The study of the structure, biosynthesis, and function of CARBOHYDRATES and GLYCOSYLATION.
The largest class of organic compounds, including STARCH; GLYCOGEN; CELLULOSE; POLYSACCHARIDES; and simple MONOSACCHARIDES. Carbohydrates are composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a ratio of Cn(H2O)n.
Cellular processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of CARBOHYDRATES.
Carbohydrates present in food comprising digestible sugars and starches and indigestible cellulose and other dietary fibers. The former are the major source of energy. The sugars are in beet and cane sugar, fruits, honey, sweet corn, corn syrup, milk and milk products, etc.; the starches are in cereal grains, legumes (FABACEAE), tubers, etc. (From Claudio & Lagua, Nutrition and Diet Therapy Dictionary, 3d ed, p32, p277)
Oligosaccharides containing two monosaccharide units linked by a glycosidic bond.
Baked food product made of flour or meal that is moistened, kneaded, and sometimes fermented. A major food since prehistoric times, it has been made in various forms using a variety of ingredients and methods.
Simple sugars, carbohydrates which cannot be decomposed by hydrolysis. They are colorless crystalline substances with a sweet taste and have the same general formula CnH2nOn. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Indolesulfonic acid used as a dye in renal function testing for the detection of nitrates and chlorates, and in the testing of milk.
Critical analyses of books or other monographic works.
An indole-dione that is obtained by oxidation of indigo blue. It is a MONOAMINE OXIDASE INHIBITOR and high levels have been found in urine of PARKINSONISM patients.
A plant family of the order Lamiales. It is characterized by simple leaves in opposite pairs, cystoliths (enlarged cells containing crystals of calcium carbonate), and bilaterally symmetrical and bisexual flowers that are usually crowded together. The common name for Ruellia of wild petunia is easily confused with PETUNIA.
The structural parts of the VIRION.
Substances that comprise all matter. Each element is made up of atoms that are identical in number of electrons and protons and in nuclear charge, but may differ in mass or number of neutrons.
The sequence of carbohydrates within POLYSACCHARIDES; GLYCOPROTEINS; and GLYCOLIPIDS.
Any of numerous agile, hollow-horned RUMINANTS of the genus Capra, in the family Bovidae, closely related to the SHEEP.
Libraries in which a major proportion of the resources are available in machine-readable format, rather than on paper or MICROFORM.
The study of the composition, chemical structures, and chemical reactions of living things.
Organic chemistry methodology that mimics the modular nature of various biosynthetic processes. It uses highly reliable and selective reactions designed to "click" i.e., rapidly join small modular units together in high yield, without offensive byproducts. In combination with COMBINATORIAL CHEMISTRY TECHNIQUES, it is used for the synthesis of new compounds and combinatorial libraries.
The specialty of ANALYTIC CHEMISTRY applied to assays of physiologically important substances found in blood, urine, tissues, and other biological fluids for the purpose of aiding the physician in making a diagnosis or following therapy.
The guidelines and policy statements set forth by the editor(s) or editorial board of a publication.
A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.
"The business or profession of the commercial production and issuance of literature" (Webster's 3d). It includes the publisher, publication processes, editing and editors. Production may be by conventional printing methods or by electronic publishing.
All of the divisions of the natural sciences dealing with the various aspects of the phenomena of life and vital processes. The concept includes anatomy and physiology, biochemistry and biophysics, and the biology of animals, plants, and microorganisms. It should be differentiated from BIOLOGY, one of its subdivisions, concerned specifically with the origin and life processes of living organisms.
Lists of persons or organizations, systematically arranged, usually in alphabetic or classed order, giving address, affiliations, etc., for individuals, and giving address, officers, functions, and similar data for organizations. (ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
Disciplines concerned with the interrelationships of individuals in a social environment including social organizations and institutions. Includes Sociology and Anthropology.
Critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or the practical application of such new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws. (Webster, 3d ed)
The study of natural phenomena by observation, measurement, and experimentation.
FATTY ACIDS found in the plasma that are complexed with SERUM ALBUMIN for transport. These fatty acids are not in glycerol ester form.
A trihydroxy sugar alcohol that is an intermediate in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. It is used as a solvent, emollient, pharmaceutical agent, and sweetening agent.
Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The metabolic substances ACETONE; 3-HYDROXYBUTYRIC ACID; and acetoacetic acid (ACETOACETATES). They are produced in the liver and kidney during FATTY ACIDS oxidation and used as a source of energy by the heart, muscle and brain.
A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.
The metabolic process of breaking down LIPIDS to release FREE FATTY ACIDS, the major oxidative fuel for the body. Lipolysis may involve dietary lipids in the DIGESTIVE TRACT, circulating lipids in the BLOOD, and stored lipids in the ADIPOSE TISSUE or the LIVER. A number of enzymes are involved in such lipid hydrolysis, such as LIPASE and LIPOPROTEIN LIPASE from various tissues.

An evaluation of peptide-bond isosteres. (1/1)

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Bio-protocol is an online peer-reviewed protocol journal. Its mission is to make life science research more efficient and reproducible by curating and hosting high quality, free access protocols.
2. Since the glucose utilization diminishes in adipose tissue and the inhibitory effect of insulin on lipolysis becomes less, fat becomes mobilized as free fatty acids and glycerol. The free fatty acids are oxidized or esterified in the tissues. Glycerol is ac-tivated to glycerol 3-phosphate in the liver and kidney. 3. In fasting state, endogenous glucose pro-duction (from amino acid and glycerol) does not keep pace with its utilization and oxidation. Therefore, the stores of liver glycogen become depleted and blood glu-cose level falls. 4. Fat is mobilized rapidly and in several hours the plasma free fatty acids and blood glucose stabilize at the fasting level. At this point, there is the increased oxida-tion of fatty acids forming ketone bodies. In case of demands of more glucose, car-bohydrate in the form of glycerol in adi-pose tissue performs an important func-tion, for it is only this source of carbohy-drate together with that provided by gluconeogenesis from protein. ...
Photosynthetic electron transport and biological energy transduction are studied by electron spin resonance and time-resolved optical and electroabsorption spectroscopies. Biochemical and biophysical research also focuses on the mechanisms of protein folding and aggregation, protein folding defects related to human diseases, and the molecular structures of proteins, including amino acid sequence determination and identification of protein post-translational modifications. Carbohydrate biochemistry and glycobiology are used to understand disease processes and to develop new therapeutic agents. The biochemical aspects of biotechnology including chemoenzymatic synthesis, biocatalysis, and metabolic engineering are being explored. The methodologies used include kinetic and spectroscopic analysis (NMR, fluorescence, circular dichroism, surface plasmon resonance (SPR) and FTIR of protein conformational changes), molecular modeling, computational graphics, and molecular mechanics calculations on ...
Professor Laura Kiessing has been named the recipient of the 2013 Murray Goodman Memorial Prize. This award of $10,000, a commemorative plaque, and dinner in her honor will recognize seminal contributions in the area of molecular glycobiology and carbohydrate biochemistry. This award is presented by the Biophysical Society in partnership with the ACS Division of Biological Chemistry. An award symposium will take place at the fall ACS National Meeting in Indianapolis. Congratulations, Laura! ...
Peptide isosteres are important tools for the understanding of peptide function and for the development of drugs. (E)-Alkene peptide isosteres are particularly useful due to their close geometric match of the amide bond structure. We developed a method for the generation of a small library of (E)-alkene peptide isosteres on solid support via cuprate mediated SN2? ring opening of allylic BUS-aziridines. We also studied the selectivity for the opening of these aziridines in the solution phase. Halenaquinone is a marine natural product that was first isolated in 1983 from the Pacific sponge Xestosongia exigua. We realized the synthesis of a thiophene-containing analog, thio-halenaquinone. The key steps include an alkynyl ketone-benzocylcobutane Diels-Alder reaction to construct the naphthalene subunit, a Heck cyclization to form the quaternary carbon, and a ring closing metathesis to install the final ring. This compound showed an IC90 ~5 µM against Pfnek-1 and an analog that had an IC90 ~3 µM. ...
