate- ... KARL J. HALE obtained his Ph.D in Synthetic Carbohydrate Chemistry from Kings College London in 1985. He is a professor in the ...
Carbohydrates. Monosaccharides, stereoisomers, conformation, derivatives. Disaccharides, glycosidic bond stability and ... Examples from carbohydrate metabolism of relationship between equilibrium constants, mass action coefficients and free energy ... The pathways used in animals for catabolism and biosynthesis (anabolism) of some carbohydrates and fat will be covered, as well ... Mechanisms of regulation: examples from e.g. carbohydrate metabolism. Timescale; transcriptional regulation; post-translational ...
Carbohydrates. Monosaccharides, stereoisomers, conformation, derivatives. Disaccharides, glycosidic bond stability and ... The pathways used in animals for catabolism and biosynthesis (anabolism) of some carbohydrates and fat will be covered, as well ... carbohydrates, lipids and nucleic acids). The nature of the electronic and molecular structure of macromolecules and the role ...
Carbohydrates / analysis. Carotenoids / analysis. Lettuce / chemistry, metabolism*. Molecular Conformation. Nuclear Magnetic ... A large number of water-soluble metabolites belonging to different classes such as carbohydrates, polyols, organic acids and ...
Molecular Conformation. Prothrombin*. Chemical. Reg. No./Substance: 0/Carbohydrates; 26566-61-0/Galactose; 3416-24-8/ ... Previous Document: Structure of the carbohydrate moieties of bovine rhodopsin.. Next Document: Stereochemistry and mechanism of ... Carbohydrates / analysis. Cattle. Galactose / analysis*. Glucosamine / analogs & derivatives*. Methylation. ...
Role of conformation in synergistic interactions of xanthan Carbohydrate Polymers. 23(2), 133-135 ... An analytical ultracentrifugation study on the conformation of lambda carrageenan in aqueous solution Carbohydrate Polymers. 97 ... Effect of granule organisation on the behaviour of starches in the NMMO solvent system Carbohydrate Polymers. 116, 103-110 ... Influence of interfacial and bulk properties of cellulose ethers on lipolysis of oil-in-water emulsions Carbohydrate Polymers. ...
  • Carbohydrates are the most abundant of the four major classes of biomolecules , which also include proteins , lipids and nucleic acids . (
  • On the other hand, a series of carbohydrate-binding proteins, or "lectins," have extensively been used in a more direct manner for cell typing, histochemical staining, and glycoprotein fractionation. (
  • Carbohydrates, along with lipids, proteins, nucleic acids, and other compounds are known as biomolecules because they are closely associated with living organisms. (
  • Phage-display technology has been improved to enable the identification of peptides that bind to carbohydrate-binding proteins, such as lectins and antibodies, from a large repertoire of peptide sequences. (
  • To investigate the biological roles of carbohydrates, sets of carbohydrates and their corresponding carbohydrate-binding proteins are required. (
  • Carbohydrate-binding proteins such as plant lectins, bacterial toxins, and anticarbohydrate antibodies are available for studying carbohydrate-protein interactions [ 3 , 4 ]. (
  • However, the repertoire of carbohydrate structures recognized by these proteins is limited and insufficient to cover the majority of structures. (
  • Such processes are governed by cell wall bound structural proteins and interacting carbohydrate active enzymes. (
  • Our results showed that structural proteins like arabinogalactans and carbohydrate active enzymes were relatively more abundant and showed stage- and isoform-specific expression patterns in the differentiating fiber cell. (
  • General elicitors belong to various biochemical classes including carbohydrates, lipids, (glyco)peptides and (glyco)proteins. (
  • The application of hydrogen/deuterium exchange mass spectrometry (HDX-MS) to localize ligand binding sites in carbohydrate-binding proteins is described. (
  • Overall, the results of this study suggest that HDX-MS can serve as a useful tool for localizing the ligand binding sites in carbohydrate-binding proteins. (
  • The folding and conformation of Env proteins was little affected by the manipulation of the glycosylation. (
  • So column calibration with typical standards such as linear polymers or globular proteins will often lead to incorrect measurements, if the samples are not similar to the reference molecules in terms of conformation or density. (
  • Lectins are proteins that recognize and bind specific carbohydrates found on the surfaces of cells. (
  • Lectins are specific carbohydrate-binding proteins: - Enormous diversity of carbohydrates have biological significance: Different monosaccharides can be joined to one another through any several -OH groups. (
