Carbohydrate Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a carbohydrate.Carbohydrates: The largest class of organic compounds, including STARCH; GLYCOGEN; CELLULOSE; POLYSACCHARIDES; and simple MONOSACCHARIDES. Carbohydrates are composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a ratio of Cn(H2O)n.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Carbohydrate Metabolism: Cellular processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of CARBOHYDRATES.Dietary Carbohydrates: Carbohydrates present in food comprising digestible sugars and starches and indigestible cellulose and other dietary fibers. The former are the major source of energy. The sugars are in beet and cane sugar, fruits, honey, sweet corn, corn syrup, milk and milk products, etc.; the starches are in cereal grains, legumes (FABACEAE), tubers, etc. (From Claudio & Lagua, Nutrition and Diet Therapy Dictionary, 3d ed, p32, p277)Molecular Conformation: The characteristic three-dimensional shape of a molecule.Carbohydrate Sequence: The sequence of carbohydrates within POLYSACCHARIDES; GLYCOPROTEINS; and GLYCOLIPIDS.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Crystallography, X-Ray: The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Protein Structure, Secondary: The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Circular Dichroism: A change from planar to elliptic polarization when an initially plane-polarized light wave traverses an optically active medium. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Oligosaccharides: Carbohydrates consisting of between two (DISACCHARIDES) and ten MONOSACCHARIDES connected by either an alpha- or beta-glycosidic link. They are found throughout nature in both the free and bound form.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Antigens, Tumor-Associated, Carbohydrate: Carbohydrate antigens expressed by malignant tissue. They are useful as tumor markers and are measured in the serum by means of a radioimmunoassay employing monoclonal antibodies.Lectins: Proteins that share the common characteristic of binding to carbohydrates. Some ANTIBODIES and carbohydrate-metabolizing proteins (ENZYMES) also bind to carbohydrates, however they are not considered lectins. PLANT LECTINS are carbohydrate-binding proteins that have been primarily identified by their hemagglutinating activity (HEMAGGLUTININS). However, a variety of lectins occur in animal species where they serve diverse array of functions through specific carbohydrate recognition.Thermodynamics: A rigorously mathematical analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, temperature, and equilibrium). It describes systems whose states are determined by thermal parameters, such as temperature, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic parameters. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)Protein Folding: Processes involved in the formation of TERTIARY PROTEIN STRUCTURE.Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Hydrogen Bonding: A low-energy attractive force between hydrogen and another element. It plays a major role in determining the properties of water, proteins, and other compounds.Starch: Any of a group of polysaccharides of the general formula (C6-H10-O5)n, composed of a long-chain polymer of glucose in the form of amylose and amylopectin. It is the chief storage form of energy reserve (carbohydrates) in plants.PolysaccharidesGlycosylation: The chemical or biochemical addition of carbohydrate or glycosyl groups to other chemicals, especially peptides or proteins. Glycosyl transferases are used in this biochemical reaction.Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, Biomolecular: NMR spectroscopy on small- to medium-size biological macromolecules. This is often used for structural investigation of proteins and nucleic acids, and often involves more than one isotope.Solutions: The homogeneous mixtures formed by the mixing of a solid, liquid, or gaseous substance (solute) with a liquid (the solvent), from which the dissolved substances can be recovered by physical processes. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Ligands: A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Glycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.Amino Acids: Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.Monosaccharides: Simple sugars, carbohydrates which cannot be decomposed by hydrolysis. They are colorless crystalline substances with a sweet taste and have the same general formula CnH2nOn. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Mannose: A hexose or fermentable monosaccharide and isomer of glucose from manna, the ash Fraxinus ornus and related plants. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed & Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Models, Chemical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Glucose: A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Polymorphism, Single-Stranded Conformational: Variation in a population's DNA sequence that is detected by determining alterations in the conformation of denatured DNA fragments. Denatured DNA fragments are allowed to renature under conditions that prevent the formation of double-stranded DNA and allow secondary structure to form in single stranded fragments. These fragments are then run through polyacrylamide gels to detect variations in the secondary structure that is manifested as an alteration in migration through the gels.Molecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.Dietary Fats: Fats present in food, especially in animal products such as meat, meat products, butter, ghee. They are present in lower amounts in nuts, seeds, and avocados.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Molecular Dynamics Simulation: A computer simulation developed to study the motion of molecules over a period of time.Spectrometry, Fluorescence: Measurement of the intensity and quality of fluorescence.Galactose: An aldohexose that occurs naturally in the D-form in lactose, cerebrosides, gangliosides, and mucoproteins. Deficiency of galactosyl-1-phosphate uridyltransferase (GALACTOSE-1-PHOSPHATE URIDYL-TRANSFERASE DEFICIENCY DISEASE) causes an error in galactose metabolism called GALACTOSEMIA, resulting in elevations of galactose in the blood.Glycoside HydrolasesProtein Structure, Quaternary: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape and arrangement of multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Dietary Proteins: Proteins obtained from foods. They are the main source of the ESSENTIAL AMINO ACIDS.Plant Lectins: Protein or glycoprotein substances of plant origin that bind to sugar moieties in cell walls or membranes. Some carbohydrate-metabolizing proteins (ENZYMES) from PLANTS also bind to carbohydrates, however they are not considered lectins. Many plant lectins change the physiology of the membrane of BLOOD CELLS to cause agglutination, mitosis, or other biochemical changes. They may play a role in plant defense mechanisms.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Mutagenesis, Site-Directed: Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Protein Denaturation: Disruption of the non-covalent bonds and/or disulfide bonds responsible for maintaining the three-dimensional shape and activity of the native protein.Diet, Carbohydrate-Restricted: A diet that contains limited amounts of CARBOHYDRATES. This is in distinction to a regular DIET.Glycopeptides: Proteins which contain carbohydrate groups attached covalently to the polypeptide chain. The protein moiety is the predominant group with the carbohydrate making up only a small percentage of the total weight.Sucrose: A nonreducing disaccharide composed of GLUCOSE and FRUCTOSE linked via their anomeric carbons. It is obtained commercially from SUGARCANE, sugar beet (BETA VULGARIS), and other plants and used extensively as a food and a sweetener.Energy Intake: Total number of calories taken in daily whether ingested or by parenteral routes.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.X-Ray Diffraction: The scattering of x-rays by matter, especially crystals, with accompanying variation in intensity due to interference effects. Analysis of the crystal structure of materials is performed by passing x-rays through them and registering the diffraction image of the rays (CRYSTALLOGRAPHY, X-RAY). (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Blood Glucose: Glucose in blood.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Disaccharides: Oligosaccharides containing two monosaccharide units linked by a glycosidic bond.Epitopes: Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.Dimerization: The process by which two molecules of the same chemical composition form a condensation product or polymer.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Computer Simulation: Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.Catalytic Domain: The region of an enzyme that interacts with its substrate to cause the enzymatic reaction.Glycoconjugates: Carbohydrates covalently linked to a nonsugar moiety (lipids or proteins). The major glycoconjugates are glycoproteins, glycopeptides, peptidoglycans, glycolipids, and lipopolysaccharides. (From Biochemical Nomenclature and Related Documents, 2d ed; From Principles of Biochemistry, 2d ed)Water: A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Fructose: A monosaccharide in sweet fruits and honey that is soluble in water, alcohol, or ether. It is used as a preservative and an intravenous infusion in parenteral feeding.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.FucoseAmino Acid Substitution: The naturally occurring or experimentally induced replacement of one or more AMINO ACIDS in a protein with another. If a functionally equivalent amino acid is substituted, the protein may retain wild-type activity. Substitution may also diminish, enhance, or eliminate protein function. Experimentally induced substitution is often used to study enzyme activities and binding site properties.Crystallography: The branch of science that deals with the geometric description of crystals and their internal arrangement. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Sialic Acids: A group of naturally occurring N-and O-acyl derivatives of the deoxyamino sugar neuraminic acid. They are ubiquitously distributed in many tissues.HexosesHydrolysis: The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Insulin: A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).Amino Sugars: SUGARS containing an amino group. GLYCOSYLATION of other compounds with these amino sugars results in AMINOGLYCOSIDES.GlycogenCalorimetry: The measurement of the quantity of heat involved in various processes, such as chemical reactions, changes of state, and formations of solutions, or in the determination of the heat capacities of substances. The fundamental unit of measurement is the joule or the calorie (4.184 joules). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Acetylglucosamine: The N-acetyl derivative of glucosamine.Periodic Acid: A strong oxidizing agent.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Energy Metabolism: The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.Spectrophotometry, Ultraviolet: Determination of the spectra of ultraviolet absorption by specific molecules in gases or liquids, for example Cl2, SO2, NO2, CS2, ozone, mercury vapor, and various unsaturated compounds. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Chromatography, Gel: Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.Diet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.Fermentation: Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.DextrinsDisulfides: Chemical groups containing the covalent disulfide bonds -S-S-. The sulfur atoms can be bound to inorganic or organic moieties.Catalysis: The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.Chemistry: A basic science concerned with the composition, structure, and properties of matter; and the reactions that occur between substances and the associated energy exchange.Dietary Fiber: The remnants of plant cell walls that are resistant to digestion by the alimentary enzymes of man. It comprises various polysaccharides and lignins.Trypsin: A serine endopeptidase that is formed from TRYPSINOGEN in the pancreas. It is converted into its active form by ENTEROPEPTIDASE in the small intestine. It catalyzes hydrolysis of the carboxyl group of either arginine or lysine. EC 3.4.21.4.Solvents: Liquids that dissolve other substances (solutes), generally solids, without any change in chemical composition, as, water containing sugar. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Tryptophan: An essential amino acid that is necessary for normal growth in infants and for NITROGEN balance in adults. It is a precursor of INDOLE ALKALOIDS in plants. It is a precursor of SEROTONIN (hence its use as an antidepressant and sleep aid). It can be a precursor to NIACIN, albeit inefficiently, in mammals.GlucosamineMacromolecular Substances: Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.Chemical Phenomena: The composition, conformation, and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.Trisaccharides: Oligosaccharides containing three monosaccharide units linked by glycosidic bonds.Static Electricity: The accumulation of an electric charge on a objectProtein Multimerization: The assembly of the QUATERNARY PROTEIN STRUCTURE of multimeric proteins (MULTIPROTEIN COMPLEXES) from their composite PROTEIN SUBUNITS.Crystallization: The formation of crystalline substances from solutions or melts. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Asparagine: A non-essential amino acid that is involved in the metabolic control of cell functions in nerve and brain tissue. It is biosynthesized from ASPARTIC ACID and AMMONIA by asparagine synthetase. (From Concise Encyclopedia Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 3rd ed)Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Acetylgalactosamine: The N-acetyl derivative of galactosamine.Hydrophobic and Hydrophilic Interactions: The thermodynamic interaction between a substance and WATER.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Polydeoxyribonucleotides: A group of 13 or more deoxyribonucleotides in which the phosphate residues of each deoxyribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the deoxyribose moieties.Spectrum Analysis, Raman: Analysis of the intensity of Raman scattering of monochromatic light as a function of frequency of the scattered light.Adenosine Triphosphate: An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared: A spectroscopic technique in which a range of wavelengths is presented simultaneously with an interferometer and the spectrum is mathematically derived from the pattern thus obtained.Hydrogen: The first chemical element in the periodic table. It has the atomic symbol H, atomic number 1, and atomic weight [1.00784; 1.00811]. It exists, under normal conditions, as a colorless, odorless, tasteless, diatomic gas. Hydrogen ions are PROTONS. Besides the common H1 isotope, hydrogen exists as the stable isotope DEUTERIUM and the unstable, radioactive isotope TRITIUM.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Postprandial Period: The time frame after a meal or FOOD INTAKE.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.N-Acetylneuraminic Acid: An N-acyl derivative of neuraminic acid. N-acetylneuraminic acid occurs in many polysaccharides, glycoproteins, and glycolipids in animals and bacteria. (From Dorland, 28th ed, p1518)Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Mass Spectrometry: An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.Magnesium: A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Mg, atomic number 12, and atomic weight 24.31. It is important for the activity of many enzymes, especially those involved in OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION.Stereoisomerism: The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Lipids: A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Cysteine: A thiol-containing non-essential amino acid that is oxidized to form CYSTINE.Lactose: A disaccharide of GLUCOSE and GALACTOSE in human and cow milk. It is used in pharmacy for tablets, in medicine as a nutrient, and in industry.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Allosteric Regulation: The modification of the reactivity of ENZYMES by the binding of effectors to sites (ALLOSTERIC SITES) on the enzymes other than the substrate BINDING SITES.Mucins: High molecular weight mucoproteins that protect the surface of EPITHELIAL CELLS by providing a barrier to particulate matter and microorganisms. Membrane-anchored mucins may have additional roles concerned with protein interactions at the cell surface.Chromatography, Affinity: A chromatographic technique that utilizes the ability of biological molecules to bind to certain ligands specifically and reversibly. It is used in protein biochemistry. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Lipid Metabolism: Physiological processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of LIPIDS.Antigens, CD15: A trisaccharide antigen expressed on glycolipids and many cell-surface glycoproteins. In the blood the antigen is found on the surface of NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and MONOCYTES. In addition, CD15 antigen is a stage-specific embryonic antigen.Glycolipids: Any compound containing one or more monosaccharide residues bound by a glycosidic linkage to a hydrophobic moiety such as an acylglycerol (see GLYCERIDES), a sphingoid, a ceramide (CERAMIDES) (N-acylsphingoid) or a prenyl phosphate. (From IUPAC's webpage)Point Mutation: A mutation caused by the substitution of one nucleotide for another. This results in the DNA molecule having a change in a single base pair.Maltose: A dextrodisaccharide from malt and starch. It is used as a sweetening agent and fermentable intermediate in brewing. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Amino Acid Motifs: Commonly observed structural components of proteins formed by simple combinations of adjacent secondary structures. A commonly observed structure may be composed of a CONSERVED SEQUENCE which can be represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE.Binding, Competitive: The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.Hot Temperature: Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.HexosaminesGlycosides: Any compound that contains a constituent sugar, in which the hydroxyl group attached to the first carbon is substituted by an alcoholic, phenolic, or other group. They are named specifically for the sugar contained, such as glucoside (glucose), pentoside (pentose), fructoside (fructose), etc. Upon hydrolysis, a sugar and nonsugar component (aglycone) are formed. (From Dorland, 28th ed; From Miall's Dictionary of Chemistry, 5th ed)Protein Stability: The ability of a protein to retain its structural conformation or its activity when subjected to physical or chemical manipulations.Trifluoroethanol: A non-aqueous co-solvent that serves as tool to study protein folding. It is also used in various pharmaceutical, chemical and engineering applications.Escherichia coli Proteins: Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.Chemistry, Physical: The study of CHEMICAL PHENOMENA and processes in terms of the underlying PHYSICAL PHENOMENA and processes.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Lewis Blood-Group System: A group of dominantly and independently inherited antigens associated with the ABO blood factors. They are glycolipids present in plasma and secretions that may adhere to the erythrocytes. The phenotype Le(b) is the result of the interaction of the Le gene Le(a) with the genes for the ABO blood groups.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Models, Structural: A representation, generally small in scale, to show the structure, construction, or appearance of something. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Spectrophotometry, Infrared: Spectrophotometry in the infrared region, usually for the purpose of chemical analysis through measurement of absorption spectra associated with rotational and vibrational energy levels of molecules. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Structural Homology, Protein: The degree of 3-dimensional shape similarity between proteins. It can be an indication of distant AMINO ACID SEQUENCE HOMOLOGY and used for rational DRUG DESIGN.Surface Plasmon Resonance: A biosensing technique in which biomolecules capable of binding to specific analytes or ligands are first immobilized on one side of a metallic film. Light is then focused on the opposite side of the film to excite the surface plasmons, that is, the oscillations of free electrons propagating along the film's surface. The refractive index of light reflecting off this surface is measured. When the immobilized biomolecules are bound by their ligands, an alteration in surface plasmons on the opposite side of the film is created which is directly proportional to the change in bound, or adsorbed, mass. Binding is measured by changes in the refractive index. The technique is used to study biomolecular interactions, such as antigen-antibody binding.Scattering, Small Angle: Scattering of a beam of electromagnetic or acoustic RADIATION, or particles, at small angles by particles or cavities whose dimensions are many times as large as the wavelength of the radiation or the de Broglie wavelength of the scattered particles. Also know as low angle scattering. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed) Small angle scattering (SAS) techniques, small angle neutron (SANS), X-ray (SAXS), and light (SALS, or just LS) scattering, are used to characterize objects on a nanoscale.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Peptide-N4-(N-acetyl-beta-glucosaminyl) Asparagine Amidase: An amidohydrolase that removes intact asparagine-linked oligosaccharide chains from glycoproteins. It requires the presence of more than two amino-acid residues in the substrate for activity. This enzyme was previously listed as EC 3.2.2.18.Biophysics: The study of PHYSICAL PHENOMENA and PHYSICAL PROCESSES as applied to living things.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Physicochemical Phenomena: The physical phenomena describing the structure and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.Proline: A non-essential amino acid that is synthesized from GLUTAMIC ACID. It is an essential component of COLLAGEN and is important for proper functioning of joints and tendons.Protons: Stable elementary particles having the smallest known positive charge, found in the nuclei of all elements. The proton mass is less than that of a neutron. A proton is the nucleus of the light hydrogen atom, i.e., the hydrogen ion.Enzyme Stability: The extent to which an enzyme retains its structural conformation or its activity when subjected to storage, isolation, and purification or various other physical or chemical manipulations, including proteolytic enzymes and heat.Solubility: The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Isomerism: The phenomenon whereby certain chemical compounds have structures that are different although the compounds possess the same elemental composition. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Oligodeoxyribonucleotides: A group of deoxyribonucleotides (up to 12) in which the phosphate residues of each deoxyribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the deoxyribose moieties.Galectins: A class of animal lectins that bind specifically to beta-galactoside in a calcium-independent manner. Members of this class are distiguished from other lectins by the presence of a conserved carbohydrate recognition domain. The majority of proteins in this class bind to sugar molecules in a sulfhydryl-dependent manner and are often referred to as S-type lectins, however this property is not required for membership in this class.CHO Cells: CELL LINE derived from the ovary of the Chinese hamster, Cricetulus griseus (CRICETULUS). The species is a favorite for cytogenetic studies because of its small chromosome number. The cell line has provided model systems for the study of genetic alterations in cultured mammalian cells.Neuraminidase: An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of alpha-2,3, alpha-2,6-, and alpha-2,8-glycosidic linkages (at a decreasing rate, respectively) of terminal sialic residues in oligosaccharides, glycoproteins, glycolipids, colominic acid, and synthetic substrate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992)Biophysical Phenomena: The physical characteristics and processes of biological systems.Fatty Acids: Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Apoproteins: The protein components of a number of complexes, such as enzymes (APOENZYMES), ferritin (APOFERRITINS), or lipoproteins (APOLIPOPROTEINS).Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Sugar Alcohols: Polyhydric alcohols having no more than one hydroxy group attached to each carbon atom. They are formed by the reduction of the carbonyl group of a sugar to a hydroxyl group.(From Dorland, 28th ed)Mutant Proteins: Proteins produced from GENES that have acquired MUTATIONS.Eating: The consumption of edible substances.Neuraminic AcidsAlanine: A non-essential amino acid that occurs in high levels in its free state in plasma. It is produced from pyruvate by transamination. It is involved in sugar and acid metabolism, increases IMMUNITY, and provides energy for muscle tissue, BRAIN, and the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Protein Processing, Post-Translational: Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer: A type of FLUORESCENCE SPECTROSCOPY using two FLUORESCENT DYES with overlapping emission and absorption spectra, which is used to indicate proximity of labeled molecules. This technique is useful for studying interactions of molecules and PROTEIN FOLDING.Nitrogen: An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Lipid Bilayers: Layers of lipid molecules which are two molecules thick. Bilayer systems are frequently studied as models of biological membranes.Drug Design: The molecular designing of drugs for specific purposes (such as DNA-binding, enzyme inhibition, anti-cancer efficacy, etc.) based on knowledge of molecular properties such as activity of functional groups, molecular geometry, and electronic structure, and also on information cataloged on analogous molecules. Drug design is generally computer-assisted molecular modeling and does not include pharmacokinetics, dosage analysis, or drug administration analysis.Pronase: A proteolytic enzyme obtained from Streptomyces griseus.Tunicamycin: An N-acetylglycosamine containing antiviral antibiotic obtained from Streptomyces lysosuperificus. It is also active against some bacteria and fungi, because it inhibits the glucosylation of proteins. Tunicamycin is used as tool in the study of microbial biosynthetic mechanisms.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Concanavalin A: A MANNOSE/GLUCOSE binding lectin isolated from the jack bean (Canavalia ensiformis). It is a potent mitogen used to stimulate cell proliferation in lymphocytes, primarily T-lymphocyte, cultures.Cross-Linking Reagents: Reagents with two reactive groups, usually at opposite ends of the molecule, that are capable of reacting with and thereby forming bridges between side chains of amino acids in proteins; the locations of naturally reactive areas within proteins can thereby be identified; may also be used for other macromolecules, like glycoproteins, nucleic acids, or other.Chickens: Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.Carbon Isotopes: Stable carbon atoms that have the same atomic number as the element carbon, but differ in atomic weight. C-13 is a stable carbon isotope.Oligopeptides: Peptides composed of between two and twelve amino acids.Mannosides: Glycosides formed by the reaction of the hydroxyl group on the anomeric carbon atom of mannose with an alcohol to form an acetal. They include both alpha- and beta-mannosides.Food Preferences: The selection of one food over another.