Voet DJ, Voet JG, Pratt CW (2008). "Additional Pathways in Carbohydrate Metabolism". Principles of Biochemistry, Third edition ... carbohydrate binding. • isomaltase. • alpha-1,4-glucosidase activity. • alpha-glucosidase activity. Cellular component. • ...
Advances in Carbohydrate Chemistry and Biochemistry. 35. pp. 1-29. doi:10.1016/S0065-2318(08)60217-6. ISBN 9780120072354. . ... Szent-Györgyi, Albert (June 1963). "Lost in the Twentieth Century". Annual Review of Biochemistry. 32 (1): 1-15. doi:10.1146/ ... Annual Review of Biochemistry. 64: 403-434. doi:10.1146/annurev.bi.64.070195.002155. PMID 7574488.. ... Clinical Biochemistry. 38 (5): 450-6. doi:10.1016/j.clinbiochem.2005.01.018. PMID 15820776.. ...
Advances in Carbohydrate Chemistry and Biochemistry. Advances in Carbohydrate Chemistry and Biochemistry. 40: 131-234. doi: ...
1898-1975". Advances in Carbohydrate Chemistry and Biochemistry. Advances in Carbohydrate Chemistry and Biochemistry. 35: 1-29 ... "Annual Review of Biochemistry. 32 (1): 1-15. doi:10.1146/annurev.bi.32.070163.000245. PMID 14140702. Retrieved June 17, 2018.. ... Annual Review of Biochemistry. 64: 403-434. doi:10.1146/annurev.bi.64.070195.002155. PMID 7574488.. ... Clinical Biochemistry. 38 (5): 450-6. doi:10.1016/j.clinbiochem.2005.01.018. PMID 15820776.. ...
The Carbohydrates: Chemistry and Biochemistry Vol 1A (2nd ed.). San Diego: Academic Press. pp. 165-194.. ... "Carbohydrates". Chemistry for Biologists. Royal Society of Chemistry. Retrieved 10 March 2017.. ... "Carbohydrates". Chemistry for Biologists. Royal Society of Chemistry. Retrieved 10 March 2017.. .mw-parser-output cite.citation ... Monosaccharides are the simplest units of carbohydrates and the simplest form of sugar. ...
This process is known as carbohydrate loading. In general, glycemic index of carbohydrate source does not matter since muscular ... Stryer, L. (1988). Biochemistry (3rd ed.). Freeman. p. 451. "Methods of endurance training, Part 1". 30 October 2009. "Steady ... sparing carbohydrate use from all sources. Third, by consuming large quantities of carbohydrates after depleting glycogen ... Carbohydrate oxidation by the working muscle can go up by ∼10 fold with exercise, and yet after 1 h, blood glucose is ...
A 100-gram (3.5 oz) sample of dried mushroom (100 g dw) has 365 kcal (1527 kilojoules). Carbohydrates make up the bulk of the ... R. virescens has a ribonuclease enzyme with a biochemistry unique among edible mushrooms. It also has biologically active ... Mushrooms are rich in carbohydrates and proteins, with a low fat content. The species was described as new to science in 1774 ... Carbohydrate Polymers. 77 (3): 628-33. doi:10.1016/j.carbpol.2009.02.001. Sun YX, Liu JC, Yang XD, Kennedy JF (2010). " ...
Reid J (1997). "Carbohydrate metabolism:structural carbohydrates". In Dey PM, Harborne JB (eds.). Plant Biochemistry. Academic ... Cell walls in some plant tissues also function as storage deposits for carbohydrates that can be broken down and resorbed to ... The relative composition of carbohydrates, secondary compounds and proteins varies between plants and between the cell type and ... White D (1995). The Physiology and Biochemistry of Prokaryotes. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 6, 12-21. ISBN 978-0-19- ...
Indigestible carbohydrate compounds classified as prebiotics are a type of fermentable fiber, and thus can be classified as ... Journal of Food Biochemistry. 41 (5): e12389. doi:10.1111/jfbc.12389. ISSN 1745-4514. Pokusaeva K, Fitzgerald GF, van Sinderen ... Fermentable carbohydrates derived from fructans and xylans are the most well documented example of prebiotics. An endogenous ... The bifidobacterial genome contains many genes that encode for carbohydrate-modifying enzymes as well as genes that encode for ...
Gupta, Anil (2019). "Carbohydrates". Comprehensive Biochemistry for Dentistry. Singapore: Springer. pp. 108-110. ISBN 978-981- ... Advances in Carbohydrate Chemistry and Biochemistry. 55: 175-263. doi:10.1016/S0065-2318(00)55006-9. Retrieved 31 March 2021. ... Osazones are a class of carbohydrate derivatives found in organic chemistry formed when reducing sugars are reacted with excess ... El Khadem, Hassan S.; Fatiadi, Alexander J. (2000). "Hydrazine derivatives of carbohydrates and related compounds". ...
Pigman, William Ward (1948). "Chemistry of the Carbohydrates". Annual Review of Biochemistry. 28: 15-38. doi:10.1146/annurev.bi ... Pigman, William Ward (1972). The Carbohydrates: Chemistry and Biochemistry. Pigman, William Ward (1946). Advances in ... Pigman, William Ward (1957). The Carbohydrates: Chemistry, Biochemistry, Physiology. Pigman, William Ward. Evaluation of Agents ... and former chairman of the department of biochemistry at New York Medical College who was known for his work in carbohydrates, ...
Zillig W (December 1991). "Comparative biochemistry of Archaea and Bacteria". Current Opinion in Genetics & Development 1 (4): ... Romano A, Conway T; Conway (1996). "Evolution of carbohydrate metabolic pathways". Res Microbiol 147 (6-7): 448-55. PMID ... "The unique biochemistry of methanogenesis". PubMed 71: 223-283. PMID 12102556. doi:10.1016/s0079-6603(02)71045-3. Diakses ...
Deppenmeier, U. (2002). "The unique biochemistry of methanogenesis". Prog Nucleic Acid Res Mol Biol. Progress in Nucleic Acid ... Romano A; Conway T (1996). "Evolution of carbohydrate metabolic pathways". Res Microbiol. 147 (6-7): 448-55. PMID 9084754. doi: ... Zillig W (December 1991). "Comparative biochemistry of Archaea and Bacteria". Current Opinion in Genetics & Development. 1 (4 ... Other aspects of archaeal biochemistry are unique, such as their reliance on ether lipids in their cell membranes, including ...
Biochemistry 5thE 11.3. Carbohydrates Can Be Attached to Proteins to Form Glycoproteins ... a b c Robert K. Murray, Daryl K. Granner & Victor W. Rodwell: "Harper's Illustrated Biochemistry 27th Ed.", McGraw-Hill, 2006 ... Interact with specific carbohydrates Lectins, selectins (cell adhesion lectins), antibodies Receptor Various proteins involved ... The carbohydrate is attached to the protein in a cotranslational or posttranslational modification. This process is known as ...
Pigman, Ward; Horton, D. (1972). Pigman and Horton (ed.). The Carbohydrates: Chemistry and Biochemistry Vol 1A (2nd ed.). San ... Main article: Carbohydrate. Scientifically, sugar loosely refers to a number of carbohydrates, such as monosaccharides, ... carbohydrateA. including. dietary fiber Total. sugars Free. fructose Free. glucose Sucrose Fructose/. (Fructose+Glucose). ratio ... Sugar is the generic name for sweet-tasting, soluble carbohydrates, many of which are used in food. Table sugar, granulated ...
Advances in Carbohydrate Chemistry and Biochemistry. 50: 21-123. Schmidt, R. R.; Jung, K.-H. (1997). "Oligosaccharide synthesis ... with trichloroacetimidates". In Hanessian, S. (ed.). Preparative Carbohydrate Chemistry. New York, NY: Marcel Dekker. p. 283- ...
Advances in Carbohydrate Chemistry and Biochemistry. Academic Press. 35: 1-16.. ... Their contributions to carbohydrate chemistry were profound. He married twice. In 1925 he married Beda Winifred Phoebe Ramsay. ...
Advances in Carbohydrate Chemistry and Biochemistry. 30: 371-444. doi:10.1016/s0065-2318(08)60268-1. ISBN 9780120072309. PMID ...