  • Furthermore, many proteins, specifically those present on the surfaces of cells, acquire carbohydrate units from attachment of specific asparagine residues. (
  • Carbohydrates in the form of aspargine-linked (N-linked) or serine/threonine (O-linked) oligosaccharides are major structural components of many cell surface and secreted proteins. (
  • The ultimate goal of my research is to identify the catalytic mechanisms of key enzymes, such as phosphoryl transfer and carbohydrate processing enzymes, to develop novel compounds and proteins for medicinal purposes. (
  • In any case, the specificity and affinity of viral proteins for carbohydrates determines viral spread, transmission and pathogenesis. (
  • We determine the specificity of viral proteins for carbohydrates by glycobiological and biophysics approaches and solve the structures of cognate protein-carbohydrate complexes by x-ray crystallography. (
  • Among carbohydrates the polysaccharides represent some of the most abundant bioactive substances in marine organisms. (
  • In addition, the pathogenic capsular polysaccharides of bacteria are carbohydrate antigens, for which a safe and efficacious method of vaccination is required. (
  • The orientation of the aromatic residues complements the conformation of the target sugar polymer while accommodation of both manno- and gluco-configured oligo- and polysaccharides is conferred by virtue of the plasticity of the direct interactions from their axial and equatorial 2-hydroxyls, respectively. (
  • Microbial enzymes involved in these processes frequently possess a modular structure in which noncatalytic carbohydrate-binding modules (CBMs) target the biocatalysts to specific polysaccharides and enhance catalytic efficiency by increasing the effective concentration of the enzyme on the surface of insoluble substrates ( 2 , 3 ). (
  • Bioactive Carbohydrates and Dietary Fibre is intended to be an international journal focused on dietary fibre , and bioactive carbohydrates (including bioactive polysaccharides, oligosaccharides and glycoproteins . (
  • Carbohydrates Polysaccharides Figure 20.3 Amylopectin, a branched polymer of approximately 10,000 units of D-glucose joined by -1,4-glycosidic bonds. (
  • The basic carbohydrate units are called monosaccharides , such as glucose , galactose , and fructose. (
  • Monosaccharides are the simplest carbohydrates in that they cannot be hydrolyzed to smaller carbohydrates. (
  • 13.2 Influence of Hydrogen Bonding on Configuration and Conformation in Cyclic Monosaccharides. (
  • 1 Mono- and oligosaccharides: structure, configuration and conformation. (
  • L-type lectins possess a luminal carbohydrate recognition domain (CRD) that binds to high-mannose-type oligosaccharides in aCa 2+ -dependent manner. (
  • Impact of sulfation pattern on the conformation and dynamics of sulfated fucan oligosaccharides as revealed by NMR and MD. (
  • Interactions between microfibrillar cellulose and carboxymethyl cellulose 1 in an aqueous suspension Carbohydrate Polymers. (
  • Carbohydrate Polymers , 147 , p. 392-400. (
  • Advances in Carbohydrate Chemistry 17 , 233 (1962), Academic Press: New York and London. (
  • Advances in Carbohydrate Chemistry 16 , 105 (1961), Academic Press: New York and London. (
  • Conformations adopted by saccharide molecules in response to the physical forces arising from their bonding and nonbonding electrons, modified by the molecule's interactions with its aqueous or other solvent environment, strongly influence their reactivity with and recognition by other molecules (processes which in turn can alter conformation). (
  • Chemical transformations and biological signalling mediated by conformation-dependent molecular recognition between molecules underlie all essential processes in living organisms. (
  • By employing a multistage modeling approach in combination with the experimental data, we can rationalize the conformation on the surface as well as the interactions between the sucrose molecules, thereby yielding models of the observed self-assembled patterns on the surface. (
  • however, many molecules with formulae that differ slightly from this are still called carbohydrates and other compounds that possess formulae that agree with this general rule may not be in fact carbohydrates (eg formaldehyde). (
  • While simple molecules can be described by these types of conformations, more complex molecules require the use of the Klyne-Prelog system to describe the different conformers. (