Novel proteoglycan linkage tetrasaccharides of human urinary soluble thrombomodulin, SO4-3GlcAbeta1-3Galbeta1-3(+/-Siaalpha2-6)Galbeta1-4Xyl. (1/2617)

O-linked sugar chains with xylose as a reducing end linked to human urinary soluble thrombomodulin were studied. Sugar chains were liberated by hydrazinolysis followed by N-acetylation and tagged with 2-aminopyridine. Two fractions containing pyridylaminated Xyl as a reducing end were collected. Their structures were determined by partial acid hydrolysis, two-dimensional sugar mapping combined with exoglycosidase digestions, methylation analysis, mass spectrometry, and NMR as SO4-3GlcAbeta1-3Galbeta1-3(+/-Siaalpha2-6)Galbeta1+ ++-4Xyl. These sugar chains could bind to an HNK-1 monoclonal antibody. This is believed to be the first example of a proteoglycan linkage tetrasaccharide with glucuronic acid 3-sulfate and sialic acid.  (+info)

Anticoagulant heparan sulfate precursor structures in F9 embryonal carcinoma cells. (2/2617)

To understand the mechanisms that control anticoagulant heparan sulfate (HSact) biosynthesis, we previously showed that HSact production in the F9 system is determined by the abundance of 3-O-sulfotransferase-1 as well as the size of the HSact precursor pool. In this study, HSact precursor structures have been studied by characterizing [6-3H]GlcN metabolically labeled F9 HS tagged with 3-O-sulfates in vitro by 3'-phosphoadenosine 5'-phospho-35S and purified 3-O-sulfotransferase-1. This later in vitro labeling allows the regions of HS destined to become the antithrombin (AT)-binding sites to be tagged for subsequent structural studies. It was shown that six 3-O-sulfation sites exist per HSact precursor chain. At least five out of six 3-O-sulfate-tagged oligosaccharides in HSact precursors bind AT, whereas none of 3-O-sulfate-tagged oligosaccharides from HSinact precursors bind AT. When treated with low pH nitrous or heparitinase, 3-O-sulfate-tagged HSact and HSinact precursors exhibit clearly different structural features. 3-O-Sulfate-tagged HSact hexasaccharides were AT affinity purified and sequenced by chemical and enzymatic degradations. The 3-O-sulfate-tagged HSact hexasaccharides exhibited the following structures, DeltaUA-[6-3H]GlcNAc6S-GlcUA-[6-3H]GlcNS3(35)S+/-6S-++ +IdceA2S-[6-3H]Glc NS6S. The underlined 6- and 3-O-sulfates constitute the most critical groups for AT binding in view of the fact that the precursor hexasaccharides possess all the elements for AT binding except for the 3-O-sulfate moiety. The presence of five potential AT-binding precursor hexasaccharides in all HSact precursor chains demonstrates for the first time the processive assembly of specific sequence in HS. The difference in structures around potential 3-O-sulfate acceptor sites in HSact and HSinact precursors suggests that these precursors might be generated by different concerted assembly mechanisms in the same cell. This study permits us to understand better the nature of the HS biosynthetic pathway that leads to the generation of specific saccharide sequences.  (+info)