Advances in Carbohydrate Chemistry and Biochemistry. 35. pp. 127-340. doi:10.1016/S0065-2318(08)60220-6. ISBN 9780120072354. ... They may bind to a soluble carbohydrate or to a carbohydrate moiety that is a part of a glycoprotein or glycolipid. They ... Lectins are carbohydrate-binding proteins that are highly specific for sugar groups that are part of other molecules and so ... The many crystal structures of legume lectins have led to a detailed insight of the atomic interactions between carbohydrates ...
ISBN 978-0-9678550-9-7. Lindhorst, T.K. (2007). Essentials of Carbohydrate Chemistry and Biochemistry. Wiley-VCH. ISBN 978-3- ... Carbohydrate Carbohydrate chemistry Natural products Glycosylation Chemical glycosylation Glycorandomization Brito-Arias, Marco ... Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part B: Comparative Biochemistry. 75 (1): 65-73. doi:10.1016/0305-0491(83)90041-x. " ... Many authors in biochemistry call these compounds N-glycosides and group them with the glycosides; this is considered a ...
Advances in Carbohydrate Chemistry and Biochemistry Volume 41. Advances in Carbohydrate Chemistry and Biochemistry. 41. pp. 209 ... "Determination of the absolute configuration of monosaccharides in complex carbohydrates by capillary g.l.c". Carbohydrate ... He is most famous for his work on the analysis of the primary and three-dimensional structures of carbohydrates and ... Vliegenthart was awarded the Claude S. Hudson Award in Carbohydrate Chemistry of the American Chemical Society in 1994. In 1997 ...
Advances in Carbohydrate Chemistry and Biochemistry Volume 44. Advances in Carbohydrate Chemistry and Biochemistry. 44. pp. 147 ... Carbohydrate Research. 128 (1): 119-132. doi:10.1016/0008-6215(84)85090-9. Common 1991, p. 104. Thell et al. 2012, p. 657. ... Carbohydrate Polymers. 40 (2): 101-106. doi:10.1016/S0144-8617(99)00048-X. Takeda, Tadahiro; Funatsu, Masami; Shibata, Shoji; ... Carbohydrate Research. 69 (1): 252-258. doi:10.1016/S0008-6215(00)85771-7. Gorin, Philip A.J.; Iacomini, Marcello (1984). " ...
Advances in Carbohydrate Chemistry and Biochemistry. Academic Press. 1998-08-19. ISBN 978-0-08-056312-1. Gordon, Jacob U. (2004 ... Here he worked on corn starch and other carbohydrates, investigating topics such as D-glucose production. Through this work he ... American Chemical Society Division of Carbohydrate Chemistry - chairman Superior Service Award from U.S. Department of ... Agriculture (1953) Chairman of the Division of Carbohydrate Chemistry of the American Chemical Society (1964) National Academy ...
ISBN 978-3-319-26015-0. Advances in Carbohydrate Chemistry and Biochemistry. Academic Press. 1981-06-19. ISBN 978-0-08-056297-1 ... the carbohydrates, etc. However, if the members cannot be arranged in a linear order by a single parameter, the collection may ...
Advances in Carbohydrate Chemistry and Biochemistry. 40: 131-234. doi:10.1016/S0065-2318(08)60109-2. ISBN 978-0-12-007240-8. ... Schauer R (1982). "Advances in Carbohydrate Chemistry and Biochemistry Volume 40; Chapter = Chemistry, Metabolism, and ...
Advances in Carbohydrate Chemistry and Biochemistry. 24. pp. 1-12. doi:10.1016/S0065-2318(08)60347-9. ISBN 978-0-12-007224-8. ... In addition to these duties he also served as of Professor of Biochemistry at the University of Heidelberg, and for one year he ... as well as extensive fields in biochemistry (carotenoids; flavins; vitamins and enzymes). Specifically, he carried out ...
Advances in Carbohydrate Chemistry and Biochemistry. 72: 113-190. doi:10.1016/bs.accb.2015.08.002. PMID 26613816. Katja ... Biochemistry. McEvoy, Megan M. (First ed.). New York, NY. ISBN 978-0-393-61402-2. OCLC 952277065. Doare, K. Le; Holder, B.; ...
ISBN 3-642-86605-0. Horton, editor, Derek (2000). Advances in carbohydrate chemistry and biochemistry. San Diego: Academic ... Carbohydrate chemistry. a review of the literature published during 1981. London: Chemical Society. ISBN 0-85186-152-0. List of ... Advances in macromolecular carbohydrate research. Greenwich, Conn.: JAI Press. ISBN 0-08-055227-7.CS1 maint: extra text: ...
... or monitored carbohydrate diets such as a low carbohydrate diet.[58][97][98] Viscous fiber supplements may be useful in those ... The Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology. 114 (1-2): 40-3. doi:10.1016/j.jsbmb.2008.12.022. PMID 19444934.. ... to distribute calories and carbohydrates throughout the day.[58][96] Several diets may be effective such as the Dietary ... "Carbohydrate quality and human health: a series of systematic reviews and meta-analyses". Lancet. 393 (10170): 434-445. doi ...
For some common chemicals (mainly in biochemistry), keto or oxo refer to the ketone functional group. The term oxo is used ... Acetoacetate is an intermediate in the Krebs cycle which releases energy from sugars and carbohydrates.[22] ... BiochemistryEdit. Ketones are pervasive in nature. The formation of organic compounds in photosynthesis occurs via the ketone ... Nelson, D. L.; Cox, M. M. (2000) Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry. 3rd Ed. Worth Publishing: New York. ISBN 1-57259-153-6. ...
"Biochemistry 5th Edition. W H Freeman. Retrieved 29 April 2012.. *^ Little, TJ; Horowitz, M; Feinle-Bisset, C. "Role of ... and 1/4 carbohydrates as pasta, rice, ...) will then account to some 1800-2000 kcal, which is the average requirement for a ... which contain complex carbohydrates such as cellulose. An herbivorous diet includes subtypes such as granivory (seed eating), ...
Molecular and therapeutic aspects of redox biochemistry (2004). *An illustrated guide to the flora of Mauritius and the Indian ... Traditional Medicinal Herbs and Food Plants Have the Potential to Inhibit Key Carbohydrate Hydrolyzing Enzymes In Vitro and ... Journal of Food Biochemistry. doi:10.1111/j.1745-4514.2010.00504.x. ...
Greene received a BA in liberal arts from Amherst College in 1955 and a PhD in biochemistry and cell biology at Rockefeller ... "Km+, a mannose-binding lectin from Artocarpus inegrifolia: amino acid sequence predicted tertiary structure, carbohydrate ...
Biochemistry. 40 (40): 12193-206. doi:10.1021/bi0111911. PMID 11580295.. ...
Marchetti PM, Barth JH (March 2013). "Clinical biochemistry of dihydrotestosterone". Annals of Clinical Biochemistry. 50 (Pt 2 ... Mahmood SN, Bowe WP (April 2014). "Diet and acne update: carbohydrates emerge as the main culprit". Journal of Drugs in ... Eating fewer simple carbohydrates such as sugar may minimize the condition.[7] Treatments applied directly to the affected skin ...
Its biochemistry, the way it is handled by the human body and studies using rats and goats suggest that it is an essential ... carbohydrates and ionophore complexes.[218] ...
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Carbohydrate * sw:Carbohydrate. Carbon * sw:Carbon. Caribbean Sea * sw:Caribbean Sea. Carl Friedrich Gauss * sw:Carl Friedrich ... Biochemistry * sw:Biochemistry. Biological classification * sw:Uainishaji wa kisayansi. Biological materials * sw:Biological ...
Humphry Bowen (1966) Trace Elements in Biochemistry. Academic Press.. *Humphrey Bowen (1979) Environmental Chemistry of the ... Corbridge, D. E. C. (1995-02-01). Phosphorus: An Outline of Its Chemistry, Biochemistry, and Technology (5th ed.). Amsterdam: ... Nelson, David L.; Michael M. Cox (2000-02-15). Lehninger Principles of Biochemistry, Third Edition (3 Har/Com ed.). W. H. ...