  • In addition, because carbohydrates are ubiquitous components of cell membranes and bio(macro)molecules, the immune response stimulated by glycoconjugates is negligible [ 5 , 6 ], that is, high affinity carbohydrate-specific IgG-isotype antibodies are not easily obtained. (
  • Here we demonstrate that FGF2 membrane translocation can occur in a folded conformation, i.e. unfolded molecules are not obligatory intermediates in FGF2 secretion. (
  • This thesis is a summary of five papers studying these properties in carbohydrate-containing molecules with NMR spectroscopy and molecular dynamics simulations. (
  • The structures of the liganded molecules show that the carbohydrate-recognition domain of the enzyme lies relatively deep inside the protein, so that the terminal M6P residue and the penultimate sugar ring of bound pentamannosyl phosphate are mostly buried in the receptor. (
  • The process of attachment of sugar molecules (such as carbohydrate) to the protein is called glycosylation. (
  • GAGs are highly negatively charged molecules, with extended conformation that imparts high viscosity to the solution. (
  • The chair conformation of six-membered rings have a dihedral angle of 60° between adjacent substituents thus usually making it the most stable conformer. (
  • Since there are two possible chair conformation steric and stereoelectronic effects such as the anomeric effect, 1,3-diaxial interactions, dipoles and intramolecular hydrogen bonding must be taken into consideration when looking at relative energies. (
  • In the chair conformation, the reference plane is chosen such that the lowest-numbered atom (usually C-1) is exoplanar. (
  • When D -glucose is drawn as a Haworth projection or in the standard chair conformation, the designation α means that the hydroxyl group attached to C-1 is positioned trans to the -CH 2 OH group at C-5, while β means it is cis. (
  • Another popular method of distinguishing α from β is by observing whether the C-1 hydroxyl is below or above the plane of the ring, respectively, but this method is an inaccurate definition and may fail if the glucose ring is drawn upside down or in an alternative chair conformation. (
  • Arabinose oligomers linked to hydroxyproline residues represent 95% of the total carbohydrate with the remainder occurring as single residues of galactose linked to some serine residues. (
  • Residues showing extended conformation making double turns that was seen in Fab 59.1 and 50.1 peptides. (
  • In addition, the carbohydrate-binding specificity of a certain lectin is determined by the amino acid residues that bind the carbohydrate. (
  • Six cysteine residues form three intramolecular disulphide bonds that are essential for the ligand-binding conformation of the receptor to be generated. (
  • Using lipidic cubic phase crystallization and microfocus X-ray diffraction, we determined the structure of human GLUT3 in complex with D-glucose at 1.5 Å resolution in an outward-occluded conformation. (
  • Glucose (Glc), a monosaccharide (or simple sugar), is an important carbohydrate in biology . (
  • Within the cyclic form of glucose, rotation may occur around the O6-C6-C5-O5 torsion angle, termed the ω-angle, to form three rotamer conformations as shown in the diagram below. (
  • Specific bioactivities such as reducing serum cholesterol, modulating blood glucose and insulin levels, fermentability in the gastrointestinal track, anti-tumor, anti-inflammatory, immune regulatory and anti-oxidant activities demonstrated by these bioactive carbohydrates are the main focus of this journal. (
  • Sources of glucose include starch, the major storage form of carbohydrate in plants. (
  • Both galactose and glucose are very stable in solution because they are able to adopt chair and boat conformations. (
  • When blood glucose levels rise after a meal containing carbohydrates (sugars and starches), increased intracellular glucose in the beta cells triggers a series of processes that change the intracellular calcium concentration. (
  • This starts a signalling cascade within the cell that changes glucose uptake as well as carbohydrate and lipid metabolism [10] . (
  • The most common carbohydrate is glucose (C 6 H 12 O 6 ). (
  • The influence of minor and major sequence mutations on conformation and antifreeze activity of AFGP analogues was investigated by replacement of alanine by proline and glycosylated threonine by glycosylated hydroxyproline. (
  • Traditionally, galectins have been defined as a subfamily of lectins that selectively bind β-galactosides, and all galectins share significant amino acid sequence conservation within their CRD (carbohydrate-recognition domain) [ 1 ]. (