Increase of hematopoietic responses by triple or single helical conformer of an antitumor (1-->3)-beta-D-glucan preparation, Sonifilan, in cyclophosphamide-induced leukopenic mice. (3/2617)

It has been suggested that the immunopharmacological activity of soluble (1-->3)-beta-D-glucan depends on its conformation in mice. In this study, we examined the relationship between the conformation of Sonifilan (SPG) and hematopietic responses in cyclophosphamide (Cy)-induced leukopenic mice. SPG, a high molecular weight (1-->3)-beta-D-glucan, has a triple helical conformation in water, and it was changed by treatment with aqueous sodium hydroxide to the single helical conformer (SPG-OH). The effects of SPG or SPG-OH on hematopoietic responses in cyclophosphamide induced leukopenic mice were investigated by monitoring i) gene expression of cytokines by RT-PCR, ii) protein synthesis of interleukin 6 (IL-6) by ELISA and iii) colony formation of bone marrow cells (BMC). The mice administered Cy and SPG or SPG-OH expressed and produced higher levels of IL-6 mRNA and protein than the mice administered only Cy. Gene expression of NK1.1 was also induced by Cy/SPG (or SPG-OH) treatment. Induced gene expression of stem cell factor (SCF) and macrophage-colony stimulating factor (M-CSF) by SPG/SPG-OH were also found in in vitro culture of BMC from Cy treated mice. These results strongly suggested that conformation of the glucans, single and triple helix, are independent of the hematopietic response.  (+info)

A statistical analysis of N- and O-glycan linkage conformations from crystallographic data. (4/2617)

We have generated a database of 639 glycosidic linkage structures by an exhaustive survey of the available crystallographic data for isolated oligosaccharides, glycoproteins, and glycan-binding proteins. For isolated oligosaccharides there is relatively little crystallographic data available. A much larger number of glycoprotein and glycan-binding protein structures have now been solved in which two or more linked monosaccharides can be resolved. In the majority of these cases, only a few residues can be seen. Using the 639 glycosidic linkage structures, we have identified one or more distinct conformers for all the linkages. The O5-C1-O-C(x)' torsion angles for all these distinct conformers appear to be determined chiefly by the exo-anomeric effect. The Manalpha1-6Man linkage appears to be less restrained than the others, showing a wide degree of dispersion outside the ranges of the defined conformers. The identification of distinct conformers for glyco-sidic linkages allows "average" glycan structures to be modeled and also allows the easy identification of distorted glycosidic linkages. Such an analysis shows that the interactions between IgG Fc and its own N-linked glycan result in severe distortion of the terminal Galbeta1-4GlcNAc linkage only, indicating the strong interactions that must be present between the Gal residue and the protein surface. The applicability of this crystallographic based analysis to glycan structures in solution is discussed. This database of linkagestructures should be a very useful reference tool in three-dimensional structure determinations.  (+info)

Tyrosine sulfation of the amino terminus of CCR5 facilitates HIV-1 entry. (5/2617)

Chemokine receptors and related seven-transmembrane-segment (7TMS) receptors serve as coreceptors for entry of human and simian immunodeficiency viruses (HIV-1, HIV-2, and SIV) into target cells. Each of these otherwise diverse coreceptors contains an N-terminal region that is acidic and tyrosine rich. Here, we show that the chemokine receptor CCR5, a principal HIV-1 coreceptor, is posttranslationally modified by O-linked glycosylation and by sulfation of its N-terminal tyrosines. Sulfated tyrosines contribute to the binding of CCR5 to MIP-1 alpha, MIP-1 beta, and HIV-1 gp120/CD4 complexes and to the ability of HIV-1 to enter cells expressing CCR5 and CD4. CXCR4, another important HIV-1 coreceptor, is also sulfated. Tyrosine sulfation may contribute to the natural function of many 7TMS receptors and may be a modification common to primate immunodeficiency virus coreceptors.  (+info)

Probing cell-surface architecture through synthesis: an NMR-determined structural motif for tumor-associated mucins. (6/2617)

Cell-surface mucin glycoproteins are altered with the onset of oncogenesis. Knowledge of mucin structure could be used in vaccine strategies that target tumor-associated mucin motifs. Thus far, however, mucins have resisted detailed molecular analysis. Reported herein is the solution conformation of a highly complex segment of the mucin CD43. The elongated secondary structure of the isolated mucin strand approaches the stability of motifs found in folded proteins. The features required for the mucin motif to emerge are also described. Immunocharacterization of related constructs strongly suggests that the observed epitopes represent distinguishing features of tumor cell-surface architecture.  (+info)

Structural analysis of the lipopolysaccharide oligosaccharide epitopes expressed by a capsule-deficient strain of Haemophilus influenzae Rd. (7/2617)

Structural elucidation of the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of Haemophilus influenzae, strain Rd, a capsule-deficient type d strain, has been achieved by using high-field NMR techniques and electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) on delipidated LPS and core oligosaccharide samples. It was found that this organism expresses heterogeneous populations of LPS of which the oligosaccharide (OS) epitopes are subject to phase variation. ESI-MS of O-deacylated LPS revealed a series of related structures differing in the number of hexose residues linked to a conserved inner-core element, L-alpha-D-Hepp-(1-->2)-L-alpha-D-Hepp-(1-->3)-[beta-D-Glcp- (1-->4)-]- L-alpha-D-Hepp-(1-->5)-alpha-Kdo, and the degree of phosphorylation. The structures of the major LPS glycoforms containing three (two Glc and one Gal), four (two Glc and two Gal) and five (two Glc, two Gal and one GalNAc) hexoses were substituted by both phosphocholine (PCho) and phosphoethanolamine (PEtn) and were determined in detail. In the major glycoform, Hex3, a lactose unit, beta-D-Galp-(1-->4)-beta-D-Glcp, is attached at the O-2 position of the terminal heptose of the inner-core element. The Hex4 glycoform contains the PK epitope, alpha-D-Galp-(1-->4)-beta-D-Galp-(1-->4)-beta-D-Glcp while in the Hex5 glycoform, this OS is elongated by the addition of a terminal beta-D-GalpNAc residue, giving the P antigen, beta-D-GalpNAc-(1-->3)-alpha-D-Galp-(1-->4)-beta-D-Galp-(1-->4)-D-Glc p. The fully extended LPS glycoform (Hex5) has the following structure. [see text] The structural data provide the first definitive evidence demonstrating the expression of a globotetraose OS epitope, the P antigen, in LPS of H. influenzae. It is noteworthy that the molecular environment in which PCho units are found differs from that observed in an Rd- derived mutant strain (RM.118-28) [Risberg, A., Schweda, E. K. H. & Jansson, P-E. (1997) Eur. J. Biochem. 243, 701-707].  (+info)

Structural basis for the resistance of Tay-Sachs ganglioside GM2 to enzymatic degradation. (8/2617)

To understand the reason why, in the absence of GM2 activator protein, the GalNAc and the NeuAc in GM2 (GalNAcbeta1-->4(NeuAcalpha2-->3)Galbeta1-->4Glcbet a1-1'Cer) are refractory to beta-hexosaminidase A and sialidase, respectively, we have recently synthesized a linkage analogue of GM2 named 6'GM2 (GalNAcbeta1-->6(NeuAcalpha2-->3)Galbeta1-->4Glcbet a1-1'Cer). While GM2 has GalNAcbeta1-->4Gal linkage, 6'-GM2 has GalNAcbeta1-->6Gal linkage (Ishida, H., Ito, Y., Tanahashi, E., Li, Y.-T., Kiso, M., and Hasegawa, A. (1997) Carbohydr. Res. 302, 223-227). We have studied the enzymatic susceptibilities of GM2 and 6'GM2, as well as that of the oligosaccharides derived from GM2, asialo-GM2 (GalNAcbeta1-->4Galbeta1--> 4Glcbeta1-1'Cer) and 6'GM2. In addition, the conformational properties of both GM2 and 6'GM2 were analyzed using NMR spectroscopy and molecular mechanics computation. In sharp contrast to GM2, the GalNAc and the Neu5Ac of 6'GM2 were readily hydrolyzed by beta-hexosaminidase A and sialidase, respectively, without GM2 activator. Among the oligosaccharides derived from GM2, asialo-GM2, and 6'GM2, only the oligosaccharide from GM2 was resistant to beta-hexosaminidase A. Conformational analyses revealed that while GM2 has a compact and rigid oligosaccharide head group, 6'GM2 has an open spatial arrangement of the sugar units, with the GalNAc and the Neu5Ac freely accessible to external interactions. These results strongly indicate that the resistance of GM2 to enzymatic hydrolysis is because of the specific rigid conformation of the GM2 oligosaccharide.  (+info)