Deppenmeier, U. (2002). "The unique biochemistry of methanogenesis". Prog Nucleic Acid Res Mol Biol. Progress in Nucleic Acid ... Romano A; Conway T (1996). "Evolution of carbohydrate metabolic pathways". Res Microbiol. 147 (6-7): 448-55. doi:10.1016/0923- ... Zillig W (December 1991). "Comparative biochemistry of Archaea and Bacteria". Current Opinion in Genetics & Development. 1 (4 ... Other aspects of archaeal biochemistry are unique, such as their reliance on ether lipids in their cell membranes, including ...
Metabolism: carbohydrate metabolism · fructose and galactose enzymes. Fructose. Hepatic fructokinase · Aldolase B · Triokinase ...
Bioethanol is an alcohol made by fermentation, mostly from carbohydrates produced in sugar or starch crops such as corn, ... Applied Biochemistry and Microbiology. 44 (5): 523-527. doi:10.1134/S0003683808050128.. ...
Sinha U, Wolf DL (1993). „Carbohydrate residues modulate the activation of coagulation factor X". J. Biol. Chem. 268 (5), 3048- ... Biochemistry 25 (18), 5098-102. o. DOI:10.1021/bi00366a018. PMID 3768336. ... The role of the carbohydrate moieties in the activation of factor X". Eur. J. Biochem. 218 (1), 153-63. o. DOI:10.1111/j.1432- ...
Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry. 1998, 62 (10): 1898-1903. PMID 9836425. doi:10.1271/bbb.62.1898.. ... Carbohydrate Research. 1981, 92 (1): 115-29. PMID 7196285. doi:10.1016/S0008-6215(00)85986-8.. ...
Voet DJ, Voet JG, Pratt CW (2010). "Chapter 17, Citric Acid Cycle". Principles of Biochemistry (4th ed.). Wiley. p. 550. ISBN ...
"European Journal of Biochemistry. 156 (1): 101-110. doi:10.1111/j.1432-1033.1986.tb09554.x. ISSN 1432-1033.. ... Metabolism: carbohydrate metabolism, glycogenesis and glycogenolysis enzymes. Glycogenesis. *Phosphoglucomutase. *UDP-glucose ... "Molecular Biochemistry I. Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. Retrieved 2009-01-10.. *. Goodsell DS (2001-12-01). "Glycogen ... Voet, Judith G.; Voet, Donald (1995). "Chapter 17: Glycogen Metabolism". Biochemistry (2nd ed.). New York: J. Wiley & Sons. ...
Biochemistry[change , change source]. There are four types of carbohydrates, named by the number of sugar molecules they ... If necessary, humans can live without eating carbohydrates because the human body can change proteins into carbohydrates. ... Carbohydrates are chemical compounds that contain only oxygen, hydrogen and carbon. They are made up of joined-up sugars. ... Certain carbohydrates are an important storage and transport form of energy in most organisms, including plants and animals. ...
Zillig W (1991). "Comparative biochemistry of Archaea and Bacteria". Curr. Opin. Genet. Dev. 1 (4): 544-51. PMID 1822288. doi: ... Romano A, Conway T (1996). "Evolution of carbohydrate metabolic pathways". Res Microbiol 147 (6-7): 448-55. PMID 9084754. doi: ...
Thisbe K. Lindhorst (2007). Essentials of Carbohydrate Chemistry and Biochemistry (1 ed izd.). Wiley-VCH. ISBN 3527315284. ... John F. Robyt (1997). Essentials of Carbohydrate Chemistry (1 ed izd.). Springer. ISBN 0387949518. ...
Biochemistry and organic chemistry are closely related, as in medicinal chemistry or neurochemistry. Biochemistry is also ... Armstrong, James (2012). General, Organic, and Biochemistry: An Applied Approach. Brooks/Cole. p. 48. ISBN 978-0-534-49349-3. . ... Biochemistry is the study of the chemicals, chemical reactions and chemical interactions that take place in living organisms. ... Voet and Voet Biochemistry (Wiley) ISBN 0-471-58651-X. Advanced undergraduate-level or graduate text books. *Atkins, P.W. ...
The Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology. Dec 16: 4-14. doi:10.1016/j.jsbmb.2017.12.009. PMID 29258769. S2CID ... Carbohydrate metabolism: Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency. *Pyruvate dehydrogenase deficiency. *Danon disease/ ...
It is similar to biochemistry in its main components such as carbohydrates, lipids, and protein, but it also includes areas ... the most common known human carbohydrate is Sucrose[citation needed]. The simplest version of a carbohydrate is a ...
Tang P, Klostergaard J (1996). "Human pro-tumor necrosis factor is a homotrimer". Biochemistry. 35 (25): 8216-25. doi:10.1021/ ... trafficking is carbohydrate independent. In an effort to localize the amino acid motif responsible for granule targeting, we ...
... is the process of converting carbohydrates to alcohol or organic acids using microorganisms- ... Further information: History of biochemistry and History of bread. Natural fermentation precedes human history. Since ancient ... Food fermentation is the conversion of sugars and other carbohydrates into alcohol or preservative organic acids and carbon ...
A tomato is 95% water, contains 4% carbohydrates and less than 1% each of fat and protein (table). In a 100 gram amount, raw ... and the biochemistry (many of the alkaloids common to other Solanum species are conspicuously absent in the tomato). On the ...
"Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology B. 121 (1): 19-26. doi:10.1016/S0305-0491(98)10106-2. PMID 9972281.. ... carbohydrate metabolic process. • regulation of receptor activity. • negative regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase ... O'Dell SD, Day IN (Jul 1998). "Insulin-like growth factor II (IGF-II)". The International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell ...
Purchase Advances in Carbohydrate Chemistry and Biochemistry, Volume 57 - 1st Edition. Print Book & E-Book. ISBN 9780120072576 ... Advances in Carbohydrate Chemistry and Biochemistry, Volume 57 1st Edition. 0.0 star rating Write a review ... View all volumes in this series: Advances in Carbohydrate Chemistry and Biochemistry ... and technological aspects of biochemistry, organic chemistry, and instrumentation methodology in the study of carbohydrates. ...
... and technological aspects of biochemistry, organic chemistry, and ... ... Advances in carbohydrate chemistry and biochemistry. Volume 51. [Derek Horton;] -- Since its inception in 1945, this serial has ... Advances in carbohydrate chemistry and biochemistry. Volume 51 schema:name "Advances in carbohydrate chemistry and biochemistry ... Advances in carbohydrate chemistry and biochemistry, v. 51 Edition/Format:. eBook : Document : EnglishView all editions and ...
Buy Carbohydrate Chemistry and Biochemistry by Michael Sinnott, Andrew Williams from Waterstones today! Click and Collect from ... Carbohydrate Chemistry and Biochemistry: Structure and Mechanism (Hardback). Michael Sinnott (author), Andrew Williams (other) ... It gives excellent coverage of carbohydrate chemistry and biochemistry, particularly including the principles of reactivity in ... biochemistry or processing of carbohydrates. The book contains everything the reader needs to know about a non-synthetic ...
Biochemistry by Ward Pigman, 9780120072804, available at Book Depository with free delivery worldwide. ...
Simple Carbohydrates (Monosaccharides)[edit]. These are used only for energy in living organisms. Simple carbohydrates are also ... Most carbohydrates are sugars or composed mainly of sugars. By far, the most common carbohydrate found in nature is glucose, ... the majority of carbohydrates are used for energy purposes, especially in animals. Carbohydrates are made up of a 1:2:1 ratio ... Carbohydrates are one of the fundamental classes of macromolecules found in biology. Carbohydrates are commonly found in most ...
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Importance of Carbohydrates in Cell Communication[edit]. Carbohydrates contain abundant information as a result of the various ... Structural Biochemistry/Carbohydrates/Lectins. From Wikibooks, open books for an open world ... The calcium ion helps bind the protein and carbohydrate by interacting with the OH groups found on the carbohydrate. Calcium ... They can bind to soluble carbohydrates or carbohydrate functional groups that are a part of a gylcoprotein or glycolipid. ...
Anti-Carbohydrate Antibodies with Specificity for Monosaccharide and Oligosaccharide Units of Antigens ... analytical and technological aspects of biochemistry, organic chemistry and instrumentation methodology. ...