  • Carbohydrates (from 'hydrates of carbon') or saccharides (Greek σάκχαρον meaning "sugar") are simple organic compounds that are aldehydes or ketones with many hydroxyl groups added, usually one on each carbon atom that is not part of the aldehyde or ketone functional group. (
  • Carbohydrates, or saccharides (saccharo is Greek for ―sugar) are polyhydroxy aldehydes or ketones, or substances that yield such compounds on hydrolysis. (
  • Carbohydrates (or saccharides) consist of only carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. (
  • Carbohydrates are called saccharides or, if they are relatively small, sugars. (
  • The model of lipopolysaccharide conformation accounts for the known antigenic properties of Salmonella O-antigens. (
  • Bioactive Carbohydrates and Dietary Fibre , 7 (2), p. 19-27. (
  • Bioactive Carbohydrates and Dietary Fibre , 6 (2), p. 62-68. (
  • Conformations with 1,3-diaxial interactions are usually disfavored due to steric congestion and can shift equilibrium to the other chair form (example: 1C4 to 4C1). (
  • Inhibitors of carbohydrate-protein interactions are potential antiviral drugs. (
  • Such mimetic peptides are available as peptide inhibitors of carbohydrate-protein interactions and peptide mimotopes that are conjugated with adjuvant for vaccination. (
  • Carbohydrate-protein interactions are the first cell surface events in cell-cell communication, following which processes such as infection and signal transduction occur. (
  • Protein-carbohydrate interactions play a critical role in biology. (
  • Consequently, there is a need for alternative structural techniques capable of probing protein-carbohydrate interactions. (
  • This deep binding pocket facilitates the formation of numerous interactions between the CD-MPR and its carbohydrate ligands. (
  • However, protein-carbohydrate interactions are less well understood than protein-protein or protein-nucleic acid interactions. (
  • Moreover, virus-carbohydrate interactions are multivalent, with many shallow, low-affinity binding sites acting in concert. (
  • By which molecular interactions does the protein recognize its carbohydrate ligand(s)? (
  • In addition, they shape our growing understanding of protein-carbohydrate interactions. (
  • The HB12 and TT8 gene silencing-induced molecular structure changes were determined by non-invasive and non-destructive advanced molecular spectroscopy in a middle infrared radiation region that focused on structural, non-structural and total carbohydrate compounds. (
  • An overall comparison of this structure with the previously reported VSV-Gth post-fusion conformation, shows a high structural similarity as expected from the comparison of primary structure. (
  • Thus, CBMs in complex with their respective ligands present excellent systems for dissecting the molecular determinants that define the structural basis for protein-carbohydrate recognition, which is central to numerous essential biological processes. (
  • Although most structural studies with gal-1 have investigated its binding to simple carbohydrates, in particular lactose and N -acetyl-lactosamine, this view is limited, because gal-1 functions at the cell surface by interacting with more complex glycans that are heterogeneous in size and composition. (
  • This includes using suitable analogues to trap the multi-conformational enzymes in their relevant conformation to reveal the useful structural and chemical information. (
  • Aside from the sugars and starches that meet this vital nutritional role, carbohydrates also serve as a structural material (cellulose), a component of the energy transport compound ATP , recognition sites on cell surfaces, and one of three essential components of DNA and RNA. (
  • Structural information is key to understanding protein-carbohydrate recognition processes. (
  • Carbohydrate A polyhydroxyaldehyde or polyhydroxyketone, or a substance that gives these compounds on hydrolysis. (
  • Carbohydrates on the surface of one cell bind to the binding sites of lectins on the surface of another cell. (
  • Lectins are capable of binding to many different types of carbohydrates. (
  • Because of the difficulty that lectins face when binding to these carbohydrates, a subsite multivalency (which is a spatial extension of the grooves) is necessary to achieve binding. (
  • Rapid binding kinetics also facilitate the binding of lectins to carbohydrates. (
  • The shape of the binding sites in carbohydrates plays a factor in its bondage to lectins. (
  • This process is evidence that lectins prefer certain conformations (shapes) when deciding how to bind to a carbohydrate. (
  • Atoms above the plane are written before the conformer label, as a superscript Atoms below the plane are written following the conformer label, as a subscript As shown by the relative structure energies in the diagram above, the chair structures are the most stable carbohydrate form. (