The aim of the project was to synthesize α1,2-linked and α1,6-linked dimannosides linked through either an oxygen-atom or a sulphur-atom, and subsequently test the binding properties of the dimannosides to lectins with known specificity towards mannose-containing glycans. Thedimannosides were prepared by a glycosylation reaction using selectively protected monosaccharides containing a thiol or alcohol nucleophilic glycosyl acceptor and a series of different glycosyl donors. The synthetic routes to the different building blocks were designed to efficiently make use of common intermediate compounds to streamline the synthesis. The glycosyl acceptors used forthe synthesis of α1,2-linked as well as α1,6-linked dimannosides were synthesized in few steps and diversified only in the last steps of the synthesis. The glycosyl donors used in the study were synthesized from commercially available starting material in a straightforward and convenientsynthesis in 7 to 8 steps.. ...
View Notes - 351 C4 Smith key from CHEM 351 at BYU. Chemistry 351 Fall 2008 Chapter 4 1. Assign the IUPAC name to the following structures. 0k 1,: _Jhfigg~mefi%fimfilm c, 2&4
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Pyranose is a collective term for saccharides that have a chemical structure that includes a six-membered ring consisting of five carbon atoms and one oxygen atom. There may be other carbons external to the ring. The name derives from its similarity to the oxygen heterocycle pyran, but the pyranose ring does not have double bonds. A pyranose in which the anomeric OH at C(l) has been converted into an OR group is called a pyranoside. The pyranose ring is formed by the reaction of the hydroxyl group on carbon 5 (C-5) of a sugar with the aldehyde at carbon 1. This forms an intramolecular hemiacetal. If reaction is between the C-4 hydroxyl and the aldehyde, a furanose is formed instead. The pyranose form is thermodynamically more stable than the furanose form, which can be seen by the distribution of these two cyclic forms in solution. Hermann Emil Fischer won the Nobel Prize in Chemistry (1902) for his work in determining the structure of the D-aldohexoses. However, the linear, free-aldehyde ...
Recent atomic force microscopy stretching measurements of single polysaccharide molecules suggest that their elasticity is governed by force-induced conformational transitions of the pyranose ring. However, the mechanism of these transitions and the mechanics of the pyranose ring are not fully understood. Here we use steered molecular dynamics simulations of the stretching process to unravel the mechanism of forced conformational transitions in 1,6 linked polysaccharides. In contrast to most sugars, 1,6 linked polysaccharides have an extra bond in their inter-residue linkage, C5-C6, around which restricted rotations occur and this additional degree of freedom increases the mechanical complexity of these polymers. By comparing the computational results with the atomic force microscopy data we determine that forced rotations around the C5-C6 bond have a significant and different impact on the elasticity of alpha- and beta-linked polysaccharides. beta-linkages of a polysaccharide pustulan force the ...
The stereoselectivity of glycosylation … … reactions can depend critically on the reactivity of the acceptor glycoside (the nucleophile in the reaction). In their Communication on page 8240 ff., J. D. CodEe et al. report a facile system that maps the relationship between glycosyl acce...
... is a tool which allows to calculate the mass of an oligosaccharide structure [Mass values / Disclaimer]. Note: You can use GlycoMod to predict the possible oligosaccharide structures that occur on proteins from their experimentally determined masses ...
Visit the page of myhomeworkhelp.com and check out their Oligosaccharides Assignment Help team which is ready 24/7 to provide assistance to students.
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Carbohydrates can exist in two forms; either chain or ring. When in ring form, only two specific confirmations are stable enough to exist in the body fo...
I could go speak to people for the next three years every day if I wanted to, but Im not going to make my child do that. - Ashley Smith
Phospholipid patterns of 15 representative strains of the genus Amycolatopsis were recorded by two-dimensional thin-layer chromatography. The structure analysis of the isolated phospholipids was verified by fast atom bombardment-mass spectroscopy. The positive- and negative-ion spectra of the partially purified phospholipid fractions qualitatively reflect their distinctive composition. All strains contained diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, and phosphatidylinositol. Two different types of phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylmethylethanolamine were detected, viz., compounds with or without hydroxy fatty acids. These phospholipid patterns underline the integrity of the genus. Fast atom bombardment-mass spectrometry analysis of phospholipid patterns may serve as an aid for differentiation of bacterial species.
The N-linked carbohydrate chains of recombinant human erythropoietin expressed in CHO cells were quantitatively released with peptide-N4-(N-acetyl-beta-glucosaminyl)asparagine amidase F, separated from the remaining O-glycoprotein by gel-permeation chromatography, and subsequently fractionated via FPLC on Mono Q, HPLC on Lichrosorb-NH2 and high-pH anion-exchange chromatography on CarboPac PA1. The purified sialylated oligosaccharides were ... read more analyzed by one-dimensional and two-dimensional 500-MHz 1H-NMR spectroscopy. When necessary, oligosaccharides were treated with endo-beta-galactosidase (and N-acetyl-beta-glucosaminidase) followed by 1H-NMR analysis of the incubation products, to obtain additional structural information. Di-, tri-, tri- and tetraantennary, N-acetyllactosamine-type oligosaccharides occur which can be completely (major) or partially (minor) sialylated. Three different types of alpha2-3-linked sialic acids are present, namely, N-acetylneuraminic acid (95%), ...
Eleven tested anions were able to form adducts with neutral oligosaccharides at low cone voltage in negative ion mode electrospray mass spectrometry. Among them, fluoride and acetate have the abilities to significantly enhance the absolute abundance of [M-H]- for neutral oliogosaccharides. The chloride adduct has the best stability among all the adduct species investigated. For the above three anions, CID of adduct species may be used for structural determination of neutral oligosaccharides. In the presence of F- and Ac-, simultaneous detection of acidic oligosaccharides and neutral oligosaccharides was achieved. The ratio of Cl- : non-Cl-containing product ions obtained in CID spectra of chloride adducts of disaccharides was used to differentiate anomeric configurations of disaccharides. Density functional theory (DFT) was employed to evaluate the optimized structures of chloride adducts of disaccharides. The formation and decomposition of chloride adducts with oligosaccharides of different
Carbohydrate conformation refers to the overall three-dimensional structure adopted by a carbohydrate (saccharide) molecule as a result of the through-bond and through-space physical forces it experiences arising from its molecular structure. The physical forces that dictate the three-dimensional shapes of all molecules-here, of all monosaccharide, oligosaccharide, and polysaccharide molecules-are sometimes summarily captured by such terms as "steric interactions" and "stereoelectronic effects" (see below). Saccharide and other chemical conformations can be reasonably shown using two-dimensional structure representations that follow set conventions; these capture for a trained viewer an understanding of the three-dimensional structure via structure drawings (see organic chemistry article, and "3D Representations" section in molecular geometry article); they are also represented by stereograms on the two dimensional page, and increasingly using 3D display technologies on computer monitors. ...
article{fb86bc26-01e6-493b-b144-14ab87d1a4c7, abstract = {The synthesis of the Linear B type 2 trisaccharide (Galalpha3Galbeta4GlcNAc-betaOTMSEt) and the corresponding 2-carboxyethyl beta-thioglycoside is described, as well as coupling of the latter to Sepharose.}, author = {Dahmen, J and Magnusson, Göran and Hansen, HC}, issn = {0732-8303}, keyword = {xenotransplantation,glycoconjugate,glycoside synthesis,thioglycoside}, language = {eng}, number = {3}, pages = {189--199}, publisher = {Marcel Dekker}, series = {Journal of Carbohydrate Chemistry}, title = {Synthesis of the Linear B type 2 trisaccharide Gal alpha 3Gal beta 4GlcNAc beta OTMSEt, and coupling of the corresponding 2-carboxyethyl beta-thioglycoside to Sepharose}, url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1081/CAR-120004332}, volume = {21}, year = {2002 ...
The Global Soybean Oligosaccharides report provides an elite resource to evaluate the Soybean Oligosaccharides market and support the strategic and preemptive decision-making. The report divulges the matter-of-fact statistics and in-detail examination of the market. It offers a basic layout of the Soybean Oligosaccharides industry, consisting of classifications, applications, definitions, and industry chain structure. It also encompasses a thorough inference of the market and embodies significant insights, facts, and industry-corroborated statistics of the global Soybean Oligosaccharides market.. Furthermore, the report also elaborates several factors concerning the Soybean Oligosaccharides market, comprising key trends, standardization, deployment models, future roadmap, strategies, technologies, value chain, opportunities, ecosystem player profiles, drivers, operator case studies, regulatory landscape, and challenges. Moreover, it also presents an outline regarding the Soybean Oligosaccharides ...
IN STOCK 13C labeled di-sialylated, galactosylated biantennary N-Glycan labeled with 2 13C atoms per GlcNAc, for use as a quantitative standard in applications
Human Anti-Meningococcal Group A Oligosaccharides IgG negative control serum Serum Controls 600-801-ANC Human Anti-Meningococcal Group A Oligosaccharides IgG negative control serum Serum Controls 600-801-ANC
Carbohydrate Information asks the question whether carbohydrates are the enemy or an essential component of our diets that must be consumed properly
Flower is the most important structure of a plant which is responsible for the sexual reproduction of the plant. Understanding the detailed structure of a flower is essential to study pollination and fertilization activities as well as the reproductive ...
Methods to allow the clean preparation of oligosaccharides were investigated using techniques that do not require conventional column chromatography or an aqueous work-up. The route was designed to provide rapid access to oligosaccharides and is suit
GO:0005977. The chemical reactions and pathways involving glycogen, a polydisperse, highly branched glucan composed of chains of D-glucose residues in alpha-(1-,4) glycosidic linkage, joined together by alpha-(1-,6) glycosidic linkages. ...
Does anyone know any good links to a site with a detailed drawing/photograph/diagram of a eukaryotic cells as seen under and electron microscope with the following structures ...
Bovine prothrombin contains three asparagine-linked sugar chains in 1 molecule. The sugar chains were quantitatively released from the polypeptide backbone by hydrazinolysis. All of the oligosaccharides thus obtained contain N-acetylneuraminic acid.
We have analyzed the O-antigen polysaccharide of the previously uncharacterized Escherichia coli strain TD2158 which is a host of bacteriophage HK620. This bacteriophage recognizes and cleaves the polysaccharide with its tailspike protein (TSP). The polysaccharide preparation as well as oligosaccharides obtained from HK620TSP endoglycosidase digests were analyzed with NMR spectroscopy. Additionally, sugar analysis was performed on the O-antigen polysaccharide and MALDI-TOF MS was used in oligosaccharide analysis. The present study revealed a heterogeneous polysaccharide with a hexasaccharide repeating unit of the following structure: alpha-D-Glcp-(1 -, 6) vertical bar vertical bar 2)-alpha-L-Rhap-(1 -, 6)-alpha-D-Glcp-(1 -, 4)-alpha-D-Galp-(1 -, 3)-alpha-D-GlcpNAc- (1 -,vertical bar beta-D-Glcp/beta-D-GlcpNAc-(1 -, 3) A repeating unit with a D-GlcNAc substitution of D-Gal has been described earlier as characteristic for serogroup O18A1. Accordingly, we termed repeating units with D-Glc ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Structural characterization of multibranched oligosaccharides from seal milk by a combination of off-line high-performance liquid chromatography-matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry and sequential exoglycosidase digestion. AU - Kinoshita, Mitsuhiro. AU - Ohta, Hiroko. AU - Higaki, Kanata. AU - Kojima, Yoko. AU - Urashima, Tadasu. AU - Nakajima, Kazuki. AU - Suzuki, Minoru. AU - Kovacs, Kit M.. AU - Lydersen, Christian. AU - Hayakawa, Takao. AU - Kakehi, Kazuaki. PY - 2009/5/15. Y1 - 2009/5/15. N2 - A complex mixture of diverse oligosaccharides related to the carbohydrates in glycoconjugates involved in various biological events is found in animal milk/colostrum and has been challenging targets for separation and structural studies. In the current study, we isolated oligosaccharides having high molecular masses (MW ∼ 3800) from the milk samples of bearded and hooded seals and analyzed their structures by off-line ...