... and technological aspects of biochemistry, organic chemistry, and instrumentation methodology in the study of carbohydrates. ... Carbohydrate--Protein Interactions. Molecular Modeling Insights Serge Pérez and Igor Tvaroska. - Chemical Synthesis of Saponins ... articles provide a definitive interpretation of the current status and future trends in carbohydrate chemistry and biochemistry ... Nitrogen-Containing Macrocycles Having a Carbohydrate Scaffold Mykhaylo A. Potopnyk and Slawomir Jarosz. - Mechanism-Based ...
This tutorial introduces sugars and carbohydrates. Other sections include matter, elements, the periodic table, reactions, and ... Matter , Atoms , Elements , Periodic Table , Reactions, Biochemistry, All Topics Overview , Cycles , Metabolism , Carbohydrates ... NEXT PAGE ON BIOCHEMISTRY. ► NEXT STOP ON SITE TOUR. ► BIOCHEMISTRY QUIZ. ► RETURN TO TOP OF PAGE. ► Or search the sites... ... Current Page: Chem4Kids.com , Biochemistry , Carbohydrates ** Andrew Rader Studios does not monitor or review the content ...
Home » Courses » Biology » Fundamentals of Biology » Biochemistry » Macromolecules: Lipids, Carbohydrates, Nucleic Acid ... Lipids, Carbohydrates, and Nucleic Acids Practice Problem (00:08:32). Flash and JavaScript are required for this feature. ... Macromolecules: Lipids, Carbohydrates, Nucleic Acid, Excerpt 1 (00:35:25). Flash and JavaScript are required for this feature. ... Macromolecules: Lipids, Carbohydrates, Nucleic Acid, Excerpt 2 (00:25:29). Flash and JavaScript are required for this feature. ...
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  • Since its inception in 1945, this serial has provided critical and integrating articles written by research specialists who integrate industrial, analytical, and technological aspects of biochemistry, organic chemistry, and instrumentation methodology in the study of carbohydrates. (elsevier.com)
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  • This volume is one of a series providing critical articles by research specialists in the industrial, analytical and technological aspects of biochemistry, organic chemistry and instrumentation methodology. (worldcat.org)
  • This monograph is aimed at providing researchers new to the subject with information on the structure and mechanisms in the chemistry, biochemistry or processing of carbohydrates. (waterstones.com)
  • It gives excellent coverage of carbohydrate chemistry and biochemistry, particularly including the principles of reactivity in the process industries, such as pulp, paper and food. (waterstones.com)
  • Since its inception in 1945, this serial has provided critical and integrating articles written by research specialists that integrate industrial, analytical, and technological aspects of biochemistry, organic chemistry, and instrumentation methodology in the study of carbohydrates. (indigo.ca)
  • Advances in Carbohydrate Chemistry and Biochemistry Edition by Horton, Derek and Publisher Academic Press. (vitalsource.com)
  • Fluorine as a substituent for oxygen in biological systems: Examples in mammalian membrane transport and glycosidase action, in Ciba Foundation Symposium: Carbon-Fluorine Compounds: Chemistry , Biochemistry , and Biological Activities , Associated Scientific Publishers, New York, pp. 95-115. (springer.com)
  • Essentials of carbohydrate chemistry and biochemistry by: Lindhorst, Thisbe K. (uni-kl.de)
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  • Biochemistry (once known as physiological chemistry or biological chemistry ) is the study of chemicals and chemical processes that occur in living organisms . (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • The most significant catalytic approaches in carbohydrate chemistry that use aluminosilicate porous materials, namely zeolites and montmorillonite clays, are reviewed and discussed. (cartyspoetryjournal.com)
  • Since its inception in 1945, this serial has supplied severe and informative articles written by means of examine experts that combine commercial, analytical, and technological facets of biochemistry, natural chemistry, and instrumentation technique within the learn of carbohydrates. (epidbiomed.com)
  • The articles offer a definitive interpretation of the present prestige and destiny traits in carbohydrate chemistry and biochemistry. (epidbiomed.com)
  • For the journals, see Biochemistry (journal) and Biological Chemistry (journal) . (wikipedia.org)
  • Biochemistry or biological chemistry , is the study of chemical processes within and relating to living organisms . (wikipedia.org)
  • Emil Fischer , who studied the chemistry of proteins, [16] and F. Gowland Hopkins , who studied enzymes and the dynamic nature of biochemistry, represent two examples of early biochemists. (wikipedia.org)
  • The term "biochemistry" itself is derived from a combination of biology and chemistry . (wikipedia.org)
  • Biochemistry studies the chemical properties of important biological molecules, like proteins, in particular the chemistry of enzyme -catalyzed reactions. (bionity.com)
  • Intended for researchers in biochemistry, medication, nutrients and undefined, this publication discusses such issues as elements of bacterial polysaccharides, fluorinated carbohydrates, and carbon sugars chemistry. (dolphinjourneys.com)
  • Browse other questions tagged biochemistry food-chemistry or ask your own question . (stackexchange.com)
  • Essentials of Carbohydrate Chemistry. (encyclopedia.com)
  • A preview for 'Essentials of Carbohydrate Chemistry and Biochemistry - 3rd Edition' could not be found. (betterworldbooks.com)
  • or the function of pharmaceutical agents - is of increasing importance not only for drug research but also for the development of new synthetic methods in organic chemistry and biochemistry. (wiley.com)
  • In a truly interdisciplinary way bioorganic chemistry unites the central questions of biochemistry, medicinal chemistry, organic chemistry, and spectroscopy. (wiley.com)
  • Devote one full day this week to each of Biochemistry , Biology , General Chemistry , Organic Chemistry , Physics , and Behavioral Sciences . (kaptest.com)
  • Biochemistry is the application of chemistry to the study of biological processess at the cellular and molecular level. (prezi.com)
  • In this category included Carbohydrate metabolism, Amino acid Metabolism, Nucleic Acid Metabolism, Lipid Metabolism and Biological oxidation. (biochemden.com)
  • Carbohydrate metabolism denotes the various biochemical processes responsible for the formation, breakdown and interconversion of carbohydrates in living organisms. (biochemden.com)
  • In this article we will discuss about the Interrelationship in the Metabolism of Protein, Fat and Carbohydrate: 1. (biologydiscussion.com)
  • Carbohydrates have a number of functions, but the most important is to act as a ready source of energy for the body's metabolism . (wikipedia.org)
  • The vector stencils library " Biochemistry of metabolism" contains 46 metabolite symbols for drawing metabolic pathways maps, biochemical diagrams and metabolism process flow charts using the ConceptDraw PRO diagramming and vector drawing software. (conceptdraw.com)
  • The shapes example "Design elements - Biochemistry of metabolism" is included in the Biology solution from the Science and Education area of ConceptDraw Solution Park. (conceptdraw.com)
  • The vector stencils library "Carbohydrate metabolism" contains 25 icons of metabolite symbols. (conceptdraw.com)
  • Use these shapes for drawing carbohydrate metabolism schematics, biochemical diagrams and metabolic pathways maps. (conceptdraw.com)
  • Links between glucose metabolism and other carbohydrates. (mhmedical.com)
  • Here, we hypothesized that the sensitivity of clementine fruit metabolism to carbohydrate supply was conditional on fruit developmental stage. (wiley.com)
  • Biochemistry and Metabolism of Toxoplasma gondii. (elsevier.com)
  • Carbohydrate metabolism is developmentally regulated in T. gondii with specialized enzymes for different life-cycle stages. (elsevier.com)
  • This chapter highlights the metabolic pathways of T. gondii and illustrates important and unique aspects of carbohydrate, lipid and nucleotide metabolism that may pose potential drug targets. (elsevier.com)
  • Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of 'Biochemistry and Metabolism of Toxoplasma gondii. (elsevier.com)
  • The biochemistry of cell metabolism and the endocrine system has been extensively described. (bionity.com)
  • Conclusive research demonstrates that artificial sweeteners have no effect on carbohydrate metabolism , short- or long-term blood glucose control, or insulin secretion, and they are thus an excellent sugar alternative for diabetics. (faqs.org)
  • Explore and explain the main features involved in the anabolic metabolism of carbohydrate (glycogenisis), lipid metabolism (triglyceride storage, transport and ketosis) and protein metabolism (transamination and deamination). (markedbyteachers.com)