  • In most structures, two discrete protein conformations are observed simultaneously, and energetic considerations suggest that these conformations are low in energy relative to the ground state. (
  • An analysis of 121 lysozyme cavity structures in the PDB finds that these three conformations dominate the previously determined structures, largely modeled in a single conformation. (
  • These peptides are known as "carbohydrate-mimetic peptides (CMPs)" because they mimic carbohydrate structures. (
  • A variety of glycoconjugate carbohydrate structures on the cell surface are important for biological events [ 1 ]. (
  • Carbohydrate structures on the cell surface change according to cell status, for example, during development, differentiation, and malignant alteration. (
  • However, the reasons for the changes in carbohydrate structures on the cell surface are not clear. (
  • The structures reveal an extended gp41 conformation, which stretches over 30 Å in length. (
  • Carbohydrate structures are expressed in tissue- and species-specific patterns, and the availability of the receptor carbohydrate influences viral tissue tropism and host range. (
  • Our aim is to determine the rules of engagement between viruses and relevant carbohydrate structures. (
  • The binding specificity information can focus crystallographic efforts onto few carbohydrate structures of interest. (
  • 1972. The Carbohydrates: Chemistry and Biochemistry, Academic Press. (
  • The results demonstrate that although the two LEC-CAMs differ in their biological activities by their distribution and mode of expression, they are capable of mediating cell adhesion by recognition of the same carbohydrate ligand. (
  • Carbohydrate-protein recognition is central to many biological processes. (
  • The conformations of glycans are crucial for their biological functions. (
  • Knowledge about the structure, conformation and dynamics of carbohydrates is important in our understanding of the way carbohydrates function in biological systems, for example in intermolecular signaling and recognition. (
  • Carbohydrates play important roles in biological processes. (
  • Carbohydrates, or glycans, are ubiquitous biomolecules exhibiting a wide range of biological roles. (
  • How are the biological functions of the protein correlated with its carbohydrate binding properties? (
  • Optimal T cell responses to Cryptococcus neoformans mannoprotein are dependent on recognition of conjugated carbohydrates by mannose receptors. (
  • Carbohydrate recognition in cell adhesion and signalling10. (
  • Carbohydrate-based species recognition in sea urchin fertilization: another avenue for speciation? (
  • Chang Y, Hu Y, Yu L, McClements DJ, Xu X, Liu G, Xue C. Primary structure and chain conformation of fucoidan extracted from sea cucumber Holothuria tubulosa. (
  • By using modern MS and high-field NMR spectroscopy for analysis of the isolated carbohydrate backbone of the LPS, it has been shown that it is a beta-d-Galp residue that links the first repeating unit of the O-specific polysaccharide to O-4 of the last d-Glcp residue of the core region. (
  • In this thesis, conformational studies of carbohydrates by NMR spectroscopy and molecular dynamics computer simulations are described. (
  • Additionally, carbohydrates and their derivatives play major roles in the working process of the immune system , fertilization , pathogenesis, blood clotting, and development . (
  • Compared to carbohydrate derivatives, it is easy to prepare mono- and multivalent peptides and then to modify them to create various derivatives. (
  • Traditionally, carbohydrate derivatives have been utilized in the mainstream of organic chemistry primarily for studies relating to stereochemical and conformational problems. (
  • He is on the editorial boards of several journals on carbohydrates, including the European Journal of Chemistry and the Journal of Carbohydrate Chemistry, and is also coeditor of Carbohydrate-Based Immunotherapies and Vaccines. (
  • These intermembrane receptors [8] change conformation upon insulin binding, activating intracellular tyrosine kinase domains [9] . (
  • In addition, many human viruses interact with cell-surface carbohydrates as receptors on their host cells in order to initiate infection. (
  • Carbohydrate Conformation" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (
  • Conformations of oligosaccharidesPart 2: Glycans in biology8. (
  • Carbohydrate analyses revealed that trimeric Env produced in GnTI(-/-) cells contained exclusively oligomannose N-glycans, with incompletely trimmed oligomannose glycans predominating. (