The heparin hexasaccharide MS standard 6 has been purified as one defined sequence and structure. It is not a mix of oligosaccharides. It is a heparin hexasaccharide with six sulfates attached to a repeating structure of α(1-4) linked Uronic Acid (UA) β(1-4) linked to N-Acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) or N-sulfylglucosamine (GlcNS). The exact structure of the heparin hexasaccharide MS standard 6 is ∆UA2S - GlcNS6S -UA- GlcNAc6S-IdoA - GlcNS6S. The uronic acid residue may be either glucuronic or iduronic acid. It has an exact mass of 1533.05 ...
Our research aims to study the conformations of complex carbohydrates and understand the degree of motion taking place within a timeframe of few milliseconds or less. This dissertation describes development and application of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance based methods using Residual Dipolar Coupling (RDC) measurement of weakly aligned molecules in liquid crystal media. We present a procedure that uses multivariate statistical techniques applied to multiple sets of RDC data to accurately quantify conformational space occupied by the macromolecule. The hexasaccharide Lacto-N-difuco-hexose-I (LNDFH-I) comprising of a tetrasaccharide epitope region (α-L-Fuc(1→2)β-D-Gal(1→3)(α-L-Fuc(1→4))β-D-GlcNAc) and a lactose tail region (β-D-GlcNAc1→3β-D-Gal1→4-D-Glc) was used as a model for the study. A liquid crystal concentration of 5% n-octyl penta ethylene glycol was found to be optimal to weakly align the oligosaccharide and measure the RDCs. To estimate the alignment tensors, at least five ...
Asparagine-linked sugar chains of glycoproteins in calf thymocyte plasma membrane. Isolation and fractionation of oligosaccharides liberated by hydrazinolysis.:Isolation and Fractionation of Oligosaccharides Liberated by Hydrazinolysis (1980 ...
The primary structure of the major surface glycoconjugate of Leishmania donovani parasites, a lipophosphoglycan, has been further characterized. The repeating PO4-6Galp beta 1-4Man disaccharide units, which are a salient feature of the molecule, are shown to terminate with one of several neutral structures, the most abundant of which is the branched trisaccharide Galp beta 1-4(Manp alpha 1-2)Man. The phosphosaccharide core of lipophosphoglycan, which links the disaccharide repeats to a lipid anchor, contains 2 phosphate residues. One of the core phosphates has previously been localized on O-6 of the galactosyl residue distal to the lipid anchor; the second phosphate is now shown to be on O-6 of the mannosyl residue distal to the anchor and to bear an alpha-linked glucopyranosyl residue. Also, the anomeric configuration of the unusual 3-substituted Galf residue in the phosphosaccharide core is established as beta. The complete structure of the core is thus PO4-6Galp alpha 1-6Galp alpha 1-3Galf ...
The primary structure of the major surface glycoconjugate of Leishmania donovani parasites, a lipophosphoglycan, has been further characterized. The repeating PO4-6Galp beta 1-4Man disaccharide units, which are a salient feature of the molecule, are shown to terminate with one of several neutral structures, the most abundant of which is the branched trisaccharide Galp beta 1-4(Manp alpha 1-2)Man. The phosphosaccharide core of lipophosphoglycan, which links the disaccharide repeats to a lipid anchor, contains 2 phosphate residues. One of the core phosphates has previously been localized on O-6 of the galactosyl residue distal to the lipid anchor; the second phosphate is now shown to be on O-6 of the mannosyl residue distal to the anchor and to bear an alpha-linked glucopyranosyl residue. Also, the anomeric configuration of the unusual 3-substituted Galf residue in the phosphosaccharide core is established as beta. The complete structure of the core is thus PO4-6Galp alpha 1-6Galp alpha 1-3Galf ...
Looking for Furanose? Find out information about Furanose. A sugar whose cyclic or ring structure resembles that of furan. a ring-shaped monosaccharide containing a five-member furan ring. Unlike the six-member... Explanation of Furanose
The Global Industry Report Europe Human Milk Oligosaccharides Market by Manufacturers, Countries, Type and Application, Forecast to 2022 Market - by Manufacturers, States, Countries, Regions (Province), Type and Application, 2017 Forecast to 2022,Analysis, Regional Outlook, Share, Growth By Global Info Reports.
1ONA: A structure of the complex between concanavalin A and methyl-3,6-di-O-(alpha-D-mannopyranosyl)-alpha-D-mannopyranoside reveals two binding modes.
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A survey was made of the geometry of furanose rings in β-nucleotides and β-nucleosides (as monomers related to nucleic acids) for which structures have been determined by X-ray crystallography. Mean values, and estimated standard deviations from them, were calculated for bond-lengths, bond-angles and conformation-angles. For parameters with values dependent on ring-puckering, separate calculations were made for each ring type. (The rings are puckered in one of three conformations: C-2- or C-3-endo or C-3-exo; C-2-exo has not been observed.) The results were used to compute standard furanose rings with C-2-endo, C-3-endo and C-3-exo conformations for use in nucleic acid molecular model-building. The survey also showed that the only other conformation-angle in nucleotides dependent on the furanose ring conformation corresponds to the relative orientation of the purine (or pyrimidine) base and the ring.. ...
Gene silencing with RNA interference (RNAi) technology may be capable of modifying internal structure at a molecular level. This structural modification could affect biofunctions in terms of biodegradation, biochemical metabolism, and bioactive compound availability. The objectives of this study were to (1) Detect gene silencing-induced changes in carbohydrate molecular structure in an alfalfa forage (Medicago sativa spp. sativa: alfalfa) with down-regulation of genes that encode transcription factors TT8 and HB12; (2) Determine gene silencing-induced changes in nutrient bioutilization and bioavailability in the alfalfa forage (Medicago sativa); and (3) Quantify the correlation between gene silencing-induced molecular structure changes and the nutrient bioutilization and bioavailability in animals of ruminants. The experimental treatments included: T1 = Non-transgenic and no-gene silenced alfalfa forage (code "NT"); T2 = HB12-RNAi forage with HB12 gene down regulation (code "HB12"); T3 = ...
Aoki-Kinoshita K, Agravat S, Aoki NP, Arpinar S, Cummings RD, Fujita A, Fujita N, Hart GM, Haslam SM, Kawasaki T, et al. GlyTouCan 1.0--The international glycan structure repository. Nucleic Acids Res. 2016;44 (D1) :D1237-42.
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A Taos Pueblo family is seeking financial assistance after losing part of their home, a vehicle and numerous personal possessions to a fire on May 16.
Good carbs are complex carbohydrates, while bad carbs are simple carbohydrates. Complex carbohydrates require time to break down or dissolve into glucose, and simple carbohydrates are added to foods...
This page provides complete information on Carbohydrates,functions of Carbohydrates,Types of Carbohydrates, Structure of Carbohydrates.
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... are an ideal source of energy for the body. There are two types of carbohydrate: complex and simple. Find out which foods they are found in.
You may have been taught that the body needs a minimum of 130g per day of carbohydrates to function, particularly, that this amount of carbohydrate is needed for brain function. This is simply not true. In fact, would you be surprised to know that there is NO essential level of carbohydrates in the diet?…
In this talk, Antoine Buchard will present his groups efforts towards incorporating sugar units into synthetic polymer backbones. Natural sugars are an abundant and diverse resource that can be obtained from waste and non-edible crops. They are also non-toxic, biodegradable, biocompatible and highly functionalisable, so that the polymer properties can be adjusted to meet specific material needs ...
Biological molecules such as proteins can contain hundreds of thousands of atoms, which makes it very difficult to understand their function in detail. Identifying the exact atomic structure of these complex molecules is ...
Carbohydrates are one of three macronutrients, besides protein and fat, that you need in fairly large quantities to maintain your life and important body...
One of the main types of nutrients your body needs is carbohydrates. Carbohydrates, also known as carbs, are the most important source of energy for your body.
Carbohydrate information to inform our customers what carbohydrates really are, where they come from and what function they have!
Chemistry of C-Trimethylsilyl-Substituted Heterocarboranes. 30. Synthetic and Structural Studies on Oxide Ion Encapsulating Tetralanthanide Tetrahedra Surrounded by
Chemistry of C-Trimethylsilyl-Substituted Heterocarboranes. 30. Synthetic and Structural Studies on Oxide Ion Encapsulating Tetralanthanide Tetrahedra Surrounded by
Over the last ten years or so, carbohydrates have gotten a pretty bad rap. Truth be told, however, carbohydrates are a real necessity to a healthy diet. Carbs
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Non-typeable Haemophihis influenzae (NTHi) is a significant cause of otitis media in children. We have employed single and multiple step electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESIMS) and NMR spectroscopy to profile and elucidate lipopolysaccharide (LPS) structural types expressed by NTHi strain 162, a strain obtained from an epidemiological study in Finland. ESIMS on O-deacylated LPS (LPS-OH) and core oligosaccharide (OS) samples of LPS provided information on the composition and relative abundance of glycoforms differing in the number of hexoses linked to the conserved inner-core element, L-alpha-D-Hepp-(1--, 2)-[PEtn --, 6]-L-alpha-D-Hepp-(1 --, 3)-L-alpha-D-Hepp-(1 --, 5)(.)[PPEtn --, 4]-alpha-Kdop-(2 --, 6)-Lipid A of H. influenzae LPS. The strain examined was found to elaborate Hex2 to Hex5 LPS glycoform populations having structures identical to those observed for H. influenzae strain Rd [Risberg, A.; Masoud, H.; Martin, A.; Richards, J.C.; Moxon, E.R.; Schweda, E.K.H. Eur. J Biochem. ...
According to the latest market report published by Credence Research, Inc. "Glycomics/ Glycobiology Market - Growth, Future Prospects and Competitive Analysis, 2017 - 2025" the global glycomics/ glycobiology market was valued at US$ 657.3 Mn in 2016, and is expected to reach US$ 1,891.9 Mn by 2025, expanding at a CAGR of 12.4% from 2017 to 2025.. Browse the full report Glycomics/ Glycobiology Market - Growth, Future Prospects and Competitive Analysis, 2017 - 2025 at http://www.credenceresearch.com/report/glycomics-glycobiology-market. Market Insights. Glycomics/ glycobiology is a study of structure, function and biology of saccharides which are widely distributed in nature. Sugars are important component of all living cells and thus play important role in various medical, biochemical and biotechnological research field. For the purpose of this study, the glycomics market is segmented on the basis of product type such as enzymes (glycosidases, glycosyltransferases, neuraminidases, ...
According to the latest market report published by Credence Research, Inc. "Glycomics/ Glycobiology Market - Growth, Future Prospects and Competitive Analysis, 2017 - 2025" the global glycomics/ glycobiology market was valued at US$ 657.3 Mn in 2016, and is expected to reach US$ 1,891.9 Mn by 2025, expanding at a CAGR of 12.4% from 2017 to 2025.. Browse the full report Glycomics/ Glycobiology Market - Growth, Future Prospects and Competitive Analysis, 2017 - 2025 at http://www.credenceresearch.com/report/glycomics-glycobiology-market. Market Insights. Glycomics/ glycobiology is a study of structure, function and biology of saccharides which are widely distributed in nature. Sugars are important component of all living cells and thus play important role in various medical, biochemical and biotechnological research field. For the purpose of this study, the glycomics market is segmented on the basis of product type such as enzymes (glycosidases, glycosyltransferases, neuraminidases, ...
According to the latest market report published by Credence Research, Inc. "Glycomics/ Glycobiology Market - Growth, Future Prospects and Competitive Analysis, 2017 - 2025" the global glycomics/ glycobiology market was valued at US$ 657.3 Mn in 2016, and is expected to reach US$ 1,891.9 Mn by 2025, expanding at a CAGR of 12.4% from 2017 to 2025.. Browse the full report Glycomics/ Glycobiology Market - Growth, Future Prospects and Competitive Analysis, 2017 - 2025 at http://www.credenceresearch.com/report/glycomics-glycobiology-market. Market Insights. Glycomics/ glycobiology is a study of structure, function and biology of saccharides which are widely distributed in nature. Sugars are important component of all living cells and thus play important role in various medical, biochemical and biotechnological research field. For the purpose of this study, the glycomics market is segmented on the basis of product type such as enzymes (glycosidases, glycosyltransferases, neuraminidases, ...