  • Glucose measurements are used in the diagnosis and treatment of pancreatic islet cell carcinoma and of carbohydrate metabolism disorders, including diabetes mellitus, neonatal hypoglycemia, and idiopathic hypoglycemia. (cdc.gov)
  • I can work with students in the areas of protein structure, lipid & carbohydrate metabolism, enzymes, nucleic acid synthesis, gene expression, recombinant DNA and biotechnology. (wyzant.com)
  • This session will introduce the general structure and function of the biological macromolecules: lipids, carbohydrates, and nucleic acids. (mit.edu)
  • The transcriptome contains over 30 000 protein-encoding genes, supporting metabolic pathways for lipids, amino acids, carbohydrates and vitamins, along with capabilities for polyketide and non-ribosomal peptide biosynthesis. (rsc.org)
  • Carbohydrates are the most abundant organic compounds in living organisms and account for one of the four major biomolecular classes including proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids. (wikibooks.org)
  • Much of biochemistry deals with the structures, functions, and interactions of biological macromolecules , such as proteins , nucleic acids , carbohydrates , and lipids . (wikipedia.org)
  • Carbohydrates, Lipids and Nucleotides. (elsevier.com)
  • It deals with the structure and function of cellular components, such as proteins , carbohydrates , lipids , nucleic acids , and other biomolecules . (bionity.com)
  • Carbohydrates, along with lipids, proteins, nucleic acids, and other compounds are known as biomolecules because they are closely associated with living organisms. (slideshare.net)
  • A unique advantage in targeting tumor-associated carbohydrate antigens (TACAs) is that multiple proteins and lipids on cancer cells can be modified with the same carbohydrate structure which might be shared with bacterial antigens ( 2 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Simple carbohydrates are also known as "Monosaccharides".The chemical formula for all the monosaccharides is CnH2nOn. (wikibooks.org)
  • Lectins are specific carbohydrate-binding proteins: - Enormous diversity of carbohydrates have biological significance: Different monosaccharides can be joined to one another through any several -OH groups. (wikibooks.org)
  • Polysaccharides are carbohydrates formed by more than 9 monosaccharides linked by glycosidic bonds. (biochemden.com)
  • Monosaccharides are the simplest carbohydrates in that they cannot be hydrolyzed to smaller carbohydrates. (biochemden.com)
  • Monosaccharides , also called simple sugars , are the basic unit of carbohydrates. (easybiologyclass.com)
  • Monosaccharides, which are simple sugars that serve as fuel molecules as well as fundamental constituents of living organisms, are the simplest carbohydrates, and are required as energy sources. (wikibooks.org)
  • Polysaccharides are complex carbohydrate polymers consisting of more than 2 monosaccharides linked together covalently by glycosidic linkages in a condensation reaction . (wikibooks.org)
  • Carbohydrates: monosaccharides, disaccharides and polysaccharides. (unibo.it)
  • Carbohydrates are further divided into chemical groupings: monosaccharides, disaccharides, and polysacharides. (prezi.com)
  • In yeast, carbohydrates are stored in glycogen (a multi-branched polysaccharide) and in trehalose (a disaccharide). (bio-protocol.org)
  • Abstract] Trehalose (and glycogen) is a major storage carbohydrate in many cells, including S. cerevisiae . (bio-protocol.org)
  • Carbohydrates are stored in our body in the form of Glycogen. (paramedicsworld.com)
  • Surplus carbohydrates are also converted by the body to glycogen and fat, the storage forms of calories for energy, and to some of the amino acids used in protein synthesis. (infoplease.com)
  • Glycogen is the energy storage carbohydrate in animals. (encyclopedia.com)
  • This previously unknown biological function extends the group of carbohydrate-active enzymes to include the class of cytochrome P450 monooxygenases. (nature.com)
  • Research in biochemistry has revealed the functions of groups of materials such as enzymes , hormones , vitamins , and minerals . (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • The enzymes involved in the seven major carbohydrate metabolic pathways glycolysis, gluconeogenesis, pentose phosphate, tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA), glyceroneogenesis, and mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation and β-oxidation were identified. (frontiersin.org)
  • In molecular biology the FGGY carbohydrate kinase family is a family of evolutionarily related carbohydrate kinase enzymes. (wikipedia.org)
  • In molecular biology, a carbohydrate-binding module (CBM) is a protein domain found in carbohydrate-active enzymes (for example glycoside hydrolases). (wikipedia.org)
  • Polysaccharides (long chains) are complex carbohydrates, with linear chains of sugars or branched clusters. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although multiple carbohydrates exist, only a few sugar molecules and polysaccharides are important to human physiology (e.g. only eight different carbohydrates are found as constituents of glycoproteins and glycolipids). (mhmedical.com)
  • Bioactive Carbohydrate Polymers is probably the first book dealing with the latest in the field of polysaccharides and related products and their biological activities, especially the immunological effects. (springer.com)
  • Such complex Carbohydrates are called Polysaccharides, example: Starch. (blogspot.com)
  • Some carbohydrates (especially after condensation to oligo- and polysaccharides) contain less carbon relative to H and O, which still are present in 2:1 (H:O) ratio. (bionity.com)
  • A major division of carbohydrates is between sugars and polysaccharides . (daviddarling.info)
  • The citric acid cycle is the final common pathway for the oxidation of carbohydrate, lipid, and protein because glucose, fatty acids, and most amino acids are metabolized to acetyl-CoA or intermediates of the cycle. (mhmedical.com)
  • oxygen atoms of the ketone and aldehyde groups have similar reactive qualities to that of the carboxylic acid group seen in amino acids and are the sites of chemical reactions within the carbohydrate molecule, as well as with other carbohydrate, protein, or lipid molecules. (mhmedical.com)
  • A dolichol (lipid)-linked precursor carbohydrate consisting of a branched GlcNAc 2 Mann 9 Glc 3 structure is transferred from the ER membrane-bound dolichol pyrophosphate to a target asparagine residue. (jimmunol.org)
  • In photosynthesis, the light energy is converted into the chemical energy and it is stored in some carbohydrates such as glucose, fructose, sucrose, starch etc. (easybiologyclass.com)
  • Fructose is the sweetest of all naturally occuring carbohydrates. (prezi.com)
  • These carbohydrates are bound to hemagglutinin, a viral protein (virus is engulfed by the cell and starts to replicate). (wikibooks.org)
  • In addition, protein may be used as a source of energy when the preferred fat and carbohydrate supply runs low. (infoplease.com)
  • 1 gram of fat supplies about 9 calories as opposed to only 4 calories per gram of carbohydrates and protein. (infoplease.com)
  • Other areas of biochemistry include the genetic code ( DNA , RNA ), protein synthesis, cell membrane transport, and signal transduction . (bionity.com)
  • Protein-Carbohydrate interactions are crucial in many biological processes with implications to drug targeting and gene expression. (biology-online.org)
  • This carbohydrate remains high mannose rather than being processed to a complex form, as would be expected for glycans on exposed protein loops. (jimmunol.org)
  • Carbohydrate-Protein Interactions, etc. (wiley.com)
  • Using hypertrophy training and protein/ carbohydrate manipulation, I can help people reach their. (wyzant.com)
  • Then, the available transcriptomics and proteomics data was used to characterize the mRNA and protein levels of I. scapularis major carbohydrate metabolic pathway components in response to A. phagocytophilum infection of tick tissues and cultured cells. (frontiersin.org)
  • The application of liquid sample desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (liquid sample DESI-MS) for quantifying protein-carbohydrate interactions in vitro is described. (springer.com)
  • Bewley, C.A.: Protein-Carbohydrate Interactions in Infectious Diseases. (springer.com)
  • El-Hawiet, A., Kitova, E.N., Klassen, J.S.: Quantifying protein interactions with isomeric carbohydrate ligands using a catch and release electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry assay. (springer.com)
  • In biochemistry, carbohydrates are denoted as saccharides. (easybiologyclass.com)
  • Carbohydrates, or saccharides (saccharo is Greek for ―sugar) are polyhydroxy aldehydes or ketones, or substances that yield such compounds on hydrolysis. (slideshare.net)
  • Carbohydrates can be very small or very large molecules, but they are still considered sugars. (chem4kids.com)