  • These substitutions, resulting in changes of certain parts of the carbohydrate, act as molecular switches governing the shape of glycans. (
  • Glycans are conformationally flexible and it is now known which conformation of the carbohydrate is bound. (
  • In plants, carbohydrates produced by photosynthesis are well known for their essential role as vital sources of energy and carbon skeletons for organic compounds and storage components. (
  • Carbohydrates are among the most abundant compounds on earth. (
  • Carbohydrates are the most abundant class of organic compounds found in living organisms. (
  • Formally and quantitatively, conformation is captured by description of a molecule's angles-for example, sets of three sequential atoms (bond angles) and four sequential atoms (torsion angles, dihedral angles), where the locations and angular directions of nonbonding electrons ("lone pair electrons") must sometimes also be taken into account. (
  • The envelope conformation has four atoms in a plane while the twist form only has three. (
  • While any two arrangements of atoms in a molecule that differ by rotation about single bonds can be referred to as different conformations , conformations that correspond to local minima on the energy surface are specifically called conformational isomers or conformers . (
  • In the skew conformation, the plane contains three adjacent atoms and one other with the atom with the lowest possible number exoplanar. (
  • This relatively defined and stable conformation means that the hydrogen atoms of the pyranose ring are held at relatively constant angles to one another. (
  • 13 Hydrogen Bonding in Carbohydrates. (
  • In-electrospray ionization (ESI) hydrogen/deuterium exchange-mass spectrometry (HDX-MS) is a promising technique for studying carbohydrate conformations since rapidly exchanging functional groups, e.g., hydroxyls, can be labeled on the timeframe of ESI. (
  • Protein glycosylation is known as one of the major post-translational modifications with significant effects on protein folding, conformation distribution, stability and activity. (
  • Fructans are probably the most abundant storage carbohydrate in plants next to starch and sucrose. (
  • Hi, Does anyone know any works and references about modeling of conformation of carbohydrate part of glycoprotein? (
  • Several classifications of carbohydrates have proven useful, and are outlined in the following table. (
  • Many carbohydrates contain one or more modified monosaccharide units that have had one or more groups replaced or removed. (
  • Furanose Mutarotation Monosaccharide Carbohydrate conformation Robyt, J.F. (1998). (
  • Monosaccharide A carbohydrate that cannot be hydrolyzed to a simpler carbohydrate. (
  • These carbohydrates are bound to hemagglutinin, a viral protein (virus is engulfed by the cell and starts to replicate). (
  • What spectrum of carbohydrates is bound by a specific protein? (
  • Although an equilibrium exists between the 1C4 and 2S0 conformers (ratio 60:40) of the 2-O-sulfo-α-L-iduronate ring (IdoA2S) in the free state, FGFR2 selects only the unique twisted-boat 2S0 conformation of this IdoA2S residue. (
  • Fab 83.1, 50.1, and 59,1 showed three peptides of similar conformation, but 58.2 shows differences from the residue tip. (
  • The names of carbohydrates often end in the suffix -ose. (
  • The suffix -ose indicates that a molecule is a carbohydrate. (
  • Carbohydrates have been given non-systematic names, although the suffix ose is generally used. (
  • Relative conformation energy diagram of butane as a function of dihedral angle. (
  • The 30 CBM families currently known may be found as part of a continuously updated carbohydrate-active enzyme database at . (
  • Carbohydrate conformation refers to the overall three-dimensional structure adopted by a carbohydrate (saccharide) molecule as a result of the through-bond and through-space physical forces it experiences arising from its molecular structure. (
  • The objectives of this study were to (1) Detect gene silencing-induced changes in carbohydrate molecular structure in an alfalfa forage ( Medicago sativa spp. (
  • The CHO molecular structure changes induced by RNAi gene silencing were associated with biofunctions in terms of the carbohydrate subfractions and nutrient digestion. (
  • In this thesis, within the topic of bioorganic chemistry, the molecular structure of carbohydrates has been studied. (
  • Therefore, while anticarbohydrate antibodies of the IgG isotype are preferred for carbohydrate research, IgM-antibodies with low affinity have been often used. (