The methyl glycosides of N-acetyl-d-glucosamine (d-GlcNAc) and N-acetyl-d-galactosamine (d-GalNAc) have been used as model glycan analogs to study the effects of lithium cation binding on glycan structure in gas-phase experiments. Infrared multiple photon dissociation (IRMPD) spectra for the two Li+-complexed anomers of methyl-d-GlcNAc revealed a difference of 10 cm−1 between their respective carbonyl stretching band positions. A corresponding 11 cm−1 shift was observed for the two Li+-complexed anomers of methyl-d-GalNAc. Theoretical calculations indicate that the position of the methyl group (α and β, or axial and equatorial, respectively) on carbon 1 of the sugar and its close proximity to the carbonyl of the acetamido group on carbon 2 cause the average orientation of the carbonyl to change in order to minimize steric hindrance. This change in orientation is postulated to be the cause of the observed Cdouble bond; length as m-dashO stretching band shift. The calculations also predict ...
Other leading players operating in the global polysaccharides and oligosaccharides market include Dupont, DSM, McComick, Novozyme, Chr Hansen, Wild Flavors, Symrise, IFF, Firmenich, Takasago, Senseint, and Glanbia Ingredients. Product innovations and new launches along with mergers & acquisitions are some of the key growth strategies adopted by polysaccharides and oligosaccharides market players.. Oligosaccharides to Gain Higher Traction with Rising Global Consumption. Although polysaccharides continue to lead the global market of polysaccharides and oligosaccharides, the latter is expected to gain comparatively high traction, growing at a promising CAGR of 5.2% during 2017-2026. In 2018, worldwide sales of polysaccharides closed in on a valuation of nearly US$ 6.4 billion, and is projected to record a Y-o-Y growth of 4.6% in 2019.. Demand from Animal Feed Industry Continues to Surge. Growing adoption of polysaccharides and oligosaccharides in animal feed products is creating lucrative ...
In the few years since the beginning of glycomics in 21th century, many achievements have been made in the study of glycomics, especially in the discovery of sugar genes and the elucidation of the new structure of sugar chain. Although glycomics research has made remarkable achievements in these fields, there are many unknown intermediate links between sugar genes and sugar chains, sugar chains and glycan binding proteins, and there is a general lack of detailed research on the relationship between structure and function.. These fields are not only related to the progress of glycomics itself, but also directly related to the progress of proteome planning, so it has become a major bottleneck in the development of life science.. The advancement of analytical techniques has always been a direct driving force in the development of glycomics. It is the rapid development and wide application of modern instrument analysis technology that lead to the overall prosperity of glycomics research, and inject ...
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Anthraquinone-lectin hybrids were effectively synthesized using water-soluble anthraquinone derivative with concanavalin A (ConA) and hygrophorus russula lectin (HRL) to give anthraquinone-ConA () and anthraquinone-HRL (17) hybrids, respectively. These anthraquinone-lectin hybrids effectively and selectively degraded oligosaccharides containing a mannose residue as a non-reducing terminal sugar, which has affinity for ConA and HRL, under photo-irradiation with long-wavelength UV light without additives and under neutral conditions. In addition, anthraquinone-HRL (17) selectively photo-degraded only Man(α1,6)Man, which has a high affinity for HRL, among several mannosides by recognition of both the type and glycosidic linkage profile of the sugar in an oligosaccharide. ...
Introduction. Qualitative Tests For Carbohydrates Introduction In this practical experiment there are given , five known carbohydrate solutions. Namely Glucose, Fructose, Xylose, Starch and Sucrose (common table sugar). The first four are what are known as reducing sugars which in solution form either an aldehyde or a ketone. The latter, sucrose, is known as a non-reducing sugar. In addition to these is an unknown carbohydrate solution. There are qualitative food tests that are regularly used to identify the presence of these carbohydrates in foodstuffs. The following are a brief description of these well proven tests for each named carbohydrate. a) The Molisch test for Carbohydrates - the result of this test shows positive where all carbohydrates are present. Monosaccharides (simple one sugar units) give a rapid positive test, whereas Disaccharides (double sugar units) react more slowly. This is due to the Molisch reagent (a-naphthol 95% in ethanol) either dehydrating pentoses (sugars with ...
With the implementation of GlyTouCan the mission of GlycomeDB comes to an end. GlyTouCan is the international glycan structure repository. This repository is a freely available, uncurated registry for glycan structures that assigns globally unique accession numbers to any glycan. All glycan structures and associates information (cross references and taxon annotation) have been migrated to GlyTouCan and are available in this database in addition many more structures. GlyTouCan allows individual researchers to register their own structures and associate these structures with papers. GlyTouCan is supported by the Japanese Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science & Technology and has been developed by researchers at the Soka University and the Complex Carbohydrate Research Center. Please use GlyTouCan and the unique glycan accession numbers for your work and help us to make GlyTouCan a comprehensive namespace for glycan structures. In case of questions or comments please contact Rene ...
With the implementation of GlyTouCan the mission of GlycomeDB comes to an end. GlyTouCan is the international glycan structure repository. This repository is a freely available, uncurated registry for glycan structures that assigns globally unique accession numbers to any glycan. All glycan structures and associates information (cross references and taxon annotation) have been migrated to GlyTouCan and are available in this database in addition many more structures. GlyTouCan allows individual researchers to register their own structures and associate these structures with papers. GlyTouCan is supported by the Japanese Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science & Technology and has been developed by researchers at the Soka University and the Complex Carbohydrate Research Center. Please use GlyTouCan and the unique glycan accession numbers for your work and help us to make GlyTouCan a comprehensive namespace for glycan structures. In case of questions or comments please contact Rene ...
View carbohyd from CHEM 322 at SUNY Oneonta. Carbohydrates Typical formula: Cx(H2O)y, eg glucose: C6H12O6. Structure -Simplest carbohydrates are monosaccharides; one sugar unit. Monosaccharides can
Sugar moieties on the cell surface play one of the most important roles in cellular recognition. In order to elucidate the molecular mechanism of these cellular phenomena, assessment of the structure...
In the typical "diet world" there is a high amount of controversy over carbohydrate consumption. People everywhere have jumped onto the low carb bandwagon believing that this nutrient is most likely to lead to fat gain occurring.. Additionally, they firmly believe that carbohydrates are the primary reasons for so many diseases today and for optimal health, they needed to be eliminated.. Although there is truth in those statements, most people continue to miss the key factor; its the type of carbohydrates you are consuming more than anything else that matters.. Eat the wrong types of carbs consistently and youll be rewarded with weight and health problems whereas consuming the right types of carbohydrates eliminates those worries.. Its your job to time your carbohydrates properly and choose ideal sources.. Lets examine the different types of carbohydrates that youll come across daily:. Complex Carbohydrates:. These carbohydrates are high energy and complex in structure (meaning they take ...
EMDEX® is a directly compressible, water-soluble tablet binder and filler. Its unique composition of 95% glucose monohydrate and different oligosaccharides derived from starch is monographed under
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Oligosaccharide Population Analysis from SGS - effective oligosaccharide analysis to help you identify the overall population profile of glycans present in a glycoprotein. Learn more.
Oligosaccharide Population Analysis from SGS - effective oligosaccharide analysis to help you identify the overall population profile of glycans present in a glycoprotein. Learn more.
A comparative discussion of the signals in the13C NMR spectra of acetylated methyl α- and β-D-xylopyranosides, α- and β-D-glucopyranosi
A variety of enzymes reagents, and enrichment kits for glycobiology including for glycan structural analysis, sphingolipid analysis and sialic acid studies
Antiviral compounds to be focus of new Centre at the Glycobiology Institute, Representing biochemistry research at Oxford University
As a service to our authors and readers, this journal provides supporting information supplied by the authors. Such materials are peer reviewed and may be re-organized for online delivery, but are not copy-edited or typeset. Technical support issues arising from supporting information (other than missing files) should be addressed to the authors. ...
Press release - Fact.MR - Global Polysaccharides and Oligosaccharides Market Soaring Demand Assures Motivated Revenue Share during 2017-2026 / Novozyme, Takasago, Chr Hansen, Senseint, Wild Flavors, Symrise, Glanbia Ingredients, IFF, Tate & Lyle, Firemenich, McComick, ABF, DSM, Gi - published on openPR.com
Textbook solution for Chemistry: An Atoms First Approach 2nd Edition Steven S. Zumdahl Chapter 21 Problem 158CP. We have step-by-step solutions for your textbooks written by Bartleby experts!
Eating the right amount of carbohydrates is very important because carbohydrates are the more efficient fuel source for the body.
Des oligosaccharides végétaux constituent des signaux de défense des plantes contre les attaques de pathogènes. Des oligosaccharines influencent également la croissance des végétaux. (fre) ...
Carbohydrate is an essential nutrient that is an excellent source of energy (measured as calories) for the body and is the preferred fuel for the brain and nervous system. All forms of carbohydrate increase a persons blood sugar level, depending on the amount of carbohydrate in the food. Carbohydrate comes in two...
A summary of Types of Carbohydrates in s Carbohydrates. Learn exactly what happened in this chapter, scene, or section of Carbohydrates and what it means. Perfect for acing essays, tests, and quizzes, as well as for writing lesson plans.
CARBOHYDRATES Carbohydrates are your mind and bodys main source of energy. There are two types of carbs: complex and simple. Complex carbs are starches. T | Videos
(A) Anomeric region analysis of strain MMHC82 spectrum for MM. (B) Anomeric region analysis of strain MMHC82 spectrum for CD medium. (C) Anomeric region analysi
Somewhere someones grandmother had admonished the debut of cakes and cookies in the house because they had carbohydrates. We wish we could tell her she was wrong now that we know a lot about the subject. Frankly, she was not entirely wrong. Eating too much of carbohydrates can, in fact, be damaging to the body but there is more to carbohydrates than just its downsides. ...
With so many diets and healthy recipes out there, there seem to be a number of "bad" words in the diet realm. One of those words is carbohydrate, and many diets insist on regulating carbohydrates as much as they regulate fat and calories. But are there consequences of eating too few carbohydrates? Yes.
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Carbohydrates are one of the three classes of macronutrient compounds, which are nutrients that you need in large quantities each day to provide for your...
Purchase high purity 31-beta-D-Cellotriosyl-glucose for use in research, biochemical enzyme assays and in vitro diagnostic analysis.
आजकल की busy life मे खान पान में ध्यान न देना आम बात हो गयी है, जिसके कारण लोगों अपने स्वास्थय में ज्यादा नही दे पाते है और खास तौर पर अपने खान-पान में, जिसकी वजह से Carbohydrates से भरपूर. ...
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സിനിമാരംഗത്ത് മേരി പിക്ഫോർഡ് എന്നറിയപ്പെട്ട ഗ്ലാഡിസ് ലൂയിസ് സ്മിത്ത് (Gladys Louise Smith (ഏപ്രിൽ 8, 1892 - മെയ് 29, 1979)) ഒരു കനേഡിയൻ - അമേരിക്കൻ സിനിമകളിലെ നടി, സംവിധായിക, തിരക്കഥാകൃത്ത്, നിർമാതാവ് എന്നീ നിലകളിൽ പ്രശസ്തയാണ്. യുണൈറ്റഡ് ആർടിസ്റ്റ് എന്ന സിനിമാ സ്റ്റുഡിയോയുടെ സ്ഥാപകരിൽ ഒരാളാണ്. അമേരിക്കയിലെ ലോസ് ആഞ്ചലൽസിൽ രൂപീകരിക്കപ്പെട്ട ഒരു സംഘടനയാണ് അക്കാഡമി ഓഫ് മോഷൻ പിക്ചർ ആർട്സ് ആൻഡ് ...
Looking for online definition of Asparagine-linked glycosylation protein 6 homolog in the Medical Dictionary? Asparagine-linked glycosylation protein 6 homolog explanation free. What is Asparagine-linked glycosylation protein 6 homolog? Meaning of Asparagine-linked glycosylation protein 6 homolog medical term. What does Asparagine-linked glycosylation protein 6 homolog mean?