  • There are four types of carbohydrates, named by the number of sugar molecules they contain. (wikipedia.org)
  • Carbohydrates are vastly important in human biology, including roles as a major energy source, structural molecules when combined with other carbohydrates, proteins, and other molecules, and binding and signaling between molecules and cells. (mhmedical.com)
  • However, a number of additional molecules created by linkages of carbohydrates to proteins play various roles in cell-cell interactions and biological structures. (mhmedical.com)
  • Carbohydrates are the organic molecules that are composed of the elements carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. (biochemden.com)
  • Carbohydrates are the most abundant bio-macro-molecules on the earth. (easybiologyclass.com)
  • Many foods, including apples, contain molecules called carbohydrates. (factmonster.com)
  • Biochemistry is the study of chemical reactions in living beings, and of biological molecules in general. (wikipedia.org)
  • [2] Biochemistry focuses on understanding the chemical basis which allows biological molecules to give rise to the processes that occur within living cells and between cells, [3] in turn relating greatly to the understanding of tissues and organs , as well as organism structure and function. (wikipedia.org)
  • Carbohydrates are important storage molecules, constituents of nucleic acids and biological recognition markers. (betterworldbooks.com)
  • [4] Biochemistry is closely related to molecular biology which is the study of the molecular mechanisms of biological phenomena. (wikipedia.org)
  • Emphasis is placed on the rationale, the lessons learned from the methodologies to identify mimics, a perspective on the limitations of structural analysis, the biological consequences of mimicking tumor-associated carbohydrate antigens, and the notion of reverse engineering to develop carbohydrate-mimetic peptides in vaccine design strategies to induce responses to glycan antigens expressed on cancer cells. (frontiersin.org)
  • Carbohydrates play important roles in a number of biological processes including tumour metastasis, bacterial and viral recognition, and the immunological response. (findaphd.com)
  • Carbohydrates are one of the fundamental classes of macromolecules found in biology . (wikibooks.org)
  • Carbohydrates are important macromolecules that consist of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. (wikibooks.org)
  • Some argued that the beginning of biochemistry may have been the discovery of the first enzyme , diastase (now called amylase ), in 1833 by Anselme Payen , [11] while others considered Eduard Buchner 's first demonstration of a complex biochemical process alcoholic fermentation in cell-free extracts in 1897 to be the birth of biochemistry. (wikipedia.org)
  • Plant biochemistry involves the study of the biochemistry of autotrophic organisms such as photosynthesis and other plant specific biochemical processes. (bionity.com)
  • Carbohydrates include sugars and starches . (wikipedia.org)
  • Carbohydrates (starches and sugars) provide a readily available energy source. (infoplease.com)
  • There are three main types of carbohydrates found in foods: sugars, starches, and fiber . (medlineplus.gov)
  • Carbohydrates include not only sugar, but also the starches that we find in foods, such as bread, pasta, and rice. (slideshare.net)
  • Fibre, like sugars and starches, is a type of carbohydrate. (stackexchange.com)
  • So-called available carbohydrates , which include sugars and starches, can be metabolized by the human body. (daviddarling.info)
  • Chemical biology aims to answer many questions arising from biochemistry by using tools developed within chemical synthesis . (bionity.com)
  • Kiliani-Fischer Synthesis- a series of reaction that extends carbon chain in a carbohydrate by one carbon and one chiral centre. (slideshare.net)
  • This improved and expanded 3rd edition features all-new material on combinatorial synthesis of carbohydrates and carbohydrate biodiversity, and each chapter now contains study questions for self-learning and classroom teaching. (betterworldbooks.com)
  • To address the most important questions that remain unanswered in the field, it is essential more efficient and stereoselective methods for the synthesis of biologically relevant carbohydrates probes are developed. (findaphd.com)
  • These strategies will then be showcased in the synthesis of biologically relevant carbohydrate motifs to be used as probes in interdisciplinary 'chemical glycobiology' studies. (findaphd.com)
  • A carbohydrate is called an organic compound, because it is made up of a long chain of carbon atoms. (chem4kids.com)
  • Carbohydrates are chemical compounds that contain only oxygen , hydrogen and carbon . (wikipedia.org)
  • 5. Many of the carbon skeletons of the non-essential amino acids can be produced from carbohydrate through the citric acid cycle and transamination. (biologydiscussion.com)
  • All carbohydrates are hydrates of carbon and they contain C, H and O. The ratio of hydrogen and oxygen in the majority of carbohydrates will be in 2:1 as in water. (easybiologyclass.com)
  • The carbohydrate sugar contains 12 carbon atoms, 22 hydrogen atoms, and 11 oxygen atoms. (factmonster.com)
  • Carbohydrates maybe reducing or nonreducing depending on reducing property of Carbohydrates because of free aldehyde or Ketone group of anomeric carbon. (paramedicsworld.com)
  • Given that Earth provides the habitat for all known life forms, this article focuses on terrestrial biochemistry, involving mainly compounds of carbon operating in water -containing environments. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Carbohydrates are composed of Carbon, Oxygen and Hydrogen and the Carbon atoms are normally arranged in a ring, with the oxygen and hydrogen atoms linked to them. (blogspot.com)
  • This article only discusses terrestrial biochemistry (carbon- and water-based), as all the life forms we know are on Earth. (bionity.com)
  • The simplest type of carbohydrate is a monosaccharide , which among other properties contains carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen, mostly in a ratio of 1:2:1 (generalized formula C n H 2 n O n , where n is at least 3). (bionity.com)
  • The term ―carbohydrate comes from the observation that when you heat sugars, you get carbon and water (hence, hydrate of carbon). (slideshare.net)
  • A carbohydrate is an organic compound consisting of a chain or ring of carbon atoms to which hydrogen and oxygen atoms are attached in the ratio of approximately 2:1. (daviddarling.info)
  • While others have examined surfaces that can interact with cell-surface proteins, our data indicate that carbohydrate polymers are important in pluripotency. (wisc.edu)
  • I am guessing that 'sugar' refers to simple monomeric units of carbohydrates while the rest of the 'carbohydrates', excluding 'sugar' and 'fibre', is in the form of starch polymers, namely amylose and amylopectin. (stackexchange.com)
  • Synthetic carbohydrates are important food additives, building blocks for polymers and have also been used as drugs. (betterworldbooks.com)
  • Carbohydrate polymers 49: 315-321. (iastate.edu)
  • Carbohydrates simple sugars as well as complex carbohydrates and provide us with calories, or energy. (bystandrresearchanalyticsdata.com)
  • Some simple carbohydrates have their own enzymatic oxidation pathways, as do only a few of the more complex carbohydrates. (conceptdraw.com)
  • Most health professionals recommend that carbohydrates comprise 50% to 60% of the dietary calories, of which most (c.80% of all carbohydrates eaten) should be complex carbohydrates, such as cereals and vegetables. (infoplease.com)
  • Complex carbohydrates are preferred because the fast-acting simple carbohydrates, such as honey and sugar, are difficult for the body (especially the pancreas) to handle in large doses. (infoplease.com)
  • Simple carbohydrates also lack the vitamins, minerals, proteins, and fiber that generally accompany foods rich in complex carbohydrates. (infoplease.com)
  • Complex carbohydrates are processed to the greatest degree as they migrate through the ER and Golgi complex. (jimmunol.org)
  • Carbohydrates" are chemically defined as "polyhydroxy aldehyde or polyhydroxy ketones or complex substances which on hydrolysis yield polyhydroxy aldehyde or polyhydroxy ketone. (wikibooks.org)
  • Carbohydrates are defined as polyhydroxy-aldehydes or polyhydroxy ketones or compounds, which produce them on hydrolysis. (biochemden.com)
  • Chemically all carbohydrates are polyhydroxy (contain many hydroxyl, - OH, groups) aldehydes or ketones . (easybiologyclass.com)
  • Carbohydrates are the polyhydroxy Aldehydes or Ketones, are major macronutrient and the primary sources of energy. (paramedicsworld.com)
  • Excess of Carbohydrates converts into fats and stored in Adipose tissues. (paramedicsworld.com)
  • Carbohydrates are a superior short-term fuel for organisms because they are simpler to metabolize than fats or those amino acids (components of proteins) that can be used for fuel. (conceptdraw.com)