  • Of the antibodies directed against gp120, 2G12 recognizes a carbohydrate epitope on gp120 in a way which requires its domains to be swapped ( 7 ), and b12 must bypass conformational masking of the CD4-binding site ( 28 , 54 ). (
  • Pyranose and furanose forms can exist in different conformers and one can interconvert between the different conformations if an energy requirement is met. (
  • Rotation about single bond of butane to interconvert one conformation to another. (
  • Enzymes that act on polysaccharide substrates frequently contain noncatalytic domains, "carbohydrate-binding modules" (CBMs), that target the enzyme to the appropriate substrate. (
  • As noted here, the formulas of many carbohydrates can be written as carbon hydrates, C n (H 2 O) n , hence their name. (
  • Conformation of the pentasaccharide corresponding to the binding site of heparin to antithrombin-III. (
  • By combining preparative mass spectrometry with scanning tunneling microscopy, we have been able to address the conformation and self-assembly of the disaccharide sucrose on a Cu(100) surface with subunit-level imaging. (
  • In a subject dominated by volumes at research and professional level, this book provides a broad understanding of the use of carbohydrates in organic synthesis, at postgraduate student level. (
  • Kiliani-Fischer Synthesis- a series of reaction that extends carbon chain in a carbohydrate by one carbon and one chiral centre. (
  • Rather than changing conformation smoothly to complement the ever-larger ligands, the protein site adopts a few discrete conformations as it expands. (
  • Carbohydrates are ubiquitous components in nature involved in a range of tasks. (
  • The leukocyte receptor CD62, which is expressed on activated platelets and endothelial cells, is shown to mediate cell adhesion by binding a sialylated carbohydrate structure, sialyl-Lewis x, found on neutrophils, monocytes, and tumor cells. (
  • All eukaryotic cells are covered in a dense layer of carbohydrates that are key to cell-cell communication, development, neurobiology and immune function. (
  • Furthermore, CHAV-Gth was crystallized in its low pH post-fusion conformation and its structure was determined at 3.6Å resolution. (
  • A further refinement to the conformation of pyranose rings came when Sponsler and Dore (1926) realized that Sachse's mathematical treatment of six-membered rings could be applied to their X-ray structure of cellulose. (
  • Structure of the carbohydrate moieties of bovine rhodopsin. (
  • It will include original studies and comprehensive reviews on the primary structure, molecular characteristics including conformation, size and shape, and bioactivities demonstrated by studies using in vitro , cell culture, animal and human clinical trials for understanding the action mechanisms and efficacy of bioactive carbohydrates from plants, fungi, animals and produced by biotechnology. (
  • and analysis and structure of cell membrane carbohydrates. (
  • A molecular modeling approach to understand the structure and conformation relationship of (Glc p A)Xylan. (
  • These conformations are most stable because their OH groups are pointed away from the structure, preventing steric hindrance. (
  • Structure determination of protein-carbohydrate complexes is particularly synergistic with approaches that define the glycan binding specificity of the protein, such as glycan microarray screening and ligand-based NMR techniques. (
  • The three eclipsed conformations with dihedral angles of 0°, 120°, and 240° are not considered to be conformers, but are instead transition states between two conformers. (
  • Carbohydrate NMR takes advantage of these dihedral angles to determine the configuration of each of the hydroxyl groups around the ring. (
  • Carbohydrate Metabolism and Its Disorders, vols 1 and 2, Academic Press. (
  • Regulation of intermediary carbohydrate metabolism, Intern. (
  • Insulin is a peptide hormone that helps to maintain blood sugar within a healthy range by regulating carbohydrate and lipid metabolism throughout the body. (
  • Increasing interest is devoted to carbohydrates for their roles in plant immunity. (
  • Secondly, the potentialities and limits of foliar sprays of carbohydrates to stimulate plant immunity for crop protection against diseases are discussed, with focus on the roles of the leaf cuticle and phyllosphere microflora. (
  • Indeed it was in this connection that the term "conformation" was coined by Haworth in 1929 ( 34 ). (
  • The study of the energetics between different conformations is referred to as conformational analysis . (
  • Conformational Analysis in Carbohydrate Chemistry II. (
  • Conformational Analysis in Carbohydrate Chemistry I. Conformational Free Energies. (