Ring conformation Cyclohexane conformations with chair and boat conformers. Carbohydrate conformation. Allylic strain - ... The staggered conformation includes the gauche (±60°) and anti (180°) conformations, depending on the spatial orientations of ... The thermodynamically unfavored conformation has the t-Bu group in the axial position, which exhibits the high energetic 7-atom ... As a result, the t-Bu group "locks" the ring in the conformation where it is in the equatorial position and substitution ...
Furanose Mutarotation Monosaccharide Carbohydrate conformation Robyt, J.F. (1998). Essentials of Carbohydrate Chemistry. ... "Structure and Conformation of Carbohydrates". In Fraser-Reid, B.O.; Tatsuta, K.; Thiem, J.; Coté, G.L.; Flitsch, S.; Ito, Y.; ... Rao, V.S.R.; Qasba, P.K.; Chandrasekaran, R.; Balaji, P.V. (1998). Conformation of Carbohydrates. CRC Press. ISBN 90-5702-315-6 ... In the chair and skew conformations, the reference plane should be selected. In the chair conformation, the reference plane is ...
Carbohydrate NMR spectroscopy addresses questions on the structure and conformation of carbohydrates. The analysis of ... Carbohydrates[edit]. Main article: Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy of carbohydrates. ... For smaller carbohydrates, the dispersion of the anomeric proton resonances facilitates the use of 1D TOCSY experiments to ... It is now a common tool for the determination of Conformation Activity Relationships where the structure before and after ...
... thereby supporting the existence of this U-shaped conformation. It is thought that transitions between these two conformations ... Mullin NP, Hitchen PG, Taylor ME (1997). "Mechanism of Ca2+ and monosaccharide binding to a C-type carbohydrate-recognition ... It has been suggested that the mannose receptor can exist in at least two different structural conformations. The C-type CRDs ... The extracellular portion of the receptor is composed of 8 consecutive C-type carbohydrate recognition domains (CRDs) closest ...
X-ray crystallography of simple oxalate salts show that the oxalate anion may adopt either a planar conformation with D2h ... Oxalate occurs in many plants, where it is synthesized by the incomplete oxidation of carbohydrates. Oxalate-rich plants ... Specifically, the oxalate moiety adopts the planar, D2h conformation in the solid-state structures of M2C2O4 (M = Li, Na, K). ... As the preceding examples indicate that the conformation adopted by the oxalate dianion is dependent upon the size of the ...
As well as changing the stability of the glycosidic bond, the ring-conformation may be affected. Also the conformation of the ... Carbohydrate Research Volume 342, Issues 12-13, Pages 1537-1982 Sollogoub et al. Carbohydrate Research 342 (2007) 1689-1703. ... Glycomimetic is a term used to refer to molecules that have structures similar to carbohydrates, but with some variation. This ... Tamiflu is a carbocyclic mimic of the cell-surface carbohydrate sialic acid. Tamiflu is an enzyme inhibitor that blocks the ...
Banerjee R, Das K, Ravishankar R, Suguna K, Surolia A; Vijayan M (1996). "Conformation, protein-carbohydrate interactions and a ... Carbohydrate specificity generated by water bridges". Current Science. 72: 855-861. Reddy GB, Bharadwaj S; Surolia A (1999). " ... He delineated the molecular basis of carbohydrate recognition by legume lectins and demonstrated the novel C-H…O/N hydrogen ... Sankaranarayanan R, Sekar K, Banerjee R, Sharma V, Surolia A; Vijayan M (1998). "A novel mode of carbohydrate recognition in ...
Banerjee, R.; Das, K.; Ravishankar, R.; Suguna, K.; Surolia, A.; Vijayan, M. (7 June 1996). "Conformation, protein-carbohydrate ... Devarajan, S.; Nair, C.M.K.; Easwaran, K.R.K.; Vijayan, M. (7 August 1980). "A novel conformation of valinomycin in its barium ... Prabu, M.M.; Sankaranarayanan, R.; Puri, K.D.; Sharma, V.; Surolia, A.; Vijayan, M.; Suguna, K. (6 March 1998). "Carbohydrate ... His contributions have been towards the structure and carbohydrate specificity of lectins and protein hydration. He has also ...
Rees was a lecturer in chemistry at the University of Edinburgh from 1960 until 1970, researching carbohydrate conformation and ... In 1970, Rees was awarded both the Carbohydrate Chemistry Award by the Chemical Society and the Colworth Medal by the ...
Carbohydrates with more than 4 carbons exist in an equibrium between the closed ring, or cyclic form, and the open-chain form. ... However, aldoses are not locked into any one conformation: they can and do fluctuate between different forms. Aldoses can ... Like most carbohydrates, simple aldoses have the general chemical formula Cn(H2O)n. Because formaldehyde (n=1) and ... The minimum number of carbons in a backbone needed to form a molecule that is still considered a carbohydrate is 3, and ...
Molecular Modeling In many cases, the conformation information is required, however, sometimes it is not able to get directly ... Carbohydrates are important biopolymers and have a variety of functions. Often carbohydrates serve a function as a recognition ... Lectin is a kind of protein that can bind to carbohydrate with their carbohydrate recognition domains (CRDs). We could use ... Carbohydrate biosensor As Lectin can strongly bind to specific carbohydrate, scientists develop several lectin-based ...
... exhibits two conformations: an open active state and a closed inactive state. The catalytic relevance was examined ... The lectin-like ability of lysozyme to recognize bacterial carbohydrate antigen without lytic activity was reported for ... In order to bind a new substrate and move from the closed inactive state to the open active state requires two conformation ... The lysozyme distorts the fourth sugar (in the D or -1 subsite) in the hexasaccharide into a half-chair conformation. In this ...
These cells provide an example of the role of smooth ER in carbohydrate metabolism. Liver cells store carbohydrates in the form ... Those that reach the inside of the endoplasmic reticulum are folded into the correct three-dimensional conformation. Chemicals ... The modification and synthesis of the carbohydrate portions of glycoproteins is common in protein processing. The Golgi ... such as carbohydrates or sugars, are added, then the endoplasmic reticulum either transports the completed proteins, called ...
... is a carbohydrate with the formula C5H10O5; specifically, it is a pentose monosaccharide (simple sugar) with linear form ... Angyal, S. J. (March 1969). "The Composition and Conformation of Sugars in Solution". Angewandte Chemie. 8 (3): 157-166. doi: ... Carbohydrate Research. 307 (3-4): 199-209. doi:10.1016/S0008-6215(98)00040-8. Retrieved 11 December 2014. "Herbal Remedies, ...
"for his investigations on carbohydrates and vitamin C; for his investigations on carotenoids, flavins and vitamins A and B2". ... "for their contributions to the development of the concept of conformation and its application in chemistry". ... "for his discovery of sugar nucleotides and their role in the biosynthesis of carbohydrates". ... especially concerning the connection between the amino acid sequence and the biologically active conformation; for their ...
Due to the anomeric effect, dimethoxymethane has a preference toward the gauche conformation around the C-O bonds, instead of ... Since it is one of the smallest molecules exhibiting this effect, which has great interest in carbohydrate chemistry, ...
The major and minor components also contain a third carbohydrate moiety - β-D-glucosamine - and differ only by the length and ... conformation of a side-chain attached to it. The structures of the teicoplanin core and the side-chains that characterize the ... a fused ring structure to which two carbohydrates (mannose and N-acetylglucosamine) are attached. ...
"Rules of Carbohydrate Nomenclature". The Journal of Organic Chemistry. 28 (2): 281-291. February 1963. doi:10.1021/jo01037a001. ... with Newman projections being used to depict specific conformations of rotatable bonds of organic molecules (including but not ... Fischer projections were originally proposed for the depiction of carbohydrates and used by chemists, particularly in organic ... The use of Fischer projections in non-carbohydrates is discouraged, as such drawings are ambiguous when confused with other ...
Henrissat, B. and Coutinho P.M. "Carbohydrate-Active Enzymes server". 1999. CAZypedia, an online encyclopedia of carbohydrate- ... Matthews BW, Faber HR (1990). "A mutant T4 lysozyme displays five different crystal conformations". Nature. 348 (6298): 263-266 ... or between a carbohydrate and a non-carbohydrate moiety. A classification system for glycoside hydrolases, based on sequence ... an online encyclopedia of carbohydrate active enzymes. Glycoside hydrolase family 24 CAZY GH_24 comprises enzymes with only one ...
The accepted mechanism of flocculation involves a protein-carbohydrate model (Miki et al., 1982) (figure 1.3). Fully flocculent ... with Ca2+ ions required for the correct conformation of the zymolectins. Coflocculation between Kluyveromyces and ... yeast cells exhibit carbohydrate α-mannan receptors and protein zymolectins (section 1.5.4). Zymolectins are so termed as they ...
... conformation - native state - protein folding - enzyme - receptor - transmembrane receptor - ion channel - membrane transporter ... collagen - silk DNA - RNA polysaccharide: cellulose - carbohydrate - chitin - glycogen - starch Biochemical mechanisms: ...
Carbohydrate conformation Polysaccharide Oligosaccharide Oligosaccharide nomenclature Carbohydrate Nomenclature Archived ... The carbohydrate part of the molecule is called glycone, the -O- bridge is the glycosisdic oxygen, and the attached group is ... the basic structural units of carbohydrates, which cannot be hydrolysed into simpler units. The elementary formula of a simple ...
... carbohydrate conformation MeSH G06.184.603.790.486 --- nucleic acid conformation MeSH G06.184.603.790.486.100 --- base pairing ... carbohydrate sequence MeSH G06.184.603.580 --- conserved sequence MeSH G06.184.603.580.175 --- consensus sequence MeSH G06.184. ... MeSH G06.184.603.790.709 --- protein conformation MeSH G06.184.603.790.709.550 --- protein structure, quaternary MeSH G06.184. ...
... β-D-Glucan Oligosaccharide Carbohydrate Conformation Monosaccharide Monosaccharide nomenclature (a) R. W. Bailey, ... D.C. Baker; J. Defaye; D. Horton; E. F. Hounsell; J. P. Kamerling; A.S. Serianni (1997). "Nomenclature of Carbohydrates". ... Oligosaccharides are carbohydrates that are composed of several monosaccharide residues joined through glycosidic linkage, ... While a strict definition of an oligosaccharide is not established, it is generally agreed that a carbohydrate consisting of ...
... methyl derivatives on conformation, Carbohydrate Research, 89, 21-32. Komorowski S.J., Z. R. Grabowski, and W. Zielenkiewicz, ...
Move these two large substrates into their proper locations and conformations.. *Activate the Asn amide nitrogen atom for the ...
Carbohydrate conformation refers to the overall three-dimensional structure adopted by a carbohydrate (saccharide) molecule as ... Conformations of five membered rings are limited to two, envelope and twist. The envelope conformation has four atoms in a ... processes which in turn can alter conformation). Chemical transformations and biological signalling mediated by conformation- ... The chair conformation of six membered rings have a dihedral angle of 60° between adjacent substituents thus usually making it ...
"Carbohydrate Conformation" by people in this website by year, and whether "Carbohydrate Conformation" was a major or minor ... "Carbohydrate Conformation" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical ... Below are the most recent publications written about "Carbohydrate Conformation" by people in Profiles. ... Below are MeSH descriptors whose meaning is more general than "Carbohydrate Conformation". ...
Gene-silencing-induced changes in carbohydrate conformation in relation to bioenergy value and carbohydrate subfractions in ... Gene-silencing-induced changes in carbohydrate conformation in relation to bioenergy value and carbohydrate subfractions in ... Gene-silencing-induced changes in carbohydrate conformation in relation to bioenergy value and carbohydrate subfractions in ... 22.3% DM (TT8); p = 0.009). The gene-silencing also affected carbohydrate CA4 (7.4 (NT) vs. 4.2 (HB12) and 4.4% carbohydrate ( ...
By employing a multistage modeling approach in combination with the experimental data, we can rationalize the conformation on ... By combining preparative mass spectrometry with scanning tunneling microscopy, we have been able to address the conformation ... Carbohydrate Self-Assembly at Surfaces: STM Imaging of Sucrose Conformation and Ordering on Cu(100) Abb, Sabine ; Tarrat, ... Home , Carbohydrate Self-Assembly at Surfaces: STM Imaging of Sucrose Conformation and Ordering on Cu(100) ...
It is likely that carbohydrate moieties keep extensin in an extended conformation and that extensin must be in this ... Carbohydrates make up about two-thirds of the mass of extensin. Arabinose oligomers linked to hydroxyproline residues represent ... 95% of the total carbohydrate with the remainder occurring as single residues of galactose linked to some serine residues. ... conformation to form a cross-linked matrix that can function properly in vivo. ...
Carbohydrates are molecules with essential roles in biology and also serve as renewable resources for the generation of new ... exo-glycal chemistry and bioengineering of carbohydrate synthases. Then, synthesis and structure of multivalent and ... innovative synthetic methodology and design of carbohydrate architectures for medicinal and biological chemistry.Green ... Volume 40 of Carbohydrate Chemistry: Chemical and Biological Approaches demonstrates the importance of the glycosciences for ...