  • Proteins can also be used as an alternative energy source, usually in dietry inadequancy, although the process in much less efficient than when Carbohydrates or fats are broken down. (blogspot.com)
  • Why do plants store energy as carbohydrates and not as fats? (stackexchange.com)
  • The textbook says fats are a more efficient energy store than carbohydrates. (stackexchange.com)
  • So my question is - why would plants store their energy as carbohydrates and not as fats, if fats are a more efficient energy store? (stackexchange.com)
  • begingroup$ I'd imagine since plants are already making carbohydrates and it would waste energy turning sugars into fats, there is just no benefit for them. (stackexchange.com)
  • There are quite some reasons for why plants prefer carbohydrates for energy storage rather than fats. (stackexchange.com)
  • It involves knowing more than about fats, proteins, carbohydrates and minerals. (wyzant.com)
  • Although alternative biochemistries have been proposed, it is not known whether they are possible or practical. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • It is unknown whether alternative biochemistries are possible or practical. (bionity.com)
  • Lectins are capable of binding to many different types of carbohydrates. (wikibooks.org)
  • Some carbohydrates are for structural purposes, such as cellulose (which composes plants' cell walls) and chitin (a major component of insect exoskeletons). (wikibooks.org)
  • begingroup$ The word carbohydrate is most common in biochemistry, where it is a synonym of saccharide, a group that includes sugars, starch, and cellulose. (stackexchange.com)
  • Carbohydrate-binding module family 3 (CBM3) is involved in cellulose binding and is found associated with a wide range of bacterial glycosyl hydrolases. (wikipedia.org)
  • Carbohydrate-binding module family 4 (CBM4) includes the two cellulose-binding domains, CBD(N1) and CBD(N2), arranged in tandem at the N terminus of the 1,4-beta-glucanase, CenC, from Cellulomonas fimi. (wikipedia.org)
  • Both cleft A and cleft B can bind cello-oligosaccharides, laminarin preferentially binds in cleft A, xylooligosaccharides only bind in cleft A and beta1,4,-beta1,3-mixed linked glucans only bind in cleft B. Carbohydrate-binding module family 9 (CBM9) binds to crystalline cellulose. (wikipedia.org)
  • Today we are discussing the basic concept on Carbohydrates Classification from Biomolecules chapter. (biochemden.com)
  • The amino group is attached to a hydrocarbon making the molecule polar Amino Functional Groups of Organic Compounds Chapter 4: Carbohydrates What are carbohydrates? (prezi.com)
  • Many different types of foods contain one or more type of carbohydrate. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Since life forms alive today are hypothesized by most to have descended from the same common ancestor , they have similar biochemistries, even for matters that seem to be essentially arbitrary, such as handedness of various biomolecules. (bionity.com)
  • Researchers in Switzerland are reporting discovery of natural plant materials that may regulate starch digestion -- slowing down the body's conversion of potatoes, rice, and other carbohydrate-rich foods into sugar. (biology-online.org)
  • Dextrin is a low-molecular-weight polysaccharide (carbohydrate) that is formed as an intermediate product in the digestion of starch by the enzyme amylase. (daviddarling.info)
  • This time, the starch broke down to form glucose, a simple sugar (see Carbohydrates), whereas the acid-which clearly had facilitated the reaction-underwent no change. (scienceclarified.com)
  • I have a life career-goal of understanding the biochemistry, molecular biology and genetics of the pathway, control and compartmentation of starch biosynthesis in developing cereal grain. (iastate.edu)
  • 7. It is not possible for a net conversion of fatty acids to carbohydrate and also for a net conversion of fatty acids to glucogenic amino acids. (biologydiscussion.com)
  • The most important carbohydrate is glucose, a simple sugar (monosaccharide) that is metabolized by nearly all known organisms. (biochemden.com)
  • In animals, the most important carbohydrate is glucose. (conceptdraw.com)
  • Kraan, S. in Carbohydrates-Comprehensive Studies on Glycobiology and Glycotechnology (ed. (nature.com)
  • Following the sequencing of the human genome 12 years ago, breakthroughs in the field have stimulated a 'chemical glycobiology' research boom, which has undoubtedly yielded stunning results but also served to highlight how little we still understand about the roles of carbohydrates in all domains of life. (findaphd.com)
  • When several carbohydrates combine, it is called a polysaccharide ('poly' means many). (chem4kids.com)
  • Cell-surface glycoproteins are involved in immune response and other cellular recognition phenomena, and strategies to alter glycoprotein biosynthesis based on use of carbohydrate analogues have received much recent attention as a basis for chemotherapeutic drug design. (springer.com)
  • The carbohydrate-deficient glycoprotein syndromes (CDGS) are genetic, multisystemic diseases characterized by deficiencies in the glycosylation of many secretory glycoproteins, lysosomal. (oup.com)
  • The factors governing the extent of carbohydrate processing at each site on a glycoprotein have not been fully elucidated. (jimmunol.org)
  • The oxidative breakdown of these carbohydrates by respiration release the energy stored in them and this energy is utilized for the various metabolic activities of the cells. (easybiologyclass.com)
  • In biochemistry, metabolic pathways are series of chemical reactions occurring within a cell. (conceptdraw.com)
  • Carbohydrate restriction improves the features of Metabolic Syndrome. (biology-online.org)
  • In this study, a genome-wide search for components of major carbohydrate metabolic pathways was performed in I. scapularis ticks for which the genome was recently published. (frontiersin.org)
  • The results showed that major carbohydrate metabolic pathways are conserved in ticks. (frontiersin.org)
  • The present work provides a more comprehensive view of the major carbohydrate metabolic pathways involved in the response to A. phagocytophilum infection in ticks, and provides the basis for further studies to develop novel strategies for the control of granulocytic anaplasmosis. (frontiersin.org)
  • and the formation of sugar nucleotides and their numerous alterations to the numerous novel sugar derivatives as a rule present in plant telephone partitions and complicated carbohydrates are mentioned during this part. (alusdomundo.com)
  • Advances in carbohydrate chemi. (uni-kl.de)
  • She involves grouped with the nervous epub Advances in Carbohydrate of starting his newspaper, adding he was shown all items of her lab. (bet365game.com)
  • epub Advances in Carbohydrate so to l or here to play up. (bet365game.com)
  • online Advances in Carbohydrate, Medical -- significant graphs. (southwayinc.com)
  • Halogenated carbohydrates received early attention as tools for the study of glycolysis, glyconeogenesis, and sugar transport [for reviews, see Barnett (1972), Taylor (1972), and Taylor et al . (springer.com)
  • University of Colorado Boulder, Bachelor in Arts, Biochemistry and Molecular Biology. (varsitytutors.com)
  • This area of biochemistry is often known as molecular biology. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Biochemistry and Molecular Biology of Plants, 2nd Edition has been hailed as a major contribution to the plant sciences literature and critical acclaim has been matched by global sales success. (wiley.com)
  • Biochemistry and Molecular Biology of Plants holds a unique place in the plant sciences literature as it provides the only comprehensive, authoritative, integrated single volume book in this essential field of study. (wiley.com)
  • Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part B: Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Vol. 138, Issue. (cambridge.org)
  • When broken down through the process of digestion, carbohydrates release a lot of energy. (factmonster.com)
  • A-B. Basic Carbohydrate Structures. (mhmedical.com)
  • In a detailed article, written by Hazel M. Holden, Paul D. Cook, and James B. Thoden, recent studies on carbohydrates were revealed and intensively discoveries on their three-dimensional structures were mentioned. (wikibooks.org)
  • Such linked carbohydrates are important in cell-cell communication and in interactions between cells and other elements in the cellular environment. (wikibooks.org)
  • Disney, M.D., Seeberger, P.H.: The use of carbohydrate microarrays to study carbohydrate-cell interactions and to detect pathogens. (springer.com)
  • All but the three upper division courses (biochemistry, genetics, and physiology) can be taken at a community college. (ucdavis.edu)
  • The Big Picture: Medical Biochemistry Janson LW, Tischler ME. (mhmedical.com)