Cyclohexane conformations, including with chair and boat conformers among others.. *Carbohydrate conformation, which includes ... The gauche conformation on the right is a conformer, while the eclipsed conformation on the left is a transition state between ... Conformation-dependent reactions[edit]. Reaction rates are highly dependent on the conformation of the reactants. This theme is ... The staggered conformation includes the gauche (±60°) and anti (180°) conformations, depending on the spatial orientations of ...
These studies indicate a diversity of iduronate ring conformations, but a limited range of glycosidic linkage geometries in the ... In this review particular attention is paid to the dynamic aspects of heparin/heparan sulfate conformation. The iduronate ... residue possesses an unusually flexible pyranose ring conformation. This extra source of internal mobility creates special ... Conformation of Carbohydrates. V.S.R. Rao, P. K. Qasba, P. V. Balaji, R. Chandrasekaran ...
Conformation. Pyran and furan, after which the pyranose and furanose rings forms of monosaccharides are named. ... Monosaccharides are the simplest carbohydrates in that they cannot be hydrolyzed to smaller carbohydrates. The general chemical ... carbohydrates and nutrient-rich simple carbohydrates such as fruit and dairy products should make up the bulk of carbohydrate ... Carbohydrate simple:Carbohydrate sl:Ogljikovi hidrati sr:Угљени хидрати sh:Ugljeni hidrati su:Karbohidrat fi:Hiilihydraatti sv: ...
Carbohydrate moiety of HLA antigens. Antigenic properties and amino acid sequences around the site of glycosylation. J. Biol. ... 2C). The binding specificity of mAb 177407 was recently shown to be sensitive to the folding conformation of KIR3DL1 (28). ... Interactions of NK Cell Receptor KIR3DL1*004 with Chaperones and Conformation-Specific Antibody Reveal a Functional Folded ... Interactions of NK Cell Receptor KIR3DL1*004 with Chaperones and Conformation-Specific Antibody Reveal a Functional Folded ...
Influence of Sequential Modifications and Carbohydrate Variations in Synthetic AFGP Analogues on Conformation and Antifreeze ... Influence of Sequential Modifications and Carbohydrate Variations in Synthetic AFGP Analogues on Conformation and Antifreeze ... Influence of Sequential Modifications and Carbohydrate Variations in Synthetic AFGP Analogues on Conformation and Antifreeze ... "Influence of Sequential Modifications and Carbohydrate Variations in Synthetic AFGP Analogues on Conformation and Antifreeze ...
Conformation of carboxylated schizophyllan in aqueous solution  Yoshiba, Kazuto; Sato, Takahiro; Osumi, Takaaki; Ulset, Ann- ... Bla i Institutt for bioteknologi og matvitenskap på tidsskrifter "Carbohydrate Polymers". 0-9. A. B. C. D. E. F. G. H. I. J. K ...
Purchase Advances in Carbohydrate Chemistry and Biochemistry, Volume 50 - 1st Edition. Print Book & E-Book. ISBN 9780120072507 ... VI THE CONFORMATIONS AND MOLECULAR RECOGNITION OF CARBOHYDRATE DETERMINANTS DISTANT FROM THE PROTEIN OLIGOSACCHARIDE CORE OF ... VII THE CONFORMATIONS AND MOLECULAR RECOGNITION OF CARBOHYDRATE DETERMINANTS ADJACENT TO THE PROTEIN MOIETY OF GLYCOPROTEINS ... Advances in Carbohydrate Chemistry and Biochemistry, Volume 50 1st Edition. 0 star rating Write a review ...
Understanding Protein Conformation; Proteins Folding - In Vivo and In Vitro; Laboratory Determination of DGo for Protein ... Thermodynamics and IMFs in Protein Stability; etc..." Carbohydrates Monosaccharides and Disssacharides; Complex ...
Understanding Protein Conformation; Proteins Folding - In Vivo and In Vitro; Laboratory Determination of DGo for Protein ... Thermodynamics and IMFs in Protein Stability; etc..." Carbohydrates Monosaccharides and Disssacharides; Complex ...
Understanding Protein Conformation; Proteins Folding - In Vivo and In Vitro; Laboratory Determination of DGo for Protein ... Structural Carbohydrates and Lignin in Biomass; Sugars, Byproducts, and Degradation Products in Liquid Fraction Process Samples ... Thermodynamics and IMFs in Protein Stability; etc..." Carbohydrates Monosaccharides and Disssacharides; Complex ...
2012) Synthesis and structural characterisation of selective non-carbohydrate-based inhibitors of bacterial sialidases. ... tamoxifen-like conformation of helices h3, h11, and h12, forming an antagonist-like conformation. A more closed conformation is ... 3 A and B). One conformation observed in each of the nine structures adopted a closed conformation, with rmsd values among the ... Whereas in the closed conformations these atoms cluster to occupy a single conformation (Fig. 3 E and F), a continuous and ...
Conformation of proteins in interfaces: Like many other substances with both hydrophilic and hydrophobic groups, soluble ... Conjugated proteins can be subdivided into mucoproteins, which, in addition to protein, contain carbohydrate; lipoproteins, ... Conformation of globular proteins*Results of X-ray diffraction studies. *Other approaches to the determination of protein ... Conformation of proteins in interfaces. Like many other substances with both hydrophilic and hydrophobic groups, soluble ...
Carbohydrate Conformation * Humans * Lipopolysaccharides / chemistry* * Lipopolysaccharides / immunology * Models, Molecular * ...
Carbohydrate Self-Assembly at Surfaces: STM Imaging of Sucrose Conformation and Ordering on Cu(100) ... Using a multistage modeling approach, we could rationalize the conformation on the surface as well as the interactions between ...
1 Mono- and oligosaccharides: structure, configuration and conformation.. 2 Protecting groups.. 3 Functionalised saccharides. ... Organic Synthesis with Carbohydrates. Geert-Jan Boons, Karl J. Hale. ISBN: 978-0-470-76005-5 April 2008 Wiley-Blackwell 348 ... including the European Journal of Chemistry and the Journal of Carbohydrate Chemistry, and is also coeditor of Carbohydrate- ... KARL J. HALE obtained his Ph.D in Synthetic Carbohydrate Chemistry from Kings College London in 1985. He is a professor in the ...
Carbohydrates. Monosaccharides, stereoisomers, conformation, derivatives. Disaccharides, glycosidic bond stability and ... Examples from carbohydrate metabolism of relationship between equilibrium constants, mass action coefficients and free energy ... The pathways used in animals for catabolism and biosynthesis (anabolism) of some carbohydrates and fat will be covered, as well ... Mechanisms of regulation: examples from e.g. carbohydrate metabolism. Timescale; transcriptional regulation; post-translational ...
Carbohydrates. Monosaccharides, stereoisomers, conformation, derivatives. Disaccharides, glycosidic bond stability and ... The pathways used in animals for catabolism and biosynthesis (anabolism) of some carbohydrates and fat will be covered, as well ... carbohydrates, lipids and nucleic acids). The nature of the electronic and molecular structure of macromolecules and the role ...
Carbohydrates / analysis. Carotenoids / analysis. Lettuce / chemistry, metabolism*. Molecular Conformation. Nuclear Magnetic ... A large number of water-soluble metabolites belonging to different classes such as carbohydrates, polyols, organic acids and ...
Antigens, Tumor-Associated, Carbohydrate / chemistry* * Binding Sites * Carbohydrate Conformation * Carbohydrates / chemistry * ... Chemical modification studies indicate that tyrosine residues are important for the carbohydrate-binding and hemagglutinating ...
  • In the absence of pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP), the active site of the enzyme is in an "open" conformation. (wikipedia.org)
  • To form the active protein, two of the polypeptide chains come together to form an open conformation. (wikipedia.org)
  • nAChRs can obtain their open conformation by a twist-like motion as seen in figure X. But this opening would only last up to 3 ms, which is too short for initiating an ion-flux. (wikipedia.org)
  • Carbohydrate Conformation" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (umassmed.edu)
  • Secondary structure prediction and circular dichroic spectroscopy show that S antigen is composed predominantly of beta-sheet conformation. (pnas.org)
  • NMR Study By using titration, NOESY(Nuclear Overhauser Effect SpectroscopY), CIDNP experiments, the specificity and affinity of binding, association constants and equilibrium thermodynamic parameters of carbohydrate-protein binding can be studied. (wikipedia.org)
  • The rest of the carbohydrate consists of ordinary carbons and ordinary -OH groups. (utah.edu)
  • Carbohydrates with more than 4 carbons exist in an equibrium between the closed ring, or cyclic form, and the open-chain form. (wikipedia.org)
  • When creating a Fischer projection for a carbohydrate with more than three carbons, each down carbon that would project away from you as viewed from the top in the Zig-Zag model must be turned around and oriented as towards your view. (wikipedia.org)
  • The assumption that one makes for this analysis is that the ring is in the same conformation as cyclohexene, with three carbons and the oxygen in a plane with the two other carbon atome puckered out of the plane, with one above and one below (see the figure to the right). (wikipedia.org)
  • Therefore, while anticarbohydrate antibodies of the IgG isotype are preferred for carbohydrate research, IgM-antibodies with low affinity have been often used. (hindawi.com)
  • Of the antibodies directed against gp120, 2G12 recognizes a carbohydrate epitope on gp120 in a way which requires its domains to be swapped ( 7 ), and b12 must bypass conformational masking of the CD4-binding site ( 28 , 54 ). (asm.org)
  • PlyC is not only the biggest and most potent lysin, but also structurally unique since it is composed of two different gene products, PlyCA and PlyCB, with a ratio of eight PlyCB subunits for each PlyCA in its active conformation. (wikipedia.org)
  • When amino acids are introduced to a deprived cell, the presence of amino acids causes Rag GTPase heterodimers to switch to their active conformation. (wikipedia.org)
  • This leads to a conclusion that the enzyme's active site conformation is less stable than the whole enzyme conformation in response to the two denaturants. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the T state, enzyme conformation shifts slightly such that the space previously taken up by the Arg162 is replaced with Glu161. (wikipedia.org)
  • Protection of a glycosyl donor with bulky silyl groups (tert-butyldimethylsilyl or triisopropyl) cause it to change conformation to a more axial-rich conformation that, as a consequence, is more reactive, which Bols and his group called superarmed. (wikipedia.org)
  • He had a 50/50 chance of picking the correct conformation and if, in the future, the experimental arabinose turn out to be in L form, all his data is still relatively correct, just inverted. (wikibooks.org)
  • Formally and quantitatively, conformation is captured by description of a molecule's angles-e.g., sets of three sequential atoms (bond angles) and four sequential atoms (torsion angles, dihedral angles), where the locations and angular directions of nonbonding electrons ("lone pair electrons") must sometimes also be taken into account. (wikipedia.org)
  • The envelope conformation has four atoms in a plane while the twist form only has three. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the skew conformation, the plane contains three adjacent atoms and one other with the atom with the lowest possible number exoplanar. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because formaldehyde (n=1) and glycolaldehyde (n=2) are not generally considered to be carbohydrates, the simplest possible aldose is the triose glyceraldehyde, which only contains three carbon atoms. (wikipedia.org)
  • He realised that the hydroxy groups of carbohydrates are less electron-withdrawing towards the anomeric center when they are axial than when they are equatorial, which means that glycosyl donor conformers with more axial oxy functions are more reactive. (wikipedia.org)
  • If the lone pairs of electrons on the oxygens at the anomeric center of 2-methoxypyran are shown, then a brief examination of the conformations of the anomers reveal that the β-anomer always has at least one pair of eclipsing (coplanar 1,3-interacting) lone pairs, this n-n repulsion is a high energy situation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although an equilibrium exists between the 1C4 and 2S0 conformers (ratio 60:40) of the 2-O-sulfo-α-L-iduronate ring (IdoA2S) in the free state, FGFR2 selects only the unique twisted-boat 2S0 conformation of this IdoA2S residue. (csic.es)
  • Fab 83.1, 50.1, and 59,1 showed three peptides of similar conformation, but 58.2 shows differences from the residue tip. (openwetware.org)
  • In full the rule is: In certain non-catalytic reactions that diastereomer will predominate, which could be formed by the approach of the entering group from the least hindered side when the rotational conformation of the C-C bond is such that the double bond is flanked by the two least bulky groups attached to the adjacent asymmetric center. (wikipedia.org)
  • Referring to the orientations of the ω-angle and the O6-C6-C5-C4 angle the three stable staggered rotamer conformations are termed gauche - gauche (gg), gauche - trans (gt) and trans - gauche (tg). (wikidoc.org)